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Full text of "History of San Diego, 1542-1908 : an account of the rise and progress of the pioneer settlement on the Pacific coast of the United States"

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M, -c^ 


C3Y r^uuEcrrioS 


^ 3 1833 01104 7765 ^ 













Author of "The Conquest of Arid America, " "Constructive Democracy," Etc. 



Copyright 1907 by 



The Horton Period 


THE 15th of April, 18(i7. soinethiii-:- hap- 
pened which radicall^• ehanj^ed the coui'se of 
tSau Diego history. This was the arrival of 
a man from San Francisco on the steamer 
J'acific. He was not possessed of large 
means, represented no organization, and had 
no personal following, j^et was destined to 
inaugurate a movement which should change 
the location of the city and start it on the road to real and 
enduring greatness. In the next chapter we shall have "Father" 
Horton's own account of the circumstances which led to his 
coming and of how he proceeded after his arrival. At this 
point it is important to get a glimpse of his in-evious career and 
to make some characterization of his work in founding the 
modern city. 

Alonzo Erastus Ilorton was born at Union, Connecticut, Octo- 
ber 24, 1813. He was thus in his fifty-fourth year when he 
began his work in San Diego, an age at which very few men 
undertake a new task of such importance. He came of old New 
England stock and the story of his life is really a picture of 
his times. It begins with the clean, sweet iioverty which went 
with the migration of the old stock into new countries in the 
early days of the Republic. The family began their westward 
march while the future founder of San Diego was two years 
old, moving from Connecticut to Madison County. New York. 
They next moved to Oswego County and, in 1824, they had 
reached the shore of Lake Ontario at the town of Scril)a. and 
were living in a log house. Young Horton's father had become 
blind and the boy l)egan to earn money by basket-making, while 
still going to scbool. Later, he contributed to the family sup- 
port by hewing timber, which was sold in the local market. By 
the time he reached his majority he had gained experience as 
a grocery clerk, as a lake sailor before the mast, and as cap- 
tain and owner of a small vessel engaged in the Avheat trade 
between Oswego and Canada. He retired from the lake with 
several hundred dollars in his pocket and learned the trade of 
a cooper. In spite of his strength, and his local note as a 


wrestler, a physician told him he had consumption and could 
not live a year unless he went West. 

Acting upon the advice, he proceeded to Milwaukee in May, 
1836. The next fifteen years he spent mostly in Wisconsin, 
with one or two trips to New York. He availed himself of the 
opportunity of the frontier to make money in various ventures, 
principally by trading in land and cattle. 

After the Mexican War. when he had accumulated about 
$4,000. he went to St. Louis and bought land Avarrants from the 
soldiers at less than their face value. With these he returned 
to Wisconsin and located ten sections of land in the pinery on 
Wolf River, about twenty miles from Oshkosh, in what is now 
Outagamie County. The land cast him 70 cents an acre and 
contained a good millsite and steamer landing. Here he laid 
out the town of Hortonville, which still flourishes. He encour- 
aged settlement by furnishing work, giving free lots, and sell- 
ing lumber at half-price, to those who would build houses. In 
less than three years he sold the mill and town for $7,000 and 
later the balance of the land at $15 an acre, so that his first 
important enterprise netted him a comfortable fortune. Then 
he joined the tide and went to California, arriving in 1851 and 
settling in the mining region. He opened a store at Pilot Hill 
and CDUstructed a ditch over six miles in length to supply min- 
ers with water. At the end of his first year he disposed of his 
property for $6,500, which represented but a slight profit on 
his original investment, and began trading in gold-dust, first, 
actina' on commission for the Adams Express Company, and 
later, on his own account. 

The Inisiuess of buying gold-dust in pioneer times, when the 
country swarmed with rough characters, involved considerable 
danger and Horton had his full share of adventure. The fol- 
lowing incident, related in the Horton GeneaJogn. published 
at Philadelphia in 1876, shows us how he drew ui^on his fund 
of Yankee shrewdness to avert troul)le on one occasion : 

He arrived one evening at one of the rough taverns of those 
times, with treasure enough about him to incite the gamblers 
a1>out him to worse crimes for its possession. His good clothes 
were covered with very dirty overalls and cotton shirt. In cal- 
culating Yankee phrase, he interrogated the proprietor as to 
his accommodations for man and beast, and the reasonableness 
of his charges. Card-playing ceased for a time in the general 
astonishment, then the party shouted with laughter at the 
green chap from Connecticut. They bantered him to play 
off a Yankee trick. He showed them how to eat the mush and 
milk, which he had stipulated for as his supper, and with a 
yawn of indifference at the jests made at his expense, he sig- 
nified his desire to sleep. Tlie door of his room was without 
liu-k or bolt, but the landlord laughingly assured his guest that 


he would be the last man anyone would think of robbing. 
He awoke next morning from an undisturbed sleep, and at 
breakfast time was up and dressed. He passed over a small 
package of dust in settlement, which was accepted and pro- 
nounced all right. Word was sent to the stable, his horse 
eoald now be brought out — his bill was paid. 

"Mister, want to buy some more of that stuff?" 

"Yes"; replying with a surprised look. 

"How much?" 

"Suppose I can buy all you have to sell." 

"Will you treat this 'ere crowd if you can't?" 

"Yes, I will, and yeou, too." 

Diminutive sacks of dust were handed to the wondering 
host, and the coin counted out in return. By the time $2,500 
had changed hands, the landlord's $20 pieces were exhausted, 
and our Y^aukee had played the "trick" with a $250 pile still 
in reserve. The laugh came in then louder than the night 
before; and as the glasses were being filled the buyer of the 
gold-dust remarked, irreligiously, that he would havf robbed 
the fellow himself if he had known how he was playing \v'.n. 

The gold-dust speculation turned out profitably, sometimes 
paying as much as $1,000 a month. Horton was also highly 
fortunate in an ice speculation in El Dorado County, from 
which he realized $8,000 in a few months. In March, 1856, he 
was a passenger on the steamer Cortez for Panama, and found 
himself involved in the fight between the Americans and the 
natives, which occurred on the Isthmus. He took a conspic- 
uous part in protecting the passengers during their flight from 
the hotel to the ship, but lost $10,000 in gold as the result of 
the riot. On arriving in New York, he was sent to Washington 
to represent the passengers in reporting to the government. 
From that time until 1861, he repeatedly journeyed to Wash- 
ington in connection with the affair, making a strenuous fight 
for the recovery of heavy losses sustained by the passengers. A 
settlement was reached at last, but Horton had made himself 
so obnoxious to the commissioner from New Granada tliat his 
own name was stricken from the list of creditors. 

Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War, Horton returned 
to the Pacific Coast. He extended his wanderings as far north 
as British Columbia, where he engaged in mining and trading 
without success. He then went to San Francisco to begin life 
over again. He first tri<Ml a stall in the market, then real estate, 
and finally went into the furniture business, Avhere he was 
doing fairly well when the San Diego idea took possession 
of him. 

The man who came in 1867 to lay the foundations of a 
new San Diego had had a rough, adventurous career and was a 
true product of frontier conditions. By instinct and training, 
he was a trader and a bold, shrewd speculator, but he was 


also a man endowed with the creative cast of mind who pre- 
ferred to trade and speculate where he could also build and have 
the satisfaction of looking upon important things which had 
come from his labors. In estimating the work of such a man it 
is important to avoid extremes of praise or blame. Thus it 
would be unjust to say that he was actuated solely by avarice 
and took no pride in what he did beyond the amount of money 
it paid him. On the other hand, it would be a mistake to treat 
him as a philanthropist who thought only of social gains and the 
good of others. Ilis predominant motive in coming to San 
Diego was to engage in what he rightly conceived to be a good 
real estate speculation. In carrying the scheme into effect he 
adopted a policy of liberality not always tempered with wisdom, 
but consistently designed to foster his own interests wdiile ben- 
efitting the community as a whole. He was shrewd enough to 
see that ^vhatever made San Diego larger or more prosperous 
must make him richer, and he was broad enough to pursue this 
object in a way that gave everyone a share of the results. He 
entered upon his work without any comprehensive training for 
the laying out of a modern city, and made some mistakes in conse- 
quence which have often been criticised. Such mistakes were 
never due to petty motives, for pettiness had no place in his 
character. His methods were always marked by boldness and 
generosity, springing from boundless faith in the future of 
the city. 

Although Horton does not belong to the class of men who have 
founded communities in order to illustrate some great idea, or 
to facilitate human progress in some important direction, he 
nevertheless displayed high qualities in his woi'k at San Diego. 
He exercised the soundest judgment in selecting the site upon 
which a city could be built. He was not the first to appreciate 
the importance of the location — that credit belongs to Lieuten- 
ant Gray, as we saw in a previous chapter — but he w^as the first 
to create a successful settlement here. The abortive attempt 
which preceded his undertaking certainly made his work no 
easier. In the opinion of many, it stamped it with failure in 
advance. He had a large measure of imagination, that gift of 
the gods which enaliles men to foresee what is to happen and 
to discern the practical steps by which events may be brought 
to pass. Undoubtedly the opportunity was much riper in 1867, 
when Horton began, than in 1850, when Gray had his inspira- 
tion in the same direction ; but the ability to know when oppor- 
tunities are ripe is an important quality in itself. There were 
able men in San Diego when Horton came, and able men else- 
where in California, but they did not know that the time had 
come to make a new San Diego where the city now stands. Hor- 
ton not only saw his chance, but he had the courage to take his 


chance at a time when his pecuniary capital was so small that 
it would have appalled most men to think of such an undertak- 
ing, much less to set their hands to it. 

Not only did he have discernment, imagination, and courage, — 
the pioneer of modern San Diego had boundless confidence in 
himself and a tremendous amount of personal force. Had it 
lieen otherwise, he Avould have been no richer after buying his 
land for twenty-six cents an acre than before. The value of the 
land for townsite purposes was potential, not actual. To con- 
vert the potentiality into a reality, and to do it with no capital 
except his wits, required genuine ability, sustained by faith and 
backed by tireless energy. Ilorton was equal to the occasion — 
in three years new San Diego had three thousand people. It is 
easy enough to criticise the man w'ho did it ; it is not so easy to 
duplicate the achievement, nor was it ever done before by the 
will of a single individual, without capital, without the support 
of some religious, social, or commercial organization. 

The founding of modern San Diego, under the circumstances, 
was a big thing, and the credit for the achievement belongs abso- 
lutely and indisputably to A. E. Ilorton. His title to the dis- 
tinction is as clear as that of Cabrillo to the discovery of the 
Bay, or that of Serra to the founding of the mission. It would 
be palpably absurd to pretend that Ilorton, alone, made San 
Diego what it is today. Thousands of people had a part in its 
making, and among these thousands were a few individuals who 
doubtless contributed more to the development of the city than 
Horton did. But they did not land in San Diego on Aiu'il 15, 
1867, purchase the vacant land, decree that the connnunity 
(already a century old) should be moved three miles south, and 
initiate the era of true and enduring greatness. "Father" Ilor- 
ton did that, and did it exceedinalv well, as the result testifies. 

horton's own story 

(The statement contained in this chapter, together with 
much other material for this volume, was dictatecl by Mr. Hor- 
ton to a stenographer in a series of interviews occurring in 
October, November and December, 1905. The white old pioneer 
had then just entered upon his ninety-tliird year, yet enjoyed 
vigorous health, with unimpaired sight and hearing, and with 
the keenest interest in all public affairs, present as well as 
past. Every day he drove alone through the streets of the city, 
as self-reliant as in the days of his prime. His memory 
seemed clear and strong, though it naturally dwelt largely in 
the past and lingered with especial fondness on the triumphs 
of his career. And as these words are written, nearly a year 
after the interviews described, "Father" Horton still lives in 
his suburban home, at the corner of State and Olive, from which 
sjiot he commands one of the finest views in the world.) 

RETURNED to the Pacific Coast in 1861, and 
in ^lay, 1867, was living in San Francisco. I 
had a store at the corner of Sixth and Mar- 
ket Streets where I dealt in furnitnre and 
household goods, and was doing well. One 
night a friend said to me : 

"There is going to be a big meeting to- 
night" [at snch a place], "and it might be 
interesting for you to attend." 

"What is to be the subject of the talk?" I asked. 
"It Avill be on the subject of what ports of the Pacific Coast 
will make big cities.'" 

So I went, and the speaker commenced at Seattle and said it 
was going to be a big city; and then he came on down to San 
Francisco, which he said would be one of the biggest cities in 
California. Then he kept on down along the coast until he came 
to San Diego, and he said that San Diego was one of the health- 
iest places in the world, and that it had one of the best harbors 
in the world; that there was no better harbor. 

I could not sleep that night for thinking about San Diego, and 
at two o'clock in the morning I got up and looked on a map to 
see where San Diego was, and then went back to bed satisfied. 
In the morning I said to mv wife : "I am going to sell my goods 
and go to San Diego and build a city." She said I talked like 
a Avild man, that I could not dispose of my goods in six months. 


But I commenced that morning and made a large sale that day. 
The second day it was the same and I had to hire two more lielp- 
ers. By the third day I had five men hired, and in these three 
days I had sold out all my stock. It was not an auction sale, 
but just a run of business which seemed providential. Then ray 
wife said she would not oppose me any longer, for she had always 
noticed when it was right for me to do anything, it always went 
right in my favor; and as this had gone that way, she believed 
it was right for me to do so. 

I went down to the office of the Pacific Mail Steamship (*om- 
pan}^ and inquired, and they said the steamer would be in on 
her return trip in about ten days; so I engaged passage down 
and back. I took passage on the steamer Pacific, and arrived in 
San Diego on the 15th of April. The steamer carried twenty- 
six tons of freight and six passengers. On the return trip she 
had a cargo of whale oil. I was the only passenger going to San 
Diego to stay. Wells, Fargo & Co. 's agent was on board. His 
name was Morgan, and he did business at all the places where 
the steamer stopped on the way down. E. W. Morse was the 
agent of the express company in Old Town at that time. This 
Morgan Avas bragging al)Out San Diego all the way down, and 
telling me what a beautiful place it was. 

We landed at the old wharf, near where the coal bunkers 
[Santa Fe wharves] now are, and had to wait there an hour for 
a wagon to come and take us up to San Diego (Old Town). 
While we were waiting, I walked up to where the court-house 
now is and looked over the ground. There was nothing there but 
sage-brush then. I thought San Diego must be a heaven-on- 
earth, if it was all as fine as that ; it seemed to me the best spot 
for building a city I ever saw. 

I made some inquiries about who had been here before. Some 
army officers had come in from the East before the war and 
started a town at Avhat was called New San Diego. At the time 
of the discovery of gold the people all left that place. The>' said 
there could never lie a town there. When I came, all the inhab- 
itants Avere at Old ToAvn. There Avas not a man living south of 
Old ToAvn for twenty miles, to the head of the Bay. There Avas 
one man liA-ing at the head of the Bay; his name Avas Santiago 
E. Argiiello. The Spanish settlements at the old fort on Pre- 
sidio Hill, and at the old hide houses near Avhere Roseville noAV 
is, Avere entirely deserted. 

When Ave got to Old Toavu, they Avere taking the goods out of 
the Avagon, and this ^Ir. ^Morgan said to me : 

''Well, Horton, how do you like the looks of San Diego?"' 

"Is this the great San Diego you Avere talking so much 
about?" said I. 




"Look here, are you telling me the truth?" 

"Sure; this is San Diego; what do you think of it?" 

"I -would not give you $5 for a deed to the whole of it — I 

would not take it as a gift. It doesn't lie right. Never in the 

world can you have a city here." 

Mr. ]Morse w^as standing by and heard this. He had a store 

in Old Town and was one of the first men here in San Diego. 

He was one of the smartest men they had here, and has ahvays 

been one of our best citizens. When he heard this he said to 


A prominent figure of the early days, who as County Clerk, called the election in connection 
with the sale of Pueblo lands to A. E. Horton 

me (and these were the first words he ever spoke to me) : 
"Where do jon think the city ought to l)e?" 
"Right down there by the wharf," I replied. "I have been 

nearly all over the United States, and that is the prettiest place 

for a cit}' I ever saw. Is there any laud there for sale 1 ' ' 

I tliought then that if I could buy twenty or forty acres there, 

that I would be satisfied. Mr. ]\Iorse said : 

"Yes, you can buy property there, by having it put up and 

sold at auction." 


I found out that the old city trustees were holding over. The 
pueblo had some debts and no income, so they did not want to 
incur the expense of holding an election. I said right away that 
that was illegal, that the old trustees could not give a good title 
to the property, and that there would have to be an election 
called. They could call a special election by giving ten days' 
notice, and I asked who the man was to call the election. Morse 
pointed out a tall man on the other side of the plaza, and said : 

"There is Mr. Pendleton crossing the plaza. He is county 
clerk and clerk of the court and can call an election." I went 
across to meet this man, and said to him: 

' ' ^Ir. Pendleton, I came down here to buy some land and help 
you build up a town, but I find the old town trustees are hold- 
ing over and cannot do anything legally, so I want you to call 
an election." 

''I shan't do it, sir. The town owes me enough, already." 

"Mr. Pendleton, how much would it cost for you to call an 
election 1 ' ' 

"Not less than five dollars." 

I put my hand in my pocket and took out ten dollars and 
handed it to him and said: "Here is ten dollars; now call the 

He Avrote three notices and I put them up that night in con- 
spicuous places, and that was the starting of San Diego. Morse 
went with me to show me what would be good land to get hold 
of, and showed me what is now called Horton's Addition. 

They had to give ten days' notice before the election could be 
held. While waiting for the time to pass, a doctor at Old Town 
asked me to go out on the mesa with him to shoot quail. I went 
out on the mesa with him, and I asked him how it was that since 
coming here my cough had left mel I had had a hard cough 
for six months and began to feel alarmed about it. 

"Well," he said, "that is the way with everybody that comes 
here. They all get well right off, even if they have consumption." 

AAHien Sunday came, I went to the Catholic church service at 
Old Town. Father Ubach was the priest in charge, and he was 
a young man, then. When they passed around the plate I 
noticed that the contributions were in small coins, and the most 
I saw put in was ten cents. I had $5 in silver with me, rolled 
up, and I put that on the plate. This attracted considerable 
attention, and Father Ubach, among the rest, noticed it. After 
the service he came and talked with me ; asked if I was a Cath- 
olic. I said no. What church did I belong to! I told him none. 
What was I there for? I told him about that and about the 
election. He asked me who I wanted for the trustees. I said 
I wanted E. W. Morse for one. and I did not know the business 
men very well, but I thought Joseph S. ]\lannasse and Thomas 


'father" horton in his ninety- fourth year 


H. Bush Avould be satisfactory for the other two. He said 
immediately: "You can have them." AVhen the election came 
off, these three men were elected, having received just 32 
votes each. 

Mr. Morse was the auctioneer. The first tract put up extended 
from where the court-house now is, south to the water front and 
east to Fifteenth Street, and contained about 200 acres, ^ly 
first bid was $100, and the people around me began to giggle 
and laugh when they heard it. I thought they were laughing 
because I had bid so little, but on inquiring what it was cus- 
tomary to pay for land, I was told that $20 was a good price 
if the land was smooth, or about $15 if it was rough. I did not 
bid so much after that. The pueblo lands had been surveyed 
into quarter-sections by the United States surveyors. I was the 
only bidder on all the parcels except one, and I bought in all 
about a thousand acres at an average of 26 cents an acre. ' On 
a fractional section near where Upas Street now is. Judge Hoi- 
lister bid $5 over me. I told him he could have it, and then he 
begged me to bid again. I finally raised him 25 cents, and then 
he would not bid any more, but said: 

"You can have it. I wouldn't give a mill an acre for all 
you've bought. That land has lain there for a million years, 
and nobody has built a city on it yet." 

"Yes," I said, "and it would lay there a million years longer 
without any city being built on it, if it depended upon you to 
do it." 

After the auction and before commencing work on my land, 
I thought I would go back to San Francisco and close out what 
business I had left there. I had the deeds from the trustees put 
on record and- then w^hen the steamer came took passage back 
to San Francisco. I told my wife I considered I had made a 
fortune Avhile I had been away, and she was wonderfullv well 

I had lived in San Francisco about two years and was well 
known there, and after I returned large crowds came to ask for 
information about the new city by the only harbor south of San 
Francisco. I told them all about the harlior. the climate, and 
so forth, and what a beautiful site it was for a citv. General 
Rosecrans was one of these visitors, although I did not know 
him at the time. He came to me a little while afterward and 
said he had heard about San Diego before, but had never heard 
its advantages so well explained. He thought he would like 
to go down and see it, and to make a trip from San Dieco to 
the desert, to see if a railroad could be built from San Diego 
eastward. He said if it could, my property was worth a million 
dollars. "Well," I said, "come on." So we came down to San 
Diego (it did not cost him anything for steamer fare), and we 


got two teams, one for passengers and the other for provisions, 
etc., and started. E. W. Morse and Jo ^Mannasse furnished the 
teams, and they and two or three other people went along. We 
went first down to Tia Juana and from there about a hundred 
miles east to Jacumba Pass, where we could see out across the 
desert. General Rosecraus said to me: "Horton, this is the best 
route for a railroad through the mountains that I have ever 
seen in California." He said he had been all over the state, and 
he Avas now satisfied that Horton 's property Avas well worth a 
million dollars. I said: "I am glad you are so sanguine about 
the property." Coming back through where San Diego now is, 
he said to me: "If I ever have a lot in San Diego, I would like 
to have it right here." I said I would remember him when the 
survey was made, and after it was compjeted I made him a 
present of the block bounded by Fifth and Sixth, F and G- 
streets — block 70, I think it is. He had not asked for anything 
and did not expect to be paid, but he thanked me very kindly. 
Two years from that time I paid him $4,000 to get that block 
back again, and I sold half of it afterwards for more than I 
paid him. 

After this excursion we went back to San Francisco and in a 
few days General Rosecraus came to me and said there were 
two men who wanted to buy me out. I went with him and met 
these men. General Rosecraus described the property and we 
talked it over for half or three-quarters of an hour, and they 
said they would give me $100,000 for the property. I thought, 
since they took me up so quick that they would probably give 
more. General Rosecraus told them that in his opinion the prop- 
erty w-as well worth a million dollars, and at last thev said thev 
would give me $200,000, and finally $250,000. I thought they 
might not be able to carry out their agreement, and also that if 
it was worth that much I might as well build a city there myself 
and get the profits. General Rosecraus asked me afterwards 
M^hy I did not accept the ofifer. He said that I could have lived 
all my days like a fighting-cock on that much money. He said 
that they had the money and were abundantly able to fulfill any 
agreement they might make. 

There was an old building standing in new San Diego, about 
State and F Streets, on the water front when we lauded. It 
had been braced up to keep it from falling down. It lielonged 
to a man named Wm. H. Davis known as "Kanaka" Davis, who 
had been connected with new San Diego, but was then living in 
San Francisco. I bought this building from him with the lot it 
stood on and I think I paid him $100 for them. A man named 
Dunnells came to me to ask about the chance for starting a hotel 
at San Diego. He had been uii north somewhere and was look- 
ing for a location, and I wanted to uet a hotel started. So I told 


him about the place and about this old building', and he wanted 
to know what I would take for it. I sold it to him, wdth the lot, 
for $1,000. He was afraid he would not like the place, so I told 
him I would take it off his hands if he did not ; and when he got 
there he liked the place and the property. It was a small frame 
building. Captain Dunnells was a good citizen. He died within 
a year past. His son is chief pilot of San Diego harbor. 

Well, I got everything closed up in San Francisco and came 
down here and began work. I surveyed the land ; I also began 

Proprietor of the first hotel in Horton's Addition 

the building of a wharf at the foot of Fifth Street, in August, 
1868. A man from San Francisco had agreed to put in half 
the materials and do half the work on this wharf, if I would 
give him five blocks of land for it. I agreed and he began work 
under this arrangement ; but he soon backed out and I took it 
off his hands and finished the work myself. This was the first 
construction work I did in San Diego. The wharf cost alto- 
gether $45,000. This Judge Hollister, the same man who bid 
against me for the last parcel of land I bought from the city 



trustees, was the assessor, and he assessed this wharf at $60,000 
and tried to make me pay taxes on that valuation. But I took 
the matter up with higher authorities, showed them just what 
the wharf had cost, and got the assessment canceled. 

After the survey was made, I set to work to get the town built 
up. There were a number of men who had come here and wanted 
work, and I offered them lots at $10 apiece. There was a man 
stopping with Dunuells who had brought about $8,000 in silver 
with him and said he was going to buy property. He said to 


' '^m 


these men: "Don't pay it, you fools; you will be giving Hor- 
ton something for nothing. Those lots only cost him about 26 
cents an acre. ' ' They had already agreed to buy, but this man 's 
talk made them want to go back on their bargain. I Avent to 
them and said: "I understand that you would like to get your 
money back. There is your money." I had not yet made out 
the deeds. 1 told them that they could each have a lot free, on 
condition that they would each put up a house on his lot to be 
at least twelve feet wide, sixteen feet long and twelve feet high, 
covered with shingles or shakes. That I would give them an 
inside lot on these conditions, but not a corner, and the deeds 
to be delivered when the buildings were finished. They said they 


would do that, and they went ahead and put up twenty build- 
ings, down on Fifth Street, near the water front. That was the 
beginning of the building of new San Diego. I said to those 
men : ' ' Now you keep those and take care of them and pay the 
taxes, and they will make you well off." But every one of them 
sold out in a little while for a good price, except one man, Joseph 
Nash. He still owns the lot he got from me. 

The next day after I had made this arrangement, some of the 
men who had been scared out of buying from me came and said : 
"Well, Horton, I guess we will take those lots now at $10." I 
said: "No, they will cost you $20 now." A few days later I 
raised them to. $25, then to $30, and sold them at these prices. 
The man who had caused trouble Avith my first purchasers came 
to me and wanted to buy lots at the increased prices, but I 
refused to sell him anything, because it was through him that 
these men had backed out of their trade. "Not one dollar of 
your money, sir," I said, "will buy anything from me. If you 
buy it will be at second hand from someone else." He went 
back to San Francisco and told people there was no use for any- 
body to come down here to buy property from Horton, unless 
he was a Republican. 

"When I went to San Francisco, I had just come from the war 
and was a black Republican. I talked my religion (Republican- 
ism) freely in Old Town. A man came to me and said: "Be 
careful how you talk polities, Horton. What you have already 
said here is as much as your life is worth. This is the worst 
Copperhead hole in California." 

I said: "I Avill make it a Republican hole before I have been 
here very long." 

"Well," he said, "I would like to see the tools you will do 
it with." 

At that time I would not employ a man unless he was a Repub- 
lican. Two years after I started San Diego, I carried the city 
for the Republican ticket, county and state, and the city and 
county have remained Republican ever since. 

Noliody here had any money to hire men but me. I employed 
in buikling, surveying, working on the wharf, and so on, about 
a hundred men. I had my office on Sixth Street. Property was 
rising in value and I was taking in money fast. After a steamer 
came in, I would take in, for lots and blocks, in a single day, 
$5,000, $10,000, $15,000, and even $20,000. I have taken in 
money so fast I was tired of handling it. 

There was a man named John Allyn, who built the Allyn 
Block on Fifth Street. He came down here to see San Diego and 
I hired him to paper this old building that I had sold to Dun- 
nells. He was four days doing the work, and I gave him for it 



the lot on the southeast corner of Fifth and D Streets, 50x100. 
He took it, but said he didn't know whether he would ever get 
enough for it to make it worth while to record the deed. It was 
only a year or two later that he sold it for $2,000 to the people 
who now own it, and it is now worth over $100,000. Allyn is 
now dead. He gave $3,000 to the city park, and that was the 
first donation that was made for that purpose. 

Showing Horton House, and Union Building in course of construction 

Just north of the Russ Lumber Company's place there were 
about a dozen houses which had been built by people who had 
bought lots. I said to these people that if they would white- 
wash their houses I would furnish the brushes and lime. They 
said they could not spare the time. But I wanted it done because 
I thought it would look well when the steamers came in. I then 
said that if they would let me whitewash one-half of their houses, 
on the seaward sides, I would furnish the materials and do the 
work. They consented, and so I hired men and had the houses 
whitewashed on the south and west sides. Then the\' wanted me 


to whitewash them all over, and I would not do it, but still 
ofit'ered to furnish the brushes and lime, so they finally finished 
the job themselves. The houses then made a fine show and peo- 
ple coming in on the steamers thought the town was growing 
very fast. 

I commenced building the Horton House in January, 1870, 
and finished it in just nine months to a day from the time I 
turned the first shovelful of dirt. It cost me $150,000, finished, 
furnished and painted. There were 96 sleeping rooms in the 
Horton House, besides a dining room, reading room, bar, and 
office. The main wing was three stories high and the balance 
two. It was built of brick made here and they cost $11 a thou- 
sand. I bought two steamer loads of lumber and used it in 
the building. 

I began the bank building just about the time I moved into 
the Horton House. This is the building on the southwest corner 
of Third and D Streets, where the Union has its offices. It was 
built of the same kind of brick that the Horton House was. The 
strongest vault in California today, I think, is in that building. 
A hole was dug down to hard gravel and a foundation laid upon 
it with cement and broken bottles. There were either four or 
six pieces of stone about 18 inches thick, 21 inches wide and 12 
feet long for the foundation, laid on top of this foundation. 
The building was finished in about a year. I used the build- 
ing myself — had my office in the corner rooms upstairs for my 
land business, and the downstairs part was fitted up for a bank. 
The building was intended for the Texas and Pacific Railroad, 
but they never occupied it. 

I was president of the old San Diego Bank when it was first 
organized, but I resigned soon after and ]\Ir. Xesmith became 
its president. I was doing more business than the bank was ; 
I told them they were too slow for me. I used to keep my 
money in the old Pacific Bank, at San Francisco, and I would 
give Klauber, ]\Iarston and others certificates on that bank, and 
they used these certificates as checks to pay their bills with. 

The property I have given away in San Diego and never 
received a cent for is now worth over a million dollars. Out- 
side of this, I have received, as I can show from my books, from 
the sale of property, over a million dollars in San Diego. 

I put up about fifty residences in ]\Iiddletown for people who 
had come out here during the boom and wanted to get prop- 
erty cheap. None of these houses cost less than $500 ; one cost 
$3,000, and the rest cost $1,500 apiece. I rented these build- 
ings to people who were waiting to buy, at $5 a month. As 
soon as things began to go down and rents were cheap, many 
of these people left my buildings. I was once ofi'ered $30,000 


for 30 of these buildings, by people who wanted to buy right 
off and move into them. 

After I had built the Ilorton House, I went to San Fran- 
cisco to get Ben Ilolliday to put down the steamer fare and 
freight. The freight was $15 a ton from San Francisco to San 
Diego, and passenger fares were $60 a round trip. Holliday 
Avas the principal owner of the steamship line. He said to me: 
"]\Ir. Horton, I am running these steamers to make money, and 
I am not going to put the freight or passenger rates down. I 
shan't put them down at all." 

"Then," I said, "I shall have to do the best I can." 

"Well, what will you do?" 

"I M'ill put on an opposition line, if I can find a steamer." 

"AVell, you do it, if you can, and be damned!" 

Holliday was a rough talking man. After I had left his 
office I went up Montgomery Street and there I met a man 
named George W. Wright, who was the owner of the steamer 
^Ym. Taher, which had just come around the Horn. He said 
to me: "Horton, if you will give me one-half the freight you 
are giving to Holliday & Co., I will put the steamer Tahcr on 
as an opposition line to San Diego." 

I said if he put the freight down from $15 a ton to $9 a ton, 
and passenger fares from $60 to $30 a round trip from San 
Francisco to San Diego, he should have one-half of the freight. 

He said : "I don 't know M'hether I can rely on that or not. 
Show me how you are situated." 

I said to him: "I am employing in San Diego a hundred 
men. I will tell them that if they don't support the opposition 
line, I will tell them that their time is out and they can go 
wherever they can do better." 

"What would you advise me to do?" he asked. 

"I would advise you to put into the newspapers — all of them 
— a notice that you will carry freight between San Francisco 
and San Diego for $9 a ton and passengers for $30 a round trip 
or $15 each way. I will take the stage and ride night and day 
till I get to San Diego, and attend to that end of it." 

When the steamers came in, the Taher was loaded down to 
the gunwale with freight and passengers, but the Orizaba had 
not enough passengers to pay for the lights they were burning 
on the ship. It went that way, as near as I can remember, about 
two months. Then Holliday Avent to Wright and asked him to 
take off the opposition steamer, and how much he would take 
to keep it off for three years. Wright said he wanted $300,000. 
"Well, what will you take for keeping it off for only a year?" 
Wright said $100,000, but that he would have to send down for 
Horton and see him about it first. "What, has Horton got anv- 


thing to say about it ? " " Yes. " " The hell he has ! AVell, send 
for Horton." So Wright sent for me and I went up to San 
Francisco and AVright told Holliday : "Horton has come and 
is at the Occidental Hotel." 

"Well, ask him to come to my office." 

"Horton has told me he would never set foot in your office 
again and you know it. You will have to go up to the hotel to 
see him, for Horton will not come down here." 

" Horton 's pretty damned independent, isn't he?" 

"Yes, and he is able to be." 

"Well, Jesse [speaking to his brother, Jesse Holliday], come 
along and let's go up and see Horton." 

Well, they came up to the hotel where I was stopping, and 
Wright told them about the arrangements they had with me. 

"Well," said Holliday, "I will agree to that." 

"Well," I said, "I want you to aeree further never to raise 
the rates for freight or passengers." 

He said he would not agree to that. 

"Well, gentlemen," I said, "you can sit here as long as you 
like ; I have other business to attend to ; " and I took my hat 
and started for the door. They called me back, and after some 
further talk, agreed to my demands. I said to them then : 
"Before this business is closed, we will have a lawyer come here, 
and you will sign an agreement never to raise the freight or 
passenger rates." He didn't want to do it, but I said: "Do 
it. or I'll have nothing more to do with you;" so finally he 
agreed to that. Holliday paid Wright his $100,000. and he 
went out of the business. That was a benefit to Los Angeles. 
too, because freight rates were reduced to that point. 

The landing for Los Angeles was San Pedro. The old Taher 
lies today up above Rio Vista, where she has been run ever since 
she was taken off. The Orizaha continued to run, for years. I 
don't know just when she stopped running. Captain Johnson 
was her captain. 

Just after I had moved into the Horton House, a man in the 
employ of the AVestern Union Telegraph Company came down 
here to see if he could get subscriptions enough to build the 
telegraph line from Los Angeles to San Diego. After he had 
been around and raised what he could, he was sitting in the 
stage waiting for it to start, to return to Los Angeles. He 
called me out there and told me he could not get help enough 
to warrant building the line down from Los Angeles ; he thought 
perhaps it could be done after a year. I said: "What will it 
cost to build the line from Los Angeles?" He said that he 
lacked about $5,000 of having enough. I said: "AYhat will 
you give me if I make up the amount?" He said: "If you 


will subscribe one-half the amount we lack, we will give you 
one-half the earnings of the telegraph for three years. We will 
send an operator down here, and you to furnish an office and 
pay him $50 a month." I said: "I will take it." He said: 
"Shake hands on it, sir!" So we shook hands, and in one 
month from that time they had the instruments in working 
order in the Horton House. Quite a number of people around 
town had subscribed, but there was not enough pledged to secure 
the line. E. W. Morse was appointed to collect the subscrip- 
tions, but I furnished the $5,000 that was lacking to secure the 
extension. Within three years I got my money back and a 
little more. 

I never parted with the title to the Plaza until I sold it to 
the city, but had reserved it for my own use and for the Hor- 
ton House. People got to talking about wanting to buy it and 
to put different buildings on the ground. I told them they 
could have it for the city, if they would pay me $10,000 for it, 
and they agreed to do it. Before the sale was closed, a man 
from Massachusetts wanted that ground, and after he had exam- 
ined the title offered me $50,000 for it. I went to the men I 
had had most of the talk with, and asked them if they would 
not let me sell to this man, instead of to the city. "Well," they 
said, "we want it for the city, and we should think 3'ou would, 
too. " " Yes, ' ' I said, ' ' I did want the city to have it. " " Well, 
you agreed to let the city have it for $10,000 and we think you 
ought to stand by your bargain." "Very well, then," I said, 
"let me have $100 a month until it is paid for," and that is the 
way the arrangement was made, to pay me $10,000 in monthly 
payments of $100 until it was paid for. That is the full history 
of the Plaza. 

After I got moved into the Horton House, I went to Wash- 
ington to see about getting the Scott Railroad. Scott and some 
other people in the East Avanted to build a railroad from El 
Paso west, l)ut they did not make any provision for building 
from San Diego east. I saw how this was, and so I got up one 
morning, took money, and went off to Washington without 
waiting to consult anyone about it. When I got to Washington, 
I went to Scott and said : 

"I see your bill is up and I don't know whether it will pass 
or not, but it depends upon one thing : You have agreed in 
your bill to build one hundred miles a year, commencing at El 
Paso, this way ; and you have agreed to nothing from San Diego 
east. Now, unless you will agree, and have it put in the bill, 
that you shall build fifty miles a year east from San Diego and 
fifty miles west from El Paso, your bill is lost." 

"Well," said Scott, "how do vou know vou can defeat it?" 


I said : ' ' Tomorrow or next day your bill comes up, and j^ou 
are beaten. If j^ou can get that bill fixed right, I can help you 
to pass it." 

S. S. ("Sunset") Cox was in Congress then, and had just 
made a speech against this bill. When I first got there, I went 
to see our Congressman. He was from San Jose. A man from 
New Orleans, our Congressman, and Cox were the committee in 
charge of the bill, and Cox said that if Scott would consent to 
amend it, he (Cox) would help get the Democratic votes neces- 
sary to pass it, notwithstanding he had already made a speech 
against the bill. This was done in half an hour. 

So then I told Scott about Cox and the arrangement I had 
made with him. I got Scott and the committee together in the 
library of the Capitol, and they agreed to change the bill the 
way I wanted it. Of course, Cox could not vote for the bill 
after having made a speech against it, but he got leave of 
absence and went home for a few days when it was about to be 
voted on. After securing his leave of absence he started off 
without having arranged with his friends to vote for the bill. 
I reminded him of it just in time, and he said: "Oh, my God! 
I had forgotten all about that." Then he went back and talked 
with about twenty-five of his Democratic friends, and when the 
bill came up for a vote, it passed. 

I went to Washington three times on this business, after I 
got into the Horton House, and it cost me altogether $8,000. 
I got Scott, one senator, and two or three congressmen and oth- 
ers Avho were helping with the road, to come out here, and they 
all stopped with me at the Horton House. (This was Aug- 
ust 30, 1872.) 

Scott was satisfied with the proposition, and so he let a con- 
tract to grade 25 miles, from 25th Street to Rose Canj^on, and 
10 miles were graded and Scott paid for it. [Horton threw the 
first shovelful of dirt, April 21, 1873.] 

Scott went to Paris and made an agreement to sell his bonds 
there, and they were getting everything ready in order to close 
the transaction. They called him "the railroad king" in the 
United States at that time. He had an invitation to dine with 
the crowned heads of Europe, in Belgium. He did not tell the 
Paris bankers where he was going, but went off and was gone 
thirty-six hours. In twelve hours after he left, they had every- 
thing ready to pay over the money at the bank. They went to 
the place where he had been stopping and inquired, and sent 
in every direction to find him, and even telegraphed to Eng- 
land, but could not hear from him. During the time before he 
got back, Jay Cooke and Company failed, and when he got back 
to Paris, thev said to him : 


"Mr. Scott, if you had been here a few hours ago instead of 
taking dinner with the crowned heads, you would have had 
your twelve million dollars. Now, we have lost confidence and 
cannot take your bonds." 

Scott telegraphed me how it was. I had put up the bank 
building, where the Union office now is, as I said, for him, and 
he had agreed to give me $J:5,000 for it. He telegraphed me: 

''I have lost the sale of my bonds and am a ruined man. I 
don't know whether I shall ever be able to get my head above 
water again. Do the best you can. I shall not be able to ful- 
fill the contracts I have with you." 

This failure hurt me severely. People who had bought land 
of me heard of the failure, and they met in front of the bank 
building and sent for me. I went over there and they asked 
me to take the property back, and said I was welcome to all 
they had paid if I would only give up the contracts. I told 
them nobody should be deceived, and how Scott had failed and 
would not be able to live up to his contract. I paid them back 
dollar for dollar; every man who had made payments on account 
of land purchase got it back. 

I had given 22 blocks of land at the northwest corner of Hor- 
ton's Addition, as a contribution toward getting ■ the first rail- 
road to come here. I lost them, and the railroad never was 

This refers, of course, to the Texas and Pacific. When Hunt- 
ington, Crocker, and some other Southern Pacific officials came 
here (there Avere five in the party), I entertained them at the 
Horton House and did not charge them a cent. 

Huntington said: "If you will give us one-half of the prop- 
erty you have agreed to give Tom Scott, we will build the road 
from here to Fort Yuma." I told them we could not do it. 
They sent an engineer to go over the ground that had already 
been surveyed by Scott. 

Up at Los Angeles, they had agreed to build a road, and had 
it as far as from Los Angeles to San Bernardino, and there 
they came to a stand. They told the Los Angeles people if they 
would give them $-100,000 to help them get through a certain 
]uece of land to the desert (San Gorgonio Pass), they would 
go on through there; otherwise they would build the road to 
San Diego and from there to Point Yuma. INIayor Hazzard told 
the people of Los Angeles that if they did that, Los Angeles 
would be nothing but a way-station, and the only way to save 
the city was to agree to give them the money they wanted. They 
did this, and that was the reason the Southern Pacific was not 
built to San Diego. The objection they had to coming here, 
they said, was because they could not compete with water trans- 



portation, and therefore it woiikl not be to their interests to 
come to a place where they would have to compete with water. 
[This is the end of Mr. Horton's "own story."] 


When Horton came along and proposed to buy lands from 
the town, no meeting' of the trustees, and no election, had been 
held for two years. Ilorton insisting upon it, a special election 
was called, and E. W. ^lorse, Thomas H. Bush, and J. S. ]\Ian- 

Conspicuous in business and political aflfairs in San Diego before and during the boom 

nasse elected trustees. This board met and organized on April 
30, 1867, the minutes of the meeting reading as follows: 

Organization of the Board of Trustees for the City of San 
Diego, California. 

Apri] 30, ]S67. 

The new Board, consisting of J. S. Mannasse, E. W. Morse, 
and Thomas H. Bush, chosen at the election held the 27th day 
of April, 1867, met and Organized by Electing J. S. Mannasse 


President, E. W. ^Morse Treasurer, and Thomas H. Bush 

On motiou of E. W. Morse it was Resolved that au order be 
entered for the Sale of certain farming Lands of the city prop- 
erty. Said Sale to take place on the 10th day of May, 1867, 
at the Court House. 

On Motion, the Board adjourned to meet Tuesday Evening 
May 11, 1867. 


Thomas H. Bush, J. S. Maxxasse, 

Secretary. President. 

The sale was held at the court house in old San Diego, on 
Friday, ^lay 10, 1867. The sheriff (James McCoy) was the 
proper official to act as auctioneer, but ^Nlr. IMorse acted in his 
place as deputy. Mr. Ilorton bought six 160-acre lots, 960 acres 
in all, for au aggregate sum of .$265, a little over 27 cents au 
acre, and two parcels were sold to other parties at the same 
time. The following is a copy of the minutes of the next ensu- 
ing meeting of the trustees, at which the sahs was confirmed 
and the deed issued: 

Special Meeting 
May 11, 1867. 

All the members of the Board present. The Board eon- 
. veyed by Deed the following Lots of land purchased by A. E. 
Horton, May 10th: 

Eleven hundred and Forty -Six 1146 

Eleven hundred and Forty-Seven 1147 

Eleven hundred and Fifty-Six 1156 

Eleven hundred and Forty-Five 114.5 

Eleven hundred and Thirty-Four 1134 

Eleven hundred and Thirty-Three 1133 

At the City Land Sale held at the Court House on Friday. 
May 10, 1867, the following Lands were sold and account pre- 
sented of such to the Board, by James McCoy, Auctioneer: 

Purchaser Price 

1146 Lots Eleven hundred and Fort,y-Six. .A. E. Horton 

1147 Lots Eleven hundred and Forty-Seven. .A. E. Horton 

1156 Lots Eleven hundred and Fifty-Six. .A. E. Horton $150.00 

1145 Lots Eleven hundred and Forty-Five. .A. E. Horton 40.00 

1134 Lots Eleven hundred and Thirty-Four.. A. E. Horton 20.00 

1133 Lots Eleven hundred and Thirty-Three.. A. E. Horton 55.00 
1173 Lots Eleven hundred and Seventy-Three 

J. S. Murray ". 20.50 

Fractional Lot lying between Eleven hun- 
dred and Fifty-Six and Eleven hundred and 

Fif tv-Seven, to Edward Henck 9.50 


On motion of .J. S. Mannasse it was resolved to advertise 

City Lands for Sale, on the third day of June, 1867, at public 

Auction, and the Secretary be ordered to post Notices of the 

Same, in three conspicuous places. 


On Motion Meeting Adjourned to meet June 10, 1867. 

Thomas H. Bush, J. S. Maxxasse, 

Secretary. President. 

The deed was made and recorded the same day. It was signed 
by Morse and Bush, ]\Iannasse not signing, and witnessed by 
C. A. Johnson. A full copy of this deed is given below : 

This indenture made this eleventh day of May, A. D. one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, between E. W. Morse 
and Thomas H. Bush, Trustees of the City of San Diego, Coun- 
ty of San Diego, State of California, parties of the tirst part, 
and A. E. Horton, of the same place, party of the second part, 
Witnesseth, That whereas at a sale at public auction of lots 
of said City of San Diego, after due notice given of the same, 
according to law, on the tenth day of May, eighteen hundred 
and sixty-seven, by the said parties of the first part. Trustees 
of said City as aforesaid, the said party of the second part 
bid for and became the purchaser of the following described 
property and that said property was theu and there sold and 
struck off to the said party of the second part — as the highest 
and best bidder thereof. 

Now therefore the parties of the first part, Trustees of the 
said City as aforesaid for themselves and their successors 
in office, by virtue of authority in law in them vested — and 
for and in consideration of the sum of two hundred and sixty- 
five dollars to them in hand paid by the said party of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have 
granted, sold, released and quitclaimed and by these presents, 
do grant, sell, release and quitclaim unto the said party of 
the second part, his heirs and assigns forever, all the right, 
title, interest or claim whatsoever, of the said party of the 
first part, or their successors in office in and to the following 
described property, situate in the boundary of said City, to 
wit: Lots eleven hundred and forty-six (1146), eleven hun- 
dred and forty-seven (1147), eleven hundred and fifty-six 
(1156), eleven hundred and forty-five (1145), eleven hundred 
and thirty-four (1134), and eleven hundred and thirty-three 
(1133), and designated upon the official map of said city, 
made by Charles H. Poole in the year 1856. Together with all 
and singular the ways, streets, rights, hereditaments and ap- 
purtenances thereunto belonging or in any wise appertaining. 
To have and to hold the aforesaid premises, hereby granted 
to the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns 

In witness whereof the said parties of the first part have 
hereunto set their hands and seals the day and year first 
above written. 

E. W. Morse, (Seal) 

Thomas H. Bush. (Seal) 


Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of C. A. Johnson. 


state of California 

. ss. 
County of San Diego 

On this eleventh day of May, A. D. one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-seven, before me G. A. Pendleton, County 
Clerk and ex-officio Clerk of the County Court in and for said 
County, jjersonally appeared E. W. Morse and Thomas H. 
Bush, personally known to me to be the individuals described 
in and who executed the annexed instrument and they acknowl- 
edged to me that they executed the same freely and voluntarily 
and for the uses and purposes therein mentioned. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed 
the seal of said Court in this County the day and year in this 
Certificate first above written. 

G. A. Pendleton. 

Received for record on Saturday, May 11, 1867, at 6 P. M., 
and recorded on Saturday, May il, 1867, at 8 o'clock P. M., 
at request of A. E. Horton. 

G. A. Pendleton. 
County Recorder. 
(Fifty cents. ) 

(U. S. Rev. Stamp) 
(E. W. M. T. H. B.) 
(May 11, 1867 ) 

These proceedings did not escape attack. When it became 
apparent that the new town would be a success, a number of 
suits were brought for the purpose of setting aside the deed 
from the trustees to Horton. Perhaps the most famous of these 
was the suit of Charles H. De Wolf versvs Horton, Morse, and 
Bush, brought in September, 1869, in which Judge Benjamin 
Hayes was the plaintiff's attorney. It was alleged that the pro- 
ceedings leading up to the conveyance were irregular in several 
respects. The owners of the ex-mission rancho also brought suit 
to extend their boundaries over Horton 's Addition, claiming 
that the pueblo lands should comprise four leagues, instead of 
eleven. There were rumors that there was collusion between 
Horton, j\Iorse, Bush, and others, by which the trustees profited 
by the sale. Some excitement rose at one time and "land .jump- 
ing" began; but the people of San Diego took prompt action, 
pulled down and burned the fences erected around some blocks 
the "jumpers" were attempting to claim, and soon suppressed 
their enterprise. Horton 's title was sustained in all the courts 
and the suits ended in smoke. 


iHE railroad ambition found early lodgment in 
the San Dieg'o heart and the passion has 
endured through the years. Indeed, ever 
since railroads came into existence men 
have appreciated the importance of a direct 
eastern outlet for the seaport. In the dreamy 
days of Mexican rule, away back in the 30 's, 
the}' were discussing ways and means to 
accomplish the great end, but it was not until the American 
began to dominate the land that any organized etfort was made, 
in the early 50 's an agitation began for the construction of 
a railroad on the 32d parallel. Congressional action was secured 
for the preliminary surveys, and in May, 1853, Colonel J. Bank- 
head Magruder, president of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad 
Company, published his report. In January, 1854, Colonel 
Andrew B. Gray started out to make his "survey of a route 
for the Southern Pacific Railroad, on the 32d parallel," for the 
Texas Western Railroad Company. This report was not pub- 
lished until 1856, but the people of San Diego were fully 
informed of the undertaking and its results. Both these reports 
are extant and both are of great value. 

Different statements have been made as to who was entitled 
to the credit for originating the firet railroad corporation in 
San Diego. The account most generally credited seems to be 
that it was due to Judge James W. Robinson and Louis Rose. 
They were both from the South and doubtless well informed as 
to the feeling in the matter of the people there, and both took 
an active part in the affairs of the organization ; so that the 
tradition carries a strong degree of probability. Wm. C. Fer- 
rell and J. J. Warner are also mentioned in this connection. 

Early in November. 1854, the San Diego & Gila, Southern 
Pacific & Atlantic Railroad Company was organized. On 
November 16th J. R. Gitehell returned from Sacramento Avith 
the charter, and the following officers were elected: President, 
James W. Robinson ; vice-president, 0. S. Witherby ; treasurer, 
Louis Rose ; secretary, George P. Tebbetts ; directors, J. W. Rob- 
inson, General H. S. Burton, U. S. A., E. W. ]\Iorse, Joseph 


Eeiner, John Hays, M. M. Sexton, Lonis Rose, L. Strauss, J. R. 
Gitchell, George Lyons, 0. S. Witherby, and Wm. C. Ferrell. 
The purpose of the organization was to build a railroad to 
Yuma, there to meet the line which might reach that point from 
the East. Colonel Gray had abandoned his work at Yuma, on 
account of his pack mules being broken down, and the new com- 
pany, therefore, promptly took steps to supply the deficiency. 
They sent out a party of surveyors to examine the pass to Santa 
Ysabel by way of the San Diego River, who returned about the 
time the charter arrived, and according to the Herald "made 
their report, which is so favorable as to astonish everyone who 
had never been through by this route." A second reconnais- 
sance of the mountains Avas immediately begun, and the sur- 
veys were pushed with vigor and success, demonstrating the 
feasibility of the "direct route" to Yuma, upon which the peo- 
ple of San Diego insisted with so much tenacity in later years. 
But this was not all ; these enterprising men prevailed upon the 
•city to make a donation of two leagues of land (about 8,850 
acres) — at an election held October 19, 1855, all the votes being 
for the donation — a gift which would have become of princely 
value had the railroad been built — and secured the confirmation 
of this grant by the state legislature. 

The organization continued actively at work until the Civil 
War began. Many of the original officers and directors retained 
their positions during the period. In 1855, J. C. Bogart, E. B. 
Pendleton, and D. B. Kurtz succeeded John Hays, L. Strauss, 
and Wm. C. Ferrell as directors. In the following year, J. C. 
Bogart was treasurer, in place of Rose. Early in 1858, Rose 
was treasurer again, and E. W. Morse chairman of the audit- 
ing committee. At the annual election in this year, 0. S. With- 
erby became president, Wm. C. Ferrell vice-president, D. B. 
Kurtz treasurer, and George P. Tebbetts remained secretary, as 
from the beginning. 

At this time the hopes of the people were very high. Indeed, 
it seems probable the road would have been built but for the 
war. That conflict dashed the people's hopes, not merely for 
the time of its duration, but for many years after. The South 
had never for a moment thought of building a railroad to any 
terminus other than San Diego, but it now no longer dominated 
either the politics or the finances of the country, and it was nec- 
essary to wait until new financial and industrial combinations 
could be made. It was not until the second year of the Horton 
period that lively hopes of the speedy building of a railroad 
again cheered San Diego. 

The Memphis, El Paso & Pacific Railroad Company, known 
as the JMemphis & El Paso, or the Fremont route, was one of the 


numerous projects for building on the 32d parallel. The east- 
ern terminus was Memphis, and the western was at first Guay- 
mas, but this was afterward changed to San Diego. The old 
San Diego & Gila was revived with a new set of officers, and 
Colonel Wm. Jeff. Gatewood, the president of the reorganized 
company, was sent to Memphis to negotiate. In 1868 General 
]\I. C. Hunter, of Indiana, representing the Memphis & El Paso 
Railroad, came to San Diego and addressed large meetings. He 
succeeded in negotiating a contract between the two companies, 
whereby the former company agreed to build the road, and 
received the grants, franchises, and lands of the latter, valued 
at $500,000, in exchange for stock. General Hunter selected a 
site for the depot, upon the company's own lands, some half 
mile from Horton's wharf, and also made a contract with the 
Kimball brothers, owners of the National rancho, for a way sta- 
tion on their lands, for which the Kimballs were to donate 100 
blocks of land. General Thomas S. Sedgwick then proceeded to 
make a survey, and General John C. Fremont went to Paris and 
succeeded in placing 148 first mortgage bonds for $116,480. 
Application was made to Congress for a grant, but this failed, 
and the whole scheme cpiickly collapsed. The Paris investors 
sued Fremont, and the land subsidy was forfeited to the city. 
General Sedgwick, who had just completed his maps, was sent 
east as the agent of the San Diego & Gila to secure a concella- 
tion of the contract between the two companies, and succeeded 
in doing so. 

But the people of San Diego were not left long without hope. 
During these years, from 1868 to 1871, we hear of the San Diego 
& Fort Yuma, which was to run via Jacumba Pass; of the old 
Southern Pacific, the Transcontinental, and other projects ; but 
it was not until the Texas & Pacific Railway Company was char- 
tered, March 3, 1871, that there seemed once more substantial 
ground for the belief that the day of prosperity was at hand. 
The Texas & Pacific was responsible for so many things — for 
San Diego's first considerable boom and its greatest disappoint- 
ment — and, in a way, for its subsequent growth and prosperity 
— that a somewhat extended account may properly be given. 

This company was incorporated by Colonel Thomas A. Scott, 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and others. Scott was made its 
president, and gave his efforts energetically for several years 
to the task of building a road through to San Diego. Senator 
John S. Harris, one of the directors, spoke in San Diego on 
behalf of the road, August 28, 1871, which was the first public 
meeting held in connection with the enterprise. In March. 1872. 
Scott acquired by consolidation and purchase property and 
franchises of the old Southern Pacific, the Transcontinental, and 


the ^Memphis & El Paso Railroads, and by act of Congress 
approved JMay 2, 1872, was granted power to build and equip 
lines between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast. 

In the meantime, the people of San Diego were awake to their 
interests. Late in March, 1872, a committee of forty was 
appoiiited, of which Thos. L. Nesmith was chairman, and the 
congressman, S. 0. Houghton, was instructed to use his best 
judgment. Horton went to Washington a few days later, and 


Who came to San Diego after a conspicuous career in Texas and was identified with the 
earliest railroad efforts 


co-operated with Houghton and General Sedgwick. It was 
thought essential that the charter should provide for building 
the road from both the eastern and western ends simultaneously, 
to fix a minimum mileage to be constructed each year, and to 
limit the time within which work should be commenced to one 
year, in order to safeguard the city's interests. Colonel Scott 
readily agreed to these requirements, and promised to visit San 
Diego to negotiate for the franchise and property of the old 
San Diego & Gila and explain his views to the people. There 


was a powerful lobbj^ against the bill, both before and after 
amendment, much of which came from northern California, but 
the bill finally passed and was approved on JNIay 2d, causing 
great rejoicing in San Diego. 

Surveying parties were immediately put in the field and the 
work was pushed with vigor. Three surveys in all were made. 
The first party of engineers arrived in San Diego on June 21, 
1872. On August 8th, J. A. Evans, chief engineer of the Cali- 
fornia division, arrived to take charge of the work. On Sep- 
tember 5th the second party took the field, and nine days later, 
the third. In the follo^^•ing December, Crawford's survey of 
the route from San Diego eastward was completed, and in J\Iarch 
the Reno party completed its work and was disbanded. These 
three- routes were, respectively: the southern roiite by way of 
El Campo; the middle route, by way of Warner's rancho; and 
the northern, through the San Gorgonio Pass. 

All of this was very encouraging, indeed, and when Colonel 
Scott started west early in August, with a part}^ of legis- 
lators and other public men, the excitement rose to something 
approaching fever heat, and the people began to cherish an 
ap])arently well-grounded hope that their ambitions were about 
to be realized. The name ancl fame of San Diego were in every- 
body's mouth. Population began to pour in from every direc- 
tion, men began to see visions of a wonderful destiny, and in 
a few weeks San Diego's first great boom was fairly on. 

The railway party came by way of San Francisco, where 
Colonel Scott and others made addresses. On August 18th, the 
steamer Hassler arrived at San Diego, having on board Pro- 
fessor Agassiz and party, on a voyage of scientific exploration, 
who remained to meet with members of the Scott party. Agas- 
siz was here ten days, continued his scientific researches, and 
left a much valued estimate of San Diego's resources. The 
Scott party arrived by steamer on August 26th. A very dis- 
tinguished party it was, consisting of Colonel Scott ; Senator 
John Sherman, of Ohio; Governor R. C. jNIcCormick, of Ari- 
zona ; Colonel George Williamson, of Louisiana ; General G. ^I. 
Dodge, of Iowa ; Colonel John W. Forney, of Philadelphia : 
Governor J. W. Throckmorton, of Texas; W. T. Walters, of 
Baltimore; John McManus, of Reading, Pennsylvania; lion. 
John S. Harris; ex-Senator Cole; and W. H. Rinehart, the 

"As the boom of the California's guns announced the arrival 
of the vessel," said Colonel Gatewood in the ^V<)v](l. "all San 
Diego drew a breath of relief and hope," and we may well 
believe it. 

A committee of citizens met the party, and Colonel Gatewood 


gave them a formal welcome. They were domiciled at the Ilor- 
ton House, and the same evening- a mass meeting and banquet 
were held at which Scott explained his plans. Among those 
who spoke were : Scott. Sherman, ^IcCormick, Williamson, 
Dodge, and Agassiz, of the visitors ; and T. L. Nesmith, Gate- 
wood, Taggart, and Hinchman, of the residents. Other citizens 
who participated were : T. L. Nesmith, Aaron Panly, C. L. Carr, 
Bryant IIoAvard, George W. ^Nlarston and ^Ir. Boyd. 

Scott's demands were far less onerous than had l)een feared. 
In the language of the Alfa California, the committee of forty 
were "in fear and trembling," expecting nothing less than "a 
modest demand for half a million in county bonds and at least 
one-half that the people owned in lands." What he actually 
asked the people to give him was : a right of way 100 feet wide 
from the ocean to the Colorado River ; the lands which had been 
granted to the old San Diego & Gila Company ; a tract of land 
west of the court house, on the water front, 600 by 1500 feet, 
for a terminal ; and either 100 acres of tide lands of acceptable 
shape and location, or the same area in Horton's Addition adja- 
cent to the shore. 

These requirements were considered moderate, and the com- 
mittee of forty joyfully accepted them. But a "vote of the cit- 
izens nuist be taken in order to authorize the levy of a tax to 
raise the necessary funds. It was i-esolved to call a mass meet- 
ing at an early day, that the action of the committee may be 
submitted to the people for ratification." This was done Aug- 
ust 30th, without serious opposition. The stockholders of the 
San Diego & Gila were agreeable to all this, provided they were 
reimbursed for their outlay in times past, as they ultimately 
were by payment of $58,000 of city bonds. 

The transfer of the franchise and remaining property of the 
old company to the new w^as made December 11, 1872, President 
Gatewood consenting reluctantly and insisting that the Texas 
& Pacific be firmly and legally bound to fulfill its agreements. 
On January 1-1, 1873. the final step in the transfer of the sub- 
sidy lands was taken. They were put up at auction, in 160 par- 
cels, and bid in by James A. Evans, engineer of the Western 
division of the Texas & Pacific, at $1 per parcel, there being no 
competition. The deeds from the city to Evans, and from him 
to the Texas & Pacific, were executed and filed for record thi^ 
same day. The total area of these lands was 8,606 acres, besides 
51 lots in Old San Diego and other places. The total value was 
estimated bv the San Francisco papers at $3,000,000, and by 
Colonel Scott himself at $5,000,000. 

The remainder of the San Diego & Gila's story is brief. 
After the distribution of the bond proceeds. ^Nfr. Morse em- 


ployed W. T. McNealy to defend all suits against the company 
and attend to the disincorporation. As late as November 25, 
1878, however, its business had not been wound up. The direct- 
ors met on that date and declared a dividend of 56i/^ cents a 
share, payable upon disincorporation. The amount estimated 
to be on hand, after payment of bills, was $1,766.85. The com- 
pany was soon after finally dissolved. 

The stay of Colonel Scott and his party was short. The nego- 
tiations with the citizens' committee were finished on the 27th, 
the party departed at midnight, and the Hasslcr with the Agas- 
siz party the next day. After this, events moved rapidly. The 
election of September 27th provided for the issuance of bonds 
to satisfy the San Diego & Gila stockholders, as well as to pur- 
chase terminal property. On November 11th occurred one of 
the most joyous and impressive ceremonies ever held in San 
Diego. Ground was broken for the new railroad, on the com- 
pany's land, about one-fourth of a mile southeast of ]\Iannasse 
& Schiller's Addition. W. W. Bowers was grand marshal and 
his aides were Adolph Gassen, Miguel de Pedrorena, L. G. 
Xesmith, Frank Stone, and A. B. Hotchkiss. Colonel Gatewood 
presided, and the addresses were by Judge Rolfe, C. P. Taggart, 
and Governor McCormick. The jubilant feeling of the people 
was reflected in the World, which exclaimed: "We have twice 
supposed that the right note of accord had been struck, and we 
have been twice disappointed. Now there is no longer possibil- 
ity of deception. All our high contracting parties have put 
their sign manuals to an instrument which gives Scott all he 
has ever asked." 

Some months now elapsed, in which little apparent progress 
was made, and San Diegans began to grow restless. There were 
not wanting those who would be now called "knockers," and, 
indeed, the vast issues staked upon this railroad might well 
excuse a feeling of impatience. On February 12, 1873, the 
World felt called upon to declare : 

"We have enough raw material in San Diego to stock an ordi- 
nary lunatic asylum. We have amongst us men who discredit 
the good faith of Scott, and who cannot rid themselves of an 
uneasy opinion that he intends to palter with San Diego. It 
is useless to call the attention of these men to the fact that the 
railroad king is a man whose reputation for fair dealing is as 
exceptional as his success as a railroad administrator. They are 
possessed by the demon of distrust, and the sign manual of an 
archangel wouldn't reassure them." 

But one week later the same writer recorded his opinion that: 
"After a very full consideration of the matter, we have no hes- 
itation in saying that it is time that the Texas & Pacific Rail- 



way authorities should show their hands." Evidently, he too 
had become infected with the microbe of impatience. 

On April 21, 1873, occurred the ceremonies attendin(>' iK'uin- 
niug of actual work on the construction of the railroad. T. L. 
Nesmith made a few remarks on behalf of the committee of 
forty, and C. P. Taggart also spoke. "Father" Ilorton threw 
the first shovelfull of earth, and said it was the happiest day of 
his life and that he felt more honored than if he had been chosen 


Chairman of the Committee of Forty who conducted the negotiations with the Texas and 
Pacific in 1872 

governor. About ten miles of the roadbed were graded, and 
some of this grade can still be seen near the tracks of the Santa 
Fe Railwaj^ 

In May, Colonel Scott wrote informing the committee that his 
company had decided upon the San Gorgonio route, and giving 
their reasons briefly. This was a disappointment to the people 
of San Diego, as they greatly preferred the "direct route" by 
one of the two other surveys. Still, so long as San Diego was 
made the terminus in good faith, they did not greatly object. 


Scott went to Europe in the fall to complete his arrangements 
for placing' his bonds and raising funds for the construction of 
the road. Everything apparently went well, and he had mat- 
ters all arranged in Paris for delivering the bonds and receiv- 
ing the money, as soon as the formalities of making out the 
papers could be completed. To pass the time of waiting he 
went 1o London with a party of friends, and during their 
absei^ce the "Black Friday," or panic, occurred which deranged 
the finances of the country and caused the French financiers to 
change their minds about making the loan. The failure of Jay 
Cooke & Company in December, 1873, cut considerable figure 
in thiT wiping out of the financial arrangements for the new 
railrord. Colonel Scott notified his friends and supporters in 
San Diego that he would be unable to fill his agreements. 

Thf' blow was a severe one to the young city and many 
thought it fatal. The population dwindled in the course of two 
or three years from 3,000 to 1,500. But there were a stout- 
hearted few who never lost faith nor courage. Scott was not 
ruined, they argued; he was still a Avealthy man, still president 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad and of the Texas & Pacific, and 
had not abandoned or changed his plans. Jay Cooke & Com- 
pany were endeavoring to rehabilitate their standing and would 
come to his aid. And so they fed their hopes for some years. 

But while these things were largely conjectural, there was 
one source of hope which seemed a strong one. This was the 
appeal which Scott promptly made to Congress for a national 
sulwidy. Congressman Houghton had been re-elected in the fall 
of 1872 largely on the ground that he could help in matters of 
national legislation affecting San Diego's interests. He was 
still in Congress, but, unfortunately, found himself in a minor- 
ity in the support of this measure. The day of great grants to 
railroads was passing, the country had been too hard hit by the 
panic of 1873, and Congress could not be induced to give the 
subsidy. Hope was not abandoned for a long time, however. 
In October, 1875, David Felsenheld was appointed to act as 
agent of the city at Washington, and in the following February 
a bill was passed by the House for a road on the 32d parallel, 
which was supposed to mean the Texas & Pacific ; but the name 
of the company was changed to the Southern Pacific as suc- 
cessor to the interests of the Texas & Pacific, and San Francisco 
was made the western terminus. Further action was postponed 
until the next session of Congress. 

"When the matter came up in the next Congress, in December, 
1876, San Diego was again represented by special agent', Felsen- 
held, and stormy times began, in a struggle to save the western 


terminus to San Diego. On December 18th, the trustees and rail- 
road committee telegraphed Colonel Scott as follows : 

The citizens of Sau Diego rely implicitly npou your honor 
and good faith for the consummation of your oft-repeated 
jdedges. You promised that if the route directly east pi'oved 
feasible it should be constructed. Fulfill your pledge. The 
direct line is the only route upon which a competing railroad 
should enter San Diego and they will unanimously oppose any 
compromise that will not secure that line. 

To this Colonel Scott i-eplied : 

Have used my utmost efforts to secure Sau Diego a railroad 
line on such route as can best effect the object; and if you 
can effect it in any better shape than I can, I should be very 
glad to have you take it up and adjust it with any party, or 
on any terms that you may think best. But in taking these 
steps, I shall expect you to relieve me of any possible ob- 

At this time, Scott ottered to relinquish his subsidy, being in 
doubt about the possibility of securing government aid, but the 
offer was not accepted, and on the contrary every effort was 
made to secure the enactment of suitable legislation. 

General Thomas S. Sedgwick was employed to assist Felsen- 
held, and in January Horton was sent "to assist Sedgwick and 
yourself in explaining advantages of direct route and disad- 
vantages and great injustice of proposed San Gorgonio switch." 
Long telegrams were sent to Hon. L. Q. C. Lamar, chairman of 
the House Committee on Pacific Railroads, and to Hon. James 
A. Garfield, and other members of that committee\ explaining 
San Diego's situation and desires. The chief contention was tliat 
"this people entered into a contract with the company authorizinl 
by law 4o build the road, conveying to said company valuable 
franchises and over nine thousand acres of land on said bay, in- 
curring thereby a large city bonded indebtedness, for which all 
our property is pledged;" "that a large population have been 
drawn hither from all parts of the Union, and induced to invest 
their fortunes here, in reliance upon the good faith of Congress 
in said legislation;" and that the proposed compromise, mak- 
ing San Francisco the terminus, missing San Diego by a hnn- 
dred miles and leaving it to be served by a branch line of the 
Southern Pacific, would be a great injustice to the people of 
San Diego and the country, "and will bring ruin upon several 
thousand people who have trusted the promise of the govern- 
ment in said Act of Charter, and who rely upon the obligations 
of contracts entered into with a corporation in good faith for 
verv valuable considerations." 


Two historic telegrams which passed between San Diego's rep- 
resentatives at AVashington and the city trustees exhibit the sit- 
uation very clearly. The attitude of the trustees was enthusias- 
tically sustained at a mass meeting of citizens. The telegrams 
were as follows : 

Washington, January 6, 1877. 

To Trustees: 

We are pressing direct route persistently, and 
will probably defeat bill. It will not be conceded. Compromise 
bill allows national or state railroads to connect on equal con- 
ditions. The San Gorgonio line would be so much towards 
Union Pacific line from Salt Lake, which would have right to 
connect at San Gorgonio. We are losing friends in Committee 
by our persistence and cannot count our present strength here- 
after for any other move. By yielding we may get guaranteed 
bonds subsidy for whole line; and if Huntington does not build 
San Gorgonio line you will have the direct route, under the 
bill, by the time the through line is completed. The Com- 
mittee concede that the direct line must follow soon under any 
conditions. All rights and privileges conceded and secured, 
except direct route. The Southern section (of the House) which 
fully understands the situation, believes this the last chance 
for Government aid. They comprehend the benefits of the di- 
rect route; but think you should make concessions to get a rail- 
road on (less) favorite route. At this time shortness of route 
is not so important as results in developing Arizona and get- 
ting connections that will increase your commercial importance 
and population and trade many fold in few years, which growth 
will enable you to build the direct route long before you will 
need it to cheapen freights. Wh_y not help yourselves now, to 
strengthen yourselves hereafter? Unless this subsidy bill 
passes, there will be no road for you to meet. 

San Diego, January 6, 1877. 

To Col. Sedgwick: 

It is the deliberate and unchangeable con- 
viction of San Diego, that the proposed connection north of 
here, in the hands of the Southern Pacific Company, would be 
an injury instead of a benefit to us, because: 

1. It places in control of one corporation for all time 
every approach to our harbor. 

2. Trade and population would be taken away from, in- • 
stead of brought, here, while the road is building. It is now 
moving from the northern part of the county to Colton. 

.3. By occupying the only passes it would prevent exten- 
sion of Utah Southern road and connection with Union Pacific. 

4. It would supersede construction of direct line from Ana- 
heim, increasing our elistance from San Francisco to 650 miles. 

o. It would increase the distance from Yuma by 60 miles. 

6. Experience has taught us that the strongest promises 
in a bill do not protect us against subsequent amendments 
at the elesire of the corporations. Legislation that fails to 
require immediate beginning at this end, and construction of 


so much road before next session of Congress as to remove 
the temptation to amend bill, is worse than worthless. 

7. Whatever supposed guarantees may be put in bill mak- 
ing the road a "highway" it is well known by all engineers 
that the Company building the road holds in fact control of it; 
and no other company can have equal use, or will build paral- 
lel i-oad. 

8. Southern Pacific Coompany one year ago agreed to build 
on direct line, provided San Diego would consent that it 
should have the western end. 

So far from a San Diego standpoint: But we hold no petty 
local view; we supplicate no favors. The interest of San 
Diego is here bound up with the National interest. We sub- 
mit to impartial statesmen the conceded truth that the pro- 
posed compromise diverts the Nation 's bounty from the origi- 
nal purpose of the Southern transcontinental legislation; de- 
prives all the millions east of San Diego of direx-t access to 
their nearest Pacific harbor; and destroys competition for all 
time. San Diego's natural advantages are such, that in ask- 
ing the Nation 's aid for the construction of a railroad 
to her port, she asks it upon a line, and upon terms that will 
contribute to the Nation 's support and wealth for all time to 
come; while the compromise plan will be an intolerable and 
interminable national burden. For these reasons San Diego 
prefers NO bill, rather than the San Gorgonio branch. Eead 
again both our dispatches to Lamar. 

Signed by Board of Trustees. 

The Board of Trustees at this time consisted of J. i\I. Boyd, 
D. 0. McCarthy, D. W. Briant, W. A. Begole, and Patrick 
O'Neill. Boyd was president and S. Statler clerk. 

Events have singularly borne out the judgment of the trus- 
tees concerning the effect upon San Diego, at least, of building 
the road through the San Gorgonio Pass instead. of by the direct 
eastern route. Nor was Los Angeles indifferent to what she had 
at stake in the choice of routes. Later, when Scott's efforts to 
secure legislation had come to naught and the Southern Pacific 
was beating him in the race to California, Los Angeles gave 
$400,000 to make sure that the road should use the San Gor- 
gonio Pass, and no other. It was the turning point for Los 
Angeles, and it involved long and bitter disappointment to 
San Diego. 

In September, 1877, an agreement was made with Colonel J. 
U. Crawford to survey the route by way of Warner's Pass as 
a means of demonstrating once more the utter falsitv of the 
claim that the direct route was impracticable. Crawford and 
Felsenheld went to Washington early in 1878, together with 
Captain ]\Iathew Sherman, to make one final effort in behalf of 
the enterprise, but it came to nothing. 

Thus ended the dream of the Texas and Pacific system with 
its western terminus on the shores of San Diego Bav. The result 



was in no wise due to the people of San Die.uo. They were wide 
awake to their opportunity; they contributed with prodigal gen- 
erosity to the subsidy ; they fought long and stubbornly to pi'o- 
tect and to enforce the contract. Failure was due, in the first 
instance, to the panic of 1873 ; then, to the sledgehammer blows 
which Huntington rained upon his rival. Scott, until he had 
beaten him alike at AVashington and in California. So Scott's 
star went out of the Pacific sky, and Huntington's rose resplen- 
dent, to shine with ever increasing luster while he lived. 


The great railroad magnate who undertook to extend the Texas & Pacific to San Diego and 

whose failure to accomplish it, exerted a profound influence on the history 

of San Diego and of Southern California for many j'ears 

There were times when San Diego hoped that Huntington 
would build his line to the port of San Diego and thus create 
the desired eastern connection. There is no evidence that he 
ever seriously contemplated the project. He visited San Diego 
with Crocker and others in August, 1875, and met a committee 
of citizens. The best account of what occurred at the interview 
appears in the following statement by E. W. Alorse: 


I was on the railroad committee wlieii Huntington and liis 
associates were here to negotiate with us. I think Hunting- 
ton never intended to build to San Diego, but that he only 
came for political etfect. They never made us a proposition. 
We met on a Sunday. Huntington said he was not then pre- 
pared to make a proposition. I told them about General Kose- 
crans's trip to Jacumba Pass and what he said about the route. 
Mr. Huntington objected that that would take them down in 
Mexico, which he thought would make undesirable complica- 
tions. I suggested that he could probably make such an ar- 
rangement with Mexico as the Grand Trunk had, which 
crosses the line into the United States twice. Huntington 
said, ' ' Well, I don 't know but that would be well. ' ' Gener- 
al Eosecrans said several times on his trip that he never saw 
a better route for a railroad; "it looks like it was made pur- 
posely for a railroad." They talked very pleasantly with us 
and finally said that one of their directors was traveling in 
Europe, and "as soon as he returns we will make you a propo- 
sition giving the terms on which we will build a railroad into 
San Diego. ' ' I have memoranda which I made at the time 
of that interview. We kept on asking them to make a propo- 
sition after that, but they never got ready to do it. He said 
we could depend they would be the first railroad to build into 
San Diego, and when the time was ripe they would build. 

I don 't believe Huntington ever showed a spirit of vindic- 
tiveness toward San Diego, as has been reported. In all 
the correspondence with him which I have seen, he was very 
friendly. Mrs. Burton, widow of General H. S. Burton, was 
once dining with him, and said to him she did wish he would 
build a railroad into San Diego, that she had some property 
there which would increase in value and it would make her a 
rich woman. "Well," he said, "it is not to our interests to 
build in there, at present. ' ' He talked very pleasantly about 
it and gave as one of their reasons for not building that if 
they should touch the Coast at San Diego, they would come in 
competition with water transportation. I think they were in- 
fluenced largely by the consideration of getting the long haul 
clear into San Francisco, which they get now, while if they 
had built in here, thej^ would have had to divide with a steam- 
ship company at this port. This party was entertained at 
the Horton House and was treated well. 



AX DIEGO'S first considerable impulse toward 
growth was due to a combination of the ener- 
gies of the indefatigable Horton and the 
opportune rise of the Texas and Pacific Rail- 
road excitement. When the building of the 
road appeared to be a certainty, others beside 
Horton became able to appreciate the advan- 
tages of bay, climate, and his well-located, 

smoothly sloping "Addition." Thus the fame of the new city 

spread far and wide. 

Two years ago, wrote Major Ben C. Truman, in 1869, San 
Diego seemed to be among the things that were. Only two 
families were living here and but three houses were left stand- 
ing. About that time a Mr. A. E. Horton came this way 
and purchased from the city three quarter-sections of land ad- 
joining the plot known as New Town; and, having it surveyed, 
called it Horton 's Addition. A few months after, a . . . 
wiry, rusty-looking man might have been seen upon the streets 
of San Francisco with a long tin horn in his hand, contain- 
ing Xew San Diego and Horton 's Addition — on paper — pur- 
chased by the gentleman for the sum of $220. Lots of people 
laughed at the rusty-looking proprietor of the long tin horn 
and said he was a fool who had thrown away his money, and 
many a qiiarter-seetion had the trustees to sell to all such real 
estate spooneys. . . . Two years have passed away, and the 
contents of that tin horn describe, in point of site, facili- 
ties for living, climate, etc., the most comfortable and one of 
the most flourishing towns in Southern California, if not in 
the State. . . . 

I saw Mr. Horton yesterday. He looks just as he did two 
years ago. I should judge that he had on the same suit of 
clothes now as then. But he no longer packs about that long 
tin horn. He rides behind a good horse and resides in an ele- 
gant mansion, with a garden adjoining containing all kinds 
of vegetables and flowers, and all kinds of young fruit and or- 
namental trees and shrubs. There are 226 blocks in Horton 's 
Addition, each containing twelve lots 50x100 feet. Early in 
the historj' of this town, Mr. Horton gave away some twenty 
odd blocks and sold twice that number for a few hundred dol- 
lars a block. During the past year he has sold over $100,000 
worth of blocks and lots at large figures. He has been very 
generous and has helped many a poor man to get along, pro- 



vided he seemed inclined to help himself. He has given each 
of the religious denominations a piece of ground upon which 
to erect a church and has subscribed toward the putting up 
of a pretentious edifice. 

The means which Horton used to encourage l)uilcling iu his 
town and to stimulate the sale of real estate have been described. 
His success was phenomenal, from the beginning. The first 
number of the Union, October 3, 1868, contains the following 
notes of the progress of improvements in the new town : 


It is still standing on Sixth Street below J, and was first used by Mr. Horton i 

Culverwell's wharf has reached into the bay about 150 feet 
since we were on it last. It was covered with freight, landed 
from the schooner John Hunter, through the assistance of a 
lighter. We noticed a large amount of feed, household and 
kitchen furniture, agricultural implements, etc., . , . also 
a great number of doors and window frames for the large 
hotel Mr. Dunnells is about erecting on the corner of Fifth 
and F streets — also some fine lumber for Judge Hyde, who is 
about erecting two or more fine buildings, . . . one of 
which is to be built opposite the site of Bunnell's hotel; also 
a large lot of lime, lumber, and other merchandise for Messrs. 


Mannasse & Co., who are now engaged in building two frame 
sheds near the wharf. . . . Near the wharf Mr. Elliott has 
about completed a new building. ... A little further back 
stands a building belonging to a Mr. Hooper, which has re- 
cently been opened as a billiard saloon. Mr. Nash had added 
twenty feet to his store, which gives it a fine appearance and 
makes one of the largest store rooms in San Diego. Passing 
around to Mr. Horton's wharf, we observed families of emi- 
grants, who had just arrived, camping out upon the ground 
they had cleared for future homes. Horton 's wharf now reaches 
out into the bay 500 feet and the piles have been driven . . . 
some eighty or ninety feet beyond. We discovered some 
twenty new buildings in the course of construction. 

On November 21st, the Union found that "the evidences of 
improvement, progress and prosperity are visible on every 
side. . . . Buildings are in pi-ocess of erection in all direc- 
tions. Lots are being cleared rapidly in the Horton Exten- 
sion. . . . Mr. Horton is selling from .$600 to $1000 worth 
of lots every day. Restaurants, bakeries, livery stables, furni- 
ture stores, blacksmith shops, hotels, doctors' offices, wholesale 
and retail storerooms, saloons and residences are going up — 
while the wharves are only lagging for the want of the neces- 
sary material. ' ' 

The Sherman Addition was laid out and placed on the mar- 
ket in this year, and the Frary Addition in June, 1869. In ]\Iay, 
1869, the Episcopalian Society erected the first house of relig- 
ious worship in new San Diego, at the northeast corner of Sixth 
and C Streets. The Baptists followed with a building on Sev- 
enth Street, below F, in October. The INIethodists were third, 
with a church on the corner of Fourth and D, which was ded- 
icated February 13, 1870. Each of these societies received a 
gift of two lots each from Horton. 

The hotel kept by Captain Dunnells soon proved 
inadequate to support the traffic, and late in 1868 
Mr. Case began the construction of the hotel on the corner of 
Fifth and F Streets known as the Bay View Hotel — the second 
hotel erected in new San Diego and the first in Horton's Addi- 
tion. By Decemljer, 1869, the newspapers were complaining of 
inadequate hotel accommodations, and on the 18th the Bullet in 
was able to make this proud announcement : ' ' The great need 
of this town is about to be supplied by A. E. Horton, Esq., who 
will immediately erect, on the northwest corner of Fourth and 
D Streets, a palatial brick edifice, for hotel purposes. It is to 
contain a hundred rooms and to be fitted up with elegant furni- 
ture and all inodern improvements." The Horton House, the 
best hotel of San Diego for manv vears, was opened October 
10, 1870. 

Late in 1869, the paper says that "people are coming here 
by the hundreds — by steamer, by stage, and liy private convey- 


ance. " Aud, "from a place of no importance, the home of the 
squirrel a few months back, we now have a city of three thou- 
sand inhabitants. Houses and buildings are going up in every 
direction. The most substantial improvements are being made. 
. . . Every steamer from San Francisco averages two hun- 
dred newcomers, who are to make their permanent home here. 
One wharf has not been able to accommodate all the shipping, 
so another one is in course of construction. The government has 
decided to make this point headquarters for Lower California 
and Arizona, and troops are filling the barracks. Fortifications 
Avill be built at the entrance to our harbor. The Memphis and 
El Paso Company Avill soon have their road open to Arizona, 
and San Diego will be the natural depot for that country. A 
branch mint to work out the products of that section, together 
with our own, will have to be built at San Diego." In this year 
David Felsenheld built the first brick building, at the north- 
west corner of Sixth and F Streets. 

In November it is recorded that more than a dozen buildings 
were erected between the two issues of the newspapers (weekly) ; 
and a workingman writes to complain of the scarcity of houses 
and the high rents, which "eat dreadfidly into the earnings and 
'wages of mechanics." At the close of the year there were 439 
buildings, and the volume of business transacted in December 
was over $300,000. 

The year 1870 opened with business brisk and real estate act- 
ive. In March, four weeks' sales aggregated over $50,000. One 
of the most encouraging features Avas the opening of telegraphic 
communications with the outside v.'orld. The need for this con- 
venience had been debated in the newspapers for some months. 
In the spring, the agents of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany came and raised by canvass a subscription of $8,000, the 
amount of the subsidy required. The largest givers were Hor- 
ton, ]\rorse, San Diego Union, and J. S. ]\Iannasse & Co. The 
whole sum was given by twenty-three individuals and firms. 
AVork was begun upon the line immediately. The poles Avere 
distributed from a steamer, being floated from the vessel to the 
shore — a dangerous service, performed by Captain S. S. Dun- 
nells. The line was completed and the first dispatches sent on 
August 19, 1870. The event caused much rejoicing. 

]\Iany other important enterprises were undertaken and much 
progress made. The Julian mines were discovered in February, 
and soon assumed importance. The first gas works were con- 
structed and began operations early in the summer. A daily 
mail between San Diego and Los Angeles was established in 
December. School buildings were erected and a high school 
building talked about. In June the first bank, the Bank of San 



Diego, was organized. A long list of substantial bnildiugs, 
including Horton's Hall and the really remarkable Horton 
House, were completed. The assessed valuation of the town's 
real estate rose to $2,282,000, and its personal property to 
$141,252, all of which had been brought in, or created, in a 
period of three years. The national census taken in this year 
showed that the town had a population of 2,301 and 915 occu- 
pied houses. 

THE HORTON HOUSE, 1870-1905 

For more than a generation, the famous hotel of San Diego and one of the most notable in 
Southern California. It was demolished to make room for the U. S. Grant Hotel 

Nevertheless, the year as a whole was considered a discourag- 
ing one, and closed in gloom. The boomlet soon reached its limit 
and within a few short weeks was cruelly nipped in the bud. 
The collapse of the Memphis, El Paso & Pacific project, which 
occurred early in the year, was a blow which it could not with- 
stand. Besides, there was a drought, which added to the dis- 
couragement. By May, the Bnlletin acknowledged editorially 
that "times are hard and money scarce," and many men were 
out of employment. In August, the Union took a philosophical 
view of the situation: "In spite of the failure of the railroad 
bill this year, our real estate holds its own, and sales are made 
at very little reduction (sic) from the rates which have ruled 
for months past." 


In the spring of 1871, there was a slight revival of real estate 
activity following the passage of the Texas & Pacific Railroad 
hill, hut delays ensued, and it was short-lived. In one Aveek we 
read of Horton selling $3,000 worth of land, and in another 
$10,000 worth. A good many settlers came, and on June 20th a 
large party of excursionists arrived from Chicago — the first 
organized party of real estate excursionists to visit San Diego. 
jMannasse & Schiller's wharf was built during the summer, the 
first planing mill established in September, and the first skating 
rink in October. The total number of buildings erected in the 
year was 51, which included a court house, the Presby- 
terian church, and a number of business blocks. The drought 
of the preceding year continued and materially affected condi- 
tions. The population was estimated at 2,500, and the number 
of business buildings was 69. 

The year 1872 may be characterized as the Year of the Awak- 
ening. The effects of Colonel Scott's activities were felt in its 
closing months, and confidence in his transcontinental project 
began to grow in the far-off Pacific port. In August, "property 
is buoyant." In November, Plorton's block on the southwest 
corner of Third and D Streets, for the use of the Texas & Pacific 
as an office building, was under way, and real estate l)egan to 
be in brisk demand. 

At the close of the year, the business houses in San Diego 
were as follows : Two commission houses ; two wholesale liquor 
houses ; two millinery stores ; seven hotels ; three fancy goods 
stores ; two saddlery stores ; three dry goods stores ; three lum- 
ber yards ; two furniture stores ; four drug stores ; two tin- 
ware stores, two book stores, five livery stables, two fruit 
stores; one bank; twenty-three saloons ("they dispense," says 
the World, "an excellent article of whiskey") ; one boot and 
shoe store ; one sash, door, and building furnisher ; two Chinese 
stores ; two jewelry stores ; four restaurants ; two breweries ; one 
foundry ; twenty general merchandise stores ; two steam plan- 
ing, turning, and scroll saw mills ; and one steam flour mill. 

Concerning the prevailing prices of real estate, the Union 
says : ' ' Real estate during the last few months has been stead- 
ily appreciating in value. Lots situated on the city front within 
a couple of blocks on each side of the Pacific Mail Companv's 
wharf have a market value of $500 to $2,500 per lot measuring 
100x50 feet. On Fifth Street, the main business street of the 
city, lots range in value from $1,200 to $2,000; on Seventh 
Street from $800 to $1,200. Residence lots within the boun- 
daries of Horton 's Addition are valued and selling at from $225 
to $800 per lot. Outside of Horton 's Addition, but within a 
mile and a quarter of the business center of the city, lots vary 


in value from $50 to $100 each. One and one-half miles out 
lands are now selling at $150 per acre. Lands situated two and 
a quarter miles from the heart of the city can be purchased at 
$30 an acre. ' ' The sales of real estate during the year amounted 
to $466,404. 

By the opening of 1873, the rising tide of excitement was run- 
ning strong. The newspapers urged the people to build more 
houses at once, saying the population had been increasing stead- 
ily for five months and that there was a scarcity of houses. 

A list of Horton's enterprises, complete and pending, made 
in April, showed the following: 

The Horton House Avas erected by him at a cost of $125,000. 
Built present residence of Thomas L. Xesmith at cost of $8,000 
or $9,000. Building corner Sixth and G, containing present 
hall, cost about $8,000. Present residence corner A and Sixth, 
cost $4,500. Block bounded Second and Third, A and B, im- 
proved at cost of about $3,500. Lot corner Second and B, 
improved, $3,000. Lot J, same block, fronting on Third Street, 
$800. Lot J, on First between C and D, $1,500. Horton's Hall, 
Sixth and F, cost $10,000. Building corner Ninth and H, $1,500. 
AYharf now owned by Pacific Mail Company, $40,000. Two 
buildings on First Street between H and I, and a number of 
other smaller ones. Bank building now under way, $40,000 to 

On ]\Iay 22d, the Union published the following review of 
building operations : 

The list includes new residence of ^Ir. Horton, residence of 
Captain A. H. Wilcox; Mr. Gerichten's residence; new brick 
store for McDonald & Company; Backesto's brick building on 
Fifth Street; Hiscock's brick building on south side of Horton 
House scpiare, corner of Third Street; brick building of Veazie 
& Shuler, northwest corner D and Third, now occupied by Com- 
mercial Bank; Bayly's San Diego Foundry and Machine shop, 
corner Eighth and 'M Streets; Hanlon & Fulkerson's steam plan- 
ing mill; Dievendorf's new^ store on Sixth Street; brick addi- 
tion to store of J. Nash; D. Cleveland's new office on Sixth 
Street; addition to Young's furniture factory corner Third and 
G Streets ; residence of INIr. Josse, beyond Bay View Hotel : new 
Market House fronting on Fifth and Sixth Streets; Horton's 
iron and brick bank building, corner Third and D Streets ; large 
brick addition to S. W. Craigue's wholesale liquor house: Veazie 
and Rus-sell's large double house, residence building on Third 
Street : residence of L. B. Willson ; residence of Mr. G. Geddes 
on C Street; Mr. Phipp's residence in Chollas Valley; Mum- 
ford's building on Fifth Street; Captain Knapp's residence on 
First Street; residence of D. 0. McCarthy on Spring Avenue; 

f 1 




and new residence building on Eighth Street — twenty-five build- 
ings in all, total cost about $147,000. 

Notwithstanding the anxiety and suspicion due to delay in 
the building of the Texas & Pacific Railroad, yet within the year 
Colonel Scott held his famous meeting in San Diego, the sur- 
veys were made, the old San Diego & Gila subsidy lands were 
transferred to his company, and work was actually commenced 
on the construction of the road. The failure of Jay Cooke & 
Company occurred early in December, as well as Scott's failure 
in Europe, and the new year in San Diego begun in gloom, but 
considerable progress had been made. 

"In 1867," says the Union, whistling cheerfully to keep up 
courage, "less than 100 people lived here, and there were not 
more than a dozen houses. Today, it is a cit.y of nearly a thou- 
sand houses and a population of over 4,000." A total of 4,050 
passengers had arrived by sea and land, and 2,381 departed, 
giving a net gain of 1,669 in the population. The agricultural 
development was quite remarkable, the total acreage of farm 
lands assessed being 825,263, and the total valuation $1,263,542. 
But the rapid growth of both city and country was sharply 
checked by the Scott failure, population declined, and doubt, 
uncertainty, and discouragement prevailed. Mr. L. A. Wright 
says, in a newspaper sketch: 

The population of San Diego bad grown until it was quite 
a busy city, but Scott's failure stopped almost every enter- 
prise and the population dwindled down to about 2500. Many 
poor people had purchased land of Mr. Horton, having made 
a payment of one-fourth or one-third down, the rest to be 
paid by installments. Of this class a great many were thrown 
out of employment and were compelled to leave town. They 
met Mr. Horton on the street every day and offered to let 
him keep the money already paid if he would only release their 
contracts so that they could get away. Every man who thus 
approached the founder of the town was whirled into Mr. 
Horton 's office, his contract surrendered, and every cent paid 
upon the contract was returned, dollar for dollar. 

An old citizen, referring to this period, saj^s : "Following 
this, there were eight or ten quiet years here, years of real 
enjoyment for the people who had come here for their health 
and wanted to live here. The business men had no competition, 
there were no political bosses; the people were generally united 
and there was very little wrangling. The town grew slowly, but 
there was no boom." 

That the years were quiet, the historian, from an examination 
of the records, can testify. A year's file of the newspapers 
scarcely furnishes a single item for this chapter. At times great 
despondency prevailed. The county was prosperous in 1876. 


A few events of commercial importance occurred. In March, 
1873, the Commercial Bank, the second bank in San Diego, was 
opened for business. The Julian mines continued to prosper. 
The San Diego River was permanently turned back into False 
Bav, and the destruction of San Diego's harbor by it stopped, 
in 1877. 

Douglas Gunn writes : 

The prospects of the harbor as a railroad terminus consti- 
tuted the leading stimulus to the growth of the new city; but 
the people soon began to give attention to the development of 
the resources of the country; and when it was found that pa- 
tience must be exercised under delay in railroad affairs, the 
people were prepared to exercise that virtue. No community 
has ever exhibited greater courage and stronger faith than 
that of San Diego. . . . The commerce of the port has 
steadily increased; roads have been built to the interior; 
farms and orchards have been cultivated; mines have been 
opened; and in spite of "hard times," the county has con- 
tinually grown in population and wealth. 


HE first hotel of the Horton period was Ivnown 
as "New San Diego Hotel" and was kept by 
Captain S. S. Dunuells. It was located in 
one of the ready-framed buildings of 1850, and 
still stands on the northeast corner of State 
and F Streets. Mrs. Dnnnells says of the 
town at the time of their arrival : 

"The only water in the place was in a well 
near where the court house now stands. The soldiers' burying 
ground was back of where the Horton House was afterwards 
built. The bodies were later moved to the military cemetery. 
Some Indians had their huts on what is now Florence Heights. 
Mrs. Mathew Sherman was our only neighbor; she lived near 
her present residence. There was also a German in charge of 
Mannasse & Schiller's lumber yards. One day Mrs. Horton took 
me out to show me the great improvements that were being 
made. It was a party of two men, cutting brush up near where 
the Horton House stood in later days." 

The fii-st school was taught by Mrs. H. H. Dougherty, in the 
old government barracks building. The first religious service 
was also held in the same place, in 1868, by Rev. Sidney Wil- 
bur. A number of the early comers lived in this old building 
for a short time after their arrival, until accommodations could 
be provided for them elsewhere. 

The "Exposition Circus Company," which arrived January 
19, 1869, gave the first exhibition of the kind at new San Diego. 
They pitched their tent on State Street, near the New San Diego 

Joseph Nash opened the first general store in new San Diego, 
in a building still standing on the southeast corner of State and 
G Streets, now occupied by H. Kerber. The first drug store was 
also in this building. Mr. Nash, on his opening day, gave each 
lady in new San Diego a dress pattern. Among his clerks were 
Charles S. Hamilton, George W. Marston, and A. B. McKean. 
He continued in business at San Diego many years, and is well 
remembered by old inhabitants. He is supposed to be still liv- 
ing, in San Francisco. 



The first building erected in Ilorton's Addition was the one- 
story frame building still standing on the east side of Sixth 
Street below J, numbered 357. It was first used by Mr. Horton 
as an office, and is now used as a Chinese laundry. 

The postoffice at Horton 's Addition was established in May, 
1869. and Dr. Jacob Allen was the first postmaster. The post- 
office was a one-story frame building, on Fifth below F. It was 
officially known as "South San Diego" for several years. The 
change to plain San Diego was due to John G. Capron, who per- 
s(Hially saw the assistant postmaster-general at Washington, and 
the manager of the express company, at New York, and had the 
change made, and at the same time changed Old San Diego to 
''North San Diego." The people were surprised when these 


The large building shown in the picture stood on the northwest corner and faced 
south on B Street 

changes were made, and it was a long time liefore it was known 
how they were brought about. 

The first public gathering of importance in new San Diego 
was the celebration of the Fourth of July, in 1869. This was 
an occasion long remembered by the inhabitants. The celebra- 
tion was kept up for three days and nights, and "commenced 
on Saturday last at South San Diego and terminated in danc- 
ing and merrymaking at ^Monument City and Old Town on Mon- 
day night, or rather, on Tuesday morning. From the commence- 
ment to the close there has been, so far as we could hear, but 
one idea prevailing — to express genuine feelings of patriotism 
and have a good time. We believe the people of this city have 



given more time and had more real pleasure tlif past three days 
than has ever been known here before." 

The celebration at South San Diego was held in the large 
warerooms of Mr. Horton. Cannon were fir( 1 and there was 
a procession. G. W. B. McDonald was president of the day, 
Rev. Sidney Wilbur offered the prayer, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was read by Captain Mathew Sherman, and the ora- 
tion was by Daniel Cleveland. The Union says: 

The oration of Mr. Cleveland was at once calm, dispassion- 
ate, thoughtful, and scholarly. Eapidly reviewing the history 
of the country from its first settlement to the war for inde- 
pendence, and thence on up to the present time, he clearly 
stated the lessons taught us in the birth agonies and fearful 

Between Fifth and Sixth in the early '70's 

life struggles from time to time of our noble war-scarred Ke- 
public; and in setting forth Patriotism, Love of Country, and 
fidelity to her constituted authorities, as a religious duty, im- 
posed by God himself, and from which no earthly power can 
free us, he struck a chord which met with an answering re- 
sponse in every true patriot 's heart. 

In April, 1870, there were ten stores in new San Diego : 
Joseph Nash, J. S. Mannasse & Co., ^McDonald & Co., A. Pauly 
& Sons, Bush & Hinds, Lowenstein & Co., J. Connell. Whaley 
& Crosthwaite, Steiner & Klauber, and A. B. McKean & Co. 

In ]\Iay of this year occurred the opening of Horton 's Hall 
as a theater. In the following July, Rosario Hall was opened. 
with a ball. 

On April 27, 1871, the Union says: 


We are called upon to chronicle this week the first wreck . 
which has ever occurred in San Diego Bay. During the gale 
on Sunday afternoon, the "Cosay'' bath house broke from its 
moorings at Horton's wharf and drifted out to deep water, 
where it foundered and went to pieces in a very few moments. 

In October, 1871, the city cemetery. Mount Hope, so named 
by ]\Irs. Sherman, was set aside for its use by the trustees. The 
tract contains about 200 acres, and is on the mesa east of the 
end of M Street. 

In this month occurred the first murder in the history of new 
San Diego. Alexander J. Fenwick shot and killed Charles Wil- 
son, in Mannasse's lumber yard. Wilson had an Indian wife 
whom he accused of infidelity with Fenwick. The murderer 
was tried, and found guilty; the case was appealed, and early 
in 1873 the Supreme Court affirmed the decision. Fenwick 
found means to secure poison, which he took, and died in the 
jail March 24, 1873 — the day set for his execution. Mrs. Wilson 
also killed herself with poison. 

In February, 1872, the assessor's books showed the following 
list of substantial citizens : 

A. E. Horton was assessed for $124,971 

John Forster 87,681 

Kimball Bros 52,849 

Sublett, Felsenheld & Co 42,156 

San Diego & Gila E. E. Co 41,899 

Heirs of Miguel de Pedrorena, deceased 36,766 

Louis Eose 36,330 

P. W. Smith 35,700 

J. S. Mannasse & Co 38,566 

Cave J. Couts 26,122 

Bank of San Diego 20,000 

A. F. Hinchman 16,195 

Joseph Nash , 15,720 

Eefugio Olivera (Santa Maria rancho) 15,374 

E. W. Morse 14,840 

John Wolfskin 14,559 

Levi Chase 14,100 

Hawthorn & Wilcox 13,465 

Estate of Jose Antonio Aguirre, deceased 21,500 

Eobert Allison 13,238 

Estate of James Hill, deceased 11,616 

S. S. Culverwell 11,113 

McDonald & Co 10,165 

Juan Salazar 10,000 

Louis Hauck 9,099 

As an interesting picture of conditions at the time, the fol- 
lowing list of business men advertising in the World in its first 
number (July 25, 1872), has been preserved: 



E. E. Morrison, watchmaker and jeweler. 

E. D. Switzer, dealer in watches, etc. 

J. A. Shepherd, Notary Public and Insurance Agent. 

A. P. Frary, proprietor of Frary's Addition to New San Diego. 

John H. Eichardson, painter and carpet upholsterer. 

A. E. Horton, proprietor of Horton's extension of New Town. 

Briant & Lowell, feed and sale stables. 

J. A. Allen & Son, pioneer drug store. 

J. M. Matthias, general merchandise and commission. 

C. P. Fessenden, photographs. 


The one-story building in the foreground at the left is still standing. The present site of 
the B Street School adjoins it on the south 

The Horton House. 

Steiner & Klauber, general merchandise. 

Dr. D. B. Hoffman, has resumed full practice. 

J. C. Hayes & Co., real estate agents. 

Hathaway & Foster, dealers in house builders goods. 

Smith & Craigue, wholesale wines, liquors and cigars. 

Linforth, Kellogg & Co., San Francisco, hardware & machinery. 

Collins, Wheaton & Luhrs, San Francisco, provisions. 

Marshall & Haight, San Francisco, provisions. 

Murj^hy, Grant & Co., San Francisco, dry goods. 



J. W. Gale, general mercliaiidise. 
United States Eestaiirant. 
J. Nash, general merclianclise. 

Culverwell & Jorres, commission, feed and grain. 
E. W. Morse, insurance agent. 
Era House, Wm. Townsley, proprietor. 

Luckett's Station on the Julian Road; George Kendall, prop. 
Allen's Lung Balsam; Redington, Hostetter & Co., agents 
San Francisco. 


This very interesting picture is a good representation of the main thoroughfare as it 

appeared some thirty years ago. It also shows that part of the business 

section of the city east of Fifth Street, as it then appeared 

Gordon & Hazzard, general merchandise, National City. 

A. Pauly & Sons, general merchandise. 

A. J. Chase, real estate. 

Clark & Harbison, bees. 

Pacific Mail Steamship Co., C. P. Taggart, agent. 

X. P. Transportation Co., Culverwell & Jorres, agents. 

Smith & Craigue, wines and liquors. 

The Florence Sewing Machine, Samuel Hill, agent, San 

Grover & Baker's Sewing Machine, H. B. Hirschey, agent 

for San Diego. 


Major Ben. C. Truman, writing in the Woiid, states a num- 
ber of matters humorously, thus: 

The bulk of our population are invalids; the rest realize 
Burke's description of the French revolutionists. He char- 
acterized these worthies as "calculators, sophists, and econo- 
mists." The phrase "sophisters" may be justly elided, be- 
cause our people have all come here with a sagacious pro- 
vision of the future. 

Apropos of coming here, pretty much everybody has come to 
San Diego some time or other. In the innocence of your 
heart, you mention some illustrious or notorious name to a San 
Diegan; and, instantly, he begins, "When so-and-so lived here," 
etc. The stranger is astonished at the range of this inventory 
of famous people. It includes such names as those of Sher- 
man, Thomas, Eosecrans, Kearny, Magruder, and an endless 
list of other military celebrities. Wm. H. Seward has hob- 
nobbed with our citizens, and Old Town is still redolent of 
the jokes of the brightest spirits that have lived in the land, 
from "John Phoenix" to J. Bankhead Magruder and his cor- 
poral, Johnny Murray. . . . We have the old time peo- 
ple, who used to sit 'round with John Phoenix and crack royal 
quips. Many of these old stagers don 't believe in their souls 
that we shall ever have a railroad. They play "pitch" and 
"seven-up" and look pityingly upon the poor diipes who ex- 
pect to ever see a railroad approach our bay. They have 
seen so many fizzles that they really believe that the mighty 
Eailroad King is as big a "Jeremy Diddler" as John Charles 
Fremont. They have all obeyed the injunction to "laugh 
and grow fat," and they are all repositories of the juiciest 
stories ever told on earth. On the whole, San Diego has a 
good, strong, humorous, cultivated, and devil-may-care popu- 
lation, which is worthy of the best fortune can do for them, 
and can sustain the worst. 

Probably the genial Major was thinking, at the time he wrote 
this, of a few of the more convivial residents of Old Town, who 
were somewhat noted for their ability to drink long and deep. 

Mrs. F. L. Nash wrote concerning her experience in San 
Diego, during the "Tom Scott" boom: 

A more congenial, delightful class of people would be hard 
to find. Out-of-door excursions were even more common than 
at present, and the picnic basket was always within easy 
• reach, ready to be filled at a moment's notice. Point Loma, 
Coronado, La JoUa, Eose Canyon, and El Cajon were just as 
popular resorts as at present. 

Early in December, 1875, a gang of Sonorran bandits made 
a raid on the town of Campo and tried to plunder the store of 
the Gaskill brothers. A bloody fight ensued, in which the Gas- 
kills killed one of the robbers, wounded three others, and were 
themselves badly wounded. (Bancroft says that Luman H. 


Gaskill was killed; as a matter of fact, lie is alive aud well, • 
today.) The citizens of Campo hanged two of the captured 
bandits. This attack was so bold and in such force, that con- 
siderable excitement Avas caused throughout San Diego County. 
A public meeting was held in San Diego, and a guard sent for 
the protection of the settlers at Campo. A few days later. Gen- 
eral Scofield sent a company of cavalry there, and the trouble 
blew over. 

In February, 1876, little Grace Frary, daughter of Captain 
A. P. Frary, became lost while the family were moving, and 
remained out wandering about all night. The next day she was 
found by a company of cavalry which had been ordered out 
to aid in the search, asleep at the foot of the bluffs, near the 
salt works. 

The Chinese came to San Diego in considerable numbers, at 
an early day. From the early 70 's, they were practically the 
only help employed in the hotels, and, as is their custom, they 
soon built up a "Chinatown." At the time of the anti-Chinese 
riots in other parts of the state in 1877, an effort was made to 
provoke an attack upon the Chinese quarters in San Diego. A 
written agreement pledging the signers to assist in ridding the 
town of the Chinese was circulated, and persons refusing to 
sign were threatened and even assaulted. The better class of 
citizens, becoming aware of this, took prompt action. A meet- 
ing was held, addresses made, a committee of public safety 
enrolled, and a watch kept. General INIcDowell ordered that this 
committee should have the use of any government arms they 
might need. These energetic measures entirely squelched the 
threatened riot. 

One of the earliest elements in the rivalry between old and 
new San Diego was the question of the removal of the county 
seat, and the seat of the city government, to the new town. This 
agitation began early in 1869. On June 23d, the Union, which 
was then published at Old Town, said that "the county is 
$90,000 in debt and there is not a decent public building in it." 
There was a general agreement that new public Imildings were 
needed, but the question was, where should they be built ? The 
contest grew hot. On the one side were the residents and prop- 
erty OM^iers of Old Town, who felt that such a change meant 
ruin for them, and on the other, the ambitious newcomers to 
Horton's Addition, who soon began to outnumber their oppo- 
nents. On July 9, 1870, the board of supervisors ordered the 
removal of the county records from the old town to the new. 
Judge Morrison, of the district court, immediately required the 
clerk to make all writs issued from his court returnable in Old 
Town. Countv Judge Thomas H. Bush issued an order direct- 



ing the sheriff to use force, if necessary, to prevent the removal 
of the records, and a posse of citizens was summoned to aid the 
sheriff", a cannon planted and guard mounted in front of the 
jail. The Union put it that Old Town had seceded, and that 
"Lieut.-Gen. Bush, in command of the artillery, threw up earth- 
works in front of the jail and placed the field piece in position, 
. . . and now the immortal Bush, seated astride of the plaza 
cannon, his soul glowing with heroic emotion, exclaims: 'This 
rock shall fly from its firm base as soon as I ! ' " 

The supervisors at the time were Joseph C. Riley, E. D. 
French, and G. W. B. McDonald. In September, 1870, Judge 
Bush removed them from ol^ce and appointed Charles Thomas, 

At the left of the picture is shown the old Court House as it appeared at its reconstruction 

J. S. Mannasse, and William E. P^lynn in their places. Suit 
was brought to restrain the old supervisors from acting, and an 
appeal taken to the supreme court, the case being entitled 
Heuck vs. French, et al. On January 27, 1871, the supreme 
court decided that Judge Bush had no power to remove the old 
supervisors or appoint new ones. In the meantime, George A. 
Pendleton, the old county clerk and recorder, who had been 
most active in trying to prevent the removal of the county seat 
and records, failed in health, and died ]\Iarch 3rd, and Judge 
Morrison died about the same time. The supervisors immedi- 
ately appointed Chalmers Scott to the vacant position, and Scott 
lost no time in moving the records. With a party of two or 
three friends, he went to Old Town one evening, loaded the 
records into express wagons, carried them to Horton's Addition, 


and the following morning (April 1, 1871) was ready for busi- 
ness at the new place. The supervisors had rented the brick 
building on the northwest corner of Sixth and G Streets, now 
occupied by Vermillion's grocery, and this was used as a court 
house until a new building was constructed and ready for occu- 
pancy. This was the end of the court controversy and the end 
of the predominance of Old San Diego in the political affairs of 
the community. 

Contracts were quickly let for the construction of a new court 
house, on a block donated b}^ Mr. Horton. The ceremonies of 
laying the cornerstone took place on August 12, 1871. The 
speakers were Hon. Horace Maynard of Ohio and Judge W. T. 

On the southwest corner of Sixth and H Streets, the present site of the Steele Block 

McNealy. The structure was completed and turned over to the 
county early in June, 1872, and dedicated with a grand ball on 
the evening of the 4th of that month, as befitted the first public 
building in new San Diego. The building was 60 feet wide, 
100 feet deep, and 48 feet high, and had twelve rooms, includ- 
ing the jail. It was of brick, finished with plaster. The con- 
tractor was William Jorres. The cost was $55,000, paid in 
20 year 7 per cent bonds. 

The old building having been outgrown, its enlargement and 
reconstruction were begun on July 19, 1888. It was practi- 
cally two years under construction, being turned over to the 
supervisors on July 7, 1890. It is built of brick in the Italian 
Renaissance style and is a substantial building. The cost was 
$200,000. It lias a frontage of lOGi/o feet and^ a depth, includ- 


ing the jail, of 110 feet. The height, from base to dome, is 126 
feet. It houses comfortably the two superior courts and all the 
county officials and records and is surrounded by a large, well- 
kept yard. 

The source of San Diego's title to its pueblo or city lands is 
very unusual. Upon the organization of the town in 1835, it 
became entitled, under the Spanish and Mexican laws, to a grant 
of four square leagues of land. The formalities necessary to 
secure this grant were not completed, however, until ten years 
later, when Captain Henry D. Fitch surveyed the boundaries 
of the lands claimed and made a map. This map was submitted 
to and approved by Santiago Argiiello, the sub-prefect of San 
Diego, and by Governor Pio Pico, and thereupon the lands 
shown on this map became the common property of the citi- 
zens of the pueblo, and the officials acquired power to make 
grants and did make many. 

As this method of acquiring title was unusual, however, there 
was much misunderstanding, after the American occupation. 
and the validity of the city's title Avas frequently called in 
question. Steps were therefore taken to have it confirmed by 
every possible court and authority, which extended over more 
than twenty years, and resulted in the issuance of the patent 
in 1874 which settled the question forever. An extract from the 
report of the commissioner of the General Land Office, in the 
case of the contested survey of the pueblo lands of San Diego, 
dated December 17, 1870, will make this clearer. 

The presidio of San Diego was established in May, 1769, and 
the pueblo organized in 183.5, but no official survey of the 
pueblo lands appears to have been made until 184.5, such sur- 
vey having been then executed by the proper authorities, as- 
sisted by citizens, among the latter being Captain Henry D. 
Fitch, who prepared the map of the survey. This map was 
approved by the prefect, who ordered and supervised the sur- 
vey, and was also subsequently approved by the governor. 
and countersigned by the secretary of the state government 
of the department. 

On the 14th of February, 1853, the president and board of 
trustees of the city of San Diego filed with the board of land 
commissioners their petition for confirmation of the claim of 
said city to the aforesaid pueblo lands as delineated and de- 
scribed on the map prepared by Henry D. Fitch, which map 
accompanied the said petition, the opinion and decree of 
the board being as follows: "It is admitted by stipulation 
in this case that the present petitioners were created a body- 
corporate, with the above name and style, by the legislature 
of the State of California, on the 28th of April, 1852, and as 
such succeeded to all the right and claim which the city or 
pueblo of San Diego may have had to lands formerly be- 
longing to the said pueblo of San Diego. A traced copy of 


an espediente from the archives in the custody of the United 
States Surveyor General, duly certified by that officer, is filed 
in the case, from which it appears that by order of the ter- 
ritorial government of California, the ancient presidio of San 
Diego was erected into a pueblo, with a regular municipal gov- 
ernment, in the latter part of the year 1834 and the com- 
mencement of 1835. It is also in proof that said town con- 
tinued its existence as an organized corporation until the 7th 
day of July, 1846, when the Americans took possession of the 
country. It appears further, from the depositions of San- 
tiago Argiiello and Jose Matias Moreno, that in the year 1845 
the boundaries of the lands assigned to said pueblo were sur- 
veyed and marked out under the superintendence of the former, 
who then filled the office of sub-prefect, and the two alcaldes 
of the town. That the lands were surveyed and a map of 
them made by Captain Henry D. Fitch, since deceased, which 
map was submitted to Governor Pio Pico, and duly approved 
by him. . . . 

Upon the claim coming before the United States district 
court, for the Southern District of California, at its June 
term, 1857, the appeal taken by the United States, in con- 
formity with the requirements of law, was dismissed and the 
decree of the board of commissioners rendered final. . . . 
A survey was made of the pueblo lands of San Diego by John 
C. Hays, in July, 1858, under instructions from the United 
States Surveyor General of California, said survey containing 
48,556.69 acres, or nearly eleven square leagues, and being 
based upon the map prepared by Henry D. Fitch ... re- 
sembling the same in its inclusion of the more prominent land- 
marks, but not covering so large an area as the said map is 
shown to include by the position of said landmarks thereon 
and the scale laid down on its margin. This survey was ap- 
proved by the surveyor general under date of Dec. 4, 1858, was 
advertised in supposed conformity with the act of June 14, 
1860, re-advertised under the act of July 1, 1864, in view of 
the ruling of the Department in similar cases and the decision 
of the United States Supreme Court in the case of the United 
States vs. Sepulveda, and now comes before this office for ex- 
amination and decision upon objections thereto filed. . . . 

It is the opinion of this office that . . . said survey, 
after having been amended, should receive the final approval 
of the Department. 

The amendment suggested related to the exclusion of the mil- 
itary reservation on Point Loma. The scope of this decision was 
merely to define the correct boundaries of the lands to which the 
city was entitled. The Secretary of the Interior soon after ren- 
dered a final decision affirming the city's title to eleven square 
leagues of land, and on April 1, 1874, the United States issued 
a patent accordingly, since which tJiere has never been any seri- 
ous question raised as to the validity of the title. It is based 
upon the title of the Mexican government, Avhich passed to the 
United States by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, subject to 
the following provision : 


Mexicans now established in territories previously belong- 
ing to Mexico, and which remain for the future within the 
limits of the United States shall . , . retain the property 
which they possess ... or disposing thereof, remove the 
proceeds wherever they please, without being subjected to 
any contribution, tax, or charge whatever. 

Period of "The Great Boom" 

chaptp:r I 


HEN the first through train arrived in San 
Diego, November 21, 1885, the railroad dream 

WlNl ^^'li^ich had filled the imagination of enterpris- 
Vx^ ing citizens for more than thirty years came 
\^ I true. The event was the most potent influ- 
ence in the creation of "the great boom" and 
the largest single factor in making the city 
what it is today, yet it is difficult to relate 
the circumstances which preceded and followed the coming 
of the Santa Fe without indulging in bitter denunciation 
of the frenzied financiers who greedily took all that San Diego 
had to give and never fulfilled the promises upon the strength 
of which it was given. 

San Diego wanted a direct route to the East, and if it could 
not be direct across the mountains to the Colorado River, it 
wanted a route as nearly direct as it was possible to build to a 
connection with the Atlantic & Pacific in the Mojave River 
region. This was essential, because it was desired to build a 
city at the incomparable seaport, rather than at the spot where 
the great city of Los Angeles now stands. San Diego and 
National City wanted a real terminal on the Bay "where rail 
and tide meet" as the basis of future commerce with the world 
of the Pacific. 

In order to secure these advantages, San Diego and National 
City raised a magnificent subsidy, a part of M'hich was sold for 
not less than $3,000,000 in cash, and the remainder of which has 
been appraised by its owners at $7,000,000. This subsidy was 
sufficient to defray, twice over, the entire cost of building the 
road frcm National City to Barstow, and yet the communities 
which Cv^ntributed so generously of their substance to get a rail- 
road never owned a share of its stock, nor had the slightest voice 
in directing its policy. It was not expected, of course, that the 
subscribers to the subsidy would own or control the railroad, 
but it was expected that the road should be built and perma- 
nently maintained by way of the Temecula Canyon, a fairly 
direct route from the seaport to the East, and it was expected 
that the grand terminal of the Santa Fe system should be estab- 


lished on San Diego Bay, and that the railroad would co-operate 
in good faith in the development of ocean commerce. 

These reasonable hopes were disappointed. After a very few 
years, the Santa Fe moved its shops to San Bernardino, and a 
little later to Los Angeles; engaged joyously in booming the 
City of the Angels ; finally got entrance to San Francisco, its 
present real terminus ; and consistently conspired with rival 
interests to deprive San Diego of commerce by sea and railroad 
competition by land. 

These circumstances detract nothing from the credit of those 
who organized the successful effort to bring the railroad to the 
shores of the Bay. They clearly comprehended the urgent need 
of transportation facilities and proceeded to meet it in what 
was doubtless the only possible way at that time. Nearly every- 
body of weight in the community co-operated in the effort and 
gave generously to the subsidy, in proportion to the interest 
they had at stake. A number of public-spirited citizens dedi- 
cated their time and energies to the undertaking and persisted 
through all obstacles until the result was accomplished. But 
there is one man whose service was so conspicuous and valuable 
as to require special acknowledgment. This is Frank A. Kim- 
ball, of National City, who conceived the undertaking, who ini- 
tiated it with the aid of a small grou]) of citizens, who went to 
Boston and secured a contract with the highest officials in the 
Santa Fe system, who went again to renew the contract after 
the first one had failed, and who. with his brother. AVarren 
Kimball, was by far the largest contributor to the subsidy. 

]Mr. Kimball had been trying to interest railroad promoters 
as far back as 1869, when he dealt with the representative of 
General John C. Fremont, president of the ^Memphis & El Paso, 
which was a mere fruitless project. In 1878, he corresponded 
with Commodore Vanderbilt, who answered that he would not 
"build a mile of railroad any faster than pushed to it by 
competition," and with Jay Gould, who said: "I don't build 
railroads; I buy them." After six months of futile correspond- 
ence with the railroad kings, ]\Ir. Kimball called a secret meet- 
ing at the residence of E. W. ^Nlorse on Tenth Street in the 
spring of 1879. He and Elizur Steele represented National 
City, while Mr. Morse and J. S. Gordon represented San Diego. 
John G. Capron joined the secret committee at an early stage 
of the movement. It was decided that a vigorous effort should 
be made to induce one of the railroads then building across the 
continent to come to San Diego Bay. ]\Ir. Kimball was selected 
to represent the committee in the East and started on his mis- 
sion about the first of June, 1879. The sum of .$150 had been 
raised in San Diego and National City toward the expense of 


his trip, and he raised the balance by putting a mortgage on 
his house. He took with him the endorsement of the city author- 
ities and of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Mr. Kimball went first to Philadelphia, where he soon con- 
cluded that there was no hope of doing anything with the Texas 
& Pacific. In New York he learned what he could of the inten- 
tions of Stanford and Huntington and came to the conclusion 
that the best hope of success lay with the Santa Fe. which was 
determined to strike the Pacific Ocean somewhere and which, 
as he soon learned, Avas most favorably disposed to Guaymas, 
in Mexico. 

Mr. Kimball remained in Boston about three months and his 
correspondence with the railroad committee during that period 
is an interesting picture of the times, as well as a fascinating 
record of the fluctuating hopes and fears of this lone emissary 
from the southwestern corner of the Republic. He dealt, chiefly, 
with Thomas Nickerson, president of the Santa Fe system, but 
also frequently met other officials and had some conferences 
with the full board of directors. Mr. Kimball's severest critics 
admit that he was "a terrible sino-le-handed talker in those 
days," and he certainly had a big thing to talk about and big 
men with whom to talk. The situation was one which called 
for the utmost tact, shrewdness, and patience, combined with 
the sort of enthusiasm which not only awakens interest, but car- 
ries conviction, as well. When the railroad hopes of later days 
are recalled, and when it is remembered how much less the 
friends of San Diego had to offer in 1879 in comparison with 
their present claims upon the attention of railroad builders, no 
one can fail to appreciate the size of the task which Mr. Kimball 
undertook. On Septemlier 5, 1879, he telegraphed E. W. ^Morse 
as follows: "All right; leave tonight. Be ready to act on 

He had succeeded in getting a contract which provided for the 
building of a railroad within eight months forty miles "east- 
ward from San Diego." He had agreed to raise $10,000 in cash 
to pay for the right of way, to give 10,000 acres of land from 
the National Rancho, to get as much additional subsidy as pos- 
sible, and to telegraph definitely Avhat could be done by the 
people of San Diego and National Citv within twelve days of 
his arrival home. The details of this first subsidy are of no 
real interest, since it was never paid, owing to a radical change 
in the policy of the Santa Fe. It is important to note, however, 
that the expectation at that time was that the road would be 
built directly east to the Colorado River, and that surveys were 
actually begun to that end. 


This preliminary work gained added importance from the 
presence of three representatives of the railroad, who arrived 
October 8, 1879. They were George B. Wilbiir and Lucius G. 
Pratt, and W. R. Morley, chief engineer. These gentlemen re- 
mained in San Diego six weeks, making a thorough investigation. 
In their work of obtaining exact information about everything 
pertaining to the railroad and its prospects of business, their 
chief reliance appears to have been E. W. :\Iorse, who worked 
indefatigably. Mr. IMorse was a very modest man, and claimed 
no credit for himself, but it is the universal testimony that he 
rendered services of the utmost value. 

The favorable report of ]\Iessrs. Wilbur and Pratt was quickly 
followed by the beginning of actual work on the part of the 
company's engineers. It looked as if the last obstacle had been 
successfully passed, but such was not the case. Within two 
months all work was stopped by peremptory orders from Bos- 
ton. A fateful change of policy had been determined upon 
M'ithout consulting the people of San Diego. Instead of build- 
ing by the Southern route, the Santa Fe had suddenly decided 
to join hands with the Atlantic & Pacific in order to share in 
its great land subsidy, and to this end it would cross the Colo- 
rado River at the Needles. The question then arose as to 
whether San Francisco, rather than San Diego, should not be 
the terminus of the road. At any rate, it was decided to build 
to the Needles first, and to consider extensions later. 

Naturally, San Diego was plunged in the deepest gloom. 
Times were hard, money scarce, and prospects dubious in every 
direction. Still, the members of the railroad committee, having 
been so near the realization of their hopes, were not inclined to 
give up. They wanted 'Sir. Kimball to make another trip to 
Boston and endeavor to renew the contract Avith the Santa Fe, 
even if the road must come by Avav of the Needles. John G. 
Capron was especially insistent, and it was finally arranged that 
$1,000 should be borrowed at a local bank to pay the expenses 
of the trip. A note for this amount was signed by Frank A. 
Kimball, John G. Capron, E. W. ]\, J. S. Gordon, E. Steele. 
James ]\IcCoy, 0. S. Witherby. A. Overbaush, J. A. Fairchild, 
and J. Russ & Company. Thus ]\Ir. Kimball went back to Bos- 
ton. He says he was not cordially received by President Nick- 
erson, but finally succeeded in getting an audience with the 
directors. lie further relates : 

I went over the whole ground with them. I offered to re- 
new our subsidy of 10,000 acres of land. They said they 
wanted to organize a syndicate to handle the land. I said I 
would put in 6000 seres of land as a nucleus for the Land & 
Town Company, and 10,000 acres to the railroad, and that they 


The man to whose efforts and generosity San Diego is chiefly indebted for the construction of 

the Santa Fe railroad to this port. His brother. Warren C. Kimball, shares with 

him the honor of making the largest contribution to the railroad 

subsidy and also of founding National City 


could then sell the railroad land to the Laud & Town Com- 
pany, in accordance with the suggestion of Mr. Frank Pea- 
body. In addition to the land to be given by my brother 
and myself, I told them I thought I could raise a land sub- 
sidy of 10,000 acres. Thus we (the Kimballs) gave 16,000 
acres. Then we sold them 9000 acres for $100,000 in cash. I 
told them we owed more than $60,000 and asked them where 
my brother and I would come in. Their answer was that they 
would give us one-sixth intei'est in all they owned (the sub- 
sidy) and this we accepted. 

He succeeded in organizing a syndicate of the officers and 
directors of the Santa Fe system, consisting of: Thomas Nick- 
erson, the president of the company; Kidder, Peabody & Com- 
pany; George B. Wilbur, B. P. Cheney, and Lucius G. Pratt, 
the gentlemen being directors of the Santa Fe. The provisions 
of the public contract were similar to the former one, except 
that the road was to be run by way of Colton and form a con- 
nection with the Atlantic & Pacific. 

]\Ir. Kimball's contract provided for the establishment of the 
grand terminal of the railroad at National City. This was not 
known to the people of San Diego at the time. The terms of 
the subsidy merely pro"\aded that the terminal should be "on 
the Bay of San Diego," and it was expected that the railroad 
authorities would select whatever spot they deemed best suited 
to their purpose. As National City was a very heawy contrib- 
utor to the subsidy, it certainly had the same right to consider- 
ation as San Diego, but since the terms of the agreement were 
not generally understood to discriminate between the two loca- 
tions it is not strange that ^Ir. Kimball was sharply criticised 
by San Diego subscribers. On ]\Ir. Kimball's return from his 
second successful trip to Boston, the railroad committee appealed 
to the public for subscriptions. Their work was phenomenally 
successful. They raised a subsidy in cash, notes and land as 

Acres Lots 

Allison, Jos. A. and J. M $ ,300 

Arnold, C. M .50 

Aylworth, E O.t 

Backesto, Dr, .J, P 100 

Bank of San Diego 1000 

Barnes. G. W .50 1 

Bass, .John D 50 

Baugh, W. A 100 

Begole, W. A 50 1 

Bemis, Marco 25 

Bennett, T 10 

Benton, W. W 25 

Bernard, Charles 50 

Bidwell, .Tames 50 

Birdsall, J. T) 250 


Acres Lots 

Bowers, W. W 200 

Bowers, M 30 

Boyd, J. B lOU 

Braclt & Sons 50 

Brattou, S. H 50 

Brittou, W. & L 65 

Brown, H. H 50 

Brown, J. E 100 

Buell, E. J 50 

Callaghau, John 100 

Campbell, B. P 100 

Campbell, J. N 100 

Cantlin, Martin 50 

Capron, John G 750 

Carroll, F. M 100 

Carver, J. J 36 

Cassidy, Andrew 50 

Castle, F. A. and A. Klauber 50 

Cave, D 2 

Chase, Chas. A 75 

Chase, A. J 10 

Christensen, J. P 50 

Choate, D 400 

Church, C. C 25 

Clark, George T 50 

Clark, John 25 

Clark, M. L 1 

Cleveland, Daniel 27 

Cohn, J. A 50 

Cole, A. A 55 1 

Commercial Bank 46 

Conklin, N. H 23 

Cook, Henry 50 

Corbett, Elizabeth 100 

Cowles, Alfred 2 

Cowles, F. H 20 

Coyne, Joseph 100 

Crowell, Mrs. F. M 25 

Culver, C. B 100 

Dannals, Geo. M 50 

Desmond, John .1 

Dievendorff, C. A 200 

Dobler, C 150 

Dodge, Rev. R. V 400 

Dougherty, H. H 25 

Downey, John G 2 

Doyle, ' John T 20 

Dranga, N. G. 100 

Dunham, Mrs. C 1 

Dunn, W. B 20 

Eaton, A. N. and E. D 20 

Emory, Gen. Wm. H 13 

Evans, A. E. 40 

Fairchild, J. A 200 


Faivre Joseph 

Farrell, Thomas 25 

Felsenheld, David 

Fenn, Dr. C. M 100 

Fischer, Johu 100 

Folger & Schumaii 

Forster, John 250 

Forster, M. A 100 

Fox, C. J 100 

Francisco, C. F 100 

Frisbie, J. C 

Frisbie, J. 200 

Gassen, A. G 

Geddes, George 

Gerichten, C. P 250 

Ginn, Mrs. Mary S 250 

Gordon & Hazzard 500 

Gordon & Hazzard, Morse & Steele . . 

Goss, Thomas 230 

Gruendike, Jacob 

Guiou, D 100 

Gunn, Douglas 100 

Hall, E. B 100 

Hamilton, Chas. S 500 

Hamilton, Fred M 100 

Hamilton, M. D 150 

Hammer, M. B 

Hauke, Carl T 50 

Harbison, J. S 150 

Hatleberg, J. O 

Henarie, D. V. B 250 

Hendrick, E. W 25 

Herman, D. C 250 

Herrander, John 50 

Hicks, John J 100 

Higgins, H. M 

High, John E 

High, William E 

Hinchman, A. F 

Hinton, J. B 

Hitchcock, G. N 100 

Hoffman, John C 25 

Hollister, D. A 100 

Holm, Julius 50 

Horton, A. E 250 

Howard, Bryant 500 

Hubbell, Charles 

Hyde, George 600 

Ihlstrom, L. J 100 

Johnson, Robert 

Jones, E. L 50 

Jones, S. P 300 

Jones, T. S 300 

Jorres, William 100 

Acres Lots 












Acres Lots 

Josse, L. M 50 

Joiirneay, George 150 

Julian, A. H 75 

Julian J. M 100 

Kelly, Eobert 150 20 

Kimball Bros 10,000 

Knowles, A. P 100 

Knowles, Auua Seheper 100 

Koster, P 300 

Lankershim, 1 4 2-3 

Larson & Wescott 400 

Leach, Wallace 200 

Lehman, Theodore 100 

Levi, S 100 1 

Littlefield, Sheldon 100 

Littlefield, S. and E. Stanwood 6 

Llewellyn, William 20 

Lockling, L. L 1 

Louis, Isidor 1 

Lowell, Fred B 50 

Luce, M, A 100 100 

Mabury, H. and W 12 

Mannasse and Schiller 1 

Marston, George W 300 

Marston, Harriet 12 

Maxcy, A. E 150 

May, Chas. E 50 

McCarthy, M. J 50 

McClain, J. W 25 

McCool, W 20 

McCoy, James 250 40 

McDonald, G. W. B 80 

Mcintosh, F 2 

McEae, Daniel 100 

Menke, A 25 

Minear, W. L 50 

Morrow, Eichard 5 

Morse, E. W 750 

Mumford, J. V 50 

JSTeale, George 50 

Noell, Chas. P 18 

Norris, W. B 50 

Nottage, E. W 25 

O 'Leary, Edmund 25 

Overbaugh, A 500 12 

Owens, Edward 15 

Page, Mrs. A. C 50 

Paine, .1. O. W 50 

Palmer, Oscar 100 

Pearson, A. B 25 

Pearson, J. L 100 

Perigo, Wm .:;0 

Perry, Mrs. C. L 50 

Perrv, H. A 50 




Peyser, M 

Pidgeon, Geo. 8 100 

Pierce, James M 500 

Poser, H. von 50 

Eaffi, G 100 

Eeed, Arabella 25 

Eeed, D. C 150 

Eemondino, P. C 200 

Eennie, Gilbert 150 

Eeupsclie, William 25 

Eice, H. B 100 

Eichardson, John H 25 

Eichter, Hulda 

Eogers, E. 100 

Eose, Louis 250 

Eussell, James 50 

Eouland, N. P 

San Diego, City of 

Schneider, Arnold 200 

Schuyler, D 

Seeley, A. L 100 

Selwyn, G. A 

Shelby, J. T 

Shellenberger, Amos 50 

Sheriff, J. A 250 

Simpson, J. H 150 

Slade, Samuel 100 

Smith, P. N 

Smith, Will M 150 

Snyder, J. H 200 

Stanwood, Elizabeth 100 

Steiner & Klauber 

Stewart, D 20 

Stewart, W. W 200 

Stockton, Dr. T. C 

Stone, Francis 

Stone, George M 100 

Story, Joseph 100 

Stow, John P 25 

Strauss, Kohnstrom & Blum 

Surbeck, G 25 

Swain, W. H 100 

Tallman, E. H 100 

Terry, W. W 125 

Thompson, J. W 100 

Todd, James 50 

Trask, P. H 25 

Trask, Eoswell 25 

Treat, John 

Utt, Lee H 

Wadham, J. F 100 

Wallach, D 100 

Walsh, W. J 

Walter, Otto 100 









Acres Lots 

Ware, K. J 40 

Watkins^ N. and E. B 40 

Wentscher, A 250 

Wescott, J. W 50 

Wetmore, Chas. A 250 6 

Whaley, Thomas 100 

Whear, E. S 100 

"Wheeler, M. G 100 

Whitmore, S 100 

Wilcox, A. H 1000 SO 

WiUey, H. 1 150 

Williams, W. E 50 

Williams, W. L 500 

Winter, L. & Bro 200 

Witherby, O. S 120 19 

Witfield, G 10 

Wright, Ealph L 25 

Wright, W. W 100 

Wolfskin, J. W 120 

Yenawine, Samuel 20 

Young, James M 25 

Young, John N 100 

Young & Gray 80 

$25,410 17,355% 485 2-3 

111 connection with this new subsidy, the successful effort to 
recover lands given to the Texas & Pacific in consideration of 
benefits never received, is a matter of much historical interest. 
The movement began in 1876 with a suit brought by W. Jeff. 
Gatewood and A. B. Hotchkiss in the name of Thomas H. Bush, 
a taxpayer, against James A. Evans, the resident engineer, and 
Colonel Thos. A. Scott, president of the Texas & Pacific. The 
suit aimed to annul deeds made in 1872 by the city to Evans, 
the land having been afterward conveyed to the railroad. The 
ground of the suit was, of course, failure of consideration. 

The suit was begun on April 10, 1876, in the district court of 
San Diego County. On January 20, 1879, Wallace Leach was 
admitted as one of the attorneys for the plaintiff. Evans and 
Scott had, in the meantime, disclaimed any interest in the 
lands in controversy, and in November, 1879, the action was 
dismissed as to them. This left the railroad company as the sole 
defendant. Though the suit was unpopular at first, the city 
of San Diego filed its intervention as plaintiff on January 6, 
1877, and thereafter the suit was prosecuted in its name. jNIr. 
Daniel Cleveland, as counsel for the Texas & Pacific, asked for 
the removal of the cause from the state to the United States 
Court, but the petition was denied. 

This was the situation when the negotiations with the Santa 
Fe officials reached a hopeful stage. It was said, and generally 



believed, that if the city had at its disposal the lauds, or even 
one-half of the lands, given to Scott in 1872 the railroad could 
be secured. With this idea in mind, President McCarthy of the 
city trustees sent the following telegram: 

San Diego, California, Dec. 18, 1879. 
Thomas A. Scott, 

President of Texas & Pacific Eailway Company, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 


President of the Board of Trustees at the time settlement was made with Thomas 
A. Scott in regard to the City's contribution to the Texas & Pacific subsidy 

With a view to amicable future relations, to avoid expensive 
litigation and in the interests of immediate development and 
enhancement of all values here, thereby saving many of our 
best citizens from absolute ruin, are you willing to deed un- 
conditionally, to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Eail- 
way Company, pueblo lots 11.58, west half of 1163, and frac- 
tional lots 1161, you keeping 1159, 1162, and east half of 1163; 
all of the balance of the land in litigation to be equally di- 
vided and the pending suit to be discontinued and amicably 
settled? Answer unreservedly, with understanding that in the 


event of failure of uegotiations the despatches be not used to 
affect the rights of either partj\ 

D. O. McCarthy, 

President Board Trustees. 

Verv promptly, Scott replied as follows: 

Philadelphia, Dec. 19. 1879. 
D. O. McCarthy, 

President Trustees, San Diego, California: 
Your despatch of the ISth received. Our desire 
has alwavs been to do the best possible for the interests of 


Attorney and Vice-President Southern California Railroad, at the time the Santa 

Fe Railroad was built. Judge of County Court 1875-80, when Superior 

Court was established; postmaster, 1898-02; classmate of President 

McKinley at Albany law school. President Board of 

Trustees of Unitarian Society since 1898; First 

Commanderof Heintzelman Post, G. A. R. 

Sau Diego. We will do what you desire, provided all pend- 
ing suits are settled in such a way that no future annoyance 
or litigation can arise out of the lands that were deeded to our 
company, either by entering judgment on present suit so as 
to cover the basis of the present settlement or in such other 
form as our legal officers may approve, so that no possible cloud 
may rest upon the lands retained by our compan . Answer if 
this is satisfactorv. 

Thomas A. Scott. 


Mr. McCarthy answered : 

Sax Diego, dec. 20, 1879 
Thomas A. Seott, 

Satisfactory. Will arrange details with your coun- 
sel. Please instruct them. 

D. O. McCarthy, 

President Board City Trustees. 

It would appear that there should have been no delay Avhat- 
ever in closing the transaction, yet two anxious months inter- 
vened before it was consummated. There was considerable sen- 
timent in the community against the acceptance of a compro- 
mise which gave the Texas & Pacific the right to retain any of 
the land which had been given in consideration of its unfulfilled 
promises to the people of San Diego, and many citizens urged 
the trustees to push the litigation to the bitter end. notwith- 
standing the exchange of telegrams which, as we study them 
now, seem to have had the binding force of a contract. Some 
affected to believe that Scott was not acting in good faith, and 
it is said that the legal advisers of the city trustees strongly 
urged them to continue the litigation. On the other hand, a 
large element of the public realized the urgency of a settlement 
in view of the pending negotiations with the Santa Fe and 
became daily more impatient in their demand for action. The 
committee of the Boston syndicate, ]\Iessrs. Wilbur and Pratt, 
were in San Diego at the time and threw their influence into 
the situation. When public interest in the matter had risen to 
a state of actual excitement. E. W. ]\Iorse and other citizens 
appealed to the trustees to end the delay. This appeal was suc- 
cessful, and commissioners were named to apportion the lands 
in controversy. 

Finally, on February 16, 1880, the suit was set for trial. On 
the 24th of the same month, the appointed day, the court-room 
was packed with citizens, and there was much suppressed excite- 
ment. Wilbur and Pratt were present. Judgment agreed upon 
by the parties Avas entered, awarding to the defendant one-half 
of all the lands in controversy, and awarding the other half to 
Charles S. Hamilton as trustee for the public, with the under- 
standing that he would hold and convey these lands for railroad 
uses, as he afterwards did. 

The progress of the new railroad was now rapid. The Cali- 
fornia Southern Railroad was chartered October 12, 1880, for 
the construction of a railroad from National City to San Ber- 
nardino. The officers were: President. Benjamin Kimball, of 
Boston ; vice-president. ~S[. A. Luce, of San Diego , directors, 
George B. Wilbur, Lucius G. Pratt, John A. Fairchild, Frank 


A. Kimball; attorney, M. A. Luce. In November the delivery 
of the escrow notes began, and construction work proceeded rap- 
idly. By March, 1881, the grading was completed between San 
Diego and National City, and there was a gap of sixty miles 
between the two grading camps north of San Diego. 

The first rail was laid at National City in June, 1881, and 
on July 27th the first train, a "special," left that place. On 
November 2, 1882, a circular of the railroad company announced 
the completion and opening of the road to Colton, and stated 
that the directors had decided to extend it to San Bernardino. 
It was opened to the latter point on September 13, 1883. 

Thus far, all appeared to be going well, but there was more 
trouble in store for San Diego and its railroad hopes. In Feb- 
ruary, 1884, a series of violent storms descended and literally 
destroyed the section of the railroad through Temecula Canyon, 
carrying out thirty miles of track. Between Oceanside and 
Temecula there was scarcely a hundred yards of track left, and 
the timbers were seen one hundred miles at sea. The road had 
been built too low by eastern engineers who did not understand 
the action of torrential streams in a bare and rocky soil. 

For nine long months San Diego was -^vithout rail communi- 
cation with the rest of the world aftei* its brief taste of that 
luxury. Many feared that the road would never be rebuilt, and 
left the city in consequence. The company was without funds, 
and the amount needed to repair the damage was about $250,000. 
At length, funds were raised by means of a second mortgage 
and the location through Temecula "Canyon was improved, but 
only to be abandoned. A new line was built up the coast to San 
Juan Capistrano and Santa Ana and the direct route by way 
of Temecula Canyon permanently abandoned. From that time 
forward the Santa Fe Railroad ceased to serve the purpose 
which the people of San Diego had in mind when they contrib- 
uted their subsidy — the purpose of developing a seaport as the 
direct outlet of a true transcontinental railway — but this was 
not fully appreciated at the time. 

Aside from the disastrous flood, there was another serious con- 
dition which arose to mar the prospects of a throush line. This 
was the fact that the Southern Pacific had acquired some degree 
of control in the Atlantic & Pacific and proceeded to construct 
a road from Mojave to Needles. For a time, this looked like a 
death blow to the California Southern, thus apparently deprived 
of all hope of an Eastern connection and compelled to build an 
expensive connecting link, 300 miles long, over a mountainous 
and desert country from San Bernardino, even to connect with 
a semi-hostile road at Barstow. This difficultv was finally dis- 
solved when the Santa Fe regained control of the Atlantic & 


Pacific and compelled the Southern Pacific to relinquish the 
road from Needles to Barstow by threatening to parallel the 
track if they tried to keep them out any longer. 

Confidence now revived, the work was completed, and the 
first through train left San Diego November 15, 1885. It con- 
sisted of one passenger coach, with an engine, mail and express 
car. The engineer was A. D. Xander; the fireman, E. W. Boyd: 
conductor, Clarence Henderson; baggage agent, Mr. Schuman; 
express messenger, E. A. Harvey, and mail clerk, A. A. Robin- 
son. About a hundred people Avere at the depot to see the train 
off. The first through train arrived November 21, 1885, in a 
pouring rain. It brought about sixty passengers, all but fifteen 
of whom were for San Diego. This train was received at San 
Bernardino with fireworks and at Colton by a large number of 
citizens and a brass band. It consisted of two coaches, with 
mail and baggage cars. 

The people of San Diego now felt that, at last, their cup of 
joy was full, and proceeded to celebrate. Douglas Gunn, on 
behalf of the Chamber of Commerce, issued the following 
invitations : 

Sax Diego, Cal., October, 188o. 
Dear Sir: 

You are resi^ectfully requested to be present at the 
celebration of the opening of the through railway line of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe system to the Pacific Ocean, 
at the port of San Diego, to be held in this city on Wednes- 
day, November 18, 1885. • 

The completion of this line, establishing a fourth great high- 
way between oceans in the United States, is an event whose 
importance, not alone to this city, but to the State and coast, 
cannot be overestimated. 

The people of San Diego, with persistent energy and stead- 
fast faith, have for a long period of years looked forward to 
the day that is now so close at hand. They will cordially 
greet you at their jubilee. 

I am very respectfully, 

Douglas Gunn, 
Chairman Committee on Invitations. 

This celebration is remembered as a very .joyous occasion, and 
doubtless the hearts of the old campaigners who had been 
through the Texas & Pacific and Memphis & El Paso, if not 
through the San Diego & Gila, campaigns, melted within them 
as they recalled the hard-fought contests of the past and real- 
ized that, at last, victory had consented to perch upon their 

But alas ! Fate had not yet done her worst. In the language 
of an amusing, if not classical, poet: 


O fate, thou art a lobster, but not dead! 
Silently dost thou grab, e 'en as the cop 
Nabs the poor hobo, sneaking from a shop 
With some rich geezer's tile upon his head. 
By tliy fake propositions are we led 
To get quite chesty, when it's biff! kerflop! 
We take a tumble and the cog wheels stop, 
Leaving the patient seeing stars in bed. 

The utter bad faith of the Santa Fe as a corporation — not 
necessarily the bad faith of individuals, for individuals die, 
resign, or fall from power — was gradually demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of those of even the dullest understanding. First, 
the dream of steamships and Oriental commerce faded away. 
No steamships were provided and, in later years, when com- 
merce came across the ocean to the city's gates, the Santa Fe 
Railroad drove it away by prohibitive rates. Next, the "grand 
terminal ' ' for which much material had actually been assembled, 
melted aw^ay into thin air and it became apparent that no such 
terminal was intended to be established on the Bay of San 
Diego. At last, the shops and offices w^ere removed to San Ber- 
nardino and Los Angeles. This last stroke was not inflicted 
brazenly, but with a show of good intentions which softened the 
blow, yet made no difference in the result. In the spring of 
1889 the Chamber of Commerce was asked to meet officials of 
the Santa Fe to discuss an important matter. Judge M. A. 
Luce is authority for the following account of the affair: 

The meeting was addressed by the manager of the Califor- 
nia Southern Eailroad and Judge Brunson, the general counsel 
of the railroad. They wished to have the general offices of 
the company removed to Los Angeles, especially the general 
freight offices, which still remained in San Diego. They wished 
this done with the full approbation of the City of San Diego; 
and as an inducement to do this, they both alleged and prom- 
ised that the railroad would immediately take steps to reduce 
the Sorrento and Del Mar Grade, either by tunnel or new line, 
so that freights could be carried from San Diego to Los An- 
geles, at cheaper rates. They also promised to extend their 
wharf facilities in the city, which to some extent, tliey have 
carried out. And it was stated that their object in changing 
the general freight office to Los Angeles was to encourage the 
commerce between the two cities, so that the San Diego har- 
bor should be used for the freighting business of Los Angeles. 

Of course, the people of San Diego consented ; and, equally 
of course, the promises which induced them to do so were dis- 
regarded by the great corporation. There have been some 
feeble efforts to compel the railroad to do justice, and to fulfill 
the agreement by means of which the communities about the 
Bay were induced to present a rich subsidy to the frenzied 


financiers of Boston. These efforts came to nothing. The rail- 
road has its way, promoting growth where it favors growth, 
compelling stagnation where its interest will be served by that 
condition, and making the interests of communities and the 
happiness of men conform to the rules of the game its masters 
are playing in distant financial marts. 

Notwithstanding these untoward conditions, San Diego has 
grown and continues to grow, and the coming of the Santa Fe 
exerted a large influence on its fortunes. If the power of the 
railroad had been exerted on the side of the city, as the people 
had a right to suppose it would be when they subsidized it for 
twice its entire cost, this history would have been different in 
man3^ respects. 

The articles of agreement between Frank A. Kimball and the 
Boston syndicate seem well worthy of preservation, in view of 
the fact that the subsidy was paid and the railroad built — the 
only instance of the kind resulting from the many similar efforts 
in the history of the city, from 1845 to 1907. The following is 
the full text of the instrument: 

AETICLES OF AGEEEMEXT made this twenty-third day 
of July A. D., 1880, by and between Frank A. Kimball, rep- 
resenting himself, the firm of Kimball Brothers, the Chamber 
of Commerce, the Board of City Trustees, and prominent citi- 
zens of the City of San Diego in the State of California, 
party of the first part and Kidder, Peabody & Co., B. P. 
Cheney, George B. Wilbur, Lucius G. Pratt, and Thomas Nick- 
erson all of Boston, Massachusetts, party of the second part, 

That whereas the party of the first part desires to obtain 
railroad connection from the Ba^^ of San Diego to the eastern 
part of the United States, and in and of the same, is able and 
willing to donate the lands, privileges and franchises herein- 
after mentioned. And whereas the party of the second part is 
willing to furnish such connection and receive such donation. 

Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and their 
respective undertakings hereinafter set forth, and of one dol- 
lar to each paid by the other, receipt acknowledged, said 
parties mutually agree as follows: 

Article 1. — The party of the first part will convey or cause 
to be conveyed by good and sufficient deeds in fee simple, free 
from all incumbrances except taxes due on the first Monday 
in .January, 1881, to Henry B. Williams of San Francisco, 
John A. Fairchild, and Warren C. Kimball, both of said San 
Diego and all of the State of California, trustees, the several 
parcels of land and the several privileges and franchises herein- 
after set forth, namely: 

(a) In behalf of Kimball Brothers; ten thousand acres of 
land in Eancho de la Xacion made up and selected as fol- 
lows: — Fractional quarter sections one hundred and seventy- 
five (175) and one hundred and seventy-six (176), according to 



survey and patent of the United States now on file and of 
record in the county of San Diego, said fractional quarter sec- 
tions giving one mile front upon the water of San Diego Bay, 
and all the land running back from said water front to such 
a distance as to embrace in all (exclusive of land heretofore 
sold which does not exceed twenty acres) two hundred acres, 
being the land heretofore bonded to a representative of the 
Texas Pacific Eailroad Company together with such additional 
quantity of land south of National City, adjacent thereto, in 


Associated with his brother, Frank A. Kimball in his successful efforts toward 

bringing the Santa Fe road here, and in the founding and 

building of National City 

such convenient shape as shall be required for workhouses, ma- 
chine shops, warehouses, wharves and other appurtenances of 
the line of railroad hereinafter mentioned; and also together 
with all the riparian rights appertaining to the lands agreed 
to be conveyed and to any and every part thereof. 

One half equitably selected of all the unsold portions of 
National City, being from one hundred fifty (150) to one hun- 
dred seventy-five (175) blocks of two and one-half acres each 
measuring through the centers of the streets as laid down on 
the plan of said National City. 


Also south of jSTatioual City, quarter sections 174, 179 ami 
1(30, and so much of quarter sections 173, 180 and 161 as may 
be necessary in the judgment of the engineers of the party of 
the second part, to control the channel of Sweetwater Eiver,. 
and then selecting alternate half miles of water front, meas- 
uring on the base line, said Kimball Brothers making the first 
selection, until two miles of water front (as near as may be) 
have been taken south of National City (making about three 
miles of water front in all) and then starting from said water 
front and running back, selecting tracts alternate (as near aa 
may be) exclusive of those parcels already conveyed to sun- 
dry persons, until the full complement of ten thousand acres, 
as aforesaid, has been c-ompleted. Together with all tide lauds 
and riparian rights belonging to or in anywise appertaining 
thereunto and to any and every part thereof. 

The selections above referred to shall be made by mutual 
agreement between said Frank A. Kimball, and the party of 
the second part, or in case of dispute, by three persons chosen 
one by each of the parties hereto, and one by the two thus 
chosen, and the decision of a majority of them shall be final. 

(b) On behalf of A. Overbaugh,' O. S. Witherby and U 
C. Gunn, about forty-five hundred (4500) acres of land in San 
Diego, being the same tract conveyed to said Overbaugh, With- 
erby and Gunn, by Charles S. Hamilton by deed recorded with 
San Diego deeds, to which reference is had for more particular 

(c) About three hundred scattered blocks and lots in the 
city of San Diego and about five thousand acres of land in and 
around the same, all of which now stand in the name of George 
B. Wilbur, as shown by sundry deeds in escrow in the hands 
of Bryant Howard and E. W. Morse of San Diego. 

(d) The party of the first part also agrees to contribute the 
sum of ten thousand dollars to be used for the purchase of 
right-of-way and lands for depots, shops, water and other sta- 
tions on the line which the party of the second part may adopt 
for the proposed railroad and for the general purposes of said 

Article 2. — The party of the second part will form a com- 
pany and will build a railroad of standard guage, four feet 
eight and one-half inches, from said Bay of San Diego to a con- 
nection with the Atlantic and Pacific Eailroad in California. 

And the party of the second part or the company to be 
formed as aforesaid shall begin work at the earliest practic- 
able moment, and shall before January 1, 1881, construct 
twenty miles of said railway, starting from San Diego Bay, 
or shall perform an amount of work upon said proposed line 
and enter into contracts for said line in good faith, equivalent 
to the building of said twenty miles before said date; said 
work to be done and contracts made to be not less than two- 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars in amount; and shall be- 
fore January 1, 1882, construct not less than one hundred and 
sixteen (116) miles of said railway starting from said Baj- of 
San Diego, and shall complete said connection with the At- 
lantic and Pacific Eailroad as soon as practicable and at a 
date not later than the first dav of January A. D. 1884. Pro- 


vided, however, that before forming said company or begin- 
ning said work, the following things shall be- done and 
the party of the second part notified thereof, namely: 

First. The lands and appurtenances from said Kimball 
Brothers and from said Overbaugh, Witherby and Gunn shall 
be conveyed as aforesaid to said trustees. 

Second. The grantors in the several deeds to George B. 
Wilbur now in escrow with said Howard and Morse shall in 
writing direct the said Howard and Morse and the said How- 
ard and Morse shall in writing agree to deliver said deeds 
to said Wilbur on or before January 1, 1881, upon the com- 
pletion of said twenty miles or its equivalent in the man- 
ner and terms aforesaid; said Wilbur hereby agreeing to quit- 
claim said lands to said party of the second part. 

Third. The sum of not less than ten thousand dollars in 
cash or its equivalent, shall be deposited with said trustees 
to be i^aid to the order of the party of the second part from 
time to time for the purchase of right-of-way and lands as 
aforesaid and for the general purposes of said railway; and 
the party of the second part shall be notified as aforesaid 
on or before September 1, 1880. 

Article 3. — Said trustees shall upon the demand of the party 
of the second part, after the completion of said twenty miles 
or its equivalent, as aforesaid convey to the party of the sec- 
ond part or said company one-half of all the lands hereinbe- 
fore described and conveyed to them as aforesaid; and upon 
the completion of said one hundred and sixteen miles, said 
trustees shall upon the demand of the party of the second 
part convey to said party or to said company all the re- 
mainder of said lands and appurtenances, free and discharged 
of all trusts. 

Article 4. — If the party of the second part or said company 
does not construct at least twenty miles or perform an equiva- 
lent amount of work, coupled with the purchase of materials 
as aforesaid before January 1, 1881, or does not construct one 
hundred and sixteen miles before January 1, 1882, unless pre- 
vented by unforeseen causes or causes which could not have 
been prevented by the use of ordinary forethought, or unless pre- 
vented by perils and delays of navigation, then upon due proof 
thereof, and upon demand by the party of the first part, or the 
majority of the persons in interest represented by said party, 
said trustees shall thereafter hold all said lands and things 
not theretofore conveyed by them under the terms of this 
agreement, in trust for the equitable benefit of the original 
grantors, their heirs and assigns, and shall distribute and 
dispose of the same as any Court of competent jurisdiction, 
upon the petition of any person interested and upon full hear- 
ing shall direct. Provided, however, that any default may 
be waived by the party of the first part or by a majority of 
the persons represented by said party; and the same shall be 
deemed to be waived if the party of the first part or the major- 
ity of the persons represented by the party of the first part 
do not make demand as aforesaid within sixty days after the 
happening of any default as aforesaid; but the waiver of any 
default shall not be considered the waiver of any default sub- 


sequently made. Aud provided that such default and distribu- 
tion shall not release the party of the second part from the 
obligations of this contract or from any lawful claim for 
damages for the non-fulfillment thereof. 

Article 5. The trustees shall not be liable for the default 
or misconduct of each other, nor for the default or misconduct 
of any agent or attorney selected by them in good faith in 
the discharge of their trust. 

And the Purchaser at any sale made by them of any of the 
lands aforesaid shall not be liable for the application of the 
purchase money and shall not be under any necessity of in- 
quiring into the expediency or legality of any such sale. 

Upon the death, resignation, or incapacity, or refusal to act 
of any of said trustees, the remaining trustee or trustees may 
fill such vacancy or vacancies, or without filling the same shall 
act with the same power as the original trustees could have 
done if their number had remained undiminished. 

Upon the filling of any vacancy the title to all the lands 
and things remaining unconveyed shall vest in the trustees 
thus constituted without the necessity of any formal convey- 
ance, but each trustee shall bind himself, his heirs, executors 
and administrators to execute such deed for the continuance 
of the trust as Counsel learned in the law may reasonably ad- 
vise or require; and the original conveyances to said trustees 
shall be made accordingly. 

In witness whereof the parties aforesaid have hereunto set 

their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 

Frank A. Kimball. (Seal) 

Kidder, Peabody & Co. (Seal) 

B. P. Cheney. (Seal) 

Geo. B. Wilbur. (Seal) 

Lucius G. Pratt. (Seal) 

Thos. Nickerson. (Seal) 

Eecorded at the request of Frank A. Kimball, October 

27, 1880, at 35 min. past 10 o'clock A. M. 

Gilbert Eennie, 

County Kecorder. 



I IKE all western cities of consequence, San 
Diego has experienced a series of booms and 
boomlets, interspersed by periods of depres- 
sion and temporary decline; but when "The 
Great Boom" is spoken of it is the phenom- 
enal and sensational boom of 1886-88, which 
is referred to. This was epochal and serves 
to divide the past from the present, just as 
the Civil War does with the people of the South. As Southern- 
ers refer to events which happened ' ' before the war, " or " after 
the war," so San Diegans speak of things "before the boom," 
and "after the boom." 

As we have seen in previous chapters, many things conspired 
to increase the growth of San Diego during the eighties. The 
completion of the Santa Fe Railroad system was doubtless the 
largest factor, but this was contemporaneous with the develop- 
ment of water systems and other public utilities, and with the 
inauguration of the most aggressive enterprise in connection 
with Coronado. There were many lesser factors working to the 
same end, and it would have been strange indeed if San Diego 
real estate had not responded to these influences. Furthermore, 
there were national and even world-wide conditions which fos- 
tered the movement. This decade witnessed an enormous expan- 
sion on the part of western railways and was marked by daring 
speculation in many different parts of the globe. 

But when all these material influences have been mentioned 
there remains another which was far more powerful and which 
supplies the only explanation of the extraordinary lengths to 
which the boom was carried. This latter influence was psycho- 
logical rather than material, but it was none the less effective 
on that account. The people were hypnotized, intoxicated, 
plunged into emotional insanity by the fact that they had unan- 
imously and simultaneously discovered the ineffable charm of 
the San Diego climate. Climate was not all — there was the bay, 
the ocean, the rugged shores, the mountains — but the irresistible 
attractions were the climate and the joy of life which it implied. 
If someone should suddenly discover the kingdom of heaven, 
of which the race has dreamed these thousands of years, and 


should then proceed to offer corner lots at the intersection of 
golden streets, there would naturally be a rush for eligible loca- 
tions, and this sudden and enormous demand would create a tre- 
mendous boom. It happens that San Diego is the nearest thing 
on earth to the kingdom of heaven, so far as climate is concerned. 
This fact was suddenly discovered and men acted accordingly. 
The economy of heaven is a factor which has never been much 
dwelt upon, and economic considerations were sadly neglected 
bj^ those who went wild over real estate in the height of the 
boom. It was forgotten, for the moment, that men cannot eat 
climate, nor weave it into cloth to cover their nakedness, nor 
erect it as a shelter against the storm and the night. Such a 
reminder would have seemed puerile at the time. The only vital 
question was : Can we find land enough between Los Angeles 
and ]Mexico to accommodate the people who are coming, and can 
we get it platted into additions fast enough to meet the demand 1 
If this question could be answered affirmatively, it was enough. 
Obviously, the people would continue to come, prices would con- 
tinue to soar, and everybody would get rich at the expense of 
his neighbor, living happy forever after. 

Now, there was reason in this logic, if it had only been tem- 
pered with common sense. It is absolutely true that the climate 
of San Diego is a commodity of commercial value. Almost 
everybody would prefer to live here if they could afford the 
luxury. The mistake was in failing to create conditions which 
would make it possible for them to do so. This involved the pro- 
saic matter of making a livelihood by some other means than 
exchanging real estate every few days at a profit. That process 
did not create wealth, but only exhausted it. What San Diego 
wanted in boom days, and wants now, is a means of producing 
new wealth to sustain that large element of its population which 
is not yet able to retire upon a competency, together with new 
population of the same kind that would like to come. 

Probably no one could draw a true picture of the boom unless 
he lived through those joyous days and had a part in what went 
on. Fortunately, San Diego possessed a citizen peculiarly 
equipped for the work of observing and recording the phenom- 
ena of the times — a man who could see both the strength and 
the weakness of the situation, who united shrewdness with a 
sense of humor, and was also gifted as a writer. This citizen 
was Theodore S. Van Dyke, author, hunter, engineer, farmer, 
lawyer, and various other things. Above all he was — Theodore 
S. Van Dyke. Speaking of the class of people who came, saw, 
and bought, thereby making the boom, he says : 

It was plain that they were in fact buying comfort, im- 
munity from snow and slush, from piercing winds and sleet- 



clad streets, from sultry cla,ys and sleepless nights, from thun- 
der-storms, cyclones, malaria, mosquitoes and bed-bugs. All 
of which, in plain language, means that they were buying cli- 
mate, a business that has been going on now for fifteen years 
and reached a stage of progress which the world has never 
seen before and of which no wisdom can foresee the end. The 
proportion of invalids among these settlers was very great, 
at first; but the numbers of those in no sense invalids but 
merely sick of bad weather, determined to endure no more of 
it, and able to pay for good weather, increased so fast that 


A nqted author who did much to make the advantages of San Diego known to the world. 

His book, "Millionaires of a Day, " dealt with the great boom. He was one of the 

originators of the San Diego flume enterprise 

by 1880 not one in twenty of the new settlers could be called 
an invalid. They were simply rich refugees. 

In 1880 the rich refugee had become such a feature in the 
land and increasing so fast in numbers that Los Angeles and 
San Bernardino counties began to feel a decided "boom." 
From 1880 to 1885 Los Angeles City grew from about twelve 
thousand to thirty thousand, and both counties more than 
doubled their population. But all this time San Diego was 
about as completely fenced out by a system of misrepresenta- 
tion as it was by its isolation before the building of the rail- 


road. Much of this misrepresentation was simply well-mean- 
ing ignorance j but the most of it was pure straight lying so 
universal from the editor to the brakeman on the cars and the 
bootblack on the street that it seemed to be a regularly or- 
ganized plan. So thorough was its effect that at the opening 
of 1885 San Diego had scarcely felt any of the great pros- 
perity under full headway only a few hundred miles north. 

But when the extension of the railroad to Barstow was be- 
gun and recognized as a movement of the Santa Fe railway 
system to make its terminus on San Diego Bay, the rich 
refugee determined to come down and see whether a great 
railroad was foolish enough to cross hundreds of miles of 
desert for the sake of making a terminus in another desert. 
He came and found that though the country along the coast in 
its unirrigated state was not as inviting as the irrigated lands 
of Los Angeles and San Bernardino, there was yet plenty of 
water in the interior that could be brought upon it. He found 
there was plenty of "back country" as rich as any around Los 
Angeles, only it was more out of sight behind hills and 
table-lands, and less concentrated than in the two counties 
above. He found a large and beautiful bay surrounded by 
thousands and thousands of acres of fine rich slopes and table- 
lands abounding in the most picturesque building sites on earth. 
He found a climate made, by its more southern latitude and 
inward sweep of the coast, far superior to that of a hundred 
miles north, and far better adapted to the lemon, orange, and 
other fine fruits. He found the only harbor on the Pacific 
Coast south of San Francisco; a harbor to which the proud Los 
Angeles herself would soon look for most of her supplies by 
sea; one which shortens by several hundred miles the distance 
from the lands of the setting sun to New York; a harbor 
which the largest merchant vessels can enter in the heaviest 
storm and lie at rest without dragging an anchor or chafing 
paint on a wharf. 

The growth of San Diego now began in earnest, and by the 
end of 1885 its future was plainly assured. A very few who 
pi-edicted a population of fifty thousand in five years were 
looked upon as wild, even by those who believed most firmly 
in its future. Even those who best' knew the amount of land 
behind it and the great water resources of its high mountains 
in the interior believed that twenty-five thousand in five years 
would be doing well enough. Its growth since that time has 
exceeded fondest hopes. It is in truth a surprise to all and no 
one can truthfully pride himself upon superior sagacity, how- 
ever well founded his expectations for the future may be. At 
the close of 1885 it had probably about five thousand people. 
At the close of 1887, the time of writing this sketch, it has 
fully thirty thousand with a more rapid rate of increase than 
ever. New stores, hotels, and dwellings are arising on every 
hand from the center to the farthest outskirts in more be- 
wildering numbers than before, and people are pouring in at 
double the rate they did but six months ago. It is now im- 
possible to keep track of its progress. No one seems any 
longer to know or care who is putting up the big buildings. 


A pioneer of San Diego, and one of the 

oldest members of the Order of Elks in the 

United States ; also one of the original 

members of the "Jolly Corks." 

Past Exalted Ruler of San Diego Lodge 
B. P. O. E. 168, and prime mover in secur- 
ing the erection of the beautiful Elks 


For fifty-one yearsa minister and educa- 
tor of the M. E. Church in connection with 
the North Ohio and Southern California 
conferences and for eleven years a resident 
of San Diego. 

Native of Boston. Prominent in educa- 
tional and humane work in San Diego for 
forty years. 

Junior member of the firm of Nason and 

Postmaster of San Diego. 

Cashier Peoples State Bank. 

Cashier Southern Trust & Savings Bank. 



and it is becoming difficult to find a familiar face in tlie crowd 
or at the hotels. 

This was written at the height of the boom. A more conserv- 
ative note was sounded by Mr. Harrison Gray Otis, who was 
here in May, 1886, for the purpose of "writing up" Coronado 
Beach, and incidentally expressed some opinions upon San 
Diego and its new boom : 

She has got it and is holding on to it with the tenacity of 
death and the tax collector. Values are "away up" and 
movements in real estate active. I hear of a score of men who 


The building of this great hostelry and the accompanying development of Coronado was one 
of the important events of boom days 

have made their ' ' pile ' ' within a twelvemonth, and I know 
that a score more are pursuing the eagle on Uncle Sam's 
twenties with a fierceness of energy that causes the bird o ' 
freedom to scream a wild and despairing scream, that may 
be heard far across the border of the cactus Eepublic. This 
is peculiarly a San Diego pursuit; you never see anything 
of the sort in Los Angeles, where the populace take care of 
the noble bird and encourage him to increase and multiply 
greatly. The Angeleiios understand the national chicken busi- 
ness, you see. 

The boom in lots and blocks is by no means confined to 
the business center, but has spread far up the sage-shrouded 
hills where the view is magnificent, but water scarce. While 


there are not lacking evidences of solidity in the movement 
of real estate in the more central portions of the town, I can- 
not avoid the conviction that the excessive inflation of out- 
side lands is unhealthy, unsound, and destined to bring dis- 
appointment to the inflaters, if I may coin a word. When un- 
imi^roved blocks on the highlands, far from the center, and 
even from the outer edges of business, that a short time ago 
could be bought for $600, have been boosted in price to as 
many thousands there is afforded an excellent opportunity for 
the cautious investor to stand from under, lest the mushroom- 
like structure fall down and ' ' squash ' ' itself right before 
his face. 

But San Diego is going ahead, and is bound to be an im- 
portant place one of these good days. She is partaking of the 
general and splendid prosperity of the whole southern coast, 
and will continue to prosper according to her deserts. (No 
reference to sand.) Only it is regretful to see men who have 
already had more than their share of disappointment and 
weary waiting for the ' ' good time coming ' ' — to see these men, 
some of whom still live here, planting financial seed that can- 
not sprout and spring until another long decade. What I 
mean specifically, is that unproductive outside lands at fancy 
prices are not a safe investment in San Diego. So, at least, it 
seems to a man up a sagebrush. 

Mr. Van Dyke wrote a Story of the Boom, in January, 1889, 
in which he said : 

The great boom has had probably no sequel on earth. Cities 
had indeed grown faster and prices had advanced more rapid- 
ly than here. Greater crowds of people may have rushed here 
and there, and far wilder excitement over lots and lands has 
been seen a thousand times. But the California boom lasted 
nearly three years, although the wild part of it lasted only 
about two years. It covered an area of many thousand miles 
and raged in both town and country. And above all it was 
started and kept up by a class of immigrants such as has never 
before been seen in any part of the world, immigrants in pal- 
ace cars with heavy drafts or certified checks in their pockets, 
a fat balance in iDank behind them, and plenty of property 
left to convert into cash. Nearly ,$100,000,000 were by this 
class invested in Southern California, and the permanent in- 
crease of population has been nearly 200,000 in the last four 

Some of the facts: First: There is scarcely an instance of 
anyone building for his own use a house costing $.5000 or 
more in which the owner is not living today, or if he has sold 
it is living in another one. In other words, the people of 
means who settled here are almost to a man here today. 

Second: That whenever a man, whether rich or poor, has 
bought a piece of land and settled down to make it produce 
something, he is there today contented and doing well. In 
some places too many good houses have been built for sale 
only — a foolish thing generally, because the man who wants to 
pay over $2000 for a house usually wants to follow his own 


tastes about it — its style and location. The good houses that 
stand empty after being once occupied b}^ the owner, you 
may almost count on your fingers, while a piece of land aban- 
doned after occupancy it is next to impossible to find. 

Third: That the country outside the cities and towns is 
settling today faster than three years ago, and that even the 
towns are growing, the floating population being steadily re- 
placed by a permanent one. The new register, the school 
enrollment and average attendance list, the postofliee receipts, 
and all other means of comparison show a larger population 
today in every city of Southern California than there was a 
year ago, when every building was overflowing with strangers. 

The true "boom" period extend^ from the summer of 1886 
to about February, 1888 — about eighteen months in all — and 
this was precipitated by the repetition of what in 1885 had 
surprised everyone — the increase of travel in summer, instead 
of its diminution, as has always been the case. In the sum- 
mer of 1886 people came faster than ever, and it became very 
natural to ask where is all this going to end? Nearly every 
one of them bought something, nearly one-half of them be- 
came immediate settlers, and the majority of the remainder 
declared their intention of returning in the winter to build 
and remain. Such a state of affairs would have turned the 
heads of almost any people, but still the Californians kept 
quite cool. It required the professional boomer to touch off 
the magazine. 

In the summer of 1886 the professional boomer came. The 
business of this class is to follow up all lines of rapid set- 
tlement, chop up good farming land into town lots 25 or 30 years 
ahead of the time they are needed, and sell off in the excite- 
ment enough to pay for the land and have a handsome profit 
left over. The boomer came from Kansas City, Wichita, Chi- 
cago, Minnesota, New York, Seattle and everywhere, and with 
the aid of a brass band and free lunch (which had a marvel- 
ous influence on the human pocket) he began his work. Most 
of them were in Los Angeles county, but a few found their 
way to San Diego, enough to leaven the whole lump. By the 
Californians generally the boomer was pronounced a fool, and 
his 25-foot lots, brass band, free lunch, clown exhibitions, etc., 
laughed at. But it soon became the boomer's turn to laugh. 

A boom is a boom the world over, he said. In such times 
a lot is a lot. You can sell a 25-foot lot for $100 a great deal 
more easily than you can sell a 50-foot lot for $150. When 
the world gets a crazy fit, work it while it lasts for all there 
is in it. 

His reasoning quickly proved itself correct. He captured 
the tourist and the tenderfoot by the thousand, took in scores 
of old conservative capitalists from the East, who could talk 
as sensibly as anyone about "intrinsic value" and "busi- 
ness basis," etc., but who lost their heads as surely as they 
listened to the dulcet strains of the brass band and the silver 
tongue of the auctioneer. Eich old bankers, successful stock 
and grain operators, and smart folks of all kinds, who thought 
that they were the shrewdest of the shrewd, fell easy victims 
to the arts of the boomer. Few things were more amusing 


This was the most notable structure of boom days, and at the time of its erection it was gen- 
erally thought that it had fixed the business center of the city at Sixth and F 
Streets. Its architecture is typical of its period and differs much 
from present standards 


than to see the price of a lot doubled aud quadrupled upon 
these wise old chaps by a few cappers acting in well-trained 
concert with the auctioneer. The most of the old boys thus 
taken in were exactly of the same class as those that have 
been lying around San Diego anxious to buy something, but 
afraid to examine it. Then they were fighting for a chance 
to pay $2.00 apiece for brass dollars. Now when offered a sack 
of gold dollars for 50 cents apiece, they dare not open the 
sack to look at them. 

The natives could not look on such scenes as these without 
being infected, and it Avas not long before they became en- 
tangled in the whirl. They not only laid out additions and 
townsites, but bought lots of others; not with any expecta- 
tion of using them, but with the same idea that all the others 
had — to turn them over to someone else in sixty days at 
an advance of at least double or triple the amount of the 
lirst payment. 

A necessary result of the folly was to raise the price of 
good business property beyond what business could afford to 
pay. Farming property, in too many instances, was raised 
too high in price, though nothing in comparison with city 

It would be idle to recount the many fools that met the in- 
credible prices offered and refused, the monstrous prices paid 
by the lot for land that was worth only $.50 or $100 per acre, 
and could not in any event be worth more than $100 a lot in 
ten years. The enormous supply was forgotten, and folks 
acted as if there were but a few hundred lots left upon this 
favored corner of creation, toward which all were so eagerly 
rushing. The fact was, that if every train for the next ten 
years were loaded down with actual settlers, not more than 
half the lots laid out could be settled. 

So it went on for 18 months with prices constantly rising; 
people coming faster than ever, and acting more crazy than 
ever. It soon became quite unnecessary to show property. It 
was greedily bought from the map in town by people with no 
idea of even the points of the compass. . . . Most of the 
speculators had no need to resort to the banks. Coin was 
abundant everywhere. A man offering to loan money on mort- 
gage would have been laughed at as a fool. As a matter of 
course, too many people bought diamonds and squandered the 
money in various forms of extravagance, instead of paying up 
and keeping even as they wont along. But thousands more 
kept out of debt, and though disposed to take a hand in the 
game, played it cautiously. 

The hammer and saw rang all day long on every hand 
and improvements of every kind went on rapidly under the 
influence of abundance of money. The worst feature of this, 
however, was that in Los Angeles, and especially in San Diego 
county, little of it went into true development of resources. 
In San Bernardino county, most of it went into new water- 
works and other things to develop productive power. But in 
other counties, especially our county, conveniences for tour- 
ists and people yet to come absorbed the most of it. . . . 
A very few aided such things, but fully ninety per cent, of 



8an Diego thought that bay and climate alone would build a 
great city, and many declared upon the street that they 
"didn't care if you could not raise a bean within forty miles of 
San Diego." The beautiful and fertile country back of it 
was of no moment whatever, and a railroad into it, such as 
is now building, wasn't worth talking of for an instant. The 
great flume went ahead, notwithstanding, and the country 
settled up without their knowing it. The necessity for a rail- 
road to Warner's Ranch, at least, became so apparent that 
Governor Waterman and a few others got it started. Once 
started, its extension to the East would follow as a matter of 


Erected in 1872 and designed to house the offices of the Texas & Pacific Railroad, 
which never occupied it. It served for many years as City Hall and was 
purchased in October, 1901, by John D. Spreckels, who used it as 
the office of the Union, and later, of the Tribune. Demol- 
ished in 1906 to make room for the Union Building 

course. The great majority of San Diego people had never 
been two miles east of town and didn't know that they had 
any back country and didn't care, thinking bay and climate 
all sufficient. 

Of the literature of the boom, it would be embarrassing to 
even attempt to describe it in all its richness and variety. The 
best writers in the land were brought to San Diego and gave 
their talents to the service of the real estate dealers. One of 
the ablest of these writers was Thomas L. Fitch, known as "the 
silver-tongued orator." Mr. Fitch easily outdid and outdis- 
tanced his fellow scribes in the glowing fervor of his panegyrics 
upon bay and climate. To this day, the old San Diegans break 
into sunny smiles when you speak of Fitch and his boom liter- 



jiture. Let us take a single sample, and allow the reader to judge 
for himself. This was an advertisement written for the firm of 
Howard & Lyons, and M^as No. 12 (there were many more) : 


No. 12. 

We knew it would rain, for all day long 
A spirit with slender ropes of mist. 

Was dipping the silvery buckets down 
Into the vapory amethyst. 

We also knew it, because the wound which our uncle re- 
ceived in his back at the first battle of Bull Eun (he was in 
Canada when the second battle of Bull Eun was fought), 
throbbed all day Saturday. Now, if Saturday night's and 
Sunday night 's rain shall be followed by one or more show- 
ers of equal volume, we will see our blear mesas covered with 


Occupied by George W. Marston for many years prior to October, 1906, when he 
moved to the present building at Fifth and C Streets 

the vernal and succulent alfileria and all 
running bank-full. Then there will be — ■ 

the streams will be 

Sweet fields arrayed in living green 
And rivers of delight. 

Then the slopes of the arroyos will be flecked with the pur- 
ple violets and pink anemones and white star flowers, and 
over all the wind-blown heights the scarlet poppies and the 
big yellow buttercups will wave in the breeze like the plumes 
and banners of an elfin army. And when you behold the earth 
covered with fragrant children, born of her marriage to the 
clouds, and when you know that this charming efl'ect of a few 
showers can be increased and perpetuated the year round with 
a little water from the mains and a little labor with hoe and 


rake, you will be thankful to us for having called your atten- 
tion in time to the Middletown Heights' lots. 

A NON-EESIDENT who invested during the Tom Scott boom, 
and who has failed to sell since, for the same reason that in- 
duced the teamster not to jump off the wagon tongue, astride 
which he fell when the runaway horses started — because it was 
all he could do to hold on — a non-resident has sent us the title 
deeds for several blocks of the Middletown Heights' lots, with 
directions to close them out. Our motto is: Obey orders if you 
break owners, and the lots are therefore for sale at one- 
fourth their present and one-twentieth their future value. 

Call at our office, and our assistant will take you in the bug- 
gy and show you these lots. Two blocks of them are situated 
not more than three hundreds yards from the track of the 
California Southern Eailroad Company, and a hundred yards 
further from the shore of the bay, and within a mile of the 
passenger depot. These blocks front India avenue and are 
in the slope at the base of the hill, just high enough to give 
you a good view of the bay and the sea. The Electric Motor 
Eoad will go up India avenue, and will pass in front of these 
lots. They will be worth $1000 each within a year. You can 
buy them this week for .$125 each. It is a great chance — don't 
lose it. 

MarceUits — Who comes here? 
Horatio — Friends to this ground. 

AVhat matters it, dear friends, who it is that writes these 
Specials. Howard says it is Lyons, and Lyons says damfino. 
Whichever of the firm it is, or whoever else it may be, the 
writer is doing a good work for San Diego, for these Specials 
are being copied in the Eastern press and are possibly induc- 
ing both people and capital to come here. We append here 
a copy of a specimen letter received by us yesterday from a 
flourishing New England city: 

Jan. 26, 1887. 

Messrs. Howard & Lyons, Gentlemen: I am well acquainted 
with the wonderful growth of j'our beautiful section of coun- 
try, receiving as I do papers, pamphlets and letters from wide- 
ly separated portions. In the San Diego Union I read your 
Specials concerning Oceanside and San Diego. I enclose 
check for $100, which please invest for me to the best of your 
judgment in a lot, as I have full faith that you will make 
good use of the money. Please give me a location with good 
view of the oce;.n. Very truly. 

We shall reward this gentleman 's confidence and good 
judgment by sending him a deed for a lot that will grow 
rapidly in value before next Christmas. 

Our efforts, at considerable labor and some cash, to direct 
the attention of immigrants and investors this way, must ben- 
efit all San Diegans — even the other real estate men. WTiere- 
fore, beloved, begrudge not the writer of these Specials his in- 
cognito, nor seek to strip his mask from him lest you force 
him to seek security from curiosity in silence. Don 't quote 
scraps from these writings to the individual you suspect of 
being their author, and then wink at him. If the song of the 



nightiugale please you, listen, and don't throw stones into 
the canebrake in order to get a glimpse of the beak of the 
singer. If the dish is palatable, eat, and be content not to 
know the complexion and genealogy of the cook. 

Still, if you must know who we really are, we will tell you 
in strict confidence, only don't give it away. We are author 
of the Bread Winners and The Beautiful Snow. We composed 
the music of the great grasshopper song, There's Wheat By 
and By, and the hieroglyphs of our being, "S. T. 1S60, X," are 
painted in white and black letters on the summits of the 
eternal hills. 

We came to this earthly Paradise for our health; we con- 
cluded to go into the real estate business, and then we deter- 
mined to lift advertising out of its dull grooves and start it 


in new directions. In the latter determination we have suc- 
ceeded, for people read these Specials who usually skip the 
advertisements, and some have been known to peruse them who 
do not always read all the editorials. 

If you would know more, come with us at nightfall upon 
the summit of yonder hill. The way is not long, though for 
a few dozen rods it is a little steep. Here we will halt. Here 
upon block 42, Middletown Addition, w^e are suri-ounded by 
a grander view tlran can be seen anywhere else, even in this 
favored land. Lonia to our right, with brow of purple and feet 
of foam outlined against a sky of crimson. Far down the 
southern horizon towers Table mountain, outlined against the 
gathering dusk. The electric lights glint across the bay to 
sleeping Coronado, and San Diego buzzes and hums at our feet. 
Would you know our secret? Gold alone will cause its reveal- 
ment. Buy these four lots on one of which we stand, pay 
us five hundrid dollars in nionov for them — it will be an 



euelianting site for a home, and an investment which ■will 

return you thousands. We are — lend your ear — we are either 

Howard or Lyons. You pays your money and you takes your 

Walter Gifford Smith, in his Stonj of San Diego, draws the 
following picture of the boom at its height : 

San Diego 's growth was a phenomenon. The newly-built 
houses following the curves of the bay in their onward march 


Which plied between San Francisco and San Diego for eighteen years, beginning- 
days and ending in July, 1907, and made a total of 910 trips between 
the two great seaports of California 

of construction, occupied four linear miles and spread a mile 
from shore, covering the lower levels and climbing the barren 
hills. The business district traversed three miles of streets, 
and the population, at the close of 1887, numbered 35,000. 
At one time .50,000 people, from everj^ State and Territory of 
the Union and from many foreign lands, were in the bay coun- 
try, trying to get rich in a week. 

Land advanced daily in selling price, and fortunes were 
made on margins. A $5000 sale was quickly followed by a 



$10,000 transfer of the same property, and iu three months 
a price of $50,000 was reached. Excitement became a kind of 
lunacy, and business men persuaded themselves that San Diego 
would soon cover an area which, soberly measured, was seen 
to be larger than that of London. Business property that had 
been selling by the lot at $500, passed through the market at 
from $1000 to $2500 per front foot. Small corners, on the 
rim of the commercial center, sold for $40,000, and for the 
choicest holdings the price was prohibitive. Rents corres- 
pondingly swelled. An Italian fruit vender, who used a few 
feet of space on the walk beside a corner store, paid $150 

Who commanded the Santa Rosa in her long service between San Francisco and San Diego 

per month for the privilege. The store itself, 25 b.y 50 in size, 
rented for $400 per month. A small cottage, shabbily built, 
with "cloth and paper" partitions, was competed for in the 
market at $60 per month. So general was the demand for 
homes and business quarters that the appearance of a load of 
lumber on vacant ground drew a knot of people who wanted 
to lease the structure in advance. Then the lessees camped 
out near by, waiting a chance to move in. 

Labor shared the common prosperity. A dirt-shoveler got 
from $2 to $.3 per day, according to the demand. The per 


diem of carpenters and brick-layers was $5 and $6. Compos- 
itors on the morning press earned from $5U to $60 per week. 
A barber asked 25 cents for a shave and 40 cents for a bath. 
Liverymen demanded $2.50 per hour for the use of a horse and 
buggy. The time of real estate agents was measured by dol- 
lars instead of minutes. In the common phrase of the Ei- 
alto, "everything went," and he who had aught to sell, 
whether of labor, commodity, skill, or time, could dispose 
of it for cash at thrice its value. 

Naturally a population drawn together from the adven- 
turous classes of the world, imbued as it was with excite- 
ment and far from conventional trammels, contained and de- 
veloped a store of profligacy and vice, much of which found 
its way into official, business, and social life. Gambling was 
open and flagrant; games of chance were carried on at the 
curb-stones; painted women paraded the town in carriages and 
sent out engraved cards summoning men to their receptions 
and "high teas;" the desecration of Sunday was complete, 
with all drinking and gambling houses open, and witli pic- 
nics, excursions, fiestas and bullfights, the latter at the Mexi- 
can line, to attract men, women, and boys from religious in- 
fluence. Theft, murder, incendiarism, carousals, fights, high- 
way robbery, and licentiousness gave to the passing show in 
boomtide San Diego many of the characteristics of the fron- 
tier camp. Society retired to cover before the invasion of 
cjuestionable people, and what came to be known as "society" 
in the newspapers, was, with hojiorable exceptions here and 
there, a spectacle of vulgar display and the arrogant parade of 
reputations which, in Eastern States, had secured for their 
owners the opportunity and the need of "going West." 

Speculation in city lots, which soon went beyond the scope 
of moderate resources in money and skill, found avenues to 
the country; and for twenty miles about the town the mesas 
and valleys were checkered with this or that man's "Addition 
to San Diego. ' ' Numberless new townsites were nearly in- 
accessible; one was at the bottom of a river; two extended 
into the bay. Some of the best had graded streets and young 
trees. All were sustained in the market by the promise of 
future hotels, sanitariums, operahouses, soldiers' homes, or motor 
lines to be built at specified dates. Few people visited these 
additions to see what they were asked to invest in, but under 
the stimulus of band music and a free lunch, they bought from 
tlie auctioneer's map and made large payments down. In this 
way at least a quarter of a million dollars were thrown away 
upon alkali wastes, cobble-stone tracts, sand overflowed lands 
and cactus, the poorest land being usually put down on the 
townsite market. 

It should be added that the Chamber of Commerce exerted 
itself to expose and defeat these fraudulent schemes, generally 
with success. Most of the frauds were hatched in places other 
than San Diego. 

Those who participated in these events and still live here, look 
back upon them with varying emotions. To some the memory 



is painful. ' ' The boom, ' ' says one ; ' ' well, that was the strang- 
est thing- you can imagine. There seems no way to aeeovint for 
it now, except as a sort of insanity. All you had to do was to 
put up some kind of a scheme and 'the people who came here 
would put their money into it by the barrel." Another tells 
with glee of a sea-captain whom he drove about the city on his 
first visit, about the year 1875 ; and after seeing it all, said : 
"A very pretty little town, and the houses, they look just like 


Bought Stonewall mine 1886 and developed it on large scale. In 1888 with others, began 

construction of San Diego, Cuyamaca & Eastern Railway, and shortly afterward 

purchased same. Came here to locate, December, 1890, immediately 

after retiring from Governor's chair, and died April 12, 1891 

toy houses!" "Near the same time," says Captain J. H. Simp- 
son, "General Crittenden, who had been instrumental in get- 
ting a one-inch plank sidewalk laid on the east side of Fourth 
Street to the Florence Hotel, then recently built, stopped Mr. 
Edwin Goodall, of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company, on 
this notable walk, one day, and said to him : ' This is going to 
be a great city. We are going to have electric street railways, 
motor roads to National Citv and Pacific Beach, a ferrv across 



the bay, a big hotel on the peninsula, and many other things. ' 
And then, pointing with pride to the sidewalk, he exclaimed: 
'And we have this sidewalk!' " 

It must be admitted, says Captain Simpson, that the boom 
was not an unmixed blessing. Evil as well as good resulted, 
and too many remember it with sorrow and anguish; yet the 
net gain to the city can scarcely be realized. I think it is 
twenty years in advance of what it would have been without 
it. . . . The progress made in these two years (1886-88) 
was wonderful. The two great water systems were started 
and the bonds for the sewer system voted. Streets were 
graded and miles of sidewalks laid, wharf facilities increased, 
work commenced and nearly two million dollars worth of 


]3roperty sold on Coronado Beach and the great hotel planned, 
motor roads built, streets graded, and substantial improve- 
ments started in every direction. 

Within this time, too, the city schools were systematized and 
several good sehoolhouses built. The fire department grew in 
size and efficiency. And in brief the foundations of the pres- 
ent city were laid broad and deep. 

One steamer in October, 1885, brought 80 new residents. Up 
to August, 306 buildings were completed in Horton's Addition 
in 1886, and the following month 200 new houses in course of 
construction in the city were counted. During this year there 


arrived 26,281, and departed 13,988 people, net gain in popu- 
lation 12,313. The total cost of the buildings constructed in 
the year was $2,000,000. The aggregate of real estate transac- 
tions was over $7,000,000. In the first six months of 1887, the 
lumber imported by sea measured 11,780,000 feet. In August, 
1887, the transfers of property in Horton's Addition for one 
week amounted to $223,513, and for the other additions, $53,735. 
The week prior, the total transfers amounted to $500,951. In 
1886 the number of business firms, professional men, etc., was 


^iH «i 












310 ; in 1887 they numbered 957. The population increased in 
the same period from 8,000 to 21,000. 

In the assessment roll for the year 1887, it appeared that 217 
citizens were worth over $10,000. The total valuation of city 
property jumped from $1,582,213, to $13,182,171. In February, 
1888. the total value of buildings under construction was 
$2,000,000. In the next month, 19,667,000 feet of lumlier were 
imported by sea, and in April the total was 18,000,000 feet. A 
review of five months' property sales made in June, 1888, showed 
an aggret;ate of $9,713,712. 


The custom house collectious rose from $5,739, in 1885, to 
$10,717 in 1886 ; to $29,845 in 1887, and to $311,935 in 1888. 
The exports in 1887 were $165,909, in 1888 $371,360, and in 
1889 $376,799. The vessels arriving and clearing showed a sim- 
ilar record. 

The great register of voters of San Diego County, dated 
September, 1888, contained 9,921 names. Directories and news- 
papers of the time show that there were 7 places of amusement : 
20 architects ; 3 expert accountants ; 4 abstractors of title ; 4 
dealers in agricultural implements; 2 dealers in artists' mate- 
rials ; 3 teachers of art ; 2 exhibitions of works of art ; 1 assayer ; 
9 artists ; 63 attorneys-at-law ; 6 awning, tent, and sail makers ; 
6 auctioneers ; 5 manufacturers of artificial stone ; 20 shoemak- 
ers ; 11 shoe dealers ; 9 banks ; 2 bands ; 37 barbers ; 15 black- 
smiths ; 12 bakers ; 2 boat houses ; 6 booksellers ; 9 bath houses ; 
5 wholesale butchers; 2 bookbinders; 3 beer bottlers; 6 brewers' 
agents ; 7 brick companies ; 5 billiard halls ; 2 building and loan 
associations ; 6 carriage and wagon dealers ; 10 carriage and 
Avagon makers; 1 carriage trimmer; 11 country produce dealers; 

17 commission merchants ; 10 civil engineers and surveyors ; 9 
capitalists ; 5 cabinet makers ; 3 foreign consuls ; 5 collecting 
agencies; 3 cornice works; 11 clothiers; 3 custom house brokers; 

18 confectioners; 3 carpet dealers; 2 carpet cleaners; 4 dealers 
in Chinese and Japanese goods; 4 dealers in curiosities; 11 deal- 
ers in crockery and glassware ; 5 coal and wood dealers ; 87 car- 
penters ; 13 wholesale dealers in cigars and tobacco ; 4 cigar man- 
ufacturers; 46 cigar dealers; 5 general contractors; 14 contract- 
ors and builders; 20 members of the builder's exchange; 37 
dressmakers ; 11 dentists ; 8 dyers and cleaners ; 4 sash, door, and 
blind factories ; 13 druggists ; 15 dealers in dry goods ; 1 firm of 
wood engravers ; 6 employment agencies ; 9 express, truck and 
transfer companies ; 5 dealers in fish, game, and poultry ; 13 
dealers in men's furnishing goods; 3 dealers in firearms; 9 deal- 
ers in furniture ; 3 Avholesale grocers ; 64 retail grocers ; 39 
hotels ; 2 hair stores ; 4 dealers in gas and lamp fixtures ; 1 man- 
ufacturer of gas and electric light ; 7 dealers in hardware ; 7 
dealers in hay, grain and feed ; 1 housemover ; 4 dealers 
in harness and saddlery ; 3 ice and cold storage compa- 
nies ; 2 iron works; 1 dealer in iron and steel; 18 insurance 
agents ; 20 jewelers ; 1 .junk store ; 4 lumber dealers ; 3 libraries ; 
24 livery, feed, and sales stables ; 75 lodging houses ; 12 whole- 
sale liquor dealers ; 2 dealers in lime, hair, and cement ; 3 laun- 
dries; 2 locksmiths and bell-hangers ; 6 dealers in musical mer- 
chandise ; 3 mortgage and loan brokers ; 5 music teachers ; 17 
meat markets ; 2 grain mills ; 1 marble and granite works ; 3 man- 
ufacturers of mantels ; 15 newspapers and periodicals ; 2 dealers 


in mineral water ; 10 milliners ; 2 midwives ; 3 nurseries ; 16 nota- 
ries public ; 5 news dealers ; 3 oculists and aurists ; 7 photogra- 
phers ; 4 planing mills ; 10 plumbers and gasfitters ; 4 pilots ; 3 
pawnbrokers; 1 manufacturer of pottery; 1 firm of plasterers; 
3 dealers in pianos and organs ; 73 physicians and surgeons ; 14 
book and job printers ; 6 dealers in paints and oils ; 18 house 
painters ; 238 dealers in real estate ; 57 restaurants ; 2 railroad 
ticket brokers ; 1 rubber stamp factory ; 1 stereotyper ; 2 shirt 
makers ; 2 ship chandlers ; 2 agencies for safe companies ; 2 soap 
factories ; 3 stair builders ; 9 stationers ; 5 second-hand stores ; 
3 sewing machine agencies ; 8 stenographers ; 71 saloons ; 5 deal- 
ers in stoves and tinware ; 5 tinners ; 2 typewriters ; 16 merchant 
tailors ; 3 undertakers ; 3 veterinarians ; 4 water companies ; 7 
dealers in wall paper ; 5 wharves ; 19 miscellaneous enterprises ; 
12 public buildings and offices ; 2 public parks ; 3 cemeteries ; 13 
schools and colleges ; 17 churches and 36 societies. 

The increase in the number of business firms, professional 
men, etc., in 1887 over 1886 was about 600. 

These figures represent high water mark of the boom period, 
and in many respects have never been equaled since. 

The great boom collapsed in 1888, the first symptom of strin- 
gency in the money market coming early in that year. Those 
who were speculating in margins threw their, holdings upon the 
market, first at a small discount, then at any price, and before 
the close of the month of January, there was a wild scramble 
and confidence was gone. The establishment of a new bank in 
March did not have any immediate effect in restoring confidence. 
"Save yourself" was the sole thought of those who had been 
foremost in the gamble for the "unearned increment." During 
the spring and summer, all the floating population and much 
that ought to have been permanent, had faded away — some 
10,000 of them. Not less than $2,000,000 of deposits were with- 
drawn from the banks, which w^ere no longer able to make loans 
on real estate, and were struggling to keep themselves from 
enforced liquidation. All works of public and private improve- 
ment were stopped, and there was much distress among work- 
ing people. Thus the spring and summer passed in deepest 
gloom and foreboding, and actual suffering among those who 
had lost all. In the fall, a better feeling began to prevail. The 
banks weathered the storm, for the time being, and the citizens 
began to hope for a steady and healthful growth for the future. 

What were the net results of the great boom ? To a few indi- 
viduals, pecuniary profit ; to many more individuals, loss and 
disappointment ; to the real estate market, years of stagnation ; 
but to San Diego as a community, a large gain in permanent 
population and the most valuable permanent improvements — 


such a gain as certainly could not have been had in the same 
space of time by any other means. 

It is a common saying that what a town needs is not a boom, 
but steady growth. Undoubtedly, steady growth is the health- 
ful condition and the one which ministers most to the comfort 
and prosperity of individuals. On the other hand, one of the 
most striking lessons in all human history is found in the fact 
that individuals are often sacrificed to the good of the commu- 
nity, or, as the philosophers put it, ''to the welfare of the social 
organism." This was true of San Diego in the period of the 
great boom. It is probably no exaggeration to say, as Captain 
Simpson did, that the city ' ' is twenty years in advance of what 
it would have been without it." It is due to the truth of his- 
tory that this should be said, yet it is also true that those who 
have the best interests of San Diego at heart — those who regard 
its best progress and highest welfare as something not neces- 
sarily synonymous with rapid advances in real estate values — 
pray that there may never be a repetition of the wild orgy of 
speculation, and that never again may the future be discounted 
as it was when the frenzy reached its height. 


ERY early in the Horton period, the citizens of 
San Diego began to realize the future impor- 
tance of various public utilities and to plan 
ways and means for meeting the need. Water, 
sewerage, light, facilities for transportation — 
these things must be provided if a city of 
consequence Avere destined to rise upon the 
shores of the Bay. Although the boom of 
1886-88 gave the greatest impetus to the growth of public utili- 
ties, the beginnings of several of them went farther back. 

In the spring of 1870, Wm. H. Perry and others undertook to 
provide San Diego with gas. Machinerj- was brought by steamer 
and installed, in June. The venture was not a success, however. 
In March, 1881, the matter was again taken up by a number 
of citizens. The San Diego Gas Company was organized in that 
month, and in April, articles of incorporation filed. The incor- 
porators were: 0. S. Witherby, George A. Cowles, Dr. R. M. 
Powers. E. W. Morse, Gordon & Hazzard, Bryant Howard, and 
M. G. Elmore. The capital stock was $100,000, and works cost- 
ing $30,000 were erected immediately, on the present site of the 
gas works — Tenth and M Streets. The fires were lighted for the 
first time on June 2, 1881. The fuel used was petroleum. 
Elmore, who held one-fourth of the stock, was a representative 
of the Petroleum Gas Company. The plant was thought to be 
sufficient for a city of 20,000. The number of subscribers at the 
start was 89. 

The use of petroleum gas proved unsatisfactory, however, and 
after an experience of tAvo years, the company made the neces- 
sary alterations in its plant and began to use coal, instead. The 
first use of coal was on April 19, 1883. From this time on, the 
gas works have grown with the city, enlarging their plant and 
extending their pipes as business required. 

The subject of electric lighting came up in March, 1885, when 
the city trustees appointed a committee of three to prepare a 
contract for electric lighting. The Hoi-ton House was the first 
building in the city to be lighted liy electricity. The first lights 
were furnished by the Jenney Electric Lighting Company, of 
Indianapolis, w^hich entered into a five-year contract for lighting 


the city by the mast system. Their machineiy was set in motion 
on jNIarch 16, 1886, and that evening the city was illuminated by 
electric light for the first time. In May the trustees discussed 
a proposition for the city to purchase the plant, but decided 
adversely. After the system had been in operation about six 
months, it was purchased by E. S. Babcock, Jr., and L. M. 
Vance, for $30,000. Mr. Vance had been the manager for the 
Eastern concern, and remained in charge. In ]\Iarch, 1887, the 
San Diego Gas, Fuel & Electric Light Company was organized, 
and bought the franchises of the San Diego Gas CompauA^ and 
of the San Diego & Coronado Gas & Electric Light Company. 
The new company had a capital stock of $500,000. and it 
undertook to furnish gas and electric light for San Diego and 

In April, 1905, the San Diego Consolidated Gas and Electric 
Company became the owner of the works and franchises of the 
old gas and electric companies of San Diego and has since sup- 
plied the city with all its gas and electric light and power. Dur- 
ing 1906, this company rebuilt the entire gas and electric plants, 
at an expense of about $750,000. New machinery and apparatus 
were being installed, including steam turbines for generating 
electricity, a new 500,000 foot gas holder, and additional 800,000 
foot gas generating set. The company owns and operates about 
50 miles of poles and 80 miles of gas mains. It serves some 
2,000 consumers of electric light and 4,000 consumers of gas. 
There are 224 arc lamps furnished to the city of San Diego and 
12 to National Citj'', for street lighting. Both the gas and elec- 
tricity used in National City are supplied from the plant in 
San Diego. 

The first public exhibition of the telephone in San Diego was 
made by Lieutenant Reade, L^. S. Weather Officer, on December 
5, 1877. It was not until March 23. 1881. that the newspapers 
state: "It is currently reported that ere many weeks we will 
have a telephone exchange in San Diego." The San Diego Tel- 
ephone Company was organized and began work in May, 1882. 
The officers were: President and treasurer. J. W. Thompson; 
secretary. Douglas Gunn; directors, A. Wentscher, J. A. Fair- 
child, and Simon hevi. The first use of the lines was on June 
11. and there were 13 subscribers to the first exchange. 

In 1887, the number of subscribers was 284. The San Diego 
Telephone Company was not incorporated, but was operated as 
a mutual affair, as the telephone business was thought to be in 
an experimental stage. The lines were extended to several out- 
side points, however; to Julian in September, 1885, to Ocean- 
side in May, 1886, and in 1887 to Escondido, Poway, Campo, 
Tia Juana, Oneonta. Coronado. La Jolla, Pacific Beach, Ocean 


Beach, and soon after to El Cajon, Lakeside, Alpine, Cnyamaca, 
Sweetwater Dam, Chula Vista, Otay, and Del Mar. In Decem- 
ber, 1890, the Sunset Telphone and Telegraph Company pur- 
chased the plant and took control. Mr. Thompson continued as 
manager until March 8, 1895, when he was succeeded by R. L. 
Lewis, who still continues in the position. At the time Mr. 
Lewis took charge, there were 360 telephones in use in San 
Diego, and the number of employes was 9. In November, 1897, 
the company completed the construction of a long distance line 
from Santa Ana, which connected San Diego with over 700 cities 
and towns in California. The number of telephones now in use 
in the city is nearly 3,200, and the long distance system has been 
greatly extended and improved. 

The Home Telephone Company secured its city franchise in 
November, 1903, and a county franchise on June 5, 1905. Ser- 
vice was commenced in February, 1905. It was organized and 
built largely by local subscriptions. The automatic system is 
used. The number of city subscribers is about 2,500 and long 
distance wires have been extended to 19 interior exchanges in 
San Diego County. The first manager was Roscoe Howard, who 
served until July 1, 1905. The company has a substantial build- 
ing of its own. 

In the matter of street improvements, the people of San Diego 
seem to have taken little interest until the time of the great 
boom. Indeed, the conditions of soil and climate are such that 
nowhere are the streets so easily kept in good condition, and 
nowhere are apathy and indifference so prone to prevail. 

In November, 1869, a proposition was made to license saloons 
and teamsters for the purpose of raising funds for the improve- 
ment of the streets. This proposition was voted down, however. 
The first official action for the establishment of street grades was 
in October, 1872, when the city engineer was instructed to make 
surveys for that purpose, from A Street south and Thirteenth 
Street west, to the Bay. 

Fifth Street was the first street extended out upon the mesa, 
and long remained the only avenue to what is now one of the 
most attractive residence districts in the city. This work was 
done early in 1880. 

The first important street grading work began in January, 
1886. There was considerable agitation for this and other classes 
of improvements in 1886-7, culminating in a public meeting at 
the Louis Opera House in August, 1887, when Mr. Holabird, 
Judges "Works, Puterbaugh and others spoke. It was thought 
the trustees were not showing proper zeal, and the needs of the 
city far outraii their accomplishment. 


The largest single undertaking in the way of street improve- 
ments was the construction of the sewer sj^stem. The movement 
for this work began in May, 1882, when a committee of the city 
council was appointed and made a report on the city's needs. 
Nothing was done at the time, but there was considerable discus- 
sion, and by the spring of 1886 the trustees were fairly forced 
by the growth of the city to take some action. General Thomas 
Sedgwick appeared before the board by iuAdtation and gave his 
views. On June 25th, he explained his views further at a meet- 
ing held in Horton's Hall, and steps were thereupon taken to 
secure the services of Colonel George E. Waring, Jr., of New- 
port, Rhode Island. Colonel Waring made his report in Decem- 
ber, providing for a complete system of sewerage for the city, 
having a total length of 211,560 feet and constructed on the 
most approved lines. The proposition to issue bonds in the sum 
of $400,000 for the construction of the system was voted on in 
the spring of 1887, and carried by a large majority. These 
bonds were sold to the Pacific Bank, of San Francisco, in June, 
and work began the following month. At the close of that year 
over 38 miles of main pipes had been laid and in July, 1888, 
the system was practically completed. This was an immense 
undertaking for a city the size of San Diego, and had the burst- 
ing of the boom been foreseen, it is likely the citizens would 
scarcely have had the courage to undertake it. However, the 
"Waring System" still serves efficiently the needs of San Diego, 
a model of engineering skill and of public spirit. 

The newspapers of San Diego began to agitate for street rail- 
ways in March, 1881, but it was not until 1886 that their desire 
was gratified. The first franchise granted was to Dr. John 
McCoy, of Pasadena, October 18, 1885. The ordinance provided 
that no road should be built on any street until it had been 
graded by the city. Complications arose out of this unfortunate 
provision, upon the observance of which McCoy insisted. He 
did not build any street railways. 

The next franchises granted (two at one meeting) were to 
Messrs. Santee, Evans, Mathus, Babcock, Gruendike, and Story, 
and to Reed, Choate and others, in March, 1886. April 15, 1886, 
articles of incorporation of the San Diego Street Car Company 
were filed. In August, the trustees gave a franchise to George 
Neal and James McCoy for a railroad between Old and New 
San Diego. 

The first car (a horse car) was run on Fifth Street, July 4, 
1886. This line was two miles long. The second line was built 
on D Street, and had a length of IV^ miles. The third was the 
H Street line, 31/2 miles ; and the next was the First Street line, 
% of a mile in length. From this on, construction was rapid. 


On January 1, 1888, there were 36 -i-S miles of street railroads 
running and in course of construction and about ten miles more 
being surveyed. The San Diego & Old Town Motor Railroad 
was opened November 21, 1887, and reached Pacific Beach 
April 1, 1888. Its officers were : President, J. R. Thomas ; sec- 
retary and manager, A. G. Gasseu ; directors, J. R. Thomas, A. 
G. Gassen, R. A. Thomas, E. W. Morse, T. Metcalf, D. B. Hale, 
and 0. S. Hubbell. It was extended to La Jolla in 1889. 

The articles of incorporation of the National City and Otay 
Railroad Company (motor) were filed in December, 1886. The 
capital stock was $100,000, later increased to $1,300,000, and the 
Land & Town Company was a very large stockholder. The road 
was opened for business on January 1, 1887. It has branch lines 
to Chula Vista and other points. It has recently been acquired 
by the Spreckels system, and is being converted into a trolley 

The Coronado Belt Line was one of the earliest railroads 
begun. It was constructed by the Coronado Beach Company in 
connection with the development of the hotel property. The 
line extends from the Coronado Ferry wharf to the foot of Fifth 
Street, San Diego, following the shore of the Bay, and is 21.29 
miles long. 

On January 1, 1888, the names of the steam motor companies, 
and mileage of their tracks, were as follows: 


National City & Otay Eailway Co 40 

Coronado Eailway IVa 

Coronado Belt Eailway 2I14 

San Diego, Old Town & Pacific Beach 12 

City & University Heights Eailway 

Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 's Eailway 1-3 

Ocean Beach Eailway 3I2 

Eoseville & Old Town Eailway 1 

La Jolla Park Eailway 

The following were the electric and horse railways : 


San Diego Electric Street Eailway 4% 

San Diego Street Eailway System (horse) 9 

National City & Otay Eailway (7th St.) % 

National City Street Eailway 2% 

The single electric line in operation at that time was owned 
and operated by the Electric Rapid Transit Street Car Com- 
pany of San Diego, of which George D. Copeland was president. 
The first piece of road which it constructed was from the foot 
of D Street in a northerly direction along the Bay shore, for 
four miles, to Old Town. This line began operation in Novem- 
ber, 1887. The next electric road constructed was that from the 



Pacific Coast Steamship Company 's wharf to University Heights, 
four miles. The total cost of these lines, up to the same date, 
was as follows : 

Horse car lines $ 315,000 

Motor car lines 1,006,000 

Electric car lines 100,000 



Located, 1886; manager Stonewall mine, 1886-93. General manager San Diego. Cuyamaca & 

Eastern Railway from 1891 to date of his untimely death, February 24. 1903. 

Director and Vice President Chamber of Commerce, 1902-03. 

Prominent in politics. Son of Gov. Waterman 

The new roads projected at that time were estimated to cost a 
half million more, but few, if any, of them were ever built. 

The San Diego Cable Car Company was incorporated and 
began work in August, 1889. Its line extended from the foot 
of Sixth Street, to C, thence to Fourth, and up Fourth to 
Spruce. The enterprise was started by George D. Copeland, and 
incorporated by John C. Fisher, D. D. Dare, J. W. Collins, 
George B. Hensley, and H. F. Norcross. The power house was 


built in 1889, at a cost of $30,000, and was placed at the head 
of the canyon on Fourth and Spruce Streets, where some 
remains of the cement foundations may still be seen. The line 
was formally opened on June 7, 1890. It was at that time 
thought that this development meant a great deal for San Diego. 
Electric railways were then in their infancy and many people 
thought the cable system preferable. The failure of the Cali- 
fornia National Bank, its principal backer, with the long- 
continued depression which followed, caused the failure of the 
road. After being for some time in the hands of a receiver, its 
property and franchise were sold to an electric railway company, 
in January, 1892. Such, in brief, is the history of San Diego's 
first and only cable car line. 

With the collapse of the boom, a reaction from the too-rapid 
building of street car lines was to be expected. A number of 
the weak companies failed and were absorbed by the stronger 
ones. All the motor roads went out of business or were con- 
verted into electric lines, except the National City & Otay and 
the San Diego, Old Town & Pacific Beach Railways. On Janu- 
ary 30, 1892, the entire property of the San Diego Street Car 
Company passed into the hands of A. B. Spreckels, for the sum 
of $115,000. This purchase included practically all the live 
trackage in the city, and, with the lines since acquired, comprises 
all the older lines in the city. Mr. Spreckels immediately incor- 
porated the San Diego Electric Railway Company, to operate 
his lines, with the following officers : A. B. Spreckels, president ; 
E. S. Babcock, vice-president; Joseph A. Flint, secretary, 
treasurer, and general manager; directors, A. B. Spreckels, 
John D. Spreckels, Charles T. Hinde, E. S. Babcock, and Joseph 
A. Flint. 

The transformation of all the lines to electric power began in 
May, 1892, and was carried vigorously to completion. At the 
present time, the company operates 25 miles of track in the city 
and has 10 miles more under construction. Early in 1907, it will 
begin operating 10 miles of interurban track between San Diego 
and Chula Vista. 

The motor line to La Jolla, of which the old San Diego, Old 
Town & Pacific Beach Railway formed a portion, now belongs 
to the Los Angeles & San Diego Beach Railway Company, of 
which E. S. Babcock is president and E. A. Hornbeck general 
manager. The road is now being converted into a trolley line. 
The company has also recently constructed and is operating an 
electric street railway to connect with its La Jolla line, running 
up C Street to Sixth, south on Sixth to its foot, and thence south- 
easterly to the Cuyamaca depot. 


The South Park and East Side Railway, an enterprise grow- 
ing out of the operations of the Bartlett estate under the pres- 
idency of E. Bartlett Webster, began active construction in 
March, 1906. Its firet line ran from Twenty-fifth and D to Thir- 
tieth and Amherst Streets, a distance of a mile and a half, the 
power house being located at the terminal. During the early 
months of 1907 the line was extended to Twenty-fifth and F^ 
down F to Fourth, and up Fourth to C, thus reaching the heart 
of the business district. This line, which has become a strong 
factor in local transportation and the development of the resi- 
dence district on the east side, is reaching out toward the bay 
in one direction, and toward the back country in the other. At 
this writing, the company has pending applications for fran- 
chises up Fourth Street to B, and down B Street to the bay ; 
also, along La Mesa Boulevard to La Mesa Springs, while El 
Cajon Valley is looking to it hopefully for rapid transit in the 
earlv future. 



HE question of an adequate supply of water 
for San Diego always has been one of the 
most vital problems in the life of the 
place. During the short life of "Davis's 
Folly," or "Graytown," and for some time 
after Horton came, the inhabitants depended 
upon water hauled from the San Diego River. 
The early settlers still remember paying Tas- 
ker & Hoke twenty-five cents a pail for this water. After that, 
they were for some time dependent upon a few wells. An effort 
to find an artesian supply began in 1871. A well was sunk by 
Calloway & Co. in which some water was found at a depth of 
250 feet. They asked for city aid to enable them to continue 
boring, but the proposition to issue $10,000 city bonds to carry 
on the work was defeated at an election held in July, 1872 
The well in the court house yard furnished a good supply, which 
was used to some extent for irrigation. In 1873 a well was com- 
pleted at the Horton House, which gave great satisfaction and 
was thought to demonstrate that "an inexhaustible supply of 
good water exists at but a comparatively trifling depth, which 
can be reached with little expense." The well which Captain 
Sherman sank in the western part of his new addition, was also 
an important factor. 

The town soon outgrew the possibility of dependence upon 
wells, early in its first boom, and in 1872 San Diego's first water 
company was organized. This was the San Diego Water Com- 
pany, incorporated January 20, 1873. The principal stockhold- 
ers were : H. M. Covert and Jacob Gniendike ; the incorporators 
were these two and D. W. Briant, D. 0. McCarthy, Wm. K. 
Gardner, B. F. Nudd, and Return Roberts. The capital stock 
was $90,000, divided into 900 shares of $100 each. The term 
of the incorporation was fifty years from February 1, 1873. 
H. M. Covert was the first president. 

The first works of this company were artesian wells and reser- 
voirs. They bored a well in Pound Canyon, near the southeast 
corner of the Park, and found water, but at a depth of 300 feet 
the drill entered a large cavern and work had to be abandoned. 
The water rose to within 60 feet of the surface and remained 


statiouarv. They then sank a well 12 feet in diameter around 
the first pipe, to a depth of 170 feet, and from the bottom of this 
second boring put down a pipe to tap the subterranean stream. 
The large well was then bricked up and cemented. It had a 
capacitj- of 54,000 gallons per hour. Two small reservoirs were 
also constructed, one at 117 feet above tide water, wdth a capac- 
ity of 70,000 gallons, and the other more than 200 feet above 
the tide, Avith a capacity of 100,000 gallons. The water was 
pumped from the 12-foot well into these two reservoirs. Such 
were San Diego's first waterAvorks. In March, 1874, the Union 
said Avith pride : 

About 18,000 I'eet of pipe will be put down for the present. 
Pipe now extends from the smaller reservoir down Eleventh 
and D, along D to Fifth, down Fifth to K, along K to Eleventh, 
and will also run through Ninth from D to K and from Fifth 
along J to Second. The supply from this well will be sufficient 
for 30,000 population and is seemingly inexhaustible. 

But notAvithstanding this confidence, in a fcAV years the Avater 
supply in Pound Canyon AA-as found to be inadequate, and it 
AA-as determined to bring water from the river. In the summer 
of 1875 the company increased its capital stock to $250,000 for 
the purpose of making this improvement. A reservoir Avas built 
at the head of the Sandrock Grade, on University Heights. The 
Avater had to be lifted seA^eral hundred feet from the river to 
the reserA'oir, and this pumping Avas expensiA^e. In order to 
aA^oid this expense and improA^e the service, the company drove 
a tunnel through the hills, beginning at a point 'in ]\Iission Val- 
ley beloAv the ncAv County Hospital and coming out on Univer- 
sity Avenue near George P. Hall's place. The w^ater was piped 
through this tunnel, which is still in a fair state of preservation. 
A ncAv reservoir was built at the southAA-est corner of Fifth and 
HaAvthorne Streets ; and these Avorks constituted the San Diego 
water system until the pumping plant and reservoir at Old Tow^n 
were constructed. This old reservoir gaA^e sufficient pressure 
for the time being, and it was not then believed the high mesa 
lands AA'ould CA^er be built upon. 

In the fall of 1879 the papers note that the Avater mains had 
been extended down K Street as far as the flour mill and thence 
up Twelfth to the Bay VieAv Hotel. Early in 1886 the long 
delayed work on the river system, near Old Town, AA^as resumed. 
From numerous wells in the river bed, the water AA^as pumped 
into the large reservoir on the hill. At this time the company 
also made many extensions and laid new pipes for almost the 
entire system. The pumps installed had a capacity of 6.600,000 
gallons per twenty-four hours. There are four coA^ered reser- 
voirs with a total capacity of 4,206,000 gallons. A standpipe 


was placed on Spreckels Heights, 136 feet high and 36 inches in 
diameter. The top of this standpipe was 401 feet above tide, 
and it regulated the pressure all over the city. According to 
the engineer's statement, about 30,000,000 gallons were pumped 
during each month of the year 1888. The pipe lines, in Janu- 
ary, 1890, exceeded 60 miles and had cost $800,000. There were 
185 fire hydrants connected, for which the company received 
$100 each per annum. 

The next large undertaking in the way of water development 
was that of the San Diego Flume Company. This project orig- 
inated with Theodore S. Van Dyke and W. E. Robinson, who 
worked upon it for some time before they succeeded in inter- 
esting anyone else. Then General S. H. Marlette became inter- 
ested and these three associates secured the water rights needed 
for the development. In 1885, they planned to form a corpora- 
tion, to be called the San Diego Irrigating Company, but for 
some reason the plan failed. The promoters continued to work 
indefatigably, however, and finally succeeded in enlisting the 
interest of George D. Copeland, A. W. Hawley, and a few oth- 
ers, and soon were in a position to incorporate. The articles of 
incorporation were filed in May, 1886. Besides those mentioned, 
the following were incorporators : Milton Santee, R. H. Stretch, 
George W. Marston, General T. T. Crittenden, Robert Allison, 
J. M. Luco, and E. W. Morse. 

Sufficient money was paid in to start the work. Copeland 
became President, Robinson Vice-President, and Stretch Engi- 
neer. Captain Stretch served about six months and did some 
of the preliminary work. He was succeeded by Lew B. Harris, 
who served about a year, and then J. H. Graham became the 
engineer and remained until the work was completed. The cap- 
ital stock was $1,000,000, divided into 10,000 shares of .*100 each. 

The difficulties encountered were many. There was an ineffi- 
cient contractor whose men the company was compelled to pay. 
It was asserted that the flume encroached upon an Indian reser- 
vation, and there was frequently a lack of funds. Their means 
becoming exhausted, some of the original incorporators were 
obliged to step out. Copeland became manager in place of Rob- 
inson, and Morse president in place of Copeland. Later, Bry- 
ant Howard became president and W. H. Ferry superintendent, 
and these two men saw the work completed. 

This great pioneer undertaking was organized and carried out 
by far-seeing, courageous men, for the purpose of irrigating the 
rich lands of El Cajon Valley and also of bringing a supply of 
water to San Diego. Incidentally, but quite as important, they 
were aware that they were making a demonstration of the agri- 
cultural possibilities of San Diego's derided back country. 


There were a few citizens who understood the importance of the 
undertaking and watched the course of events with almost 
breathless interest. But the majority were too busy with real 
estate speculations to be much concerned — at least, this was true 
of the floating- population of newcomers. Van Dyke writes 
pointedly: "The writer and his associates who were struggling 
to get the San Diego River water out of the mountains to give 
the city an abundant supply, and reclaim the beautiful table- 
lands about it, were mere fools 'monkeying' with an impracti- 
cable scheme, and of no consequence anyhow." 

On February 22, 1889, the completion of the flume was cele- 
brated in San Diego, most impressively. There was a street 
parade over a mile long, and a display of the new water. A 
stream from a 1% inch nozzle was thrown 125 feet into the air, 
at the corner of Fifth and Beech Streets, and at the corner of 
Fifth and Ivy, another one 150 feet high, to the admiration of 
the citizens. There were 19 honorary presidents of the day on 
the grand stand. Bryant Howard, M. A. Luce, George Puter- 
baugh, Hon. John Breuuan of Sioux City, Iowa, D. C. Reed, and 
Colonel W. G. Dickinson spoke, and letters and telegrams from 
absent notables were read. 

It is really a pity to have to spoil the story of the celebration 
of such an achievement, with a joke, but — the truth is, the water 
in the pipes at the time was not the Flume Company's water, 
at all. The Flume Company had placed no valves in their pipes, 
and, consequently, when they turned the water on, it was air- 
bound and the water advanced very slowly. When the day for 
the celebration came, the water being still several miles away, 
the officei's of the San Diego Water Company quietly turned 
their own water into the pipes, and had a good laugh in their 
sleeves while listening to the praises the people lavished on the 
fine qualities of the "new water." The Flume Company's water 
arrived three weeks later. 

The flume emerges from the San Diego River a short distance 
below the mouth of Boulder Creek, and proceeds thence down 
the Capitan Grande Valle.y to El Cajon Valley, about 250 feet 
from the Monte. From this point the flume curves to the east 
and south of El Cajon, at a considerable elevation. From El 
Cajon, the flume is brought to the city by the general route of 
the Mesa road. The total length of the flume proper is 35.6 miles. 
The reservoir is an artificial lake on the side of Cuyamaca Moun- 
tain, about fifty miles from San Diego, at an elevation of about 
5,000 feet. Its capacity is nearly 4,000,000,000 gallons. It is 
formed by a breastwork of clay and cement, built across the 
mouth of a valley, forming a natural basin. 



The construction of this flume exerted a very important influ- 
ence in bringing on and sustaining the great boom, although it 
was not completed until after the close of that episode. The 
officers at the time of its completion were : Bryant Howard, 
president; W. H. Ferry, vice-president and manager; L. F. 
Doolittle, secretary; Bryant Howard, W. H. Ferry, M. A. Luce, 
E. W. Morse, and A. W. Hawley, directors. These men are 
entitled to the credit of being the first to carry to a successful 
conclusion a scheme of development of the water resources of 
San Diego Count}^ upon a large scale. 


The construction of the Sweetwater Dam was begun November, 
1886, and completed March, 1888, under the well-known engineer, 
James D. Schuyler. The Dam alone cost $225,000 and the 
lands used for reservoir site 17. .9,000 more. The original in- 
vestment in the system of distribution exceeded half a million 
dollars. The reservoir stores 7,000,000,000 gallons and supplies 
National City Chula Vista, and a small area of land in Sweet- 
water Valley. 

The Otay Water Company filed its articles of incorporation 
March 15, 1886, its declared object being to irrigate the Otay 
Valley lands and the adjacent mesa, and E. S. Babcock being 
the principal owner. In 1895 he sold a half interest to the 
Spreckels Brothers and the name of the corporation was changed 

Who came to San Diego in 1884 to hunt quail %"d remained to influence events mo^^ 

fully than anyone since Horton. A man of big conceptions and restless enterpiise, 

he founded Coronado, engaged assiduously in ^^ter development and was 

identified with numerous public utility corporations. Moreover he 

it was who interested John D. Spreckels in local enterpiises 

and thereby started a series of developments which is 

still unfolding, to the immense advantage 

of the city and region 


to the Southern California Mountain Water Company. Later, 
the Spreckelses became sole owners. This company has an impor- 
tant contract under which it now supplies the city with its entire 
water supply. Its storage dam is at Moreno and its pipe line 
was extended to the city reservoir and the delivery of water 
commenced in the summer of 1906. 

The San Diego AVater Company was incorporated in 1889, 
and in 1894 the Consolidated Water Company was formed for 


To whom the public and the government is largely indebted for exact knowledge concerning- 

the water resources of the western slope of San Diego County, which 

he has studied for twenty years 

the purpose of uniting the San Diego Water Company and the 
San Diego Flume Company under one ownership. The Consoli- 
dated acquired by exchange of securities all the stock and bonds 
of both the water and the flume company. On July 21, 1901, 
the system of distribution within the city limits became the prop- 
erty of the municipality, a bond issue of $600,000 having been 
voted for its acquisition. The city obtained its supply from the 
pumping plant in Mission Valley until August, 1906, when its 


contract with the Southern California Mountain Water Com- 
pany went into operation. Under the terms of this contract, 
the city obtains an abundant supply of water from mountain 
reservoirs at a price of four cents per thousand gallons, the 
water being delivered to its mains on University Heights. 

The water question has been from the beginning a prolific 
source of controversy between the people and various corpora- 
tions, and every important stage of its evolution, from the day 
of the earliest wells to the time when the great Spreckels sys- 
tem was sufficiently developed to meet the present demands, was 
was markd by acrimonious discussion and sharp divisions in the 
community. The Spreckels contract was not approved by public 
opinion until an unsuccessful effort had been made to increase 
the city's own supply by the purchase of water-bearing lands 
in El Cajon Valley and the establishment of a great pumping 
plant at that point. The municipal election of 1905 turned 
largely upon this issue. It resulted in the election of a mayor 
favorable to the El Cajon project, with a council opposed to it. 
A referendum on the subject revealed a curious state of the 
public mind. A majox-ity favored the purchase of the lands, 
but opposed their development. The majority in favor of buy- 
ing lands fell short of the necessary two-thirds, however, and 
the city government then turned to the Southern California 
Mountain Water Company as the only feasible means of creat- 
ing a water supply to meet the needs of a rapidly growing city. 

The mayor vetoed the contract with the Spreckels company 
when it first came to him from the council, urging that it be 
revised in such a way as to put its legality beyond all possible 
question (the contract was for a period of ten years, while the 
city attorney advised that it could legally be made for only one 
year at a time), and also to reserve the city's right to operate 
its pumping plant in Mission Valley sufficiently to keep it in 
condition to meet an emergency. The council promptly passed 
the contract over the mayor's veto, whereupon it was signed by 
the executive. The act was followed by the rapid completion of 
the pipe line to the city and the construction of an aerating 
plant on University Heights. 

The consummation of this contract ended the long struggle 
for water and marked the beginning of a new epoch in the city 's 
life. This fortunate result was not due to the fact that the 
contract was made with any particular company, nor to the fact 
that it brought water from any particular source. It was due 
to the fact that the people of San Diego had obtained a cheap 
and reliable water supply adequate to the needs of a city three 
or four times its present size. Water from El Cajon or from 
San Luis Rey would have served the same purpose and exerted 


the same happy influence on the growth of population and sta- 
bility of values. Since the city had failed to adopt a project of 
its own, it was very fortunate to possess a capitalist able and 
willing to meet its needs upon reasonable terms at a crucial 
moment in its history. 


The Last Two Decades 



HE collapse of the great boom, while it brought 

T^. .. much individual suffering, did not cause a 
(rU l^^gs number of failures. A few merchants 
Va> and small tradesmen went out of business, 
^-^ ' owing to stagnation and decrease in popula- 
tion, but the banks weathered the storm, for 
the time being, and materially improved 
their condition. The California National Bank 
was opened in January, 1888, and the California Savings Bank, 
under the same management, a year later, and both adopted a 
liberal policy. Money became available for carrying out many 
improvements contracted for during the boom, which had been 
dropped at the time of the collapse. By fall it was felt that the 
worst was over and an era of steady growth was at hand. 

Between the end of the boom and the summer of 1891, many 
of the most important public and private improvements in San 
Diego were completed. To this period belongs the completion 
and opening of the Hotel del Coronado, the construction of the 
Spreckels coal bunkers and wharves, the rebuilding of the court 
house, the laying of several miles of street pavement, the exten- 
sion of the electric railway to University Heights, and the San 
Diego, Cuyamaca & Eastern Railway to El Cajon. The flume 
was also completed and began to deliver water for use in the 
city. Many school houses and churches were built. A compe- 
tent authority has estimated that over $10,000,000 were invested 
in permanent improvements in this period. The population rose 
slowly but steadily, and by the census of 1890 was nearly 17,000. 
These high hopes were destined to be again severely checked, 
howev<er, at a time when trouble was least expected. In October, 
1891, the California National Bank failed disastrously, and this 
failure effectually checked the growth of the city. None of the 
other banks failed at that time, but in the following summer, 
during the financial stringency which prevailed all over the 
country, several of them were obliged to give up the struggle, 
as related in the chapter on banking. These disasters, the cul- 
mination of a long series of misfortunes under which the city 
suffered, caused indescribable gloom and discouragement. Nev- 
ertheless, as on similar occasions in the past, the good sense and 



fortitude of the people soon asserted themselves. They set about 
the task of saving what they could out of the wreck and waited 
for better times. It is not designed to go minutely into the 
annals of these quiet years. A few things have been selected 
which it is hoped will prove of especial interest. 

The first theater in San Diego was known as Leach's Opera 
House, which stood on D Street between First and Second. The 


Who next to Horton, had the distinction of being- the largest operator in real estate in early 
days. He located here in 1869, purchased hundreds of acres of what is now the best 
outlying residence districts of the city and subdivided them. He laid out no 
less than ten different additions. Perhaps his most important achieve- 
ment in San Diego was the founding of the College Hill Land 
Association. He was postmaster from 1875 to 1882 

building was erected about 1881 and first used as a gymnasium. 
Wallace Leach and W. F. McKee purchased it in 1883 and con- 
ducted it as a theater about five years. The Louis Opera House 
(now called the Grand), on Fifth Street between B and C, was 
opened March 1, 1887, by the Farini Opera Company. The 
Fisher Opera House (now the Isis) was opened January 12, 
1892, by the Carleton Opera Company, in the comic opera, 






"Indigo." The house was built by John C. Fisher, who was 
also largely interested in the old cable railway. The total seat- 
ing capacity of the theater is 1,400. The drop curtain was 
painted by Thomas Gr. Moses, of Chicago, and represents the 
"Piazzi d'Erbe," a market place in Verona. 

One of the best remembered events was the celebration of the 
350th anniversary of the discovery of San Diego by 
Cabrillo, which was held on the 28th, 29th and 30th days of 
September, 1892. This celebration was held at the suggestion 
of Walter Gifford Smith. A large number of visitors came 
to witness the event. Governor Markham was present with his 
staff; Admiral Gherardi with the Baltimore and Charleston; 
General Torres, of Lower California, and staff; and Generals 
McCook and Johnson of the U. S. Army, with their staffs. The 
streets and the shipping in the Bay, including the U. S. and for- 
eign men of war, were handsomely decorated. 

One of the most interesting features was the presence of a 
number of Luisanio and Dieguino Indians, both men and women, 
garbed and decorated in a manner which was practically histor- 
ically correct. These people came from their homes at San Luis 
Rey and elsewhere, at the personal request of Father Ubach, 
and were by him drilled for their part in the ceremonies. 

The Luisanio Indian men Avere naked above the waist and 
below the thighs, and their bodies were painted with white and 
black, the groundwork being laid on in iDroad horizontal bands. 
The Dieguenos wore red, black, and white paint in fantastic 
designs ; the groundwork being red and the decorations black 
and white. Each wore on his head a dress of eagle feathers and 
a few had a single, tall, straight eagle plume. Their arms con- 
sisted of bows and arrows and a wooden weapon resembling a 
boomerang. The women were also painted and each wore on 
her head a wreath of tule. The Luisanios were under the com- 
mand of Chief Jose Pachito and General Pedro Pablo and the 
Dieguenos under Chief La Chappa and General Cenon Duro. 
The latter was the last chief of the Mesa Grande Indians, and 
died in October, 1906. 

At 9 :30 on the 28th, the ship representing the San Salvador, 
flying the orange and red of Arragon and Castile, came up the 
channel and anchored. Emanuel Cabral, a fisherman of La 
Playa, chosen for his resemblance to Cabrillo, stood upon the 
deck dressed in black velvet, gold doublet, full short knee- 
breeches, black silk long hose, and broad Spanish hat with white 
plume. An hour later he was rowed ashore b.y a crew similarly 
attired and received by the Indian chiefs and their 150 follow- 
ers. He unfurled the flag and took possession of the country in 
the name of the King of Spain ; then, having read his declara- 


tion, lie planted his sword in the sand before the flag, kissed 
the cross-hilt, and the Indians, at his request, followed his 

After this there was a great procession in which the Indians 
and many other interesting features appeared. There were floats 
representing Cortes and other historic characters; a large band 
of Spanish vaqueros, led by Don Tomas Alvarado, Don Pancho 
Pico, Senor Argiiello, and Don Manuel A. Ferrer; a company 
of Mexican rurales in buckskin and broad-brimmed hats ; a com- 
pany of American cowboys, etc. At the Plaza, Governor Mark- 
ham presided and addresses were made by the Governor, by Hon. 
R. F. Del Valle, of Los Angeles, and by the Very Reverend 
Father J. Adam. Hon. R. M. Daggett read an original poem 
entitled Cabrillo. 

On the 29th there was an Indian fiesta, at w^hich they exhib- 
ited their native dances, and a vaquero tournament, which lasted 
two days. There was also a ball at the Hotel del Coronado, a 
reception on board the Baltimore, yacht races, and other amuse- 
ments. A similar celebration was held the following year. 

The case of the Chilean insurgent vessel Itata is a somewhat 
celebrated one. In the spring of 1891 there was an insurrection 
in progress in Chile, against the government of President Bal- 
maceda. The revolutionary party finally triumphed, but at the 
time of the Itata incident, the revolution had not made much 
headway. The insurgents were in need of arms and ammuni- 
tion and sent an agent to the United States to secure them. This 
agent, a man named Burke, had been in the employ of the Pan- 
ama Railway Company and was familiar with conditions in 
South America. He went to New York and consulted attorneys 
who advised him that he might lawfully purchase and ship the 
supplies, but that the United States could not permit a vessel to 
outfit and clear from its ports with them on board — that this 
would be an act of unfriendliness to the Chilean government. 
His problem then was, how to get his purchases out of the coun- 
try without getting into trouble. 

Burke purchased a quantity of arms and ammunition and had 
them shipped to San Francisco, where they were put on board 
the schooner Robert and Minnie without molestation. The 
schooner sailed south, expecting to meet an insurgent vessel and 
transfer the cargo, at some island. Meanwhile, the steamer 
Itata, guarded by the insurgent man-of-war Esmeralda, was dis- 
patched from Iquique to meet the Bohert and Minnie. The 
Itata was obliged to put into the port of San Diego for coal and 
other supplies, before meeting the Bohert and Minnie. Had it 
not been for this necessity, no such complications as arose would 
have ensued. The Itata had papers from Iquique which appeared 


regular, and she passed for a peaceful merchantman. She was 
an English-built steamer which had been in the South American 
trade. Her commander was Captain Manzden, a German. The 
crew was not unusually large, and no suspicion was excited by 
her visit. 

Mr. Burke, however, proved somewhat indiscreet; in fact, he 
felt so sure of himself that he soon took the public into his con- 
fidence. At Port San Pedro he took the United States Customs 
Inspector on board the schooner, showed him his cargo, and told 
him what he expected to do with it. The inspector reported this 
to his superiors and asked for instructions, and the revenue offi- 
cers there and at San Diego were thereupon instructed to watch 
the Bobert and Minnie and the Itata. United States Marshal 
Card, of Los Angeles, was also sent to San Diego to investigate, 
with power to seize the Itata; with him came also Harry Morse, 
of the Morse Detective Agency, San Francisco, who represented 
the Balmaceda government. 

Upon his arrival, IMarshal Gard seems to have acted on his 
own account and failed to take the San Diego collector. Colonel 
John E. Berry, into his confidence. Colonel Berry had started 
on a business trip to Corona and first heard of the trouble at 
Santa Ana. He immediately returned to San Diego, and relates 
that he came down on the same train with Gard and Morse and 
sat in the same seat with the former, who had not a word to say 
about the Itata. While they were in the act of leaving the train, 
Colonel Berry says, he remarked to Gard: "I suppose you are 
here on the Itata business?" and Gard denied it, point blank. 
After trying in vain to get the captain drunk, in the hope that 
he would betray himself, Gard seized the steamer and placed 
one man on board of her as a guard. He did not, however, dis- 
able her machinery. 

It was soon ascertained that the Bohert and Minnie was off 
the harbor and holding communication, through a pilot boat, with 
the Itata. The collector intercepted a letter which showed that 
a rendezvous had been appointed ofi' San Clemente Island. On 
May 13th, while both the marshal and the collector were absent 
on separate expeditions in search of the Eohert and Minnie, the 
Itata got up steam and boldly left the harbor. Captain Manz- 
den had applied for clearance papers and been refused. He 
soon put the guard and the pilot on shore and disappeared, met 
the Robert and Minnie at San Clemente Island, took the muni- 
tions of war on board, and started for Iquique. 

In San Diego, every kind of wild rumor filled the air. It was 
said that the Itata' s decks had suddenly swarmed with men who 
had been lying concealed in her hold, that heavy guns were 
brought up and preparations made for a fight. In fact, the gov- 


ernment's special agent reported that she left the harbor "a 
fully armed man-of-war. ' ' It was established on the trial in the 
United States court that these reports were much exaggerated. 
The steamer only carried a small armament of light rifles, which 
were old and greasy. She had no heavy guns, and was incapa- 
ble of being transformed into a fighting craft. Another rumor 
was that ''a long, low rakish craft" had been seen several times 
off the harbor. This report had reference to the Esmeralda, 
which soon after met the Itata off the Mexican coast near 
Acapulco. The two vessels had no sooner met and begun prep- 
arations for transferring the munitions, however, when the 
United States cruiser Charleston, which had been sent in pur- 
suit, appeared in the distance. The Itata immediately steamed 
westward as fast as possible, while the Esmeralda cleared her 
decks for action. There was no fight, although there was con- 
siderable tension, and the officers and crew of the Esmeralda 
were able to derive considerable satisfaction subsequently from 
telling what they would have done to the Yankee ship, had they 
been given a chance. The Charleston soon passed onward to the 
south, leaving the Esmeralda struggling with the problem of 
securing a supply of coal at Acapulco, the Mexican officials hav- 
ing refused to allow her to take on a supply. She finally solved 
it by taking the coal by force. The Charleston met the Itata at 
Iquique, captured her without resistance, and brought her back 
to San Diego. In the suit which was brought against her and 
tried in the United States district court, in March, 1892, the 
government was beaten on every point and the vessel ordered 
released. The insurgents had, in the meantime, succeeded in 
overturning the Balmaceda administration and taking possession 
of the Chilean government. They hotly resented the seizure of 
the Itata. and this incident, with other alleged irregularities on 
the part of our navy, led to the assault on the sailors of the 
Baltimore, in the harbor of Valparaiso, which came so near 
involving the United States in war with Chile. 

To pass from these exciting events to the story of a dog may 
seem a long step, but both belong to the annals of these peace- 
ful years, and no careful historian can afford to ignore "Bum," 
San Diego 's first and only town dog. He was a large, handsome, 
St. Bernard dog, born in San Francisco on July 3, 1886, and 
came to San Diego while young as a steamer stowaway. He was 
adopted by a kind-hearted Chinese named Ah Wo Sue, who pro- 
vided a home and took good care of him, whenever Bum would 
allow him to do so. The dog had one peculiarity, however, which 
unfitted him for domestic life : he seemed to lack the gift of per- 
sonal attachment which is supposed to belong to all dogs. He 
was, however, devoted to the larger life of the citv and formed 


an important, even thougli humble, part of it all his life. It 
may be said of him that, if he was nobody's dog, he was so much 
the more everybody's dog. 

On August 3, 1887, while engaged in a disgraceful fight with 
a bulldog near the Santa Fe depot, the two were run over by 
an engine. The bulldog was killed, and Bum lost his right 
fore-paAv and part of his tail, and was otherwise severelj^ bruised 
and cut. His neglected Chinese friend promptly came to the 
rescue, had his wounds dressed and treated by the best surgical 
skill, and carried him home and nursed him back to health. It 
is sad to have to add that Bum left his benefactor as soon as he 
was able to do so, and resumed his Bohemian life. 

He was a public character and his habitation was the street. 
He slept or rested on the sidewalks, usually where traffic was 
thickest, and the good-natured people carefully walked around 
him. Eestaurant keepers and butchers gladly fed him and he 
made a regular round of daily calls to supply his Avants. He 
was a welcome visitor in every store and public place. He would 
go to the court house and mount the judge's chair, ride in the 
omnibuses to and from the depots, and march at the head of pro- 
cessions and funerals, but his especial delight was to run Avith 
the fire engines. As soon as the bell announced an alarm, he 
would start for the engine house, barking joyously. "Clear the 
track — Bum's coming!" would be the cry. and all stepped aside 
to let him pass. One year the dog licenses were headed by his 
picture, but the city fathei's exempted him by a special order 
from the payment of taxes. A favorite diversion was to go on 
excursions, either alone or with a crowd. He visited all the near- 
by towns and went once to Los Angeles, returning voluntarily 
after two or three days. 

When he was about four years old, some mischievous men 
forced him to drink liquor, and he became an habitual drunkard. 
He sank to the lowest depths of degradation, became dirty and 
mang3% and in every sense of the word, a "bum." Ah Wo Sue 
now came to the rescue once more, took him home and kept him 
shut up several weeks on a temperance diet, until he was cured 
and went forth a true dog once more. Did he show gratitude? 
Not he : his affections were entirely impersonal ; he immediately 
resumed his free life and became once more the city's favorite. 

It is of record that Bum once saved the life of a small dog by 
carrying him by the nape of his neck off the street car track. 
He had his weaknesses, one of which was a disposition to fi^ht 
with other dogs now and then. His manner of fighting was to 
get his antagonist down and hammer him with his crippled leg. 
But as a rule he treated all other dogs with lofty contempt, look- 
ing through them as though he did not see them, and compelling 



respect by his dignified bearing. The pupils of the Sherman 
Heights School prepared a neat booklet telling the story of 
Bum's life and setting forth his good qualities. This pamphlet 
was dedicated to "Ah Wo Sue, who so kindly cared for and 
nursed our 'city dog,' " and several thousand copies of it were 

This noble citizen ended his life, as he had chosen to live it, 
at the public charge. Becoming crippled with rheumatism, he 
was given a home at the County Hospital, by order of the Board 
of Supervisors, and died there a few months after. It was surely 
a happy fate, and worthy the ambition of any dog, to be held 
in affectionate remembrance by so large a number of people as 
is San Diego's "Bum." 




FTER the abolition of the city charter in 1852, 
the municipal affairs of San Diego were ad- 
ministered by a board of three trustees. Addi- 
tional powers were conferred upon these 
trustees, and the boundaries of the city de- 
fined, in 1868 and 1870. At the general elec- 
tion in the fall of 1871, for the first time, the 
Republicans elected a number of their candi- 
dates, and the city and county have continued to be Republican, 
as a rule, ever since. An interesting feature of the election last 
mentioned was that Mr. Horton and James McCoy were oppos- 
ing candidates for the state senate. Mr. Horton received a 
majority of fifty in his own county, and it was thought for a 
time that he was elected ; but when the returns came in from 
San Bernardino Countj', McCoy had a majority. 

In 1872, a new county government act was passed, which went 
into effect in March. The same act provided for the reincorpo- 
ration of the city and increased the number of trustees to five. 
The first city election under the new charter was held on April 
9, and resulted in the election of D. "W. Briant, John ]\I. Bo^'d, 
Jose G. Estudillo, E. G. Haight, and W. J. McCormick as trus- 
tees. A. G. Gassen. city marshal, and M. P. Shaffer, city assessor. 
At the fall election in this year, the county gave Grant and "Wil- 
son a, majority of 152 and Houghton for Congress 235. 

April 7. 1876. a new city charter was adopted. The admin- 
istration of city affairs was continued in a board of five trustees. 
In ]Mareh, 1879. while the question of the adoption of the new 
constitution was up. there was a warm campaign. Dennis Kear- 
ney spoke at the skating rink and had a large audience. The 
Union led the friends of the new constitution. On April 4, 
it said: 

The Union hears that a vulgar and profane blatherskite 
named Wellock, -who has achieved notoriety as a ranter at the 
sand lots of San Francisco, has announced his intention to 
stump Southern California in behalf of the New Constitution. 
We notice that San Diego is in the list of places to be vis- 
ited by him. The people of San Diego don't want to hear 
him. They heard with patience Dennis Kearney's ignorant 
harangue, and that taste of sand lot oratory is sujfficient, etc. 



The new constitution went into effect in January, 1880, and 
it was at this time that the old district court went out of exist- 
ence and was replaced by the Superior Court. The first term 
of the new court was held on January 5, 1880, by Judge McNealy. 

In May, 1886, a new charter was adopted, which went into 
effect the next month, by which the town was organized as a 
city of the sixth class. A year later it became a city of the 
fourth class. In the fall of the latter year (1887) there was a 

First Mayor under the charter of : 


889, Editor of the Union, Historian and useful, devoted 
citizen for many years 

warm contest between the Citizens' ticket, headed by D. C. Reed, 
and a Labor ticket, headed by W. J. Hunsaker. The latter won. 
On December 5, 1888, an election was held for the choice of 
fifteen freeholders to frame a new charter. Those selected were : 
Douglas Gunn, H. T. Christian, Edwin Parker, Charles Hubbell, 
W. A. Begole, N. H. Conklin, M. A. Luce, Philip Morse, G. W. 
Jorres, E. W. Morse, George M. Dannalls, George B. Hensley, 
R. M. Powers, D. Cave, and C. M. Fenn. The charter framed 
by these men was adopted by the people of San Diego March 2d, 


and approved by the legislature on March 16, 1889, and went 
into effect on the following 6th of May. This is the charter 
under which, with a few amendments, the administration of the 
city is still carried on. 

It provided for a mayor, for the first time since 1852 (in the 
interval, the president of the board of trustees was called by 
courtesy the mayor, but there was no such official, properly 
speaking). The legislative branch was a common council, con- 


Located, 1869; California Assembly, 1873; Collector of the Port, 1874-83, and again, 1898-06; 

State Senator, 1887-91; Member of Congress, 1891-97. He designed and superintended 

building of Horton House in 1870; also designed Florence Hotel (now 

Robinson) and managed it for seven years 

sisting of a board of aldermen elected at large, and a board of 
delegates, two of whom were chosen in each ward. The other 
officials provided for were: city attorney, auditor and assessor, 
treasurer and tax collector, city clerk, city engineer, superintend- 
ent of streets, superintendent of parks, superintendent of sew- 
ers, superintendent of schools, chief of police, chief of fire depart- 
ment, health officer, plumbing inspector, board of public works, 
board of education, board of library trustees, board of police 



commissioners, board of fire commissioners, board of health, 
police judge, and board of cemetery commissioners. Amend- 
ments were adopted February 3, 1895, and January 29, 1901, 
and on March 1, 1906, the legislative body was changed to a 
common council of nine members, one from each ward, the sep- 
arate boards of aldermen and delegates being abolished. At 
the same time, provisions were inserted in the charter for the 
exercise of the initiative, the referendum, and the recall — 
regarded as important steps in the improvement of the city 

Mayor, 1891; 


of Sherman's Addition and prominent for many years in 
business and public affairs 

The first city election under the present charter was held 
April 2, 1889. The campaign presented many features of inter- 
est. There were two tickets in the field, one called the Straight 
Republican, headed by John R. Berry, and the other called the 
Citizens' Xon-Partisan ticket, headed by Douglas Grunn. Both 
these candidates were Republicans and there was no Democratic 
ticket. The real issue of the campaign was between "the Galla- 



ghers, " — carpetbaggers from San Francisco who came during 
the boom and obtained control of the Republican organization 
in city and county — and the older citizens of San Diego. It was 
charged that these "Gallaghers" were for the most part Demo- 
crats before coming to San Diego. They had succeeded in elect- 
ing a few of their candidates the year before, including the supe- 
rior judge. The Union supported Berry, but other papers were 
for Gunn, and party lines were much broken up. The Sun 


Mayor, 1897; for thirty years in the forefront of real estate activity, with unfaltering- faith 
in the city's destiny 

(Democratic) of April 4th commented on the campaign 
follows : 

The campaign which has come to an end was not too short 
to present some interesting and remarkable features. It was 
marked by the almost total disappearance of the second great 
party in this city when the presence of a divided majority in 
the field would have given it success had it named a straight 
ticket of its own. Such a throwing away of political oppor- 
tunity is almost without precedent. . . . Much of the op- 







position originated in ancient grudges, dating back to the early- 
days, and almost forgotten by those of the present *lay. 

Senator W. W. Bowers was one of the leaders of the Repub- 
lican organization, but in this campaign he wrote and spoke in 
favor of the Citizens' ticket. The city at the time was supposed 
to have a normal Republican majority of from 500 to 800, but at 
this election Gunn and most of the Citizens' candidates were 
elected. Gunn's majority was 428. 

Mayor, for two terms, from 1901 to 190-5 

Two years later, in April, 1891, the contest was between the 
regular party organizations. The Republican candidate for 
mayor was Captain Mathew Sherman and the Democratic J. W. 
Hughes. There were no particularly exciting events in the cam- 
paign and the result seemed to hinge on the party line-up and 
the number and zeal of the friends of the respective candidates. 
Sherman was elected by 48 votes, and was the first mayor elected 
on a straight party ticket. 



The election of 1893 was a memorable one and presented some 
unusual features. Both the old parties made nominations, the 
Republicans naming Adolpli G. Gassen for mayor and the Dem- 
ocrats A. E. Cochran. There was also a People's Party in the 
field, with John Kastle as its candidate for mayor. In addition 
to these, Captain James Edward Friend and William H. Carl- 
son were independent candidates for mayor, making in all five 
aspirants for one office. 

Chosen Mayor in 1905 by Democratic and Independent coalition 

The three regular party nominees were substantial citizens in 
good standing. Gassen was one of the oldest residents and had 
held a number of city offices. Colonel Kastle was also an old 
resident and business man, and had been president of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. Friend was a clever newspaper writer, with 
many friends, and Cochran was well supported by his party's 
strength. But when the votes were counted, it was found that 
Carlson, a comparative newcomer and novice in the city's pol- 
itics, had twice as many votes as any other candidate. 



The time has not yet come to write the story of the career 
of ''Billy" Carlson in San Diego. He is now conducting a pros- 
perous real estate and banking business in Los Angeles, and if 
he ever finds time, ought to write the story, himself. Although 
he entered the race for mayor last, he won out handsomely by 
dint of hard personal work and promises. If there was a voter 
in San Diego whom he did not personally interview, or a man 
who wanted anything that he did not promise to secure for him, 
neither have since come to light. As soon as "Billy" got into 
the mavor's chair, there were to be new electric car lines on 


Who served in the recorder's office for nearly twenty years, during fourteen of which h« 
held the chief place. Chosen in April, 1907, to serve as Mayor until May 1, 1909 

ever.A' street equipped in an impossible manner, hotels fitted up 
a la Edward Bellamy-, lines of steamships to every port on earth, 
transcontinental railroads galore, the park Avas to be improved 
at once, everybody was to have plenty of work at the highest 
wages, and, in short, the millennium was to come then and there. 
That he did not achieve all these things in his two terms is, per- 
haps, not due to any want of imagination on his part. There 
is a tradition that quite a number of ordinarily level-headed peo- 

City Engineer 


City Treasurer 





pie were so much amused by his meteoric canvass that they voted 
for him ' ' just to see what he would do. ' ' 

The candidacy of Captain Friend deserves mention. There 
does not appear to have been any considerable popular demand 
that he should run, but with a happy-go-lucky optimism which 
was part of his nature, he conceived the idea of running inde- 
pendently. Everybody he asked signed his petition, on which 
there were about 1,100 names, but he received just 98 votes. He 
thereupon proceeded to write a book, containing an allegorical 
account of his campaign experiences, and called it 1,000 Liars, 
implying that that number of his friends had promised to vote 

County Auditor for eighteen years; a leader in all movements for civic advancement 

for him and failed to do so. In this book the characters are real, 
but masquerade under fictitious names. His own identity is con- 
cealed under the name of Captain James Edward Bings. The 
book is amusing and full of a cheerful philosophy; it is now 
out of print and quite scarce. Its dedication was "To the im- 
mortal ninety-eight" who had voted for him. 

The election of 1895 resulted in the re-election of Mayor Carl- 
son, running independently. The opposing candidates were: 




District Attorney 




W. A. Sloane, Republican ; Charles S. Hamilton, Democratic ; 
and Daniel Stone, People's Party. The Union of April 3d made 
the following comments on the result : 

The total vote polled yesterday, 3297, shows better than 
words how hotly the battle was fought, yet in spite of the 
many conflicting factions there was no special outward excite- 
ment, and at many of the polling places there were no hangers- 
on. The total vote of the city last November was 3327, while 
this year's vote on the municipal election only is but 30 behind. 
All sorts of reports were current as to what was to be ex- 
pected, and bets were made on all subjects; but nothing was 
more clear than that everybody was at sea as to the result. 
The strength of the A. P. A. vote, the meteoric quality of the 
Carlson element, the water question, the civic federation move- 
ment, and personal considerations were some of the disturbing 
factors, and these left their mark on the result. Not any single 
party element can claim the victory and none is left entirely 
without something to show for its work. 

In 1897, C. F. Holland was the Democratic and Non-Partisan 
choice for mayor, and D. C. Reed was the Republican candidate. 
The Union, however, which had heretofore supported the regular 
Republican nominees, refused to support Reed, giving as a rea- 
son his affiliation with the Municipal Ownership Club, which, it 
alleged, was backed by the San Diego Flume Company. The 
Union also opposed ]\Ir. Holland, alleging that he was the orig- 
inal choice of the Flume Company and that the Non-Partisan 
organization was an outgrowth of the Municipal Ownership Club. 
It therefore gave its support to ]\Iajor Henry Sweeney, an inde- 
pendent candidate. Carlson ran again and there was also a Pop- 
ulist ticket, headed by A. C. ^Nlouser. In the result. Reed came 
in first, Holland second, and Carlson third. Mouser and Sweeney 
each received a few votes, also George D. Copeland. 

An interesting question was raised in this campaign as to the 
eligibility of Major Sweeney, who was a retired army officer. It 
w^as claimed that for this reason he was ineligible, but the Union 
disputed this, alleging that the question had been raised and set- 
tled in other cases, and that there was no bar to his holding the 
office, if elected. 

In the election of 1899, the question of municipal ownership 
of the water system cut considerable figure. The candidates for 
mayor were: D. C. Reed, Republican; Edwin M. Capps, Demo- 
cratic ; and John A. Helphingstine, Socialist Labor party. The 
battle was really between the Flume Company and the South- 
ern California Mountain Water Company. According to the 
Union, the Flume Company was doing its best to thwart the 
work of Babcock's company by lawsuits, etc., and was now try- 
ing to put into the mayor's chair a man known to be violently 



opposed to Babcock. Capps was city engineer at the time of 
his nomination and had repeatedly rejected portions of the work 
of the Moreno system. The Mountain Water Company pre- 
ferred Reed, who was not unfriendly to them, to Capps. Capps 
was elected by 221 votes over Reed, and Helphingstine received 
70 votes. 

In 1901 the contest was between Frank P. Frary, Repub- 
lican, Patterson Sprigg, Democrat, and Frank Simpson, Social- 






Who ranks among the foremost merchants, and who created the most powerful political 
organization in the city's history. Characterized as "Boss" by his opponents, 
recognized as leader by his followers, his supremacy on the hard- 
fought field of politics is unquestioned by either 

ist. Frary was elected; the vote: Frary, 1,674; Sprigg, 1,000 j 
Simpson, 157. 

In 1903, Mayor Frary was renominated by the Republicans, 
James E. Wadham was the Democratic candidate, and Frank 
Simpson the nominee of the Socialists. The Democrats adopted 
a platform which contained some advanced ideas, particularly 
in relation to public ownership of gas and electricity and the 
development of the pueblo lands with a view to producing 


income and thereby providing for "progress without taxation." 
The large Republican majority was not entirely overcome, but 
was materially decreased, the vote beins' as follows : 

Frary, 1,469; Wadham, 1,312; Simpson, 219. 

The election of 1905 marked the rise of the "anti-boss" spirit 
in the Republican party and emphasized the demand for an 
extension of the principle of public ownership in relation to the 
water supply. Captain John L. Sehon, a retired army officer, 
had become a conspicuous leader of the reform element by his 
independent coui*se as a member of the council, and was gen- 
erally regarded as the logical candidate of those opposed to the 
Republican organization. Nominated by the Independents and 
endorsed by the Democrats, he made a vigorous campaign, which 
aroused an equally vigorous opposition by the Republicans, who 
selected Dan^'ille F. Jones as their candidate for mayor. The 
Socialists nominated W. J. Kirk^vood. 

The Jones-Sehon campaign was marked by one incident of 
peculiar interest. This was the controversy over the eligibility 
of a retired army officer for civil office. The case was elaborately 
argued in the newspapers by prominent lawyers, who were about 
equally divided on the legal question involved. Captain Sehon 
was elected by a decisive majority, but his friends believed an 
effort woiTld be made to prevent him from taking office. The 
event proved that they were not mistaken, as proceedings were 
instituted in the superior court. The mayor-elect disappeared 
from the city and could not be found by the officers who wanted 
to serve papers in the suit. He returned just l^efore midnight 
in the last moments of ]\Iayor Frary's expiring term, and, at 
the first minute of the term to which he had been elected, entered 
the city hall, took forcible possession of the executive offices, 
and proclaimed himself mayor of San Diego. 

The city awakened the next morning to learn that the man 
whom it had chosen as chief executive was in full possession of 
the municipal government and that nothing but ouster proceed- 
ings could now defeat the popular will. The case was bitterly 
fought through all the courts. The superior court decided 
against the mayor, but was overruled by the court of appeals. 
The supreme court of California sustained the court of appeals, 
so that ]\Iayor Sehon remained in peaceful possession and pro- 
ceeded to give the city what is generally regarded as the most 
notable administration in its history. The mayor's conduct at 
the time of the Bennington disaster and the San Francisco catas- 
trophe won the approval of his bitterest opponents, while his 
management of public affairs was heartily commended at the 
end of the first year of his administration by the newspaper 
which had most earnestlv opposed his election. 
■ The vote : Sehon, 2,018 ; Jones, 1,376 ; Kirkwood, 483. 


ROM 1860 to 1868, San Diego was without a 
newspaper or other periodical of any kind. 

FJLIl The laying out of Horton's new addition and 
jrxjj the fear that the population might be attracted 
\5 I that way caused the people of Old Town to 
bestir themselves. In the spring of 1868 
Philip Crosthwaite paid a visit to his sister, 
Mrs. Wm. Jeff Gatewood, at San Andreas, in 
Calaveras County. Colonel Gatewood was publishing the San 
Andreas Register, and the desire to have his sister near him and 
at the same time to do something for Old Town prompted Cros- 
thwaite to propose that he should remove his newspaper plant 
to San Diego. The proposal interested Gatewood so much that 
he came to San Diego and investigated the conditions. He found 
the San Diegans responsive to his desires ; they gave him sub- 
scriptions and advertising contracts which he felt would justify 
the venture ; and, liking the place, he determined to make the 

Returning to San Andreas, he formed a partnership with 
Edward W. Bushyhead, who had been his foreman, and also 
employed J. N. Brisefio. When the paper was issued, however, 
Briseiio's name appeared as publisher and Bushyhead 's did not 
appear at all, because Bushyhead, upon his arrival, was not 
impressed with the town or the prospects of the new ven- 
ture and was unwilling to have his appear; but the paper 
was really owned by Gatewood and Bushyhead, and Briseno 
was only an office boy. Gatewood came on to San Diego over- 
land, leaving Bushyhead to pack up and ship the outfit and fol- 
low by steamer. The outfit arrived about the 19th day of Sep- 
tember and quarters were found in a frame building belong- 
ing to Jose A. Altamirano, next door to the parsonage, at Old 
Town. There was an old Washington hand press and a very 
good assortment of type. By the 3rd of October they were suf- 
ficiently settled to be able to issue a prospectus. A copy of this 
interesting paper follows : 

To the Public: 

On Saturday next I will issue the first number of The San 
Bieffo Union. Those who wish to advertise will confer a favor 


upon me by sending in their advertisements as early next week 
as possible. In order to insure an insertion on the first page 
of the paper, the copy must be handed into the office by next 
Tuesday night. I presume that the business men of San Diego 
appreciate the advantages of advertising, and will therefore 
accept with avidity the opportunity now offered them. 

I will be thankful for any local item of general or special 
importance, and particularly request to be furnished with 
names of vessels arriving and departing from our harbor, and 
with all matters of importance to shippers. 

From those who purpose farming I will be pleased to learn 
the character of crop they intend j^lanting and the prob- 
able quantity of acres they will cultivate. I respectfully in- 
vite from all branches of business such communications as 
will tend to advance the multifarious interests of San Diego 
county, and jjromote the general prosperity of our citizens. 

Neither political tirades, nor personal abuse will find place 
in the columns of the Union. As my object — and such is my 
agreement with my patrons — is to publish to the world the ad- 
vantages of the harbor, climate and soil of this vicinity, I 
hope that no imposition, exaggeration or prevarication will ever 
be tolerated by those who may afford local information to the 
Union. In my humble judgment they need no such subter- 
fuges; but the plain, unvarnished truth of our harbor, climate 
and soil is all that need be told, to insure the wonder and 
win the admiration of the world. 

As the Union is to be politically neutral, I know of no way 
by which I can prevent the expression of my political predi- 
lections except by steering entirely clear of politics, therefore, 
the Union will maintain politically a wise and masterly silence. 

For the many favors I have received at the hands of the 
citizens of San Diego I return my sincere heartfelt thanks, 
and only bespeak of them the same kindness, courtesy and con- 
sideration for my little pet, to be born on next Saturday. 

Wm. Jeff Gatewood. 

The first number of the Union came out, as announced, on 
October 10, 1868. It was a four-page 6-column quarto sheet, 
contained 15i/> columns of reading matter, and was well set up 
and printed. In his salutatory. Colonel Gatewood said of his 
paper : 

Its influence shall be used in urging the people to lay aside 
the animosities engendered within the last few years, and so 
sedulously fostered by the selfish political aspirants of the 
present day — to foster and encourage fealty to our political 
institutions — obedience to the laws of the country, and charity 
towards all mankind. . . . We . . . pray that our lives 
may be spared to see the waters of our bay fretting beneath 
the burdens of busy commerce- — to hear the shrill whistle of 
the iron horse as it spurns the sand of the desert — toils over 
the mountains and shoots through the valleys in its flight from 
the Atlantic, to meet in our harbor the rich cargoes from the 
ancient Orient — to see our bay surrounded by mammoth manu- 
facturing and mercantile houses, princely residences, domes 



and spires of churches and schools of learning — the streets 
teeming with a prosperous and industrious people, and our 
lovely valleys lifting to our genial skies flowers and fruits, in 
tints as varied and gorgeous as our incomparable sunsets. 

In the first two years of its existence, the Union had a hard 
struggle. The subscription list was nearly- a thousand, which 
was very good for the time, but the advertising patronage was 
entirely local and not very remunerative. In May, 1869, Gate- 
wood sold out to Charles P. Taggart. and the style of the pub- 



f 1 









i^ ■■■: 



» J- 

'\-.^^ ; 

J^ '"'"^wf 


Founder of the f nion and a notable lawyer in the early days of the Horton period 

lishers became Taggart & Bushyhead. Mr. Bushyhead says that 
the prosperity of the paper dates from the time that Taggart 
came into the establishment. He was a "rustler" and brought 
in advertising and subscriptions which placed the paper, for 
the first time, in a fairly prosperous condition. But Taggart 
had other interests which shared his attention, and he soon 
dropped the Union. He sold out to Frederick A. Taylor, late 
of San Francisco, who took charge on January 1, 1870. At the 



time, it was stated that the Union was prosperous, and this is 
attested by the fact that on the 20th day of January it was 
enlarged to seven columns. Another change was announced on 
May 12th, when William S. Dodge succeeded to Taylor's inter- 
est, and the firm became Dodge & Bushyhead. 

By this time, Horton's Addition was making considerable 
progress and had begun to threaten the supremacy of the old 
town. The Bulletin had been started there the preceding Aug- 
ust, and was enjoying a large share of the new prosperity — a 
prosperity from which the Union was excluded by reason of its 
location. Gatewood had been the attorney for the people of Old 
Town in the contest over the removal of the county seat, and 


Who was employed by Gatewood and whose name appeared as the first publisher 
of the Union 

the Union had supported their side of that contention. But the 
proprietors concluded the fight was a losing one, and, in the 
midst of the fray, abandoned the old town and removed to the 
new. One of the inducements for this change was an agree- 
ment on the part of Mr. Horton to give the paper his exclusive 
advertising patronage, so long as it remained in its new loca- 
tion and helped to build up that part of the town. This was 
one of the severest blows the friends of Old Town suffered, 
although it cannot be said that it influenced the final result, as 
the question was already in the courts awaiting decision. 

The Union announced its intention to move, on June 23, 1870, 
and the following number, June 30th, was the first one issued 


in Horton's Addition. The new office was in a building at the 
southeast corner of Fourth and D Streets. That location was 
then thought to be quite out of town, the only other buildings 
in the neighborhood being the little Methodist church across the 
street, and the "Era House," later called the "Occidental." 
The foundations of the Horton House were then being laid. 

On September 22, 1870, Dodge retired from the Union and 
was succeeded by Douglas Gunn. Gunn had been employed for 

One of the early proprietors of the Union, who also served as sheriff and chief of police 

some time on the paper as reporter and printer. He was a man 
of ability, enterprise, and courage, and the effects of his work 
were soon manifest. On December 8th following his assumption 
of the editorship, the Union published President Grant's mes- 
sage in full, having received it by telegraph, and called it "a 
piece of newspaper enterprise never before attempted by any 
'country paper' in the United States." The like had certainly 
never before been done in San Diego. On March 20, 1871, the 
Daily Ufiion, the first daily paper in San Diego, was issued. At 
that time only two daily papers were published in Southern Cal- 


ifornia ; these being the News and the Star, of Los Angeles, and 
the Union was the third. Ten days later, the weekly was 
enlarged to eight columns, and became the largest weekly paper 
south of San Francisco. In the latter part of the following 
April, John P. Young (now editor of the San Francisco Chron- 
icle) was employed as business manager. 

Those were strenuous days for Bushyhead & Gunn. A com- 
petent writer says: "We do not believe that two men ever did 
more intensely hard work, for smaller compensation, than the 
publishers of the Union. The first year of its existence it [the 
daily] spent about $1,200 for telegraphic news, tire next year 
about $2,000," etc. Mr. Bushyhead does not recall that, as a 
whole, they were poorly paid ; he relates that he and ]\Ir. Gunn 
were able to put away $1,500 each in bank every month at that 
period. The partnership of Bushyhead & Gunn lasted nearly 
three of the busiest and most fruitful years of the life of the 
new town. Circumstances induced the former to retire in June, 
1873. He received $5,000 in cash for his half interest, and Mr. 
Gunn became sole proprietor. A month later, the daily was 
enlarged to twice its former size. These were in the palmy days 
of San Diego's first boom — the "Tom Scott boom" — and the 
collapse of that excitement, naturally enough, hit the paper 
hard. The circulation of the daily continued to grow, but its 
advertising patronage declined and for a few years its struggle 
was a hard one. In 1877, Mr. Gunn stated that for four years 
he alone had performed the entire editorial work, local report- 
ing, and news editing. It was one of his gifts to be able to 
write rapidly, clearly, and under pressure. Probably few men 
could have stood the strain under which he labored. 

By the year 1878, conditions had so far improved that the 
Union began to benefit by the reaction. On the first day of 
June, the office was removed to Sixth Street, one door below 
where the postoffice was then located. Several quiet but fairly 
prosperous years followed, and in July, 1881, the paper was 
again enlarged and the first steam printing press in San Diego 
set up for its use. Five years later, it was again enlarged. On 
August 3, 1886, Mr. Gunn retired and the paper passed into 
the hands of the San Diego Union Company. The manager of 
this company was Colonel John E. Berry, and his associates were 
William Collier, now living at Rivereide, and J. Russell Smith. 
Colonel Berry had been city editor of the Union about two years,, 
and now assumed editorial charge of the paper. 

]\Ir. Gunn retired to devote himself to his business interests. 
Under his editorial management of almost sixteen years the 
paper had grown up with the town and had played an impor- 
tant and vital part in its development. Soon after, he built the- 



Express Block, and in 1889 was chosen and served as the first 
mayor of San Diego under its new charter. 

Three or four months after the new company took charge, 
Hosmer P. McKoon acquired an interest, and, a little while 
after that, Bryant Howard and E. W. Morse came in. In Feb- 
ruary, 1888, there was a white paper famine which now seems 
amusing. The Union appeared for a time printed on paper of 
many colors, dirty white, terra cotta, and bright pink. In the 
following May, cards were issued inviting the friends of the 
paper to call and witness the operation of its new double- 
cylinder Hoe printing press and feeders. Whole page descrip- 

At Sixth and F Streets in the '70's 

tions were given, with large cuts of the new press. In June, 
1888, John C. Monteith became owaier of part of the stock and 
assumed the business management of the paper. In the fall, 
Howard M. Kutchin became business manager and a few months 
later editor, and so continued till June, 1889. In December of 
the year 1888 the Union company purchased the Daily Bee 
from Harry A. Howard, Thomas Fitch, and their associates, 
and merged the two papers under the title of the San Diego 
Union and Daily Bee. In the following year. Berry parted with 
his interest in the paper to the Monteiths. Berry went to Ohio 



and was gone a few months and upon his return took charge of 
the paper again in association with Andrew Pollock. 

In 1890 Colonel Berry was appointed collector of the port, 
and soon after his appointment sold out to the Messrs. John D. 
and Adolph B. Spreckels, who were then represented here by 
E. S. Babcock; and these gentlemen have ever since been the 
owners and publishers of the Union. August 1, 1890, Thomas 
Gardiner, one of the founders of the Sacramento Union and of 
the Los Angeles Times, was appointed manager of the paper. 


Who served at different times as editor of the Union and who was colonel of the Seventh 
Regiment, National Guard, during the Spanish War 

and served in that capacity until his death nine years later. On 
June 19, 1899, James MacMullen became general manager of the 
Union Company, and is still its manager. March 8, 1900, the 
Union purchased the plant of the Morning Call (formerly the 
Vidette), and on September 27, 1901, it became the owner of 
the Evening Tribune, which had been established since Decem- 
ber 21, 1895. The publication of the latter has been continued. 
It is one of the two evening papers now published in the city. 



On the 30th of November, 1901, the editorial, press, and busi- 
ness rooms of the papers were removed to the old Horton bank 
building, on the southwest corner of Third and D Streets, which 
has since been known as the Union building. Spreckels Broth- 
ers recently purchased land adjoining this building on the 
south and west, tore down the old building, and erected in its 
place a large, modern six-story business block, which will pro- 
vide for the Union company better quarters than any other 


General Manager of the Union 
and Tribune 


Advertising- Manager of the Union, 
who has been longer in continuous service 
than any other member of the newspaper 

newspaper south of San Francisco. The papers have also been 
provided with new presses and up-to-date facilities in every 

James MacMullen is now general manager of the Union and 
Tribune. George S. Bates is editor of the Union, as he has 
been for many years. Walter T. Blake is editor of the Tri- 
hune. Edmund F. Parmelee has been advertising manager of 
the Union since January 1, 1888, a longer continuous service 
than any other man in San Diego in a similar position. He is 
thus dean of the newspaper corps. 


These two papers support the regular Republican organiza- 
tion. They have been developed into valuable and influential 
properties with the growth of the city, and afford their patrons 
a live and, satisfactory service. The Union has a complete file 
of its issues, from the beginning, in a good state of preservation 
: — a mine of inexhaustible interest and value to the historian 
and writer. 

The pioneer editor and publisher of Horton's Addition was 
William H. Gould, who began the publication of the San Diego 
Weekly Bulletin on August 21, 1869. It was a four-page six- 
column paper. In this first number 'Mr. Gould expressed the 

The pioneer editor and publisher of Horton's Addition 

opinion that : ' ' There is nowhere on the globe a finer field for 
newspaper enterprise and the exercise of newspaper power than 
exists today in our young and growing city of San Diego." 

The paper was enlarged to seven columns in December, and in 
the following June Ma.jor Ben C. Truman purchased a half 
interest and became editor and business manager. In July, 
1871, W. H. Ogden became editor, Truman remaining as busi- 
ness manager. At the end of that year Ma.jor Truman's con- 
nection with the paper ceased. On February 13, 1872, the first 
number of the Daily Bulletin appeared. It was a small sheet 
of five colunms and four pages. In the following month W. W. 
Bowers became the business manager and D. T. Phillips became 
editor of the Bulletin in June. The paper was soon after sold 


to Colonel Gatewood, who took over the entire plant and began 
issuing a new paper, called the World. The last number of the 
weekly BuUetin was July 13th, and of the daily, July 23, 1872. 
The Bulletin was established by the friends of New San Diego 
to counterbalance the influence of the Union at the rival town. 
The Union "coppered" this move, however, by removing to Hor- 
ton's Addition, and, having secured Mr. Horton's exclusive pat- 
ronage, the Bulletin proved unprofitable and soon languished. 
It began as a Union Republican paper, but a year later became 


Two journalists identified with San Dieg-o in early Horton days and during the great boom 

straight Republican and continued so. There is a complete file 
of this paper in the public library, presented to it by Air. Daniel 

Will H. Gould left San Diego in 1874 and had a checkered 
career afterward. He established papers at San Bernardino, 
Los Angeles, and other places, none of which lived long, and 
was connected with the San Diego Bee in 1887-88. 

The first number of the Daily World was issued July 25, 1872, 
and the weeklv two davs later. The daily was a small quarto 



sheet, with four pages of five columns each, and the weekly was 
a large four-page sheet of seven columns. There were elements 
of fitness in Colonel Gatewood's being its editor and proprietor. 
The paper which he had founded (the Union) was now a Repub- 
lican organ, while he was a Democrat ; and many people thought 
that the time was ripe for an opposition paper. J. N. Briseno, 
an old employe of Gatewood on the Union, acquired an interest, 
in August, in October, the daily was enlarged to four full-size 


Associated with N. H. Conklin as editor and proprietor of the San DiegO World in 1874; 
later, editor of the Daily Xews 

quarto pages of six columns each, and in December the office 
was removed to the south side of D Street, between Second and 
Third, in what was formerly called the Stockton House. 

Joseph D. Lynch succeeded Gatewood as editor, and, in the 
fall of 1874, the paper was acquired by Jacob M. Julian and 
N. H. Conklin. Both were newcomers, from Warrensburg, Mis- 
souri, where they had been associated in the publication of a 
weekly paper. They continued to publish the World a year or 
two and then it was merged with the News, published by Julian 
& Co. 

President State Board of Harbor Com- 

President Board of Public Works. 

County Physician. 

County Auditor. 

New home of the San Die?o Sun Publishing Company, Seventh and B Streets, one of 
the most complete newspaper buildings in the United States. 


Vice-President and Business Manager of the San Diego Sun Publishing Company since 
November, 1906. 


Mr. Julian began the publication of the San Diego Daily 
New^ in 1875, and continued it until April 9, 18S2, when it 
was purchased, by the Sun company. 

The Sun first appeared on July'l9, 1881. Mrs. Charles P. 
Taggart originated the enterprise. Horace Stevens, Fred C 
Bauer and "Robert Campion served as editors or managers. 

Mrs. Taggart disposed of her interest to A. Wentscher, 
Edwin Parker, Horace Stevens. Dr. T. C. Stockton and C. P. 
Gerichten. The first office of the Sun. was in a small frame 
building on the east side of the plaza, where the Schmitt 
Block now stands. 

In 1886 Warren Wilson of San Bernardino purchased the 
Sun, and in December of the same year the paper was estab- 
lished in the Sun building on the Plaza, built by him and now 
owned by Nathan Watts. In February, 1889, Wilson sold the 
Sun to Walter G. Smith, now of Honolulu, and W. E. Simpson, 
the money being furnished by the California National Bank. 
The purchasers turned the property back to the bank in 
January, 1891, and Dr. D. Gochenauer was appointed general 
manager. The failure of the California National Bank in 
November of that year resulted in the Sun being thrown upon 
the market, when it was again purchased l)y Warren Wilson, 
who in turn sold it on June 8 to Paul H. Blades and E. C. 
Hickman, the money being furnished by E. W. Scripps, the 
millionaire newspaper publisher. Mr. Scripps had just come 
to San Diego from his home in Cincinnati, on a visit, and was 
persuaded to invest in the Sun at the request of his cousin, 
the late Mrs. Fanny Bagby Blades. From this nucleus has 
grown the entire Scripps league of western newspapers, now 
covering every important city on the Coast. 

In November, 1892, the Sun purchased the San Diegan, 
being merged under the title of Snn Diegan-Sun. With the 
San Diegan was secured the services of Mr. F. D. Waite as 
editor, who until recently remained as editor of the paper, and 
is still a member of the staff as associate editoi-. 

The Sun has had various business managers, most of whom 
are now identified with the Scripps properties on the Pacific 
Coast and elsewhere. In March, 1901, Mr. Scripps purchased 
the interests of Blades and all others in the Sun, and trans- 
ferred a half ownership to himself and the other half to Mr. 
W. H. Porterfield, which ownership has continued to the 
present time. For several years past ]Mr. Porterfield has been 
engaged in the management of other Scripps properties in 
Northern California, and the active business management of 
the Sun has devolved upon II. E. Rhoads. Mr. C. A. Mc- 


Grew, formerly of the New York Times, is editor. The Sun 
is independent in politics, with Democratic leanings in national 
campaigns. Early in this year (1908) the Sun Company moved 
into its new home, a handsome brick building on Seventh and 
B Streets. As illustrating the growth of San Diego, the 
statement is made that the Sun's business has quadrupled in 
the past five years. 

President and General Manager of the San DeigO SlW Publishing Company 

The San Diegan was established by J. M. Julian, E. J. 
Bacon, and Julian Regan, in 3885, as a Democratic organ, and 
four years later sold to Chaffee, Sullivan & Waite, who 
remained the owners until the consolidation with the Sun 
in the fall of 1892. 



The next paper established, in point of time, was the Daily 
and Weekly Bee. The Bee Publishing Company was incorpor- 
ated in November 3887, by Wm. F. Hutton, Will H. Gould, 
Thomas J. McCord, Harry A. Howard, and Thomas L. Pitch. 
The company had been organized in the spring by Messrs. Ben- 
jamin & Cothran, and had for its editors a Mr. Zeigenfuss, and 


Editor of the Tribune 

Associate Editor of the Saa DiegO Sun 

Mrs. Clara S. Foltz. The Bee was a live paper, while it lasted. 
It was absorbed by the Union, in December, 1888. 

Thus far this story of the tiles is that of the papers which are 
either still in existence, or have been absorbed by other papers 
yet published. A number of other papers — exactly how many 
it is really impossible to say — were started at different times, 
but permanently suspended publication. A list of some of these 


is given farther on. The most important of these was the San 
Diego Vidette, a daily ain)d; weekl}^ paper established by D. 0. 
McCarthy, August 6, 1892. From December 1, 1894, to March 
7. 1895, Harr Wagner leased the paper, after Avhich the founder 
again became, managing editor and J. Harvey McCarthy busi- 
ness manager. In 1899, it was leased for a short time to B. A. 
Stephens, T. Spears, and Frank Gregg, in succession. In Jan- 
nary. 1900. the name was changed to the Morning Call; and in 
the following March the Call suspended publication and the 
Union bought its plant. The inotto of the Vidette was: "Thrice 
armed is he whose cause is .just." It was a live and vigilant 
paper, independent and fearless, which attacked wrong and 
corruption wherever found. 

In the way of periodical literature, the first ambitious effort 
was that of Harr Wagner, when he removed the Golden Era 
monthly magazine from San Francisco to San Diego, during the 
boom. It was established at San Francisco in 1852. The plant 
arrived at San Diego early in ]\Iarch, 1887. It was intended 
to change the name to the Coronado llludrated Magazine, and 
public announcement was made of that intention ; but for some 
reason the plan fell through, and the magazine continued to 
be published as the Golden Era. In the fall the Golden Era 
Company was incorporated, by Harr Wagner, J. D. Wagner, 
E. C. Thorpe, C. E. Maxwell, and G. C. Berlew. It Avas a mag- 
azine of fiction, travel, and general literature, and the oldest 
illustrated magazine on the Pacific Coast. It was the literary 
journal of the Southwest and had a number of notable contrib- 
utors, among whom were Joaquin Miller, IMadge iMorris (Mrs. 
Wagner). Rose Hartwick Thorpe, and others. It was published 
in San Diego until March. 1895, when it was again removed to 
San Francisco, and soon after changed to the Western Journal 
of Education, under which name it still continues, with Mr. 
Wagner as editor-in-chief. While here Mr. Wagner engaged 
in a varieties of activities connected with education — was 
superintendent of schools, connected with the San Diego Col- 
lege of Letters at Pacific Beach, etc. 

The next important venture in this line was the Silver Gate, 
established in January, 1899, by James A. Jasper. Sixteen 
numbers in all were issued, the last one being for April, 1900. It 
Avas devoted to local statistics, current politics, articles on cli- 
mate, horticulture, etc., and also contained views, maps, and por- 
traits of value. With the September number, 1899, it absorbed 
the Mother's Chih Magazine (a monthly started Februarj' 1, 
1899), and the "Mother's Club Notes" formed a department of 
the magazine until it suspended. It also had for a time a depart- 



ment edited by the Woman's Relief Corps. The back numbers 
of this magazine are highly prized. 

The West American Scientist was established by C. R. Oreutt, 
December 1, 1884, and he is still the editor and publisher. It 
is the organ of the San Diego Society of Natural History and 
was the first scientific publication established on the Pacific 
Coast. It has at different times absorbed a number of other 
similar publications and its files contain matter of great value. 

The Western Magazine issued three numbers — August, Sep- 
tember, and October, 1906. It was the most ambitious example 
of periodical literature ever undertaken in San Diego, and its 
early demise was a matter of sincere and widespread regret. 


Who published the Golden Era, a Uterary magazine, in San Diego from 1887 to 1895 

The following is a list of newspapers and other periodicals 
known to have been started in San Diego from time to time. All 
these periodicals are now defunct, unless otherwise stated. 

In May, 1885, D. P. St. Clair started the San Diego Califor- 
nian, and published it about two months. 

In 1887, the Bennett Brothers established a paper which they 
call the News (Julian's paper of the same name having been 
absorbed by the Sun, five years before). It was issued asa daily 
for six months, and then removed to Ensenada, in Lower 

The Deutsche Zeitung, a weekly, was established by Charles 
F. Kamman, in 1887, and is still published. 


The Free Press, a tri-weekly, was published by J. G. Over- 
shiner in 1887. 

The Semi-Tropic Planter, devoted to agriculture, was pub- 
lished by Cooke & Hufford, in 1887. C. R. Orcutt afterward 
became its editor. 

The Coronado Evening Mercury was established May 16, 1887. 
It was an evening daily, published at Coronado by Kimball, 
"White & Co., and later became a weekly issued by F. E. A. 

The Southern California Information Agency (Augustus Mer- 
rill, manager), issued the Southern California Informant in the 
latter part of 1887. It purported to be "a journal of reliable 
information and just criticism." 

The first issue of the Echo was December 3, 1887. It was a 
critical and humorous weekly. 

R. H. Young issued the Pacific Beach Magazine in 1888. It 
was subsidized by the Pacific Beach Company and lived about 
a year, expiring with the boom. 

The Beacon was a small weekly published in 1889 by Sigis- 
mund Danielwicz, devoted to the discussion of social ethics. 

The Clipper was established in 1889, by the Bayside Publish- 
ing Company. It was a weekly, edited by John C. Monteith. 

The Great Southwest, edited by R. H. Young and devoted to 
horticulture, was issued in 1889. 

The Dart, a prohibition paper, was first issued August, 1888. 

Zoe, a biological journal, was established by Mrs. Katherine 
Brandegee, in 1890. 

The Review, a weekly publication by Birdsall & Van Haren, 
was started about March, 1890. It was devoted to the interests 
of the National Guard, "society, current comment, and 

May 10, 1890, appeared the Sa7i Diego Fepuhlic, published 
every Saturday by Stephens & Harris. 

The first number of the Spiritual Times Magazine appeared 
November 1, 1890. Later, the name was changed to the San 
Diego Times Magazine. The editor was William Alfred Rugg. 

The San Diego Advertiser was founded by E. N. Sullivan, 
July 25, 1891. It is now the San Diego News, a weekly. 

The Seaport News was first issued September 3, 1892, and it 
was the successor of the Coronado Mercury. It was a weekly 
journal. At the time of the change, T. D. Beasly assumed a 
half interest in the paper. 

The National Popular Beview was first issued, July 1, 1892. 
It was a monthly magazine devoted to medical subjects, and 
called An Illustrated Journal of Preventive Medicine. It was 


published in Chicago and San Diego, by J. Harrison White, and 
edited by Dr. P. C. Remondino. 

In 1893 the South California Farmer was published by J. S. 
Richardson. It was devoted to horticultural interests. 

Out of Doors for Woman was the title of a publication begun 
in November, 1893, by Dr. Olive L. Eddy Orcutt. 

The San Diego Real Estate Journal was started in 1895. It 
was a weekly, edited by R. H. Young and managed by W. H. 

Author of Story of San Diego, an interesting historical sketch 

The Philosophical Journal was established in 1865 and was 
formerly issued at Chicago under the name of the Beligio- 
Philosophical Journal. It was removed to San Diego in 1896 
and remained until December of that year, when it was removed 
to San Francisco. It was a monthly. 

The Weekly Drift was first issued April 17, 1897, by W. A. 
Rugg, editor. 

The San Diego Chieftain was published in 1901 by John A. 
and Edgar B. Helphingstine. It was a social Democratic weekly. 



The Bulletin was a small "woman's own'" paper, published 
late in 1901. 

The San Diego Open Court, a fortnightly magazine, was estab- 
lished September 1, 1901. 

Wealth was published twice a month by Ralph Elliott Field, 
beginning in November, 1903. 

The San Diego Co-operator was the organ of the Rochdale 
Company: the first issue appeared January 1, 1904. 



f jjdmmm 






^^^^^ m\.^ ^^ 

Author of the famous poem, "Curfew Shall not Ring Tonight," who resides at La JoUa 

The San Diego Herald was established October 6, 1905, under 
the name of the San Diego Tourist Informant, and under the 
management and editorship of B. J. McDowell. In December, 
1905, George H. Hazzard became the editor. In 1907 the 
paper changed ownership and R. Beers Loos became editor. 

The Mirror was established January 1, 1906, and is an illas- 
trated weekly of industrial character. A. G. Stacey is the editor 
and publisher. 

The Harbor Light was published quarterly in the interest of 
the floating Endeavor work; Mrs. W. W. Young, editor. 



Safi Diego Bay Region Resources was a monthly published by 
Burgess, Moore & Co., on lines similar to California Resources, 
of San Francisco. 

C. R. Orcutt has been connected with the publication of quite 
a number of periodicals. Besides the West American Scientist, 
which has been mentioned, and which still continues, and the 
Semi-Tropic Planter, which he took over from Cooke & Han- 
ford, he has established the following publications : 

Who has touched the life of San Diego at so many points — poHtical, religious, legal, frater- 
nal, business and financial— that it is difficult to classify him. A man of marked 
literary gifts, he came originally with the purpose of writing a history 
of the city and region. He contributed extensively to descrip- 
tive literature concerning San Diego County 

Young Men's Journal, a religious weekly in the interest of the 
Y. M. C. A., 1887; San Diego Magazine, April 1, 1888; The 
Work, October, 1889, also in the interest of the Y. M. C. A. ; Old 
Curiosity Shop, 1881 ; Science and Horticulture, March, 1891 ; 
Golden Hints for California, November, 1891 ; California Art and 
Nature, December, 1901 ; Presbyterian Herald, a weekly church 
paper, 1901 ; The Manzanita, or Lower California Magazine; Cal- 
ifornia Trees and Flowers, and Western World. 


Besides all these, Sau Diego has had The Coronado Argus, 
the Sunday Telegram, the weekly County Eeporter, the weekly 
Xenigkeiten, the weekly Argosy and the weekly Enterprise; and 
among live periodicals are: the San Diego Weekly News, the 
Xeu- Century Path, and the Eaja Yoga Messenger, the two latter 
being published 1)v the Theosophical headquarters at Point Loma. 

In 1883, W. W. Elliott & Co., of San Francisco, published 
their San Diego County Illustrated. It is a thin quarto with 
ciuite a number of views, maps, and portraits, and contains con- 
siderable fragmentary information. But its contents are largely 
of the "write-up" order, and as a history it is scarcely to be 
taken seriously. 

One of the duties of Douglas Gunn, while editing the Union. 
was to write the annual review of the progress of city and 
county. In 1885. these articles were gathered up and issued in 
pamphlet form. A year later the work was revised and enlarged, 
and more than 35.000 copies sold. This success doubtless had a 
good deal to do with inducing ]Mr. Gunn to undertake the prep- 
aration of a more ambitious work after his retirement from the 
Union, in August. 1886. His own tastes would also naturally 
lead in the same direction. He spent some months collecting and 
arranging additional material, and in February, 1887. employed 
Herve Friend, representing the American Photogra\'ure Com- 
pany, to make the views for his book. October 2. 1887. the Union. 
began the publication of the advance sheets of his new work, 
and the book itself appeared soon after. It was entitled Pietur- 
esejue San Diego, irith Historical and Descriptive Xotes. printed 
by Knight & Leonard Co., Chicago, and bound in heavy morocco 
with gilt edges. Although there were but 98 numbered pages of 
reading matter, there were 72 full-page illustrations of a very 
superior character, and the whole made a rich volume. The 
work was not intended, primarily, as a history, but rather to 
provide an appropriate setting for an up-to-date statement of 
the resources and advantages of the city and county. ]Mr. Gunn 
was a clear and forcible writer and it can fairly be said that he 
achieved his chief object. His historical outline, too. although 
brief, is painstaking and shows wide reading and information. 
The venture proved a heavy loss to ]\Ir. Gunn. however. 

In early days, the San Diego Chamber of Commerce turned 
out a large number of descriptive pamphlets, some of which were 
prepared by competent men and are quite valuable. In 1880, 
this body varied its program by employing Theodore S. Van 
Dyke to prepare a more ambitious work, containing a more com- 
plete statement than had generally been attempted of the 
county's resources, together with an historical outline. The 
results of his labors were published in the same year, under the 


title of The City and County of San Diego, and the eighty pages 
for which he was responsible justified the confidence reposed in 
the author. The historical outline, though brief, was accurate; 
and no man has ever described the county's characteristics and 
summed up its advantages and disadvantages more accurately 
or brilliantly. The latter part of the book was devoted to biog- 
raphies, for which the publishers, Leberthon & Taylor, were 

In 1890 the Lewis Publishing Company, of Chicago, issued 
their Illustrated History of Southern California, which contained 
390 pages devoted to San Diego County, 102 of which are his- 
torical and the rest biographical. The historical section of the 
work was largely performed by J. M. Guinn, secretary of the 
Historical Society of Southern California, Los Angeles. The 
book is an immense one, prepared for sale by subscription, and 
covers too large a field to give the city of San Diego the setting 
to which its importance entitles it. The historical work was 
competently done and of considerable value. 

The first attempt to write a history of the city of San Diego, 
apart from commercial features, was that of Walter Gifford 
Smith, in his Story of San Diego, published in 1892. It is a 
book of 163 pages, and undertakes to deal seriously, though 
hriefly, with the city's history. Mr. Smith had had considerable 
training as a newspaper writer, and, considering the limited time 
training as a newspaper writer, and his book was written in a 
charming style. 

A number of newspaper writers and other bright men and 
women have studied the history of San Diego with fascinated 
interest and written sketches about it which have appeared in 
periodicals all over the land. Ben C. Truman was one of the 
earliest and brightest of these, and all the others — Will H. Gould, 
Thomas Fitch, Theodore S. Van Dyke, Douglas Gunn, Walter 
GifPord Smith, and so on — have tried it at one time or another. 
Will H. Holcomb came to San Diego with the intention and 
expectation of writing a history of the place, and went so far as 
to collect a large cpiantity of materials. Probably it was only 
the accident of his having a satchel full of these papers stolen 
which prevented his carrying out the plan. As it is, he has 
contented himself with writing the Rhymes of the Missions and 
a number of historical sketches for the newspapers. L. A. 
Wright is another writer from whose published sketches consid- 
erable information has been collected. 

During his residence of six years in this city, William E. 
Smythe has written Constructive Democracy and the History 
of San Diego, revised and largely rewritten his Conquest of Arid 


America (new edition), and contributed extensively to maga- 
zines and newspapers. In the same period lie has written sev- 
eral elaborate oovernment reports and prepared many formal 
public addresses, which have also been published. 


HE explosion on board the gunboat Bennington, 
which occurred in San Diego harbor on Fri- 
day morning, July 21, 1905, was an event 
of national importance. The vessel was lying 
in the stream at the foot of H Street, with 
steam up, ready to depart. The crew num- 
bered 179 men. Captain Lucien Young com- 
manding. The captain had gone ashore and 
the crew of his launch were awaiting his return at the wharf, 
when the boat was to leave for Port Harford to take the Wyom- 
ing in tow for San Francisco. At 10:33 A.M. there were two 
explosions in quick succession and the ship was enveloped in 
steam and listed to starboard. The forward and main port boil- 
ers had exploded. The explosion and escaping steam killed or 
injured more than half the crew. Many were blown into the 
water; others were penned between decks and cooked by steam; 
the passageways were blocked with dead and dying; the decks 
covered with blood and debris ; and a scene of horror impossible 
to describe was created. 

Captain Young was notified and hurried to the wharf and 
boarded the vessel. With him went a reporter of the San Diegan- 
Sun; and they were the first to set foot on the deck after the 
explosion. Boats and launches were sent from the vessels 
anchored near, and from the wharves. Volunteers came on board 
and offered their services in rescuing the living and removing 
the dead. They went down into the reeking hold, groping amid 
wreckage and blinding steam, and in a short time did everything 
possible. The explosion of the boilers left the blow-off pipes 
open and water began to come in rapidly. The danger of fire 
was also great, and for this reason the magazines were flooded. 
The water thus coming in settled the vessel in the bay and made 
the work of removing the bodies much more difficult. An engine 
was provided and placed on a lighter alongside to pump out the 
hold. It took three days to finish this work. On the evening 
of the 24th, the water was under control and the vessel having 
been lightened by the removal of supplies, she was towed to the 
Santa Fe wharf and made fast. 



The dead and wounded were transferred to the nearest wharf 
and arrangements for their care immediately made. ]\Iayor John 
L. Sehon was quickly on the scene and organized the relief work 
with military skill and efficiency. There were comfortable beds 
for the sufferers, hot water, physicians, and nurses in waiting. 
There never was a case where so much was done in so short a 
time, with such magical celerity and absence of confusion and 
friction. The police kept back the crowd and co-operated in 
manv wavs. The doctors and nurses of the citv volunteered their 


services. The Agnew Sanitarium and St. Joseph's Hospital were 
thrown open and the injured removed there, where they were 
tenderlj" cared for until death relieved them or until they recov- 
ered sufficiently to be removed to the army hospital at the 

The number of men killed outright at the time of the explo- 
sion was 51, and 9 died from their injuries, making the total 
deaths resulting from the disaster 60. The injured numbered 
46, and only 91 escaped uninjured. 

The funeral of the ^"ictims of the explosion on July 23d was 
observed as a day of mourning, and the citizens of San Diego did 
everji;hing in their power to show their appreciation of the occa- 


sion. The 47 coffins were placed side by side in a long trench 
at the military cemetery, and the ceremonies were of an impress- 
ive character. 

There were many instances of individual heroism at the time 
of the explosion. Injured men worked like heroes, and saved 
their comrades regardless of their own sufferings. One of the 
men who escaped uninjured was J. H. Turpin, a colored man, 
who had been badly injured in the Maine explosion. The forti- 
tude of the sufferers was beyond all praise. 

There were rumors which gained currency at the time that 
the boilers of the Bennington were known to be weak, and that 
the commander had repeatedly reported this fact. The affair 
was passed upon, first by an investigation board under Admiral 
Goodrich, and then by a courtmartial, the latter body recom- 
mending the censure of Captain Young. 

The Be7inington was a gunboat and a warship of the third 
class. She was built at Chester, Pennsylvania, in 1889-90, and 
cost $553,875. She was equipped with two screws and was 
schooner-rigged. She was taken to Mare Island Navy Yard to 
be rebuilt. 



HISTORICAL work of any value can bring 
its story down to the day of its writing, at least 
with any degree of fullness. Not only is per- 
spective lacking, but the influence of events 
cannot be measured until there has been time 
for them to work out their results, nor can 
the importance of men engaged in active life 
be estimated until their work is finished. For 
this reason, the early history of San Diego is dealt with exten- 
sively in preceding pages, while its later history receives less 
attention as we approach the present day. For the same reason, 
the plan of emphasizing the old and dealing lightly with the 
new is followed in the closing department of the work which is 
concerned with "Institutions of Civic Life." It will be the 
work of a later historian to deal at length with the narrative of 
San Diego's development after it became a city of substantial 
size and permanent character, and he will find the materials 
both abundant and easy of access. But while no attempt is made 
to set forth with any fullness the life of the last few years, it is 
nevertheless interesting and important to sketch in broad out- 
line the expansion of the twentieth century city, and to mention 
the more powerful influences from which its impulse was derived. 
The decade between 1890 and 1900 was a negative period 
in the history of San Diego. By the national census of the 
former year, it had a population of a little less than 17,000; 
by the census of the latter year, a population of a little more 
than 17.000. The decade is memorable throughout the nation as 
a period of depression, a part of which was marked by acute 
hard times. Thus the stagnation of San Diego during those try- 
ing years was in no sense peculiar to this locality, though it must 
be confessed that its recovery from depression was somewhat 
slower than that of other American cities, and even of most of 
those in California. The new prosperity began almost simulta- 
neously with the new century. It came so gradually and silently 
as to be almost imperceptible at first. While the enterprising 
men of the city were not slow to take advantage of it, and to 
put their energies aggressively at work in carrying it forward, 
it cannot be said that it took its initiative from their efforts. The 



tide was rising throughout the world, particularly the world of 
the Pacific. San Diego rose with the tide. What were the forces 
behind the tide? 

First of all, a series of wars quickened the demand for men 
and for all sorts of supplies and provisions, putting almost un- 
imaginable sums of money into circulation through all the arter- 
ies of trade throughout the world. The Japanese fought the 


Who was the strongest personal force in turning the tide for San Diego at the beginning of 
the new century. Coming here in 1903 and proclaiming his faith in the early 
realization of the city's dream of greatness, he proceeded to inaug- 
urate important enterprises which contributed materially 
to the city's growth and prosperity 

Chinese, the Americans fought the Spanish and the Filipinos, 
the British fought the Boers, the Japanese fought the Russians, 
and there were many other armed conflicts of less consequence. 
While these struggles were remote from San Diego, they set cur- 
rents in motion which affected commerce and material develop- 
ment everj^where, especially in the regions about the shores of 
the Pacific Ocean. In the meantime, gold discoveries were made 
in Alaska and the hunt for the precious metal was renewed with 



fierce energy in many different parts of the West. Then came 
the aggressive effort to cut the Isthmus of Panama, and to 
reclaim the deserts of the AYest. By this time the wind in the 
national sails had stiffened to the freshest gale of prosperity in 
American history. 

It was natural that Southern California should collect early 
and large dividends from this national and even world-wide up- 
lift of good times. Southern California has two strings to its 
bow — vast material resources of its own to develop, and superla- 

President of the Ralston Realty Co. A builder of University Heights, projector of magnifi- 
cent improvements on Point Loma, and participant in other great enterprises; he is 
a man of creative instinct and substantial achievement 

live attractions which drain the profits made in other localities. 
Beginning in 1901, and steadily increasing with every passing 
year, the Southland has gone forward Avith leaps and bounds, 
developing its resources, gaining population, attracting capital 
for investment, and enhancing its natural attractions by the 
most daring ereatious of the architect and the engineer. 

Los Angeles scored an amazing growth in consequence of these 
conditions, acquiring an impulse which set the entire southern 
section of the state in motion. If there were those who once 


President of the Merchants National Bank, builder and owner of the Granger Block. The 

erection of this building in 1904-05, was an important influence in the 

subsequent growth of the city 



thought that Los Angeles and San Diego were rivals, and that 
the prosperity of one could be promoted by injury to the other, 
recent events have clearly shown the folly of their reasoning. 
If the Southern Pacific had built to San Diego instead of Los 
Angeles, or if Scott had been able to extend the Texas & Pacific 
to this port, it would certainly have altered the fortunes of these 
two important cities. But that battle was lost long ago. Since 
then, San Diego has had everything to gain and nothing to lose 
by the rapid development of Los Angeles and its surroundings. 


President of the Bartlett Estate Co. and of the South Park and East Side Railway Co. 
leader of aggressive enterprise in transportation and suburban development 

Sooner or later, this development must extend its sphere of 
operations to all eligible points in the South, most surely of all 
to the region about the lovely Bay of San Diego. This is what 
happened in the first decade of the new century, and it is now 
so clearly apparent that Los Angeles capital freely invests in 
San Diego real estate. Indeed, the marked change of sentiment 
on this subject may be regarded as the most significant event 
in San Diego history during the past few years. It is an event 


The building of the great hotel, bearing the name of the soldier president, permanently 

identified the Grant tradition with the city of San Diego, and is regarded as the 

crowning service of the son to the community which he chose for 

his home and his field of activity 



which has already borne fruit and which will bear more in the 
future, for it signalizes the end of clannishness in both cities 
and the beginning of an era of patriotic — one might almost 
say brotherly — co-operation in the development of the region. 
Striking illustrations of the tendency are seen in the investment 
of great sums of Los Angeles capital in land, power, and town- 
site enterprises in the northern portion of San Diego County, 
and in similar investments in gem mines, and in the lands of 

President Folsom Brothers Co. 

Manager Folsom Brothers Co. 


El Cajon Valley. The point has already been reached when 
any good San Diego enterprise may appeal hopefully to the Los 
Angeles market. Ten years ago it was very different. 

Coming now to more purely local influences in forming the 
twentieth century spirit of the San Diegan people, the dramatic 
events on the Colorado River are worthy of first mention. This 
is said with full appreciation of the fact that the city has yet 
realized but meagre dividends from this unexpected develop- 
ment, owing to its lack of railroad facilities. In spite of this 


fact, real inspiration has been drawn from this source, and if 
San Diego is to be a very large and prosperous city during the 
present century it will be because the traffic arising from the 
use of the Colorado River breaks down the barriers of its isola- 
tion and forces the opening of the port to the commerce of the 
world. A few years ago, the eastern portion of San Diego 
County was an absolute blank. Neither animal nor human life 
disturbed its primeval silence. Few gave it a thought, fewer 


Who interested Los Angeles capital in great plans of development along the San Luis Rey, 

at Del Mar, in El Cajon Valley and the city, thus identifying themselves with land, 

power, irrigation and transportation enterprises of high importance to the 

community. Built Fletcher-Salmons Block, Sixth and D Streets, in 1906 

still believed it would ever become an important asset of the 
country. Today, it is known to all that a region bigger and 
richer than the country of the Sacramento, or the country of 
the San Joaquin lies at the back door of San Diego, less than 
three hours by rail from the water-front — if the rail were there ! 
Only a few far-sighted men realize the true significance of 
these conditions, yet, dimly as the public has seen it, the 
public has yet put forth many efforts during the past 
few years to stretch a hand of steel from the perfect har- 


bor to the Colorado Eiver. These efforts have been almost 
pathetic in their eagerness, almost tragic in their repeated dis- 
appointment. The first one, at least, was carefully planned 
and many steps were taken successfully. The author of the 
plan was Major S. W. Fergusson, a man who ranks among the 
buildere of California. He had a large part in the colonization 
of Imperial Valley, and it was from the standpoint of the needs 
of the valley that he approached the railroad proposition. He 


Located, 1886; Police Judge, 1887-88. Rendered important services in connection with the 
San Diego & Eastern Railroad Committee; foremost authority on San Diego harbor 

interested the Chamber of Connnerce and secured the appoint- 
ment of a committee with large powers. This committee raised 
over $40,000 in cash subscriptions to make complete surveys of 
a route from San Diego to Yuma. The surveys were made 
under H. T. Richards, chief engineer, with H. Hawgood as con- 
sulting engineer. The road was found entirely feasible, and 
the cost of construction and equipment estimated at $4,573,850, 
or $21,780 per mile. Rights of way were obtained over a large 
portion of the line v.'ith the necessary terminal property on the 


water-front and franchises from the city. The San Diego- 
Eastern Railway Company was incorporated with the follow- 
ing officers : 

George W. Marston, president; John E. Boal, vice-president; 
L. L. Boone, secretary; G. W. Fishburn, treasurer; the fore- 
going and U. S. Grant, Jr., Charles N. Clark, Julius Wagen- 
heim. Homer H. Peters, H. P. Wood, and F. S. Jennings, 


A type of the class of eastern capitalists who have come to San Diego to make their home 
and join the ranks of the city's builders 

The company approached great railroad financiers, like E. H. 
Harriman, George J. Gould, Phelps-Dodge & Co., and those in 
control of the Rock Island system, as well as many other capi- 
talists of lesser note. Again and again, it was believed that the 
success of the undertaking was assured, but each time some 
potent influence intervened to prevent it. C. W. French 
acquired the rights of the company for a time and tried to pro- 
mote it, but without results. Chief Engineer Richards organ- 
ized a company of his own with a view of developing a similar 



project, but at this writing nothing tangible has arisen from 
his persistent and praiseworthy efforts. These faihires did not 
discourage other attempts, the most notable of which was the 
movement organized by J. J. Simons for the purpose of having 
the city vote bonds and construct the road as a municipal work. 
It was evident enough to those who followed the course of 
these futile efforts that the powerful railroad interests of the 
United States were not ready to co-operate in giving San Diego 
more facilities of transportation, and that they were not dis- 


First President of the Realty Board 

F. L. mEATT 

First President of the Commercial Club 

posed to encourage others to do so, nor even to permit them to 
do so, if the}^ could prevent it. This sinister influence always 
lurked in the background, and on some occasions was exposed 
to the plain view of those engaged in promotion. The inference 
to be drawn from these facts is by no means discreditable to 
San Diego. On the contrary, the opposition of these powerful 
interests is the best evidence of the importance of the port. 
Nature fashioned it for a strategic point in Pacific Commerce. 
Its full development in advance of absolute necessity might seri- 



ously affect other ports, revolutionize steamship routes, and 
disturb a condition of equilibrium which has been painfully 
worked out by the transcontinental systems. Under such cir- 
cumstances, it is by no means strange that the financial power 
which so largely rules the destinies of the United States has per- 
sistently opposed a direct railroad outlet for San Diego. 

Though this opposition has proven effective so far as the 
actual construction of a railroad is concerned, there can be no 


Prominent for many years as a merchant 
and later as promoter of suburban devel- 

Who stands in the front rank of large 
real estate operators 

question that the San Diego-Yuma project has made decided 
progress in an educational way, both at home and abroad, and 
that the day of its realization has been brought nearer in con- 
sequence. Neither can there be any doubt that immediate 
advantage has resulted in other ways. The railroad agitation 
furnished excellent excuse for a revival, not of the boom, but 
of an aggressive real estate movement and of organized efforts 
to obtain new and wide publicity for San Diego and to inaug- 
urate a new era of improvement, public and private. Without 



doubt, much of the present impetus which is carrying the city 
forward may be traced to the fact that the most enterprising 
elements were united in the summer of 1901 in what for some 
time appeared like a hopeful effort to obtain better transpor- 
tation facilities. In this connection, it seems worth while to 
mention another great undertaking which was widely exploited 
throughout the United States, though it has not materialized 
as yet. This is the Pacific Steel Company, which was incor- 


Who has borne an important part in 
civic, political and real estate movements 

A leader in commercial and public affairs 

porated for $100,000,000, and which proposed to build exten- 
sive works and employ thousands of men at National City. 
General H. G. Otis, of Los Angeles, became president of this 
company, and a great deal has been done looking to the acqui- 
sition of coal and iron properties. Whatever the final out- 
come, it is the testimony of those who have followed the sub- 
ject most closely that the discussion of the proposition to man- 
ufacture steel on the shores of San Diego Bay proved a most 
valuable advertisement for the city. 







The work of Katlierine Tingiey and her followers at Point 
Loma must certainly be acknowledged as one of the contrib- 
uting factors to the new era of growth. It involved a direct 
outlay of hundreds of thousands for the purchase and improve- 
ment of property, and for the maintenance of a considerable 
community within the city limits, which increased the volume 
of local business. It added a unique and interesting feature to 
'the list of attractions for tourists, and lent new color to the social 


life of the place. Drawing its recruits from many different 
countries, and distributing its periodical literature throughout 
the world, its value as an instrument of publicity for the city 
and its surroundings must be regarded as very large indeed. 
Moreover, Mrs. Tingiey extended her work and investment to 
the city proper, purchasing the principal theater and establish- 
ing branches of the Raja Yoga School there and elsewhere. The 
fame of the Point Loma institutions has strengthened with each 
passing year, as the beauty of the spot has increased with each 
new improvement and with the growth of its trees and flowers, 
and there can be no doubt that the organization over which 






Mrs. Tingley presides is to be reckoned as a permanent factor 
in the prosperity of San Diego. 

The faith of John D. Spreckels in the fnture of the city, as 
evidenced by the widening scope of his enterprises and by the 
constant extension of his own power in their control, had much 
influence in strengthening the faith of others. The establish- 
ment of Tent City in the summer of 1901, and its continuance 
in each succeeding summer attracted thousands of people and 
put large sums of money in circulation. The improvements in 
the Southern California ]\Iountain Water System were far more 
important. They solved the problem of water supply for a city 
of at least 100.000, thereby giving security to every other inter- 
est, and largely increasing the possible sphere of real estate 
operations. The street railway system was also extended wher- 
ever conditions justified it. The retirement of E. S. Babcock 
from various Spreckels companies was a fact of some historical 
significance. So far as those enterprises were concerned, it 
marked the passing of one influence which had been powerful 
m matters of vital public concern for many years, and signal- 
ized the growth of another influence and the consequent cen- 
tralization of control in the hands of a single individual or fam- 
ily. Such is the inevitable tendency of great wealth under 
intelligent control. If there are those who deplore the tendency 
on broad economic grounds, there are few who will deny that 
in John D. Spreckels San Diego has a private monopolist who 
is kindly, liberal, and reasonably responsive to popular demands. 
He has done much for the city — much which would not have 
been done without the aid of private capital, much which pri- 
vate capital in other hands might have done less promptly 
and wisely. 

Two other powerful builders of the city in recent years are 
Ralph Granger and U. S. Grant, Jr. Both of these men 
invested large sums in the improvement of the business section 
at a time when something of the kind was vitally necessary to 
sustain the forward movement. The erection of the Granger 
block at the southwest corner of Fifth and D Streets was 
undertaken at a somewhat critical time, when it was not quite 
certain that prosperity had come to stay. This large invest- 
ment in a modern store and office building gave strength to the 
real estate market and encouraged much other building. Mr. 
Grant's determination to construct a great hotel on the site of 
the old Horton House produced a similar effect, but upon a 
much larger scale. The city had long stood in need of a hotel 
which should rank with other splendid hostelries in Southern 
California. The location opposite the Plaza was generally rec- 
ognized as ideal, and for many years the hope had been enter- 


Located, 1869, and one of the city's oldest merchants 


Located 1869, and became identified with great mercantile enterprises. Stelner & Klauber, 

Steiner, Klauber & Company. Klauber & Levi, Klauber Wagenheim & Company— 

these names have been foremost in the business life of the city for 

nearly forty years. Chairman Board of Supervisors. 1878-80 




tained that someone would utilize it for this purpose. The 
undertaking required not only a very large investment, but a 
generous confidence in the future of the city. Mr. Grant hit 
upon the happy thought of making the building a monument 
to his father and thus decided to call it the U. S. Grant Hotel. 
The destruction of the Horton House began in July, 1905. The 
first bricks were removed on the evening of July 12th, by 
Messrs. A. E. Horton, E. W. Morse, and W. W. Bowers, who 
had participated in laying the corner stone more than thirty 
years before. These pioneers were cheered by thousands, assem- 
bled in the Plaza for the purpose of celebrating ' ' The Freedom 
of the Isthmus" from the monopoly of the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company — a celebration that was somewhat premature so 
far as practical benefits to San Diego were concerned. 

Corner Second and Walnut Streets 

The growth of public utilities, the extension of school facil- 
ities, and the really remarkable movement in the building of 
new churches have all been sketched in other pages. These 
things, of course, were fruits of the new prosperity and of the 
increased population which came with it. The number of inhab- 
itants was estimated at 35,000 in 1906, and various items of 
statistics which are available indicate a growth of nearly 100 
per cent since the national census of 1900. Thus the postoffice 
receipts rose in five years from $39,151.85 to $64,190.33; the 
bank deposits from $l',830,923.60 to $5,388,518.66, and the build- 
ing permits from $123,285 to about $3,000,000. 

The real estate market, which had been dull for years, has 
shown constantly increasing activity from 1901 to 1906, the 



annual transfers increasing from 2,716 in the former year to 
9,223 in the latter. Much of this activity was due to specula- 
tion — precisely how much it would be interesting to know — 
and in this speculation local citizens took a considerable share. 
But very much of the buying represented a genuine demand 
for homes, and much of the investment was that of capital 
drawn from outside. Never was more persistent, aggressive, 
and brilliant work done in the interest of an aspiring city than 
that performed by some of the larger real estate interests dur- 
ing this new era in San Diego. The Ralston Realty Company, 


of which D. C. Collier is president, and the Folsom Brothers 
Company, under the management of 0. W. Cotton, furnished 
notable instances of enterprise in this respect. They opened 
new tracts to development, inaugurated daring plans of im- 
provement, and advertised conspicuously in publications of the 
widest circulation. The degree of attention thus attracted to 
San Diego brought benefits in which everybody shared. The 
operations of the Bartlett Estate Company were also very intel- 
ligent and successful. These, as well as other interests of less 
magnitude, did a kind of work for the city which ranks them 
among its builders. 


The work accomplished by Ed Fletcher and Frank Salmons 
in the San Luis Rev region in connection with great invest- 
ments of Los Angeles capital, while not related directly to the 
growth of the city, is to be regarded as one of the strong; influ- 
ences in strengthening confidence in its future, both at home 
and abroad. Furthermore, the development of poAver on the 
San Luis Rey will have a very direct relation to the future of 
manufacture and transportation in the city and its surround- 
ing country, while the elaborate improvements made at Del Mar 
must increase the vogue of the whole San Diego coast as a sum- 
mer and winter resort. 

Real estate activity and general prosperity engendered a new 
public spirit, and this furnished the inspiration for many new 
organizations aiming to improve the conditions of civic life. 
Of these organizations, none were more useful than a series of 
neighborhood improvement clubs which began with the homely 
task of cleaning streets and yards and then went forward to 
more ambitious undertakings. One section of the city after 
another took up the work and the results were truly wonderful. 
Compared with conditions which had formerly prevailed in 
some localities, San Diego began to appear like a veritable Spot- 
less Town. ]\Iany of the clubs have kept alive over a long 
period, while others wearied after the first enthusiasm passed. 
Organizations of a different character are the Realty Board, 
the Commercial Club and the Fifty Thousand Club. They do 
a useful work of promotion. 

Another and different evidence of growth is seen in the lib- 
eral character of recent amendments of the city charter. The 
most important of these provide for the initiative, referendum, 
and recall. The adoption of these provisions placed San Diego 
among: the two or three most advanced municipalities in the 
United States in the matter of government. The first use of 
the initiative was for the purpose of closing the saloons on 
Sunday, a reform which had been defeated for years by the 
city council. 

San Dieg'o was in the full swing of its new prosperity when 
the news of the destruction of San Francisco by earthquake and 
fire was received on the morning of April 18, 1906. In many 
minds the first thought was not that San Francisco alone, but 
that all California, had been struck down, and that the end of 
San Diego's progress had, perhaps, been reached for a time. 
California had formerly had an "earthquake reputation," 
which had been patiently lived down after many years. Had 
it now been re-established in a few short hours of shock and 
flame, and, if so, would San Diego suffer in consequence? 
Man}^ feared that such would be the case, and the prices of 



realty actually went down something like 15 per cent for two 
or three weeks. The market remained very dull and so con- 
tinued for two or three months. "When the trade returned to 
its normal condition prices quickly recovered and resumed the 
upward tendency which they had shown before the disaster. 

No community of the United States was more prompt than 
San Diego in organizing relief activities and sending relief to 
the stricken people of San Francisco. Under the superb man- 
agement of Mayor Sehon, committees were set at work, and 
funds and provisions collected. The sum of $25,000 was imme- 
diately contributed in cash, besides large quantities of supplies. 

The real prosperity of San Diego during the early years of 
the new century finds its best illustration not in new hotels 
and business blocks, not in street railway extensions nor in 
rising prices of real estate, but in the number and beauty of 
comfortable little homes which have been built throughout the 
length and breadth of the city. These have multiplied with sur- 
prising rapidity, covering the sunny slopes, extending out upon 
the mesas, and creeping well down toward the water front. 
They are the prophecy of the San Diego that is to be. 


Formerly a manufacturing- confectioner 
in New York City; now a resident of San 

Owner of the newest, most modern fireproof 
building, whose confidence in and foresight con- 
cerning San Diego's future has been shown by his 
success and investments. 

Sixth and C Streets 

The construction of this building in 1907 marked the advance of the business district to 
the north and was a powerful factor in influencing the growth of Sixth Street as a com- 
mercial avenue of the first class. 



awoke to 
Union : 


HE foregoing chapter, written in the early days 
of December, 1906, reflected the condition of 
San Diego as it was np to the morning of Fri- 
day, the 14th day of that month. Then a dra- 
matic thing occurred which changed the entire 
aspect of affairs. Having gone to bed the 
night before Avithout the slightest hint of any 
forthcoming announcement, the whole city 
the following front page of the Smi Diego 


Be iidi. wi „'~jtr":u2':rc'. 




»_ '' - 



_ ~ S.»~. "tS 

£~ir£ " - ~ 

«-" ~ J^t 


™..i~-'~ ~™.,5 



"St'Z'S laxaa 

ssr'-r:— -'^ 



,SKSS- .»3 



None but a San Diegan can comprehend what this meant to 
the future growth of the city, nor what it suggested in the way 
of immediate gain to owners of real estate. The ambition for a 
direct eastern outlet dates back to the early thirties, more than 
three-quarters of a century. The first organized effort, expressed 
in the incorporation of the ' ' San Diego & Gila, ' ' began in 1854. 
The success of the citizens in securing the extension of the Santa 
Fe system during the eighties did not meet the demand for a 
direct eastern outlet, and was disappointing in other respects. 
The great effort begun in the summer of 1901, and persistently 
pushed in every channel of possible relief, had apparently accom- 
plished nothing more than educational results. The year of 
1906 had indeed been one of the most prosperous in San Diego 
history, yet as the year drew toward its close the prospect of a 
direct eastern railroad outlet appeared as remote as at any time 
during the previous decade. In fact, the most recent develop- 
ments went far to convince the public that the city was helpless 
in the grasp of a transportation monopoly which could defeat, 
and meant to defeat, as it had defeated, every aspiration in that 

From this situation the city was suddenly delivered by the 
mandate of the one man who had sufficient capital of his own to 
build the road, and sufficient interests at stake to justify him in 
doing so. And it is a high tribute to the character and reputa- 
tion of John D. Spreckels to say that his simple word was 
accepted by all as a sufficient guaranty of the performance. The 
authoritative announcement of his purpose in his own newspaper 
constituted a contract with the entire San Diego public and the 
public accepted it as such. The San Diegan-Sun, which is 
entirely independent of the Spreckels interests and has opposed 
them on many occasions, unquestionably voiced the sentiment of 
the entire community when it said : 

The Sun feels at liberty to say what the Union and Tribune, 
through modesty enforced by personal ownership, are unable 
to say, that San Diego today lifts its hat and gives voice to 
an unrestrained cheer for John D. Spreckels. To Mr. Spreck- 
els is frankly given the credit for securing to San Diego what 
has long been San Diego 's most urgent need — a railway direct 
to the East. 

While as a matter of course the fact is generally appreciated 
that the road is not yet built, and that so far only incorpora- 
tion papers have been filed, this move made by Mr. Spreckels 
and announced by Mr. Spreckels 's newspaper, is accepted by 
San Diegans unanim.ously as meaning, substantially and capa- 
bly, that all necessary preliminary plans have been perfected 
by Mr. Spreckels, and that the railway line now incorpo- 
rated will be constructed as rapidly as a work of such gigantic 
proportions can be executed. 




Whose identification with the business interests of San Diego began with the organiza- 
tion of the Spreckels Bros. Commercial Company in 1886. He acquired the interest of W. 
W. Story in the Coronado Beach Company and its allied corporations in 1887, and. later, 
became sole owner of the properties. In 1892 he and his brother, Adolph B. Spreckels. ac- 
quired the street railway system, and in 1895 he purchased a half interest in the Otay Water 
Company, which evolved into the Southern California Mountain Water Company with its 
extensive reservoirs and system of distribution. The Spreckels family is now virtually the 
exclusive owner of all these great business interests, together with a morning and evening 
newspaper and valuable real estate in city and country. Such vast investments in San 
Diego and its environs amply warranted the course of Mr. Spreckels in entering upon his 
latest and greatest undertaking, the construction of a direct eastern railroad outlet from 
the seaport to the rich valley of the Colorado River, and beyond. 


Big enterprises undertaken and successfully accomplished by 
Mr. Spreckels here and in the central portion of the State 
give warrant to the conclusion that the plans now announced 
will be carried to equal success, and that the eastern outlet so 
long hoped for will be realized as speedily as possible. 

It will not be necessary to explain to old San Diegans what 
the construction of such a road will mean to this city and 
country, for all this has been figured out many times. It is 
doubtful, however, if even the closest student of the situation 
can appreciate the final limit of the results of such an enter- 
prise, as it is given to no one to see all the details of the fu- 
ture. One result plainly visible is that this move will break, 
and break forever, the antagonistic power of the combined 
railway interests, which for years has been exerted against San 
Diego. Not only will this adverse influence be broken, but 
it will be forced under the new conditions to become a friend- 
ly factor in the upbuilding of this port. 

This turn in affairs will be realized no matter what corpo- 
rate relations Mr. Spreckels may establish. If he engages in 
the business independently, as he and his brother and father 
did at the inauguration of the San Joaquin enterprise, then it 
will follow that the Southern Pacific will be forced to build 
here to protect itself from competition. 

If Mr. Spreckels allies himself with the Southern Pacific and 
if the roacl to be built by Mr. Spreckels is to become a part 
of the Harriman system, then the Santa Fe will be compelled 
to come across lots from Arizona to secure a portion of the 
trade of Imperial Valley and a shorter route to this port. 

If Mr. Spreckels allies himself with the Santa Fe, then it 
will be for the Southern Pacific to follow, and without doubt 
it will follow and follow in a hurry. 

Looked at in any way possible it means that the railway 
combine against San Diego is broken at last, and looked at in 
some ways it appears to be plain that the building of one road 
will eventually be followed by the almost immediate consti'uc- 
tion of another. 

With these prospects assured, San Diegans have a right to 
lift their hats to John D. Spreckels. 

The articles of incorporation of the San Diego and Arizona 
Railway Company bore the date of June 14, 1906, although they 
were not filed with the county clerk until six months later. They 
provided for the construction of a railroad from San Diego "in 
a general easterly direction by the most practicable route to a 
point at or near Yuma, in the Territory of Arizona. ' ' The incor- 
porators were John D. Spreckels, A. B. Spreckels, John D. 
Spreckels, Jr., William Clayton, and Harry L. Titus. The cap- 
ital stock was fixed at $6,000,000, of which $200,000 were paid 
in at the time of incorporation. The announcement in the Union 
was quickly followed by two substantial acts of good faith on 
the part of Mr. Spreckels. One of these was the filing of con- 
demnation suits as a means of obtaining right of way through 
some of the most valuable property in the lower part of the city ; 



the other was the announcement that the entire sum of money 
collected by the San Diego and Eastern Railroad Committee in 
1901, and expended in the effort to promote the project, would 
be repaid by the San Diego and Arizona Railway Company. In 
both instances, JNIr. Spreckels insisted on paying for what the 
citizens would doubtless have offered as a free gift in the form 
of a subsidy. Indeed, they would doubtless have supplemented 
all this with much richer subsidies in the way of cash and land. 
Mr. Spreckels preferred to be absolutely independent and free 
of obligations alike to the public and to private individuals. 
Thus it happened that hundreds of people who had contributed 


Located, 1894; city engineer 1900-1907; later, connected with engineering department of San 
Diego & Arizona Railway 

to the railroad fund five years previously received a most unex- 
pected Christmas present in addition to the assurance of a new 

It is most interesting to note that San Diego is perhaps 
indebted for its good fortune to the calamity which befell San 
Francisco on April 18, 1906. Mr. Spreckels and his family were 
San Francisco refugees, though they tied from the burning city 
in their own steamer and found shelter in their own magnificent 
Hotel del Coronado. Mr. Spreckels had been very ill a few weeks 
before and had planned to go abroad for a prolonged stay. The 
destruction of San Francisco changed his plans and he came to 
San Diego to remain for months. During those months the rail- 
road project took shape in his mind, so that it may be said that 


as Sail Diego lost a railroad by the -unforeseen event of the great 
panic in 1873, so it gained a railroad hy the unforeseen disaster 
at the Golden Gate in 1906. As its liistory was powerfully influ- 
enced in the wrong direction by the earlier event, so it will be 
powerfully influenced in the right direction by the later event. 

While unstinted praise is given to Mr. Spreckels for the con- 
summation of the railroad hopes, the labors of many others over 
a long period of years should not be forgotten. These efforts did 
not produce tangible results, but they were not thrown away. 
Every article written in favor of the direct eastern outlet, every 
meeting held in its behalf, every movement set on foot to that 
end, from the days of Fremont to the days of Spreckels, contrib- 
uted something to the final result. The cause that has faithful 
friends is never lost. The cause that can endure through more 
than two generations, and inspire the enthusiasm of a commu- 
nity when failures have been so numerous as to pass into a 
proverb known throughout the state— such a cause can know only 
triumph in the end. It was this triumph which carne to the peo- 
ple on the memorable fourteenth of December. 1906, and which 
brought San Diego to the threshold of 1907 with rare exaltation 
in its heart. 

An old epoch had closed ; a new epoch had dawned. 


In^itutions of Civic Life 



HE organized religions life of San Diego began 
in 1769 and has been continuously maintained 

T/rJi c^o^'^ to the present time. It was begun, of 
VA/) course, by the Roman Catholics, whose con- 
W / gregation at Old San Diego was served by 
priests from the mission until the latter 
was abandoned, when a resident priest was 
The first priest whose name appears in the records was Father 
Vicente Oliva, from the mission. He left in 1847 and was suc- 
ceeded by Father Juan Holbein. A room in the house of Jose 
Estudillo was at first used as a place of worship. On September 
29, 1851, the cornerstone of a church building was laid, on a lot 
given by the city trustees. Father Holbein made himself obnox- 
ious to the Masons, who w^ere strong at Old Town, by forbidding 
the members of his flock to attend their ceremonies, or even to 
go into the street while a Masonic procession was passing, on 
pain of excommunication. The Herald says that he was other- 
wise illiberal, and interfered with the education of the Old Town 
children. It appears the school trustees distributed a circular 
announcing the opening of their school, and Father Holbein, 
from his pulpit, with one of these circulars in hand, forbade his 
members to send their children to this school. This and his atti- 
tude toward the Masons gave offense to the American popula- 
tion. He left in September, 1853, and was succeeded by Father 
Marincovich, who only remained a few days. In 1856 the priest 
was Father Meinrich, and a year later Father Jaime Vila was 
in charge. Father Juan Molinier came soon after, and under 
his pastorate a new church was built. The church was conse- 
crated with high mass on November 21, 1858. The San Diego 
Guards assisted and fired a salute, and a dinner was given by 
Jose Antonio Aguirre, who had contributed largely to the build- 
ing and equipment of the church. 

This church is still standing, in the southerly outskirts of Old 
Town. It was built of adobes, but a few years later these were 
enclosed with weatherboarding. It is the Church of the Immac- 
ulate Conception, and is still used for services on Sunday, when 
priests attend from New San Diego. In it are kept some vest- 
ments, images and other articles which were used at a very early 


The famous priest of San Diego from 1866 until his death in March, 1907. (For biographical 
sketch see page 175 


day in the mission. A number of Indians still attend this church 
— a little remnant of the once great band of mission neoplwtes. 
Outside hang two bells which have an interesting history. They 
were confiscated by Charles V. of Spain from the churches in 
Bohemia, and found their way here through ^Mexico early in the 
last century. They bear the following inscriptions : ' ' Ave Maria 
Porimus, 1802"; on one is added "San Jose, H.," and on the 
other, "Sivan Nepomnceus, 1822." 

After Father Molinier, Father Vicente Llover was cura for a 
time. In 1866, Father Antonio D. Ubach came to San Diego and 
took charge of the congregation until his recent death. 
Soon after coming, he undertook the erection of a new brick 
church at Old Town, but Horton's Addition drew the popula- 
tion away and he was never able to complete it. The cornerstone 
was laid on July 18, 1869, and the foundation stands, as men- 
tioned in Ramona, on the east side of the main street, in a good 
state of preservation. 

Early in the seventies, a large part of the congregation hav- 
ing removed thither. Father Ubach organized St. Joseph's 
Church in Horton's Addition. The first place of worship was 
Rosario Hall. The church building, at the corner of Third and 
Beech, was dedicated January 31, 1875, by Rev. Francis Mora. 
It was a small wooden building, which is still standing in the 
rear of the new brick structure. At the time of its erection, it 
was considered a fine building, and was spoken of by the news- 
papers as being situated "on the mesa, west of town." The new 
brick church was completed and dedicated in 1894. It is a com- 
modious and imposing structure. The parsonage adjoins it on 
the north. 

The church on Golden Hill, called "Our Lady Queen of the 
Angels," was organized in 1905 by Father William Quinlan. A 
fine church building is being erected for it. The Sisters of St. 
Joseph opened the Academy of Our Lady of Peace in 1884, in 
a building erected by Mr. Horton on bloc^^' 12 of his Addition, 
which they have conducted successfully ever since and is in a 
prosperous condition. St. Joseph's Hospital and Sanitarium was 
opened in June, 1890, by the Sisters of Mercy. It has large and 
beautiful grounds on University Avenue and Sixth Street, where 
a building was erected in 1891. The original building has been 
greatly enlarged, and there is a chapel and other buildings. 
The grounds are beautifullv improved. The sanitarium is non- 
sectarian, and here a large number of invalids and aged people 
find a comfortable home and good care. 


The first Protestant denomination to obtain a foothold in San 
Diego was the Episcopalian. The Reverend John Reynolds, of 



the Protestant Episcopal Church, was appointed chaplain of the 
Post at San Diego, on December 31, 1850, and was army chap- 
lain for the troops stationed at the mission until August 31, 
1854, On July 4, 1853, the Herald announced that "hereafter 
the Rev. Dr. John Reynolds . . . chaplain of the U. S. 
Army, will conduct divine service at the court house, and for the 
first time we have Protestant church services in our town of 
San Diego." The very first service at Old Town was held at 
3 P.M., on July 10, 1853. The details of these early meetings are 
meager, but the Herald and "John Phoenix" supply some local 









.. .^i..SS4JiilllHiLi~' 


Erected by the Episcopalians in May, 1869, on the northeast corner of Sixth and C Streets. 
It now stands on Eighth Street immediately adjoining St. Paul's rectory 

color. The paper complained that ' ' an audience of over a dozen 
is rarely seen at the court house, where Dr. Reynolds preaches 
on Sunday, wdiile the Sabbath calm is broken in upon by the 
riot of the inebriated, and the very w^ords of holy writ are 
drowned by the clicking of billiard balls and calls for cocktails 
from the adjacent saloon." Derby's references to Dr. Reynolds 
are almost entirely in a joking way, and not to be taken 

Dr. Reynolds had been rector of the Episcopal Church at 
Stockton, and was well spoken of by the newspapers of that 


place. He was about sixty years of age, and was large and stout. 
Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer, V. S. A., married his daughter. 
Dr. Reynolds removed to the Atlantic States about August, 1854. 
After this, there were no regular Protestant services at Old 
ToAvn, until after Horton came. ^Ministers occasionally came 
along and preached a sermon or two. The best remembered of 


Located, 1869; attorney Texas & Pacific Railroad, 1876-85. One of the founders of the Bank 
of San Diego, 1870. Prominently identified with St. Paul's Parish from its organization, 
1869, and for nearly thirty years senior warden; lay reader since 1871; delegate from 
Diocese of California to General Convention. 1889, 1901. Has been president 
Society of Natural History, Coronado Beach Summer School, Univer- 
sity Extension Society, San Diego Art Association, and Southern 
California Society of Sons of American Revolution 

these occasional sermons was that of Bishop Kip. He had been 
given charge of the Diocese of California and set sail, with his 
family. Coming up from Panama on the Golden Gate, the 
steamer was disabled, as has been related, and ran aground while 
trying to leave port. At this time the Bishop and his family 
were the guests of Don Juan Bandini for a week. His first ser- 
vice within his Episcopal .iurisdiction was the burial, in the Prot- 
estant cemetery near Old Town, of some passengers who had died 



on the voyage. On the following Sunday, January 22, 1854, he 
preached in the court house at Old Town. On this occasion 
Lieutenant George H. Derby acted as clerk, read the responses, 
and led the singing. These two afterward became intimate 
friends. The Bishop said (to Daniel Cleveland) that, had he 
known at the time that the little man who assisted him so rev- 
erently and efficiently in this service was "John Phoenix," he 
would not have felt so comfortable and assured in the service as 
he then felt. 

Who organized the first Protestant Church and was the first regular minister in San Diego 

Rev. Sidney Wilbur arrived in San Diego in October, 1868, 
and proceeded immediately to arrange for services at new San 
Diego. The old government barracks had been long unused and 
were very dirty, but he courageously undertook to make them 
fit for the purpose. With the aid of an Indian, he cleaned and 
washed a portion of the large hall, and on November 8, 1868, 
held his first service in it. Having borrowed a melodeon, he 
played it himself, in addition to rendering the church service 
and preaching. He continued to hold services here for some 


time, and his work aroused so mucli interest that he was able to 
organize a parish early in 1869. Mr. Horton gave two lots on 
the northeast corner of Sixth and C Streets, and in May a church 
building was erected upon these lots, with money donated by the 
Episcopalians of San Francisco. This was the first church 
building of any kind in new San Diego. It now stands on the 
west side of Eighth Street, next door south of St. Paul 's rectory 
and is used as a residence. It was built with two stories, and 
while the services were held on the lower floor, Mr. Wilbur and 
family made their home on the second floor. It was used 
for church purposes until about November, 1869, when it was 
removed and another building, known as Trinity HaH, erected 
on the same spot. This second building was removed, in April, 
1871, to two lots on the southeast corner of Fourth and C Streets, 
now covered by the Brewster Hotel, which lots ^Ir. Horton had 
in the meantime conveyed to the society in exchange for the lots 
on Sixth and C Streets. 

In August, 1886, the two parish lots on the Brewster Hotel 
site were sold and two lots on the southeast corner of Eighth 
and C Streets purchased. The church and rectory were built in 
1887 and first occupied at Easter in that year. The first cost 
of the buildings was about $13,000, and considerable money has 
been expended on them since. 

The first parish meeting was held November 26, 1869. Rev. 
Sidnev Wilbur, Daniel Cleveland, Oliver T. Ladue, E. D. Swit- 
zer, J. S. Buck, C. P. Rudd, K. J. Ware, George E. Nottage, 
Daniel Stewart, and John T. Hawley were present, and were 
chosen as the first vestrymen. The name of the organization was 
the Parish of the Holy Trinity. Of these organizers. Rev. Mr. 
Wilbur yet living in San Francisco, and Daniel Cleveland in San 
Diego, are the only survivors. Others who acted as vestrymen 
and were active at an early day, were: Charles S. Hamilton, 
John P. Young (now manager of the San Francisco Chronicle) , 
Wm. J. McCormick, Dr. Thomas C. Stockton, Dr. W. W. Royal, 
and Mr. Lake. Daniel Cleveland acted as senior warden for 
almost thirty years. 

On January 22, 1887, new- articles of incorporation were 
adopted and filed, bv which the name of the parish was changed 
to St. Paul's. 

Rev. Mr. Wilbur resigned on December 1, 1870, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Dr. Kellogg, of Cleveland, Ohio, who served about 
two months. In January, 1871, upon request of the vestry, 
Daniel Cleveland was licensed to act as lav reader, and he has 
acted frequently in that capacity since, at times when there was 
no rector. In February, 1872, Rev. J. F. Bowles became the rec- 
tor, and remained a few months. In the following October, Rev. 
Hobart Chetwood came and remained until Februarv, 1876. 



During his pastorate the parish was harmonious and prosperous. 
His successor was Rev. Henry J. Camp, who remained until May, 
1881. There was then an interregnum filled by the lay reader, 
until July 25, 1882, when Rev. Henry B. Restarick arrived to 
take charge of the parish. 

Mr. Restarick was a young man, energetic and tactful, and 
soon infused new life into the congregation. He found about 
20 communicants ; when he left, twenty years later, there were 
over -400 communicants, plenty of funds and a large number of 


For twenty years rector of St. Paul's 
Church; created Bishop of Honolulu in 1902 

The present rector of St. Paul's Church 

activities. A fine new parish church and rectory had been built, 
and four other church buildings — two in San Diego, one with a 
rectory at National City, and one at Bostonia — had been erected 
and paid for through his labors. From the time of his ordina- 
tion to the priesthood in Iowa, in June, 1882, until his election 
and consecration as Bishop of Honolulu, in 1902, he had only 
one parish — St. Paul's, San Diego. He was consecrated bishop 
in his own parish church, July 2, 1902. 

Rev. Charles L. Barnes was chosen to succeed Mr. Restarick, 
and is still the incumbent. 


The working organizations of St. Paul 's are : Woman 's Aux- 
iliary to the Board of Missions, the Guild, a Chapter of the 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, etc. 

St. James 's Mission on Logan Heights was founded by Bishop 
Restarick in 1888. Services were first held in a store building 
on Logan Avenue near Twenty-fourth. In 1891, two lots were 
purchased at Twenty-sixth Street and Kearney Avenue, and a 
church building erected. The building was consecrated as a 
mission and later became an independent church. The rectors, 
beginning in 1889, have been : Messrs. Sanderson, S. H. Ilder- 
ton, James R. De Wolfe Cowie, F. W. Chase, A. L. Mitchell, 

F. A. Zimmerman, Alfred R. Taylor, and Alfred Kinsley Glover, 
who is still in charge. 

A]] Saints Mission, corner Sixth and Thornton Streets, is an- 
other of Bishop Restarick 's foundations. Rev. J. A. M. Richey 
is its rector. 

St, Peter's Mission Hall, Coronado, was organized in 1887 by 
Bishop Restarick. The church at National City is called St. 
Matthew's and that at South San Diego, St. Mark's. At La 
Jolla there is a small congregation, which recently began to hold 
services, with Mr. Cleveland as lay reader. 


The activity of the growing settlement at Horton's Addition 
brought about the organization of congregations of a number of 
the principal Protestant denominations at nearly the same time. 
The Methodists were a close second to the Episcopalians, in point 
of time. The pioneer minister of this denomination was Rev. 

G. W. B. McDonald, who came January 12, 1869, and at once 
organized a church and Sunday-school with about 20 members. 
Prior to that date, meetings had been held at the homes of mem- 
bers, led by H. H. Dougherty, who came to San Diego October 
10, 1868. Mr. McDonald was a native of Nova Scotia. He spent 
his remaining days in San Diego and was an active and useful 
citizen. He died February 8, 1886, aged 65. 

Following Mr. McDonald, Rev. I. H. Cox acted as supply until 
October, 1869, when he was relieved by Rev. D. A. Dryden, who 
was the first regularly appointed minister to take charge of the 
congregation. The formal organization was made in January, 
1870, at which time a church building was dedicated, free from 
debt, on the northeast corner of D and Fourth Streets, on two 
lots given by Mr. Horton. It is said that Mr. Dryden made the 
pulpit and chair with his own hands. This building is still stand- 
ing, at No. 646 India Street, to which place it was removed when 
the new brick church building was erected. It was used as a 
barracks for the volunteers during the Spanish War, and is now 
occupied by the American Televue Company. 

M (U 

03 ■« 


The first board of trustees consisted of : G. W. B. McDonald, 
R. D. Case, J. M. Young, C. B. Richards, N. W. Hensley, J. W. 
Gale, A. E. Horton. E. Aylesworth, and W. F. Pettit. The ded- 
ication took place on February 13, 1870, and the sermon was 
preached by Rev. M. C. Briggs, D.D., of Santa Clara. This 
church was removed, as stated, in 1887, and a three-story brick 
block erected on the site, for the combined uses of the church 
and as a business block. At the time of its erection and for sev- 
eral years after, this was one of the most substantial and useful 
buildings in the city. The first floor and the front of the second 
and third floors are rented for business offices, and the rear of 
the second and third stories contains the auditorium. This new 
church was dedicated on February 26, 1888, Rev. R. S. Cantine, 
of Los Angeles, preaching the dedicatory sermon. 

Recently, the congregation outgrew these quarters, and the 
building was sold in 1905 and plans prepared for a new church. 
The cornerstone of a new building was laid July 1, 1906, Bishop 
John W. Hamilton, of Mexico, delivering the principal 
address. The new church is the most magnificent in 
the city, and has cost about $65,000. The lots, on the 
northwest corner of Ninth and C Streets, are worth about $35,000. 

This congregation has been, from the beginning, a strong and 
active element in the religioiis life of the community. Among 
the ministers who have served at different times are found the 
following names : G. W. B. McDonald. I. H. Cox, D. A. Drvden, 
H. H. Dougherty, W. Inch (who died February 12. 1871), J. R. 
Tasev, James Wiekes, G. S. Hickev, T. S. Houts. M. M. Bovard, 
J. L. Mann, A. H. Tevis, P. Y. Cool, A. M. Bunker, T. S. Uren, 
E. S. Chase, M. F. Colburn, L. M. Hartley, R. L. Bruce. A. M. 
Gibbons, and the present incumbent. Dr. Lewis Guild. 

The Central M. E. Church, at the corner of Twenty-sixth Street 
and Harrison Avenue, Avas established January 12, 1887, with 
a membership of 12, under care of Rev. J. I. Foote. The corner- 
stone was laid July 31, 1887, Bishop Fowler officiating. Among 
the pastors have been: D. H. Gillan, J. Pittenger, and C. M. 
Christ. The present pastor is Rev. Bede A. Johnson. There is 
a parsonage, and the congregation is a prosperous one. 

There is a prosperous German ]\T. E. Church, in its own build- 
ing at Sixteenth and I Streets. This church was organized in 
1887 and the building was first used on April 4. 1888. The first 
pastor was Rev. L. C. Pfaffins-er. Succeeding him, L. E. 
Schneider, F. A. Werth, and Mr. Schroeder served. The present 
pastor is Rev. Frederick Bonn. 

A Scandinavian M. E. Church was organized in 1880. 

The African M. E. Church was organized in 1888, Avith a mem- 
bership of 9. Rev. W. H. Hillery was the first pastor, and after 
him appear the names of W. E. De Claybrook and Rev. Price 



Haywood. Their place of worship is at No. 1645 Front Street. 

The Bethel African M. E. Church meets on Union Street near 
H. Among the pastors are Rev. George A. Bailey and W. M. 

The Coronado M. E. Church was organized in 1887, with 20 
members. The congregation has a good propert3^ The first pas- 
tor was Eev. Silas S. Sprowles, who was succeeded by Rev. 
A. In wood. 

The First Free Methodist Church was organized in the sum- 
mer of 1897 by Rev. C. B. Ebey and wife, W. H. Tucker and 

Corner of Front and Beech Streets 

wife, F. F. Allen and wife, Virginia M. Walters, and Maggie A. 
Nickle. Meetings had been held the previous year at the Help- 
ing Hand Mission, and immediately prior to the organization in 
a tent on the corner of Eighth and G Streets. A church build- 
ing was erected in 1899, on the same site, which was dedicated on 
January 1, 1900, by Rev. E. P. Hart, of Alameda. The first 
pastor was Rev. W. G. Lopeman, and following him were Revs. 
C. B. Ebey, James Seals, E. G. Albright, John B. Roberts, and 


J, Q. Murray. A lot on the corner of Front and Beech Streets 
was purchased in 1900, and the church building- moved to that 
location. During the pastorate of Mr. Roberts, a parsonage was 
built adjoining the church. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church South has a strong and act- 
ive organization. In 1871, Bishop John C. Keener purchased for 
the Society two lots on the southeast corner of Seventh and D 
Streets. A few years later, Rev. John Wesley Allen was 
appointed pastor for San Diego, and arrived November 23, 1882. 
The first service was held on the 26th of the same month, in 
Hubbell's Hall. The congregation then worshipped in the old 
Masonic Hall until their church building was ready. The corner- 
stone of this building was laid on the first day of January, 1884. 
The new edifice was called "Keener Chapel." It was dedicated 
May 11, 188-4, Rev. AV. B. Stradley, of Los Angeles, preaching 
the dedicatory sermon. The greater part of the funds for this 
building was provided by the Board of Church Extension, and 
the congregation began its work out of debt. The lots were after- 
ward exchanged for one on the southeast corner of Eighth and 
C Streets, and the chapel was removed to the new location and 
at the same time considerably improved, as well as being pro- 
vided with a parsonage. 

Mr. Allen remained until November. 1884, when he was sent 
to Santa Barbara and succeeded bv W. W. Welsh. Then fol- 
lowed R. Pratt, E. T. Hodges, James Healey, R. W. Bailey. J. 
F. C. Finlev, James Healev again, W. H. Dyer, A. C. Bane, R. 
W. Rowland, S. W. Walker, C. S. Perry, C. S. McCausland! R. 
P. Howett, M. P. Sharborough, and S. E. Allison, the present 
incumbent. Mr. Allison is a native of Georgia, and served in the 
Texan and New Mexican Conferences before coming here. He 
was transferred to the Los Angeles Conference in 1900, and 
came to San Diego in 1905. The total enrollment of this church 
organization is 493, and the present membership about 125. 


Although the ]\Iethodists began holding services in private 
houses earlier, the Baptists were before them in the organization 
of a congregation and the building of a church edifice, being sec- 
ond only to the Episcopalians. The first congregation was organ- 
ized by Rev. C. F. Weston on June 5, 1869. He had been preach- 
ing at the government barracks since the preceding February. At 
this organization, W. S. Gregg and Dr. Jacob Allen were chosen 
deacons and E. W. S. Cole, clerk. The church building was com- 
menced in August and opened for worship October 3, Rev. Mr. 
Morse preaching the first sermon in it. This building was on 
Seventh Street near F, on a lot given bv ^Ir. Horton. He also 



gave the young congregation a church bell — the first one ever 
used in new San Diego. The formal dedication took place on 
the 31st of the same month, and Rev. B. S. McLafferty, of Marys- 
ville, preached the sermon. Mr. IMcLafferty was called to take 
charge of the congregation, and arrived for that purpose on 
December 18, 1869. The present church building, on Tenth and 
E Streets, was built in 1888, and cost $32,000. The First Bap- 
tist Church was incorporated on August 19, 1887. 

Mr. McLafferty remained in San Diego a year and a half. 
Resigning in January, 1873, he was succeeded by O. W. Gates, 


This building was erected in the autumn of 1869, and is still standing on its original site on 
Seventh, between F and G Streets 

who remained eight years. Then followed Revs. A. J. Sturte- 
vant, one year; Edwin C. Hamilton, one year; W. H. Stenger, 
two years; A. Chapman, two months; E. P. Smith, two months; 
W. F. Harper, from 1888 to 1893 (during which time the new 
church was built) ; A. E. Knapp, 1893 to 1900. The present pas- 
tor, Rev. W. B. Hinson, took charge the first Sunday in June, 
1900, coming direct from Vancouver, B. C, and has remained 
ever since. The church has a membership of nearly 700 and is 
strong and active. 



Among its activities, the First Baptist Church maintains a 
number of missions. One was organized at Old Town in 1888, 
in charge of H. S. Hanson, and maintained for some years. It 
is noteworthy that this was the only Protestant religious organ- 
ization ever made in Old Town. Missions were also organized 
several years ago at National City, Coronado and Chollas Valley. 
The Grand Avenue Baptist Church, on Grand Avenue between 

Erected in 1888 on the northwest corner of Tenth and E Streets 

Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Streets, was organized in 1889 as 
a mission of the First Church. 

Other Baptist organizations are the Baptist Scandinavian 
Church, organized in 1888. On the corner of Nineteenth and H 
Streets, is the Swedish Baptist Church. The Second Baptist 
Church (colored) was organized in 1888, with a membership of 
thirty, by Rev. T. F. Smith. Their place of worship is on B 
Street, between Front and First, and among the pastors have 
been : M. E. Svkes, J. H. Clisbv, and M. A. Mitchell. 


Who has been pastor of the First Baptist Church since June. 1900, and who ranks among the 
leading- pulpit orators of California 




The First Presbyterian Church was organized June 7, 1869 — 
only two days after the Baptists, by Rev. Thomas Fraser, mis- 
sionary of the Synod of the Pacific. There were 13 members, 
and Charles Russell Clarke, David Lamb, and Samuel ^Merrill 
were elected elders. The first pastor was Rev. J. S. McDonald. 
He began his labors in April, 1870. The services were held in 
private houses until ]\Ir. ^IcDonald's arrival, and after that in 
Horton's Hall. Mr. Horton gave the societv two lots on the 


Erected on Eighth Street near D in 1871. The structure is still standing, adjoining the 
present church building on the south, and is part of the church property 

southwest corner of Eighth and D Streets, and on these a build- 
ing was soon after erected, and dedicated June 18, 1871, Rev. 
W. A. Scott, of San Francisco, preaching the dedicatory ser- 
mon. In 1888, the present church building was erected and fur- 
nished, at a cost of $36,000. 

Rev. Mr. McDonald was succeeded in 1872 by F. L. Nash. 
From 1875 to 1880 the church was supplied by Revs. James Rob- 
ertson, John W. Partridge, ]\Ir. Lanman, James Woods, and Dr. 
Phelps. Rev. Richard Y. Dodge began his pastorate in 1880 and 
continued until his death. February 26. 1885. For the following 

First pastor of the United Presbyterian Church 

Pastor of the United Presbyterian Church 


three years the iucumbents Avere H. A. Lounsbury and H. I. 
Stern. On January 1, 1887, Rev. AV. B. Noble became the pas- 
tor, and during his incumbency the present church was built. 
The church suffered severely after the collapse of the boom, hav- 
ing a debt of more than $20,000, and it was only by a hard 
struggle that the loss of the property was prevented. Rev. F. 
Merton Smith became the pastor in 1894, but died a few weeks 
later, and was succeeded by Rev. P. E. Kipp, who died in 1900. 
Rev. R. B. Taylor commenced his work in 1901. During his pas- 
torate the church debt was paid and the congregation greatly 
enlarged. On November 19, 1901. Mr. Taylor was drowned in 
San Diego Bay. He was greatly beloved. His successor, Rev. 
Harvey S. Jordan, of Newcastle, Pennsylvania, is the present 
incumbent. The membership of the church is about 600. It is 
one of the strongest and most active influences for good in the 
community. It has two AVomen 's ^Missionary Societies, a Ladies ' 
Aid Society, a large Christian Endeavor memljership, and a num- 
ber of missions are supported, including a Chinese mission, a 
school for Chinese children, and churches in several suburban 

The First United Presbyterian Church was organized on Aug- 
ust 18, 1888, in the Holt House, on H Street near Fifteenth, bv 
the installation of J. W. Collins, J. L. Griffin and E. T. Hill as 
elders, and the election of Robert Blair, Daniel Andrew, and 
W. L. Hamilton as trustees. The first pastor was Rev. Robert 
G. Wallace, one of the organizers of the church, who began his 
pastorate in November, 1887, and ended October 31, 1897. He 
was succeeded by Rev. Samuel J. Shaw, D.D., who is the pres- 
ent minister. 


The Hebrews of San Diego have maintained an organization 
since 1872. Prior to that time, it was their custom to meet at 
private houses for the observance of fast days. The Herald of 
October 9, 1851, says: ''The Israelites of San Diego, faithful 
to the religion of their forefathei-s, observed their New Year's 
Day and Days of Atonement, with due solemnity. The Day of 
Atonement was observed by Messrs. Lewds Franklin, Jacob 
INIarks, and Charles A. Fletcher (the only three Hebrews in 
town) by their assembling in the house of the former gentleman, 
and passing the entire day in fasting and prayers." 

The first organization of the Hebrew Congregation took place 
in 1872 at the house of Alarcos Schiller in Old Town ; it was 
called at that time the Hebrew Congregation. The organizers 
were Marcos Schiller, Joseph Alannasse and E. Loewenstein. 
Services were held in rented halls and the Unitarian Church, but 



only on the Jewish New Year and Day of Atonement. There 
were at first eighteen members. 

In 1888, the eong-regation was reorganized and incorporated 
as the Congregation Beth Israel, with a membership of 55. The 
first officers were: President. Marcos Schiller (who served in 
that capacity until his death, in 1904) ; vice-president, H. 
Welisch; secretar}^ A. Blochman; treasurer, A. Lippman. In 
the following year, a synagogue was built and dedicated, on the 
northwest corner of Beech and Second Streets. The first Rabbi 
was Samuel Freuder, who organized the new congregation ; the 
second was A. Danziger, who served in 1886. E. Freud was 

Pastor of the First Unitarian Society 

rabbi in 1887-8, and Dr. Marx Moses from 1890 to 189-1. There 
has been no rabbi since. The congregation is small, having only 
22 contributing members. 


The First Unitarian Society began in a Sunday-school which 
was organized and held for the first time in Horton 's Hall, June 
22, 1873. Mr. Horton gave the use of the hall and organ. C. S. 


Hamilton was chosen president ; Mrs. Knapp, secretary and treas- 
urer ; ]\Irs. Haiglit, musical director, and Miss Carrie Hills, organ- 
ist. The attendance increased from 13 to 50, and Rev. Joseph 
Mav became the pastor. Among the early members were M. A. 
Luce, C. S. Hamilton, A. E. Horton, E. W. Morse, J. H. Simp- 
son, Mr. Hubon, A. Overbaugh, and their families. The first 
public service was on Easter Sunday, 1874. At a meeting held 
March 11, 1877,. Rev. David A. Cronyn was chosen pastor. M. 
A. Luce became president of the Society at the same meeting, and 
has acted in that capacity ever since. 

The society was incorporated in January, 1882. A lot on the 
northeast corner of Tenth and F Streets was purchased and the 
first church building erected there in that year, and dedicated 
August 26, 1883. Rev. Horatio Stebbins, of San Francisco, deliv- 
ered the sermon and Rev. George H. Deere, of Riverside, assisted. 
Additions were made to this building in 1887. This building was 
burned on Sunday afternoon, February 17, 1895. Following 
this, the society occupied the old Louis Opera House. They then 
leased a lot on the west side of Sixth Street, between C and D, 
and built the present Unity Hall upon it. The society also owns 
a lot on the corner of Ninth and C Streets, upon which it is plan- 
ning to place a new building at an early date. The pastors, after 
those named, were: B. F. McDaniel,'l887 to 1892; J. F. Dut- 
ton, from 1894; Solon Lauer, from 1895 ; Elijah R. Watson, from 
1899 to the present time. The membership is about 200. 


The First Spiritualist Society was incorporated in July, 1885. 
Services were heldjn Lafayette Hall for a number of years. In 
1903 the society built its hall on Seventh Street between A and B. 
The building cost about $6,000, and was dedicated in March, 
1904. Clara A. Beck is president of the society. 


Many of the Congregationalists who came to new San Diego 
at an early day affiliated with the Presbyterians. But in Aug- 
ust, 1886, it was felt that the time had come for the establish- 
ment of a church of their own faith. TAvelve of these people met 
at the home of Frank A. Stephens, on Tenth and F Streets, and 
made a preliminary organization. These were: Mr. and Mrs. 
Frank A. Stephens, who now live in Los Angeles ; Arch. Ste- 
phens and J. P. Davies, who are now deceased ; and Mr. and Mrs. 
George W. Marston, Mr. and Mrs. INI. T. Gilmore, Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph H. Smith, Mrs. Arch. Stephens and Mrs. J. P. Davies, 
who are still active workers in the church. The congregation 



was organized a month later, with Rev. J. H. Harwood as pastor, 
and 78 members. The first pul)lic service was held in the Y. M. 
C. A. rooms in Dunham's Hall, on Fifth Street, October 10, 1886. 
This hall was soon too small for the congregation. A lot was 
leased on the corner of State and F Streets and a tabernacle 
erected. This building was completed in January, 1887, and ded- 
icated the following month. It was in 1896, during the pastor- 
ate of Rev. Stephen A. Norton and largely through his efforts, 


that the present church building was constructed. The move- 
ment began in February, and at one meeting on May 10th, 
$17,000 were subscribed for the purpose. A lot on the north- 
west corner of Sixth and A Streets was purchased; the corner 
stone was laid in November, 1896, and the church was completed 
and dedicated on July 4, 1897. This is one of the most beautiful 
church edifices in the city. It cost $23,500, and with the ground 
is today worth probably $50,000. It has a seating capacity of 
800. The church is a strong and active one, with a membership 
of 464, and supports a number of activities — among others, a 
foreign missionarv. 


Rev. Mr. Harwood was succeeded, near the close of 1887, by 
Rev. J. B. Silcox, of Winnipeg, Manitoba, who served until Aug- 
ust, 1889, when he resigned. He was followed by Rev. E. A. 
Field, W. C. Merrill, and Stephen A. Norton, respectively. The 
latter remained seven years. The present pastor is Rev. Clar- 
ence T. Brown, who came in 1903. 

The Second Congregational Church, known as the Logan 
Heights Church, had its beginning on the second Sunday in 
November, 1887, when Rev. A. B. White, of Toledo, Ohio, began 
to preach in the schoolhouse on Twenty-seventh Street. On Feb- 
ruary 19, 1888, the church building at Twenty-sixth Street and 
Kearney Avenue was dedicated, Mr. Silcox preaching the ser- 
mon. The Land & Town Company gave the lots and the mem- 
bers of the First Congregational Church contributed liberally to 
the building fund. Mr. White resigned in the following Aug- 
ust, and F. B. Perkins became the pastor. He remained two 
years and resigned in 1890. George A. Hall was then the pastor 
until March 24, 1895. His successor was R. T. Earl, who min- 
istered until 1902. Since then J. L. Pearson and Henry M. 
Lyman have supplied the pulpit. Rev. E. E. P. Abbott is now 
the resident pastor. 

The Chinese Mission, organized in 1885, is sustained by the 
American Missionary Association of the Congregational Church. 


The Central Christian Church was organized October 27, 1886, 
with 28 charter members. Rev. R. G. Hand was the first min- 
ister. Henr}^ Drury and W. B. Cloyd were elected elders, and 
B. F. Boone, John Coates, and A. J. Burns, deacons. The first 
meetings were held in various halls. During the boom, the 
church purchased its first lot, on Thirteenth Street between F 
and G. Here a frame church was built and the first service in 
it held on December 11, 1887, the sermon being by Rev. Mr. 

Mr. Hand remained only a few months and was succeeded by 
A. B. Griffith, who remained less than a year. For a year after 
this the pastor was John L. Brant, now a noted preacher. Rev. 
A. B. Markle came next and remained three years. In 1893 B. C. 
Hagerman became the pastor and served two years. In 1895 the 
present pastorate began under W. E. Crabtree. 

The church was regularly incorporated in 1899. Two years 
later the lot on the southeast corner of Ninth and F Streets was 
purchased, later an adjoining lot added, and the church building 
removed to the 'new location. Upon this ground a very substan- 
tial and beautiful church building is soon to be erected, at a cost 
of $25,000. During its early years the church had a hard strug- 
gle, but is now prosperous. The church has a number of well- 



sustained activities and is one of the most aggressive and influ- 
ential elements in the religious life of the cit}'. 

The Seventh Day Adventist Church was organized January 21, 
1888, with a membership of 10. Their church at Eighteenth and 
G Streets was immediately occupied. It has a seating capacity 
of 350, and the society owns it free of debt, with a lot 100x176 
feet. The first pastor was Elder W. M. Healey. He was fol- 
lowed by Elder H. A. St. John. The present elder is Frederick 
I. Richardson. 

Pastor of the Central Christian Church 


The First Lutheran Church was organized ^Nlarch 18, 1888, 
with 31 members. A Sunday-school was organized the previous 
month by Prof. F. P. Davidson. C. W. Heisler. of Los Angeles, 
aided in the organization. The first officers were : F. P. David- 
son and A. W. Smenner, elders, and Isaac Ulrick, H. Seebold, 
and R. H. Young, deacons. E. R. Wagner was chosen pastor, 
and conducted his first service October 21, 1888. in Good Tem- 
plars' Hall on Third Street. Services were soon after removed 


to Louis Opera House and held there for six months, then in the 
old Methoclist Church. The congregation then purchased the lot 
where the present church building stands. The church building 
was begun in 1893, the cornerstone laid on July 30th, and the 
dedication made April 8. 1894. The building has a seating capac- 
ity of 700. The value of the property is now estimated at 

Dr. Wagner resigned November 1, 1891, and was succeeded in 
February, 1892, by C. W. Maggart, of Salina, Kansas. He served 
until October 17, 1897, when he resigned. The present pastor, 
John E. Hoick, began his pastorate March 10, 1898. The church 
is out of debt and prosperous, and numbers about 150 members. 


The German Evangelical Lutheran Church has a handsome 
building at the corner of Twenty-fourth Street and Grant Ave- 
nue. The congregation numbers over 100. Rev. G. W. F. Kiessel 
is the pastor. 

The Friends have a meeting-house at 1121 Sixth Street. Adell 
Burkhead is the minister. 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) 
maintains an organization, which meets at No. 752 Fifth Street. 

The Christian Scientists make the latest addition to the city's 
congregations, with an unique building on the southeast corner 
of Ash and Third Streets, completed and occupied this year. C. 
H. Clark is the reader to this active organization. 

The Union Church at La Jolla is an unique organization. 
There not being sufficient population to support separate denom- 
inations, the people of all denominations united and organized a 
Union Church, on March 11, 1897. It was incorporated in the 
following October. The first pastor was William L. Johnson, 
two years; the next, J. L. Pearson, three years. The present 
pastor is Mr. Lathe. Daniel Cleveland, of San Diego, conducted 
services during the intervals between the different pastors. In 
1905, the Episcopalians formed a separate organization in La 
Jolla and now have regular services. Recently, the Presbyterians 
also took similar action. The Union Church, however, was never 
so strong and active as at present. 

The Peniel Mission, the Christian Endeavor Society, the Help- 
ing Hand Mission, arid a number of other missionary organiza- 
tions, as well as the Salvation Army, are actively represented. 


The Young Men's Christian Association is so strong and its 
work so important that it is believed a somewhat full and cir- 
cumstantial account of its growth is warranted. 

GROWTH OF THE Y. M. C. A. 563 

The association was organized in March, 1882, and for a few 
months held its meetings in Hnbbell's Hall, on the corner of 
Fifth and F Streets. There is no record of any active work in 
1883, but in Jnne, 1884, it was reorganized and the old Masonic 
Hall, on Fifth Street, rented for its use, at $5 per month. In 
August, 1885, C. L. Sturges w^as engaged as general secretary, 
and from this time on an open room for young men's use was 
maintained. In May, 1886, J. A. Eogers was elected general sec- 
retary, with the modest salary of $35 per month and the use of 
a small room in the rear of the hall, and continued in the position 
till July, 1890. 

Mr. Rogers had remarkable success in building up the associa- 
tion. His character was an interesting and noble one. Although 
probably not over sixty years of age, his white hair and partial 
blindness gave him an older appearance ; yet he was a fresh, vig- 
orous, cheerful man, with power to please and attach boys and 
young men. He had been a locomotive engineer and ran a fast 
express out of New York City. Without technical training, he 
was nevertheless admirably fitted for the peculiar pioneer work 
in the exciting times of 1887 and 1888. Hundreds of young men 
came under his friendly Christian influence. The little Dunham 
House Hall, on Fifth Street, was the scene of crowded Sunday 
meetings and many social gatherings and entertainments. 

The association had no gymnasium in those days, but as early 
as 1886 three or four classes had been formed, the principal one 
being for the study of Spanish. The members were active in the 
care of the sick and also paid regular visits to the county jail. 
The rapid growth in ]\Ir. Rogers' administration is shown by the 
treasurer's expense account, the rent being increased in the first 
year from $5 to $40 per month and the secretary's salary from 
$35 to $75. In 1887 the association bought two lots at the north- 
east corner of Seventh and G Streets. Plans for a building to 
cost about $80,000 were drawn and bids for its construction 
received; but the collapse of the boom, early in 1888, prevented 
the accomplishment of this design. Early in 1888 the association 
moved to rooms on Seventh Street, just north of G, where it was 
proposed to build, and a large reading room was fitted up on the 
first floor. The membership at that time was 200. Later in the 
year, owing to high rent ($150 per month), another move was 
made, to the two-story residence on the northwest corner of 
Eighth and G Streets. The whole house was occupied, and here 
the association had, for the first time, a number of convenient 
class-rooms. But the financial stringency compelled another 
move in a few months, and the association then took up its quar- 
ters in a one-story building on the west side of Sixth Street 
between E and F, where it remained for about a vear. 


In October, 1889, a complete change was made in the director- 
ate, the following being chosen: J. E. Hall, J. C. Packard, 
Henry Siebold, W. E. Howard, Dr. Hurlburt, John P. Lewis, and 
L. P. Davidson. Mr. Rogers remained as secretary, and J. E. 
Hall was elected president; a month later he was succeeded by 
C. D. Todd, who served till June, 1890, when he resigned and 
W. E. Howard was chosen and served till the end of the associa- 
tion year. 

During the year 1890, the association moved into the Turn- 
verein Hall, on Eighth Street between G and H, and opened a 
well equipped gymnasium, with Professor Hoeh in charge. Not- 
M'ithstanding great financial difficulties, excellent work was done. 
Mr. Rogers withdrew in July, having been called to ministerial 
service in one of the country churches. 

At the beginning of the new association year, in October, 1890, 
important changes were made. George W. Marston was elected 
president, Giles Kellogg vice-president, and Philip Morse record- 
ing secretary. John McTaggart was elected general secretary, 
and filled the position with marked ability and devotion for four 
years. Prominent workers in the association about this" time 
were: C. D. Todd, W. E. Howard, W. R. Guy, Watson Parrish, 
A. L. Baehmann, Henrv Siebold, L. P. Davidson, Herbert Wylie, 
Irving McMahon, E. S. Gillan, E. A. Churcher, and M. T. Gil- 
more. At the annual meeting in 1891, a resolution of thanks was 
adopted in gratitude for the large membership and payment of 
all debts. 

In 1893 it became evident that a location nearer the center of 
town would be more desirable. Rooms in the Express Block 
were therefore rented from January 1, 1894, which were head- 
quarters for a year and four months. At the close of Mr. ]Mc- 
Taggart's secretaryship, in September, 1894, W. E. Neelands 
was secretary for a few months. In April, 1895, a lease was 
signed with U. S. Grant, Jr., for the second floor of his new 
building at the corner of Sixth and D Streets, at an annual rental 
of $1,000. ]Mr. Grant arranged the room as the association 
desired. The floor space was 75x100 feet, which gave room for 
a lecture hall, gymnasium, baths, reading room, and several social 
and class rooms. This was the home of the association for ten 

In May, 1895, George A. Miller (now a Methodist minister in 
Manila) became secretary of the association. Under his vigorous 
management, in its new quarters, the association started on its 
larger career. In the first quarter of 1896 it gained very rap- 
idly, receiving nearly 300 new members. J. P. Smith became 
general secretary in the fall of 1896 and filled the office till 
March, 1903^the longest service of any secretary. He was the 
first secretary with much experience in association work. Be- 

Y. M. C. A. QUARTERS 565 

sides this training, he had a fine enthusiasm and genuine sym- 
pathy for the young. Under his careful and faithful admin- 
istration, the Y. M. C. A. carried on its four-fold activities — 
religious, social, physical, and educational — with steady power 
and usefulness. As physical director, Fred A. Crosby was 
employed for five years. He made marked improvements in 
the gymnasium and exerted a fine influence over the younger 
boys. Professors Davidson and Freeman, of the public schools, 
gave the association valuable services in forming its educa- 
tional course. Will H. Holcomb was especially active in build- 
ing up the gymnasium, and many others contributed in vari- 
ous ways to the progress of the association. 


On the corner of Eighth and C Streets 

The association has always been deeply indebted to the 
Ladies' Central Committee for contributions of money, fur- 
nishings for rooms, and constant service in social affairs. Dur- 
ing Mr. Smith's secretaryship and for two or three years after, 
Mrs. V. D. Rood was the inspiring leader of the ladies' work 
and made it one of the most successful organizations of its 
kind in the state. In 1899, George W. Marston declined fur- 
ther re-election to the presidency, having served in that capac- 
ity every year, save one, since the organization of the associa- 
tion. He is still a member of the board of directoi-s. Philip 


Morse, who had been an active member and valuable director 
for several years, was chosen to succeed Mr. Marston. In 1900, 
Will H. Holcomb became president, and he has filled the office, 
most acceptably, from that time to the present, guiding the 
association's affairs with great tact and ability. During his 
presidency, large things have been undertaken and great 
changes made. 

During the winter of 1902-03 a very determined effort was 
made to provide for the payment of a debt of about $4,000 
which had gradually accrued in past years. Under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Sutherland, the state secretary, subscriptions to the 
amount of $9,000 were secured. These subscriptions, payable 
half in 1903 and half in 1904, were collected, for the most part, 
and. united with the membership fees, enabled the association 
to reach the year 1905 with current expenses paid and the 
debt reduced to $1,000. 

In the summer of 1903, Roy H. Campbell became general 
secretary and E. A. Merwin physical director. Under Mr. 
Campbell's very able management great interest was aroused 
among the boys and young men. Athletic activities and social 
affairs were specially prominent. Several radical changes in 
methods of work were adopted in 1903-04, among them, the 
discontinuance of Sunday afternoon religious mass meetings 
and the substitution of smaller group meetings for Bible study. 
Great efforts were made to bring into association influence the 
younger classes of young men, and this was successfully 

It became evident early in 1905 that the association's quar- 
ters were already inadeciuate in size and convenience, and, 
after careful consideration, the residence property at the north- 
east corner of Eighth and C Streets was purchased. A large, 
substantial house, with ample ground for building extensions, 
was thus secured at a cost of $20,000. In order to build a 
gymnasium adjoining the house, make necessary repairs and 
changes, and provide for a large part of the current expenses, 
the association undertook to raise a fund of $32,000. Secre- 
tary Campbell devoted himself to the task for many weeks, 
assisted by many friends of the association. It was impossi- 
ble to obtain cash donations for such a sum, but by accepting 
subscriptions payable over a period of two years, the full 
amount was pledged without mortgaging its property, and the 
association secured sufficient loaned money to carry its finances 
during the two years. 

In October, 1905, the old rooms at Sixth and D Streets were 
left and the removal made to the new house. The gymnasium, 
costing $6,000, was built in the following months, and in May, 



1906, the completed new association quarters were occupied 
and placed in full use. This happy consummation was not 
attained without toil and sacrifice. To the sorrow of all, Sec- 
retary Campbell's health broke down from overwork and ner- 
vous strain, just before the close of the financial canvass. He 
had planned and led all the work with untiring zeal until suc- 
cess was in sight, but was obliged to resign the office in Decem- 
ber, 1905. Mr. Campbell's services to the San Diego Y. M. 
C. A. were remarkably strong. Full of youthful enthusiasm 
himself, he attracted and influenced other young men with 
power and moral helpfulness. In all the activities of associa- 
tion life he was efficient and forceful. 

In January, 1906, Earle Davenport Smith was engaged as gen- 
eral secretary, and a little later Albert N. Morris as physical 
director. Mr. Smith found a heavj' work of organization on 
his hands, owing to several months' interruption of regular, 
systematic management. He attacked it vigorously and at this 
writing (November, 1906) has an efficient organization and the 
best facilities for complete association service that this city has 
ever enjoyed. 



X EARLY Spanish days in California, the 
opportunities for ediication were extremely 
limited. The members of the wealthy class 
nsually had some education, but few of the 
lower classes could read or write. There were 
no established schools outside the missions, 
but it was customary for the mothers of fam- 
ilies to teach their children what they could. 
The story of the struggle for education is a pathetic page in 
early California history. The governors were in favor of edu- 
cation, as a rule, but they received no support whatever from 
the missionaries and almost none from the other inhabitants. 
It was, indeed, the deliberate policy of Spain to keep its colonial 
subjects in ignorance, on the mistaken theory that this would 
prevent the growth of discontent. After the change to Mexican 
rule the cause of education received only a lukewarm support 
from the general government. The missionaries were at all 
times firmly opposed to popular education, which now seems to 
us a singular thing when it is recalled that they were men of 
culture; but this was entirely consistent with the policy of the 
Church and of Spain, at the time. 

As early as 1798, Viceroy Gigedo ordered that schools should 
be established for both the Spanish and Indian children. The 
wily missionaries professed obedience, but soon found an excuse 
for non-compliance in a mythical lack of funds. A few persons 
supposed to be competent to teach were found, and in 1794 or 
1795 Manuel de Vargas, a retired sergeant of San Jose, who had 
opened there the first school in California, came to San Diego 
and began to teach. How long this school continued we do not 
know, but probably not very long, and if de Vargas was like 
the other retired officers who were selected for teachers at the 
time, his qualifications were very slight. In 1795 a tax was lev- 
ied for the support of the schools, but they languished, and 
before the close of the century had been abandoned. 

During the rule of Governor Sola, from 1814 to 1821, schools 
were again opened. Settlers and invalided soldiers were em- 
ployed, who taught reading, writing, and religion. Pio Pico, 
who was one of a class taught at San Gabriel in 1813 by Jose 


Antonio Carrillo, said that part of his work consisted of cov- 
ering several quires of paper, from a copy, with the name 
"Seiior Don Felix Maria Callejas." Sola was earnest in his 
desire to aid the cause of education and spent his own means 
freely in the effort. He imported two Spanish professors 
with a view to founding a high school at Monterey, but the 
learned gentlemen found the conditions so unpromising that 
they remained only a few weeks. The missionaries were hos- 
tile, the people apathetic, and Sola was obliged to abandon the 

In 1824 Governor Argiiello called the attention of the assem- 
bly to the subject of education, but nothing was done. 

Echeandia was also a friend of education and tried to accom- 
plish something. Before coming to California, he engaged the 
services of two teachers of primary schools ; but when they 
reached Acapulco they could proceed no farther because the 
province was unable to pay their passage to ^Monterey. Shortly 
after Echeandia 's arrival, the assembly, at the governor's sug- 
gestion, requested the government to send a few masters for pri- 
mary schools, at his own cost; but this request was refused. 
Having failed to secure results through civil authorities, Eche- 
andia ordered the commanding officers to compel parents to send 
their children to the schools which he had established. This had 
some effect, and by the year 1829 there were — on paper — 11 
primary schools in the territory, with an enrollment of 339 

A few details of the school which was taught in San Diego 
at this period have come down to us. It was maintained from 
August, 1828, to December, 1829, with an enrollment of 18 
pupils. The teacher was Friar Antonio Menendez, and his sal- 
ary was $18 per month. From the accounts which have come 
down of this friar's character and attainments, there is slight 
doubt that he was, if possible, even more unfit for the work than 
the retired soldiers usually selected, who were often barely able 
to read and write. 

But Echeandia, like his predecessors, found that zeal alone 
could not prevail against his heavy handicaps. Toward the lat- 
ter part of his stormy administration he seems to have aban- 
doned the unequal contest and surrendered the field to the forces 
of darkness. 

In May, 1834, Governor Figaieroa reported that there were 
primary schools at only three places, San Diego not being one 
of the three. In the following February, the same official advised 
the alcalde of San Diego that parents need not send their chil- 
dren to school, if thev found it inconvenient. 


Governor Alvarado was a believer in education, but his efforts 
were no more successful than those of his predecessors. In the 
fourth year of his rule, he declared there was scarcely a school 
in the whole territory. Micheltorena and Pico both struggled 
with the problem, in vain. On May 1, 1844, the former issued 
a decree providing for the opening of schools (with a solemn 
inass) on the first day of the following June; but this order 
was obeyed in only a few places, and in those few it was found 
impossible to raise money to pay the teachers. 

The dearth of education and of schools was as great when the 
Americans took possession of the country as it had been in 1800 
—perhaps greater. Very often the commanding officer of a gar- 
rison had to request that a man qualified to act as amanuensis 
be sent to him from another presidio. The commissioned officers 
had only the rudiments of an education and the civil authorities 
were in many cases little better off. Pio Pico once went to Los 
Angeles at a time he Avas out of favor with the alcalde of that 
place. Being told that he would not be received without a pass- 
port he forged one, knowing the alcalde was illiterate, and pre- 
sented it upon his arrival. The alcalde took and pretended to 
read it, then returned it to Pico and expressed himself as being 
perfectly satisfied. 

Soon after the organization of the city government, steps 
were taken to establish a public school. The minutes of the 
council show the following entry under date of November 7, 
1850: "The ma.yor made a verbal communication to the coun- 
cil, stating that a lady was in the place who had the reputation 
of being a good teacher and who is desirous of opening a school. 
He recommended that the large i-oom in the Town House be 
appropriated for a school room." This lady was ^Nliss Dillon. 
The front room of the Town House was set apart for the pur- 
pose, but Miss Dillon thought it unsuitable and declined to 
teach in it. The city marshal was thereupon instructed to find 
a. suitable room to be rented, and he proceeded to let two rooms 
in his own house to the council, for which he was to receive $60 
per month for the first six months and $40 per month there- 
after. Bills amounting to $155.69 for furniture for the school 
. were paid. The teacher's salary was fixed at not exceeding 
$1,200 per annum, and there is a record of one month's salary 
being paid, at the end of February. 1851. How long the school 
continued it is impossible to ascertain, but apparently it was not 
long, and in the two or three years following it was kept open 
very irregularly, if at all. On July 30. 1853, the Herald said: 
"A short time since, one of the ward schools in this city which 
had been closed for a time was re-opened." This was the occa- 
sion on which, the trustees having distributed a circular giving 


notice of the opening of the school and inviting all parents to 
send their children, Father Juan Holbein forbade the members 
of his flock to do so. The name of the teacher of this school does 
not appear. 

The beginning of the period of steady maintenance of the pub- 
lic schools in San Diego dates from July 1, 1851. The county 
had received no part of the state school funds for that year, on 
account of its failure to maintain a school for at least three 
months prior to the first day of October the year before. In 
order that this should not happen again, hurried action was 
taken on the date named. E. W. Morse gave the following 
account : " Up to July 1, 1854, there had been no public school 
in San Diego County, but on that day the county court being 
in session, Cave J. Couts, the judge, appointed "William C. Fer- 
rell county superintendent of schools, who at once appointed 
E. V. Shelby census marshal, and J. W. Robinson, Louis Rose, 
and E. W. Morse school trustees for the whole county. Within 
a few hours the trustees had received the marshal's report, had 
hired a room for the school, and employed a teacher, so that 
before night a public school was in full operation under the 
school law of the state." Mr. Morse, although always accurate 
and clear-headed, had evidently forgotten the earlier attempts 
at a school; and the appointment which Ferrell received was 
that of assessor (the office being vacant on account of George 
Lyons' refusal to qualify), and the law then making the assessor 
ex-ojficio superintendent of public schools. The teacher employed 
was Miss Fanny Stevens. On December 2d, the Herald stated 
that she had about 30 pupils ; and it may fairly be said that she 
was the first teacher who established and maintained a public 
school in San Diego. 

From this time on, the school was maintained with regularity 
and statistics begin to be available. In October, 1855, School 
Marshal Thomas E. Darnall reported 117 children of school age 
in the county. In 1856, Joshua Sloane taught in San Diego 
from January 21st to March 21st, at a salary of $75 per month, 
and had an enrollment of 32. The branches taught were: 
Orthography, reading, writing, geography, arithmetic, and Eng- 
lish grammar. W. H. Leighton was then the teacher for three 
months beginning July 7th, at a salary of $50, and had an 
enrollment of 29. He taught the same branches, excepting gram- 
mar, and also taught history, geometry, algebra, French, and 

In the spring of 1857, Leighton taught four months at a sal- 
ary of $75. In the fall, James Nichols taught 3 1-3 months at 
$60, and had 49 pupils enrolled. There were 138 children of 
school age in the county. Nichols taught both the spring and 



fall terms in 1858, also a four-months term in 1859. By the 
year 1860, the pupils of school age in the county had increased 
to 320. The only school house in the county had been erected 
at Old Town. It consisted of one room, 24x30 feet, with a ceil- 
ing 10 feet high. During the year 1863, 8 months of school were 
taught, Mary B. Tibbetts and Victor P. Magee being the respec- 
tive teachers of the two terms. 

In 1864, J. L. Mclntier was school marshal and E. W. Morse 
school trustee. Total children of school age, 317. The year 

City Superintendent of Schools 

1865 is when Miss Mary C. AValker came to teach the school, 
and an entry in the records in 1866. reading, "We have been 
without a teacher since June 1," probably marks the date of 
her resignation. Miss Augusta J. Barrett came in this year to 
succeed Miss Walker, and taught until she was married to Cap- 
tain j\Iathew Sherman, in 1867. The records are meager dur- 
ing the '60 's, the names of teachers not appearing in many 
instances. In the year last named, there was a school library 
of 61 volumes, valued at $50. 


The first school in New San Diego was taught by Mrs. H. H. 
Dougherty, in the old government barracks, in 1868. In the 
same year, the first public school in Horton's Addition was 
opened in rented rooms on the lot at the corner of Sixth and 
B Streets, donated by Mr. Horton. The teachers named in the 
records in this and the following year are Mr. Parker and Miss 
McCarrett. In August, 1869 a public school was re-opened in 
the barracks, under Mr. Echels, and in December the teacher at 
the B Street school was Mrs. Maria McGillivray. 





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In 187U the first public school building was erected on the B 
Street lot, the school removed into it and divided into three 
grades. The principal was J. S. Spencer, the intermediate 
teacher Miss Lithgow, and the primary teacher Miss McCoy. 
The number of school children in the Old Town district was 512 
and in the new town, 243. In 1871, the schools were reported 
to be in "a deplorable condition." ''The county superintend- 
ent is paid nothing for his increased service, and consequently 
did nothing." Onlv one district in the countv had sufficient 



funds to maintain a school eight months. Notwithstanding these 
conditions, another school was opened in Sherman's Addition, 
on lots donated by Captain Sherman. This school was named 
"the Sherman School" in honor of Captain Sherman and is 
still so known. 

From this time onward, the story is one of continuous growth. 
The annals are too voluminous for reproduction, but the most 
important events will be noted and present conditions described. 


In 1873 the first county institute was held in San Diego. 
Thirteen teachers were present. Lectures were delivered by 
State Superintendent Bolander and Dr. G. W. Barnes. During 
1876 and 1877 a more thorough organization into grades was 
made and the work systematized. In 1878 there was much com- 
plaint about inadequacy of accommodations, and an election 
was held which authorized the levy of a special tax to build 
schools and employ teachers. In the next year the enrollment 
increased 50 per cent, and a bonded indebtedness of $50,000 
was thought necessary to relieve the strain. 



In 1881, Joseph Russ, of the Russ Lumber Conipauy, offered 
to give the city all the lumber necessary for the construction of 
a new school building. This resulted in the building of the 
"Russ" school building, later and at present used for the San 
Diego high school. The first school was opened in this building 
on August 14, 1882. when 276 pupils were enrolled and 32 
turned away for want of room. The principal was J. A. Rice ; 
assistant. Miss E. 0. Osgood. The total cost of the building to 
the city was $18,418.73. This was the first good school build- 
ing which the city owned. 


The High School was organized in January, 1888. The first 
instructors were: Mrs. Rose V. Barton, Mrs. Julia F. Gilmar- 
tin, Mr. and Mrs. J. K. Davis, and Miss Ella McConoughy. 
Professor Davis w^as principal. 

The Kindergarten Department Avas first introduced at the 
Sherman School, in 1888,, in charge of Miss Fischer. It was 
soon after extended to other schools, and is now an established 
and valued part of the school work. 



The high school building was erected, as stated, in 1881 and 
1882. The erection of a new high school building- has been re- 
cently begun. It will cost $201,000 for the building- alone, and 
the furnishings will cost $35,000 more. It will contain 62 rooms, 
whereas the old one contained but 17, which throws an interest- 
ing side light on the growth of the city. The new structure will 
be one of the most substantial, beautiful, and up-to-date build- 
ings in the state. It will be provided with several lecture rooms, 
assembly halls, science rooms and rooms for the art department, 


gymnasium, study rooms, and offices for the officials. When 
the new building is completed and occupied, the present high 
school building will be utilized as a polytechnic school. 

The Middletown School was built in 1888. It contains 11 

The B Street and Sherman Schools were built in 1889 and 
the Logan Heights (then known as the East School) a little 
later. The first two named cost $30,000 each. The B Street 
and the Sherman School have each 11 rooms. At Logan Heights, 


there are 12 rooms. The I^niversity Heights School has 9 rooms. 
The other schools in the city are : The Lowell School, 7 rooms ; 
the Franklin School, 9 rooms. The Manual Training School has 

1 room, and there are 2 kindergarten bungalows. The schools 
outside San Diego proper, but within the city limits, and under 
the charge of its Board of Education, are: La Jolla, 2 rooms; 
Old Town, 2 rooms; Roseville, 2 rooms; Pacific Beach School, 

2 rooms; and Sorrento, 1 room. 

In 1888, a school building- was erected in Mission Valley and 
a school maintained for about ten years, but it has now been 

On June 30, 1906, the citizens of San Diego voted to issue 
bonds amounting to $120,000 for the construction of several 
modern school buildings. The money is now available, and the 
work progressing rapidly. When these buildings are completed, 
San Diego will stand second to no other city of its size in the 
completeness of its school building equipment. The corps of 
teachers numbers 100. The salaries paid run from $900 for the 
first year to $1200 for the second and subsequent years. In 
the grammar schools, the pay for the first year runs from $600 
to $800 ; in the second year $30 is added, the same in the third, 
$•40 in the fourth and $40 in the fifth. Duncan MacKinnon is 
the present city superintendent of schools. S. W. Belding is 
secretary of the board of education, having served since June, 
1903. He is the first regularly appointed secretary, a member 
of the board of education having served as secretary without 
pay prior to his appointment. The enrollment of the pupils in 
the city proper the past year was 4,243, and the census mar- 
shal's return 4:,379, leaving- only 136 children of school age not 
enrolled. The total expenditures for the support of schools last 
year were $100,253.47. 

The course of physical culture in the public schools is one of 
their most valued features. It was first suggested and largely 
brought about by the Concordia Turnverein. The first instructor 
was Professor L. de Julian, who acted as physical director from 
1900 to 1902. The present director. Professor Trautlein, began 
the work in 1903. The German system is used, consisting of 
dumbbell exercises, club swinging, apparatus work, calisthenics, 
and games. These are for the children of all grades, from the 
first to the eighth. The director visits one or more schools each 
day and gives fifteen minutes' instruction to teachers and pupils, 
and each class devotes the same time daily to the work, under 
the instruction of the teachers. Each school is equipped with 
dumbbells, wands, clubs, horizontal bars, rings, and climbing 
ropes, also a basket ball court for boys and girls. 



San Diego is with reason proud of its schools. The course of 
study is good, and the schools are accredited. The teachers are 
well trained and devoted, the board of education progressive, 
and the whole system one which reflects the highest credit upon 
the place and people. 

Of private schools, San Diego has had a number from an 
early day. The first was the academy of Professor Oliver, estab- 
lished in 1869. In 1872 he sold the buildings to Miss S. M. 


Gunn, who removed them to Ninth and G Streets, added im- 
provements, and opened the San Diego Academy. J. D. Dorian 
had a "select school" at the corner of Seventh and H Streets, 
in 1872. Eev. D. F. McFarland opened his seminary in 1873, 
and Mrs. 0. W. Gates established the Point Loma Seminary in 
the same year. R. Roessler had a private academy in Gunn's 
academy building in 1879. The first "business academy" was 
opened by Professor E. Hyde, in 1882. 

The Academy of Our Lady of Peace, 1135 A Street, is con- 
ducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph. It is a boarding and day 


school for girls and young' ladies, well equipped for the devel- 
opiiK^nt of the mental, moral, and physical powers of its pupils. 
Tliere is also a separate school for boys. 

Tlie San Diego Free Industrial School was founded in lS9-t 
])y 21rs. J. F. Gary, of San Diego. Tier original intention was 
to start a sewing school for girls and to improve the condition 
of the children living on the water front. It was soon found 
necessary to make provision for the training of children of both 
sexi^s ami after six months b(n-s were also admitted. From this 


Who represented San Diego in the Assembly at Sacramento when the State Normal School 
bill was passed for the second time and signed by the Governor 

1)eginning the scope of the work has grown until it iioav em- 
))races a inunlxu" of activities. 

In its early days, tlu^ school occui)ied a I'oom on the ground 
Hoor of the ]Montezuma Building, corner of Second and F 
Streets. Later it was removed to the Tower House, on Fourtli 
and F, and thence across the street to what is now known as 
the Worth lodgingdiouse. where it remained until the summer 
of 1897. At that time the nev/ Congregational Church had 
been completed and the congregation was ready to move out 



of the old tabernacle, then standing on Ninth and F Streets. 
Through the efforts of ]\Ir. ^Marston and ]\Irs. Gary, the old 
l)nilding Avas secured as a home for the industrial school. A lot 
on the northwest corner of State and F Streets, fifty feet 
Avide. was purchased, and the building renovated and removed 

Since securing permanent r|narters. the school has grown 
steadily. There is a manual training school where boys are 
taught the use of tools in various trades, a cooking school in 
which girls learn ])lain cooking practically, a sewing school, etc. 


The school is supported by voluntary contributions and all 
tuition is free. The school is incorporated, and ^Irs. Gary was 
its first and is its present president and manager. 

The movement to secure a State Normal School for San 
Diego was undertaken in 1894. and was due primarily to the 
great expense and inconvenience experienced by San Diego 
families in sending their children to the State Normal School 
at Los Angeles, and other institutions throughout Southern 
California. This expense was estimated at $2750 per month, 


i\nd it was oln'ious that such coiulitious could not continue 

The agitation was begun by Ilarr Wagner, then county 
superintendent of schools, and Prof. Hugh J. Baldwin, who 
Avas then in charge of the Coronado Schools. A munificent 
oft'er by Mrs. 0. J. Stough greatly simplified the undertaking 
and undoubtedly contributed materially to the early success 
of the movement. It was proposed that the building and 
grounds of the college at Pacific Beach should l)e used for the 
new Normal School, and this property, valued at $100,000, Mrs. 
Stough offered as a free gift to the state. With this splendid 
inducement to oft'er to the legislature Senat(n' D. L. Withington 
and Assemblymen Dryden and Keene were able to make a 
sti'ong fight at Sacramento. They were supported l)y unani- 
mous jniblic sentiment, and materially aitled hy Professor 
Baldwin, who went to the capital for the purpose, having 
IxM'n selected by the citizens of San Diego as the representative 
of the Chamber of Conmierce. 

The bill to establish the school at this point i)assed the 
legislature in 1895. luit was vetoed by the governor. Two 
yeai's later the bill was pressed. Assemblyman W. K. Guy 
making it the especial ol).iect of his efforts. The legislature 
acted favorably upon it for the second time, and it was signed 
l\v the governor. 

Although the generosity of Mrs. Stough doubtless secured 
the success of the project, her offer was not accepted, and 
in the end the Normal School was located on University 
Heights. Immediately after the bill becanu^ a law, two 
other sites were brought into competition with Pacific 
Beach. Escondido offered its fine three-story high school 
building, together with the grounds, and the College Hill 
Laud Association offered eleven acres on University Heights. 
The board of trustees appointed by the governor to select 
the site for the school consisted of Thomas 0. Toland of 
Ventura, J. L. Dryden of National City. John G. North of 
Riverside, and W. R. Guy and Victor E. Shaw of San Diego. 
They, with Governor Budd and Samuel T. Black, ex-ofticio 
members of the board, looked over the three sites and decided 
on the present location on University Heights. 



KOBABLY the average eitizeii of Sau Diego 
if asked to name the father of the San Diego 
bar. would at onee think of Judge Oliver S. 
Witherbv; and certainly, although we are not 
sure he was the very first American attorney 
to settle here, and although he tlid not prac- 
tice long, yet by reason of liis character and 
the many years during which he stood as a 
connecting link l)etween the old and the new, he deserves to be 
so considered. Throughout the 50 's and even earlier, there 
were a nundjer of business men and others admitted to practice 
wlu)se attainments were slight. But Witherbv Avas a real law- 
yer, and a man of solid attainments. He spent nearly forty- 
seven years of his life in San Diego, and, his election to repre- 
sent the county in the first legislature, in 1850, as well as his 
ai)pointmenti and service as the first judge of the first judicial 
district, shows the estimation in which he was held as a lawyer 
and a man. 

In 1850 there were three p)-acticing attorneys in San Diego ; 
James W. Ro])inson. Thomas W. Su.therland. and William C. 
Feri'ell. These men have all l)een mentioned in this history, and 
l)rief l)iographical sketches of them given. It would be difficult, 
if not impossible, to determine which was the earliest settler of 
the three. Robinson was the most substantial citizen and the 
Ix'st e(|uii)ped lawyei", OAving to his long experience, learning, 
and personal character. Ferrell Avas also an able man, and in 
the eight or nine years of his residence practiced quite actively; 
but- he Avas souK^vhat eccentric and scarcely adapted to cut a 
large figure. He Avas the first district attorney of the first judi- 
cial district, in 1850-52. Sutherland Avas a<-tively engaged in 
public affairs in the early 50 's. He serv(nl as alcalde under 
the Mexican laAvs and as city attoriu'y and district attorney 
under the American civil administration. As city attorney ho 
prepared San Diego's first ordinances, in 1850-1. and rendered 
other services. In December. 1850, Ira W. Bird Avas appointed 
and acted for a time as county attorney, but there is nothing 
to shoAv that he ever engaged in the practice of laAv. 

In this year, also, John B. ]Magruder's name appears as an 
attorney. This, of course, Avas Colonel J. Bankhead ^Magruder. 


who was at the time in command of the army post at San Diego. 

Coming down a few jears, we find the names of Lewis A. 
Franklin and J. R. Gitchell as attorneys ; Franklin practiced 
very little, but Gitchell was the first attorney for the old San 
Diego & Gila Railroad, and drew its charter. He M^as also dis- 
trict attorney, a somewhat prominent resident, and regarded as 
an able man. D. B. Kurtz read law under Gitchell and in April, 
1856, he and E. W. Morse and D. B. Hoffman were admitted to 
the bar, but none of the three ever engaged extensively in prac- 
tice. Squire Ensworth, on the other hand, pursued the profes- 
sion and gave it his exclusive attention. He was a self-made 
lawyer and was admitted about the same time as Mr. Morse. 

At the time that Horton's Addition began to forge to the 
front, the prominent attorneys at ^ Old Town were Benjamin 
Hayes, Wm. Jeff Gate wood, and W. T. McNealy. 

Judge Hayes was a resident of Los Angeles when elected dis- 
trict judge, in 1859, and served until 1864. In 1869 he removed 
to Old Town and engaged in the practice of law. He was state 
senator in 1866-67. He died in Los Angeles, August 4, 1877. 
Judge Hayes was the leading lawyer of San Diego in all mat- 
ters pertaining to land titles, and a cyclopedia of information 
on Spanish land grants. He was the attorney for the plaintiffs 
in the suit for the partition of the Middletown Addition. In 
the course of his practice he accumulated a large number of 
documents relating to land titles and early history, which he 
turned over to H. H. Bancroft. 

Gatewood came in October, 1868, to establish the Union. In 
the following May he sold his half interest in the paper to 
Charles P. Taggart, and the paper was soon after removed to 
New San Diego, while Gatewood remained at Old Town and 
engaged in the active practice of law. 

Colonel Gatewood was a native of Kentucky, a man of fine 
personal presence and great native talents. He served in the 
Mexican War and after that settled in Calaveras County, Cali- 
fornia, where he published the San Andreas Register and took 
a hand in polities. In the course of the vicissitudes of the latter 
occupation, in 1858, he fought a duel with Dr. P. Goodwin and 
killed him — a somewhat celebrated affair. After retiring from 
the Union Gatewood quickly built up a good practice. Besides 
having nearly all the criminal practice, he was usually employed 
on one side of most of the important civil cases. He was an 
excellent trial lawyer, ready and resourceful, and especially suc- 
cessful in his advocacy of causes before a jury. 

After the county offices were removed to New San Diego, he 
took up his residence there and lived for several years in the 
house still standing at the southwest corner of I'''nion and D 



Streets. In July, 1872, he founded the Daily ^Yo)•ld. One of 
his most important cases was that of the People vs. Gregory, 
accused of murder, wherein he succeeded in securing an acquit- 
tal against great odds. He was also interested in the suit of 
Pico vs. Forster, involving the ownership of the Santa Marga- 
rita rancho, but in that case his clients lost. In the Hinton will 
case he represented the executors, and in the contest over the 
removal of the county seat was attorney for the people of Old 


"Father of San Diego Bar," who lived here forty-seven years, representing the county 
the first legislature and occupying the bench for a long period 

Town. In 1873 he was a prominent candidate for the Demo- 
cratic nomination for district judge, but was defeated by W. 
T. McNealy. He died on board the schooner Rosita, in San 
Diego Bay, March 27, 1888. 

"W. T. McNealy practiced law in San Diego longer ago than 
any other man now living here. He is a native of Georgia, but 
his father removed to Florida and he spent his youth there. 
He came to California in 1849 and arrived in San Diego on the 
31st of March in that year. He relates that his first employment 



after his arrival was given him by Cullen A. Johnson and con- 
sisted of making an abstract of the title to the Middletown Addi- 
tion ; the second was copying some records for Judge Hayes, in 
the matter of the estate of some minors. The following fall he 
received the Democratic nomination for district attorney and 
was elected, and two years later was re-elected for another term. 
The record which he made in the vigorous and successful pros- 
ecution of a number of criminals popularly supposed to be im- 
mune on account of their "pull," as well as his stubborn fight 

District Judge, leading lawyer, and eminent authority on Spanish land titles 

and final victory in the collection of the disputed tax levy for 
refunding the county debt, with practically all the property 
owners of the city and county arrayed against him. convinced 
the people that he was their friend and led to his nomination 
and election to the office of .judge of the eighteenth district court, 
defeating Judge Rolfe, in 1873, for a term of six years. In 1879, 
the old district court having been abolished and the new supe- 
rior court created, he was chosen to fill that office and served 
until October, 1886, when ill health caused his retirement. 



After this he was engaged for a time in practice, but since 1888 
has retired. 

Cullen A. Johnson' was district attorney in 1868-69. He 
came here in ill health, and died April 16, 1873, of consumption. 

Daniel Cleveland is the oldest attorney, still engaged in prac- 
tice and living here, who came direct to New^ San IDiego. He is 
a native of Poughkeepsie, New York, the son of an eminent law- 
yer, and descended from Revolutionary stock. He came to San 


Who practiced law longer than any other man now living in the city. Elected District 
Attorney in 1869, serving four years. Elected judge of the Eighteenth Judicial Dis- 
trict in 1873 for six years, judge of the Superior Court in 1879 and again in 
1884. Retired from the bench in 1886 after serving thirteen years 

Diego in May, 1869, and practiced law in partnership with his 
brother, Wm. H. Cleveland. The latter, a very able lawyer, 
died in New Hampshire in 1873. Mr. Cleveland has been an 
active participant in all the city's important steps of progress. 
He was attorney for the Texas & Pacific Railway five or six 
years, until it transferred its franchise to the Southern Pacific, 
and was attorney for the Bank of San Diego during its exist- 
ence. He is a large property owner and a public-spirited citi- 


zen. In the practice of law, his course has always been digni- 
fied and his attainments and talents command respect. His 
connection with the Protestant Episcopal Church has been 
described. He M-as one of the founders of the San Diego Soci- 
ety of Natural History, its president for a time, and always an 
active member and contributor. 

In a growing community like New San Diego, there are always- 
a feAv men who, by reason of their qualifications and force of 


Who located here after the civil war and took a leading place among lawyers. He was iden- 
tified with important land litigation and thereby acquired extensive 
holdings in El Cajon Valley 

character early take and easily maintain the lead in their pro- 
fessions. To attempt to select these men would ordinarily be a 
difficult and invidious task, but in the case of the early days 
of New San Diego, it is made easy by the agreement of those 
who knew them. The two most prominent and successful attor- 
neys of early days in New San Diego, who came direct, were 
Major Levi Chase and Wallace Leach. 

Major Chase was a native of Maine, and a veteran of the Civil 
War. He came to San Diego in 1868 and almost at once gained 


a prominent position at the bar. One of his most important lit- 
igations was for settling the title and boundaries of the El Cajon 
rancho, and afterward for its partition among the successful 
contestants. This Avork was very profitable, but, as several peo- 
ple were dispossessed, considerable feeling was aroused. He 
was also interested in litigation over Warner's ranch. He 
formed a .partnership with AA^allace Leach about 1873, which 


Judge of the Superior Court, to which he was elected in 1900 to fill an unexpired term, and 
re-elected in 1902. He was chosen district attorney in 1877 

continued twelve or thirteen years. He took part in most of the 
important civil litigation of his day, but did not engage in crim- 
inal practice. He retired about 1895, and died ]\Iay 31, 1906. 
He was regarded as a reliable lawyer and good counsellor. 

Robert Wallace Leach was a native of Illinois, and a grad- 
uate of Harvard Law College. He came to San Diego in June, 
1873, and soon after entered into a partnership with Major 
Chase. His specialty was criminal law and jury trials. He 
was brilliant, resourceful, and highly successful. His first lau- 
rels were won in defending Collector W. J. McCormick, who 



was accused of robbing himself, as related in the account of gov- 
ernmental activities. About 1885, he formed a partnership 
with Judge Parker, which continued until Leach's death. He 
died May 13, 1888. 

Charles P. Taggart also belongs to this period. He was the 
attorney for a numl^er of corporations, such as the Pacific Mail 
and the Pacific Coast Steamship Companies, for Capron's stage 
line, for the Texas & Pacific Railroad, and finally city attorney. 
While citv attornev, the trustees entered into a contract with 


Judge of the Superior Court. First chosen in 1890, he was re-elected in 1896 and again in 
1902. The three terms for which he was chosen represent a service of eighteen years 

him and General Volney E. Howard, of Los Angeles, by which 
they were to receive a large share of the tide lands in payment 
for their services in defending the city's claim to title in the 
litigation then pending. Much bitterness was aroused and, 
besides making many enemies, Taggart and Howard got no pay, 
as it was finally held that the city had no title. 

Taggart 's specialty was criminal practice. One of his most 
important cases was the defense in the case of State vs. Bur- 



leigh, accused of murder. The evideuce against Burleigh, 
although circumstantial, was strong, and public sentiment 
was against his client. He succeeded in securing a ver- 
dict of acquittal, and subsequent developments established to 
the satisfaction of many that Burleigh was really innocent. 
There is a tradition that when the jury first went out they stood 
11 to 1, the 1 being Joshua Sloane, and that he talked over the 


Located, 1885; served as Superior Judge, 1889-97. chosen City Attorney, 1907; earnest advo- 
cate of large irrigation plan on Western Slope, which, if carried out, would 
have brought enormous benefits to city and county 

other 11. ^[r. Taggart can scarcely be called a successful law- 
yer. He dissipated his energies upon a number of activities. 
As related, he purchased Colonel Gatewood's interest in the 
Union in 1869, and was its editor and manager for a few montlis. 
He was also agent for the Pacific ]\Iail Steamship Company. 
He died October 13. 1875: his monument bears the inscription: 
"A friend to free schools." 

The judiciary of San Diego has. as a rule, reflected the high 
character of the bar. Of the district judges, only the first 


(Witherby) and the last (McNealy) were residents of San 
Diego, while the others were from other sections of the district. 
The first county judge and e.r-ofjicio presiding judge of the 
court of sessions, was John Hays. After him were Cave J. 
Couts, D. B. Kurtz, W. H. Noyes, Julio Osuna, Thomas H. Bush, 
and Moses A. Luce, who served until the office was abolished. 
Brief biographies of nearly all these judges have been given. 


Located, 1897: deputy district attorney, 1903-05; city attorney, 1905-07. Unquestionably, his 

most important public service was his sing^le-handed fight to maintain the validity of 

the municipal bond issue of 1907, wrhen his contention was sustained by the 

Superior Court and by the Supreme Court against the opposition 

of the leading- bond experts of Southern California 

The first superior judge was W. T. McNealy. Upon his retire- 
ment, October 1, 1886, John D. Works was appointed his suc- 
cessor and was chosen at the next general election to fill the 
unexpired term. He served about a year, then resigned, and 
was succeeded by Edwin Parker. 

Judge Works is a native of Indiana. He came to San Diego 
in 1883, after having served in the Civil War and in the Indiana 
legislature and written a text book on practice and pleading. 
He was soon after chosen city attorney. After retiring from 


the bench, he formed a partnership with Clin Wellborn and 
John R. Jones. He afterward removed to Los Angeles, where 
he is now successfully engaged in the practice of his profession. 
He has served a term as judge of the supreme court of Califor- 
nia, and stands high as a citizen and a lawyer. 

Judge Parker completed the unexpired part of the term of 
Judge Works, and was regarded as an able jurist. He had 
been under-sheriff in 1873-74 and studied law and engaged in 
practice upon retiring from that position. He is spoken of as 
a man whose naturally fine powers were somewhat handicapped 
by his diffidence. 

The year 1888 was the one at which the grand contest occurred 
between the "Gallaghers" and the regular Republican organiza- 
tion. The superior judge chosen at that election, John R. Ait- 
ken, was supported by the former organization. He was a 
young lawyer recently from San Francisco, who served one 
term. He returned to San Francisco and is now a practicing 
attorney there. 

By February, 1889, the business of the superior court had 
increased so much that it was necessary to provide more judges. 
The legislature accordingly created two more departments and 
authorized the governor to fill them. Those appointed were 
George Puterbaugh and W. L. Pierce. In the fall of 1890 these 
two were elected for a term of six years, and the third judge 
chosen w^as E. S. Torrance. 

Judge Puterbaugh made a good record. He is still engaged 
in the practice of his profession in San Diego, and enjoys the 
confidence and respect of the community. Judge Torrance has 
been upon the bench continuously for sixteen years and has two 
years yet to serve, but recently announced his intention of 
resigning. He is regarded as a very able jurist. Judge Pierce 
served out his term, but failed of a renomination. He was shot 
and dangerously wounded by W. S. Clendennin, who had been 
a party to a suit in his court and against whom he had ruled. 
Judge Pierce afterward left San Diego and went to San 

When the time came for the general election in the fall of 
1896, the business of the court had decreased and one of the 
departments was discontinued. The two judges elected were 
E. S. Torrance and John W. Hughes. Judge Hughes died in 
office, and George Fuller was appointed to serve until the next 
election in the fall of 1900. At that election, Norman H. Conk- 
lin was chosen to fill the unexpired term, and he was re-elected 
in 1902. The two judges at this time are, therefore, Torrance 
and Conklin, and their successors are to be elected in 1908. 


Judge Conklin is a native of Pennsylvania, and came to San 
Diego in 1874. He was associated with the late J. M. Julian 
in the publication of the World, and in 1877 was elected dis- 
trict attorney and served two years. 

There have been a number of attorneys in San Diego, now 
deceased or removed elsewhere, of whom mention should be 

Thomas P. Slade came to San Diego very early. He was a 
fine old gentleman who spent his last days at Julian. Lewis 
Branson had some of the most important land cases at New 
San Diego. He had been a judge in "Wisconsin. He left before 
the boom and went to Washington Territory. S. S. Sanborn 
was another early arrival at Horton's Addition, and became 
associated with Charles A. Wetmore. He died here several 
years ago. Tyson & Swift were the attorneys for the land 
jumpers at Horton's Addition. They both went away early. 
G. A. Jones was from Texas, a fact which he took pains to place 
upon his sign. He was attorney for the ousted supervisors at 
the time of the trouble over the removal of the county seat, and 
won his case upon appeal. He was at one time in partnership 
with Chalmers Scott. He died in San Diego six or seven years 
ago. John E. Jones came from Tennessee and practiced a few 
years in partnership with Olin Wellborn. N. H. Dodson was 
from Sacramento. He lived on a ranch at Poway a few years, 
then returned to Sacramento. William H. Cleveland was an 
able and successful lawyer at Old Town, and the owner of Cleve- 
land's Addition. A. C. Baker arrived about 1873, remained 
only a short time, then went to Los Angeles and later to Ari- 
zona, where he became chief justice of the territory in 1893. 
F. L. Aude came from San Francisco, practiced a short time, 
and then returned. William E. Darby was a resident of Old 
Town. He was elected district attorney, but died before enter- 
ing upon the duties of the office. Wellington Stewart first prac- 
ticed at National City and was attorney for Kimball Brothers. 
Later he was associated with D. C. Keed. He left San Diego 
in the 80 's. 

William J. Hunsaker grew up in San Diego and received his 
ediTcation in its public schools. He studied law in the office of 
Chase & Leach and practiced for a time in partnership with 
Judge Conklin. Later he was associated with E. W. Britt, with 
whom he is now practicing at Los Angeles. This firm stands 
very high at the California bar, and both are remembered kindly 
and regarded with pride by their former associates. 

James S. Callen came to San Diego in boom days and was a 
noted criminal attorney for several vears. 











Of the remaining attorneys still in practice in San Diego, 
one of the oldest is Elijah W. Hendrick. Judge Hendrick served 
one term in the state legislature, in 1881, was district attorney 
in 1885-86, and also served as city attorney. He was one of the 
founders of the free public library, and has always been an act- 
ive and public-spirited citizen. Moses A. Luce arrived in May, 
1873. He has been associated with Judge Torrance and J. Wade 
McDonald, and is at present the senior partner of the firm of 
Luce, Sloane & Luce. His public services include a term as 
county judge, an active and effective part in bringing the Santa 
Fe Railway, etc. 

S. S. Knoles is United States commissioner: H. W. Talcott, 
commissioner of the superior court; and J. Z.^ Tucker, United 
States referee in bankruptcy. 

The San Diego Bar Association was formed April 22, 1899. 
The present officers are : Theron L. Lewis, president ; Frederick 
W. Stearns, vice-president; Charles C. Haines, secretary; and 
J. Z. Tucker, treasurer. The membership is about sixty. 

There are several other individuals and firms whose standing 
entitles them to fuller notice, and of whom the city is justly 
proud. All that can be done here, however, is to present a list 
of the practicing attorneys of San Diego at this time : 

Anderson, Monroe B. 

Arden, Henry 

Bancroft, Grifl&ng 

Boone, Linden L. 

Bowman, A. B. 

Capps, Eugene E. 

Carter, Cassius 

Cleveland. Daniel 

Collier, Smith & Holcomb 
(David C. Collier, Sam 
Ferry Smith, Will H. Hol- 

Comly, Harrv R. 

Crane, H. S.' 

Dadmun & Belieu (Lewis E. 
Dadmun, Wm. T. Belieu) 

Daney & Lewis (Eugene 
Daney, Theron L. Lewis) 

Doolittle, Herbert E. 

Ecker, William H. C. 

Guy, Wilfred E. 

Haines & Haines (Alfred 
Haines, Charles C. Haines") 

Hendrick, Elijah W. 

Hitchcock, George N. 

Humphrey, William 

.Jordan. Adison D. 

Riall, Ernes* 

Kew, Michael 

Kirby, Lewis R. 

Knoles, Samuel S. 

Lamadrid, Tomas 

Luce, Sloane & Luce (Moses 
A. Luce, William A. 
Sloane, Edgar A. Luce) 

McDonald, J. Wade 

McKee, Clarke W. 

Mannix, .John B. 

Mills & Hizar (Henrv E. 
Mills, J. Clyde Hizar) 

Mossholder, William .J. 

Mouser, A. C. 

O'Farrell, Fred 

Palmer, Henry H. 

Peterson, Edward W. 

Pirkey, Oval 

Puterbaugh & Puterbaugh 
(George Puterbaugh, .John- 
son W. Puterbaugh) 

Eiall, Ernest 

Eiley, Lewis S. 

Eippey, Charles H. 

Shea, Michael 

Soto, Jose M. 

Sprigg, Patterson 

Stearns & Sweet (Freder 
ick W. Stearns, Adelbert 
H. Sweet) 



Taylor, Blaine 
Thorpe, Milton E. 
Torrance, E. Swift 
Tucker, Jack Z. 
Utley & Manning (Harry S. 
Utley, John F. Manning) 
Wadham, James E. 
Walker, Clarke A. 

Ward, Martin L. 

Whitehead, Fred G. 

Wright, Schoonover & Win- 
nek (Leroy A. Wright, Al- 
bert Schoonover, Emilus 
V. Winnek) 



HROUGHOUT all the days of Spanish and 
]\Iexican rule, the practice of medicine was 
very primitive. A surgeon was attached to 
each presidial company and the missionaries, 
as a rule, had some skill. But the presidios 
were feebly maintained and usually slack in 
medical and surgical equipment ; and the tra- 
ditions lead to the belief that the missionaries 
were rather poorly equipped as regarded medical and surgical 
skill, even for that day. Still, the few simple things they could 
do seemed marvelous to the Indians, and the colonists were not 
far behind them in their gaping wonder at the exhibition of 
very slight attainments. When the missions went down and the 
presidios were but intermittently maintained, there were long 
periods when the people Avere without the services of a physician. 
It is said that for almost twenty years before the Mexican War 
there was no resident physician in San Diego. 

Naturally, the people had some strange notions and supersti- 
tions about the practice of medicine. When Alfred Robinson 
lived in San Diego, in 1829. he found that every foreigner was 
supposed to have a knowledge of medicine. Being requested by 
an old woman to prescribe for her daughter, Avho was suffering 
with cramps, he prescribed a small dose of laudanum. This 
having a good effect, he found his fame as a physician estab- 
lished. He says that, had he been so inclined and willing to 
furnish the medicines himself, he could have had a good prac- 
tice. Other visitors were less scrupulous, judging from the 
story he tells of a drunken American deserter who imposed 
upon the poor people of Santa Barbara, using his pretended 
knowledge of medicine as a means of procuring brandy for his 
own consumption. 

The first American doctors in San Diego were the United 
States Army surgeons who came with the troops. Lewis B. Hun- 
ter and R. F. ^Maxwell, the surgeons of the Cyane. and the three 
doctors with Fremont's battalion, who arrived July 29, 1846, 
were undoubtedly the first, but they did not remain. There does 
not appear to have been a surgeon with the little garrison left 
under Captain ]\Ierritt : but Avhen Commodore Stockton arrived 



with his ships, early iu November, the surgeons attached to his 
fleet landed with the men and performed duty on shore. After 
the battle of San Pasqual, they were joined by Dr. John ,S. 
Griffin, the surgeon of Kearny's force. These' doctors found 
themselves confronted by the problem of providing hospital 
accommodations for the wounded men. This was accomplished 
by quartering them Avith the private families in the town, where 

One of the earliest physicians, and first president of the County Medical Society 

the surgeons could visit them. From this time onward, San 
Diego was not again left without a physician and surgeon. There 
were always government troops present, in San Diego or at the 
mission, and the surgeons attached to these small commands 
bridged the gap between the Mexican occupation and the com- 
ing of civilian physicians by doing a little practice outside their 
official routine. 

The honor of being the first American practicing physician 
in San Diego probably belongs to Dr. Frederick J. Painter. He 
was an invalid and died November 30, 1853, at which time it was 
stated that he was an old resident, but very little information 



about him is given. His professional card appeared in the first 
number of the Herald, May 29, 1851, and he is mentioned at dif- 
ferent times in that paper. He acted for a time as clerk of the 
common council in 1851 — a position which paid $50 per month. 
There were at least two other men in San Diego about the 
same time as Dr. Painter who are called "doctor" in the rec- 
ords, but no evidence has been found that they engaged in prac- 
tice. These are Dr. John Conger and Dr. Atkins S. Wright. 
The former acted as secretary of the ayuntamiento before the 
American civil administration began, and as clerk of the com- 
mon council throughout the year 1850, at the time the "bood- 

Surgeon of Kearney's forces at the Battle of San Pasqual 

ling" council was in power. Dr. Wright was a member of this 
first council, chosen June 16, 1850, and served one term. He 
was also city translator and interpreter and was well paid for 
his services. 

Dr. David B. Hoffman Avas the next regular practicing physi- 
cian to locate in San Diego. A brief biography of him has been 
given. He was a graduate of Toland Medical College. When 
he came to the Pacific Coast, he was at first in the employ of the 
Pacific Mail Steamship Companj^ between Panama and San 
Francisco. His card first appears in the Herald on December 
1, 1855, which probably marks the date when he left the employ 
of the steamship company and settled in San Diego. In later 
years he was post surgeon of the army in San Diego. When the 


San Diego County Medical Society was formed, July 23, 1870, 
he was chosen president of the organization, and the address 
which he delivered on that occasion is extant. 

On April 19, 1856, Dr. George E. Knight's card appeared in 
the Herald, but, apparently, he only remained a short time. 

Dr. Edward Burr came to San Diego from Oakland soon after 
the Civil War, and was coroner and county physician for sev- 
eral years, being first elected in 1867 and again in the four suc- 
ceeding years. He was a native of Ireland and what would now 
be called "a doctor of the old school." Dr. E. J. Gregg was his 
assistant for a time in 1868-69. 

An old resident of New San Diego relates that when he came, 
in 1869, it was often necessary for him to go to Old Town on 
business, and for this purpose he was accustomed to take Seeley's 
coach which ran between the two towns. The first time he made 
this trip, the coach halted in front of Dr. Burr's office, and the 
doctor came out and sprayed all the passengers with some liquid 
from a small perfumery spray. There was a smallpox scare on 
at this time, and it wa;^ his duty, as county physician, to disin- 
fect all travelers arriving at the county seat, and that was the 
way he did it. 

Dr. George McKinstry, Jr., came to California in 1846 and 
was somewhat prominent in the northern part of the state before 
coming to San Diego. He was first sheriff of the northern dis- 
trict, at Sutter's Fort, in 1846-47, and a business man at Sacra- 
mento and San Francisco at a very early day. He left a val- 
uable diary. He died before 1880. 

The physicians at Old Town when Horton came were Hoff- 
man, Burr, and McKinstry, who had settled in the order 

The first physician to settle in Horton 's Addition was Dr. 
Jacob Allen, who came from Santa Clara in the spring of 1869. 
He was a graduate of Toland Medical College. He had his 
residence, drug store, and office on the east side of Fifth Street, 
near F. He was also the first postmaster and kept the post- 
office in his drug store. He remained here several years, but 
many years ago removed to Riverside, where he died. He was 
the father of Legare Allen, a well-known official and business 
man of San Bernardino. He was engaged in a number of activ- 
ities and seems to have been regarded as an able man. 

Dr. Robert J. Gregg is the pioneer of the physicians now 
living in San Diego. He is a native of Pennsylvania and a 
graduate of Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. He 
started west in the spring of 1864 and reached Texas, where 
he had yellow fever, and had to return home. In 1868 he 
came to San Diego, arriving October 16, and settled at Old 


Town. After acting as assistant to Dr. Burr a few months, 
he opened an office of his own in Horton's Addition, on the 
west side of Fifth Street, opposite Dr. Allen's drug store. 
He has since resided in New San Diego and practiced until his 
retirement, a few years ago, and is one of the best known phy- 
sicians in Southern California. 

The next oldest pioneer physician of New San Diego is Dr. 
Thomas C. Stockton, who came here in 1869. He is a native 


Who settled at Old Town in 1868. but soon removed to the present city, where he practiced 

for more than thirty years. A man of rare culture, his writings and occasional 

addresses on literary topics enriched the city's intellectual life 

of New Brunswick, Canada, and a graduate of Bellevue Hos- 
pital School. He was chosen coroner in 1875 and served two 
years, also as coroner and public administrator in 1880-1-2-3, 
and as city health officer at different times. Having purchased 
the property on the southeast corner of Columbia and F Streets, 
he leased it to the government for thirteen years and then he 
and Dr. Remondino occupied it for four or five years as a san- 
itarium. He was one of the organizers of the San Diego County 



Medical Society, in 1870, and a regular practitioner still in 
practice. His reminiscences of early days are most valuable 
as well as his collections, among which is a record of births, 
kept before physicians were officially required to make such 

Dr. P. C. Remondino is also one of the few living pioneer 
physicians. He is a native of Turin, Italy, whose parents came 
to America while he was young. He graduated from Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1865. Coming to San Diego 


A pioneer physician of New San Diego and relative of Commodore Stockton. Has served as 
coroner, public administrator and city health officer 

in January, 1874, he opened an office next door to his old class- 
mate, Dr. Gregg, and entered at once upon the practice of his 
profession. He was city physician in 1875-76 ; county physi- 
cian for several terms; surgeon for the California Southern 
Railroad Company for some time ; surgeon of the Marine Hos- 
pital, also surgeon for the Pacific Coast Steamship Company. 
In 1887 he retired and built the St. James Hotel. In later 
years he resumed practice and is still actively engaged in it. 



He is the author of several works on medical subjects which 
have a wide popularity, and is engaged in the preparation of 
others. His technical library is one of the best in the United 

In 1874 the physicians in San Diego were : Drs. D. B. Hoff- 
man, Edward Burr, J. Allen, E. J. Gregg, T. C. Stockton, P. 
C. Remondino, W. W. Royal, Wm. A. Winder, and Chas. M. 
Fenn. Dr. Fenn came to New San Diego soon after Dr. Gregg, 








Equally distinguished as physician and author. His "Mediterranean Shores of America'' 

and similar writings exerted a powerful influence in making the 

fame of the San Diego climate 

but did not engage in practice for some time after his arrival. 
He served as county coroner, county physician, and public 
administrator several terms between the vears 1873 and 1885. 
He died in March, 1907. 

Dr. Winder is one of the best remembered of the later resi- 
dents of Old Town. He was a native of Maryland who had 
led an adventurous life and was a veteran of both the Mexican 
and Civil Wars. In 1854 he sailed from New York as a cap- 





tain with the. Third Artillery Regiment, for San Francisco. 
The ship was wrecked and decimated by cholera, but he was 
among those rescued. Arriving at San Diego, he was stationed 
here and at Fort Yuma until the Civil War. After that war, 
he resigned his commission and, in 1872, settled at San Diego 
and engaged in practice. After practicing about twelve years 
he retired. He was a man of character and had other interests 
besides those mentioned. He painted the portrait of Judge 


Located. 1886; founded the Agnew hospital, 1898; built Agnew Sanitarium, 1906: president 
Chamber of Commerce, 1907; county physician since 1895 

Witherby which now hangs in the court house, and was the 
owner of Winder's Addition to San Diego. 

There were also in 1874 the following other physicians in 
New San Diego: Drs. T. S. Harrison, W. S. Williams, Cluness 
Bibb, and Drs. Tufford and Barnes, the latter being the first 
homeopathist in San Diego. Dr. F. R. Millard came in Octo- 
ber, 1874, and still lives here, keeping a drug store. This com- 
pletes the list of early physicians. 



The first county hospital was the old cobblestone jail which 
Haraszthy built, at Old Town. It was used for a short time, 
and then, about 1869, a large frame house at Old Town was 
rented for the purpose. 

After the county offices were removed to New San Diego, 
one of the old houses built by William Heath Davis was pur- 
chased by Captain Knowles and removed to Eleventh Street 


Located, 1885; city trustee, 1887; later, member of city council; appointed San Diego County 
Health Officer, 1904; identified with progress of county, particularly mining industries 

in Horton's Addition, and was later used as a hospital. It is 
still standing, and is now occupied as a residence. 

The county farm in Mission Valley was purchased in Jan- 
uary, 1880, from the Commercial Bank. The magnificent new 
brick hospital building on the rim of the mesa overlooking the 
valley was erected in 1903-4. It is generously supported and 
well managed and is a credit to the people of San Diego County. 

Following is a list of the physicians of San Diego at the pres- 
ent time. They are a fine body of men and women, who hold 
the professional standard high : 



Anderson, Thomas B. 
Averill, Maria B. 
Baker, Charlotte J. 
Baker, Trecl 
Burney, William A, 
Burnham, Fred R. 
Butler, Edward A. 
Crandall, Alice H. 
Cummings, William M. 
De Borra, Alexis 
Doig, Eobert L. 
Elliott, Albert J. 
Escher, John F. 

Hulbert, Robert G. 
Kendall, Oscar J. 
Klietsch, Otto 
Latta, Lelia 
Leisenring, Peter S. 
Lentz, Nicholas 
Howe, Robert C. 
Lewis, Eva. M. 
Lewis, J. Perry 
Luscomb, Charles E. 
Madison, Frank M. 
Magee, Thomas L. 
Marsh, Charles E. 

Used by Drs. Stockton and Remondino as a sanitarium for several years 

Fenn, Charles M. 
Fletcher, Oliver P. 
Franklin, Berte V. 
French, James M. 
Gochenauer, David 
Goflf, H. Neville 
Goldschmidt, Leopold 
Grandjean, Arthur 
Greene, Dr. & Co. 
Gregg, Robert J. 
Grove, Edward 
Hearne, Joseph C. 
Hoffman, Mary E. 

Mead, Francis H. 
Morgan, Addison 
Murphy, George S. 
Northrup, Daniel B. 
Oatman, Homer C. 
Parker, P. James 
Parks, Joseph A. 
Polhemus, W. P. 
Potts, Anna M. L. 
Powell, Charles S. 
Remondino, Peter C. 
Reyber, Ernst L. 
Roberts, Samuel L. 



Skewes, Thomas J. D. 
Smart, Willarcl N. 
Smith, David A. 
Smith, Q. Cincinnatus 
Steade, James M. 
Stockton, Thomas C. 
Stone, John B. 

Sundberg, John C. 
Thayer, Orson V. 
Valle, Charles C. 
Verity, Minnie E. J. 
Waterman, Elmer L. 
Willard. E. P. 

Byars, William R. 
Creswell, Lena 
Elliott, David H. 


Frazer, Charles F. 
Woodhull, Anna B. 
Woodhull, Frederick B. 



ETWEEN the fine library of today, in its rich 

B Carnegie housing, and the earliest organized 

/^yi aspiration of the people for such an institu- 
y/> tion lay a score of years, marked by numer- 
^-^ ' ous vicissitudes. The humble beginnings of 
the free public library date back to January 
24, 1870, when the first organization was 
formed at a meeting in the Baptist Church. 
It was soon incorporated under the name of the Horton Library 
Association and was founded on the promise of Mr. Horton 
to donate 600 volumes which he had acquired from H. H. Ban- 
croft in exchange for lots. Unfortunately, there was a dis- 
agreement with the donor, which ended in the withdrawal of 
the offer and the filing of new articles of incorporation under 
the name of the San Diego Library Association. 

Says one of the members : ' ' The only book the old Library 
Association ever owned was a pamphlet containing an address 
before the Bunker Hill Association, by George Warren, presi- 
dent of that society. This pamphlet was donated by Eev. 
Charles Russell Clark, of this city." In April, 1870, Mrs. E. 
W. Morse gave the association Lot 1, Block 18,. Horton 's Addi- 
tion (now occupied by Unity Hall), which afterward became 
the property of the Society of Natural History. It was not 
until several years later, however, that efforts to put the asso- 
ciation upon a working basis proved successful. 

The San Diego Free Reading Room Association was organ- 
ized March 1, 1872, and maintained until the library was opened 
to the public, in 1882. It was a movement by a number of the 
same citizens who had organized the Library Association, to 
provide a free reading room where periodicals could be found, 
until such time as the library could be put upon a working 
basis. The first officers were: Charles S. Hamilton, president; 
George "W. Marston, vice-president; R. C. Grierson, secretary; 
E. W. Morse, treasurer; "W. A. Begole, Bryant Howard, and 
S. G. Reynolds, trustees. Mr. Cleveland was active in the work 
of the organization. The reading room was situated on Fifth 
Street, next door to the postoffice, and was open from 10 A.M. 
to 10 P.M. In March, 1873, a concert given in its aid pro- 



duced $100, and Mr. Horton gave it the books which had been 
the bone of contention with the first association. These were 
afterward turned over to the new public library. In October, 
1879, interest had flagged, the association was in debt, and the 
Union made urgent appeals for its support. There was some 
talk of a tax for its support in 1881, but the views of those 
who held that the time had come for the establishment of the 
public library prevailed. 


The first officers of the San Diego Library Association in 
1870 were: G. W. B. McDonald, president; A. Pauly, vice- 
president; E. W. Morse, treasurer; C. Dunham, recording sec- 
retary; Daniel Cleveland, corresponding secretary; G. W. B. 
McDonald, G. A. Jones, J. Allen, C. Dunham, J. W. Gale, D. 
Cleveland, A. W. Oliver, A. Pauly, and J. M. Pierce, trustees. 
These men and their successors kept the spark alive until May 
19, 1882, when the first board of trustees of the San Diego Free 
Public Library was organized. This first official board consisted 
of Bryant Howard, E. W. Hendrick, George N. Hitchcock, 
George W. Marston, and R. M. Powers. Howard was made pres- 
ident; Hendrick, secretary; and Hitchcock, treasurer. The 


Commercial Bank offered the use of a suite of five rooms in its 
building free for six months, and the offer was accepted. Many 
citizens made donations of books, and others gave money. 
Among these early friends of the institution appear the names 
of Bryant Howard, E. W. Hendrick, A. E. Horton, Judge Alfred 
Cowles. Judge M. A. Luce, J. C. Frisbie, Rev. Mr. Cronyn, Dr. 
Remondino, Charles Treanor, George N. Hitchcock, Joseph 
Faivre, Mrs. Harriet Marston, and others. Generous givers in 
later years include Charles Xordhoff, Daniel Cleveland, George 
W. Marston, and others. On July 15. 1882. the library was for- 
mally opened to the public, with Archibald Hooker as librarian. 
The loaning out of books did not begin until early in Septem- 
ber, 1883. August 6, 1884, Augustus Wooster became librarian 
and continued to act until September 6, 1887, when Miss Lou 
Younkin was appointed librarian and Miss Mary E. Walker 
became her assistant. 

When first opened, the library seems to have depended largely 
upon donations of books ; but the raising of funds by taxation 
soon provided means for the purchase of new books upon a more 
liberal scale. The amount raised for the library by taxation in 
1881 was $648.19. This grew to over $2,000 in 1886, then took 
a jump to $11,557.48 in the inflated days of 1887, but dropped 
to less than $6,000 the next year. The number of volumes in 
1887 was 1,800; a year later it was 5,500, and in another year 
was 7,000. 

In 1889 the fourth floor of the Consolidated Bank Building 
was leased for four years, at a rental of $150 per month. The 
first catalogue was issued early in this year. At the expiration 
of this lease, the library was removed to the St. James building, 
corner Seventh and F Streets, over the postoffice. Some 1,200 
volumes were added in 1892, and in 1894 the total was 11,000 
volumes. Early in 1895. the second catalogue was issued, con- 
forming to the Dewey classification, which is still in use. Miss 
Younkin was succeeded by ]\Iiss ]\Iary E. Walker, as librarian, 
in December, 1895, and she by Mrs. Hannah P. Davison in May, 
1903. The latter is the present incumbent. 

In April, 1898, the upper floor of the Keating building, on 
the northwest corner of Fifth and F Streets, was leased and the 
library moved thither, where it remained until the construction 
of the present library building. 

In June, 1899, Mrs. A. E. Horton wrote Andrew Carnegie 
concerning the need of a library building in San Diego, appeal- 
ing to the philanthropist for aid. She received the following 
reply : 


July 7, 1899. 
Mrs. A. E. Horton, San Diego Public Library, 
Madam: — 
If the city were to pledge itself to maintain a free public 
library from tlie taxes, say to the extent of the amount you 
name, of between five and six thousand dollars a year, and 
provide a suitable site, I shall be glad to give you $50,000 to 
erect a suitable library building. 

Very truly yours, j 

Andrew Carnegie. 1 

The trustees immediatel.y accepted the offer and took steps 
to enable the city to meet its conditions. After several months' 
consideration a half-block was purchased on E Street, between 
Eighth and Ninth, for- $17,000. Plans were submitted by archi- 
tects all over the country and those of Ackerman & Ross of New 
York were accepted. The cornerstone was laid on March 19, 
1901, with Masonic ceremonies. Mrs. Horton read an historical 
review and Judge M. A. Luce delivered an oration. The build- 
ing is not only a great ornament to the city, but provides ample 
accommodation for the various departments of the institution. 

A list of the trustees, from the earliest down to date, follows : 



January, 1870. 


W. B. McDonald, President. 


A. Jones. 




Dunham, Recording Secretary. 


W. Gale. 


Cleveland, Corresponding Secretary 


W. Oliver, 


Pauly, Vice-President. 


E. Horton. 


W. Morse. Treasurer. 


G. W. B. McDonald, President. 

A. Pauly, Vice-President. 

E. W. Morse, Treasurer. 

C. Dunham, Recording Secretary. 

Daniel Cleveland, Correspondino; Secretary. 

A. Pauly, J. M. Pierce, G. A. Jones, J. Allen, 

C. Dunham, J. W. Gale, Daniel Cleveland, A. 
W. Oliver, G. W. B. McDonald, Trustees. 

May 23, 1873. E. W. Morse, President. 

William S. Gregg, Vice-President. 

D. Cleveland, Treasurer. 

C. Dunham, Recording Secretary. 
J. W. Gale. 
A. W. Oliver. 


Jacob Allen. 

W. A. Begole. 

Charles S. Hamilton, Corresponding Secretary. 


Charles S. Hamilton, President. 
Served George W. Marston, Vice-President, 

from E. C. Grierson, Secretary. 

March 8, 1872 E. W. Morse, Treasurer, 
to 1882. W. A. Begole, Bryant Howard, S. G. Reynolds, 



Pirst Board. 

May 22, 1882. Bryant Howard, President. 

E. W. Hendrick, Se'^retary. 

Geo. N. Hitchcock, Treasurer. 

G. W. Marston. 

E. M. Powers. 
Second Board, June 7, 1887. 

D. Cave, President 

E. W. Hendrick. 
John Ginty. 

E. T. Blackmer. 
G. N. Hitchcock. 
Third Board, June, 1889. 

D. Cave, President. 

E. W. Hendrick. 
John Ginty. 

George, N. Hitchcock, Secretary. 
E. T. Blackmer. 
Fourth Board, May, 1893, the same members having held office 
from June, 1887 to May, 1893. 

D. Cave, President. 
Philip Morse. 
Charles S. Hamilton. 

E. W. Hendrick. 

H. M. Kutchin, Secretary. 
Fifth Board, May, 1895. 

D. Cave, President. 

E. W. Hendrick. 
George W. Marston. 
Philip Morse. 

Harriet W. Phillips, Secretary. 
Sixth Board, May, 1897. 

D. Cave, President. In August, 1897, D. Cave 

E. W. Hendrick. sent in his resignation as 
George W. Marston. member of the Board — 

Philip Morse. accepted Dee. 14, 1897, 

Lydia M. Horton, and Dr. Fred Baker 

Secretary. appointed in his place. 

Seventh Board, May, 1899. 

Philip Morse. 
Frederick W. Stearns. 
E. W. Hendrick. 
James W. Somers. 
Lvdia M. Horton. 


Eighth Board, May, 1901. 

Philip Morse. 

Frederick W. Stearns. 

Ernest E. White. 

A. Will Augier. 

Lydia M. Horton. 
Ninth Board, May, 1903. 

Leroy A. Wright, President. October, 1903, Mrs. 

Lydia M. Horton, Secretary. Horton resigned, 

Frederick W. Stearns. and August, 1904, 

J. C. Hearne. the vacancy was filled by the 

C. F. Francisco, appointment of Julius Wan- 
Tenth Board, May, 1905, as appointed by Mayor Frank P. Frary. 

Leroy A. Wright, 3 years. 

Frederick W. Stearns, President, 2 years. 

Julius Wangenheim, 4 years. 

H. P. Davison, Secretary. 
January 5, 1906, a new board was appointed by Mayor Sehon 
as follows: 

Sam Ferry Smith, President, 2 years. 

Eev. Clarence T. Brown, 3 years. 

Col. Fred Jewell, 4 years. 



I HE time has come when everybody can see that 
the great City Park (which is worthy of a 
more notable name) is destined to be one of 
the chief beauties and glories of San Diego 
and one of the famous parks of the world. 
For many years it looked otherwise, for the 
reservation of 1,400 acres in the heart of the 
town appeared like the most hopeless of waste 
places and few believed that it would be possible to command 
the water, the money, and the genius to develop it to the high- 
est advantage. Suddenly the situation changed. Civic pride 
was aroused and directed along intelligent lines. The finest 
landscape architects were employed to work out comprehensive 
plans and put them in the way of gradual realization. Money 
was obtained from private and public sources to carry on the 
work, and its administration was vested in the hands of devoted 
citizens who stood ready to give freely of their time and thought 
to this labor of love. 

It is seldom, if ever, true that a great public development may 
justly be credited to any single individual. The history of the 
City Park is no exception, as we shall see, yet in this instance 
there is one man who did so much, and did it so generously and 
wisely, that he is entitled to unstinted praise and to lasting 
remembrance. This man is George W. Marston. He was one 
of the few who never lost faith in the possibilities of that large 
tract of arid land, and he was the man who came forward at 
the critical moment to employ the finest genius in America to 
translate the barren wilderness into a spot of perennial beauty 
by means of a well-conceived, harmonious, unified design for its 
artistic development. The undertaking cost him $10,000 to start 
with, and this was doubtless but the beginning of his benefac- 
tion. As in all such cases, his financial contribution was of less 
value than the moral influence which it set in motion, for the 
enthusiasm of the whole citizenship was immediately enlisted in 
behalf of this neglected asset of San Diego. While the history 
of the park reflects credit upon many individuals, as well as 
upon the city as a whole, it will doubtless be regarded in the 


future as an enduring memorial to Mr. Marston's public spirit 
and civic pride. 

Before the coming of Horton, there was so much land belong- 
ing to the city, and it was worth so little, that it did not occur 
to anyone that it was necessary to reserve a large tract from 
sale for park purposes. The trustees were glad to get rid of 
it, to secure settlers and pay the city's debts. There is a record 
of two 160-acre tracts being sold for less than seven cents an 
acre. But when the great dream began to come true, when Hor- 
ton 's new town began to rise on the brushy mesas, and the city 
lands began to sell rapidly, it was seen that the best of them 
would soon be gone and that, if a park were to be reserved, it 
was necessary to act without delay. 

The first official action was taken on February 15, 1868, when 
E. "W. Morse presented a resolution to the board of trustees 
''that the present board reserve two of the one hundred and 
sixty acre tracts of the city lands for the purpose of securing 
to the inhabitants of the city of San Diego a suitable park." 
The members of the board were J. S. Mannasse. Thomas H. 
Bush, and E. W. Morse. President Mannasse appointed Morse 
and Bush a committee to select the 320 acres, which it was 
thought would be sufficient: "but afterward," said Mr. Morse, 
"when we found so much land, we concluded to lay out a larger 
park." The committee certainly exercised excellent .judgment 
in its selection. Thev selected' pueblo lots 1129, 1130, 1131, 
1135, 1136, 1137, 1142, 1143, and 1144. comprising a solid block 
of nine quarter-sections. In the meantime, however, on the 13th 
day of February, 1868. Isabella Carruthers stole a march upon 
them and bought the southwest quarter of lot 1144 for $175, 
which took a 40-acre "bite" out of the southwest corner of their 
tract. The minutes of the trustees' meetings are very scanty, 
but it appears that on May 26th it was resolved that this tract 
"be for a park." The trustees who took this action were Jose 
Guadalupe Estudillo. Marcus Schiller, and Joshua Sloane. 

It was scarcely to be expected that the reservation of this 
large tract at such an early day would pass unchallenged. 
There were those who honestly thought it against the public 
interest to try to maintain so large a park, and, it is to be feared, 
others who were interested only in the profits they hoped to 
make out of the sale of these lands, if they could succeed in hav- 
ing them thrown upon the market. 

The effort to cut down the size of the park began early and 
lasted long. On February 4, 1870, an act was passed by the 
state legislature to insure the permanency of the reservation, 
which declared that the tract should "be held in trust forever 
by the municipal authorities of the said city for the use and pur- 


Its growrn v^^^^P ^^^ ^^^^.^^ contribution to the community is his 
work for the City Park 


poses of a public park, and for no other or different purpose." 
After this bill had been introduced, it was discovered that an 
effort had been made to defeat its purpose surreptitiously by 
inserting a provision for the sale of 480 acres, and the restora- 
tion of the bill to its original form was only accomplished by 
prompt and strenuous action by the friends of the park. At the 
next ensuing session an effort was made to repeal this act, which 
was only defeated by a remonstrance signed by all the leading 
citizens, and nearly all the voters, of San Diego. Among those 
most active in working for the preservation of the park were 
Daniel Cleveland, Levi Chase, George W. Marston. E. W. Morse, 
Dr. R. J. Gregg, Charles Hubbell, A. E. Horton, George N. 
Hitchcock, James M. Pierce, Thomas L. Nesmith, Captain 
Mathew Sherman, Joshua Sloane, and many others. It would 
be impossible to enumerate all these earliest and truest friends 
of the park; perhaps a word for those who are dead and gone 
and cannot speak for themselves may be pardoned. 

Besides having the honor to introduce the resolution for its 
reservation, and to act as one of the committee which selected 
it, Mr. Morse remained one of the park's staunchest friends and 
in the front of every fight for it. Joshua Sloane was one of the 
trustees who voted to confirm the committee's report, and in his 
capacity as clerk of the board was watchful of its interests and 
filled with righteous indignation against its enemies. 

Certainly, the slow development of the park gave aid and 
comfort to those who thought it too large. The first improve- 
ment work was accomplished by the Ladies' Annex to the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. About the year 1889 thev raised $500 by 
popular subscription and planted a strip of 10 acres along the 
west side of the park with trees. Perhaps a third of these trees 
survive and some of them have prospered fairly well. In 1892 
a tract of 36 acres in the northwest corner was leased to Miss 
Kate 0. Sessions for use as a nursery, on condition of the per- 
manent planting of 100 trees, and the donation of 300 more to 
the city, annually. When Miss Sessions removed her nursery 
there was left the beginning of the first satisfactory planting in 
the park. 

The first definite move toward the systematic development of 
the park began on August 15, 1902, when ]\Ir. Julius Wangen- 
heim suggested to the Chamber of Commerce the appointment 
of a " Park Improvement Committee. ' ' The committee consisted 
of Mr. Wangenheim, chairman; U. S. Grant, Jr., George W. 
Marston, William Clayton, and D. E. Garrettson. 

It was at this time that Mr. Mai^ton came forward with his 
offer to provide for the preparation of adequate plans. Thus 
encouraged, the work of obtaining subscriptions was begun by 



sub-committees. The late John Allyn had bequeathed the city 
$3,000 for park improvement and, with this nucleus, the fund 
soon reached $11,000, exclusive of Mr. Marston's contribution. 
Correspondence was begun with a number of persons qualified 
to give advice on the subject. 

The result was the employment of Mrs. M. B. Coulstou as sec- 
retary of the Park Improvement Committee and the employment 
of Samuel Parsons, Jr., & Co., of New York, to prepare the plans 


Associated with Samuel Parsons in planning park improvement and superintendent 
charge of the work; also identified with other works of landscape architecture 
which have beautified the city and its surroundings 

for the improvements. Mrs. Coulstou had been for ten years one 
of the editors of Garden and Forest, in New York City. She 
arrived in San Diego late in September, and at once began act- 
ive work on behalf of the park, delivering addresses and writing 
a large number of contributions to the local newspapers on the 
subject, besides conducting correspondence, keeping accounts, 
and aiding the committees in many ways. This gifted woman 
went to Berkeley to pursue her studies in 1904, and died there 


in July of that year. Many citizens rendered important serv- 
ices to the park at this time, but probably no other persons gave 
so much of the best that was in them as did Mrs. Coulston. She 
was of a sincere and intense nature and threw herself into the 
work with a joyful abandon. Her name and labors will not 
soon be forgotten. 

Mr. Parsons arrived in San Diego on December 21, 1902, and 
after a reception by the Chamber of Commerce entered imme- 
diately upon his work. A contour map being needed, Mr. J. B. 
Lippincott, of Los Angeles, was employed to prepare it, and as 
fast as the sections were finished they were sent to the architects 
in New York. The map of roads and paths for the southwestern 
section of the park was received by the committee in May, 1903, 
and in September a planting list showing the number and kinds 
of trees. In July, George Parsons came and spent five weeks. 
In August, an appropriation of $1,700 was made for laying 
water pipes on the west side of the park. On December 20th, 
George Cooke, Mr. Parsons' partner, arrived and brought with 
him a sketch of the entire tract to be worked out. The grading 
at the south end was at once commenced under his direction. 
In January, 1904, the park map was approved. 

On January 27, 1905. the city charter was amended with the 
emphatic approval of the voters so as to provide an annual park 
appropriation of not less than 5 or more than 8 cents on each 
$100 of assessed valuation, to be expended by the Park Commis- 
sion. In 1906, on the basis of 7 cents per $100. this amounted 
to about $14,000. 

April 17, 1905, the first board of park commissioners, consist- 
ing of George W. Marston president, Ernest E. White secretary, 
and A. Moran, was appointed. This board is still serving. 

The architects consider that their real work was only begun 
when the plan was completed, and expect that it will continue 
through all the years in which the plan is being developed. The 
general features of the plan include the planting of palms and 
other trees which flourish with a moderate provision of water, 
arranged in harmonious groupings as to foliage and color- 
scheme, care being taken not to spoil the fine views by the growth 
of tall shrubbery at strategic points. Considerable planting has 
already been done and a few of the principal roads and paths, 
following the winding contour of the hills, constructed. The 
place offers unusual opportunities for artistic achievement and 
magnificent natural effects. That the future management of this 
great endowment will be worthy of the beginning that has been 
made must be the hope of every citizen of San Diego. 

The first park in New San Diego was not, of course, the great 
park, but that dedicated to public use by William Heath Davis 



and his associates in 1850. This is in the block bounded by F, 
G, Columbia and India Streets, known as "New Town Plaza." 
The flagpole now standing in this park is the one erected there 
in 1869. It was brought from the Territory of Washington by 
steamer. It was originally 125 feet long, but the lower part rot- 
ted and was cut off. Dr. Stockton saj^s he paid Ed. Westcott 
$20 for plowing and leveling the block twice in 1869 — the first 
time it was ever plowed. The little plot is handsomely improved 
with rubber and other attractive trees, is well maintained, and 


forms a beauty spot in a district that needs such a feature. 

Golden Hill Park, at Twenty-fifth and A Streets, is a section 
of the City Park. There is also a park on H Street between 
Ninth and Tenth, another on the southeast corner of Thirteenth 
and K, and a very attractive one known as Mission Cliff Park, 
on Adams Street between Alabama and Texas, overlooking Mis- 
sion Valley, which is one of the chief scenic attractions of the 
city. The New Town Plaza is a half block bounded by Third, 
Fourth, D, and Witherby Streets. It is historically interesting, 
as it stood immediately in front of the Horton House and was 
kept by "Father" Horton as a breathing space for his guests. 
In later years he conveyed it to the city and it has been officially 


uamed ' ' Horton Plaza. ' ' These parks are cared for by a super- 
intendent under the control of the board of public works. The 
present incumbent is Samuel E. Webb. 

In the year 1900, the city council added one more to the res- 
ervations of land for park purposes, by setting apart 369 acres 
at the northern extremity of the city's lands, on the bluffs near 
the ocean, four miles south of Del Mar and one and one-half 
miles north of Sorrento. This was done for the purpose of safe- 
guarding a grove of one of the rarest of trees — the Pinus Torre- 
yana, or Torrey pine. There are but two places in the world 
where this tree is found, one of which is in this park and the 
other on Santa Rosa Island. The trees were discovered in 1850 
by Dr. J. L. Le Conte, who was then staying in San Diego. 
Upon consulting with the naturalist, Dr. C. C. Parry, they both 
became much interested in the tree, and dedicated it to their hon- 
ored instructor. Dr. John Torrey, of New York, by giving it the 
name of Pimis Torreyana. Since then, the grove has been visited 
by many eminent travelers and scientists, some of them having 
journeyed thousands of miles to see it. Among these are Bayard 
Taylor, Asa Gray, Engelmann, Sargent, Nelease, and others. 

The tree is found on the high wind-swept bluffs and in the 
sheltered ravines between. Its growth is often in fantastic 
forms, sometimes with a trunk three or four feet in circumfer- 
ence, yet rising to a height of scarcely ten feet. In sheltered 
spots it reaches a height of fifty feet or more. It seems to delight 
to wrestle with the winds in exposed positions, and exhibits a 
tenacity of life and an ability to reproduce its species seldom 
equalled. The trees bear cones four or five inches long, ovate, 
with thick scales terminating in strong prickles. The nuts are 
about an inch long, flattened, and with a black wing. The shells 
are thick and hard and the seeds edible. The pollen-bearing 
(male) flowers are terete, from two and one-half to three inches 
long, and three-eighths of an inch in diameter. The leaves grow 
in fascicles of five and are the largest pine leaves known, being 
from six to eight inches long. 

The view from these bluffs is superb. The water-worn and 
wind-beaten sides of the canyons show the rocky formations in 
many colors. On the west is the ocean, and landward the top 
of the San Bernardino Mountains is visible. There is a carpet 
of pine needles, and in the season wild flowers make a riot of 
color. The reservation includes the Point of Pines, the natural 
salt lagoons of the Soledad, and other attractive features. Here 
in days to come the dwellers of the citv will resort for rest and 
recreation and bless the care and foresight of the city fathers 
no less than the natural upheavals which left this driftAvood of 
prehistoric ages upon our shores. 



HE very efficiency of the Chamber of Commerce 
as an organized agency for promoting the 

T/j)j development of San Diego makes it unneces- 
rX^ sary to write its history with any degree of 
^^ fullness. This is so because the great affairs 
with which it has been identified belong to 
the history of the city as a whole, and 
have therefore been dwelt upon elsewhere in 
these pages. 
During its existence of thirty-sis years, the Chamber of Com- 
merce has had an active and influential hand in all public efforts 
to increase transportation facilities by land and sea ; in the pro- 
motion of all state and national legislation related to the 
.material development of the Southwest; in all that has been 
attempted or accomplished in connection with harbor improve- 
ment and local coast defenses ; and even in matters of such 
world-wide significance as the opening of Oriental trade and the 
construction of the Isthmian Canal. 

A mere statement of its activities in connection with these 
large affairs conveys no adequate impression of the institutional 
value of the Chamber of Commerce. It fills an important gap 
between the machinery of the municipality and the ranks of pri- 
vate citizenship. Its functions are such as could not be per- 
formed by city officials, on one hand, nor by unauthorized indi- 
viduals, on the other. It is an organized body of the highest 
representative character, and as such speaks for the community 
upon a wide range of matters not within the purview of city or 
county governments. It is the forum in which all propositions 
for civic improvement, especially those of a commercial kind, 
are first discussed. It is the reception room which is always 
open to greet the city's guests, to the humblest stranger. Its 
rooms supply a permanent exhibit of the utmost variety of local 
products, showing the countrv^ at its best. Possibly more impor- 
tant than anything else, the Chamber is a great bureau of pub- 
licity which keeps the world constantly informed of the needs 
and progress of San Diego. Its work under this head has 
become immensely effective in recent years under the manage- 
ment of Secretarv H. P. Wood, and of his successor. Secretary 
James A. Jasper. 

Mayor of San Diego 1899-'O0. 

A leading druggist. 

Dealer in electrical supplies and promi- 
nent in fraternal circles. 


Lessees F. T. Scripps Block and leading promoters of real estate investments. 

Proprietor Hotel Robinson, formerly con- 
nected with Hotel del Colorado. 


A Pioneer Mill Man of San Diego 


Like most organizations of the kind, the Chamber of Com- 
merce has had a somewhat uneven existence. It has seen days 
of growth, and days of decline. But latterly it has become so 
serviceable to the community, so strong in public confidence that 
membership is regarded as a duty of citizenship, while a call to 
office in the organization is considered a substantial honor. 

The history of the Chamber dates back to the beginning of 
1870, when David Felsenheld called a preliminary meeting at 
his store on the corner of F and Sixth Streets, where the Express 
building no^v stands. Formal organization was effected on Jan- 
uary 22d, Aaron Pauly being elected president; G. W. B. 
McDonald, vice-president; Joseph Nash, secretary; and A. E. 
Horton, treasurer. The constitution and by-laws Avere drawn up 
by a committee composed of G. W. B. McDonald, E. W. Morse, 
D. Choate, David Felsenheld, and Joseph Nash. The purpose 
of the organization was stated as follows in the preamble to the 
constitution : 

To take some practical steps to unite the business men 
of the city for the better promotion of the public interest; to 
aid in the development of our back-country, and make known 
its resources; to give reliable information of the commercial 
advantages of our harbor, and of our natural position as an 
overland railroad terminus on the Pacific Coast. 

The first important business transacted by the Chamber was 
the passage of a resolution instructing the secretary to commu- 
nicate with W. B. "Webb of Ncav York in regard to the need of 
a competing steamship line between San Diego and San Fran- 
cisco. As an inducement, Mr. Horton offered the free use of 
his new wharf at the foot of Fifth Street. While the offer was 
not accepted by them, the desired competition was obtained 
before the close of the year, the steamer WiUiam Taber being 
put in service between the two ports. Competition did not last, 
however, as the new line was soon absorbed by the Pacific Coast 
Steamship Company. 

On May 5, 1870, the first advertising matter was issued by the 
Chamber. It took the form of a pamphlet prepared by D. 
Choate and E. W. Morse, and entitled Climate, Besovrces, mid 
Future Frospects of San Diego. The first memorial drafted was 
addressed to the state legislature. It urged the passage of a bill 
authorizing boards of supervisors to levy special taxes for the 
construction of roads and highways. 

One of the earliest and most successful enterprises with which 
the Chamber of Commerce became identified was the building 
of a turnpike to Yuma to accommodate the overland freight 
shipped from Arizona to tide-water. There w^as already a high- 
way in use between San Pedro and Fort Yuma, but the haul was 


120 miles longer. A turnpike company was formed for the pur- 
pose of forwarding the work. Aaron Pauly was elected presi- 
dent; H. H. Dougherty, secretary; 0. P. Galloway, superintend- 
ent of construction: and C. J. Fox, civil engineer. Subscription 
lists were opened and $10,000 pledged in a short time, the citi- 
zens appearing to realize from the start the vast importance of 
the project. 

Among the prominent names on this list were the following: 
John G. Capron, $1,000; T. J. Higgins, $100; E. W. Nottage, 
$100 ; Charles Gassen, $150 ; E. W. Morse, $100 ; George W. Haz- 
zard, $100 ; J. :\I. Pierce, $100 ; Steiner and Klauber, $250 ; J. S. 
]\Iannasse, $200 ; A. Pauly, $100. It is interesting to note that 
the sum of $6,000 was raised in San Francisco for this purpose. 

The records of the Chamber reflect something of the excite- 
ment occasioned by the controversy over the tide-lands, and tell 
of a stormy meeting held January 21, 1871, when Editor Tru- 
man of the Bulletin appeared to press the charge made in his 
newspaper, to the effect that two of the city trustees had 
"packed" the Chamber in order to obtain its endorsement of a 
big land steal. Truman seems to have held his own, as resolu- 
tions were passed declaring that more care should be taken in 
admitting members. 

The Chamber was very active in connection with the move- 
ment for turning the San Diego River into False Bay, and its 
influence was strongly and persistently used in behalf of the 
Texas & Pacific during the whole period in which the town had 
hopes of Scott's ill-fated enterprise. 

Next to its work in behalf of railroad promotion, the constant 
activity of the Chamber in urging harbor improvement was 
probably its most important service. Despite the fact that the 
Bay of San Diego was at that time the only port on the coast 
of California outside of San Francisco, considerable difficulty 
was experienced in maintaining its position. After gaining rec- 
ognition as a port of entry in 1872, we find in the minutes of 
March 4, 1880, notice of the appointment by President George 
W. Hazzarcl of a committee, consisting of Douglas Gunn, A. 
Klauber, and J. S. Gordon, to memorialize Congress relative to 
permitting San Diego to remain a port of entry. This effort 
was successful. 

After a long agitation of the subject of more frequent mail 
service between San Diego and northern points, there occurs in 
the record of a meeting, November 24, 1876, a resolution of 
thanks to Senator A. A. Sargent for having secured for San 
Diego a daily mail service. 

The matter of proper fortifications for the harbor was taken 
up at an early date by the Chamber of Commerce and never 



permitted to drop until adequate military protection had been 
provided. The defenseless condition of the harbor was empha- 
sized with no uncertain force and endless repetition, communi- 
cations and many memorials urging the necessary appropria- 
tions being sent to Congress. October 4, 1883, General Scofield 
wrote from Washington that a two-company post had been 
decided upon for San Diego, and this has since been maintained. 

W. L. FREVERT, 1902-03 GEORGE H. BALLOU, 1900-01 


In the same year a curious proposition was made to the Cham- 
ber of Commerce regarding the waters of that portion of the 
bay region known as False Bay. G. S. Pidgeon had invented 
a tide-power machine, capable of producing enormous horse- 
power from the inrush and outrush of the 12,000,000,000 cubic 
yards of water taken in and emptied from False Bay every eight 
hours. This powder was to be distributed throughout the city for 
every known purpose. Messrs. Gunn, Marston, and Silliman 
were appointed an investigating committee. Their report was 
favorable to the enterprise, whereupon a mass meeting was called 
under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce. Horton Hall 


was crowded to the doors. Inventor Pidgeon explained his 
device at great length. He wanted $200,000 capital to start the 
enterprise, and prophesied that its inception would mean "the 
making of San Diego," inasmuch as his plant would supply 
power for factories of all kinds at a ridiculously low figure. The 
Chamber of Commerce appears to have been quite favorably 
impressed with the scheme, but whether expert mechanics and 
engineers reported the device faulty or whether the inventor 
himself gave up the enterprise is not recorded in the minutes of 
the Chamber. At any rate the Pidgeon Tide Power Company 
never materialized. 

With the growth of the city and the harbor, the need of better 
fortifications was recognized by the Chamber of Commerce. Con- 
siderable correspondence passed between the Chamber and the 
War Department relative to the allotment of land for this pur- 
pose. July 11, 1890, Senator W. M. Stewart received a commu- 
nication from Secretary of War Proctor offering to accept all 
North Island as a gift to the government for fortification pur- 
poses. This letter was sent to the Chamber and the "offer" was 
promptly rejected. 

December 3d of that year resolutions were adopted instruct- 
ing Congressman Bowers to urge greater fortifications in the 
neighborhood of Ballast Point at the entrance to the harbor. 
The Chamber also called attention to the fact that San Diego's 
location and strategic importance demanded the establishment of 
a 10-company post. Congressman Bowers found an able ally in 
the person of Senator Stanford. It was not until 1894, how- 
ever, that an appropriation was finally secured for San Diego 
harbor defenses. Congress atoned for its delay by setting aside 
nearly half a million dollars, and the result is the Fort Rose- 
crans of today. 

Long continued efforts were made by the Chamber, seconded 
by the whole people, to induce the great Japan steamship line, 
known as the Nippon Yusu Kaisha Company, to make San Diego 
its sole American terminus upon a guarantee of a shipment of 
at least 4,000 tons of freight per month through this port. No 
satisfactory arrangements were made, however, and the Japan- 
ese steamers never ran for any considerable length of time. The 
Pacific Mail Steamship Company also withdrew its steamers, 
although it had a contract with the government to touch at San 
Diego on every trip for freight, mail, and passengers. In the 
latter case the government seemed powerless to enforce its own 
contract. This state of affairs elicited much unfavorable com- 
ment from the press throughout this country. 

In 1896, when the agitation in favor of the creation of an arti- 
ficial harbor at San Pedro began, the Chamber adopted an atti- 


tilde of aggressive opposition. It was believed that an expendi- 
ture of many millions for such a purpose within 100 miles of a 
great natural harbor was wholly without justification, while 
involving a keen injustice to San Diego. Many leading news- 
papers, including the New York Times, supported the Chamber 
in its contention, but the San Pedro movement prevailed over 
all opposition. 


A prominent Chicago business man, who became interested in San Diego in 1903 and whose 

enterprise in several directions contributed materially to the city's growth. He 

served for a time as vice president of the First National Bank and 

was president of the Chamber of Commerce 

The efforts of the Chamber in behalf of a great naval dry- 
dock, of a coaling-station, and of a naval training school have 
been intelligent and persistent. j\Iore than once, representatives 
were sent to Washington in the interest of these measures, while 
the congressional delegation has been constantly urged to action. 
Much preliminary work has been done, and it seems to be only 
a question of a little time when final results will be achieved. 
The latest work undertaken by the Chamber in connection with 



the harbor is the dredgiug of the bar to an average depth of 
30 feet for a width of 1,000 feet. 

The anniial reports submitted by the presidents of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce embody very good accounts of the city's com- 
mercial progress, but nearly everything of historical moment is 
mentioned elsewhere in these pages. It is interesting to note 
that the feverish prosperity of boom days brought nothing but 
depression to the Chamber of Commerce. It was reorganized 

H. p. WOOD 

An enthusiastic and effective worker for San 
Dieg-o who, while Secretary of the Chamber of 
Commerce, did much to build up the organization. 
Now Secretary of the Promotion Committee of 


Who has had a prominent part in journ- 
alism, politics, and county administration, 
and who, as Secretary of the Chamber of 
Commerce, rendered memorable service 
by bringing- the organization out of debt 

after the boom and gradualh' acquired a stronger po.sition than 
ever before. In 1890, under the able management of John Kas- 
tle, the Chamber was taken out of debt and placed upon a sound 
financial basis. In January, 1905, A. E. Horton, D. Choate, and 
E. W. Morse were elected honorary life members. Since then 
Mr. Choate and Mr. Morse have passed away. 

After its reorganization in 1889 the Chamber was domiciled 
in a ground-floor store-room in the Tremont House on Third 






Street between C and D. In 1891, it removed to the G-rand 
Hotel, now the "Worth," on F Street between Third and 
Fourth. Afterwards (in 1895) the headquarters were moved to 
the Marshall-Higgins block, corner Fourth and C Streets, where 
they remained until March 1, 1898, when they removed to quar- 
ters on the ground floor of the Grant building, corner of Sixth 
and D Streets. They have recently been removed to the second 
floor of the same building, where they are now located, occupy- 
ing the rooms left vacant by the removal of the Y. M. C. A. to 
its new building. 

One of the most agreeable and useful functions of the Cham- 
ber is the entertainment of distinguished visitors, especially the 
representatives of foreign navies who frequently come to the 
port. In this way, the Chamlier has doubtless done a great deal 
to secure the good will of influential men and interests for San 
Diego. Indeed, if the Chamber stood for nothing except the 
organized hospitality of the community — a hospitality extended 
alike to the most distinguished citizens of the world and to the 
humblest stranger who finds his way to San Diego — it would 
still rank among the most useful institutions. But it is much 
more than this. It has had a part in all good work which has 
been done for the city and county over a period of more than 
a generation, and has itself initiated very much of^this good 

During a large portion of its history, the Chamber has been 
exceedingly fortunate in the kind of men enlisted in its service. 
It has been able to command not only the support, but the earn- 
est devotion, of many of the strongest citizens, who have 
regarded it as the most important instrumentality in promoting 
local development. In later years, the office of secretary of the 
Chamber of Commerce has risen to great importance. The effi- 
ciency of the organization depends in large measure upon the 
energy, ability, and character of the man who fills this place. 
The Chamber has been fortunate in this respect during the 
period which had made the heaviest demands upon its resources. 
H. P. Wood, who served as secretary from 1899 to 1905, was a 
true builder of the organization and a successful promoter of its 
work. He was succeeded by James A. Jasper, whose intimate 
acquaintance with the people and the country, and long experi- 
ence as journalist and county official, peculiarly fitted him for 
the place. He signalized his entrance to the office by arranging 
to pay off the debts of the organization. He was succeeded in 
January, 1907, by John Scott Mills. 

By no means the least important history of the organization 
is that contained in the following complete list of its officers : 


From its organization in 1870 to the year 1907. 
1870— Jan. 20— President, Aaron Pauly; Vice-President, G. W. 
B. McDonald; Secretary, Joseph Nash; Treas- 
urer, A. E. Hortou. 
1870 — Mar. 3 — President, Aaron Pauly; Vice-President, Dr. D. 
B. Hoffman; Secretary, Joseph Nash; Treas- 
urer, J. W. Gale. 

May 5 — Joseph Nash resigned as Secretary and David 
Felsenheld was elected. 

May 30 — J. W. Gale resigned as Treasurer and Charles 
Dunham was elected. 
1871— President, G. W. B. McDonald; Vice-President, J. S. 

Gordon; Secretary, C. J. Craig; Treasurer, C. Dunham. 
1872— President, G. W. B. McDonald; Vice-President, W. W. 

Stewart; Secretary, S. W. Craigue; Treasurer, C. Dunham. 
1873— President, J. S. Gordon; Vice-President, J. M. Pierce; 

Secretary, W. W. Stewart; Treasurer, C. Dunham. 
1874— President, J. S. Gordon; First Vice-President, A. H. Gil- 
bert; Second Vice-President, S. W. Craigue; Secretary, 

W. W. Stewart; Treasurer, C. Dunham. 
1875— President, W. W. Stewart; First Vice-President, E. W. 

Morse; Second Vice-President, Jos. Tasker; Secretary, 

M. A. Luce; Treasurer, C. Dunham. 
1876— President, W. W. Stewart; First Vice-President, B. W. 

Morse; Second Vice-President, W. A. Begole; Secretary, 

W. E. Porter; Treasurer, C. Dunham. 
1877— President, J. M. Pierce, First Vice-President, A. H. Gil- 
bert; Second Vice-President, W. A. Begole; Secretary, 

W. W. Bowers; Treasurer, Jos. Tasker. 
1878— President, J. M. Pierce; First Vice-President, W. A. Be- 
gole; Second Vice-President, A. H. Julian; Secretary, 

George W. Marston; Treasurer, Jos. Tasker. 
1879— President, Charles S. Hamilton; First Vice-President, E. 

W. Morse; Second Vice-President, W. L. Williams; Secre- 
tary, S. Levi; Treasurer, Jos. Tasker. 
1880- — President, George W. Hazzard; First Vice-President, A. 

Klauber; Second Vice-President, J. M. Pierce; Secretary, 

S. Levi; Treasurer, J. S. Gordon. 
1881 — President, George W. Hazzard; First Vice-President, E. 

W. Morse; Second Vice-President, George W. Marston; 

Secretary, S. Levi; Treasurer, J. S. Gordon. 
1882 — President, S. Levi; First Vice-President, J. H. Simpson; 

Second Vice-President, G. G. Bradt; Secretary, D. Cave; 

Treasurer, W. S. Jewell; Librarian, J. M. Pierce. 
1883 — President, Arnold Wentscher; First Vice-President, 

George W. Marston; Second Vice-President, M. S. Root; 

Secretary, C. H. Silliman; Treasurer, George W. Hazzard; 

Mr. Wentscher resigned a few weeks after his election, 

and G. G. Bradt was elected president. 
1884 — President, George W. Marston; First Vice-President, J. 

H. Simpson; Second Vice-President, John N. Young; 

Secretary, C. H. Silliman; Treasurer, George W. Hazzard. 
1885— President, D. Cave; First Vice-President, J. H. Simpson; 

Second Vice-President, E. W. Morse, Third Vice-Presi- 


dent, Jos. Winchester; Secretary, J. H. Simpson, Philip 
Morse; Treasurer, George W. Hazzard. 

1886— President, J. H. Simpson; First Vice-President, Philip 
Morse; Second Vice-President, D. C. Eeed; Third Vice- 
President, J. S. Gordon; Secretary, L. S. McLnre; Treas- 
urer, John N. Young. 

1887— President, G. G. Bradt; First Vice-President, Judge 
George Puterbaugh; Second Vice-President, J. W. Burns; 
Secretary, P. E. Wetmore; Treasurer, Theo. Fintzelberg. 
In 1888 a new Chamber, called the Chamber of Commerce 

of San Diego County was formed, and for a time there were 

two. They were consolidated in October. G. G. Bradt was 

President of the old organization, aud J. A. McEea of the new 


1888— President, G. G. Bradt, J. A. McEea; First Vice-Presi- 
dent, Douglas Gunn; Second Vice-President, J. W. Burns; 
Eecording Secretary, F. E. Wetmore; Financial Secre- 
tary, Theo. Fintzelberg; Treasurer, John Ginty. 

1889 — President, Douglas Gunn (resigned and John C. Fisher 
succeeded) ; Vice-President ; Sec- 
ond Vice-President, ; Secretary, 

J. C. Amendt (later George N. Nolan) ; Treasurer, 

1890 — President, John Kastle; Vice-President, Frank A. Kim- 
ball; Second Vice-President, F. H. Cunningham; Secre- 
tary, George N. Nolan; Treasurer, C. D. Long. 

1891 — President, Daniel Stone; Vice-President, Douglas Gunn; 
Second Vice-President, ; Secre- 
tary, Benjamin Lake; Treasurer, Theo. Fintzelberg. 

1892— President, Daniel Stone; Vice-President, F. A. Kimball; 
Second Vice-President, H. P. McKoon; Secretaries, Con- 
rad Stautz, F. H. Bearne, and E. H. Young. 

1893 — ^President, H. P. McKoon; Vice-President, John Sherman; 
Second Vice-Presideut, Charles S. Hamilton; Secretary, 
E. H. Young; Treasurer, George W. Dickinson. 

1894— President, H. P. McKoon (died August 19, 1894, and 
was succeeded by John Sherman); Vice-President, John 
Sherman; Second Vice-President, George W. Marston; 
Secretary, E. H. Young; Treasurer, George W. Dickinson. 

1895 — President, E. V. Dodge — acted one month and was suc- 
ceeded by Philip Morse; First Vice-President, Philip 
Morse; Second Vice-President, John N. Young; Secre- 
tary, E. H. Young; Treasurer, George W. Dickinson. 

1896— President, Philip Morse; First Vice-President, E. V. 
Dodge; Second Vice-President, U. S. Grant, Jr.; Secre- 
tary, V. E. McConoughey; Treasurer, J. E. O'Brien. 

1897 — President, Philip Morse; First Vice-President, E. V. 
Dodge; Second Vice-President, E. M. Powers; Secretary, 
V. E. McConoughey; Treasurer, J. E. O'Brien. 

1898— President, E. A. Thomas; First Vice-President, E. Y. 
Dodge; Second Vice-President, George W. Marston; 
Secretary, V. E. McConoughey; Treasurer, J. E. O'Brien. 

1899 — President, George W. Marston; First Vice-President, G. 
H. Ballou; Second Vice-President, W. L. Frevert; Secre- 
taries, E. V. Dodge, H. P. Wood; Treasurer, J. E. 
O 'Brien. 


1900— President, George H. Ballon; First Vice-President, W. L. 
Pre vert; Second Vice-President, G. W. Jorres; Secre- 
tary, H. P. Wood; Treasurer, J. E. O'Brien. 

1901 — President, George H. Ballon; Vice-President, W. L. Fre- 
vert; Second Vice-President, G. W. Jorres; St^cretary, 
H. P. Wood; Treasurer, Nat E. Titus. 

1902— President, W. L. Frevert; First Vice-President, W. S. 
Waterman; Second Vice-President, M. F. Heller; Secre 
tary, H. P. Wood; Treasurer, J. S. Akerman. 

1903— President, W. L. Frevert; First Vice-President, W. S 
Waterman; Second Vice-President, Dr. Fred E. Burnliam 
Secretary, H. P. Wood; Treasurer, J. S. Akerman. 

1904 — President, Homer H. Peters; First Vice-President, J. S 
Akerman; Second Vice-President, E. Strahlmann; Secre 
tary, H. P. Wood; Treasurer, G. W. Fishburn. 

1905 — President, J. S. Akerman; First Vice-President, Dr. Ed- 
ward Grove; Second Vice-President, Melville Klauber; 
Secretary, H. P. Wood (succeeded in October by James 
A. Jasper) ; Treasurer, Eufus Choate. 

1906 — ^President, Edward Grove; First Vice-President, Melville 
Klauber; Second Vice-President, Barker Burnell; Secre- 
tary, James A. Jasper; Treasurer, Eufus Choate. 

1907— President, D. Gochenauer; First Vice-President, Melville 
Klauber; Second Vice-President, O. W. Cotton; Secre- 
tary, John S. Mills; Treasurer, Ford A. Carpenter. 


HE first bank in the city was the Bank of 
San Diego. It was organized early in June, 
1870, by Bryant Howard, E. W. Morse, A. 
E. Horton, Joseph Nash, James M. Pierce, 
Mathew Sherman, A. M. Hathaway, Colum- 
bus Dunham, and Wm. H. Cleveland. The 
first officers were: A. E. Horton, president; 
James M. Pierce, vice-president ; Bryant 
Howard, treasurer; and Wm. H. Cleveland, attorney. Thomas 
L. Nesmith became president; E. W. Morse, treasurer; and Bry- 
ant Howard, cashier and manager. A year later the iDrick bank 
building shown in the cut was completed and occupied, and the 
newspapers called it "the handsomest brick structure in the 
city." In 1874, Charles Hubbell became cashier and so contin- 
ued until 1879. 

The beginning of the "Tom Scott" boom soon brought about 
the organization of another bank — the Commercial Bank of San 
Diego. This bank was organized in October, 1872, by J. H. 
Braly, George Puterbaugh, Edward Kilham, and J. C. Braly. 
The capital stock was fixed at $200,000. The bank did not begin 
business until the first of jMarch, 1873, in temporary quarters 
in the Vezie & Schuler building. The contract for the construc- 
tion of its own building, on the corner of Fifth and G- Streets 
(now the city hall) was let to William Jorres in October, 1873, 
and the building was completed and occupied the following 
spring. The heaviest stockholder was Hiram Mabury, of San 
Jose. The first officers were: Captain A. H. Wilcox, president; 
E. F. Spence, cashier; and Jose G. Estudillo, assistant cashier. 
The next development in banking business in San Diego was 
the consolidation of the Bank of San Diego and the Commercial 
Bank, under the name of the Consolidated Bank of San Diego, 
with a capital of $200,000. The first officers were: Bryant 
Howard, president; J. A. Fairchild, cashier; E. W. Morse, 0. S. 
Witherby, George Geddes, Levi Chase. James M. Pierce. George 
A. Cowles, and Bryant Howard, directors. The new bank occu- 
pied the old quarters of the Commercial Bank, on the corner of 
Fifth and C Streets. In Januarv, 1880, Mr. Fairchild resigned 
as cashier and Avas succeeded by Bryant Howard, and 0. S. 


Witherby became president in Howard's place. Later Howard 
became president and J. H. Barbour, cashier. In 1883, the bank 
was changed from a state to a national bank. The Consolidated 
National Bank was a power in San Diego for several years. It 
survived the bursting of the boom, but went down in the failure 
of 1893. and was never reopened. Among those hardest hit by 
this failure was Judge 0. S. Witherby, whose fortune was prac- 
tically all invested in it. 

The Savings Bank of San Diego County opened for business 
in May, 1886, with a capital of $100,000. Its officers were James 
M. Pierce, president; George A. Cowles, vice-president; John 
Ginty, secretary and treasurer; later, E. W. Morse became 
president. This institution was a branch of the Consolidated 
National Bank and had its quarters in the same building. It 
was swept away with the failure of the parent bank, in 1893, 
and never resumed business. The same is true of the Pacific 
Coast Loan and Trust Company, which was an offshoot of the 
Consolidated Bank, and had its quarters in the same building 
and was managed by the same oi^cers. 

The next bank organized, in point of time, was the Bank of 
Southern California, Avhich was reorganized in October of the 
same year as the First National Bank. It was founded in Julv, 
1883, by Jacob Gruendike, K. A. Thomas, J. R. Thomas, Jolin 
Wolfskin, and M. T. Gilmore. The officers for the first year 
were : Jacob Gruendike, president ; R. A. Thomas, vice-pres- 
ident; and C. E. Thomas, cashier. Mr. Gruendike served con- 
tinuously^ as president until his death in 1905, with the excep- 
tion of a year or two in the late 80 's. 

Upon his death, D. F. Garrettson was elected president and 
he still fills the office. The original capitalization was $50,000. 
In October, 1885, this was increased to $100,000. and E. S. Bab- 
cock Jr. and W. L. Story were added to the board of directors. 
The present capital is $150,000, fully paid. The bank has owned 
and occupied its building on the northwest corner of Fifth and 
E Streets since its organization. The present officers are: D. 
F. Garrettson, president : Homer H. Peters, vice-president ; F. 
W. Jackson, second vice-president; G. W. Fishburn, cashier; 
J. E. Fishburn and Simon Levi, directors. Besides its capital, 
the bank has $119,761.08 surplus and profits, and $1,443,210.72 

The First National Bank absorbed, about the year 1888, a sec- 
ond "Bank of San Diego," which had been organized Septem- 
ber 1, 1887, and opened its doors :\rarch 8, 1888. The officers 
of the latter bank were : J. H. Braly, president : J. C. Braly, 
vice-president ; George M. Dannals, cashier ; General T. T. Crit- 
tenden, H. C. Watts, L. S. McLure, John C. Fisher, and W. D. 



Woolwine, directors. It continued in business but a short time. 
The San Diego Savings Bank is the oldest savings bank now 
doing business in San Diego. It was organized in April, 1889. 
The bank's quarters are in the Keating Block, on the northwest 
corner of Fifth and F Streets. It has a paid-up capital of 
$100,000, surplus and undivided profits of over $3.0,000, and 
resources exceeding $1,400,000. A well equipped safe deposit is 
maintained. The present officers are: J. W. Sefton, president; 
M. T. Grilmore, vice-president; E. M. Barber, cashier; R. M. 

This was the first bank in the city, being organized June, 1870 

Powers, Henry Timken, W. R. Rogers, and M. F. Heller, 

The Bank of Commerce was incorporated under state laws in 
1887, and was one of the products of the rapid growth of that 
time. There were a number of changes in management, and at 
the time of the bank failures in 1893, the bank closed its doors, 
but for four days only. Dr. R. M. Powers then became the pres- 
ident and manager and served until 1903. In July of the latter 
year, Julius Wangenheim entered the bank and became its pres- 
ident, and at the same time it was reincorporated under national 
banking laws. Since that time, its growth has been constant. 
The old capital stock of $100,000 was increased to $150,000, the 
deposits have grown from $600,000 to almost $1,000,000, and 



there is a surplus and uudivided profits of over $60,000. A 
general banking business is done, special attention being given 
to the commercial accounts of the citj^ The present officers are : 
Julius Wangenheini, president ; B. W. McKenzie, C. Fred Hen- 
king, cashier; J. C. Rice, assistant cashier; I. W. Hellman, B. 
W. McKenzie, C. Fred Henking, Julius Wangenheini, and Vic- 
tor E. Shaw, directors. 

The Security Savings Bank and Trust Company is an out- 
growth of the National Bank of Commerce, the stockholders 
being chiefly the same. This bank was organized May 26, 1905, 
with a paid-up capital stock of $125,000, the largest of any sim- 
ilar institution in Southern California outside Los Angeles. It 


has recently moved into its handsomely equipped rooms on E 
Street near Fifth. Its officers are : Julius Wangenheini, presi- 
dent ; George W. Marston, vice-president ; Nat R. Titus, cashier 
and secretarj^; and John S. Hawley, Jr., assistant cashier and 
secretary. The deposits are $400,000 and the profits, $5,000. 

The founding and career of the California National Bank are 
episodes still feelingly remembered by San Diegans. It opened 
its doors on January 8, 1888, with the following officers : Wil- 
liam Collier, president ; D. D. Dare, vice-president ; J. W. Col- 
lins, cashier ; D. C. Collier, J. W. Burns, M. Kew, Douglas Griinn, 
and T. R. Gay, directors. The organizers and managers of the 
concern were Collins and Dare, who were newcomers in San 
Diego. It is said that Collins had once wrecked a bank in Chey- 
enne, and that Dare brought with him less than $7,000, and had 



had no banking experience. These matters were unknown to the 
people of San Diego, however, and when attractive quarters were 
fitted up in the jMethodist Church block, the managers soon 
gained the confidence of the public. The bank was opened in 
the midst of the crash following the boom, was liberal with loans, 
and was an important factor in the restoration of confidence 
which began to be felt in the fall of 1888. The following year 
the California Savings Bank was incorporated, and opened next 


Who has been cashier of the First National Bank since January 15 
greatest growth 

1901, the period of its 

door to the California National. Matters apparently went w^ell 
until the fall of 1891, by which time there Avas a general feeling 
of hopefulness about the situation, in which the condition of 
the banks was a large factor. But in October, the California 
National Bank failed suddenly and disastrously, and it was 
some time before the extent of the disaster was realized. Prom- 
ises of resumption helped to keep up hope : but the investigation 
by bank commissioners quickly revealed a condition of rotten- 
ness which astonished the public. 


Collins and Dare had applied "boom" methods to their busi- 
ness, had made "wildcat" loans, and indulged in speculation of 
every kind. Dare was absent in Europe at the time of the fail- 
ure, and never returned. There was a good deal of sympathy 
for Collins at first, until the gross mismanagement of the bank 
had been fully exposed. His wife and daughter had been 
drowned in the Bay by the capsizing of a boat on September 1, 


Located, 1889; president of San Diego Savings Bank and president of San Diego Flume 
Company, 1890; succeeded E. S. Babcock as president of San Diego Water Company 
in 1894, and, in 1895, brought about the consolidation of the two water com- 
panies. Began erection of Sef ton Block in 1899, completing it in 1901 

1890. Mrs. Collins was the daughter of Rev. R. G. Wallace, the 
minister of the United Presbyterian Church. But the develop- 
ments grew worse rapidly ; by February, 1892, it was known that 
the bank could not resume, and on February 23d Collins was 
arrested and brought before the bank commissioners. On March 
3d, he committed suicide in the Brewster Hotel, by shooting him- 
self. The embezzlement was estimated at $800,000. The depos- 
its were over a million dollars, and only a small dividend was 
realized at the close of a long receivership. The California Sav- 


ings Bank, of course, ^vent down with its parent organization. 

None of the other San Diego banks failed at that time, but 
in the summer of 1893 the -financial stringency- which prevailed 
all over the countrj^ obliged several of them to close their doors. 
On June 20th and 21st in that 3'ear, six Los Angeles banks failed. 
The air was full of rumors, and soon a run began on the San 
Diego banks. They stood it well and paid out money as long 
as coin could be had for the purpose. They were solvent, but 
like other solvent banks, when cut off from outside support, were 
unable to convert their assets into cash on short notice. The 
Consolidated Bank closed on June 21st and never resumed busi- 
ness, although its depositors were ultimately paid in full. The 
First National Bank and the Bank of Commerce also closed the 
following day, but soon resumed business. The ]\Ierchants' 
National Bank and the San Diego Sa\angs Bank were the only 
ones which survived the panic unscathed. The first named was 
a new institution, with its capital practically intact and unin- 
vested. This was San Diego's first and only panic of the kind. 
From that time on, the story of the city's financial institutions 
is one of conservative management and steady, healthful growth. 

The Merchants' National Bank of San Diego, which has been 
mentioned as surviving the panic soon after its formation, was 
organized in the spring of 1893, with a paid-up capital stock of 
$100,000. The first board of directors were : M. A. Weir, Ralph 
Granger, E. J. Swayne, Dr. E. V. Van Norman, ]\Ioses Kimball, 
and Philip Morse ; and the officers : ]\I. A. Weir, president ; Ralph 
Granger, vice-president; and Frank E. Hilton, cashier. In Octo- 
ber, 1893, control of the bank was purchased by Edward Ivin- 
son and the bank reorganized. Edward Ivinson, Levi Chase, and 
G. B. Grow entered the board of directors ; Ivinson became pres- 
ident ; Chase, vice-president ; Ralph Granger, second vice-presi- 
dent; and G. B. Grow, cashier. An aggressive policy was 
adopted and the bank soon began to do a large business. Mr. 
Grow died February 7, 1903. and W. R. Rogers, who had been 
assistant cashier of the bank for several years, was chosen cashier. 
In Januarj^, 1904, Ralph Granger, Dr. F. R. Burnham, A. H. 
Frost, W. R. Rogers, and others bought the controlling interest 
in the bank from Ivinson, Granger became president and Burn- 
ham vice-president, and these officials, with Mr. Rogers as cash- 
ier and H. E. Anthony as assistant cashier, continue to manage 
the bank. The bank has an excellent location, in the Granger 
building, on the southwest corner of Fifth and D Streets. Its 
deposits are almost $1,200,000, and the surplus and undivided 
profits amount to nearly $100,000. There is a safe deposit 
department and ever^^ modern banking facility. 



The Blocliman Banking Company was organized November 
27, 1893, by A. Blocliman and his son, L. A. Blochmau, and they 
are still its manager and cashier, respectively. A. Blochman 
first landed in San Diego in 1851, on his way to San Francisco. 
In that city he was vice-president and manager of the French 
Savings Bank. He is the French consul for San Diego. L. A. 
Blochman was connected with the Commercial Bank of San Luis 
Obispo before coming to San Diego. 


Prominent in business, political, and social life and cashier of Merchants National Bank 
until his death, February 7, 1903 

This institution transacts banking in all its branches, and is 
the only bank in Southern California which draws direct on the 
City of Mexico, Guadalajara, Guaj^mas, Mazatlan, Ensenada, 
and other Lower California points. A number of Los Angeles 
banks transact their Mexican business through the Blochman 
Banking Company. They also handle gold and silver bullion 
from San Diego County and Lower California, and deal in 
domestic and foreign securities. The company owns a substan- 
tial building at No. 635 Fifth Street, which they first occupied 
in October, 1905. 

Vice president San Diego Savings Bank 

President Citizens Savings Bank 

President Blochman Banking Co. 

Cashier Blochman Banking Co. 


President Commerce Trust Company 

Cashier Merchants National Bank 

Cashier American National Bank 

President Southern Trust & Savings Bank 




The Citizens' Savings Bank of San Diego was organized by 
Dr. C. M. Briggs and others, in the spring of 1904. Dr. Briggs 
died suddenly' before the organization was completed, and his 
stock was acquired by Louis J. Wilde and Fred Jewell, who 
placed a portion of it upon the market. The bank was opened 
August 15, 1904, with Louis J. Wilde as president ; Fred Jewell, 
vice-president and cashier; and C. B. Whittlesey, assistant cash- 
ier. At the end of the first rear. Mr. Wilde's holdings of stock 


Vice president Sixth Street Bank, and a 
powerful factor in the reorganization of 
the Sixth and H Streets business district 


The First Cashier of the American 
National Bank; later, president of the 
Peoples state Bank, National City 

were purchased by ]\Ir. Jewell, who then became president. This 
bank has had a steady and healthful growth and ranks among 
the most conservative savings banks of Southern California. On 
the annivereary of its second year it had opened accounts with 
over 1,700 depositors and had $300,000 in deposits. The direct- 
ors are: H. W. Hellman, A. B. Cass, U. S. Grant Jr., Samuel Gor- 
don Ingle, John H. Gay, Joseph H. O'Brien, Edmond Mayer, 
C. B. Whittlesey, I. Isaac Irwin. J. F. Jaeger, and Fred Jewell. 
The American National Bank was organized September 8, 
1904, with the following officers : Louis J. Wilde, president ; 


Charles E. Sumner, vice-president; W. H. Hubbard, cashier; 
directors, Louis J. Wilde, Fred Jewell, W. H. Hubbard, U. S. 
Grant, Jr., Henry E. Mills. It opened for business in its present 
location. No. 1051 Fifth Street, April 6, 1905. Its capital is 
$100,000, fully paid; it has a surplus and undivided profits of 
nearly $10,000, and deposits of $325,000. More than a hundred 
San Diego business men are owners of its stock. The present 
officers are: L. J. Wilde, president; Henry E. Mills, vice-pres- 
ident; C. L. Williams, cashier; L. J. Rice, assistant cashier. 

The Sixth Street Bank was opened for business May 1, 1907, 
with the following officers : D. H. Steele, president ; Carl Alex. 
Johnson, vice-president; F. H. Oliphant, cashier; directors, D. 
H. Steele, Carl Alex. Johnson, F. H. Oliphant, J. A. Green. 
The bank's paid-up capital is $50,000. Its place of business is 
No. 540 Sixth Street. 

The Southern Trust and Savings Bank commenced business 
June 28, 1907, with the following officers : G. Aubrey Davidson, 
president; Philip Morse, vice-president; E. 0. Hodge, cashier; 
directors, Heber Ingle, Ed. Fletcher, Godfrey Holterhoff, Jr., 
T. L. Duque, John E. Boal, R. C. Allen, Patrick Martin, Edward 
Chambers, T. A. Riordan, James E. Wadham, Adolph Levi, 
Robert Hale. The bank has a subscribed capital of $250,000, of 
which $100,000 has been paid-in. It occupies magnificent quarters 
in the new U. S. Grant Hotel building. It also maintains a 
branch establishment at La JoUa, under the management of A. 
B. Perkins. 

The latest development in banking circles, as these pages go 
to press, is the announced consolidation of the National Bank 
of Commerce with the Security Savings Bank and Trust Com- 
pany, under the presidency of Julius Wangenheim. The capital 
of the re-organized institution is $500,000, which makes it the 
largest of San Diego banks. 



HE life of San Diego has been peculiarly rich 
ill the activities of all the principal secret, 
fraternal, and benevolent organizations. To 
do them justice would require a volume. The 
most that this History can attempt is to pre- 
sent a sketch of a few of them, in their his- 
torical aspects. 

The founding of San Diego Lodge No. 35, 
F. & A. M., is a somewhat celebrated event in Masonic annals 
of the Pacific Coast. It was the first Masonic lodge established 
in Southern California and preceded the first lodge in Los Ange- 
les by a year. 

Soon after J. Judson Ames arrived and began to publish the 
Herald, it was found that there were enough Masons in San 
Diego to warrant asking for a dispensation for a lodge. There 
is a tradition that this discovery was made at a picnic attended 
by most of the inhaljitants in a l)ody, as was the custom for 
many years. 

The first mention of anything Masonic was in the Herald of 
June 19, 1851, and read as follows: 

Masonic. — All Master Masons, in good standing with their 
respective lodges, are requested to assemble at the Exchange 
Hotel, in the City of San Diego, on Friday evening, the 20th 
inst., to make arrangements for celebrating the anniversary 
of our patron saint, John the Baptist. 

The plans for this celebration seem to have fallen through, 
for some reason. A petition for a dispensation was drawn up, 
signed, sent to San Francisco, and was granted on the 1st day 
of August. This dispensation ran to Brothers Wm. C. Ferrell, 
W.M. ; John Judson Ames, S.W. ; John Cook, J.W. ; and the fol- 
lowing Master Masons : Daniel Barbee, Wm. Heath Davis, James 
W. Robinson, R. E. Raimond, and others. When the Semi- 
Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge assembled, on 
November 4, 1851, it was found that no meeting had been held 
and no returns received from "San Diego Lodge, U. D." and 
the dispensation had expired. But Brother Ames, S.W., made 
application on the following day to the Grand Lodge to have 


the dispensation extended, six months, to allow more time for 
Drganization, which was granted. 

Although no meeting had been held, an attempt had been 
made to hold one, as the following advertisement, taken from 
the Herald of October 9th, shows : 

There will be a meeting of San Diego Lodge, F. & A. M., 
at the house of Col. A. Haraszthy (Old Town) on Friday evening 
next, the 10th inst., at half past six o'clock. A full attend- 
ance is urged, as business of importance is to be transacted. 

Oct. 9th. Per order of 

Worshipful Master. 

After this, more vigor was ])nt into the work, and the first 
meeting assembled on November 20, 1851, and was opened in 
the Master's degree. The record of this meeting begins thus : 

At a meeting of San Diego Lodge U. D. of Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons held at their lodge room in the City of San 
Diego, on the 20th day of November, A. D. 1851 A.' L. 5851, 
met upon the call of the W. M. 

The brethren present were: 
William C. Ferrell, W. M. A. Haraszthy, Secretary. 

John Judson Ames, S. W. Wm. H. Moon, Tyler. 

Daniel Barbee, J. W. Louis Eose, Visiting Brother. 

E. E. Eaimond, Treasurer. 

Petitions for the degrees of Masonry were received from 
George F. Hooper, recommended by J. Judson Ames and Wm. 
Heath Davis, and from Colonel John B. Magruder, of the United 
States Army. The first named petition was referred to a com- 
mittee consisting of Brothers Haraszthy, Moon, and Ray, and 
the latter was ordered on file. 

At the second meeting, held January 8, 1852, the following 
were present: 

Wm. C. Ferrell, W. M. 

.John .Judson Ames, S. W. 

Daniel Barbee, J. W. 

E. E. Eaimond, Treasurer. 

.James W. Eobinson, Secretary. 

Wm. H. Moon, S. D. 

J. Ankrine, J. D. 
Louis Eose, Tyler. 

At this meeting George F. Hooper was initiated as an entered 
apprentice, and was the first person to be initiated in this lodge. 
The second w^as John C. Cremonv, on March 29th ; and the third, 
George P. Tebbetts, on April 15, 1852. 

On May 11th in this year, the Grand ^Master, B. M. Hyam, 
visited San Diego and examined the records, but found the lodge 
not yet ready for a charter. The records state, under date of 


June 7th, that "a communication was received from the Grand 
Master respecting his examination of the records of this lodge, 
pointing out the un-Masonic and unconstitutional portions of 
the work of this Lodge, and granting San Diego Lodge U. D. a 
dispensation to continue until jMay, 1853, and requiring a copy 
of our adopted By-laws without delay." Apparently, the lodge 
had never adopted any by-laws. At the same meeting, Brother 
John Judson Ames, as a committee, reported that he had pur- 
chased a seal for $25 and a Bible for $10. which was approved 
and payment ordered. 

At this time, says Mr. Morse, the Lodge occupied the Court 
House, a one-story brick building consisting of one room only, 
without porch or entry, the Tyler with girded sword pacing 
back- and forth in front, on the open street. There was little 
danger of any "cowans and eavesdroppers," for the Pope 
had placed his ban upon us and the mass of the population felt 
safest some distance away from our place of meeting. It was 
said the priest forbade the women and children from even look- 
ing from the windows upon our frequent parades. 

The brethren in these early days were very fond of dinners 
and parades. The first celebration was held on June 24, 1852, 
when the following entries are made: 

During the day the nativity of our Patron Saint, John 
the Baptist, was publicly celebrated in due and ancient form. 

The procession was formed under the direction of Bro. J. 
W. Eobinson, Marshall of the day, appointed by Bro. G. P. Teb- 
betts, when the procession moved through the principal streets 
of the city to the place appointed for that purpose. 

When the Throne of Grace was addressed by our Rev. Bro. 
Reynolds, Chaplain, in an appropriate prayer, and our Bro. J. 
J. Ames delivered a chaste and beautiful oration suitable to the 
occasion, when the procession returned to the hall and repaired 
to the residence of Bro. Robinson and partook of an entertain- 
ment and the procession then returned to the hall in good 

On July 15th in this year, Tebbetts was made a Master Mason. 
On November 4th there is another entry w^hich is worth 
quoting : 

This day Nov. 4, 1852, being the centenary era of the Initia- 
tion of Our beloved Brother Geo. Washington into the order of 
Masonry, Therefore it was resolved to celebrate the same in a 
suitable manner. At 12 o 'clock A.M. the procession formed 
in front of the Masonic Hall under the direction of Companion 
W. H. Moon and proceeded through the principal streets and 
around the Plaza to the Hall where the Throne of Grace was 
addressed by our worthy chaplain Bro. Reynolds in an im- 
pressive prayer, after which our worthy companion James W. 
Robinson delivered an able and eloquent oration to the frater- 
nity and a crowded auditory, which was listened to with deep 


interest by all. The exercises at the Hall closed by prayer 
by the Chaplain, and the procession again formed and marched 
to the residence of Phil. Crosthwaite and partook of a sumptu- 
ous dinner. Col. C. J. Couts and lady were invited guests. The 
brethren returned to their Hall and the Lodge closed in Pease 
& Harmony. 

On this day, Philip Crosthwaite, P. H. Hoof, and Joseph 
Reiner were made Master Masons. 

Early in April, 1853, ''Bro. George H. Derby, Past Master 
of Sonoma Lodge, Cal.," arrived in San Diego on business con- 
nected with the turning of the San Diego River, and on the 4th 
of that month, "being invited by Bro. W. C. Ferrell, W.M., pre- 
sided at this meeting. ' ' On the 13th of this month, it is recorded 
that ''George H. Derby, a Master Mason and formerly Master 
of Temple Lodge No. 14," petitioned for affiliation. Ten days 
later, "Bro. Geo. H. Derby was elected a member of this Lodge 
after a favorable report by the Com^<^." At this time, on account 
of certain irregularities, the local lodge was in disfavor with the 
Grand Lodge; and Brother Derby, who was about to return to 
San Francisco before beginning his work on the river, was 
appointed an agent and proxy to represent the W.M. and offi- 
cers and "to explain fully and frankly all the proceedings of 
this Lodge to the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge and to ask for 
a Warrant of Charter for this Lodge." His intercession was 
successful, and on the 7th day of May following the charter was 
granted and Derby was delegated by the Grand Lodge to install 
the first officers under the charter. This ceremony occurred on 
August 14, 1853, after Derby's return from the north, and the 
officers installed were as follows: 

Philip Crosthwaite, S. W. John Havs, Treasurer. ' 

Louis Eose, J. W. P. H. Hoof, S. D. 

George H. Derby, Secretary. S. Goldman, J. D. 

Derby took an active part in the affairs of the lodge during 
his stay, and was instrumental in putting it in working order. 
He acted as secretary and was on several occasions acting W.M. 
Before leaving San Diego, he gave Philip Crosthwaite, then 
Master of the local lodge, his Past Master's .jewel, and the latter 
afterward gave it to the lodge, which carefully keeps it to 
this day. 

In 1855, at the celebration of St. John's, Day on June 25th, 
the oration was by Brother J. W. Robinson. On July 1st, some 
indigent Indians were furnished subsistence and arrangements 
were made to continue the same. 

Concerning these charities, Mr. Morse said : 

In those early days there were many calls for charity from 
brethren just arriving from the East who had become sick 



and disabled, while some were strapped and wanted a slight 
loan, which occasionally was repaid but more often not. Many 
times help was given to sick and blind Indians and others, for 
the Lodge believed in charity and practiced it. 

The following year, the Feast of St. John was celebrated on 
June 24th, as the record shows: "Proceeded to march in reg- 
ular order to the Gila House. Oration by Kurtz, then procession 
to the dinner hall & partook of a dinner, return to the hall & 
closed in Pease & harmony." On November 3d of this year, 

One of the early leaders of the Masonic order in San Diego 

E. W. Morse was initiated, and a month later resolutions of sym- 
pathy for the death of his wife were adopted. 

In 1857, George Lyons was made a Master Mason on ]\Iarch 
30th, and E. W. Morse on April 8th. In August, Joseph Smith 
preferred charges against Morse for "threatening to blow my 
brains out." A committee recommended that Smith withdraw 
the charges, but he refused, and after an investigation and lis- 
tening to Morse's explanation, he was exonerated. Morse's own 
account of this affair was as follows: 


An officer of tlie Lodge got into an altercation with anotl-er 
party in my store. I ordered them both out. My Masonic 
brother, a big six-footer, refused to go and prevented the other 
party from going. I jumped behind the counter and called out: 
"Get out of my store, or I'll blow your brains out! " whereupon 
he went out. 

In recalling those old times, I can see where "the even 
tenor of its way" was often ruffled by family jars and quarrels, 
charges of brother against brother — the succeeding lodge trials, 
most of them, it now seems to me, frivolous and childish. I . 
suppose the same principle applied to our small lodge as to 
small villages and towns. 

In 1858, while Thomas R. Darnall was W.M. of the lodge, he 
went down into Lower California as manager in charge of a 
party of miners and prospectors. The party lost a number of 
their animals, and at last caught the thief in the act of stealing 
one of them and by accident or otherwise shot him. For this 
the whole party was arrested and imprisoned, but Darnall found 
means to bribe an Indian to carry a letter to San Diego, stating 
that they expected to be summarily shot or sent to the City of 
Mexico for trial, and asking for help. The Masons at once gath- 
ered at their hall and began to devise means to rescue Darnall 
and the other Americans. As it chanced to be steamer day, word 
was sent to the lodge at Los Angeles that their aid might be 
needed, and they replied by the first mail: "If you wish help, 
notify us at once, and we will join you with fifty mounted men." 
The Mexican population of Old Town, becoming aware that an 
armed expedition was in preparation, sent a courier to their 
countrymen, advising them to release the imprisoned Americans 
at once, or ''those terrible Masons" would be upon them. The 
advice was taken and the whole party released and soon returned 
safely to San Diego. "This," says Mr. Morse, whose version of 
this somewhat celebrated incident has be'^n used, "shows that 
the Masons were held in fear, if not in loving regard, by the 
mass of the Mexican population." 

A number of quiet years followed, in which the work of the 
lodge was carried on without a break. In 1870 the place of 
meeting was removed to Horton's Addition, a change which 
caused some feeling. In 1880, plans were drawn up for a tem- 
ple to be erected in co-operation with the I. 0. 0. F. on a lot 
which had been purchased on the northwest corner of Sixth and 
H Streets. The cornerstone was laid on March 7, 1882, with 
imposing ceremonies. Acting Grand Master W. W. Bowers pre- 
sided, and the principal address was made bv W. J. Hunsaker. 
The new hall was occupied, for the first time, on July 29, 1882, 
and has ever since been used as the home of this strong organ- 
ization. Its subsequent history has been one of uninterrupted 
prosperity. At present it has about 140 members. Following 



is a list of the IMasters of this lodge, with the years in which 
they served: 

William C. Ferrell 1853 

Philip Crosthwaite 1854-5 

J. W. Eobinson 1856 

D. B. Kurtz 1857 

Thomas E. Darnall 1858 

D. B. Kurtz 1859 

George A. Pendleton. .1860 

Marcus Schiller 1861 

D. B. Kurtz 1862 

T>. B. Kurtz 1863 

Marcus Schiller 1864 

D. B. Kurtz 1865 

D. B. Kurtz 1866 

D. B. Kurtz 1867 

D. B. Kurtz 1868 

D. B. Kurtz 1869 

W. H. Cleveland 1870 

W. A. Begole 1871 

W. A. Begole 1872 

W. A. Begole 1873 

W. A. Begole 1874 

W. A. Begole 1875 

F. N. Pauly 1876 

F. N. Pauly 1877 

J. W. Thompson 1878 

W. W. Bowers 1879 

W. W. Bowers 1880 

L. H. Plaisted 1881 

Simon Levi 1882 

Simon Levi 1883 

Simon Levi 1884 

W. A. Begole 1885 

D. Cave 1886 

George M. Dannals 1887 

George M. Dannals 1888 

A. Morgan 1889 

E. T. Blackmer 1890 

J. K. Blackmer 1891 

W. J. Mossholder 1892 

W. J. Mossholder 1893 

G. Forster 1894 

G. C. Arnold 1895 

W, L. Pierce 1896 

E. J. Louis 1897 

M. J. Perrin 1898 

Nat E. Titus 1899 

W. E. Budlong 1900 

Sam Ferry Smith 1901 

G. A. Warden 1902 

John B. Osborn 1903 

M. A. Graham 1904 

A. H. Gilbert 1905 

H. A. Croghan 1906 

San Diego Commandery No. 25, Knights Templar, was organ- 
ized at a meeting held in the Backesto Block on Jnne 22, 1885. 
Those present were : Garrett G. Bradt, John Peck Burt, Charles 
Merwin Fenn, Edwin Ben Howell, Edward Wilkerson Bushy- 
head, Nicholas Eidgley Hooper, Joseph A. Flint, Henry Madi- 
son Jacoby, Norman Henry Conklin, John S. Harbison, John 
Arm McRae, and Thomas McCall Gruwell. A petition to the 
R. E. Grand Commander was drawn up and signed, praying for 
a dispensation to form and open a commandery, and recom- 
mended by the lodge at San Bernardino. The dispensation was 
granted on July 27, 1885, and at the first succeeding meeting of 
the lodge the following officers were chosen : 

N. H. Conklin Eminent Commander. 

G. G. Bradt Generalissimo. 

John P. Burt Captain General. 

C. M. Fenn Prelate. 

J. A. Flint Senior Warden. 

H. M. Jacoby Junior Warden. 

John S. Harbison Treasurer. 

Edwin B. Howell Recorder. 

John A. McEae Sword Bearer. 

E. W. Bushyhead Standard Bearer. 


N. E. Hooper Warden. 

Thomas A. Bishop Sentinel. 

This lodge is a prosperous one and has at the present time 
over one hundred members. 

Constans Lodge of Perfection, No. 8, A. & A. S. R., is the third 
oldest Masonic lodge in the city. It was organized May 13, 1887. 
The first Venerable Master was J. D. Rush. The lodge has 65 

The first meeting for the organization of a lodge of the Order 
of the Eastern Star was held on April 5, 1888, and a charter 
was granted in the following October, to "Southern Star Chap- 
ter, No. 96." The first officers were: 

Lucy L. Dannals Worthy Matron. 

George M. Dannals Worthy Patron. 

Anna E. Kooken Associate Matron. 

Gertrude Brobeck Conductress. 

Abbie A. Jenks Associate Conductress. 

Maria M. Lowell Warder. 

James S. Clark Sentinel. 

The present membership is more than 125. 

Silver Oate Lodge No. 296 held its first meeting July 31, 1889, 
and received its charter October 10th following. Among the 
first officers were: D. E. Bailey, W.M. ; A. E. Dodson, S.W. ; 
James Wells, J.W. It has 150 members. 

Constans Chapter of Knights Rose Croix, No. 5, A. & A. S. R., 
was organized December 3, 1900. Wise Master N. H. Conklin 
and Secretary Harry R. Comly have served in the same capacity 
from the first. The membership is 63. 

San Diego Council Knights Kadosh, No. 6, A. & A. S. R., was 
organized March 2, 1903. James MacMullen was the first Com- 
mander, and Harry R. Comly, Recorder. This lodge has a mem- 
bership of 55. 

San Diego Consistory, No. 6, A. &. A. S. R., was constituted 
April 28, 1901. George M. Dannals has been Master of Kadosh 
and Harry R. Comly, Registrar, from the beginning. The lodge 
has 51 members. 

San Diego Chapter, No. 61, R. A. M., is a flourishing lodge 
with 125 members. 

The first meeting preliminary to the organization of a lodge 
of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in San Diego, was 
held at the house of James Pascoe on December 5, 1868. The 
formal institution was effected at a meeting held on March 23, 
1869, held in the hall over Porter's paint shop, on the corner of 
Seventh and K Streets. The name adopted was San Diego 
Lodge, No. 153, and the first officers were: 



John E. Porter N. a. 

Alex. M. Young V. G. 

F. Marlette E. S. 

S. S. Culverwell T. 

After several changes, the lodge occupied the Temple at the 
corner of Sixth and H Streets, owned jointly by the Masons and 
Odd Fellows, which has since been its home. The lodge is a 
strong and prosperous one, with more than iwo hundred mem- 
bers. Following are lists of charter members : 


A native of New England and citizen of San Diego, who was equally devoted to the place of 

his birth and the place of his adoption, and who, until his death in 1907, was closely 

identified with the executive work of the Masonic Order 

John E. Porter 



Amos Crane 

...P. G 

S. S. Culverwell .... 



John Groesbeck 

...P. G 

B. F. Xucid 

W. C. Eickard 

Charles F. Moore 

John 0. Hatleberg 

Alex. M. Young 

P. P. Willett 

E. D. Case 

A. C. Tedford 
F. Mullotte. 

The following is a list of the lodges of the I. 0. 0. F. in 
San Diesfo : 


Anna Eebekali Lodge No. 127. 

Canton San Diego Lodge No. 22, 

Centennial Encampment No. 58. 

San Diego Lodge No. 153. 

Silver Gate Eebelcali Lodge No. 141. 

Sunset Lodge No. 328 (Veteran Odd Fellows). 

San Diego Lodge, No. 168, Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks, was instituted on June 8, 1890, in Horton's Hall, with 
30 charter members. The following were the first officers : 

J. M. Dodge Exalted Euler. 

Thomas A. Nerney Esteemed Leading Knight. 

B. F. Harville Esteemed Loyal Knight. 

J. S. Callen Esteemed Lecturing Knight. 

J. McNulty Secretary. 

J. W. Sef ton Treasurer. 

J. E. Wooley Tyler. 

C. A. Brown Inside Guard. 

S. G. Monti jo Esquire. 

J. P. Goodwin 

Eugene Daney Trustees. 

D. Goehenauer 

Credit for organizing the lodge is given to J. M. Dodge, who 
was then a member of Los Angeles Lodge, No. 99. The follow- 
ing original charter members are still members of the lodge : 
T. A. Nerney, B. F. Harville, J. S. Callen, J. W. Sefton, Eugene 
Daney, John Kastle, D. Goehenauer, H. W. Alden, Walter T. 
Blake, E. M. Burbeck, W. F. Riley, F. W. Jackson, Robert C. 
Jones, T. J. Storey, J. E. Fishburn, James Vernon, A. G. Gas- 
sen, George 0. Scribner, and J. M. Dodge. The lodge has had 
different homes, and its present quarters occupy the entire sec- 
ond floor of the San Diego Gas & Electric Light Company's 
building, No. 937 Sixth Street, and are very handsomely fitted 
up. An Elk's Hall Association was incorporated a few months 
ago, which acquired the lot on the northwest corner of Second 
and D Streets, 90x100 feet, and a very beautiful granite and 
brick building is now being erected which will be ready for occu- 
pancy early in 1907. The cornerstone M^as laid with elaborate 
ceremonies on June 9, 1906. The membership of this lodge num- 
bers 381. 

The first lodge of the Knights of Pythias, San Diego Lodge 
No. 28, was organized October 3, 1874, by Grand Chancellor L. 
M. Manzer, and is, therefore, nearly a third of a century old. 
The charter list contained 27 names, of whom only one, L. H. 
Plaisted, was then a member of the order, he having belonged to 
Pawtucket, R. I., Lodge No. 5. The three principal officers first 
chosen were: Chancellor Commander, E. F. Spence; Vice 
Chancellor, W. W. Stewart ; Prelate, G. G. Bradt. The follow- 
ing is a full list of the original charter members : 



L. H. Plaisted. 

Henry Bayly 
E. F. Spence 
W. W. Stewart 
J. A. Gordon 
G. G. Bradt 
E. W. Biisliyhead 
G. W. Hazzard 
C. B. Culver 
J. W. Thompson 

J. M. Spencer' 
H. M. Covert 

E. M. Skinner 
A. Condee 

F. N. Pauly 
A. S. Grant 
J. N. Young 
J. G. Capron 
Philip Morse 


A conspicious figure in military, political and fraternal organizations, who has served as city 
treasurer and as president of the Chamber of Commerce 

R. G. Balcom 

S. Statler 

G. B. Hcnsley 

E. A. Veazie 

L. B. Willson 
D. Cave 
C. W. Pauly 
Douglas Gunn 

Of the above, only two are now members, i. e., G. W. Haz- 
zard and C. W. Panly. 

The lodge is a very strong and active organization. It is the 
oldest Pythian lodge in the district. 

Red Star Lodge, No. 153, K. of P., was organized September 
28, 1887, with a charter list of 17 members from other lodges 


and 60 strangers. The institution was organized by J. M. Van 
Zant, who was at the time a member of San Diego Lodge, No. 
28. The first officers were : Chancellor Commander, T. J. Mon- 
ahan; Vice Chancellor, G. A. H. Sprague; Prelate, S. G. Mon- 
ti.i'o. The lodge was named by Chancellor Commander Monahan 
after his old lodge in Ohio. The present membership is over 
400. Of the original charter members, 10 remain, i. e., J. W. 
Brenning. H. K. Coon, T. J. Dowell, M. German, George R. Har- 


Who has filled the chief offices of the Masons and the Elks and served as president of the 
City Council, and who is a favorite public speaker 

rison, George I\I. Hickman, H. J. Place, F. E. Severance, A. M. 
Thornburg, and A. M. Turner. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary, called the "Eathbone Sisters," is rep- 
resented by two temples : Woodbine No. 36 and Dunton Tem- 
ple No. 3. The Uniform Rank, K. of P., is represented by 
Chevalier Company No. 6, attached to the Third Regiment, Cali- 
fornia Brigade, with headquarters at Los Angeles. 

The Foresters are a flourishing organization, with the follow- 
ing Courts: 


Court Coronatlo No. 3798, I. O. F. 

Court San Diego No. 7799, A. O. F. 

Court Sau Diego No. 28, F. of A. 

Court Silver Gate No. 138, F. of A. 

Palomar Circle No. 510, C. of F. of A. 

Palomar Court No. 176, F. of A. 

Silver Gate San Diego Circle No. 271, F. of A. 

The Woodmen of the World have a strong membership. Their 
camps are Bay View Camp No. 7255, Miramar Camp No. 54, 
and San Diego Circle No. 161. 

The Improved Order of Red Men are represented by Lodge 
No. 155, Coahuilla Tribe. The Eagles have San Diego Aerie 
No. 244. The Knights and Ladies of Security maintain Council 
No. 429. The jNIaccabees are represented by Hive No. 17, Ladies 
of I\L, and San Diego Tent No. 26, K. 0. *T. M. The Order of 
Pendo have San Diego Council No. 18 and Southwest Council 
No. 177. The Royal Arcanum meet in San Diego Lodge No. 
1214. The Royal Neighbors of America, the Fraternal Grove, 
the Fraternal Aid, the Knights of Honor, and the Fraternal 
Brotherhood are all represented, the latter with two councils, 
San Diego Lodge No. 18 and Tourmaline Lodge. 

The A. 0. U. W. are represented in Emblem Lodge No. 103, 
Degree of Honor, and Point Loma Lodge No. 248. The 
0. d'H. S. assemble in San Diego Lodge No. 22, and Thusnelda 
Lodge No. 4. 

There were a number of societies, other than secret, in San 
Diego at a very early day. One of the earliest of these was the 
San Diego Guards, organized in July, 1856. This was one of 
the most active of local organizations for four or five years, and 
nearly all the able-bodied Americans in San Diego were mem- 
bers. It was quietly dropped at the outbreak of the Civil War. 
George A. Pendleton and a few others who had served in the 
regular army were the moving spirits. An amusing tradition 
is that J. Judson Ames, he of the gigantic fieure, used to march 
at the head of the column on public occasions with an ax on his 
shoulder. The following is a copy of the original muster roll 
of the company : 

Captain Geo. A. Pendleton. 4th Serg. Jos. Scliycoffer. 

1st Lieut. Win. H. Noyes. 1st Corp. Jno. T. Van Alst. 

2nd Lieut. D. B. Kurtz. 2nd Corp. Nath. Vise. 

3rd Lieut. Jas. W. Connors. 3rd Corp. Edw. Kerr. 

1st Serg. Andrew Cotton. 4th Corp. Frank Kerren. 

2nd Serg. E. D. Israel 1st Drummer Chas. Morris. 

3rd Serg. Jas. Donahoe. 1st Fifer F. E. Maretowsky. 

Privates. Privates. Privates. 

Ames, J. Judson Alvarado Brown, Jno. 

Anderson, Jos A. Blaekstone, J. P. Brinkerhoff, .L P. 



Barnes, E. W. 
Couts, W. B. 
Crist, Andrew 
Chisumn, P. G. 
Darnall, Thos E. 
Estndillo, Jose G. 
Gerson, Clias. 
Goldman, S. 
Gitchell, J. R. 
Groom, R. W. 
Hoffman, D. B. 
Herald, Duane 
Jessup, W. H. 

Leightou, \Vm. H. 
Le Roy, Wm. H. 
Lyons, George 
Magee, H. 
Morse, E. W. 
Marron, Jose C 
Mannasse, H. 
Mannasse, Jose S 
Mannasse, M. 
Maxey, A. E. 
Pond, J. P. 
Pond C. H. 
Ringgold, Walter 


Robinson, Wm. 
Rathburn, Chas. S. 
Reiner, Jos. 
Smith, Jos. 
Schiller, Marcus 
Sutton, Ansen G. P. 
Smith, A. B. 
Schneider, Edw. N. 
Tolman, Geo. B. 
Whaley, Thos. 
Ward, Isaac 
Wall, E. A. 
Wiley, A. C. 

This old organization of San Diego Guards was, of course, the 
legitimate forerunner of the modern militia (N. G. C.). The 
first military organization after the Civil War was known as 
the San Diego Light Guards, which organized on October 18, 
1876, at Horton's Hall. The first officers were: First lieuten- 
ant, A. P. Jolly ; second lieutenant, Henry Bayly ; orderly ser- 
geant, W. H. Gladstone ; first duty sergeant, J. H. Richardson ; 
second sergeant, J. F. Bowman ; third sergeant, J. N. Petty ; 
fourth sergeant, Aug. Warner. 

This seems to have died out in a little while, and it was not 
until early in April, 1881, that the organization of the City 
Guards was effected. The organization began amid considerable 
enthusiasm, with 60 names on the roll. The first officers were: 
President, Douglas Gunn ; secretary, Philo E. Beach ; treasurer, 
0. S. Hubbell. The military officers were : Captain, Douglas 
Gunn ; first lieutenant, Martin Lacy ; second lieutenant, George 
M. Dannals. A successful entertainment was soon after given 
for their benefit, and on October 12th the company was reorgan- 
ized, with the same officers as a company of the 7th Regiment 
Infantry of the National Guard of California. Douglas Gunn 
continued to act as captain of this organization as long as he 
lived. Upon his return from the East after retiring from the 
Union, in the fall of 1887, he was presented with a very valua- 
ble sword by his comrades. 

The present officers are : Ed. Fletcher, captain ; TI. R. Fay, 
first lieutenant ; H. J. Schlegel, second lieutenant. The cap- 
tains since organization have been : 

Douglas Gunn, 
Thomas A. Nerney, 
Harry M. Schiller, 

Richard V. Dodge, 
John M. Smith, 
Ed Fletcher. 

The Third Division of the Naval Militia is commanded by 
Lieutenant Roscoe Howard, and uses the old U. S. S. Pinta as 
its headquarters. 


The Society of Veterans of the ^Mexican "War was organized 
January 12, 1878. Colonel Wm. Jeff Gatewood was chosen pres- 
ident ; G. F. W. Richter, secretary. Others present were : Cap- 
tain Ferris, Dr. Wm. A. Winder, Joseph Leonard. E. M. Rankin, 
D. B. Bush, and A. H. Julian. 

The G. A. R. are strong in San Diego. The first post organ- 
ized was Heintzelman Post No. 33. In 1882, Memorial Day was 
observed for the first time in San Diego under their auspices. 
Colonel E. T. Blaclmier delivered the oration. Datus E. Coon 
Post No. 172, Heintzelman Corps No. 1, W. R. C, and Datus E. 
Coon Corps No. 84 are active branches. General U. S. Grant 
Circle. Ladies of the G. A. R.. and Heintzelman Woman's Relief 
Corps No. 1 represent the activities of the ladies of the G. A. R. 
The latter corps was organized in July, 1883, and was the first 
auxiliary of the G. A. R. organized in this state. 

The Spanish-American War Veterans have a post called Camp 

John Morgan Camp 1198 represents the United Veterans of 
the Confederacy. 

San Diego Parlor No. 168. N. S. G. W.. were organized in 1887 
and formally installed with imposing ceremonies. June 8. 1887. 
The first officers were: President. W. J. Hunsaker; first vice- 
president. W. E. Princely: second vice-president. C. A. Camp- 
bell: third vice-president. C. A. Loomis; treasurer, M. Klauber; 
trustees. W. H. Hooper. Harry Schiller, and B. Bacon. In Sep- 
tember. 1887, Admission Day was celebrated, for the first time 
in San Diego, under the auspices of the new organization. 

The Native Daughters of the Golden West also maintain an 

The first Pioneer Society in San Diego was organized Febru- 
ary 12. 1872. Membership was to be limited to persons arriv- 
ing before 1854. The followiup: is a partial list of the first 
members : 

W. B. Couts, December 26, 1849. 
Jose G. Estudillo, native born. 
George Lvons. December, 1846. 
Thomas Whaley, July 22. 1849. 
Marcus Schiller, September 22, 1853. 
James W. Connors. October, 1852. 
Wm. A. Winder, May, 1853. 
John W. Leamy, October, 1851. 
Daniel P. Clark, March 6, 1847. 
T. G. Battaile, November, 1849. 
Miguel Agiiirre, native born. 
Thomas P. Slade. May. 1849. 
A. 0. Wallace, October 22. 1852. 
Thos. H. Bush. February. 1853. 

D. Criehton, September. 1853. 

E. W. Bushyhead, August 2. 1850. 



Another San Diego Pioneer Society was formed at the resi- 
dence of John G. Capron, March 1, 1888. E. W. Morse was 
elected president and Douglas Giinn, secretary. The date limit 
set was January 1, 1871. This and the former society seem to 
have survived but a short time. The only pioneer society now 
in existence is the Ladies' Pioneer Society, of which Mrs. 
Mathew Sherman is president and Mrs. M. A. Steadman is sec- 
retary. This society was formed ]\Iay 31, 1895. The first pres- 
ident was Mrs. Flora Kimball, and the secretary Mrs. Hattie 

A leader of the Masons and Knights of Pythias, and a membei- of the Board of Education 

Phillips. Membership is limited to those arriving before Janu- 
ary, 1880. There are at present more than 100 members. 

A New England Society was formed in San Diego on Novem- 
ber 23, 1854, the officers of which were : President, 0. S. With- 
erby; vice-presidents, Judge J. Judson Ames, Colonel J. R. 
Gitchell, and Captain H. S. Burton, U. S. A. ; recording secre- 
tary; Captain George P. Tebbetts; corresponding secretary, 
Judge E. W. Morse. A committee was chosen to make arrange- 
ments for the celebration of Forefathers' Day, luit at this point 


the record ends. The present New England Society was formed 
a few years ago. 

The San Diego Society of Natural History was incorporated 
in October, 187-1, and has maintained an active existence to the 
present. The society has had but- three presidents. The first 
was Dr. Geo. W. Barnes ; the second, Daniel Cleveland. At the 
present time General A. W. Vogdes is president, and Frank 
Stephens secretary. The San Diego Lyceum of Sciences existed 
for some years, but is now dormant. 

On February 7, 1880, there was a fight between a badger and 
some dogs, which was witnessed by a large crowd. Someone who 
witnessed it wrote an indignant article which appeared in the 
Union, and that paper urged the immediate formation of a soci- 
ety for the prevention of cruelty to animals. A public meeting 
was held and the organization soon after perfected. The first 
officers were: M. S. Root, president; D. Cave, vice-president; 
George N. Hitchcock, secretary; E. W. Morse, treasurer. The 
society was succeeded by the San Diego Humane Society, the 
present officers of which are : Dr. Thomas Gogswell, president ; 
Mrs. H. L. Hall, secretary. 

The first W. C. T. U. in San Diego was organized by Frances 
E. Willard, in 1884. Mrs. C. D. Watkins is president, and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Linguian, secretary. 

Besides those which have been mentioned, San Diego has a 
larse number of clubs and societies, such as are usually found 
in larger cities. 


HE first agitation for the purchase of a fire 
engine at Hortou 's Addition began in the fall 
of 1869, when the newspapers took the ques- 
tion up and discussed it with some vigor. As 
a first step, a benefit was given at Horton's 
Hall, which netted $250, and on the 20th of 
the same month another entertainment was 
given for their benefit. The formal organiza- 
tion was effected on May 17th, when about 50 citizens met and 
formed themselves into the Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company. 
The following officers were selected : Foreman, W. S. McCor- 
niick; first assistant, John N. Young; second assistant, William 
P. Henderson ; secretary, B. C. Brown ; treasurer, A. H. Julian. 
On June 8th, the first regular meeting was held and the same 
officers chosen to serve for the ensuing year, except that John 
H. Todman was made treasurer, in place of A. H. Julian, and 
the following additional officers were selected : President, Chal- 
mers Scott ; steward, John M. Heidelburg ; trustees, A. H. Julian, 
E. W. Nottage, and George W. Hazzard. 

It took more than a year to raise money enough to secure a 
truck. In June, 1871, it is recorded that Mr. Whitaker had 
returned with all the materials for the construction of a first- 
class fire-truck. The sum of $500 had been subscribed for the 
purchase of apparatus and $400 more were needed. The first 
ball was given by the new department early in September; it 
was a social success, but a financial failure. On October 12th 
the new truck was finished and housed. In November of this 
year, the business men sank a well opposite the store of Julian 
& Stutsman, expressly as a protection against fire. Additional 
equipment was gradually acquired and the efficiency of the 
department began to improve. 

A 3^ear later, October 9, 1872, the successor of the hook and 
ladder company, known as San Diego Fire Engine Company 
No. 1, was organized, and the agitation for the purchase of an 
engine was renewed. The first fire plug in the city was set up 
by S. P. Abell, in front of his buildina- on Fifth and D Streets. 
The M-ater was turned on and a test of it made on April 9, 1874. 


In November San Diego Engine Company No. 1 received a new 
hose carriage. 

In January, 1878, the arrival is proudly recorded of a new 
fire alarm bell, which "measures over 3 ft. across the mouth and 
will be heard for miles around." .It weighed 550 pounds, and 
cost $95. This bell was used until July 1, 1880, when it was 
broken. As the department was a volunteer one, the loss of the 
bell was a serious matter. There was some difficulty and delay 
in replacing it, and the fire company resolved, early in Septem- 
ber, that it would consider itself out of active service until the 
city had a new bell. It was not secured until February 1, 1881. 
The new bell weighed 1,000 pounds and cost $300. 

In the early 80 's the fire department ran down and reached 
a very low ebb. In September, 1883, there was danger that it 
could not be kept up anj^ longer, and the newspapers appealed 
to the citizens to aid it. An appropriation of $100 by the city 
council was asked, so "that the fire department can be brought 
up to an effective force of 25 or 30 members," and the Union 
hoped that "no calamity may befall this city while in the help- 
less condition of being without a fire department." These efforts 
resulted in an improvement in the condition of the department, 
but no large departures follow^ed. 

On December 12, 1884, occurred one of the most noted fires 
of early days. This was the burning of the planing mill and 
beehive factory of George M. Wetherbee, on the corner of G and 
Arctic Streets, with a loss of $12,000. 

In April, 1885, another new fire bell was needed, and there 
was some trouble in securing a satisfactory one. The first bell 
sent had to be returned; a new one arrived on July 23d, and 
was put into commission. Bryant Howard gave the sum required 
for its purchase, $500, and the bell was inscribed: "Presented 
to San Diego Engine Company No. 1, by Bryant Howard, Cash- 
ier Consolidated National Bank, San Diego." 

Coronado Engine Company No. 1 was organized on April 22, 
1886, and the following February it was announced that bids for 
the erection of an engine house for its use would be adver- 
tised for. 

The fire department having sent for a belt, hat, and trumpet, 
they were offered to Chief Engineer S. M. McDowell, who used 
them from December, 1886. In the following March, McDowell 
made a number of recommendations in his annual report. He 
wished a tower erected at the foot of Fifth Street and the old 
bell placed in it; a steam fire engine was needed, also two new 
hose carts and more horses. He also suggested the considera- 
tion of a paid fire department and an electric alarm system. 



The new hose carts were promptly furnished, and, in April, 
Coronado Fire Engine Company No. 2 was formed and negotia- 
tions were opened for the purchase of a steam fire engine. The 
engine purchased was made b}^ La France Engine Company, of 
Syracuse, New York. It cost about $4,000 delivered, arrived 
early in November, 1887, and was San Diego's first steam fire 
engine. It is now kept as a relic in Engine House No. 1. 

In the fall of 1886, the city trustees created the Board of Fire 
Delegates of the City of San Diego, to consist of the trustees of 


Who served for years as Chief of the Fire Department and developed the organization from 

the level of a country town to a metropolitan standard 

the different fire companies. These trustees met on January 6, 
1887, for organization and election of officers. Those present 
were James Rooney, Theodore Fintzelberg, and Albert Hertz, 
trustees of San Diego Engine Company No. 1 ; and Frank J. 
Higgins, Henry L. Ryan, and A. F. Dill, trustees of Coronado 
Engine Company No. 2. They chose for their president, James 
Rooney; secretary, Frank J. Higgins; treasurer, Bryant How- 
ard; chief engineer. S. M. McDowell; assistant engineers, John 
Moffitt and C^ F. Murphy. 


The equipment of the tire department at the close of the year 
1887 consisted of the following: 2 steam fire engines, 2 hook 
and ladder trucks, 1 hose cart, 3,500 feet of hose, 11 horses, and 
6 chemical fire extinguishers. The expenses of the department 
for the year were between $12,000 and $13,000, although there 
were only 2 salaried oflficers. 

In the year 1888, the department not having kept pace with 
the growth of the city and the bursting of the boom making it 
impossible for the trustees to provide sufficient equipment, the 
department had a hard struggle and was unable to perform its 
work properly. The hook and ladder trucks had to be pulled by 
hand, on account of the shortage of horses. There were other 
causes of complaint, and the dissatisfaction and disorganization 
were so great that insurance men became alarmed. Engineer 
^McDowell resigned in ^Nlarch and was succeeded by Albert Hertz. 
The fire companies then in existence were : 

San Diego Engine Company No. 1, consisting of 32 men, 12 
of whom were active : Howard Hook and Ladder Company 
No. 1. 48 men. 25 active; and Coronado Engine Company No. 2, 
65 men, which had disbanded, but was reorganized in April. 
On June Ith a new voliTuteer company was organized and called 
the M. D. Hamilton Brigade. In July, the department was 
reorganized, new officers elected, and a set of by-laws adopted. 

During the spring, summer, and fall of 1888, a series of dis- 
astrous fires occurred, which many believed were of incendiary 
origin. A list of the principal conflagrations at that time is 
given herewith : 

On ]\Iay 3d. a fire burned over half the block bounded by 
Fifth, Sixth, F and G Streets. The heaviest losers were Ham- 
ilton & Co., Fred N. Hamilton, and Williams & Ingle. The total 
loss was about $150,000, The building consumed was known as 
the Central ^Market, and was built in 1873. 

Sixth Street, between F and G, was the scene of a destructive 
fire on ]May 26th. The San Diego Printing Company was burned 
out and the postoffice had a narrow escape. The loss was about 

On June 1st. the buildings of Foreman & Stone, on Seventh 
Street, with their contents, were burned. The loss was about 

A frame building on H Street, between State and Union, was 
consumed by fire on August 29th ; loss. $6,000. 

On September 5th. the new Baekesto Block, on the corner of 
Fifth and H Streets, was totally destroyed by fire. It was 
owned by Dr. J. P. Baekesto, of San Jose, and was built in 
1887 at a cost of $45,000. The heaviest losers were Klauber & 
Levi, whose loss was about $250,000, with $150,000 insurance. 



Hunsaker, Britt & Lamme, attorneys, lost their law library (the 
best in the citv), valued at $15,000. The total loss was over 

On January 23, 1889, the Board of Fire Delegates ordered 
certificates of membership to be issued to the following fire com- 
panies, which shows the organizations that were in existence at 
that time, as re-numbered : 

San Diego Engine Company jSTo. 1. 
Horton " " "2. 


Who succeeded Chief Cairnes as head of the Fire Department, retiring from the position in 
1907 with a g-ood record to his credit 

Hamilton " " "3. 

Howard Hook&Ladikr " "2. 

Hart " " " " "2. 

When the new city charter was adopted, in the spring of 1889, 
provision was made, for the first time, for the organization of 
a paid fire department. The control of this department was 
vested in a board of fire commissioners, appointed by the mayor. 
In pursuance of this power, INIayor Douglas Gunn sent to the 
council, earlv in May, 1889, the following names for members 


of the fii'st board: John P. Burt, J. K. Hamilton, and E. F. 
Rockfellow. This board was approved bj" the council, and organ- 
ized by electing Burt president, and Henry Bradt secretary. 
On June 5th the board selected A. B. Cairnes as the first chief 
engineer of the new department. 

Mr. Cairnes was an old fireman. He was a member of the 
New York fire department several years, and foreman of Wash- 
ington Engine Company No. 20, in that cit^', from May, 1862, 
until the volunteer service was terminated by the organization 
of the present Metropolitan Fire Department, in 1866. He 
remained at the head of the San Diego fire department until 
November 29, 1905, when he resigned on account of age and 
ill health. 

At the time of this reorganization, the force and equipment 
of the fire department were as follows: 1 chief, 2 engineers, 5 
foremen, 6 drivers, and 28 firemen ; there Avere 2 steam fire 
engines, 2 hose carriages, 1 hose wagon, 2 hook and ladder wag- 
ons, and 11 horses. 

The Gamewell system of electric fire alarms was installed in 
1892. In this year also a number of new engine houses were fit- 
ted up and occupied. 

The successor of Chief Cairnes is Richard A. Shute. Mr. 
Shute has been identified with the department since 1888, when 
he became driver of Horton Hose Company No. 1. Before com- 
ing to San Diego, he was member of the San Francisco fire 
department and saw considerable service. 

At the present time, there are 30 fire alarm stations. The loca- 
tion of the different engine houses is as follows : 

Engine and Hose Company Xo. 1 ; sontheast corner of Second 

and E Streets: 
Hook and Ladder Company No. 1; southeast corner of Tenth and 

B Streets; 
Engine and Hose Company No. 2; southeast corner of Tenth 

and B Streets; 
Hose Company No. 3; southeast corner of Eighth and J Streets; 
Chemical Engine; Fourth and Laurel Streets; 
Combination Chemical; Kearny Avenue between Twenty-sixth 

and Twenty-seventh Streets; 
Combination Chemical; Twenty-third and F Streets; 
Combination Chemical; Ninth and University Streets. 

The following table shows the officers of the fire department, 
from its organization : 


Board of Fire Commissioners. 

1889 1891 1893 

Pres. J. P. Burt G. B. Grow G. B. Grow 









J. K. Hamilton 
E. R Eockf ellow 

A. B. Cairnes 

G. B. Grow 
Geo. R. Harrison 
Geo. W. Marston 

A. B. Cairnes 


B. F. Mertzmann 
E. J. Carter 
Jno. P. Burt 

A. B. Cairnes 

Jno. P. Burt 
A. G. Edwards 
Geo. E. Harrison 

J. P. Burt J. P. Burt 

E. F. Rockf ellow Geo. W. Marston 

A. B. Cairnes 

Geo. R. Harrison 
G. B. Grow 
C. A. Dievendorfe 

A. B. Cairnes 

J. E. Wadham 
G. B. Grow 
J. P. Burt 

A. B. Cairnes A. B. Cairnes 
1901 1903 

A. G. Edwards A. G. Edwards 

B. F. Mertzmann B. F. Mertzmann 
Jno. P. Burt Jno. P. Burt 

A. B. Cairnes A. B. Cairnes 

1905 1905-6 

Geo. R. Harrison Geo. E. Harrison 


Eng'r A. B. Cairnes 

Jno. P. Burt 
A. G. Edwards 
A. B. Cairnes 
R. A. Shute 


Vernon D. Rood 
A. G. Edwards 

R. A. Shute 

Statistics of Fires and Fire Losses. 

Department called out: 

still Box Total 
Alarms Alarms Alarms 










































































$29,245 before department. 

Average per fire $388, low- 
est on record. 

City $14,000. Outside $16,- 

City $8,485. Schooner Se- 
quoia $5,000. 

Smallest in dept. history. 

Prop'ty involved $388,850 
" $170,950 


Miscellaneous Topics 



FEATURE of San Diego is better worthy of 
a place in these historical records than the 
famous climate which, of all local resources, 
is the one which has done most to create the 
city and give it wide reputation. It is a pity 
that exact information does not go back to 
the time of the earliest settlement. Of the 
^lission period we have only such meager rec- 
ords as this kept by the Fathers at San Luis Rey: 

1776, Copius rainfall. 

1787, Eain insufficient, crops short. 

1791, Extremely dry. No rain the whole year. 

1794, Eainfall insufficient, crops short. 

1795, Very dry. 

1819, Short in rain and crops. 
1827, Short in rain and crops. 
1832, Short in rain and crops. 

This would seem to be an effectual answer to the saying of 
the Spaniards that drouth was unknown until the Americans 
came. Fortunately, we do not depend upon such fragmentary 
records for the history of the climate in later times. The facts 
in this chapter are supplied by the U. S. Weather Bureau fore- 
caster, Ford A. Carpenter, and are given in his own words: 

Four elements enter into a consideration of the climate of 
San Diego. Named according to their importance, they are 
as follows: (1) Distance from the northern storm tracks, and 
the southern storms of the Lower California coast; (2) prox- 
imity to the ocean on the west; (3) mountains in the east, (4) 
and the great Colorado desert still further east. The num- 
ber of the northern areas of low pressure sufficiently great, and 
moving far enough south to exert an influence at the latitude 
of San Diego, are comparatively few; not one-tenth of these 
lows have an appreciable effect on the climate. The storms 
from the south ("Sonoras," as they are locally known), have 
but little energy, and probably average two a year. As is the 
case in all marine climates the ocean exerts by far the most 
powerful effect. This is noticed in the slight daily variation 
in temperature, and the absence of either cold or hot weather. 
The average daily change in temperature from day to day is 2 
degrees, and the extremes in temperature, from a record of 


thirty-four years, are 101 degrees and 32 degrees. The temper- 
ature has exceeded 90 degrees twenty-two times in thirty-four 
years, or on an average of about twice every three years. Five 
times in the history of the station has the temperature touched 
32 degrees, but has never fallen lower. Five killing frosts 
have occurred in San Diego since the establishment of the 
station, but aside from blackening tender shoots, and killing 
delicate flowers, no damage was done. 


Local Forecaster U. S. Weather Bureau. Located, 1896: having been transferred from Car- 
son, Nevada. Promoted in 1906 to Local Forecaster; since 1892. Director of San 
Diego Natural History Society: since 1905. Director of Chamber of 
Commerce, and now Treasurer of same. First President 
of San Diego Camera Club 

The "desert" winds are responsible for temperatures above 
90 degrees, and they are therefore accompanied by extremely 
low humidity. Records of humidity below 10 per cent are not 
uncommon during the two or three hours duration of the desert 
wind; 3 per cent is the lowest relative humidity ever recorded 
at this station. As the sea-breeze is stronger than the desert 
wind, the highest point reached, whenever the temperature 
is above 90 degrees, usually occurs about eleven a.m. At this 
time the sea-breeze overcomes the land-breeze, and the tem- 
perature drops to the normal. 








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Nothing so clearly illustrates the strictly local character 
of the climate of San Diego as the humidity. While the mean 
annual relative humidity is 72 per cent at the Weather Bureau 
station, two miles north and at an increase of two hundred 
feet in elevation, the humidity decreases 15 per cent. Five 
miles away, and at an elevation of three hundred feet, there is 


a further decrease of 5 per cent. The temperature is of course 
proportionately higher. 

The maximum amount of sunshine occurs in November, and the 
minimum in May and June; the winters being usually bright 
and warm, and the summers cloudy and cool The photographic 
sunshine recorder was installed in 1890, and this sixteen years 
record shows an average of about three days each year without 

In 1902, there were two days above 80 degrees and three 
days below 40 degrees, making 9,905 days out of a possible 
10,226 days since 1875 (inclusive), when the temperature did 
not go beyond these extremes. 

In 1903, there were seven days above 80 degrees and 7 days 
below 40 degrees, making 9,919 days out of a possible 10,591 
days, since 1875 (inclusive), that the temperature did not go 
beyond these extremes. 

In 1904 there were 21 days above 80 degrees and one day 
below 40 degrees, making 10,262 days out of a possible 10,956 
days since 1875 (inclusive), that the temperature did not go 
beyond these extremes. 

In 1905, there were seven days above 80 degrees and three 
days below 40 degrees, making 10,608 days out of a possible 
11,321 days. 

There is a difference of about one mile an hour in the average 
hourly velocity of the wind between the summer and the winter 
months; the mean annual hourly velocity is five miles. While 
the wind blows from every point of the compass during a normal 
day, the land-breeze is very light, averaging about three miles 
per hour, reaching its lowest velocity just before the sea- 
breeze sets in. The records show that there is a a average 
velocity of from six to nine miles from ten a.m. to six p.m. 
During the summer a velocity of six miles is attained at nine 
a.m., increasing to ten miles at two p.m., reaching six miles at 
seven p.m. 

The winter months have about five hours of moderate wind 
beginning shortly after noon. Winds from twenty-five to thirty 
miles per hour occur infrequently, the average annual number 
being two. Winds of from thirty-one to forty miles have 
an average of less than one a year. The highest velocity ever 
attained was forty miles from the northwest, in February, 1878. 

The record of meteorological observations began in July, 
1849, and was made entirely by officials of the Government. 
The Army and Coast Survey kept up the record until the es- 
tablishment of this station by the Signal Service, Nov. 1, 1871. 
Since this date, the location of the observing office has been 
changed a number of times, but the different places have all 
been within a radius of a few blocks. The office is now in the 
Keating building, corner Fifth and F streets. The instruments 
have elevations above ground as follows: thermometer 94 feet; 
rain-gage, 86 feet; anemometer, 102 feet. 



In the table below will be found the following data : "A" 
—Greatest monthly precipitation and date. "B"— Least 
monthly precipitation and date. 

Table "A" ! § i •« 

i-s ' fa 








Year 1895 1884 1867 1878 | 1884 1850 1865 1873 1861 1889 1905 1889 

Amount 7 33 9 05 7 88 2 91 2 17 ©68 129 195 159 2 12 3 38 7 71 

Table "B" I 

Year *1850 *1885 ,*1857 *1864 *1850 *1852 *1850 *1850 *1850 '1853 ^'1872 1900 

Amount I i 02 OOljojOjOjOjOjOiO^O 

*Also in other years. 

Highest Wind Velocity, direction and date for each month, 
during the past 33 years. Record began January 1, 1873. 

Velocity Direction Day and Year 

January i 37 

February 40 

March 37 

April 39 

May 33 

June 24 

July 30 

August 25 

September •. 28 

October 32 

November 33 

December 36 














* 7 





















H 2 


* Direction and date missing. H Also west, on December 23, 1888. 

Maximum rate of rainfall from recording rain-gauge: 
record since 1893; December 28, 1896, in one minute, 0.19; 
in 5 minutes, 0.32; in 10 minutes, 0.47; in 1 hour, 0.79. 



Number of days with one hour or more of fog, and num- 
ber of thunder-storms in 20 years. Record began January 
1, 1886. 

Total number of 
foggy days 


Total number of 









































Total number of days on which precipitation has fallen 
since November 1, 1871. 







































0.11 to 0.25 





n 9fi +n n "io 

. ... 41 














Over 1.00 inch 







No snow is reported to have fallen at San Diego since the 
beginning of the record of observations in 1850. 

Dates when precipitation equalled or exceeded 2.50 inches 
in any consecutive 24 hours. — Local time. 

December 4th, 1873, 10 p. m. 3d, during night 4th 2.52 inches 

November 9th, 1879, during a.m. 9th, to8:10p. m. 9th 2.75 inches 

December 27th. 1879, 6 a. m. to 6 a. m. December 28th 2.55 inches 


By FORD A. CARPENTER, Local Forecaster, Weather Bureau 

Monthly mean temperatures for a period of fifty-four years. 




1881. .. 
1883 . . . 
1884. . . 
1885. . . 



1906 . 













































57 ' 

















67.1 73.2 
68.4 72.8 

66.5 69.2i 
67.0 69.7! 

64.5 68.8 

67.6 73.1 



65.7: 67.7 

66.6 69.7 
69.1 70.5 

65.7 69.4 
64.4 68.8 
64.1 1 
64. 1! 


63.0 63.4 

64.1 67.2 

64.3 66.7 
66.6 68.7 

64.4 68.4 
64.3 67.6 
63.1 67.1 
64.6 66.5 
66.0 68.4 
64.0 67.6 






















































































































51.9 62.0 

56.2: 63.4 

55.5 62.0 

52.4 62.4 

50.0 61.0 
51.8 61.9 

53.1 61.1 

55.3 61.1 
9 55.2 61.3 

58.1 63.3 

55.4 62.5 
.55.8 61.6 
.56.5 63.4 
.52.2 62.1 
.58.6 63.0 



50.6 62.2 

51.4 61.2' 
.56.8 61.8 
.55.4 60.4 
54.3 60.0 
.53.3 .59.6 
.56.9 61.6 

56.8 61.0 
.56.8 62.1 

53.5 60.6 

53.9 60.1 
.56.9 58.5 
55.0 60.4 
.55.7 59.8 



56.0 60.5 

54.6 60.6 

58.2 61.7 

57.4 62.6 
52.2 61.8 

61.5 62.0 
54.2 60.2 
57.4 60.6 
57.4 60.6 
54.8' 58.4 
55.0 60.5 
59.0' 6J.9 
55.0 61.0 

56.6 60.5 
.58.7 60.1 
60.4 62.0 
57.8 61.2 
55.8 60.1 
.57.8 61.2 
58.8 63.2 
56.0 61.4 



Monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation at San Diego, 

























































































7. SB 




































































































































































2. .50 











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































1891-92 8.25 















1892-93! 9.21 















189.3-94: 5.01 















1894-951 11.86 















1895-96 6.34 














1896-971 11.66 















1897-981 4.98 















1898-991 5.31 















1899-90 5.90 















1900-01 10.45 




1 86 











1901-02 7.09 















1902-03 10.84 
1903-04! 4.40 





























1904-05 14.48 













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Greatest precipitation in 24 hours for each month. 












1 1? 
















1 ..53 












































1 96 
















1 .35 























































1 74 







0.10 0.00 

0.02 0.00 

0.21 0.00 

0.08 0.02 



0.69 0.08 

1.45 0.24' 

0.54 0.04 

0.02 0.04 

0.44 0.04 

0.15 0.04 

0.02 0.10 

0.04 0.00 

0.34 0.05 

0.95 .013 




0.26 0.02 

0.07 0.25 

1.35 0.05: 

0.52 0.02 

0.05 T 

0.11 T 

0.08 0.00 

0.23 T 
0.281 I 














T I 















0.00 0.53 

0..54 2.52 

0.31 0.55 

0..52 0.32 

0.03 0.10 

0.06 1.091 

0.00 0.581 




0.07 0.19 

0.31 0.11 

0,20 0.63 1.82 

0.10 1.66' 1.89 

0.59 0.48| 

0.74 0.06 

1.80 0.74 

0.60 1.04, 

0.08 2.31 

0.72 ].23i 

0.09 0.69 

0.82 0.43 

0.81 0.74' 

0.00 0.59 

0.46 0.151 

0.88' l.lOi 

0.02 0.17 

O.lli 0.71 

0.42, 0.54, 

0.52 0.00 

T ' 





HE advantages of Sail Diego's remarkable 
harbor have been appreciated by a few wise 
spirits from the days of its earliest discov- 
ery. Father Serra writes of it as "truly a 
fine one, and with reason famous." The 
wise Goethe understood the strategic situa- 
tion of the port with reference to the Pan- 
ama Canal and the inevitable expansion of 
the United States. In 1827, he said in conversation: 

But I should wonder if the United States were to let an oppor- 
tunity escape of getting such work [the construction of a canal] 
into their own hands. It may be foreseen that this young state, 
with its decided predilection for the West, will within thirty or 
forty years, have occupied and peopled the large tract of land 
beyond the Rocky Mountains. It may, furthermore, be foreseen 
that along the whole coast of the Pacific Ocean, where nature 
has already formed the most capacious and secure harbors, im- 
portant commercial towns will gradually arise, for the further- 
ance of a great intercourse between China and the East Indies 
and the United States. 

Professor George Davidson, of the United States Coast Sur- 
vey, wrote of San Diego Bay as follows, and has since repeated 
and emphasized his opinion : ' ' Next to that of San Francisco, 
no harbor on the Pacific Coast of the United States approxi- 
mates in excellence the Bay of San Diego. The bottom is uni- 
formly good; no rocks have been discovered in the bay or 
approaches ; the position of the bay with relation to the coast, 
and of the bar with relation to Point Loma, is such that there 
is rarely much swell on the bar; as a rule, there is much less 
swell on this bar than on any other bar on the Pacific Coast. 
There is less rain, fog, and thick haze, and more clear weather 
in this vicinity than at all points to the northward, and the 
entrance is less difficult to make and enter on that account. 
Large vessels can go about seven miles (geographical) up the 
bay, with an average width of channel of 800 yards between the 
four fathom lines at low water. This indicates sufficient capac- 
ity to accommodate a large commerce." 

Commodore C. P. Patterson, superintendent of the United 
States Coast Survey, says: "The depth over the bar (at low 


water) is 22 feet. The bar remains in a remarkably permanent 
state. The distance across the bar, from an outside depth of 
27 feet to the same depth inside, is 285 yards, so that the 
removal of about 60,000 yards of material would give a channel 
of 300 feet wide and 281/0 feet deep over the bar at mean low 
water. I have crossed this bar at all hours, both day and night, 
with steamers of from 1,000 to 3,000 tons burden, during all 
seasons, for several years, without any detention whatever. 
Ample accommodations can be had in this harbor for a very 
large commerce. There is no safer harbor on the Pacific Coast 
for entering or leaving, or for vessels lying off- wharves. It is 
the only land-locked harbor south of San Francisco and north 
of San Quentin, Lower California, a stretch of 600 miles of 
coast, and, from a national point of view, its importance is so 
great that its preservation demands national protection and jus- 
tifies national expenditure. Fortunately, these expenditures 
need not be great, if the stable regimen of the harbor be 
preserved, ' ' 

During a storm in February, 1878, when the wind reached 
the highest point ever registered at San Diego, the United States 
Coast Survey steamer Hassler lay directly upon the bar taking 
soundings and surveying the harbor. Duj?ing that same storm 
the Orizaba was obliged to pass by every stopping place between 
San Diego and San Francisco, and to lie off the latter port 
three days before attempting to cross the bar. It is not uncom- 
mon to see large full-rigged ships sailing into San Diego har- 
bor and tying up to the wharf without a pilot. 

Admiral Ossipee, who was here in 1870, was of the opinion 
that San Diego harbor is "amply capacious to accommodate 
twice the present commerce of the Pacific Coast." 

Lieutenant A. B. Gray, one of the first to appreciate its capac- 
ity and advantages, said of it : 

In 1782 it was surveyed by Don Jnan Pantoja, second pilot 
or navigator of the Spanish fleet. In the summer of 1849 the 
shore line was accurately measured and triangulated under the 
direction of Hon. John B. Weller, United States Commissioner, 
in connection with the initial point of the Mexican boundary; 
and in the spring of 1850, while encamped there awaiting in- 
structions from Washington, I sounded the harbor thoroughly; 
and in conjunction with the officers of the U. S. Steamer 
Massachusetts, extended the soundings into deep water. . . . 
In 1851-2 it was again surveyed and sounded by the United 
States Coast Survey. From the results of the three examina- 
tions, it appears that the conformation of the shore line was 
very little if any changed; and the soundings are identically 
the same. The average rise and fall of tide is 6Vi feet, and 
six fathoms at low water is carried in over the bar, for a dis- 
tance of eight miles up the bay; when five, four and three 
fathoms are extended for seven miles further. The channel of 


deep water is half a mile wide for over eight miles; at one 
place a little less (near the entrance). On either side of the 
four fathom curve, which is distinctly marked, the bank being 
very precipitous, are flats having from one to three fathoms, 
generally averaging two fathoms, and at one bend of the bay ■ 
nearly two miles broad. No difficulty is experienced in getting 
into the harbor day or night, with a chart or pilot; the wind 
from any quarter. For nine months of the year the prevailing 
winds are from the northwest, and during the months of Novem- 
ber, December and January the south-easters make their ap- 
pearance on the coast; occasionally^ very heavy storms lasting 
several days at a time; but when fairly in the harbor it is as 
smooth as a mill-pond, and a vessel will ride more securely at 
anchor than in the harbor of New York, so completely land- 
locked and protected from all gales as it is. There are no 
heavy swells upon the bar and the channel is very regular. A 
strong current sets in and out of the harbor, and so long as the 
tides continue to ebb and flow, that long will the deep channel 
remain the same, unless by some sudden disturbance in nature 
a change takes place in the form of the bay. 

It is simply necessary to examine a correct chart of the 
port of San Diego to observe at once its capacity. From a 
residence of several years there, and close observation, I feel 
satisfied that for all the ocean traffic of the Pacific, from the 
islands and the Indies, it is amply capacious, being large 
enough to hold comfortably more than a thousand vessels at 
a time. 

It is not because personally interested, as a resident of 
San Diego, that I am thus particular in describing the harbor, 
for its geographical position with the great facilities which the 
parallel of 32 offers for the construction of the Pacific railway, 
must in the event of such being accomplished, insure for it 
prominency in a commercial view. But, it is because misappre- 
hension has been felt by many that the harbor is not sufficiently 
capacious. This surmise has been based upon statements of 
persons who have not spoken understandingly, or at least 
have not had correct information. One in particular, to which 
I refer, is calculated to mislead, because of the high rank and 
position which the officer has held. He of course had no in- . 
tention of misinforming, but must have formed his opinion 
upon the common impression existing previous to the accession 
of California and without examination. This idea, of its being 
a small harbor, arose from the fact of the very little or no 
traffic at San Diego except for one or two ships a year putting 
in for hides and tallow, and occasionally for water. Inside the 
natural pier, so perfectly formed that it seems almost artificial, 
and immediately at the entrance of the port, was the common 
anchorage, because it afforded safety, and a fine beach for 
drying and curing hides. There was no necessity for vessels 
going further, and so long had it been since the old Spanish 
fleets visited it, that no one thought of the deep channel exist- 
ing to such an extent up the bay. I am satisfied that the author 
of the statement referred to, if at San Diego at all, was never 
fairly in the harbor, but at its entrance opposite La Playa, 
the narrowest part in eight miles of five ancl six fathoms of 
water. Though this lower part of the bay is perfectly safe 
and land-locked, it is nevertheless but a small portion of the 



harbor, which maj be said to have a shore line on each side 
of four leagues at least. The Spanish fleet anchored seven 
miles above the entrance, and at a point where the channel 
lies close to the shore, which they named Punta de los Muertos 
(Point of the Dead), from burying a number of the crew there, 
who had died from scurvy, contracted on the voyage. * * 

I do not hesitate to say that in climate it cannot be sur- 
passed by any in the world, and for capacity and safety there 
are few harbors on either coast of North America superior to 
San Diego, admitting the largest class ships of water, and 
at all times. 


Showing the Lighthouse on Ballast Point, the Government Quarantine Station and Marine 
Hospital on the site of the Hide Houses, La Playa and the road to Old San Diego 

The Bay of San Diego is 12 miles long and from 1 to 2 miles 
broad. The total area is 22 square miles, and the available 
anchorage 6 square miles. On San Francisco bar there is a 
depth of dy^ fathoms ; on Humboldt bar sometimes 3 fathoms, 
but at other times not exceeding 15 feet; on the Umpqua bar, 
12 to 13 feet ; on the Columbia River bar, 41/0 fathoms ; on Shoal- 
water Bay bar, 4% fathoms. All of these bars change much, 
except that of San Francisco. The depth of water on the bar 
also compares favorably with harbors on the eastern coast of the 
United States. Boston has about 18 feet; New York, 231/2; 


Philadelphia, 18 ; Charleston, Mobile, and New Orleans, 18 feet. 
The water frontage available is almost as great as that of New 
York City, and far greater than that of any other harbor on 
the Pacific Coast. 

On the west, the bay is protected by a long, narrow strip 
known as the Coronado Peninsula, which terminates on the 
north in the townsite of Coronado and beyond that, next to the 
channel, in North Island. The entrance to the harbor is fur- 
ther protected by the peculiar formation known as Point Loma, 
Avhich is a high, rocky promontory stretching out into the ocean 
from a point opposite Old Town southwesterly and southerly, 
a distance of about five and one-half miles, with a width of 
from two and one-half miles to half a mile. The formation is 
a crumbling sandstone, but it is covered with soil for the most 
part, and with an adequate supply of water the Point will one 
day be made a place of beauty. 

The first board of harbor commissioners of San Diego con- 
sisted of Clark Alberti, W. W. Stewart, and J. H. Barbour. 
Their appointment dates from March 18, 1889, and they met 
and organized on May 15th. Alberti was made president ; his 
term was for four years. Stewart's term was three years. 
Barbour acted as secretary ; his term was two years. Harry L. 
Titus was appointed attorney to the board; M. G. Wheeler, 
chief engineer; and Nestor A. Young, chief wharfinger. 

April 14, 1893, D. C. Reed and C. W. Pauly were appointed, 
vice Alberti and Stewart. Pauly resigned on September 11th 
following, and was succeeded by W. W. Stewart. The board 
then consisted of Reed, president ; Barbour, secretary : and 

On March 31, 1896, F. H. Dixon and N. H. Conklin became 
members, succeeding Barbour and Stewart, whose terms had 
expired. The board then consisted of D. C. Reed, president, 
term expiring December 31, 1897 ; N. H. Conklin, term expir- 
ing June 6, 1900; and F. H. Dixon, secretary, term expiring 
June 6, 1900. The attorney of the board was D. L. Withington. 

During 1895 and 1896, little was done, partly on account of 
the tide land troubles. The board say in their biennial report: 

Nearly all the tide lands adjacent to the Bay of San Diego 
over which the Board is supposed to exercise control, are 
claimed by private parties. This property is rapidly increasing 
in value. Every year new complications are arising from this 
disputed ownership. Therefore, the Board anxiously await 
the decision of the Supreme Court, which we trust will be ren- 
dered before the convening of the next coming session of the 
State Legislature. 

W. J. Prout succeeded D. C. Reed in December, 1897. and 
served to June 6, 1900. The tide land troubles continued, and 


ill the biennial report of the commissioners (Conklin, Dixon, 
and Front), dated October 29, 1898, they say: "Since the 
present board has come into office they have been diligently 
striving to secnre possession of the tide lands adjacent to the 
Bay of San Diego. ... A large portion of these tide lands 
have been bronght under our control, and we are confident that 
in the near future the decisions of the courts will give us pos- 
session of the remainder." Conklin was president and Dixon 

June '20. 1900. CI. D. Grow, George M. Hawley and J. E. 
O'Brien became commissioners. Grow was president. He died 
in office February 7, 1903; O'Brien and Hawley served to 
November 20, 1901. Robert B. Benton was appointed to suc- 
ceed 'Brien and served from November 20, 1901, to March 13, 
1903. Charles P. Douglass succeeded Hawley, serving as sec- 
retary from November 20, 1901, to .March 13, 1903. Hawley. 
and O'Brien resigned and Benton and Douglass were appointed 
to succeed them. The biennial report of Commissioners Grow, 
Benton, and Douglass for the years 1900-1902 shows no receipts 
and no disbursements. 

The present board consists of Charles W. Oesting, presidi^nt; 
Capt. W. H. Pringle; and Eugene DeBurn, secretary. They 
were appointed ^Nlarch 13, 1903. Capt. Pringle is harbor-master ; 
Eugene Daney, attorney; and G. A. d'Hemecourt, engineer. 

AVithin the administration of the present board, their work has 
entered upon a new phase. The tide lands cjuestion was settled 
some years ago and the jurisdiction of the board established. A 
number of franchises have been granted, and the importance of 
the board's work has steadily grown. 

The San Diego River rises in the Volcan ^Mountains, about 
sixty miles from the city, and flows in a general southwesterly 
course through the El Cajon and ex-]\Iission ranchos, and the 
pueblo lands of San Diego, into False Bay. At Capitan Grande, 
thirty-five miles from its mouth, it is joined by a branch rising 
to the southeast in the Cuyamaca IVIountains. It is also fed by 
numerous springs along its course. From its sources to Capitan 
Grande or a little farther, the river iiows all the year round ; but 
thence onward, it sinks into the sand in the dry summers, after 
the curious fashion of California rivers, and disappears from 
sight. For this peculiarity it has been much lampooned, from 
the days of John Phoenix downward ; but the explanation is 
very simple. Above the point named, the bed-rock formation is 
near the surface and keeps the water in its visible channel ; while 
below, the rock lies deeper and the channel is filled with light 
sand into which the water sinks and continues to floAV under- 
ground to the sea. Water can be had in large cpiantities by dig- 
ging in its bed. For many years the city of San Diego depended 


entirely upon water pumped from wells in the river bed, near 
Old Town. This peculiar construction forms a natural filter, and 
has many other points to recommend it and to compensate for 
the disadvantage of non-navigability. 

It is probable that, at one time, San Diego and False bays were 
one body of water, and Point Loma an island. The low land 
between Old San Diego and Point Loma bears every appearance 
of having been carried in by the river. At the time the Spanish 
settlement at Presidio Hill was made, the river was emptying 
into False Bay, and it continued to do so until the second decade 
of the nineteenth century. Exactly when it broke into San 
Diego Bay is a matter of dispute. It has been stated in this 
History, on the authority of Bias Aguilar, that it was in the 
autumn of 1821, but Juan Bandini said it was in 1825 and it 
is frequently so stated. Pio Pico thought it occurred in 1828. 
and this is supported by the statement of Duhaut-Cilly that the 
river was flowing into False Bay in 1827. However, it is possi- 
ble that both are correct, since Aguilar stated that the flow was 
not all diverted into San Diego Bay, but was divided; and we 
may therefore suppose that the flood in the fall of 1821 marks 
the time when any part of the water first began to flow into San 
Diego Bay, and that within a few years after it was totally 
diverted into the new channel, either by another flood or by slow 
accretions of sand. 

From this time on, the river continued to flow into San Diego 
Bay for nearly fifty years, with only one slight interruption, 
and steadily filled up the shallow waters lying on the side toward 
Old Town. The danger to the harbor was early recognized. In 
1846 Emory wrote: "Well grounded fears are entertained that 
the immense quantity of sand discharged by this river Avill mate- 
rially endanger, if it does not destroy, the harbor of San Diego : 
but this evil could be arrested at a slight cost, compared with 
the objects to be attained." In September, 1851, A. D. Bache, 
superintendent of the Coast Survey, wrote to the Secretary of 
the Treasury : " It is believed . . . that unless the course 
of the river be changed, the channel will be ultimately filled, 
which will have the effect, I think, of destroying the bay entirely 
as a harbor. . . . The only remedy for the evil is to turn 
the river into False Bay again. This is an excellent harbor and 
its loss would be severely felt. ' ' Several attempts were made by 
the people of San Diego to turn the stream by erecting barriers 
of sand and brush, but they all proved ineffectual. 

September 30, 1850, an ordinance was passed by the city 
trustees for the turning of the San Diego River by the construc- 
tion of a pile dam at a cost of $1,000. A committee of the coun- 
cil reported October 10th that nothing could be effected tOAvard 
turning the river by the means proposed, and the project was 


dropped. The matter continued to be strongly urged, by peti- 
tions, newspapers, and congressmen, and finally in 1858 an 
appropriation was secured and Lieutenant George H. Derby sent 
on to construct a dam. 

Derby seems to have had correct ideas about the way in which 
the work should be done. He proposed to straighten the chan- 
nel and build a substantial dam, but the appropriation was too 
small and he was instructed to follow the old winding channel, 
merely throwing the sand out upon the south bank, and con- 
structing a bulkhead of timber at the old river crossing. The 
work was commenced in September and completed in November, 
1853. It was done bj* Indian laborers, and the irrepressible 
Derby had a good deal of fun while it was in progress. It proved 
a good dry weather dam, but was worthless to resist a flood. It 
stood for two years, but gave way in 1855, and the river again 
flowed unchecked into the great harbor. 

Beginning in 1869, several reconnaissances were made with a 
view to ascertaining the extent of the trouble and the best means 
of remedying it. One engineer distinguished himself by report- 
ing that no damage was being done, and that the diversion of the 
river into False Bay was not urgently demanded. But better 
counsel prevailed. In 1875 an appropriation of $80,000 was 
obtained for carrying out the work, and in 1877 it was done in 
a thorough-going manner. The channel was straightened, an 
adequate earthen embankment constructed, and a substantial 
bulkhead built. These works have stood every test, including the 
unusual flood of the winter of 1905-06, and are undoubtedly per- 
manent. The failure to construct them in a proper manner w^as 
a waste of money and a serious menace to San Diego 's prosperity. 

False Bay has never been navigable within the memory of liv- 
ing men, although there are traditions that one or two Spanish 
vessels found their way into it at flood tide. It is used to a cer- 
tain extent for navigation by small boats, and is a favorite resort 
of duck-hunters, but has no commercial value. 

The extent of the damage done to San Diego Bay by the river 
is not as great as might have been anticipated. From Roseville 
easterly, there is a stretch of waters which were always rather 
shallow and are now largely bare at low tide. Old residents can 
remember sailing boats over this ground, and it has been related 
how the Spanish soldiers navigated a boat across it, between Pre- 
sidio Hill and Fort Guijarros. But it is now substantially what 
it has always been — marsh land. 

The valley through which the river flows after leaving El 
Ca.jon is a remarkable one. It has a length of about six miles, 
extending in almost a straight course from the mission to Old 
Town, with an average width of more than half a mile, and is 
flanked on north and south by steep and rugged hills rising to 


a height of 300 feet or more. Through this valley the river 
sprawls and winds its sluggish way, except at times of flood, 
M'hen it sometimes fills a large part of the floor of the valley with 
a turbid stream. The soil along the channel of the river is sandy, 
but is cultivated to some extent ; a little higher, on the mesa lands 
at the foot of the hills, is fertile soil on which lie some of the 
most comfortable and productive homesteads in the county. It 
was in this valley that a large part of the agriculture of the 
Mission Fathers was carried on. 

The floods in the river have been many, and at times consid- 
erable damage was wrought. The first great flood of which 
there is any record occurred in 1811 : the second Avas in 1821 
according to Aguilar, or 1825 by other accounts ; the third took 
place in the winter of 1839-40 ; the fourth in 1855 ; the fifth in 
1857 ; the sixth in 1862 ; and the seventh in the past winter of 
1905-06. Some particulars of these earlier floods have been given. 
The most recent overflow is fresh in the public mind, when 
farms were flooded in Mission Valley which had not been over- 
flowed for many years. The embankment at the north end of 
the Old Town bridge was washed away and the river changed 
its channel at that point and began flowing several yards far- 
ther north. It was only by the most energetic work that the 
bridge was saved and the river restored to its old channel. In 
many other places, the channel was completely changed. The 
water continued to flow visibly, in a considerable stream, to the 
ocean until late in the summer of 1906 — a most unusual 

of Daggett's Drug Store. 

Manager of the Hub Clothing Company. 

Member Park Commission. 

Of Scott-Burnham Investment Company 

One of the leading young business men 
of the city. 

President Imperial Realty Company. 

A leading florist. 



ITII the ^lexical! War San Diego became an 
important military station and considerable 

W/Ay improvement has been made, from time to 
YQ time, of its natnral advantages as a harbor of 
\< refuge and defense. Troops were quartered in 
the Old Mission for about ten years after the 
Mexican War. The quartermaster's depart- 
ment was estaiilished at New San Diego in 
1850-1. Among well known army officers stationed here in early 
days were the following: 

Colonel John Bankhead ^lagruder, about whom many stories 
are told. He was a strict disciplinarian when acting officially 
and was sometimes called "Bully" Magruder; but he Avas also 
convivial and drank deep with Lieutenant Derby and other con- 
genial comrades. When the Civil War broke out, he became a 
somewhat noted cavalry commander on the Confederate side. 

Captain Nathaniel Lyon, who was much beloved in San Diego. 
He gave the first ball ever held in the old barracks, and owned 
one of the first houses in New San Diego. He was killed at the 
l)attle of Wilson's Creek, in Missouri, early in the Civil War. 

Lieutenant George Stoneman, later a general in the Union 
army and governor of California; Captain Edward 0. C. Ord, 
later a LTnion general ; Major William H. Emory, who came with 
Kearny's expedition in December, 18-t6, and was later a Union 
general ; Captain John F. Reynolds, who became a Union 
general and M^as killed at Gettysburg; Lieutenant George L. 
Andrews, whom Derby called "that mad wag," and who was 
on the staff of General Canby at Mobile ; Lieutenant Adam J. 
Slemmer, the hero of Fort Pickens at- the beginning of the Civil 
War, who became a LTnion general, and lost a leg at the battle of 
Stone River (married a daughter of the Rev. John Reynolds) ; 
Lieutenant (afterward General) John S. Mason; Lieutenant 
Francis E. Patterson, who died a general in Virginia ; Major 
Lewis A. Armistead, later a general in the Confederate army, 
who was killed at Gettysburg ; Colonel Frederick Steele, later a 
general; Lieutenant George B. Dandy, afterward a general and 
stationed at dii¥erent points on the Pacific Coast as quartermas- 
ter; Colonel (then Lieutenant) Hamilton; Lieutenant Murray, 
who became a Confederate colonel and was severelv wounded at 



the first battle of Bull Run ; Major George II. Riuggold ; Major 
Edward H. Fitzgerald, who led "the Fitzgerald Volunteers" in 
the Garra Insurrection of 1851 ; Major Justus McKinstry ; Cap- 
tain Foster; Captain Kellogg; Captain Winder; Captain Edward 
B. Williston ; Doctor John S. Griffin, of San Pasqual fame, Avho 
later lived at Los Angeles ; Surgeons Hammond, Keeney, Edgar ; 
and many more. 

The details of military life and activities in and around San 
Diego are somewhat l)eside the scope of this book. In a general 


way, a military post and quartermaster's depot were maintained 
from the dates named. It was also for a time made a depot of 
military supplies for a large number of frontier army posts. 
The post at Fort Yuma w^as for a time supplied from San Fran- 
cisco by small steamers Avhich ran up the Gulf of California, but 
in 1851 a line of pack trains across the desert was successfully 
established by William H. Hilton, who carried the supplies from 
San Diego to Yuma for some time, under contract. Mr. Hilton 
is still living, in Berkeley'. Later, a military road and telegraph 



across the desert were constructed and played an important part 
in the life of the Southwest. In later years, the military activ- 
ities in and around San Diego have had reference chietly to the 
construction of the harbor fortifications, improvement of the 
reservation, etc. 

The necessity for a militarj^ reservation on Point Loma was 
recognized by the officers of the United States Army immediately 
upon taking possession of the country. In a report to the Sec- 
retarj'^ of War dated at Monterey, March 1, 1849, General Henrj'- 

Site of the old Spanish fort; Point Loma in the background 

W. Halleck Avrote, referring to a military reconnaissance ordered 
by General Kearny in 1847 : 

"The most southern point in Upper California here recom- 
mended for occupation by permanent works of defense, is the 
entrance to the Bay of San Diego. On the north side of this 
entrance, which is probably the most favorable position for worlds 
of military defense, are the remains of old Fort Guijarros, built 
by the Spaniards some seventy years ago. This fort, though 
never of much value in itself, was occupied nearly up to the 



time the United States took possession of the country, and all 
the ground in the vicinity is still regarded as public property." 
The military reservation was made by executive order dated 
February 26, 1852. The land included was practically all un- 
granted by the San Diego city trustees. In the patent which 
was issued to the city for its pueblo lands, this reservation was 
excluded, which left the title vested in the United States under 
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This fact was not clearly 
understood in early days, even by some government officials. As 


late as 1867, the chief of the government board of engineers for 
the Pacific Coast applied to the trustees of the city of San Diego 
for a grant of land as a military reservation on Point Loma. 
Nothing came of this, but it shows the lack of information regard- 
ing the source of the government's title to its military reserva- 
tion on Point Loma. 

The reservation includes all the outer end of the Point Loma 
peninsula, to a line running east and west through the center 
of La Playa. It forms a strip of land about two miles wide at 
the widest and about three miles long. Possession was taken 
February 28, 1870. The works were begun on Ballast Point in 


May, 1873, and have been carried on since. Work on the pres- 
ent fortifications began June 21, 1897. The barracks, officei's' 
quarters, depots, etc., are built along the military roadway lead- 
ing southerly on the eastern side of the peninsula. The situa- 
tion is a healthful and romantic one, and the fortifications are 
capable of being made very strong. The defensive works are 
known as Fort Rosecrans. They were first garrisoned l\v 20 
men of Battery D, 3rd U. S. Artillery, under Lieutenant G. T. 
Patterson, February 20, 1898. The present garrison consists of 
8 officers and 194 men, ]\Iajor Charles G. Woodward, U. S. A., 
commanding. It is a two company post. It is thought worthy of 
record that the first child born at Fort Rosecrans was the daugh- 
ter of Lieutenant and Mrs. Deangly, of the 28th Company, Coast 
Artillery, born February 11, 1906. The army officers and their 
families have, from the days of the military occupation, formed 
an important part of the social life of San Diego. There are also 
a number of retired army officers who make it their home. 

In order to guard the harbor against the action of certain con- 
flicting currents caused by the Zuninga Shoal, the government 
in 1894 commenced the construction of a jetty extending from 
a point on North Island, opposite Ballast Point, straight south 
into the ocean a distance of 7,500 feet. This jetty was several 
years under construction, and is a notable piece of engineering. 
It is constructed of willow mattresses, sunk between piles and 
weighted down with rock. Before commencing the work, 18.05 
acres of land on the island were acquired by condemnation, and 
later 38.56 acres more were purchased. The cost of the jetty 
was about $500,000. The fort at this place is called Fort 
Pio Pico. 

An automatic tide gauge was set up at La Playa by Lieuten- 
ant W. P. Trowbridge, assistant in the Coast Survey, in Sep- 
tem1)er, 1853. There had been one tidal observer before him. 
Lieutenant Derby writes of "an odd-looking little building on 
stilts out in the water, where a savant named Sabot, in the em- 
ploy of the IT. S. Engineers, makes mysterious observations on 
the tide." It was continued until September 1, 1872, under the 
care of Andrew Cassidy, W. Knapp and IT. E. Urlandt in suc- 
cession. Cassidy served seventeen years. A new gauge was 
established at the Quarantine Station in January, 1906, by 
Assistant B. A. Baird. The present observer is John A. Watkins. 

The old lighthouse on Point Loma is a somewhat noted land- 
mark. There was long a tradition that it was the highest light- 
house in the world, but this is an error. Its elevation is 492 feet, 
and there are others much higher, some having more than twice 
its elevation. Work upon it was begun in 1851, when the mem- 
liers of the Coast Survey selected the site. The lantern was first 
lighted on November 15, 1855. Experience showed that ocea- 


sioual fogs obscured the light, and in the 70 's a new lighthouse 
was constructed at the southerly extremity of Point Loma, and 
early in the 80 's another one on the extremity of Ballast Point 
at the entrance' to the harbor. Both these lights are at the 
water's edge and free from the objections to the old situation. 
There is also a fog bell on Ballast Point, which it is necessary to 
use but little. The channel was not buoyed until October, 1875, 
when piles were driven and beacons placed upon them. 

The first lighthouse keeper was named Keating. Joseph Reiner 
served for a time in the 50 's. From 1865 to 1868 the keeper was 
Wm. C. Price. John D. Jenkins served in 1869, and after him 
Enos A. Wall was in charge for a short time. Robert D. Israel 
became keeper June 14, 1871, and served until January 6, 1892 
— almost twenty-one years. He was succeeded by George P. 
Brennan. The present keeper of the Point Loma lighthouse is 
Richard Weis ; of the lighthouse on Ballast Point, David Splaine. 

The Quarantine Station at La Playa was established in 1888, 
and work upon the buildings was begun in 1891. The Marine 
Hospital in connection with it occupies nearly the site of the old 
hide houses. These buildings are to be turned over to the navy 
department and the site used as a coaling station, the quaran- 
tine station and hospital being removed elsewhere. 

The United States Weather Bureau, at first called the ' ' Storm 
Signal Office," was established at San Diego late in October, 
1871, by Sergeant J. B. Wells, and the reports began a few days 
later. The station has recently been raised to the rank of a fore- 
cast station, 

Officials of the "Weather Bureau. 



1871 to Aug. 



.T. B. Wells. 



1876 to .Tune 



C. E. Howgate. 



1877 to April 



M. M. Sickler. Kesigned. 



1879 to June 



W. IT. Simons. 



1879 to Nov. 



M. L. Hearne. 



1879 to Dec. 



W. H. Clenderson. 



1880 to Nov. 



William Story. 



1881 to Aug. 



Asa C. Dobbins. Died in oflfice. 



1883 to July 



F. E. Day. 



1884 to Aug. 



J. C. Sprigg, jr. 



1886 to March 



M. L. Hearne. Died in office. 

March 30, 1896 to present, Ford A. Carpenter. 

Present Assistants: Clark Simpson and Dean Blake. 

Under the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, 
San Diego became a customs port of the United States. The port 
of entry was abolished by the Act of June 2, 1862, and re- 
established by Act of March 3, 1873. The first collector under 
the American military administration was jMiguel de Pedrorena, 
appointed in July, 1847. The first collector under the civil 


administration was Wm. C. Ferrell, who served from April 3, 
1849, to 1853. From 1853 to 1857 the collector was 0. S. With- 
erby. March 23, 1857, General Jose M. Covarrubias, of Santa 
Barbara, was appointed, and served two years, when he was 
removed. Covarrubias' successor was Henry Hancock, who 
served till January 10, 1860. Joshua Sloaue followed with a term 
extending from April 8 to July 27, 1861. Some of the stories 
told about his administration have been related. Captain jNIathew 
Sherman served from December, 1868, to the following May, 
when David B. Hoffman was appointed. He was succeeded by 
G. W. B. McDonald in July, 1872, and McDonald bv W. J. 
McCormick on March 26, 1873. 

In the following fall, the collector's office was robbed and 
McCormick was found bound and gagged and claimed it was the 
work of the robbers. He was accused of having taken the funds 
himself and of trying to conceal his guilt by a pretended rob- 
bery. The trial excited great interest and some bitterness ; 
McCormick was acquitted, but removed from office. 

Wm. W. Bowers was appointed on September 25, 1874, and 
served until July 29, 1882. George A. Johnson was then 
appointed, and served to August 7, 1886, when Thomas J. 
Arnold became collector. His successor was John R. Berry, 
appointed February 6, 1890, during whose administration the 
Itata case occurred. He was followed by John C. Fisher, on 
February 16, 1894, and Wm. W. Bowers was again made col- 
lector on March 15, 1898. He served until February 6, 1906, 
when Frank W. Barnes was appointed, and the latter is the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

There is no official record of clearances of vessels and custom 
house receipts at the port of San Diego, prior to the year 1875. 
In the following table the figures prior to that year have been 
gathered from newspapers, and those later are furnished by the 
Treasury Department : 



Statement showing entrances and clearances of vessels and 
aggregate receipts from customs at the Port of San Diego. 


Vessels Enteed 

Vessels Cleared 

Year s 

1 1 






























































4 1 



























































































1896 - 













; 9 
























































7 i 




















The first postmaster at Old San Diego was Richard Rust, in 
1850. The following year Henry J. Gouts served. In 1853 
George Lyons was postmaster ; in 1856, Richard Rust ; and the 
next year Lyons again. In 1858 W. B. Gouts was appointed 
and the next year Joshua Sloane. D. A. Hollister served in 
1865-6-7 ; then Thomas H. Bush was appointed. After Bush, 
Louis Rose served about ten years, resigning in June, 1883. The 
present postmaster at "North San Diego" is Paul Gonnors. 

The postoffice at South San Diego was established April 8, 
1869. The first postmaster was Dr. Jacob Allen. He kept a 
drug store and the postoffice was kept in this store. A few years 
later he removed to Riverside and spent his last days in that city. 

On December 23, 1869, Freeman Gates was appointed to suc- 
ceed Dr. Allen. He made Golumbus Dunham deputy postmaster, 
and Dunham did all the work of the office. At this time, the 
postoffice was removed to Dunham's building, on Fifth Street 
between F and G. In the following ]\Iay South San Diego was 
made a money order office. Mr. Dunham succeeded Gates as 
postmaster on April 28, 1870, and served until his death, March 
18, 1876. His salary as postmaster was $150 per annum. The 
name of the office was changed to San Diego, April 14, 1871. 
The subsequent incumbents have been : Daniel Ghoate, from 
March 27, 1876 ; Henry H. Burton, appointed February 25, 1881 ; 
George D. Gopeland, from May 23, 1881 ; Gustav W. Jorres, 
October 12, 1885 ; Allen D. Norman, November 10, 1887 ; How- 
ard M. Kutchin, January 27, 1890; Richard V. Dodge, Febru- 
ary 16, 1894; Moses A. Luce, February 11, 1898; and John N. 
Newkirk, appointed February 28, 1902, and recently reappointed. 

One of the most interesting relics of governmental activities 
now at San Diego is the old boat Pint a. She was built at Ghes- 
ter, Pennsylvania, in 1864, and when new was the fastest boat 
in the navy. Later, she served as a fourth-class gunboat. Her 
last regular service M^as at the Alaska station. She was con- 
demned at San Francisco about the year 1896 and sent to San 
Diego, where she barely arrived under her own steam. At the 
time of the Virgi]iius affair, in the fall of 1873, she was off 
the Guban coast and played an important part in conveying the 
news to the United States. At present her only usefulness is as 
headquarters for the naval battalion. 



See how the villa lifts its face of light 

Against the pallid olives. Look down this vista 's shade 

Of dark square shaven slopes, where spurts 

The fountain's thin white thread and blows away! 

Here will we sit and let the sleeping noon 

Doze on and dream into the afternoon. 

While all the mountains shake in opal light, 

Forever shifting, till the sun's last glance 

Transfigures with its splendor all our world. 

There, Table Mountain on the horizon piles 

Its lofty crown, and gazes on the sea; 

There swarthy Loma crouches in repose. 

And Sierra Madre rears its jjurple ridge 

And wears its ermine late into the spring. 

When all beneath is one vast bush of flowers. 

Dear Coronado! Nothing, is like her; 

Others may please me — her alone I love. 

She is no place as other places are. 

But like a mother and a mistress too — 

The soul of places, unto whom I give 

How gladly all my heart, and with it more, 

That I might give more. 

—W. W. Story. 

Much of the prosperity of San Diego, cluriDg the great boom 
and after, was due to the developments on the Coronado Penin- 
sula. The original name for the strip of land lying between San 
Diego Bay and the ocean was the Island or Peninsula of San 
Diego. This was changed, early in 1886, by the Coronado Beach 
Company, to the euphonious and now famous one of Coronado, 
meaning crown. There were different claimants for this tract in 
early days, but * was granted to Archibald C. Peachy and Wil- 
liam H. Aspinwall, who derived title from Pedro C. Carrillo, 
on June 11. 1869, and then described as containing 4,185.46- 

A syndicate, consisting of Elisha S. Babcock and Jacob Gruen- 
dike of San Diego, Joseph Collett of Terre Haute, Indiana, and 
Hampton L. Storj^ of Chicago, bought the peninsula in Decem- 
ber, 1885, obtaining the entire property from the head of the 
bay to the mouth of the harbor, and including North Island. 
Later, General H. W. Halleck and Frederick Billings became 
interested. The moving spirit in the undertaking was E. S. Bab- 


cock. Junior. He was from Evansville, Indiana, and came to 
San Diego in 1884 in search of health. The price paid for the 
property was $110,000. Articles of incorporation of the Coro- 
nado Beach Company were filed in April, 1886, the capitalization 
of $1,000,000 being divided into 10,000 shares of $100 each. 
This was the parent company, which controlled at the beginning, 
as it does today, various subsidiary corporations, such as rail- 
road and ferry companies. 

Writing in May, 1886, to the Los Angeles Times, H. G. Otis 
says : 

The entire peninsula has been surveyed, and the central 
and larger portion, situated directly opposite the town of 
San Diego, and elevated some forty feet above the sea level, 
has been beautifully platted and largely planted to choice 
trees, shrubbery, etc. The soil I found exceptionally good — 
a light, sandy loam, warm and easily worked. A nursery of a 
hundred thousand plants has been established, and many of 
the embryo streets and avenues bear arboreal names, such as 
Palm, Date, etc. A street railroad, to run across the peninsula 
from shore to shore, is under way and will be completed 
shortly. One of the cars is already on the ground. A telephone 
line, twenty-five miles long, running almost the entire length of 
the peninsula connecting with the mainland on the east, and 
passing through National City, affords speaking communication 
with the city. Several subordinate companies, acting under 
the main company, have been organized to push the enterprise 
along. There are two ferry companies, a street railroad com- 
pany, a hotel company, a bathhouse company, etc. A large 
steam ferryboat is building at San Francisco for use between 
the mainland and the peninsula. The hotel, it is promised, 
will be a grand structure, ahead of anything on the coast, and 
costing as much as $300,000. (!) The projectors say that they 
will put a million dollars, all told, into the main enterprise, if 
so much be necessary to its perfect development; and I am 
assured by confident San Diegans that they have "the stuff" 
to make the promise good. 

I should say, looking at the spot — uninviting as it is in 
a state of nature — that it would require even that large sum 
to make the peninsula blossom as the rose and bloom with the 
presence of a large seaside populace. But money, work, 
skill, and taste will do wonders; and these, coupled with the 
energy and persistence of the intrepid projectors, will yet make 
a notable place here. The plan is to sell residence lots in the 
tract, and so gather about the hotel and on the beaches a con- 
siderable permanent population. A few buildings have already 
been erected. In every deed a stipulation is inserted that no 
spirituous liquors shall ever be sold or drunk on the premises. 
People who want to get drunk must do so at the hotel, which 
reserves a monopoly of the beer business. The prohibition is, 
I learn, causing a good many "kicks," but the owners stand 
firm, maintaining that it would be the ruin of the spot to allow 
it to be covered with saloons. They say that they have re- 
fused numerous urgent applications for the purchase of lots 
for saloon purposes. They have planted themselves solid on 


the rock of Prohibition — with a loojihole in the hotel to get 
into. They believe in temperance, bnt are not bigoted about it. 

AVhile waiting for the new ferry boat to come, the Benicia was 
leased and put on. The new ferry boat, the Coronado, arrived 
in August and inade her first trip on the 19th of that month. 
There are now two boats in this service, the Ramona and the 
Coronado, and a regular service is maintained. Ferry slips were 
constructed at the foot of Atlantic Street in San Diego, and to 
connect with the street car terminus on the Coronado side. The 
water is carried beneath the waters of the bay in submerged 
pipes ; this system was completed and the water turned on Octo- 
ber 22, 1886. The total length of the submerged pipe is 3,300 


In July, 1886, W. 11. Holabird arrived and took charge of the 
company's land sales department, giving his attention to adver- 
tising and preparing for an auction sale of lots at the new town- 
site. The first auction sale was held on November 13th, and 
proved a great success. Three hundred lots were sold at an 
aggregate price of over $110,000, and the private sales continued 
briskly for some time thereafter, often amounting to $25,000 a 
day, and on one day to $150,000. The grand total of these sales 
amounted to between $2,200,000 and $2,300,000. In January. 
1887, there were thirty dwellings completed and in course of 
construction in Coronado, and the sales of lots averaged $10,000 
per day. One excureion brought ten carloads of visitors from 
Los Angeles and the East. 


In March, the foundations of the great hotel were hiid. On 
Decemher 7, 1887, a special train brought the first instaUnient 
of hotel help. It consisted of two baggage cars, six sleepers, and 
a Pullman, and there were 324 people in the party. The hotel 
Avas formally opened on February 14, 1888, and has ever since 
been maintained as a winter resort. 

In July, 1887, John D. Spreckels acquired the interest of W. 
W. Story in the Coronado Beach Company, and later he acquired 
Mr. Babcock's interest also, and became the sole owner. 

The town of Coronado is a pleasant across-the-bay residence 
district. It suffered somewhat longer than San Diego from the 
depression following the collapse of the boom, but is enjoying a 
healthful growth. '"Tent City" is one of its most attractive 
features. On the narrow peninsula east of the hotel, several 
hundred tents and palmleaf-covered cottages are erected early 
each summer, where a large number of people go to spend a few 
Aveeks beside the ocean. Here there is boating, bathing, tishing, 
and all the pleasures of camp life, combined with most of the 
conveniences of life in the city. It is one of the coast's most 
popular resorts, especially with those who seek to escape the 
summer heat of the warm interiors. 

Included within the limits of the city's great tract of pueblo 
lands are a few thriving and ambitious little towns. La Playa 
has been frequently mentioned in the earlier pages of this work. 
It is well situated on the northern shore of the bay and on the 
easterly slope of Point Loma. Deep water comes close to the 
shore and there is a secure and convenient anchorage. At the 
present time, the inhabitants of La Playa are chiefly fishermen, 
of various nationalities. 

Roseville lies a short distance north of La Playa and in a sim- 
ilar situation. But the back-lying hills are not so steep or so 
near as farther south ; and there is quite a little fertile land, 
making attractive sites for homes. Louis Rose, the founder of 
this town, made a considerable investment in lands bought partly 
from the city of San Diego and partly from private individuals, 
at an early day. In 1870 he built a wharf, which did good ser- 
vice, but the attractions were not sufficient to overcome those 
of Horton's new town and draw the population away. At pres- 
ent the population is small, but the place is attracting attention 
because of its many advantages of soil, view, cheap land, and 
proximity to the bay and ocean. An electric street car line is 
promised for an early day and a small ferry boat now plies 
between San Diego and Roseville. 

The incorporated tow^n of Morena lies north of Old Town, on 
the eastern shore of False Bay. It was laid out in 1887 bv James 
McCoy, A. H. ]\IcHatton, D. Cave, 0. S. Hubbell, Charles D. 
Blaney, and 0. J. Stough. ^Ir. Stough is now the owner of the 



tract. It includes about 1,000 acres of laud of different char- 
acter, the greater portion of which slopes geutW toward False 
Bay and affords attractive sites for suburban homes. 

Pacific Beach is situated eight miles north of San Diego, on 
the northern shore of False Bay, near the ocean. The settlement 
was founded in the summer of 1887, and was intended to be an 
educational center. At an auction sale of lots in December of 
that year, over $200,000 worth of property was sold. A number 
of substantial buildings were erected and opened as the San 


Diego College of Letters. The educational work was inaugur- 
ated in September, 1888, with Dr. Samuel Sprecher as president, 
and a full corps of instructors. Harr Wagner was vice-president 
and manager in 1888, 1889, and 1890. 0. J. Stough was one of 
the most active supporters of the enterprise and provided a large 
share of the means for establishing and carrying it on. The 
hard times following the boom bore heavily upon the young col- 
lege and the work finally had to be abandoned. The principal 
building has been converted into a hotel, called the Hotel Bal- 
boa. The settlement is reached by steam motor cars and will 


soon have two electric lines. Some of the most attractive homes 
near San Diego are at this place. The town itself is growing 
steadily and its advantages as a place of suburban residence are 
certain to be more and more appreciated. 

La Jolla is a unique settlement and one almost as well known 
to the travelling public as Coronado or San Diego itself. It lies 
on the ocean, fourteen miles north of San Diego. The shore line 
of the ocean curves sharply inward at this spot, so that the town 


of the builders of La Jolla whose faith in the future of the seaside comiriunity 
expressed in large ownership of property 

faces the north. It is flanked on the west by the Pacific, and 
overlooked on the east and south by high hills. The town lies 
chiefly on a plateau at a considerable elevation above the beach, 
but campers and summer residents live in tents and cottages on 
the lower slopes and on the beach. One of the chief attractions 
is the very remarkable cliff formations of the shore. These cliffs 
rise in jagged masses to a height of a hundred feet or more. At 
the base, they are hollowed into caves and recesses by the action 
of the waves. To see the breakers sweeping in and dashing upon 


these stone bastions is a sight never to be forgotten. The most 
noted cavern is "the White Lady, "which furnishes the setting 
for Mrs. Thorpe's sketch, TJie White Lady of La JoUa. In 
places at the foot of these cliffs there are strips of sand accessi- 
ble by zigzag paths from above, and there are safe bathing places 
adjacent to these. 

It is claimed by the residents that the climate of La Jolla is 
warmer in winter and cooler in summer than at Coronado even. 
The land was purchased from the city many years ago and the 
title finally came down to F. T. Botsford, w^ho laid it out as a 
townsite in 1887. He was soon afterward joined by G. W. Ileald, 
and then by Charles Dearborn, each purchasing a one-fourth 
interest. At an auction sale held early in j\Iay, 1887, they dis- 
l)osed of lots to the total amount of $56,000, and within a year 
thereafter sold $96,000 worth more. Mr. Dearl)orn still lives in 
La Jolla ; he says he went there to stay three months, and ended 
by staying nineteen years. 

Until about two years ago, the resident population of La Jolla 
was small, but the houses were always occupied during the sea- 
son. Of late, permanent residents have been building the place 
up rapidly, until now it has a permanent population of about 
500. There are three churches, one of which has its own build- 
ing and the others soon will have ; a good school, several 
stores, a library, restaurants, bath houses, and many other 

The atmosphere of La Jolla is distinctly artistic and literary. 
Here live Rose Hartwick Thorpe, author of Curfew Must Not 
Ring Tonight, and other well known works; Anna Held, now 
wife of Max Heinrich, owner of the Green Dragon; and other 
celebrities. The place is beloved by artists, who draw and paint 
the many-colored cliffs with the ocean and brown hills keeping 
sleepless guard ; by invalids, who find the sea breezes, equable 
temperatures, and safe sea-bathing invigorating; and by lovers 
of quiet, who find its peace satisfying. It has attractions for the 
naturalist, also, in the rare and beautiful algea and other marine 
growths found in the waters at the foot of the cliff's. 

The biological station recently established by the University 
of California at La Jolla is already doing good work, and its 
first year (1905) was productive of important results. A new 
building was erected, with funds given by the citizens of La 
Jolla and San Diego. There are research rooms, a museum, 
library, etc. The boat Loma was donated by E. W. Scripps, with 
funds for her refitting, and the beginnings of a technical library 
secured. Considerable dredging was done, special studies car- 
ried on by the staff" and by visitors, and a series of lectures hy 
specialists given. 


Although outside the city limits of San Diego, National City 
has peculiar claims upon the interest and affections of its people. 
In early Spanish days the National Rancho was considered part 
of the pueblo lands and was used in common by the inhabitants. 
The Kimball brothers purchased it in 1868 ancl soon made some 
of the most important early developments. They laid out the 
town of National City, built a wharf, and soon had a consider- 
able population. The site of the town is a beautiful one. It 
lies on smooth but elevated land, on the bay shore south of San 
Diego, extending from the city limits south to the Sweetwater 
River. Its avenues are lined with trees, and these, with the 
numerous groves and orchards, make the place shady and attract- 
ive. In size the town is the second in the county. 

The Land and Town Company have their offices here, also 
their packing houses from which citrus and other fruits are 
shipped in large cpiantities. The California Citrus Products 
Company began the manufacture of citric acid, oil of lemon, 
and a drink called ''Melade" in 1898. This industry has grown 
until it now consumes ten tons of lemons daily. There is also 
an olive oil factory which turns out a superior brand of oil. The 
town has good schools, a public library, a bank, and five 
churches. Some of the surrounding country is highly developed 
and contains orchards and country homes which cannot be sur- 
passed on the Pacific Coast. The people of National City are in 
a happy frame of mind at present. Real estate values are ris- 
ing, and with their many advantages of situation, rich back 
country and deep water frontage, their confidence seems to be 
abundantly justified. 

Besides giving the harbor of San Diego its peculiarly shel- 
tered and land-locked situation. Point Loma is a spot of g:reat 
interest, in itself. The old "official description" of the Point 
runs as follows : 

This is the southern part of the western boundary of San 
Diego Bay ancl the termination of a remarkable spur of coarse, 
crumbling sandstone, which rises south of Puerto Falso, or 
False Bay, and west of the [old] town of San Diego, to 
the height of three hundred feet, and after stretching south 
for about five and one-half miles, gradually increasing in height 
to four hundred and fifty-seven feet, terminates verj^ abruptly. 
It is covered with coarse grass, cacti, wild sage, and low bushes. 

On its historical side, the Point is the site of the old town of 
La Playa, the outport of Old San Diego, with its traditions of 
Dana and the hide houses; of the government military reserva- 
tion and Fort Rosecrans ; of the quarantine station, marine hos- 
pital, lighthouses old and new, and the projected coaling sta- 
tion; and of the Mormon search for coal in the 50 's. It also 
contains the town of Ocean Beach, where many years ago the 


Indians foregathered to dry fish and clams and where in hiter 
years was a favorite picnic ground for the inhabitants of Ilor- 
ton's Addition; and of Roseville, now looking forward hopefully 
to becoming a prosperous and populous suburb of the city of 
San Diego. A number of farmers, dairymen, and horticultural- 
ists till its soil, which is fertile and only requires irrigation and 
cultivation to produce abundantly. 

But the chief interest now attaching to Point Loma, for the 
inhabitants of San Diego no less than for visitors, is the loca- 
tion there of "The Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical 
Society," whose buildings form a very striking feature of the 
landscape. Sailing down the coast, the traveler discerns first 
the bold promontory of Point Loma, reaching like a long finger 
into the sea. Something upon the heights, which at first resem- 
bles a white mist, slowly takes on form and color, and, at last, 
stands forth in tangible shape as a group of buildings, unique 
and picturesque, flashing the sunshine from glass-covered domes 
and minarets. There is a harmonious blending of architectural 
lines, partly JMoorish. partly Egyptian, with something belong- 
ing to neither. Looking upon the heights from the other side 
— from the hills of San Diego or the peninsula of Coronado — • 
this quaint landmark looms quite as conspicuously upon the 
horizon, as from the sea; and, throughout the night, the lamps 
hung in the highest turrets gleam out over land and sea, mak- 
ing a luminous spot in the darkness, which is visible for miles. 

The cornerstone for the first of these buildings, the "School 
for the Revival of the Lost Mysteries of Antiquity," was laid 
by Katherine Tingiey on February 23, 1897. The stone itself 
was brought from Killarney, in Ireland. The site of the Home- 
stead, consisting of several hundred acres, had been selected and 
purchased by Mrs. Tingiey in the preceding year. It was not 
until February 13, 1898, however, that Mrs. Tingiey took up her 
permanent residence at the Homestead and began to concentrate 
the activities of the World's Center of Theosophy. The Uni- 
versal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society's offices, the Theo- 
sophical Publishing Company, the International Brotherhood 
League, the Aryan Theosophical Society of New York, and the 
Woman's Exchange and Mart, were soon installed in their new 
home. The grounds were rapidly improved and buildings 
erected, the largest two lieing the Loma Homestead and the 
Aryan Memorial Temple. At a division of the Homestead 
called "Estero" are the buildings of the School for the Revival 
of the Lost Mysteries of Antiquity. The cornerstone of the Isis 
Temple of Art, Music and Drama was laid on April 29, 1900, 
and the dedication of the International Lotus Home and estab- 
lishment of the Raja Yoga School occurred on the following first 
of May. In February, 1901, public presentations of classical 




Official head of the Theosophical Society and Universal Brotherhood, under whose guid- 
ance the institutions of Point Loma have been developed with remarkable success. Mrs. 
Tingley vindicated the character of her work by defeating the Los Angeles Times in a not- 
able libel suit, and by overcoming powerful opposition in securing the admission of Cuban 
children to the Raja Yoga schools. Her work is of world-wide scope, with Point Loma as 
its official center 

plays in the city of San Diego was begun and the daily lectures 
in the Aryan Memorial Temple at the Homestead were opened 
to the public. The building of the amphitheater for the per- 
formance of classical plays and also for athletic contests along 


the lines of the original Olympian games, was completed in 
November of that year. In March, 1902, ^Irs. Tingley became 
the owner of Fisher's Opera House, the principal theater in San 
Diego, the name of which was changed to the Isis. This theater 
is used for public meetings and dramatic performance and the 
building is utilized for the San Diego branches of the Home- 
stead work, particularly for the Aryan Press, the Raja Yoga 
School and the Isis Conservatory of Music. 

The official name of the Homestead is "Adyar. " It is an 
educational center. The methods are unique, being based upon 
the development from within of the pupil's own powers, rather 
than upon cramming from books. A large number of Cuban 
children and other waifs have found a home here; but, on the 
other hand, many people of wealth and refinement make it their 
home because of the superior educational advantages offered. 
The children of the rich and poor mingle in perfect equality and 
learn no class distinctions. The community's housekeeping: is 
carried on co-operatively and the principles of brotherhood are 
exemplified in every department of the life and work. 

Katherine Tingley, the "Leader and Official Head," is the 
sincere and able woman who has created and is developing this 
institution. In San Diego there are many Theosophists, and the 
activities of the Homestead are regarded with kindly and svm- 
pathetic interest by the mass of the population. 

Political Ro^er, City of San Diego 



Joshna H. Bean 


D. C. Eeed 


David B. Kurtz 


1 Edwin M. Capps 


G. P. Tebbetts 


Frank P. Frary 


Board of Trustees 


John L. Sehon 


Douglas Gunu 


John F. Forward 


W. H. Carlson 



Atkins S, Wright 

Melvin Stone 

Chas. Haraszthy 

C. W. Pauly 

Wm. Leamy 

J. H. Marshall 

Chas. P. Noell res. 

A. H. Julian 

Philip Crosthwaite 

G. G. Bradt 

Chas. E. Johnson res. 

J. P. Davis 

Geo. F. Hooper 

W. E. Day 


David B. Kurtz 

G. M. Wetherbee 

John Brown 

Paul H. Eidiger 

Geo. P. Tebbetts 

D. H. Hewett 

A. Blackburn 

C. E. Heath 

Enos A. Wall res. 

A. B. fe'eybolt 

J. J. Ames 

J. W. Thompson 

J. Jordan, election contested 

Geo. P. Low 

Thos. Wrightington res. 

E. G. Hulbert 

John Dillon 

G. F. Carman 


Geo. P. Tebbetts 

William Carper 

E. E. Eaimond 


Aldermen — 

Wm. Leamy 

H. T. Christian 

Chas. C. -Johnson 

Simon Levi 

Chas. Fletcher 

C. C. Brandt 

W. P. Toler 

H. A. Perry 


Board of Trustees, 1887 

W. A. Begole 


W. J. Hunsaker, pres. 

H. P. Whitney 

C. C. Valle 

A. G. Gassen 

A. M. Thornburg 

A. E. Nutt 

G. W. Waters 

S. J. Sill 

Frank Clark 

Delegates — 

W. H. Pringle 

E. C. Thorpe 

Geo. W. Marston 

Geo. H. Crippen 

Simon Levi 

Chas. W. Pauly 

J. A. McEae 

T. W. Burns 

H. P. Whitney 

A. N. Miller 

G. C. Arnold 

Fred Baker 

F. H. Burkhardt 

W, J. Prout 

N. D. Hamilton 

Paul A. Eediger 


1 Aldermen — 

M. M. Conn 

C. F. Francisco 

B. F. Wertzman 

Simon Levi 

J. F. Escher 

T. C. Fisher 

Jacob Price 

H. A. Perry 

Stephen Doud 

W. A. Begole 

H. H. Williams 

H. F. Norcross 

W. W. Wetzell 

D. Cave 


Aldermen — ■ 

A. G. Gassen 

.Joseph S. Bachmj 


A. Blochman 

W. T. Lyons 

Simon Levi 



W. J. Prout 
Geo. H. Spears 

Delegates — 
S. F. Barker 
Geo. M. Havice 
Chas. W. Pauly 
H. Tweeney 
H. E. Doolittle 
C. C. Hakes 
Fred Baker 
S. H. Olmstead 
Wm. H. Kroah 
Fred H. Robinson 
C. H. Brown 
Danville F. Jones 
H. L. Barrows 
Thos. H. Dimkin 
Geo. H. Rotner 
W. T. Davis 
1895-6 Aldermen- 
Amos Beard 
A. E. Dodson 
Henrv Sweeney 
Geo. B. Watson 

Delegates — 
J. A. Altamarino. Jr. 
&'. F. Barker 
N. V. Paddock 
Chas. W. Pauly 

C. C. Hakes 
John F. Warner 
Fred Baker 

S. H. Olmstead 
John Campbell 
T. L. Paulsen 

D. F. Jones 
M. J. Perrin 
Thos. H. Dunkin 
H. Welisch 

E. S. Burgert 

F. A. James 
1897-8 Aldermen— 

L. A. Blochman 
S. G. Ingle 
Simon Levi 
A. E. Nutt 
C. W. Pauly 

Delegates — 
F. W. Barnes 
E. H. Wright 
Walter H. Morgan 
Geo. F. Ruble 
Hi W. Alden 
A. A. Thorp 
A. Morgan 
S. H. Olmstead 
W. H. Doddridge 
John W. Lambert 


H. M. Landis 
M. J. Perrin 
A. P. Johnson, Jr. 
T. M. Williamson 
J. H. Cassidy 
F. A. James 
1899-90 Aldermen— 

S. W. Hackett 

C. C. Hakes 

D. F. Jones 
Geo. B. Watson 

J. P. M. Rainbow 
Homer C. Taber 

Delegates — 
F. W. Barnes 
W. L. T revert 

F. P. Frary 

W. W. Whitson 
H. C. Gordon 
A. A. Thorp 

E. G. Bradbury 
E. H. Wright 
J. W. Lambert 
Geo. McNeil 
Ed Gutwillig 

C. C. Craig 

E. E. Denton 

G. A. J. Urban 
M. Williamson 
Henrv Woolman 
Otto 'Sippell 

1901-2 Aldermen— 

J. P. M. Rainbow 
S. G. Ingle 
H. M. Landis 

F. C. Hyers 
Geo. M. Hawley 
M. J. Perrin 

Delegates — 
Geo. Butler 
E. C. Thorp 
M. W. Jenks 
Geo. B. Chapman 
Jas. S. Clark 
R. P. Guinan 
R. J. Blair 
E. C. Bradbury 
Geo. McNeil 
John W. Lambert 
W. H. C. Ecker 
Ed Gutwillig 
Barker Burnell 
A. H. Kayser 
Frank H. Briggs 
Henry Busch 
Henry Woolman 
W. W. Lewis 





Aldermen — 

J. M. Williamson 

S. T. Johnsou 

Frank C. Butler 

M. J. Perrin 

W. W. Lewis 

D. F. Jones 


Common Council — 

J. M. Steade 

E. C. Thorpe 

Geo. H. Crippeu 

J. B. Osborn 

Chas. Kelly 

L. A. Blochman 

Delegates — 

Chas. Kelly 

John L. Sehon 

Geo. McNeil 

Jos. F. Eichert 

L. A. Creelman 

Geo. B. Chapman 

Jay N. Reynolds 

Jas. S. Clark 

A. P. Johnson, Jr. 

R. P. Guinan 

F. J. Goldkamp 

E. H. Wright 


Charles Kelly 

Jas. Simpson 

Geo. F. Mahler 

Geo. McNeil 

Percy E. Woods 

John W. Lambert 

A. E. Dodson 

W. H. C. Ecker 

Geo. McNeil 

L. A. Creelman 

L. A. Creelman 

E. W. Peterson 

F. J. Goldkamp 

J. T. Butler 

J. E. Connell 

F. H. Briggs 

W. H. Palmer 

cle;rk of counciIv 


Dr. John Conger 

Dr. J. F. Painter 


A. J. Matsell, res. 


Dr. J. F. Painter 


1850-1 Thos. W. Sutherland 
1852 James W. Robinson 
1888 H. L. Titus 
1889-90 James P. Goodwin 

1891-4 Wm. H. Fuller 
1895-04 H. E. Doolittle 
1905-6 W. R. Andrews 
1907- George Puterbaugh 




J. A. Estudillo, refused ofl5( 

?e 1880-5 

M. D. Hamilton 

Richard Rust 


H. T. Christian 


D. L. Gardiner res, 


J. M. Asher 

John Soloman 


L. D. Burbeck 


A. J. Marks 


G. W. -Torres res. 


Mark P. Shaffer 


Gilbert Rennie 


D. Burroughs 


Nat R. Titus 

1878 • 

Henry M. Bentzel 


B. J. Edmonds 


Henry M. Bentzel 
H. T'. Christian 



Daniel Potter 



J. A. Estudillo 


R. V. Dodge 


J. W. Robinson 


T. J. Dowell 


J. A. Estudillo 


R. V. Doda-e 


Charles Hubbell 


C. L. Williams res. 

1 875-6 

Philip Morse 


Claude Williams 

1877-88 S. Statlei 

Political Roster, San Diego County 



E. Kirby Chamberlain 



Jonathan J. Warner 



D. B. Kurtz 



J. P. McFarland 



B. D. Wilson 



Cameron E. Thorn 



Andres Pico 



J. C. Bogart 



M. C. Tuttle 



W. A. Conn 




Oliver S. Witherby 



John Cook 



Agostin Haraszthy 



Trizby W. Tilghman 



Charles P. Xoell 



Wm. C. Ferrell 



J. J. Keudriek 



Eobert W. Groom 


A. S. Ensworth 



Eobert W. Groom 



D. B. Kurtz 



D. B. Hoffman 



J. J. Kendrick 


George A. Johnson 



Benjamin Hayes 



Wm. jST. Eobinson 



George M. Dannals 



W. W. Bowers 


1875-6 James M. Pierce 

James McCoy 

John W. Satterwhite 

John Wolfskin 

A. P. Johnson 

W. W. Bowers 

H. M. Streeter 

D. L. Withington 

A. E. Nutt 

Martin L. Ward 

L. A. Wright 

F. N. Pauly 
C. C. Watson 
E. W. Hendrick 
Edwin Parker 
T. J. Swayne 
Nestor A. Young 
W. H. Carlson, 79th 
Wm. M. Casterline, 80th 
W. E. Guv, 79th 
Alfred Kean, 80th 
James L. Dryden, 80th 
Lewis E. Wjrks, 79th 
A. S. Crowder, 80th 
Frank W. Barnes, 79th 
Chas. E. Stewart, 80th 
John G. Burgess, 80th 
Percy A. Johnson, 80th 
W. F. Ludington, 79th 
Percv .Tohnson, 80th 

1851 Oliver S. Witherby 1871 Murray Morrison died 

1859-63 Benjamin Hayes 
1864-7 Pablo de la Guerra 
1868-70 Murray Morrison 

H. C. Eolfe 
1872 H. C. Eolfe 
1873-9 W. T. McNealy 

1880-5 W. T. McXealv 

1886 W. T. McNealy res. 
John D. Works 

1887 John D. Works res. 
Edwin Parker 

1888 Edwin Parker 
1889-90 John E. Aitken 


Geo. Puterbaugh 

W. L. Pierce 
1891 E. S. Torrance 
1897 .John Wilmer Hughes, died 

Geo. Fuller 
1898-00 Geo. Fuller 
1901- Norman H. Conklin 


1850 Wm. C. Ferrell 1859 Wm. C. Ferrell res. 

1851 Thor. W. Sutherland D. B. Hoffman 
1852-6 Jas. W. Eobinson 1860-1 D. B. Hoffman 
1857-8 J. E. Gitchell 1862-3 James Nichols 











D. A. Hollistor 


G. A. Beiizen 


Cullen A. Johnson 


W. T. McNealy 


A. B. Hotchkiss 

H. H. Wildy 


N. H. Gonkiin 


Will M. 8mith 


W. J. Hunsaker 


E. W. Hendrick 


James S. Copeland 
Johnstone Johns 
M. L. Ward 

W. M. Darby died before in- 
M. L. Ward 
Adelbert H. Sweet 
T. L. Lewis 
Cassius Carter 
Lewis E. Kirby 


John Hays 
Cave J. Couts 
David B. Kurtz 
Wm. H. Noyes 

1861-2 D. A. Hollister 

1863-7 Julio Osuna 

1868-75 Thos. H. Bush 

1876-9 M. A. Luce 


Charles Haraszthy 

Wm. H. Moon 

J. Judson Ames 

W. P. Toler to August 4 

Wm. T. Conlon, sue. 

E. W. Morse 

John Hayes 

Lewis A. Franklin, 

E. W. Morse 

D. B. Kurtz 

H. C. Ladd 

J. F. Damon 

D. B. Kurtz 

H. C. Ladd 

Philip Crosthwaite (acting) 

1856 D. B. Kurtz 

C. C. Samuel 
A. E. Ensworth 

1857 D. B. Kurtz 
A. E. Maxey 
Jose J. Ortega 

1858-9 D. B. Kurtz 

D. A. Hollister 
Wm. H. Noyes 

1860 D. B. Kurtz 

Wm. H. Noyes 
A. B. Smith 


Wm. C. Ferrell, C. 

E. B. Pendleton, V.-C. 

Louis Eose 

Jas. W. Eobinson, svic. by 

E. W. Morse 

J. J. Warner, sue. by 

George Lyons 

J. L. Bleeker, C. 

Geo. P. Tebbetts 

Geo. Lyons 

Geo. McKinstry 

Geo. F. Hooper 

E. W. Morse 

Louis Eose 

J. J. Warner, C. 

E. W. Morse 

Julian Ames 

Geo. Lyons 

Geo. McKinstry 

Sue. by 
E. W. Morse, C. 
O. S. Witherby 


Geo. Lyons 
Julian Ames 
C. G. Saunders 
Cave J. Couts 
Thos. E. Darnall, G. 
O. S'. Witherby 
.Joseph Smith 

C. S. Saunders 
Cave J. Couts 
Thos. Collins 
.Tames Nichols, C. 

Thos. E. Darnall, sue. by 

D. B. Hoffman 
.Joseph Smith, sue. by 
H. H. Whaley 

Cave ,J. Couts, sue. by 

H. C. Ladd 

M. Schiller, sue. by 

J. L. Mclntire 

O. S. Witherby, C. 

H. C. Ladd 

H. H. Whalev 




J. L. Mclntire 

.John Forster 

Cave J. Gouts 


Joseph Divelbliss 

D. B. Hoffman 

John Forster 

G. A. Johnson 

L. L. Howland 


Frank Ames, C. 

Andrew Cassidy 

E. E. Doyle 

Joseph Tasker 

J. E. Gitchell 


Joseph Divelbliss 

J. J. Kendrick 

Joseph Tasker 

Geo. A. Johnson 

Andrew Cassidy 


E. E. Doyle, C. 

L. L. Howland 

James Donahoe 

John Forster 

W. W. Ware 


W. G. Hill 

John S. Minter 

Jacob Bergman 

Jose J. Ortega 

J. Duffy 

Cave J. Couts 

Andrew Cassidy 

J. E. Lassitor 

F. N. Pauly 


G. P. Tebbetts, C. 


David W. Briant 

G. A. Johnson 

Francisco Estudillo 

F. Stone 

David Kenniston 

Juan Machado 

F. Copeland 

J. C. Bogart 

J. M. Eandolph, sue. by 


Geo. A. Johnson, C. 

F. E. Farley 

E. G. de la Eiva 


D. W. Briant 

Francisco 0. Campo 

F. E. Farley 

Geo. P. Tebbetts 

Daniel Kenniston 

James Donahoe 

F. Copeland 


Geo. P. Tebbetts, C. 

Francisco Estudillo 

Frank Stone 


A. Klauber 

Marcus Schiller 

D. E. Foss 

Heyman Mannasse 

E. 0. Ornisby 

C. F. Jaeger 


A. Klauber 


James Donahoe, C. 

D. E. Foss 

Geo. P. Tebbetts 

E. 0. Ormsby 

Daniel Cline 


0. H. Borden 

■Geo. Williams 

S. A. McDowell 

C. J. F. Jaeger 

.James M. Pierce 


Louis Eose 


D. W. Briant 

Cave J. Couts 

S. G. Blaisdell 

Joseph Smith 

J. P. M. Eainbow 


Louis Eose 


D. W. Briant 

Joseph Smith 

M. Sherman 


Joseph S. Mannasse 

Henry Emery 

Charles Thomas 

J. M. Woods 


Joseph S. Mannasse 

Samuel Hunting 

Joseph Divelbliss 


D. W. Briant 


Joseph S. Mannasse 

M. Sherman 

Joseph Divelbliss 

Henry Emery 

Charles Thomas 

J. M. Woods 


E. D. French 

Samuel Hunting 

G. W. B. McDonald 


J. M. Woods 

Joseph C. Eiley 

A. J. Stice 

John Forster 

Henry Emery 

Thos. P. Slade 


Thos. P. Slade 


Thos. P. Slade 

J. M. Woods 

•T. S. Mannasse 

A. J. Stice 

Charles Thomas 

Henry Emery 

Wm. Flinn 


J. M. Woods 




J. S. Buck 


H. M. Cherry 

J. H. Woolman 

C. H. Swallow 

Chester Gunn 

Wm. Justice 

A. J. Stice 

John Griffin 


J. S. Buck 

Jas. A. Jasper 

J. S. Woolman 


Wm. Justice 

Chester Gunn 

John Griffin 


J. S. Buck 

C. H. Swallow 

Chester Gunn 


Wm. Justice 

John Judson 

.John Griffin 

J. P. M. Eainbow 

C. H. Swallow 

J. H. Woolman 


H. M. Cherry 


J. S. Buck 

C. H. Swallow 

J. H. Woolman 

Jas. A. Jasper 

Chester Gunn 


H. M. Cherry 

John Judson 

C. H. Swallow 

J. P. M. Eainbow 

Jas. A. Jasper 


A. G. Nason 


H. M. Cherry 

W. W. Wetzell 

J. M. Cassidy 

Jas. A. Jasper 

Wm. Justice 

John Judson 

John Griffin 

J. P. M. Eainbow 


H. M. Cherry 


James A. Jasper 

J. M. Cassidy 

J. P. M. Eainbow 

Wm. Justice 

A. G. Nason 

John Griffin 

W. W. Wetzell 


H. M. Cherry 

John Judson 

J. M. Cassidy 


William Justice 

Wm. .Justice 

John Griffin 

John Griffin 


A. G. Nason 


H. M. Cherry 

W. W. Wetzell 

.J. M. Cassidy 

W. Justice 

Wm. Justice 

John Griffin 

.John Griffin 


H. M. Cherry 

H. M. Cherry 

C. H. Swallow 


Jos. Foster 

Wm. Justice 

.J. B. Hoffman 

John Griffin 

John Griffin 

Jas. A. Jasper 

H. M. Cherry 



Eichard Eust 

1889-90 M. D. Hamilton 


Philip Crosthwaite* 


Wm. M. Gassaway 


Wm. B. Couts* 


S. M. Puyear 


L G. A. Pendleton* 

1895-04 Will H. Holcomb 


G. A. Pendleton died 


Frank A. Salmons 

Chalmers Scott 


Wm. H. Francis 


■ A. S. Grant** 

*And Eecorder 

1878-82 S. fe'tatler 

**And Auditor 


J. M. Dodge 




Henry C. Matsell* 

Chalmers Scott** 


Philip Crosthwaite** 


A. S. Grant** 


Wm. B. Couts** 


D. A. .Johnson** 

1858-70 G. A. Pendleton** 


Gilbert Eennie** 


G. A. Pendleton died** 


E. G. Haight*'' 




1885-6 S. 

A. McDowell** 


John F. Forward 

1887-90 E. 

G. Haight** 


John H. Ferry 

1891 C. 

E. Dauer-* 

*Aiid Auditor 

1892 E. 

H. Miller* 

**And Clerk 


1850 Juan Bandini refused office 1861-3 E. W. Morse 
Philip Crosthwaite appointed 1864-75 Jose G. Estudillo 

1851 Philip Crosthwaite 1876-7 Chauneey B. Culver 

1852 Jose A. Estudillo 1878-84 William Jorres 

1853 John Hays 1885-90 S. Statler 
1854-5 Jos. Keiner 1891-2 C. H. S'heppard 
1856-7 E. B. Pendleton 1893-4 C. D. Long 
1858-9 E. W. Morse 1895-8 John W. Thompson 
1860 Frank Ames 1899- .John F. Schwartz 





E. H. Miller 


E. E. Shaffer 




.Jose A. Estudillo 


A. E. Maxcy 


Dr. F. J. Painter 


John M. Mclntier 


S. E. Arguello 


Wm. Smith 

A. T. Crowell 


M. S. .Julian 


A. T. Crowell 


M. P. Schaffer 


Wm. C. Ferrell 


David Burroughs 


Wm. C. Ferrell res. 


M. D. Hamilton 

E. B. Pendleton 


J. M. Asher 


Albert Smith 


C. H. Sheppard 


Wm. C. Ferrell 


John P. Burt 


Albeit Smith 


.Jacob D. Eush 


James MeCoj' 


G. W. Jorres 


Henry Clayton 


M. M. Moulton 

1875-84 Aaron Paulv 
1887 W. W. Burgess 
1888-9 W. S. Varnum 


1890-4 H. AV. Weineke 
1895- A. F. Cornell 

1850-1 Agostin Haraszthy 

1852 Geo. F. Hooper 

1853 Wm. Conroy 
1854-5 M. M. S'exton 

1856 .Jos. Eeiner 

1857 .Jos. Eeiner sue. by 
D. A. Hollister 

1858-60 George Lyons 

1861 George Lyons sue. by 

James McCoy 
1862-70 James McCoy 
1871 James McCoy sue. by 












S. W. Craigue 
S. W. Craigue 
N. Hunsaker 
•Jos. A. Coyne 
E. W. Bushyhead 
S. A. McDowell 
.John H. Folks 
Ben P. Hill 
Frank S. .Jennings 
Thos. W. Brodnax 
Fred M. .Jennings 





John Brown 



F. M. Alvarado 


John Brown 



Lewis A. Franklin 



Dr. D. B. Hoffman 



Dr. D. B. Hoffman 



James Nichols 



Lewis Strauss 



Jos. Reiner 



A. E. Kelley 



Charles Gerson 



Thos. Lush 



Dr. Edward Burr 


1856-68 Dr. D. B. Hoffman 
1869-71 Dr. Edward Burr 
1872-3 Dr. T. C. Stockton 
1874-6 Dr. C. M. Fenn 
1877-84 Dr. P. C. Remondino 

John N. Young 
C. M. Fenn 
Dr. T. C. Stockton 
Dr. C. M. Fenn 
Dr. T. C. Stockton 
Dr. H. T. Risdon 
Wm. H. Eadon 
M. B. Keller 
Horace P. Woodward 
Theo. F. Johnson 
Horace P. Woodward 
Dr. A. Morgan 

1885-7 Dr. C. M. Fenn 
1888 Dr. Thos. Keefe 
1889-91 Dr. J. P. Le Feure 
1892 Dr. H. E. Crepin 
1893- Dr. D. Gochenauer 













Henry Clayton 
Chas. H. Poole 
Robert W. Groom 
Henry Clayton 
E. W. Morse 
Robert W. Groom 
Henry Clayton 
James Pascoe 
M. G. Wheeler 
Chas. J. Fox 
M. G. Wheeler 



L. L. Lockling 


H. J. Willey 


Chas. J. Fox 


0. N. San ford 


Henry L. Ryan 


Henry Langrehr 


W. W. Allen 


R. M. Vail 


S. L. Ward 


A. F. Crowell 


Chas. P. Noell 
J. R. Bleaker 
Frank Ames 
O. S'. Witherby 
Jos. Swyeaffer 
Thos. Sherman 
A. O. Wallace 
P. P. Martin 
E. W. Morse 

1878-9 Dr. C. M. Fenn 
1880-3 Dr. T. C. Stockton 
1884-5 J. M. Asher 
1886-8 H. C. Morgan 
1889-90 John L. Dryden 
1891 John Falkenstein 
1893-6 C. F. Kamman 
1899-02 J. M. Asher 
1903- P. J. Layne 











Frank Ames 

J. Judson Ames 

Jose M. Estudillo 

A. B. Smith 
.lose M. Estudillo 
Marcus Schiller 
H. H. Dougherty 

B. S. Lafferty 

J. H. S. Jamison 

1876-7 F. N. Pauly 

1878-9 E. T. Blackmer 

1880-2 G. N. Hitchcock 

1883-7 R. D. Butler 

1888 G. N. Hitchcock 

1889-94 Harr Wagner 

1895-8 W. J. Bailey 

1899- Hugh J. Baldwin 


Agiiilar, Bias, 161. 

Aguirie, Jose A., 161; biography of, 

Akernian, J. S., jaortrait of, 631. 

Allen, Dr. Jacob, first postmaster, 

Alexander, Capt. E., portrait of, 427. 

Alipas, Damasio and Gervasio, 162. 
(See "Spanish Families.") 

Altamirano, Jose Antonio, biography 
of, 162; portrait of, 240. 

Alvarado, Pedro de, explorer, 28. 

Alverson, C. S., portrait of, 450. 

American National Bank, 646. 

American Families, See page 266. 

Ames, John Jndson, 295 to 303. 

Andrews, W. E., portrait of, 591. 

Arguello, Santiago E., takes heights, 

Arguello, Santiago, acquires mission 
property, 73; portrait of, 207; 
biography of, 163. 

Arguilas, Eosario, 161. 

Arnold, G. C, portrait of, 457. 

Arrillaga, Governor, and contraband 
trade, 92. 

Ascension, Father de la, 32. 

Attorneys, list of, 596. 

Babeock, E. S., connection with elec- 
tric railway, 441; portrait of, 449; 
retirement from Spreckels com- 
panies, 552; purchase and develop- 
ment of Coronado peninsula, 706. 

Baker, Mrs. Arcadia de, portrait, 

Baker, Dr. Fred, portrait of, 605. 

Bandini, Juan, opposed to Victoria, 
119; commissioners to Los Angeles, 
125; starts revolution, 127; por- 
trait of, 126; biography of, 164. 

Banks and Banking, history of, 636. 

Bank of San Diego, history of, 636. 

Bank of Southern California, his- 
tory of, 637. 

Baptist Church, historj^ of, 550. 

Barnes, Eev. Charles L., portrait 
of, 545. 

Bartlett Estate Company, 525. 

Bates, George S., 487. 

Bean, Joshua H., biography of, 266. 

Beale, Edward F., advises Kearny 
against battle, 209; portrait of, 

Bee Daily, history of, 493. 

"Bennington" disaster, 503. 
Berry, Col. John E., becomes editor 

of Union, 484; appointed collec- 
tor of port, 486; portrait of, 486. 
Betsy, first American ship in 

port, 80. 
Bidwell, John, 202-3. 
Blackmer, E. T., portrait of, 656. 
Blake, Walter T., 487; portrait of, 

Blochman, A., 557; 643; portrait of, 

Blochman Banking Co., historv of, 

Blochman, L. A., 643; portrait of, 

Board of Harbor Commissioners, 

historv of, 691. 
Bogart, Capt. J. C, 35-138; biography 

of, 267. 
Boom of 1887-89, net result of, 433. 
Boone, L. L., portrait of, 514. 
Bowers, W. W., portrait of, 466; 

takes part in municipal politics, 

Bowler, Geo. W., portrait of, 457. 
Bouchard Scare, 95. 
Briseno, J. N., 479; portrait of, 482; 

acquires interest in Daily World, 

Bruschi, Marco, portrait of, 523. 
Bulletin Weekly, history of, 488. 
"Bum," storv of, 461; picture of, 

Bush, Thomas H., biography of, 267. 
Bushyhead. Edward W., .ioins with 

Gatewood in establishing Union, 

Cabrillo, Don Juan Eodriquez, arri- 
val at San Diego, 27; death of, 31; 

celebration in memory of, 458. 
Cairnes, A. B., portrait 'of, 667; 670. 
California National Bank, historv 

of, 639. 
Campbell, Eoy H., 566. 
Capps, Edwin M., 476. 
Capron, John G., portrait of, 255; 

liis mail contract, 254. 
Carlos •III, 37. 
Carlson, William H., 472. 
Carnegie, Andrew, builds public 

library for city, 613. 
Carpenter, Ford A., portrait of, 676. 
Carson, Mrs., portrait of, 251. 
Carter, E. J., portrait of, 521. 



Carrillo Family, biographies of, 167. 

Cassidy, Andrew D., biography of, 

('assidy, Andrew, 34. 

Catholic Church, history of, 537. 

Central Christian Church, history of, 

Chamber of Commerce, historv of, 

Chase, Major Levi, portrait of, 587. 

Choate, T>., portrait of, 456. 

Churches, histories of; Catholic, 537; 
Episcopal, 540; Methodist, 546; 
Baptist, 550; Presbyterian, 554; 
Hebrew, 556; Unitarian, 557; 
Spiritual Society, 558; Congrega- 
tional, 558; Christian, 560; 
Lutheran, 561; Miscellaneous, 562; 
Y. M. C. A., 562. 

Citizens Savings Bank, 646. 

Clayton, William, 619. 

Cleveland, "Daniel, acknowledgment 
to, 18; portrait of, 542; connec- 
tion with Episcopal Church, 544; 
connection with Library, 611. 

Cleveland, Eichard J., 89! 

Climate of San Biego, historv of, 

Collier, T). C. Jr., portrait of, 508. 

Collins, .T. W., record of, 639; suicide 
of, 64L 

Commandants, list of, 96. 

Commercial Bank of San Biego, his- 
tory of, 636. 

Conard, Grant, portrait of, 521. 

Concordia Turnverein, 577. 

Congregational Church, historv of, 

Conklin, X. H., 490; portrait of, 
588; .593. 

Connors, James W., biographv of. 

Cooke, George, portrait of, 620. 

Corouado, account of, 706-709. 

Coronado Beach Co., 707. 

Cortes, Hernando, 28. 

Cosgrove, Arthur, portrait of, 517. 

Costanso, 42. 

Cotton, 0. W., portrait of, 512. 

Couts, Cave J., biography of, 268. 

Crabtree, Eev. W. E., portrait of, 

Crespi, Father Juan Jose Canizares, 
arrival at San Biego, 43. 

Croghan, Herbert A., portrait of, 

Crowell, Archie F.. portrait of, 473. 

Crosthwaite, Philip, biography of. 

269; portrait of, 271. 
Cyane, arrives with troops, 201. 
Daily Bee, history of, 493. 
Daily San Diegan, history of, 492. 
Daily World, history of, 489. 
Dana, Richard Henry, portrait of, 

102; quoted, 144; 147; 245. 
Daney, Eugene, 595. 
Barnall, Thomas R., account of, 273; 

portrait of, 652; adventure with 

Mexicans in Lower California, 

Bare, B. B., 640. 
Bavidson, G. Aubrev, portrait of, 

"Bavis's Folly," (See account of 

"Abortive Attempt to establish 

New San Biego"), 316. 
Bavis, William Heath, 139; portrait 

of, 108; dedicated first park in 

New San Biego, 621. 
Davison, Mrs. H. P., acknowledg- 
ment to, 18; 612. 
Beed of sale of Mission property to 

Arguello, copy of, 73. 
Berby, Lieut. George H., first im- 
pressions of, 242; his connection 

with the Herald, 306-315; portrait 

of, 313. 
B'Hemecourt, G. A., portrait of. 533. 
Boolittle, H. E., 595. 
Bunnells Hotel, purchase of bv Hor- 

ton, 337. 
Bunnells, Capt. S. S., portrait of, 

Buhaut-Cilly, 134. 
Bupont, Captain, 201. 
Echeandia, Governor, arrival of, 115; 

136; biography of, 168; efforts in 

behalf of Schools, 569. 
"El Capitan," old cannon, 91. 
"El Nino," old cannon, 91. 
Election, first, with roll of voters, 

Elks Lodge, history of, 657. 
Elliott, Br. A. J., portrait of, 605. 
Emorv, Major, describes town in 

1846, 238.' 
Ensworth, E. S., account of, 273. 
Episcopal Church, historv of, 540. 
Estudillo, Jose G., portrait of. 239. 
Estudillo Familv, biographies of, 

Ferdinand VII, 71. 
Fergusson, Major S. W., 514. 
Ferrell, Wm. C, biography of, 273; 

i-ecord as lawver, 582. 



Ferry, John H., portrait of, 475. 

Figueroa, Governor, unsuccessful 
attempt to divide mission prop- 
erty, 72. 

Fire Department, liistory of, 665. 

First National Bank, liistory of, 637. 

Fishburu, George W., portrait of, 

Fisheries, 107. 

Fitch, Henry D., portrait of, 124; 
biography of, 274. 

Fitch, Thomas L., his famous real 
estate advertisements, of boom 
davs, 423. 

Fletcher, Ed, portrait of, 513. 

Flume Company, history of, 445. 

Folsom, M. W.", portrait of, 512. 

Foresters, various lodges of, 659. 

Forster, John, biography of, 274. 

Forward, John F., portrait of, 472. 

Francis, W. H., portrait of, 475. 

Franciscans, dress of, 65. 

Frary, Frank P., portrait of, 470; 
elected mayor, 477. 

Fraternal Societies, history of, 648. 

Fremont, Gen. John C, arrives at 
San Diego, 201; moves on to Los 
Angeles, 202; 354. 

French, C. W., 515. 

Friend, Capt. James Edward, his 
race for mayoralty, 474. 

Fuster, Father, 56; fight with 
Indians, 58. 

Galvez, Don Joseph de, 37. 

Garra, Antonio, clashes with sheriff, 
186; leads insurrection, 187; ex- 
ecution of, 190. 

Garrettson, D. F., 637. 

Gatewood, Wm. Jeff, forms partner- 
ship with Bushyhead and estab- 
lishes Union, 479; portrait of, 
481; establishes Daily World, 490; 
record as lawyer, 583. 

Gerichten, C. P.', 491. 

Gigedo, Viceroy, orders schools es- 
tablished, 568. 

Gillespie, Capt., goes to meet Kear- 
nv. 209; wounded at San Diego, 

Gillmore, Jesse, 457. 

Gilmore, M. T., 637; 638; portrait 
of, 644. 

Gitchell, J. E., account of, 275. 

Gochenauer, Dr. David, porti-ait of, 

Golden Gate, wreck of, 251. 

Goldkamp, F. J., portrait of, 473. 

Gordon, H. C, portrait of, 457. 
Gould, Will H., establishes Bulletin, 

488; portrait of, 488. 
Governmental activities, history of, 

Granger, Ealph, portrait of, 509; 522. 
Grant, U. S. Jr., portrait of, 511; 

522; 619. 
Gray, Andrew B., biography of, 275; 

leader in first effort to build city 

on present site, 316. 
Gregg, Dr. Eobert J., 601; portrait 

of, 602. 
Griffin, Dr. J. S., portrait of, 600. 
Grove, Dr. Edward, portrait of, 631. 
Grow, Galusha B., portrait of, 643. 
Gunn, Douglas, portrait of, 465; 

elected first mayor under charter 

of 1889, 467; associated with 

Bushyhead in publication of Union, 

483; builds Express Block, 485. 
Guy, W. E., portrait of, 579; 581. 
Haddock, J. P., portrait of, 519. 
Hall, M., portrait of, 517. 
Harbor of San Diego, opinions of 

distinguished men on, 687. 
Hardy, Charles S., portrait of, 477. 
Hayes, Benjamin, 583; portrait of, 

Hays, John, account of, 276. 
Hearue, Dr. .Joseph C, portrait of, 

Hebrew Congregation, history of, 

Hendrick, E. W., portrait of, 594; 

Herald (see chapter on Journalism 

of Old San Diego), 295. 
Hide trade, beginnings of, 101; 

houses, 103; list of ships. 104; ex- 
tent of industry, 104. 
Hieatt, F. L., portrait of, 516. 
Hijar Colony, 121. 
Hinson, Eev. W. B., 551; portrait of, 

Hoffman, Dr. David B., biography 

of, 276; portrait of, 599. 
Holbein, Father Juan, 557. 
Holcomb, Will H., quoted, 75; por- 
trait of, 499; 501; connection with 

Y. M. C. A., 565. 
Holliday Steamship Line, forced by 

Horton to reduce rates, 343. 
Houghton, S. O., 355. 
Horton, Alonzo E., sketch of his life 

before coming to San Diego, 325; 

estimate of his work, 327; his own 



story, 330; portraits of 333-334; 
copy of deed to city land to, 350. 

Hubbard, W. H., portrait of, 646. 

Hudson, Millard F., acknowledg- 
ment to, 18. 

Hunter, Diego, first child born of 
American parents, 228. 

Hunsaker, W. J., 593. 

Indians, Costanso's description of, 
42; attack mission, 57; treatment 
of by priests, 61. 

Irwin, I. Isaac, portrait of, 518. 

Israel, Capt. Eobert B., biography 
of, 276. 

Itata, incident of, 459. 

Iturbide, 71. 

Jasper, James A., 624; portrait of, 

Jaume, Father, murder of, 58. 

Jewell, Fred, portrait of, 644. 

Johnson, Carl Alex., portrait of, 646. 

Jordan, Eev. H. S., 556. 

Josselyn, Charles L., portrait of, 518. 

Julian, Jacob M., portrait of, 490; 

Kearny, Gen. S. W., notified Stock- 
ton ' of his approach, 208; esti- 
mate of, 224; portrait of, 226. 

Kellv, Charles, portrait of, 473. 

Kelly, Eobert A., biography of, 277. 

Kimball Brothers, their part in 
building of National City, 713. 

Kimball, Frank A., efforts to interest 
railroad promoters, 392; succeeds 
in getting contracts from Santa 
Fe to build road, 396; portrait of, 

Kimball, Warren C, portrait of, 409. 

Kip, Bishop, 542. 

Kirby, Lewis E., portrait of, 475. 

Klauber, A., portrait of, 523. 

Klauber, Melville, portrait of, 519. 

Knights of Pythias, history of, 657. 

Knoles, S. S.," portrait of, "594; 596. 

Kurtz, Daniel B., biography of, 277; 
portrait of, 278. 

La Jolla, account of, 711; view of, 

Land Grants, earliest private, 105; 
effect of, 106; list of, 112. 

Leach, Eobert Wallace, 588. 

Legal profession, history of, 582. 

Lelia Byrd, affair of, 89. 

Levi, Simon, portrait of, 631. 

Library, Public, history of, 610; 
list of trustees, 613. 

Lighthouse on Point Loma, history 

of, 701. 
Luce, M. A., acknowledgment to, 

18; portrait of, 403; 591; 596. 
Lumniis, Charles F., 40. 
Lutheran Church, history of, 561. 
Lynch, Joseph D., portrait of, 489; 

editor of Daily World, 490. 
Lyons, George, biography of, 277. 
McCarthy, D. O., portrait of, 402; 

establishes Vidette, 494. 
McCarthy, J. Harvey, 494. 
McCoy, James, biography and por- 
trait of, 279. 
McDonald, Eev. G. W. B., organizes 

First M. E. Church, 546. 
McGregor, Miss Margaret, quotation 

from, 34. 
McNealv, W. T., 584; portrait of, 

586; .591. 
MacMullen, James, portrait of, 487. 
Mackinnon, Duncan, portrait of, 

572: 577. 
Magruder, Gen. John Bankhead, 

190; portrait of, 193; 582; 697. 
Mamudes, Eafael, 198. 
Mannasse, Joseph A., biography of, 

278; portrait of, 348. 
Marston, George W., 564; 612; 616; 

portrait of, 618. 
Masonic Lodge, opposition of Father 

Holbein to, 537; history of, 648. 
Medical profession, history of, 598. 
Mendoza, 28. 

Merchants National Bank, 642. 
Methodist Church, history of, 546. 
Mexican War, San Diego in, 200. 
Middletown project, 321. 
Military post at San Diego, 698 

reservation on Point Loma, 699; 

history of government's title to, 

Mills, Henry E., portrait of, 594. 
Mission of San Diego, dedication of, 

47; Indians, description of, 48-49; 

site of, 55; destroyed liy Indians, 

57; re-established, 60; description 

of, in 1783, 63; first olive orchard 

in California, 63; Indian lands, 

Molinier, Father Juan, 537. 
Mormon Battalion, arrival of, 228. 
Morrell, Benjamin Jr., 134. 
Morris, Madge, portrait of, 495. 
Morse, E. W., acknowledgment to, 

18; quotation from, 33; biography 

of, 281; portrait of, 283; comment 



ou Huntington's attitude toward 
San Diego, 365; describes school 
situation in early days, 571 ; con- 
nected with library, 611; connec- 
tion with 2:»arks, 616. 

Morse, Philip, connection with Y. M. 
C. A., 566; portrait of, 631. 

Moultou, M. M., portrait of, 475. 

Nash, Joseph, oj)ens first general 
store, 877. 

National Bank of Commerce, history 
of, 638; consolidation with Securi- 
ty Savings Bank & Trust Co., 647. 

National City, 713. 

National Guards, history of, 661. 

Nesmith, Thomas L., chairman of 
railroad committee of forty, 355; 
portrait of, 359. 

Noell, Charles P., biography of, 285; 
portrait of, 332. 

Normal School, history of, 580. 

Noyes, William H., 285. 

Nutt. A. E.. portrait of, 469. 

O'Cain, Captain, 92. 

Odd Fellows, history of the order, 

Otay "Water Company, 448. 

Otis, Harrison Gray, becomes presi- 
dent of Pacific "steel Co., 518; 
comment of on Coronado in 1886, 

Pacific Beach, history of, 710. 

Pacific Coast Steamship Co., 250. 

Pacific Mail Steamship Co., 250. 

Pacific Steel Company, 518. 

Pala, mission founded at, 70. 

Palms, first in California, 99. 

Palon, Father, 43. 

Panama Steamship Line, 238. 

Parker, Dr. P. J., portrait of, 605. 

Parks, city, story of, 616. 

Parmalee, E. F., acknowledgment 
to, 18; his connection with Union, 
and portrait of, 487. 

Parron, Father, 51. 

Pattie, James O., taken prisoner by 
Echeandia, 134. 

Pedrorena, Miguel de, biography of, 

Pendleton, George A., biography of, 
285; portrait of, 332. 

Perez, Captain, arrival at San Diego 
with San Antonio, 53. 

Pequero. Captain, 33. 

Peyri, Father Antonio, mission at 
San Luis Eey, founded by, 70. 

Philip II, 31. 

Philip III, 32. 

"Phoenix, John," (See Lieut. 

Physicians, list of, 608. 

Pico, Gen. Andres, biography of, 
173; at San Pasqual, 210-223; his 
generalship, 224; portrait of, 225. 

Pico, Pio, portrait of, 115. 

Picos, biographies of, 173. 

Pinta, history of, 705. 

Plaza, history of, 345. 

Point Loma Forest, 33. 

Point Loma, its historical interest, 
715; Universal Brotherhood and 
Theosophical Society, 716. 

Poole, Charles H., biography of, 286. 

Politics, local, history of, 464. 

Port of San Diego, collectors of, 702; 
statement showing entrances and 
clearances of vessels, etc., 704. 

Porterfield, W. H., portrait of, 492. 

Portola, Governor, 40; return from 
Monterey, 52. 

Postmasters, record of from the be- 
ginning, 705. 

Powers, Dr. B-. M., 63S. 

Presbyterian Church, history of, 554. 

Presidio Hill, present appearance of, 
81; plan of, 83-86; population of 
1800, 87. 

Public affairs after the war, 228. 

Public Utilities, gas company, his- 
tory of, 435; telephone companies, 
historj^ of, 436; street improve- 
ments, 437; street railways, his- 
tory of, 438. 

Pueblo organized, 124. 

Puterbaugh, George, portrait of, 590; 
592; 636. 

Railroads, San Diego and Gila, or- 
ganized, 352; Memphis & El Paso, 
353; San Diego & Fort Yuma, 354; 
Texas and Pacific, 354; Santa Fe, 
391; San Diego-Eastern, 515; San 
Diego & Arizona, 529. 

Ralston Realty Company, 525. 

Ranch del Eey, 100. 

Reed, D. C, portrait of, 468; elected 
Mayor, 476. 

Remondino, Dr. P. C.', 603; portrait 
of, 604. 

Restarick, Rev. Henrv B., portrait 
of, 545. 

Reynolds, Rev. " John, First Episco- 
pal rector, 541. 

Richards, H. T., 514, 515. 



Eico, Francisco, 202. 

Eivera. Captain, 40. 

Eobinson, Alfred C. quoted, 61; on 
life at Mission, 66; marriage of, 
144; portrait of, 246. 

Eobinson, James W., biography of, 
286; connection with first railroad 
enterprise, 352; portrait of, 355; 
record as lawyer, 582. 

Eogers, I. D., portrait of, 521. 

Eogers. W. E., 638; portrait of, 645. 

Eolfe, C. D., portrait of, 711. 

Eose, Louis, portrait of, 258; his 
many enterprises, 259; biography 
of, 287. 

Eosecrans, Gen. William S., dealings 
witli Hnrton, 337. 

Eoseville, 709. 

Eowan. Lieut., 202. 

Euiz, pioneer gardener, 99. 

Salmons. Frank A., portrait of, 513. 

San Antonio, arrival at San Diego, 
40-49; timely return with supplies, 

San Carlos, arrival at San Diego, 

San Diegan-Sun, history of, 491. 

San Diego, source of title to city 
lands. 386. 

San Diego de Alcala, name of city 
derived from, 33. 

San Diego Daily News, 491. 

San Diego Daily World, quotation 
from. 34. 

San Diego & Arizona Eailroad, an- 
nouncement of, 529. 

San Diego-Eastern Eailway Com- 
pany, 515. 

San Diego Savings Bank, history of, 

San Diego Union, history of, 479. 

San Luis Eev, Mission founded at, 

San Pasqual, battle of, 210-223; 
sketch of, 217. 

San Salvador, 27. 

Santa Fe Eailway. achievement of 
Frank A. Kimball in bringing the 
road here, 392; California South- 
ern Eailroad chartered, 404; first 
train, 406; bad faith of, 407; copy 
of articles of agreement between 
the city and, 408. 

Savings Bank of San Diego County, 
history of, 637. 

Schiller, Marcus, biography of, 288. 

Schools, history of, 568. 

Scott, Thomas A., visits San Diego 

in interest of Texas fr Pacific, 356; 

fails financially, 360; portrait of, 

Scripps, E. W., acquires ownership 

of Sun, 491. 
Sea Elephant, 109. 
Security Savings Bank and Trust 

Co., history of, 639; consolidation 

with National Bank of Commerce, 

Sedgwick, Gen. Thomas S., 354; con- 
nection with Texas & Pacific, 362. 
Sefton, J. W., portrait of, 641. 
Sehon, Mayor John L., portrait of, 

471; elected Mayor, 478, 528. 
Sensenbrenner, August, portrait of, 

Serra, Junipero, 39; portrait of, 42; 

letter of, 43. 
Serrano, Jose A., biography of, 175; 

portrait of, 263. 
Shaw, Eev. S. J., portrait of, 555. 
Shaffer, E. E., portrait of, 474. 
Sherman, Mathew, portrait of, 467; 

elected Mayor, 470. 
Shute, Eichard A., portrait of. 669. 
Simons, J. J., 516. 
Sixth Street Bank, 646. 
Sloane, Joshua, biography of, 288. 
Sloane, W. A., 594. 
Smith, Albert B., spikes guns, 203; 

raises American flag, 204; biog- 
raphy of, 288. 
Smith, Earle Davenport, 567. 
Smith, J. P., becomes secretary of 

Y. M. C. A., 564. 
Smith, Jediah S., 134. 
Smith, Mountain, 64. 
Smith, Sam Ferry, 595. 
Smith, Walter Gifford, quoted, 426; 

491; portrait of, 497; 501. 
Smythe, William E., old town ora- 
tion, 226; literary activities, 501. 
Social life in Old San Diego, 142. 
Solis rebellion, 117. 
Southern Trust and Savings Bank, 

South Park and East Side Ey., 442. 
Spiritual Society, history of, 558. 
Spreckels, .John D. and Adolph B. 

become owners of San Diego 

Union, 486. 
Spreckels, John D, 522-530; portrait 

of, 531. 



Sprigg, Patterson, 477, 595. 

Stevens, Horace, 491. 

Stewart, John C, account of, 289. 

Stockton, Com. Robert F., arrives in 
■Congress, 204; fortifies town, 204; 
despatches Gillespie to meet Kear- 
ny, 208; portrait of, 211. 

Stockton, Dr. Thomas C, 491, 602; 
portrait of, 603. 

Storv, W. W., poem on Coronado, 

Strahlmann E., portrait of, 519. 

Street railways, history of, 438. 

Suburbs of San Diego, account of, 

Sun, San Diegan, quoted, 530. 

Sutherland, Thomas W., biography 
of, 290; record as lawyer, 582. 

Swayne, E. J., portrait of, 521. 

Sweetwater Dam, construction of, 

Taggart, Charles P., buys Gate- 
wood's interest in Union, 481; rec- 
ord as lawyer, 589. 

Taggart, Mrs. C. P., 491. 

Taylor, Bayard, visit of, 239. 

Taylor, Eev. R. B., 556. 

Tent City, account of, 709. 

Telephone companies, history of, 436. 

Theaters, history of, 456. 

Theosophical Societv at Point Loma, 

Thorpe, Rose Hartwick, portrait of, 
498, 713. 

Timken, Henry, portrait of, 515. 

Tinglev, Katherine, 520; portrait of, 

Torrance. E. S., portrait of, 589;592. 

Torrey Pines, 623. 

Truman, Major Ben C, comment on 
San Diego's first boom, 366; pur- 
chases half interest iu Bulletin, 
488; portrait of, 489; 501. 

Ubach, Father Antonio D., biography 
of, 175; portrait of, 538. 

Union, history of, 479. 

Unitarian Society, history of, 557. 

Universal Brotherhood and Theo- 
sophical Society, 716. 

U. S. Geographic Survey, report of, 
in 1879, 29. 

Vancouver, visit and comment of, 

Van Dyke, Theodore S., comment on 
boom of 1887-89; 414; portrait of, 
415; "Story of the Boom," 418; 

originates flume enterprise, 445: 

Valle, Dr. C. C, portrait of, 607. 
Vicente, Father Oliva, 537. 
Victoria, Governor, arrival of, 118; 

flight of, 119. 
Victoria, ship, 27. 
Vidette San Diego, history of, 494. 
Vigerano, Jose Maria, death of, 51. 
Vigilantes, executed Indians, 195. 
Viseaino, Don Sebastian, 32-35; at- 
tacked by Indians, 51. 
Wadham, James E., 477. 
Wagner, Hai'r, 494; portrait of, 495; 

Waite, F. D., 492; portrait of, 493. 
Wallace, Rev. R. G., portrait of, 555. 
Wangenheim Julius, connection with 

citv Park, 619; 638; portrait of, 

Ward, M. L., portrait of, 469. 
Warfield, Charles L., portrait of, 516. 
Warner, Col. Jonathan T., in Garra 

fight, 187; portrait of, 188; biogra- 
phy of, 290. 
Water development, history of, 443. 
Waterman, Gov. Robert W., portrait 

of, 429. 
Waterman, Waldo S., portrait of, 

Watson, Rev. E. R., portrait of, 

Watts, Nathan, acknowledgment to, 

Webster, E. Bartlett, 442; portrait 

of, 510. 
Wentscher, A., 491. 
Western Union Telegraph Company, 

established in San Diego, 344. 
Whaley, Thomas, biography of, 290; 

portrait of, 291. 
Whaley, Mrs. Thomas, portrait of, 

Whaling trade, 109. 
Wilbur, Rev. Sidney, arrival at San 

Diego, 543; portrait of, 543. 
Wilde, Louis J., portrait of, 507. 
Williams, Charles L., portrait of, 645. 
Wilson, Warren, 491. 
Witherby, Judge Oliver S., biogra- 
phy of, 292; record as lawyer, 582; 

portrait of, 584. 
Withington, D. L., portrait of, 469. 
Wood, H. P., 624. portrait of, 630. 
Woodmen of the World, 660. 
Woolman, Claude, portrait of, 473. 


Works, John D., 591. Ybarra family massacre, 183. 

World, 490. Y. M. C. A., history of, 562. 

Wright, Leroy A., quoted, 374: por- „ . x- -.r- ^ i i 

trait of, 469- 501. Zamorano, Augustm Vicente, leader 
Wrightington, Thomas, biography of, of rebellion, 120; portrait of, 120; 

293. ■ biography of, 177. 

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