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History of Illinois, 








To THE Pioneers 

— OF— 

Sangamon County 



With tiik HorE that Your Viktxjes may be Emulated, 
AND Your Toius and Sacrifices duly appre- 
ciated P.Y Coming Generations. 




The Moanrt Builders 17 

Other Races 18 

lodiaos— Illinois Confederacy — Starved Rock 21 

Early Discoveries— First Settlements 22 

Engiinh Rule 23 

General Clark's Exploits— County of Illinois 24 

Northwestern Territory — Ordinance of 1787 25 

IlliQois Territory— State Organization— First Constitu- 
tion — The Winnebago War 26 

Black Hawk War— Internal Improvements 27 

Stupendous System of Improvements Inaugurated — Illi- 
nois and Michigan Canal— Panic— Repudiation Advocated 28 

Mormon War '29 

The Battle of Nauvoo 30 

Mexican War 31 

The War for the Union 32 

Governors of Illinois 33 

Lieutsiiant Governors — Other State OflScers 37 

United States Senators 38 

Representatives in Congress 43 

Then and Now 29 




The Garden Spot 45 

First White Men in Sangamon County 4ti 

First Sottlement 46 

Other Early Settlers.. 47 

Area and Position of the County 47 

Organization of the County 47 

Acta of the County Commissioners 48 

County Comminsioners from 1S21 to 1849 50 

Board of .Justices 50 

Township Organization 50 

Rivers and Creeks 51 

Navigation of the Sangamon River 51 

Creeks 5< 






Early Manners and Customs 60 

Character of the Pioneers 62 

Clothing 62 

Weddings 65 

Shakes 66 

Wolf Hunting 67 

Bee Hunting 67 

Snakes 67 

Agriculture 67 

Religion 68 



Probate and County Courts 74 



FiR.sT Decade 77 

James Adams 77 

Jonathan H Pugh 77 

Thomas M Neale 77 

James M. Strode 77 

Williams. Hamilton : 78 

Thomas Mofifett 78 

William Mendel 78 

Samuel McRoberts 78 

Alfred W. Cavarly 79 

Benjamin Mills 79 

John Reynolds 80 

James Turney 80 

Henry Starr 80 

George Forquer 80 

Second Decaue 84 

Edward J. Phillips 86 

Edward Jones 86 

Henry E. Dummer 87 

Stephen T. Logan 87 

David Prickett ,.. 91 

William L. May 91 

Dan StO'ne 91 

Josephus Hewett 92 

David B.Campbell 92 

Antrim Campbell 92 

A. T, Bledsoe 92 

Charles R. Wells 93 

Schuyler Strong 93 

Ninian W.Edwards 93 

Cyrus Walker 93 

Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A.Douglas 93 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr 96 

E. D Biker 90 

JohnD. Urquhart 98 

JohnC. Doremus 93 

Till UL> Decade 98 

General Shields 98 

Silas W.Robbins 102 

Justin Butterfield 103 

U. F. Linder 104 

Josiah Lambom 104 

Levi Davis 105 

A. K. Scuede 105 

David Logan 105 

William 1. P'ereuson 105 

Archiba'd WilUams i05 

O. H Browning 106 

William A. Miuskall 106 

Benjamin West 106 

Israel Crosby 186 

William Walker 106 

Elliott B. Herndon lOd 

ForiiTH Decade 107 

Thomas Lewis 108 

J. France 108 

U. McWilliams 108 

A. McWilliams 108 

C. M. Morrison 108 

William Prescott 108 

L. F. McCrillis 108 

H G.Reynolds 168 

A W.Hayes 108 

S. S Whitehurst 108 

Fii rii Decadb 108 

Si xrii Decade 10(> 




Seventh Decaue 110 

John T. Stuait 110 

Samuel H. Treat 114 

Benjaiuiu S.Edwards 115 

Jaines C. Conkling 116 

James H. Matheuy 116 

William H. Herndon lUi 

Noimau M Broadwell 119 

William J. Coukliug 119 

John E. Rosetto 120 

Charles S. Zaiie laO 

* John Alexander McClernand 121 

Charles A. Keyes 1-"- 

Christopher C. Brown 12-i 

EugeneL Gross lS.i 

Milton Hay 12:J 

W^illiam M Springer 124 

William E. Shutt 125 

Robert L. McGuire 125 

Leonidas H. Bradley 125 

Isaac K. Bradley 125 

Thomas G. Prickett 125 

Norman L. Freeman 12(i 

Richmond Wolcott 120 

Thomas C. Mather 126 

Clinton L. Conkling 126 

Lloyd F. Hamilton 127 

James W. Pattou 127 

Samuel D. Scholes, 127 

Alfred Orendorflf. 127 

Henry S. Greene 128 

A. N.J.Crook 128 

James C. Ruliinson 12!) 

James A. Jiennedy 129 

Charles Philo Kane 129 

John C. Lanphier 129 

Henry H.Rogers 130 

John C. Snigg 130 

Robert H. Hazlttt 130 

William L. Gross 130 

John M. Palmer 130 

John Mayo Palmer 132 

George W. Murrav 133 

Robert W Maxwell 133 

George A. Sanders 133 

James H. Matheny, Jr 133 

Henry A.Stevens 133 

James E. Dowling 133 

James A. Creighton 134 

John M. Creighton 134 

George A. "Wood 134 

Thomas Sterling 134 

Joseph M Grout 134 

William Henry Colby 134 

William F. Herndon 137 

Henry B. Kane 137 

Frank U.Jones 137 

John A. Chestnut 137 

Thomas J. Thompson 137 

W'infield S. Collins 13d 

AVilliam A. Vincent 138 

Larue Vredenburgh 138 

Alexander H Robertson 138 

William T. Houston .^ 138 

Albert Salzenstein 138 

Frank R. Williams 138 

Noah H. Turner 139 

Edwin C. Haynie 139 

Walter B. Wines 139 





Wabash, St. Louis fe Pacific 114 

First Locomotive in Springfield 145 

Chicago, Alton & St. Louis 146 

Ohio & Mississippi 147 

Illinois Central 147 

Springfield & Northwestern 147 

Contemplated Roads 148 


WARS 149 

The Winnebago War 149 

The Black Hawk AVar 14i) 

List of Soldiers in Black Hawk War... 
Reminiscence of the Black Hawk War. 

The Mexican War 

Roster of Mexican War Soldiers 


Cotton Picking 

By G eorge Brunk 

Auburn and Viucinity Forty Years Ago, by M. G. Wads- 

By S. C. Hampton 

ByR. W. Diller 

By James J. Megredy.. 

By E. H. Beach 

By John S. Condell, Sr 

By John H. Hariison 

By W. T. Bennett 

By George P. Weber 

Pioneer Women 

By Mrs. James Parkinson and Mrs. Sarah King 

By Mrs. Charlotte Jacobs 

By Elizabeth Harbour 

By Eliza Headley 

By Mrs. John Lock 

By Mrs. Robert Burns 

By Mrs. Sarah P. Husband 

By Mrs. Ann H. McCormack 

old Settlers of Sangamon, by John T. Stuart 

By Dr. Alexander thields 

PioLcersand Pioneering, by W. H. Herndon 


Illinois State Journal 

Simeon Francis 

Josiah Francis 

Allen Francis 

W. H. Bailhache 

Edward L. Baker 

David L. Phillips 

Paul Selby 

Horace Chapin 

Milton F. Simmons 

The Daily Journal 

The Illinois Republican 

George R. Weber 

Illinois State Register 

George Walker 

Charles H. Lanphier 

John W Merritt 

Edward L. Merritt 

George W and J. R. Weber 

George Smith 

H W. Clendenin 

Thomas Rees 

D Ai LY Illinois State Registek 

Sangamo Monitor 

Sasgamo Daily Monitor 

Thomas W. S. Kidd 

The Si'kingiteld Tijies 

S. S Brooks 

The Masonic Trowel 


Illinois St.\te Democrat 

The Sunday Mail 

Illinois Freie Press 

Freileiick Gebring 


H. Schlange 

Ai'iiuHN Citizen 

A. B. Stover 

Moses G Wadsworth 

The Evenin(; Post ,. 

F. H. B. McDowell 

S. P. V. Arnold 

Campaign PArEns 





Official VoteofEvery General Election 272 


National Rei'iiesentation 278 

President of the United States 278 

United States Consuls 278 







United States Assessor 278 

Cougi'essioiial 218 

Shelby M. Cullom 27j 

Si ate Eei'resentation 280 

Governor 280 

Secretary of State 280 

State Auditors '-iSO 

State Treasurers 280 

Superintendents of Public Instruction 280 

Attorney Geueials 280 

State Geologists 280 

Adjutant Generals. 280 

Senatorial and Representative 280 

County Okficees 282 

County Clerks 2tf2 

Circuit Clerks 282 

Recorders 28-2 

Probate Judges 282 

County Judges 282 

Sheriffs 282 

Coroners 28;:; 

Surveyors 283 

Schooi Commissioners 283 

Superintendents of Schools 28S 

Prosecuting Attorneys 282 

Treasurers 283 



Building of a new State House 287 

Law providine for building a new Capitol 288 

Efforts to nullify the law and their failure 289 

Laying the corner stone 289 

Description of the new State House 2!-0 

Work completed 292 

Epitome of the legislation for the new State House 292 



Early Temperance movements 298 

The 'Waahingtonians 298 

Constitutiou of the Springfield Washington Temperance 

Society 299 

Washington Song 300 

Sons of Temperance -JOO 

A Grand Jury's Certificate 300 

Temple of Honor 303 

The Maine Law 303 

Good Templars 303 

Women's Temperance Crusade 303 

Red and Blue Ribbon Movement 304 



Departure of Mr. Lincoln 306 

Maior General John A McClernand 318 

The Beginning of the End, 352 

Assassination of President Lincoln 353 

The End 360 


THE WAR FOR THE UNION, Continued 362 

Seventh Infantry 362 

Ninth Infantry 367 

Tenth Infantry 367 

Eleventh Infantry 371 

Twelfth Infantry 371 

Fourteenth Infantry 372 

Eighteenth Infantry 374 

Nineteenth Infantry 374 

Twentieth Infantry 374 

Twenty -first Infantry 374 

Twenty-second Infantry 375 

Twenty third Infantry 375 

Twenty fourth Infantrj- 375 

Twenty-seventh Infantry 378 

Twenty-eighth Infantry 378 

Twenty ninth Infantry 378 

Thirtieth Infantry 382 

Thirty-spcoad Infantry 382 

Thirty- third Infantry 383 

Thirty- fourth Infantry 38 4 

Thirty-fifth Infantry 384 

Thirty sixth Infantry 384 

Thirty-eighth Infantry 384 

Thirty-ninth Infantry 387 

Foi-ty-first Infantry 387 

Forty-fourth Infantry 38( 


Forty-sixth Infantry ^87 

Forty-eighth Infantry ^87 

Forty -ninth Infantry 387 

Fiftieth Infantry 387 

Fifty-first Infantry 3i^7 

Fifty -second Infantry 387 

Fifty-third Infantry 367 

Fifty-fourth Infantry 337 

Fifty-seventh Inlanfry 387 

Fifty-eighth Infantry 387 

Sixtieth Infantry 388 

Sixty-second Infantry 388 

Sixty-third Infantry 388 

Sixty fourth Infantry 388 

Sixty -eighth Infantry 3?8 

Seventy -second Infantry 389 

Seventy- third Infantry 389 

heventy -sixth Infantry 390 

Sovunty-seveuth Infantry 390 

Se.veatj' eighth Infantry 390 

Eighty : fourth lufantry 390 

Ninetieth Infaiitry 1 3'JO 

Ninety-first Infantry 3!IU 

Ninety-second In*autry 390 

Ninety fourth Infantry 390 

Ninety-fifth Infantry 390 

Ninety-seventh Infantry 390 

One Hundred and First Infantry 390 

One Hundred aiid Sixth Infantry 391 

One Hundred and Seventh Infantry 391 

One Hundred and Eighth Infantry 392 

One Hundred and Thirteenth Infantry 392 

One Hundred and Fourteenth Infantry 392 

One Hundred and Filteenth Infantry 399 

One Hundred and Sixteenth Infantry 399 

One Hundred and Seventeenth Infantry 399 

One Hundred and Twentieth Infantry 399 

One HundredandTwenty second Infantry 399 

One Hnn(<red and Twenty-thiid Infantry 399 

One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Infantry 399 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Inf^intry 401 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry 401 

One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Infantry 401 

One Hundred and Thirtieth Infantry 401 

One Hundred and Thirty- third Infantry 402 

One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Infantry 403 

One Hundred and Forty-fourth Infantry 403 

One Hundred and Forty-fifth Infantry 403 

One Hundred and Fiftieth Infantry 4t)4 

One Hundred and Fifty-second Infantry 404 

One Hundred and Fifty-fourth lufantry 404 

One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Infantry 404 

First Cavalry 404 

Second Cavalry 40o 

Third Cavalry - 40o 

Fourth Cavalry 407 

Fifth Cavalry *07 

Sixth Cavalry. 408 

Seventh Cavalry 408 

Eighth Cavalry 408 

Ninth Cavalry 409 

Tenth Cavalry 409 

Eleventh Cavalry 4J2 

Twelfth Cavalry 412 

Thirteenth Cavalry 412 

Fifteenth Cavalry 413 

Sixteenth Cavalry 413 

First Artillery 413 

Second Artillery 414 

Chicago Board of Trade Battery 414 

Chicago Mercantile Battery 414 

Springfield Light Artillery 414 

Twenty ninth Colored Infantry 41o 

Recruitsfor Regular Army 415 

Nineteenth United States Infantry 41b 

Roll of Honor 416 

Transfer of Battle Flags 422 



Constitution of Old Settlers' Society 431 

First Annual Celebration 43v 

Addre.ssof James H. Ma theny 43'- 

Re-organization of the Society 43.t 

First Annual Meeting 440 

Second Annual Meeting 441 

Members of the Society — 441 

Third Annual Meeting **'■' 



Address of Samuel "Williams 442 

Fouvth Annual Meeting 448 

Address of Governor Palmer 451 

Fifth Annual Meeting 451 

Sixtli Annual Meeting 452 

Adrtiess of Governor Palmer 452 

Address of I). L Phillips 453 

Seventh Annual Meeting 454 

Eighth Annual Meeting 454 

Is'inth Annual Meet in g 455 

Address of William H. Herndon 455 

Tenth Annual Meeting 457 

I'resent to John Carroll Power 457 

Eleventh Annual Meeting. 458 

Address of Kev. John Slater.. 459 

Address of Kev. W. H. Milhurn 45!) 

Address ot Kev. Mr, Short 459 

Twelfth Annual Meeting 4()1 

Address of Hon. Milton Hay 462 

Thirteenth Annua' Meeting 465 

Address of Judge Vandever 466 

Remarks by Hon. James C. Rohinson 467 

Fourteenth Annual Meeting 467 

Address of Welcome by John B. Miller 468 

Response by Mr. I>iller 468 

Address byOovernor S. M. Cullom 468 



Educatn)nal Convention 4".4 

Biographical sketch of James P. Slade 477 

Common Schools 479 

Illinois State University 479 

Rev. Francis M. Springer 481 

German Evangelical Lutheran Concordia Seminary 482 

Rev. Mr. Wvneken .• 482 

Prof. II. C. "Wynekeu 483 

Prof G. Kroening 483 

Bettie Stuart l4]stitute 383 

St. Agatha's School 484 



Abraham Lincoln 487 

Stephen A. Douglas .501 

William H Bissell 505 

Governor Matteson 506 

Richard Yates 5(7 

James D. Henry 508 

Andrew McCormack 509 

Robert L. Wilson 509 

AVilliamF. Elkin 510 

John Calhoun. 511 

General E. B. Harlan 512 

General I. N. Haynie 512 

Thomas H. Campbell 513 

Erastus "Wright 514 

Rev. John G.Bergen, D. D 515 

Orlin H. Miner 519 

Archer G Herndon 519 

William Butler .520 

Dr. Gershom Jayne 521 

Keiiben F. Ruth .521 

Charles R. Hurst .522 

Dr. John Todd 522 

J. K. Dubois 522 



Murder of Mrs. Van Noy 524 

Killing of Dr. Early 525 

Fatal affray 525 

Murder of George Anderson 525 

"Murder at Mechanicsburg 525 

Murder of an Infant Child 525 

Homicide in Chatham 526 

Tragedy near Camp Butler 526 

Fatal A ffray 526 

Shocking Murder 526 

Tragedy at Camp Butler 526 

Killing'of Wesley Pileher 526 

Soldier Shot 526 

Robbcrv and Murder at Pawnee 527 

Found bead 527 

Killing of Joseph Ward 528 

Murder of William Mortar 528 

Doings of a Desperado 528 

Murder of Sharon Tyndale 528 

Killing of William Kelley 529 

Murder of Henry Stay 529 

Riot at lUiopolis 529 

Murder and Suicide 530 

Uxoricide and Suicide 530 



John Carroll Power 53t 

Joseph Wallace 533 

E. L. Gross 533 

W.L. Gross 5:W 

Alexander Davidson 533 

Dennis Williams 533 



The Mormons 535 

Shoot irg Stars 535 

County Jail 535 

Poe- 1 ry 536 

California Emigrants 536 

How Mill Privileges were secured 536 

The Weather 537 

Mild Winter 537 

The Sudden Change 537 

Snow Blockade 538 

Almost a Tornado 538 

Rain Storm.. 538 

Heavy Storm of Wind and Rain 538 

Storm at Williamsville 539 

Tornado on Sugar Creek 539 

Cholera 539 

Shoemaking 539 

Matrimonial 540 

Rendition of a Fugitive Slave 541 

First Entries of Land 541 

Death of a Cetenarian 542 

Sangamon County Bible Society 542 



Agricultural Societies 543 

The First County Fair 544 

Sangamon County Agricultural and Mechanical Associa- 
tion 545 

Sangamon County Agricultural Board 545 

State Fairs 5."0 

The Ameiican Berkshire Association 550 



The Deep Snow 551 

Railroaa Villages 552 

Hard Times 553 

The First Court House 554 

The Second Court House 555 

The Third Court House 555 

The Fourth Court House 555 

The Fifth Court House 556 

Villages and Stations in the County 556 

Table of Distances 5f6 

Railroad Accident « 556 

Teriible Accident 557 

Feaiful Railioad Accident 557 

Steam Boiler Explosion 557 

Census Reports 557 

Our Legislators 558 

Assessments for 1881 558 

Distressing Accident 558 

Two Children Killed by Lightning 55» 

Terrific Explosion 561 

Withey <fe 1 ro.'s Carriage and Wagon Manufactory 576 

Sash Manufactory 576 

Globe Spice Mills 576 

Springfield Paper Company •.. 576 

"Wagons and Carriages 576 

Machine Works 576 

Elevator Milling Company 576 

Excelsior Mills 577 

Home Mills 577 

Piiutirg and Binding 577 

Boiler a^ul Sheet Iron Works 578 

Springfield Trunk Manufactory 578 

Springfield Woolen Mills 578 

1'he Portuguese 578 

RemiuiRcence of Elijah lies 580 

Springfield Home for the Friendless 583 



■Western Union Telegraph 584 

United States Express Company 584 

American Express Cempany 585 

Schools 585 

Public Schools 5s7 

A Retrospect 5til 

Sangamon County of To-day 5(i'2 



Incorporation 565 

Town Officers 565 

City Charter 565 

CityOfficers 566 

Removal of the Capital 568 

Speculation and Hard Times 569 

Healthfulness of Springtield 570 

Springfield to a Stranger 570 

Change of Xame 571 

Growth of the Citv 571 

The Post Office 571 

Springfield as a Manufacturing Point 573 

Illinois Watch Company — 574 

^Etna Iron Works '. : 575 

Ide's Machine Works 575 

The Excelsior Foundry 575 

Booth & McCosker's Carriage and Wagon Manufactory... 575 

Teachers' Institutes 594 

Graduates of the High School 595 

Rev. Jchn F. Brooks 597 

Ursuline Convent 5*^9 

Religious 61 

First Methodist Episcopal 600 

Second Methodist Episcopal, <i03 

First Presbyterian fi04 

Second Presbyterian 605 

Third Presbyterian 606 

Central Baptist - 606 

German Baptist 608 

C'>lored Baptist SOS' 

Christian fiOS 

Church of the Immaculate Conception 608 

German Catholic 609 

St. Joseph's Church 609 

English Lutheran fioa 

German Luth/ran Trinity 610 

First Portuguese Presbyterian.. 610 

Second Portuguese Presbyterian 610 

German Methodist 610 

Colored Methodist 610 

Plymouth Brethren 610 

St. Paul's Episcopal 610 

Congregational 611 

Hebrew Temple 611 

Young Men's Christian Aasociaiion 611 

In Honor of the Dead 612 

First Decoration of Graves 613 

Decoration Day, 1881 614 

Addiess of Rev T.A.Parker 616 

Masonic 621 

Odd.Fellow.ship 022 

Hebrew Societies 623 

Knights of Honor 623 

United Workmen 623 

Royal Arcanum 624 

American Legion of Honor 624 

Other Societies 624 

Ne w.spapers 624 

The Capital Railway 625 

Springfield City Railway 525 

Citizen's Street Railway 62B 

Springtield Library Association 626 

Illinois State Library 626 

Banks '. 627 

Ridgely Kational Bank 627 

Springfield Marine and Fire Insurance Company 627 

First ^S'ational Bank 627 

State National Bank 627 

Board of Trade 638 

Fires and Fire Department 628 

The Citv of the Dead 629 

Springfield Waterworks 631 

Artesian Well . 633 

Amusements 63.3 

Biographical - 635 

The Colored People 736 


Auburn 745 

Ball 784 

Buffalo Hart ^02 

Cartwright 813 

Chatham 827 

Clear Lake 851 

Cotton Hill 873 

Cooper 862 

Curran 883 

Fancy Creek ^97 

Gardner ^ 913 

lUiopolis 919 

Island Grove 931 

Loami 938 

Mechanicsburg 953 

New Berlin 963 

Pawnee 974 

Rochester 9S7 

Salisbury 1011 

Spri n gfield 1022 

Talkihgton 1028 

Wheatfleld 1040 

Williams 10 »5 

Woodside 1059 


Bettie Stnart Institute 485 

Sangamon County Fair Grounds 546 

State Capitol 35 

Map of Illinois 735 

Starved Rock 19 

Map of Sangamon County 15 and 16 

National Lincoln Monument 630 


Breckeuridge, Preston 259 

Buck, Dr. H. B ... 397 

Bergen, Kev. Geo 517 

Carpenter, William. 475 

Cartwright, Peter 601 

Constant. J. T 805 

Caldwell, Ben. P tOl 

Davis, Dr. W. H 345 

Diller R. W 63 

Foutch, Thcs 643 

Fullinwider, J. N 951 

Irwin.Alex.B 779 

lies, Elijah 117 

Irwin, Robert 301 

Keyes, J. W 135 

Loose, J. G 423 

Lowder, Geo. W 103o 

Lincoln, Abraham Frontispiece 

Logan, Steplien T fl 

Lamb, .Tames ~07 

Lanphier, Chas. H 233 

McClernand. GeneralJ. A 319 

McCoy, M. D 9»3 

McConnell. E. F 753 

North, Robert 85 f 

Power, Gen<rge 449 

Power, William I) JJ9 

Robinson, Henson -'^S 

Ruth,R. F 362 

Shepherd, Thomas C , 925 

Saunder.s, J. R 711 

Shields, Alexander 189 

Tracy.FrankW 6(7 

VanDeren, Cyrus W 831 

Williams, Co'lonelJohn f' 

Williams, Samuel... 1 ' ^ 

Wohlgemuth, Dr. Henry 1" 

ly O & A y 




History of Illinois 


Illinoifs, the fourth State in the Union in 
wealth, population and political })ower, lies in the 
very heart ol" the up})er valley of tlie})i)i. 
Stretching over five degrees of latitude, from 
•'i74 to 42^=, it has considerable diversity, both of 
soil and climate. The boundary line of the State 
is about twelve hundred miles. From the point 
where it joins the Wisconsin dine on the north- 
east, Lake Michigan bounds it on the east for 
fifty miles to the northeast corner of Indiana; 
liience a line is drawn due south one hundred 
and sixty-eight miles to the Wabash river. 
The Wabash and the Ohio rivers constitute the 
remainder of the eastern and southern boundary, 
while the lordly Mississippi washes its entire 
western border. The extreme length of the 
State is three hundred and seventy-eight miles; 
ihe extrei. „ breadth, in the latitude of Danville 
and Kushville, is two hundred and ten miles, 
and the average l»readth is about one hundred 
and fifty miles. 

Illinois contains 55,405 square miles, or more 
than 35,UiJU,().'0 acres of land. Fully two-thirds 
of this is prairie, and nearly all of it is suscepti- 
ble of proper cultivation. The State has ten 
thousand more square miles than New York or 
Ohio, and is larger than Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey cond)ined, and is almost as large as all 
the New England States taken together. 


That Illinois was inhabited by a race of men 
prior to the present Indian race that yet inhabit 
a ])ortion of the Union hardly adjnits of a doubt. 
It is clearly demonstrated by the well authenti- 
cated accounts of discoveries made tliat a civil- 
i/cod ])eo])le, and one highly cultivated, once 
occupied the great prairie State and various }»arts 
of the country now constituting the American 
Union, but the date <>f their rule ill the western 

world is so remole that all traces of this history, 
progress and decay, lie buried in the deepest 
obscurity. This [tre-historic I'ace ii» known as* 
the Mound-IJuilders, from the numeious large 
mounds of earth-works left by them. Their char- 
acter can be but partially gleaned from the inter- 
nal evidences and peculiarities of all that remains 
of them — the mounds. Remains of what were 
apparently villages, altars, tem]>les, idols, ceme- 
teries, monuments, cam})s, fortifications, and 
pleasure grounds, have been found, but nothing 
showing of what material were their habitations. 

The question as to the origin of the Mound- 
Builders is an interesting one. If thev were 
not the ancestors of tlie Indians, who were they? 
Those who do not believe in the common ]tarent- 
age of mankind contend that they were an 
indigenous race of the western hemisphere ; 
others think they came from the East, and 
imagine they are coincident with the religion 
of ^he Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the 
supjjosed theology of the MoundvHuilders. 
They were, no doubt, idolaters, and it has been 
conjectured that the sun was the object of their 
adoration. The mounds were generally built in 
a situation affording a view of the rising sun; 
when enclosed in walls their gateways were 
toward the east; the caves in which their dead 
were occasionally buried always opened in the 
same direction ; whenever a nn»uMd was par- 
tially enclosed by a semi-ciicular pavement, it 
was on the east side; when bodies were buried 
in gi'aves, as was fre<|uently the case, they were 
laid in a direction east and west; and, finally, 
medals have ])een found re])resenting the sun 
and his rays of light. 

At what periotl they came to this country, is 
likewise a matter of speculatitni. From the 
com]»aratively rude state of the arts among 
them, it has been inferred that the time was 



very remote. Their ajes were of stone. Their 
raiment, judging from fragment.^ wliich have 
been diseovered, consisted of tlie bark of trees, 
interwoven with feathers; and their military 
w uiks wei'e sucli as a people would erect Avho 
had just ])assed tn the })astoral state of society 
from that dependent alone u])on hunting and 

The mounds aiul other ancient earth-works 
constructed by this people are far more abund- 
ant tlian generally supposed, from the fact that 
while sduie a)'e (juite large, the greater part of 
thein ;ii-(' small and inconspicuous. Along 
nearly all our water courses that are large 
enough to be navigated with a canoe, the 
mounds ww almost invariably found, covering 
the \)i\sv points and headlands of the bluifs 
which boiilei- the narrower valleys; so that when 
one finds himself in such positions as to com- 
n\and the grandest views for river scenery, he 
may almost always discover that he is standing 
upon, oi- in close proximity to, some one or 
more of these traces of the labors of an ancient 

One of the most singular eaith-works in the 
State was found on the top of a ridge near the 
east bank of the Sinsinawa creek in the lead 
region. It resembled some huge animal, the 
head, ears, nose, legs and tail, and general out- 
line of which being as perfect as if made by 
men versed in modern art. The ridge on which 
it was situated stands on the prairie, -iOo yards 
wide, 100 feet in height, and rounded on the 
to|> by a dee]) deposit of clay. Centrally, along 
the line of its summit, and thrown u}) in the 
form of an embankment three feet high, ex- 
tended the outline of a ([uadruped measui-ing 
I'oO feet from the tip of the nose to the end of 
I he tail, and having a width of 18 feet at the 
center of the body. The head was :).5 feet in 
length, the ears lo'feet, legs (50 and tail 7.5. The 
curvature in both the fore and liind legs was 
u'ltural to an animal lying on its side. The 
general outline of the ligure most nearly resem- 
bled the extinct animal knowi' to geologists as 
the .^[eg•atherium. The (pustion naturally 
arises, by Avhom and for what purpose was this 
earth figure raised? Some have conjectured 
that numbers of \his now extinct aninial lived 
and roamed ovei- the prairies of Illitu>is when 
the Mound-IJuilders first made thtir appearance 
on the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, and 
that the wonder and admiration, excited by 
the colossal dimensions of these huge creatures, 
found some expression in the erection of this 
tigurc. The bones of some similar gigantic 

! animals were exhumed on this stream about 
t*iree miles from the same place. 

Mr, lireckenridge, who examined the anticpii- 
ties of the Western country in ]si7, sjteaking 
of the mounds in the Amei'ican Bottom, says: 
"The great number and extremely large si/e of 
some of them may be regarded as furnisliing, 
with other circumstances, evidences of their 
anticjuity, I have sometimes been induced to 
think that at the period when they were con- 
structed there was a poj)ulation here as numer- 
ous as that which once animated the bordei's of 
the Nile or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most 
numerous, as well as considerable, of these 
remains are found in precisely those j)arts of 
the country where the traces of a numerous 
population might be looked for, luxmely, from 
the mouth of the Oiiio on the east side of the 
Mississipi»i, to the Illinois river, and on the west 
from the St. Fi-ancis to the Missouri. I am 
perfectly satisfied that cities similar to those of 
ancient Mexico, of several hundred thousand 
souls, have existed in tiiis country." 


Following the Mound-Builders as inhabitants 
of Noi'th America, were as it is suj)[tosed, the 
peoj^le who reared the magnificent cities the 
ruins of which are found in Central Ameriea. 
This people was far more civilized and advanced 
■in the arts than were the Mound-Builders. The 
cities built by them, judging from the ruins of 
broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling 
walls of temples, palaces and pyramids, which 
in some places for miles bestrew the gi'ound, 
must have been of great extent, magnificent and 
very populous. AVhen we consider the vast 
]>eriod of time necessary to ei'cct such colossal 
structures, and, again, the tinu' re<iuired to 
reduce them to their present ruined state, we 
can conceive something of their antitpiity. 
These cities must have been old when many of 
the ancient cities of the Orient were being built. 

The third race inhabiting North America dis- 
tinct from the former two in every ]»articular, 
is the present Indians. Thev Mere, when visited 
by the early discoverers, without cultivation, 
refinement or literatui-e, and fai' behind the 
Mound-Builders in the km)wledge of the arts. 
The question of their origin has long interested 
arclueologists, aad is the most difficult they have 
been called u)>on to ansAver. Of their prede- 
cess()i-s the Indian tribes knew nothing; they 
even had no •traditions respecting them. It is 



i|iiite certain tliat they were the fsuccessors of a 
race which had entirely passed away ages before 
the discovery of tlie New World. One hypo- 
thesis is that the Anierican Indians are an origi- 
nal race indigenous to the Western hemisphere. 
Tiiose who entertain this view think theii" pecu- 
liarities of jiliysical structure preclude the possi- 
bility of a coninion parentage with the rest of 
mankind. Prominent among those distinctive 
traits is the hair, which in the red nian is round, 
in the white man oval, and in the black man Hat. 
A more common supj>ositi<)n, however, is that 
they are a derivative race, and s])rang fiom one 
or more of the ancient ])eoples of Asia. This 
last is doubtless the true theory. 

When Christopher C-olumbus had finally suc- 
ceeded in demonstrating the truth of his theory 
that by sailing westward from P^iirope land 
would be discovered, landing on the island of 
Bermuda he su|)posed that he had reached the 
East Indies. This was an error, but it led to 
the ado]»tion of the name of "Indians" for the 
iidiabitants of the newly discovered country, by 
which name the I'ed men of America have ever 
since been known. 

At the time of the discovery of America the 
Algonquins, one of the most powerful tribes of 
Itidians, occupied the seaboard, while the Iro- 
((uois, another gi'eat tribe, inhabited the country 
almost surrounded by them. The Algonquins 
spread over vast territory, and various tribes of 
Algonquin lineage sprung up over the country, 
in Unxa adopting distijtct tribal customs and 
laws. An almost continuous warfare was car- 
i-ied on between tribes, but when the white men 
came a confederacy of Indian tribes were 
formed and every foot of territory was fiercely 
disputed. The Algonijuins formed the most 
extensive alliance to resist the encroachment of 
the whites, especially the English. Such was 
the nature of King Philip's war. This King, 
with his AlgoiKpiin braves, spread t<M-ror and 
desolation throughout New England. With the 
Algonquins as the controlling spirit, a confed- 
era<;y of continental proportions was the result, 
embracing in its alliance the tribes of every 
name and lineage from the northern lakes to the 
gulf, Pontiac, liaving breathed into them his 
iuiplacable hate of the English intruders, 
ordered the contlict to commence, and all the 
British colonies trembled before the desolating 
fury of Indian vengeance. 


'J'he Illinois confederacy, the various tribes of 
which comprised most of the Indians of Illinois 
at one time, was composed of five tribes: the 
Tamaroas, Michigans, Kaskaskias, C'ahokas, and 
Peorias. The Illinois, Miamis and Delawares 
were of the same stock. As early as 107U, the 
priest. Father Mar(piette, mentions frequent 
visits made by individuals of this confederacy 
to the missionary station at St Esprit, near the 
western extremity of Lake Sujjerior. At that 
time they lived west of the Mississippi, in eight 
villages, whither they had been driven from the 
shores of Lake Michigan by the Iroquois. 
Shortly afterward they l)egan to return to 
their old hunting ground, and most of them 
finally settled in Illinois. Joliet and Marquette, 
in 1()73, met with a band of them on their 
famous voyage of discovery down the Missis- 
sippi. They were treated with the greatest 
hospitality by the principal chief. On their 
retui'n voyage up the Illinois river they stopped 
at the principal town of the confederacy, situ- 
ated on the banks of the river seven miles below 
the present town of Ottaw^a. It was then called 
Kaskaskia. Manpiette returned to the village in 
1675 and established the mission of the Immac- 
ulate Conception, the oldest in Illinois. When, 
in 167n, LaSalle visited the town, it had greatly 
increased, numljering 400 lodges, and at the an- 
nual assembly of the difi^erent tribes, from (i,(K)u 
to 8,(100 souls. In common with other western 
tribes, they became involved in the conspiracy 
of Pontiac, although displaying no Aery great 
warlike spirit. Pontiac lost his life by the 
hands of one of the braves of the Illinois tribe, 
which so enraged the nations that ha<l followed 
him as their leader that they fell upon the Illi- 
nois 'to avenge his death, and almost annihilated 


Tradition states' that a band of this tribe, in 
order to escaj)e the general slaughter, took 
refuge ujion the high rock on the Illinois river 
known as Starved Rock. Nature has made this 
one of the most formidable military fortresses 
in the world. From the waters which wash its 
base it rises to an altitude of one hundred and 
twenty-five feet. Three of its sides it is impos- 
sible to scale, M'hile the other may be climbed 
with difticulty.. E^"om its summit, almost as 
inaccessible as an eagle's nest, the valley of the 
Illinois is seen as a landscape of exquisite 
beauty. The river near by struggles between a 



number of wooded isliinds, wliile further below 
it (juietly meanders tliroufjli vast meadows till it 
disappears like a thread of liglit in the dim 
distance. On the summit of this rock the Illi- 
nois were besieged by a superior force of the 
Pottawattomies whom the great strength of 
tlieir natural fortress enabled them to keep at bay. 
Hunger and thirst, however, soon accomplished 
what the army was unable to effect. Surrounde<l 
by a relentless foe, without food or water, they 
took a last look at Iheir beautiful huntiiig 
grounds, and with true Indian fortitude laid 
down and died fro7n starvation. Years after- 
wards tlieii- bones were seen whitening in that 

At the beginning of the present century the 
remnants of this once powerful confederacy 
were forced into a smaller compass around Kas- 
kaskia. A few years later they emigrated to 
the soutliwest, and in 1850 they were in the 
Indian Territory, and numbered but eighty-foui- 


Nicholas Perrot, a Frenchman, was the first 
Avhite man to visit the present great State of 
Illinois. In the year IHVl he was sent to (Chi- 
cago by M. 'I'alou, Intendant of Canada, for the 
pui'pose of inviting the Indians to a ])eace con- 
vention, to be held at Green J>ay. The object 
of this convention was the formation of a ])lan 
for the exploration of the Mississippi River. 
De Soto, the Spanish explorer, had discovered 
the river neai-ly one hundred and fifty years 
previously, luit did not effect a settlement or 
explore the country any further. It remained 
as it was until the French determined to visit 
it, for which purpose it was deemed a wise ]h)\- 
icy, as far as ])ossible, to secure the i'riendship 
and (•o-o])eration of the Indians before ventur- 
ing upon an enterprise which their hostility 
might render disastrous. A ])lan was accord- 
ingly arranged, and Louis .loliet joined Father 
.fac(pies Manpiette, at the .lesui't Mission, on 
the Strait of Mackinaw, and, with five other 
Frenchmen and a simple outfit, the daring 
explorers on the 1 7th of May, ](u-), set out on 
their ])ei-ilous voyage to discover the Missis- 
sip])!. Coasting along the northern shore of 
Lake Michigan, they entered Green Bay, and 
passed thence up Fox River and Lake Win- 
nebago to a village of the Muscatines and 
Miamis, where great interest was taken in the 
expedition by the natives. With guides they 
proceeded down the river. Arriving at the 
portage, they soon carried tlieir light canoes 

and scanty baggage to the Wisconsin, about 
three miles distant. Their guides now refused 
to accomj)any them further, and endeavored, by 
reciting the dangers incident to the voyage, to 
induce them to return. They stated that huge 
demons dwelt in the great river, whose voices 
could be heard a long distance, and who 
engulfed in the raging waters all Avho came 
within their reach. They also represented that 
if any of them should escar)e the dangers of 
the river, tierce tribes of Indians dwelt upon its 
Ijanks ready to complete the work of destruc- 
tion. They proceeded on their journey, hoAv- 
ever, and on the iVth of .June pushed their 
frail barks on the bosom of the stately Missis- 
sippi, down which they smoothly glided for 
nearly a hundred miles. Here Joliet and Mar- 
(juette, leaving their canoes in charge of their 
men, went on the western shore, where they dis- 
covered an Indian village, and were kindly 
treated. They journeyed on down the un- 
known river, passing the mouth of the Illi- 
nois, then running into the current of the 
muddy Missouri, and afterwards the waters of 
the Ohio joined with them on their journey 
southward. Near the mouth of the Arkansas, 
tbey discovered Indians who showed signs of 
hostility; but when Mar(piette''s mission of 
peace was made known to them, they were 
kindly received. After ])roceeding up the 
Arkansas a short distance, at the advice of the 
natives they turned their faces northward to 
retrace their steps. After sevei'al Aveeks of hard 
toil they reached the Illinois, up Avhich stream 
they jjroceeded to Lake Michigan. Following 
the western shore of the lake, thev entered 
Green Hay the latter part of Sei)teinber, having 
traAcled a distance of 2, ;")()(» miles. 


On his way up the Illinois, Mar(piette \'isited 
the Kaskaskias, near Avhat is iiow Utica, in 
LaSalle county. The following year he 
returned, and establishetl among them the mis- 
sion of the Immaculate (\tnception. Th'is was 
the last act of his life. He died in Michigan, 
May IS, 16'75. The town was named Kaskas- 
kia by Manpiette. 

The first military occupation of the count rv 
Avas at Fort Crevec(eur, erected in KiSO; but 
there is no evidence that a settlement was com- 
menced there, or at Peoria, on the lake above, 
at that early date. The first settlement of 
which there is any authentic account was com- 
menced with the building of Fort St. Louis, on 
the Illinois river, in 1682; but this Avas soon 



altamloiicd. Tlu' oldest iKM'inanent settlenient, 
not only ill Illinois, hut in tlie valley of the 
.Mississippi, is at Kaskaskia, situated six miles 
above the mouth of the Kaskaskia viver. This 
was settled in IGiU) by the removal of the mis- 
sion from old Kaskaskia, or Ft. St. Louis, on 
tiic Illinois river, (-ahokia was settled about 
tlic same time. 1'he reason for the removal of 
I he old Kaskaskia settlement and mission was 
jirohahly because the danti;erous and dittieult 
route by Lake .Michigan and the ('hicago poi't- 
age had been almost abandoned, and travelers 
and traders traveled down and up the Missis- 
sippi by the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. It was 
removed to the vicinity of the Mississipi)i in 
order to be in the line of travel from Canada to 
FiOuisiana, that is, the lower part of it, for it 
was all Louisiana then south of the lakes. 
Illinois came into possession of the French in 
UiS-i, and was a dejiendency of Canada and a 
])art of Louisiana. During the ])eriod of 
French rule in Louisiana, the population prob- 
ably never exceeded ten thousand. To the year 
IToO the following five distinct settlements 
were imide in the territory of Illinois, number- 
ing, in population, 140 French families, about 
()(iO "converted" Indians, and many traders; 
( 'ahokia, near the mouth of Cahokia creek, and 
al)out Hve miles below the present city of St. 
Louis; St. Philip, about forty-tive miles below 
(aliokia; Fort (Jhartres, tAvelve miles above 
Ivaskaskia; Kaskaskia, situated on the Kaskas- 
kia river six miles above its confluence with the 
Mississippi, and Prairie dii Rocher, near Fort 
Chartres. Fort Chartres was built under the 
direction of the Mississipj)i Company in 1718, 
and was for a time the headcpiarters of the mil- 
itary commandants of the district of Illinois, 
and the most impregnable fortress in North 
America. Tl was also the center of wealth and 
fasliion in the West. For about eighty years 
the French retained peaceable ])ossession of 
Illinois. Their amiable disposition and tact of 
ingratiating themselves with the Lidians ena- 
bled them to escai)e almost entirely the broils 
which weakened and destroyed other colonies 
Whether exi)loring remote rivers or traversing 
hunling grounds in ])ursuit of game, in the 
social circle or as ))articipants in the religious 
exercises of the church, the red men became 
their associates, and w(M'(^ treated with the kind- 
ness and consideration of brothers. For more 
than a hundred years |)eace between the white 
man and Uie red was unbroken, and when at 
last this reign of hai'mony terminated it was 
not caused by the conciliatory Frenchman, but 

by the blunt and stui'dy Anglo-Saxon. During 
this century, or until the country was occupied 
bv the English, no regular court was ever held. 
When, in 1705, the country passed into the 
hands of the English, many of the French, 
rather than submit to a change in their institu- 
tions, preferred to leave their homes and seek a 
new abode. There are, however, at the ])resent 
time, a few remnants of the old French stock 
in the State, who still retain to a great extent 
the ancient habits and customs of their fathers. 


In 1750 France claimed the whole valley of 
the Mississippi, and England the light to extend 
her possessions westward as far as she miglit 
desire. Through colonial controversies, the two 
mother countries were precipitated into a bloody 
war within the Northwestern Territory, (4eorgv 
Washington tiring the first gun of the military 
struggle which resulted in the overthrow of tiie 
French not only in Illinois, but in Nortli Amer- 
ica. The French evinced a determination to 
retain control of the territory bordering the 
Oliio and Mississippi from Canada to the (tuII, 
and so long as the English colonies were con- 
fined to the sea-coast there was little reason for 
controversy. As the English, however, became 
acquainted with this beautiful and fertile por- 
tion of our country, they not only learned the 
value of the vast territory, but also resolved to 
set up a counter claim to the soil. The French 
established numerous military and trading posts 
from the frontiers of Canada to New Oi-leans. 
and in order to establish also their claims to 
jurisdiction over the country, they carve(l the 
lilies of France on the forest trees, or sunk 
plates of metal in the ground. These measures 
did not, however, deter the English from going 
on witli tlu^r explorations; and though neither 
party resorted to arms, yet the conflict wa.-< 
gathering, and it was only a (|uestion of time 
when the storm should burst upon the frontier 
settlement. The French based tiieir claims upon 
discoveries, the English on grants of territory 
extending from ocean to ocean, but neither 
partv j)aid the least attention to the prior claims 
of tiie Lidians. From tbis position of affairs, it 
was evident that actual collision between the 
contending )»arties would not much longer be 
deferred. 'I'he English Government, in antici- 
pation of a war, urged tiie (Tovernor of ^'irginia 
to lose no time in building two forts, which were 
eipupped by arms from England. The French 
anticipated the English, and gathered a consid- 
erable force to defend tlieir possessions. The 



(ioviTiKir (Ictei'iniiKMl to st'iid a messenger to 
tlie nearest Freneli post and demand an explana- 
tion. This resolution of the Governor brought 
into the history of our country for the Krst time 
tlie man of all othei's whom America most loves 
to honor, namely, George Washington. He was 
chosen, aitliough not yet twenty-one years of 
age, as the one to perfoi'm this delicate and 
difficult mission. With five companions, he set 
out on November Id, 175.!, and after a perilous 
journey returned January 6, l7o4. 'IMie sti'ug- 
gie commenced, and continued long, and was 
l)h)ody and fierce; hut on the 1 0th of October, 
170"), the ensign of France was replaced on the 
ramparts of Fort C^hartres by the Hag of Great 
Britain. This fort was the dei)ot of supplies 
and the place of rendezvous for the united forces 
of tiie French. At this time the colonies of the 
Atlantic seaboard were assembled in prelimin- 
ary congress at New \'()rk. dreaming of liberty 
and independence foi' tlie continent; and Wash- 
ington, who led the expedition against the 
French for the English king, in less than ten 
yeai's was commanding the forces opposed to 
the Knglish tyrant. Illinois, besides being con- 
structively a part of Florida for over one hun- 
died years, during which time no Spaniard set 
foot upon her soil or rested his eyes upon her 
beautifiU plains, for nearly ninety years had 
been in the actual occupation of the French, 
their puny settlements slumbering quietly in 
colonial dependence on the distant waters of the 
Kaskas'kia, Illinois and Wabash. 

<:ex. ci.ark's ]''I-()Its. 

The Northwest Territoi-y was now entirely 
under Knglish rule, and on the breaking out of 
the Kevolutionar\ war the IJritish held every 
post of importance in the West. While the 
colonists of tlu' Fast were maintaining a fierce 
struggle with the armies of England, their west- 
ern frontiers were ravaged by merciless l>iil('h- 
eries of Indian warfare. The jealousy of the 
savage was aroused to action by the rapid exten- 
sion of Anieri(!an settlement westward and the 
improper influence exerted by a number of mili- 
tary posts garrisoned by British troops. To 
prevent indiscriminate slaughter arising from 
these causes, Illinois became the theater of some 
of the most daring exploits connected with 
American history. Tiu' hei-o of the achieve- 
ments by which t'liis beautiful land was siuitched 
as a gem from the British crown, was George 
Rogers Clark, of N'irginia. He had closely 
watched the movements of the iiritish through- 
out the Noi'thwest, and understood their whole 

plan; he also knew the Indians were not unani- 
mously in a(^cord with the English, and tiiere- 
fore was convinced that if the British could be 
defeated and expelled from tlie Northwest, the 
natives might be easily awed into neutrality. 
Having convinced himself that the enter]»rise 
against the Illinois settlement might easily suc- 
ceed, he repaired to the capital of V^ii-ginia, 
arriving November 5, 1777. While he was on 
his way, fortunately, Burgoyne was defeated 
(October 17), and the spirits of the colonists 
were thereby greatly encouragecL Patrictk 
Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at once 
entered heartily into Clark's plans. After satis- 
fying the \'irginia leaders of the feasibility of 
his project, he received two sets of instructions, 
— one secret, the other open. The latter author- 
ized him to enlist seven companies to go to Ken- 
tucky, and serve three months after their arrixal 
in the West. The secret order authorized hiiu 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and 
lead of (ileneral Hand, at Pittsburg, and to pro- 
ceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions General Clark repaired 
to Pittsburg, choosing rather to raise his men 
west of the mountains, as he well knew all were 
needed in the colonies for the conflict there. 
Enlisting his men, he at once proceeded to carry 
out his instructions. His plan was to go by 
water as far as Fort Massac, and thence march 
direct to Kaskaskia. Here he intended to sur- 
prise the garrison, aiul after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to \'incennes, and lastly to 
Detroit. Each of these posts were in turn cap- 

The services of Clark proved of essential 
advantage to his countrymen. They discon- 
certed the plans of Hamilton, the Governor of 
Detroit, who was intending to make a vigorous 
and concerted attack u])on the frontier, and not 
only saved the western frontier from depreda- 
tions by the savages, but also greatly cooled the 
ardor of the Indians for carrying on a contest 
in which they were not likely to be tlie gainers. 
Had it not been for this small army, a union of 
all the tribes from Maine to Georgia against the 
colonies might have been effected, and the whole 
current of oui- history changed. 


In October, 1778, after the successful campaign 
of Colonel Clark, the assembly of Virginia 
erected the conquered country, embracing all 
the territory northwest of the Ohio river, into 
the county of Illinois, which was doubtless the 



largest county in the W(-»i"ld, exceeding in its 
dimensions the whole of Great Britian and Ire- 
land. To speak more definitely, it contained 
the territory now embraced in the great States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Mich- 
ican. On the l:.'th of December, 177S; John 
Todd was apiJointed Lieutenant Commandant of 
this county by l*atrick Henry, then Governor of 
Virginia, and accordingly, also, the first of Illi- 
nois county. 


Illinois continued to form a part of Virginia 
until March I, 17s4, when that State ceded all 
the territory north of the Ohio to tlie United 
States. Immediately the general gov^ernment 
proceeded to establish a form of government for 
the settlers in the territories thus ceded. This 
form continued until the passage of the ordi- 
nance of 17S7, for the government of the North- 
western Territory. No man can study tlie secret 
history of this ordinance and not feel that Pro v- 
iilence was guiding with sleepless eye the des- 
tinies of these unborn States. American legis- 
lation has never achieved anything more admii'- 
able, as an internal government, than this com- 
{)rehensive ordinance. Its provisions concern- 
ing the distribution of property, the principles 
of civil and religious liberty Avhich it laid at the 
foundation of the cotnmunities since established, 
and the efficient and simple organization by 
which it created the first machinery of civil so- 
ciety, are worthy of all the praise that has ever 
been given them. 


For some years Thomas Jeffei"son had vainly 
tried to secure a system of government for tiie 
Northwestern Territory. He was an emanci]»a- 
tionist and favored the exclusion of slavery from 
the territory, and in this he was opposed by al- 
most the entire soutli. In July, 17S7, Manasseh 
Cutler a[)peared in New York to lobby on the 
question of organization of the Northwestern 
Territory. He was a courtly gentleman of the old 
style, a man of commanding presence and of in- 
viting face. He came representing a Massachu- 
setts company that desired to purchase a tract of 
land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. This com|)any, together with 
certain speculators in New York, enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5, 500, ()()() acres. The 
amount thus received from the sale of this land 
would apply towards reducing the National 
<lebt, which Jefferson was anxious should be [»aid 
as soon as possible. 

Massachusetts tlicn owned the territory of 
Maine, whit-h she was crowding on the market. 
She was op})osed to opening the northwestern 
region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The 
South caught the inspiration, and all exalted 
Dr. Cutler. The entire South rallied around 
him. Massacliusetts could not vote against him, 
because many of the constituents of lier mem- 
bers were interested personally in the Western 
speculation. Thus Cutler, making friends in 
I the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the 
lobby, was enabled to command the situation. 
True to dee})er convictions, he dictated one of 
the most compact and finished docunients of 
wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any 
human law book. He borrowed from Jefferson 
the term "Articles of Compact," which, pre- 
ceding the federal constitution, rose into the 
most sacred character. He then followed verj-^ 
closely the constitution of Massachusetts, 
ado])ted three years l)efore. Its most ])rominent 
points were : 

t. The exclusion of slavery from the terri- 
tory forever. 

2. Provision for ])ul)lic schools, giving one 
township for a seminary and every section 
numbered 1(5 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

•"!. A provision prohibiting the adoption of 
any constitution or the enactment of any law 
that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

Be it forever rememljered that this compact 
declared that "religion, morality, and knowl- 
edge being necessary to good government and 
the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall always be encour- 
aged." Dr. Cutler planted himself on this plat- 
form and would not yield, (nriving his unquali- 
fied declaration that it Avas that or nothing, — 
that unless they could make the land desirable 
they did not want it, — he took liis horse and 
buggy and started for the constitutional conven- 
tion at Philadelphia, On July 1"5, J7s7, the bill 
was put upon its passage, and was unanimously 
adopted. Thus the gi'eat States of Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, a vast 
emj)ire, were consecrated to freedom, intelli- 
gence, and morality. Thus tlie great heart of 
the nation was })repai'ed to save the Union of 
States, for it was this act that was the salvation 
of the re})ublic and the destruction of slavery. 
Soon the South saw their great Idunder and 
tried to have the compact repealed. In ISO"! 
Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported 
that this ordinance whs a compact and opposed 



repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in tl>e way ol' tlie 
<>ii-nisliiiin' sea of slavery. 

Gen. .Vrlhui' St. Clair was, Uy Congress, 
elected (-Jovenior of this vast territory. 


After the tlivision of the Northwestern Terri- 
lorv, Illinois became one of the counties of the 
Ten-itorx- of Indiana, from which it was sejia- 
i-ated by an act of Conj^ress February •!, 1S09, 
liirminn' the Territory of IHinois, with a popula- 
tion estimated at '.),0UU, and tlien included the 
present State of Wisconsin. It was divided, at 
the tim.e, into two counties — St. Clair and Ran- 
dolph. John J>oyle, of Kentucky, was ai)pointed 
(Tovernor, b)' the President, James Madison, 
but declinin<j;-, Ninian Edwards, of the same 
Stale, was then appointed and served with dis- 
tinction; and after the organization of Illinois 
as a State he served in the same capacity, being 
its third Governor. 

During Governor Edwards' administration 
the wai of 1812 commenced, and the few whites 
in the State liad to contend against a savage foe 
inciteil on iv deeds of violence by the British 
otiicers sent out for that purpose. The massacre 
at Fort Dearborn, of helpless jirisoners, by the 
infuriated Indians, forms a black page in the 
history of Illinois. Several expeditions were 
put on foot by Governor Edwards against the 
Indians, and in the various cami)aigns the Gov- 
ernor bore an honorable and heroic part. Peace 
canu' at last, the Indian de})redations ceased, 
and the 'JYu'ritory of Illinois was again on the 
foad to [)rosperity. 

si'A'rE oK(;.\Ni/,A'nox. 

In January of 1^18 tlie Territiu-ial Legislature 
forwarde(l U) Nathaniel Pope, delegate in Con- 
gress from Illinois, a ])etition ])raying for admis- 
sion into the National Union as a State. On 
April istli of the same year C^ongress passed 
the enabling act, and December 3, after the 
Stale governiueiit liad l)een organized ;ind Gov- 
ernor IJond had signed the C'onstitution, Con- 
gress by a resolution declared Illinois to be 
"one ol' the United States of America, and 
admitti'd into the Union on an cipial footing 
with the original States in all respects." 


In July and August of 1S18 a convention was 
held at Kaskaskia for the purpose of di'afting 
a constitution. This constitution was not sidj- 
niittcd to a xoteof tlic people for their ap[)roval 
Ol' rcjecLion, it being well known that they 
would ap))rove it. It was about the first or- 

ganic law of any State in the l^nion to abolish 
imprisonment for debt. The first election under 
the constitution was held on the third Thursday 
and the two succeeding days in September, 1818. 
Shadrach Bond was elected Goveriior, and Pierre 
Menard Lieutenant Governor. Tlieir term of 
office extended four years. At this time the 
State was divided into fifteen counties, the pop- 
ulation being about -KJ,OUO. Of this number by 
far the larger portion were from the Southern 
States. The salary of the Governor Avas !)!!],<H)U, 
while that of the Treasurer was l^oUtJ. The 
legislature re-(.'nacted, verbatim, the Teri'itoiial 
Code, the penalties of which were unnecessarily 
severe. Whi})ping, stocks and pillory were 
used for minor offenses, and for arson, rape, 
lioi'se stealing, etc., death by hanging was the 
penalty. These laws, however, were modified 
in 1S21. 

The legislature first convened at Kaskaskia, 
the ancient seat of empire for more Uian one 
hundred and fifty years, botli for th^ French 
and Americans. Provisions were made, how- 
ever, for the removal of the seat of government 
by this legislature. A place in the wilderness 
on the Kaskaskia river was selected and uamed 
Vandalia. Froui Vandalia it was renu»ved to 
Springfield in the year 18.''»0. 


The liulians, Avho for some years were on 
[)eacefid terms with the whites, became trouble- 
some in 1827. The Winnebagoes, Sacs and 
Foxes and other tribes had l)een at war more 
than a hundred years. In the summer of 1827 a 
war party of the Winnebagoes surprised a j)arty 
of Chipj)ewas and killed eight of them. Four 
of the murderers were arrested and delivered to 
the Chi])pewas, by whom theyAvere immediately 
shot. This was the first irritation of the Win- 
nebagoes. lied Bird, a chief of this tribe, in 
order to avenge the execution of the four war- 
riors of his own people, attacked the Chippewas, 
but was defeated ; and being determined to sat- 
isfy his thirst for revenge by some means sur- 
l»rised and killed several white men. irpon re- 
ceiving intelligence of these murders, the whites 
who were working the lead mines in the vicinity 
of Gakiui formed a body of volunteers, and, 
re-inforced by a company of United States 
troops, marched into the coiuitry of the Win- 
nebagoes. To sa\e their nation from the mis- 
eries of war, Re<l Bird and six other men of his 
nation voluntarily surrendered themselves. 
Some of the number were executed, some of 
them imprisoiu'd and destined, like lied Bird, 



iiiU'loriuiisiy lo piiic ;iway witliiii tlie narrow cuii- 
liiK's ol' a jail, when fornierly the vast foi-ests 
liad proven too limited for them. 

I!].A('K 11A\\ K WAll. 

Li the year of J NU4 a treaty was concluded 
hetwi'en the United States and tlie chiefs of the 
Sac and Fox rations. One old chief of the 
Sacs, however, called lilack -Hawk, who had 
fouiiht with great bravery in the service of Great 
Hritain diirin5:;the war of 181:4, had always taken 
exceptions to this treaty, pronouncing it void. 
In ls:]i lie established himself, with a chosen 
band of warriors, upon the disputed territory, 
ordering the whites to leave the country at once. 
The settlers complaining, Govern(»r Reynolds 
dispatched General Gaines, with a company of 
regulars and l,50o volunteers, to tlie scene of 
action. Taking the Indians by surprise, the 
troops burnt their villages and forced them to 
conclude a treats^, by which they ceded all lands 
east of the Mississipjn, and agreed to remain on 
the western side of the river. Necessity forced 
tlie [)roud spirit of IJlack Hawk into submission, 
which made him more than ever determined to 
be avenged upon his enemies. Having rallied 
around him the warlike braves of the Sac and 
I'\)x nations, he crossed the Mississippi in the 
spring of 18:]2. Upon learning of this invasion. 
Governor Reynolds hastily collected a body of 
I, NUO volunteers, placing them under command 
of IJrigadier General Whiteside. The army 
marched to the Mississippi, and having reduced 
to ashes the Indian village known as "Prophet's 
Town," proceeded several miles up the river to 
Dixon to join the regular forces under General 
Atkinson. They found at J>ixon two companies 
of volunteers, Mdio, sighing for glory, Avere dis- 
])atched to reconnoitre the enemy. They ad- 
vanced under command of Major Stillnian to a 
small creek, afterwards known as "Stillman's 
Run," and while there encamped saw a party of 
mounted Indians at a distance of a mile. Sev- 
eral of Stillman's party mounted their horsesand 
charged the Indians, killing three of them, but 
being attacked by the main body, under Black 
Hawk, tlujy were routed, and by their })recii)i- 
lated flight spread such a panic through the 
camp that the whole company ran ofl' to Dixon 
as fast as possil)le. On their arrival it was found 
that eleven of their number were killed. 

In .June, 1S32, Black Hawk, with a band of 
one hundred and Hlty warriors, attacked A])i)le 
River Fort, near Galena, defended by twi'nty- 
tive men. This fort, a mere palisade of logs, 
Avas erected to afford protection to the piiners. 


For fifteen consecutive hours tlie garrison had 
to sustain the assault of the savage enemy; but 
knowing very well that no iiuartei- would be 
given them, they fought with such fury and des- 
peration that the Indians, after losing many of 
their best warriors, were compelled to retreat. 

New forces being sworn into the service, Gen- 
erals Atkinson and Henry determined to jjursue 
the retreating foe. 'J'liey followed them into 
Wisconsin, and hearing that Black Hawk was 
encamped at Rock river, at the Manitou village, 
issued orders to continue the i)ursuit. The offi- 
cers of^^Genentf+Ienry handed to him a written 
protest; but he, a nuiu evpial to any emergency, 
ordered the officers to be arrested and escorted 
to General Atkinson. Within a few minutes 
after the order was given the officers all collect- 
ed around tIie_Genjjmr!>i^ tiart - er^ y pledged them- 
selves that ifTorgtrrrinhey would return to duty 
and never do the like again. 

The battle of Bad Axe immediately followed, 
resulting in a loss to the Indians of three hun- 
dred, besides lifty prisoners. The whites had 
but seventeen killed and twelve wounded. 
Black Hawk, with twenty of his braves, es- 
caped, retreating up the Wisconsin river. Tiie 
Winnebagoes, desiring to secure the friendship 
of the whites, went in pursuit and captured and 
delivered them to General Street, the United 
States Indian Agent. Among the ]jrisoners 
were the son of Black Hawk and the prophet of 
the tribe. These, with Black Hawk, were taken 
to Washington, D. C, and were soon confined 
as prisoners at Fortress Monroe. Thus ended 
the Black Hawk war 


At the general election in 18.U Joseph Duncan 
was chosen Governor by a handsome majority. 
A reckless and uncontrollable desire for internal " 
public improvements seized tlie minds of the 
people. In his message to the legislature, in 
1835, Governor Duncan said: "When we look 
abroad and see the extensive lines of intei'-com- 
munication i)enetrating almost every section of 
our sister States; when we see the canal-boat 
and the locomotive V)caring with seemijig 
triumph the rich ])roductions of the interior to 
the rivers, lakes and ocean, almost annihilating 
time, Imrthen and s}»ace, what ])atriotic l)osoin 
does not beat high with a laudable and)iti<)n to 
give Illinois her full share of those advantages 
which are adorning her sister Slates, and which 
a magnilicent Providence seems t<> invite by a 
wonderful a<laptation of our whole country to 
such improveinenlsV" 




The l(\Li;islaturc' responded to the ai'di'iit words 
of the Governor, and enacted a system of inter- 
nal improvements without a paralU'l in the gran- 
deur of its concej)tion. They or<lered the con- 
struction of 1,300 n\iles of railroad, crossing the 
State in all directions. '^I'his was surpassed by 
the river and canal improvements. There were 
a few counties not touched by the railroad, 
river or canal, and they were to be comforted 
and compensated by the free distribution of 
$200,000 among them. To inHate this balloon 
beyond credence, it was ordered that work 
should commence on both ends of each of these 
railroads and rivers, and at each river crossing, 
all at the same time. This provision, which has 
been called the crowning folly of the entire sys- 
tem, was the result of those jealous com])ina- 
tions emanating from the fear that advantages 
might accrue to one section over another in the 
commencement and completion of the works. 
We can appreciate l>etter, perhai)s, the magni- 
tude of this grand system by reviewing a few 
figures. The debt authorized for these improve- 
ments in the first instance was |1(),2.'50,000. But 
this, as it was soon found, was based upon esti- 
mates at least too low by half. This, as we 
readily see, committed the State to a liability of 
over $20,000,000, equivalent to 1^^00,000,000 at 
the present time, with over ten times the i)opu- 
lation and more than ten times the wealth. 

Such stupendous undertakings by the State 
naturally engendered the fever of speculation 
among individuals. That juirticular form known 
as the town-lot fever assumed tlu; malignant 
type at first in Chicago, from whence it spread 
over the entire State and adjoining States. It 
was an epidemit;. It cut up men's farms with- 
out regard to locality, and cut up the purses of 
the purchasers without regard to consequences. 
It was estimated that building lots enough were 
sold in Indiana alone to accommodate eveiy 
citizen then in the United States. 

Chicago, which in 1880 was a small trading- 
post, had within a few years grown into a city. 
I'his was the starting point of the wonderful 
and marvelous career of that city. Improve- 
ments, unsurpassed by individual efi'orts in the 
annals of the world, were then l)egun and have 
been maintained to this day. Though visited 
by the terrible fire fiend and the accunVulation of 
years swept away in a night, yet she has arisen, 
and to-day is the best built city in the world. 
Reports of the rapid advance of property in 

Chicago spread to the east, and thousands poured 
into her liorders, bringing money, enterprise 
and industry. Every ship that left her port car- 
ried with it maps of s2)lendidly situated towns 
and additions, and every vessel that returned 
was laden with immigrants. It was sai<l at the 
tinu^ that the staple articles of Illinois export 
were town plats, and that there was danger of 
crowding the State with towns to the exclusion 
of land for agriculture. 


The Illinois and Michigan canal again re- 
ceived attention. This enterprise is one of the 
most important in the early develojtment of 
Illinois, on account of its magnitude and cost, 
and forming as it does the connecting link be- 
tween the great chain of lakes and the Illinois 
and Mississip))i rivers. (4overnor Bond, the 
first Governor, recommended in his first mes- 
sage the binlding of the canal. In is21 the 
legislature appropriated ^10,000 for surveying 
the route. This work was performed l)y two 
young men, who estimated the cost at •t()00,000 
or !i!<7O0,0oo. It cost, however, when completed, 
^8,000,000. In 1825 a law was passed to incor- 
porate the Canal 'Company, but no stock was 
sold. In 1826, upon the solicitation of Daniel 
P. Cook, Congressman from this State, Congress 
gave 800,000 acres of land on the line of the 
work."* In 182s commissioners were ai)i)ointed, 
and Avork commenced Avith a new survey and 
new estimates. In 1834-5 the work was again 
]»ushed forward, and continued until IS48, when 
it was comj)leted. 


Bonds of the State were recklessly disposed 
of both in the East and in Europe. Work was 
commenced on various lines of i-ailroad, but 
none Avere ever completed. On the Northern 
Cross Railroad, from Meredosia east eight miles, 
the first locomotive that ever turned a wheel in 
the great valley of the Mississip|)i was run 
'IMie date of this remarkable event was Novem- 
l»er s, ]838. Large sums of money Avere being 
expended with no assurance of a rcA'cnue, an<l 
consequently, in l.s40, the legislature repealed 
the improvement laws passed three years pre- 
viously, not, however, until the State had accu- 
mulated a debt of nearly 115,000,000. Thus 
fell the most stupendous, extravagant and almost 
ruinous folly of a grand system of internal im- 
provements that any civil community, j)erhaps, 
eA^er engaged in. The State banks failed, specie 
was scarce, an enormous debt was accumulated^ 


llie interest of wliicli eoiiM not be paid, people 
were disappointed in the aecunmlatioii of wealth, 
and real estate was wortldess. All this liad a 
tendency to create a desire to tlirow off the 
heavy biinlen of State del)t by repudiation. 
This was boldly advocated by some leading 
men. The fair fame and name, however, of the 
State was not tarnished by repudiation. Men, 
triui, honest and able, were placed at tlie head of 
affaii's; and though The liours were dark and 
gloomy, and the times most trying, yet our 
grand State was brought through and ])ros]>ered, 
until to-day, after the expenditure of millions 
for public improvements and for canying on 
the late war, it has, at present, no ]»ublic debt 

^roKMo^' wak. 
Tu April, 1840, the " Latter-Day Saints," or 
Mormons, came in large numbers to Illinois, 
and purchased a tract of land on the east side 
of the Mississippi river, a1)out ten miles above 
Keokuk. Here they commenced building the 
city of Nauvoo. A more picturesque or eligi- 
ble site for a city could not have been selected. 

The origin, rapid development, and pi'osper- 
ity of this i-eligious sect are the most remark- 
able and instructive historical events of the 
present century. That an obscure individual, 
without money, education, or respectability, 
should persuade hundreds of thousands of peo- 
ple to believe him ins{)ired of (lod, and cause a 
book, contemptible as a literary production, to 
be received as a continuation .of the sacred rev- 
elation, appears almost incredible ; yet in less 
than half a century, the discij)les of this ob- 
scure individual have increased to hundreds of 
tliousands; have fouiuled a State in the distant 
wilderness, and compelled the government of 
the United States to practically recognize them 
as an inde])endent people. 

The founder of Mormonism was Joseph 
Smith, a native of Vermont, who emigrated 
while quite young with his father's family to 
western New York. Here his youth was spent 
in idle, vagabond life, roaming the woods, 
dreaming of buried treasures, and in endeavor- 
ing to learn the art of tlnding them by the 
twisting of a forked stick in his hands or by 
looking through enchanted stones. Botli he 
and his father became famous as "water wiz- 
ards," always ready to point out the s])Ot wliere 
wells might be dug and w^ater found. Such was 
the character of the young protligate when he 
made the acquaintance of Sidney Higdon, a per- 
son of considerable talent and information, who 

had conceived the design of founding a new 
religion. A religious romance, written by Mr. 
Spaulding, a Presbyterian preacher of Ohio, 
then dead, suggested the idea, and tinding in 
Smith the requisite duplicity and cunning to re- 
duce it to practice, it was agreed that he should 
act as prophet; and the two devised a story 
that gold plates had been found buried in tlie 
earth containing a record ijiscribed on them in 
unknown characters, which, when deciphered 
l)y the power of inspiration, gave the history of 
the ten lost tribes of Israel. 

After their settlement in and about Nauvoo, 
in Hancock county, great depreilations were 
connnitted by them on the " (Gentiles." The 
Mormons had b(!en received from Missouri with 
great kindness V)y the people of this State, and 
every possible aid granted them. The depreda- 
tions committed, however, soon made them odi- 
ous, when the <|uestion of getting rid of them 
was agitated. Jn the fall of 1841, the Governor 
of Missouri made a demand on Governor Carlin 
for the arrest and delivery of Joe Smith as a 
fugitive of justice. Smith was subsequently 
arrested, but was released by Judge Douglas, 
upon the ground that the writ had once been re- 
turned before it had been executed. In 1842, 
he was again arrested, and again escaped. Em- 
boldened by success, the Mormons became 
more arrogant and overbearing. Many people 
began to believe they were about to set up a 
government for themselves in defiance oi the 
laws of the State. Owners of })roperty stolen 
in other counties made pursuit into Nauvoo, 
and were fined by the Mormon courts for dar- 
ing to seek their property in the holy city. 
Altoutthis time they petitioned Congress to es- 
tablish a territorial government for them in 

Smith soon began to play the tyrant over his 
people. Ainong the first acts of this sort was 
an attempt to take the wife of William Law, 
one of his most talented disciples, and /nake 
her his spiritual wife. He established, without 
authority, a recorder's office, and an office to 
issue marriage licenses. He proclaimed that 
none could deal in real estate or sell liquor but 
himself. He ordered a printing oflice demol- 
ished, and in numy ways controlled the free- 
dom and l)usiness of the Mormons. Not only 
did he stir up some of the Mormons, i»ut by his 
reckless disregard for the law^s of the land 
raised up opposition on eveiy hand. It was b<?- 
lieved that he instructed the Danite band, 
which he had chosen as the ministers of his 
vengeance, that no blood, except that of the 



i-liiii-cli, was to be regarded as sacred, if it coii- 
iraveiied tiu' accomplishment of liis object. It 
was asserted that he inculcated the legality of 
[»erjury and other (;rimes, if committed U> ad- 
vance the cause of true believers; that (rod had 
given the world and all it contained to his 
saints, and since they were ke])t out of their 
rightful inheritance by force, it was no moral 
offense to get possession of it by stealing. It 
was I'eported that an establishment existed in 
Xauvoo for the manufacture of counterfeit 
money, and that a set of outlaws was main- 
lainecl for the purpose of putting it in circula- 
tion. Statements were circulated to the effect 
tliat a reward was offered for the destruction of 
the Warsaw Signal, an anti-Mormon paper, 
and that Mormons dispersed over the country 
tlireatened all persons who offered to assist the 
e,onstable in the e.vecntion of tlie law, with the 
destruction of their property and tlie murder of 
their families. There were rumors also afloat 
that an alliance had been formed with the 
western Indians, and in case of war they would 
be used in murdering tlieir enemies. In short, 
if only one-half of these reports were true, the 
Mormons must have been the most infamous 
people tliat ever existed. 

VVilliam Law, one of the jtroprietors of the 
l»rinting otiice destroyed by Smith, went to Car- 
thage an<l procured a writ for theari'estof Smith 
and others in the deed. The prophet, his 
brother Jfyrum, and others, surrendered them- 
selves at (Jarthage June 24, 1844, on a cliarge of 
riot, and all entered into recognizance before a 
justice of the peace for their appearance at 
court. They were again arrested and thrown 
into prison at Carthage. The citizens of Han- 
i-()(;k, McDonougli and Schuyler counties had 
assembhid, armed and ready to avenge the out- 
rages that liad been committed by the Mormons, 
(ireat excitement i)revailed. All were anxious 
to march into Nauvoo. The 27th of June was 
apl)()inted for the mardi, but Governor Ford, 
who at the time was in Cartilage, ap|)reliended 
trouble if tlie militia should attempt to invade 
Nauvoo, disl)anded the troops, retaining only a 
guard for the jail. 

(rovernor Ford went to Nauvoo on tlie STth. 
The same morning about two hundred men from 
Warsaw, many being disguised, hastened to 
Carthage. On learning that one of ihe com- 
panies left as a guard liad disbanded, and the 
other stationed one hundred and fifty yards from 
the jail while eight raen were left to guard the 
prisoners, a communication was soon estal)- 
lished b(!tween the Warsaw troops ami the 

guard; and it was arranged that the guard 
should have their guns charged with bhiiik cart- 
ridges and fire at the assailants wlien they 
attempted to enter the jail. The conspii-ators 
came uj), jiu-njiedthe fence around the jail, were 
fired upon by the guard, which, according to 
arrangement, was over])Owered, and the assail- 
ants entered the prison to tlie door of the room 
where the two prisoners were confined. An 
attempt was made to break o})en the door; but 
Joe Smith, being armed with a })istol, fired sev- 
eral times as the door was bursted open, and 
three of the assailants were wounded. At the 
same time several shots were fired into the room 
by some of which John Taylor, a friend of the 
Smiths, received four wounds, and Ilyruni Smith 
was instantly killed. Joe Smith, severely 
wounded, attempted to escape by jumping out 
of a second-story window, but was so stunned 
by the fall that he was unable to rise. In this 
position he was dis])atclied by balls shot through 
his body. Thus fell Joe Smith, the most suc- 
cessful iraposter of modern times. Totally 
ignorant of almost every fact in science, as well 
as in law, he made up in constructiveness and 
natural cunning whatever in him was wanting 
of instruction. 

Many feared the Mormons would assemble 
in force and attack Carthage for the purpose of 
avenging the death of tlie prophet. l>ut this 
was never done. In the fall of 1S4.T a conven- 
tion, consisting of delegates from eight of the 
adjoining counties assembled to concert meas- 
ures for the expulsion of tlie ]\[ormons from the 
State. The Mornioiis seriously contemplated 
emigration westward, believing the times fore- 
bode evil for them. Accordingly, during the 
winter of l.S4.5-'4(), the most stupendous prej^ara- 
tions were made bj' the Mormons for removal. 
All the princijial dwellings, and even the tem- 
ple, were converted into work-shops, and before 
spring, 12,000 wagons were in readiness; and 
by the middle of February the leaders, with 
2,000 of their followers, had crossed the Missis- 
sippi on the ice. 

J>efore the spring of IS4() the majority of 
Mormons had left Nauvoo, but still a large 
number remained. 


In September a writ was issued against se\'- 
eral prominent Mormons, and placed in the 
hands of John Carlin, of Carthage, for execu- 
tion. Carlin called out a posse to hel|) make the 
arrest, which bi-ought together (piite a lai-ge 
force in the neiiihborhood of Nauvoo. Carlin, 



not being a military man, placed in command oi' 
the posse, iirst, General Singleton, and after- 
ward Colonel Jirockman, who proceeded to in- 
vest the city, erecting breastworks, and taking 
other means for defensive as well as offensive 
operations. What was then ternied a battle 
next took place, resnlting in the death of one 
.Mormon and the wounding of several others, 
and loss to the anti-iNIormons of three killed and 
four wounded. At last, through the interven- 
li(»n of an anti-Mormon committee of one hun- 
dred, from (^uincy, the Mormons and their allies 
were induced to submit to such terms as the 
posse chose to dictate, which were that the Mor- 
irions should immediately give up their arms to 
the C^uincy conimittee, and remove from the 
State. The trustees of the church and five of 
their clerks were permitted to remain for tlie 
sale of Mormon property, and the posse were to 
marcli in unmolested, and leave a sufH(^ient force 
to guarantee the performance of their stipula- 
tions. Accordingly, the constable's posse 
marched in with Brockman at their head. It 
consisted of about 800 armed men and BOO or 
700 unarmed, who had assembled from all the 
country around, througli nu)tives of curiosity, to 
see the once proud city of.Nauvoo humbled and 
delivered up to its enemies They proceeded 
into the city slowly and carefully, examining the 
w.iy for fear of the explosion of a mine, many of 
which bad been made by the Mormons, by hur- 
rying kegs of powder in the ground, with a man 
stationed at a distance to ])ull a string commu- 
nicating with the trigger of a percussion lock 
atlixed to the keg. This kind of a contrivance 
was called by the Mormons "hell's half-acre." 
When the posse arrived in the city tlie leaders 
of it elected themselves into a tribunal to decide 
who should l)e forced away and who remain. 
Parties were dis])atched to hunt for tire-arms, 
and for Mormons, and to bring them to judg- 
ment. When brought, they received their doom 
from the mouth of J3rockman, who sat a grim 
and unawed tyrant for the time. As a general 
rule, the Mormons were ordered to leave within 
an hour or two, and by rare grace aome of them 
were allowed until next day, and in a few cases 
longer time was granted. 

j[kxi(;ax war. 

Li 18-Ki, when the war with Mexico com- 
menced, Illinois sent her cpu)ta of six regiments 
to the tented field. More men were offered, but 
only the six regiments could be accej)te(L These 
six shed imperishable honors, not only u])on the 
State, but upon the American Union. N'eterans 

never fought more nobly and eflFectively than 
did the volunteers fi'om Illinois. At the battle 
of Buena Vista, by the coolness and bravery of 
the gallant Second regiment, under Colonel liis- 
sell, the day was saved. Tlie conflict began 
early on the morning of Fel)ruary li-J, 1S47, and 
was continued till nightfall of the next day. 
The solid columns of the enemy were liurled 
against our forces all day long, but wen; met 
and held in check by the unerring fire of our mus- 
ketry and artillery. A ))Ortion of General Lane's 
division was driven l)ack by the enemy, who ap- 
peared in such formidable numbers as to be 
almost irresistil)le. At this time the Sec-ond 
Illinois, under Colonel Bissell, with a squadron 
of cavalry and a few pieces of artillery, came 
handsomely into action and gallantly received 
th(; concentrated fire of the enemy, which they 
returned with deliV)erate aim and terrible effect; 
every discharge of the artillery seemed to tear a 
bloody path through the heavy columns of the 
enemy. Says a writer: "The rapid musketry 
of the gallant troops from Illinois ])Oured a 
storm of lead into their serried ranks, which lit- 
erally strewed the ground with the (h^ad and 
dying." l>ut, notwithstanding his losses, the 
enemy steadily advanced until our gallant i-egi- 
ment received fire from three sides. Still ihey 
maintained their position for a time with un- 
fiinching firmness against that immense host. 
At length, perceiving the danger of being en- 
tirely surrounded, it was determined to fall 
back to a ravine. Colonel Bissell, with the cool- 
ness of ordinary drill, ordered the signal "cease 
firing" to be made; he then, with the same de- 
lil)eration, gave the command, "Face to the 
rear, battalion about face; forward march," 
which was executed with the regularity of vet- 
erans to a point beyond the ])eril of l)eing out- 
flanked. Again, in obedience to command, 
these brave men halted, faced about, and under 
a murderous tempest of l>ullets from the foe, re- 
sumed their well-directed fire. The conduct of 
no troops could have been more admirable; and, 
too, until that day they had never l)een under 
fire, when, within less than half an hour eighty 
of their comrades dropped l)y their sides. 

From Colton's History of the battle of Buena 
Vista the following extract is taken: "As the 
enemy on our left was moving in retreat along 
the head of the ])lateau, our artillery was ad- 
vanced until within range, and opened a heavy 
fire upon him, while Colonels Ilardin, Bissell, 
and McKee, with thi'ir Illinois an<l Kentucky 
troojts, (hished gallantly forward in hot pursuit. 
A [lowerful reserve of the Mexican army wa^ 



tlicii just ('iiior«;iiig iVoui tlu' ravine, where it 
liad been oro-anized, and advanced on tlie 
|)lateaii, opposite tlie liead of" the soutliernmost 
goi-o-e. Those who were giving way rallied 
fjiiickly upon it; when the wliole force, thus in- 
<-rcased to over 12,000 men, came forward in a 
perfect blaze of lire. It was a single column, 
comjjosed of the best soldiers of the repuhlic, 
liaving for its advanced battalions tlie veteran 
regiments. The Kentucky and Illinois troops 
were soon ol)liged to give ground hefore it and 
seek the shelter of the second gorge. The 
enemy pressed on, arriving opposite the head of 
the secoiid gorge. One-half of thQ column sud- 
denly enveloped it, Avhile the other half pressed 
on across tlie plateau, having for the moment 
nothing to resist them hut the three guns in 
tlieir front. The portion that was immediately 
opposed to the Kentucky and Illinois troops, 
ran down along each side of the gorge, in which 
they had sought shelter, and also circled around 
its head, leaving no possible way of escape for 
1 hem except by its mouth, which opened u])on 
tlie road. Its sides, which were steep, — at least 
an angle of forty-five degrees, — were covered 
with loose pehbles and stones, and converged to 
a point at the bottom. Down there were our 
poor fellows, nearly three regiments of them 
(First and Second Illinois and Second Ken- 
tucky), with but little opportunity to load or fire 
a gun, being hardly a])le to kee\> their feet. 
Above the whole edge of the gorge, all tlie way 
around, was darkened by the serried masses of 
the enemy, and was bristling with muskets di- 
rcctcil on the crowd l)eneath. It was no time to 
pause. Those who were not immediately shot 
down ruslied on toward the road, their number 
growing less and less as they went, Kentuckians 
and Illinoisans, officers and men, all mixed up 
ill c;oiifusion, and all pressing on over the loose 
pebbles and rolling stones of those shelving, 
preci]»itous b inks, and having lines and lines of 
the enemy liring down from each side and rear 
as tiiey went. Just then the enemy's cavalry, 
whicli had gone to the left of the reserve, had 
come over the spur that divides the mouth of 
tlie second gorge from that of the third, and 
were now closing up the only door through 
which there was the least shadow of a chance 
for their lives. Many of those ahead endeavored 
t(» force their way out, but few succeeded. The 
lancers were fully six to one, and their long 
weapons were already reeking with blood. It 
was at this time that tliose who were still back 
in that dreadful gorge heard, above the din of 
the musketry and the shouts of the enemy 

around them, the roar of Washington's Battery. 
No music could have been more grateful to 
their ears. A moment only, and the whole 
opening, where the lancers were busy, rang with 
the repeated explosions of spherical-case shot. 
They gave way. The gate, as it were, was clear, 
andoutu])on the road a stream of our poor fellows 
issued. They ran ]»antingdown toward the l»at- 
tery, and directly under the flight of iron then 
passing over their heads, into the retreating 
cavalry. Hardin, Clay, McKee, Willis, Zabris- 
kie, Houghton, — but why go on? It would be a 
sad task indeed to name over all who fell during 
this twenty minutes' slaughter. The whole 
gorge, from the })lateau to its mouth, Avas 
strewed with our dead. All dead! Nf) wounded 
there — not a man; for the infantry had rushed 
down the si<les and completed the work with the 

After a hard fight at night both armies laid 
down upon their arms in much the same posi- 
tion as in the morning. However, early on the 
following morning, the glad tidings were heard 
amidst our army tiiat the enemy had retreated, 
thus again crowning the American banners with 

In addition to Colonel Bissel, other names 
that shine as stars in tliis war are Shields, Baker, 
Harris, Hardin, CoflFee — all from Illinois. Such 
indeed were the intrepid valor and daring cour- 
age exhibited by Illinois volunteers during the 
Mexican war that their deeds should live m the 
memory of their countrymen while time shall 


In the war for the Union n© State can show a 
more glorious record than that of Illinois. Sump- 
ter was fired upon April 12, 1S(>1. Two days af- 
ter President Jjincoln issued his first call for vol- 
unteers — 7.5,000 in numbers. On the 15th (tov- 
ernor Yates issued his proclamation convening 
the leglislature, and ordering the enlistment of 
six regiments, the (juota assigned the State. The 
call was no sooner made than Hlled. Patriotism 
filled every heart. The farm, the workshop, the 
office, the ])ul])it, the bar, the bench, every voca- 
tion in life offered its best men. • On assembling, 
the legislature authorized the raising of ten ad- 
ditional regiments, antici])ating another call. 
At the close of 18()1, Illinois had sent to the 
field nearly ;)(),000 men, and. had 1*7,000 in camp 
awaiting marching orders, thus exceeding its full 
quota by 15,000. 

In July and August of 18(J2, the President 
called for 600,000 men — the quota of Illinois 
being 52,296 — and gave until August 18th as the 



limits in which the number migl\t be raised by 
volunteering, after which a draft would be or- 
dered. The State had already furnished 17,000 
in excess of her quota, and it was first thought 
this number would be deducted from the present 
reijuisition, but that could not ])e done. IJut 
thirteen days were granted to enlist this vast 
army, which had to come from the farmers and 
meclianics. The former were in the midst of 
harvest, but, inspired by love <d" country, over 
50,(M)() of them left their luirvest ungathered, 
their tools and their benches, the plows in their 
furrows, turning their backs on their homes, 
and V)efore eleven days had expired the demands 
of the Government were met and both <piotas 

The war went on, and call followed call, until 
it began to look as if there would not be men 
enough in all the Free States to crush out and 
subdue the monstrous war traitors liad inaugura- 
ted. But to every call for either men or nnjney 
there was a willing and ready response. And it 
is a boast of the people that, had the su})ply of 
men fallen short, there were women brave 
enough, daring enough, patriotic enough, to have 
ofTered themselves as sacrifices on their country's 
altar. On the 21st of December, 18(34, the last 
call for troo})s was made. It was for 800,000. 
In consequence of an imperfect enrollment of 
the men subject to military duty, it became evi- 
dent, ere this call was made, that Illinois was 
furnishing thousands of men more than what her 
quota would have been, had it been correct. So 
glaring had this disi>roportion become, that un- 
der tliis call the ({uota of some districts exceed- 
ed the number of able-bodied men in them. 

No troops ever fought more heroically, stub- 
bornly, and with better effect, than did the boys 
from the "Prairie State." At Pea Kidge, l)on- 
elson, I*ittsburg Landing, luka, Corinth, Stone 
River, Holly Springs, .fackson, Vicksbrirg, Chic- 
anuxuga. Lookout Mountain, Murfreesboro, At- 
lanta, Franklin, Nashville, Chattanooga, and on 
every other field where the clasli of arms was 
heard, her sons were foremost. 

The ))eople were liberal as well as patriotic; 
and while the men were busy enlisting, organiz- 
ing, and ecpiipping companies, tly.^ ladies were 
no less active, and the noble, generous work 
performed by their tender, loving hands de- 
serves mention along with the biavery, devo- 
tion, and patriotism of their Itrothers upon the 
southern fields of carnage. 

The continued need of money to obtain the 
comforts and necessaries for the sick and 
wounded of our army suggested to the loyal 

women of the North many and various devices 
for the raising of funds. Every city, town, and 
village had its fair, festival, picnic, excursion, 
concert, which netted niore or less to the cause 
of hospital relief, according to the population 
of the place and the amount of energy and jiat- 
riotism displayed on such occasions. Ks- 
j)ccially was this characteristic of our own fair 
State, and scarcely a hamlet within its b(»nlers 
which did not send something fi-om its st(»res 
to hospital or battlefield, and in the larger 
towns and cities were well organized sohlic'r>' 
aid societies, working systematically and contin- 
uously from the beginning of the war till its 
close. The great State Fair held in Chicago in 
May, 1865, netted .t250,000. Homes for travel- 
ing soldiers were established all over the State, 
in which were furnished lodging for (iOO.OOO 
men, and meals valued at !||'2,500,000. Food, 
clothing, medicine, hos}>ital delicacies, reading 
matter, and thousands of other articles, were 
sent to the boys at the front. 

The rebellion ended with the surrender of 
Lee and Johnson, in April, 1805, and as soon as 
possible the troops were di>ban(led. The fol- 
lowing is a summary of trooi)s furnished by the 

lufantrv is."), '.Ml 

Cavaliv ;{2,0H-^ 

Artillciy 7,277 

Total 225,800 


ShadracJt JJond — Was the first (4overnor of 
Illinois He was a native of jMaryland and 
born in 177"!; was raised on a farm; received a 
common English eibication, and came to Hlinois 
in 1794. He served as a delegate in Congress 
from 1811 to 1S15, where he procured the right 
of pre-emption of public land. He was elected 
Governor in 1818; was beaten iov Congress in 
1824 by Daniel P. Cook. He died at Kaskas- 
kia, April II, 1830. 

EiJirard Coles — Was born December 15, ITsfi, 
in Virginia. IFis father was a slave-holder; gave 
his son a collegiate education, and left to him a 
large number of slaves. Tliese he liberateil, 
giving each head of a family J 60 acres of land 
and a considerable sum of nn)ney. He was 
President Madison's private secretary. He 
came to Illinois in 181i), Avas elected Governor 
in 1822, on the anti-slavery ticket; moved to 
Philadelphia in 18;}y, and died in 1868. 

]Vi>}ii/u JiJdii'ards. — In 1800, on the formation 
of the Territory of Illinois, Mr. Edwauls was 



aitpoiiiU'il Governor, whicli position he retained 
until llie organization of tlie State, wlien he was 
seiii In tiie United States Senate. He was 
eleeli'd (Tovernorin lS-2(i. He was a native of 
^Maryland and born in 1775; received a colle- 
giate education; was Cliief Justice of Kentucky, 
ami a Republican in ])oIitics. 

Jo/in Rti/nolih — Wat* born in Pennsylvania 
in I TSS, and came with liis parents to Illinois in 
isoo, and in is:iu was elected (4(jvernor on the 
Democratic ticket, and afterwards served three 
teiiiis in Congress. He received a classical edu- 
cation, yet was not polished. He was an ultra 
Deiudcrat; attended the Charleston Convention 
in l.^()(), and ui'ged the seizure of United States 
arsenals by the South. He died in 18(55 at 
HelU'ville, childless. 

Joseph JJaitain. — In 1S34 Joseph Duncan was 
elected Governor by the Whigs, although for- 
merly a Democrat. He had previously served 
four terms in Congress. He was born in Ken- 
tuGk^• in 17'.t4; had but a limited education; 
served with distinction in the war of 1812; con- 
(hu'ted the campaign of 1882 against Black 
Hawk, lie came to Illinois when quite young. 

'rii<iin<(s (\irlhi — Was elected as a Democrat 
in ]s:i,s. He had but a meagre education; held 
many minor otHces, and Avas active both in. the 
war of J 812 and the Black Hawk war. He was 
born in Kentucky in 1780; came to Illinois in 
1812, and died at CarroUton, February 14, 1852. 

77i(>//(as Ford — Was born in Pennsylvania in 
the year I8U0; Avas brought by his widowed 
mother to Missouri in 18U4, and shortly after- 
wards to Illinois. He received a good educa- 
tion, studied law; was elected four times Judge, 
twice as Circuit Judge, Judge of Chicago and 
Judge of Supreme Court. He was elected Gov- 
ernor l)y the Democratic party in 1842; wrote 
his history of Illinois in 1847, and died in 

AiKjutituii V. French — Was born in New 
Hampshire in 1808; was admitted to the bar in 
is:;i, and shortly afterwards moved to Illinois, 
when in 184() he was elected (Governor. On the 
aihiption of the Constitution of 1848 he was 
again chosen, serving until 185.3. He was a 
Democrat in politics. 

Jod A. 3I((tteson — Was born in Jefferson 
county, New York, in isos. His father was a 
farmer, and gave his son only a common school 
education. He first entered upon active life as 
a small tradesman, but subse(piently l>ecame a 
large contractor and juanufacturer. He was a 

heavy contractor in building the canal. He Avas 
elected Governor in 1852 u]jon the Democratic 

William H. liissell — \Vas electetl by the Re- 
publican party in 185G. He had previously 
served two terms in Congress; was colonel in 
the Mexican war, and has held minoi- official 
l)Ositions. He was born in New York State in 
1811; received a common education; came to 
Illinois early in life and engaged in the medical 
profession. This he changed for the law, and 
became a noted orator, and the standard-bearer 
of the Re])ublican party in Illinois. He died 
in 186U, while Governor. 

llichard Yates — "The war (nrovernor of Illi- 
nois," was born in Warsaw, Kentucky, in isjs; 
came to Illinois in 1831; served two terms in 
Congress; in 1800 was elected Governor, and in 
1865 United States Senator. He was a college 
graduate, and read law under J. J. Hardin. He 
rapidly rose in his chosen profession and charmed 
the people Avitli oratory Refilled the guberna- 
torial chair during the trying days of the Re- 
bellion, and by his energy and devotion won 
the title of " War Governor." He died iii St. 
Louis after the expiration of his term as Senator. 

llichard J. Oglci^by — Was born in 1824, in 
Kentucky; an orphan at the age of eight, came 
to Illinois when only twelve years old. He was 
apprenticed to learn the carjjenter's trade; 
worked some at farming, and read law occasion- 
ally. He enlisted in the Mexican war and was 
chosen F'irst Lieutenant. After his return he 
again took up the law, but during the gold fever 
of 1849 went to California; soon returned, and, 
in 1852, entered upon his illustrious political 
career. He raised the second regiment in the 
State, to suppress the Rebellion, and for gal- 
lantry was promoted to Major-General. In 1864 
he was elected Governor, and re-elected in 1872, 
and resigned for a seat in the LTnited States 
Senate. He is a staunch Re])ublican, and re- 
sides at Decatur. 

JoJi)i 31. Palmer — Was born in Kentucky in 
1817, and came to Illinois in 1831. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 183'.>. He was elected to 
the office of Probate Judge of Macoupin county, 
in 1843; was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention in 1847, County Judge in 1849 ; elec- 
ted to the State Senate in 1851 ; member of the 
Peace Confereiu-e in 1861. He was Colonel of 
the 14th Illinois Iid'antiy, and rose by successive 
promotions to Major General, commander of the 
14th Army Corps, and afterwards of the De])art- 
ment of Kentucky. W^as Governor from De- 
cember 1808 to January, IS 73, 



Shelby M. Cidlom — Was born in Kentucky in 
1828; studied law, was admitted to the bar, and 
coranieiiced the practice ol" his profession in 
1818; was elected to the State Legislature iji 
J85(j, and again in 1860. Served on the war 
commission at Cairo, 1862, and was a member 
of the 'JDth, -tOth and 41st Congress, in all of 
which he served with credit to his State. He 
was agaiu elected to the State Legislature in 
1872, and re-elected in 1874, and was elected 
Governor of Illinois in 1876, and re-elected in 
1880, which office he still holds, and has admin- 
istered with marked ability. 


Pierre Menard — Was the first Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor of Illinois. He was born in Quebec, Cana- 
da, in 1767. He came to Illinois in 1790, where 
he engaged in the Indian trade and b*came 
wealthy. He died in 1844. Menard county was 
named in his honor. 

Adolphns F. Hubbard — Was elected Lieuten- 
ant Governor in 1822. Four years later he ran 
for Governor against Edwards, but was beaten. 

William Kinney — Was elected in 1826. He 
was a Baptist clergyman ; was born in Kentucky 
in 1781, und came to Illinois in 1793. 

Zadock Casey — Although on the opposition 
ticket to Governor Reynolds, the successful 
Gubernatorial candidate, yet Casey was elected 
Lieutenant Governor in 1830. He subsequently 
served several terms in Congress. 

Alexander M. Jenkins — Was elected on ticket 
with Governor Duncan, in 1834, by a liandsome 

S. II. Anderson — Lieutenant (Tovernor under 
Governor Carlin, was chosen in 1838. He was 
a native of Tennessee. 

John Moore — Was born in England in 1793; 
came to Illinois in 1830 ; was elected Lieuten- 
ant Governor in 1842. He won the name of 
"Honest John Moore." 

Joseph B. Wells — Was chosen with Governor 
French, at his first election in 1846. 

William, McMartry — In 1848, when Governor 
French was again chosen Governor, William 
McMurtry, of Knox county, was elected Lieuten- 
ant Governor, 

Gustavus P. Kaerner — Was elected in 1852. 
He was born in Germany in 1809. At the age 
of 22 came to Illinois. 1872 he was a candidate 
for Governor on Liberal ticket, but was defeated. 

John Wood — Was elected in 1856, and on the 
death of Governor Bissell became Governor. 

Francis A. Hoffman — Was chosen with Gov- 

ernor Yates, in 1860. He was born in Prussia 
in 1822, and came to Illinois in 1840. 

William Bross — Was born in New Jersey, 
came to Illinois in 1848, was elected to office in 

John JJoiigherty — Was elected in ] 868. 

John Jj. BeDeridye — Was chosen Lieutenant- 
Governor in 1872. In 1873 Oglesby was elected 
to the U. S. Senate, when Beveridge became 

Andrew Shtiinan — Was elected November 7, 
18'. 6. 

John M. Hamilton — Was elected in 1880, and 
is the present incumbent. , 


Ninian W. Edwards 185-1-56 

AV. H. Pow ell 1857-58 

Newton Bateraan. 1859-75 

Samuel M. Etter 1870-80 

James P. Slade .' 1880 


Daniel P. Cook 1819 

William Mears 1820 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1821-22 

James Turney 1823-28 

George Forquer 1829-32 

James Semple 1833-34 

Niuian W. Edwards 1834-35 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr 1835 

Walter B. Scales 1836 

Asher F. Linder 1837 

Geori;e W. Olney 1838 

Wickliffe Kitchell 1839 

Josiali Laniborn 1841-42 

James A. McDouijall 1843-46 

David B. Campbell 1846 

[Office abolished and re-created in 1867.] 

Robert G.Iuo-ersolI 1867-68 

Wathinston Bushnell.... 1869-72 

James K. Edsall 1872-80 

James McCartney 1880 


John Thomas 1818-19 

R. K. McLauifhlin 1819-22 

Ebner Field: 1823-26 

James Hall , 1827-30 

John Dement 1831-36 

(Charles Greaiory 1836 

John D. Whiteside 1837-40 

M. Carpenter 1841-48 

John Moore 1848-56 

James Miller 1857-60 

William Butler 1861-62 

Alexander Slarne 1863-64 

James H. Beveridge 1865-66 

George W. Smith 1867-68 

Erastus N. Bates 1869-73 

Edward Rutz. 1873-75 

Thomas S. Hidgeway 1876-77 

Edward Rutz..' 1878=^79 

John C. Smith 1879-81 

Edward Rutz 1881 




Elias K Kane 1818-22 

Sanmel D. Loekwood 1822-23 

David BlarkwL'll 1823-24 

3IoiTis Biikheck 1824 

George Farquer 1825-28 

Alexander P. Field 182S)-40 

Stephen A. Douglas 1840 

Lyman Trumbull 1841-42 

Thompson Campbell 1843-4G 

Horace S. Cooloy 1846-49 

David L. Gregg 1850-52 

Alexander Starue 1853-5(5 

Ozias M. Hatch. . 1857-60 

Sharon Tyndale 1865-68 

Edward Riimmel 1869-72 

George H Harlow 1873-79 

Henry D. Dement 1881 


Elijah C. Berry 1818-31 

I. T. B Stapp 1831-35 

Levi Davis 1835-4J 

.James Siiiclds 1841-42 

W L. D. Kwiug 1843-45 

Thompson Campbell 1846 

Jesse K. Dubois 1857-64 

Orlin H. IVIiner 1865-68 

Charles E. Lippincott 1869-76 

Thonuis B. Needles 1877-79 

Charles P. S wigert 1881 


Niiiiwt Edmirds — On the organization of the 
State in 1818, Edwards, the popnlar Territorial 
Governor, was chosen Senator for the short term 
and in 1819 re-elected for full term. 

JesHe B. Tliomus — One of the Federal Judges 
during the entire Territoral existence was chosen 
Senator on organization of the State, and re- 
elected in 1823, and served till 1829. 

John McLean— \w 1824 Edwards resigned, 
and McLean was elected to fill his unexpired 
term. He was born in North Carolina in 1791, 
and came to Illinois in 1815 ; served one term in 
Congress, and in 1S29 was elected to the United 
States Senate, but the following year died. He 
IS said to have been the most gifted man of his 
])eriod in Illinois. 

Ellas Kent KaneSN^a. elected November 
30, 1824, for the term beginning March 4, 1825. 
In 1830 he was re-electe"d, but\lied before the 
expiration of his term. He was a native of 
New York, and in 1814 came to Illinois. He 
was first Secretary of State, and afterward State 

David Jewett Ba/cer—Wa» appointed to fill 
the unexpired term of John McLean, in 1830, 
November 12, but the legislature refused to 
endorse the choice. Baker was a native of Con- 
necticut, born in 1792, and died in Alton in 

John M. JRohinson. — Instead of Baker, the 
Governor's appointee, the legislature chose 
Robinson, and in 1834 he was re-elected. In 
1843 was elected Supreme Judge of the State, 
but Avithin two months died. He was a native 
of Kentucky, and came to Illinois while quite 

William i. D. Evying — Was elected in 1835, 
to till the vacancy occasioned by the death of 
Kane. He was a Kentuckian. 

liichard M. Yotmg — Was elected in 1836y 
and held his seat from March 4, 1837, to March 
4, 1843, a full term. He Avas a native of Ken- 
tucky; was a Circuit Judge before his election 
to the Senate, and Supreme Judge in 1842. He 
died in an insane asylum at Washington. 

Sanmel McRoberts — The first native Illinois- 
ian ever elevated to the high office of U. S. 
Senator from this State was born in 1799, and 
died in 1843 on his return home from Washing- 
ton. He was elected Circuit Judge in 1824, ami 
March 4, 1841, took his seat in theU. S. Senate. 

Sid7iey JBreese — Was elected to the U. S. Sen- 
ate, Dec. 17, 1842, and served a full term. He 
was born in Oneida county, N. Y. He was 
Major in the Black Hawk war; Circuit Judge, 
and in 1841 was elected Supreme Judge. He 
served a full term in the U. S. Senate, begin- 
ning March 4, 1843, after which he was elected 
to the legislature, again Circuit Judge, and, in 
1857, to the Supreme Court, which position he 
held until his death in 1878. 

James Setnple — Was the successor of Samuel 
McRoberts, and was appointed by Gov. Ford in 
1843. He was afterwards elected Judge of the 
Supreme Court. 

Stephen A. Douglas — Was elected Dec. 14,, 
1846. He had previously served three terms as 
Congressman. He became his own successor in 
1853, and again in 1859. From his lirst entrance 
in the Senate he was acknowledged the peer of 
Clay, Webster and Calhoun, with whom he 
served his first term. His famous contest with 
Abraham Lincoln for the Senate in 1858 is the 
most memorable in the annals of our country. 
It was called the battle of the giants, and re- 
sulted in Douglas' election to the Senate, and 
Lincoln to the Presidency. He was born in 
Brandon, Vermont, April 23, 1813, and came to 
Illinois in 1833, and died in 1861. He was ap- 
pointed Secretary of State by Gov. Carlin in 
1840, and shortly afterward to the Supreme 

James Shields — VVas elected and assumed his 
seat in the U. g. Senate in 1849, March 4. He 



was bom in Ireland in ISIO, and came to the 
United States in 1827. He served in the Mexi- 
can army, was elected Senator from Wisconsin, 
and in 1879 from Missonri for a short term. 

Lyman Trumbull — Took liis seat in the U. S. 
Senate March 4, 18.55, and became his own suc- 
cessor in 1801. He had previously served one 
term in the Lower House of Congress, and 
served on the Supreme Bench. He was born in 
Connecticut; studied law, and came to Illinois 
early in life, where for years he was actively en- 
gaged in politics. He resides in Chicago. 

Orvill H. Brovming — Was appointed U. S. 
Senator in 1861, to till the seat made vacant by 
the death of Stephen A. Douglas, until a Sena- 
tor could be regularly elected. Mr. Browning 
was born in Harrison county, Kentucky; was 
admitted to the bar in 1831, and settled in 
Quincy, Illinois, whei'e he engaged in the prac- 
tice of law, and was instrumental, with his 
friend, Abraham Lincoln, in forming the Re- 
publican party of Illinois at the Bloomington 
Convention. He entered Johnson's cabinet as 
Secretary of the Interior, and in March, 1868, 
Avas designated by the President to perform the 
duties of Attorney General, in addition to his 
own as Secretary of the Interior Department. 

Wdliarn A. liichardson — W"as elected to the 
U. S. Senate in 186:3, to fill the unexpired term 
of his friend, Stephen A. Douglas. He was 
born in Fayette county, Ky., about 1810, studied 
law, and settled in Illinois; served as captain in 
the Mexican war, and, on the battle-field of 
Buena Vista, was promoted for bravery, by a 
unanimous vote of his regiment. He sei'ved. in 
the Lower House of Congress from 1847 to 
18,56, continually. 

llichard Yates — Was elected to the U. S. 
Senate in 1865, serving a full term of six years. 
He died iu St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 27, 1873. 

John A. Logan — Was elected to the U. S. 
Senate in 1871. He was born in .Jackson 
county, 111., Feb. 9, 1826, received a common 
school education, and enlisted as a private in 
the Mexican war, where he rose to the rank of 
Regimental Quartermaster. On retiirning home 
he studied law, and came to the bar in 1852; 
was elected in 1858 a Representative to the 
:56th Congress and re-elected to the 37th Con- 
gress, resigning in 1861 to take part in the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion; served as Colonel 
and subsequently as a Major General, and com- 
manded, with distinction, the armies of the 
Tennessee. He was again elected to the U. S. 
Senate in 1879 for six years. 

Darld Darin — Was elected to the U. S. Sen- 
ate in 1877 for a term of six years. He was 
born in Cecil county, Md., March 9, 1815, grad- 
uated at Kenyon College, Ohio, studied law, 
and removed to Illinois in 1835; was admitted 
to the bar and settled in Bloomington, where he 
has since resided and amassed a large fortune. 
He was for many years the intimate friend and 
associate of Abraham Lincoln, rode the circuit 
with him each year, and after Lincoln's election 
to the Presidency was appointed by him to fill 
the position of .Judge of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 


.John McLean 1818 


Daniel P. Cook 1819-20 


Daniel P. Cook 1821-22 


Daniel P. Cook 1823-24 


Daniel P. Cook 1825-26 


.Joseph Duncan 1827-28 


Joseph Duncan 1829-30 


•Joseph Duncan 1831-32 


Joseph Duncan 1833-34 

Zadock Casey 1833-:M 


Zadock Casey 1835-36 

.John Reynolds 18;3;)-36 

William L. May 1835-36 


Zadock Casey ^ool'lo 

John Uevnolds 183<-38 

Willium'L. May 1837-38 


Zadock Casey 1839-10 

John lleynolds 1839-40 

.John T. Stuart 1839-40 


Zadock Casev 1841-42 

.John Reynolds ^^iHo 

John T/Stuart 1841-42 


Robert Smith ^^!'^"ff 

Orlimdo E. Ficklin 1843-44 



Steoheu A. Douglas 1843-44 

John A. McClernand 1843-44 

Joseph P. Hone 1843-44 

John J. Hardm 1843-44 

John Wentvvorth 1843-44 


Robert Smith 1845-46 

Stephen A. Douglas 1845-46 

Orlando B. Ficklin 1845-46 

John J. Hardin 1845 

Joseph P. Hoo-e 1845-46 

John A. McCrernaud 1845-46 

John Wentworth 1845-46 


John Wentworth 1847-48 

Thomas J. Turner 1847 

Abraham Lincoln 1847-48 

John A McClernand 1847-48 

Orlando B. Ficklin 1847-48 

Robert Smith "..... 1847-48 

William A. Richardson 1847-48 


John A. McClernand 1849-50 

John Wentworth l84!)-50 

Timothy R- Youns; 1849-50 

William A. Richardson 1849-50 

Edward D. Baker 1849-50 

William H. Bissell 1849-50 

Thomas L. Harris 1849 


William A. Richardson 1851-52 

Thompson Campbell 1851-52 

Orlando B. Ficklin 1851-52 

John Wentworth 1851- 

Richard Yates 1851- 

Richard S. Maloney 1851- 

VVillis 1851- 

William II. Bissell 1851- 


William H. Bissell 1853-54 

John C. Allen 1853-54 

Willis 1853-54 

Elihu B. Washburne 1853-54 

Richard Yates 1853-54 

Thomi>son Campbell 1853-54 

James Knox 1853-54 

Jesse O. Norton 1853-54 

William A. Richardson , 1853-54 


Elihu B. Washburn 1855- 

Lynian Trumbull 1855- 

Jan\es II. Woodworth 1855- 

James Knox 1855- 

Thompson Campbell 1855- 

Samuel S. Marshall 1855- 

J . L. D. Morrison 1,sr)5- 

John C . Allen 1 855 

Jesse O. Norton 1855- 

William A. Richardson 1855- 



Elihu B. Washburne 1857-58 

Charles D. Hodges 1857-58 

William Kellogg -. 1857-58 

Thompson Campbell 1857-58 

.John F. Farnsworth 1857-58 

Owen Lovejoy 1857-58 

Samuel S. Marshall 1857-58 

Isaac N. Morris 1857-58 

Aaron Shaw 1857-58 

Robert Smith 1857-58 

Thomas L. Harris 1857-58 


Elihu B. Washburne 1859-60 

John A. Logan 1859-60 

Owen Lovejoy 1859-60 

John A . McClernand 1859-60 

Isaac N. Morris 1859-60 

John F. Farnsworth 1859-60 

Philip B. Fouke 1859-60 

Thomas L. Harris 1859-60 

William Kellogg 1859-60 

James C. Robertson 1859-60 


Elihu B. Washburne 1861-62 

James C . Robinson 1861-62 

John A. Logan 1861-62 

Owen Loveioy 1861-63 

John A . McClernand 1861-62 

Isaac N. Arnold 1861-62 

Philip B . F(mke 1861-62 

William Kellogg 1861-62 

Anthony L . Knajjp 1861-62 

William A. Richardson 1861-62 


Elihu B. Washburn 1863-64 

Jesse O. Norton 1863-64 

James C. Robinson 1863-64 

William J. Allen 1863-64 

Isaac N. Arnold 1863-64 

John R. Eden 1863-64 

Lewis W. Ross 1863-64 

John T. Stuart 1863-64 

Owen Lovejoy 1863-64 

William R.' Morrison 1863-64 

John C. Allen 1863-64 

John F. Farnsworth 1863-64 

Charles W. Morris 1863-64 

Eben C. IngersoU 1863-64 

Anthony L." Knapp 1863-64 


Elihu B. Washburne 1865-66 

Anthony B. Thornton 1865-66 

John Went worth 1865-66 

Abner C. Hardin 1865-66 

Eben C. IngersoU 1865-66 

Barton Q\ Cook 1865-66 

Shelby M. Cullom 1865-66 

John F. Farnsworth 1865-66 

Jehu Baker 1865-66 

Henry P. II. Bromwell 18(i5-66 

Andrew Z. Kuvkcndall 1865-66 

Samuel S. INIarshall ^ 1865-66 

Samuel W. Moulton 1865-66 

Lewis W. Ross 1865-66 


Elihu B. Washburne 1867-68 

Abner C. Hardin 1867-68 



Eben C. lugersoll 1867-68 

Norman B. Judcl 1867-68 

Albert G. Burr 1867-68 

Burton C. Cook 1867-68 

Shel])v M Cullom 1867-68 

John F. Farnswortli 1867-68 

Jehu BaN er 1867-68 

Henry P. H. Broniwell 1867-68 

John A. Loii-an 1867-68 

Samuel S. Marshall 1867-68 

Green B. Raum 1867-68 

Lewis W. Ross 1867-68 


Norman B. Judd 1869-70 

John F. Farnsworth 1869-70 

H. C. Burchard 1869-70 

John B. Hawley 1869-70 

EbeuC. lugersoll 1869-70 

Barton C. Cook 1869-70 

Jesse H. :\I().)re 1869-70 

Shelby M. Cullom 1869-70 

Thomas W. McNeely 1869-70 

Albert G. Burr 1869-70 

Samuel 8. Marshall 1869-70 

John B. Hay 1869-70 

John M. Crebs 1869-70 

John A. Logan 1869-70 


Charles B. Farwell 1871-72 

John F. Farnsworth 1871-72 

Horatio C. Burchard 1871-72 

John B. Hawley 1871-72 

Bradford N. Stevens 1871-72 

Henry Suapp 1871-72 

Jesse'H. Moore 1871-72 

James C . Robinson 187.-72 

Thomas W. McNeely 1871-72 

Edward Y. Rice. . . ." 1871-72 

Samuel S. Marshall 1871-72 

John B Hay 1871-72 

John M. Crebs 1871-72 

John S. Beveridge 1871-72 


John B. Rice 1873-74 

Jasper D. Ward 1873-74 

Charles B. Farwell 1873-74 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1873-74 

Horatio C. Burchard 1873-74 

John B. Hawley 1873-74 

Franklin Corwin 1873-74 

Robert M. Knapp 1873-74 

Jauu's C. Robinson 1873-74 

John B.McNulta 1873-74 

Joseph G. Cannon 1873-74 

John R. Eden 1873-74 

James S. Martin 1873-74 

AVilliam R. Morrison 1873-74 

(Jreeubury L. Fort 1873-74 

Granville Barrere 1873-74 

William H. Ray i 1873-74 

Isaac Clements 1873-74 

Samuel S. Marshall. 1873-74 


Bernard G. Caulfield ^'^Vl'l^ 

Carter H . Harrison 187r)-76 

Charles B. Farwell 187.1-76 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1870-76 

Horatio C. Bm-cJiard 187r)-76 

Thomas J . Henderson 1870-76 

Alexander Campbell 1875-76 

Greenbury L. Fort 1875-76 

Richard H. Whiting l^p^i'^ 

John C . Bagljy 1875-76 

Scott Wike 1875-76 

William M. Springer 1875-76 

Adlai E. Stevenson 1875-76 

Joseph G. Cannon 1875-76 

John R. Eden 1875-76 

W. A. J. Sparks 1875-76 

William R. Morrison 1875-76 

William Hartzell ^^IH'! 

William B. Anderson 1875-76 


William Aldrich ^^Irii^ 

Carter H . Harrison 1877-78 

Lorenzo B'reutano ^'^I^"!^ 

William Lathrop ^'^II"!^ 

Horatio C . Burchard ^'^II~I^ 

Thomas J. Henderson - 877-78 

Philip C. Hayes ^^11"!'^ 

Greenbury L. Fort ^^II"I^ 

Thcnnas A. Boyd 1877-78 

Benjamin F. Marsh ^^H"^*^ 

Robert M. Knapp ^'^Jil"!'^ 

William M. Springer 1877-78 

Thomas F. Tipton ^''*II"I'^ 

Joseph G. Cannon 1877-78 

John P.. Eden 1877-78 

W. A. J. Sparks ^^Jrl^ 

William R. Morrison 1877-78 

William Hartzell ^^'^I'l^ 

Richard W. Townsheud v'. 1877-78 


William Aldrich 1879-80 

George R. Davis 1879-80 

Hiram Barber 1879-80 

John C. Sherwin 1879-80 

R. M. A. Hawk 1879-80 

Thomas J. Henderson 1879-80 

Philip C. Hayes 1879-80 

Greenbury L. Fort 1879-80 

Thomas A. Boyd 1879-80 

Benjamin F. xNlarsh 1879-80 

James W. Singleton 1879-80 

William M. Springer 18.9-80 

A. E. Stevenson 1879-S() 

Joseph G. Cannon 1879-80 

Albert P. Forsythe 1879-80 

W. A. J. Si^arks 1879-80 

William R. Morrison 1H79-80 

John R. Thomas 1879-80 

R. W. Townshend 1879-80 


William Aldrich 18,sl-82 

George R . 1 )avis 1H81-82 

Charles B Farwell ^^^^"^^ 

John C. Sherwin ^°o! "S. 

Robert M. A. Hawk. ., ^^^^^i 

Thomas J. Henderson ^ o ui 

William Cullen u^oi 

Lewis E. Paysou 1881-82 



John H. Lewis 1881-82 

Bciij.iuiiu F. Maisli 1881-82 

James AV. Singleton 1881-82 

William M. Springer 1881-82 

Dietrich C. Smith. 1881-82 

Joseph G Cannon 1881 -S2 

Samuel W. Moulton 1881-82 

William A. J. Sparks 1881-82 

William R. Morrison 1881-82 

John R. Thomas 1881-82 

R. W. Townshend 1881-82 


Less than three-fourths of a century ago the 
Tei'ritory of Illinois was organized, with a pop- 
ulation estimated at 9,000; to-day it numbers 
not less than three and one-half millions — a 
greater number than in all the colonies during 
the Revolution. When organized, steamboats 
had never travei'sed its waters; railroads, tele- 
graphs and telephones were unknown; to-day 
every navigable stream is alive with vessels cai-- 
rying her products to other lands; while rail- 
roads traverse every county and almost every 
township in the State; while the number of 
miles of telegraph wire would probably encircle 
the globe, and the telephone is placed in thous- 
ands of homes, enabling their inmates to con- 
verse intelligibly with parties at a distance of 

several miles. Tlien the light that shone out 
of darkness was only the tallow-dip, or that 
furnished from blazing logs in the old-fashioned 
fire-places; to-day, after having displaced the 
tallow-dip, the candle and the common house- 
lamp, the darkness of night is penetrated by 
the glare of gas and the bright rays of the elec- 
tric light, rivaling the light of day. Then agri- 
culture was in its infancy, it being 2)0ssible with 
the machinery then used only to raise sufficient 
crops to supply the wants of those living within 
its boundary; to-day, with the improved plows, 
the self-binding reaper, the steam thresher, and 
other improved machinery, Illinois can feed a 
nation of 50,000,000 of people. Then the 
newspaper was a rare visitor in the household; 
to-day the humblest citizen can hardly exist 
without his daily and weekly paper. Then 
knowledge was possessed by few; to-day, by 
means of free schools, well endowed colleges 
and other inHuences, there is no excuse for 
being ignorant. But time would fail to com- 
pare the advantages of to-day over that of the 
first decade of the present century, and the stu- 
dent of history, as he reads of the progress 
made, can only wonder what the future will 



Chapter I. 


When the Territory of Illinois was organized 
that part now comprising the county of Sanga- 
mon was an unknown wilderness inhabited only 
by the wild beasts of the forest, wild birds of 
the air, and no less wild red men, who roamed 
at will over the broad prairies and through the 
heavy forests ; fishing in the Sangamo, or hunt- 
ing the game that everywhere abounded, seem- 
ingly caring nothing for the morrow, and only 
living in the ever present. The thought of the 
" pale-faces " penetrating this beautiful country 
had not yet disturbed them, and so they contin- 
ued on in their daily life of hunting and fishing, 
with occasionally a short Avar between tribes to 
relieve the monotony of their lives. But the 
time was soon to come when they were to sur- 
render up the lands and move on tOAvard the 
setting sun. The time Avas soon to come when 
all nature must be changed. The fair prairies 
Avith their beautiful floAvei's, painted only by the 
hand of God, must be broken up by the husband- 
man, and grain fit for the use of ciA'ilized man 
sown therein; forests were to be felled and clear- 
ings made that the art of man could be exercised 
in the building and adornment of homes. Thus 
it Avas in ISlV when Robert PuUiam erected his 
cabin upon section , in the present town- 
ship of Ball. Previous to this time the soil had 
been unvexed by the plow and the Avoodman's 
axe had never been heard. The cabin of the 
settler, Avith its smoke curling heaveuAvard, and 
with an air iuAdting the Aveary traveler to come 
and rest, Avas not to be seen, nor even the faint- 
est trace of civilization ; but instead, boundless 
emerald seas and luxuriant grasses. 

These the gardens of the deserts — these 

The unshoru fields, boundless and beauiiful. 

And fresh us the young earth, ere man had sinned. 

Lo ! they stretch 
In airy undulations far away 
As if theofcan in the gentlest sw'ell 
Stood still, with all his rounded billows fixed, ^ 
And motionless forever. 


That it was a beautiful country is the testi- 
mony of every one who visited it at an early 
day. In proof of this a local paper on one oc- 
casion inserted the following: 

"Some sixty years ago, before the first mile of 
railroad was made, Avhile the Indian still lin- 
gered in Central Illinois — Avhen the turnpike 
road from Baltimore and Washington, oAer the 
mountains to the OhioriA^er, was the great nation- 
al higliAvay from the Eastern to the infant West- 
ern States, andAvhen four-horse stage-coaches for 
carrying the United States mails and passengers 
Avere the best facilities afl:"orded for travel, was 
the time the facts Ave record occurred. 

"Mercantile agents, or drummers, at that early 
day Avere unknoAAai. Twice a year Western 
merchants Avent East to replenish their stock of 
goods. The stage-coaches were run night and 
clay, traveling about one hundred miles in twenty- 
four hours. About the time Ave speak of one of 
these elegant stages left Baltimore crowded Avith 
Western passengers, mostly merchants, for 
Wheeling, on the Ohio river. Having traveled 
one day and night, they Avere crossing the mount- 
ains slowly, tired and sleepy. Discussions on 
various topics Avere often encouraged to enliven 
the otherwise tedious hours. On this occasion 
three of the passengers Avere discussing the 
claims of scA'eral of the States to the ' Garden 
Spot of America,' Avhile others listened or slept. 

" One of the three presented the claim of Lan- 
caster county, Pennsylvania, in its then highly 
cultivated condition; its rich limestone soil, its 
beautiful rolling surface, its never failing har- 
vests, its immense barns, etc. 

"The second, in elegant terms, portrayed the 
region round about Frankfort, Kentucky, for 
beauty and climate, and for fertility of soil and 
elegant improvements, as the 'Garden Spot.' 

"And the third gentleman |)reseiited and ui-ged 
the claim of the Shenandoah Valley, of Virginia, 



surrounded by the mountains and watered by ten 
tliousand never failing springs gushing from the 
mountains; its golden harvests of grains and 
luscious fruits, and its blooded flocks upon a 
thousand hills. 

"This interesting discussion was suddenly 
stopped by a roughly dressed j^assenger, in a 
jeans hunting suit, fringed, who had been sleep- 
ing and snoring for an hour or more. With an 
expression of terror in his face, he declared that 
something serious was going to happen the stage. 
I've had a remarkable dream, and with a serious 
earnestness ©omnienced telling his dream to the 
anxious passengers: 

'"I dreamed that the horses became unman- 
ageable and plunged over one of these mountain 
precipices, and we fell and rolled several hun- 
dred feet. I found myself struggling in a very 
cold stream of water, but gained the opposite 
shore. I looked, and behold, I seemed to be in 
a paradise — the precincts of Heaven — the trees, 
and tiovvers and birds, were exceedingly beautiful, 
and at a little distance there was a high wall, as 
if built of precious stones or rocks, and a golden 
door in the wall. The knob of the door seemed 
to be a very large diamond, glittering as a star. 
I concluded I was in the spirit world, and that 
the golden door was the entrance to Heaven. 
While thus bewildered this gentleman (pointing 
to one of the trio disputants) appeared and walked 
to the golden door. He knocked. The door open- 
ed, and a glorious personage appeared, whom I 
was impressed to think was St. Peter. ' Whence 
comestthou';" he said to this gentleman; and you 
answered 'from Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, 
and he said, 'enter.' Then came this other gentle- 
man and knocked, St. Peter opened and in<pured 
from whence he came. He replied, 'from Frank- 
fort, Kentucky.' He was invited to enter. And, 
after a long while, this gentleman (pointing to 
the third of the trio) hastened to the door and 
rapped. The door was opened again, and St. 
Peter appeared for the third time, and inquired 
from what part of the earth he came. He said: 
'From the Valley of Virginia.' And he was per- 
mitted to enter. 

'"The morel looked about me the more I 
became enchanted. I heard the sweetest music 
that ever fell on mortal ears, sounding as if from 
over the wall, and I passed on to the door and 
rapped with a small silver mallet, that seemed 
there for the purpose. St. Peter appeared. 
When he saw me, he said, in sweetest tones: 
'Whence comest thou?' I said, ' from the San- 
gamo country, Illinois. I shall never forget the 
candid and kind manner St. Peter said: 'Mv 

friend, I advise you to go back, as there is no such 
beautiful land in Heaven as the valley drained by 
the Sangamo river. By nature it is the Garden 
Spot of America, and by the art of man is des- 
tined to become the Paradise of the New World 
— a land of corn and wine, and though the first 
several generations of settlers may have to toil, 
yet before the tenth generation shall appear, this 
wilderness will be made to blossom as the rose.' 
"The early settler of Sangamo was so in- 
genious in presenting the claim of Illinois as 
containing the 'Garden Spot,' that it was unani- 
monsly awarded to it. And at the next stopping 
place the trio treated to the wine." 


History and tradition are both silent as to 
who was the first white man to visit this country. 
The early French explorers came within a few 
miles of its border, but it is doubtful if they 
set foot within it. Following only the courses 
of the great rivers, and penetrating inland Init 
a short distance, the beautiful Sangamo country 
was unperceived by them. From the time of 
their visit to the Mississippi in 1673, a century 
and a half passed before Robert Pulliam in his 
wanderings came upon the scene, followed 
closely by Henry Fund'erburk, William Dren- 
nan, Joseph Dodds, James McCoy and others. 


In 1858, on the organization of the Old Set- 
tlers' Society, it was determined to have the 
first annual celebration on or near the site of 
the first cabin erected in the county. To this 
end, a committee was appointed to investigate 
the claims of all parties to the honor of being 
the first settler. After much investigation that 
committee decided, on the evidence of the fam- 
ily and some others, that Robert Pulliam 
erected a cabin in the fall of 1S16, which, with- 
out doubt, was the first built in the county. 
Accordingly, the celebration was here held. So 
far as is known, no one at that time disputed 
the claim. 

It is now claimed by the descendants of 
Henry Funderburk that he was the first settler 
in the county; that he arrived in the spring of 
1817, and raised that year a small quantity of 
corn, and that Pulliam was not then here. 
Their claim is supported by Jacob Hinkle, of 
Pawnee, who says that he was six years old 
when his father arrived in the county in the 
spring of 1818; that he well remembers seeing 
shocks of corn on Mr. Funderburk's place which 
must have been raised the year previous. 



Sixty-four years have now passed since the 
first settlement was made, and there is not liv- 
ing in all Sangamon county one who came dur- 
ing the years 1817 or 1818 who was a man or 
woman grown at that time. Evidence must 
now be taken second-hand, or from those who 
were very small when brought by their parents 
to this county. It cannot, then, be wondered 
at that there is a disagreement upon this and 
many other points. In the history of the town- 
ship of Ball will be found all the evidence now 
attainable with reference to the claims of Fui- 
liam, and in the history of Cotton Hill town- 
ship the Funderburk claim is set forth. The 
attention of the reader is called to these chap- 


In the spring of 1818, William Drennan, Jo- 
seph Drennan, Joseph Dodds, Mr. Vancil and 
George Cox settled in township 14, north of 
range 5, west, in what is now Ball township. 

James McCoy and Levi W. Goodin, in the 
fall of 1818, settled in township 14, range 4, 
but moved to township 15, range 4, what is now 
known as Rochester township. Mr. McCoy and 
Mr. Goodin brought their wives, who were the 
first white women to come to the county for the 
purpose of making it their home. It is said 
that but six women came that year, the other 
four being wives of William and Joseph Dren- 
nan, Mr. Vancil and Joseph Dodds. 

In what is now Auburn township, Jacob Ellis, 
James Black, Samuel Vancil, and John Wallace 
settled in 1818. In other parts of the county 
were Zachariah Peter, Justice Hinkle, William 
Nelson, Mason Fowler, Joseph Dixon, Joseph 
Neeley, and others. 


Sangamon county is centrally situated, north 
and south, in the State and is bounded on the 
north by Menard and Logan counties, on the 
south by Macoupin, Montgomery and Christian 
counties, on the east by Macon county and on 
the west by Morgan county. It contains an 
area of 875 square miles, or 550,000 acres of 


Sangamon county was created by an act of 
the legislature, approved January 30, 1821. The 
following is the act in question: 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the 
State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, 
That all that tract of country within the follow- 
ing boundaries, to-wit: Beginning at the aorth- 

east corner of township twelve north, on the 
third principal meridian, thence north with said 
meridian to the Illinois river, thence down the middle 
of said river to llie mouth of Balance or Negro creek, 
thence up said creek to its head, thence through the 
middle of the prairie which divides the waters of the 
Sangamon and Mauves Terre to the northwest corner 
of township twelve north, range seven west, of the 
third principal meridian, thence east along the north 
boundary of township twelve to the place of begin- 
ning, shall constitute a separate county to be called 

fc>K(;TiON 2. Be it further enacted. That so soon 
as the county commissioners of said county shall 
be elected and duly qualitied into office, they shall meet 
at some convenient place in said county as circum- 
stances will admit, and such place where selected by 
said county commissioners, shall be the temporary seat 
of justice for said county, until otherwise provided 
by law: Provided, howecer, that if any settler or set- 
tlers, owner or owners, of the place so selected as afore- 
said, shall refuse to have the temporary seat of justice 
fixed on his or her or their improvements, then the 
said commissioners may determine on such other place 
contiguous thereto as they may deem proper. 

Section 3. Be it further enacted, That said county 
commissioners shall be allowed the same compensa- 
tion for the time necessarily employed in fixing the 
temporary seat of justice as in other cases. 

Section 4. Be it further enacted, That the citizens 
of Sangamon county are hereby declared in all res- 
pects entitled to the same rights and privileges as are 
allowed in general to other counties in this State. 

Provided, always, That in all cases where freehold- 
ers only are capable of performing any duty, or are en- 
titled to any privilege ; housekeepers shall for all such 
purposes, be considered as freeholders in the said San- 
gamon county, and shall and may do all duties ap- 
pertaining to the difterent oflices in the county. 

Sections. Be it farther enacted. That the county 
of Sangamon shall compose a part of the first judicial 
circuit of the State. 

The following is the original boundary of the 
county as thus created : Commencing at the 
northeast corner of Locust township, in Christ- 
ian county, thence north to a point on the Illi- 
nois river about two miles west of the city of 
Peru, thence down the middle of said river to 
what is now the boundary line between Cass 
and Morgan counties, thence west to the north- 
east corner of Morgan county, thence south 
on the line between Morgan and Sangamon 
counties to the northwest corner of Otter town- 
ship in Macoupin county ; thence east to the 
place of beginning. It will be seen that the 
boundaries between this county and Morgan, 
Macoupin and Montgomery, are unchanged. 
The original metes and bounds of Sangamon 
county, as given, embraced the following coun- 
ties and parts of counties as at present constitu- 
ted : Part of Christian, a small part of Macon 
all of Logan part of McLean, all of Tazewell, ))art 
of Woodford, part of Marshall, part of Putnam, 
all of Mason, all of Menard and all of Cass, 



The territory then constituting the county was 
thus set apart by law. An election for county 
officers was held Monday, April 2, 18:^1. At 
this election William Drennan, Zachariah Peter 
and Rivers Corniack were elected County Com- 
missioners, met the next day and took the oath 
of office. 


The first meeting of the County Commission- 
er's Court was held at the house of John Kelley, 
on Tuesday, April :], 1821 ; there being present 
all the members elect — William Drennan, Zach- 
ariah Peter and Rivers Cormack. After taking 
the oath of office prescribed by law, the lirst 
business was the appointment of a clerk, Cliarles 
R. Matheny being honored with the position. 
Mr. Matheny took the oath of office and entered 
into bond with James Latham as security for 
the faithful performance of his duties. ^ No 
further business was transacted at this time and 
the court adjourned. 

The second special term was held at the same 
place, on the 10th day of April, 1821, Zachariah 
Peter and William Drennan being present 

John Spillers was allowed the sum of ten dol- 
lars for carrying the election returns to Vanda- 
lia, then the capital of the State. 

John Linsey, Stephen Stillman and John 
Rol)inson were nominated to the Governor as 
proper persons to hll the office of Justices of the 

James Simms was appointed County Treas- 

The Commissioners who were appointed by 
the act creating the county to select a temporary 
county-seat, reported as follows : 

" Whereas, The act of the General Assembly, en- 
titled, 'an act establishini-- the County of Sanganio' 
requires of the County Connnissioners when elected 
and quahlied into office, to fix a temporary seat of jus- 
tice for said county ; therefore, we, the undersigned. 
County Commissioners of said county, do certify that 
we, atter full examination of the situation of the popu- 
lation ol said county, have fixed and designated a cer- 
tain point in tlie prairie near .John Kelley 's field on 
the waters of Snring creek, at a stake marked Z. D., as 
tlie temporary seat of justice for said county, and do 
turther agree that the said county-seat be called and 
known by the name of Springfield. 

•' Given under our hand this 10th day of April, 1821 . 
Zachariah Peter, 
William Drennan . " 

The next meeting of the board of County 
Commissioners was held at the court house in 
Springfield, June 4, 1821, all the members being 
present, with Charles R. Matheny, Clerk, and 
John Taylor, Sheriff, 

From the records the folloAving is extracted: 

"The court, pursuant to public notice given, 
proceeded to let out the building of a jail to the 
lowest bidder, which was cryed off to Robert 
Ilambleton, at ^84.7 5, who thereupon entered 
into an agreement with the aforesaid Commis- 
sioners to have the same completed by the first 
Monday in September next. 

"• Ordered, that William Drennan be appointed 
guardian for George Cox, an infant under the 
age of fourteen years, and that he enter into 
bond in one hundred dollars, with Rivers Cor- 
mack as security." 

Several public roads were ordered laid out at 
this session, and John Hamblin and David 
Black were appointed constables. 

James Simms refusing to qualify for the office 
of treasurer, George Haworth was appointed, 
and was duly (pialified, presenting Zachariah 
Peter and Robert Pulliam as security. 

In order to defray the necessary expenses of 
the county, it was ordered by the County Com- 
missioners that "the Assessor, in assessing the 
taxable property, assess the following property, 
to-wit : Horses, neat cattle, wheel-carriages, 
stock in trade and distillery. 

The county was divided into two battalion 
districts of four companies each, and an elec- 
tion ordered for militia officers in each district. 

A special term was next held July 16, 1821, 
the members of the court all being present. 
The only business transacted being the levying 
of one-half of one per cent, upon all taxable 
property "for the purpose of procuring public 
buildings and other necessary expenses for the 
year 18"21." 

On the first Monday in September, 1821, the 
Commissioners again met for the transaction of 

Jacob Ellis was allowed the sum of 14.50 for 
a judge's seat and bar in the court-house. 

Andrew Orr, Matthew Higgins, Norris A, 
Thomas, Jacob A. Millei and Robert Hamilton 
were appointed constables, each of whom quali- 
fied in open court. 

John Taylor was allow-ed $-30. 75 for book and 
stationery furnished the clerk of the court. 

At a term held December 3, 1821, Robert 
Hamilton was allowed the sum of I84.V5 for the 
jail built by him for the use of the county. 
J hn Taylor, sheriff of the county, protested 
against receiving the jail as not suitable; but his 
protest was not heeded. 

Charles R. Matheny was allowed $87.50 for 
salary as clerk o ' the Circuit Court, and for sta- 
tionery furnished for the year 1821; Rivers Cor-< 



mack was allowed '^■2d for seivices as C'onmiis- 
sioner; William Drennan and Zacbariah Peter 
each $30 for services as Commissioners; John 
Taylor was allowed $50 as salary for the year 

The first tavern license granted by the board 
was at this term, Robert Pulliambeingjtermitted 
to engage in the business for the sum of $'3 per 
year. He was permitted to charge the following 

Meal victuals 25 cents. 

Bed, per night 12^ " 

Feed for horse 12| " 

Keeping horse over night 37i " 

Whisky, per half -pint 12| " 

On the first Monday in March, 1822, the court 
licensed Elijah Slater to " keep a tavern or pub- 
lic house of entertainment in the town of Spring- 
field." Whether provisions were scarce, or 
whatever the cause, he was permitted to charge 
a higher rate than Mr. Pulliam, the court fixing 
the following prices: 

Meal victuals 37^ cents. 

Lodging 12+ " 

Brandy, per half-pint 25 " 

Wine, " " , 25 

Rum, " " 25 

Gin, ^" " 18| " 

Horse, p*er night 50 " 

Horse feed 12+ " 

Whisky, per half-pint . 12| " 

Tuesday, March 5, 1822, the board was again 
in session, at which time it was "ordered by the 
( ourt that the treasurer, in assessing the prop- 
erty for taxation for the year 1822, take and 
include all personal property, goods and chattels 
of whatsoever kind or nature the same may be, 
including all the personal estate, in addition to 
the real estate made taxable by law." 

Charles R. Matheny was instructed to con- 
tract for county seals, weights and measures for 
the use of the county. 

Erastus Wright was authorized to keep a ferry 
on the Illinois river at Fort (-lark (Peoria), and 
was permitted to charge the following rates: 

For man and liorse. or single person or horse, 25 cents. 

For man or other person 12.} " 

For eacli ox, bull, cow, steer or heifer 12+ " 

For each calf, sheep or hog l>i " 

For each wagon cart, sleigh, sled or vehicle 

di'awn by two horses or two oxen 50 " 

For each additional span or yoke of horses or 

oxen 25 " 

All other less or greater number of persons or yokes 
or parts thereof, in the same proportion as above 

Thomas Price was authorized to keep tavern 
with rates as already given. 

Robert Hamilton was appointed treasurer and 

entered into bond with John Scott and George 
Hayworth as securities, which bond was ap- 

At the June term, 1822, Aaron and Gideon 
Hawley were authorized to keep a ferry across 
the south fork of the Sangamo river, at what 
was know^n as Jarvis' Ford. The following 
rates were established: 

Each man or other person (ii cents. 

For man and horse 12+ " 

Lead horse or gelding di " 

Bull, cow or steer fij " 

Calf, sheep or hog H " 

"W agon and two horses or oxen 37+ " 

Vehicle drawn by one horse 25 " 

Extra teams charged in proportion to the foregoing 
rates . 

The sum of |12 was allowed Thomas Smith 
for a stray found in Springfield, for the use of 
the county, and Andrew Orr w^as appointed to 
take charge of the same. 

In July the Commissioners were again in 

The treasurer was authorized and ordered to 
extend a tax of .374^ cents on the §100 on all 
taxable property. 

At the annual election held in 1822, William 
Morgan and Samuel Lee were elected members 
of the board vice William Drennan and Rivers 

The first session of the new board was held 
on the second day of September, 1822. No 
btisiness of any special importance was tran- 
sacted, and the court adjourned till court in 

The next meeting of the court was held in 
December, at which time Charles R. Matheny 
was allowed |94 for stationery furnished the 

Jacob Ellis was allowed §1 for hinges and 
hanging the court house door. 

A't the March term, 1824, the first allowance 
for paupers was made. John Orendorff was 
allowed §51.50 for keeping two paupers for six 
months, and Nathan llussey §20 for keeping one 
pauper six months. 

In 1825, specie must have been scarce, judg- 
ing from the fact that at the June term of that 
year all allowances were made "in specie or its 

At the July term, 1825, the board met to let 
the building of a new brick court house, but the 
records are" silent as to any action on the sub- 

At the September term, same year, Thornas 
Clark was appointed to superintend the opening 
and improvment of the navigation of the San- 



gaiuua river, a subscription being raised for that 
purpose. Subscribers to the fund were allowed 
to pay their subscription in labor at the rate of 
$1 per day. 

The last meeting of the County Commis- 
sioners' Court was held November 5, 1849. But 
little business was transacted. Their term of 
office was about at an end, being succeeded by 
the board of justices. 

Tlie following named served as County Com- 
missioners for the years named, and is a com- 
plete list from the organization of the county : 


1821 — William Drennan, Zachariah Peter and Rivers 

1823— William Morgan, Zachariah Peter and Samuel 

1823 — Same as above. 

1824— William Morgan, Harry Riggin and Zachariah 

1825— Same. 

1826 — Samuel Lee, William Strawbridge and Bowling 

1827— Same. 

1828— Asa S. Shaw, Zachariah Peter and Josiah B. 

1829— Same. 

1830— Same. Asa A. Shaw resigning, Garret Elkin 
was elected to fill vacancy. 

1831— Same '' 

1832— Josiah B. Smith, Thomas Moftett and Reuben 

1833— Same. 

1834— Thomas Moftett, Bartlett Haley and Samuel 
Berry . 

1835— Thomas Moftett, Samuel Berry and William 
G. Cantrall. 

1836— Zachariah Peter, William G. Cantrall and 
William Hickman. 

1837— Same. 

1838— John Cooper, Thomas Sackett and Thomas 

1839— Same. 

1840— Thomas Simpson, John Cooper and Zachariah 

1841— John Cooper, Zachariah Peter and Samuel 

1842— Zachariah Peter, Samuel Wyckoft" and Willis 
H. Groves. 

1843— Same. 

1844— Zachariah Peter, Abram Foutch and John 
Dawson . 

1845— Same. 

1 46— Abram Foutch, Thomas Shepherd and John 

1847 — Same. 

1848— William F. Elkin, Thomas Shepherd and 
Abram Foutch. 

1849— Same. 


In 1849, the county government was vested 
in a Board of Justices, consisting of a county 
judge and two asssociate justices, all the powers 
previously held by the County Commissioners 

being transferred to them. The tirst meeting of 
the Board of Justices was held at the court house 
in Springfield, Monday, December 8, 1849. 
There were present, Thomas Moffett, county 
judge; Cyrus W. Vanderen and William F. El- 
kin, associate justices. The unfinished business 
of the County Commissioners' court was first 
taken up, and then the new board proceeded to 
the transaction of all business brought before 

In 1861 the county adopted the township or- 
ganization law, and the last meeting of the 
Board of Justices was held Thursday, March 
14, 1861. 

The following named composed the Board of 
Justices, each serving the term of four years. 

1849— Thomas Moftett, County Judge; William F. 
Elkin, Cyrus W. Vanderen, Associate Justices. 

1853— John W. Taylor, County Judge ; Samuel K. 
Swingley, William Armstrong, Associate Justices. 

1857 — William D. Power, County Judge ; Moses K. 
Anderson, J. A. Bell, Associate Justices. 


A petition was presented to the Board of Jus- 
tices June 5, 1860, praying the board to submit 
the question to a vote of the people for the 
adoption of township organization. The prayer 
of the petitioners was granted, and the subject 
was ordered submitted to the people at the 
next general election, held Tuesday, November 
6, 1860. The vote was canvassed by the board 
in December following, when it w^as ascertained 
there was a majority of 859 votes in its favor, 
out of a total vote of 7,241. The board there- 
upon appointed John S. Biadford, Jolin Gard- 
ner, Sen., and Joseph Campbell, commissioners 
to divide the county into towns, in accordance 
with the general law relating to township organ- 
izations. At a meeting of the Board, held 
March 1, 1861, the commissioners submitted 
their report, by which the county was divided 
into twenty-two townships under the following- 

Auburn, Island Grove, 

Ball, Loami, 

Buffalo Hart, Mechanicsburg, 

Campbell, Power, 

Cartwright, Pawnee, 

Clear Lake, Rochester, 

Cooper, Sackett, 

Cotton Hill, Springfield, 

Curran, Talkington, 

Gardner, Williams, 

Illiopolis, Woodside. 

New Berlin has since been formed from part 
of Island Grove, Wheatfield from part of Illiop- 



olis, and Capital from part of Springfield, mak- 
ing a total of twenty-tive towns, as follows: 

Auburn, embracing all of township 13, north 
of range 6 west of the third principal meridian, 
and part of township 18, north of range 5 west. 

Ball, all of township 14, north of range 5 

Buffalo Hart, all of township 17, north of 
range 3 west. 

Chatham, all of township 14, north of range 

6 west, and a small portion of township 14, 
north of range 5 west. 

Vartioright, all of township 16, north of range 

7 west, and fractional parts of township 16 and 
17, range 8 west. 

Clear Lake, all of township 16 north of range 
4 w^est. 

Cooper, parts of township 14 and 15, range 3 

Cotton Hill, all of township 14 north of range 
4 west. 

Curran, all of township 15 north of range 6 

Gardner, all of township 16 north of range 6 

Illiopolis, parts of townships 16 and 17, range 
1 and 2 west. 

Islaiid Grove, part of township 15, and pans 
of ranges of 7 and 8 west. 

Loami, part of township 14 north, and parts 
of ranges 7 and 8 west. 

Meclianicsburg, all of township 16, north of 
range 3 west. 

Fancy Creek, parts of townships 17 and 18, 
north of range 5 west 

Pavynee, township 13 north, and parts of 
ranges 4 and 5 west. 

Rochester, township 15, north of range 4 west. 

Salisbury, a part of township 17, north of 
range 6 west. 

Spriyigjield. township 16 north of range 5 
west, except the territory comprising the city of 
the same name, which is made a town under 
the name of Capital. 

Talkington, township 13 north, and parts of 
ranges 7 and 8 west. 

Williams, parts of townships 17 and 18, north 
of range 4 west. 

Woodside, township 15, north of range 5 

Wheatfield, parts of townships 15, 16 and 17, 
north of range 2 west. 

New Berlin, townships 14 and 15, and parts 
of ranges 7 and 8. 

Capital, all the territory lying within the city 
of Springfield. 


Sangamon county is well supplied with 
streams of living water, the most important of 
which is the Sangamon river, the north fork of 
which takes its rise in McLean county, and pur- 
suing a tortuous course, forms the southern 
boundary line of Sangamon along lUiojtolis 
and part of Cooper township, entering the 
county on section 15 of the last named town- 
ship, passing through it and Rochester into 
Clear Lake township, where it is joined, on sec- 
tion 27, with the south fork, which heads in 
Shelby county, entering Sangamon on section 
12, Cotton Hill township, and passing througli 
Rochester into Clear Lake. The two forks 
uniting as stated, pass into and through Spring- 
field, Gardner and Salisbury townships, from 
which it enters Menard county from section 22. 

For many years the river retained its old In- 
dian name of the Sangamo, but it was finally 
dropped, and the modern name adopted. 


The boys that play upon the banks of the 
Sangamo river in this year of our Lord one 
thousand, eight hundred and eighty-one little 
dream that it was ever thought by anyone that 
the river was a navigable stream, much less that 
an attempt was ever made to run a steamer on 
its sluggish waters. But such was the case. 

Before the days of the iron horse, when rail- 
roads were comparatively unknown, many at- 
tempts were made at the navigation of insig- 
nificent streams, in order to cheapen transporta- 
tion. Especially was this true in new countries. 

The Sangamo Journal, January 19, 1832, after 
speaking of the signs of an early spring and 
the prei)aration for improvement going on, says: 

"And last, not least, it is seriously projected 
by our fellow-citizen, V. A. Bogue, to introduce 
to the good people of Springfield, within a 
month or so, by way of the Sangamo river, a 
steaml)oat, which will be laden with goods for 
our merchants. We have strong confidence that 
the undertaking will succeed. We will not 
now undertake to state the results that would 
benefit to this village and county from the com- 
plete success of this experiment. It would be 
worth more to us than a dozen railroads — in the 
new^spapers. Wasn't our inimitable bard pro- 
phetic when he said: — 

" Ami I will make our Sangiimo 
Outshine ia verse, the famous PoV" 

In the Journal of the 26th of January, 1832, 
appears a letter from Mr. Bogue in reference to 



the proposed trip oi' the steainei- up tlie Saii- 
gamo. He says: — 

"I am well aware that the undertaking is dan- 
gerous, difficult and expensive — still I am will- 
ing to risk my all upon it. All I ask is the 
cheerful and hearty concurrence of those gen- 
tlemen who must be more interested in the suc- 
cess than I am or can be. If I am unfortunate, 
I will cheerfully bear the loss; if I am success- 
ful, which, God willing, I have little doubt every 
individual in that tine section of country must 
feel the beneficial effects of it. The concur- 
rence I allude to is to advise me immediately on 
receipt, and keep me advised of the state of the 
river — what probable rise may be expected 
above low-water mark — that I should be met at 
the mouth of the river by ten or twelve men, 
having axes witii long handles, under the direc- 
tion of some experienced man, and that one of 
the men should be one of those who has most 
often descended the river with fiatboats (to show 
the course of the stream). I shall deliver freight 
from St. Louis at the landing on Sangamo river, 
opposite the town of Springfield, for thirty- 
seven-and-a-half cents per hundred pounds 

The Journal was an enthusiastic friend of the 
project of the navigation of the river, but tem- 
pers its enthusiasm by saying: "It would be 
folly, perha})s, ever to anticipate for our village 
advantages from steamboat navigation equal to 
those which St. Louis has derived from that 
source; yet such anticipation cannot be more 
chimerical than was the project of running 
steamboats from the mouth of the Ohio to St. 
Louis in 1817." 

In the Journal of February 10, 1832, appears 
the following paragraph: 

"We find the following advertisement in the 
Cincinnati Gazette of the 19th ult. We hope 
such notices w'lW soon cease to be such novelties. 
We seriously believe that the Sangamo river can 
be made navigable for steamboats for several 
months in the year. Here is the advertisement: 

X^OIi SANGAMO RIVEK. ILLINOIS— The splendid upper- 
-^ cabin ateainer, TALISMAN, J M. Pollock, Master, will 
leave for Portl.ind, Springtield, on the Sangamo river, and all inter- 
mediate ports and landings, say Beardst'>wn, Naides, St. Loiii.s, 
Louisville, on Thursday, Feltniary 2. For freight or passage 
apply to Captain Viucent A. Bogue, at the Broadway Hotel, or to 
Allison Owi-n. 

After the foregoing notices appeared in the 
Journal, a public meeting of citizens of Spring- 
field was held February 14, 1832, to take into 
consideration what measures should be ado])ted 
to assist Mr. Bogue in his enterprise. Elijah 
lies was elected chairman, and William Porter 
secretary. On motion of Dr. Todd, the follow- 
ing preamble and resolution was adopted: 

AVhkkeas, We have learned with great plta.sure that 
our towusman, Mr. Bogue, is aboiit lo uavigate the 
Sangamo river in a steamboat. 

Resolced, That a committee of three citizens be 
appointed to meet him, with a suitable number of 
hands, and render him all the assistance we are capa- 
ble of, or on the failure of Mr. Bogue, that assistance 
be afforded to any other boat wishing to engage in the 

E. I). Taylor, Washington lies and T. M. 
Neale were appointed that committee. T. Moff- 
ett, G. Jayne, and D, Dickerson were appointed 
a committee to solicit funds to carry out the 
foregoing resolution. 

According to announcement the Talisman 
started on its journey from Cincinnati, and after 
various trials succeeded in accomplishing its 
object. The Journal of March 8, announces the 
arrival of the steamer at Meredosia, when its 
further progress was obstructed by ice. In its 
issue of March 29th, it says : 

" On Saturday last the citizens of this place 
(Springfield) were gratified by the arrival of the 
steamboat Talisman, J. W. Pollock, master, of 
15U tons burthens, at the Portland landing, 
opposite this town. (Portland was at the south 
side of the Sangamon river, between where the 
bridges of the Chicago &, Alton and the Gilman, 
Clinton & Springfield railroads now stand). The 
safe arrival of a boat the size of the Talisman, 
on a river never before navigated by steam, had 
created much solicitude, and the shores for miles 
were crowded by our citizens. Her arrival at 
her destined port was hailed with loud acclama- 
tions and full demonstrations of pleasure. When 
Capt. ])Ogue located his steam mill on Sanga- 
mo river, twelve months ago, and asserted his 
determination to land a steamboat there within 
a year, the idea was considered chimerical by 
some, and utterly impracticable by others. The 
experiment has been made, and the result has 
been as successful as the most enthusiastic could 
expect ; and this county owes a deep debt of 
gratitude to Captain Bogue for getting up the 
expedition, and his never tiring and unceasing 
efforts until the end was accomplished. Capt. 
Pollock, who is naturally warm and enthusiastic, 
entered fully into the feeling of our citizens, 
who visited the mouth of the river to render 
any and every assistance in their power; and 
much credit is due him for his perseverance and 
success. The boat experienced some difficulty 
from drifts, and leaning timber on shore, which 
made her trip somewhat tedious. The result 
has clearly demonstrated the practicability of 
navigating the river by steamboats of proper 
size ; and by the expenditure of |2,00U in remov- 



ing logs and drifts and standing timber, a steam 
boat of 80 tons burthen will make a trip in two 
days from Beardstown to this place. The citi- 
zens of Beardstown manifested great interest 
for the success of the enterprise, and some of 
them accompanied the boat until the I'esult was 
no longer doubtful. They proposed the cutting 
of a communication or canal from the bluffs 
to their landing — about five miles — whereby 
seventy-five miles of navigation may be saved, 
and offered one thousand dollars to assist in 
completing it. It is to be hoped that the next 
legislature will afford some aid in making the 
river safe and pleasant in its navigation. Spring- 
field can no longer be considered an inland 
town. We have no doubt but within a few 
months a boat will be constructed for the special 
purpose of navigating the Sangamo river. The 
result which must follow the succesful termina- 
tion of this enterprise to our county, and tw 
those counties lying in its neighborhood, it 
would be impossible to calculate. Here is now 
open a most promising field for the exercise of 
every branch of honest industry. We congratu- 
late our farmers, our mechanics, our merchants 
and professional men, for the rich harvest in 
prospect, and we cordially invite emigrating citi- 
zens from other states, whether rich or poor, if 
so be they are industrious and honest, to come 
hither and partake of the good things of San- 

The poets of the day immortalized the occa- 
sion in verse, while the ladies gave a grand ball 
in honor of the occasion. The Journal's poet, 
in speaking of the appearance of the steamer, 

Say ye, bold Springfield men. the sight — 

Did it not give you vast deliglitV 

And you, fair dames, your comments on it, 

It almost equalled a new bonnet. 

Could anything be so bewitching — 

Lord, Lord, to think on't sets me itching — 

That is in rhyme, my pretty dears, 

As some one says some other wheres. 

Both town and county went to see 

What this strange animal could be ; 

But cautious first, and by degrees. 

The suckers peeped behind tlie trees, 

'Till more familiar grown, tliey chase 

And boldly stare her in the face. 

One thought it might be Noah's ark — 

No, no, another did remark, 

'Tis only Bogue's, his luck to try. 

Nor need he here a dove let fly ; 

He only fears it should be dry! 

The news to Springfield quickly flew. 

And all the folks went out to view 

So strange a sight, to them so new ; 

Some thought the world was at an end, 

And Heaven in mercy did this send 

To save the chosen people in. 

Who never yet committed sin. 

Or Only now and then got f 

Wh('n broached an extra tub of whisky. 

In speaking of the general rejoicing and the 
ball in the evening, the bard continues: 

Heigh, sn-s, but I forgot to tell 

That great rejoicings here befell. 

Such stuffing — all the eggs in town 

I do believe were there crammed down, 

And the next morn old Ned quite high, 

Had risen in price, and none to buy. 

There was a ball at night, I guess, 

For th' ladie's sakes it couldn't be less — 

And twenty l)achelors they say. 

Were strung on Hymen's noose that day. 

Notwithstanding all this general rejoicing 
the navigation of the Sangamon was a failure. 
The Talisman, on account of low water, was 
unable to turn around, and was compelled to 
back out of the stream. Her first trip was her 
last. She was burned to the water's edge oppo- 
site St. Louis, in the latter part of April, 18:52. 

Even as late as 1853 a small steamer came up 
the river to Petersburg, which caused Simeon 
Francis, who felt bound to make the Sangamon 
river navigable, write as follows, under date of 
April 25, 1853: 

"It has long been a conceded fact by those 
who have the best knowledge on the subject, 
that the Sangamon river can be made navigable 
for a small class of steamers five or six months 
in the year. Some days ago the steamer Wave, 
Captain Monroe, arrived at Petersburg. He 
found no difliculty in navigating the river for 
want of water. There was a depth of four feet, 
but there were obstructions from drifts and nar- 
row turns that could readily be obviated. He 
supposes the distance by the Sangamon river to 
the Illinois from Petersburg is about ninety 
miles, thirty miles of which will need improve- 
ment. This improvement should be done, if not 
by the State, by a company, who should be au- 
thorized to receive tolls for boats. We believe 
the legislature has authorized a com])any to 
improve the Kaskaskia river, and to charge tolls. 
Captain Moore has navigated the last mentioned 
river, and he expresses himself decidedly of the 
opinion that the Sangamon is a better river for 
navigation than the Kaskaskia. 

"We learn that so thoroughly satisfied are the 
property holders and business men of Petersburg 
of the feasibility of navigating the Sangamon by 
steamboats, and the great benefit that would re- 
sult to that section of country from a steam- 
boat connection with other navigable streams, 
that a subscription of some five thousand dollars 
has already been raised to biiild and ec^uip a 



steaml)oat for the especial navigation of the 
Sangamon. The attempts made years ago for 
the same purpose were not made in a way to se- 
cure success. The company will be able to avoid 
the obstacles which defeated the project on a 
former occasion. As one of the means for de- 
veloping the rich resources of the country on the 
Sangamon, we most fervently desire that the 
enterprise may be successful." 

This was the last attempt at the navigation 
of the river, and a look at the stream in 

this year, 1881, will convince one that it was 


Sangamon county is well watered by many 
living streams, after the Sangamon river the 
most important being Sugar creek, Lick creek, 
Horse creek. Brush creek, Clear creek. Fancy 
creek, Cantrall creek, Prairie creek, Richland 
creek. Wolf creek, and Spring creek, an account 
of each being found in the township history of 
the townships through which the flow. 



Chapter IL 


The Sangamon river traverses the entire ex- 
tent of the county from east to west, and with 
its tributaries furnishes a reasonable supply of 
water in ordinary seasons. 

This stream, as well as its main affluents, are 
skirted with belts of excellent timber, which 
make this one of the best timbered counties in 
the central portion of the State. About one- 
third of the county was originally covered with 
timl>er, but much of the timbered land has been 
cleared up and brought under cultivation. 

The principal varieties of timber observed in 
this county are the following; and it will be 
seen that the list embraces nearly every variety 
of forest tree that is to be found in the central 
portion of the State: sugar and white maple, 
buckeye, shellbark hickory, swamp hickory, 
mocher nut and thick shellbark hickory, horn- 
beam, serviceberry, backberry, red bud, dog- 
wood, red thorn, black thorn, persimmon, 
waahoo, white, blue and black ash, coffee nut, 
white and black walnut, mulberry, sycamore, 
Cottonwood, wild plum, wild cherry, crab apple, 
white oak, scarlet oak, chestnut oak, laurel oak, 
red oak, pin oak, swamp white oak, bur oak, 
sumac, elder, sassafras, linden, willow, Ameri- 
can elm, slippery elm, prickly ash, pawpaw, red 
birch, hazel, spiceberry, and honey locust. 

The superficial deposits in this county com- 
prise the three principal divisions of the Quat- 
truary: alluvium, leoss and drift. Narrow belts 
of alluvial bottom skirt the Sangamon through 
a large part of its course in this county, but 
they are subject to be annually overflowed by 
the river floods, and are most valuable for the 
heavy growth of timber they sustain. 

The leoss covers a large part of the uplands 
to the depth of from six to twenty feet, and is 
composed of the usual marly beds of buff and 
gray sands and sandy clays, Underneath the 


surface soil at Springfield we usually meet the 
following successions of beds: — 

No. 1, soil, 1 to 2 feet 

No, 2, buff colored silicious clay, 2^ to 3 feet 

No. 3, very fine gray marly sand, 3 to 4 feet 
No. 4, brown drift clays, usually 

extending down to the bed rock, 30 to 40 feet 

Nos. 2 and 3 of the above section may prop- 
erly be referred to the leoss, and at several 
points, in the vicinity of the city, it has been 
found to contain the characteristic shells usually 
found in it. 

We are indebted to Mr. Joseph Mitchell, who 
has dug many wells in the northwest part of 
Sangamon county and in the adjoining portions 
of Menard, for the following sections of the 
beds usually passed through by him: 

No. 1, soil, 1 to 2^ feet 

No. 2, yellow clay, 3 feet 

No. 3, whitish (gray) jointed 

clay with shells, 5 to 8 feet 

No. 4, black muck, with frag- 
ments of wood, 3 to 8 feet 

No. 5, bluish colored boulder 

clay, 8 to 10 feet 

No. 6,gray hard-pan](very hard), 2 feet 

No. 7, soft blue clay, without 

boulders, 20 to 40 feet 

No. 3 of this section is undoubtedly leoss, 
and he affirms that this order of succession was 
invariably observed) at many different localities 
in that portion of the county, the black mucky 
soil always appearing immediately below the 
leoss, and varying from three to eight feet in 
thickness, and always overlaying the true drift 
or boulder clay. This old soil is probably the 
equivalent of a chocolate-colored band a foot 
or more in thickness, which lies at the base of 
the leoss in the bluffs at Quincy. 



In my report on Adams county, pul)lishcd in 
Vol. IV, i)age 45, I suggested that the layers of 
chocolate colored soil at the base of the leoss 
might be the equivalent of the old post ter- 
tiary soil penetrated in the shaft at Coatsburg, 
and in consequence of the absence of true drift 
deposits at Quincy, it was difficult to iix the 
relation which this chocolate-colored soil might 
hold to the boulder clays, but the occurrence of 
a similar deposit at so many different localities 
in this county, and at the base of the leoss and 
always above the boulder clays seem to indicate 
{)retty conclusively that the stratum of Quincy 
also belongs above the true drift and to a more 
recent period than that penetrated at Coatsburg. 

These two ancient soils, the one at the base 
of the leoss, and the other beloAV the boulder 
clay, belong to distinct and widely separated 
periods and indicates two distinct emergencies 
of the surfaces during the Quarternary period 
and the prevalence of conditions suitable for 
the growth of an arboreal vegetation. 

The boulder clays, or true drift, consists for 
the most })art of brown, gravelly clay with small 
boulders. Occasionally a boulder, two feet or 
more in diameter, is met with in the beds of the 
ravines, but they are not common. In the vicin- 
ity of Springfield, this division of the quarter- 
nary ranges from twenty to forty feet in thick- 
ness, and this is probably not far from its average 
thickness throughout the county; but at some 
localities there is a blue clay or hard pan below 
the brown clays, which attains about the same 
thickness as the former, making the aggregate 
thickness of the drift where fully developed from 
fiftyto eighty feet. No fossils have as yet been 
obtained from the drift in this county, so far as 
I am aware, though the tooth of a mammoth was 
found some years ago in the bluff's of the Sanga- 
mon, and near the surface, and probably came 
from beds not older than leoss. 

The discovery of the Niantic mastodon, some 
three years since, between Illiopolis and Nian- 
tic, and just over the Macon county line, excited 
considerable interest when the discovery Avas 
first announced, and I visited the locality, and 
was present when a part of the bones were taken 
out. The discovery was made on the farm of 
William F. Correll, in sinking a stock well in a 
wet, spongy piece of ground, located in a swale 
or depression of the surface that had evidently 
once been a pond of water, and had been filled 
up by the wash from the surrounding highland, 
until it formed a morass or quagmire "in dry 

The bones were about foiir feet below the 
surface and partly imbedded in a light, gray 
quicksand filled with fresh water shells, J^lass- 
orbis, Oyclas, Physa, etc. Above this quicksand 
there was four feet of black, peaty soil, so soft 
that a common fence rail could be easily pushed 
down through it. The quicksand had evidently 
once formed the bottom of a fresh water pond, 
fed probably by springs and was the resort of 
the animals whose bones were found here. The 
first bone met with in sinking the well was one 
of the tusks, and supposing it to be a small tree 
it was cut in two with an axe before its true char- 
acter was suspected. The other tusk was taken 
out whole, and measured nine feet in length 
around the curve, and about two feet in circum- 
ference where it "svas inserted in the skull. 
The lower jaw, with the teeth in place, and the 
teeth of the upper jaw" and some of the smaller 
bones were also found in a good state of preser- 

A fine pair of antlers of the elk, with some 
other bones of the same animal, and bones of 
the buffalo and deer were found in the position 
as the bones of the mastodon, but the bones of 
the smaller animals, although imbedded at the 
same depth, were lighter colored, less decayed, 
and appeared to have been buried at a more re- 
cent period. 

The depth of the quicksand was not fully as- 
certained, but it was probed to the dej^th of two 
feet or more without reaching a solid bottom. 


The stratified rocks, outcroj^ping at the sur- 
face in this county, all belong to the upper coal 
measures, and overline all the main coal seams 
worked in the State. The lowest beds exposed 
in the county, are found on the Sangamon river, 
near the Menard line, and on Richland creek, 
one of the southern affluents of the Sangamon, 
in the western part of the county. 

They consist mainly of sandstones and shales, 
including the horizon of the Rock creek lime- 
stone, although w^e have not, as yet, seen any 
out-crop of this limestone in Sangamon county. 

A vertical seciion of all the beds exposed on 
the Sangamon and its tributaries, in the central 
and western portions of the county, would show 
the following relative position and thickness of 
strata: — 

No. 1, sandy shales and soft sand- 
stone, 15^ feet 

No. 2, hard gray limestone, part- 
ly bleached, 10 to 12 feet 

No. 3, black, slaty shale, 2 to 3 feet 


No. 4, clay shale, 4 to feet 

No. 5, brown, calcareous sand- 
stone, passing into ferrugin- 
ous limestone, 4 to 5 feet 

No. 6, clay shales, partly bitu- 
minous, 4 to 6 feet 

No. 7, hard gray limestone (Car- 

linville limestone), 6 to 8 feet 

No. 8, sandy shales and soft sand- 
stone, 30 to 40 feet 

No. 9, argillaceous limestone 

and calcareous shales, 2 to 3 feet 

No 10, bituminous shales, 1 foot 

No. 11, coal No. 8, 1 to 2 feet 

No. 12, lire clay, 2 to 3 feet 

No. 13, impure limestone, 2 to 3 feet 

No. 14, sandy shale and soft sand- 
stones, with local bands of ar- 
gillaceousandbituminoussbale, 50 to 60 feet 

No. 15, hard gray limestone, ... 2 to 6 feet 

No. 16, sliales — sandy, argillace- 
ous and bituminous, with thin 
seam of coal, 30 to 60 feet 

The beds numbered from one to seven, inclus- 
ive, of the above section, are well exposed on 
Sugar creek, two miles north of Virden, and 
thence down the creek to the crossing of the 
St. Louis, Alton & Chicago Railroad, between 
whicli points all the beds included in these num- 
bers outcrop in succession, the eastward dip of 
the strata being somewhat less than the fall of 
the stream. 

The upper limestone No. 2, of the above sec- 
tion is well exposed near the bridge on the 
main road north of Virden, and has been quar- 
ried both for lime and building stone. The 
upper part of the bed is a nodular, unevenly- 
bedded rock, partly brecciated, while the lower 
portion is more evenly bedded, affording a tol- 
erably good building stone, iu layers from four 
inches to a foot or more in thickness. 

A little farther up the creek the whole mass 
becomes brecciated and fragmentary, and quar- 
ries in pebbly fragments suitable for macadam- 
izing material. 

The brown ferruginous bed, No. 5, of the fore- 
going section is a hard, massive rock, resem- 
bling tlie limestone at Crow's mill, on Sugar 
creek, six miles south of Springlield, of which 
it is probably the equivalent. 

It contains numerous fossils, amongwhich are 
Productus costcUus, P. JVebrasce?isis, jP' Fratten- 
innus, Spirifer ccmieratus^ Athyris subtiliia, 
Yerehrat'ida bovidejis. Pinna per-acjita., and My- 
alina mnpla? 

The limestone No. 7, of the foregoing section 
is not fully exposed, but the upper layers out- 
crop in the bed of the creek just above the rail- 
road bridge, in pebbly layers not unlike the 
upper layers of No. 2; as they appear above the 
bridge on the main road north of Virden. This 
out-crop is very similar in appearance to the 
upper layers of the Carlinville limestone, just 
below Carr's mill on Macoupin creek, northeast 
of Carlinville, and I have no doubt but this 
limestone on Sugar creek is the equivalent of 
that. Below the railroad bridge the shale un- 
derlying these limestones are the only beds 
exposed for some distance, but east of Auburn the 
limestones are again met witli, and are found in 
outcrops from this point to Crow's mill, seven 
miles south of Springfield, where the rock for 
the old State House was obtained. At Pedde- 
cord's quarries, on Sugar creek, the State House 
rock is well exposed, affording the following 
section : 

No. 1. Thin bedded ferruginous 

limestone, 2 to 3 feet. 

No. 2. Massive, coarse-grained 

limestone, • 4 feet. 

No. 3. Clay shale, partly bitumi- 
nous, 6 feet. 

No. 4. Thin bedded limestone, . 3 to 4 feet. 
No. 5. Sandy shale, 10 to 12 feet. 

The material for the old State House was ob- 
tained mainly from No. 2 of the foregoing sec- 
tion, and there is a nearly continuous outcrop of 
these beds from this point to Crow's mill, two 
miles below, where the old State-House quarries 
were located. 

This rock is a coarse-grained, brownish-gray, 
crinoidal limestone, almost entirely composed of 
crinoidal joints and tlie calcareous remains of 
marine mollusca, cemented together by calca- 
reous and ferruginous sediment. 

In addition to the fossils already enumerated 
as occurring in this limestone at tlie locality 
north of Virden, the quarries here afford numer- 
ous specimens of syrinf/ojyora mtdtatJiennata, 
which seem to belong in the clay shale under the 
limestone No. 2 of the foregoing section, and, so 
far as I am aware, has been found nowhere else 
but in this shale in Sangamon and Macoupin 

Some of the masses obtained on Sugar creek 
are nearly a foot in diameter. Tliis limestone 
lias also afforded fine specimens of Cladodus 
mortifer, Petalodus destructor, and Cyathocri- 
mts 'Sangamonensis. This rock possesses the 
same lith'ological characters, and affords exactly 



the same group of fossils as the upper division of 
the main limestone at La Salle, and I have no 
doubt they are stratigraphical equivalents. Be- 
low Crow's mill to the outlet of Sugar creek 
into the Sangamon river, the sandy shales and 
sandstones intervening between this limestone 
and the coal outcroppings at Howlett, are the 
only beds to be seen. This coal seam, numbered 
11, in the general section, given on a preceding 
page, ranges in thickness from eighteen inches 
to two feet, and is coal No. 8, of our general sec- 
tion of the Coal Measures, given in Vol. Ill, 
page 5, of these reports. It outcrops in the 
bank of the Sangamon river at Howlett, and on 
Spring creek and its branches north and west of 
Springfield; and previous to the discovery of 
the heavy beds below this, it was extensively 
worked in strip banks, and by tunnels along its 
line of outcrop. It is overlaid by a calcareous 
shale, and argillaceous limestone, which are 
wonderfully rich in fossils, and have afforded 
more than sixty species of shells, corals and 
crinoidia characteristic of the upper coal meas- 
ures. The coal is underlaid with a dark bluish- 
gray fire-clay two or three feet in depth, below 
which an impure nodular limestone is some- 
times found, but more frequently the fire-clay 
rests directly upon the sandy shales and sand- 
stones below. 

At Howlett, the argillaceous limestone over- 
laying this coal seam, is succeeded by sandy 
shales, passing upward into soft mucacous sand- 
stones, which outcrop along the railroad grades 
just beyond Camp Butler, and contain an inter- 
calaled seam of poor coal only a few inches 

The limestones of Sugar creek, which prop- 
erly overlay this sandstone, are not found in the 
vicinity of Howlett, having been probably re- 
moved in the erasion of the Sangamon valley. 

Below this coal, where it out-crops west of 
the city, we find a bed of sandy shale and sand- 
stone, from thirty to forty feet thick, that lo- 
cally furnishes some building stone of fair 
quality, the thickly bedded portions being partly 
concretionary in structure, the concretions often 
attaining a diameter of five or six feet or more. 
They are exceedingly hard, but may be split 
into blocks of suitable size, and made a very 
durable building stone. 

At Carpenter's mill, five miles north of 
Springfield, a fine exposure of the sandstone 
underlaying this coal may be seen on the north 
bank of the Sangamon, where it forms a perpen- 
dicular cliff' more than fifty feet in height. The 
upper and lower portions of the formations are 

thin V)edded and shaly, but the middle pcjrliuus, 
nearly twenty-five feet in thickness, is in tol- 
erably heavy and evenly stratified beds, ranging 
from six inches to two feet or more in thick- 
ness. These layers seem to harden on expos- 
ure, and afford a very good building stone. 

In a ravine, a little to the west of the mill, 
on the north side of the road, the coal No. 11, 
of the foregoing section, and overlaying argil- 
laceous limestone, Here found well up towards 
the top of the hill, and apparently above the 
sandstone exposure at the bridge. The lime- 
stone here contains the same species of fossils 
so abundant in the roof of this coal in the vi- 
cinity of Springfield. 

The coal was not well exposed, but does not 
appear to be more than a few inches in thick- 
ness, and this exposure is probably on or near 
the most westerly outcrop of the seam on the 
north side of the river. Among the fossils com- 
mon in the limestone and shales over this coal, 
the Lophophyllu7n prolifervnn is very abundant, 
and is associated with Astartella vera, Pleauro- 
tomaria sphceomlata, P. Grayville7isis P. carbon- 
aria, Bellerophon carbonaria, B. Montfortianus, 
B. percarinatus, B. Stevensiamis, Leda bella-ru- 
gosa, Nticula ventricoso, Polyphenropsis p)er- 
acuta, P. nitidula, Soleniscus typicus, Loxo- 
nema rugosa, L. cerithiformis, MacrocJieilus 
inhabilis, M. pondero&us, M. medialis, M. inter- 
calaris, 31. ptdchella, M. ventricosiis,Enomphcdus 
rugosus, Productus longisjnnus, P. JVebrascetisis, 
P. Prattenianus, Spirifer cameratvs, S. Ken- 
taickensis, Athyris, subtilita, etc. 

The Rock creek limestone of Menard county, 
if it extends this far to the eastward, should out- 
crop on the Sangamon not very far below Car- 
penter's mill, as its place in the vertical section 
is between coals Nos. T and 8; but all these coal 
measure limestones are somewhat local in their 
development, and this bed has not been met with, 
so far as I know, in any of the coal shafts sunk 
in this vicinity. 

The main coal No. 5, of the general section of 
the coal measures in the central and western 
portions of the State, lies about one hundred 
and seventy-five feet below coal No. 8, in the 
vicinity of Springfield, and two hundred to two 
hundred and ten below the general surface level. 
A boring for artesian water was made at Spring- 
field in 1858, and was carried down to the depth 
of nearly twelve hundred feet without finding 
water that would rise to the surface, and the 
parties having the work in charge reported no 
coal below the small seam thirty or forty feet 
below the surface, though it was evident, from 



the character of the material brought up with 
the sand-pump, that they must have passed 
through from four or live hundred feet of coal 
measure strata. Subsequently, in a boring at 
Howlett, a six-foot seam of coal was found, at a 
depth of about two hundred feet. A shaft was 
immediately sunk, and extensive mining opera- 
tions have been carried on there to the present 
time. The boring at Springfield not only passed 
through this seam, but all those underlaying it, 
of which two or three will probably be found of 
workable thickness, the men in charge of the 

work being apparently entirely unconscious of 
the true character of the strata through which 
their drill passed. If this work had been placed 
in the hands of competent men, and an accurate 
journal of the boring kept, we should now know 
exactly what our coal resources are, whereas 
nothing was known in regard to the develop- 
ment of the lower coals, except from the exami- 
nations of their outcrops along the Illinois river 
bluffs, until borings at Jacksonville and Chapin 
showed the existence of a seam at those points 
between three and four feet in thickness. 



Chapter III 


One of the most interesting phases of national 
or local history is that of the settlement of a 
new country. What was the original state in 
which the pioneer found the country, and how 
was it made to blossom as the rose ? 

Pioneer life in Sangamon county finds its 
parallel in almost every county in the State, and 
throughout the entire West. When Robert Pul- 
liam and others of that noble band of pioneers 
settled here, they found an unbroken wilderness. 
Wild beasts and but little less wild savages, 
roamed at will over the prairies, through the for- 
ests, and along the waters of the "Sain-quee- 
mon" and its numerovis tributaries. Forests 
were to be felled, cabins erected, mills built, and 
the river and creeks made to labor for the bene- 
fit of mankind. The beautiful prairies were to 
1)6 robbed of their natural ornaments and the 
hand of art was to assist in their decoration. 
Who was to undertake this work '? Are they 
qualified for the task ? What will be the effect 
of their labors upon future generations ? 

The Sangamon county pioneers had many dif- 
ficulties to contend with, not the least of which 
was the journe}^ from civilization to their forest 
homes. The route lay for the most part through 
a rough country ; swamps and marshes were 
crossed with great exertion and fatigue ; rivers 
Avere forded with difficulty and danger ; nights 
were passed on open prairies, with the sod for a 
coucli and the heavens for a shelter; long, weary 
'lays and weeks of travel were endured, biit 
finally " the promised land" was reached. 


The young men and women of to-day have 
little conception of the mode of life among the 
early settlers of the country. One can hardly 
conceive how great a change has taken place in 
so short a time. In no respects are the habits 
and manners of the people similar to those of 
sixty years ago. The clothing, the dwellings, 
the diet, the social customs, have undergone a 

total revolution, as though a new race had taken 
possession of the land. 

In a new country, far removed from the con- 
veniences of civilization, where all are com- 
pelled to build their own houses, make their 
own clothing and procure for themselves the 
means of subsistence, it is to be expected that 
their dwellings and garments will be rude. 
These Avere matters controlled by surrounding 
circumstances and the means at their disposal. 
The earliest settlers constructed what were 
termed "three-faced camps," or, in other words, 
three walls, leaving one side open. They are 
described as follows: The walls were built 
about seven feet high, when poles were laid 
across at a distance of about three feet apart, 
and on these a roof of clapboards was laid, 
which were kept in place by weight poles placed 
on them. The clapboards were about four feet 
in length and from eight inches to tw^elve inches 
in width, split out of white oak timber. No 
floor was laid in the "camp." The structure re- 
quired neither door, window, or chimney. The 
one side left out of the cabin answered all these 
purposes. In front of the open side was built a 
large log heap, which served for warmth in cold 
weather and for cooking purposes in all seasons. 
Of course there was an abundance of light, and, 
on either side of the fire, space to enter in and 
out. These "three-faced camps" were proba- 
bly more easily constructed than the ordinary 
cabin, and was not the usual style of dwelling 

' The cabiii was considered a material advance 
for comfort and home life. This was, in almost 
every case, built of logs, the spaces between the 
logs being filled in with split sticks of wood, 
called " chinks," and then daubed over, both 
inside and outside, with mortar made of clay. 
The floor, sometimes, was nothing more than 
earth ti'amped hai'd and smooth, but commonly 
made of "i)uncheons," or split logs, with the 



split side turned upward. The roof was made 
by gradually drawing in the top to the ridge- 
pole, and, on cross pieces, laying the "clap- 
hoards," which, being several feet in length, in- 
stead of being nailed, were held in place by 
poles laid on them, called ''weight poles," 
reaching the length of the cabin. For a lire- 
place, a space was cut out of the logs on one 
side *of the room, usually about six feet in 
length, and three sides were built up of logs, 
making an offset in the wall. This Avas lined 
with stone, if convenient; if not, then earth. 
The flue, or upper part of the chimney, was 
built of small split sticks, two and a half or 
three feet in length, carried a little space above 
the roof, and plastered over with clay, and 
when finished was called a "cat-and-clay" chim- 
ney. The door space was also made by cutting 
an aj^erture in one side of the room of the re- 
quired size, the door itself being made of clap- 
boai'ds secured by wooden pins to two cross- 
pieces. The hinges were also of wood, while 
the fastening consisted of a wooden latch catch- 
ing on a hook of the same material. To open 
the door from the outside, a strip of buckskin 
was tied to the latch and drawn through a 
hole a few inches above the latch-bar, so that 
on pulling the string the latch was lifted 
from the catch or hook, and the door was 
opened without further trouble. To lock the 
door, it was only necessary to pull the string 
through the hole to the inside. Here the family 
lived, and here the guest and wayfarer were made 
welcome. The living room was of good size, 
but to a large extent it Avas all — kitchen, bed- 
room, parlor and arsenal, with flitches of bacon 
and rings of dried pumpkin suspended from the 
rafters. In one corner were the loom and other 
implements used in the manufacture of cloth- 
ing, and around the ample fireplace were col- 
lected the kitchen furniture. The clothing lined 
one side of the sleeping apartment, suspended 
from pegs driven in the logs. Hemp and flax 
were generally raised, and a few sheep kept. 
Out of these the clothing for the family and 
the sheets and coverlets Avere made by the 
females of the house. Over the door was placed 
the trusty rifle, and just back of it hung the 
powder horn and hunting pouch. In the well- 
to-do families, or when crowded on the 
ground floor, a loft was sometimes made to 
the cabin for a sleeping place and the storage 
of "traps" and articles not in common use. 
The loft was reached by a ladder secured to 
the Avall. (renerally the bedrooms were sep- 
arated from the living-room by sheets and 

coverlets suspended from the rafters, but 
until the means of making these partition walls 
were ample, they lived and slept in the same 

Familiarity with this mode of living did away 
with much of the discomfort, but as soon as the 
improvement could be made, there was added to 
the cabin an additional room, or a " double log 
cabin" being substantially a "three-faced camp," 
with a log room on each end and containing a 
loft. The furniture in the cabin corresponded 
with the house itself. The articles used in the 
kitchen were as few and simple as can be imag- 
ined A 'Dutch oven" or skillet, a long-handled 
frying pan, an iron pot or kettle, and sometimes 
a coffee-pot, constituted the utensils of the best 
furnished kitchen. A little later, when a stone 
wall formed the base of the chimney, a long 
iron '' crane " swung in the chimney place, Avliich 
on its "pot-hook" carried the boiling kettle or 
heavy iron pot. The cooking was all done on 
the fire-place and at the fire, and the style of 
cooking was as simple as the utensils. Indian, 
or corn meal, Avas the common flour, which Avas 
made into "pone" or "corn-dodger," or "hoe- 
cake," as the occasion or Aariety demanded. 
The "pone" and the "dodger" was baked in 
the Dutch oven, Avhich was first set on a bed of 
g'loAving coals. When the OA^en Avas filled Avith 
the dough, the lid, already heated on the fire, 
Avas placed on the oven and coAered with hot 
embers and ashes. When the bread Avas done 
it Avas taken from the OA'en and placed near the 
fire to keep Avarm Avhile some other food Avas 
being prepared in the same oven for the forth- 
coming meal. The "hoe-cake" was prepared 
in the same Avay as the dodger — that is, a stiff" 
dough Avas made of the meal and Avater, and, 
taking as much as could conveniently be held 
in both hands, it was molded into the desired 
shape by being tossed from band to hand, then 
laid on a board or flat stone placed at an angle 
before the fire and ]iatted down to the required 
thickness. In the fall and early Avinter, cooked 
pumpkin was added to the meal dough, giving 
a flavor and richness to the l)read not attained 
by the modern methods. In the oven from 
which the bread Avas taken, the venison or ham 
was then fried, and, in the Avinter, lye hominy, 
made from the unbroken grains of corn, added 
to the frugal meal. The woods abounded in 
honey, and of this the early settlers had an 
abundance the year round. For some years 
after settlements Avere made, the corn meal 
formed the .staple commodity for bread. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind 



and true-hearted people. They were strangers 
to mock-modesty, and the traveler seeking h>dg- 
ings for tlie night, or desirous of spending a 
few days in the community, if willing to accept 
the rude offering, was always w^elcome, although 
how they were disposed of at night the reader 
may not easily imagine; for, as described, often 
a single room would be made to serve the pur- 
pose of kitchen, dining-room, sitting-room and 
parlor, and many families consisted of six or 
eight persons. 


The character of the pioneers of Sangamon 
county falls properly within the range of the 
historian. They lived in a region of exuberance 
and fertility, where Nature had scattered her 
blessings with a liberal hand. The Sangamon 
river, with its numerous tributaries, the inex- 
haustible forest supply, the fertile prairie, and 
the many improvements constantly going for- 
ward, with the bright prospect for a glorious 
future in everything that renders life pleasant, 
combined to deeply impress their character, to 
give them a spirit of enterprise, an independence 
of feeling, and a joyousness of hope. They were 
a thorough admixture of many nations, charac- 
ters, languages, conditions and opinions. There 
was scarcely a State in the Union that was not 
represented among the early settlers. All the 
various religious sects had their advocates. All 
now form one society. Says an early writer : 
" Men must cleave to their kind, and must be 
dependent upon each other. Pride and jealousy 
give way to the natural yearnings of the human 
heart for society. They begin to rub off the 
neutral prejudices ; one takes a step and then 
the other ; they meet half way and embrace ; 
and the society thus newly organized and con- 
stituted is more liberal, enlarged, unprejudiced, 
and of course more affectionate, than a societ}' 
of people of like birth and character, Avho bring 
all their early prejudices as a common stock, to 
be transmitted as an inheritance to jjosterity." 


The clothing of the early pioneers was as 
plain and simple as their houses. Necessity com- 
pelled it to be in conformity to the strictest 
economy. The clothing taken to the new coun- 
try was made to render a vast deal of service 
until a crop of ffax or hemp could be grown, out 
of which to make the household apparel. The 
prairie wolves made it difficult to take sheep 
into the settlements, but after the sheep had 

been introduced and flax and hemp raised in 
sufficient quantities, it still remained an arduous 
task to spin, weave and make the wearing 
apparel for an entire family. In summer, nearly 
all persons, both male and female, went bare- 
footed. Buckskin moccasins were much worn. 
Boys of twelve and fffteen years of age never 
thought of wearing anything on their feet, ex- 
cept during three or four months of the coldest 
weather in winter. Boots were unknown until 
a later generation. After flax was raised in suf- 
ficient quantities, and sheep could be protected 
from the wolves, a better and more comfortable 
style of clothing prevailed. Mannel and linsey 
were woven and made into garments for the 
women and children, and jeans for the men. 
The wool for the jeans was colored from the 
bark of the walnut, and from this came the term 
"butternut," still common throughout the West. 
The black and white wool mixed, varied the 
color, and gave the name "pepper-and-salt." 
As a matter of course every family did its own 
spinning, weaving and sewing, and for years all 
the wool had to be carded by hand on cards 
from four inches broad to eight and ten inches 
long. The picking of the wool and carding was 
work to which the little folks could help, and at 
the proper season all the little hands were en- 
listed in the business. Every household had its 
big and little spinning-wheels, winding-blades, 
reel, warping-bars and loom. The articles were 
iujdispensible in every family. In many of the 
households of Sangamon county, stowed away 
in empty garrets and out-of-the-way 2:)laces, may 
still be found some of these almost forgotten 

The preparations for the family clothing usu- 
ally began in the early fall, and the work was 
continued on into the winter mouths, when the 
whirr of the wheels and the regular stroke of 
the loom could be heard until a late hour of the 
night. No scene can well be imagined so 
abounding in contentment and domestic happi- 
ness. Strips of bark, of the shell-bark hickory, 
thrown from time to time in the ample fire- 
place, cast a ruddy, flickering light over the 
room. In one corner, within range of the re- 
flected light, the father is cobbling a well-worn 
pair of shoes, or trying his skill at making new 
ones. Hard by, the youngones are shellingcorn 
for the next grist. The oldest daughter whirls 
the large spinning-wheel, and with its hum and 
whirr trips to the far side of the room, drawing 
out the thread, while the mother, with the click 
of the shuttle and the measured thump of the 
loom, fills up the hours — the whole a scene of 



domestic industry and happiness rarely elsewhere 
to he ound. 

It is well for '' Young America" to look back on 
those early days. It involved a life of toil, hard- 
ship, and the lack of many comforts, but it was 
the life that made men of character. Sangamon 
county to-day has no better men than the imme- 
tliate tlescendants of those who built their cabins 
in t e forest, and by patient endurance v» rought 
out of the wilderness the landmarks for a pros- 
perous commonwealth. One of these writes that 
"the boys were required to do their share of the 
hard labor of clearing up the farm, for much of 
the country now under the plow was at one time 
heavily timbered, or was covered with a dense 
thicket of hazel and young timber. Our visits 
were made with ox teams, and we walked, or 
rode on horseback, or in wagons to 'meeting.' 
The boys 'pulled,' 'broke' and 'hackled' flax, 
wore tow shirts, and indulged aristocratic feel- 
ings in fringed 'hunting-shirts' and 'coon-skin 
caps, 'picked' and ' carded' wool by hand, and 
'spooled' and 'quilled' yarn for the weaving till 
the back ached." 

Industry such as this, supported by an econ- 
omy and frugality from which there was then no 
escape, necessarily brought its own reward. The 
hard toil made men old before their time, but 
beneath their sturdy blo>*s they saw not only 
the forest pass away, but the fields white with 
the grain. Change and alterations were to be 
expected, but the reality has distanced the wild- 
est conjecture; and, stranger still, multitudes 
are still living who witnessed not only the face 
of nature undergoing a change about them, but 
the manners, customs and industries of a whole 
people almost wholly changed. Many an old 
pioneer sets by his fireside in his easy chair, 
with closed eyes, dreams of the scenes of the 
long ago. 

"The voice of Nature's very self drops low, 

As though she whispered of the long ago, 

When down the wandering stream the rude canoe 

Of some lone trapper glided into view, 

And loitered down the watery pat ■ that led 

Thro' forest depths, that only knew the tread 

Of savage beasts, and wild barbarians, 

That skulked about with blood upon their hands 

And murder in their hearts. The light of day 

Might barely pierce the gloominess That lay 

Like some dark pall across the water's face, 

And folded all the laud in its embrace; 

The panther's screaming, and the bear's low growl, 

The snake's sharp rattle, and the wolf's wild howl, 

The owl's grim chuckle, as it rose and fell 

In alternation with the Indian's j^ell. 

Made titting prelude for the gory plays 

That were enacted in the early days. 

" Now, o'er the vision, like a mirage, falls 

The old log cabin with its dingy walls. 

And crippled chimney, with the crutcli-like prop 

Beneath, a sagging shoulder at the top. 

The 'coonskin, battened fast on either side. 

The wisps of leaf tobacco, cut and dried; 

The yellow strands of quartered apples hung 

In rich festoons that tangle in among 

The morning-glory vines that clamber o'er 

The little clapboard roof above the door ; 

Again, thro' mists of memory arise 

The simple scenes of home before the fiyes ; 

The happy mother humming with her wheel, 

The dear old melodies that used to steal 

So drowsily upon the summer air. 

The house dog hid his bone, forgot his care, 

And nestled at her feet, to dream, perchance. 

Some cooling dream of winter-time romance. 

The square of sunshine through the open door 

That notched its edge across the puncheon floor. 

And made a golden coverlet whereon 

The god of slumber had a picture drawn 

Of babyhood, in all the loveliness 

Of dimpled cheek, and hmb, and linsey dress. 

The bough-tilled fireplace and the mantle wide, 

Its fire-scorched ankles stretched on either side, 

'W'^here, perchance upon its shoulders 'neath the joists, 

The old clock hiccoughed, harsh and husky-voiced; 

Tomatoes, red and yellow, in a row. 

Preserved not then for diet but for show ; 

The jars of jelly, with their dainty tops ; 

Bunches of pennyroyal and cordial drops, 

The flask of camphor and vial of squills. 

The box of buttons, garden seeds and pills. 

And thus the pioneer and helpsome aged wife 

Reflectively reviews the scenes of early life." 


The wedding was an attractive feature of 
pioneer life. There was no distinction of life 
and very little of fortune. On these accounts 
the first impressions of love generally resulted 
in marriage. The family establishment cost but 
little labor — nothing more. The marriage was 
always celebrated at the house of the bride, and 
she was generally left to c'loose the officiating 
clergyman. A wedding, however, engaged the 
attention of the whole neighborhood. It was 
anticipated by both old and young with eager 
expectation. In the morning of the wedding- 
day the groom and his intimate friends assem- 
bled at the house of his father, and after due 
preparation, departed, oi masse, for the "man- 
sion" of his bride. The journey was some- 
times made on horseback, sometimes on foot, 
and sometimes in farm wagons and carts. It 
was always a merry journey; and to insure mer- 
riment, the bottle was always taken along. On 
reaching the house of the bride, the marriage 
ceremony took place, and then dinner or supper 
was served. After the meal the dancing com- 
menced, and generally lasted until the follow- 
ing morning. " The figures of the dances were 



three and four-handed reels, or square sets and 
jigs. The commencement was always a square 
tour, which was followed by what pioneers 
called "jigging;" that is, two of the four would 
single out for a jig, and were followed by the 
remaining couple. The jigs were often accom- 
panied with what was called "cutting out," that 
is, when either of the parties be-ame tired of 
the dance, on intimation, the place was siip- 
plied by some one of the company, without in- 
terruption of the dance. In this way the reel 
was often continued until the musician was ex- 
hausted. About nine or ten o'clock in the even- 
ing a deputation of young ladies stole off the 
bride and put her to bed. In doing this, they 
had to ascend a ladder from the kitchen to the 
upper fioor, which was composed of loose 
boai'ds. Here, in the pioneer bridal chamber, 
the young, simple-hearted girl was put to bed 
by her enthusiastic friends. This done, a dep- 
utation of young men escorted the groom to the 
same department, and placed him snugly by the 
side of his bride. The dance still continued, 
and if the seats were scarce, which was gener- 
ally the case, says a local witness, every young 
man, when not engaged in the dance, was 
obliged to offer his lap as a seat for one of the 
girls; and the offer was sure to be accepted. 
During the night's festivities spirits were freely 
used, but seldom to excess. The infair was held 
on the following evening, where the same order 
of exercises was observed. 


Another feature of pioneer life which every 
old settler will vividly recall was the "chills and 
fever," "fever and ague," or "shakes," as it was 
variously called. It was a terror to new-C(»mers, 
for in the fall of the year almost everybody was 
afflicted with it. It was no respector of per- 
sons ; everybody looked pale and sallow as 
though frost-bitten. It was not contagious, but 
derived from impure water and air, which was 
always developed in the opening up of a new 
country of rank soil like that of Sangamon 
county. The impurities continued to absorb 
from day to day, and from week to week, until 
the whole corporate body becomes saturated 
with it as with electricity, an<i then the shock 
came ; and the shock was a regular shake, with 
a fixed beginning and ending, coming on in 
some cases each day, but generally on alternate 
days, with a regularity that was surprising. 
After the shakes came the fever, and this " last 
estate was worse than first ;" it was a burning 
hot fever and lasted for hours, When you had 

the chill you couldn't get wariA, and when you 
had the fever you couldn't get cool. It was 
exceedingly awkward in this respect — indeed 
it was. Nor would it stop for any contin- 
gency — not even a wedding in the family would 
stop it. It was imperative and tyranical. When 
the appointed time came around, everything 
else had to be stoj)ped to attend to its demands. 
It didn't even have any Sundays or holidays. 
After the fever went down you still didn't feel 
much better, you felt as though you had gone 
through some sort of a collision, threshing 
machine, or jarring machine, and came out not 
killed, but next thing to it. You felt weak, as 
thougb you had run too far after something, 
and then didn't catch it. You felt languid, 
stupid and sore, and was down in the mouth 
and heel and partially raveled out. Your back 
was out of fix, your head ached and your appe- 
tite crazy. Your eyes had too much white in 
them; your ears, especially after taking (piinine, 
had too much roar in them, and your Avhole 
body and soul were entirely woe-begone, discon- 
solate, sad, poor and good for nothing. You 
didn't think much of yourself and didn't believe 
that other people did either; and you didn't 
care. You didn't quite make up your mind to 
commit suicide, but sometimes wished some 
accident would happen to knock either the mal- 
ady or yourself out of existence. You imag- 
ined even the dogs looked at you with a sort of 
self-complacency. You thought the sun had a 
sort of sickly shine about it. About this time 
you came to the conclusion that you would not 
take the whole State as a gift; and if you had 
the strength and means you would pick up Han- 
nah and the baby, and your traps, and go back 
"yander" to "Old Virginny," the "Jarseys," 
Maryland, or "Pennsylvany." 

"And to-day, llie swallows Hitting 
Round my cabin, sec nic sitting 
Moodily witiiin the sunshine, 

•Tust inside my silent door. 
Waiting for the ' ager,' seeming 
Like a man forever dreaming ; 
And the sunlight on me streaming 

Throws no shadow on the floor ; 
For 1 am too thin and sallow 
To make shadows on the floor — 

Nary shadow any more ! " 

The foregoing is not a mere picture of the 
imagination. It is simply recounting in quaint 
phrase what actually occurred in hundreds of 
cases. Whole families would sometimes be 
sick at one time, and not one member scarcely 
able to wait upon another. Labor or exercise 
always aggravated the malady, and it took Gen- 



eral Laziness a long time to thrash the enemy 
out. These were the days for swallowing all 
sorts of roots and "yaibs" and whisky straight, 
with some faint hope of relief. Finally, when 
the case wore out, the last remedy got the credit 
of the cure. 


In early days more mischief was done by 
wolves than by any other wild animal, and no 
small part of their mischief consisted in their 
almost constant barking at night, which always 
seemed menacing and frightful to the settlers. 
Like mosquitos, the noise they made appeared 
to be about as dreadful as the real depredations 
they committed. The most effectual, as well as 
the most exciting, method of ridding the coun- 
try of these hateful i)ests, was that known as 
the "circular wolf hunt," by which all the men 
and boys would turn out on an appointed day, 
in a kind of circle comprising many square 
miles of territory, with horses and dogs, and 
then close up toward the center field of opera- 
tion, gathering, not only wolves, but also deer 
and many smaller "varmint." Five, ten, or 
more wolves, by this means, would be killed in 
a single day. The men would be organized 
with as much system as a small army, everyone 
Ix'ing posted in the meaning of every signal 
and the application of every rule. Guns were 
scarcely ever allowed to be brought on such 
occasions, as their use would be unavoidably 
dangerous. Tlie dogs were depended upon for 
the final slaughter. The dogs, by the way, had 
all to be held in check by a cord in the hands 
of their keepers until the final signal was given 
to let them loose, when away they would all go 
to the center of battle, and a more exciting 
scene would follow than can easily be described. 


This wild recreation was a peculiar one, and 
many sturdy backwoodsmen gloried in excelling 
in this art. He would carefully watch a bee as 
it filled itself with the product of some sweet 
fiower or leaf bud, and notice particularly the 
direction taken by it as it struck a "bee-line" 
for its home, which, when found, would gener- 
ally be high up in the hollow of some tree. The 
tree would be marked, and in the fall a party 
would go and cut down the tree and capture the 
honey as cpiick as they could before it wasted 
away through the broken walls in Avliich it had 
been so carefully stowed by the busy little bee. 
Several oallons would often be taken from a 

single tree, and by a very little work, and pleas- 
ant at that, the early settlers could keep them- 
selves in honey the year round. By the time 
the honey was a year old it would turn white 
and granulate, yet be as good and healthful as 
when fresh. This was called by some "can- 
died" honey. 


In pioneer times snakes were numerous, such 
as the rattlesnake, viper, adder, bloodsnake, and 
many varieties of large blue and green snakes, 
milksnake, garter and watersnakes, and others. 
If, on meeting one of these, you would retreat, 
they would chase you very fiercely; but if you 
would turn and give them battle, they would 
immediately turn and crawl away with all possi- 
ble speed, hide in the grass and weeds and wait 
for a "greener " customer. These reall}' harm- 
less snakes served to put people on their guard 
against the more dangerous and venomous kind. 
It was a common practice, in order to extermi- 
nate them, for the men to turn out in companies, 
with spades, mattocks and crowbars, attack the 
principal snake dens and slay large numbers of 
them. In early spring the snakes were some- 
what torpid, and easily captured. Scores of 
rattlesnakes were sometimes frightened out of a 
single den, which, as soon as they showed their 
heads through the crevices of the rocks, were 
dispatched, and left to be devoured by the nu- 
merous wild hogs of that day. Some of the 
fattest of these snakes were taken to the house 
and oil extracted from them, and their glitter- 
ing skins were saved as specific for rheumatism. 
Another method for the destruction was to fix a 
heavy stick over the door of their dens, with a 
long grapevine attached, so that one at a dis- 
tance could plug the entrance to the den when 
the snakes were all out sunning themselves. 
Then a large company of citizens, on hand by 
appointment, could kill scores of the reptiles in 
a few minutes. 


In tl.e earlier settlements of this section, 
ponds, marshes and swamps abounded where 
to-day are found cultivated and fertile fields. 
The low and flat places were avoided for the 
higher grounds, not only on account of the wet- 
ness, but for sanitary reasons. Agricultural 
implements were necessarily rude, and the agri- 
culture of a corresponding character. The plow 
used was called a "bar-share" plow, the iron 
point of which consisted of a bar of iron about 



two feet long, and a broad share of iron welded 
to it. At the extreme point was a coulter that 
passed through abeam six or seven feet long, to 
which was attached handles of corresponding 
length. The mold-board was a wooden one split 
out of winding timber, or hewed into a winding 
shape, in order to turn the soil over. In the 
spring time, when the ground was to be prepared 
for the seed, the father would take his post at 
the plow, and the daughter possession of the 
reins. This is a grand scene — one full of grace 
and beauty. The pioneer girl thinks but little 
of fine dress; knows less of the fashions; has 
probably heard of the opera, but does not under- 
stand its meaning; has been told of the piano, 
but has never seen one ; wears a dress " buttoned 
up behind ;" has on " leather boots," and " drives 
plow " for father. In the planting of corn, which 
was always done by hand, the girls always took 
a part, usually dropping the corn^ but many of 
them covering it with the hand-hoe. 

In the cultivation of wheat, the land was 
plowed the same as for corn, and harrowed with 
a wooden- toothed harrow, or smoothed by drag- 
ging over the ground a heavy brush, weighed 
down, if necessary, with a stick of timber. It 
was then sown broadcast by hand at the rate of 
about a bushel and a quarter to the acre, and har- 
rowed in with the brush. The implement used 
to cut the wheat was either the sickle or the 
cradle. The sickle was almost identical with 
the "grass hook" in use, and the cradle was a 
scythe fastened to a frame of wood with long, 
bending teeth or strips of wood, for cutting and 
laying the grain in swaths. There were few 
farmers who did not know how to swing the 
scythe or cradle, and there was no more pleasant 
picture on a farm than a gang of workmen in the 
harvest field, nor a more hilarious crowed. Three 
cradlers would cut about ten acres a day. One 
binder was expected to keep up with the cradle. 
Barns for the storage of the unthreshed grain 
are comparatively a " modern invention," and as 
soon as the shock was supposed to be suflaciently 
cured, it was hauled to some place on the farm 
convenient for threshing, and there put in stack. 
The threshing was performed in one of two ways, 
by flail or tramping with horses, generally the 
latter. The flail was used in stormy weather, on 
the sheltered floor, or when the farm work was 
not pressing; the threshing by tramping com- 
monly in clear weather, on a level and well 
tramped clay floor. The bundles were piled in a 
circle of about fifteen to twenty feet in diameter, 
and four to six horses ridden over the straw. 
One or two hands turned over and kept the straw 

in place. When sufliciently trampled, the straw 
was thrown into a rick or stack, and the wheat 
cleared by a "fanning-miil," or sometimes, be- 
fore fanning-mills were introduced, by letting it 
fall from the height of ten or twelve feet, sub- 
jected to the action of the wind, when it was 
supposed to be ready for the mill or market. 


The religious element in the life of the pio- 
neer was such as to attract the attention of 
those living in more favored places. The pioneer 
was no hypocrite. If he believed in horse-rac- 
ing, whisky-drinking, card-playing, or anything 
of like character, he practiced them openly and 
above board. If he was of a religious turn of 
mind he was not ashamed to own it. He could 
truthfully sing 

" I'm not ashamed to own my Lord, 
Or bhish to speak his name." 

But the pioneer clung to the faith of his 
fathers, for a time, at least. If he was a Pres- 
byterian he was not ashamed of it, but rather 
prided himself on being one of the elect. If a 
Methodist, he was one to the fullest extent. He 
prayed long and loud if the spirit moved him, 
and cared nothing for the empty forms of re- 

A traveling Presbyterian minister, visiting 
this region of country at a very early day, thus 
speaks of the sectarian feeling which then ex- 
isted : 

"In these new religions, too, of the most 
absolute independence, you see all the wander- 
ings of human thought, every shade of faith, 
every degree of the most persevering attach- 
ments to preconceived opinions. You see, too, 
all degrees of pretension in religion, followed by 
unhappy manifestations of the hollowness of 
such pretensions. You meet, it is true, with 
more cheering circumstances, and we sometimes 
are able to see that which we strongly wish to see. 
At one point you meet with a respectable Meth- 
odist and begin to feel an attachment to the 
profession. He next meets you with harmony 
and co-operation on his lips, and the next thing 
which you hear is you are being charged of 
being a fierce Calvinist, and that you have 
preached that "hell is paved with infants' 
skulls." While, perhaps, the society with which 
you are connected hear from an opposite quar- 
ter, and from a pretended friend, that in such a 
sermon you departed from the dicta of the Great 
Master and are leading the people to the gulf of 
Armenianism. The Baptists are as exclusive as 



in the older regions. Even among our own 
brethren, it is well known, that there is some 
feeling of a questionable nature, some rivalry 
between the pupils, the doctors and schools of 
Andoverand Princeton. The Cumberland Pres- 
byterians, with all the freshness of a new sect, 
are not found lacking in this order of things. 
Lastly, there are the Catholics, abundantly more 
united in faith, in spirit, and in purpose than we 
are — who claim a kind of proscriptive right to 
the ground, on the pretext of prior possession. 
Add to these the followers of Elias Smith, and 
the multitudes of men who would be founders 
of new sects, and vou will have some idea of 

the sectarian feelings that you will have to 

But these sectarian feelings were not to last. 
Separated from the religious influences of the 
land of their birth, and seldom hearing the gos- 
pel message, they were literally starving for the 
"bread of life," and the worthy minister of 
whatever denomination that chanced to call re- 
ceived a cordial welcome. The best the early 
pioneers had to give was at their service. 
All they required was that the ministers 
be a true and faithful follower of Christ, 
and preach to them of a common salva- 



Chapter IV 


When the Lord placed Adam and Eve in the 
garden of Eden he gave unto them a law, requir- 
ing implicit obedience, on pain of punishment 
for transgression. As the human race increased, 
other laws in addition to those given in the 
beginning became necessary. The formation of 
laws implies there shall be a judge and a place 
where justice shall be administered. In accord- 
ance with this fact our legislators, on the forma- 
tion of the State Government, enacted certain 
laws, and ordained means by which those laws 
shoiild be executed. 

The first Constitution of the State declared 
that the judicial powers of the State should be 
vested in one Supreme Court, and such inferior 
courts as the General Assembly should from time 
to time ordain and establish. This Supreme 
Court consisted of a chief justice and three 
associates. They were appointed by joint ballot 
in both branches of the General Assembly, and 
commissioned by the Governor, and held their 
offices during good behavior, until the ti)»st 
session of the legislature in 1824. They were 
required to hold the circuit courts in the several 
counties in each month, and at such times as the 
General Assembly should by law prescribe. The 
State was accoi-dingly divided into four districts, 
and by an act approved February 11, 1821, San- 
gamon County, together with St. Clair, Madison, 
Greene, Pike and Montgomery were constituted 
the First Judicial, Circuit, and John Reynolds, 
Associate .Justice, assigned to it. 

The first terra of the Sangamon County Cir- 
cuit Court was held at the house of John Kelly, 
on Monday, May 7, 1821. There were present 
John Reynolds, judge; Charles R. Matheny, 
clerk; John Taylor, sheriff; Henry Starr, prose- 
cuting attorney, jtyro tern. 

The following list of grand jurors were em- 
panneled and sworn: Daniel Parkinson, foreman; 
Claybourn James, Henry Brown, John Darneille, 
Archibald Turner, William Davis, Abraham 

Ritchey, Abraham Carlock, Levi Harbour, 
George Hayworth, William Eads, Thomas 
Knotts, James McCoy, James Tweddel, Aaron 
Hawley, Field James, Mason Fowler, Isaac 
Keyes and Elias Williams. 

Charles R. Matheny presented his bond and 
security as clerk, which was approved by the 

John Taylor presented his bond as sheriff, 
with security, which was approved by the court. 

Suit was commenced by Samuel L. Irwin 
against Roland Shepherd, for trespass, and dis- 
missed at plaintiff's cost. 

Three indictments were found by the grand 
jury, two for assault and battery and one for 
riot, trials of which were deferred until the next 
term of court. 

This completed the business of this term of 
court, and judge, lawyers and spectators all ad- 

John Reynolds, who presided at this terra of 
court, and who was chief justice of the State at 
the time, was afterwards Governor of the State, 
and is farailiarly known as the "Old Ranger." 
He was a man of strong mind and strong will 
power, although inclined to yield somewhat to 
make himself popular with the people. In the 
history of the bar is given an anecdote showing 
to what extent he would go to keep the good 
will of another. Judge Reynolds was a schol- 
arly man, understanding the Latin and Greek 
languages perfectly. He is the author of a his- 
tory of Illinois. 

An act of the legislature was passed and ap- 
proved by the Governor February IV, 182o, by 
which Montgomery was detached from, and 
Morgan and Fulton added to, the First Judicial 
Circuit, and this was further changed December 
29,. 1824, by which the district was formed of 
Sangamon, Pike, Fulton, Morgan, Greene and 
Montgomery counties. At this time the State 
was divided into five circuits. John York Saw- 


yer was appointed to the first circuit composed 
of the counties named. 

John York Sawyer was a remarkable man, re- 
markable at least for weight, DaA'id Davis being 
a common sized man bj^ iiis side. He was an 
ill-tempered man, too, notwithstanding his size. 
While he was on the circuit the law provided 
for whipping men for petit larceny. Sawyer, 
says Linder, was a terror to all such offenders, 
and was fond of snapping up the lawyers who 
defended them. A fellow was once tried before 
him for petit larceny and convicted. He was 
defended by Alfred W. Cavarly, who moved an 
arrest of judgment and a ncAV trial, and begged 
his honor to allow him to go over to his office 
and get some authorities Avhich lie wished to read 
in support of his motion. 

" Oh, certainly, certainly," said Sawyer to him, 
assuming one of the blandest looks i)0ssible, 
" The court vrill wait with the greatest pleasure 
on you, Mr. Cavarly." 

Cavarly made one of his profoundest bows 
and retired. Scarcely had he left the court 
house when Sawyer said to the sheriff : 

" Mr. Sheriff, take the prisoner out to yonder 
white oak tree (pointing to one through a win- 
dow which was back of him, and about fifty 
yards off), strip him to the skin, and give him 
thirty-nine lashes on his back, well laid on." 

The sheriff executed the sentence of the court 
with great speed. Sawyer turned around and 
looked out of the window while it was being ex- 
ecuted, and in a loud voice, while the blood was 
streaming down the culprit's back, counted the 
number of strokes on his fingers — one, two, three, 
and so on up to thirty-nine. The sheriff washed 
the back of the prisoner, reclothed him, and 
brought him into court. 

He was scarcely seated when Cavarly made 
his appearance wi h his arm full of law books, 
and with great confidence said to the court: 

" May it please your Honor, 1 am now pre- 
pared to show beyond a doubt that my client 
has been wrongfully convicted, and is entitled 
to a new trial." 

"Very well, Mr. Cavarly, go on; the court 
will hear you with great pleasure." 

Sawyer had the malice to let Cavarly proceed 
and read authorities for some time, but at last 
interposed and said: 

"Mr. Cavarly, you have satisfied the court, 
and if you desire it I shall grant you a new 

But at this point his client whispered in his 

"Don't take it, Mr. Cavarly, or they will whij) 
me again." ■« 

The court went on to finish his remarks: 

"But I will inform you that your client has 
been whipped, and received thirty-nine lashes 
on his ba-e back, well laid on, for I saw and 
counted them." 

Cavarly exclaimed with great indignation: 

"This is an outrage, and I protest against 
such conduct on the part of a court." 

''Oh, Mr. Cavarly, you have a right to pro- 
test. Clerk, enter Mr. Cavarly's protest on the 
record;" and turning to Mr. Cavarly, said: 
"Now, Mr. Cavarly, bring on your corn mer- 
chant (meaning a client of Cavarly's, who was 
charged with stealing corn), and we will dispose 
of him as we have with your hog merchant" — 
the man who had been whipped. 

Judge Sawyer has long since been dead. 

A change was again made in the circuit by 
an act approved January 12, 1827, it now em- 
bracing Peoria, Fulton, Schuyler, Adams, Pike, 
Calhoun, Greene, Morgan and Sangamon; Sam- 
uel D. Lockwood being Judge of the Circuit. 

In January, 1829, Sangamon county still 
formed part of the first circuit, together with 
the counties of Pike, Calhoun, Greene, Macou- 
pin, Morgan, Macon, and Tazewell. Two years 
later McLean was added to the circuit. No fur- 
ther change was then made until 18:35, when 
there was a general reorganization, this district 
remaining the same, with the exception that 
Pike county was taken from it. Stephen T. 
Logan was elected this year, and served with 
great credit to himself and the district for two 
years. On the 20th day of March, 18:^7, Wil- 
liam Brown was commissioned, and served four 
months, when Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., was duly 
commissioned. Judge Thomas, of whom men- 
tion is made in the history of the Bar, resigned 
in 18:B9. 

In 1839, a new Judicial Cii'cuit, numbered the 
eighth, was formed, comprising the counties of 
Sangamon, McLean, Macon, Tazewell, Menard, 
Logan, Dane (now Christian) and Livingston. 
This circuit was formed by act of the legisla- 
ture approved February 23, 1839. Stephen T. 
Logan, a few days sul)sequently, received a com- 
mission as judge of the circuit, but resigned 
the office in about three months, and Samuel H. 
Tre;et was commissioned to fill the vacancy. 
Judge Treat was elected and recommissioned 
January 30, 1840, and held the office up to the 
time of the adoption of the new constitution in 
1848. A sketch of Judge Treat will be found 
in (u)nnecti()n with the bar history. 



By the constitution of ]S48, the State was di- 
vided into nine judi(?.ial circuits, in each of 
which a jiulge was elected September, 1848. 
The legislature was authorized to increase the 
number of cii'cuits as might be required. No 
change was made in the Eighth Circuit, of which 
Sangamon county was a part. 

David Davis was the tirst judge elected in 
this circuit under the new constitution. Judge 
Davis is a native of Maryland. After graduat- 
ing at a New England college, and having 
studied law with a noted barrister, he came to 
Illinois when quite a young man and settled in 
Pekin, where he remained about one year and 
then moved to Bloomington. Here he opened 
a law office, and by his sagacity, economy and 
industry, he soon won his way to respectable in- 
dependence. In his Reminiscences of the Bar, 
General Linder has this to say of Judge Davis: 

"For his promotion to the circuit judgeship, 
Mr. Davis was largely indebted to his old and 
tried friend, Abraham Lincoln, and to the eter- 
nal credit of Judge Davis, be it said, he never 
forgot it. When a member of the convention 
in 1860, that nominated the Republican candi- 
date for President, Judge Davis had as large, if 
not a larger share in bringing about the nomi- 
nation of Mr. Lincoln than any other member 
of that convention, and when Mr. Lincoln was 
elected, Davis was invited to accompany him to 
Washington as one of his suite. Mr. Davis is 
a large man — about six feet high, very corpulent, 
and weighing some three hundred and fifty 
pounds. He accepted Mr. Lincoln's invitation, 
and being somewhat conspicuous for his size, 
and for wearing a white silk hat, the aspirants 
for office perceived by the attentions paid him 
by Mr. Lincoln that he had no small iniiuence 
with the President-elect, and they paid about as 
much court to the man with the white hat as 
to Mr. Lincoln himself. 

" But I wish to go back to the time when he 
was circuit judge of the State of Illinois, and 
Mr. Lincoln and myself both practiced in his 
circuit — Mr. Lincoln in the whole of it, and I 
in the counties of Vermilion, Edgar and Shelby, 
and occasionally in Champaign. Judge Davis 
was a very impartial judge, and though not in- 
tending to show a preference for one of his 
lawyers over another, such was the marked dif- 
ference he showed to Mr. Lincoln, that Lincoln 
threw the rest of us in the shade. But as Mr. 
Lincoln could not take both sides of a case, An- 
thony Thornton, myself and other prominent 
lawyers, were employed on the opposite side of 
cases in which Mr. Lincoln was engaged on one 

side or the other. Judge Davis always treated 
me with great kindness and consideration, and 
I wish to state here, before going further, lest 
the reader should think that my practice was 
confined to cases in which I was opposed to Mr. 
Lincoln, that in weighty and hotly contested 
cases we were often associated together, so that 
I cannot say that I was at all damaged by the 
friendship shown for him by his Honor, Judge 
Davis. I think it quite likely that had I been 
placed in the same relation to Mr. Lincoln that 
Judge Davis was, I should have shown to him 
the same consideration as was shown him by his 
Honor, Judge Davis. 

" Lincoln and myself generally put up at the 
same hotel, and frequently slept in the same 
room, and not unfrequently Lincoln and I 
occupied the same bed. Judge Davis was too 
large to take either of us for a bed-fellow. 

"Among the most pleasant days of my life I 
recall those when we three traveled together 
from Danville to Paris, and from there to 
Shelbyville. The courts of those three places 
lasting on an average from two to three weeks 
each. Ah! what glorious fun we had some- 

" I will give a little incident here to show 
the eccentricity of Judge Davis, which occurred 
at the Paris Circuit Court. Judge Harlan, 
who was then judge on the circuit south of 
here, came up to Paris on some special busi- 
ness of his, and Judge Davis, observing him 
in the court house, invited him to come up 
and take a seat on the bench beside him, 
which Judge Harlan did; and while there a 
little appeal came up, in which there was only 
about three dollars in controversy, in which I 
was engaged. I read a decision of the Supreme 
Court which I thought, and which was decis- 
ive of the case. Judge Davis turned to Harlan 
and whispered in his ear, as I afterwards 
learned from Judge Harlan, 'Great God!' 
said he, ' for a lawyer of Linder's age and 
standing to read a decision of the Supreme 
Court in a little appeal case where there are 
only three dollars in dispute!' He neverthe- 
less gave a decision in favor of my client. 

"Another little circumstance I will relate, 
going further to show his eccentricity and his 
friendship for me. Some time in the year, I 
think of 1850, I went up to Springfield, either 
on a visit or on some business or other, when 
Judge Davis was holding his court there; and 
I had landed but about an hour when the 
prosecuting attorney, hearing that I was in 
town, came and employed me to assist him in 



the prosecution of a woman and her paramour 
for the murder of her husband by the admin- 
istration of poison. As I entered the court 
room, Judge Davis being on the bench, and 
perceiving me to enter the room with my pipe 
in my mouth, said in an audible voice: 

'Mr. Sheriff, you will permit no one to 
smoke in this room while court is in session 
except General Linder.' 

'' It created quite a laugh over the house, and 
you may rest assured I was not so modest or 
self-denying as to refuse to take advantage of 
the permission thus given me to smoke my 
pipe during the progress of the trial. 

,"I have already stated that Davis, by invita- 
tion of Mr. Lincoln, went v/ith him to Wash- 
ington, and was present fit his inauguration, 
and I was informed remained there for some 
considerable time. And although he held no 
cabinet office under Mr. Lincoln, yet it was 
pretty well known that Mr. Lincoln had great 
confidence in Judge Davis, and consulted him 
on public affairs frequently during those dark 
and perilous days just before and after the 
war commenced. I am inclined to think that 
Mr. Lincoln tendered him a place in his cabi- 
net, but Judge Davis waited for a safer and 
more permanent place. His ambition was to 
reach the Supreme Bench of the United States, 
and after a while, a vacancy occurring. Judge 
Davis was appointed to fill the place, over the 
heads of such men as Salmon P. Chase and 
other formidable aspirants. His nomination 
was confirmed by the Senate of the United 
States. He has made a most excellent judge, 
and has delivered some opinions on constitu- 
tional questions which have given him a national 

In 1877, Judge Davis was elected to the 
United States Senate for the term of six years. 
In the Senate he has occupied an independent 
position, though generally acting with the Demo- 
cratic members of that body. 

By an act approved February 3, 1853, the 
Eighth Circuit was composed of the following 
counties: Sangamon, Logan, McLean, Wood- 
ford,'Tazewell, DeWitt, Champaign and Vermil- 
ion. As thus constituted it remained unchanged 
until 1857. By an act approved February 11, 
1857, Sangamon county was made part of the 
Eighteenth Circuit, together with the counties of 
Macoupin, Montgomery and Christian. 

On the organization of this new circuit, Ed- 
ward Y. Rice was elected and served as judge of 
the circuit until 1870. Judge Rice was elected 
to this office from Montgomerv county, and 

9— ' ' 

served acceptably during the continuance of the 
circuit. He is a man of clear mind, a good judge 
of law, his judgment rarely being reversed. He 
was appreciated by the entire bar, not only of 
Sangamon county, but of the circuit. 

In 1869, Sangamon county, together, wutli Ma- 
coupin, embraced the Thirtieth Judicial Circuit. 
Benjamin S. Edwards was commissioned judge 
of the circuit, and held the office about fifteen 
months and then resigned. While on the bench 
he was quite popular with bar and people. (See 
sketch in connection with the history of the 

John A. McClernand w^as elected to fill the 
vacancy, and was commissioned July 12,1870. 
He remained in the office until the expiration of 
the term. A sketch of Judge McClernand ap- 
pears in connection with the bar history. 

The General Assembly, by an act approved 
March 28, 1873, divided the State into twenty- 
six judicial circuits, Sangamon county, together 
with the counties ol Macoupin, Shelby, Chris- 
tian, Fayette and Montgomery, comprising the 
nineteenth. Charles S. Zane, of Springfield, 
was the first elected judge of this new circuit. 

In 1877, the State was divided into thirteen 
judicial circuits, with three judges in each cir- 
cuit. Horatio M. Vandeveer, of Taylorville, 
Charles S. Zane, of Springfield, and William R. 
Welch, of Carlinville, were the three elected for 
the Fifth Judicial Circuit, embracing the coun- 
ties of Sangamon, Christian, Macoupin, Shelby, 

Horatio M. Vandeveer was raised in Sangamon 
county, but removed to Christian county when 
a young man, and there studied law and was 
admitted to the bar. He was elected judge of 
the Twentieth Judicial Circuit in 1873, and re- 
tained as one of the three judges of the newly 
organized Fifth Circuit. Judge Vandeveer was 
highly esteemed by the bar, and made an excel- 
lent judge. Before being elected to this office 
he served a term in^he legislature very accept- 
ably. He declined a re-election on the expira- 
tion of his term, and is now engaged in banking 
and in the practice of law in Taylorville. 

William R. Welch is from Carlinville, and is 
recognized by the bar and people as above the 
average ability as a judge. 

Jesse J. Phillips was elected in 1879, and is a 
citizen of Ilillsboro. He has had but a short 
experience as judge, but has served very accept- 
ably. During the war he was recognized as a 
brave and gallant officer, the Colonel in com- 
mand of one of our Illinois regiments, and was 
wounded two or three times during the service. 




Agreeable to an act of the legislature, ap- 
proved February 10, 1821, aCourtof Probate was 
established in this county and James Latham 
was duly commissioned Probate Judge, and held 
the first terra of court June 4, 1881. Tlie only 
business transacted this day was to issue letters 
of alministration to Randolph Wills on the 
estate of Daniel Martin, deceased. 

Court met and adjourned tiiree times, after 
its first meeting, without transacting any busi- 
ness, until August 26, 1821, when the filing and 
recording the will of Peter Lanterman occupied 
the attention of the court one entire day. The 
following is a copy of the first will given in the 
records of the court: 

"Before the witnesses now present, Louis Bennett, 
in perfect memory, does give to the daughters of 
Kakau()(iui, Josett'Kakanoqui, and Lizett Kakanoqui, 
two thousand livres each, and six hundred livres for 
prayes for his father; also, six hundred livres for him, 
if for prayes, and thirty dollars for prayes promised, 
and one hundred dollars for Kakanoqui, the rest of his 
money to be given to his brothers and sisters of Louis 
Bennett. After duly hearing read over before the wit- 
nesses now present, and signing the same will, he does 
voluntarily appoint Joseph D. Portecherou and Louis 
Pencoune.iu, Sr., as exacquators of his will. 


Louis y, Bennett . 


Joseph D. Poktecheron, ) 
Joseph Duttle, j 

his ^Witnesses." 

Francois X Barbonais, | 
mark J 

James Latham, the first Probate Judge of 
Sangamon county, was born in Loudon county, 
Virginia, October 25, 1*768. He emigrated when 
a young man to Kentucky, and was there mar- 
ried to Mary Briggs in 1792. In 1819, with his 
family, he removed to Illinois, and settled at 
Elkhart Grove, then a part of Sangamon, but 
now of Logan county. As already intimated, 
on the organization of the county he was ap- 
pointed Probate Judge. He held the office but 
a few months and then resigned, having received 
the appointment of Superintendent of the In- 
dians around Fort Clark. Soon after receiving 
this appointment he removed his family to that 
place, and died there December 4, 1826. 

Zachariah Peter was appointed to fill the 
vacancy occasioned by Judge Latham's resigna- 
tion, and served about one year. Zachariah 
Peter was a Virginian by birth, but was raised 
in Kentucky, where he was married to Nancy 
Spaulding. In September, 1818, Mr. Peter ar- 
rived in Sangamon county, and finding an empty 
cabin in what is now Ball township, he moved 

his family into it, remaining there until the fol- 
lowing spring, when he erected a cabin for him- 
self about three miles north. Mr. Peter was one 
of the three commissioners appointed to locate 
the temporary seat of justice for Sangamon 
county, and filled several important county 
offices, serving for several years as one of the 
board of County Commissioners. He died in 
Springfield, August 5, 1864. 

Charles R. Matheny succeeded to the ottice of 
Probate Judge in 1822, and held the oftice for 
three years. Charles R. Matheny was born in 
Loudon county, Virginia, March 6, 1786. When 
a young man he went on a visit to a brother in 
Kentucky, and was there licensed to preach by 
the proper authorities in the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. In 1805 he was appointed by that 
body as missionary to a portion of the Illinois, 
but then known as the Indiana Territory. He 
settled in what is now St. Clair county, and 
continued for some years to preach the gospel. 
While engaged in ministerial duties, he read 
law and was admitted to the bar. In 1817 he 
was appointed Prosecuting Attorney for the Ter- 
ritory. In 1821, he was induced by the tender 
of the office of County Clerk, County Auditor and 
Circuit Clerk, and other prospective advantages, 
to come to Sangamon county, arriving at Spring- 
field in the spring of 1821. In Springfield and 
throughout the county he was very popular, and 
received many favors from the people. He was 
for several years president of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the village of Springfield, and held the 
office of County Clerk until his death, which oc- 
curred October 10, 1839. 

James Adams, of whom mention is made in 
the history of the bar, was the next to fill the 
oflace of Probate Judge, his commission bearing 
date August, 1825. Judge Adams held the 
office until 1843. 

Thomas Moffett was elected in 1843, and 
served until 1849. 

By the Constitution of 1848, counties not or- 
ganized under the Township Organization Law 
were governed by a Board of Justices, consist- 
ing of a County Judge and two associates. The 
County Judge performed under this law all the 
duties formerly devolving upon the Probate 
Judge. Under this act, Thomas Mofl[ett was 
elected to the office of County Judge, and served 
four years. (See sketch of Judge Moflfett in bar 

John Wickliife Taylor was elected to succeed 
Judge Moflfett, and commenced his official life 
in December, 1853. Judge Taylor was a native 
of Kentucky, and after his marriage, in 1833, he 


moved to Springfield, Illinois, where he re- 
mained one year, and then settled on a farm in 
Cartwright township, where he was living at the 
time of his ele(aion. 

William D. I'ower was elected as the successor 
of Judge Taylur, in 1857. Judge Power was 
born in Bath county, Kentucky, May 2, 1821, 
and was brought by his parents to Sangamon 
county the same year. Here he grew to man- 
hood, and so lived as to merit the esteem of all 
who knew him. In 1861 he was re-elected 
County Judge, and died in office March 2, 1863. 

Noiman M. Broadwell was elected to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Judge Power. 
He served out the term. (See sketch in bar 

William Prescott was the successor of Judge 
Broadwell, and served from 1865 to 1869. (See 
sketch in bar history.) 

A. N. J. Crook was the next to fill the office of 
County Judge. He was elected in 1869, and 

served four years. He is a member of the bar 
of Sangamon county, and a further notice of him 
appears in that connection. 

James H. Matheny was first elected county 
judge in 18*73, and re-elected in 1877. He has 
made an extremely popular judge. (See 
sketch in connection with the history of the 

When the county adopted the township or- 
ganization law the office of Associate Justice was 
abolished, and the legislative duties performed 
by the County Judge and associates were vested 
in a Board of Supervisors. The County Judge 
was still retained in office as Judge of Probate. 

By the Constitution of 1870 county courts 
were created having original jurisdiction in all 
matters of probate, and made a court of record. 
By an act of the legislature it has been given 
common law jurisdiction to the amount of 
$1,000. A. N. J. Crook was the first County 
Judge under the new law. 



Chapter V. 


The Bar of Sangamon county has ever been a 
subject of ])i-ide among her citizens. Some of 
the best legal minds, fairest logicians and finest 
orators of the age have practiced before her 
courts, many of whom have claimed a residence 
in the county. In reviewing the history of the 
Bar, it must be born, in mind that as the pros- 
perity and well-being of every community de- 
pends upon the wise interpretation, as well as 
upon the judicious framing of its laws, it must 
Follow that a record of the members of the Bar 
must form no unimportant part in the county's 
history. Upon a few principles of natural jus- 
tice is erected the whole superstructure of civil 
law, tending to relieve the wants and meet tlie 
desires of all alike. The business of the lawyer 
is not to make the laws, but to apply them to 
the daily affairs of men. But the interests of 
men are diversified, and where so many inter- 
ests and counter interests are to be protected 
and adjusted, to the lawyer and the judge are 
presented many interesting and complex prob- 

Change is everywhere imminent The laws 
of yesterday do not meet the wants and neces- 
sities of the people of to-day, for the old rela- 
tions do not exist. New and satisfactory laws 
must be established. The discoveries in the 
arts and sciences, the invention of new contri- 
vances for labor, the enlargement of industrial 
pursuits, and the increase and development of 
commerce are without precedence, and the science 
of law must keep pace Avith them all, nay, 
it must even forecast the event, and so frame its 
laws as will most adequately subserve the wants 
and provide for the necessities of the new con- 
ditions. Hence the lawyer is a man of to-day. 
The exigencies he must meet are those of his 
own time. His capital is his ability and indi- 
viduality. He cannot bequeath to his successors 
the characteristics that distinguished him, and at 
his going, as a general thing, the very evidences 
of his A\ork disappears. Anthony Thornton, 

Presidentof the State Bar Association, in l.s78,in 
an address before the association, thus speaks of 
the lawyer: "In the American State the great 
and good lawyer must always be prominent, for 
he is one of the forces which move and control 
society. Public confidence has generally been 
reposed in the legal profession. It has exer 
been the defender of popular rights, the cham- 
pion of freedom, regulated by law, the firm sup- 
port of good government. In times of danger 
it has stood like a rock and breasted the mad 
passions of the hour, and firmly resisted tumult 
and faction. No political preferment — no 
mere place — can add to the power or increase 
the honor which belong to the pure and edu- 
cated lawyer. The fame of Mansfield and Mar- 
shall and Story can never die. 'Time's iron 
feet can print no ruin-trace' upon their charac- 
ter. Their learning and luminous exposition of 
our jurisprudence will always light our path- 
way. It is our duty to preserve the prestige of 
the profession. The past, at least, is secure; the 
present and future summon us to action. With 
the progress of society, and the increase of 
population, wealth and trade, varied interests 
arise, and novel questions, requiring more 
thought, confront us. A disregard of the law 
has been developed, crime meets us unabashed, 
and corruption stands unmasked in the high 
places of the land. It is no fancy picture that 
the law has, to some extent, lost its authority, 
and it is onl)' the shade of that which once was 
great. Hence, new duties are imi)osed. and a 
firmer courage is required. '-^ * * The exal- 
tation of the profession is a duty enjoined upon 
us. It is a debt which only death can discharge. 
Lord Bacon has said, 'every man is a debtor to 
his profession; from the which, as men of 
course do seek to receive countenance and 
profit, so ought they of duty to endeavor, them- 
selves, by waj* of amends, to be a help and 
ornament thereto.' Every lawyer is a debtor to 
his profession. If worthy, it gives him an hon- 



orable character and high position. The lawyer 
should prize and love his profession. He should 
value its past renown, and cherish the memory 
of great men whose gigantic shadows walk by 
us still. He should love it for the intrinsic 
worth and innate truth of the fundamental 
truths which adorn it." 

In compiling a history of the Bar one is as- 
tonished at the small amount of material for a 
memoir of those w ho have been so intimately 
connected with and exerted such influence upon 
the country's welfare and progress. Aside from 
the few who have become great, whose names 
are emblazoned on history's page, but little is 
known of many who at one time were very 
prominent in the legal profession in the county. 
But the names of Lincoln, Douglas, Shields, 
Baker, Logan, Trumbull, Hardin, Breese, Lock- 
wood, Linder and scores of others tiientioned in 
these pages Avill always And a place in their 
country's history, and Sangamon county has 
reason to be proud, not only of so many distin- 
guished sons, but of the many others who have 
practiced in her courts. 


Sangamon county was organized in 1821, and 
in the decade following, the names of Henry 
Starr, John Reynolds, Sidney McRoberts, Al- 
fred Cavarly, William Thomas, Benjamin Mills, 
William A. Hamilton, William Mendel, James 
Adams, Thomas M. Neale, James M. Strode, 
Jonathan H. Pugh, Thomas Moffett, John T. 
Stuart, S. D. Lockwood, Judge Smith, Alfred 
Coles, Mr. Rogers, James Turney, John L. 
Bogardus, David Prickett and George Forquer 
appeared upon the dockets of^ the court — an 
array of distinguished names which would be 
an honor even to the Bar of to-day, many of 
whom have since become distinguished, and few 
of Avhom are now living. 

James Adams is the pioneer attorney of San- 
gamon county, having settled in Springfield in 
1821, shortly after the county was organized. 
Mr. Adams was born in Hartford, Connecticut, 
January 26, 1S03, from which place he removed 
to Oswego county, New York, in 1809, and from 
thence to Sangamon county as already stated. 
For several years he had quite an extensive 
practice, being careful and painstaking in work- 
ing up his cases and in his clients' interests. In 
1823 he was appointed justice of the peace, and 
was elected successively for many years. He 
took part in the Winnebago and Black Hawk 
wars. After an exciting personal canvass, he 

was elected Probate Judge in 1841, and died in 
office on August 11, 1843. 

Jonathan H. Pugh was the second attorney 
to make Sangamon county his home. He ar- 
rived in Springfield early in the year 1823, and 
at once secured a good practice for that day. 
In the first decade of the Bar of this county, 
his name probably appears oftener on the 
docket than any other attorney. Mr. Pugh was 
from Bath county, Kentucky, and was a man of 
brilliant talents, a good lawyer for that time, 
and one whose wit never failed him on any 
occasion. Before a jury he was almost invinci- 
ble. In society he was a prime favorite, having 
remarkably fine conversational powers. Before 
coming to Sangamon he located for a time in 
Bond county, and was there elected to the legis- 
lature. He also served Sangamon county in 
the Assembly after his removal here. In 1831 
he was nominated -for Congress, and made the 
race in opposition to ex-Governor Duncan. At 
this time the question of internal improvements 
was being agitated, especially the building of a 
canal from Lake Michigan to the Illinois river. 
Governor Duncan was a strong advocate of the 
canal, while Mr. Pugh advocated the building 
of a railroad, and was probably the first man in 
the State to advocate this measure. His views 
upon this question were doubtless one cause of 
his defeat. In 1833, while in the prime of life, 
Mr. Pugh "laid down life's burden and passed 
over to the other side." 

Thomas M. Neale was born in Fauquier 
county, Virginia, in 1796. When a mere child, 
he was taken by his parents to Bowling Green, 
Kentucky. On the breaking out of the war of 
1812, he enlisted and served his country faith- 
fully as a common soldier. He studied law and 
was admitted to the bar in Bowling Green. In 
the fall of 1824 Mr. Neale arrived in Spring- 
field, and at once commeeced the practice of 
law. For some three or four years his practice 
was good. In the campaign against the Winne- 
bago Indians in 1S27, he was the colonel in com- 
mand of all the infantry companies. After the 
Black Hawk war, Col. Neale was elected sur- 
veyor of the county, and one of his first acts 
was the appointment of Abraham Lincoln his 
deputy. He was also a justice of the peace for 
many years, and as such uniting many cou]>le in 
marriage, some times receiving as his fee only a 
saddle of venison. Mr. Neale died August 7. 

James M. Strode was from Kentucky, and 
made his first appearance before the Sangamon 
County Courts in 1823. He was then a young 



man of fair talents, rather showy in dress and 
manners, a good story teller, and for many years 
was quite prominent in the courts of the 
State. Leaving Springfield he settled in Galena, 
where he died. 

William S. Hamilton was a son of the noted 
Alexander Hamilton, of New York. He first 
^gured in the courts of this county in 1825, 
though he was probably here the previous year. 
He was a man of great intellectual powers, but 
was unsteady in his habits. He served the 
county one year in the legislatui'e. 

Thomas Moffett was from Bath county, Ken- 
tucky, and came to Springfield in 182f5, where 
he engaged in teaching school and devoting his 
leisure hours to the study of law. He was 
admitted to the Bar in 1828, and was the first in 
the county to receive a license to practice. Mr. 
Moffett was orderly sergeant of a company in 
the Winnebago war, and captain of a company 
in the Black Hawk war. He served two years 
as County Commissioner, and from 1843 served 
as Judge of the Probate Court. Under the 
constitution of 1848 he was elected County Judge 
for four years. While not taking high rank as 
a lawyer, Mr. Moffett was a man of excellent 
judgment, and made an excellent justice of 
the peace. Probate Judge and County Judge. 
He died in 1877, at a very advanced age. He 
was many years a ruling elder in the Second 
Presbyterian Church. 

William Mendel was a queer genius, not much 
of a lawyer, and good for little else, unless it 
should be for being very witty. He occasion- 
ally failed to behave himself in court with that 
decorum demanded of the profession, and con- 
sequently was punished therefor by the presid- 
ing judge. He once appeared before Judge 
Sawyer and behaved himself in an unbecoming 
manner. The judge sentenced him to jail for 
the night. The nex1i> morning on going to the 
court house a calf was discovered in the judge's 
stand and a lot of geese in the jury-box, with 
Mendall addressing them in an impassioned 
manner. The judge took no notice of the indig- 

Samuel McRoberts was one of the best law- 
yers that followed the circuit and making Spring- 
field a point. He was afterwards Circuit Judge, 
and also U. S. Senator from this State. He 
died before the expiration of his term. He was 
an excellent man to be with on the circuit, serv- 
ing to beguile the weary hours in traveling from 
place to place. U. F.Linder, whose reminiscen- 
ces are often quoted in this work, says he could 
give the heartiest laugh when amused, of any man 

he ever saw. He relates the following incident 
that transpired on one occasion: ''Nearly all the 
lawyers of Judge Harlan's circuit met at the Ed- 
gar County Circuit Court, among the rest, Judge 
McKobertsand myself. In those days we nearly 
all roomed together. There was a man by the 
name of Lodge, who was a bricklayer by trade, 
but who had arisen to be superintendent of a 
large farm. Lodge was in the habit of seeking 
every o2:>portunity to talk with the judge and 
lawyers, and would generally seize and nin away 
with the conversation. One day he came in 
where we were all talking, and with great pom- 
posity and egotism told us that he had a water- 
melon-]3atch adjoining the road from Danville to 
Paris; that he was one day sitting on his piazza, 
which overlooked this melon-patch. While sit- 
ting there he saw a gentleman coming along in 
his buggy, and when he got opposite the melon- 
patch he jumped out, got over the fence, pulled 
one of his finest melons, of which he had several 
thousand, and deliberately commenced eating it. 
He said he concluded he would go down and 
have a talk with the gentleman. He edified and 
regaled us with a fine moral lecture Avhich he 
delivered to the stranger, and said he told him 
that if he had come and asked for the melon he 
would have given it to him; and said that he 
ended by walking up to him and deliberately 
knocking the melon out of his hand. He said 
the man seemed greatly mortified, aud said to 
him: 'Sir, I am a gentleman; my name is 
Bishop, a commission merchant at Evansville, 
Indiana. In my native State, where we raise 
vast quantities of melons, it is not thought to be 
a serious matter or a crime for a man to help 
himself to a melon by the wayside, and if you 
feel very much concerned about it here is the 
pay for it,' pulling out his purse. Lodge refused, 
as he told us, and went on to deliver a lecture 
to Mr. Bishop on the rights of equality of riien, 
saying that he did not consider that it conferred 
an honor on him, that a commission merchant 
or anyone else should take one of his melons 
Avithout leave. Here McRoberts burst out in 
one of his great ' horse laughs,' which, to ap- 
preciate, should be heard: 

" ' Ha ! ha! ha ! ' says he, ' that reminds me of 
a story I once heard of William the Fourth, when 
he was Prince of Wales. He was traveling in 
cog. through Canada, and at Montreal he strayed 
into a tailor shop, where the tailor and his wife 
were both sitting on the counter at work ; the 
tailor with crossed legs pressing a seam with 
his hot goose, and his wife sewing away at some 
garment with nimble fingers. Neither seemed 



to pay much attention to the disguised royal 
stranger, when William, stepping up to where 
the woman was sitting, turning his head, asked 
the tailor if that was his wife. ' She is a very 
pretty woman,' said the Prince, and pulling her 
head down toward him, he deliberately kissed 
her, and turning to the tailor very patronizingly 
said, 'Now, sir, you will have the honor of tell- 
ing your children that your wife was kissed by 
the King of England. I am William, the Prince 
of Wales, and heir-apparent to the throne.' The 
tailor laid down his goose, put on his slippers, 
jumped otf the counter, and catching William 
by the shoulders pushed him to the door and 
gave him two or three lusty kicks on the seat of 
honor, and said, 'Now, sir, you will have the 
honor of telling your subjects that in one of 
your Majesty's Provinces you had your jwsterior 
kicked by a tailor.' ' Lodge looked like he 
could have crawled through an auger hole, and 
said : ' Judge McRoberts, I hope you don't 
mean to say there is the same disparity between 
Bishop and myself as existed between the 
Prince and the tailor!' Whereupon we all 
burst into a most uproarious lit of laughter, 
when Lodge left, and never visited us again." 

Alfred W. Cavarly is a man well known by 
the elder members of the Bar. He lived in 
Greene county and rode the circuit of which 
Sangamon formed a part for many years. He 
was considered a good lawyer, though a little 
egotistic. He always rode a good horse in his 
travels. On one occasion he interj^osed a gen- 
eral demurrer to one of Mills' pleadings, and 
sought thus to take advantage of some matter 
which could only be reached by special demur- 
rer. When Cavarly discovered that he could 
only reach the defect by special demurrer, he 
insisted that his was a special demurrer be- 
cause he had underscored part of it. Judge 
Lockwood decided against him. At dinner the 
same day at which the Judge and members of 
the Bar were present, Cavarly sent his plate to 
Mills to be furnished with what he thought was 
a cut of venison. Mills sent him a piece which 
Cavarly discovered was beef, and he remarked, 
"Brother Mills, I wanted venison, and you sent 
me beef." "Oh," said Mills, "underscore it, 
Brother Cavarly, and that will make it venison." 

Benjamin Mills was one of the ablest, most 
learned and accomplished lawyers of the early 
Bar of this State. He was from Massachusetts, 
highly educated, and a man of a rare style of 
oratory, through which there ran a rich vein of 
wit and irony. It was a talent he often indulged 
in in conversation. He rode the circuit in com- 

pany with several others who have since become 
prominent, and had few equals to contend with. 
As illustrative of his wit it is related that one 
day when he was in his cups at his hotel, he was 
sitting about half asleep, when Cavarly stepped 
up to where he was sitting and laid his hand on 
Mills' bald head and remarked: "Friend Mills, 
you have quite a prairie on your head." " Yes, 
Cavarly," he said, " and do you know the differ- 
ence between you and me?" "By no means, 
Brother Mills," said he, in quite a patronizing 
manner. " Well, Til tell you," said Mills, " my 
prairie is on my head, but yours is inside your 

Mills was the son of a New England Presby- 
terian minister, and came to Illinois at an early 
day, when there was a law authorizing a justice 
of the peace, if he heard a man swear, even 
upon the streets, to go to his office and enter up 
a fine of one dollar against him. Ben was a 
justice of the peace, and was one day taking 
his glass with another justice of the peace at his 
hotel in Greenville, Illinois, when he happened 
to let slip about a half dozen oaths. His 
brother justice said nothing about it at the time. 
This was in the morning. They met again at 
the same place in the evening and were taking 
another social glass together, when his friend 
remarked : 

" Brother Mills, you swore sereral oaths this 
morning, and you know the law makes it my 
duty to enter a fine against you of a dollar for 
each oath." 

" I know it, my brother," said Mills, " and 
thought of it as I went to my office, and being 
a justice of the peace myself, I entered upon 
my docket a fine of one dollar for each oath I 

"Oh, well," said his friend, " that will do. 
Come, Brother Mills, let us have another glass." 
And when they were about to drink it. Mills 
remarked: "But you know, my brother, that 
the policy of the law is reformation and not 
vengeance, and feeling that object has been 
thoroughly accomplished in my case, by the fine, 
I am now considering the question of remitting 
it." After their glass and a hearty laugh they 

Mr. Mills was a powerful prosecutor. At 
Edwardsville, a lawyer named Winchester, killed 
a man named Smith, or at least was charged 
with the crime. Mills was his prosecutor. Felix 
Grundy, of Tennessee, then one of the greatest 
criminal lawyers in the southwest, was sent for 
to defend Winchester. The prosecution is said 
to have been one of the ablest, most fearful and 



terrible ever heard, and it required all the talent 
and oratory of Grundy, assisted by the presence 
and countenance of many of the leading attor- 
neys and men of the place to prevent a con- 

Mr. Mills died about 1850. 

John Reynolds is well known to every student 
of the history of Illinois, having been Governor 
of the State, member of Congress, and Judge of 
the Supreme Court of Illinois. He was a ripe 
scholar, a man of great natural ability, yet withal 
modest, seeming more disposed to conceal than 
to blazon forth his accomplishments to the world. 
An amusing story is told of the Governor which 
occurred while holding a term of the circuit 
court at Edwardsville. At that term a man 
named Green was tried before him on the charge 
of murder, and was convicted. Reynolds, who 
was always seeking popularity, desired the ill 
will of no one, even of a murderer, and after the 
verdict of guilty had been read by the clerk in 
open court, turned to Green, his face all beam- 
ing Avith sympathy, said: 

" Mr. Green, I am truly sorry for you; the jury 
have found you guilty of murder, and I suppose 
you know you have got to be hung." 

" Yes, your Honor," said Green. 

"Mr. Green, I want you to understand that 
this is none of my work, but of a jury of your 
own selection. I would take it as a favor of you 
if you would communicate this fact to your 
friends and relatives. The law makes it my 
duty to pass sentence upon you and carry out 
the verdict of the jury. It is a mere matter of 
form, Mr. Green, so far as I am concerned, and 
your death can in no way be imputed to me. 
Mr. Green, when would you like to be hung?" 

" Your Honor," said Green, " if I had any 
choice in the matter, I should not like to be 
hung at all; but as it seems I have not, I have 
no preference of one time over another." 

Reynolds then turned to the clerk and said: 

"Mr. Conway, look at the almanac and see if 
the fourth Friday in December comes on Sun- 

Conway, being a man of considerable humor, 
gravely turned to the almanac, and then looking 
up, said: 

" I find, your Honor, to my utter astonish- 
ment, that that day comes upon Friday!" 

" So it does, so it does," said Reynolds. Turn- 
ing to Green, he said: 

"Mr. Green, the sentence of the court is that 
on the fourth Friday in December, between the 
hours of ten o'clock in the forenoon and four 

o'clock in the afternoon, the sheriff of Madison 
county will take you from the jail to the place of 
execution, and there, Mr. Green, I am sorry to 
say, he will hang you till you are dead, dead, 
dead, and may the Lord have mercy upon your 
soul. And don't you forget it, Mr. Green, that 
it is not my work, but that of the jury which 
tried you." 

James Turney's name appears upon the rec- 
ords of the Sangamon Circuit Court for several 
years, beginning in 1824. He was aTennessean 
by birth, but at this time lived in Carrollton. 
He was a man of fine personal appearance, of 
great natural, with but little acquired ability. 
When Attorney-General of the State, it is said, 
that such was the reputation which had preceded 
him when traveling the circuits, that many men 
indicted, came into court and confessed guilty 
rather than stand a trial with him as prosecutor. 
He was a natural orator, and always commanded 
the most profound attention. No one could fail 
to recognize in a moment, when hearing him 
speak, that he was a man of considerable genius 
and talent. He served the State as Attorney- 
General and as Commissioner of the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal. He was also State Senator 
from Greene county. 

Henry Starr, at a very early day, left his na- 
tive State of New Hampshire and settled in Ken- 
tucky, where he taught school and studied law. 
After being admitted to the Bar, he removed to 
Edwardsville, Illinois, from which place he made 
his semi-annual trips around the circuit, his name 
appearing on the docket of Sangamon Circuit 
Court in 1822. He remained in the State but a 
few years when he removed to Cincinnati, and 
soon was recognized as a leading lawyer of that 

George Forquer,a half-brother of ex-Governor 
Ford, was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in 
1794. With his mother and half-brother he 
moved to Monroe county, Illinois, at an early 
day, from which place he was elected a member 
of a legislature. In 1825 he was appointed by 
Governor Coles, Secretary of State, and went to 
Vandalia in the discharge of the duties of that 
office. In December, 1828, he resigned the posi- 
tion, and in January following was appointed 
Attorney-General by Governor Edwards. Re- 
signing this latter office the same year, he re- 
moved to Springfield. He afterwards repre- 
sented Sangamon county in the State Senate, 
and was at one time register of the land office in 
Springfield. He was considered by his contem- 
poraries a fair lawyer and had a good business. 
He died September 12, 18:38. 

3?^^;/^^ (7^ oCo-c^ 




A sketch of John T. Stuart, who had his first 
casein the April term, 1829, of the Circuit Court, 
and who is at present actively engaged in busi- 
ness in Springfield, appears in connection with 
the seventh decade. 

As illustrative of the way the lawyers followed 
the circuit, the following reminiscence by Judge 
William Thomas, of Jacksonville, is here given: 

"My Kentucky law license is dated July 5, 
182;3 (granted before I was twenty-one). My 
Illinois license is dated October, 1826. The 
first court that I attended in Illinois was held in 
this place, November, 1826; John York Sawyer 
was Circuit Judge. The attorneys in attend- 
ance were, John Reynolds, Belleville; James 
Turney, Attorney General, and Alfred W. Cav- 
arly, of Carrollton; William H. Brown, Benja- 
min Mills and George Forquer, of Vandalia; 
David Prickett, Edwardsville; Murray McCon- 
nell, John Turney and Benjamin Cox, of thi^ 
place; Jonathan H. Pugh, Thomas M. Neale 
and James M. Strode, of Springfield. The bus- 
iness of the court was finished in less than a 
week, and the next and last court held by Judge 
Sawyer was in Springfield in the same month. 
With two exceptions, McConnell and Cox, the 
same attorneys were in attendance at Spring- 
field, with the addition of William S. Hamil- 
ton, General James Adams, Thomas Mofl^ett, of 
Springfield, and John L. Bogardus, of Peoria. 

" The First Judicial Circuit at that time was 
composed of the counties of Greene, Morgan, 
Sangamon, Peoria, Fulton, Schuyler, Adams, 
Pike and Calhoun. A week was allowed to each 
term of the court in Greene, Morgan and San- 
gamon, and half a week in each of the other 
counties. From December, 1826, to March, 
1827, I was employed as village schoolmaster in 
this place. In the sjjring of 1827, I attended 
all the courts in this circuit. S. J. Lockwood, 
of the Supreme Coui't, was required to hold the 
courts in this circuit — Greene, Morgan and San- 
gamon, with the resident attorneys — Reynolds, 
Turney, Pugh, Strode and Cavarly from other 
counties being in attendance. From Sangamon 
we went to Peoria, Bogardus resided there and 
kept the tavern. There was another attorney 
there who resided on the lake some distance 
above Peoria, his name I have forgotten. The 
Attorney General being absent, I was appointed 
to represent the people. Jacob Funk and one 
Ogee, having been indicted for an affray, to the 
"terror of the people," confessed guilty, were 
fined a small sura, and each paid my fee of $5, 
with which I paid my traveling expenses around 
the circuit. The attorneys present at this court 


from other counties were, John Turney, James 
M. Strode, Jonathan H. Pugh and General 
James Adams. 

" From Peoria the court Avent to Fulton 
county, Pugh, Turney, Adams and myself being 
the only attorneys, besides a resident attorney 
whose name I have forgotton. Judge Phelps 
entertained the judge and Bar, and refused pay. 
Here I was employed in an appeal case, which I 
gained, and received -$5 for my fee. John Tur- 
ney was appointed to rej)resent the people. 
There was no criminal case for trial. From 
there we went to Schuyler county, our horses 
swimming Spoon river, and we crossed in a 
canoe. There we found at the county seat but 
two families — Hart Fellows, clerk, and Terry, 
recorder. Pugh was appointed to prosecute, 
but there was no criminal case on the docket — 
the grand jury found no bills — and after the 
trial of a few appeal cases the court adjourned 
on the second day. 

"From that county we went to Quincy, trav- 
eling through the j^raii-ie in a day, distance 
sixty miles, with no roads. I think there was 
no resident attorney at Quincy. We met there 
General Hanson, J. W. Whitney and J. I. Ross, 
of Atlas, Pike county. Here I was appointed 
to prosecute. There was but one criminal case 
tried, the party was convicted, and paid my fee 
of $5. From that county we went to Pike. 
There we met the Attorney General and Mr. 
Cavarly fi'om Carrollton, and Colonel Jenkins 
from Calhoun county. Captain Leonard Ross, 
then sheriff of the county, entertained the court 
and Bar, refusing pay. He was one of nature's 
noblemen, from Massachusetts. 

"Three days were occupied with the business 
of the court, and then we went to Gilead, 
county seat of Calhoun county, where I was era- 
ployed to defend a doctor, indicted for murder 
— a case of supposed malpractice, but, in fact, a 
case of ignorance and malice. In employing 
me he said that |20 was all he had, that he was 
in feeble health, had a sick family, and was in 
destitute circumstances. I agreed to defend 
him for the $20, being satisfied of his inno- 
cence and of his extreme poverty. Upon the 
trial of the case and the charge of the court, 
the jury found him not guilty. More than 
twenty years after I met this doctor at Spring- 
field, a member of the legislature. He was still 
in feeble health, remembered and recognized 
me, but I did not him, until he made himself 
known. There the circuit ended. 

"The resident and non-resident attorneys 
who practiced in this circuit, say in May, 1827, 



were, John Reynolds, Belleville; James Turney 
and Alfred W. Cavarly, Carrollton; Benjamin 
Mills, Yandalia; Samuel McRoberts, Edwards- 
ville; Murray McConnell, John Turney, Benja- 
min Cox and William Thomas, Jacksonville; 
Jonathan H. Pugh, William S. Hamilton, James 
M. Strode, Thomas M. Neale, General James 
Adams and Thomas Moffett, Springfield; John 
L. Bogardus, Peoria; General N. Hanson, James 
W, Whitney and John I Ross, Pike county; 
Colonel Jenkins, of Calhoun, brother of Lieu- 
tenant Governor Jenkins. Of all these attor- 
neys I am the sole survivor." 


In the second decade, from IS-Sl to 1841, an 
ai'raj' of names appear, some of whom have 
made a reputation tliat is world-wide. For char- 
acter, learning and ability the Bar during this 
decade has never been surpassed either in San- 
gamon county or in any county in the State, and 
perhaps not in the Union. At what Bar will be 
found the superior, or even the equal of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, James 
Shields, Stephen T. Logan, John T. Stuart, Ed- 
ward Jones, Dan Stone, Samuel H. Treat 
Ninian W. Edwards, E. D. Baker, Cyrus Walker, 
Jesse B Thomas, and A. T. Bledsoe, all of 
whom engaged in practice and often appeared 
before the courts of Sangamon county during 
this time? Not alone as attorneys, but as states- 
men, the greater number of the foregoing were 
prominent in after years. James C. Conkling, 
who was cotemporarj' with those named gays 
this of law and lawyers at that time: 

'" Forty years ago, business was not so great 
in extent as to occupy the full time of the law- 
yer. Suits were not so numerous, or so impor- 
tant, as to afford a support for himself and fam- 
ily. He engaged in political life as an employ- 
ment, and solicited office to improve his slender 
income. A much larger number of the promi- 
nent membei's of the legal profession then 
became members of the State Legislature or of 
Congress than at present. The people demanded 
their political services, and they were happy 
and anxious to accommodate the people. A 
political contest gave them notoriety among the 
masses, and afforded them an opportunity to 
display their abilities. A reputation for elo- 
quence and skill in debate was a recommenda- 
tion as lawyers in the practice of their profes- 
sion. Hence we find the names of Reynolds, 
Edwards, Cook, Casey, Breese, Browning, Har- 
din, Baker, Williams, Shields, Douglas, Trum- 
bull, Lincoln, McClernand and numerous others 

almost as frequently, in the political annals of 
our State, as upon the records of our courts. 
As lawyers they were eminent; as statesmen 
many of them became illustrious." 

In addition to those named, the records of the 
courts show the following named as practicing 
here between the years 1831 to 1841: Edward 
J. Phillips, Henry E. Dummer, William L. 
May, Josephus Hewitt, Chp,rles Emerson, David 
Prickett, Jesse B. Thomas, D. B. Campbell, 
Justin Butterfield, Antrim Campbell, John D. 
Urquhart, John C. Doremus, James C. Conkling, 
Charles R. Wells, Schuyler Strong, B. S. Ed- 
wards, and W. J. Gatewood, a list of which the 
Bar of any county might be proud. 

During the latter part of this decade, the 
United States Circuit Court and the Supreme 
Court of Illinois were removed from Vandalia 
to Springfield. Isaac N. Arnold, in an address 
delivered before the Illinois State Bar Associa- 
tion, at Springfield, January Y, 1881, says: 

" I wish, with the graphic power, of Sir Walter 
Scott, I could call up a picture of the United States 
Circuit Court and the Supreme Court of Illinois, 
and the lawyers then practicing before them, as 
they were in 1839, and on during the following 
years. If we could, in fancy, enter the United 
States Circuit Court room in this city, in June, 
1839, we should be impressed with the majestic 
figure, imposing presence and dignified bearing 
of the presiding judge, John McLean, a Justice 
of the Supi'eme Court of the United States. His 
person and face were often compared to Wash- 
ington's — whom he is said to have strikingly re- 

"Nathaniel Pope, the District Judge, was 
shorter and stouter in person, more blunt and 
sturdy in manner, and not so familiar with the 
law books, the cases, and literature of the law, 
but of a most clear, vigorous and logical mind. 
If we enter their court, then held, if 1 am not 
mistaken, in one of the churches in this city, we 
should find Ferris Foreman, then United States 
District Attorney, prosecuting the case of " The 
United States vs. Gratiot,'''' then a historic name 
in Missouri and the Northwest, in a case arising 
under a lease, by the Government, of a portion 
of the lead mines of Galena. AVe should hear 
the late Judge Breese making a very learned 
argument for the defense. If we lingered until 
the next case was called, we should hear the 
sharp, clear, ringing voice of Stephen T. Logan 
opening his case. If we remained until the trial 
ended, we should concur in the remark that this 
small, red-haired man, inferior in person, but 
with an eye whose keenness indicated his sharp 



and incisive intellect; this little man, take him 
all in all, was then the best nisip7-k(s lawyer in 
the State, and it would be diflicult to find his 
superior anywhere. Among the leading practi- 
tioners in the court in Springfield in 1839, were 
Logan, Lincoln, Baker, Trumbull, Butterfield & 
Collins, Spring & Goodrich, Cowles & Krum, 
Davis, Hardin, Browning, and Archy V\"illiams." 
"To a contemporary of those early members of 
the Bar, the roll of attorneys admitted in those 
days bring up sad and pleasant memories. On 
that roll, in 1836, you find the name of Thomas 
Drummond, now a venerable Judge of the North- 
ern District of our State; David Davis, late 
Judge, and now Senator; Archy Williams and 
Anthony Thornton. In 1837 I find the names 
of Abraham Lincoln, William A. Richardson, 
Lyman Trumbull, Mahlon D. Ogden, Joseph 
Gillespie; and in 1838, Justin Butterfield, James 
A. McDougall, Hugh T. Dickey, Schuyler Strong, 
John J. Harviin, Judge E. Peck, J. Young Scam- 
mon, and others, and from that time on, the 
names become more numerous." 

Continuing his reminiscenses, Mr. Arnold said: 
" In those early days it was my habit, and that, 
also, of those practicing in the United States 
Court, to come to Springfield twice each year, to 
attend the semi-annual terms of court held in 
June and December. We made our trips in 
Frink & Walker's coaches, and I have known 
the December trip to take five days and nights, 
dragging drearily through the mud and sleet, 
and there was an amount of discomfort, vexa- 
tion and annoyance about it sufficient to exhaust 
the patience of the most amiable. I think I 
have noticed that some of my impulsive brethren 
of the Chicago Bar have become less profane 
since the rail-cars have been substituted for the 
stage-coaches. But the June journey was as 
agreeable as the December trip was repulsive. 
A four-in-hand with splendid horses, the best of 
Troy coaches, good company, the exhilaration of 
great speed over an elastic road, much of it a 
turf of grass, often crushing under our wheels 
the most beautiful wild flowers, every grove 
fragrant with blossoms, framed in the richest 
green, our roads not fenced in by narrow lanes, 
but with freedom to choose our route; here and 
there a picturesque log-cabin, covered with 
vines; the boys and girls on their way to the 
log-schools, and the lusty farmer digging his 
fortune out of the rich earth. Everything fresh 
and new, full of young life and enthusiasm, 
these June trips to Springfield would, I think, 
compare favorably even with those we made 
to-day in a luxurious Pullman car. But there 

were exceptions to these enjoyments; sometimes 
a torrent of rain would in a few hours so swell 
the streams that the log bridges and banks 
would be entirely submerged, and a stream which 
a few hours before was nearly dry, became a 
foaming torrent. Fording, at such times, was 
never agreeable, and sometimes a little dan- 


"I recall a ludicrous incident on our way to 
Springfield, I think, in June, 1842, We had a 
coach, crowded with passengers, most of us 
lawyers, on our way to the United States Court. 
In passing from Peoria to Springfield, we 
attempted to ford one of these streams which 
had been lately raised so that its banks were 
nearly a quarter of a mile apart. When we had 
driven half across the horses left the track, got 
into a bad slough, and were stalled. All efforts 
to extricate the coach failed, and, at length, the 
driver gave up the attempt in despair; said he 
must take off the horses and go to the next sta- 
tion for help; those who chose might mount a 
horse and ride ashore; or, if they preferred, 
might wade ashore or stay in the coach until he 
returned, or wait until another coach, which was 
behind, should come up; we might wait for it, 
provided we were not carried down the stream 
by the current. Some decided to try their for- 
tunes on a stage horse; others stripped off 
trousers, boots ond stockings, and taking their 
coat-tails under ther arms, started to wade ashore. 
Old Dr. Maxwell was of our party, a very stout 
gentleman, with short legs, and weighing near 
three hundred pounds. The doctor sat by the 
window of the coach, grimly watching the 
various groups, and turning his eyes now to the 
equestrians, and now to those buffeting the cur- 
rent on foot, and envying some of the long- 
legged gentlemen who were struggling towards 
the shore. Seeing the doctor unusually grave, a 
friend called to him: 

" What is the matter, doctor? " " Why don't 
you come on? " 

"1 don't like the aspect." said he. "The 
diagnosis is threatening. My legs are too short 
to wade, and there is not a horse in the team that 
can carry my weight through this current. Sink 
or swim; survive or perish; I shall stick to the 

" Well," replied an irreverent and saucy young 
lawyer, " if you are washed away and cast ashore 
by the current, 1 should like to have the opinion 
of Judge Dickey (not the present Chief Justice) 
whether you would not be flotsam and Jetsam, 



and belong, medicine and all, to the sovereign 
people of Illinois'?" 

"Fortunately, our driver soon returned and res- 
cued our genial doctor. 

"I must not omit to mention the old-fashioned, 
generous hospitality of Springfield — hospitality 
proverbial to this day throughout the State. 
Among others, I recall, with a sad pleasure, the 
dinners and evening parties given by Mrs. Lin- 
coln. In her modest and simple home, everything 
orderly and refined, there was always, on the part 
of both host and hostess, a cordial and hearty Wes 
tern welcome, which ])ut every guest perfectly 
at ease. Mrs. Lincoln's table was famed for the 
excellence of many rare Kentucky dishes, and in 
season, it was loaded with venison, wild turkeys, 
prairie chickens, quail and other game, which 
was then abundant. Yet it was her genial man- 
ners and ever-lcind welcome, and Mr. Lincoln's 
wit and humor, anecdote and unrivalled conver- 
sation, which formed the chief attraction. We 
read much of " merrie England," but I doubt if 
there was ever anything more "merrie" than 
Springiield in those days. As, to-day, I walk your 
streets, and visit the capital, and your court 
rooms, as I ent^r the old home of Lincoln, for 
ihe first time since 1860, memories of the past 
come thronging back; I see his tall form, his 
merry laugh breaks upon my ear; I seem to hear 
the voice of Douglas, of Baker, of Hardin, and 
of Logan! 

'• How are we startled in the wind's low tones 
Bj voices that are gone." 

"Nor, in recalling the past, must I forget the 
hospitable home of Judge Treat, who, to-day, as 
then, in his ample library, may well say: 

" That place that does contain, 
My books, the best companions, is to me 
A glorious court, where hourly I converse 
With the old sages and philosophers.'" 

At this time the Supreme Court of the State 
was com])osed of four judges, three of whom 
were Whigs, and the fourth a Democrat. When 
Governor Carlin came into office in 1838, he 
claimed the right to appoint a new secretary 
before any vacancy existed. He nominated 
John A. McClernand; but the Senate, by a vote 
of twenty-two to eighteen, declared that the ex- 
ecutive did not possess the power to nominate a 
secretary, except in case of vacancy, and they 
therefore rejected the nomination. After the 
adjournment of the legislature he undertook to 
appoint McClernand as secretary, who thereupon 
demanded possession of the office, but was re- 
fused. McClernand then filed an information, 

in the nature of a quo warranto^ before Judge 
Breese, in the Circuit Court of Fayette county, 
who decided in his favor. Field took an appeal 
to the Supreme Court, where the decision was 
reversed. Aside from the political questions 
involved, the case was of considerable import- 
ance. Able counsel appeared on each side. 
For the appellant, were Cyrus Walker, Justin 
Butterticld and Levi Davis. For the appellee, 
Steplien A. Douglas, James Shields and Wick- 
liffe Kitchell, the Attorney-General. Wilson 
and Lockwood, the Whig judges, concurred, 
and Smith dissented. Brown being connected 
with the relator, declined to sit in the cause. 
The court decided that the Governor did not 
possess the power to remove the Secretary of 
State at his pleasure; that when that officer Avas 
once appointed, he continued in office during 
good behavior, or until the legislature limited 
the term or authorized some public functionary 
to remove him. The decision caused great ex- 
citement in political circles against the "Whig- 
Court," because it prevented the Democrats 
from occupying one of the principal offices of 
the government; and it had a considerable influ- 
ence in causing the reorganization of that tri- 

Edward J. Phillips, one of the first to com- 
mence here the practice of law in the second 
decade, was a man of fine personal appearance, 
above the average in scholarship, and a fine 
business man. He continued the practice of his 
profession but a short time, and then secured a 
position in the State bank, and as an officer of 
that institution was exceedingly popular as he 
was also in social life. 

Edward Jones commenced the practice of law 
in Springtield as a partner of George Forquer. 
Edward Jones was born at Georgetown, D. C, 
May 8, 1811. He commenced his education at 
a classical academy in his native town, and made 
good progress in his studies, but having a strong 
predilection for military life, he entered a select 
military school at the seat of the National Gov- 
ernment. After completing his academic studies, 
he commenced reading law in the office of John 
Marbury, and afterwards attended the Virginia 
Law School at Winchester. He was admitted to 
practice at the Bar in March, 1830, just two 
months before he was nineteen years of age. 
Being of an active and energetic temperament, 
he turned his face to the great West, and, in the 
following May, settled in Illinois, fixing his 
residence at Springfield. 

During the troubles of the frontier growing 
out of the Black Hawk war, he exhibited his 



natural fondness for military life, by serving in 
the campaigns of 1831 and 1832. 

In the spring of 1834, Judge Lockwood ten- 
dered him the appointment of Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court of Tazewell county, and he removed 
to Pekin, the county seat of that county. After 
holding the office about three years and a half, 
he resigned and resumed the practice of law. 
This he continued to do honoi'ably and success- 
fully until the call for volunteers in the Mexi- 
can war in June, 1846, aroused his patriotic feel- 
ings. He at once raised a company, which 
became Company F, of Colonel Baker's regi- 
ment. He first served with liis regiment under 
General Taylor and then under General Scott. 
He was engaged in the storming of Vera Cruz 
and the memorable battle of Cerro Gordo. The 
term of service of his regiment having expired, 
he was reluctantly compelled to return home. 
The remaining volunteers of that regiment have 
a vivid recollection of his bravery, fortitude, gen- 
erosity and kindness, as well as military skill. 

For some years after his return from Mexico, 
and until his health failed him, he was a success- 
ful practitioner. Mr. Jones had the reputation, 
which he richly deserved, as one of the finest 
men in his profession. He had a purely legal 
mind, and this natural aptitude he had diligently 
improved by his professional studies. His 
knowledge of the principals and practice of law 
was so intimate and thorough that he could give 
an extemjDoraneous opinion upon any case sub- 
mitted to him, and it was very seldom that an 
after consultation of authorities made a change 
of opinion necessary. His fame as a special 
pleader was wide-spread. He was considered a 
Fabius in defense — being remarkably successful 
in delaying the contest till the most j^ropitious 

Edward Jones was eminently social in his na- 
ture, and was surrounded by hosts of friends 
who prized his society to the last. Even after 
his health had so far failed him as to render him 
unfit for his professional duties, his friends still 
crowded their business upon him. His attach- 
ment to the community in which he lived was 
ardent and unchanging. Whoever traduced it 
might expect to meet him as its defender, 

Edward Jones died December 20, 1857, and 
was buried in Pekin, Tazewell county. The 
estimation in which he was held by the Bar in 
that place was embodied in a series of resolu- 
tions, one of which said : "We have found him 
a noble and powerful advocate, scorning to 
do anything unprofessional — eloquent, profound 
in argument, unanswerable in reasoning, and 

ever successful in the fierce conflict of intellect 
with intellect." 

Henry E. Dummer was a man of superior 
talents, a fine lawyer and scholar, and exceed- 
ingly refined in manner. He was a native of 
Maine, and had drifted West in 1832. In the 
spring of this year he was in Cincinnati, and 
noticing the advertisement of a boat going 
up the Sangamon river, determined to take 
passage to the new countr3^ Arriving here in 
due time, he soon formed a partnership with 
John T. Stuart, this relation continuing but a 
short time. After dissolution of the co-partner- 
ship, Mr. Dummer went to Jacksonville, where 
he remained a short time, and then drifted on to 
Beardstown. In this latter city he married, set- 
tled down and became eminently successful in 
the i^ractice of his profession. From Beards- 
town he returned to Jacksonville and became 
a member of the firm of Dummer, Brown & 
Kirby. He died about 1877. 

Stephen T. Logan. — This celebrated lawyer 
and jurist, who long stood at the head of the 
Illinois Bai", was born in Franklin county, Ken- 
tucky, on February 24, 1800, and was descended 
from a good family of Scotch-Irish origin. He 
H-as the eldest, and, we believe, the only son of 
David Logan — a man of sti'ong sense and ster- 
ling integrity, who died about the year 1821. 
His grandfather, Colonel John Logan, was one 
of the leading pioneers of Kentucky, who fig- 
ured prominently in the Indian wars of the 
period, was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1799, and held, during several 
years, the important office of State Treasurer. 
His mother, Mary Trigg, was the daughter of 
Colonel Stephen Trigg (a native of Virginia), 
who was killed at the memorable battle of the 
Blue Licks, in August, 1782. 

When Stephen Trigg Logan was two years 
old, his parents removed to Lincoln county, 
where his mother died a few years later, leaving 
him a half orphan at a tender age. He received 
his early education in Frankfort, Kentucky, 
where he was also employed as a clerk in the 
office of the Secretary of that Commonwealth, 
under Martin D. Hardin, father to Colonel John 
J. Hardin, of Illinois. In 1817 young Logan 
went to Glasgow, the seat of justice of Barren 
county, and studied law under the tuition of 
his uncle, Judge Christopher Tompkins. About 
two years afterward, and before attaining his 
majority, he was admitted to the Bar, but did 
not immediately commence practice. 

On June 25, 1823, Mr. Logan was married to 
America T. Bush, daughter of William Bush, 



Esq., of Glasgow, by whom he had eight chil- 
dren — four sons and fonr daughters — only two 
of whom survive, namely: Sarah (Mrs. Lamon), 
and Jennie (Mrs. Coleman), About the time of 
his marriage he was appointed Commonwealth's 
Attorney for the Glasgow Circuit, and discharged 
the responsible duties of his position with 
marked fidelity and ability. 

In May, 1832, he removed with his family to 
Illinois, and settled at Springfield, where he 
ever afterward resided. Here he first formed a 
co-partnership with the Hon. William S. May, 
and resumed the active practice of his profes- 
sion in the spring of 18-33, Subsequently, at 
different times, he was associated with E. D. 
Bakei, Abraham Lincoln, and Milton Hay. 

In 1885 Logan was elected to the office of Cir- 
cuit Judge, and remained on the bench two 
years, when he resigned and resumed legal prac- 
tice. In 1839 he was again elected judge, but 
declined to serve. In 1842 he was elected a 
representative from Sangamon county in the 
Illinois Legislature, and re elected in 1844 and 
1846, serving throughout with great credit and 
success. In 184*7 he was a leading member of 
the convention which formed tbe State Consti- 
tution, popularly known as the Constitution of 
1848. During the latter year he became a can- 
didate for Congress in the Springfield district, 
in oi^position to the late Hon. T. L. Harris. In 
18.54 Judge Logan was again returned to the 
legislature; and in 1860 he ^ as a delegate from 
the State at large to the Chicago Republican 
Convention, which nominated Mr. Lincoln for 
the Presidency. In February 1861, he was one 
of the five Commissioners from Illinois to the 
National Peace Congress at Washington city, 
and distinguished himself by his eloquence and 
patriotism in that historic assembly. 

Subsequent to 1861, Judge Logan, having 
acquired both fame and fortune, withdrew from 
political and professional life, and passed the 
evening of his days in dignified retirement. 
His death occurred after a brief illness, at his 
residence in Springfield, on July 11, 1880, in the 
81st year of his age. His obsequies were appro- 
propriately celebrated (the religious services 
being conducted by the Eeverend J. B. Allen 
of the Christian Church ), and his mortal re- 
mains were followed to their last resting place 
in Oak Ridge Cemetery, by a large concourse of 
sorrowing friends and legal associates, including 
many of the most distinguished men of the 

Irom a number of able and eloquent memor- 
ial addresses, delivered by representative mem- 

bers of the Bar and judiciary on the occasion of 
his decease, we have selected that of Joseph 
Wallace, Esq., made before the Common Coun- 
cil of Springfield, which presents, perhaps, the 
most elaborate and comprehensive analysis of 
Logan's character: 

Mr. W. said: — " Sir, an old and eminent citi- 
zen, a great lawyer, one whose name fills a large 
space in the earlier judicial and legislative 
annals of our State, has gone from the Sanga- 
mon County Bar to the Bar of God. This re- 
gretful event was not wholly unexpected by his 
family and most intimate friends, and yet it is 
difficult to realize that he is indeed no more. In 
the language of the lamented E. D. Baker, 'It 
is not fit that such a man should pass unher- 
alded to the tomb ; it is not fit that such a life 
should steal unnoticed to its close; it is not fit 
that such a death should call forth no public 
lamentation.' Nor is it so. The public press of 
our own and other cities have already published 
eloquent and appreciative notices of the distin- 
guished dead; the members of our Bar have met 
in solemn conclave and placed upon record their 
high estimate of his public and private worth, 
and now we, the members of this Council, rep- 
resenting the Capital City of Illinois, wherein he 
made his home for nearly fifty years, and with 
whose history and growth he was prominently 
identified, woixld add our brief yet sincere tribute 
to his memory. 

" I shall not enter here upon any recital of the 
events of Stephen T. Logan's long and honorable 
life, which opened February 24, 1800, and closed 
July 17, 1880; but I may be permitted to oifer a 
hasty review of his personal and professional 
character, and to cast a flower on his bier, even 
though it has to-day been borne in sad array 
through the portals of the tomb. 

"Whenever called upon to serve his fellow 
citizens in any public capacity, he responded to 
that call in a manner Avell calculated to reflect 
honor upon himself and conserve the public 
weal ; but at no time in his history was he a pro- 
fessed politician or office seeker. He never 
wrote out his speeches for publication, and in- 
terspersed them at intervals with the words 
' cheers ' and ' applause.' He never acquired the 
modern art of manipulating ' primaries ' and ' cau- 
cuses.' He had ' no hired retainers, no paid letter- 
writers, no array of college companions to quote, 
commend and herald his fame to the world.' 
He had little taste and less aptitude for the ' out 
of doors management, the electioneering leger- 
demain, and the wearisome correspondence with 
local great men' — all of which, at this day, are 



deemed requisite to political preferment aud 
success. Nevertheless, his name and his deeds 
are inscribed in legible characters upon the offi- 
cial records of two States, and the inscriptions 
will not altogether fade. 

" The controlling attachment of Judge Logan, 
however, was centered in the law; his mind was 
pre-eminently a legal one, and his political ambi- 
tion was rendered subordinate to his love for this 
science. His active forensic career extended 
over a period of nearly half a century, the larger 
part of which was passed in the State of Illinois, 
and in this city. But those who saw him only 
as ' an old man broken by the storms of state,' 
can form no just idea of his appearance when, in 
the plenitude of his physical and intellectual 
powers, he stood forth the facile princep&^ the 
acknowledged leader of the Illinois Bar. 

"A celebrated English critic (Hazlitt) has 
said, that ' great natural advantages are seldom 
combined with great acquired ones, because they 
render the labor requisite to attain the last, super- 
fluous and irksome.' This remark is not inappli- 
cable to Logan, since he made no pretensions to 
scholarship in any pedantic sense of the term. 
He never collected a library worthy of the name, 
and garnished it with rare and costly works. 
His reading was neither very varied nor classical; 
his researches were chiefly in the line of his pro- 
fession, ' but therein they were thorough.' His 
superior mental endowments enabled him to 
comprehend on a cursory examination what 
would require ordinary minds protracted labor 
to master. His intellect was not only capacious 
and vigorous, but it was emphatically quick, 
keen and subtle, and having been early accus- 
tomed to habits of close investigation, he could 
seize upon the knottiest problems of law and un- 
ravel them with the greatest facility. Under 
his magic touch ' all doubt and difficulty were 
at once dispelled^ and the naked truth stood forth 
plainly and palpably defined.' 

"In a court of justice, and especially a nisi 
prius court, Logan seemed most at home. In- 
deed, there was something exhilarating to him 
in the very atmosphere of the place. Here his 
exceptional talents were displayed in their best 
light, and here he might be studied to the best 
advantage. Entertaining and instructive it was 
to observe him before a jury engaged in the 
argument of some important cause. Resting 
one foot upon a chair, he begins with a few com- 
monplace remarks, uttered in a clear and con- 
versational tone. He then takes up the leading- 
facts and strong points of his case, states them 
with singular perspicuity and force, dwells on 

tLiem at length, and presents them fi-om every 
standpoint favorable to his client. As he pro- 
gresses he warms to his work. His small frame 
insensibly assumes a more erect and impressive 
attitude; his gestures become more frequent; his 
shrill voice is pitched to a higher key; his gray 
eyes glow with animation; every muscle is at 
play and every energy of his nature is aroused, 
while words, arguments, illustrations, appeals 
flow in torrents from his lips. At the conclu- 
sion of his speech he sinks into his seat in a pro- 
fuse perspiration and well nigh exhausted. He 
leaves little else to be said on his side of the 
case, for he has covered the whole ground. 

" Some French writer has observed that 'noth- 
ing is beautiful but what is natural.' This may 
well apply to Logan's style of speaking, which 
was formed after no modsl except his own, yet 
was beautiful because it was natural. He was 
accounted an eloquent speaker, though his elo- 
quence was of a peculiar kind and difficult to 
describe. He seemed to have adopted Chief 
Justice Marshall's maxim, and 'always aimed at 
strength.' His forte was reassuring, but it was 
reason imbued with intense animation; and he 
drove his juries to conviction as much by the 
resistless energy of his style as by the lucidity 
and compactness of his logic. His temperament 
was strongly emotional; and in the defense of 
persons arraigned for high crimes and misde- 
meanors, he sometimes touched with a master- 
hand those secret springs of feeling and passion 
that lie in the recesses of every human breast. 
Whenever he addressed the court upon any ques- 
tions of law, pleading or practice, he Avas heard 
with eager attention by his brethren of the Bar, 
because he threw a flood of light upon every 
legal principle he discussed. 

"It might be objected to Logan's forensic 
efforts, particularly his jury efforts, that they 
were too replete with iteration, though this is a 
fault common to most lawyers, and arises partly 
from the nature of the calling itself. More- 
over, juries, as a rule, are not composed of a 
trained order of intellects, and hence it seems 
necessary for the skillful advocate to repeat 
over and re-combine the same facts and argu- 
ments in a variety of forms, so as to impress 
them indelibly upon the minds of those ad- 
dressed, and thus secure the desired verdict. 
One secret of his uniform success as a practi- 
tioner was due to the fact that, like Choate, he 
exerted himself to the utmost in almost every 
suit in which he was employed. No matter 
what the tribunal, the party or the fee, he put 
forth his whole strength, summoning to his aid 



the resources of his legal learning, his logic, his 
wit and knowledge of men, and struggled as for 
life for the mastery. 

"It is a quality of superior and dominating 
minds to rely upon themselves, and to take the 
lead in whatsoever enterprise they may engage. 
Such was true of Logan. It mattered not what 
was the character and standing of the counsel 
associated with him in a given lawsuit, he occu- 
ined the foreground, and on him rested the 
chief burden of the controversy. To his clients 
he was faithful to a degree that knew no 
bounds, except the bounds of honor. He iden- 
tified himself for the time with them, made 
their ( ause his cause, and their interests his 
own. It would be hard to determine in what 
particular branch of jurisprudence he was most 
proficient — whether as a criminal, a common 
law, or a chancery lawyer — for he seemed alike 
at home in all, and in all he shone without a 
peer. But few men in this country have ever 
brought to the profession of the Bar so many 
(ptalifications to ensure sxtccess as he. 'Logan 
is the best natural lawyer I ever knew,' said the 
late Judge McLean, of the U. S. Circuit Court, 
himself a jurist of the soundest judgment and 
ripest experience; and such is the concurring 
testimony of all his immediate contemporaries. 

''His demeanor at the Bar was neither opin- 
ionative nor arrogant, but was characterized by 
a proper respect for the rulings of the court, 
and by an obliging disposition toward his pro- 
fessional associates. Still, his temper was nat- 
urally choleric, and quick to resent invidious re- 
marks and unprofessional conduct on the part 
of opposing counsel. At such times they were 
certain to feel the sting of his retorts, keen and 
pungent as the rapier's thrust. 

" The life of the lawyer in full practice is any- 
thing but a life of ease. It is rather one of 
excitement and anxiety, of patient investigation 
and unremitting toil, spent in the perusal of 
authorities, the preparation of pleas and briefs, 
and in the trial or adjustment of vexatious and 
complicated causes. Hence, in time be becomes 
worn out with the corroding ca^es of his clients; 
and when the silver thread of life is at last sun- 
dered forever, only a scanty and fragmentary 
record remains of his history. ' Probably in no 
department of life,' says an able writer, ' is there 
displayed so much talent which leaves no lasting 
record. The shrewd management and ready 
wit, the keen retort, the deep learning, and the 
impassioned eloquence of the accomplished law- 
yer, all come in play and tell strongly on the 
result, bnt they do their work and are seen no 

more; felt and admired at the time, they go to 
make up the contemporaneous estimate living at 
the place, but not to be reproduced for other 
times and other admirers.' How next to impos- 
sible, then, in a mere skeleton sketch like the 
present, to recall and portray those ' nice shades 
of character and talent, of thought and feeling, 
of look and gesture, of wit and pathos, that went 
to form the sum total of Stephen Trigg Logan's 
greatness and fame as a lawyer. 

"During the first year of the troubled admin- 
istration of the late President Lincoln, a vacancy 
occurred on the Supreme Bench of the United 
States, to be filled by a Western jurist. Where- 
upon, the special friends of Judge Logan recom- 
mended him as eminently qualified for the place; 
but the President, for reasons satisfactory to 
himself, ignored the claims of his old-time friend 
and law partner, and appointed another to the 
judgeship. Some have thought that Logan 
would not have accepted the office if it had been 
tendered him, but this is improbable. Conscious 
of the possession of superior abilities, it was but 
natural for him to be ambitious, and to aspire to 
some commanding height, whence he could 
make his influence felt and his power known to 
the whole country. Had he been raised to a 
seat in that august tribunal, he would doubtless 
have shone as a star of the first magnitude in 
our judicial constellation, and his recorded opin- 
ions have enriched the judicial literature of the 
land. But the sister Fates decreed for him a 
less conspicuous, though scarcely less useful 

"In private life Logan was one of the most 
exemplary of men. Simple in his tastes, regu- 
lar in his habits, unpretentious in his manners, 
and careless of his attire, he lived, moved and 
acted as if he were one of the least infiuential 
and observed of mankind. He was punctual 
and exact in all his business transactions. His 
maxim was to 'owe no man anything,' and to 
pay as he went — a most excellent Scriptural 
rule, but one more honored in the breach than 
the observance. He was also a man of unusually 
strong local and domestic attachments, and, 
while given to hospitality, preferred the quiet 
of his own fireside, and the society of his own 
family to that of all others; and, as a corrollary 
to this, he w^as one of the kindest of husbands 
and most indulgent of fathers. 

" In conclusion it may be proper to say, that 
in his riper and declining years he experienced 
many severe afflictions. He outlived the major 
portion of his immediate family and kindred. 
He lost, in succession, all four of his sons, 



whom be had doubtless hoped would have per- 
petuated his name and fame to other genera- 
tions. He saw his loved comi)anion, the mother 
of his children, borne from his bouse of mourn- 
ing 'to the house appointed for all living;' he 
followed two of his amiable daughters in sor- 
row to the tomb; but amid all these domestic 
trials, Logan was Logan still; and, at length, 
Avorn out by the trials and cares and conflicts of 
this sublunary life, he bowed his withered head 
in submission to the will of his Creator, and 
slept with his fathers. No more shall we see 
his slight form and sharply chiseled features on 
the busy thoroughfares; no more shall we meet 
him in the bustling courts of law, so long the 
theatre of his intellectual struggles and tri- 
umphs; and nevermore shall the temples of jus- 
tice reverberate with the tones of his shrill, 
clear voice; for that heart once so fiery, and 
that tongue once so impassioned, now lie pulse- 
less and still in death. 

"Thus one after another these relics of the 
past, these tottering monuments of a former and 
perhaps better generation, are going home to 
the silent land — 'to that shore from whose 
sands is never heard the echo of retreating foot- 
steps.' 'Thus,' says Irving, 'man passes away; 
his name gradually perishes from record and 
recollection; his history is a tale that is told, 
and his very monument becomes a ruin.' But, 
sir, I will 

'No farther seek his merits to disclose. 
Nor draw his frailties from their dread abode; 

There they alike in trembling hopes repose. 
The bosom of his Father and his God.' " 

Hon. David Prickett, prominently identified 
with the early history of Illinois and Sangamon 
county, was born in Franklin county, Georgia, 
September 21, 1800. In early childhood he went 
with his parents to Kentucky, and a few yeai's 
later to Edwardsville, Illinois, then a j^rominent 
town of this State. He graduated from the law 
department of Transylvania University, in Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, and was admitted to practice 
at Edwardsville, Illinois, November 15, 1821. 
Mr. Prickett served as the first Supreme Court 
Reporter of Illinois, was for a time Judge of 
Probate Court of Madison county; was elected 
a member of the State Legislature in 1826, when 
the Capitol was at Vandalia. He served as aide- 
de-camp to General John D. Whiteside in the 
Black Hawk war in 1831; was elected State At- 
torney in 1837 for the First Judicial Circuit of 
Illinois, composed of Pike, Calhoun, Greene, 
Morgan, Sangamon, Tazewell, McLean, Macon 

and Macoupin counties. He served as Treasurer 
of the Board of Canal Commissioners during the 
construction of the Michigan and LaSalle canal 
in 1840; in 1842 was appointed Director, in be- 
half of the State, of the State Bank of Illinois; 
was Clerk of the House of Representatives ten 
sessions; and was serving as Assistant Clerk of 
the House of Representatives at the time of his 
death, March 1, 1847. He dealt considerably in 
real estate, especially city pi'operty, and was 
joint proprietor in laying out additions to sev- 
eral cities in Illinois. Mr. Prickett married 
Charlotte, daughter of Thomas and Christiana 
Grifiith, of Tazewell county, on January 24,1834. 
She was born March 9, 1806. Their marital 
union resulted in five children, Christiana G., 
Thomas G., Gibson R., Hannah O., living, and 
Susan, deceased. Mrs. Prickett died November 
2, 1876. Her father, Dr. Thomas Gritiith, was 
one of the original proprietors of Pekin, Taze- 
well county. 

William L. May is a Kentuckian by birth, re- 
moving from that State to Edwardsville, Illinois, 
from thence to Jacksonville, and from there to 
Springfield, in 1829, having received the ap- 
pointment of Receiver of the Land Office in the 
latter place. Here in 1838 he formed a partner- 
ship with Stephen T. Logan. Mr. May was 
much more of a politician than a lawyer, and 
was a man of good address and a capital stump- 
speaker. In 1834 he was elected to Congress, 
and again in 1836. In 1838 he failed of receiv- 
ing the nomination, which went to Stephen A. 
Douglas. In the course of time Mr. May re- 
moved to Peoria, and from thence to California, 
where he died. 

Dan. Stone became a member of the Bar of 
Sangamon county in 1833. He was a n3tive of 
Vermont and a graduate of Middlebury College, 
in his native State. He afterwards went to Cin- 
cinnati, studied law with his uncle, Ethan Stone, 
and practiced in that city for several years, and 
during that time was a member of the legisla- 
ture, and also a member of the city council. 
On his removal to Springfield he at once took 
rank with the best lawyers. He was elected a 
member of the legislature in 1836, and was one 
of the famous "long nine" members of that body 
from this county. "While a member of the legis- 
lature he received the appointment of Judge of 
the Circuit Court, and was assigned to duty in 
the northern part of the State and moved to 
Galena. In 1838 he rendered a decision with 
reference to the vote of an alien, which so dis- 
pleased the party in power that the courts were 
reorganized by the legislature, and Judge Stone 



Icgishicutl uui of uttice. He soon alter left the 
State, and a few years later died in Elssex county, 
New Jersey. 

Josephus Ilewett came to Springfield al)Out 
ls:30, at which time he was a Christian preacher, 
an eloquent "defender of the faith once deliv- 
ered to the Saints." He read law with Judge 
Logan, and was admitted to the I>ar al)out 183 4. 
In 183 3 he formed a partnership witli Cyi"»s 
Walker, of Macomb, Mr. Hewett remaining in 
Springiield and Mr. Walker in Macomb, but 
practicing together in the various courts of the 
State. Mr. Hewett became one of the most 
noted lawyers of that day, and is spoken of by 
the older members of the profession as a man of 
strong mind and very eloquent in his pleadings. 
He removed from Springfield to Mississippi, 
where he died since the war. 

David B. Campbell came to Springfield in 
1838, from New Jersey, his native State. He 
was a fair lawyer and a good prosecutor, serving 
as Prosecuting Attorney from 1848 to 1856, dy- 
ing in office in the latter year. He was a fair- 
minded man, and while Prosecuting Attorney 
would never prosecute one charged with crime 
unless thoroughly convinced of his guilt. 

Dave Campbell was quite a joker, and a good 
story is told of him and one Benedict, of which 
he is responsible, it appearing in his "Reminis- 
cences" as follows: 

The hotels, in those days, I remember, being 
scarce of beds, used frequently to put two of us 
lawyers in one bed; and it frequently fell to the 
lot of Campbell and Benedict to occupy the bed 
between them. One day I heard Campbell say 
to Benedict, with a smirk on his face: 

" Benedict, you must get the landlord to fur- 
nish you a bed to yourself." 

"Well, suppose he hasn't got one," said 

" Then you must sleep on the floor, or get the 
landlord to furnish you a berth up in his hay- 

" What is your objections to sleeping with 
me, General David Campbell?" 

" Confound you," replied Campbell, " I never 
did sleep with you, but I have lain with you. To 
sleep with you would be impossible. You snore 
like a cyclops, and your breath smells so of mean 
whisky that I would as soon breathe the air of a 
charnel house and live in reach of its eternal 

"Well," said Benedict, "General Campbell, I 
will show you that you shall sleep with me, and 
if either of us has to sleep on the floor or go to 
the hay-mow, it will be you and not me." 

"Well, well," responded Campbell, with a 
sinister smile on his face, "we will see about it." 

So that night Dave Campbell -went to bed 
earlier than usual, and so about twelve o'clock at 
night along comes Benedict, pretty much " how- 
come-you-so." Addressing himself to Campbell, 
who feigned to be half asleep, he said: 

"Hello, there! Dave, lay over to the back of 
the bed, and give me room in front." 

Before going to bed that evening Dave had 
armed his heel by buckling on it one of his 
spurs. When Benedict got undressed, even to 
the taking off of his drawers, he jumped into 
bed and began to fondle on Campbell. Dave 
quietly drew up his heel that had the spur on 
and planted it about six inches above Benedict's 
knee, and gave it a turn downwards, crying, 
" Get up there 1 get up there! " as though he was 
speaking to his horse. Benedict gave a sudden 
leap and landed about the middle of the floor, 
crying out in great agony: 

"Jesus! the fellow has got the nightmare or 
delirium tremens, and has taken me for his 
blamed old horse." 

Judge Davis and Lincoln, who were sleeping 
in the same room, could stand this no longer. 
They burst out into the most uproarious laughter. 

Antrim Campbell, a brother of David, was 
born in New Jersey in 1814. He came to 
Springfield in 1838, and entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession. In 1849, he was appointed 
Master in Chancery for the Circuit Court of 
Sangamon county, and resigned the same in 
1861, when he received the appointment of Mas- 
ter in Chancery for the United States Cii'cuit 
Court for the Southern District of Illinois. 
While never taking high rank as an attorney, 
he Avas recognized as a good Master in Chan- 
cery and an excellent business man. He died 
August 11, 1868. 

A. T. Bledsoe was a worthy member of the 
Sangamon County Bar during the last year of 
its Second Decade and extending nearly through 
the third. He came to Springfield from Greene 
county in 1840. While a young man he grad- 
uated from West Point, and shortly after re- 
signed his position in the army, studied for the 
ministry, was ordained a minister in the Episco- 
palian Chui'ch. BecoTiiing disatisfied, he resigned 
his charge, studied law and was admitted to the 
Bar before coming to Springfield. On his ar- 
rival here he formed a partnership with Jesse 
B. Thomas, which continued about a year, when 
he became a partner of E. D. Baker. Major 
Stuart says that for real logic he was the strong- 
est man at this Bar at that time. But content- 



ment was not w ith him a cardinal virtue. He 
could remain in one position but a short time. 
He was an author of several scientific works, 
which were well received by the learned. Mr. 
Bledsoe about 1850 drifted South, was President 
of a college in Mississippi for a time, and at the 
breaking out of the war was professor of mathe- 
matics in a college at Charlotteville, Virginia. 
Espousing the Southern side, he was made 
Assistant Secretary of War, but becoming con- 
vinced that the Southern Confederacy was about 
to collapse, shortly before the close of the war, 
it is said that he applied to his old friend Abra- 
ham Lincoln, President of the United States, 
for a pass through the lines, receiving which he 
came within the Union lines and soon embarked 
t"or Europe, where he remained until the close 
of the war. Returning, he visited his old friends 
in Springfield, then again went South, and has 
since died. 

Charles R. Willis was from Connecticut, was 
Avell educated, but done little business in law. 
Soon after coming to Springfield he engaged in 
the real estate business, in which he accumulated 
a large fortune. He died many years ago. 

Schuyler Strong was from New York, and 
well advanced in years before coming to Spring- 
field. In his native State he was regarded as 
no ordinary lawyer, and was recognized as the 
peer of any when he arrived here. If it had 
not been for one grevious faidt, so common, suc- 
cess would have crowned his every effort. He 
died about 1845. 

Ninian W. Edwards is the son of Ninian 
Edwards, the first and only Territorial Gover- 
nor of Illinois. He was born April 15, 1809, 
near Frankfort, Kentucky. His father at that 
time was Chief Justice of the Court of Ap- 
peals of Kentucky, but, receiving the appoint- 
ment of Governor of the Territory of Illinois, 
he removed with his family in June following, 
to Kaskaskia, its capital. When the proper age, 
Ninian W. Avas sent to Transylvania University, 
and graduated in the law department of that 
institution in 1833. Previous to his graduation, 
and in 1832, he was married to Miss Elizabeth 
P. Todd, in Lexington, Kentucky. Returning 
home after his graduation, he commenced the 
practice of law. In 1834, he was appointed by 
Governor Reynolds, Attorney General of the 
State, and was shortly afterwards elected by the 
legislature. The law requiring the Attorney 
General to reside at the capital, and Mr. Ed- 
wards not liking a residence in Vandalia, he 
resigned the office in February, 1835, and 
shortly afterwards removed to Springfield. In 

1836, Mr. Edwards was elected one of the Rep- 
resentatives in the legislature, and was also one 
of the "Long Nine," and is now, in 188 1, the only 
one living of the number. From 1836 to 1852, 
Mr. Edwards served in the legislature, either in 
the Senate or House of Representatives, being 
a very efficient member. He was also a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention which 
formed the constitution of 1848. In 1852 he 
was appointed Attorney before the Board of 
Commissioners to investigate the claims of 
canal contractors against the State, amounting 
to over #1,500,000. In 1854 he received the ap- 
pointment of State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction by Governor Matteson, and was the 
first incumbent of that office. He was retained 
in this office by the legislature until 1857. Mr. 
Edwards has always been a champion of free 
schools, and drafted the law in regard to them 
which was first adopted in the State. In 1862, 
he was appointed by President Lincoln, United 
States Commissary. Aside from his official 
duties, Mr. Edwards has found time to prepare 
a history of the State of Illinois, including the 
Life and Times of Governor Edwards, written 
on the invitation of the Illinois State Histori- 
cal Society. It is a valuable work, and is re- 
garded as a standard on the subject on which it 
treats. As a lawyer, Mr. Edwards ranked high 
while an active member of the Bar, and even at 
this day on some subjects his views are often 
sought by the fraternity. 

Cyrus Walker was a Kentuckian by birth; 
studied law and was admitted to the Bar in his 
native State, where he became very prominent, 
especially as a criminal lawyer. On account of 
his defense of a murderer, and his acquittal, 
whom the people generally thought should have 
been hung, Kentucky became uncomfortably 
warm for him, so that he came to Illinois and 
settled in Macomb, in 1833. He was a man of 
strong mind, an excellent lawyer, and withfil 
very conscientious. In 1835 he was a partner of 
Josephus Hewitt, and in 1839 with James C. 
Conkling. His business was very extensive for 
many years in the various courts of Illinois. He 
died near Macomb, in 1876. 

In 1837, Abraham Lincoln was admitted to 
the Bar, and for the first time wrote in connec- 
tion with his name, "Attorney and Counselor- 
at-Law." While living in Salem, he had bor- 
rowed books from the law library of John T, 
Stuart, which he read and returned as the 
opportunity occurred. When convinced that he 
could stand an examination, he presented him- 
self for that purpose, and was duly licensed to 



practice his profession. He immediately formed 
a partnership with Mr. Stuart, which relation 
continued about two years. During this same 
year, Stephen A. Douglas became a citizen of 
Springfield, having received the appointment of 
Register in the Land Office. He soon afterwards 
formed a partnership with John D. TTrquhart 
for the practice of law, and here commenced the 
rivalry of these two great men — Abraham Lin- 
coln and Stephen A. Douglas — men whom the 
world delights to honor. In the address already 
quoted, by Isaac N. Arnold, he says: 

"When, forty years ago, the Bar used to meet 
here at the capitol, in the Supreme and United 
States Courts, and ride the circuit in our differ- 
ent sections of the State, Lincoln and Douglas 
did not occupy a position of such overshadowing 
importance as they do to-day. They did not 
beat us in our cases when law and justice were 
with us, and we did not realize that they were so 
greatly our superiors. But these two men have 
passed into history, and justly, as our great rep- 
resentative men. These are the two most promi- 
nent figures, not only in the history of Illinois, 
but of the Mississippi Valley, and their promi- 
nence, certainly that of Mr. Lincoln, will be in- 
creased as time passes on. I will, therefore, en- 
deavor to give such rough and imperfect outlines 
of them as lawyers, and advocates, and public 
speakers, as I can. We, who knew them person- 
ally, who tried causes with them and against 
them, ought, I think, to aid those who shall come 
after us, to understand them, and to determine 
what manner of men they were. In the first 
place, no two men could be found more unlike, 
physically and intellectually, in manners and in 
appearance, than they. 

"Lincoln was a very tall, spare man, six feet 
four inches in height, and would be instantly 
recognized as belonging to that type of tall, 
large-boned men produced in the northern part 
of the Mississippi Valley, and exhibiting its 
peculiar characteristics in the most marked de- 
gree in Tennessee, Kentucky and Illinois. 

" In any court room in the United States he 
would have been instantly picked out as a West- 
ern man. His stature, figure, dress, manner, 
voice and accent indicated that he was of the 

"In manner he was always cordial and frank, 
and although not without dignity, he made 
every person feel quite at his ease. I think the 
first impression a stranger would get of him, 
whether in conversation or by hearing him speak, 
was, that this is a kind, frank, sincere, genuine 
man, of transparent truthfulness and integrity; 

and before Lincoln had uttered many vi^ords, he 
would be impressed with his clear good sense, 
his remarkably simple, homely, but expressive 
Saxon laTiguage, and next his wonderful wit and 
humor. Lincoln was more familiar with the 
Bible than with any other book in the language, 
and this was apparent, both from his style and 
illustrations, so often taken from that Book. He 
verified the maxim, that it is better to know 
thoroughly a few good books than to read many. 

"Douglas was little more than five feet high, 
with a strong, broad chest, and strongly marked 
features; his manners, also, Avere cordial, frank 
and hearty. The poorest and humblest found 
him friendly. He was, in his earlier years, hale 
fellow well met with the rudest and poorest 
man in the court room. 

"Those of you who practiced law M'ith him, 
or tried causes before him when on the bench, 
will remember that it was not unusual to see 
him come off the bench, or leave his chair at 
the Bar, and take a seat on the knee of a friend, 
and with one arm thrown familiarly around his 
friend's neck, have a friendly talk, or a legal or 
political consultation. Such familiarity Avould 
have shocked our English cousins, and disgusted 
our Boston brothers, and it has, I think, disap- 
peared. In contrast with this familiarity of 
Douglas, I remember an anecdote illustrating 
Colonel Benton's ideas of his own personal dig- 
nity. A distinguished member of Congress, 
who was a great admirer of Benton, one day 
approached and slapped him familiarly and 
rudely on the shoulder. The Senator haughtily 
drew himself up, and said, 'That is a familiar- 
ity, sir, I never permit my friends, much less a 
comparative stranger. Sir, it must not be re- 

"Lincoln and Douglas were, as we know, 
both self-educated, aud each the builder of his 
own fortune. Each became, very early, the 
recognized leader of the political party to which 
he belonged. Douglas was bold, uiifiinching, 
impetuous, denunciatory and determined. He 
possessed, in an eminent degree, the qualities 
which create personal popularity, and he was 
the idol of his friends. Both Lincoln and 
Douglas were strong jury-lawyers. Lincoln, on 
the whole, was the strongest jur^^-lawyer we 
ever had in Illinois. Both were distinguished 
for their ability in seizing and bringing out, 
distinctly and clearly, the real points in a case. 
]5oth were very happy in the examination of 
witnesses; I think Lincoln the stronger of the 
two in cross-examination. He could compel a 
witness to tell the truth when he meant to lie. 


He could make a jury laugh, and, generally, 
weep, at his pleasure. Lincoln on the right 
side, and especially when injustice or fraud 
were to be exposed, was the strongest advocate. 
On the wrong side, or on the defense, where 
the accused was really guilty, the client with 
Douglas for his advocate would be more fortu- 
nate than with Lincoln. 

"Lincoln studied his cases thoroughly and 
exhaustively. Douglas had a wonderful faculty 
of extracting from his associates, from experts 
and others, by conversation, all they knew of a 
subject he was to discuss, and then making it so 
thoroughly his that all seemed to have oi'igi- 
nat>ed with himself. He so perfectly assimi- 
lated the ideas and knowledge of others that all 
seemed to be his own, and all that went into his 
mind came out improved. 

" The ablest argument I ever heard him make 
was in the case of Daniel Brainar vs. The Canal 
Trustees, argued at Ottawa, June, 1850, reported 
in 12 111. Reports, 488. The question involved 
the extent of the right of pre-emption by set- 
tlers upon canal lands, within the city of Chi- 
cago. The judofes were Treat, Trumbull and 
Caton. Judges Treat and Trumbull concurred 
in deciding the case against Douglas, Judge 
Caton dissenting. He made, in this case, one 
of the ablest arguments I ever heard at any 

"In 1841, Mr. Douglas, being then not quite 
twenty-eight years old, w^as elected one of the 
Judges of the Supreme Court. He was not a 
profound lawyer, but with his clear common 
sense and incisive mind, alter a case was well 
argued, he always knew how to decide it. He 
held the position of Judge for about two years, 
and was then, after a very active canvas, elected 
to Congress by a small majority over O. H. 
Browning. From this time until his death, in 
the early summer of 1861, he remained in Con- 
gress, serving in the House until 1846, when he 
was elected to the Senate, of which he continued 
a member to the time of his death. His ablest 
speech in tbe House was made on the 'Zth of 
January, 1 844, on a bill to refund to General 
Jackson the fine imposed upon him by Judge 
Hall, during the defense of New Orleans. In 
this masterly argument he took the then bold 
and novel ground that the fine was imposed in 
violation of law. It is a carious fact that, in this 
speech, Douglas claimed for General Jackson 
many of the war-powers exercised by President 
Lincoln and his generals during the rebellion, 
and for which the President was so bitterly de- 
nounced by his political opponents. This speech 

gave him a national reputation. After the death 
of the hero of New Orleans a pamphlet copy of 
this speech was found among his papers, with 
an endorsement in Jackson's hand-writing, and 
signed by him, in these words: ^'This speech 
constitutes my defense. Hay it aside as an in- 
heritance for my grand-children.'''' . 

" Mr. Lincoln remained in active practice at the 
Bar until his nomination for the Presidency in 
1 860. His reputation as a lawyer and advocate 
was rising higher and higher. He had a large 
practice on the circuit all over the central part 
of this State, and he was employed in most of 
the important cases in the Federal and Supreme 
Courts. He went on special retainers all over 
Illinois, and occasionally to St. Louis, Cincin- 
nati, and Indiana. His law arguments ad- 
dressed to the judges were always clear, vigor- 
ous, and logical; seeking to convince rather by 
the application of principle than by the cita- 
tion of authorities and cases. On the whole, I 
always thought him relatively stronger before a 
jury than with the court. He was a quick and 
accurate reader of character, and understood, 
almost intuitively, the jury, witnesses, parties, 
and judges, and how best to address, con- 
vince, and influence them. He had a power 
of conciliating and impressing everyone in his 
favor. A stranger coming into court, not know- 
ing him, or anything about his case, listening 
to Lincoln a few moments, would find himself 
involuntarily on his side, and wishing him suc- 
cess. His manner was so candid, so direct, the 
spectator was impressed that he was seeking 
only truth and justice. He excelled all I ever 
heard in the statement of his case. However 
complicated, he would disentangle it, and j^re- 
sent the turning point in a way so simple and 
clear that all could understand. Indeed, his 
statement often rendered argument unnecessary, 
and often the court would stop him and say, "If 
that is the case, we will hear the other side." 
He had in the highest possible degree the art of 
persuasion and the power of conviction. His 
illustrations were often quaint and homely, but 
always clear and apt, and generally conclusive. 
He never misstated evidence, but stated clearly, 
and met fairly and squarely his opponent's case. 
His wit and humor and inexhaustible stores of 
anecdote, always to the point, added immensely 
to his power as a jury advocate. 

The last case Mr. Lincoln ever tried was that 
of Jones vs. Johnson, tried in April and May, 
1860, in the United States Circuit Court, at 
Chicago. The case involved the title to land of 
very great value, the accretion on the shores of 



Lake Michigan. During the trial, Judge Drum- 
mond and all the counsel on both sides, including 
Mr. Lincoln, dined together at my house. Doug- 
las and Lincoln were at the time both candi- 
dates for the nomination for President. There 
were active and ardent political friends of each 
at the table, and when the sentiment was pro- 
posed, "May Illinois furnish the next Presi- 
dent," it was, as you imagine, drank with en- 
thusiasm by the friends of both Lincoln and 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., was a nephew of the 
eminent statesman of that name, a former United 
States Senator, and well known in the early 
day. He was an attorney of more than ordinary 
ability, and succeeded Ninian W. Edwards as 
Attorney General of the State in 1885. In 1837 
he was appointed Circuit Judge, but resigned 
after the expiration of two years. He was at 
one time a partner of David Prickett, in Spring- 
field, and afterwards of William L May. He 
finally went to Chicago and died there. 

E. D. Baker came to Springfield in 1835, from 
Greene county, Illinois. He was born in London, 
England, February 24, 1811, and emigrated with 
his parents to America shortly after the close of 
our late war with England, and after remaining 
for a time in Philadelphia he came west and 
settled in Indiana, and from thence to Illinois. 
He early manifested a strong passion for books, 
reading with avidity everything on which he 
could lay his hands, particularly history, biogra- 
phy and poetry. Possessing a rare aptitude for 
acquiring information, a ready and highly reten- 
tive memory, his mind soon became stored with 
the rich treasures of literary lore, from which, 
in after years, he drew copiously as from a per- 
ennial fount. At Carrollton, Greene county, Mr. 
Baker studied law in the office of A. W. Cavarly, 
serving at the same time as deputy in the office of 
the County Clerk. As soon as he gained a super- 
ficial knowledge of the science of law, spurred 
on by necessity, he procured a license and com- 
menced practice. Owing, however, to his youth, 
limited legal attainments and the absence of in- 
fluential friends, during the first years of his 
professional life, he met with indifferent success. 

While in Carrollton, Mr. Baker was married 
to Mrs. Mary A. Lee. Soon after marriage he 
united with the Christian Church, and being 
naturally of an impulsive and enthusiastic tem- 
perament, he was very zealous in the discharge 
of his religious duties, became an able exhorter, 
and began to entertain serious thoughts of en- 
gaging in regular ministerial work. As time 
passed, his mind becoming occupied with poli- 

tics, he finally ceased his connection with the 
religious body. While an active member of the 
church, he first discovered that boldness of 
thought, that opulence of expression, that grace- 
ful and persuasive manner of speaking, for which 
he became so justly celebrated in after life. 

Shortly after coming to Springfield, Mr. Baker 
associated himself in the practice of law with 
Josephus Hewett. Subsequently, he entered 
into partnership with Stephen T. Logan, and 
for a short time with Albert T. Bledsoe. It was 
here that Baker first applied himself seriously 
to the duties of his profession, and here he won 
his first laurels as an advocate. Surrounded by 
the great men already mentioned as comprising 
the Sangamon County Bar during this Decade, 
Baker was compelled to struggle for that emi- 
nence in his profession which he rapidly at- 
tained. Although disinclined to close, continu- 
ous study, and often negligent in the preparation 
of his cases, he had sufficiently mastered the 
principles and intricacies of the law, as to meet 
the ordinary requirements of practice, and his 
native genius supplied any deficiency. His con- 
fident, self-possessed air amidst the bustle of a 
court of law, his quickness of perception, ready 
wit, fertility in resources and ardent eloquence, 
enabled him to achieve the victory in spite of 
the most determined opposition from older or 
more experienced antagonists. In jury cases he 
was especially successful, for in these he was less 
fettered by the legal forms and technicalities 
which ordinarily curb the reins of youthful im- 
agination. Indeed, a jury to him was butja mini- 
ature popular assembly, before which he could 
pour out his argument and invective at will, or 
indulge in those exquisite touches of pathos, 
which failed not to awaken the sympathy and 
move the hearts of his auditors. Enterprising 
and ambitious, Mr. Baker early directed his 
attention to politics as opening the shortest road 
to preferment. In 183*7 he was elected to the 
General Assembly from Sangamon county to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
Dan Stone. In the following year he was 
re-elected. In the campaign of 1840 he 
took an active part in the support of General 
Harrison. In 1844 he was elected to Congress, 
and was a member of that body when the war 
with Mexico broke out. Returning home from 
Washington, he raised a regiment and was com- 
missioned colonel. In this war he earned a 
reputation as a brave and gallant commander. 

On his return from Mexico he removed to 
Galena and was there re-elected to Congress. 
He took his seat the second time in December, 



1849. He bore an active if not a conspicuous 
part in the debates upon those grave National 
issues, which formed so prominent a feature in 
the tirst session of the 3 1st Congress. He 
favored some, but not all the compromise meas- 
ures passed at that session. The annexed para- 
graph, taken from a speech made by him on 
these historic questions, was prophetic of his 
future fate: 

" I have only to say that if the time should 
come when dissension rules the hour, and dis- 
cord reigns supreme, I shall be ready to give the 
best blood in my veins to my country's cause. 
I shall be prepared to meet all antagonists, with 
lance in rest, to do battle in every land, in de- 
fense of the constitution of the country, which 
I have sworn to support to the last extremity, 
against disunionists and all its enemies, whether 
North or South — to meet them everywhere, at 
all times, with speech or hand, with word or 
blow, until thought or being shall be mine no 

In 1852 Colonel Baker emigrated with his 
family to California Establishing himself in 
San Francisco, he once more commenced the 
practice of law. His fame as an advocate and 
orator had preceded him, so that he soon found 
himself in the midst of an extensive business. 
Almost at one bound, and with apparently little 
effort, he rose to the summit of his profession, 
and to a share in the best practice of the courts 
of that youthful commercial meti-opolis. Here 
it was that he achieved his highest reputation 
as a lawyer, and perhaps his most brilliant 
renown as an orator. 

While living in California, he early identified 
himself with the Free Soil movement. When 
Senator Broderick, the chief of the Douglas 
Democracy in that State was killed in a duel 
with Judge Terry, it was Colonel Baker that 
was called upon to deliver the funeral oration, 
and right royally did he perform that sad duty. 
The oration has seldom, if ever, been surpassed. 
S^jace forbids even a quotation in this place. 

Shortly after the unhappy death of Broder- 
ick, Colonel Baker removed to Oregon. Here 
he was soon after elected to the United States 
Senate. Returning to San Francisco, on his 
way to the East, he was the recipient of a public 
ovation. In his speech ujion the occasion, he 

"As for me, I dare not, will not, be false to 
freedom. Where the feet of my youth were 
planted, there by freedom my feet shall ever 
stand. I will walk beneath her banner. I will 
glory in her strength. I have seen her in his- 

tory struck down on a hundred fields of battle. 
I have seen her friends fly from her, her foes 
gather around her. I have seen her bound to a 
stake. I have seen them give her ashes to the 
winds. But when they turned to exult, I have 
seen her again meet them face to face, resplend- 
ent in comp ete steel, brandishing in her strong, 
right hand a flaming sword, red with insuff- 
erable light. I take courage. The people 
gather around her. The genius of America 
will yet lead her sons to freedom." 

In December, 1860, while en route to Wash- 
ington, Colonel Baker paid a hasty visit to 
Springfield, where he was honored with a public 
reception. On behalf of the citizens, J. C. 
Conkling, in a neat and tasty speech, formally 
welcomed him to the scenes of his early labors 
and triumphs. The Senator elect responded in 
characteristic style. He expressed the liviliest 
gratitude at the heartiness and enthusiasm with 
which he had been received by his old friends, 
without distinction of party; referring in touch- 
ing language to his previous history; alluded to 
the wonderful growth and prosperity of Illinois, 
and of the great West; and spoke with solici- 
tude of our National difliculties and the impend- 
ing civil war. 

On taking his seat in the Senate, Colonel 
Baker entered industriously upon the discharge 
of the responsible duties of his station, and 
ranked from the outset among the foremost 
orators and debaters in that dignified body. 
His addresses on the 2d and 3d days of January, 
1861, in reply to Judah P. Benjamin, of Louisi- 
ana, was one of the most eloquent delivered 
during that storm period. 

On the 20th day of April, a few days after 
the fall of Fort Sumter, Colonel Baker spoke in 
New York City to one of the largest assem- 
blages ever enchained by the eloquence of a sin- 
gle man. In closing his address, he dedicated 
himself anew to the service of his country 
in these gi'andly eloquent words, which were 
greeted with tremendous applause: 

"And if, from the far Pacific, a voice feebler 
than the feeblest murmur on its shores, may be 
heard to give you courage and hope in this con- 
test, that voice is yours to-day. And if a man 
whose hair is gray, who is well nigh worn out 
in the battle and toil of life, may pledge him- 
self on such an occasion, and to such an audience, 
let me say, as my last word, that as when amid 
sheeted fire and flame, I saw and led the hosts 
of New York, as they charged in contest upon 
a foreign soil for the honor of your flag, so, 
again, if Providence shall will it, this feeble 


hand .shall draw a «wui'd never yet dishonored — 
not to hght for distant honor in a foreign land — 
but to hght for country, for government, for 
Constitution, for law, for right, for freedom, for 
humanity; and in the hope that the banner of 
our country may advance, and wheresoever that 
banner waves, there may glory pursue and free- 
dom be established." 

Colonel Baker at once raised a regiment, 
known as the California regiment, and entered 
the service. At Ball's Bluff, on the 20th day of 
October, 1861, he fell in battle, pierced by eight 
leaden messengers freighted with death, from 
the guns of the advancing foe. Thus heroically 
the grand and gifted Baker fell. 

John D.Urquhartwas from Virginia, and came 
to Springfield about 1832. He was well read in 
the law and in the general literature of the day. 
He Avas a gentleman of the old school, with too 
much refinement to adapt himself to Western 
methods, and tlierefore achieved no success as a 
lawyer at the Bar of Sangamon county. 

John C. Doremus was from New Jersey, and 
first practiced in the courts of this county in 
1838. In 1840 he formed a partnership with 
Schuyler Strong, which continued but a few 
montns. He never attained any distinction as a 
lawyer, and early in 1840 went South, studied 
theology, and became minister in the Presby- 
terian Church and received the degree of D.D. 
He died some years ago. 


The Third Decade shows in addition to the 
greater number of those of the Second, the 
names of Silas W. Robbins, Charles R. Welles, 
Benjamin W^est, James Shields, William A. 
Minshall, Justice Butterfield, Justice Butterfield, 
Jr., Levi Davis, A. K.Smede, James H.Matheny, 
David Logan, E. B Herndon, A. Parker, Wil- 
liam I. Ferguson, William Walker. William H. 
Herndon, Vincent Ridgely, U. F. Linder, Josiah 
Lamborn, Archibald W^illiams, O. H. Browning, 
Israel Crosby, Lyman Trumbull. 

What Bar in all the Union can show a greater 
array of distinguished names than the foregoing, 
in addition to the best of the Second Decade 
who still continued to practice before the courts 
of the county. For great learning, for oratorical 
ability, and for unsurpassed statesmanship, the 
Bar during this Decade has never been surpassed. 
From its ranks were furnished a President of 
the United States, a distinguished candidate for 
the Presidency whose memory will always be 
kept green by lovers of the Union, several 
United States Senators, one Cabinet Officer, 
several members of Congress, several disting- 

uished officers in the United States Army — all 
of whom were honorable men reflecting great 
credit upon the profession of law and upon the 
Bar of Sangamon county. 

A large and interesting volume could be writ- 
ten of the Bar of this Decade, but in this volume 
space forbids more than such individual mention 
as will show the character of those composing it. 

General Shields.* — Among the men who have 
conferred lasting celebrity upon the Capital 
City of Illinois, by making it the place of their 
temporary or permanent abode, one of the most 
remarkable and distinguished was the late Gen- 
eral Shields — the man of two nationalities, the 
^ eteran of two wars, and the Senator from 
three States. 

James Shields was born at a place called Dun- 
ganon, county of Tyrone, Ireland, in the year 
1819. Of his family and early domestic history, 
little or nothing is certainly known; though he 
appears to have enjoyed fair educational advan- 
tages. W^ith that inbred and irrepressible spirit 
of adventure, which formed the ruling charac- 
teristic of his life, he emigrated to the United 
States while still in his minority, and, propably, 
first landed at New Orleans. This Avas in 1826, 
or thereabouts; and in no long time afterward, 
we find him located in Randolph county, Illi- 
nois, engaged in the vocation of teaching. Sub- 
seqtiently, he read law, wasadmittted to the Bar 
in 1832, and began the practice of that profes- 
sion in Kaskaskia — the ancient "seat of empire" 
of Illinois under the French Dominion. 

Gifted from the outset with a talent for pub- 
lic speaking, and all the elements of personal 
popularity, we next find our young adventurer 
at Vandalia (then the State Capital), represent- 
ing the county of Randolph in the lower branch 
of the General Assembly. Here, during the 
memorable session of 1836-37, he first met Lin- 
coln, Dotiglas, Hardin, and other rising politi- 
cians of the i^eriod, with whom he was after- 
wards to become so prominently associated. 

In March, 1841, Mr. Shields was made Au- 
ditor of the State of Illinois, and took up his 
residence in Springfield, to which place the seat 
of government had been removed from Vanda- 
lia by act of the legislature. This was the era 
of general financial depression, of depreciated 
paper money, and of slow recovery from panic; 
and Shields is said to have run the Auditor's 
office almost entirely on scrip. It was during 
his incumbency of this office that he became in- 
volved in the personal difficulty with Abraham 

* Prepared by Joseph Wallace. 





Lincoln, which led to his challenging the latter 
to mortal combat. Lincoln accepted the chal- 
lenge, and under the advice of his friend and 
second. Dr. Merriman, selected cavalry broad 
swords as the weapons with which to light. 
Such a choice necessarily gave to Lincoln, who 
was much the tallest and longest armed man of 
the two, greatly the advantage. But our chiv- 
alrous son of the Emerald Isle was not disposed 
to shrink from the encounter, whatever might 
be the advantage of his antagonist in point of 
stature, or in the choice of weapons. The par- 
ties accordingly repaired to Alton, accompanied 
by their respective seconds, intending to fight 
the duel on the narrow tongue of land between 
the confluence of the Mississippi and the Mis- 
souri rivers. But through the timely interven- 
tion of common friends, the difiiculty was at 
last amicably adjusted, without the shedding of 
human gore. 

On August 16, 1843, Shields was commis- 
sioned by Governor Ford one of the associated 
justices of the Supreme Court of Illinois, but 
did not long retain his seat upon the bench; 
and, in Apiil, 1845, the ermine for the oiRce of 
Commissioner of the General Land Oftice, 
which post he held for nearly two years. 

The outbreak of hostilities with Mexico, in 
1846, afforded the long-wished-for opportunity 
of gratifying his martial tastes and ambition, 
and constituted the turning point, so to speak, 
in his checkered career. Having announced his 
intention of taking part in the war, he was, upon 
the recommendation of the Illinois delegation in 
Congress, commissioned Brigadier General by 
President Polk. Taking the field under General 
Scott, Shields led the Illinois brigade in the vic- 
torious march on the City of Mexico. In the 
battle of Cerro Gordo, on April 18, 1847, he was 
seriously wounded by a ball which passed 
through one of his lungs. For a while, it was 
doubtful if he could survive; but he did recover 
so as to resume his former command, and served 
till the end of the campaign. At the sanguinary 
battle of Cherubusco, fought on the 20th of 
August, in the vicinity of the City of Mexico, 
General Shields led the Illinois and New Eng- 
land brigades, and the Palmetto regiment, in the 
attack upon the Mexican reserve, and drove the 
enemy from their entrenched position back into 
the capital. He also fought at the storming of 
Chapultepec, where he is said to have been again 
wounded. For his gallantry in these several 
engagements, he was brevetted a Major-General. 
Upon the conclusion of the war, he was honor- 
ably mustered out of service, and returned home 


to receive the plaudits and rewards of his country- 
men for his valorous and patriotic services. 

Declining the appointment of Governor for 
the Territory of Oregon, General Shields, during 
the wintei of 1848-49, was elected by the Illinois 
Legislature to a seat in the United Slates Senate, 
which he held for the full term of six years from 
the 4th of March, 1849. His career in the Sen- 
ate, though not so brilliant as it had been on the 
" tented field," was creditable to himself and to 
the party that elected him. During this term, 
he voted for the Compromise measures of 1850, 
and also for the Nebraska Bill. 

In 1855, he was a candidate for re-election, 
but his Democratic friends in the legislature 
found it necessary to concentrate their strength 
upon Governor Matteson, in order to defeat the 
candidacy of Mr. Lincoln, and the latter, seeing 
that he could not succeed, finally withdrew in 
favor of Lyman Trumbull, who was thereupon 
elected by the fusion majority. 

Soon after this defeat (about the first he had 
sustained). General Shields transferred his resi- 
dence to the State of Minnesota, by the legisla- 
tui'e of which he was sent to the United States 
Senate to fill a vacancy, and occupied his seat 
from May 12, 1858, to March 3, 1859. He then 
went to California, where he remained for a year 
or tAVO. What were his motives in going to the 
Pacific coast, or his occupation while there, do 
not clearly appear. 

When the long threatened civil war broke 
out. General Shields' martial spirit Avas again 
fully aroused, and having tendered his services 
to President Lincoln they were accepted, and he 
was made a Brigadier, his commission dating 
August 19, 1861. Early in 1862, he was assigned 
to the command of a division of General Bank's 
army, operating in the Shenandoah Valley, Va., 
and commanded at the battles of Port Republic 
and Winchester. Some time in 1863, General 
Shields, owing in part to disability consequent 
upon the wounds he had received in former 
campaigns, and partly to his having been over- 
looked \n the matter of promotion by the mili- 
tary authorities at Washington, resigned his 
commission in the army, and settled upon a 
small farm in Carroll county, Missouri. About 
this tinie, he appears to have married a woman 
of Irish parentage; but the union was not pro- 
ductive of any addition to his slender fortune. 
His experience as a tiller of the soil was not 
particularly encouraging. In the course of a 
public lecture in one of our eastern cities, he 
referred to himself as one of the " poorest farm- 



ers in Carroll county," and he doubtless told the 
simple truth. 

During the stormy administration of Presi- 
dent Johnson, Shields was elected to Congress 
from one of the Missouri districts, but was not 
allowed to take his seat by the party then domi- 
nant in the House of Representatives. In 1877, 
he was elected a member of the Missouri Legis- 
lature, and about the same time was appointed 
Adjutant General of that State. 

In 18 78 he was brought forward in connection 
with the office of doorkeeper of the National 
House of Representatives; and the Democratic 
majority. of that body (as a mark of respect for 
his distinguished services, and to relieve his ne- 
cessities) \'oted to increase his pension to one 
hundred dollars per month. 

During the winter of 1878-79, General Shields 
was elected by the Missouri Legislature to com- 
plete the unexpired portion of the late Senator 
Bogy's term in the IJnited States Senate. The 
term was quite short, (not exceeding six weeks), 
but it conferred upon him the rare honor of hav- 
ing been a Senator from three States; an honor 
such as, perhaps, was never before vouchsafed to 
any citizen of our republic. In these latter years 
of his life, he traveled more or less extensively 
through the country, lecturing on his "Reminis- 
cences of the Mexican war," and also upon 'his 
" recollections " of the eminent statesmen with 
whom he had associated in the Senate in ante- 
bellum days. 

At length, however, after a singularly event- 
ful and romantic career of nearly three score 
and ten years. General Shields was called to 
meet his last enemy — death. On the night of 
the tirst of June, 1879, he died suddenly and 
peacefully in Ottumwa, Iowa, while on a visit 
to relatives in that city. It was the opinion of 
those best qualified to judge, that his old wound 
in the chest, received in the Mexican war, was 
the primary cause of his unexpected decease. 
His remains were subsequently removed to his 
home at Carrollton, Missouri, where they were 
interred with appropriate civic and military 

James Shields, strictly speaking, was neither 
a great nor a learned man, yet his abilities were 
far above the average, and no one ever made a 
better display than himself, of those talents 
with which the Creator had endowed him. He 
was, in a certain sense, his own ancestor, and 
not for him was intended the Latin maxims, 
Mvito viret honora. 

In stature he was of the middle size, trim 
built, raw-boned, and dark complected, with 

black hairand eyes, and prominent, yet regular, 
featui'es. His carriage was at all times erect 
and soldier-like, while his manners were pleas- 
ing and "taking" in the extreme. As a speaker, 
he was graceful, liuent, witty and eloquent, and 
his fine voice had just enough of the Irish 
brogue to give it flavor and richness of tone. 
No more captivating speaker, for the masses, 
ever mounted the stump in Illinois, unless it 
may have been the lamented Colonel Baker. 

Shields was also a vain man — especially of 
his martial record — but his vanity was of the 
innocent and amiable kind, and never took the 
form of oflfensive and overbearing egotism. He 
could hardly be called a man of business (being 
as improvident as Oliver Goldsmith), and was 
not unfrequently indebted to his personal or 
political friends for pecuniary aid. Careless of 
his private affairs, he went up and down the 
land, like a knight errant of old, seeking re- 
nown, and finding it, in diverse ways, and in 
widely dissimilar spheres of human endeavor. 

In party politics, he was a life-long Democrat, 
but he ever so bore himself, amid the fiercest 
partisan contests, as to command the respect, if 
not admiration, of his political foes. His amor 
loatriae was unbounded, and no truer patriot 
ever raised his voice in the Amei'ican Senate, or 
unsheathed his sword upon the blood-stained 
field of battle. His influence over his fellow- 
citizens of Celtic birth was great and durable, 
and was always wielded for good, since in all 
matters of public policy he was discreet in 
council, and never permitted his feelings or im- 
agination to transcend his judgment. 

As a politician, jurist, warrior, orator, and 
Senator, he jjossessed many useful, many noble, 
and many brilliant qualities; and, despite the 
transitory nature of that which we call fame, 
his name and exploits will not soon be forgotten 
by his admiring countrymen. But the valiant 
and generous hearted Shields is in his grave; 
after life's fitful fever, "he sleeps well." He 
has "passed into that still country where the 
heaviest-laden wayfarer at length lays down his 

" Loug shall we seek his likeness — long in vain — 
And turn to all of him which maj' remain, 
Sighing that Nature formed but one such man, 
And broke the die in moulding — " 

Silas W.Robbins immigrated from Massachu- 
setts to Kentucky as early as 1825, and succeeded 
admirably as an attorney in that commonwealth, 
serving some years as a Judge of one of the 
courts. There being a strong prejudice in that 
State against Yankees, he left about 1841 and 



came to Illinois and settled in Springfield, form- 
ing one of that strong force of attorneys com- 
posing the Bar of that period. He was an ex- 
cellent lawyer, and soon succeeded in obtaining 
a lucrative practice, which continued until his 
retirement in 1852. Judge Robbins was a man 
of high temper and of a very beligerent disposi- 
tion, never seeming happy or contented without 
a "wee bit of a row" on his hands. He could 
brook no restraints, and would be imposed on 
by no one, large or small. In 1855 he removed 
to a farm a short distance from Springfield, and 
there died about 18*70. 

Justin Butterfield was a citizen of Chicago, 
and often appeared in the Springfield courts. He 
was one of the most learned, talented and distin- 
guished members of the Bar during this Decade. 
A case in which Mr. Butterfield partici^^ated is 
thus described by Isaac N. Arnold: 

"In December, 1842, Governor Ford, on the 
application of the Executive of Missouri, issued 
a warrant for the arrest of Joseph Smith, the 
Apostle of Mormonisra, then residing at Nauvoo, 
in this State, as a fugitive from justice. He w^as 
charged with having instigated the attempt, by 
some Mormons, to assassinate Governor Bogg, of 
Missouri. Mr. Butterfield, in behalf of Smith, 
sued out, from Judge Pope, a writ of habeas 
cor2nis,2iYi<\ Smith was brought before the United 
States District Court. On the hearing it clearly 
appeared that he had not been in Missouri, nor 
out of Illinois, within the time in which the 
crime had been committed, and if he had any 
connection with the offense the acts were done 
in Illinois. Was he, then, a fugitiv,e from jus- 
tice? It was pretty clear that, if allowed to be 
taken into Missouri, means would have been 
found to condemn and execute him. The Attor- 
ney-General of Illinois, Mr. Lamborn, appeared 
to sustain the warrant. Mr. Butterfield, aided 
by B. S. Edwards, appeared for Smith, and 
moved for his discharge. The Prophet (so- 
called) was attended by his twelve Apostles and 
a large number of his followers, and the case at- 
tracted great interest. The court-room was 
thronged with prominent members of the Bar 
and public men. Judge Pope was a gallantgen- 
tleman of the old school, and loved nothing 
better than to be in the midst of youth and 
beauty. Seats were crow^ded on the Judge's 
platform, on both sides and behind the Judge, 
and an array of brilliant and beautiful ladies al- 
most encircled the court. Mr. Butterfield, 
dressed a la Webster, in blue dress-coat and 
metal buttons, with buff vest, rose with dignity 
and amidst the most profound silence. Pausing, 

and running his eyes admiringly from the cen- 
tral figure of Judge Pope, along the rows of 
lovely women on each side of him, he said: 

"May it please the Court: 

"I appear before you to-day under circum- 
stances most novel and peculiar. I am to ad- 
dress the 'Pope' (bowing to the Judge) sur- 
rounded by angels (bowing still lower to the 
ladies), in the presence of the Holy Apostles, in 
behalf of the Prophet of the Lord." 

"Among the most lovely and attractive of 
these 'angels' were the daughters of Judge 
Pope, a daughter of Mr. Butterfield, Mrs. Lin- 
coln, Miss Dunlap, afterwards Mrs. General John 
A. McClernand, and others, some of whom still 
live, and the tradition of their youthful beauty 
is verified by their lovely daughters and grand- 

" But the chief actors in that drama, on the 
issue of which hung, not only the life of Smith, 
the Prophet, but of his followers, and perhapsthe 
peace of two States, the dramatis persoa- have all, 
or nearly all passed away. The genial and learned 
Judge, the prisoner and his able counselor, so 
full of wit and humor, the eloquent Attorney- 
General, the Governors of both States, the Mar- 
shal and Clerk, and nearly all of the distin- 
guished lawyers and public men — have each paid 
the debt of nature." 

Mr. Butterfield was a native of the State of 
New York, and at the breaking out of the war 
of 1812, he was in some office in that State, and 
opposing the w'ar it destroyed his popularity. 
When the war broke out between this country 
and Mexico, some jDerson asked him if he was 
opposed to it. "No," said he, "I oppose no wars. 
I opposed one war and it ruined me, and hence- 
forth I am for icar, 2)estilence and faminey 

During the contest between Harrison and Van 
Buren in 1840, some Federal ofiice-holder met 
Butterfield in debate. The latter charged the 
hard times that then afflicted the country to the 
course pursued by the Administration. The 
ofiice-holder replied, denying that there was 
hard times, and declared that he never saw bet- 
ter times in his life. Butterfield, in his rejoinder, 
used the following language: "Fellow-citizens, 
I believe, in my soul, that if it rained fire and 
brimstone, as it did at Sodom and Gomorrah, 
these locofocos would exclaim, 'What a refresh- 
ing shower I'" 

Mr. Butterfield was perfectly familiar with the 
Scriptures and used Scriptural quotations and 
illustrations with great effect. While he was 
District Attorney, Ben Bond was United States 
Marshal, and as two of his brothers were depu- 



ties, and were quite annoying to him, his patience 
at one time being tried beyond endurance. He 
remarked to some one: "I would to God tliat 
not only Thou, but also all that hear me this day, 
were both almost and altogether, such as I am, 
except these Jionds.'''' 

David A. Smith, of Jacksonville, who had in 
some way incurred the displeasure of Butterfield, 
was sitting one day in the United States Court 
room, sleeping, the sun shining upon his bald, 
slick head. Some one directed Butteriield's at- 
tention to him, when he instantly exclaimed, in 
his gruff voice: "The light shineth upon dark- 
ness, but the darkness comprehended it not." 

The best Scriptural illustration made by But- 
terfield was when he was defending the consti- 
tutionality of the Shawneetown Bank. The 
Constitution of Illinois of 1818, provided that 
there should be no bank exce}»t the State Bank 
and its branches, and also the banks tbat were 
then in existence. The Shawneetown Bank was 
chartered before that time, but in 1835 its char- 
ter was extended. A writ of quo 'warranto was 
sued out against the bank, and in the argument 
it was contended by counsel who sued out the 
writ, that the extension of the charter was in fact 
the creation of a new bank. Butterfield was 
restive while this line of argument was being 
pursued, and he arose to reply with an expres- 
sion of contempt upon his face. He said he 
would like to be informed by the gentlemen, if 
they had met with it in their reading, which he 
very much, doubted, however, whether when the 
Lord lengthened out the life of Hezekiah fifteen 
years he had made a new man, or was he the 
same old Hezekiah ! 

Of Justin Butterfield, Jr., but little can be 
said. He came to Springfield in 1842, a young 
man of great promise, formed a partnership with 
B. S. Edwards, which continued about one year. 
He returned to Chicago on the dissolution of the 
co-partnership, and soon afterwards died. 

U. F. Binder was a native of Kentucky, and 
born within ten miles of the place whei'e Abra- 
ham Lincoln first saw the light of day. He 
came to Illinois in 1835, and settled in Coles 
county, but, like all other lawyers of that day, 
traveled the circuit. He was one of the most 
eminent lawyers of this Decade, and the party 
securing his legal services was fortunate indeed. 
As an orator he had few equals. He was quick 
iu repartee, and few cared to encounter him in 
debate. He was withal a trifle vain, but just 
enough to spur him on to action. 

Josiah Lamborn was one of the best lawyers 
that figured in the courts of Sangamon county. 

Linder says of him: " Intellectually, I know no 
man of his day who was his superior. He was 
considered by all the lawyers who knew him as 
a man of the tersest logic. He couid see the 
point in a case as clear as any man I ever knew, 
and could elucidate it as ably, never using a word 
too much or one too few. He was exceedingly 
happy in his conceptions, and always traveled 
the shortest route to reach his conclusions. He 
was a terror to his legal opponents, especially to 
those diffusive, wordy lawyers who had more 
words than arguments. I heard Judge Smith, 
of the Supreme Court, say that he knew of no 
lawyer who was his equal in strength and force 
of argument." Lamborn was a native of Ken- 
tucky, and received a liberal education. He 
possessed high social qualities, and his conversa- 
tional powers were of the very highest order. 
As a prosecutor he was a terror to criminals. 
He was inclined to be vindictive, and very resent- 
ful of any slight offered him by an opposing 
attorney. On one occasion he was prosecuting 
a man for murder in Christian county. E. D. 
Baker was defending. In the course of the 
trial Lamborn asked Baker tc yield some point. 
Baker refusing, he turned to him and said, 
"Baker, I'll hang your man." In his speech at 
the close of the testimony, Baker made one of 
his most powerful pleas, exciting the jury, spec- 
tators, and even the judge to tears. He closed 
with a brilliant peroration, such as he only could 
make. When he sat down it was about time to 
adjourn for supper, and Lamborn asked an ad- 
journment until after supper, before beginning 
his closing speech for the prosecution. His re- 
quest was granted. After supper he went to the 
sheriff and told him he only desired one candle 
to be placed in the court room, and that in a 
position that would place the jury in the shade. 
If the Judge said anything about the matter, the 
sheriff was to inform him that all was done at 
Lamborn's request. At the hour for court to 
convene the court room was filled to hear the 
prosecutor's speech. Lamborn, who was slightly 
lame, hobbled into the room, slowly and pain- 
fully, coughing meanwhile as if half gone with 
consumption, thus exciting the pity of both the 
jury and spectators. On the call to order he 
passed in front of the jury, who could but dimly 
witness his movements, and, placing his lame 
foot upon a chair, in a hollow sepulchre tone of 
voice said: " Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by 
man shall his blood be shed." He then stopped 
for some moments, while a cold chill passed over 
every individual in the audience. Slowly and 
painfully, apparently, he resumed his speech, 



taking up and reviewing the points in the case, 
and with so much effect that at its close the 
jury, after being out but a few moments, brought 
in a verdict of guilty, and the man was con- 
demned to be hung. 

Laniborn was once prosecuting an old and 
gray-haired man for stealing hogs. Stephen T. 
Logan was defending him, and made a powerful 
plea in his behalf, describing the accused as a 
man with hair blossoming for the eternal world, 
with one foot in the grave and the other totter- 
ing upon the brink. The illustration was so apt 
that it had a wonderful effect upon the jury 
which was quickly dispelled when Lamborn rose 
to reply. "Yes, gentlemen of the jury," said 
he, "his hair is whitening for that place which 
burns with liquid fire; one foot is in the grave, 
and the other is in his neighbor's hog pen." 

Levi Davis came to Springfield in 1839 as 
Auditor of the State and served until 1841, when 
he commenced the practice of law, having been 
admitted to the Bar before his appointment as 
Auditor. He was a good lawyer, a fine business 
man, courteous and affable to all whom he met. 
He removed from here to Alton, where he now 

A. K. Smede was a young but highly educated 
man from Mississippi who practiced law here 
between 1843 and 1845. He never met with 
much success and returned to his native State. 

David Logan, while a youth, came with his 
father to Springfield, here studied law and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1843. He was the son of 
Judge Logan and inherited many of the bril- 
liant qualities of his father. He was a man of 
very superior talents. He practiced law in this 
circuit until 1847, when he went to Oregon 
where he took high rank as a criminal lawyer, 
obtaining a large and lucrative practice. It is 
related that after he had become well estab- 
lished in Oregon his father was desirous of his 
returning home, and as an inducement wrote 
him that if he would come he would take him 
into partnership. The young man answered the 
letter, thanking his father very kindly for his 
generous offer, and closed by inviting him to 
Oregon, and as an inducement offered to take 
him into partnei'ship. In 1860 on the election 
of United States Senator, he secured the major- 
ity of the Republican members of the legisla- 
ture in his interest, but the party not having a 
majority, the Republicans united with the Doug- 
las Democrats and elected E. D. Baker, the 
Democrats of that wing feeling favorably dis- 
posed to Colonel Baker for his gallant defense 

of Broderick. Mr. Logan died in Oregon in 

William I. Ferguson was a Pennsylvanian by 
birth, and came to Springfield when a mere 
child, afterwards studied law and was admitted 
to the Bar in 1843. He was a very brilliant 
young man, and a first-class forensic lawyer. 
After his admission to the Bar, he soon secured 
a good practice, and for some time held the office 
of attorney for the city of Springfield. About 
the year 1850 he went to Memphis, Tennessee, 
where he remained one year, and then returned 
to Springfield and resumed the practice of law. 
Becoming dissatisfied he emigrated to Texas in 
1853, from which place he drifted on to Cali- 
fornia. In politics Mr. Ferguson was originally 
a Whig, and afterwards became a Democrat. In 
California he took an active part in politics and 
was elected to the State Senate, and was a candi- 
date for the United States Senate in 1855, but 
failed of an election. In the exciting canvass 
growing out of the differences between the Ad- 
ministration and Stephen A. Douglas in 1858, 
Senator Broderick was the leader of the Douglas 
faction, and Mr. Ferguson was a staunch adher- 
ent and defender of Broderick and Douglas. In 
his defense of the latter he incurred the dis- 
pleasure of a man named Johnson, who chal- 
lenged him to fight a duel. The challenge was 
accepted and Ferguson was slain. Colonel 
Baker delivered a funeral oration over his dead 
body, which was only equalled, a few months 
later, by delivering the oration on the death of 
Senator Broderick, who fell in the same cow- 
ardly and disgraceful manner. 

Archibald Williams, of Quincy, was fre- 
quently in attendance on the Springfield courts 
at this time, and his honest, homely features 
once seen were never forgotten. He was one of 
the most profound lawyers that ever practiced 
in the courts of the State. Linder, in his " Re- 
miniscences of the Bar," has this to say of 

" He was a member of the Illinois Legislature 
in 1836 and 1837, and of the same House with 
Lincoln, Douglas and myself. He was over six 
feet high, and as angular and ungainly in his 
form as Mr. Lincoln himself; and for homeliness 
of face and feature surpassed Mr. Lincoln. I 
think I never saw but one man uglier than 
Archie, and that was Patrick H. Darbey, of 
Kentucky, also a very great lawyer, who once 
had a brace of pistols presented to him by a 
traveler he met upon the road, both being on 
horseback, who suddenley stopped, and asked 
Darbey to stop also, and said to the latter gen- 



tleman: "Here is a brace of pistols which be- 
long to you." " How do you make that out? " 
said Darbey. " They were given to me a long 
time ago by a stranger, who requested me to 
keep them until I met an uglier man than myself, 
and I have carried them for over twenty years ; 
and I had begun to think they would go to my 
heirs when I died, but you are the rightful 
owner of the pistols. I give them to you as 
they were given to me, to be kept until you meet 
an uglier man than you are, and then you will 
present them to him; but you will die the owner 
of the property, for I am confident there is not 
an uglier man than you in the world, and the 
Lord did his everlasting best when he created 

"Darbey accepted the pistols, and I never 
heard of them passing out of his hands. I 
know not what might have occurred had he and 
Archie \Villiams ever met. If there had been 
a jury trial of the right of property between 
them, I think it altogether likely it might have 
resiilted in a 'hung jury.' 

"Archie Williams sat near Mr. Lincoln in the 
southeast corner of the old State House in Van- 
dalia, on his left, and I remember one day of a 
friend of mine asking me 'who in the world 
those two ugly men were.' Archie and Mr. 
Lincoln were great friends. I recollect Mr. Lin- 
coln asking me on one occasion if I didn't think 
Archie Williams was one of the strongest- 
minded, clearest headed men in Illinois. I 
don't know what reply I made at the time, but 
I know 3Ir. Lincoln said that he thought him 
the strongest-minded and clearest headed man 
he ever saw." 

Archie Williams has long since passed to his 
reward, but he has left a noble record, and one 
of which his descendants will always be proud. 
He made the race for Congress in 1854 as a Free 
Soil candidate, but failed of election. When 
Lincoln was elected, he appointed him one of 
the Federal Judges of Kansas. 

O. H. Browning is another Quincy lawyer 
that was often seen before the courts of Sanga- 
mon Covmty. He came to this State from Ken- 
tucky. As a lawyer and a statesman he ob- 
tained a high and enviable distinction. He was 
often employed in the largest cases before the 
Supreme Court of the State and the United 
States Courts. He w^as ajDj^ointed to fill the va- 
cancy in the United States Senate, caused by the 
death of Senator Douglas, and served as Secre- 
tary of the Interior under President Johnson. 

William A. Minshall, of Schuyler county, 
first figures in this Bar in 1841. He was a very 

able lawyer and at one time was Judge of the 
Circuit of which Schuyler county formed a part. 
Linder says of him: 

"Minshall, I believe, was a native of OhiOy 
and studied law with Judge McLean. In his 
early days he was given to dissipation. He 
courted a most beautiful woman, and on propos- 
ing marriage to her, she promptly rejected him, 
on the strength of which he got most gloriously 
drunk, and in his crazy mood put on seven clean 
shirts, and in that condition went over to see 
her again, letting her know that it was impossi- 
ble for him to live without her. The young 
lady, being far from indifferent to the suit of 
Minshall, finally concluded that she would try 
and make a man of him, so she said to him: 
'Mr. Minshall, I will never marry a drunkard, 
and if I had a husband and he should become 
one, I would leave him on the instant, if I loved 
him as I loved my life, but I have come 
to the conclusion I will marry you on one 
condition : If you will reform your habits, and 
give me satisfactory proof of the same, and 
make a solemn vow that you will never drink 
again. So, now, you go home and divest your- 
self of all those shirts but one, and come back 
in a month from now, and we will consummate 
this agreement.' Minshall gladly took her at 
her word, and after a month's probation he re- 
turned, took the vow, and they were married, 
and he religiously lived ujj to his pledge to the 
day of his death; and I know of no happier 
couple than they were in the whole circle of my 
acqiiaintance. He had a reputation of being 
one. of the kindest." 

Benjamin West came to Sangamon county in 
1841, and settled in the village of Rochester. 
He was a man of fair talents, and was a good 
lawyer. In 1846 he was elected to the legisla- 
ture, and died before the expiration of his term. 

Israel Crosby figured here during this Decade, 
but did more in the real estate business than in 

William Walker studied law, and was here 
admitted to the Bar. He soon afterwards went 
to Camden, and from thence to Havana, Mason 
county. From the latter place he emigrated 
to Missouri, where he was afterwards elected 
Circuit Judge. He was regarded as above the 
average in ability. 

Elliott B. Herndon was born on Silver creek, 
Madison county, Illinois, in 1820. In company 
wnth his parents, he came to Sangamon county 
in the spring of 1821. His parents first settled 
about four miles northeast of Springfield, and 
in 1823 erected a cabin on the lot where Mr. 



Herndon now resides, where they lived the re- 
mainder of their lives. Elliott B. read law in 
Springtield, and was admitted to the Bar in the 
winter of 1842-3, and was one of the three first 
young men admitted in the county. He at 
once commenced an active practice, which con- 
tinued until 1868, when he retired, but resumed 
practice in 1873, continuing until 1878, when he 
permanently retired. Joseph Wallace, in a local 
paper issued February, 1880, thus speaks of Mr. 

"At present he belongs to the retired list of 
our barristers, and enjoys his othmi cum cligni- 
tate; but still appears in court in special cases, 
and his opinion is often sought upon difficult 
and abstruse questions of law. He has always 
been recognized as the possessor of one of the 
soundest legal minds at our Bar, and if he had 
been prompted more by the spur of necessity, 
would have risen to yet higher rank as a lawyer. 

"Though not a classical scholar, Mr. Herndon 
is a person of wide reading and multifarious 
knowledge. He is fond of philosophizing, that 
is, of penetrating beneath the surface of things 
to ascertain their hidden origin and bearing. 
To illustrate, he tells us that he read through 
Don Quixote three times; first, for the story or 
stories; secondly, for the humor and pathos; 
and, thirdly, for the deep philosophy and in- 
sight into human nature contained in that in- 
comparable production. He is also an earnest 
admirer of Shakespeare's inimitable creations, 
but does not approve of the lengths to which 
some ingenious commentators go in searching 
after new and far-fetched interpretations to the 
text of that author, such as the great bard him- 
self never dreamed of. Among his other ac- 
quirements, Mr. Herndon is no bad judge of 
horses and dogs, and he is (or at least affects to 
be) skilled in gardening and horticulture." 

Politically, Mr. Herndon is a Democrat " of 
the strictest sect of our religion." For many 
yeai's he was engaged in the promulgation of 
Democratic doctrines, both from the stump and 
through the press. From 1857 to 1860 he edited 
the Illinois State Democrat, J. J. Clarkson, pro- 
prietor, a paper started to contend for Demo- 
cratic doctrine, " pure and undetiled," in opposi- 
tion to what he regarded as heresies in the 
Douglas wing of that party. 

Mr. Herndon has held several very important 
offices, both elective and appointed. He has 
served as City and County Attorney, United 
States Attorney for the Southern District of 
Illinois. In 1858 he was appointed Disbursing 
Agent by the General Government for Illinois. 

In 1876 Mr. Herndon was married to Jerusha 
Palmer, in Springfield, Illinois. In the same 
article already quoted Mr. Wallace further 
speaks of Mr. Herndon: 

" Physically and intellectually he is quite un- 
like his brother, William H. — the one inheriting 
the characteristics of the mother, while the other 
more nearlj'^ resembles the father. In person, 
Elliot B. is of medium height, broad shouldered 
and heavy set, with a tendency, of late years, to 
obesity. His cranium is massive and finely de- 
veloped, and his face square rather than oval. 
His style of speaking is deliberate and senten- 
tious, his jestures few, and his voice keen and 
penetrating rather than ore rotimdo. 

"In manner or demeanor, he is not always the 
same, being subject to moods. Sometimes he is 
taciturn and morose; at other times talkative, 
jovial and full of anecdote, yet always more or 
less sarcastic. Upon the whole, he is a man of 
marked ability, of striking individuality, of pro- 
nounced likes and dislikes, and of sterling integ- 
rity — in a word, he is one whose place at the Bar 
and in general society, if once made vacant, 
could hardly be supplied." 


As Springfield and Sangamon county increased 
in population, and as the business before the 
Supreme Court of the State and the United 
States District Courts inci'eased, the resident 
members of the Bar became more numerous. It 
will therefore be seen that between the years of 
1851 and 1861, the distinctive local Bar was 
quite large. Many who had been following the 
Circuit had ceased their attendance, and only 
appeared before the courts here on special occa- 
sions. The greater number of those heretofore 
mentioned as making a residence in Springfield, 
yet remained at the beginning of this Decade, 
and few left during the time. The Bar was 
therefore a strong one. Among those who fig- 
ured during this time whose names have not 
alreadv been given are John A. McClernand, L. 
B. Adams, N. M. Broadwell, D. A. Brown, W. 
J. Black, W. J. Conkling, Primm & Gibson, J. 
E. Rosette, J. B. White, G. W. Shutt, Thomas 
Lewis, J. France, D. Mc Williams, Charles W. 
Keyes, Shelby M. Cullom, L. Rosette, A. Mc- 
Williams, J. R. Thompson, Charles S. Zane, 
William Campbell, J. D. Bail, G. W. Besore, 
Christopher C. Brown, John E. Denny, Milton 
Hay, L. F. McCrillis, J. W. Moffett, Charles B. 
Brown, S. C. Gibson, T. S. Mather, J.R.Mather, 
H. G. Reynolds, E. L. Gross, L. C. Boynton, A. 
B. Ives, C. M. Morrison, Joseph Wallace, Speed 
Butler, E. F. Leonard, William Prescott. 



Among the number comprising the Bar of this 
Decade will be noticed the names of some who 
have since become distinguished as statesmen 
and others whose names have become so famil- 
iar to every reader of history as among the brave 
men who responded to their country's call when 
traitors sought to destroy the Union, and who 
became as adept in the art of war as in the 
intricacies of the law. Sangamon County fur- 
nished the Commander-in-Chief of all the armies, 
one of whom the Bar of the county may well be 
proud, one of its brightest ornaments, the great 
and noble Abraham Lincoln. From the Bar of 
Sangamon County went General John A. Mc- 
Clernand, a brave and skillful General who rose 
to the rank of a Division Commander, Colonel 
James II. Matheny, Colonel L. F. McCrillis and 
others. Of the Bar of this period much can be 
said and only that which is good. 

Thomas Lewis, — everybody that lived in 
Springfield during this Decade knew Tom, — was 
a character in his way. Originally a shoe- 
maker by trade, he accummulated some money, 
engaged in banking, and then studied law; was 
admitted to the Bar, and practiced for a time, 
though he secured but little business. To crown 
all he became a newspaper man and was editor 
and publisher of the Illinois Atlas until its in- 
corporation with the Political Crisis, in 1871. 
He now resides in Cairo. 

J. France was a man well advanced in years 
when he came to Springfield. He was a fair 
lawyer and had a good practice for a time. 

D. McWilliams was a young man and had 
been admitted to the Bar but a short time when 
he came here. He succeeded in securing a fair 
practice, but after a time he left and is now re- 
siding in Piatt, and is one of the leading mem- 
bers of the Bar of that county. 

A. McWilliams, came here from Bloomington 
where he was regarded as a very talented law- 
yer, and had fine success in all his professional 
engagements. The same success attended him 
here, and had it not been for an unfortunate 
temper he would have left a highly honorable 
and proud record. He was States Attorney one 
term.' He died in 1862, near St. Louis. 

C. M. Morrison was one of the most talented 
young men that have practiced in the court of 
Sangamon County. He was from Kentucky and 
came to Springfield about 1856. He very soon 
secured a lucrative practice and was for several 
years Prosecuting Attorney for this distinct. As 
a prosecutor he had few superiors. He had a 
frail body but a strong mind. He died in the 
prime of life. 

William Prescott was from Wales, read law 
in Springfield and was admitted to the Bar 
about 1860. When the war broke out he laid 
down his law books and took up the sword. He 
served as Captain in one of the companies of 
the 130th regiment. While in the service, he 
was captured and held a prisoner of war for 
fourteen months. On his return to this county 
he was elected Coimty Judge and was the im- 
mediate predecessor of Judge Matheny. He re- 
moved to Chicago about 1879. 

L. F. McCrillis came to this county from Cal- 
houn. While a resident of the latter county he 
served a term in the legislature. He was re- 
garded as a good lawyer. On the breaking out 
of the war he offered his services to the Gov- 
ernor and was commissioned Colonel of one of 
the Illinois regiments, and served with credit in 
the defense of his country. After the war closed 
he returned to Springfield and shortly after 
made a business trip to Washington, and while 
in that city he died very suddenly. 

H. G. Reynolds was better known as a Mason 
than an attorney. He was for some years pub- 
lisher of the Masonic Trowel, an account of which 
is given under the head of "The Press." 

A. W. Hayes was here but a short time, and 
obtained no special standing as an attorney. He 
now resides in Kansas. 

S. S. Whitehurst was a fai» lawyer and a good 
business man. He was clerk of the Circuit Court 
for some years. He is now dead. 

Lawrence Weldon was a good lawyer, and was 
from Bloomington. 

L. M. Phillips came from Southern Illinois, 
and remained but a few years, and then returned 
to his old home. He was a fair lawyer, and 
secured a good practice while here. 

C. D. Harvey was a good bankrupt lawyer, 
and had a good practice in the bankrupt courts. 
He only remained a short time, when he re- 
moved to California, and now resides there. 

Primm & Gibson were young and vigorous 
men, who turned their attention principally to 
the land business. They are both now dead. 

William Campbell was Irish by birth, inherit- 
ing the social qualities of that fun-loving race. 
He was strong before a jury, having the natural 
eloquence of the Irish. He died some years ago. 

J. D. Bail was more of a poet than a lawyer, 
and in the profession was scarcely knowD. 


Whatever may be said of the Bar of Sanga- 
mon county, it cannot be said that it has ever 
deteriorated. It has always maintained a high 



Standard of excellence. "While it may be true 
that through political intiiience some of those of 
one Decade may have become more noted, yet 
as regards standing before the courts, it will be 
seen no comparison can be made that would de- 
tract from the good name of either. The Fifth 
Decade, embracing the years 1861 to 1871, shows 
a list of names alike creditable to the period and 
to the excellent standing of the Sangamon 
County Bar. 

Some of the familiar names of the pre- 
vious Decade have disappeared, of which it 
might be said that some bearing them have re- 
moved to other points, some have retired from 
active practice, while others still are now prac- 
ticing before a higher court and before the Bar 
of Almighty God. Among the new members of 
the Bar of Sangamon county during this Decade 
were William M. Springer, J. K. W. Bradley, 
W. P. Olden, A. N. J. Crook, James E. Dow- 
ling, A. W. Hayes, Richard Wolcott, L. H. 

Bradley, J. A. Chesnut, J. C. Crowley, William 
Fowler, James M. Mason, James W. Patton, 
Lawrence Weldon, L. M. Phillips, George C. 
Marcy, William E. Shutt, A. Orendorff. 


During this Decade the Bar of Sangamon 
County was increased in number by the follow- 
ing named: D. T. Littler, J. A. Kennedy, L. F. 
Hamilton, James C. Robinson, A. L. Knapp, 
Bernard Stuve, Bluford Wilson, Loren Hasson, 
Robert Allen, Thomas C. Austin, John F. Bar- 
row, S. D. Scholes, W. P. Emery, Charles H. 
Rice, Charles D. Harvey, Robert H. Hazlett, 
Robert L. McGuire, John M. Palmer, John 
Mayo Palmer, Alonzo W. Wood, Charles 
W. Brown, Clinton L. Conkling, Enoch Har- 
pole, W. L. Gross, E. D. Matheny, J. C. 
Lanphier, Henry H. Rogers, George A. Sanders, 
J. C. Snigg, Ezra W. White, Charles P. Kane, 
Henry Kane. 




Chapter VI 



The year 1881 is the beginning of the Seventh 
Decade, and only of this year can anything he 
said as a matter of history, of the Bar of San- 
gamon. The following named firms now con- 
stitute the resident Bar of the county: L. B. 
Adams, John F. Barrow, Bradley & Bi-adley, 
N. M. Broadwell, Frank W. Burnett, James C. 
Conkling, \V. J. Conkling, Collins & Sprague, 
A. N. J.'Crook, J. E. Dowling, Ninian W. "Ed- 
wards, W. P. Emery, Joseph A. Gill, H. S. 
Greene, Gi-oss & Conkling, John H. Gunn, Mil- 
ton Hay, Ralph W. Ilaynes, FJazlett & Kane, 
Hern don & Colby, W. F. Houston, Frank H 
Jones, James A.Kennedy, J. R. H. King, David 
T. Littler, Webber E. Loomis, Jas. H. Matheny, 
Jas. H Matheny, Jr., McClernand & Keyes, Mc- 
Guire, Hamilton & Saltzenstein, Murray & Tur- 
ner, Orendorff & Creighton, Palmers, Robinson 
&Shutt, Patton & Lan])hier, Rice & Trapp, Rob- 
ertson & Maxwell, John E. Rosette, Louis 
Rosette, Sanders & Williams, Scholes & Mather, 
J. B. Scott, Ired E. Smith, John C. Snigg, Ster- 
ling & Grout, H. A. Stevens, Stuart, Edwards & 
Brown, T. J. Thompson, William A. Vincent, 
La Rue Vredenburg, Joseph Wallace, E. VV. 
White, ]31uford Wilson, Wines & Wickersham, 
Richmond Wolcott, Rogers & Kane. 

In reviewing the history of the Bar of to-day, 
it must be born in mind that the historian is 
speaking of those who are yet living and in 
active practice, and therefore he labors under 
an embarrassment that does not exist when 
writing of parties that have passed away. 
"Words of praise, by envious ones, are apt to be 
construed into words of fiattery, for which 
reason many things are left unsaid which are 
rightfully due the parties of whom the historian 
is writing. In the following sketches care has 
been taken against such use of terms as Avill 
lead to even a thought of fiattery, or stating an 
untruth, with the idea that it will please the one 

of whom it is written, even if it does not off^end 
others. But whatever is written is the o})inion 
of the historian, who reserves the right to speak 
as he may think best of each individual. The 
members are introduced in chronological order, 
as they appeared at the courts, so far as it is 
really known. 

John T. Stuart, the senior member of the 
firm of Stuart, Edwards & Browai, was born 
November 10, 1807, in Fayette county, about 
seven miles east of Lexington. Kentucky. He 
comes of good old Scotch-Irish stock and has 
inherited many of the peculiarities and fine 
qualities of that hardy race. Robert Stuart, the 
father of the subject of this sketch was born in 
Rockbridge county, Virginia, and early in life 
adopted the pi'ofession of the Christian minis- 
try. He removed from Virginia to Lexington, 
Kentucky, and became a jjrofessor of languages 
in Transylvania University. While a professor 
in this institution, he was there married to Han- 
nah Todd, daughter of General Levi Todd. 

During the earlier years of his life John T. 
Stuart remained with his parents upon a farm, 
attending the common schools in winter and 
assisting his parents in the summer in cultivat- 
ing the soil. While yet young he entered Cen- 
tre College, at Danville, Kentucky, pursuing a 
regular classical course, and graduating from 
that institution when but nineteen years of age. 
Immediately upon graduating, Mr. Stuart en- 
tered the law office of Judge Breck, in Rich- 
mond, Kentucky, and for two years pursued his 
studies under that eminent barrister. Having 
heard much of the "beautiful country of the 
Sangamo," and having relatives living in that 
favored region, he determined to emigrate there. 
Starting on horseback, he first made his way to 
Frankfort, Kentucky, and by the Supreme Court 
of that Sta'e was licensed as an "Attorney and 
Counselor at Law." In ten days he arrived in 
Springfield, weary and worn. A heavy rain had 



fallen the morning of hi.san-ival which had given 
to the houses of the village, Avhich were gener- 
ally of logs daubed with mud, a dreary look, 
making him feel a little blue. His mind reverted 
to the pleasant home which he had left, sur- 
rounded by all the comforts of a civilized life, 
and he could but ^Yonder what the future would 
have in store for him, and whether the joys of 
the future would compensate for the pleasures 
left behind. 

At this time Mr. Stuart had barely attained 
his majority, and in looks and actions had re- 
tained much of the boy about him. He was 
kindly received by the generous, open-hearted 
people, then living in Si)ringfield, but he tells a 
good story upon himself Avhich goes to shoM^ 
man's judgment is not always infallible. Billy 
Fagin, a shrewd, witty Irishman, as all Irishmen 
are, met him a few days after his arrival, and as 
common in that day, began to question him as 
to his past and future. He was asked where he 
was from, what he was here for, and what were 
his expectations. The questions were all an- 
swered as well as pos8iV)le, considering the sur- 
prise manifested at being thus quizzed by an 
entire stranger. "Noav," says Mr. Fagin, "would 
you like to know my opinion of you? " Mr. 
Stuart replied that he would not object to know- 
ing it. " Well," says he, "it is my oj^inion you 
may be a j^retty fine man, but you stand a 
mighty poor show of meeting with success as a 
lawyer." Mr. Stuart laughed, but said nothing 
in reply. 

The attorneys Mr. Stuart found at the Bar on 
his arrival, were James Adams, Thomas M. 
Neale, James Strode, Thomas Moffett and Jona- 
than H. Pugh, men of mark then, but all of 
whom have since died and have almost been for- 
gotten, they being overshadowed by that bril- 
liant galaxy of lawyers that came a few years 

Hon. Joseph Gillespie was asked to give his 
opinion of Mr. Stuart as an attorney. The fol- 
lowing was his reply: 

" Colonel John T. Stuart may be emphatically 
denominated the Nestor of the Bar of Spring- 
field, Illinois, a body of men without superiors, 
if equals, in any State in the Union. We be- 
lieve there is but one man now living in Illinois, 
who ante-dates him as a practitioner, and that 
man is William Thomas, of Jacksonville. John 
T. Stuart is a native of Kentucky, from whence 
he emigrated to Illinois in 1828, and located in 
the future capital. After the manner of the 
Kentucky school, he was thoroughly grounded 
in the history and elementary principles of the 

law, whereby he was enabled to elucidate and 
apply it to the cases which might arise on the 
circuit, with the aid of such authorities as one 
could carry in his head and saddle-bags. John 
T. Stuart is pre-eminently a man of reason, and 
if he be tried by the maxim, ' By their works 
shall ye know them,' he will come out all right. 
He was the tutor of one of the greatest men who 
ever lived, Abraham Lincoln, who imbibed his 
precepts, principles and methods. An important 
part of Lincoln's great character was the work of 
John T. Stuart. The leading traits of the sub- 
ject may be summed up in the attributes of ster- 
ling integrity, great forecast, and strong will. 
In the management of professional business, he 
seeks first to understand his own side of the case, 
and next to penetrate the designs of his adver- 
sary, in which he never fails. He keeps his own 
batteries effectually masked, while those of the 
opposite side are closely scrutinized. He knows 
their calibre and position completely. It was 
this quality which made him so eminently suc- 
cessful as a politician. Such was his adroitness 
and sagacity that bis adversaries could never 
comprehend how he could obtain a knowledge 
of their plans; therefore they dubbed him " Jerry 
Sly." No one, however, ever suspected him of 
even the slightest breach of faith or dishonor- 
able dealing. He was fastidiously sincere in all 
his professions and engagements. There wa,8 
no trouble in discerning the attitude of John T. 
Stuart, but in regard to his plans, either political 
or professional, he was perfectly inscrutable. 
Whatever you had a right to know he would 
communicate with the greatest cheerfulness; but 
whatever he had a right to conceal, no man could 
find out. Stuart always believed in the efiicacy 
of labor, and worked his cases well. He was 
eminently conscientious with his clients, and 
never allowed them, if he could prevent it, to go 
to law for a profitable wrong or an unprofitable 
right. He has done more than any other man 
in the State to discourage frivolous litigation. 
He has always taken a great interest in assisting 
young men, aiding them by his counsel in the 
management of their cases, and by inspiring 
them with confidence and laudable ambition. 
His veneration for the profession of the law is 
very great, and anything like unworthy conduct, 
tending to lower it in the estimation of honor- 
able men, calls out his prompt and decided ani- 
madversion. There is not a particle of envy in 
his composition. He deals out equal and im- 
partial justice to all men. He scorns everything 
like ostentation or display, and desires to gain 
his cases upon their merits, and not otherwise. 



His character for honesty and fair dealing gave 
him a })ower few hold upon courts and juries, 
and made him almost invincible. He has passed 
now into the sere and yellow leaf, and, of course, 
seldom engages in the active duties of the pro- 
fession; Ijiit his old clients and friends cannot 
be induced to dispense with his counsel and 
advice, and he has not yet been permitted to doif 
the harness he has so long and honorably worn. 
It would, perhaps, be enough to establish the 
fame of John T. Stuart upon a solid and endur- 
ing basis, to say, as can be truthfully said of 
him, that throughout all those long years he 
practiced with and was the recognized peer of 
such men as Stephen T. Logan, Abraham Lin- 
coln, Milton Hay, John M. Palmer, and a host of 
others whose lives will adorn the pages of our 
judicial history so long as talent and worth shall 
be appreciated." 

In politics, Mr. Stuart is a disciple of Henrj- 
Clay, and therefore a Whig of the old school. 
He loved the old Whig party as- he loved his 
life, and has scarcely yet realized that the party 
is dead. In 1832, when but twenty-five years 
of age, he was elected for the first time a mem- 
ber of the legislature, and re-elected in 1834. 
In the House he made a useful member, ever 
at his post, and ever looking forward to advance 
the interests of his constituents. In those days 
the question of internal improvements was the 
leading issue before the people, and JVIr. Stuart 
strongly advocated every measure, that in his 
opinion, would tend to develo}) the indus- 
tries of the country. It may be well to remark 
here, that in these views Mr. Stuart has always 
been consistent, there hardly being a measure 
proposed for the advancement of public inter- 
ests but what has found in him a strong advo- 
cate. More enterprises of a public character will 
be found in which he has figured than any other 
man in the county. 

In 1836, Mr. Stuart was nominated by his 
party for Representative in Congress, and made 
the race against VVilliam L. May, of Springfield. 
In this race Mr. Stuart was beaten, as he reall)' 
expected to be, he making the race with a view 
of solidifying his party, which was in a large 
minority in the district, and doubtless with the 
hope that it w^ould benefit him in future cam- 
paigns, in 1838, he was again nominated in op- 
position to Stephen A. Douglas, w^ho was even 
then developing the poM^ers which afterwards 
made him so famous, and the leader of a great 
party. In this campaign Mr. Stuart was success- 
ful, and therefore became a member of the 
Twenty-fifth Congress. In 1840, he was again 

a candidate, and again elected. In Congress, 
Mr. Stuart made no special effort to become 
prominent, being content to be recognized as 
one of the working members of that body, but 
that he was not without influence is illustrated 
in the fact that he secured the passage of an 
appropriation for a harbor at Chicago, the first 
appropriation, it is thought, ever passed for that 
purpose. The member from Detroit, Michigan, 
and Mr. Stuart were the only w^estern members 
securing an appropriation that session. 

In 1842, Mr. Stuart declined a re-election to 
Congress and again resumed the active practice 
of law; but in 1848, he was prevailed upon to 
accept the nomination for State Senator in the 
district composed of the counties of Sangamon, 
Mason and Menard. He served the term of 
four years for w^hich he was elected, with 
marked ability, but from that time until 1862 he 
was virtually out of politics, though a firm sup- 
porter of Millard Fillmore, in 1856, and Joliii 
Bell, in 1860, for the Presidency. Fillmore and 
Bell were both old Whigs, and while represent- 
ing other parties and running upon other issues, 
he yet believed them to be sufficiently imbued 
with the Whig leaven as to merit his earnest 

Mr. Stuart is by nature a conservative man 
and a believer in the Constitution of our fathers. 
While being j^rogressive in matters affecting 
business interests, in political affairs he has been 
favorable to no change that would violently 
affect the convictions of a lifetime. During the 
dark days of the war, it was always his earnest 
hope that President Lincoln would pursue a 
conservative course. He believed in subduing 
the rebellion, and in a vigorous prosecution of 
the war, but desired nothing should be done by 
the Union authorities that would disarrange the 
existing order of things — the war must be car- 
ried on in a Constitutional way; that institution 
must be kept inviolate by all -Aho had swoi'n to 
protect it. In 1862, Mr. Stuart announced him- 
self a candidate for Congress in a circular ad- 
dressed '■ To the Voters of the Eighth Congres- 
sional District," in the following terms: 

" Fellow Citizens: I announce myself a can- 
didate to represent you in the next Congress. If 
any apology is needed for my mode of doing so, 
I offer it in the following facts: My political life 
dates back to a time anterior to party conventions, 
to a time when it was the practice of myself and 
others to come before you for your suffrages 
self-nominated. I am only doing now what I 
have repeatedly done before, when I announced 
myself a candidate for your suffrages, tbree 



times for Cong-ress and as often for the legisla- 
ture. Again, I ever, during its existence, be- 
longed to the Whig party. Since the dissolu- 
tion of that party, I have attached myself to no 
^other; I, therefore, can appeal to no party con- 
vention, and nothing is left to me but to declare 
myself a candidate independent of any i^arty 
organization, and free to serve my country in such 
manner as duty to her interests may dictate. 
Frankness further requires me to say, that I be- 
come a candidate not because any friends have 
pressed me to do so, but because ray own incli- 
nations have so prompted, stimulated by the 
hope that the contingency has now arisen, or 
soon will arise, when I may be of service to our 
beloved country in her hour of trial, and aid in 
preserving that glorious Union which our fathers 
formed. I aim thus to discharge the obligations 
which I owe to the country, in the circumstan- 
ces in which it is placed. Whether you will 
consider it to be your duty to vote for or against 
me, is a question for you to decide. Your confi- 
dence would be a source of great gratification 
to me. 

"I am for 'the Union, the Constitution and 
the enforcement of the laws.' This creed ex- 
presses my views in the briefest manner. It is 
appropriate to the circumstances of the country. 
I believe in it as a whole, and in every part, 
without qualification or condition, and to it I 
pledge myself with every faculty of ray nature. 
I believe the Union which our fathers formed 
was designed by them to be perpetual. It owes 
its origin to a patriotism, statesmanship and 
wise forecast, of which the world furnishes few, 
if any, parallels; it has been most benificient in 
its results; it has secured to us, as a nation, in a 
most remarkable degree, the blessings of civil 
liberty, domestic tranquility and safety from 
foreign aggression. In that Union has been our 
strength. The advantages flowing from that 
Union, coupled with our great natural gifts, has 
Secured to us a growth, as a nation, without a 
parallel in the history of the world. \Yith this 
Union preserved we might hope to transmit all 
these blessings and continued prosperity, to the 
reraotest generations of our posterity. With 
the Union dissevered our hopes can linger on no 
such glorious vision. After so sad a catastro- 
phe the future presents our once united and 
happy country, divided into two, perhaps raany 
parts, discordant, warring, drenched in fraternal 
blood, and finally seeking the strong arm of the 
despot to save her from anarchy. Such has been 
the fate of other republics. God grant that 
such may not be ours, or that of our children. 

Need I add that I regard it to be my duty, as it 
is that of every other citizen, to maintain and 
preserve it. How is that Union to be maintained 
and preserved? I answer, by the use, if neces- 
sary, of all the ample powers vested by the Con- 
stitution in the General Government. Our 
Union is based upon a written Constitution, 
embodying the contract by which the people 
formed a perpetual Union and erected a govern- 
ment limited in power as to the subject matter 
for its exercise, but supreme wherever given. 
It is only by virtue of that Constitution that the 
General Government can claim and enforce the 
obedience of all the parts and sections of the 
Union, to such laws and acts as are made and 
done in pursuance of that Constitution. These 
powers are ample, if wisely used. Indeed, we 
have a strong government. That Constitution 
provides no mode of dissolving the Union. It 
has no sanction for secession. When, therefore, 
the people of the South make the effort, by 
force, to free themselves from the obligations 
which they owe under the Constitution to the 
Union, they become rebels and traitors, seeking 
by revolution to destroy the Union, and it is the 
right and becomes the duty of the General Gov- 
ernment, to put down that rebellion and stay 
that revolution by the use, for that purpose, of 
all its constitutional powers. Were it to resort 
to any other powers, or to means outside of the 
Constitution, the Government would itself inau- 
gurate a revolution. The Southern revolution 
threatens us with anarchy; such a revolution by 
the Government, would lead to a military des- 
potism. I refrain from the discussion of past 
questions, the tendency of which would be to 
irritate, and shed no light upon any future duty. 

" Whatever may have been our differences of 
opinion upon such past questions, the one great 
question which now presses upon us ought to 
admit of no differences of opinion. In the 
deadly struggle now existing between the Gov- 
ernment and armed rebellion there can be no 
other alternative left to all such as would pre- 
serve the Union, maintain the Constitution, and 
enforce the laws, but to fight it out to the bitter 
end — fight, not to gratify a long pent-up hatred 
and desire for revenge — fight, not as a means of 
accomplishing some object which cannot be 
done under the Constitution, but fight to 
conquer a peace — such a pe.-ice as will preserve 
the integrity of the Union and the majesty of 
the Constitution and the law — such a peace as 
will degrade no section of the Union. 

"In conclusion, therefore, if I should become 
your representative, I would feel it to be my 



duty, so far as that position would give me the 
power, to place at the disposal of the Executive, 
all the resources of the Government, required to 
enable him to exercise his constitutional powers 
and perform his duty under the Constitution, or 
to add to the comfort or efficiency of our gallant 
soldiers while fighting the battles of the Union. 

"One thing further I would add, not neces- 
sary, perhaps, in this connection, but I wish to 
say it, and the occasion is at least not unfit. 
jNlr. Lincoln and myself, as most of you know, 
have been closely connected for more than a 
quarter of a century, by many ties, the recollec- 
tion of which is very dear to me. Difference 
in political opinion since 1856, has in no wise 
diminished my respect for the man, or the un- 
bounded confidence I have ever bad in his per- 
sonal integrity. I believe he entertains an 
ardent desire, and is struggling to preserve the 
Union and Constitution as our fathers made 
them; and, as a matter of feeling, as well as 
duty, I would rather aid than embarrass him in 
all such efforts. If my voice could now reach 
his ear, I would be glad to say to him: Follow 
the dictates of your own clear head and pat- 
riotic heart, and preserve the Union by the 
ample powers conferred upon you by the Con- 
stitution, and repulse from you any faction, if 
such there be, which would goad you into a 
resort to revolutionary means; and for a Union 
and a Constitution so preserved, history will 
erect monuments for you by the side of Wash- 
ington. Your obedient servant, 

" John T. Stuart. 

"AuCxUST 30, 18(32." 

Mr. Stuart was triumphantly elected, receiv- 
ing the entire Democratic vote, and that of hun- 
dreds of Republicans. In Sangamon county, 
where he was personally known by every voter, 
he ran far ahead of his ticket. The people be- 
lieved in him, trusted in him. In Congress he 
endeavored to act faithfully to his convictions. 
The Emancipation Proclamation of President 
Lincoln he o^^posed, for the reason he believed it 
unnecessary, and the objects for which it was 
issued could more readily be attained in other 
ways. It is due to him to say that he now be- 
lieves that " all was for the best." 

In 1864, Mr Stuart received the Democratic 
nomination for Congress, but was defeated by 
Shelby M. Cullom, From that time he has 
ceased to take an active part in political life. 

It may truly be said of him that he never was 
a politician in the commonly accepted definition 
of the term. Politics with him is the science of 
government, and in his entire political career he 

has endeavored to act for the interests of the 
people rather than that of party. 

As already stated, Mr. Stuart has always taken 
an active part in all matters of public interest. 
No man in Sangamon county is entitled to more 
credit for the excellent railroad system of this 
county. He has been prominently identified 
with each, and has served as President of one or 
more, Director and Attorney of several of them. 
In 1866, he was elected President of the Spring- 
field City Railway Company, President of the 
Springfield Watch Company and President of 
the Bettie Stuart Boai'd of Trustees. He was 
one of the three Commissioners for building of 
the new State House. As Chairman of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the National Lincoln 
Monument Association, it devolved upon him to 
do more than any other one man in suj^erintend- 
ing the erection of that monument to the mem- 
ory of his life-long friend, Abraham Lincoln, 

In educational matters Mr. Stuart has likewise 
been prominently identified. The old Illinois 
State University, the predecessor of the German 
Lutheran Concordia College, took much of his 
time, and in the Bettie Stuart Institute he has 
ever felt great interest. 

John T. Stuart and Mary V. Nash, a daiaghter 
of General Frank Nash, and niece of Judge 
Lockwood, were united in marriage at Jackson- 
ville, Illinois, October 25, 1887. The union has 
been a happy one. Six children were born unto 
them — Bettie, afterwards the wife of C. C. 
Brown, and for whom the Bettie Stuart Insti- 
tute is named, since deceased; John T., Frank 
N., Virginia L., Hannah and Robert. 

Socially, there is nothing to be said of Mr. 
Stuart but what is good. As a husband and 
father, he is kind and affectionate; as a neigh- 
bor, he is friendly and accommodating; as a 
citizen, he is public spirited and helpful. The 
poor in him have always found a friend, the cry 
of distress from the unfortunate always touches 
his heart, and he is ever ready to hearken unto 
their cry and minister to their w^ants. The 
young love him; the middle aged trust him; 
the old lean upon him as a friend; and all trust 
him. The golden rule has always been the rule 
of his life. He has shown his love to God by 
his love of his fellow-man. John T. Stuart is a 
grand, good man, and when called upon by the 
Judge of the Universe to a higher court, his 
place here will remain vacant; it cannot be filled 
and he will not be forgotten. 

Samuel H. Treat, Judge of the United States 
Court for the Southern District of Illinois, is a 
native of Otsego county, New York, and was 



born in 1812. He read law and was admitted to 
practice in his native State; came to Illinois and 
settled in Springfield in 1834, and has been a 
resident of the city ever since. In 1838 he was 
appointed Circuit Judge, and filled the office 
until 1841. He was then elected Judge of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois, serving till 1855, 
when he was chosen to the Bench of the United 
States District Court, which position he has filled 
with distinguished ability for more than a quar- 
ter of a century. Judge Treat is admirably 
adapted, both by nature and education, for the 
bench, and has few equals in the judiciary of 
this country. 

Benjamin S. Edwards, for forty years an hon- 
ored member of the Sangamon County Bar, is 
the youngest son of Hon. Ninian Edwards, the 
first Governor of the Territory of Illinois, after- 
wards United States Senator and Governor of 
the State, was born June 3, 1818, in Edwards- 
ville, Madison county, Illinois. He graduated 
from Yale College in the class of 1838, studied 
law at the law school connected with that college, 
in 1839, completed his preparatory studies for 
the profession with Hon. Stephen T. Logan, de- 
ceased, of Springfield, and began practicing in 
March, 1840, with such competitors as Abraham 
Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, S. T. Logan, E. D. 
Baker, Jesse B. Thomas, Mr. Mcr)ougal, Mr. 
Lamborn, and other legal lights. In 1843, Mr. 
Edwards entered into partnership with Hon. 
John T. Stuart, in Springfield, which still exists, 
having continued thirty-eight years. He has 
studiously and zealously applied himself to the 
profession, paying little attention to politics. 
He was chosen a member of the Constitutional 
Convention in 1862, representing Sangamon 
county. He was, without his knowledge or con- 
sent, nominated for Congress on the Democratic 
ticket, in 1868, and greatly reduced the ordinary 
Republican majority, though opposed to Gover- 
nor CuUom in the contest. At the solicitation 
of the Bar and the people, Mr. Edwards became 
a candidate for Judge of the Circuit Court, in 
1869; was elected, and discharged the judicial 
duties with satisfaction to lawyers and litigants. 
When the circuit was enlarged. Judge Edwards 
retired from the bench, and has since devoted 
himself entirely to legal labors. Judge Edwards 
honors the profession he has faithfully repre- 
sented, for more than forty years, and has won an 
enviable reputation, both as a superior lawyer 
and a thorough gentleman. 

James C. Conkling was born in New York 
City, October 13, 1816. At the age of thirteen, 
he entered the academy at Morristown, New 

Jersey, and prepared for college. He entered 
Princeton in 1833, and graduated in 1835. He 
then entered the law office of Henry A. Ford, 
and read law for three years. In the fall of 1838, 
he came to Springfield, Illinois, was licensed by 
the Supreme Court of the State the following 
winter, and at once commenced the practice of 
law. Soon thereafter he formed a partnership 
with Cyrus A. Walker, then one of the leading 
attorneys of the State, and who, though living 
at Macomb, in McDonough county, practiced in 
the courts of Springfield. This arrangement 
continued for about two years, when he formed 
a partnership with General James A, Shields, of 
Mexican war fame, and who subsequently, at 
intervals, represented three States in the United 
States Senate. 

In 1845 Mr. Conkling was elected Mayor of 
Springfield and served one term. In 1851 he 
was elected a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of tlje General Assembly of the State, 
and again in 1866. His object in accepting the 
nomination was for the purpose of securing an ap- 
propriation for the building of a new State House, 
and by that means forever to secure Springfield as 
the permanent seat of government of the State. 
It will be remembered that at this time the ques- 
tion of removal Avas being agitated by the press 
and people throughout the State. Peoria, Bloom- 
ington, Decatur, Chicago and other places were 
anxious to secure its location. A new State 
House had become an absolute necessity, the 
old having become too small for the proper 
transaction of business of the State. At the ses- 
sion of the legislature, in the winter of 1866-67, 
Mr. Conkling was made a member of the com- 
mittee on ])ublic buildings, and also chairman 
of the Judiciary committee. As a member of 
the former he drew a bill for an appropriation, 
which after considerable delay was reported to 
the House. Here the fight raged furiou>ly be- 
tween friends and opponents of the measure. 
Several days were spent in discussion, and while 
one of the opponents of the measure, who had 
been selected to close the debate, was making 
his speech, Mr. Conkling learned tbe bill had no 
enacting clause, the engrossing clerk having left 
it off the bill as presented. Calling Isaac Keys. 
Mr. Conkling proceeded to the office of the en- 
grossing clerk and compelled him to restore the 
enacting clause, and supply words that had been 
omitted or changed from the original bill. Re- 
turning to the House with the true copy, it was 
given to the clerk and the vote taken. A major- 
ity of two votes was obtained for the bill. Mr. 
Conkling deserves great credit for his efforts in 



tKis connection. He had to tight against great 
odds. Leading men in Springfield who had 
been working for months to the same end, be- 
fore the bill was put upon its passage, became 
discouraged and abandoned the field. 

In 1863 Mr. Conkling was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Y^ates, State Agent to settle the claims of 
the State against the general government for 
equipments furnished volunteers. The duty was 
performed to the satisfaction of the State. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Conkling ranks among the 
ablest. He is regarded by many as the most 
eloquent member of the Bar at the present time, 
and some of his oratical efforts are considered 
equal to any of the productions of Edward 

James C. Conkling and Mercy A. Lovering 
were united in marriage September 21, 1841, in 
Baltimore, Maryland. Five children were born 
unto them — Clinton L., Charles, James, Annie 
v., and Alice. 

James C. Conkling is a man of great enter- 
prise and business activity. He has used much 
of his wealth in building enterprises and for the 
encouragement of manufactures. He is a mem- 
ber of the Second Presbyterian Church of 
Springfield, and for many years has been a rul- 
ing elder in that body. 

James H. Matheny, the present County Judge 
was born in St. Clair county, Illinois, October 
30, 1818. In the spring of 1821 he was brought 
by his parents, Charles R., and Jemima Ma- 
theny, to Springfield, w^here he has since contin- 
ued to reside. He now lays claim to be the old- 
est living resident of the city. Judge Mathe- 
ny's life has been an active one. At fifteen years 
of age he was employed as clerk in the Post- 
oflice and the Recorder's oflice, transacting the 
entire business of each, and probably having a 
little leisure to engage in such sports as were 
common to the youths of that age. It is well 
known that he enjoyed a little fun when a boy, 
and now that time has sprinkled his hair with 
gi'ay he still enjoys a good joke. In 1839 he 
was appointed Deputy Clerk of the Supreme 
Court and served for a time. In 1841 he en- 
tered the office of Baker & Bledsoe as a law 
student, and for two years pursued his studies, 
being admitted to the Bar in 1843. Instead of 
seeking a country where he was not known, he 
"hung out his shingle" in Springfield, where he 
was raised and where he was known by almost 
every one. He soon secured a good practice, 
and from that time to the present, he has never 
lacked for clients. As a jury-lawyer, he ranks 
high, and has been retained in many of the most 

prominent cases before the courts of Sangamon 
and adjoining counties. He is an effective 
speaker, with power to move a jury at will. 
His perceptive faculties are large, and he can 
quick,ly grasp a point or penetrate the aims of 
an adversary. 

In 1845 he was united in marriage with Maria 
L. Lee, and by her had seven children — Lee, 
Edward Dow, Lucy, Nora, James H., Jr., Ralph 
C, and Robert W. 

Judge Matheny has held many important 
public positions, and has always discharged his 
trusts in a faithful manner. In addition to 
those already mentioned, he was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1848, and was 
elected Clerk o^ the Circuit Court, in 1852, and 
served one term of four years. During* the war 
he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel of the 
130th Regiment Illinois Infantry. After the 
capture of Yicksburg he was on detached duty, 
holding military courts until 1864, when his reg- 
iment was consolidated with another, and he 
resigned. In November, 1873, he was elected 
Judge of the County Court of Sangamon 
County, and re-elected in 18*77, without opposi- 

In the "good old days of the Whig party" 
Judge Matheny was an earnest defender of its 
principles, his first Presidential vote being given 
for William Henry Harrison in the campaign 
of 1840. During that campaign, in company 
with nine other young men, he made a trip to 
Nashville, Tennessee, to hear Henry Clay speak. 
This journey required about five weeks, as the 
party went in their own private conveyance and 
camped out of nights. On the dissolution of 
the Whig party, Judge Matheny acted for a 
short time with the American and Republican 
parties, but on account of the conservative ten- 
dency of his mind, he finally drifted into the 
Democratic ranks, and usually votes that ticket. 
He is not a modern politician by any means, and 
never has antagonized the better element of 
opposing parties. When running for office, he 
invariably leads his ticket, in consequence of 
personal popularity, and for the reason he does 
not antagonize. 

In the meetings of the Old Settlers' Society 
he has always taken a deep interest, and was 
selected to make the first annual address. This 
address will be found elsewhere in this work. 
For several years he has held the position of 
Secretary of the Society, and no man would be 
missed more in its meetings. 

William H. Herndon was born in Greensburg, 
Kentucky, December 25, 1818, and came to Illi- 

O^-J^ cZ/eo 



nois in 1820, and Sangamon County in 182], in 
company with his parents. The schools of 
Springtiehl he attended, as the opportunity of- 
fered, until 1830, when he entered Illinois Col- 
lege, at Jacksonville, but only attended one 
year, being removed by his father in conse- 
ipience of the Abolition excitement then pend- 
ing, and which resulted in the death of Lovejoy, 
at Alton. The elder Herndon was inclined to 
be pro-slavery in his views, and did not care to 
have his son have Abolition sentiments instilled 
in his mind by the professors in the Jackson- 
ville institution. It is probable, judging from 
later events, that the removal was accomplished 
when it was too late. After his removal from 
the college, iie clerked in a store for several 
years, and in 1842 entered the law office of Lin- 
coln cfc Logan, where he read two years and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1844. The partnership 
of Lincoln & Logan now being dissolved, Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Herndon became partners, a 
relation which was never formally dissolved, 
and which existed mitil the death of Mr. Lin- 
coln, though other temporary arrangements 
were effected,by Mr. Herndon after Mr. Lincoln 
entered upon the duties of the Presidency. Tbe 
tirst arrangement was a partnershij) with Chas. S. 
Zane, which continued until Mr. Zane's eleva- 
tion to the Bench, when a partnership was en- 
tered into with A. Orendorff, which continued 
until Mr. Herndon's removal to the country in 
March, 186V. Before he left the city, he wrote 
and delivered four lectures on the character and 
life of Abraham Lincoln. 

Mr. Herndon has always been a great reader, 
and the questions of political economy and the 
science of mind have ever been with him fa- 
vorite studies. The science of law has also 
been an interesting study to him. He always 
desires to go to the bottom of every subject, 
and wishes to reach it the quickest way possi- 
ble. The little quibbles of the shyster disgusts 
him, and the red tapeism of the law affords him 
no pleasure. 

In the days of the old Whig party, Mr. Hern- 
don was an advocate of its principles, and the 
" hard cider campaign" of 1840, was the first in 
w^iich he participated. He was always an op- 
ponent of slavery, and on the organization of 
the Republican party he became one of its 
strongest advocates. 

Mr. Herndon has never been an office-seeker, 
and the public positions that he has held have 
come to him unsought. He has held the offices 
of City Attorney, Mayor of Springfield, Bank 
Commissioner for the State, under Governors 


Bissell, Yatesj and Oglesby, besides other minor 

William H. Herndon and Mary J. Maxcy was 
married in Sangamon County March 26, 1840. 
'1 hey have had six children. Mrs. Herndon 
died August 18, 1860, and Mr. Herndon was 
married July 31, 1861, to Anna Miles, by whom 
he has had two children. 

Personally, Mr. Herndon has the good will of 
everyone with whom he is acquainted In his 
life he endeavors to follow the golden rule. 

Norman M. Broadwell, attorney-at-law, was 
born in Morgan county, Illinois, in 1825. Bax- 
ter Broadwell, his father, and Mary Lindley, 
both New Jersey people by birth, married near 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and were among the first set- 
tlers in Morgan county, where they died a num- 
ber of years ago. Judge Broadwell received his 
chief literary education in his native county; 
came to Springfield and commenced reading law 
with Abraham Lincoln and William H. Herndon, 
in 1851, and was admitted near the close of the 
same year. He had begun the study of medi- 
cine and continued it some months previously, 
but not liking it, abandoned the idea. Upon 
being admitted to the Bar, Mr. Broadwell at once 
entered upon practice, which he has zealously 
and successfully prosecuted, with but slight 
interruptions, nearly a third of a century. He 
has had several law partners during these years, 
among them such eminent attorneys as Gov- 
ernor S. M. CuUom, General John A. McClernand 
and Hon. William M. Springer. The first cause 
he ever tried in a court of record, Abraham Lin- 
coln was opposed to him as counsel, and the last 
cause Mr. Lincoln ever tried in the Springfield 
counts, Mr. Broadwell was his associate counsel. 
Judge Broadwell has ever been an ardent de- 
votee of his profession, which he honors, and 
paid little attention to politics. He was, how- 
ever, elected to the State Legislature in the fall 
of 1860, from the Sangamon county district, on 
the Democratic ticket, being the only successful 
candidate of his party in the county that year. 
In 1862 he was elected County Judge, served 
three years, and was chosen Mayor of Spring- 
field in 1867, and re-elected in 1869. Judge 
Broadwell was united in marriage to Virginia 
lies, in Springfield, in 1856. She is a native of 
Sangamon county, Illinois, and is the mother of 
four daughters and one son. Judge Broadwell 
is a PastMaster in the Masonic Order. 

William J. Conkling was born in New York 
City in 1826; emigrated to Ohio in 18-31 and to 
McLean county, Illinois, in 1839. Attended 
Oberlin College for a time, but left in his junior 



year. Came to Springfield in 1853, read law for 
two years and was admitted to the Bar. For 
some years he had a lucrative practice, but of 
late years he has devoted himself more to the 
real estate business. 

John E. Rosette, lawyer, is a native of Dela- 
ware, Ohio, born in 1823. He was educated in 
that city, and read law there with Hon. Charles 
Sweetzer, an ex-member of the United States 
Congress; was admitted to the Bar in Columbus, 
Ohio, in 1850, and located in practice in Find- 
lay, Hancock county, Ohio. During the several 
years of professional life in that place he M'as 
twice elected Prosecuting Attorney of the 
county. From thence he returned to Delaware; 
lived there nearly three years, w^as appointed 
Probate Judge of the county, and served the un- 
expired term of Judge Fuller, deceased. In 
1855. upon the invitation of Abraham Lincoln, 
Mr. Rosette removed to Springfield, Illinois, and 
has been an active and prominent member of 
Sangamon County Bar for twenty-six years. He 
came to this county a Democrat in politics ; but 
from 1856 has been identitied with the Republi- 
can party. 

Mr. Rosette w^as united in marriage with Miss 
Mary Taylor, in Findlay, Ohio. She was born 
in Salem that State, and educated there in a 
convent. They have four daughters ; two mar 
ried to Captains in the United States regular 
army ; the eldest, the wife of Captain L. H. 
Rucker ; the second the wife of Captain F. T. 
Bennett, from Toledo, Ohio, who has also been 
Indian Agent at Fort Defiance, for several years, 
the only instance of a regular army officer hold- 
ing that office at the same time. 

Charles S. Zane, Judge of tlie Nineteenth Ju- 
dicial Circuit of Illinois, is a native of Cumber- 
land county. New Jersey, born March 2,1831. 
Andrew Zane, bis father, was a farmer, and mar- 
ried Mary Franklin, whose father was a relative 
of Dr. Benjamin Franklin. Mr. Zane's paternal 
grandfather, with two brothers, emigrated from 
England in early life. Mr. Zane's boyhood 
and youth were passed on his father's farm, 
the time being divided between labor and attend- 
ance at the district school. In April, 1850, he 
came to Sangamon County, Illinois, and in the 
employ of Rev. Peter Cartwright, engaged in 
brickmaking and farming, at 113 a month. In 
the winter of 1852 he rode to Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, on horseback; returned the fol- 
lowing spring, purchased a team, and spent the 
summer in breaking prairie. In the autumn of 
1852 he entered McKendree College, and pur- 
sued a course of study for three years, passing 

the vacations in teaching, which he continued 
after leaving college while reading law. Mr. 
Zane entered the law olfice of Hon. J. C. Conk- 
ling in July, 1856; completed the course and 
was admitted to the Bar in the spring of 1857, 
and opened an ofiice. He was elected City At- 
torney in the spring of 1858, and re elected in 
1860 and 1865, each term being one year. In 
the spring of 1861 Mr. Zane formed a partner- 
ship with William H. Herndon, former law part- 
ner of Abraham Lincoln, and did a successful 
business until 1869, when the firm was dissolved 
and he associated himself with Hon. Shelby M. 
CuUom and George O. Marcy. Tliis relation 
was continueduntil Mr. Zane was elected Circuit 
Judge in 1873, since which time he has worn 
the judicial ermine with distinguished ability. 
He rendered a famous decision in May, 1874, in 
the cause of The Peovle vs. The Chicago 
and Alton Railroad Company^ in which it 
was sought to recover certain penalties in- 
curred by a breach of the law of the State, au- 
thorizing Railroad and Warehouse Commission- 
ers to fix maximum rates of freight and passenger 
tariffs, in which the attorneys for the defense 
made an effort to transfer the case to the United 
States Court, claiming lack of jurisdiction in the 
State courts, and in which he ruled that it was 
not the province of the Federal Courts to inter- 
fere with the inherent judicial rights of the 
State, and that in assuming to take control of 
such causes it transcended its constitutional au- 
thority, and held that the rights and powers of 
the States and the people, not transferred by 
the Constitution to the United States, are just as 
sovereign and sacred as are those of the United 
States. Judge Zane refused to order the papers 
certified to the Federal court, and proceeded to 
try the cause, by jury, who rendered a verdict 
of ^400 against the defendant. 

Judge Zane's religious views are liberal and 
tolerant, nearly identical with the doctrines of 
the Unitarian Society. He is a great admirer 
of the school of philosophy of which Herbert 
Spencer and Mr. Tyndall are able exponents. 
Politically, the Judge favors a bi-metalic money 
standard, a free banking system, and a tariff 
upon the luxuries for revenue. 

Judge Zane married Miss Margaret Maxcy in 
the spring of 1859. She is of Kentucky parent- 
age, born in Springfield in 1835. They are the 
parents of eight children, six living. The eldest 
daughter, Mary Farnetta, is the wife of William 
Hinkle, chief clerk in the State Auditor's office. 
The eldest of their four sons, Charles W., is 
preparing for the legal profession, as is also the 



second son, John Maxcy Zane, now in Michigan 

John Alexander McClernand is the only child 
of Dr. John and Fatiraa McClernand, and was 
born in Breckenridge county, Kentucky, in 1812. 
Four years later his father died, and young Mc- 
Clernand, being made of that stern stuff that 
overcomes difficulties and surmounts obstacles, 
had succeeded in placing himself in a respect- 
able position and practice in the legal profession, 
at the early age of twenty. Meantime, in 1830, 
he had moved with the family to Shawneetown, 
Illinois. In 1832, before attaining his majority, 
he volunteered as a private in the Black Hawk 
war, and served honorably to its close. This 
service kindled a taste for, and gave him a knowl- 
edge of military tactics, and of the character of 
men, which proved important factors in his later 

In 1835 Mr. McClernand established the first 
Democratic journal ever jDublished in Shawnee- 
town; and the same year re-commenced the 
practice of law, which continued with success 
until he was elected to U. S. Congress in 1843. 
In 1836 he was elected to the Illinois Legislature 
from Gallatin county. During this session he 
successfully vindicated President Jackson from 
charges brought against him by Governor Dun- 
can; and also advocated that mode of con- 
structing the Illinois & Michigan Canal known 
as the "Deep Cut" plan, which was finally 
adopted. Mr. McClernand was chosen, by the 
legislature as commissioner and treasurer, which 
duties he so faithfully discharged that compli- 
mentary resolutions respecting his services were 
passed in a number of publ c meetings held at 
different points. In 1838 he was urged to be- 
come a nominee for Lieutenant Governor, but 
declined because under the Constitutional age — 
thirty years. At the same Democratic conven- 
tion which offered him the nomination Mr. Mc- 
Clernand prepared and offered the following 

^'- Hesolved, That the Democratic principle is 
founded on an imperishable basis of truth and 
justice, and perpetually striving to sustain soci- 
ety in the exercise of every pow'er which can 
promote human happiness and elevate our con- 
dition; that, instead of warring against order 
and encroaching on the j^rivileges of others, the 
spirit of Democracy maintains an active prin- 
ciple of hope and virtue. 

^^ Mesolved, That we recognize no power but 
that which yields to the restraints of duty and 
is guided by mind; that we only seek to obtain 
influence by means of free conviction; that we 

condemn all appeals to brute force and the ex- 
ercise of violence; and that our only means of 
persuasion are reason and truth. 

'■'■ liesolved, That our just claim is to connect 
our party with the cause of intelligence and 
morality; to seek the protection of every rierht 
consistent with the genius of our Constitution 
and the spirit of the age. We desire to extend 
moral culture, and to remove, as far as possible, 
all inequalities in our human conditions by em- 
bracing all improvements which can ameliorate 
our moral and political state." 

In 1840 Mr. McClernand was again returned 
to the legislature from Gallatin county; was re- 
elected in 1842; and as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Finance introduced several measures 
to alleviate the existing financial troubles of 
the State, which he attributed to the defect- 
ive banking system. These measures were all 
adopted. In 1843, while still a member of the 
legislature, he was chosen Representative to the 
Twenty-eighth Congress. The first speech he 
made in that body was on the bill to refund the 
fine imposed upon Gen. Jackson by Judge Hall. 
During the same session he delivered a speech 
on the Rock Island controversy, which was ex- 
tensively published. In the second session of 
the same Congress, as a member of the Com- 
mittee on Public Lands, he brought forward a 
comprehensive report, accompanied with a bill 
for a grant of land to aid in the completion of 
the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 

By an act of the legislature, the time for hold- 
ing elections had been changed, and Mr. McCler- 
nand was re-elected to Congress in 1844. He 
was one of the members who insisted with vehe- 
mence on the maintenance of the claim to fifty- 
four degrees, forty minutes in the Oregon con- 
troversy with Great Britain. He voted to 
sustain the President in the prosecution of the 
Mexican war, by granting the requisite men and 
means; and portrayed the beneficial results of 
that war in a speech delivered in Congress in 
June, 1846. In the first session of the Twenty- 
ninth Congress he prepared with great labor and 
introduced a bill to reduce and regulate the price 
of public lands. In the ensuing session, as 
chairman of the same committee, he introduced 
a bill, which became a law, to bring into market 
the mineral lands, lying around Lake Superior. 
During the same session he was called upon by 
the Jackson Monument committee to present 
their memorial, which he did, and his eulogium 
upon Jackson was highly esteemed. In 1848 
Mr. McClernand was again elected to Congress, 
but not without opposition. In 1849, as a mem- 



ber of a select committee on certain charges 
preferred against President Polk, for having 
established a tariff of duties in the ports of 
the Mexican Republic, Mr. McClernand de- 
fended the President in an able argument. 
In 1850, at the instance of other leading men, 
he prepared and offered the first draft of the 
famous Compromise measures of that year. But 
the same subject being taken up in the Senate 
by the committee of which Mr. Clay was chair- 
man, he prepared the bill which passed both 
houses, Mr. McClernand being chairman ot the 
committee of the whole during its passage 
through the House. He delivered an elaborate 
speech on the subject during that session. He 
also during that session drafted the bill granting 
a quantity of land in aid of the construction of 
the Illinois Central Railroad and its Chicago 
branch. His colleague. Senator Douglas, being 
furnished a copy, introduced it in the Senate, 
and, with amendments, it passed both houses 
and became a law. During the same session he, 
as chairman of the Committee on Foreign Af- 
fairs, introduced a paper for the regulation of 
the State Department. In 1851, declining re- 
election, he retired from Congress, after a flat- 
tering career of eight years, and moved to Jack- 
sonville, Illinois. The following year he was 
chosen Presidential Elector for the second time 
in his life, and supported Pierce and King. In 
1856 he made a powerful speech at Alton, de- 
precating the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and predicting danger to the country as the con- 
sequence. In 1856 he removed to Springfield, 
Illinois, where he soon gained a prominent po- 
sition as a lawyer in the State and F'ederal Courts. 
In 1859 he was elected Representative to Con- 
gress, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of 
Major T. L. Harris. In 1860 he introduced a 
bill repealing the law organizing the Territory of 
Utah and merging that Territory into others. 
This being his plan for overcoming the ascend" 
ancy of the Mormons, and the evils of polygamy- 
On the 14th of January, 1861, Mr. McCler- 
nand delivered a speech in the House, on the 
Union and the phantom, "No Coercion," that 
for historical research, comprehensiveness and 
exhaustive argument, has few equals in the 
.annals of parliamentary literature. 

In 1843, after his first election to Congress, 
^nd before taking his seat, Mr. McClernand 
married Miss Sarah, daughter of Colonel Dun- 
lap, of Jacksonville, Illinois. 

A sketch of the emminent services lendered 
the Government by General McClernand during 

the war for the Union will ap}.t'ar in the military 

Charles A. Keyes, Attorney and Counselor-at- 
Law, of the firm of McClernand & Keyes, South- 
west corner Fifth and Washington streets, is a 
native of Springfield, Illinois, l>orn in 1832 His 
parents, James W. and Lydia (Spickard) Keyes, 
were natives of Virginia, and came to Sangamon 
County, Illinois, in 1831, and are both living on 
their farm, four miles northwest of the City of 
SjDringfield. Charles attended the city schools, 
and graduated from Illinois College, Jackson- 
ville, in the class of 1854 ; read law with Elliott 
B. Herndon, and was admitted to the Bar in 

1856. They were partners at one time for two 
years. With that exception Mr. Keyes practiced 
alone until the present co-partnership was form- 
ed about eight years ago. In the spring of 1856 
he was elected City Attorney and re-elected in 

1857. In 1862-3 he served as Representative in 
the legislature, from Sangamon and Logan 
counties. He was appointed Master in Chan- 
cery by Judge E. Y. Rice, in 1867, and was 
twice re-appointed by Judge B. S. Edwards and 
Judge J. A. McClernand, serving in all seven 
years He was a delegate to the National Dem- 
ocratic Convention that nominated Seymour for 
President, in 1868. Mr. Keyes was united in 
marriage with Elizabeth Lauman, of Xenia, 
Ohio, in 1868. Her parents were early settlers 
in that city. The fruit of this union is two 
daughters and one son. 

Christopher C. Brown, Attorney-at-Law, of 
the firm of Stuart, Edwards & Brown, the oldest 
law firm in Illinois, was born in Sangamon 
county, now a part of Menard county, Illinois, 
on the 21st of October, 1834. His father, Wil- 
liam B. Brown, came from Kentucky and set- 
tled in Sangamon cotmty in 1832. He died in 
1850. C. C. Brown attended the Springfield 
schools, and at Greensburg, and the Lutheran 
College at Hillsboro. He read law with his 
brother, David A. Brown, in Springfield, then 
attended the Transylvania Law School in Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, was admitted to the Bar in 

1858. and in January, 1860, became a partner in 
the present firm, having been active in the pro- 
fession until now. While he has been an earn- 
est worker in the Democratic party, he has been 
a candidate for no political favor. Mr. Brown 
was united in marriage with Miss Bettie, daugh- 
ter of Major J. T. Stuart, of Springfield, in Octo- 
ber, 1859. She died in March, 1869, having been 
the mother of three children, one deceased. Mr. 
Brown married Carrie, daughter of John E 
Owsley, of Chicago, in 1872, by Avhom he has a 



son and daughter. His eldest son, Stuart Brown, 
was graduated from Princeton College, in June, 


Eugene L. Gross Avas born December 25, 1836, 
in Starkville, Herkimer county, New York, and 
came to Illinois Avith his parents in 1844. He 
received an academical education, and subse- 
quently read law in the office of H. G. Reynolds, 
in Knoxville, Illinois, and was admitted to the 
Bar in 1857. In that year he formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. Reynolds, which continued but a 
a few months. In 1858 he came to Springfield 
and opened an office, and here practiced his pro- 
fession until his death. As a lawyer, he was 
regarded by both the members of the Bar and 
the public, as one of more than ordinary ability. 
His legal attainments were quite diversified, 
and whether pleading before a jury, or present- 
ing his case for the consideration of the learned 
judge, he alike usually convinced both that his 
position was right. He Avas logical in his rea- 
sonings and drove home his ideas with great 

In 1865 he revised the City Ordinances of the 
city of Springfield, by direction of the Common 
Council. This Avas his first literary Avork. In 
1868, in connection with his brother. Colonel 
William L. Gross, with whom he had formed a 
laAv partnership, he compiled and published the 
General Statutes of the State, then in force. In 
January, 1868, they compiled and published a 
Digest of the Criminal LaAvs of the State. In 
1869 a new edition of the General Statutes, in- 
cluding the laws of 1869, were published. Dur- 
ing this year they also compiled and published 
an index to the Private and Special LaAvs of 
Illinois. In 1872 they compiled and published 
the second A'olume of Gross' Statutes. This 
ended the literary labors of Mr. Gross. 

Eugene L. Gross and Susan L. Zimmerman 
Avere united in marriage April 17, 1860. Four 
children were born to them — Leighla, Fred, 
Susie, and Bessie. 

In June, 1873, finding his health impaired, 
Mr. Gross started on horseback from Springfield 
and traveled through the Indian Nation, thence 
to NcAV Mexico and Texas, and returned by 
railroad in December of the same year. The 
trip failed to be of that benefit it Avas hoped. 
That relentless destroyer, consumption, had 
fixed its hold upon him, and on the 4th day of 
June, 1874, he breathed his last. 

Mr. Gross was never an aspirant to public of- 
fice, being contented to folloAv the profession he 
had selected for a life work. In politics he was 

always a thorough-going Republican, and an 
earnest advocate of the principles of that party. 

Milton Hay Avas born in Fayette county, Ken- 
tucky, July 3, 1817, and emigrated Avith his 
father's family to Springfield, Illinois, in the 
year 1832. Until arriving at age, he labored at 
different avocations for his father, attending the 
common schools at intervals, and receiving such 
education as such schools afforded at that day. 
He was fond of reading, and devoted the inter- 
vals of time when not at school or at labor, to 
the reading of such books as the scanty libraries 
of the time afforded. With James H. Mathenj^ 
(noAV Judge Matheny) and others, he aided in 
forming the first society of a literary charac- 
ter ever formed in Springfield, the Springfield 
Lyceum, which Avas devoted to debating dis- 
puted questions and the reading of original 
essays. He studied law in the office of Stuart 
& Lincoln, and was licensed to practice in 184U. 
He begun practice at Pittsfield, Pike ocunty, 
Illinois, and there practiced his profession until 
the year 1858, Avhen he returned to Springfield, 
continuing the practice of his profession until 
January, 1881, when he retired fiom the actiA^e 
practice of his profession. 

He was twice married. His first wife, Cath- 
erine, the daughter of James Forbes, of Pitts- 
field, died in 1857, leaving two children, both 
of whom died in infancy. In 1861, he married 
Mary Logan, eldest daughter of Judge Stephen 
T. Logan. She died in 1874. Tavo children 
survi\'e, born of this marriage, Kate and Logan 

He was elected to the Constitutional CouA'en- 
tion of 1872, from the district composed of the 
counties of Logan and Sangamon, and, although 
not of the dominant party in the CouA^ention, 
Avas made Chairman of the Committee on ReA'- 
enue, and served on the Judiciary Committee. 
He actively participated in all the proceedings 
of that body, and in forming the new Constitu- 
tion, which was subsequently adopted by the 
people. In 1874 he Avas elected as a Represent- 
ative of Sangamon county to the legislature, 
and acted (after the death of Mr. Bushnell) both 
as Chairman of the Judiciary and Revenue 
Committees of that body. He AA-as one of the 
committee of five appointed by the legislature, 
to reA^ise, in conjunction Avith Mr. Hurd, the laws 
of the State, and this Avork was adopted at an 
adjourned session of the legislature. Other 
than as here stated he has never held office, pre- 
ferring the practice of his profession to the 
pursuit of oflfice. In politics he is a Republi- 



Hon. William M. Springer, present member 
of Congress from the Twelfth District of Illi- 
nois, was born in Sullivan county, Indiana, 30th 
of May, 1836. When twelve years old he moved 
with his parents to Jacksonville, Illinois. There 
William prepared for college under the instruc- 
tions of Dr. NeAvton Bateman, then teaching in 
the West District school of that city. He en- 
tered Illinois College, but owing to some diffi- 
culty with the faculty was dismissed from the 
institution, and went thence in the spring of 
1856, to the State University of Indiana. In 
1858 Mr. Springer returned to Illinois, and after 
studying law nearly three years in Lincoln, was 
admitted to the Bar in 1860. The same year he 
was a candidate on the Democratic ticket for 
Representative in the State Legislature, for the 
district com})Osed of Logan and Mason counties, 
but was defeated by Colonel Robert B. Latham. 
In 1861 he settled in Springfield, and soon 
formed a law partnership with Hon. N. M. 
Broadwell, and Gen. John A. McClernand, the 
latter of whom retiring some years after, the 
firm continued as Broadwell & Springer. Re- 
turning home in 1870 at the close of a two-year's 
tour in Europe, for pleasure and the improve- 
ment of his wife's feeble health, Mr. Springer 
was elected to represent Sangamon County in 
the legislature. That being the first after the 
formation of a new Constitution. Several ses- 
sions were held during 1870-71 and 1871-72, 
and a complete revision of the Statutes of Illi- 
nois was made while he served in that body. 

In 1874, Mr. Springer was elected Represent- 
ative to Congress for the Twelfth District, com- 
posed of the counties of Cass, Christian, Menard, 
Morgan, Sangamon and Scott, and re-elected in 
1876, 1878 and 1880, being nominated the first 
time on the first ballot, and each subsequent 
time by acclamation, the delegations from each 
county being instructed to support him. This, 
in the face of the fact that Sangamon county has 
furnished the Representative from this district 
for twenty years consecutively, speaks well for 
the popularity of the present incumbent. In the 
Forty-fourth Congress, Mr. Springer was a mem- 
ber of several important committees. When the 
bill was introduced, in that session, to grant a 
million and a half dollars by the Government 
to the Centennial Commissioners, Mr. Springer 
offered an amendment, that upon the close of 
the Exposition and the sale of the property, the 
Government should be reimbursed by that 
amount from the proceeds before any dividend 
could be made to the stockholders. The bill 
became a law, as amended. The Centennial 

Board attempted to evade the payment of the 
money into the United States Treasury, through 
a supposed defect in Mr. Springer's amendment 
clause, but he, being selected by the Attorney- 
General to prosecute the cause, fought it through 
the United States Supreme Court, and obtained 
a verdict sustaining the act, and recovering to 
the Government fifteen hundred thousand dol- 
lars. For this valuable labor he has not, as yet, 
received a dollar compensation, though he has 
asked Congress to allow him to go before the 
Court of Claims and prove the value of his ser- 

In the Forty-fifth Congress Mr. Springer 
served on several prominent committees, among 
them the Potter Election Committee and the 
committee to investigate Mr. Seward's official 
records while Minister to China, and which re- 
ported twelve articles of impeachment against 
him. In the same Congress Mr. Springer bolted 
the caucus nomination of his party and supported 
General Shields against Mr. Field, the party 

He was the only Democratic member from the 
Northwest who voted against the Birchard and 
Hardridge resolutions, declaring that neither the 
courts nor Congress possessed the power to dis- 
turb Mr. Hayes' Presidential title, his action 
creating great excitement at the time. Mr. 
Springer believed that a wrong had been done 
in giving Mr. Haj^es the Presidency, while he 
opposed all revolutionary measures, thought the 
Government had the power to right that wrong. 
Mr. Springer was the Chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Elections in the Forty-sixth Congress, 
and opposed the majority of his party in their 
effort to unseat Representative W. D. Wash 
burne, of Minnesota, and substitute Ignatius 
Donnelly in his stead. Lie thought the claim of 
Mr. Donnelly unjust and the proceedings dis- 
honest; and although great pressure was brought 
to bear, through threats and slanderous charges 
of bribery, from which he was triumphantly vin- 
dicated, to coerce him to support the measure, 
he persistently opposed it, and was conspicuous 
in its defeat. The object of the movement was 
to secure a Democratic majority in the House, 
so that the party could elect the President in 
1880, in case it shoi;ld be thrown into the House 
of Representatives. 

Mr. Springer married the daughter of Rev. 
Calvin W. Ruter, a prominent Methodist clergy- 
man of Indiana. They have but one child, Wil- 
liam Ruter Springer, aged eighteen years, who 
was graduated from a private military academy 
in Virginia in 1880. Notwithstanding her deli- 



cate health, Mrs. Springer is an author of recog- 
nized ability. The most noted productions of 
her pen are "Beech Wood," which appeared 
several years ago, and "Self," published in 1881, 
both fropi the press of Lippincott, of Philadel- 
phia. She has also contributed a number of 
jjoems to the columns of current magazines. 

William E. Shutt, Attorney, of the law firm of 
Palmers, Robinson & Shutt, was born in Water- 
ford, Louden county, Virginia, May 5, 1840. 
His parents, Jacob and Caroline (Leslie) Shutt, 
moved to the city of Springfield in November, 
1842, They were natives of Louden county, 
Virginia. Father died here in 1866, mother in 
in 1865. Mr. Shutt was educated in the city 
schools, and read law with Judge James H. Ma- 
theny, and was admitted to the Bar in 1862, 
commencing practice immediately. In 1864 he 
was elected City Attorney on the Democratic 
ticket; was chosen Mayor of the city in 1868, by 
the same party In 1874 he was elected to the 
State Senate, for four years ; and was re-elected 
in 1878, his official term expiring in 1882. The 
law firm of Robinson, Knapp & Shutt was formed 
July 1, 1869, composed of Hon. James C. Rob- 
inson, Anthony L. Knapp and Mr. Shutt; and has 
existed until the death of Mr. Knapp, in May, 
1881, after which Robinson & Shutt formed a part- 
nership with J. M. and J. Mayo Palmer, under 
the firm name of Palmers, Robinson & Shutt. 

Robert L. McGuire of the firm of McGuire, 
Hamilton & Salzenstein, is a native of Missouri, 
and was born in 1833. He graduated from the 
Missouri University at Columbia, in the class of 
1857. Subsequently he followed the calling of 
a teacher. In 1861 he came to Springfield, read 
law and was admitted to the Bar in 1862. He 
formed a partnership with James H. Matheny 
in 1866, previous to which time he practiced 
law alone. This partnership continued until 
1874. In May, 1878, he formed a partnership 
with L. F. Hamilton, and later Mr. Salzenstein 
was admitted, forming the present firm. 

Leonidas H. Bradley, of the firm of Bradley 
& Bradley, Lawyers, 117^ South Fifth street, 
was born in Galia county, Ohio, July 23, 1841. 
He is one of a family of four sons and a daugh- 
ter, of Lewis and Nancy C. Bradley nee Knox, of 
New Y^ork, and the State of Delaware, respec- 
tively. In 1852 they moved to Clark county, 
Illinois, where the senior Bradley died in March, 
1880, and where the widow and several of the 
family now reside. Leonidas was educated at 
Marshall, Illinois, and Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, in Delaware, from which he was graduated 
in the classical coui'se in 1861, being less than 

twenty years of age. He at once commenced the 
study of law with Judge Charles H. Constable, 
in Marshall, Illinois; in August, 1862, enlisted as 
a pi-ivate in the 130th Illinois Infantry. Upon 
the consolidation with the 77th regiment he was 
made Quartermaster Sergeant and filled that 
oftice till discharged after the close of the war. 
In October, 1865, Mr. Bradley married Miss Abi- 
gal L., daughter of Hon. Uri Manley, an early 
settler and prominent lawyer of Marshall. Soon 
after retiring from the army Mr. Bradley w^as ad- 
mitted to the Bar, settled in Springfield and 
formed a partnership with W. P. Olden, which 
continued till June, 1872, when Mr. Olden retired 
and Isaac K. Bradley took his place. Mr. Bradley 
has been ai-dently devoted to his profession, 
paying little attention to politics, but was elected 
a member of the Board of Supervisors in 1871, 
and in 1872 chosen to the City Council; was 
a candidate, against his wish, for County Judge 
on the Republican, ticket, but the county being 
strongly Democratic, was beaten. He was ap- 
pointed Assistant United States District Attor- 
ney in 1869, did efficient service in prosecuting 
fraudulent distillers in this district; resigned in 
1S71. He enjoys an extensive practice in the 
Chancery and LTnited States Courts. His mar- 
riage with Miss Manley has resulted in a family 
of three sons and three daughters, one of the 
latter deceased. 

Isaac K. Bradley was also born in Galia county, 
Ohio, and is a little more than thirty-two years 
old. He attended school at Marshall and at Leb- 
anon, Illinois, completing the classical course in 
1869; read law with Messrs. Bradley & Olden, 
in Springfield; was admitted in May, 1870; be- 
gan practice as a member of the law firm of 
Bradley, Olden & Bradley, in 1871. Since Mr. 
Olden's retirement, the following year, the 
brothers have continued under the present firm 
title, and have a large law business in the several 

Thomas G. Prickett, lawyer, is the second of 
five children of Hon. David and Charlotte G. 
Prickett, and was born in Springfield, December 
23, 1837. He was educated at Charlottsville 
Seminary, from which he graduated in 1858; 
entered the army with the rank of Captain, in 
1862; served about two and one-half years on 
General McClernand's staff; read law under the 
preceptorship of General John A. McClernand; 
graduated with the title of Bachelor of Laws, 
from the law department of Michigan State LTni- 
versity, in 1865; was admitted to the Bar in 
March, 1865; was elected City Attorney in 1866, 
and again in 1868. Mr. Prickett was elected 



Alderman from the Third ward in 1874, and 
again in 1876, serving four yeais in all. 

The two brothers and two sisters own and re- 
side in the old homestead, opposite the Slate 
Capitol, erected by Hon. George Forquer over 
fifty years ago. The premises include three acres 
of land, beautifully situated on the corner of 
Capitol avenue and Second street. 

Norman L. Freeman is the present Reporter 
of the Supreme Court of Illinois, which office 
he has held, by appointment from that court, 
since April, 1863, 

He is a native of Livingston county. New 
York, and was born May 9, 1823. His parents, 
Truman Freeman and Hannah Down, were na- 
tives of New Hampshire, and prior to their re- 
moval to the State of New York, had for many 
years been residents of the city of Concord. 
After the death of the father, in 1824, the 
mother, with the younger members of her 
family, moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where 
she resided many years. While a mere boy, 
young Norman entered the store of David 
Cooper, a leading merchant of Detroit, where he 
remained about three years. Leaving Detroit, 
he spent a few months in Cleveland, as a clerk, 
and then entered an academy near that city, 
from which he passed to Ohio University, at 
Athens, at which institution he completed his 
literary education. Upon leaving the university, 
he went to Kentucky, and for several years 
taught school in the vicinity of Lexington. 
While still a teacher he pursued his law studies, 
and in the winter of 1845-6 entered the law 
office of Kirtland & Seymour, at Waterford, 
New York, and in the spring of 1846 returned 
to Kentucky, was admitted to the Bar at Lex- 
ington, and began practicing his profession in 
Morganfield, Union county, in that State. In 
1849 he was married to Miss Tranquilla Riche- 
son, daughter of Alfred Richeson and Elizabeth 
Dabney Williamson. To them were born five 
children, four of whom survive, three daughters 
and one son. In 1851 we find him practicing 
his profession at Shawneetown, Illinois, where 
he remained until his removal to Springfield in 
1864. In 1855 he published his Digest of the 
Illinois Reports, in two volumes, a work which 
went far to establish his reputation as a lawyer 
and law writer. During the time he has held 
his present office, he has issued sixty-six volumes 
of reports — a greater number, it is believed, than 
has been issued by any other American reporter. 

Until the disorganization of that party, Mr. 
Freeman was a Henry Clay Whig, but since that 
time his political affiliations have been with the 

Democracy. Modest, genial, erudite — a good 
lawyer, an excellent Court Reporter, and a wor- 
thy citizen, 

Richmond Wolcott is a native of Illinois, and 
was born in Morgan county, January 10, 1840. 
He was educated at Jacksonville, where his par- 
ents moved at an early day, and graduated from 
Illinois College in the Class of 1859. In 1861, 
he enlisted as a private in the Tenth Illinois 
Infantry; was promoted to First Lieutenant, and 
then Captain. He served until September, 1864, 
when he resigned and returned to Jacksonville, 
and resumed the study of law, which he com- 
menced before he entered the army. In June, 
1865, he was admitted to practice, and at once 
located in Springfield, since which time he has 
actively engaged in the practice of his profession. 
He married Jennie Salter, July ll, 1865, by 
whom he has had two daughters. In politics, 
Mr. Wolcott is a Republican. 

Thomas C. Mather, of Scholes & Mather, has 
been practicing law in Springfield since the 
spring of 1865, and has been a member of the 
present firm since 1871. He first read law with 
Hay, Cullom & Campbell, and then attended the 
law department of Michigan State University, 
where he completed the course of studies in that 
institution, in the spring of 1864. He then en- 
tered the office of a law firm in Chicago, where 
he remained until the spring of 1865, when he 
was admitted to practice in the courts of this 
State, and at once returned to Springfield. Mr. 
Mather received his literary education in the 
schools of Springfield, and a partial course in 
Illinois College, at Jacksonville. His parents 
dying in his infancy, he was reared by Colonel 
Mather, since deceased. He is now thirty-nine 
years of age, and since infancy his home has 
been in Sangamon county, 

Clinton L. Conkling, Attorney and Counselor 
at law, is a native of Springfield, Illinois, born 
October 16, 1843. He was educated in Yale 
College, from which he was graduated in the 
class of 1864. Clinton studied law in the office 
of his father, Hon. James C. Conkling, of 
Springfield, and was licensed to practice in the 
courts of Illinois, November 23, 1866, and the 
United States in January, 1867. After practic- 
ing a few years he turned his attention to the 
manufacturing business, but in 1877 resumed 
the duties of his profession to which he now 
gives his whole time, devoting special attention 
to chancery and real estate law, and to the set- 
tlement of estates. For some years Mr. Conk- 
ling was secretary of the Lincoln Monument 
Association, and has been an active member of 



the fraternity of (Jdd Fellows in Central Illi- 
nois, besides being identified with other and 
similar benevolent societies. He has also been 
a member of the Board of Su|)ervisors of the 
county, two terms. In his real estate practice he 
represents large land interests in this and other 

In 18G7 Mr. Conkling united in marriage with 
Miss Georgie Barrell, and they now have a 
family of two daughters, Georgie B. Conkling, 
and Kate Conkling, aged eight and six years re- 

Lloyd F. Hamilton, of the firm of McGuire, 
Hamilton & Salzenstein, is a Kentuckian by 
birth, but was raised in Tazewell county, Illi- 
nois, his mother having emigrated to that county 
while he was yet an infant. His father died 
before they came to this State. He began to 
study law in 1864, with Judge Schotield,of Mar- 
shall, Illinois, and the following year entered 
the Law Department of Michigan University, 
where he remained one year. He then entered 
the Law Department of the Chicago University, 
wdiere he graduated in 1866. During the same 
year he passed a successful examination before 
the Supreme Court of Illinois and was admitted 
to practice. Selecting Springfield as a home, he 
moved to that city and opened an office 
and has since continued to practice here. In 
1872 he was elected States' Attorney and served 
four years, and was highly successful as a pros- 
ecutor. Previous to this, during the municipal 
year of 1869-70, he wasCit)^ Attorney of Spring- 
field. Mr. Hamilton has studiously devoted 
himself to the practice of his profession and 
stands well with the Bar. 

James W. Patton was born February 1.5, 1840, 
near Auburn, Sangamon county, Illinois. "When 
but eight years old his father died, leaving his 
mother with two other children younger than 
himself. His mother's maiden name was Eliza- 
beth A. Moore, and she now resides upon the 
family homestead near the place of his birtli. 
His grandfather, James Patton, was among the 
first settlers of Sangamon county, having emi- 
grated from Christian county, Kentucky, in the 
spring of 1820. 

Mr. Patton remained with his mother on the 
farm until he was sixteen, when he spent two or 
three years away from home at school. Upon 
his return he was engaged in teaching for a 
while. In 1860 he entered the law firm of 
Messrs. Hay & CuUora, of Springfield, with 
whom he studied until admitted to the Bar. 
After that he was engaged with his brother, 
Matthew Patton in merchandising at Auburn. 


At the Presidential election of 1864, he was 
elected one of the Representatives of Sangamon 
and Lfjgan counties to the legislature. In^April 
1866, he located in Springfield, and commenced 
the practice of his profession. 

December 9, 1869, he was married to Francine 
E. daughter of Hon. Charles H. Lanphier, of 
Springfield. Mr. Patton has devoted himself to 
the practice of his chosen profession, in which 
he has been successful. 

Samuel D. Scholes, of the firm of Scholes & 
Mather, is a native of Peoria county, Illinois, 
and was born in 1841. He was educated in 
Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, and 
began reading law with Johnson & Hopkins, of 
Peoria. When the war commenced he enlisted 
and served as Orderly Sergeant in the three 
months' service, and afterwards as First Lieu- 
tenant in the three years' service, in the 1-Jth 
Illinois Infantry. At the close of the war, in 
1865, he again returned to his law books, and in 
January, 1866, was admitted to the Bar, and 
commenced practice in Springfield. In 1875 he 
received the appointment of Master in Chan- 
cery, which oflftce he continues to hold. Since 
1871 the present law firm has been in existence. 
Politically, Mr. Scholes is a Republican, but he 
has never been actively engaged in politics. 

Alfred Oi-endorif, Attorney-at-law, was born 
in Logan count}^, Illinois, 29th July, 1845. 
Joseph Orendorff, his father, was a North Caro- 
linian by birth, but came to Illinois with his 
parents about 1819. Christopher Orendorfl^, his 
father, settled on Sugar creek, north of Spring- 
field, in what was then Sangamon, now Logan 
county, and built the first water-power grist- 
mill in that part of the country, making the 
burrs of boulders obtained in the vicinity of 
the mill. Joseph Orendorff married Elizabeth 
Stevens, a native of Henderson county, Ken- 
tucky. He died when the subject of this biog- 
raphy was a lad of ten summers, and his widow 
removed to Lincoln, Logan county. ' Alfred 
enjoyed the common schools, and subsequently 
attended the Wesleyau University at Lincoln, a 
year, and the military school at Fulton, Illinois, 
a short time. In the spring of 1866 he gradu- 
ated from the Albany Law School, and spent 
the succeeding winter in Texas. Returning to 
Springfield in tlie autumn of 1867, he engaged 
in the practice of law in the oftice of Herndon 
& Zane; and u])on the retirement of Judge 
Zane from tbe firm, the law partnership of 
Herndon & Orendorff was formed, and con- 
tinued for a number of years. June 22, 1870, 
Mr. Orendorff united in marriage with Miss 



Julia, daughter of Colonel John Williams, an 
early settler and pronainent l)usiness man of 
Springfield. In 1870 Mr. Orendorff was nomi- 
nated by the Republicans for the State Senate, 
but the "Democrats being largely in the majority, 
he was beaten by their candidate, lion. Alexan- 
der Starne. In 1872, he was a delegate to the 
National Democratic Convention, and supported 
Hon. Lyman Trumbull for the Presidency. In 
1873 he was chosen by the Liberals as candidate 
for Representative to the General Assembly of 
Illinois. The choice being ratified by the Dem- 
ocrats, he was elected, and was made a member 
of the Judiciary Committee in that body, and 
took an active part in framing the Revised Stat- 
utes, made necessary by the adoption of the 
new Constitution. Mr. Orendortf joined the 
Odd Fellows in 1874; has filled the various 
offices in the subordinate lodge; was chosen Rep 
resentative of No. 465 to the Grand Lodge, held 
in Peoria in 1875; was elected Grand Master of 
the State in 1878, and is now Representative to 
the Sovereign Grand Lodge I. O. O. F. of the 

The law firm of Orendorff & Creighton was 
formed in 1879. It has an extensive business, 
and its members are recognized as among the 
most successful practitioners at the Springfield 

Henry S. Greene, Attorney for the Wabash, 
St Louis and Pacific Railway Company, and 
member of the late prominent law firm of Hay, 
Greene & Littler, was born in Ireland in 1833. 
At six years of age he crossed the Atlantic, and 
grew to manhood on the shore of Lake Ontario 
in the Dominion of Canada. In 1857 he came 
to Illinois, read law in the office of Lawrence 
Weldon, at Clinton, and was admitted to the 
Bar in January, 1860. Having previously ar- 
ranged to become a law partner with Hon. C .H. 
Moore, of Clinton, Mr. Greene entered into and 
remained in that relation six years. Three 
years after his admission he was appointed At- 
torney for the Chicago and Alton Railroad Com- 
pany for the counties of Logan and McLean, 
which position he resigned upon moving to 
Springfield in 1868, since which time, his law 
firm has been counsel for the company in San- 
gamon county, he still retaining that relation. 
Ill 1860 Mr. Greene associated himself with Mr. 
D. T. Littler in the practice of law, and upon 
the dissolution of the firm of Hay cfe Palmer by 
the election of the latter to be Governor, Hon. 
Milton Hay became a partner, the firm title 
changing to Hay, Greene & Littler. This part- 
nership ceased by dissolution January 1, 1881. 

For a number of years this firm has had charge 
of the legal business of the Wabash Railway 
Company in this part of the State. Some time 
previously, and since their separation, Mr. Greene 
has been the General Counselor for the Wabash, 
St. Louis and Pacific Railway Company for Illi- 
nois, where it owns and controls by lease 1,300 
miles of railroad lines, and Consulting Counsel 
for the outside business of the company, con- 
trolling in all 3,000 miles of road. 

During the last two years of its existence, he 
was retained as counsel for the American Union 
Telegraph Company in its extensive litigation 
with the Western Union Company, previous to 
their consolidation. In none of the large legal 
business which Mr. Greene has done for corpora- 
tions, has he received a stated salary, but simply 
a fee for the professional labor performed. In 
view of the great demand upon his time and en- 
ergies in attending to the legal matters of these 
companies, he has withdrawn almost entirely, of 
late years, from general court practice at the Bar. 
The rapid growth of the Wabash, St. Louis & 
Pacific Company's, by absorption and construc- 
tion, in the last few years, has created a large 
volume of legal business, and ext^ended his duties 
until they are larger outside of the State than 
in it. 

In 1863, Mr. Greene was appointed District 
Attorney, by Governor Yates, for the Eighth 
Judicial District, composed of the counties of 
DeWitt, Logan and McLean, and was subse- 
quently elected to the same position, but re- 
signed to take his seat in the legislature, in 1867, 
in which he served one regular and two special 
sessions; and upon moving from the district, re- 
signed before the close of his term of ofiice. 

In the fall of 1854, before leaving Canada, Mr. 
Greene married Miss Elizabeth Ilogle, born in 
that country, of New Hampshire parentage. 
Their family consists of one daughter and one 
son. In politics, Mr. Greene has always been a 
firm and active, but not radical. Republican. 

A. N. J. Crook is a native of Tennessee, but 
was reared in Indiana, his parents removing to 
that State in his childhood. In 1856 he came 
to Peoria county, Illinois, and from there to 
Sangamon county in 1862. He spent two years 
in Pike's Peak, Colorado. After reading la-w 
for a time with Herndon & Zane, he was admit- 
ted to the Bar and commenced practice in 
Springfield. In 1869 he was elected County 
Judge and served four years. He also served 
as a member of the 32d General Assembly from 
Sangamon county. He is a staunch Democrat 
and an active worker in its interests. 



James C. Uobinson, of the lirm of Palmers, 
Robinson & Shutt is a native of Edgar county 
Illinois, where he was born in 1824. Jlis father, 
Richard Robinson was a North Carolinian, and 
married Sally Dixon, and moved to Clark 
county, Illinois, in 18l!0, but removed to Edgar 
county shortly after. Subsequently he returned 
to Clark county where James was brought up 
and educated. Mr. Robinson read law in Clark 
county, and was admitted to practice about 1850, 
and followed his chosen profession in that 
county until 1869, when he settled in Spring- 

Like many other lawyers, of a past Decade, 
Mr. Robinson became somewhat of a politician, 
and in 1858 was elected from the Clark county 
District, a member of Congress. He was re- 
elected in 1860 and 1862. In 1868, he was 
placed in nomination by liis party, the Demo- 
cratic, for the office of Governor, in opposition 
to his present law partner — John M. Palmer, 
but was defeated. In 1870 he was nominated 
for Congress from the Springfield District and 
triumphantly elected, and re-elected in 1872. 

Soon after his settlement in Springfield, Mr. 
Robinson formed a partnership with A. L. 
Knapp, and subsequently William L. Shutt was 
admitted a member of the firm. The firm con- 
tinued in existence until the death of Mr. 
Knapp in the summer of 1881. Soon after this 
a partnership was effected with John M. and 
John Mayo Palmer, under the firm name of 
Palmers, Robinson & Shutt, the firm being one 
of the strongest in the State. The new firm 
now enjoys, as the old one did for many years, 
an extensive practice, especially in the upper 
courts. Mr. Robinson is recognized as an excel- 
lent jury-lawyer, and as a stump sj^eaker has 
few equals. 

James A. Kennedy, attorney at law, is a na- 
tive of Huntingdon — now Blair — county, Penn- 
sylvania; was born in 1833. David Kennedy 
and Mary A. Miller, his parents, w^ere also of 
that State. They came to Illinois about 1840, 
and settled in Calhoun county, where Mr. Ken- 
nedy died soon after. They had three children, 
of whom James is the only one alive. Soon 
after his father's death, the family moved to St 
Louis, Missouri, and he was tliere reared and 
educated, completing a course in the St. Louis 
LTniversity in 1852. He then went south and 
engaged in teaching school in New Orleans and 
interior Louisiana, until 1857. Returning, he 
remained in St. Louis till the following year, 
then located in Waterloo, Monroe county, Illi- 
nois: read law Avith Hon. William R. Morrison, 

and was admitted to })ractice in 1859. He was 
elected (.-ounty Superintendent of schools in 
1860, and filled the office by successive elections, 
eight yeffrs. He was appointed jNIaster in Chan- 
cery about the same time, and held that position 
till he moved to Sangamon county in 1870. 
Here he taught the first year as assistant in the 
city high school, at the close of which he opened 
a law office; was elected city attorney on the 
Democratic ticket in 1874; the following year 
was chosen Justice of the Peace to fill a va- 
cancy, was re-elected in 1877, and served till 
May, 1881. Upon retiring he resumed the prac- 
tice of law. Mr. Kennedy is now serving his 
second term as supervisor from Capitol town- 
ship; was chairman of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee, first term, is now at the head of Com- 
mittee on Pauper and Poor Accounts. In Jan- 
uary, 1879, he, with several others, printers, is- 
sued the "Catholic News," a weekly publication, 
which was suspended about six months later, 
from lack of proper support. In 1858 he mar- 
ried Miss Clara Vanderburgt, a native of Bel- 
gium, Europe, but came to America at ten years 
of age. They haA^e two adult daughters, Mary 
E. and Emma. Mr. Kennedy is a member, and 
for several years was successively President 
and Secretary of the Union of the Irish Catho- 
lic Benevolent Societies, of Springfield. 

Charles Philo Kane, late of the firm of Haz- 
lett & Kane, is the son of Rev. Andrew J. Kane, 
who came to Sangamon county, Illinois, in 1830, 
and Caroline M. Beers, Avhose parents, Philo 
Beers and Martha Stillman, settled in this 
county in 1820, and are believed to have been 
the second couple married in Sangamon county. 
Charles was born in Springfield, December 25, 
1850, graduated from the city high school in 

1868, commenced the study of law in August, 

1869, with Messrs. Hay, Greene & Littler, and 
was admitted to the Bar, June 13, 1871. May 1, 
1874, he opened a law office in company with 
his late partner, Robert H. Hazlett. In the 
spring of 1878, Mr. Kane was elected to the 
office of City Attorney, and re-elected in 1879 
and i 880, retiring from the oftice May 1, 1881. 
He is a Mason, a Past Master in St. Paul's lodge. 
No. 500, is a member of Springfield Chapter No. 
1, Royal Arch Masons, and has been tAvo years 
Hecorderof EhvoodCommandery No. 6, Knights 

His ]»arents reside in Springfield; father was 
born in 1818, mother in 1827. 

John C. Lanphier, second son of Hon. Charles 
H. Lanphier. Born October 19, 1850, in Spring- 
field, Illinois ;. graduate of class of 1866, of 



Springfield High Scliool. Studied law with 
Robinson, Knapp & Shutt and with Morrison & 
Patton. Admitted to the Bar July 4, 1871. 
Practiced in Chicago three years. Went into 
partnership with James W. Patton in January, 
1875, firm of Patton & Lanphier. Mai'ried 
April 11, 1877, to Miss Susie C. Young, at St. 
Louis, Missouri. 

Henry H. Rogers is a native of Ohio. He 
came to Illinois in 1869, and settled in Lawrence 
county. In 1872 he was admitted to the Bar, 
and commenced practice. In 1875 he caire to 
Springfield and opened an office. For about 
two years he was a partner of Henry B. Kane, 
the partnership being dissolved on the election 
of Mr. Kane to the office of Justice of the Peace 
in the spring of 1881. 

John C. Snigg, lawyer, 220 South Sixth street, 
was born in New Hampshire in November, 1849; 
came to Springfield, Illinois, in the fall of 1850. 
His parents were Edward Snigg and Margaret 
Murphy. His education was chiefly attained in 
the printing office, he having never attended 
school more than six months in his life. Mr. 
Snigg entered the office of the SpringfiekVReg- 
ister as an apprentice boy in 18(52, and worked 
in that and the Journal office until 1871. He 
began reading law in May of that year, in the 
office of Robinson, Knapp & Shutt, and carried 
newspapers meantime to defray current expenses. 
Passed his first examination in Michigan, in 
1873, and received license to practice law; 
passed another examination before the Supreme 
Court of Illinois in June of the same year, and 
commenced practice in Springfield. He was 
elected (^ity Attorney in 1875, and re-elected in 
1876 and 1877. During the last term he revised 
the city ordinances, after thirteen years without 
revision. In the fall of 1878, Mr. Snigg was 
elected Representative to the legislature on the 
Democratic ticket, for its thirty-first session. 

Robert li. Hazlett, State's Attorney for San- 
gamon county, Illinois, late senior member of the 
law firm of Hazlett tfe Kane, is the second child 
and eldest son of a family of six children — 
three of each sex — of William P. and Zerelda 
Hazlett, nee Haggard, and was born in Christian 
county, Illinois. His grandfather Hazlett came 
from Western Virginia, and settled in Spryig- 
field in 1828, his father being then but seven 
years of age. Some years later the family 
removed to Christian county. There his parents 
married and remained until 1860, when they 
returned to Sangamon county and settled where 
they now reside, four miles west of Springfield. 
Robert labored on the farm until twenty^ years 

old, enjoying the educational advantages of the 
city schools andtwoyears attendance at the State 
Industrial L^niversity at Champaign, Illinois. 
He read law in the ()ffice of Herndon & Oren- 
dorfi^ in Springfield, and was admitted to the 
Bar, March 6, 1873. He served as Deputy Clerk 
in the office of the Supreme Court for a time; 
and in May, 1874, he formed a law partnership 
with Charles P. Kane, and opened an office for 
practice. In 1876, Mr. Hazlett was elected 
State's Attorney for Sangamon county, and re- 
elected in 1880. In politics he is Democratic, 
and was elected on that ticket. 

William L. Gross is an Attorney-atLaw, in the 
active practice of his profession in the city of 
Springfield, Illinois, in conjunction with Clinton 
L. Conkling, under the firm of Gross & 
Conkling. Mr. (iross is a native of the State of 
New York, and Avas born in Fairfield, Herkimer 
county, on the 21st of February, 1839. His fa- 
ther, Rev. Alba Gross, a minister in the Baptist 
Church, and his mother Alathea Smith Gross, 
were born in Courtland county, New York. 
Ti e family came to Illinois in the spring of 
1844, making the journey in a movers' covered 
wagon. They first settled in Canton, Fulton 
county, and afterwards, in 1848, moved upon a 
farm in Knox county. 

At the age of seventeen years, William, the 
subject of this sketch, having passed through the 
public schools and the Academ}', engaged in 
teaching, and while so engaged he prosecuted 
his law studies. He was admitted to the Bar in 
Springfield on June 27, 1862, and at once enter- 
ed into pratice in that city in co-partnership with 
his brother, Eugene L. Gross, Esq. 

In August, 1862, Mr. Gross entered the ser- 
vice of the Government, and in September, 
1863, was appointed Superintendent of Military 
Telegraphs in the Department of the Ohio. Im- 
mediately following this appointment, on Octo- 
ber 27, 1863, he was appointed l)y President 
Lincoln, a Captain and Assistant (Quartermaster 
of Volunteers, and, under command of General 
Anson Stager, was assigned to duty in the De- 
partment of the Ohio, as Military Superintend- 
ent Telegra])hs. In the discharge of this duty 
he was engaged till Johnston's surrender in 
the spring of 1865, when he was transferred to 
the Department of the Gulf, relieving Colonel 
W. G. Fuller, and took control of Military Tele- 
graphs in that entire department. While in 
this latter department he was a member of Gen- 
eral Phil H. Sheridan's military family, and a 
member of his staff. He was twice breveted, 
once as major and afterwards as lieutenant colo- 


1 :'. 1 

, I 

nel, and was honorably discharged in August, 

From that time till February, 1868, he was 
engaged in the civil telegraphic service, succes- 
ively as Auditor of the Southwestern Telegraph 
Company, at Louisville, Kentucky, as financial 
agent of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany for the district west of the Missouri, and 
as Superintendent of the Tariff Bureau of that 
company in New York City. 

Resigning that position in February, 1868, he 
returned to Springfield, and, resuming his busi- 
ness relations with his brother, E. L. Gross, 
became an active member of the Law and Law 
Publishing firm of E. L. & W. L. Gross, so well 
known throughout this State. In 1868 the firm 
issued the first volume of Gross' Statxxtes of 
Illinois, a work accepted by the courts and Bar 
as authority, and specially legalized by an act of 
the legislature. The following year a second 
edition was issued, including the laws of 1869; 
and the firm also issued an Index to all the Laws 
of Illinois, a work of gi'eat research, minute 
detail and merit. In 18'72 the second volume of 
Gross' Statutes appeared, and the following year 
the firm was dissolved by the retirement of the 
elder brother on account of ill healtli. The 
publications of the firm were continued by the 
subject of this sketch, and in 1874 appeared the 
third volume of Gross' Statutes. Of these pub- 
lications it is not too much to say that they 
were acceptable alike to the courts, the Bar, and 
the people, and will long remain models of their 

Since 1874 Mr. Gross has been actively en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession in this 

He was elected Representative from Sanga- 
mon county to the Thirty-First General Assem- 
bly, upon the Republican ticket, and served dur- 
ing that session. 

In January 1881 he formed the law partner- 
ship now existing, with Mr. Clinton L. Conk- 
ling, one of the leading law firms of Sangamon 

Upon the organization, in January 1877, of 
the Illinois State Bar Association, Mr. Gross was 
elected its Secretary, and by successive elections 
still holds that important position. 

In 1864 Mr. Gross Avas married to Miss Althea 
Livingstone, of Poughkeepsie, New York, and 
to them have been born two children, Edgar S. 
and Louise. 

John McAuley Palmer was born in Scott 
county, Kentucky, September 13, 1817. While 
yet in his infancy, he was taken by his parents 

to Christian county, Kentucky, Avhere he re- 
mained until 1831, when, in company with his 
parents, he came to Illinois and settled in Madi- 
son county. At this time he was in his four- 
teenth year, with but little education, and only 
such as was derived from the common country 
schools of that day. About two years after, his 
mother died and the family was broken up. The 
old college at Alton, commenced on the manual 
labor plan, was started at this time, and he de- 
termined to avail himself of its privilegeu. For 
one year he arose at daylight, built the fires, 
swept the floors, and did other chores until 
school hours, when he prosecuted his studies. 

Some four years after (in 1838), while travel- 
ing as a clock peddler, he stopped all night at a 
hotel in Carthage, Hancock county. A friend 
accompanied him to the hotel, and the two were 
assigned a room with two beds. Late in the 
night they were aroused by the landlord, who 
ushered in two strangers. "Sorry to waken 
you, gentlemen," said he, "but here are two 
strangers who want a bed. You two must sleep 
together, or share your beds with them." Palmer 
turned over, rubbed his eyes, and saw before 
him a short, spare man, with broad, expansive 
forehead, and large, luminous eyes. The other 
was taller, fine-looking, and had the appearance 
of being a college professor. The tab man in- 
quired about their politics. "Well," replied 
Palmer, " My friend's a Whig, and I am a Demo- 
crat." "You take the Whig, and I'll take the 
Democrat," said the short man. They got into 
bed, and all were soon sound asleep. The next 
morning Palmer inquired the name of his bed- 
fellow. It was Stephen A. Douglas, the Little 
Giant of the West. His fellow-traveler was 
John T. Stuart. 

In 1839, Mr. Palmer went to Carlinville, and 
entered the law office of John S. Greathouse, 
and commenced the study of law. In Decem- 
ber of the same year he went to Springfield to 
apply for license to practice. The court appoint- 
ed Judge Douglas and J. Young Scammon to 
examine him. His examination was satisfac- 
tory, Mr. Douglas remarking, "You may not 
now be able to take charge of important law 
cases, but from the cut of your features and set 
of your clothes, you soon will be." In the even- 
ing Mr. Palmer took a stroll around town, and 
into a church used as a State House, where a tall, 
long, bony man was entertaining a crowd with a 
speech that was full of anecdote, logic and com- 
mon sense. He inquired his name, and was in- 
formed that it was Abe Lincoln. The next day 
he was introduced to Mr. Lincoln, and from that 



day to the death of Lincoln they were warm 
personal friends. 

Retuniing to Carlinville, he at once com- 
menced the practice of law, and, although he 
was not a g'ood speaker, he soon commanded a 
lucrative practice. In 1840 he supported Van 
Buren for the Presidency, taking an active part 
in the canvass. 

On the 20th of December, 1842, he was united 
in marriage to MelindaAnn Neeley. Two weeks 
after marriage the couple went to housekeeping. 
The wliole cost of furniture and everything nec- 
essary to go to housekeeping, was less than fifty 

While a strong Democrat, Mr. Palmer was 
always an anti-slavery man, and when the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska act of 1854 became the issue, he 
sided with the Anti-Nebraska Democrats. He 
was elected to the State Senate this year, which 
contained four Anti-Nebraska Democrats. A 
United States Senator was to be elected in place 
of General Shields. The Anti-Nebraska Demo- 
crats held the balance of power. Palmer offered 
to go into the Democratic caucus, provided fealty 
to the Kansas-Nebraska act was withdrawn. 
His offer was refused. Shields was nominated 
by the Democrats, Lincoln by the Whigs, and 
Palmer ]>ut Lyman Trumbull in nomination as 
the representative of the Anti-Nebraska Demo- 
crats. Trumbull was elected. Douglas labored 
hard with Palmer to get him to vote for Shields, 
and both in the wordy contest lost control of 
their temper. Doug as taunted him with going- 
over to the Abolitionists, and said he could titl 
his place with plenty of good Whigs. Palmer 
grew hot and retorted, " So help me God, I'll 
never vote for Shields. You know how warmly 
I have supported you. You now tell me you are 
willing to part with me, and that you can fill my 
place with your life-long enemies. You demand 
that I shall surrender my personal independence 
and manhood, and threaten me if I refuse. From 
this time forward I will fight you, and will never 
speak to you until you are beaten, and lose your 
power to make and unmake men." The friend- 
ship was severed and not renewed until 18(31, 
when the Governor of Illinois sent Palmer to 
Washington as a member of the Peace Confer- 
ence. The morning after his arrival Douglas 
sent a card to his room requesting an interview. 
The great statesman came in, and, offering his 
hand, said: "Well, Palmer, the time has come 
when, by your own limitation, we are to be 
friends. I beat you a long time ago, but it has 
taken you a long time to beat me. I'm glad to 
see you." "Yes, Judge," said Palmer, "You 

were a thundering hard man to beat." Doiiglas 
then said: "You have always misunderstood me. 
Years ago I saw that Davis and others meant 
disuni'n. I sought to force the issue upon them 
in the Lecompton controversy, and would have 
done so if Buchanan had not proven false. 
Then, there was Union feeling enough even in the 
South to crush them. They have since had two 
years to educate the South into secession." 
Then rising, and, in a solemn, prophetic voice, 
he said: "And now you will see millions of men, 
in arms before the question is settled." 

The campaign of 1856 was the first in which 
figured the newly organized Eepiiblican party. 
Palmer gave his adhesion to that party. In 
i 860 he did much service in the election of 
Lincoln to the Presidency. When the war broke 
out. Palmer raised the 14th Illinois Infantry, and 
by brave and gallant deeds was promoted to 
Major General, given command of a corjjs, and 
afterwards a department. 

After the close of the war he returned to the 
practice of law, and in 1868 was elected Gov- 
ernor of the State, serving four years with 
marked ability. On the expiration of his term 
of office, he located permanently in Springfield, 
and is now an active, honorable member of the 
Sangamon County Bar. 

John Mayo Palmer, of the firm of Palmers, 
Robinson & Shutt, was born in Carlinville, Illi- 
nois, March 10, 1848. He is the son of John 
M. and Melinda A. (Neeley) Palmer. Young 
Palmer, preparatory to his collegiate course, at- 
tended the public schools of his native city. He 
then entered Blackburn University, and subse- 
quently Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, Illinois, 
where be remained four years. Desiring to be 
with his father during the war, he left college 
before graduating, and never returned. After, 
the close of the war he read law with his father, 
and was admitted to the Bar in the summer of 
1867, He then entered the law department of 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
and in June, 1868, graduated with the degree of 
LL B. He next returned home and commenced 
the practice of law in Carlinville, where he re- 
mained until September, 1872, when he moved 
to Springfield and formed a partnership with 
his father, and has since been an active member 
of the Sangamon County Bar. During his legal 
practice in Carlinville he served as City Attor- 
ney one year. After his removal to Springfield 
he served as a member of the City Council, from 
1874 to 1877. At the general election in 1876, 
he was elected a member of the Illinois Legis- 
lature by the Democratic party, with which he 



affiliates. John Mayo Palmer and Eilen Rob- 
ertson, daughter of Dr. W. A. and Nannette 
{Holliday) Robertson, were united in marriage 
in Carlinville, Illinois, July 7, 1869. Three 
children have resulted from this union — John 
McAuley, born in Carlinville, April 23, 1870; 
Robertson, born in Carlinville, July 5, 1872; 
Oeorge Thomas, born in Springfield, March 5, 
]875. Mrs. Palmer completed her education at 
Monticello Seminary, Godfrey, Illinois. She is 
an active member of the Methodist Episcopal 

George W. Murray, attorney-at-law, was born 
at Covington, Miami county, Ohio, July 7, 1839. 
David Murray, his father, was a farmer, residing 
near Dayton. George was educated in the city, 
and taught school four years before beginning 
the pursuit of law. He read law in the office of 
General Moses B. Walker, in Dayton, in 1859 
and 1860; was admitted in June, 1861, and com- 
menced practice in that city. Was several years 
a member of the City Council while there. In 
1874 Mr. Murray moved to Springfield, Illinois, 
and has since been an active member of the 
Sangamon County Bar. In April, 1881, he en- 
tered into co-partnership with Noah H. Turner, 
which relation still exists. At the age of twenty- 
one, in October, 1860, he married Miss Emma 
Neisbert, of Dayton, Ohio. 

Robert W. Maxwell was born in Springfield, 
Illitiois, December 13, 1845. He read law and 
graduated from the law department of Michi- 
gan University, in March, 1874. In June fol- 
lowing he was licensed to practice in the courts 
of Illinois. In 1875 he vs^ent to Decatur and 
remained over three years in the practice of his 
profession. Returning to Springfield, he opened 
an office, and in June, 1879, formed a partner- 
shi|f with Judge Robertson. He affiliates with 
ttie Democratic party, and has been somewhat 
active in local politics, but was never a candi- 
date for office save that of City Attorney in 1881, 
but was beaten by a combination of Republicans 
and citizens. 

George A. Sanders, Attorney-at-law, of the 
firm of Sanders & Williams, National Bank 
building, was born in Berkshire county, Mass., 
July 4, 1836; graduated from Williams College 
in 1861; came to Illinois; read law with Messrs. 
Sweet & Orme in Bloomington, and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar in 1864. He practiced his 
profession five years in Centralia, Illinois. In 
1868 he was chosen one of the Electors 
for General Grant for the Presidency. In the 
winter of 1869-70 Mr. Sanders became Assistant 
State Treasurer, which position he filled six 

yeai-s; and since retiring from that dcparLinent, 
he has been in active law practice in Spring- 
field. He entered into co-partnership with 
Frank P. Williams, January 1, 1881. Mr. San- 
ders has always affiiliated with the Republican 
party and been an active worker in its interests, 

James H. Matheny, Jr., is a "native to the 
manor born." He was born in Springfield, Illi- 
nois, in 1856, and is the third son of James H. 
Matheny, the present County Judge of Sanga- 
mon county. He was educated in the city; read 
law from 1874 to 1876, and was then admitted 
to the Bar. In 1877 he opened an office in 
Springfield, and has since devoted himself 
closely to his profession. 

Henry A. Stevens, Lawyer, office 110 North 
Sixth street ; was born in Shefford county, in the 
Dominion of Canada, July 17, 1847. John M. 
Stevens was a native of New Brunswick, and 
married Sibyl Goddard, a Canadian lady The 
subject of this sketch is one of their family of 
ten living children, five of each sex. Three of 
the sons are lawyers, and one a physician b}' 
profession. Henry was educated in C-anada and 
Vermont. Came to the United States in 1865, 
to Logansport, Indiana, in 1868, and to Spring- 
field in 1869. The next four years he spent in 
teaching school and reading law. From the fall 
of 1873 till 1877, he practiced law in Monona 
county, Iowa, and since that time has been an 
active member of the Springfield Bar. In the 
spring of 1870, Mr. Stevens was made a Mason, 
in Williamsville, Sangamon county, and is noAv 
a member of that fraternity. He married Miss 
Laura South wick, m Springfield, in the spring 
of 1873. Her parents, William and Louvicy 
South wick, settled in Sangamon county, in 1819, 
and still live on the old homestead, entered by 
his father, Jessie, in Woodside township, about 
seven miles southeast of the city. Mr. and; Mrs. 
StcA^ens have one daughter, aged seven years, and 
a son five years old. Mr. Stevens' parens immi- 
grated to Illinois in 1866, and now reside in 
Shelby county. 

James E. Dowling, Attorney at Law, was 
born in Pine Grove near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 
in April, 1844, and is the only living son of a 
family of three boys and five girls, of Patrick 
J., and Ann Dowling, who were born and married 
in Ireland, and crossed the Atlantic when Mr. 
Dowling was twenty-three years of age. When 
James Avas thirteen years old, the family moved 
to Freeport, Stephenson county, Illinois, where 
he was chiefly educated, graduating from tiie 
high school in that place in I860. After reading 
law with Thomas J. Turner, of Freeport, 



two years, he attended the Albany Law 
School, New York, from which he was graduated 
May 20, 1864. He located in practice in Peters- 
burg, Illinois, was chosen Secretary of the State 
Senate for tbe session of 1865-6, at the close of 
which he moved to Athens, Menard, county, and 
there practiced law eleven years, in 1877 he re- 
moved to Springfield where he has been active in 
the profession since. In politics Mr. Dowling is 
Republican, and A^as quite active in the canvass 
in Menard county, previous to General Grant's 
last election to the Presidency. He married 
Miss Savilia, daughter of James G. Davis, one 
of the early settlers of Menard county, in Octo- 
ber, 1865. They have a family of three sons 
and six daughters. Mr. Dowling is a member 
of Capital City Lodge No. 38, of Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. 

James A. Creighton, lawyer, of Orendorff & 
C'reighton, northeast corner Washington and 
Fifth streets, was born in White county, Illinois, 
and is thirty-five years of age. He was graduated 
from Southern Illinois College, at Salem, in June, 
1868; read law w^ith C. A. Beecher, in Fairfield, 
Illinois, and was admitted to the Bar in March, 
1870. After practicing law in Fairfield until 
April, 1877, he located in Springfield, forming a 
co-partnership with Mr. A. Orendorff, wdiich 
still exists. The firm has a fine legal business. 

John M. Creighton, Mr. C.'s father, was also 
a native of White county, Illinois, born in 1821; 
passed his whole life in this State, and died in 
1869. His mother was born in Illinois in 1824, 
and is still living. His paternal ancestors were 
North Carolinians, and his maternal ancestors 
from Virginia. 

George A. Wood, lawyer, office corner Wash- 
ington and Sixth streets, is the youngest of a 
family of six children, three of each sex, of 
Adolphus Wood and Catharine Carpenter, and 
was born in January, 1858, in Springfield, San- 
gamon county, Illinois. Adolphus Wood was a 
native of York State, came to Sangamon county 
in an early day, married Miss Carpenter, who 
was born in Sangamon county iu 1820 — her 
parents, William and Margaret Carpenter having 
settled here that year. Mr. Wood died January 
12,1861. His widow still survives and resides 
in Springfield. The subject of this article hav- 
ing completed a course in the city schools, at- 
tended the law department of Michigan State 
University, from which he graduated in 1877, 
and was admitted to practice in that State the 
same year. Spent a year in Chicago, was ad- 
mitted to the Bar of Illinois in 1878, and at 
once opened a law office in Springfield where he 

has since been actively engaged in his pio- 

Thomas Sterling, City Attorney, and member 
of the law firm of Sterling & Grout, was born 
in Lancaster, Fairfield county, Ohio, February 
21, 1851; is the son of Charles and Anna (Kes- 
lar) Sterling, natives of Ohio. They moved to 
McLean county, Illinois, in 1855, which is still 
their home. Thomas was graduated from Wes- 
leyan University in Bloomington, Illinois, in 
June, 1875. While teaching as Principal of the 
schools of Bement, Illinois, in 1875-6, he read 
law in the office of Judge W. G. Cloyd; came 
to Springfield, June 1, 1877, and entered the law 
oflftce of Hay, Greene & Littler; was admitted 
June 11, 1878, and commenced practice of his 
profession in company with his present partner, 
J. M. Grout. In April, 1881, Mr. Sterling was 
elected City Attorney on the Republican and 
Citizens' tickets. He married Miss Anna Dunn, 
of Bement, Illinois, in October, 1877. He is a 
Master Mason in St. Paul's Lodge No. 500. 

Joseph M. Grout, Attorney and Counselor at 
Law, corner Washington and Sixth streets, is 
one of two sons of Joseph M. Grout, a native of 
Massachusetts, and Priscilla Thompson of Ken- 
tucky, and was born near Mechanicsburg, San- 
gamon county, Illinois, in 1855. Joseph M. 
Grout, Sr., was one of the pioneer Presbyterian 
clergymen in Sangamon county, and died of the 
cholera in 1855, before the subject of this sketch 
was born, and his mother died when he was but 
ten weeks old. He was taken by an uncle to 
Massachusetts, where the first eight years of his 
life were passed. Returning to Illinois, he was 
graduated from Illinois College, in Jacksonville, 
in the class of 1876; came immediately to 
Springfield and commenced the study of law in 
the office of Hay, Green & Littler; was admflted 
to the Bar in 1878, and in the fall of that year 
entered into co-partnership with Thomas Ster- 
ling, his present partner, with whom he read 
law, and was admitted in the same c'ass. Mr. 
Grout is Republican in politics, but has never 
been a candidate for any office. He was united 
in matrimony with Miss Flora Grubb, of Spring- 
field, in 1879. 

William Henry Colby, Lawyer, of the firm of 
Herndon & Colby, was born in Orange county, 
New York, September 14, 1849. James Colby, 
his father, moved his family to Illinois and 
settled near Chicago the same year of William's 
birth. His father died there in 1858, and his 
mother in 186:i. William cqme to Springfield 
in March, 1863, with a single suit of clothes and 
twenty-five cents in his pocket, which he paid 


**>< " 



for his night's lodging, retiring supperless. He 
sought and obtained employment witli George 
Bergen, a farmer near the city, for whom he 
worked nine years, the first eight months at $6 
per month, which was increased in after years to 
$■25 per month. Prior to beginning the practice 
of law, he leased and carried on a part of Mr. 
Bergen's farm. At the age of twenty-tive years, he 
married Henrietta Cantrall, of Sangamon county. 
He commenced reading law in the otRce of Pat- 
ton & Lanphier in January, 1876, and was 
admitted in January, 1878, in the class with his 
present j^artner, William F. Herndon. They 
were schoolmates and law students together. 
Mr. and Mrs. Colby have two children, Charles 
P., five years of age, and Henrietta, three years 

William F. Herndon was born in DeWitt 
county, Illinois, in 1848; is the eldest of three 
sons and five daughters of Archer G. Herndon; 
was educated chieiiy in Springfield; taught 
school about ten years; read law in the office of 
CuUom, Scholes & Mather in 1875 and 1876; was 
admitted to the Bar in January, 1878, and has 
since been in practice in Springfield. 

In September, 1871, he married Mary H. 
Bryant, of Sangamon county, who has borne him 
one son, Edgar B. Mr. Uerndon's parents have 
resided in Rochester township, Sangamon 
county, many years. 

Henry B. Kane was born in Springfield, Illi- 
nois, January 17, 1855. His father. Elder A. 
J. Kane, is one of the oldest ministers of the 
Christian Church, in this county. His mother is 
the daughter of Philo and Martha (Stillman) 
Beers, supposed to be the first couple married in 
the county. Mr. Kane graduated in the Spring- 
field High School, in 1872. In 1873, he was ap- 
pointed one of the mail carriers in the city, and 
served three and a half years, and on account of 
ill-health resigned. He read law during that 
time, utilizing his spare hours for that purpose, 
and in January, 1878, was admitted to the Bar. 
He then entered the office of N. W. Branson, 
Register in Bankruptcy, as his deputy, and re- 
mained with him until the law was repealed 
about a year after. ■ Subsequently he formed a 
partnership with H. H. Rogers, in the practiiie 
of law, which continued until he was elected 
Justice of the Peace, in 1881. 

Frank H. Jones was born in Pike county, Illi- 
nois, in 1854, and is the son of George M.Jones, 
Clerk of the Appellate Court, in Springtield. He 
entered Yale College in 1871 and graduated in 
the class of 1875. Returning to Pike county, he 
read law one vear in Pittsfield, then spent a 

' 16— 

year in the Law Department of Columbia Col- 
lege, and a year in tne Chicago Law School. He 
was admitted to the Bar in the spring of 1878, 
and immediately opened an office in Pittsfield, 
where he remained one year, and then came to 

John A. Chestnut, attorney and Justice of the 
Peace, was born in Kentucky, in January, 1816. 
James Chestnut, his father, was a native of 
South Carolina, of Irish descent, and married 
Elizabeth Stevenson, a North Carolina lady. 
They settled near Waverly, Morgan county, 
Illinois, in 1826, where Mr. Chestnut died in 

1849, and his widow in 1833. John was princi- 
pally educated in the common schools of Ken- 
tucky; read law in the office of P. H. W^inchester, 
Carlinville, Illinois, and was admitted in Decem- 
ber, 1837, to practice in the Illinois Supreme 
Court, and in 1841, to the United States Courts. 
He practiced in Carlinville from 1837 till 1855, 
Governor John M. Palmer being his chief com- 
petitor. He then abandoned the law, and en- 
gaged in the real estate and banking business in 
that place, which proved so successful that he 
retired in a few years with a comfortable com- 
petence, and came to Springfield. Here Mr. 
Chestnut made some investments in real estate 
that proved unprofitable, and he lost consider- 
able. In 1867, he was made cashier of the 
Springfield Savings Bank, holding the position 
till May, 1872. After spending a year in the 
office of Stuart, Edwards & Brown, he opened a 
law office and resumed practice in 1879. In the 
spring of 18sl, he was elected Justice on the 
Republican and Reform tickets. From 1838 to 

1850, he filled the office of County Clerk in Ma- 
coupin county; was three times nominated on 
the old AYhig ticket for the legislature, but the 
party being in the minority, failed to elect their 
candidate. He declined the nomination for Con- 
gress in 1860. Mr. Chestnut has been twice 
married, first to Sarah A. Blair, of Greene county, 
Illinois, in 1844, who died; and in 1854 he mar- 
ried Kate N. Corbett, of Jersey county. He has 
one daughter, Leonora, by the first marriage, 
now Mrs. Tingley S. Wood, of Leadville, Colo- 
rado. Mr. C. is a member of the M. E. Church. 

Thomas J. Thompson, Justice of the Peace 
and Attorney-at-law, is the son of John and 
Margaret Thomjison, nee Coleman, of Irish 
nativity, and was born in Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1853. During his childhood they 
moved to Dayton, Ohio, where Thomas at- 
tended the public school, after which he took a 
course in Williams College, Massachusetts, grad- 
uating in the class of 1874. He tauffht as Prin- 



cipa,! uf ihe V\ liliaiustowu Academy one year; 
then returning to Oliio, read law in the office of 
Samuel A. Brown, of Springfield. He came to 
Springfield, Illinois, in December 1878, and was 
admitted to the Bar in tlie spring of 18 79, since 
which time he has divided his attention between 
professional practice and stenographic reporting 
of court proceedings, until elected Justice in the 
spring of 1881, on the combined vote of the Citi- 
zen's and Democratic tickets. Mr. Thompson 
served as Secretary of the Democratic State 
Central Committee during the political cam- 
paign of 1880. When a lad in school, young 
Thompson received an injurv through the rough 
conduct of a fellow pupil, which rendered him 
a permanent cripple, resulting in the shortening 
of the right leg some three inches. He posseses 
adaptation both by nature and culture for the 
legal profession, and gives promise of a snccess- 
ful career at the Bar. 

Winfield S. Collins, lawyer, is the son of 
Horace W. Collins, a native of Champaign 
county, Ohio, and .Julia E. Sattley, born in San- 
gamon county, Illinois. Her father, Robert H. 
Sattley, settled in the count}^ in a very early day. 
The subject of this sketch was born in Cham- 
paign county, Ohio, March 30, 1848. In 1855 
his parents moved to Johnson county, Iowa, 
where he labored on the farm till twenty one 
years of age, then set about earning means with 
which to obtain a more complete education. 
He taught school twelve terms: took a course in 
Iowa Agricultural College, from which he was 
graduated in civil engineering in theclassof 1876, 
with distinguished honors as a draughtsman, 
having won the prize for the finest i^iece of me- 
chanical drawing at a State exhibition. In the 
spring of 1877, Mr. Collins came to Springfield, 
Illinois, read law with Robert L. McGuire and 
was admitted to practice in the courts, in May, 
1879. He immediately opened an office in the 
city, and began the business of his profession. 
June 1, 1881, he formed a partnership with 
Martin Sprague, which still continues. 

William A. Vincent is a native of West Vir- 
ginia, and came to Sangamon county with his 
parents in 1868. He received a literary educa- 
tion in the Ohio Wesleyan University, and grad- 
uated from the Law Department of Columbia 
College, New Jersey, in May, 1879. Returning 
to Springfield the same month, he passed an ex- 
amination before the Supreme Court of this 
State, and at once commenced the practice of 
his profession in Springfield. 

Larue Vredenburgh was born in Springfield 
in 1855, graduated from Rutger's College,"New 

Jersey, in 1877; read law in Chicago, and was 
admitted to the J3ar in the fall of 1879, and has 
since been in active practice in Springfield. 

Alexander II. Robertson is a native of Ken- 
tucky and a graduate in both the Literary and 
Law Departments of Transylvania University, 
in that State. His father was George Robert- 
son, for many years Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of Kentucky, and Professor in the 
Law Department of Transylvania University, 
and acknowledged as one of the ablest lawyers 
of his time in that State. In 1853 Alexander 
came to Illinois and located in Jacksonville, in 
the practice of his profession. Subsequently he 
returned to Kentucky, where he remained until 
1862, during that time serving as Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, of Lexington, to which 
office he was elected shortly after his return. 
Coming back to Illinois, he remained for a time 
and again returned to Kentucky to look after 
his interests in that State. In 1879 he came to 
Springfield, and at once became an active mem- 
ber of the Sangamon County Bar. Judge Rob- 
ertson, during the civil war, was a decided 
Union man, and incurred many of the perils and 
disadvantages without any of its benefits. His 
father was also outspoken, with tongue and pen, 
in defense of the Union against secession. On 
coming to Springfield, Judge Robertson formed 
a partnership with R. W. Maxwell, which still 

William T. Houston was born in Sangamon 
county, his parents moving here in 1828. He 
read law with John B. Jones, Taylorville, Chris- 
tian county, and was admitted to the Bar in 
1878. In the fall of 1880, he came to Springfield 
and opened an office. He served in the army as 
a member of the 114th Illinois Infantry. 

Albert Salzenstein, of the firm of McGuire, 
Hamilton & Salzenstein, is a native of Sanga- 
mon county. After graduating in the Spring- 
field High School in 1876, he was Assistant Clerk 
of the Supreme Court about eighteen months, 
at the same time pursuing the reading of law. 
He then entered the office of L. F. Hamilton, 
and continued his studies. He passed examina- 
tion before the Supreme Court in July, 1880, but 
being a minor, he could not be admitted. In 
September following, he attained his majority, 
and opened an office in Springfield. In April, 
1881, he was admitted a member of the present 

Frank R. Williams, of the firm of Sanders & 
Williams, is a native of New York, and was 
educated in Cazinovia Seminary, in that State. 
He afterwards entered the law department of 



Michigan University, and graduated in 1880. 
He was admitted to the Bar the previous Janu- 
ary, and came to Springtield and commenced 
practice. The firm was formed January 1, 1881. 

Noah II. Turner comes of good old Irish an- 
cestry and a long-lived race, and was born in 
Sangamon county. He read law with L. F. 
Hamilton, and was admitted to the Bar in 1880. 
He formed his present partnership with George 
W. Murray in April, 1881. 

Edwin C. Haynie, son of the late Adjutant- 
General Haynie and Elizabeth (Cooper) Haynie, 
was born in Salem, Marion county, Illinois, June 
27, 1856. He is a graduate of the Springfield 
High School, of the class of 1873; Phillips' 
Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, with the 
class of 1875; Yale College, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, in the class of 1879; Yale Lavv^ School, 
in 1881. On graduating, he secured a license to 
practice, and is now a member of the Bar of 
Sangamon county. Mr. Haynie was married in 
New Haven, Connecticut, September 14, 1881, 
to Minnie Pierpont Hall, daughter of Lucius W. 
Hall, a prominent merchant of that city, and 
Elizabeth (Shepherd) Hall, both natives of Con- 
necticut. Mrs. Haynie is a graduate of a class- 
ical institute of Philadelphia, in the class of 

Walter B. Wines was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, October 10, 1848. He is the son of 
Enoch C. and Emma S. Wines, natives of New 
Jersey and New York respectively. He entered 
Williston Seminary, East Hampton, Massachu- 
setts, at an early age, preparatory to a course in 
Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont, in 
which institution he graduated in the classical 
course. After graduating at Middlebury Col- 
lege, he entered the Law Department of Colum- 
bia College, in New York, and graduated in the 
class of 1871. In March, 1871, he was admitted 
to the Bar, and commenced practice in New York 
city, whei'e he continued until March, 1879, 
when he moved to Springfield and became iden- 
tified with the Bar of Sangamon county. At 
present he is the Special Agent of the United 
States Census Oftice. 

Walter B. Wines and Annie E. Thornton, of 
New York, were married March 16, 1869. Mrs. 
Wines is the daughter of Isaac and Bridget 
(Harrington) Thornton, the foi-mer a native of 
England and the latter of Ireland. Three 
children have been born unto them — Annie Ger- 
trude, Walter Enoch and Edith Mary. Mrs. 
Wines was educated in the convent in Burling- 
ton, Vermont. Mr, and Mrs. Wines are mem- 
bers of the Catholic Church. 



Chapter VII 


It has become a proverb that "truth is stran- 
ger than fiction." This was never more fully 
verified than in the events here related, concern- 
ing three brothers, who became victims to one 
of the most remarkable cases of circumstantial 
evidence on record. William, Henry and Archi- 
bald Trayler, were each born in Greene county, 
Kentucky, and who came to Illinois about the 
year 1829. William settled near Greenbush, 
Warren county, about one hundred miles north- 
west of Springfield. Henry settled at Clary's 
Grove, Menard county, but which was then a 
part of Sangamon county. Archibald settled in 
Springfield, and engaged in business as a car 
penter and builder. He owned a lot on the cor- 
ner of Adams and Third streets, and built thereon 
a dwelling house. Being a bachelor, he rented 
the house to his partner, Mr. Myers, and boarded 
with him. The three brothers were each sober, 
industrioufi and retiring men, there being noth- 
ing in their actions that would give rise to any 
remarks, or a suspicion that they would be guilty 
of any wrong-doing. 

Archibald Fisher, a man about fifty years of 
age; taughtschool in Monmouth, Warren county, 
and vicinity. When not regularly employed in 
teaching, he worked at odd jobs, living in the 
families of those who employed him. He was 
unmarried, economical, and had saved up a few 
hundred dollars, and, at the beginning of the 
events here related, he was boarding at the house 
of William Trayler. 

Desiring to enter some land, Mr. Fisher, in 
company with Mr. Trayler, started together for 
Springfield, arriving at the house of Henry 
Trayler on Sunday evening. The next morning, 
all three came to Springfield, arriving there 
about noon, Monday, June 1, 1841, and stopped 
at the house where Archibald Trayler boarded. 
After dinner the three brothers and Fisher left 
the boarding house, in company, lor the purpose 
of looking about the town. At supper time the 

three brothers returned, but Fisher, having step- 
ped aside as they were passing along a foot-path 
among the trees in the northwestern part of the 
city, did not appear. After supper, all the oth- 
ers went in search of him. One by one they 
returned as night approached, but with no 
tidings of Fisher. The next morning the search 
was continued, but up to noon was still unsuc- 

William and Henry, having expected to leave 
early that morning, expressed their intention 
of abandoning the search and returning home. 
This was objected to by Archibald and those 
boarding with him at Mrs. Myers', as it would 
leave Fisher without any means of conveyance. 
They, therefore, continued the search the re- 
mainder of the day; but at night, William, who 
evidently was greatly disappointed at being de- 
tained so long, unknown to Archibald, hitched 
up his buggy and started home. Missing him, 
and learning what had been done, Archibald 
followed him on foot, and over<.ook him just as 
he was entering the water at Hickox's mill, on 
Spring creek, near where the Ohio & Mississippi 
railroad now crosses. Remonstrating with him 
against going home before the mystery was 
cleared up, William turned 'round in the water, 
and they both returned to Springfield. Noiwith- 
standing all this, William and Henry started 
home the next day. 

Up to this time, the mysterious disappearance 
had attracted but little attention. Three or four 
days later, Henry returned to Springfield for the 
purpose of continuing the search, and with his 
brother Archibald, and some of the boarders, 
another day was spent in the search, but with- 
out avail, when Henry concluded to cease fur- 
ther efforts. 

On Friday, June 12, James W. Keyes, the 
Postmaster at Springfield, received a letter from 
Mr. Tice, postmaster at Greenbush, Warren 
county, stating that William Trayler had re- 



turned home, and was circulating the report that 
Fisher was dead, and boasting that he had 
willed his money to him, and that he had gained 
about fifteen hundred dollars by it — a much 
larger sum than Fisher was supposed to possess. 
Mr. Tice requested the Springfield postmaster 
to give him all the information on the subject 
that he could. The contents of that letter were 
made public, and the excitement became wide- 
spread and intense. Springfield had now a pop- 
ulation of about two thousand, and had the year 
previous adopted a city charter. William L. 
May was Mayor, and together with Josiah Lam- 
born, Attorney-General of the State, headed 
the movement to ferret out the mystery, A 
large company was raised and formed into 
squads and marched about in every direction, so 
as to leave no spot unsearehed. Examinations 
were made of wells and every conceivable place 
where a body might be concealed. 

In the search, a club was found with some hair 
attached to it. and it was confidently believed 
that the murder had been committed with that 
weapon, but it was afterwards demonstrated 
that the hair was from a cow. This seai'ch was 
continued until Saturday afternoon, when it was 
determined to arrest William and Henry Tray- 
ler, and officers started for them on Sunday 
7iiorning. Henry, being nearest, was brought 
to Springfield on Monday. The Mayor and 
Attorney-General took him in hand, and used 
every device to elicit information of the sup- 
posed murder, but he protested his innocence of 
any knowledge on the subject. He was re- 
minded that the circumstantial evidence was so 
strong that he, with his two brothers, would 
certainly all be hung, and that the only chance 
to save his own life was for him to become a 
witness on the part of the State. He withstood 
all the pressure until Wednesday, the seven- 
teenth of the month, when, protesting his own 
innocence, he stated that his brothers, William 
and Archibald, without bis knowledge at the 
time, had murdered Fisher, by hanging him to 
a tree; that they had temporarily concealed the 
body; that immediately preceding the departure 
of himself and William from Springfield, on 
the second or third of June, William and Archie 
communicated the fact to him, and engaged his 
assistance in making a permanent concealment 
of the body; that at the time he and William 
left, ostensibly for home, they did not take the 
direct road, but, wending their way through the 
streets, entered the woods at the northwest of 
the city, and that on approaching, where the 
body was concealed, he was placed as a sentinel. 

He then entered into a minute description of 
the murder, going into the smallest details. 
He said that his brothers entered a thicket 
of underbrush, where the body was concealed, 
placed it in the buggy, moved off with it in the 
direction of Hickox mill-pond on Spring creek, 
and soon after returned, saying they had put it 
in a safe place; that Archibald went back to 
town, and that William and himself found their 
way to the road, and proceeded to their homes. 

Until that disclosure was made, the character 
of Archibald was such as to repel all suspicion 
of his complicity in the matter, but he was at 
once arrested and hurried to jail, which was 
probably the best thing that could have been 
done for him, for he was in great personal 
danger from the infuriated populace. Search 
then commenced anew for the body. The thicket 
was found, and indications of a struggle under 
a small tree, bent over as though the hanging 
might have been done there. A trail was also 
visible, as though a body had been draigged to 
where the tracks of a buggy were to be seen, 
tending in the direction of the mill pond, pre- 
viously spoken of, but could not be traced all 
the way. At the pond, however, it was found 
that a buggy had been down into the water and 
came out again. Hundreds of men were en- 
gaged in dragging and fishing for the body. 
Becoming impatient, the dam was cut down on 
Thursday morning, the eighteenth of June, and 
the water drawn off, but no body found. 

About noon that day the officers, who had 
gone to arrest William Trayler, returned with 
him in custody, accompanied by a gentleman 
who called himself Dr. Gilmore. Then it was 
ascertained that William Trayler had been ar- 
rested at his own house, on Thursriay the six- 
teenth of the month, and started for Springfield, 
stopping at Lewiston, Fulton county, for the 
night. Late in the night Dr. Gilmore arrived 
there and told the officers that Fisher was alive 
and at his house; that he had followed them to 
give the information so that the prisoner might 
be released without further trouble. The deputy 
sheriff — James Maxcy — very properly refused 
to release him on the word of an entire stranger, 
and they continued their journey to Springfield. 

Dr. Gilmore told the officers that when he 
heard of the arrest of William Trayler for the 
murder of Fisher, he w^as a few miles from 
home; that when he returned to his own house 
he found Hisher there; that he would have taken 
Fisher with him in pursuit of the officers with 
the prisoner, but that the state of Fisher's 
health would not admit of it. The doctor fur- 



ther said that lie had known Fisher for several 
years, and that he was subject to fits of tempo- 
rary derangement of mind, in consequence of 
an injury to his head, received in early life. 
The doctor still further stated that Fisher told 
him that the first he knew after visiting Spring- 
field, he found himself in the vicinity of Peoria. 
Being nearer to his home than to Springfield, he 
proceeded at once to Warren county, without 
the slightest thought of his acts leading to the 
injury of any other person. 

On their arrival at Springfield, Dr. Gilmore's 
statement was made public, and at first the peo- 
ple seemed to be struck dumb with astonish- 
ment. When the news was communicated to 
Henry Trayler, in the jail, he, without faltering, 
re-attirmed his own story about the murder of 
Fisher. The idea was at once taken up by the 
crowd that Dr. Gil more was in collusion with 
the murderers, and that he had invented that 
story as a ruse to secure their release and escape. 
While the doctor was permitted to remain at 
liberty, he was regarded with strong suspicion. 
About 3 o'clock that afternoon, Mr. Myers, the 
partner of Archibald Trayler, started with a 
two-horse carriage, accompanied by Egbert M. 
Mallory, to ascertain whether Fisher was alive 
or not, and if so, to bring him back to Spring- 

Without waiting for the return of Myers and 
Mallory, the Traylers were brought before the 
proper officers for preliminary examination, on 
the charge of the murder of Archibald Fisher. 
Henry Trayler was introduced on the part of 
the State, and on oath testified that his brothers, 
William and Arichibald, had murdered Archi- 
bald Fisher, re-affirming all the minutia of his 
former statements, and at the close bore a rigid 
cross-examination without faltering or exposure. 
It was also proven by a respectable lady, who 
was well acquainted with Archibald, that on 
the Monday afternoon of Fisher's disappear- 
ance, she saw Archibald Trayler and another 
man, who she identified as William Trayler, — 
then present — and still another, answering the 
description of Fisher, all enter the timber at the 
northwest of town, and an hour or two later, 
saw the two former return alone. Many other 
witnesses were examined, giving a combination 
of testimony that seemed to weave a net-work 
of circumstances about the prisoners, from 
which it would appear to any other than a legal 
mind, to be utterly impossible to extricate them. 
It was also proven that Archibald Trayler had 
passed an unusual number of pieces of gold 
coin. The buggy tracks in the mill pond were 

unexplained, as the prisoners were the only per- 
sons who could give any light upon that subject. 
The evidence of a struggle in the thicket, under 
the bending tree, where the hanging was sup- 
posed to have taken place, was unexplained, 
although it was afterwards proven that school 
children had been using the tree as a support to 
a swing. These and many other points of evi- 
dence, the intricacies of which space forbids 
that I should follow out, were before the courts. 

When the prosecution had introduced all 
their evidence and rested the case, one of the 
attorneys for the defense, Hon. Stej^hen T. 
Logan, arose, and with every eye turned toward 
him, said that on the part of the defendants, he 
would introduce a single witness only. 

Archibald Fisher, in full life and proper per- 
son, was then conducted slowly into the presence 
of the court. Messrs. Myers and Mallory had 
returned late in the evening before — June 21st 
— with Fisher, and the friends of the prisoners 
kept him secreted until the proper time. The 
effect may be imagined, but can not be describ- 
ed. A gentleman who was cognizant of the 
proceedings from beginning to end, and who is 
now a Judge of one of the courts of Illinois, de- 
scribing the appearance of one of the prisoners 
in the court room, says: "Archibald Trayler 
was as fine looking a man as I ever saw. When 
his own brother was testifying that he was a 
murderer, he stared at him with a look of aston- 
ishment, settling into an appearance of stoical 
indifference, that seemed to say, 'there is no hope 
of relief, therefore I must calmly endure the 
worst;' but when the man he was accused of hav- 
ing murdered, was lead into his presence, he 
broke down and gave vent to his feelings in a 
flood of tears, followed by uncontrollable fits of 
sobbing and moaning." 

By this time it began to dawn on the minds of 
the people that the threats of death to all three 
of the brothers had so wrought on the mind of 
Henry Trayler as to destroy his competency as 
a witness. A feeling of indignation immediately 
sprang up against May and Lamborn, who had 
led in the prosecution, and it only lacked a bold 
leader to mob and hang them. The feeling was 
so intense that Judge Logan, who had defended 
the prisoners, felt it his duty to come to the res- 
cue of their prosecutors. He made a pacific 
speech, in which he exhorted all to abide by the 
laws. It had the desired effect, and all dispersed 
without violence. 

A public meeting of the citizens of Springfield 
Avas held on the evening of June 22, 1841, to ex- 
press sympathy with the brothers, who had 



passed through that fiery ordeal, and particular- 
ly with their fellow citizen, Archibald Trayler, 
whose character had never been tarnished with 
the slightest shadow of reproach. That sympa- 
thy was of little avail. His line, manly counte- 
nance was never again lighted up with a smile. 
He made some feeble attempt at business, but 
generally wandered about, avoiding all society, 
pined away, and died in less than two years. 
One who knew him well said: "If ever a man 
died of a broken heart it was Archibald Tray- 
ler." William Trayler died in less than a year 
after the trial. Henry Trayler lived several 
years after the death of his brother, but was 
never known to speak of the mournful event af- 
ter his departure from Springfield at the close of 
the trial. He died in Menard county. It is said 
that the three brothers never met after they 
passed out of the court room. 

If the unhappy and afflicted being who was 
the innocent cause of all the trouble, had wan- 
dered away and died on the open prairie, much 
of which had not then been trod by the foot of 
man, William and Archibald Taylor would, be- 
yond a reasonable doubt, have been executed as 
his murderers, and that upon the force of sur- 
rounding circumstances and the testimony of 
their own brother, who would doubtlessly have 
become hopelessly insane, caused by threats to 
make him confess a crime never committed, and 
afterwards by the appalling effects of his own 
testimony. The world would probably have 
looked on and called it retributive justice. Such 
may, and doubtless has been, the effect of cir- 
cumstantial evidence in cases where the truth 
was never known. 

Thus ended one of the most remarkable affairs 
of its kind on record. 



Chapter VIII. 


Sangamon county is traversed by one hundred 
and fifty-four miles of railroad, represented by 
six lines. The citizens of no county in the State 
have manifested more interest in the subject, 
from the beginning of the agitation to the pres- 
ent time. The news of a successful construction 
of a road in the East had no sooner become 
known in this section of country, before it was 
boldly advocated by Jonathan H. Pugh and 
others, as the only means of solving the trans- 
portation problem. Of course the advocates of 
such a scheme were I'egarded by some, as pos- 
sessing an unbalanced mind, still they did not 
waver, and as the opportunity presented itself, it 
was foi'ced upon the attention of the people. 

As early as 1833, the subject of railroad build- 
ing was introduced into the General Assembly, 
but no laws were enacted at that time. In the 
winter of 1835-G acts were passed incorporating 
a large number of railroads, as well as for the 
building of canals and other internal improve- 
ments. Capital stock amounting to -tl 2,450,000 
was authorized, chiefly to railroad companies. 
The internal improvement act of 1837,appro2jri- 
ated 110,200,000 directly from the State Treas- 
ury. More than 19,000,000 of this sum was for 
railroads. At this same session, jjrivate laws 
were enacted, chartering joint stock comj^anies 
with authorized capital stock to the amount of 
nearly 18,000,000, making an aggregate of about 
$30,000,000, involved in efi^orts to legislate rail- 
roads into existence in the State of Illinois at 
that early day. This gigantic system of inter- 
nal improvement was inaugurated when the 
country was but sparsely settled, and before it 
was in a condition to export anything that would 
command money. The people imagined them- 
selves rich, because the whole United States, 
east, west, north and south, M^as flooded with irre- 
deemable j)aper currency. It was thought there 
would be no difticulty in negotiating loans to 
carry forward the public works. 

Soon after the law was enacted, certificates of 
internal improvement stock was readily taken, 
contracts let, and work commenced at various 
points in all parts of the State. Millions of dol- 
lars were squandered in this way before the au- 
tumn of 1837, when the great financial crash, 
which commenced in the eastern cities, swept 
over the whole United States, and the internal 
improvement system of Illinois went down, leav- 
ing the State in what was thought at the time, to 
be hopeless bankruptcy. 


Among the first lines upon which work was 
commenced under the internal improvement 
system, was the Northern Cross Railroad. The 
first ground was broken between Jacksonville 
and Meredosia, on what was called Wolf Run. 
It was about six miles east of the Illinois river. 
This was early in the spring of 1837. James 
Dunlap and T. T. January were the contractors. 
In the spring of 1838, the first locomotive ever 
brought to the State, came up the Illinois river 
on a steamboat, and was landed at Meredosia. 
It was used for running construction trains from 
that time forward. This engine was built by 
Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, of Patterson, 
New .Jersey, and was called the "Superior." 
The road was so far advanced that the loca- 
motive run into Jacksonville in the latter part 
of 1838, or early in 1339. 

The work on the Northern Cross Railroad 
struggled along, after the internal improvement 
system had ceased in nearly every other part of 
the State. After it was put in running order 
from Meredosia to Jacksonville, some work was 
done between the latter place and Springfield, 
but for a year or two it moved slowly. In some 
way the canal fund became indebted to the in- 
ternal improvement fund. On the 26th day of 
February, 1841, an act of the General Assembly 
was approved, providing for the completion of 



the Northern Cross Railroad from Springfield to 
Jacksonville. To liquidate the indebtedness of 
the canal fund to the internal improvement fund, 
$100,000 of canal bonds were appropriated to 
defray the expense of completing that part of 
the road. The Fund Commissioner was author- 
ized and instructed to enter into contracts for 
the work, to be paid for with the canal bonds, 
and to be completed in one year. On the day 
following — February 27, 1841 — a law was enact- 
ed requiring the Fund Commissioner to advertise 
for proposals to do the work. He was, by the 
same law, directed to take charge of all the work 
between Springfield and the Illinois river. 


Before the road was completed to Springfield, 
another locomotive was brought on, from the 
works of M. W. Baldwin, of Philadelphia. It 
was called the "Illinois." The track was so far 
completed that on the 15th of February, 1842, it 
entered Springfield, being the first one to arrive 
in the city. George Gregory was the engineer, 
and T. M. Averitt the fireman. The track was 
laid along Tenth street to the crossing of Adams. 
The last half or three-fourths of a mile of the 
track was only the wooden stringers, the iron 
not yet having been spiked. The newspapers 
were not very enterprising, with reference to the 
latest news, especially when it is considered how 
wild they were on the subject of railroads only 
two or three years before. 

Ten days after the event, February 25, the 
following item appeared in the Sangamo Jour- 

" The railroad is so far finished that the locomotive 
occasionally runs upon it, and has drawn at least one 
heavy load of produce to the river. Under the circum- 
stances of the times, the contractors, Messrs. Dutf, 
Calhoun & Company have done well to complete it thus 
early. We anticipate that much business Avill be done 
on this road in the spring." 

Again, from the Journal of March 11: 

'• Northern Cross Railroad. — We have neglected to 
notice that the railroad from this place to Meredosia, 
on the Illinois river, has been completed for a couple 
of weeks so far as to permit the passage of trains of 
cars through the whole line. The locomotive has now 
commenced trips between this city and the Illinois 
river; and, for the present, we understand it is arranged 
that the locomotive will leare this city every Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday, and Meredosia every Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday. We also learn that the 
steamer "Mungo Park" will run regularly between 
Meredosia and St. Louis, going and returning three 
times a week, so as to connect regularly with the train 
of cars. This arrangement will be of immense utility 
to our citizens and the traveling community, and will 
furnish the easy means of conveying to market the 


produce of a largo and r.:ost productive roffion of 

A contrast in the rate of speed then and 
now will be shown from the followino- item 
from Journal, March 1 8, 1842: '^ 

"On Saturday last, March 11, the ears ran from 
.Jacksonville, thirty three and ^i-half miles, in two 
hours and eight; minutes, including stoppages. It is 
believed that the distance can be passed over in one 
hour and a half. Trii)s continue to be made three 
times per week." 

On the 25th of March, the following appeared 
in the Journal: 

"Pleasure trip.— On Monday, March 21, a large party 
left this city for Jacksonville, filling two pa.ssenger 
cars and another fitted up temporarily for the band of 
music. They speak in high terms of the hospitality 
and kindness of the citizens of Jacksonville, of the 
party there, and the pleasure of the trip." 

In that paper of the same date is found the 
following item: 

" During the few days the Springfield and Meredosia 
railroad has been in operation, and before the public 
generally were aware of the running of the cars, the 
receipts from passengers alone have amounted to about 
seven hundred dollars. " 

This road was all made by laying long pieces 
of timber lengthwise with the track — cross 
pieces were placed six or eight feet apart, to 
keep the stringers from spreading — flat iron 
rails were spiked on to the pieces of timber, and 
then it was ready to receive the locomotive and 

After running awhile the engines needed re- 
pairing, and the track became uneven, so that 
the cars ceased to be run by steam. The road 
was then leased, and mule teams took the place 
of the locomotives. William D. Baxter <fe Co. 
were the lessees. 

In May, 1844, in the Springfield papers ap- 
peared the following advertisement of the road: 


The subscribers, having leased the 
Illinois Northern Cross Railway, are 

to j n -^ - - r: £^^^ prepared to transport produce, mer 

"^SE^ WW chandise, furniture, etc., to and from 

the above mentioned places, on terms as reasonable as 
can be desired, and by the employment of faithful and 
experienced agents, and the occupancy of safe and com- 
modious depots, can insure all requisite care and atten- 
tion to whatever may be entrusted to their commission 

Receiving, Forwarding and Commission Merchants. 

Meredosia, Mav 10, 1844, 

Refer to S. M. finsley & Co., Mr. J. Bunn, Spring- 
field ; Mr. J. G. Lamb, Alton ; Collier & Morrison, Mr. 
J. Simonds. St. Louis, Mo ; Small & McGill, New 



After becoming quite dilapidated, a law was 
enacted authorizing the sale of the entire road. 
The sale was effected for a mere trifle, with the 
stipulation that the parties coming in possession 
of it, sl:ould put it in running, order, for the ac- 
commodation of the public. The road was sold 
in 1847, and was afterwards known as the San- 
gamon & Morgan Railroad. Other changes fol- 
lowed until it became part of the Toledo, Wabash 
& Western Railroad, and as such, many im- 
provements were made by the company in the 
operation of the road. In 1858 the company 
located their repair shops in Springfield, thus 
giving employment to a large number of em- 
ployes, who made here their home, and conse- 
quently added much to the trade of the city. 
In ]869 new buildings were erected for their 
rapidly increasing machine works, at a cost of 

In 1870 a fine passenger depot was erected in 
Springfield, at a cost of 136,000. In this build- 
ing are the offices of the Division Superintend- 
ent and other ofiicers of the road located here. 
A freight house was also erected the same year. 

In 1879, the Toledo, Wabash & Western, the 
Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw and several other 
roads were consolidated under the name of the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company. 
Although the details of the consolidation were 
agreed upon by the stockholders in November, 
1879, the business of the new company did not 
begin until January 1, 1880. The company now 
own, in 1881, 3,000 miles of railway, and expect 
to secure other roads, having entered into con- 
tracts by which they will soon come into their 


The present Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Rail- 
road was built from Alton to Springfield under 
an act of the legislature, passed in 1847. By 
this act, and an amendment to it, the line of the 
road was intended to run by way of Waverly, 
in Morgan county, and New Berlin, in Sanga- 
mon county. John T. Stuart, while a member 
of the State Senate, feeling it for the best in- 
terest of the road, as well as for the general 
public, introduced an amendment, which be- 
came a law January 29, 1851, by which the 
company was authorized to build direct from 
Carlinville to Springfield. 

During the session of the legislature in 1848 
and 1849, Mr. Stuart introduced the first bill to 
build a road from Springfield to Chicago, and 
which passed ihe Senate and was then sent to 
the House. The morning after its passage, Mr. 
Smith, representing Macon in the Senate, moved 

to recall the bill from the House, assigning as a 
reason that it was passed in his absence and was 
interfering Avith the building of the Great 
Western and the proposed Illinois Central 
Railroad. The aiotion of Mr Smith prevailed 
and the bill was recalled and laid upon the 

At the next session of the Senate in 1850-51, 
it was thought prudent to pass the measure, not 
as a whole, but in sections, owing to the oppo- 
sition manifested the previous session; there- 
fore, Mr. Stuart introduced "An act to extend 
the Alton & Sangamon Railroad Company, in- 
corporated February 27, 1847, which was passed 
and became a law February 11, 1851, and by 
which, authority was given to extend the road 
from Springfield to Bloomington. and under 
which that part of the road was built. 

At the session of the Senate in 1852, Mr. 
Gridley, representing McLean county in that 
body, introduced a bill, the object of which was 
to further extend the road from Bloomington to 
Joliet, and which became a law on the 19th of 
June, 1852, and under which that part of the 
road was built. By further legislation it was 
afterwards extended from Joliet to Chicago. By 
still another act, authority was given to extend 
the road from Alton to East St. Louis, which, in 
due time, was built, and which different sec- 
tions now compose the Chicago, Alton & St. 
Louis Railroad. 

The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis, or the Alton 
& Sangamon Railroad, by which it was then 
known, was completed to Springfield in 1853, 
and an entertainment was given in that city by 
the railroad company, to a party of excursionists 
from St. Louis and Alton. The steamboat Cor- 
nelia left St. Louis for Alton with the excur- 
sionists from that city, at six o'clock on the 
morning of Thursday, October 6, and being 
joined by the Alton people, proceeded by rail to 
Springfield, arriving at two o'clock p. m., where 
a sumptuous dinner awaited them, in a building 
erected for a machine shop. Benjamin Godfrey, 
of Alton, was introduced by Virgil Hickox,as 
one through whose exertions the road was 
chiefly built. After a brief address from Mr*. 
Godfrey, and speeches from some others of the 
party, and dinner had been partaken of by all, 
the train moved away with its four hundred pas- 
sengers on the return trip. This w^as an import- 
ant event in the history of Springfield, as it 
opened direct communications with Springfield 
and the South. 

On the 18th of October, 1853, the road was 
completed to Normal, forming a junction with 



the Illinois Central, by which passengers could 
go to La Salle, and from there to Chicago by 
the Chicago & Rock Island Road. This opened 
up the first communication from New York city 
to the Mississippi river. On the 4th of August, 
1854, the present road was completed through 
to Joliet. 

By an act of the General Assembly, approved 
February 14, 1855, the name of the company 
was changed to Chicago, Alton & St. Louis, and 
on the 21st of January, 1857, another act was 
passed, changing it to the St. Louis, Alton & 
Chicago Railroad Company. February 19, 1859, 
the name was changed from St. Louis, Alton & 
Chicago, to Alton, Chicago & St. Louis. On the 
18th of February, 1861, it was again changed, 
making it the Chicago & Alton. 

Coming from Chicago to St. Louis, the road 
enters Sangamon cuunty on section 34, township 
18, range 4 west, Williams township, and taking 
nearly a southwestern course, passing through 
the townships of Williams, Springfield, Wood- 
side, Ball, Chatham, and Auburn, passes into 
Macoupin county from section 34, the latter 
township. The company have seven stations in 
this county — Williamsville, Sherman, Spring- 
field, lies Junction, Woodside, Chatham, and 


A charter was granted to the Springfield and 
Pana Railroad Company, February 16, 1857, but 
no road was ever built under that charter. The 
hard times, beginning in 1857, followed closely 
by the war, prevented the prosecution of the 
work. On the 16th of February, 1865, another 
charter was granted to cover the same ground, 
but extending further, under the title of the 
Pana, Springfield and Northwestern Railroad 
Company. Forty miles of this road — from 
Springfield to Pana — was completed and opened 
for business in March, 1870. During the sum- 
mer of 1870, it was put under contract to Pjeards- 
town, with the intention of extending it to 
Keokuk, Iowa. The extension was never under- 

By an act of the General Assembly, approved 
March 5, 1867, a charter was granted to the Illi- 
nois and Southeastern Railroad Company. This 
company became possessed of the Pana, Spring- 
field and Northwestern Railroad, giving it a line 
from Shawneetown, on the Ohio, to Beardstown, 
on the Illinois river. On the 28th day of March, 
1872, through trains commenced running from 
Shawneetown to Beardstown. Subsequently, the 
road came into possession of the Ohio and Miss- 

issippi Railroad Company, as the Springfield, 
Division of the Ohio and Mississipp^by which it 
is now operated. The headquarters of' the com- 
pany are at Cincinnati, but having a Division 
office at Springfield, with C. M. Stanton, Division 

The Ohio and Mississippi enters Sangamon 
county on section 4, township 14, north of" range 
3 west, Cooper township, and passes through the 
townships of Cooper, Rochester, Springfield, 
Gardner and Cartwright, passing into Cass 
county from section 27, township 17, range 8 
west, Cartwright township. The road has eight 
stations in the county — Breckenridge, lierry, 
Rochester, Springfield, Bradford, Farmingdale, 
Richland, and Pleasant Plains. 


The Oilman, Clinton & Springfield Railroad 
Company was incorporated by an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, March 4, 1807. An organization 
was effected at Clinton, April 21, 1869. Grad- 
ing was commenced near Clinton, July 4, 1870, 
and from that time until the close of the work- 
ing season, from fifteen to eighteen hundred 
men were employed along the line. Track lay- 
ing was commenced at Oilman, February 19, 
1871. The entire line was completed, and an 
excursion train, extemporized at Springfield, vis- 
ited the ruins of Chicago, starting from Spring- 
field, Saturday evening, October 21, but the road 
was not regularly opened for business until De- 
cember 3, 1871. Subsequently the road passed 
into the hands of the Illinois Central Railroad 
Company, and is now operated by them under 
the name of the Springfield Division of the Illi- 
nois Central. 

Entering the county on section fifteen, Buffalo 
Hart township, the road runs southwest through 
the townships of Buffalo Hart, Williams, Clear 
Lake and Springfield. It has bu*, two stations in 
the county outside of Springfield, in Buffalo 
Hart township and Barclay. 


In 1869 a charter was secured for a new road, 
under the name of the Springfield & North- 
western, running from Springfield to Rock 
Island. A contract was let early in the year 
1871 from Havana to Springfield, and work was 
immediately commenced, and continued until 
some time duringthe following year, completing 
a track from Havana to Petersburg, Menard 
county, a distance of twenty-five miles. The 
contractors then failed, and other parties entered 
into contract to continue and complete the woi'k 
to Springfield. This last party, in consequence 



of the hard times, also failed in the fall of 1873, 
having completed the road to Cantrall. John 
Williams, of Springfield, then took charge of 
the road, and in 1874 had the cars running into 
the city of Springfield. In 1875 the road was 
placed in the hands of a Receiver and subse- 
quently sold under mortgage, and purchased by 
Colonel Williams for the benefit of the bond- 
holders. In 1878 a new company was formed 
which jjurchascd the road from Williams and 
electing new otticers, undertook its management. 
John Williams was the first President of the 
new company and was succeeded by John T. 
Stuart. Subsequently Charles Ridgely became 
the owner of the principal part of the stock, and 
in August, 1881, he sold to the Wabash Com- 
pany, and it is now a part of that system. 


The Peoria & Springfield railroad was char- 
tered in 1871, and the entire line was let under 
contract for grading of the road, in 1872. Grad- 
ing was commenced at the Peoria end of the 
road and it was completed to Pekin in 1873. 
The hard times of that year caused the suspen- 
sion of all work, and it has since been entirely 

abandoned. George N. Black, John Williams, 
John T. Stuart and James C. Conkling, were 
among the directors on its organization. 

The Springfield & St. Louis Railroad was 
projected about the same time of the Peoria & 
Springfield road. The same cause is given for 
the failure of both enterprises — hard times. 

The Springfield, Carrollton & St. Louis Rail- 
road Company, and the St. Louis, Jerseyville & 
Springfield Railroad Company were each organ- 
ized March 1, 1872. Befoi-e work was com- 
menced on either road the hard times of 1873 
set in, and all efforts to build the road were 
abandoned. In 1880 a new company was organ- 
ized, taking the old name of St. Louis, Jersey- 
ville & Springfield Railroad Company, and began 
the construction of a line upon the old route. 
In 1881 the road fell into the hands of the 
Wabash Company, and was made a part of their 

The Springfield Southern Railroad Company 
was organized March 25, 1872, and the Spring- 
field, Macon & Wabash Railroad Company, 
March 1, to take effect April 4, 1872. No effort 
was made to build the roads in consequence of 
the depression in money matters. 



Chapter IX 


Since the organization of the county, its citi- 
zens have been called upon, and promptly re- 
sponded, in two Indian wars, the Mormon and 
Mexican wars, and the war for the Union. 


When lead was discovered in the region of 
Galena, and it was found profitable to mine it, 
the white people flocked there in large numbers. 
For some years previous, the different Indian 
tribes inhabiting the northern part of Illinois 
and Wisconsin had been at war among them- 
selves, and in the spring of 1827, a small party of 
Winnebagoes surprised a party of twenty-four 
Ohippewas, and killed eight of them. The 
United States commander at Fort Snelling caused 
four of the offending Winnebagoes to be arrested, 
and delivered to the Chippewas, by whom they 
were punished. Red Bird, the Chief of the 
Sioux, while acting with the Winnebagoes, in an 
attempt to obtain revenge for the killing of the 
four members of their tribe, was defeated by the 
Chippewas. He then determined to wreak his 
vengeance on the white people, who had assisted 
his enemies and invaded his country. On the 
27th of June, 1827, two white men were killed 
near Prairie DuChien, and on the 30th of July, 
two keel boats, carrying supplies to Fort Snell- 
ing, were attacked, and two of the crew killed. 
The news soon spread among the settlers, and 
upon a call from Governor Edwards, four com- 
panies of infantry and one of cavalry were made 
up in Sangamon county. The cavalry company 
was commanded by Edward Mitchell, and the 
four infantry companies by Captains Thomas 
Constant, Reuben Brown, Achilles Morris and 
Bowling Green. The whole, under command 
of Colonel Thomas M. Neale, with James 
D. Henry, as Adjutant, marched to Peoria, 
where the regiment was more fully organized, 
and continued on to Galena. Before their ar- 

rival in the Indian country. Red Bird, with six 
of his warriors, voluntarily gave themselves up 
to the United States forces, under General Atkin- 
son, to save their tribe from the miseries of war. 
Thus ended the campaign, and the troops from 
Sangamon county were ordered home. 


In 1804, a treaty was made with certain of the 
Sac and Fox Indians by General Harrison, at 
St. Louis, by which they ceded to the United 
States all their lands on Rock river, and much 
more elsewhere. This treaty was confirmed by a 
part of the tribe, in a treaty with Governor 
Edwards and Augustus Chouteau, in September, 
1815, and by another part, in a treaty with the 
same commissioners, in May, 1816. These treat- 
ies were never considered binding by Black 
Hawk and other chiefs of his tribe In this con- 
nection it will be well to give an account of 
Black Hawk, and what he says of the treaty of 
1804. From a work published by J. B. Patter- 
son, of Oquawka, on the Black Hawk war the 
following extract is taken: 

" Black Hawk, whose Indian name was Muck- 
a-tan-wish-e-ke-ack-ke-ak (meaning a black hawk) 
was born at the Sac village ( the site of this vil- 
lage was at the present village of Camden, at 
the Rock river crossing of the Peoria and Rock 
Island Railroad), on Rock river, in Illinois, in 
the year of 1767. His father's name was Py-esa. 
His great-grandfather, Na-na-ma-kee (Thunder) 
was born near Montreal, Canada, and was placed 
at the head of the Sac nation by a Frenchman 
who claimed to be the son of the King of 

"He gave them many presents, such as guns, 
powder, lead, spears, and lances, and showed 
them how to use them in peace and war; and 
also cooking utensils, and many other presents 
of different kinds. He afterwards sailed for 

3 50 


France, promising to return at the end of the 
twelfth moon. 

" They continued to trade with the French for 
a long time, and until the latter were overpow- 
ered by the British. After that event several 
tribes united and drove the Sacs from Montreal 
to Mackinac, and thence to Green I^ay, where 
they formed an alliance with the Fox nation, 
and then retreated to the Wisconsin, and finally 
to Rock river, from which they drove the Kas- 
kaskias and commenced the erection of their 

" Py-e-sa succeeded Na-na-ma-kee as war 
chief, and was killed in an engagement with the 
Cherokees, who largely out-numbered the Sacs 
and Foxes. On seeing him fall. Black Hawk 
assumed command and fought desperately until 
the enemy retreated. In this battle, he killed 
three men and wounded several with his own 
hand, the enemies loss being twenty-eight and 
Black Hawk's being only seven. After this en- 
gagement, he fell heir to the great medicine bag 
of his tribe, and, after a season of five years 
mourning, with blackened faces, they deter- 
mined on avenging the death of Py-e-sa, by the 
annihilation if possible of the whole Cherokee 
tribe, and took out a strong army for that pur- 

"Black Hawk succeeded in killing many of 
them and in finally driving them to tiieir own 

"His next movement v\ as against the Chippe- 
was, Kaskaskias and Osages, with whom he had 
seven regular engagements, with a loss of two or 
three hundred. The enemy retired and Black 
Hawk and his band returned to their village. 

"Spain was then in possession of St. Louisand 
all the country south and west. The Indians 
congregated at St. Louis every spring for many 
years to do their trading. After the Louisiana 
purchase, the Spanish withdrew from St. Louis 
and the Americans took possession. Soon after 
Lieutenant (subsequently Genoal) Zebulon JM. 
Pike, with an escort of soldiers, went up the Mis- 
sissi})pi river, calling on the chiefs of the various 
tribes that dwelt along the banks of the Father 
of Waters, and made them many presents in the 
name of their Great Father, the President of the 
United States, who he told them would always 
treat them well if they would listen to his ad- 
vice. A few moons later a Sac Indian killed an 
American, for which offence he was arrested and 
confined in the prison at St Louis. As soon as 
intelligence of the murderer's arrest and impris- 
onment reached Black Hawk, be called a council 
of the head men of his tribe at the Sac village 

to talk the matter over and consider what was 
best to be done. 

"They resolved to send four of their braves to 
St. Louis to compromise with the authorities by 
paying the relatives for the man killed — the only 
way with them for saving one person who had 
killed another. Quash-qua-me and three other 
men of the tribe were chosen to go on this mis- 
sion, the result of which was thus related by 
Black Hawk. 

"Quash-qua-me and his party remained a long 
time absent. They finally returned dressed in 
fine coats and wearing medals and encamped 
near the village. 

"Early the next morning the council was con- 
vened and Quash-qua-me and party came in and 
reported the result of their mission. 

"On their arrival at St. Louis, they reported to 
the American chief and urged the release of 
their friend. The American chief said his gov- 
ernment wanted more land, and if the Sacs and 
Foxes would give him some in Illinois, opposite 
Jefferson (barracks), they would release the im- 
prisoned Sac. 

"Quash-qua-me and his party assented to this, 
and signed a paper by making their marks. 
When they were ready to leave, their friend was 
released, but as he was let out of the prison he 
was shot dead. This was the treaty of 1804, in 
which all their country in Illinois was ceded to 
the United States, for one thousand dollars a 
year, and was the cause of the Black Hawk war, 
as the chiefs claimed that no one but themselves 
and head men had authority to make a treaty." 

LTnder this treaty, it was agreed that the In- 
dians should retain possession of the country 
until it was wanted for white occupancy. 

Black Hawk and his people remained in 
peaceful possession of the country along Rook 
river, until 1830, when they were notified that 
they must move across the Mississippi river. 
They complied with the "notice to quit," and 
crossed over the Father of Waters and took up 
their abode on the eastern slope of Iowa, in what 
came in after years to be known as the Black 
Hawk purchase, or forty-mile strip. 

Rankling under what Black Hawk believed 
to be a wrongful dispossession of their homes 
along Rock river, and hunger and want coming 
to his people in their new homes, they re-crossed 
the Mississippi in the spring of 1831, and took 
possession of the site of their old village and 
corn fields. This movement of Black Hawk ex- 
cited alarm among the white people who had 
settled in that part of Illinois, and complaint 
was made to Governor Reynolds, of Illinois, 



against their presence. The comphimts lepre- 
sented that the Indians were insolent, and had 
committed many acts of violence. Governor 
Ford says the Indians ordered the white settlers 
away, threw down their fences, unroofed their 
houses, cut up their grain, drove oft" and killed 
their cattle, and threatened the people with 
death if tliey remained. 'Ihese acts of the In- 
dians were considered by Governor Reynolds to 
bean invasion of the State. He immediately 
addressed letters to General Gaines, of the 
United States army, and to General Clark, the 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, calling upon 
them to use the influence of the Government to 
procure the peaceful removal of the Indians, if 
possible: at all events, to protect the American 
citizens who had purchased those lands from 
the United States, and were now about to be 
ejected by the Indians. General Gaines repaired 
to Rock Island, and becoming convinced the 
Indians were intent upon war, he called upon 
Governor Reynolds for seven hundred mounted 
volunteers. The Governor obeyed the requisi- 
tion, and issued a call upon the northern and 
central counties, in obedience to which fifteen 
hundred volunteers rushed to his standard at 
Beardstown, and about the 1 0th of June were 
organized and ready to be marched to the seat 
of war. The whole force was divided into two 
regiments, an odd battalion, and a spy battalion. 
The First Regiment was commanded by Colonel 
James D. Henry, of Springfield. 

Black Hawk, becoming convinced that he 
could do nothing against the force sent against 
liim, retreated across the river, and fearing pur- 
suit from General Gaines, returned with his 
chiefs and braves to Fort Armstrong, and sued 
for peace. A treaty was here formed with them, 
by which they agreed forever to remain on the 
west side of the river, and never to re-cross it 
without the permission of the President or the 
Governor of the State. The treaty of 1804 was 
thus at last ratified by these Indians. Notwith- 
standing this treaty, early in the spring of 1832, 
Black Hawk and the disaffected Indians pre- 
pared to re-assert their right to the disputed 

Governor Reynolds, as soon as informed of 
the action of Black Hawk, issued another call 
for volunteers. General Thomas M. Neale, of 
the State militia, received the following order: 

To General T. M. Neale: — You are hereby 
commanded to cause six hundred men of your 
command to meet at Beardstown, on the 22d 
inst., without fail. I have ordered the Colonels 

of your brigade to furnish their proportion of 
men out of their respective regiments, for fear 
you might not be at home. You will call on 
the militia nearest the rendezvous. Each com- 
pany to be composed of fifty men and to elect 
its own officers. Mounted volunteers are pre- 
ferred. If none such will offer their services, 
then you are to draft, which I hope will not be 
the case. John Reynolds, 

Commander in Chief. 

April 1(5, 1832. 

The Sangamo Journal of this period contained 
many articles recounting the atrocities commits 
ted by the Indians. The excitement ran high 
and every able-bodied man was ready to volun- 
teer. The quota of this county was easily 
raised. As a specimen of the war poetry of the 
period we quote the following, appearing as 
original in the Journal: 


For the Second Expedition against Black Hawk. 

Brave Sangamon hath armed, 
All to defend her right — 
Arouse, ye bold Kentucky boys, 
The foremost in the fight! 

Away I away! away! 

The flames of war are burning red, 
The naked frontier needs j^our aid! 
Huzza for old Kentuckl 

Away! away! away! 

Virginia and fair Tennessee, 
From danger never known to flee, 
Show Sangamo 5^our pluck! 

Away! away! away! 

Now old Virginia's hearts of fire. 
Who in the battle never tire. 
Remember Washington, your sire! 
Away! away! away! 

Ye Yankee boj's of courage tnie. 
Now show the world what ye can do! 
And make the Black Hawk tremble, too! 
Away! away! away! 

Our answer is the rolling drum — 
We come! we come! we come! 
Forward! our course is to the West — 
The war-path is no place of rest! 
Away! away! away! 

The Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and the 
few "Yankee boys" then living here, nobly re- 
sponded, causing grief to some loving wives, 
whose husbands were thus to be taken from 
them, probably never to return. Some one 
whose wife was thus grieving, relates his experi- 
ence through the columns of his weekly paper, 
as follows: 



Have e're you seen, when you've been called 

To scenes of arms and strife, 
The tear stand trembling in the eyes 

Of your beloved wife? 

Have you seen this, then heard her say 

With faltering voice — "My dear, 
(Then pausing and embracing you) 

" My dear — don't go — I fear!" 

Ah, have you seen and have you heard 

Her urge her moving plea — 
"I fear you'll ne'er come back, my love, 

To these sweet babes and me." 

Then you have felt w^hat I have felt, 

My resolution tried — 
But bracing up my nerves, I said, 

" Dear wife don't be afraid. 

" We've heard of fearful massacres 

Of fathers — mothers slain — 
And little babes — as small as ours 

All mangled on the plain! 

" Then ought I not, with sword in hand. 

Go quickly to defend 
Those little babes and women, who 

May meet such direful end?" 

She nothing said — but while I spoke 

She gently pressed my hand. 
And ever since her actions say 

Go now — defend our land. 

Speaking of the Black Hawk war, Ford, in 
his "History of Illinois," says: 

"The united Sacs and Fox nations were di- 
vided into two parties. Black Hawk commanded 
the warlike band, and Keokuk, another chief, 
headed the band which was in favor of peace. 

"Keokuk was a bold, sagacious leader of his 
people; was gifted with a wild and stirring elo- 
quence, sure to be found, even among Indians, 
by means of which he retained a greater part of 
his nation in amity with the white people. 

"But nearly all the bold, turbulent spirits, 
who delighted in mischief, arranged themselves 
nnder the banner of his rival. Black Hawk had 
wath him the chivalry of his nation, with which 
he re-crossed the Mississippi in the spring of 

"He directed his march to Rock river in the 
spring of 1832. 

"He directed his march to the Rock country, 
and this time aimed, by marching up the river 
into the countries of the Pottawottomies and 
Winnebagoes, to make them his allies. Gover- 
nor Reynolds, upon being informed of the facts, 
made another call for volunteers. In a few days 
eighteen hundred men rallied under his banner 
at Beardstown. This force was organized into 
four regiments and a spy battalion. Colonel 

Dewit commanded the First Regiment, Colonel 
Fry the Second, Colonel Thompson the Fourth, 
and Colonel James D. Henry commanded the 
spy battalion. The whole brigade was put 
under the command of Brigadier General Sam- 
uel Whiteside, of the State militia, who had 
commanded the spy battalion in the first cam- 

"On the a'Zth of April, General Whiteside, 
accompanied by Governor Reynolds, took up 
his line of march. The army proceeded by the 
way of Oquawka,onthe Mississippi, to the mouth 
of Rock river, and here it was agreed between 
General Whiteside and General Atkinson, of 
the regulars, that the volunteers should march 
up Rock river about fifty miles, to the Prophet's 
town, and there encamp, to feed tind rest their 
horses, and await the arrival of the regular 
troops in keel boats, with their provisions. 
Judge William Thomas, who again acttd as 
quartermaster to the volunteers, made an esti- 
mate of the amount of provisions required until 
the boats could arrive, which were supplied, and 
then General Whiteside took up his line of 

"But when he arrived at the Prophet's town, 
instead of remaining there, his men set fire to 
the village, which was entirely consumed, and 
the brigade marched on in the direction of 
Dixon, forty miles higher up the river. 

" When the volunteers had arrived within a 
short distance of Dixon, orders were given to 
leave the baggage wagons behind, so as to reach 
there by a forced march. And for the relief of 
the horses, the men left large quantities of pro- 
visions behind with the wagons. 

"At Dixon,]General Whiteside came to a halt, 
to await a junction with General Atkinson, with 
provisions and the regular forces; and from here 
parties were sent out to reconnoitre the enemy 
and ascertain his position. The army here 
found upon its arrival, two battalions of 
mounted volunteers, consisting of 275 men, 
from the counties of McLean, Tazewell, Peoria, 
and Fulton, under the command of Majors Still- 
man and Bailey. 'J he oflicers of this force 
begged to be put forward upon some dangerous 
service in which they could distinguish them- 

"To gratify them they were ordered up Rock 
river to spy out the Indians. Major Stillraan 
began his march on the 12fh of May, and pur- 
suing his way on the southeast side, he came to 
''Old Man's" creek, since called "Stillman's 
Run," a small stream which rises in White Rock 
Grove, in Ogle county, and falls into the river 




near Bloomingville. Here he encamped just 
before night; and in a short time a party of In- 
dians on horseback were discovered on a rising 
ground about a mile distant from the encamp- 
ment. A party of Stillman's men mounted 
tlieir horses without orders or commander, and 
were soon followed by others, stringing along 
for a cpxarter of a mile, to pursue the Indians 
and attack them. 

"The Indians retreated after displaying a red 
flag, the emblem of defiance and war, but were 
overtaken and three of them slain. 

"Here Major Hackelton, being dismounted in 
the engagement, distinguished himself by a com- 
bat with one of the Indians in which the Indian 
was killed, and Major Hackelton afterwards 
made his way on foot to the camp of General 

'•Black Hawk was nearby with his main force, 
and being prompt to repel an assault, soon ral- 
lied his men, amounting then to about seven hun- 
dred warriors, and moved down upon Major 
Stillman's camp, driving the disorderly rabble, 
the lecent pursuers before him. These valorous 
gentlemen, lately so hot in pursuit, when the 
enemy were few, were no less hasty in their i-e- 
treat, when coming in contact with superior 
numbers. They came with their horses in a full 
run, and in this manner broke through the camp 
of Major Stillman, spreading dismay and terror 
among the rest of his men, who immediately 
began to join in the flight, so that no effort to 
rally them could possibly have succeeded. Major 
Stillman, now too late to remedy the evils of in- 
subordination and disorder in his command, did 
all that was practicable, by ordering his men to 
fall back in order, and form on higher ground ; 
but as the praii'ie rose behind them for more 
than a mile, the ground for a rally was never 
discovered ; and besides this, when the men once 
got their backs to the enemy, they commenced a 
retreat, without one thought of making a further 

"A retreat of undisciplined militia from the at- 
tack of a superior, is apt to be a disorderly and 
inglorious flight ; and so it was here, each man 
sought his own individual safety, and in the 
twinkling of an eye the whole detachment was 
in utter confusion. They were pursued in their 
flight by thirty or forty Indians, for ten or 
twelve miles, the fugitives in the rear keeping 
up a flying fire as they ran, until the Indians 
ceased pursuing. 

" But there were some good soldiers and brave 
men in Stillman's detachment, whose individual 
efforts succeeded in checking the career of the 


Indians, whereby many escaped that night who 
would otherwise have been easy victims of the 

"Among these were Major Perkins and Captain 
Adams, who fell in the rear, bravely fighting to 
cover the retreat of their fugitive friends. 

"But Major Stillman and his men pursued 
their flight without looking to the right or left 
until they were safely landed at Dixon. 

"The party came straggling into camp all night 
long, four or five at a time, each fresh arrival 
confident that all who had been left behind had 
been massacred by the Indians. 

"The enemy was stated to be just behind in 
full pursuit, and their arrival was looked for 
every moment. Eleven of Stillman's men were 
killed, and it is only astonishing that the num- 
ber was so few. 

" It is said that a big, tall Kentuckian, with a 
loud voice, who was a colonel of the militia, but 
a private with Stillman, upon his arrival in 
camp, gave to General Whiteside and the won- 
der struck multitude, the following glowing and 
bombastic account of the battle: 'Sirs,' said 
he, ' our detachment was encamped among some 
scattering timber on the north side of Old Man's 
creek, with the prairie from the north gently 
sloping down toward our encampment. It was 
just after twilight, in the gloaming of the even- 
ing, when we discovered Black Hawk's army 
coming down upon us in solid column; they 
displayed in the form of a crescent upon the 
brow of the prairie, and such accuracy and pre- 
cision of military movements were never wit- 
nessed by man; they were equal to the best 
troops of Wellington, in Spain. I have said that 
the Indians came down in solid columns, and 
displayed in the form of a crescent; and what 
was most wonderful, there were large squares of 
cavalry resting upon the points of the curve, 
which squares were supported agsin by other 
columns fifteen deep, extending back through 
the woods and over a swamp three-quarters of 
a mile, which again rested on the main body of 
Black Hawk's army, bivouacked upon the banks 
of the Kishwakee. It was a terrible and a 
glorious sight to see the tawny warriors as they 
rode along our flanks attempting to outflank us, 
with the glittering moonbeams glistening from 
their polished blades and burnished spears. It 
was a sight well calculated to strike consterna- 
tion in the stoutest and boldest heart; and ac- 
cordingly our men soon began to break in small 
scpiads, for tall timber. In a very little time the 
rout became general, the Indians were soon 
upon our flanks and threatened the- destruction 



of our entire detachment. About this time, 
Major Stillman, Colonel Stephenson, Major 
Perkins, Captain Adams, Mr. Hackleton, and 
myself, with some others, threw ourselves into 
the rear to rally the fugitives and protect the 
retreat. But in a short time all my companions 
fell bravely, lighting hand-to-hand with the sav- 
age enemy, and I alone was left upon the field 
of battle. About this time I discovered not far 
to the left, a corps of horsemen which seemed 
to be in tolerable order. I immediately deployed 
to the left, when, leaning down and placing my 
body in a recumbent posture upon the mane of 
my horse, so as to bring the heads of the horse- 
men between my eye and the horizon, I discov- 
ered by the light, of the moon that they were 
gentlemen who did not wear hats, by which 
token I knew tliey were no friends of mine. I 
therefore made a retrograde movement and 
recovered my position, where I remained some 
time meditating what further I could do in the 
service of my country, when a random ball came 
whistling by my ear and plainly Avhispered to 
me. ' Stranger, you have no further business 
here.' Upon hearing this I followed the exam- 
ple of my companion in arms, and broke for the 
tall timber, and the way I ran was not a lit'le'." 

On the arrival of Major Stillman's command, 
at Dixon, a council of war was held, in which it 
was agreed to march early the next morning to 
tlie fatal field of that evening's disaster. For 
some time the soldiers had been living without 
any regular supplies, but Quartermaster Thomas, 
anticipating the action of the council, went out 
in search of cattle and hogs, and before daylight 
the next morning the army was supplied with 
some fresh beef, which they ate without bread. 
When the volunteers arrived upon the battle 
field they found the Indians gone, a party of 
seventy of them soon being heard of as having 
made a descent upon a small settlement on Indian 
creek, a tributary of Fox river, and within 
fifteen miles of Ottawa, they massacred fifteen 
persons, taking two young ladies — Sylvia and 
Rachel Hall — prisoners. The young prisoners 
were hurried by forced marches, beyond the reach 
of pursuit. 'J'hey were afterwards purchased 
from their captors. 

Returning to Dixon, General Whiteside, the 
next day, was joined by General Atkinson, biat 
the time of many of the volunteers having ex- 
pired, no further advance could then be made. 
The Governor had previously issued orders for 
raising two thousand additional volunteers, to 
rendezvous at Beardstown and Hennepin. A 
volunteer regiment of those just discharged, was 

organized to remain in defense of the country 
until the new troops arrived. 

On the ] 5th of June, the new levies had ar- 
rived at the place of rendezvous, and were 
formed into three brigades — General Alexander 
Posey commanding the first, General Milton K. 
Alexander the second, and General James D. 
Henry the third. On the march each brigade 
was preceded by a battalion of spies, commanded 
by a major. The whole volunteer force at this 
time amounted to three thousand two hundred 
men, besides three companies of rangers, under 
the command of Major Bogart, left behind to 
guard the frontier settlements. The object in 
calling out so large a force was to overawe the 
Pottawatamie and Winnebago Indians, who 
were hostile in their feelings towards the whites, 
and much disposed to join Black Hawk's party. 

Before the new army could be brought into 
the field the Indians had committed several mur- 
ders. One man was killed on Bureau creek, 
some seven or eight miles above Princeton; one 
in Buffalo Grove; one between the Fox river 
and the Illinois; two about six miles northwest 
of Oltawa. On the 22d of. May, General At- 
water had dispatched Mr. St. Vrain, the Indian 
agent for the Sacs and Foxes, at Rock Island, 
with a few men as an express, to Fort Armstrong, 
On their way thither, they fell in with a party of 
Indians, led by a chief well known to the agent. 
This chief was called "The Little Bear." He 
had been a particular friend of the agent, and 
had adopted him as a brother. Mr. St. Vrain 
felt no fear of one who was his friend, and who 
had been an inmate of his house, and who had 
adopted him as a brother, and therefore ap- 
proached the Indian with the greatest confi- 
dence and security. The treacherous Indian, 
untrue in war to the claims of gratitude, friend- 
shij) and brotherhood, no sooner got him in his 
power than he murdered and scalped him and 
all his party, with as little compassion as though 
he had never known him or professed to be his 

Not long after the new forces were organized 
on the Illinois river. Black Hawk, with a hund- 
red and fifty warriors, made an attack on Apple 
River Fort, within twelve miles of Galena, and 
defended by about twenty-five men, under com- 
mand of Captain Stone. This fort was a stock- 
ade of logs stuck in the ground, with block- 
houses at the corners of the square, by way of 
towers and bastions. It was made for the pro- 
tection of a scattering village of miners, who 
lived in their houses in the vicinity during the 
day, and retired into the fort for protection at 



night. The women and children, as usual in 
the day-time, were abroad in the village, when 
three men, on an express from Galena to Dixon, 
were tired upon by the Indians, lurking in 
ambush within half a mile of the village, and 
retreated into the fort. One of them was wound- 
ed, but his companions stood by him nobly, re- 
treating behind him, and keeping the Indians at 
bay by pointing their guns first at one and then 
at anotlier of those who were readiest to advance. 
The alarm was heard at the fort in time to rally 
the scattered inhabitants. 

The Indians soon came up within firing dis- 
tance, and then commenced a fearful struggle 
between the small party in the fort, against six 
times their number of the enemy. The Indians 
took possession of the log houses, knocked holes 
in the walls, through which to fire at the fort 
Avith greater security to themselves; and while 
some were firing at the fort, others broke the 
fui'niture, destroyed the provisions, and cut open 
the beds and scattered the feathers found in the 
houses. The men in the fort were excited to 
the highest pitch of desperation. They believed 
that they were contending with an enemy who 
never made a prisoner, and that the result of the 
contest must be victory or death to them and 
their families. The women and children mould- 
ed the bullets and loaded the guns for the men, 
who fought with a fury caused by desperation 
itself. The loss in the fort was one man killed 
and one wounded. Owe of the men who first 
retreated to the fort, immediately passed on to 
Galena, and there gave the alarm. Colonel 
Strode, who commanded in Galena, lost no time 
in marching to the assistance of the fort, but be- 
fore his arrival the Indians had raised the siege 
and departed. 

About the time of the siege of the fort, a 
party of Indians made an attack on three men 
near Fort Hamilton, in the lead mines. Two of 
the men were killed, while the other escaped. 
General Dodge, of Wisconsin, Avho happened 
to arrive at the fort soon after wnth twenty men 
under his command, made quick pursuit after 
these Indians, who w ere chased to the Pekaton- 
ica, and there took shelter under the high bank 
of the river. General Dodge and his party 
charged upon tKem in their place of conceal- 
ment, and killed the whole party, eleven in num- 
ber, with the loss of three of his own men, 
mortally wounded, and one who afterwards re- 

The Indians had now shown themselves to be 
a courageous, active, and enterprising enemy. 
They had scattered their war parties all over the 

North, from Chicago to Galena, and from the 
Illinois river into the Territory of Wisconsin. 
They occupied every grove, waylaid every road, 
hung around every settlement, and attacked 
every party of white men that attempted to 
penetrate the country. Their supremacy in the 
field, however, was of short duration, for on the 
20th, 21st, and 22d of June, the new forces as- 
sembled on the Illinois river, were put in motion 
by General Atkinson, of the regular army, who 
now assumed command of the whole. 

General Atkinson, having heard that Black 
Hawk had concentrated his forces at the four 
lakes in Wisconsin, and fortified his position, 
with the intention of deciding the fate of war 
by a general battle, marched with as much haste 
as prudence would warrant, when invading a 
hostile and wilderness country with undisci- 
plined forces, where there was no means of pro- 
curing intelligence of the numbers or where- 
abouts of the enemy. 

Eight weeks were now spent in a fruit- 
search of the enemy, by which time the volun- 
teer force through one cause or another, had 
been reduced nearly one-half, and such was the 
wastefulness of the volunteers, that they were 
frequently one or two days short of provisions 
before new supplies could be obtained. At this 
time there were not more than four days' ra- 
tions in the hands of the commissary; the enemy 
might be weeks in advance; the volunteers were 
fast melting away; and General Atkinson found 
it necessary to disperse his command for the 
purpose of procuring supplies. Colonel Ewing's 
regiment was sent back to Dixon; General Po- 
sey marched to Fort Hamilton as a guard to the 
frontier country; Henry, Alexander and Dodge, 
with their commands were sent to Fort Winne- 
bago; while (-Jeneral Atkinson himself fell back 
with the regular forces to Lake Koshkenong, 
where he proposed to remain until the volunteer 
generals could return Avith supplies. Henry and 
Alexander made Fort Winnebago in three days. 
Major Dodge having preceded them a few hours 
by a forced march, which so crippled his horses 
that many of them were unable to continue the 

Two days were occupied at the fort in getting 
provisions, on the last of which the Winnebago 
chiefs there reported that Black Hawk and his 
forces were encamped at the Manitou village, 
thirty-five miles above General Atkinson, on the 
Rock river. In a council held between Henry, 
Alexander and Dodge, it was determined to vio- 
late orders by marching directly to the enemy, 
with the hope of taking him by surprise. 



Twelve o'clock, on the ]5tli of July, was ap- 
pointed as the hour to march. General Henry 
proceeded at once to re-organize his brigade, 
with a view to dis-encumber himself of his sick 
and dismounted men, that he might have as lit- 
tle as possible to impede the celerity of his 
march. General Alexander soon announced 
that his men were unwilling and had refused to 
follow, while Major Dodge reported his horses 
so much disabled by their late march that he 
could not muster a force worth taking along. 
General Henry was justly indignant at the in- 
subordination and defection of his com- 
l^anions in arms, and announced his pur- 
pose of marching in pursuit of the enemy alone, 
if he could prevail upon but fifty men to follow 
him. Directly after this a company of mounted 
volunteers, with fresh horses arrived to^ join 
Major Dodge, then making his force of men and 
horses one hundred and twenty in number. 
General Henry's brigade, exclusive of Dodge's 
battalion, numbered between five and six hun- 
dred, but not more than four hundred and fifty 
had horses fit for service. On returning to his 
own brigade, General Henry discovered that his 
own men, infected by association with those of 
General Alexander, were on the point of open 

Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, of Fry's regiment, 
presented to General Henry a written protest, 
signed by all the officers of the regiment, except 
the Colonel, against the intended expedition; 
but these officers had to deal with an officer of 
rare abilities as a commander of militia. Gen- 
eral Henry was a complete soldier; he was gifted 
with uncommon talent of commanding with 
sternness, without giving offense; of forcing 
men to obey without degrading them in their 
own estimation. He was brave without rash- 
ness, and gave his orders with firmness and 
authority, without any appearance of bluster. 
In his mere person he looked the commander. 
In a word, he was one of those very rare men 
who are gifted by nature with the power to 
command militia — to be at the same time loved 
and feared, and with the capacity of inspiring 
the soldiery with the ardor, impetuosity, and 
honorable impulses of their commander. Gen- 
eral Henry made no other reply to this protest 
than to order the officers under arrest for mutiny, 
appointing at the same time Collins' regiment as 
a guard to escort them to General Atkinson. 
Colonel Smith, in great trepidation, protested 
that he did not know what the paper contained 
when he signed it, and implored the General's 
permission to consult a few moments with the 

officers before further steps were taken. This 
being accorded, in less than ten minutes they 
were all collected at the General's quarters, mani- 
festing the utmost contrition, and pledging 
themselves, if forgiven, to return to their duty, 
and never be guilty of the like offense again. 
The General, than whom none better understood 
human nature, made them a few remarks, tem- 
pered with dignity and kindness. The officers 
returned to their duty, and it is but just to say, 
that from that hour no men ever behaved better. 

General Henry took up his line of march on 
the 15th of July, accompanied by Poquette, a 
half-breed, and the "White Pa-vnee," a Winne- 
bago chief, as guides, in hunt of the Indians. 
After three days' hard marching, the troops 
reached the Rock river, and on the morning of 
the ]9th, everything was placed in readiness for 
a forced march. The fresh trail of the enemy 
had been struck, and the men now felt in better 
spirits, and were inspired with a lively hope of 
bringing the war to a speedy close. In the after- 
noon of the 19th, the command was overtaken 
with one of those storms common on the prai- 
ries, which lasted until two o'clock the next 
morning. The men, exhausted with fatigue, 
threw themselves, supperless, upon the muddy 
earth, covered with water, for a little rest. The 
rain made it impossible to kindle a fire or to 
cook, so that both officers and men contented 
themselves with eating some raw meat and some 
wet flour, which was converted into a soft dough 
by the drenching rain. 

All were on the march by daylight on the 
morning of the 20th, and after a hard march, 
encamped at nigh": upon one of the banks of the 
four lakes, near where the Indians had encamped 
the previous night. At this place the men were 
able to make fires and cook their suppers, and 
this they did with a hearty good will, having 
traveled about one hundred miles without tasting 
anything but raw food, and without having seen 
a spark of fire. That night they lay upon the 
ground, many of them with nothing but the sky 
for a covering, and slept soundly and sweetly. 
All were in tine spirits and high expectations of 
overtaking the enemy the next day, and putting 
an end to the war by a general battle. The 
march was continued on the morning of the 21st. 
Major William Lee D. Ewing commanded the 
spy battalion, and with him was joined the bat- 
talion of Major Dodge, of Wisconsin. These 
two oflicers, with their commands, were in ad- 
vance, but with all their ardor, were never able 
to get out of sight of the main body. About 
noon of this day the advance guard was close 



upon the rear guard of the retreating enemy. 
For many miles before they were overtaken their 
broad trail was strewn with camp kettles and 
baggage of various kinds, which they had 
thrown away in the hurrj' uf their flight. By 
faint attacks the Indians kept their pursuei's in 
check until they reached the broken grounds on 
the bluffs of the Wisconsin river. 

^ About four o'clock on the afternoon of the 
21st, while the advance guard was passing over 
some uneven ground, through the high grass 
and low timber, they were suddenly fired upon 
by a body of Indians, who had here secreted 
themselves. In an instant Major Ewing's bat- 
talion dismounted and formed in front, their 
horses being removed to the rear. The Indians 
kept up a fire from behind fallen trees, and none 
of them could be discovered except by the flash 
and report of their guns. In a few minutes 
General Henry arrived with the main body, 
when the order of battle was formed. Colonel 
Jones' regiment was placed on the right. Colonel 
Collins' on the left, and Colonel Fry's in the 
rear, to acta s a reserve. Major Ewing's battal- 
ion was placed in front of the line, and Major 
Dodge on the extreme right. In this order the 
forces marched into battle. An order was given 
to charge upon the enemy, which M^as promptly 
obeyed by Ewing's battalion and by Jones' and 
Collins' regiments. 

The Indians retreated before this charge ob- 
liquely to the right, and concentrated their main 
force in front of Dodge's battalion, showing a 
design to turn his flank. General Henry sent 
an order by Major McConnell to INIajor Dodge, 
to advance to the charge; but this officer being 
of the opinion that the foe was too strong for 
him, requested a reinforcement. Colonel Fry's 
regiment was ordered to his aid, and formed on 
his right, when a vigorous charge was made 
from one end of the line to the other. 

Colonel Fry's regiment made a charge into 
the bush and high grass, where the Indians were 
concealed, and received the fire of the whole 
body. This fire was briskly returned by the 
forces under Fry and Dodge, Avho continiied to 
advance, the Indians standing their ground until 
the men came within reach of them, then fell 
back to the west, along the high, broken bluffs 
of the Wisconsin, only to take a new position 
amongst the thickest timber and tall grass in 
the head of a hollow, leading to the Wisconsin 
river bottom. Here it seemed they were deter- 
mined to make a firm stand; but, l)eing charged 
upon in their new position, by Ewing's bat- 
talion, and by Collins' and Jones' regiments, 

they were driven out of it, some of them being 
pursued down the hollow, and others again to 
the west, along the Wisconsin heights, until 
they descended the bluffs to the Wisconsin 
bottom, which was here about a mile wide and 
very swampy, covered with a thick, tall grass, 
above the men on horseback. It now being 
dark, further pursuit was stopped, and General 
Henry and his forces lay upon the field of 

Early next morning, General Henry advanced 
to the W^isconsin river, and ascertained that the 
Indians had all crossed it,and made their escape 
into the mountains between that and the Missis- 
sippi. The Indian loss in this battle of the 
Wisconsin, as it is known in histoiy, was sixty- 
eight left dead on the field, and a large number 
wounded, of whom twenty-five were afterwards 
found dead along the Indian ti'ail leading to the 
Mississippi. General Henry lost one man killed 
and eight wounded. The small loss of General 
Henry is accounted for from the fact that the 
Indians had been trained to fire at an elevation 
to hit men on horseback, but as General Henry 
had dismounted his forces, the Indians overshot 

In the various histories of this campaign, 
Major Dodge is given all credit for the success 
attained, being spoken of as General Dodge, 
when it is well known that he only commanded 
a battalion, and was ranked by several officers, 
the whole force being under command of Gen- 
eral Henry. The reason of this is that all the 
war news was first published in the Galenian, 
then the only newspaper published north of 
Springfield, either in Illinois or Wisconsin, the 
editor of which, Dr. Philleo, was a member of 
Dodge's battalion. When he wrote home the 
news to be published in his paper, he never men- 
tioned Henry, except as a subordinate, or any 
other officer excejst Dodge. His letters chroni- 
cled the deeds of Major Dodge only, and by 
calling him General Dodge it was made to 
appear that he was the commander of the whole 
brigade, instead of a single battalion attached 
to it. These letters were copied into every 
newspaper throughout the Union, and have 
formed the basis of all the histories of the war, 
the people abroad being thus deluded into the 
belief that Dodge was the great hero of the 
war. Henry was lost sight of, and now in some 
histories. Dodge is spoken of as the commander 
in that war, thus throwing out of sight both 
General Henry and Atkinson, as well as General 
Zachary Taylor, who, as Colonel, commanded 
the regular forces. 



The day after the battle of the Wisconsin, 
for want of provisions, it was determined to fall 
back to the Blue Mounds. Here General Henry 
Avas joined by General Atkinson and the regu- 
lars, and General Alexander's and Posey's bri- 

After spending two days in jireparation the 
whole force, now under command of General 
Atkinson, was again on the march in pursuit of 
the Indians. About ten o'clock the morning of 
the fourth day after crossing the Wisconsin, 
General Atkinson's advance reached the b uffs 
on the east side of the Mississippi. The Indians 
had reached the bank of the river some time 
before. Some had crossed, and others weie 
making preparations to cross it. The steamboat 
Warrior, Captain Throckmorton, descended to 
the place the day before. As the steamboat 
neared the camp of the Indians, they raised a 
white Hag, but Captain Throckmorton, believing 
this to be treacherously intended, ordered them 
to send a boat on board, which they declined 
doing. Allowing them iifteen minutes time in 
which to remove their squaws and children, he 
fired upon tiiem with a six-pounder, and contin- 
ued the "fight" about one hour, with a loss to 
the Indians of twenty-three killed and a large 
number wounded. The boat then fell down the 
river to Prairie DuChien, and before it could 
return the next morning, the land forces, under 
General Atkinson, had come up and commenced 
a general battle. 

The Indians were encamped on the banks of 
the Mississippi, some distance below the mouth 
of Bad-Axe river. Being aware that General 
Atkinson was in close pursuit, and to gain time 
for crossing into the Indian country, west of the 
Mississippi, they sent back about twenty men to 
meet him, with instructions to commence an at- 
tack, and then to retreat to the river, three miles 
above this camp. Accordingly, when General 
Atkinson came within three or four miles of the 
river, he was suddenly fired upon from behind 
trees and logs, the very tall grass aiding the con- 
cealment of the attacking party. General At- 
kinson rode immediately to the scene of action, 
and in person formed his lines and directed a 
charge. The Indians gave way, and were pur- 
sued by General Atkinson and all the army, ex- 
cept Henry's brigade, which was in the rear, 
and in the hurry of jjursuit left without orders. 
When Henry came up to the place where the 
attack had been made, he saw clearly that the 
wily stratagem of the untutored savage had tri- 
umphed over the science of a veteran General. 
The main trail of the Indians was plainly to be 

seen leading to the river lower down. He called 
a hasty council of his principal officers, and by 
tbeir advice, marched right forward upon the 
main trail. At the foot of the high bluff bor- 
dering the river valley, on the edge of a swamp, 
densely covered with timber, driftwood and un- 
derbrush, through which the trail led fresh and 
broad, he halted his command and left his horses. 
The men were formed on foot and thus advanc- 
ed to the attack. They were preceded by an ad- 
vance guard of eight men, who were sent for- 
ward as a forlorn hope, and were intended to 
draw the first fire of the Indians, and to disclose 
thereby to the main body where the enemy was 
to be found, preparatory to' a general charge. 
These eight men boldly advanced some distance, 
until they came within sight of the river, where 
they were fired upon by about fifty Indians, and 
five of the eight instantly fell dead or wounded. 
The other three, protected behind trees, stood 
their ground until the arrival of the main body 
under General Henry, which deployed to the 
right and left from the centre. Immediately the 
bugle sounded a charge, every man rushed for- 
ward, and the battle became general along the 
whole line. These fifty Indians had retreated 
upon the main body, amounting to about three 
hundred warriors, a force equal, if not superior, 
to those contending against them. It was soon 
apparent that they had been taken by surjjrise. 
They fought bravely and desperately, but seem- 
ed without any plan or concert of action. The 
bugle again sounded a charge. The Indians 
were driven from tree to tree, and from one hid- 
ing place to another. In this manner they 
receded step by step, driven by the advancing 
foe, until they reached the bank of the river. 
Here a desperate struggle ensued, but it was of 
short duration. The bloody bayonet, in the 
hands of excited and daring men, drove them 
into the river, some of them trying to swim it, 
while others took shelter on a small willow 
island near the shore. 

About this time General Atkinson, with the 
regulars, and Dodge's battalion, arrived, followed 
by Posey's and Alexander's men, but the main 
work had been accomplished before they came 
up. It had been determined that Henry's men 
should have no share in this day's glory, but the 
fates taking advantage of a blunder of General 
Atkinson, had otherwise directed. After the 
Indians had retreated into the river and on the 
island, Henry dispatched Majcr McConnell to 
give intelligence of his movements to his com- 
mander, who, while pursuing twenty Indians in 
another direction, had heard the firing where 



Henry was engaged. General Atkin.sun left the 
pursuit of the twenty Indians, and hastened to 
share in the engagement. He was met by 
Henry's messenger near the scene of action, in 
passing through which, the dead and dying In- 
dians lying around bore frightful evidence of 
the stern work which had been done before his 
arrival. However, he lost no time in forming 
his regulars and Dodge's battalion for a descent 
upon the island. These forces, together with 
Ewing's battalion and Fry's regiment, made a 
charge through the water up to their arm-pits on 
to the island, where most of the Indians had 
taken their last refuge. All the Indians who 
attempted to swim the river were picked off 
with riflew, or found a watery grave before they 
reached the opposite shore. Those upon the 
island kept up a severe fire from behind logs and 
driftwood upon the men, as they advanced to 
the charge, but most of them there secreted 
were either killed, captured or driven into the 
water, where they perished miserably, either by 
drowning, or the still more fatal rifle. The In- 
dian loss in this battle, known as the battle of 
Bad-Axe, is estimated at one hundred and fifty 
killed, as many more drowned in the river, and 
fifty prisoners taken, mostly squaws and chil- 
dren. The loss of the whites were seventeen 
killed and twelve wounded. 

The twenty men who led General Atkinson 
astray, were led by Black Hawk in person, and 
as soon as Atkinson ceased his pursuit, they re- 
treated to the Dells on the Wisconsin river. A 
number of Sioux and Winnebagoes went in 
pursuit of him, headed by Decorah, a Winne- 
bago chief, and captured them on the upper Wis- 
consin river. The prisoners were brought down 
to Prairie DuChien and delivered up to General 
Street, the United States Indian Agent. Airong 
the number captured was a son of Black Hawk, 
and also the Prophet, a noted chief, who form- 
erly resided at Prophet's town, in Whiteside 
county, and who was one of the principal insti- 
gators of the war. Thus ended the Black Hawk 
war. The militia were sent to Dixon and dis- 
charged. Black Hawk and the Prophet were 
taken east and confined in Fortress Monroe for 
a time. On the 4th day of June they were set 
free. Before leaving the fort. Black Hawk de- 
livered the following farewell speech to the 

'' Brother, I have come on my own part, and 
in behalf of my companions, to bid you fare- 
well. Our great father has at length been 
pleased to permit us to return to our hunting 
grounds. We have buried the tomahawk, and the 

sound of the rifle hereafter will only bring death 
to the deer and the buffalo. Brothers, you have 
treated the red man very kindly. Your squaws 
have made them presents; you have given them 
plenty to eat and drink The memory of your 
friendship will remain till the Gieat Spirit says 
it is time for Black Hawk to sing his death 
song. Brother, your houses are as numerous as 
the leaves on the trees, and your young warriors 
like the sands upon the shore of the big lake 
that rolls before us. The red man has but few 
houses and few warriors, but the red man has a 
heart which throbs as warmly as the heart of 
his white brother. The Great Spirit has given 
us our hunting grounds, and the skin of the 
deer which we kill there is his favorite, for its 
color is whi'.e, and this is the emblem of j^eace. 
This hunting dress and these feathers of the 
eagle are white. Accept them, my brother. I 
have given one like this to the White Otter. 
Accept it as a memorial of Black Hawk. When 
he is far away this will serve to remind you of 
him. May the Great Spirit bless you and your 
children. Farewell." 

After their release from prison they were con- 
ducted, in charge of Major Garland, through 
some of the principal cities, that they might 
witness the power of the United States and 
learn their own inability to cope with them in 
war. Great multitudes flocked to see them 
wherever they were taken, and the attention 
paid them rendered their progress through the 
country a triumphal procession, instead of the 
transportation of prisoners by an ofiicer. At 
Rock Island the prisoners were given their lib- 
erty, amid great and impressive ceremony. In 
1838 Black Hawk built him a dwelling near Des 
Moines, Iowa, and furnished it after the manner 
of the whites, and engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits and hunting and fishing. Here, with his 
wife, to whom he was greatly attached, he passed 
the few remaining days of his life. To his 
credit, it may be said, that Black Hawk re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a 
devotion uncommon among Indians, living with 
her more than forty years. 

Black Hawk died October 3, 1838. 

After the close of the Black Hawk war Con- 
gress voted the munificent sum of twenty-one 
cents a day to the volunteers. The Sani^amo 
Journal protested vigorously against such injus- 
tice, urging that a Congress that voted each 
member of that body $8 per day for their serv- 
ices, could afford to be a little more liberal with 
those who periled their lives in a contest with 
the savage Indians. 



Forty-nine years have now passed since the 
events of the Black Hawk war, and yet justice 
has never been done the brave men who partici- 
pated in it, by the United States Congress. A 
few of the men participating in tlie war yet 
live — ci very few. Some of them are in need of 
the necessaries of life, and yet nothing is done 
for them by representatives who annually squan- 
der millions of the people's money. Surely, the 
time has come when something should be done. 

Upon the return of the Sangamon county 
soldiers, a ball was given in Miller's hotel in 
Springfield, "in honor of General James D. 
Henry and the brave soldiers lately under his 
command." The local papers chronicle it as "a 
pleasant affair." 

The following are the names, compiled from 
official sources, of Sangamon county men serv- 
ing in this war: 


Ninety Days Men. 


Jesse Claywell. 


•John H. Wilcoxen. 


Reziu H. Constant. 


Arcliib'dld Cass, Valentine R. Mallory, 

Andrew Moore, William S. Hussey, 


Robert L Gott, .James C. Hagan, 

William B. Hagan, John McLemoor. 


Anderson, Alexander, 
Anderson, Lewis C, 
Anderson, James, 
Anderson, Washington, 
Burns, John R., 
Barnet, William I., 
Brewer, John, Jr., 
Barnet, William, 
Barnet, Hugh, 
Cass, Anderson B., 
Constant, Nathan E , 
Constant, Isaac 
C^,ocker, Harvey, 
Copeland, John, 
Currey, George, 
Dement, William, 
Elliot, Haddon, 
Elliot, Richard, 
Glenn, David A., 

Green, George, 
Helm, Guy, 
Hagan , Samuel C. , 
Hide, .John, 
Kelley, Jeremiah, 
Langston, James, 
Lucas, Thomas, 
Martin, .Joseph, 
Neucane, William T. 
Prim, Abraham, 
Powell, John, 
Powell, Hiram, 
Rogers, William F., 
Riddle, James, 
Snelson, John W., 
Shearley, James, 
Smith, Joseph I., 
Smith, Philip, 
Stone, William A. 

The foregoing received pay for services ren- 
dered. The following named received no pay: 


Sowyel Cox. 


Nathan Hussey, Harrison McGary. 


Brewer, John, Sr., 
Dooley, Jeremiah, 
McGary, Hugh, 
Pickrell, Benjamin F., 
Stone, Caleb, 

Smith, Eliephas, 
Turner, William, 
Waldron, James, 
AVilcox, Ephraim, 
Young, Josepli R. 


Twenty Days Men. 


Alexander White. 


Tolbert Shipley. 


Ebenezer Higgins, Enl. Perkins, 

John Waggoner, JohnO. Smith. 


Hugh AVilson, Amzi Doolittle, 

William Wallace, 


Thomas Willis, 
George Middleton, 
James Marl'ett, 
Elisha Hickerson, 
Andrew Turner, 
Abraham Moore, 
Nathan Iveuedy, 
William G. Gerkins, 
Andrew H. Perkins, 
William Cash, 
George Buchanan, 
Hezekiah Spillman, 
Riley Driskell, 
Isaac Stephens, 
John R. Atherton, 
Benjamin Mitchler, 
Thomas Wilson, 
Thomas H. Owens, 
John M. Forrest, 

.John Moftett, 
Davidson Hibbert, 
Hugh White. 
Daniel Thompson, 
William D. tlickerson, 
Thomas Brewer, 
Abraham Lincoln, 
William E. Franklin, 
William Sailors, 
William Higgins, 
Johnson Clark, Sr., 
.John McKee, 
Samuel Goodwin, 
Edward White, 
James Wilson, 
Joshua Owens, 
.Jacob Compton, 
Hezekiah P. Bradley, 
Johnson Clark, Jr. 


Enlisted April 2, 1832, and mustered out of 
the service May 28, 1832: 


L. W. Goodan. 


John Reed. 


William Cantrall. 

Alford Wood, 
John Ridge, 


Hiram Watson, 
Milton Humes, 


John Kline, William Smith, 

James B. Jones, George E. Cobenness, 

Moses Brunts. 

John Baker, 
William McCollister, 
William Crow, 
William Davenport, 
Benjamin Sims, 
M. C. Kindle, 
Jesse Darrow, 
John Hurst, 

Asa Easters, 
Moses Brumfield, 
Richard Queenston, 
Jefferson Welch, 
George Robison, 
.Jesse Said, 
Jacob M. Erby, 
Robert Brassel, 



James Q. Wills, 
Duvid M. Brink, 
Uriah Maiiu, 
Williiuu Steele, 
James Jones, 
Samuel Malugju, 
Simeon Bunts, 
Achalis Morris, 
John B. Brown, 
John B. Rutlege, 
Simeon Ditson, 
Daniel Goode, 
Nathaniel Foster, 
William Carpenter, 
Daniel Richardson, 
James Baker, 
Jesse Dotson, 
Joseph Rolston, 
Samuel Hamilton, 
John Calhoun, 
William Constant, 
T. M. Neale, 
Robert Richardson, 
B. O. Rusk, 
Michael Archey, 
Vincon Archey, 
Matthias Chilton, 
Samuel O. Neale, 

Samuel McKinsey, 
William E. Wells, 
Reuben King, 
Noah Jones, 
Noah Mason, 
Zachariah Malugon, 
Charles Dawson, 
Samuel Ramer, 
Reuben Bradford, 
Joseph McCoy, 
Harden Thomas, 
Jack Kirk, 
Thomas Sherill, 
James Taylor, 
Edward Jones, 
Elijah lies, 
L. D. Matheny, 
James F. Reed, 
P. A. Saunders, 

D. Dickison, 
John Keys, 
Joseph Garrett, 

E. P. Olesshart, 
John T. Stuart, 
George Glasscock, 
William Patts, 
James D. Henry, 
James Sherell. 


Tldrty Days Men. 


Jacob M. Earley. 


G. W. Glasscock. 


D. B. Rusk. 


Zachariah Malugin, Noah Mason, 

Jacob Eby, W. M. Neale. 


William Crow. 


W. H. Brents, 

James D. Henry, 
Achilles Morris, 
James F. Reed, 
William S. Pickrell, 
William L. Potts, 
Jesse Danon, 
Joseph McCoy, 
Hugh McGary, 
Montgomery Warrick 
B. F. Pickrell, 
George Harrison, 
John Brewer, 

R. J. 

Samuel O. Neale; 
A. Lincoln, 
John Paul, 
John T. Stuart, 
John L. Stephenson, 
L. D. Matheny, 
Adam Smith, 
Harrison McGary, 
John C. Warrick, 
John Baker, 
George Stout, 
J. R. Loveless, 


This company served from April 21, 1832, to 
May 28, 1832. 


John Dawson. 


William Pickrell. 



John Hamback. 


Corbin C. Judd, Harrison McGary, 

John Brewer, John Retherford . 


Thomas I. Knox, John Wright, 

Seymour R. Van Meter, Hugh McGary. 


Michael Kilyon, 
James Brown, 
John Scroggins, 
Samuel Wade, 
Joseph Black, 
Jacob Williams, 
Joseph Wages, 
Zachariah Mouland, 
Jacob Hilgon, 
John Rentop, 
John Bridges, 
John C. Strader, 
Benjamin Clurry, 
Lewis Churchill, 
James Smith, 
Jacob G. Warwick, 
George B. Lucas, 
Joseph Rayborn, 
William Lobb, 
John Ridgwaj^, 
William Crane, 
John Musick, 
Montgomery Warwick, 
George Green, 
Huerh Burnett, 
Charles Turly, 
William B. Short, 
Edward Jones, 
Joseph F. Ganard, 
John T. Stuart, 
Lorenzo D. Matheny, 
James F. Reed, 
David Dickerson, 


Jeremiah Kelly, 
John Bracken, 
John Roger, 
Adam Venus, 
William Clark, 
John Martin, 
Archelaus Demon, 
Joel Miner, 
William White, 
Jesse Hornback, 
William Kelly, 
Benjamin Burck, 
Jacob Martin, 
Clemans Strickland, 
John Ward, 
Lewis Barney, 
Alfred Powell, 
Solomon Brundage, 
Jesse M. HaiTison, 
Squire Foster, 
Robert Hughs, 
Samuel Evans, 
Calahill Stone, 
James M. Reed, 
Jefferson Martin, 
Jonathan H. Pugh, 
Zadock Martin, 
George W. Glasscock, 
James Taylor, 
Ethelbert J. Oliphant, 
William L. Potts. 
P. A. Saunders, 
John Keys, 


This compai)y was mustered into the United 
States' service April 21, 1832, and mustered out 
May 28, 1832. 


Japhet A. Ball. 


Alexander D. Cox, 


John McConnack. 


Joseph W. Duncan, William F. Cox, 

James McConnack, Charles Day. 


Harvey Graham. John M. Barnes, 

Thomas J. Claik, Richard Cox, 


Thomas McKinney, Elder Massec, 

Thomas Gatton, Abram Lantermau, 

Jonathan Coleman, Henry Averill, 

Lewis C. Jones, Daniel Ketchum, 



William Mitts, 
John Brunstield, 
William Gatliu, 
Barnabas M. Blue, 
Solomon W. Hawes, 
Morris R. Moorick, 
Charles Smith, 
John Ball, 
Robert B. Sexton, 
Jolin Terry, 
John Kendall, 
John Gately, 
Abram Howard, 
Robert Patton, 


Joseph Hazlett, 
William Downer, 
John Hutton, 
Nathan H. Spears, 
William McConnack, 
Jesse Mitts, 
Garrett Tempe, 
James Ward, 
Samuel C . Hampton, 
Moses Wright, 
John D. Bagby, 
Thomas Cook, 
Daniel Waters, 
John Vincent, 


This company was mustered into the United 
States service June 20, 1832, and mustered out 
August 16, 1832. 


Reuben Brown . 


William Baker. 


Delos Brown. 

Thomas Jones, 
Evan Morgan, 

Jessie Said, 
John Fagan, 


Samuel E . McKenzey, 
Nathaniel Said. 


Reziu Brown, 
James B. Jones. 


Archer, Winston, 
Baker, James, 
Baker, Thomas, 
Brown, Jerry, 
Cartwright, Peter, 
Delay, Stephen, 
Donaldson, Dudley 
Durbin, Edward, 
Douglass, Thomas, 
Haggard, James, 
Kendrick, Samuel, 
Lucas, Allen B., 


Larkin, Young, 
Martin, Ralley, 
McKinzey, Henry, 
Poor, James H., 
Porter, William, 
Pulliam, James, 
Piker, John, 
Spill ars, William H. 
Stalibrd, Daniel S., 
St. John, Joseph, 
Trotter, George, 
Williams, Isaiah B. 


This company served from June 4, 1832, to 
August 10, 1832. 


Thomas Moffett. 


Shadrach J. Campbell. 


James Watson. 


Gershom Dovience. 


John Oldfield, Franklin Williams, 

George Lindsey, William C. Stephenson. 


John Humphreys, Nathan Ralston, 

James Campbell, Jarrett McKinney. 


John Ridgeway, Saddler, Hill, John P., 

Jesse H. Sleat, Farrier, Latham, John, 

David Duncan, Trumpeter, Lowe, Richard, 

Armstrong, Hugh M. 
Atkinson, Bushrod, 
Brazzle, William, 
Ball, Smith, 
Cooper, W., 
Cannon, Walter, 
Cabanass, Zabalon P. 
Durham, Walter, 
Duncan, Joseph W., 
Drennau, A. P., 
Elkiu, Garret, 
Epperson, Thomas, 
Enix, James, 
Forbes, R. A., 
Golsondiner, John L. 
Glasscock, Gregory, 

Levi, John, 
Lane, Jacob, 
Langley, Robert, 
McAlister, William, 
Moore, Joseph, 
Milts, William, 
Norris, Joseph, 
Paine, Barzilla, 
Pulliam, Martin G., 
Pierce, Philetus G., 
Peter, Samuel, 
Saunders, Pressly, 
Smith, Tillman, 
Smith, John, 
Smith, Adam, 
Stout, George, 

Watson, Hiram. 


John Warnsiug. 


David Black, First Lieut., T. Epperson, 2d Serg't. 


Joseph Inslee, Abler Armisted, 

Thomas Crom . 


Captain J. Ebey's company served from the 
2 1st day of April, 1832, to the 28th day of May, 


Jacob Ebey. 


Edward Shaw. 


Winslow M. Neale, 


Thomas J. Marshall, Davis Meredith, 

James B. Gable, David S. Collins, 


Reese Williams, 
Harmon Renshaw, 


Joseph Drennan, 
Frederick A. Hamilton, 
Daniel Hatan, 
Jackulin Bashaw, 
Thomas Sherill, 
Jacob Hiukle, 
Stephen Hedrick, 
James E. Byers, 
Thomas Stout, 
James Carver, 
John G. Newhouse, 
Joseph Brown, 
Philip Clark, 
Lawrence McMenus, 
Granbury B. Jones, 
George Catlia, 
Wniliam D. Russett, 
Jesse Byer, 
Obadiah Rittenhouse, 

James E. Hawes, 
Wiley Blunt, 


James Harper, 
Samuel Graham, 
John Hillis, 
William Hazlett, 
Adam Vaucil, 
Henrj^ Dickson, 
George Milton, 
William C. Atwood, 
Daniel McClies, 
William Martin, 
John Boyd, 
Urich W'olverton, 
John Whitmore, 
Milton Terrill, 
Isaac Clark, 
John Collins, 
James Rutlege, 
George W. Foster, 
James Taylor, 



John Davis, 
Felix Herndon, 
Alfred Hasli, 

Samuel B. Scoole, 
John Graft, 
John H. Wright. 


The compauy commanded by Abraham Lin- 
coln, afterwards President of the United States, 
was mustered into service April 21, 1832, and 
mustered out May 27, 1832. 


Abraham Lincoln. 


Samuel M. Thompson. 


John Br an nan. 


John Armstrong, TavinerB. Anderson, 

George W. Foster, Obadiah Morgan. 


Thomas Comb, 
William F. Berry, 

John Plaster, 
Alexander Trent. 


John Erwin, 
Thomas Pierce, 
Henry Hadley, 
Calvin Pierce, 
William Kirkpatrick, 
Elijah Pierce, 
Bordry Mathews, 
Valentine Crete, 
James Simmons, 
Allen King, 
David Kanliin, 
Henry Cox, 
Royal Potter, 
Joseph Holmier, 
Evan T. Lamb, 
John M. Rutlege, 
Usil Meeker, 
Charles Pierce, 
John Y. Lane, 
Royal Clary, 
James Yard ley, 
Michael Plaster, 
William Hobiner, 
William Marshall, 
John Jones, 


John H. Houghton, 
Samuel Lebb, 
Samuel Dutten, 
Joseph Lebb, 
Cyrus Elmore, 
Lewis W. Farmer, 
E. Sullivan, 
Charles Sullivan, 
Hugh Armstrong, 
Joseph Dobson, 
Urbin Alexander, 
Merritt M. Carman, 
David M. Pantier, 
George Warburton, 
Clardy Barnette, 
William Cox, 
Richard Jones, 
James Clement, 
Richard Lane, 
Pleasant Armstrong, 
David Rutlege, 
John Mounce, 
Isaac Anderson, 
William Cummins, 
Travis Elmore, 


Elijah lies. 


Jesse H. Harrison. 


George W. Glasscock, Zachariah Milligent. 
Benjamin Burch. 


Alexander Trent, G.W.Foster. 

Jesse Darrows. 


Pressley A. Saunders, A. Lincoln, 

John T. Stuart, Joseph T. Garrett, 

Asa Estes, 
Jacob M. Earley, 
John J. Gately, 
John Letcher, 
John Kendall, 
William McAllister, 
Jeflerson Welch, 
Noah Mason, 
Samuel O'Neal, 
David Dickinson. 
William Kirkpatrick 
Samuel Milligent, 
Achilles Morri.3, 
James F. Reid, 
E. P. Oliphant, 
Lewis Churchill, 
Joseph McCoy, 


James D . Henry, 
Michael Archer, 
John Kirkpatrick. 
James M. Ward, 
Winston M. Nea e, 
John B. Rutledge, 
John Keys, 
Thomas Long, 
Moses Brentz, 
Lorenzo D. Matheny, 

, Thomas Pierce, 

William Crow, 
William L. Potts, 
Benjamin Rusk, 
William S. Pickrell, 
John Brannan, 
Jacob Eby, 



William Cummings, Daniel King, 

John I. Gately, Usel Meeker, 


In the fall of 1881, the Sangamon Monitor 
published the names of the company commanded 
by Captain lies, which drew out the following 
from the pen of Major John T.Stuart, and which 
was written for and printed in the Monitor : 

"Having published a list of the names of Ma- 
jor lies' company in the Black Hawk war of 
1832, you would, doubtless, be pleased to 
know something of the history of that company. 
The volunteer force assembled in the spring of 
that year, under the orders of Governor Rey- 
nolds, and commanded by General Whitesides ; 
marched to Rock Island, and finding that the 
Indians had crossed the Mississippi and gone up 
Rock river, followed them up that stream with- 
out any incident worthy of note, until they ar- 
rived at Dixon's ferry, (now Dixon). 

"Captain Snyder's comj^any had been detached 
across Rock river, to protect Galena and its 
neighborhood, but no news had reached the 
camp at Ottawa of his movements, or of the con- 
dition of things in the neighborhood of Galena. 
The commanding officers at Ottawa were very 
uneasy and anxious to communicate wdth Gale- 
na. While in camp at Dixon, at midnight the 
army was aroused by the news of the defeat at 
Stillman, brought first by one and then another 
flying from the battle ground. The army of 
General Whitesides in the early morning, took 
up the line of march for the battle ground, and 
arrived there in the early afternoon and found 
that the Indians had marched up Rock river, 
leaving their dead on the ground, as well as the 
killed of the whites, and many slaughtered 
horses, making a sad sight to behold. White- 
sides' army buried the dead and marched bnck 
to Dixon. 



"The term of service of the volunteers of that 
army was about to expire and they were anxious 
to return home. A council of war was held at 
Dixon, in which it was debated whether to pur- 
sue the enemy or march to the Illinois, disband 
the army and wait tor the new levies. After an 
angry debate, it was decided to march to Otta- 
wa, on the Illinois river, and disband the army. 
Whitesides' army was then marched to Ottawa 
and disbanded, burying on the route Mr. Katty 
and others, murdered by the Indians on Fox 

"At Ottawa a call was made for volunteers to 
form a regiment for twenty days, to protect the 
northern frontier of the State from the Indians 
during the time that would elapse before the as- 
sembling of the new forces. Among those who 
volunteered were the men whose names you pub- 
lished as composing lies' company, and who, by 
common consent, elected Elijah lies captain — a 
man then in the prime of life, and popular as a 
man and a soldier. 

"After the disbandment of the array of General 
Whitesides, the condition of the scattered set- 
tlements in northern Illinois was sad indeed. 
Universal terror prevailed. The Indians, victo- 
rious over Stillman, and elated by their victory, 
had fallen upon the settlements on Fox river, 
and at other places, and had murdered and 
scalped some and carried others into captivity. 
It was understood they were scattered in small 
parties from the neighborhood of Ciiicago to the 
Mississippi river, along the entire line of fron- 
tier. Where would they strike next V Would 
they attack Chicago, or fall upon the defenceless 
settlers on the borders of the Illinois river and 
the military tract ? Would they aim to cut off 
Galena from support and attempt to captiu-e it ? 
These questions may seem idle now. They were 
momentous then. 

"It soon became known that a large force of 
Indians, under the command of Black Hawk, 
were between Rock river and Galena, and 
threatening that town, then having about four 
hundred inhabitants. 

" It was believed to be an expedition of much 
danger and hazard, and therefore it was deter- 
mined to call for volunteers. Major lies' compa- 
ny volunteered and was accepted. After due 
preparation, that company began its march, the 
bearer of important dispatches. It camped the 
first night at a grove south of Dixon, believed 
to be Chalong's. The next day it swam Rock 
river at Dixon, thirsted for adventure and was 
ready, anxious for the fight. They had confi- 
dence in each other, and in their modest, but 

brave, prudent captain. They were accom- 
l^anied by General James D. Henry, going 
as a private, but also acting as aid to the 
Captain, then believed and afterwards proved 
to be. 

"It was splendidly armed; it was composed of 
first-class material of men, who, if not brave, 
dare not be cowards. My Captain was one of 
the best Captains of his time. They were also 
accompanied, as a volunteer, by a Captain in the 
regular army, whose name the writer has forgot- 
ten, and thus armed, composed, and ofticered, it 
is believed no better company of A'olunteer mili- 
tia ever marched to what it believed a post of 
danger and })atriotic duty. 

" It camped the second night at Buffalo grove. 
During that night the company expected an at- 
tack from the Indians. There were many signs 
that they were around and about them, and once 
an alarm was given, and the company mustered 
under arms. The next morning the company 
marched towards Galena, and entered the tim- 
bers of Apple creek about noon. Here an In- 
dian pony was seen running at large, and some 
of the boys thought to capture it; but the Cap- 
tain, believing that it had been let loose as a 
decoy to induce the breaking of ranks, and to 
give the enemy an opportunity to make an at- 
tack, sternly forbade the effort, and commanded 
to close the ranks and be ready. 

"The company pursued its march, and en- 
camped for the night in the timbers of Apple 
creek, about twelve or fifteen miles from Ga- 
lena, and there were many signs that they were 
watched and followed, but the company was 
ever ready for an attack. They camped that 
night near where a fight had taken place between 
the Indians and Sneyder's company that day or 
the preceding night. During that night not a 
man doubted but that the Indians would make 
an attack before morning. The company was 
kept under arms all night, and constantly drilled 
by Henry and others, and picket guards placed 
all around the encampment. That the Indians 
were all around the encampment was very mani- 
fest, and the writer of this, who stood on picket 
guard during most of that night, did not doubt 
but that he heard them more than once; but 
they made no attack, because the company was 
too well prepared to receive them. Next morn- 
ing the company marched into Galena, delivered 
its dispatches, procured all desired information, 
and then, in the same good order, marched back 
to Ottawa, and was disbanded. Most of its 
members enlisted in the new army, and in 
Early's spy company. 



"That the Indians were in Apple creek tim- 
bers, during the march of the company to and 
from Galena, admits of no doubt. They at- 
tacked, and came very near defeating" Sneyder's 
company, or part of it, a short time before the 
company marched through to Galena. They at- 
tacked Stephenson's company a short time after 
its return from Galena, and not long after at- 
tacked Dement. These attacks were made when 
these commands were at a disadvantage. Why 
did they not attack lies' company? No one of 
that company doubted but that they were 
watched and followed by Indians, from the time 
the company crossed Rock river until its arrival 
at Galena, and on its return, seeking an oppor- 
tunity to make an attack. The answer is that 
the company was handled, armed, and kept such 
perfect order and readiness for an attack that 
the Indians were afraid to make it. 

"The publication of the muster roll of lies' 
company has induced this hurried notice of one 
of the almost forgotten incidents in the early 
history of Illinois. Most of lies' company, 
after well spent lives, have gone to the grave, 
and a few still linger on its brink. They were 
a part of the hardy, brave and adventurous 
early settlers of Illinois, who fought and drove 
off the Indians, relieved it of wolves and wild 
beasts, built its first bridges, school houses and 
churches, and prepared it for that higher civiliza- 
tion it now enjoys." 


Texas, under Spanish rule, was a nearly unin- 
habited part of Mexico, lying between Louis- 
iana and the Rio Grande river. It was a fertile 
region, with a fine climate. The Spanish posses- 
sors of Mexico, in the bigoted and bitter spirit 
that was traditional with the Spaniards toward 
Protestants, and deeply hostile in feeling from 
the rather high-handed and vigorous proceed- 
ings of General Jackson before and after the 
cession of Florida, did not encourage the settle- 
ment of Texas, preferring to be separated by a 
Avilderness from the United States. In 1821, 
the Mexicans finally threw off the Spanish yoke, 
and established an independent government. 

About this time the Americans, and especially 
those of the South, foreseeing the probable 
spread of the northern part of the Republic to 
the Pacific, began to look with covetous eyes 
upon the fine savannas of Texas, as an excellent 
field for land speculations, and also for extend- 
ing the southern area, so as to keep its balance 
in the number of slave States, equal to the free 
States of the North. It was believed to be the 

plan of Mr. Calhoun, an able and far-seeing 
statesman, thoroughly in earnest in the mainte- 
nance of slavery, and the political equality of the 
slave with the free States. Settlements were made 
by people from the United States. Ina few years 
they grew to be numerous, and came in contact 
with the rigid Spanish laws, still maintained by 
the Mexicans. The United States Government 
made advances toward purchasing Texas, but 
the Mexicans were resolute in their purpose to 
hold it, and bring its jDeople under the dominion 
of strict Mexican law. The Americans resisted 
this with the settled determination of ultimate 
separation from Mexico, and probable annexa- 
tion to the United States. 

The Mexicans undertook to reduce them to 
submission. The Texans, supported by bold 
and fearless adventurers from the southern 
States, resisted. The war commenced October 
2, 1835, by a battle at Gonzalez, followed by 
various others. On the 2d of March, 1836, the 
Texans formally declared independence, which 
they maintained by force of arms. On the 3d 
of March, 1837, the United States Government 
recognized the independence of Texas. Eng- 
land did the same in 1842. Propositions of an- 
nexation had been made to Presidents Jackson, 
Van Buren, and Tyler, successively, by the 
Texas government, but as often rejected by 
them, as tending necessarily to a war with 
Mexico, that power having distinctly and repeat- 
edly declared that she should regard such a step 
as a declaration of war. 

The Democratic party regaining the ascen- 
dency in the election of 1844, made this annexa- 
tion one of the issues of the Presidential cam- 
paign. A majority of the peoi)le were in favor 
of it. The Southern view, however, was not 
alone in its influence on this decision. Indig- 
nities and injuries, had been inflicted by the 
Mexicans on American citizens in that country ; 
its haughty, exclusive and unfriendly spirit 
awakened strong indignation; and the Pacific 
coast of California, with the mining regions of 
the northern interior of Mexico, both nearly un- 
inhabited, were objects of desire to the Ameri- 
can people. Thus a wish to extend the bounds 
of the Republic, and to chastise an insolent 
neighbor, combined with the ardent wishes of 
the pro-slavery interest, to lead the nation to 
determine on a war, somewhat ungenerously, 
with a neighbor, notoriously too weak and disor- 
ganized for effectual resistance to the whole 
strength of the United States. 

On the 12th day of May, 1846, Congress 
ordered the raising of 50,000 men and voted 



$10,000,000, to cany on the war. A requisition 
being made upon the Governor of this State for 
three thousand men, a call was issued by Gov- 
ernor Ford upon the militia of the State, to 
volunteer for the war. John J. Hardin, com- 
mander of the Third Brigade of the Third 
Division of Illinois Militia, also issued an 
adviress to those who had served under him, urg- 
ing them to respond to the call. He closed his 
address by saying "The General asks no one to 
go where he is not willing to lead. Let volun- 
teers respond by enrolling their names in the 
service of their country." 

On Saturday, May 29, 1846, a public meeting 
was held in Springfield addressed by Governor 
Ford, Dr. Merryman, D. L. Gregg, T. Campbell 
and Abraham Lincoln, on the condition of the 
country, and the necessity of prompt and united 
action of her citizen soldiery to sustain her na- 
tional character, secure our national lights, as 
well as an everlasting peace. The speeches 
were in the right spirit — warm, thrilling and 
effective. Some seventy men responded to the 
call and volunteered for the war, A glance at 
the names of those from this county will reveal 
some who greatly distinguished themselves and 
reflected honor upon that county in which they 

A treaty of peace was signed between repre- 
sentatives of the two governments, February 2, 
1848, and formally ratified by the United States 
government, March 10th, and the Mexican gov- 
ernment, March 20th, The Mexicans relin- 
quished all claims to Texas and ceded Upper 
California and New Mexico to the United 
States, In return the United States gave them 
118,500,000, of which $3,500,000 was due by a 
former treaty to citizens of this country, and 
paid them by our government. 

Colonel E. D. Baker, who wielded the pen 
equally as well as the sword, and who com- 
manded the regiment, largely made up from 
Sangamon county, contributed to the press of 
that day, the following poem: 


Where rolls the rushing Rio Grande, 

Here peacefully they sleep; 
Far from their native Northern land, 

Far from the fi lends who weep. 
No rolling drum disturbs their rest, 

Beneath the sandy sod — 
The mould lies heavy on eachtbreast, 

The spirit is with God. 

They heard their country's call and came, 

To battle for the right; 
Each bosom filled with martial flame, 

And kindling for the fight. 
Light was their measured footstep, when 

They moved to seek the foe, 
Alas that hearts so fiery, then. 

Should soon be cold and low. 

They did not die in eager strife, 

Upon a well fought field; 
Not from the red wound poured their life, 

Where cowering foemen yield. 
Death's ghastly shade was slowly cast 

Upon each manly brow; 
But calm and fearless to the last, 

They sleep in silence now. 

Yet shall a grateful country give 

Her honors to their name. 
In kindred hearts their memories live, 

And history guard their fame. 
Nor unremembered do they sleep 

Upon a foreign strand, 
Though near their graves the wild waves sweep. 

Thou rushing Rio Grande. 

The following is a copy of the roster as fur- 
nished by the War Department, to the Governor 
of this State, of those participating in the war 
from Sangamon county: 


Colonel— Edward D. Baker. 

Adjutant — William B. Fondey. 

Sergeant Major — James H. Merryman. 

Quartermaster General — Richard F. Barrett. 

Commissary — John S. Bradford. 


Horatio E. Roberts. 


William P. Barrett. 


William B. Fondey. 


Walter Davis, Dudley Wickersham, 

David Logan, Argyle W. Farr. 


Thomas Hessey, Shelton Ransdell, 

Edward Conner, LaM'sou Thomas. 


William C. B. Lewis. 


Addison, Grandison, 
Ballard, Christopher A. 
Balantine, John J., 
Barrett, James A. , 
Brown, William W., 
Butler, Joshua, 
Buel, AbelM , 
Cabanis, ZebulouP., 
Capoot, John, 
Chapman, John, 
Crowl, Upton, 
Darnell, Harvey, 
Ferrill, William C, 

House, Erasmus D., 
James, George, 
Keeling, Singleton, 
Marsin, Joseph, 
Millington, Augustus O., 
Murray, Matthew, 
Peter, Peter C, 
Ransdall, James B., 
Rape Henry, 
Ryan, Jackson. 
Spottswood, James H., 
Smith, Joseph H., 
Wickersham, Wesley H, 



Foster, John E., 

Wilkinson, Reuben, 

Mooi", Thomas, 

Daponte, Durant, 

Fuuk, George W. . 

Wilcox, Enhriam, 

Mahew, David, 

Johnson, John S. W., 

Frink, John S., 

Watson, Charles F., 

Davis, Wm. S., 

Crumbaugh, John F., 

Gideon, Alfred L., 

Watts, Levi P., 

Lash, Henry, 

Toppas, William A., 

Garrett, Ezra L. 

Whitehurst, Thomas, 

Miller, James M., 

Poindexter, Clinton, 

Haines, Fletcher, 

Weber, George R., 

Little, William I., 

Palmer, Lerov G.. 

Harworth, George, 

Yeakles, Joseph, 

Gwinn, Alexander. 



Second Lieutenant — 

John S. Bradford. 

Lieut. Andrew J. Wallace, Andrew J. Hodge. 


John Misner, 

George Perry. 

Before expiration of term of service . 

E. B. Young, 

Marion Wallace, 

Joseph B. Perkins, 

Samuel Cole, 



George W. Hall, 

Alexander J. Seehorn, 


George C. Whitlock, 

Samuel 0. White, 

John D. Lander, 

James Depew, 

Nicholas Algaire, 

John C. Butler, 

John Walker. 

John Dupuy, 

Sil'is Dowdall, 

Benjamin F. McDonald, 

Marion F. Matthews, 


William R. Goodell, 
Presley Ransdell, 
Henry Westbrook, 

Isaac Davis, 
James A. Waugh, 
Jacob Wise, 


Alfred C. Campbell. 

Vincent Ridgely, 

William W. Pease, 


Joseph H. Fultz, 

Levi Gorley. 

John D. 




James H. Merriman, 

Richard F. Barrett. 

Henry M. Spotswood, 

David Meigs, 


John Davis, 

Jonathan Morris. 

Henry J. Moore, 

James Connelly, 


Joseph Stipp, 

Daniel Hokey, 

William Campbell, 

Ihomas Higgins, 

William Hardin, 

Joseph Newman. 

Chris. C. Holyer, 

Hugh Paul. 

Killed at battle of Cerre Gordo. 


James McCabe. 

Alsbury, Edward R., 

Jones, T. B., 

Bloyd, James B , 

Kent, Alexander, 


Cast, Archibald, 

King, John W., 

Cutter, William, 

Morris, Hamilton R., 


Dunlap, James T., 

Morris, Randall G , 

William L. 


Daly, John, 

Meigs, Severell, 


Darneille, Harvey, 

Odell, John, 

B. M. Wyatt, 

John D. Lawder, 

Dodd, John C, 

Philps, Joshua, 

E. D. Dukshier, 

Sanborn Gilmore, 

Dillman, David, 

Rhodes, William G., 


Duncan, Jerome, 

Shoemaker, Thomas C 

Samuel Ogden, 

John G. Cranmer, 

Edwards, David, 

Short, James F., 

E. W. Nantz, 

A. J. Mason. 

Emmett, Robert S., 

Shelton, .John, 


Foster, Peyton, 

Smith, Alonzo H., 

Baldwin, William F., 

Jenkins, James M., 

Foster, William, 

Skinner, John H., 

Baker, Mason, 

Johnston, Thomas P., 

Heuwood, William, 

Tinker, AVilliam, 

Brumfield, William, 

Lash, William, 

Hillyard, James P., 

Thompson, Samuel M. 

Burnett, William, 

Lanier, William, 

Howey, William, 

Terpin, James, 

Brown, Isaac, 

McCarroll, Justus, 

Huckelbury, John, 

Williams, John R., 

Dodson, Ichabod, 

Mclntyre, R. N., 

Hutfmaster, Edward, 

Wilcox, Daniel, 

Depew, James, 

Mitchell, Wilson, 

Huffmaster, William, 

Workman, Benjamin, 

Elliott, Edward, 

Newton, Anderson, 

Hoskins, John S., 

Braunan, Josiah . 

Good, John, 

Owen, Thomas J. V., 


Gwinn, William, 

• Palmer, Allen, 

Joseph Bridges, 

Samuel Drennan, 

Graham, Levi, 

Rule, Alexander, 

Newton Dodds, 

William Penix, 

Glimpse, Joseph, 

Series, Julius H., 

Levi Campbell, 

Riley Cross, 

Graham, Joseph, 

Seaman, Sylvanus, 

Asa L. Morris, 

Logan C Snyder, 

Guy, R. BR.,. 

Stout. James, 

Benjamin Henwood, 

Jefterson Finger, 

Harbard, William, 

Smock, Fulcard, 

Daniel Cross, 

William Terpin, 

Harris, A. J., 

Tennis, John F., 

William Sampson, 

William Vermillion, 

Hampton, Felix T., 

Vanhorn, William M., 

David Lindsay, 

Ashlej^ Walker, 

Harris, J. C, 

Walker, J. E., 

LaFayette McCrillis, 

JoelH Walker, 

Hall, John, 

Walker, John, 

Christopher R Pierce, 

Rowan I. Short, 

Jones, John, 

Williams, David, 

Calvay Sexton, 

James ]\Iorris, 



Benjamin Sullivan, 

Wilson Robbins. 



Captain Garrett Elkin, 

Sec. Lt. J. M. Withers. 

Captain Achilles Morris 

, William F. Nation, 


Jacob Morris, 

John Hillyard, 

Eskew, James W. or John Reamer, E. C. 

Henry B. Reed, 

John Allison, 


Parks, James E., 

William Morris, 

James Jones, 

Savage, Nicholas, 

Haines, Thomas H., 

James Harralson, 

Morris Shelton 

Fling, Uharles H., 

Hall, Samuel, 

Samuel McKee. 



Chapter X 


In the following chapter is presented a few 
pioneer reminiscences, in most cases written by- 
pioneers or their descendants. In no case has 
the compiler of this work attempted to change 
the diction of the writers, thus giving variety to 
the style of the reminiscences given. 


Previous to the winter of the deep snow, cot- 
ton was raised 'to some extent in Sangamon 
county, and it was once thought that it would 
be a profitable article to raise in the State. Ex- 
Governor John Reynolds, the " Old Ranger," as 
he was familiarly known, contributed the fol- 
lowing to the State Journal, in 185Y, as part of a 
series of articles on " Pioneer Times." 

"Cotton, at as early a day as 1800, and for 
many years after, was cultivated to a considera- 
ble extent in Illinois. My father had resided in 
Tennessee previous to his emigration to Illi- 
nois, in the year above named, and we were 
tolerably well acquainted with the culture of cot- 
ton in that State. At that time I had often heard 
it computed, that an acre of good cotton land in 
Illinois, would yield in the seeds, ten or twelve 
hundred pounds. This was then considered 
such a crop as would justify cultivation. We 
cultivated the crop in Randolph county, where 
the climate is more congenial to its growth than 
the north of the State. 

"At that early day, more than half a century 
back, the disadvantages in the article of cotton 
was the labor in picking the seeds from it so as 
to prepare the cotton for the spinning wheels. 
There were then no improved spinning jennies 
invented, and the old fashioned wheels were the 
only means of preparing the threads for the 
looms. Two classes of wheels were used at that 
day; the little wheel, so called, was turned by 
the spinner, with a crank on an axle running 

through the centre of the wheel. The other was 
known as the big wheel. The j^erson spinning 
on this wheel was always on foot and in motion. 
The thread was drawn out as the motion was 
given to the wheel. The operator on the little 
wheel sat still, and produced the motion with 
their feet. The big wheel gave opportunity for 
the display of elegant and graceful motions, 
which I have often seen performed, even to the 
steps of the dance, by the modest and pretty 
pioneer lasses of the olden time. 

" The cotton cloth was at that day wove in the 
country, or at least so far as Illinois was con- 
cerned, in looms worked by either men or 
women. It was rather an art or trade to weave, 
and jjeople thus accomplished traveled frequently 
over the country for work. The invention of a 
cotton jenny, made with wood or iron rollers, 
was subsequently perfected, which aided much 
in extracting the seeds from the cotton, but the 
great invention of Whitney, of the iron saws, 
piopelled by horse power, laid all previous dis- 
coveries in the shade and immortalized the in- 
ventor. That illustrious man has accomplished 
as much for the benefit of mankind as the inven- 
tor of thft steam engine, and has acquired a fame 
which will hand his name down to posterity as 
one of the great benefactors of the human race. 
It will be borne in mind that probably two- 
thirds or more of the human race are clothed in 
cotton, and that before this invention, cotton 
fabrics were almost as costly as silk. 

"In the pioneer times of which I have sjjoken, 
much amusement and innocent mirth were en- 
joyed at the "cotton pickings," as these parties 
were called. The whole neighborhood would 
assemble on these occasions, and the log cabins, 
in the evening of a winter's night, would be 
brushed up to perfect neatness, and made still 
more attractive by the large fire in the wooden 

s \ 


^£^r?-u.u^ jf/CtXu^i 




chimney, with rocks under the fore sticks in 
place of andirons. A large pile of cotton was 
spread out to dry, so it could be picked the 
easier. Generally, two sprightly young ladies 
were elected to divide the heap of cotton, and 
then the hands began to pick it; so that a con- 
test for victory would excite the two contending 
parties, by which the more cotton would be 
picked, and with additional merriment. The 
last, indeed, was the main object of the young 
folks. The lady leaders chose their side to pick 
alternately, and then a general tornado of ex- 
citement began — picking, talking, and hiding 
the cotton, and all sorts of frolicking in the 
sphere of a backwoods cotton picking. A per- 
fect equality and the best good feeling pervaded 
the whole company, and each one enjoyed as 
much innocent merriment as is generally allotted 
to man. Art or improper education had not 
spoiled either the morals or the symmetry and 
beauty of their persons; but they exhibited the 
superior workmanship of Nature over the foolish 
fashions of wealth, without sense, and spurious 
refinement without taste. The words of Nature's 
poet involuntarily forces itself upon us: 

" ' Yes, let the rich deride and the proud disdain 
The simple blessings of the lowly train; 
To me more dear, cougeuial to my heart, 
One native charm than all the gloss of art.' " 

"Frequently, at these gatherings, the young- 
sters presented masterly models of symmetry 
and beauty, and such that neither wealth nor 
fashion can ever surpass. But as the pen cannot 
describe the beauty and brilliancy of human ex- 
cellence, the comeliness of the figures of the 
early pioneers of Illinois must pass away and 
be forgotten. <* 

"At these ' cotton pickings ' love always be- 
came the ruling theme, as this passion always 
will occupy the virtuous and elevate the heart; 
and many a pioneer courtship and marriage re- 
ceived their date from some such gathering. 
But those happy times have passed away, and 
the race has now well nigh passed away with 


"I emigrated from the State of Ohio, leaving 
Fort Harrison and arriving in the »'St. Gamee 
country' in the fall of 1821, making the first 
track that could be followed to the forks of the 
'St. Gamee' to the head of the Okaw. 

"The first cabin I saw was where the village of 
Rochester now stands. There were no settlers 

* Written in 1859. 
tiers' Association. 

as a contribution to the Old Set- 


on the nortli fork of the St. Gamee, except a 
few in and about Mechanicsburg. But above 
that point, there were none except where Decatur 
now stands, a man by the name of Stephens 
having made a settlement there. I found Elijah 
lies and Charles R. Matheny where is now the 
city of Springfield. The Kickapoos were here 
then, and I have had many a social hunt with 
Basse na and Joe Muney, the chiefs of that na- 

"In the spring of 1822, myself and the Dillons 
raised a cabin, broke the prairie and planted 
corn in Tazewell county, where stands the town 
of Dillon. There were no settlers on the east 
side of the Illinois riverfrom thence to the lake, 
except Mr. Kinzie's, where the city of Chicago 
now stands. 

"On my return I ci'ossed the Illinois river by 
putting my wagon in two Indian canoes and 
swimming my horses alongside. On the west 
bank I found Abner Eads and another settler. 
During that fall the land in Sangamon county 
came into market. The first entry was made by 
Israel Archer, being the west half of the north- 
west quarter of section eight, township fourteen 
north, range four west, and the tract of land on 
which now stands the present Cotton Hill Meth- 
odist Church. 

" It is well known now that Robert Pulliam 
built the first cabin in Sangamon county. The 
first barn was built by Mr. Rogers, near Athens, 
in what is now Menard county. 

"In the spring of 1826, J. Miller and myself, 
left Sangamon county for the lead mines on 
Fever river. We fitted out in Peoria, and 
started in a northwest direction, carrying our 
provisions on our horses. In consequence of 
being unacquainted with the route we missed 
our course, and suffered almost starvation 
for three days — so much so that all the nour- 
ishment we had was a fish about as long as 
my hand, and coffee made from the boiling of a 
coffee sack. With hard travel, and greatly 
fatigued, we reached Fever river in seven days, 
where we found a few miners. I believe we 
were the first from Sangamon county. In a few 
days we heard of Lake Phelps being there also. 
I am not able to say whether he landed previous 
to us or not. 

" Much has been said about the origin of the 
word ' Sucker,' in its application to the people 
of Illinois. Late in the fall of that year I was 
standing on the levee, in what is now Galena, 
watching a number of our Illinois boys go on 
board a boat bound down the river, when a man 

11 4 


by the name of Walker, a Missourian, stepped 
up and said: 

'"Boys, where are you all going?' 

The ready reply was. 

"'We are going home.' 

"'Well,' said he, "you put rae in mind of the 
'suckers' — up in the spring, and down in the 

"Those who stayed over received the humble 
name of ' Badgers.' That was the lirst time I 
ever heard the term 'sucker' applied to the 
people of Illinois. After that, all Illinoisans 
were considered suckers, and when Judge Saw- 
yer came to the mines, he was called 'King of 
the Suckers.' 

"That same fall, Van Noy was hung in Spring- 
field, the first in the county. 

" In the spring of 1827, a great number of Mis- 
sourians came to the mines. The Illinois boys 
returned the compliment of the Missourians by 
saying that 'Missouri has taken a ptcke,^ and 
after that all the people from that State were 
called 'Pukes.' 

"At this time, we had a scrimmage with the 
Winnebago Indians, which has been made the 
subject of history. I returned to Sangamon 
countv in the fall of 1828, from my northern 

"The winter of 1830-31 was the winter of the 
deep snow. It was with the greatest difficulty 
we could find our shocks of fodder, they were 
so enveloped in the snow. My father-in-law lost 
his life in the snow-drifts on the prairies of 
Sangamon. Game, which had heretofore been 
always plenty, was nearly destroyed by the cold. 
Then was the time to try men's metal. The 
men of our day think that they see hard times. 
They forget the want of conveniences and pri- 
vations encountered by the pioneers — oftentimes 
compelled to wade through the streams up to 
the arm-pits and break ice to get the teams 
across, and, to cap all, to ride through perfect 
fields of fire, caused by the burning grass of the 
prairies, in the fall and winter, and lie out all 
night wrapped in a blanket on the cold, bleak 
prairies. And yet, freed as is the present gen- 
eration from such privations, we hear more 
grumbling from them than from men who had 
in reality to earn their bread by the sweat of 
their brow. 

"I am now in my fifty-fifth year, and claim to 
be the father of eleven children, and can say 
with cei'tainty that I have never been intoxi- 
cated, have never used tobacco in any shape or 
form, or any narcotic, and never was sued for 
debt of my own contracting." 



"Theyoungpeople of the ))resent day can have 
but inadequate conception of the appearance of 
this country forty years ago. The prairies were 
generally a trackless waste, save the Indian trails 
that were still visible, and an occasional, and 
rarely used wagon track. The settlements, with 
very rai'e exceptions, were confined to the timber 
line. When the writer first knew this region, 
there were but two fields fenced between Old 
Auburn and the farms along Lick Creek. One 
of them belonged to George Eastman, on the 
west side of Panther Creek, (now a part of John 
L. Mason's farm), and the other was owned by 
Piatt S. Carter, now of Loami township, and is 
included in J. M. Lochridge's farm. No one re- 
sided on either of these places, though Mr. 
Carter had a barn built and an unfinished house, 
into which he moved the following winter. The 
first settlers, who were almost exclusively from 
Virginia and Kentucky, universally selected their 
land with a view to its contiguity to the forests, 
and embracing a good proportion of the same, 
not seeming to think it probable that the vast 
prairies would ever be occupied. Indeed, any 
man who bought and improved land out in mid- 
prairie, at that day, was laughed at for his folly. 
lie labored under several disadvantages, it is 
true. The wild prairie grass growing to a height 
of five to seven feet, was the nursery of myriads 
of horse flies, that, in hot weather, tortured the 
stock fearfully. Then, in the winter, stock 
owned by prairie farmers, suffered terribly from 
the bleak winds, as hardly any one had any bet- 
ter shelter for his animals than a rail fence, and, 
during severe weather, if not kept up, they would 
find their way to the woods for comfort. 

"The first houses were all unhewn log cabins. 
In 1840, a few of the most prosperous had begun 
to 'put on style,' and there were a number of 
story and a half mansions of hewed logs. Some 
people even were so extravagant as to have their 
houses olapboarded, and there were in Southern 
Sangamon a number of small frame houses, and 
an occasional small brick building. The lumber 
used at that day was all hard oak, walnut, cherry, 
ash, sycamore. Pine lumber had not been intro- 
duced here, there being no railroads, and to haul 
it in wagons from St. Louis or Alton, would make 
it an expensive luxury. 

" Could the farmers of the present day have the 
privilege of comparing the ftock of horses, cattle 
and swine of this country, of forty years ago, 
with that of the present day, they would almost 



be led to swallow the theory of evolution, so re- 
markable has been the change and improvement. 
But in no direction, perhaps, has there been so 
marked a progress as in the methods of farming 
and implements. My recollection extends back 
to the time when plows with wooden mould 
boards were used altogether. These would be 
considered very inefficient implements now, but 
were looked upon then as the best that could be 
devised. But few of them would ' scour,' and 
the plowman was compelled to keep a paddle 
hanging to one of the handles, to clean his 
plow off at each end, or oftener. The average 
depth of plowing was from two to three inches, 
and the slovenly habit of ' cutting and cover- 
ing' (taking several inches more ' land' than the 
plow could turn) prevailed with most farmers. 

"As markers and corn planters at that time 
were unknown, this was the common modus op- 
erandi of planting corn: A man with a pair of 
horses and a breaking plow 'laid off' the 
rows, running below the breaking, in order to 
make his plow 'scour' (the cross rows having 
previously been made with a single corn plow). 
The dropper followed along behind with the 
seed in a basket or bucket, and another man 
with one horse and a shovel plow, or ' bull 
tongue,' which, run in the side of the furrow, 
left a small ridge upon the seed. By this slow 
process, seven to ten acres could be planted in a 
day. It being before the day of double corn 
planters and of cultivators, either a one-horse 
'turning plow' or a shovel plow was used to 
' tend ' the crop. Twenty to twenty-five acres 
was all that one hand could take care of, and 
the rule was to plow it three times. Thirty 
bushels per acre was considered a fair crop, 
though hard workers made their land produce 
forty and even fifty bushels. 

" For a crop of oats, as the previous year's corn 
stalks were usually plowed under, rendering the 
use of a harrow, to cover the seed and smooth 
the ground, impracticable, the top of a tree was 
hitched to and dragged over the ground. Wheat 
was managed the same way, and, of course, 
failed as often as it succeeded. 

" At the time here spoken of, a field of timothy 
grass or clover was a rai'e sight. The prairies 
yielded innumerable tons of wild hay, and any 
man could have all he wanted for the cutting. 
There was no mowing machinery — the good old 
fashioned scythe, with muscle to propel it, suf- 
ficed to lay from one to two acres per day, and 
as reapers and headers were as yet unin vented, 
the cradle was the only dependence to fell ihe 
grain. Threshing, except among the largest 

farmers, was done upon the barn floor, two, three, 
or four horses walking in a circle over the grain 
until it was separated from the sti*aw, after 
which it was cleaned with a fanning machine. 
If a man had no barn of his own he borrowed 
one for the purpose. 

" Mules had not come into use at that time. 
Many thought it wicked, and a violation of the 
laws of nature to raise them. Mule colts, occas- 
ionally, might be seen, but they were sold to 
some buyer for southern use, and taken away 
generally in the fall after foaling. 

"Much of the breaking was done by oxen, 
nearly every farmer owning one or more yoke of 
these slow but sure beasts. Raw prairie was 
always broken, at that day, with teams of three 
or four yoke, which would turn over two or 
three acres per day. 

" Forty years ago, cooking stoves, save an occas- 
ional one in the towns, had not come into use. 
Everything was cooked by the fireplaces, which 
every house contained, and were built to receive 
wood three or four feet in length. Nearly every- 
thing was cooked in a skillet or a Dutch oven, 
both being supplied with a lid with a raised rim, 
upon which coals were piled. It was hot and 
laborious work for the women to cook by a fire- 
place, but the meals thus prepared were not to 
be excelled. 

"Although the red man's camp-fire at the time 
of which I write, no longer threw its ruddy glare 
over the trunks of the forest monarch, he having 
some years previous abandoned this for more 
successful hunting ground, much wild game still 
lingered. Deer abounded in the broad prairies 
between Apple creek and the east of Sugar 
creek, and I have frequently seen them within a 
mile of Old Auburn, and have seen wolves within 
the limits of the town. Wild turkeys still 
abounded in the woods, in their season, flocks of 
prairie chickens, vast enough to darken the air 
as they flew, might be seen any hour in the day. 
Every winter the sharp shooters of this commu- 
nity, would make up parties of four or five men, 
and each with its wagon and team, bedding, pro- 
visions, cooking utensils, rifles and amunition, 
would drive to the wilds of Christian county, 
remain five or six days, generally returning home 
with six or eight deer. The rifle was almost 
universally used, and the old hunters looked 
with supreme contempt upon any man or boy 
who could content himself with a shot-gun. 
Even squirrels, prairie chickens, geese and ducks 
were hunted with the rifle. 

"The clothing of the early resident was fash- 
ioned exclusively of homespun. Every farmer 



kept sheep, every home had its spinning wheel, 
and every wife and daughter could extract music 
of a practical nature from this instrument. 
Looms were convenient too. The men and boys 
all wore jeans, either yellow, brown or blue, and 
the mothers, wives and daughters were arrayed 
in linsey, usually strii^ed or checked. At the 
date of which I write, calico had begun to be 
worn, but was laid aside, for woolen, in cold 
weather. The sturdy pioneers of western or 
southern origin, looked upon the eastern men 
who occasionally found their way out here, 
dressed in broadcloth or cassimere, as Yankee 
upstarts. Indeed, the New England and New- 
York emigrants were regarded with suspicion. 
Some of the first comers were clock peddlers 
fiom Connecticut, who fleeced the people, and a 
pjrejudice was engendered that did not entirely 
die out with that generation. Besides this un- 
favorable inu'oduciion, many of the eastern set- 
tlers came hither, full of conceit about methods 
of farming, and undertook to give their new 
neighbors the benefit of their experience, not 
realizing that the Illinois prairies required quite 
different treatment from New England hills. I 
am glad to say that the feeling thus engendered 
has almost entirely passed away, but it was 
quite a formidable and disagreeable element in 
society, forty years ago. 

"Apropos of the above, the western people of 
the early days, entertained a sui^reme contempt 
for a man who attended to the milking. The 
women here did all the milking. No matter if 
there vjere three or four men about the house, 
and but one hard worked woman, the former 
couldn't degrade themselves by adopting this 
Yankee innovation. I have frequently known 
young men, when contracting to work by the 
month on farms, to ask if they were expected 
to milk. If this was required, either negotia- 
tions were broken off, or several dollars were 
added to the price. 

"The young people of the present day, at- 
tending school in nicely painted and ornamented 
comfortable structures, furnished with all the 
modern educational appliances, would gaze with 
astonishment at the rude and crude accommoda- 
tions of two score years agone. At that time, 
there were four schools (taught only in the 
winter,) within a radius of a few miles of this 
place. One of these was taught in the Old 
Cumberland church, a log building, four miles 
nortlieast; there was one in Auburn, a rude 
frame house of about fourteen by sixteen feet; 
a small brick building near A. S. Orr's, and an- 
other two miles further up the timber. Both of 

these were used, when necessary, for religious 
services on Sunday, as there were no meeting 
houses on the timber above the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, above mentioned. 

"The scholars sat upon bare benches, made 
usually of slabs, with four legs. Many of the 
scholars had never seen or heard of such a thing 
as a desk. Reading, spelling and writing, with 
geography, grammar and arithmetic, for the 
'advanced' scholars, constituted the studies. 
The rod, and a great deal of it, was an indis- 
pensable reliance as an educator. 

"Singing classes were sometimes taught, Mr, 
John Baker, of Lick Creek, being the only 
teacher within reach. He taught vocal music 
by the 'patent' or 'buck-wheat' notes, the 
Old 'Missouri Harmony' being the work gen- 
erally used, the major part of Avhose tunes were 
in the minor strain, and as the young folks 
flocked in for miles around, crowding the houses 
where they were held, old 'Consolation,' 
'Ninety-Fifth,' 'Jefferson' and 'Russia' would 
Avaken the echoes. 

"At that day, very few buggies or carriages 
were seen. Nearly everybody went to meeting 
on horseback; the wives frequently riding be- 
hind their liege lords. Often a young lady was 
taken on the horse behind her lover, though 
each girl had generally a steed of her own. A 
horse, saddle and bridle was the goal of every 
young man's or woman's desires, when growing 

" Springfield was only a limited market. There 
being no means of transportation from there, 
there was no demand, save a local one, for grain, 
pork and other productions, which was soon 
supplied. I have known corn hauled to Sjjring- 
field, from this vicinity, fourteen or fifteen 
miles, and sold for five cents a bushel. Of 
course, none but a renter sorely needing money, 
would undertake to haul corn to Springfield at 
such a price. 

"Alton was, at that day, the principal market 
for the farmers of Central Illinois. It wouldn't 
do to haul corn so far, at ten or fifteen, or even 
twenty cents a bushel, so the corn w^as fed to 
cattle and hogs, mainly to the latter, large droves 
of which were driven down in the early winter, 
a number of neighbors combining together. A 
wagon was driven by one of the men, in which 
to deposit the swine that might, perchance, 
'break down.' The hog drivers walked. These 
droves were sometimes so extensive as to fill the 
road for half a mile or more. 

"Oneof the pleasantest episodes of the writer's 
boyish life, was a trip to St. Louis, with a com- 



pany of wagons, during the Indian summer sea- 
son of 1841. There were some ten or a dozen 
wagons, all laden with wheat. Provisions, cook- 
ing utensils, bedding and a supply of horse feed 
were taken, the weather being so tine as to allow 
the company to spread their couches beneath the 
wagons. It was customary to take bread and 
pies ready baked; with sometimes a boiled ham, 
but coffee was made and meat fried by the fire, 
improvised on the ground. There was no lack 
of dry fuel along the road in the woods, and no 
objection to its being picked np. After the men 
had supped, the evening, until bedtime, was 
spent in smoking and telling yarns, the flicker- 
ing flames throwing a ruddy light over the merry 
group. Thecampingground was always selected, 
if possible, in the woods. These trips, going and 
coming, usually occupied about a week. The 
teamsters brought back groceries, clothing and 
other family necessities for themselves, and often 
loads of goods for the Springfield merchants, 
receiving so much for each hundred pounds. 

" Forty years ago, the people of this vicinity 
were just beginning to taste the sweets of a post- 
office close at home. The new Springfield and 
St. Louis stage-road, running through Chathaai 
and Auburn, had recently been established. The 
old route lay through Sugar Creek timber, some 
two or three miles east of this. The "Sugar 
Creek Postoftice" had been kept, until this 
change, at John L. Drennan's, which was a 
'stage stand,' as the place was called where the 
four stage horses were changed on each trip for 
fresh ones. By this arrangement. Auburn peo- 
ple were five miles from the postoflSce, and the 
residents up towards the head of the timber, 
eight to ten miles. 

'At that time, the question of cheap postage 
and pre-payment had not yet engaged the atten- 
tion of our wise men. Letter postage was all 
the way from six to twenty-five cents, dependent 
upon distance. The family of the writer had 
twenty-five cents to pay on many a letter from 
eastern friends, during the early forties. The 
mailing business was much more complicated 
then than now, for all letters had to be way 
billed, and each letter's destination, rates, etc., 
recorded carefully in a book kept for the pur- 
pose, which contained a column for paid, another 
for unpaid, and another for free letters. 

" Forty years ago there was but one steam grist 
mill in the county, south of Springfield. This 
stood just about where the Chicago & Alton 
road crosses the branch, near what is now known 
as Anderson pond, north of town. The engine 
and works in the mill had been removed from 

Waverly, by Asa and George Eastman. This 
mill was only run here two or three years, I be- 
lieve, and the works were transferred to Spring- 
field. The building was occupied for several 
years afterwards by David Eastman for finishing 
leather, he having a tanyard on the premises. 

"At the time of which I write, there were two 
watermills in this township, both of which 
ground corn and wheat, and each had a saw mill 
connected with it. One of these was owned by 
Jacob Rauch, the father of the Rauch boys, and 
stood on the south side of the creek, nearly op- 
posite the present Rauch's mill. The other mill 
was owned by E. & W. D. Crow, and was 
located due west of Old Auburn, on a site now 
owned by John Garber, just northeast of his 
dwelling, on the west bank of the creek. 
'Crow's mill pond' was a favorite resort by 
crowds of men and boys, on summer Saturday 
afternoons, for swimming exercises. The swim- 
mers frequently rode their horses into the pond, 
and the steeds, swimming with their nude riders, 
drew out great applause from the multitude on 
the banks. 

" The currency of the country, forty years since, 
was quite a different matter from that of the 
present day. 'Wild-cat money' from hundreds 
of banks, scattered over the country, was in cir- 
culation. Our own 'State bank paper' was 
largely used, but there was a discount upon it. 
Money of the Missouri bank was always relia- 
ble, and generally preferred to gold. In silver, 
the old Spanish coins prevailed, and the 12-|^ and 
6^ cent pieces possessed no higher value than 
the dimes and half dimes. They were distin- 
guished as 'long bits' and 'short bits' — 'long 
picayunes' and 'short picayunes.' Copper 
coins were not used, and a picayune was the 
lowest sum recognized. If an article wasn't 
worth a picayune, it wasn't worth anything. I 
well recollect how indignant some of the old 
residents were when asked to pay postage on 
newspapers — two, three or four cents. At that 
time the privilege of franking the letters was 
about all the compensation the Auburn post- 
master received for getting up to ' change the 
mail ' once or twice in the night, every night in 
the year, and performing the duties of postmas- 
ter; yet it was diflficult to convince some of these 
worthies that if the postmaster didn't collect all 
the moneys due the department, he must suffer 

" In 1 840, a large amount of land in the country 
was as yet unentered. Thousands of acres in 
the broad prairie to the west and east of Sugar 
creek timber were open to settlers, at 11.25 an 



acre. Most of the land along Panther creek, 
however, had been entered by speculators. John 
Griggs, of Philadelphia, owned immense tracts, 
and his agent, David B. Ayres, at Jacksonville, 
sold it to settlers at |3 to $5 per acre. Many of 
the farms along Panther creek, between Irwin's 
(then known as Harlan's) grove and the head, 
were made of the Griggs land. 

"The pioneers supposed that the value of lim- 
ber land w^ould increase indefinitely. Hedges 
for the prairie had not been thought of, and 
there was no knowledge of the vast fields of coal 
underlying this whole expanse of country. Con- 
sequently, believing that the demand for wood 
for fuel, and rails for fences, must constantly in- 
crease as the prairies became settled, they held 
on to their forest acres with an iron grasp. The 
discovery of coal in this region, and the utiliza- 
tion of the Bois D'Arc tree for hedges on the 
Western prairies, may certainly be counted 
among the notable events of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Could our fathers have been told that 
farms of whole sections could so easily be fenced, 
splendid houses built and provided with fuel, 
without the aid of wood land, they would have 
thought it incredible. 

"Pulmonary consumption, so prevalent now, 
was almost unknown among the early residents. 
Living in log houses, generally unplastered, with 
open fireplaces, they breathed pure air, and hav- 
ing regular sleep, and dressing healthfully, they 
were affiicted with but few physical ailments, 
save malarial ones. 

"There w^ere but few holidays in the early 
days. But little notice was taken of the Fourth 
of July. Frequently the riflemen of the neigh- 
borhood would gather together on Christmas 
and indulge in shooting matches. The grandest 
day in the year to both men and boys was elec- 
tion day. The State and county elections of 
that day were held in August. This being be- 
fore the day of township organization, this elec- 
tion precinct (Sugar Creek precinct), comprised 
a large scope of country — indeed, if I recollect 
rightly, some three or four townships. Forty 
years ago, the voting place for this precinct was 
John L. Drennan's, (the place now^ occupied by 
Benjamin F. Drennan.) Afterwards it was 
transferred to a house just this side of the C. P. 
Church. Nearly every boy in the precinct, old 
enough to ride a horse, accompanied the fathers 
or brother, and all spent the day. Liquor was 
usually available, and drunken men and fights 
were often witnessed. Horse racing was a com- 
mon pastime at elections. Voting was a slow 
aud tedious process. Qhe clerks recorded the 

name of the voter, and after it the name of each 
candidate voted for, which were called out by 
the voter in rotation. 

"At the time to which this sketch refers — 
only about twenty-two years after the first w'hite 
man's cabin was erected in 'the San-(/am-ma 
country,' as the early comers called it, most of 
the pioneers were yet living here, mainly, people 
in the prime of life. They were an honest, 
friendly, unassuming, industrious class of peo- 
ple, generally, who Avere content to make a fair 
living and keep out of debt. The mania for 
accumulating illimitable acrps had not yet been 
developed. No man felt envious of another's 
prosperity. There was no desire evinced to 
overreach a neighbor in a trade; to live in a finer 
house, or to dress better than anyone else. The 
milk of human kindness permeated society. 
The people were hospitable to a fault. A person 
in distress, or needing help in any form, had but 
to signify it and it was invariably forthcoming. 

"The first comers — principally from the hilly 
regions of Virginia and Kentucky, were enrap- 
tured with the beautiful country spread out be- 
fore them. The boimdless prairies coated with 
luxuriant grass, affording faithful indications of 
the marvellous possibilities of crops concealed 
beneath, and the facility with which they could 
be developed; the herds of deer and other game 
that roamed the plains — sights so dear to the 
hunter's heart — led the pioneers to send back 
enthusiastic accounts of the country to the 
friends they had left behind. Their attractive 
representations brought others, and 'the San- 
gam-ma country' came to be known as the 
farmers' paradise. 

"I will conclude this sketch by detailing a 
case of 


"In the winter of 1842 (I think it was), a trunk 
belonging to a mail agent, of Springfield, named 
Brown, was cut from the rear part of the stage, 
while it was crossing the bridge over Panther 
creek, between Maynard's and Harland's Grove. 
The coach was making its down trip, in the 
night, as usual, and that place was doubtless 
selected for the deed on account of the speed of 
the team being checked while crossing. 

"Crime was so rare a thing in country places, 
at that day, that the affair created great excite- 
ment throughout the country. It was difficult, 
at first, to obtain a clue to the perpetrator, 
though the impression prevailed that the mis- 
chief had been done by some one living in the 
neighborhood. The trunk contained clothing 



some specie, some counterfeit money (uaiTied 
for detective purposes), a stock of fine cigars for 
Mr. Brown's own smoking, &c. It was partly 
through the cigars that the guilty one was de- 
tected. John Kennedy, a young man of about 
eighteen, living with his parents on the Harlan 
place, was very liberal with a lot of fragrant 
Havanas at the Cumberland Church, the next 
Sunday, dividing them around among the irrev- 
erent boys who made a practice of going punc- 
tually to meeting, and remaining out of doors, 
to discuss horseflesh during service. The writer 
had the pleasure of puffing one of them, and 
the memory thereof is still fragrant — as was the 

''The trunk, after being partly rifled, was con- 
cealed in a corn shock in the field, just east of 
the bridge. Several more little things shortly 
leaked out, that, combined, directed suspicion 
to the right quarter. One of them was this: 
The very afternoon of the robbery, Kennedy 
was at the postoffice in Auburn, and asked Mr. 
Wadsworth, the postmaster, what time the stage 
came down, and being informed, rode oflt 
towards the north. 

" Evidence being deemed sufficient, a warrant 
was issued and served by Arny R. Robinson, of 
Springfield, then an officer. Mr. Brown and 
another man accompanied. Kennedy denied the 
theft at first, but being confronted by the testi- 
mony, soon confessed the deed, produced the 
money, and led his captors to where the trunk 
was hidden. 

"Kennedy was consigned to jail, and before 
the day fixed for the trial, contrived, with two 
fellow prisoners (one confined for horse-stealing, 
the other for breach of trust), to escape. They 
fled west, and on Spring creek two of them stole 
a horse apiece, and made their way to St Louis, 
A description of two of the fugitives was adver- 
tised, but for some unaccountable reason, a 
description of Kennedy was omitted. A detec- 
tive saw Kennedy and his companion in a bar- 
ber's shop, recognized the latter by the descrip- 
tion, and took him. Kennedy lost no time in 
getting out, aboai'd a boat, and down the river. 
He found means to communicate with his 
family, his father soon followed, and in a few 
months afterward, the remainder of the family. 
They settled at Natchitoches, Louisiana. 

" Kennedy was never captured for the above 


"My father, Samuel Hampton, settled in Sanga- 
mon county in the fall of 1830, near Mechanics- 

burg, and removed to the village of Springfield, 
next year. We lived in the lower rooms of a 
two-story log house, and Sullivan Conant occu- 
pied the upper rooms with his family, having 
come from Massachusetts in 1831. Father Con- 
ant says his wife thought she could scrub her 
fioor as they did in their native home, and in the 
attempt almost drowned us out of house and 
home. Mother Conant used to tell that one of 
her earliest recollections of Springfield was a 
little urchin, with a black, curly head, full of 
mischievous pranks. That curly headed boy and 
her little black eyed daughter, in their manhood 
and womanhood, became man and wife, and 
under the blessing of a kind Providence, have 
become father and mother of a large family of 
children, and been blessed with a liberal share 
of worldly prosperity. Five of our children still 
live, two ai"e dead. Mother Conant lived and 
died a christian, many years ago. Father 
Conant still lives, four score and one years of 
age, a well preserved man, honored and blessed 
by eight living children and many grand-children, 
and by all who know him. One of the earliest 
things I recollect was, we lived in a log cabin 
near the old cemeter3^ We slept on one feather 
bed and covered with another in winter. When 
we had a drifting snow-storm, we would have an 
extra job in the morning of shoveling the sno\v 
out of the house, but the children enjoyed better 
health then than many who are confined in air- 
tight houses, heated with air-tight stoves. On 
one occasion, Mr. Erastus Wright gathered all 
the boys in town and had them clean up the 
court house yard, and after the job Avas done, 
took us down to old Father Dickey's and treated 
us to beer and cakes, and we all felt happy over 
it. I well remember the immense political gath- 
ering of 1840, with its log cabin on wheels, its 
hard cider barrels, its coonskins and live coons 
grinning over the dead roosters carried in pro- 
cession. I well remember the sad day in 1844, 
when, in attempting to raise an ash pole, it fell, 
killing Mr. Brodie, and maiming for life the 
brother of my wife. To show you how we had 
to work and how we were paid, I will relate a 
little of my experience. I, with a younger 
brother, worked on a brickyard for old Mr. Hay, 
who long ago passed away to his rest. It took 
both of us to do the woi'k of one boy, and for 
this we got twenty-five cents a day and boarded 
ourselves. Many a day have I worked with a 
chill on, and then lay down until the fever 
abated, but we had some good company. Judge 
Milton Hay and his brothers, J. Addison and 
Theodore, moulded the brick, while we off-bore 



them , Money was scarce then. We boys hardly 
ever saw any, except once in a while we would 
get twenty-live cents to go to a show. They 
would make us take orders on the stores. I 
recollect one show that came, and I had to have 
a decent cap to go with, for in those days we boys 
wore seal skins, not the seal of to-day, but which 
looked more like hog skin with the hair cut 
short. Well, I went up to the store before 
breakfast and picked out a cap for one dollar; 
went back for my ordei*, and when I returned 
the proprietor asked one dollar and twenty cents 
as soon as he saw the order. I told him he had 
offered it to me for a dollar. He said, before 
breakfast it looked like rain, and that they would 
have a dull day, but it had cleared off, and they 
could not sell so cheap. So after that I prayed 
for dull days for that store." 


"In regard to my hunting experience, I would 
say, a very few days after my arrival, November, 
1844, my brother-in-law, Mr. R. F. Ruth, took 
me in his buggy just south of where the Junc- 
tion coal shaft now is, to try my hand in shoot- 
ing prairie chickens. The birds were feeding in 
a corn field, and as it was near sundown, they 
commenced their flight for roosting in the prai- 
rie. You have heard of 'buck ager;' well, I 
had the 'chicken ager,' and for the life of me 1 
could not get a shot, or did not shoot at all. Mr. 
Ruth until to-day often amuses the friends by 
describing ray effort — pointing here, then there, 
mimicing my performances. There were thous- 
ands of them flying within shot, but they were 
bigger game than I was used to, so I was scared; 
but I got bravely over that, as my friends can 
testify. He killed several of them as they lit 
on the trees, while I found a flock of quail, and 
peppered them, as I Avas used to in the East. 
He laughed at me for wasting ammunition on 
such small fry, for 'we net them,' he said; and I 
afterward found such was the case, and had 
much sport in doing so, in company with Robert 
Irwin, Caleb Burchall, John C. Spring, Bella 
Webster, S. B. 0})dyck, George L. Huntington, 
Captain Diller, Ilenry Coon, and others, and 
many funny incidents could be related happen- 
ing on our hunts. 

"The shotgun was little used in those days; 
the long- barreled Kentucky rifle was the old 
settler's trusted weapon, with which many 
were very expert. IJncle Andy Elliott and 
William Lockridge, I was told, could tumble a 
deer at full speed of a horse and deer, nearly 
every time. I saw Uncle Andy do it once, the 

ball entering the head just below the horns. I 
asked him if he aimed for that. 'Yes, always,' 
was his answer; still, I thought it rather acci- 
dental. The useful bird dog was little used 
then, Mr. H. N. Ridgely and J. C. Spring being 
the only possessors, in 1844-4.5, of one each. 
Mr. R. used to tell very amusing stories of the 
astonishment the farmers would express when 
he would drive up and put his dog in the field, 
and ste him knock chickens right and left on 
the wing, when they had not observed any birds 
before. The farmers shot them only in the win- 
ter, from trees and fences. The winter of 1844- 
45, I saw prairie chickens shot from the trees 
where the Governor's house now stands. As 
late as 1850, a friend of mine was fined for 
shooting wild pigeons from trees where Dr. 
Vincent's house now stands. In 1846, Mr. John 
Ives got a pointer dog, and in 1847, I brought 
from the East my black setter, 'Jack,' with which 
I killed hundreds of chickens. I seldom went 
further than the machine shop and Butler's farm 
to get all we wanted for ourselves and neighbors. 
On one occasion, as I was riding on horseback, 
with my gun and dog, hunting (where General 
John Cook's house, on South Fourth street, 
stands), in company with two young farmers, 
'Old Jack' found a covey of chickens. I told 
them if they would hold the horse, I would give 
them a mess of birds to take home. They 
looked around to see them. I walked up to 
where the dog was standing, and as the birds 
got up, I killed eight or nine before they all got 
away. You ought to have seen the men's eyes 
buck out. I gave them two apiece. After 
thanking me, one said: 'By Jingo, Tom, I mean 
to have a dog and scattering gun right away.' 

"The first deer hunt I was on, was on the 4th 
day of July, 1846, when a large party gathered 
early in the morning at Uncle Andy Elliott's, 
now First street and North Grand Avenue. The 
old house and gate posts were decorated with 
antlers of deer, skins of wolves, foxes, coon and 
other varmint— a regular hunter's home — while 
the hounds lay lazily around, waiting patiently 
for the old hunter to mount his horse, and when 
he tooted his horn they bounded and howled 
like wild. The party consisted of Colonel James 
Barrett, R. F. Ruth, Robert Allen, Charlie Chat- 
terton, P. C. Johnson old man Peak (the baker), 
Harrison Hammond, Wm. H. Herndon, Wes. 
and Harrison Elliott, and others whose names I 
have forgotten. The rendezvous was near old 
Sangamon Town, where a wagon with cooking 
utensils and Mr. Elliott Herndon, the orator of 
the day, had preceded us. We did not carry 



meat in those days, as we were sure of getting 
enough on the hunt. We started through the 
brush due northwest, and the hazel come up to 
Elliott's house. We had gone about one-half 
hour when one of the dogs 'give tongue,' and 
then the whole pack burst forth in one grand 
harmony, making the welkin ring, enthusing 
men and horses alike. They put us green ones 
on stands, and I for one wished most heartily the 
deer would not come by me, for should I miss it 
(and the way I felt I knew I would), Barrett 
and Elliott would have worn my hat off. But 
luck would have it, that old fox, Mr. Peak — who 
could beat any horse in the timber and knew 
every run-way — got the first crack at it, wound- 
ing and making the deer take water a few miles 
west of the ' cut-off,' and he was soon our meat. 
He was carried to camp and dressed, and by 
twelve o'clock we were enjoying the feast. It 
was a wonderful day's sport for me — a greenhorn. 
Wm. Herndon used to be called 'Injin Bill' and 
' Turkey Bill,' for the reason, if he ever got 
after a deer or turkey he was always sure to cap- 
ture it, if it took him two days. He was so 
called in order to distinguish him from another 
Wra. Herndon, a brick mason. Deer and turkey 
were quite plenty in any of the timber within 
three miles of town, and with hounds, hunters 
could have a chase any day. But the big hunts 
of two weeks — when they would kill twenty to 
tifty deer — were made on Flat Branch, Bear 
Creek and away out on the Okaw, in which Mr. 
O. Lewis, Joshua Amos, X. Divelbiss and others, 
were prominent actors. 

"I will relate one more little incident and 
quit, for when you get an old hunter started, he 
will think of enough to fill a whole volume, if 
you would let him — interesting enough to him, 
but may be to no one else. In the winter of 
1849, Messrs. Peak and Herndon proposed a 
hunt on Sugar creek, starting in at what is now 
the Model Farm. Harry Myers, I. G. Ives, Cap- 
tain I. R. Diller, and myself were to meet them 
at Newcomer's Mill. We started early on foot, 
and when we got to the bridge heard the dogs 
running through Scattering Point, but the deer- 
dogs and men crossed far above, and the dogs 
took the deer up to Hickory Grove, in Christian 
county. Our party ate our luncli, drank up our 
'snake bite cure,' shot the bottles to pieces, and 
started home on the east side of the creek, 
hoping to find a flock of turkeys. As we scat- 
tered through the brush, it was not very long 
when I heard my brother — who had never seen 
a wild deer before — hallooing for dear life. He 
had started two deer with immense horns. We 


all run for a clearing to get a shot. I happened 
to strike a clear place, and saw the two deer 
bounding along about forty yards from rae. I 
had a small double-barreled shotgun. I let go 
on the leader, and dropped him in his track, 
then let the other have it, and down he came. 
My! but my heart burned with pride as I run 
and cut their throats. I thought my brother 
would go wild. He said they looked as big as 
elephants, and was so frightened he forgot he 
had a gun. Two of us packed them on poles 
about two miles to Mother Short's, where we got 
a team to bring us to town. When the old lady 
saw the little gun, and was informed it done the 
work, she said: 'Young man, somebody will 
have to set up with you to-night, sure!' So they 
did; those two deer cost me a heap that night, I 
tell you." 


" My father, Enoch Megredy, with his family, 
left Port Deposit, Cecil county, Maryland, April 
15th, 1837, and after a very interesting trip by 
land, water and mud, landed in Cass county, 
Illinois, near Virginia, at the home of his 
cousin, Archibald Job, June 16th, 1837. In the 
spring of this year the building of the old Stale 
House was commenced. The continuous rainy 
weather, and the imperfect arrangements for 
quarrying the stone had brought the work to a 
close for the time being. Mr. Job was one of 
the State House Commissioners, and my father 
having been engaged in quarrying granite at 
Port Deposit, was placed at once in charge of 
the State House quarries, near Crow's Mill, and 
moved his family, consisting of twelve persons, 
to a cabin on the land now owned and occupied 
by Mr Hexter, six miles south of Springfield. 
The cabin was about fourteen feet square, with 
a clapboard addition eight by twelve. Cranes 
were erected for raising the rock from the 
quarry and loading the wagons. Of this year's 
work the basement of the old State House was 
built. He then purchased the Z. Peter's farm, 
on the south side of Lick Creek, six miles south 
of Springfield, February 2, 1838, and where part 
of the family still reside. My father was a lo- 
cal preacher of the M. E. Church, his license 
dating from 1828; he was ordained a deacon in 
183.5, by Bishop Emory, at Philadelphia, and 
ordained an elder in 1840, by Bishop Waugh, at 
Springfield, Illinois; he died in the fifty-seventh 
year of his age. In 1839, Old Harmony Church 
(near the present Woodside) was built of tim- 
ber, hewed, framed and weather-boarded with 
nicely shaved clapboards; it had seven windows, 



of eight by Leu glass, twelve panes of glass in 
each window; the pulpit was made of walnut, 
substantial and plain. This appointment was 
styled by Rev. James Leaton, the Athens of the 
circuit. * * * In those days, to minister to 
the wants or comfort of new-comers was a pecu- 
liar trait in western character. On the first day 
after moving into the cabin, an old gentleman, 
a genuine type of the pioneer class, called, say- 
ing that he heard that we had just come in and 
were strangers, and he had come over to see if 
we did not want a cow for the summer, as he 
had more than he needed, and if we would send 
over we should be welcome to one. We thanked 
the old gentleman and accepted the cow. He 
said she was the best cow he had, and ' Chance ' 
proved equal to any cow we have had since. It 
was a fixed fact, that when one or more of the 
community would be sick with chills or jaun- 
dice, or something else, his neighbors would 
meet and take care of his harvest, or get up 
wood, or repair his cabin, or plant his corn, or 
whatever was necessary to be done for the com- 
fort of his family or himself. In this, those 
grand old men who are now with us, and those 
who have passed away, were prompted by the 
noble, self-sacrificing women, who endured 
without mourning the hardships of pioneer life, 
and encouraged those toil-worn men with the 
prospect of a happy future for their children. 
When we take an imaginary inside view of one 
of the cabins and its fixtures, and remember 
that it was sleeping room, dining room, parlor 
and kitchen, and the cooking utensils a Dutch 
oven and a skillet; the never-failing pile of bed 
quilts on a chair in one corner; the loom in one 
end of the porch, with a piece of blue jeans 
partly woven; the lots of dresses hanging up 
against the wall; the snow white pillows on the 
bed, and the floor so white; such an air of com- 
fort and satisfaction, in spite of all the inconve- 
nience, we wonder, mixed with much fear, if any 
of their fair daughters could duplicate the cabin 
comfort. There was some courting then among 
the young folks, but being of a very modest and 
retiring disposition ourself, w^e were ever kept 
at a distance by the favored ones. We think 
the facilities for courting were circumscribed — 
top buggies and long hedged-in-lanes and senti- 
mental, sombre evenings for airings and health 
exercise, were unknown. Girls rode to church 
or town in the big wagon with their parents 
generally, but those that could afford a fine sad- 
dle and fine blood horse, were as proud of the 
display as those of the present day are of a 
gold watch, half hidden in the net' work of a 

side pocket. The only good place for courting 
was the singing school, with a Missouri Har- 
mony under your arm as a passport, you could 
ride up to the fence and tie your horse and call 
at the door with some assurance and ask the 
young lady to accompany you, which was gen- 
erally followed by the question : ' Will your 
horse carry double'?' Which was answered in 
the affirmative, of course, which we are sure 
was not always strictly true. Unless the young 
lady would hold on mightily, which they always 
did, you never heard of one being thrown off, 
and would get to the log school house safe 
enough, and back again all right, if some fellow 
didn't cut you out and the girl give you the 
sack. This made a fearful experience, and some- 
times a fight, but notwithstanding the absence 
of a private room, top buggy and long, quiet, 
sombre lanes and all modern appliances, there 
was scarcely a bachelor to be found in the coun- 
try — William Yigal, Esq., was the only excep- 
tion we think of just now. The boys and girls 
got married, and remained married. We had 
no divorces, and considered it far better to fight 
it out on the old plan than be disgraced by a 
divorce, and we recommend the old plan to our 
friends who enjoy the benefits of refinement 
and social culture, and the teaching of the po- 
lite literature of the present day." 


"When I landed in Springfield, in the fall of 
1835, the centre of our present square was graced 
with a commodious brick court house of very 
fair dimensions. The court houses were almost 
invariably put in the center of the public 
squares, and every town that was then laid oiit 
would not be considered complete if it had not 
a public square. This grew out of what then 
was supposed to be a fact — that every town in 
the State, great or small, was supposed to be a 
candidate in the near future for the county seat. 
After Springfield had acquired the distinction 
sought, viz, the county seat, it aspired still 
higher, and put out its feelers for the State 
Capitol, which we all know she succeeded in 
getting. The lower story of our court house 
was devoted to the dispensation of justice, 
while the upper one was let out for oftices. Our 
present State Journal was at that time printed 
there. The Bar was not as numerous then as it 
is at present, but what it lacked in number, it 
made up in quality. Among the shining lights 
of that day were such men as Lincoln, Baker, 
Douglas, Forquer, and others, and last, but not 
least, Logan. I had been in Sangamon coixnty 



but a short time, when a brother-in-law from the 
city of New York came to visit me. The Rev, 
J. G. Bergen, wliom we all know as a genial, 
pleasant gentleman, was showing us round 
the then small village, 'doing up the sights.' 
Among other places, we sauntered into the court 
house. The court was in session, and a case was 
then in progress. Judge Logan was on the 
bench, and Mr. Douglas (the 'Little Giant,' as 
he was afterwards called) on the floor. To us, 
just from the city of New York, with the sleek 
lawyers and the prim and dignitied judges, and 
audiences to correspond, there was a contrast so 
great, that it was almost impossible to repress a 
burst of laughter. Upon the bench was seated 
the judge, with his chair tilted back and his heel 
as high as his head, and in his mouth a veritable 
corn cob pipe; his hair standing nine ways for 
Sunday, while his clothing was more like that 
worn by a woodchopper than anybody else. 
There was a railing that divided the audience; 
outside of which smoking and spitting and 
chewing of tobacco seemed to be the principal 
employment. I remarked to Mr. Bergen, who 
sat beside me: 'That is a strange scene, and 
not like the courts we have been in the habit of 
seeing, and, as for the judge, he did not seem to 
have much knowledge or be of much force.' 
'Ah, my dear sir,' replied Mr. Bergen, with that 
peculiar smile and comical cast of countenance 
that all who knew him, will instantly recollect, 
'He is a singed cat,' and we passed out into the 
open air. 'A singed cat,' said I to myself, 'I 
wonder what that can mean.' The expression, 
coupled with the comical look Mr. Bergen gave 
as he said it, led me to think that there was more 
in it than met the ears. After walking a few 
steps, I said: 'Mr. Bergen, what did you mean 
by saying that that judge on the bench, with 
that old overcoat not fit hardly for anyone to 
wear, was "a singed cat?"' His reply, with 
another of those comical looks, his brow drawn 
down, and his chin nearly on his breast, was: 
'I mean he is better than he looks.' In a short 
time I became fully convineed that it was not 
clothes that makes the man, but brains. Judge 
Logan, for many years in the Springfield. Bar, 
was a giant among giants in the legal profes- 


"In the summer of 1838, being then fifteen 
years old, I left the paternal home, in Philadel- 
phia, and in company with my oldest brother 
(Thomas Condell), started for Illinois, which 
was then called ' The Far West.' As it was be- 

fore the days of railroads, we traveled all the 
way over the mountains to Pittsburg, and thence 
to Cincinnati, in the old fashioned stage coaches. 
The cholera was then prevailing all through the 
West. When passing through Columbus, Ohio, 
and other towns we saw yellow flags suspended 
from dwellings, denoting the presence of that 
dreadful scourge. 

" At Cincinnati we embarked on a steamboat 
for St. Louis. Below Louisville there were but 
few towns or improvements on the river. I 
can never forget, neither can I describe, how 
strangely I was impressed by the wildness and 
grandeur of the scenery on the river, before it 
had been molested by the touch of man. The 
primeval forests crowded and covered the 
banks, and the surface of the stream was 
the home of wild fowl of every description. 
A peculiar stillness brooded over the scene, 
broken only by the splashing of the steamer's 
wheel and the jolly song of the firemen. Seldom 
\^ as there any occasion for our boat to stop, ex- 
cept to 'wood up.' Then we would take a ram- 
ble through the wild woods, gathering nuts, 
grapes, plums, paw-paws and flowers. 

"After reaching St. Louis, we again took stage 
to Carrollton, Greene county, where we began 
our mercantile career in Illinois. There I 
became acquainted with Colonel E. D. Baker, 
(who was killed at Ball's Blufl^, during the late 
war). He was then a resident of that place. 
There I heard some of his first efforts in elo- 
quence, both at the bar and in the Christian 
church, of which I believe he was then a mem- 
ber. He also manifested a military spirit at that 
early day, being captain of a company of militia, 
which he was fond of training and parading. 
His brother. Dr. Alfred C. Baker, also residing 
there, was a man having as high sense of 
honor and as much of the milk of human kind- 
ness in his nature as any man I ever met. There 
I first saw Stephen A Douglas, when he was 
quite a young man, as he traveled around the 
circuit practicing law. His dress and habits 
corresponding to the surroundings of the pioneer 
times. I olten saw him sitting upon the ground 
in the court house square eating watermelons 
with the ' boys' and entertaining them with his 
versatile conversation. There I first saw and 
found an early friend in Dr. John Hardtner and 
his family, who have since become residents of 
this city. There I first met my present partner 
in business, Mr. C. M. Smith; at that early day 
we 'were boys together,' and little did, or could 
Ave then anticipate, that after the lapse of almost 
half a century we would be associated together 



in business in this city, under the firm name of 
C. M. Smith & Co. 

"In the fall of 1840, my brother Thomas and 
myself left Carrollton in a buggy, with a view 
of looking for a better location for business. 
We started north, visiting Jacksonville, Spring- 
field, Decatur and Bloomington. Finally, we 
decided to make Springfield our permanent 
home, and try to do business on the cash princi- 
ple, under the firm name of Condell, Jones & 
Co. We moved to Springfield in August, 1841. 
We had difticulty in finding a house to do busi- 
ness in, but finally rented one of the stores in 
'Hoffman's row,' North Fifth street, and soon 
after we purchased of Mr. Blankinship the build- 
ing still standing on the northwest corner of the 
north side of the square, and continued doing 
business in it twenty-one years. It was the first 
brick building on the north side; all the rest 
were mostly one-story frame structures, and 
known in those days as 'Chicken row.' It then 
required six or more weeks to get goods trans- 
ported from the East. They had to be wagoned 
over the mountains to Pittsburg; thence by 
steamboats to St. Louis and Beardstown, and 
from thence to this city by transient teams. As 
but little manufacturing was then in existence 
in the United States, we were dependent upon 
foreign markets for most of our goods; hence, 
nearly all the dry goods we first sold here were 
of English manufacture. Muslins and calicoes, 
which we are now selling at six and eight cents 
per yard, were then sold at 25 to 37^ cents per 
yard. Most of the woolen goods then used here 
were spun and woven by the women of Sanga- 
mon and adjoining counties. Jeans, flannels, 
linseys, socks, mittens, rag carpets, tow linen, 
men's straw hats, etc., were brought to the stores 
in abundance, and exchanged for groceries and 
other goods. 

"Peter Cartwright, the old pioneer preacher, 
who was a life-long customer of ours, never 
wanted anything out of a store but a black silk 
cravat and a bandana silk pocket handkerchief; 
all the rest of his wardrobe was the product of 
the labor and skill of the pioneer women of San- 
gamon county. 

"The ladies' bonnets first brought out were 
somewhat similar in size and shape to an invert- 
ed coal scuttle, and were sold at six to ten dol- 
lars each. Parasols were a novelty, and not 
much needed in the days of large sun-bonnets. 
However, to suit the times, the parasols we first 
brought out were mostly of cotton material, on 
rattan and whalebone frames. We sold them to 
the mothers of some who are now the wealthy 

and fashionable of Sangamon county, and at that 
time they seemed to think they could hardly 
afford the luxury of a cotton parasol. In those 
days money was indeed scarce; what little there 
was, mostly found its way to the land office, to 
pay for more land. Business was mostly done 
on a credit of twelve months; settlements made 
once a year, either at Christmas or 'hog killing 
time ' 

"Soon after commencing business in Spring- 
field, we established a branch store in Decatur, 
managed by a younger brother (Wm. J. Con- 
dell), who is still living there. As there was 
very little money in circulaticn, and no outlet, 
whatever, for produce, as a matter of necessity 
as well as to accommodate the farmers of Macon 
county, we exchanged goods with them for their 
fall wheat, at twenty-five cents per bushel, had 
it wagoned to Springfield at five cents per bushel, 
and sold it to J. L. Lamb at thirty cents per 
bushel, and were glad in that way to get out even 
on our speculation in wheat. Mr. Lamb was then 
proprietor of the old City Mill, on South Seventh 
street, on the Town Branch as it then was, but 
both the mill and branch have long since disap- 
peared. In connection with this I would ask the 
farmers in this and other sections of the State to 
make a note of this wheat transaction, occurring 
in the centre of the most fertile portion of Illi- 
nois, and learn therefrom how much they are in- 
debted to railroads for present prices of produce 
and the general prosperity. While I do not own 
a dollar of railroad stock or hold a pass over any 
road, I am free to say that we owe an immense 
debt of gratitude to the men who projected and 
built our railroads, as well as the larger class who 
are engaged day and night operating them. Let 
us remember that as they have been in the past, 
they will ever remain, our greatest benefactors. 

"While waiting for first stock of goods to ar- 
rive, I went to the first camp-meeting I ever at- 
tended, then being held on the 'Old Salem camp 
ground,' six miles west of this city. The fii-st 
day I went there I found I was a stranger among 
strangers, and as night came on, having made no 
acquaintance, and being somewhat timid and 
backward, I got no supper and had no place to 
sleep. After the night services closed, I thought 
I would make my bed on the straw about the 
preaching stand ; but while sauntering around I 
found an old empty log school house, which 
formed a part of the inclosure, and into it I went 
to pass the night alone. On one of the puncheon 
benches I found a soft hat, and lying down upon 
the bench I placed the hat under my head for a 
pillow and went to sleep with the intention of 



rising before any one else would be stirring 
around, and see where I had made my resting 
place; but being tired, I slept so soundly, that 
when I awoke the sun was two hours high, and 
I discovered a boy sitting upon the doorstep 
patiently waiting for his hat, which was under 
my head. 

"Toatdayl formed my first acquaintance with 
some of the early settlers of Sangamon county — 
the Megredys, Shepherds, Swingleys, Lyons, 
Hickmans, Tomlins, Lightfoots and others in 
the country ; and from the city. Dr. McNeil, Her. 
W. T. Bennett, Geo. R. Weber, Enos M. Henkle, 
Edmund Roberts, Noah and Charles W. Ma- 
theny, Arny Robinson, Wm. Dickey, Thomas 
Lee, Sr., and Jas. F. Reed, among whom I was 
cordially received and entertained. 

"There was a young lady from Williamsport, 
State of Maryland, at that meeting, with the 
family of Judge Swingley, to whom three years 
after I was married, although at that time I had 
not the remotest idea of what the future had in 
store for me. I had no thought of matrimony 
then, and was only interested in the progress of 
the meeting. In those days there was more 
weeping and rejoicing at camp meeting than we 
see now. I wept with those who wept, and re- 
joiced with those who rejoiced, and wished the 
meeting would last all summer. 

"The Spring and summer of 1844 will be re- 
membered by many, as one of the most gloomy 
and disastrous seasons that Sangamon county 
ever passed through. It rained almost incess- 
antly all through the spring, until some time in 
June. The whole country was flooded with 
water. What little corn had been planted was 
mostly drowned out, and vegetation wore a 
sickly hue. It was a year of shoi't crops, long 
faces and general depression. Dullness pre- 
vailed, and business men had more leisure than 
they knew what to do with. However, I turned 
it to good account, improving the leisure and 
enlivening the dullness by a courtship, resulting 
in securing a partner for life. 

"In the face of all the discouraging prospects, 
all the shaking of heads and forebodings of 
evil, I was married on the 27th day of June, 
1844, to Miss Bell Rice, at the residence of her 
brother-in-law, Judge Samuel K. Swingley, six 
miles south of Springfield. In going to and re- 
turning from the wedding, we found all the 
prairie from town to Lick creek timber, covered 
■vith a sheet of water, and much of the way it 
was hub deep. That event proved to be the 
wisest proceeding of my life, and I close these 

recollections of the past by advising young men 
to go and do likewise." 


" I was born in the county of Rockingham, 
State of Virginia, April 0, 1815. My father 
moved to Kentucky in 1818, living there four 
years, and then moved to Sangamon county Illi- 
nois, settling on the farm on which I have ever 
since lived, on the 4th of November, 1822. 
Everybody was poor, as is the case in every new 
country, but we enjoyed life as much then as 
now. We had time to visit our friends, work 
our little farms, hunt game, which was plenty, 
and to go to meeting on a week day. We did 
not use buggies and carriages then. All travel- 
ing was done on horseback. It was not uncom- 
mon for a man and his wife and three children 
to get on one horse and ride three or four miles 
to visit a neighbor. The first school I attended 
was taught in a house built of round logs and 
without any windows. All the light we had 
came down the chimney. The next spring they 
cut out a log for a window and made a writing 
pesk of a slit slab, which they placed under it. 
The first lot of hogs we raised, father sold in 
Beardstown, for $1.25 per hundred. But several 
hogs paid for four acres each of land, on which 
I now live. About the 10th of March, 1S26, 
father and W. B. Renshaw started from the 
mouth of Richland creek, for New Orleans, 
with the second flat boat load of corn ever 
floated down the Sangamon — Abraham Sinnards 
took the first one. There are few of the priva- 
tions now felt in settling a new country, which 
we felt in settling this. I can remember when 
we had to raise and prepare everything we had 
to eat, make everything we had to wear; 
and every kind of vessel we had to use. The 
first saw mill was built on Richland creek, 
below the mouth of Prairie creek, by Reuben 
Fielding and Robert Harrison, in 1825. Wil- 
liam and T. Kirkpatrick built a horse mill in 
1822, half a mile southeast of Salisbury. That 
was the only place we could get flour and meal. 
It took two-thirds of a bushel of wheat or five 
or six bushels of corn to pay the postage on a 


"I was born near Shepherdstown, Jefferson 
county, Virginia, on the 30th of November, 
1805. In 18 84 emigrated to the west, and, in 
company with my brother. Van S. Bennett, 
reached Springfield on the 9lh day of Decem 



ber, and registered at Captain Whorton Rans- 
deli's Hotel, an old gentleman full of life and 
gay spirits, and, as I thought, the most attentive 
and accommodating landlord I had met in my 

I "svas not favorably impressed with the 
appearance of Springfield at that time, and did 
not think of remaining there veiy long, but I 
was induced to commence business, and re- 
ceived a reasonable share of patronage frcm the 
citizens. As I became acquainted .with the 
people, I found them sociable and kind. Every- 
body seemed to be in good spirits and prosper- 
ing. I became attached to the people and the 
place, and made it my home till the year 1850, 
when I entered the itinerant ministry. 

The first Sabbath I spent in Springfield I attend- 
ed the Metht dist church, and was most agreeably 
disappointed in the appearance of the congrega- 
tion, and in the eloquent sermon by Rev Joseph 
Edrrronson, of precious memory. There was a 
tioirrishing Sabbath school, under the superin- 
tendence, of a very good brother, and if I am 
not mistaken, James H., now Judge Matheny, 
when but a boy, Avas reported as having com- 
mitted to memory the largest number of verses 
in the New Testament of any of the scholars 
belonging to the school. The memory of the 
warm friends with whom I first formed an ac- 
quaintance, I still cherish with feelings of pleas- 
ure and sadness — Dr. J. M. Early, Charles H. 
Matheny, Esq., Nicholas Garland, Edward Phil- 
lips, Edmond Roberts, Asbury and Cyrus San- 
ders and others. These have all passed into the 
silent city of the dead. I am still here, in the 
seventy-seventh year of my age, and since the 
death of my cousin, William A. Bennett, whom 
I loved as a brother, I begin to feel lonely. 

In 1835,1 was introduced byEev.Mr. Edmond- 
son to Miss Rebecca J. Roberts, who was then vis- 
iting Springfield, whom I afterwards courted and 
married. 'J he most of our courtship, however, 
took place on paper, for soon after our acquaint- 
ance I learned of the death of my brother-in- 
law, George W. Shutt, in Shepardstown, and re- 
turned to see my widowed sister. I returned to 
Springfield in the spi-ing of 1836, and was mar- 
ried to Miss Roberts the folloAvirg June, in the 
town of Ottawa, Illinois. The fruit of our mar- 
riage has been two sons and five daughters. We 
have buried one son and three daughters. The 
remaining two daughter's and son reside in 
and near Mechanicsbui-g. My wife and self, 
and youngest daughter-, a widow, live to- 


"lam not an early settler, according to the 
ruling of the association of that name in the 
county, as my days on the earth are not of suf- 
iicient number to entitle me to that honor. 
However, am a descendant of one. Was born 
on Avhat is now South Sixth street, Springfield, 
111., about tAvo score years ago. And, while Ave 
know nothing of our ancestry of which we feel 
ashamed, modesty forbids the mention of Avhat 
we do know. Suffice it to say that, whatever 
claims Me may haAe to the succession of Euro- 
pean or other thrones, or rights to great wealthy 
estates, by rules of descent, are dismissed. 
Have lived here long enough to witness many 
importarrt changes. Remember when I knew 
the face and name of every man, Avoman, boy 
and girl in Springfield; also most of the 'country 
Jakes' who did their trading there. The free 
school system has grown up in my time, and if 
there is a man or Avoman in the county, thirty 
years of age, or irnder, who cannot read and 
write, some one is greatly at fault, and should 
be held criminally responsible, except iir case of 
idiocy or physical disability. Even mutes are 
not excusable. My first school teacher was old 
Mr. Parks, but do not remember him so dis- 
tinctly as good Mrs. Dean, who, shame to say it, 
I kicked on the nose with the first boot heel I 
CA'er wore, while she was plying her sli]iper 
where, rro doubt, it was needed. Recollect quite 
well when the first railroad locomotive came 
into Springfield. * * * I was a little fellow, 
but do not forget when the troops left for ihe 
Mexican war, nor when Tom Hessey, an ac- 
quaintance of my folks, returned, having been 
wounded by a grape shot, Avhich he brought 
home with him. I thought Tom was a hero 
arrd a martyr. Wondered if we should ever 
have another war that would afford me an 
opportunity to wear the dazzling blue with 
brass buttons. True, that grape shot and Tom 
Hessey's game leg Avould come up sometiirres, 
and dami^en my ardor. It came. I was there. 
Saw enough. Came home without glory, be- 
cause I had the good fortune to bring my l)ody 
intact. The public demand an arm, a leg, a 
hand; or there is no rcAvard, no compliment, no 
cheer. But so it has always been, perhaps 
always will be. The sacrifice, not the service, 
is Avhat we applaud. One of the really big 
things in the way of advancement was the 
scouring plows made by old John TJhler, on the 
corner east of where the town clock is now 
I located. I never used a Avooden mould-board 


plow, but in my thirty years practical experi- 
ence, have nsed many different kinds. Plows of 
recent date have many advantages, but I have 
never seen a plow that would do the work as 
well as the old Uhler used to do it. 

" The improvements in the way of farm imple- 
ments is a matter of astonishment; but of all the 
improvements, nothing is more noticeable or im- 
portant to an agricultural county like ours than 
that of farm animals. While all kinds have been 
greatly improved, the most marked improvement 
is among cattle, hogs and sheep. Horses have 
been by no means neglected, but there were 
some good horses about here more than thirty 
years ago. Do I forget Uncle Peter Van Berg- 
en's 2:40 steppers? Not much. You never saw 
me sitting in Uncle Peter's sleigh, behind the 
first string team ever driven in Springfield to a 
cutter? Bells, little and big! I would have 
guessed more than a million in number! Talk 
about the wind. Our backs to it, a half second 
the start, and ' stand from under!' I was a very 
common boy, but a very enthusiastic one about 
that time on the trotting question. My father 
laughs now about a question, or rather a series 
of them, that amused him, but I am still of the 
same opinion. Said I, ' Father, if our horse was 
the biggest horse in the world, and was the best 
looking horse in the world, and could outrun 
any other horse, and could trot faster than any 
other horse; would he be the greatest horse in 
the world — if we had one?' 

"In poultry also, the improvement is very 
marked. * * * But what does it all amount 
to? Is the condition of the human family really 
bettered by it? Do not all these improvements 
bring with them additional demands that must 
be complied with? Do they not excite a spirit 
of unrest, jealousy and selfishness? For all time 
man has been about the same. The physical, 
social and moral culture of man brings corres- 
pondingly increased necessities and responsibili- 
ties. After all, much of the labor-saving ma- 
chinery in use, and many of the so-called con- 
veniences are over-estimated. We pay for all 
our luxuries, sometimes dearly." 


At the annual meeting of the Pioneers' So- 
ciety, held in 1879, R. W. Diller read a number 
of letters received from pioneer women of the 
county. The following were among the number : 


" Friend Diller — In response to your request 
that you would like to hear from the women por- 

tion of the old settlers of Sangamon county, we 
will give you some of our experience. Our father 
moved from Kentucky to St. Clair county, Illi- 
nois, in the year 1816 or 1817 — lived there till 
the fall of 1819; then moved to what was then 
called the Sangamo country, and settled on Spring 
creek, ten miles west of where Springfield was 
afterwards located. Our father built a camp, 
which we lived in until winter, — and consider- 
able snow and very cold, — then built a cabin; 
had to thaw the snow and ice off the boards to 
lay the roof; then put poles on to hold the boards 
down. That done, they made puncheons and laid 
part of the floor, and put up bedsteads of some 
kind; then had to make beds under the bed- 
steads for us children to sleep on, there being 
nine children and three grown persons. The 
cabin where there was no floor, we used for 
hearth and fire-place, leaving a hole in the roof 
for the smoke to go out at. This way we lived 
the first winter. After that we done a little bet- 
ter ; built a pen at one end of the house for the 
sheep, to keep the wolves from killing them, and 
the wolves serenaded us nearly every night. The 
principal part of the provender for our stock was 
elm and lin brush. Our men would cut down 
trees for the stock to eat the branches and bark 
off. Our breadstuffs had to be brought from 
near St. Louis, about one hundred miles. It was 
principally corn bread made up with cold water 
and baked in a skillet or oven — was commonly 
called corn-dodger. Our meat was in abundance, 
we had pork, venison, turkey and prairie chicken 
and wild honey for all that was out. Had coffee 
about once a week, generally of a Sunday morn- 
ing, the balance of the time, milk and Avater 
mixed. This was for the first season, after that 
we had enough milk without mixing it with 
water. As for our clothes, we had to raise, pick, 
spin and weave cotton to make clothes for 
winter and summer; we also made linsey. The 
first indigo we had, we raised; used that,shumach 
berries, white walnut bark and other barks for 

" Now for the cotton picking. Mother would 
every night fill a pint cup full of cotton in the 
seed for each one of us, and lay it doAvn before 
the fire and tell us when we picked it we could 
go to bed, and we had it to do. Then we pitched 
in and warmed our cotton, and the warmer we 
made it, the better it picked, so we would take a 
good sAveat. The next day that had to be carded 
and spun, so we would soap the cotton some 
card and some spin, and when we would get 
enough spun and colored to make a dress apiece, 
we would put it in the loom and weave it. It 



did not take tit'teen or twenty yards to make a 
dress, nor thirty or forty days to make one, 
althought they were made by hand. Now, to 
give you a more perfect idea of the cloth and 
fashion of our dresses at that time, we will here 
show you a sample of one of our mother's 
dresses, which she wore about fifty-live years 
ago — not only mother, but some of the rest of 
us young ladies. This is tbe only one we have 
saved, it being our mother's. We have often 
thought and talked of exhibiting this dress 
before to old settlers' meetings, but have failed 
to do it, but when our friend Diller gave us such 
a pressing invitation to take a part in contribut- 
ing to the entertainment, we could resist no 
longer, so we thought we would give a little 
sketch of our doings for the first two or three 
years in this county. Now for our calico dresses. 
We cannot show you a sample, as we have not 
saved one for posterity, but it would be some- 
thing similar to the cotton, one in number of 
years and make. Before we could get one we 
had to make jeans and swap for calico, or else 
dig ginseng and smat. We had a neighbor 
woman who had a small baby, and had no cradle, 
and she conceived the idea of substituting her 
apron for a cradle; tie the baby in it, then the 
apron around her neck, and spun on the big 
wheel in order to make clothing for her family. 
As for schooling, that was not very much. Our 
first school we went to after we came here was 
four miles, taught by a man named Andrew. 
Four or five of us went by turns. The youngest 
was nine years old. Went on foot, and the road 
was a path through the high grass and woods, 
and the stars were often shining when we got 
home, and there were wolves and panthers 
plenty. They were frequently seen, and you can 
well imagine how we felt when the stars began 
to shine. The oldest ones would form a front 
and rear guaid, and put the smallest in the mid- 
dle, and hurry them along, all scared nearly to 
death. Our school house was a log cabin; the 
windows were big cracks, with paper pasted over 
and greased to give light. Our seats were split 
logs, with legs put in to sit on. Our church was 
built of logs, and about four miles from us. It 
was a Methodist church, and when we had com- 
pany we went on foot, one behind the other in 
the path. Mrs. James Parkinson, 

Mrs. Sarah King." 


LoAMi, III., August 3, 1879. 
*' Ladies and Gentlemen: — I was born April 
19, 1797, in Winchester, Clark county, Kentucky. 

My maiden name was Charlotte Webb, daughter 
of Adin and Mary Webb. I was married to 
Daniel Jacobs in the year of our Lord 1818. 
We lived in Kentucky until the fall of 1825. 
We then started to Illinois, and on the 7th of 
November arrived at Lick creek, and settled on 
the farm that we have ever since occupied. 
When we moved to Illinois our neighbors were 
scarce. Mr. Lindley, Mr. Darneille, Myers 
Campbell and my husband, with their families, 
moved into a little log cabin, fifteen by sixteen, 
with a puncheon floor and a clapboard door. 
The chimney had no back, or jams, or hearth. 
How friendly the people were in those days. 
They would go miles to see one another, and to 
take and return the hearty shake of the hand. 
As I look back on those days, I think of them as 
some of my happiest days. You must know that 
it took stout, hearty and resolute woman to set- 
tle a wilderness country like this was, and to 
buffet with the storms of life, but God's hand 
was over all, and he brought us safely through. 
I raised a large family, nine daughters and two 
sons, to be grown and married. They are all 
living and doing well. My children, grand- 
children and great grand-children living, are one 
hundred and fourteen. If all were living there 
would be one hundred and thirty-six. 1 am 
now in my eighty-third year, and can walk with- 
out fatigue, to ray daughter's, Mrs. Frank Dar- 
neille, about two miles, and I feel thankful for 
my good health. We brought only one chair 
with us, so my brother made one for himself and 
my husband, with a gimlet and a draw-knife as 
the only tools. I have the gimlet yet. I brought 
with me three cows, and ray husband bought 
five hounds. The first hogs we had I bought 
twelve shoats, and paid for thera with linsey and 
jeans, of my own make. We had to raise flax 
and cotton to make our clothing. I made every- 
thing that we wore. I even made my towels 
and table cloths, sheets and everything in the 
clothing line. I have some of my towels and 
table cloths yet, and one sheet of my last flax 
spinning. We had a pretty hard time for a 
while, but we worried through. Our nearest 
trading place was St. Louis, and we had not 
much money to buy with. We had to go to the 
American bottom to get our bread stuff, and we 
paid one dollar per bushel for corn, until we 
raised some. Our meat was principally wild 
meat, such as deers, turkeys and prairie chickens. 
We put up with anything. What we could not 
make we did without. I made a churn by taking 
a keg and knocking one end out; made a dasher to 
I fit, and presume made just as sweet butter then 


^£^ a-j^c/^ 

.::^/.L£c4f /^'0n 



as our women do now. This is only a short 
sketch of my early life, and perhaps some of the 
young people will doubt its trutn. IJut if you 
don't believe it, I can refer you to any of my old 
neighbors. Yours respectfully, 

Charlotte Jacobs." 


"I was born September 4, 1803, in Christian 
county, Kentucky. I came to Illinois Territory 
in 1807, and wintered on Wood river, in what is 
now known as Madison county. I then moved 
to Shoal creek, which is now Bond county. 
Remained there until the beginning of the 
war of 1812, when my father, with about 
forty other families, went into the fort called 
Hill's Station, where we remained until peace 
was declared. Hill's Station was near where 
Greenville, Bond county, now is. A guard, con- 
sisting of the militia and the rangers, was kept 
to guard the fort, on account of the numerous 
Indians. The Indians attacked the fort four 
different times. The fourth time the Indians 
nearly succeeded in their attempt, most of the 
militia being out on a skirmish. Thirteen men 
went out in the morning, and only thirteen men 
remained in the fort. While the thirteen were 
going away, they were attacked by the Indians, 
who were lying in ambush, and the Indians 
killed four and wounded one — Thomas Higgins. 
When he was wounded, he attempted to reach 
the fort, but he was ovei-taken by two Indians. 
One he knocked senseless with the breech of 
his gun, and with the other he had a fist fight, 
but men from the fort came to his relief, and he 
reached the fort, where my father took from 
him seven balls. During the battle, one of the 
women, Lydia Persley, took her musket and 
started out to kill an Indian, but she was stoj^ped 
at the gate by the guard. She thought her hus- 
band had been killed, and she wanted to seek 
revenge, but her husband was not killed. This 
attack was made the 2'7th of August, 1813. The 
fii'st murder was committed about two and a half 
miles from ray father's house, at one of our 
neighbors', Mr. Cox, he himself being killed by 
the Indians. Rebecca, his sister, killed six out 
of the seven, while they attempted to enter the 
house. When we first came to Shoal Creek, 
game was abundant. My brother, John Lindley, 
and another man killed twenty-five deer one 
morning before nine o'clock. They took only 
the hams and hides, which they took to St. 


"We next moved to what is now known as 
Madison county, on Silver creek, near what is 
now Lebanon, where we remained until 1820, 
when we came to Lick creek, what is now San- 
gamon county, which then consisted of Mason, 
Menard, Cass, Logan, Tazewell and part of 
Christian, a small part of Macon, part of Mc- 
Lean, part of Woodford, part of Marshall, and 
part of Putnam. When we came there were 
but six families near us — John Darnielle, Bar- 
ton Darneille, John Campbell, John Wycoff, 
Henry Brown and Levi Harbour. Our mill was 
near by — we had to go only about eighty or 
ninety miles, but shortly after there was a horse 
mill built on Sugar creek. The Indians were 
still here when we came, but they were some- 
what friendly and not very numerous. I was 
married to Samuel Harbour July 28, 1826; liave 
lived in the same place ever since, and raised 
nine children to be men and women. During 
the time I had many hardships, I had to weave 
and spin. It only took eight yards of calico to 
make a dress, and not twenty-eight, as at pres- 
ent. We had to make our clothing from cotton, 
flax and wool. During the v^inter of the deep 
snow when we got out of meal, we had to use 
pounded meal and live on hominy until we 
could break a road to the horse-mill. When we 
got out of groceries we had to resort to the 
woods for sassafras tea. I forgot to mention 
about the ranger who was wounded on what is 
now supposed to be Spring creek, and was 
brought to Sulphur Spring on Lick creek, where 
he died and was buried, at what is now Sulphur 
Spring Cemetery, he being the first man buried 
there. I am nearly seventy-six years old, and 
have a very sick daughter at present; my mind 
being flustrated I cannot say near as much as 
I could otherwise. This being a very, very short 
sketch of the troubles I have witnessed. I sin- 
cerely hope no other person will ever have to 
pass through the many hardships which I have 
experienced. Yours respectfully, 

E. Lindley." 


Chatham, 111., August 14, 1879. 

" R. W. Diller Esq. : — We were not pioneers of 
Sangamon county, but were pioneers of Vigo 
county, Indiana, and as my wife cannot write, I 
thought I would write a few lines for her and 
myself. Now if you think these lines will add 
any to the occasion, all right; if not, throw them 
into the waste basket. We settled sixteen miles 
north of Terre Haute, in the fall of 1819, on 



the outskirts of civilization. The Indians were 
quite numerous for years after, and quite 
troublesome, being terrible beggars. We located 
on up-land, where there was not a tree cut, and 
the nettles and pea-vines were so thick that we 
could scarcely see the ground, so we took a 
horse and brush and dragged them down tor a 
considerable space around, went to work and 
put up a camp, moved into it, and in four weeks 
moved into a hewed log house, nineteen feet 
square, in which we lived the next winter with- 
out a chimney. The place for the chimney was 
cut out and the lire just outside, bat we were 
well smoked that winter. While this work was 
going on, we had to grate all the meal for quite 
a large family. After corn became too hard we 
used the hominy mortar and pestle. There was 
no mill nearer than thirty miles, and then of a 
dry season it could not grind. A miller told us 
once to live on faith and dumplings, but we had 
nothing to make dumplings of. For clothing, 
many of the boys and some of the men had to 
wear dressed buckskin. In fact, I have seen 
Randolph Wedding, of Terre Haute, dressed in 
buckskin from head to foot. He became after- 
wards County Judge." 

"And now a word about Miss Brown, who is 
now Mrs. Headley. She came a few years later 
from old Spencer county, Indiana, a poor girl, 
working about from place to place. She spent 
four months with two families, and received 
about two dollars. She often washed for fami- 
lies, and scrubbed the floor, for twenty-five 
cents. After she became older and more experi- 
enced, never received to exceed seventy-five 
cents per week. In those days many families 
made their own cotton. She states, when she 
went to school she had to take cotton in the seed 
with her, and pick it during play time. When 
she carded and spun cotton, six cuts were a day's 
work; spinning flax or wool, twelve cuts were 
required for a day's work. In those days our 
girls dressed very plainly. I never knew them 
to train their silks and satins in the dust. Their 
every-day dresses were homespun, but on Sunday 
they managed to have something nicer. She 
states, when she went to meeting she has often, 
in warm weather, carried her shoes and stock- 
ings, and when near the place, she would put 
them on. One other incident I will mention. I 
was invited by an uncle of mine, where she was 
staying, to assist him to bring in a deer he had 
killed. So we brought home the deer, quite 
tired and hungry. Miss Brown stepped around 
quite lively, and soon had a good dinner on the 
table. I then and there fell in love with her, 

and have loved her from that day to this. She 
was dressed in brown linsey on that eventful 

" And now all honor and God's blessing be on 
the old pioneer fathers and mothers, who, 
through great difficulties, sickness, poverty and 
privations, laid the foundation for the prosperity 
we now enjoy. 

James and Eliza Headlky." 


"Rochester. Ill , July 30, 18Y9. 
" Friend Diller: — At your request, I will try 
and give you a brief synopsis of my experience 
during the primitive times of Illinois, when San- 
gamon county was in its infancy. I will com- 
mence with an item of chronology. The place 
of my nativity was Fassenburg, Addison county, 
Vermont, August 31, 1802. That of my hus- 
band the same, January 10, 1799. In the spring 
of 1832, 1 and my husband first made our advent 
on these broad savannas. Oh! what changes 
have swept over these people in the swift flight 
of time since that day. My first experience upon 
landing was not calculated to enliven or to cheer, 
for immediately upon our arrival, ere we had 
time to unburden our 'prairie steamer' of our 
little effects, my husband had to stand the con- 
scription for the Black Hawk war. That was 
indeed a sad and gloomy beginning. What my 
feelings were under those trying circumstances, 
none can know. The mental anguish that I 
suffered, tongue cannot tell or pen describe. 
But I presume that it was a necessity to expel/ 
from this beautiful land the original possessor, 
who, by his numerous and cruel outrages had 
rendered himself obnoxious to the march of in- 
tellect and the vanguard of civilization. Ye of 
Sangamon of 1879, who prate of hard times, 
what, prithee, would you think, if you had to 
remain at home alone, a stranger, in this vast 
v»7ildernes8, while your husband went to St. Louis 
in a two-horse wagon to purchase corn to make 
meal of, to satisfy the craving of nature? There 
were days and weeks of agony, of fear and sus- 
pense — not knowing at what moment the aborig- 
ines, who were still in contiguous proximity to 
us, might descend and desolate our homes. 
Those, indeed, were days of action and of vigi- 
lance, for at that time I had five little children 
to guard, and the hoarse cry of the wolf was the 
only musical instrument Sangamon furnished to 
lull them to sleep. But those days are num- 
bered with the years beyond the flood. Great 
and important changes have taken place since 



that period, and we are now no longer necessi- 
tated to array ourselves in habiliments of our 
own handicraft, but in that day all that adorned 
our persons were the fabrics wrought by our own 
industry on the loom. Mothers of the Sanga- 
mon of to-day, who bedeck your little ones in 
costly fabrics that outvie the floral landscape, 
think not that our little ones were less near and 
dear to us, who, fifty years ago, clothed them in 
the homespun of our own manufacture. There 
may be in this assembly, some fair exotics, that 
will smile in derision at this humble picture of 
past experiences of one whose sands are running 
low — whose fastidiousness may be horrified to 
think that the hardy pioneers of Sangamon had 
to do as I have many a time — go to the field, 
gather corn and grate it, then wait till the cows 
come up at night, to make food of it. And we 
pronounced it good; not only good, but very 
good. At that tune my husband plied his trade 
to get corn to live on while he raised his crop; 
and the first and most important order that he 
had was of one Robert Bell, for a pair of boots, 
for which he received the magnificent compensa- 
tion of three pecks of corn meal. Thus did the 
early settlers of Sangamon learn habits of econ- 
omy and frugality, and by patient industry their 
efforts have been crowned with success; for now, 
verily, the wilderness doth blossom as a rose. 
We have taken the bitter with the sweet, for 
adversity is a stern but wholesome teacher. We 
have suffered greatly at times from the malari- 
ous diseases incident to this latitude, and at that 
time our scientific resources were limited. The 
fell destroyer of mankind has visited us, and 
stolen from us several flowers of the group 
which we had gathered around us. Thus have 
we struggled on, looking forward and upward. 
We have seen old Sangamon in her infant wilder- 
ness; we now behold her in all her pride and 
grandeur, with her star of destiny still in the 
ascendant, and ranking wath those of the first 
magnitude. What the next turn of the kaleido- 
scope will bring forth for us, or for Sangamon, 
naught but the future will reveal." 

Yours truly, Mrs. John Lock." 


Buffalo Hart, III., Aug, 19, 1879. 

"Mr. Diller: I have been too sick since re- 
ceiving your request, to give my experience as 
an early settler of Sangamon county. PIoM'ever, 
I will give you a few incidents, and you can use 
them as you think best. We have been living 
here on this farm for fifty-four years next 

October. I picked cotton out of the boll, then 
the seed out of it, carded and spun and wove the 
cloth in dresses ; also made shirts from it for Mr. 
Burns, and he wore them several years. The 
first dishes I purchased in Illinois, rode to 
Springfield on horseback, taking my cloth to ex- 
change for dishes. When returning home the 
prairie was discovered burning. Mr. Burns left 
me to imt the tire out. My horse became fright- 
ened, threw me, and broke all my dearly bought 
dishes. There was not a fence or stump to get 
on, and I had to walk several miles. At last I 
came to a gopher hill and mounted again, re- 
joicing that I had escaped without seeing a wolf. 
We were here during the deep snow. Our house 
was so open that the snow blew in so much that 
we could track a rabbit across the floor. The bed 
would be almost covered in the morning. Prai- 
rie chickens were very plenty when we came. 
Mr. Burns made me a trap, and I amused myself 
during the day by catching and dressing the 
dainty game. The first table in the Grove was 
made of clapboai'ds, given me by 'Squire Moore, 
about six months after we came ; until then we 
ate off of a box. We had no chairs. 

"Mrs. Robert Burns " 
"P. S.— The dishes I bought of Major lies." 


"Was born November 12, 1790, in South Caro- 
lina. Her parents moved in 1797 to Kentucky, 
passing by way of Crab Orchai'd Fort, stopping 
there a day or two for provisions, protection 
from Indians, etc., and going thence through 
Lexington to Christian county, where the family 
located. The journey from South Carolina to 
Kentucky was made on pack-horses, several per- 
sons riding on one horse. Sarah and another 
child rode with their mother on an old sorrel 
horse named 'Jack.' In 1811 she was married 
to Harman Husband (who died near Auburn, 
Illinois, February 15, 1848). The family moved 
to Sangamon county, Illinois, arriving in Octo- 
ber, 1820. Numerous interesting incidents oc- 
curred on the journey, but only one will be men- 
tioned, viz: While crossing the Ohio river a 
young calf jumped from the flat-boat; my hus- 
band seized the calf by one ear and held it until 
the boat reached the shore. The calf was brought 
on to Illinois and did its part in stocking the 
new county of Sangamon. Arriving in Sanga- 
mon county the family settled three miles east 
of Auburn, where the old lady still resides, aged 
eighty-nine yeai's, and still active and anxious 
to live to be one hundred years old. Among 



early incidents it may be related that the Indians 
erected on the homestead, their bark wigwams, 
etc., and hunted over the farm. The subject of 
this sketch frequently gave them corn bread, 
having no wheat bread in those days. While 
encamped on the farm, an Indian child died, and 
the Indians made a box of bark in which they 
put the corpse and suspended it from the top of 
a tall tree, thus keeping it until the tribe was 
ready to return to the burying grounds. Many 
other incidents occurred, but similar ones are 
familiar to all early settlers. Corn cakes were 
baked on a board before the fire, and 'hoe cakes ' 
were so called because they were cooked on an 
ordinary hoe, properly cleaned and greased, of 
course. Mrs. Habman Husbakd." 


Springfield, 111., August 5, 1879. 
" Mr. Diller, Dear t>ir: — I came from Green 
county, Kentucky, arriving in Springfield May 
5, 1822, and have resided in Sangamon county ever 
since, making fifty-seven years last May. The 
second summer we lived here the corn was killed 
by frost, and during the summer of 1823 we 
lived mostly on green corn, potatoes and bread 
once a day. I remember well the deep snow, 
and how we walked over stake and rider fences 
on the snow. At that time I lived three and a 
half miles southeast of Springfield, with my 
father, James Short. I was married to Andrew 
McCormick, and resided in Springfield since that 
time. I have attended several Old Settlers' 
meetings, and enjoyed them very much, and I 
intend meeting my old friends once more if the 
weather will permit. 

Respectfully yours, 

Ann S. McCormick." 


"In the fall of the year 1828, in the midst of 
the soft and mellow Indian summer, the sj^eaker 
left his native county of Fayette, Kentucky, emi- 
grating to Springfield Illinois, and traveling on 
horseback, in two days arrived at Louisville, and 
crossing the Ohio river struck the great highway 
to the West, running from Louisville to Vin- 
cennes and St. Louis, and at Maysville, Illinois, 
branching to Central Illinois, known then as the 
Sangamon country. 

" Having entered this great road, he was united 
to that mighty stream of emigrants moving west- 

*An address delivered by Major John T. Stuart at 
the Old Settlers' Reunion, September 4, 1877. 

ward, whose mission was to subdue the wilder- 
ness, to found States, to carry forward the ban- 
ner of civilization, and whose sons were to re- 
turn, at no very distant day, in arms under the 
gallant Sherman, to save the Union from disrup- 
tion, as under Hardin and Bissell they saved the 
field of Buena Vista — a race never yet defeated 
in battle, or if defeated, who never knew it. 

"That moving mass was composed of every 
specimen of humanity, men, women, children, 
lilack and white, old and young, some highly 
cultivated and refined, others at the very lowest 
round of the ladder of intellect and cultivation, 
and of every intermediate grade. There was the 
man of middle age, who had filled a high social 
position in his native State, accompanied by a 
family cultivated and refined, on the way to the 
West, to retrieve his fallen fortunes. 

" There were young girls, then obscure, un- 
known, and poorly clad, but destined to fill 
princely mansions, and to become mothers of a 
race of fair daughters and gallant sons. Young 
men and boys were there who in their new 
homes would fill high offices of State, make and 
enforce laws, and impress their names and 
genius on the history of States then springing 
into existence; or whose destiny would be to fell 
the forest, to reduce the prairie to cultivation, 
to siibdue the wilderness, and make it feed its 
millions of happy human beings; or would 
become lawyers, doctors, preachers, teachers and 

"All kinds of domestic animals, and of every 
age, were there, intermingled with men, women 
and children, following the family wagon or car- 
riage. Every conceivable mode of conveyance; 
some were on horseback, or in carriages; others 
in wagons of every variety, and many on foot. 
Onward this varied mass moved by day, shout- 
ing, singing, laughing, jesting, cursing, cracking 
their whips, hallooing to their animals to press 
them forward. Merry they go, save here and 
there might be seen some serious faces of those 
who were thinking of their native homes and 
the friends they had left behind them. 

"And to the traveler on horseback, belated in 
reaching his rest for the night, how enchanting 
the scene as he rides along. The camp-fires blaz- 
ing everywhere, along the road, down every 
brook and every valley; the groups around the 
camj^-fires, and at the evening meal; the cattle 
and horses being fed at the wagon trough, or 
tethered, or wandering about browsing on grass 
or shrubs; the whistle, the song, the merry laugh, 
the bustle, the salutation to the passer-by, 
'Where are you going, stranger?' All is anima- 



tion and joyous life; while over all shines the 
silver moon struggling to shed her silver light 
through the hazy Indian summer atmosphere. 
These road scenes, altogether made a spectacle 
never to be forgotten, and the like of which will 
never more be seen east of the Mississippi, and 
perhaps never again on this continent. 

"Near Maysville, Illinois, the road separated, 
and the emigrant train divided, part taking the 
road for St. Louis, and part for Central Illinois. 
And now the Grand Prairie is reached. Pen 
cannot describe a large prairie; it must have 
been seen to be appreciated ; it was grand and 
peculiar; its nakedness of everything except long 
grass and weeds, seared by the autumn frosts, 
or feeding yon long line of fires, or waving in 
the breeze; its silence disturbed only by the 
noise of small insects, the whirr of the prai- 
rie chickens, or the sighing of the breeze; 
its boundless extent, appealing to the im- 
agination; you fancied it like the ocean; its 
undulating surface resembled the waves; the 
wavering grass is the water, agitated by the 
w'ind; yon emigrant wagon, rising the distant 
hill, is the ship upon the crest of the wave; yon 
outline of timbers is the rock-bound coast; but 
the herd of deer, which, frightened at the ap- 
proach of man, bounds gracefully away to yon- 
der hill, and stands, with head and tail erect, 
gazing at you with large, bright eyes, dispels the 

" As I am trying to make a picture of things 
as I saw them, I would recall to the memory of 
old settlers some of the scenes they witnessed 
when first crossing this same Grand Prairie, if 
not on this, on some other road. 

" Riding along the gently rolling prairie, now 
you descend into a valley, and your vision is 
limited to a narrow circle. That herd of deer 
has taken fright at your coming, quits its graz- 
ing on the tender grass of the valley, and, fol- 
lowing that old buck as leader, runs off with 
heads erect, horns thrown back, their white tails 
waving in the air, has circled around until 
yonder hillock is reached, when, turning towards 
you, they gaze with their dark, bright eyes, as if 
inquiring why you have invaded their free pas- 
tures. As you ride along, the rattlesnake is 
stretched across the road, sunning itself, and the 
prairie wolf takes to his heels and gallops ofi: 
much like a dog, but slowly, as if to show you 
that he is not much f lightened. That flock of 
prairie chickens has taken wings, and with a 
whirr flies away, and now has alighted yonder. 

" And now you have reached this ridge, 
checking your horse you turn in your saddle 

and gaze around. As far as the eye can reach, 
and bounded only by the horizon, stretches the 
undulating prairie, covered with grass and resin 
weed. How grand, how beautiful the view! 
How like the sea with its rolling waves! 

"And now again you have been overtaken by 
night; you reach that other hillock, and check- 
ing your horse, you again gaze around you. 
The prairie grass is on fire, here, there, every- 
where, all around the horizon, and lighting up 
the whole heavens. The scene now, how unlike 
that other, but still how grandly beautiful! A 
vision of wondrous enchantment, the like of 
which is now gone forever. Few scenes on 
earth surpass such a prairie, either in the bright 
sunshine of day, or when in the night blazing 
with such fires. 

"I have since stood at the foot of one of the 
Rocky Mountains, lifting its lofty head amid 
the clouds, its sides massive, rugged, treeless, 
without insect or fowl, silent as the grave. The 
scene of the mountains and of the prairie are 
widely different. The one grand and full of 
life, but impressing the first beholder with a 
sense of beauty; the other silent, grand, sub- 
lime, and impressing its first beholder with a 
sense of wonder and awe, but alike suggestive 
of the thought that none but God, One, Al- 
mighty, Allwise, could make them, and with 
wonder that anyone could doubt it, or believe 
that they came into existence by chance, by evo- 
lution or the aggregation of sentient particles 
of matter. 

"The night of the tenth day of his journey 
the speaker passed at the house of Mr. Hus- 
bands, on Sugar creek, in Sangamon county, 
and early next morning was passing along the 
road through the Springfield prairie, and about 
where the junction now is. What a difference 
between 'now' and 'then!' Now may be seen 
by one, passing by the Junction, long lines of 
freight and passenger cars on the two roads 
crossing at that point from North to Sc^ith, and 
from East to West. 

"There is the coal shaft, the noise and smoke 
of its engine, and the huts of the miners; there 
are in view the spires and curling smoke of the 
Capital City; all around are well cultivated 
farms, well stocked with fine cattle, and every- 
where around are life, activity, and progress. 

"Then all around was unbroken prairie, the 
home of the wolf, the deer, and the ])rairie 
fowl; unmarked by civilization or cultivation, 
except the scattering farms and houses along the 
timber. The dwellers in those houses, if then 
asked, would have informed you that these 



IDi-airie lands would never be purchased of the 
General Government, that they were not worth 
the taxes and would ever remain pasture 
grounds for those owning the lands near the 

"Traveling thence north, nothing yet met the 
eye, except the wild prairie, and its boundary of 
timber, and on that boundary on the east, the 
farms of Washington lies and of Mason and 
Plank, and on the west, of Little and Linds^ay. 
At the distance of one mile the high ground was 
reached, the rim of the valley in which Spring- 
held was situated, where new runs the South 
Avenue. Thence descending into the valley, the 
only additional improvements to be seen were 
the farms of Lanterman and Lanswell on the 
west, and of Charles R. Matheny on the east, 
w^here IVIrs. Robert Irwin now lives, and of Mas- 
ters, in front of the traveler. 

"Passing the Masters farm on the left (now 
Moran's addition), and the house of the Masters, 
near the residence of Mrs. Humphrey, and cross- 
ing the open prairie, the road running nearly 
where are now the residences of Mrs. Chestnut 
and N. W. Ed^\ards, to the grove afterwards 
known as Mather's grove, where the new State 
House is being built, and following the road 
west of Mather's grove, with the grove on the 
right, and on the left the corn-field of Major 
lies (now EdAvards & Mather's addition), to the 
eminence, where now stands the residence of the 
late Mr. Tyndale, the little village until then hid 
by the timber and brushwood along the town 
branch, first burst upon the view. 

"Reining in the horse, pausing on that emi- 
nence, to take a survey, the eye rested upon a 
dense grove of Black Jack, and undergrowth, 
east and west, all along the town branch, cover- 
ing the entire hill on which Mr. Lamb's house is 
situated, while in front lay the little village of 
Springfield, made up of a string of small houses, 
mainly extending three blocks, along Jefferson 
street, I'vom First to Fourth streets, with some 
few scattered elsewhere. 

"The houses were generally small, unpainted, 
and some daubed with mud; the rain of the 
morning had given to all a dreary and cheerless 
look, bringing a fit of blues to one who remem- 
bered the pleasant home of his boyhood, and 
then surveying for the first time, the home of 
his manhood, which then promised so little and 
has proved so full of happiness. 

"The village of Springfield was built in a val- 
ley about two miles wide ; it was drained by a 
stream, since known as the Town Branch, which 
heads in the southeast corner of the city, and 

runs west-northwest, and empties into Spring 
creek. Into the Town Branch on either side, in 
flood time, at intervals of three or four hundred 
yards, the water had washed deep gullies, or 
ruts, which drained the entire valley into the 
Town Branch, one of these wet weather drains 
ran from the northeast corner of the square to 
the southwest corner, and thence to the Town 
Branch, near the railroad bridge. 

"This surface drainage has entirely disap- 
peared, being displaced by the admirable under- 
ground drainage adopted by the city. On both 
sides of the Town Branch as high as Sixth 
street, was a dense forest of small trees and 
undergrowth, the harbor of deer and wolves. 
The remains of this forest may be seen in the 
yards of Mrs. Goodell, of the Governor's Man- 
sion, and of Mr. Eastman. Parallel with the 
Town Branch are two ridges, the rims of the 
valley, at an elevation of from twenty to thirty 
feet above the branch. The North and South 
Avenues run very nearly upon the summit of 
these ridges. 

"The central points of intercourse, at that 
day, in the Northwest, were St. Louis on the 
south, and the lead mines near Galena on the 
north; and the leading road of the Northwest 
was between these two points. The road from 
Vincennes by the way of Vandalia, united with 
this road at Macoujiin jjoint, and entered Spring- 
field as above described, over the hill where the 
new State House is building, and running on 
First street, to Jefferson, and passing the 
Abrams Hotel, the principal hotel of the city, 
on the corner of First and Jefferson, continued 
on Jefferson to Fourth street, where the St. 
Nicholas now stands, there turning to the north, 
in a nearly straight line, to the present residence 
of Mr. Converse, thence to the Sangamon river, 
very nearly orr the line of the present road, and 
thence north by Music's Bridge and Peoiia to 
Galena. This was then called the Fort Clark 
road. The next road in importance was the 
road to Beardstown, which running west on 
Jefferson street and crossing the Town Branch 
at the tan-yard and old mill, foUow^ed very 
near the present line of road to Beardstown. 
The east and west road from Jacksonville, very 
near its present line, united with the Beardstown 
road at the Town Branch and passed thicugh 
Springfield on Jefferson street to the square, and 
thence east through an open prairie, and crossed 
Sugar creek, near Major lies' farm. 

"In ISlSjElisha Kelly visited the present site 
of ^Springfield, there then being no white inhabi- 
tants north of Edwardsville. He was pleased 



with the situation because it abounded with 
game and was a good hunting ground. He re- 
turned to North Carolina and induced his family 
connection to move, and in the year 1819 John 
Kelly built a cabin north of the Town Branch, 
near where it is crossed by Jefferson street, the 
present site of the residence of General Ander- 
son. With John lived his father and several 
unmarried brothers. William Kelly built a 
cabin north of John, on a tract owned after- 
wards by Archer G. Herndon, now the residence 
of C. A. Gehrman, the merchant. Andrew 
Elliot built still further north at the place 
where he died, now Elliot's addition; all these 
cabins were near the timber of the Town 
Branch. These were the first settlers of Spring- 
field, if not of Sangamon county. It may well 
be wondei-ed why those primitive settlers, hav- 
ing the choice of the whole country, should 
select these inferior sites for cultivation, rather 
than the higher and better lands in the vicinity. 
The answer is found in the wants, and opinions 
of that early day. They needed water and fuel, 
these were found on the Town Branch. They 
needed shelter from the wind, they found it in 
the timber of Town Branch; above all other 
things, they wanted a good hunting ground; 
that they also found on the Town Branch and 
Spring creek, one of the very best of hunting 
grounds, and moreover in the opinion of the 
early settlers, they Avho occupied the land bord- 
ering on the timber, would become practically, 
the owners of the outside prairie, as their pasture 
ground forever. 

On the 28th day of October, 1828, he entered 
Springfield by First to Jefferson street. At the 
crossing of First and Jefferson, looking west, on 
the margin of the timber and Town Branch, 
stood the old horse-mill of John Taylor, then 
abandoned, and the tan-yard of William Proc- 
ter, now living at Lewiston. Both of these 
buildings were on the north of Jefferson street, 
and intermediate between them and First street 
was a corn field. On the south side of Jeffei'- 
son, and west of First street, stood the houses of 
John Sherril, a shoemaker, and John Moor, who 
had married Mrs. Hawley, the estimable mother 
of E. B. Hawley and Isaac Hawley; and west 
of Moor were the cabins of Uncle Billy Fagan 
and of William Baker. Going thence east on 
Jefferson street, first stood the hotel of Mr. 
Abrams, on the south side, and adjoining was 
the dwelling and store of John Taylor, next the 
Buck Tavern, kept by Andrew Elliot, next the 
grocery and adjoining dwelling of William Car- 
penter, On the opposite side of Jefferson was 

first what was once the old tavern, but then the 
dwelling of Colonel Cox and family. Next east 
were five or six small two-room frame buildings, 
with ends to the street: the first occupied by 
Jessie Cormack in the front room as a tinner's 
shop, while Asa S. Shaw occupied the rear room 
as a justice's office; next was the store house of 
Mordecai Mobley; .next the grocery of Ebenezer 
Capps, and the two next on the corner were 
occupied as the store of General James D. 
Henry, with Philip C. Latham as clerk. Follow- 
ing east on Jefferson and across Second street, 
at the corner, on the right, stood the store where 
Elijah lies sold goods, and John Williams per- 
formed well the duties of clerk. The family of 
Major lies resided in the same house. Next was 
a two-story log house, in the lower room of 
which Jabez Capps had a shoemaker's shop, the 
upper room being the residence of his family. 
Opposite, on the north side of Jeffei'son, and on 
its corner with Second street, stood a small log 
house, occupied as a store and dwelling by 
Archer G. Herndon; next east was a two-room 
frame house, with end to the street, the front 
room occupied by Hooper Warren as a printing 
oflice, and the rear room as the dwelling of his 
family; next, and on an eighty-foot lot, stood a 
two-story house, with two rooms below, with a 
hall between, occupied as a residence by Paschal 
P. Enos and his family, except the east lower 
room, which was used as a land office. Contin- 
uing east on Jefferson, and crossing Third street, 
and as you looked south on Third, not far from 
the south end of the Chicago & Alton Depot, 
stood another two-room frame building, with 
end to Third street, occupied by a carj^enter 
named Fowler as a residence; next was Levi 
Goodin in a cabin on the south side of Jefferson, 
while on the corner of Fourth and Jefferson, on 
the south side, stood the residence of General 
James Adams. On the north side of Jeffer- 
son, between Third and Fourth streets, stood a 
double log building, the residence of Gorden 
Abrams. Next, on the corner of Fourth and 
Jefferson, stood the residence and shop of Dr. 
Jayne. This house still stands, and is occupied 
by Mr. Baum as a stone and marble establish- 
ment. Still going east on Jefferson, and cross- 
ing Fourth street to the right, on the eighty-foot 
lot on which the St. Nicholas now stands, was a 
two- story double log house, the residence of 
Charles Boyd, a tailor. On the north side of 
Jefferson, and opposite to Boyd, was the resi- 
dence of Thomas Strawbridge and his sister, 
Mrs. Anderson. Jacob Plank resided in a two- 
room frame house, on the corner of Sixth and 



Jeffersou, and crossing Sixth street, on the 
corner lot of Jefferson and Fifth streets stood 
the blacksmith shop of John White, and his 
residence adjoining. On the opposite side 
was the cabin of the Tuckers, and these 
were the last houses on East Jefferson. 
Crossing to Washington street, and beginning 
again on First sti'eet and' moving east be- 
tween First and Second and on the block- 
south and on the site of the present residence 
of Major Orendorff, stood a two-story frame 
house, the best in the village, the then residence 
of Dr. John Todd. This frame house was after- 
wards removed and still stands nearly opposite, 
across the street. Going still east on Washing- 
ton near the corner of Washington and Third 
and near the present site of the flouring mill, 
stood a log cabin, the residence of Polly, a col- 
ored woman, and her family. Still east, on the 
corner of Washington and Fourth, stood a double 
frame house then occupied as a residence by Joe 
Thomas, afterwards purchased by and made the 
residence of Dr. John G. Bergen, while on the 
same block, and near the corner of Washington 
and Fifth, stood the residence of Asa S. Shaw. 
On the opposite block, and on the corner where 
now stands the Chenery House, there stood the 
cabin of a colored woman, called familiarly 
Aunt Creecy, and these were the only houses on 
Washington street. There were but two houses 
of Adams street, the blacksmith shop of Aleck 
Humphreys, and his residence adjoining, situ- 
ated on the corner of Adams and Third, on the 
north side, opposite to the Episcopal Church, 
and the residence of Dr. Garrett Elkin, on the 
two lots on the south side of Adams, where it 
corners with Sixth street, now occupied by the 
magnificent stores of C. M. Smith and others, 
the very centre of business. Washington lies 
and family live in a two-room frame house on 
the corner of Monroe and Fourth sti-eets, the 
present site of the Second Presbyterian Church. 
Rivers McCormack, a Methodist circuit rider, 
had built and lived in a cabin on Monroe, on 
part of the Tyndale hill, but he had ceased to 
occupy it. Fronting the public square, on the 
corner of Sixth and Adams, stood a two-story 
frame building, the lower rooms of which were 
used as a court room, while the upper was used 
by Charles R. Matheny as a clerk's office. Front- 
ing the public square on the west, and on the 
lot now occupied by Joel Brown as a book and 
drug store, stood another two-room frame hoiise, 
with end to the street, then occupied by Dr. 
Darling as a family residence. On the east 
side of the public square was the whipping-post. 

I saw two men punished at the whipping post. 
The last was named Watson, who was sentenced 
to receive eighty lashes for an attempt to rob 
Mr. Bouge. General Henry, the sheriff", inflicted 
the punishment, and it was doubted by those 
who saw it, whether Henry or Watson suffered 
most. Henry was very pale, and I hope never 
to see another such a sight. I believe I have 
enumerated all the buildings in the village of 
Springfield; all north of Jefferson, all east of 
Sixth street, and south of Adams, except as 
above mentioned, was unbroken prairie, except 
that Charles R. Matheny and family lived on 
the corner of Sixth and Cook streets, now the 
residence of Mrs. Irwin, and there cultivated 
about forty acres; and Edward Mitchell resided 
with his family northeast of the public square, 
on a small farm, which afterwards was laid out 
into Mitchell's addition. 

" The town of Springfield then had not exceed- 
ing five hundred inhabitants, and they were 
from every section and State in the Union, gen- 
erally young people, except where the father or 
grandfather had come out with some younger 
branch of his family. They were, as a rule, 
poor, and had moved West to better their for- 
tunes. It required some courage and nerve then 
to emigrate to the West, and therefore they 
were generally energetic and enterprising. They 
were persons who had come from good families 
East; had seen good society, and Avere as well 
educated, cultivated and refined as were the in- 
habitants of towns of the same size East or 
West. All had traveled more or less to reach 
Illinois, and some had come from the remote 
States. This gave them an advantage over citi- 
zens of the old States, in the knowledge of men 
and things which travel brings along with it. 
All were on equality, the only distinction arising 
from superior intelligence or better moral char- 
acter. This equality rendered them social, hos- 
pitable and kind to each other, and ready to 
receive strangers with open arms. Their social 
intercourse was free from forms and restraint, 
which wealth and more extended social circles 
bring along with them. They met together on 
the street, in the offices, or around the family 
circle, and were happy in their intercourse with 
each other. The young lady who wished to 
have company in the evening did not send out 
elegant cards, but placed a lighted candle in her 
window; the young men, collected around the 
four corners at the crossings of Second and 
Jefferson, would see the light, accept the invita- 
tion, and assemble for social enjoyment. I re- 
member well the first time this occurred after 


my arrival. Miss Clarissa Benjamin, now Van 
Bergen, placed her candle in the window of the 
parlor room, above the store of Major lies. Phil. 
Latham gave notice by exclaiming: ' Boys, Clar- 
issa's candle is in the window; let us go over.' 
The young men assembled there, and found 
Miss Clarissa Benjamin, Misses Hannah and 
Margaret Taylor, the Misses Dryers, and Miss 
Jane Bergen. It was a pleasant, social evening, 
and these ladies were as handsome, refined, and 
entertained as well and gracefully, as the young 
ladies of the present day. 

The people then in Springfield were moral 
and honest; there was little stealing or cheating. 
There was no occasion then to lock up the doors 
and bar the windows at night; they had no fear 
of sleeping with all open. The use of ardent 
spirits was perhaps more general then than now, 
but there was less drunkenness. To drink was 
then fashionable, and the wonder is that all did 
not become drunkards. I have remarked that 
all the early settlers of the town who habitually 
used ardent spirits, and especially those who 
used them to excess, have made no mark in the 
world, but died young, and are forgotten; while 
the sober men, as a rule, have become heads of 
large and respectable families, lived respectably, 
and contributed to the building up of the city 
and the advancement of all its social interests. 

"Grouping the business men of that day, the 
lawyers were Gen. James Adams, Gen. Thos. M. 
Neale, Col. James Strode, Thomas Moffitt and 
Jonathan H. Pugh, men of mark then, but now 
all dead and forgotten, overshadowed by that 
brilliant galaxy of laAvyers, their successors, 
which adorned the Sangamon Bar between the 
years 1830 and 1840. The physicians were Dr. 
John Todd, Dr. Gershom Jayne, Dr. Garret 
Elkin, Dr. Ephram Darling. They were good 
l^hysicians in any country, were men of intelli- 
gence, estimable in all their social relations ; be- 
sides they were men of splendid physique, and 
able to endure the arduous labor of the practice 
of the day which required them to ride night 
and day, on horseback or in the sulky, for fifty 
miles around. The merchants were Elijah lies. 
Gen. Henry, Mordecai Mobley, John Taylor, 
Archer G. Herndon, while Ebenezer Capp kept 
the grocery ; they were all good men then, and 
enjoyed the confidence of the community. 
Charles R. Matheny was clerk of the Circuit and 
County coux'ts, and in fact filled all the oftices of 
the county. He emigrated from Virginia, was 
a lawyer by education and a Methodist preacher 
by practice. He had been Clerk of the House of 
Representatives, and a member of that body. I 


He was a good and useful man, had a pleasant, 
smiling countenance, beaming with benevolence 
as if the light of Heaven was shining on him, sing- 
ling him out from the others. Jonathan H. Pugh 
was born in Bath county, Kentucky; a lawyer by 
profession. Emigrating to the West, he settled 
in Bond county, Illinois ; removed to Springfield, 
Illinois, about the, year 1824, where he lived un- 
til his death in 1834. He was possessed of a 
remarkably pleasant address, and was, in the fall 
of 1828, the most prominent and popular man in 
Northern Illinois. He had a good and showy 
intellect, was brilliant in his wit, and sparkling 
repartee, and for his social qualities was beloved 
by his friends. He was ambitious, and was 
elected three times as a Representative in the 
legislature. He was a candidate for Congress 
in 1832, and defeated by Gov. Duncan. His 
mortification was so great that he surrendered 
to a habit which became his fatal enemy, died 
about the age of thirty-five years, and fills an 
unknown grave. 

" General James D. Henry was a shoemaker by 
trade, which he followed at Edwardsville; re- 
moved to Springfield, and became a merchant; 
was sheriff of the county two or three ternm; 
was first a Colonel and then a Brigadier General 
in the Black Hawk war, and at the battle of 
Wisconsin proved himself the hero of that war. 
He was a man of good understanding, of fine 
person, brave and generous, of wonderful mag- 
netic influence and power to attach men to him. 
He went to New Orleans in the spring of 1834 
for his health, and died and was buried there. 
At the time of his death he could have been 
elected to any office in the gift of the people of 
Illinois, and the only question he debated, was 
whether in the election of 1834, he would be a 
member of Congress or Governor. He died aged 
about forty years, possessed of a good constitu- 
tion and a bright future before him, the victim 
of the same bad habit. Asa S. Shaw was from 
the State of New York, where he had been a 
merchant and failed; settling at Springfield he 
became emphatically the Justice of the Peace, 
possessed of a very strong intellect, good judg- 
ment, and superior business qiialifications, and 
capable of great usefulness; but he, too, suc- 
cumbed in the meridian of life to the same fatal 

"I have singled out these three men because 
they were my friends, to whom I was fdncerely 
attached, and whose memory to-day, after the 
lapse of more than forty years, is still green and 
fragrant, and I mean no wrong to them when I 
would use this occasion to impress upon all, and 



especially upon the young, that ardent s})irits, 
habitually used, will soon become the master of 
the man; will undermine the strongest constitu- 
tion; it will quench the brightest genius; blight 
the fairest prospects, and will dig for him an 
early, if not a dishonorable grave. 

"No attempted picture of Springfield would 
be complete in which Major Elijah lies had not 
a prominent place. Emigrating from Bath 
county, Kentucky, to Missouri in 1818, and to 
Springtield, Illinois, in 1821, where he yet lives, 
at the age of eighty-seven years, when the site 
of Springtield was a prairie, with the exception 
of the cabins of the Kellys and of Elliott. He 
became a boarder in the cabin of John Kelly, 
and then repeatedly saw Elliott and one of the 
Kelly's return in the morning from hunting up 
the town branch, with a deer which had been 
shot near where the Governor's house now stands, 
and off which he breakfasted. He opened a 
store and sold goods for many years; was a Major 
in the Winnebago war, and a captain of a spy 
company in the Black Hawk war. He served 
the county of Sangamon two terms in the State 
Senate, and could have served longer had he not 
preferred to retire. He was one of the original 
proprietors of the town, and at that early day 
contributed largely to its growth,, while his 
home, presided over by his estimable wife, as- 
sisted by her graceful sister. Miss Benjamin, was 
the pleasant resort of the young people. By his 
sagacity and industry he has acquired a large 
fortune, without wrong or suspicion of wrong to 
any one. His name was without a stain — modest 
and unassuming, through his long life, he has 
had the love and respect of his friends, and now, 
amid the sorrows of his old age, has the respect 
and sympathy of the entire community. 

"Sangamon county was settled originally, 
with some exceptions, by a class of men known 
on the frontiers as bee-hunters; men who were 
the advance guard of emigration, following fast 
upon the flight of the bees. These were a hardy 
and honest race of men, who loved adventure, 
the freedom and independence of frontier life, 
and did not love to be crowded by close neigh- 
bors, or offended by the accompaniments of civi- 
lization. This class would emigrate to a new 
country, establish a claim of some sort to a piece 
of land, build a cabin, raise corn enough to feed 
their horses and hogs, and for bread, and spend 
the leisure time hunting and fishing, and when a 
second and better class of emigration flowed in, 
would sell out their claims and move still further 
west to the still advancing frontier. That 
change, to a great extent, had taken place in 

Sangamon in the fall of 1828, and was then going 
on. The bee-hunters were going west to Brown, 
Adams and Pike counties, Illinois; then to Iowa 
and Missouri, and are doubtless still hunting the 
frontier, if indeed there is now any frontier. 
Their place had been supplied, and was being 
supplied by emigrants of a different class, from 
almost every State in the Union, but principally 
from Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia and the New 
England States. 

"Those came mostly from the middle classes 
of society, which embraces the bone and sinew 
of every country. They were generally from 
the mountainous sections, and were large in per- 
son, moral, honest, and hospitable; the latch- 
string of their door was always out. They were 
manly, brave, generous, frank; when, with a 
warm smile on their face, they clasped their 
hands in yours, you instinctively felt the heart 
went with it. These early settlers of Sangamon 
were a race of good and noble men, worthy to 
be the fathers of our great country, and their 
sons should remember their ancestry, and never 
disgrace them. 

"As the result of their labors, early toils and 
hardships, we have the great county of Sanga- 
mon, with its wealthy, thriving, peaceful and 
happy neighborhood. I say peaceful, and in 
proof, I would mention the fact that the law 
docket of Sangamon has always shown less liti- 
gation than other counties. It is sometimes said 
that the docket of a county is a very true index 
of its wealth and business ; not so with Sanga- 
mon, In wealth and business, and traffic, it will 
compare favorably with any other county in the 

"It may be invidious to single out any of these 
early settlers, as all cannot be mentioned here, 
but as representatives of the wholf, I Avould 
mention the Darnells, the Wycoffs, the Mc- 
Gwins, the Morris's, the Kinneys, the Cloyds, of 
Lick creek; the Pattons, the Husbands, the 
Crows, the Fletchers, the Drennans, the Dodds, 
and Isaac Keys, of Sugar creek ; the Elkins, the 
Constants, the McDaniels, the Pickrells, and the 
Dawsons, of the North Fork ; the Casses, the 
Burns, the Lawsons and St. Clairs, of Buffalo 
Hart ; the Cantralls, the Councils, the Powers, 
of Fancy Creek ; the Irwins, the Cartwrights, 
the Carsons, the Purviances, the Andersons and 
the Harrisons, of liichland ; the Sims, the Mc- 
Coys, the Morgans, and the Earnests, of Spring 
creek ; and the Beckenridges, the Bakers, the 
Neals, and the Staffords and Sattlys, of Fork 
Prairie ; Samuel Williams, the Fouches, the El- 
lises, the Yates, the Wilcoxes, of Island Grove ; 



the lies, Charles R. ]\[atheny, Drs. Todd, Jayne 
and Elkin, Pascal P. Enos, John Taylor, Archer 
G. Herndon, Philip C. Latham, John Williams, 
Gen. Henry and Jonathan H. Pugh, and Peter 
Van Bergen, of Springfield. 

"Further singling out, I would present to your 
memory as a fair sample of the whole. Captain 
John Durneil, a man about six feet in height, 
handsome and well-fomied, easy in his manner, 
because by nature a gentleman, frank, generous 
and true ; you felt in his presence as with one 
who was every inch a man. 

" These early settlers, I owe them much, when 
almost a boy and a stranger they received me 
with open arms, and have, in a thousand ways, 
showered upon me favors beyond niy deserts; I 
owe them a large debt of gratitude, and Avould 
do all I might to honor their memories. Most 
of them are dead and gone, and I hojDe have 
settled for all time, in a better country, around 
the throne of God, and along the banks of the 
'beautiful river.' Some few of us old settlers 
still linger on these coasts of Titne; one by one 
they are passing away, and those of us who 
remain are fast becoming strangers amid the 
new generations around us. 

" We are taught in the story of the Cross, and 
we believe that a great scheme of redemption 
has been provided for our race by the Great 
Father, and if we do our duty here to oxtr coun- 
try, our fellow men, and to our God, that some- 
where in His great universe a heaven has been 
provided as our happy, eternal home, and the 
thought is a consoling one, that although fast 
becoming strangers here, yet, when we cross the 
great river of Time which divides that happy 
land from ours, we will meet more friends than 
we leave behind us; that we will know'them, 
and they us; and that then the reunion of old 
settlers will be jovous, complete, and without 


"It is said that I first breathed the atmosphere 
in the year of 1797, in Franklin county, Penn- 
sylvania. Although I was there at the time, 
and took an active part in the affair, I have no 
recollection of the transaction, and have to de- 
pend on the declaration of others for the truth 
of my statement. 

" I was brought up on a farm until about 
eighteen years of age; went to a common school 
in the winter; did all kinds of work that is done 
on a farm, and that, I believe, gave me a strength 
and vigor of constitution that has enabled me to 
resist the physical elements with which we are 

surrounded, and are at constant war against the 
functions of life. At eighteen, I became im- 
pressed with an ardent desire to acquire knowl- 
edge; went nine months to a Latin school; 
pursued my studies with a resolution that knew 
no failure, and at the expiration of seven years, 
graduated at the University of Pittsburg, Penn- 
sylvania. In my literary pursuits, I read a motto 
that was placed over the door of a heathen tem- 
ple — 'Genosko se auto' (Know thysell) — that 
made a strong impression on my mind. I be- 
came fascinated with the idea of knowing my- 
self. Anatomy and physiology appeared to be 
the proper branches for that purpose, conse- 
quently I devoted myself to the study of medi- 
cal science, and after the lapse of seven years, 
graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, in 
Philadelphia, in 183.3. 

"During all these years I never thought of 
the ' mighty dollar,' only when necessity forced 
it upon me. It will appear from these state- 
ments that I did not creep in at the back door 
and foist myself on the profession, without, at 
least, making an effort to acquire a knowledge 
of the high and responsible duties pertaining to 
it. I devoted myself two years to my profes- 
sion in Pennsylvania, and then directed my des- 
tiny toward the setting sun, in the Far West. 
Before bidding a long farewell to good old 
Pennsylvania, I will state a couple of incidents 
that occurred during my stay in Pittsburg. In 
1824, General Lafayette and son visited Pitts- 
burg, and the city became wild with enthusiasm. 
Of course he was tendered the hospitality of the 
city. The reception was grand and imposing. 
At least one hundred thousand people gave him 
an enthusiastic welcome. I, in conjunction with 
thousands of others, had the pleasure of shaking 
his hand. It is human nature to feel pleasure 
in shaking hands wnth a patriot like Lafayette. 

"The other incident was a vnsit of Henry 
Clay, Secretary of State, under John Q. Adams. 
His reception was cold, and forbidding; in fact 
the people were bitterly o^jposed to him in con- 
sequence of his vote in fpvor of Adams against 
General Jackson. A few friends called to see 
him at his hotel, and being enlisted in his favor, 
induced others to call, until it became general; 
strange to say, he 'swallowed' all that called to 
see him. He remained four or five days, and 
visited our manufacturing establishments, and 
the tables were turned so much in his favor that 
a public dinner must be tendered. There were 
no public buildings suitable, and Henry Hold- 
ship was requested to give the use of his paper 
mill, one day for the purpose. Rapp, the head 



of a colony, eighteen miles below Pittsburg, 
sent up two or three barrels of wine for the oc- 
casion. The building was crowded to its utmost 
capacity. We had a feast worthy the city, and 
worthy the man to whom it was given. Many 
toasts were given and drank; finally, a toast was 
given in honor of Henry Clay, and his respond- 
ing closed the feast. The toast was as follows, 
as near as I can recollect: ' Here's to Henry 
Clay, of Kentucky, who on his way home from 
Washington, stopped at Pittsburg, and had the 
power to stop Henry Holdship's paper mill one 
entire day, which never stopped before on any 

"He (Clay), boldly went over his political 
actions, in relation to Adams, and declared he 
would do so again under the same circumstan- 
ces. Such eloquence I never heard; such en- 
thusiasm I never saAv; perhaps the wine helped 
to increase it. 

"Early in April, IS-iS, I got on board a steam- 
boat for St. Louis; remained there a few days; 
wandered about seeing the country, and at last 
wound up my travels at Springfield, Illinois, on 
the 15th of May, 1835. The next day it com- 
menced raining and rained about forty days and 
nights, until the prairie east of town was about 
a foot deep with water, and no outlet; the water 
disappeared by evaporation and sinking in the 
soil. The sidewalks were composed of mud 
about three inches deep, and when crossing the 
streets, we rolled our pantaloons above our boots 
and waded through. Disgusted with the mud, 
I went up north to a place called Tremont, a 
town of stakes and grass. A colony from the 
east had purchased of the Federal Government 
a quantity of land about three months before, 
laid out a town, and called it Tremont. A part 
of the colony were living in their stables which 
they buili first, and carpenters were busy fram- 
ing their houses. They received me very kindly 
and expressed a desire for me to locate there, to 
examine the location of their town, and pick 
out a lot anywhere not already taken, I com- 
menced taking a view of the place, and every 
few minutes a rattlesnake gave me warning to 
keep oft', and I abandoned the examination. 
They declared that their object was to settle the 
country and develope the resources of the soil; 
that speculation with them was out of the ques- 
tion. I made choice of a lot, perhaps the one- 
eighth part of an acre, on the northeast corner 
of the square. I applied to the agent for his 
terms for the lot. He proposed to let me have 
the lot for i5?200, twenty cash, give note for -I^ISO. 
drawing twelve per cent, interest, and bind my- 

self to put a house on worth !^2,000. I de- 
nounced them as a set of speculators and gougers; 
mounted my horse; hastened to Springfield, re- 
gardless of the mud. 

"When I returned to Springfield great changes 
had taken place ; the sidewalks and streets \^ ere 
dry and pleasant. The waters had subsided 
within the banks of the streams, and sickness to 
a great extent set in, in consequence of decaying 
vegetable matter; intermittent, remittents and 
typhoid fevers prevailed, and for a number of 
years that summer was known by the name of 
the ' sickly season.' I hung out my 'shingle,' 
and was called upon to see a sick family near 
Clear Lake, and had to cross the river at Den- 
ma's ferry,' about a quarter of a mile above 
Riverton ; after being ferried over three or four 
days, I concluded to ford the stream. I had a 
very spirited 'nag,' and strange as it may appear, 
I rode with a spur on my heel. When I reached 
the river a large drove of cattle were entering 
the water, and a man was mounted on a very 
large ox in froftt. I went into the water about 
twenty yards above. The water rose to the sides 
of my ' nag,' and I raised my feet to avoid get- 
ting wet; sunk the spur into her fiank ; she made 
a sudden spring forward, and pitched me over 
her head into the stream. I requested the man 
on the ox to come and take me on behind him ; 
he, with a grin and squeaking voice, informed 
me that his horse wouldn't carry double. There 
I v/as baptized a citizen of Sangamon county, 
and, by some superior power, have remained so 
to this time. 

"In the summer of 1835, the State Bank and 
branches went into operation. We had State 
banks, local banks, and 'wild cat banks,' and 
paper money was as plenty as blackberries. 
Times were prosperous, and the people entered 
the public lands to a great extent with paper 
money, causing serious loss to the Government. 
In 1836, General Jackson issued a specie circu- 
lar, requiring the lands to be paid for in specie. 
This caused a run on the banks, and in a little 
while all the banks in the country burst up and 
went to 'pot.' Our currency became worthless; 
distress and hard times came upon us; business 
of all kinds was depressed, and I bought corn in 
Springfield, delivered at five cents per bushel. 
The State also commenced building railroads. 
Every road must be completed at the same time; 
consequently, in a little while she became bank- 
rupt in the sum of seventeen millions, and no 
roads. Another question enlisted the public mind. 
The temporary seat of government at Vandalia 
was about expiring, and the permanent location 



was agitated with a great deal of zeal by differ- 
ent parties. We had the celebrated ' long nine' 
to engineer our claims. They finally accom- 
plished the end by Springfield giving a bribe, in 
the name of a bonus, of fifty thousand dollars to 
the State. The County Commissioners donated 
to the State the public square, and the building 
of a State House commenced. The legislature 
met in the churches and passed laws for the 
good of the people. Springfield numbered at 
that time perhaps six or seven hundred people, 
and being simply a corporation, it must be ele- 
vated to the name of a city. A charter is framed, 
and presented to the legislature for its sanction. 

"The framers of the Charter found that there 
would be considerable opposition to it, when 
submitted to a vote of the people, inserted a 
clause excluding all unnaturalized citizens from 
voting for or against its adoption, when, at that 
time, persons that were here six months were 
entitled to vote, even for President of the United 
States. Colonel Baker was a member of the 
legislature, and, as I understood, voted for it, 
Avith this objectionable clause in it. That gave 
rise to a difficulty between him and me that has 
never been understood. He, being an English- 
man, from the same country where two of my 
brothers-in-law came from, excluded them from 
voting. I, boiling over with indignation at the 
idea of his excluding his own countrymen from 
voting, declared that I would challenge his vote. 
He, being aware of the fact, came on the day of 
election prepared with his father's naturalized 
papers, which naturalized him, he being a minor 
at the time. When he came to vote, I chal- 
lenged it, and that gave rise to a good deal of 
insulting language. At length, he used an ex- 
2)ression that was not true, and I called him a 
liar. That ended the war of words. He then 
requested me to go out on the street, and he 
would 'lick' me as soon as he polled his vote. 
I went out and waited for him. When he came, 
he quietly asked what I said at the polls. I said 
he was a liar. Expecting him to strike with his 
right, he gave me a lick with his left fist, on tlie 
side of my head, that knocked me wild; then 
the 'ball' opened. I tried for some time to hit 
him, but he fended off so well that I was unable 
to touch him. 

" His fist was soft; ray head was hard, and by 
the time he raised some five or six knots, his fist 
was useless. Unable to hit him with my fist, I 
changed my tactics, and commenced kicking. 
After two or three kicks he caught ray foot and 
hoisted me over; while falling I caught him and 
drew him down upon me, and then reached to 

get him by the throat, and my thumb landed in 
his eye. I concluded to let it remain there. 
The Democrats thought I might 'fight it out on 
this line if it took all summer,' but the Whigs 
thought differently, and pulled us apart, and 
that pulled my thumb out of his eye. This 
affair closed up by each of us paying fifteen dol- 
lars for fracturing the law. I can justly say that 
Colonel Baker was a most eloquent and for- 
midable political opponent, and three or four 
months after, when our passions cooled down, we 
shook hands and made friends, and then I came 
to the conclusion we had both been a pair of 
great fools. 

"The charter was adopted, and William May 
was elected Mayor of the city. Josiah Lamborn 
was States Attorney. At that time a man by 
the name of Archibald Trayler, as upright and 
good a citizen as can be found anywhere, lived 
there. William Trayler and his brother, with 
them a man named Fisher, came on a visit to 
their brother, Archibald Trayler, who lived 
near Captain Ransdell's Hotel. The captain had 
a niece living with him, and William Trayler 
had an inkling towards her, and the captain was 
bitterly opposed to hira, and set spies to watch 
their moveraents. Their movements were mys- 
terious, as usual when a woraan is mixed up in 
the affair. 

" Two of the Traylers and Fisher were seen 
going northwest into the timber and remained 
there some time; at length two returned, and 
Fisher was not with them; the next day the 
Traylers started for home, and took the same 
route through the timber, and, according to the 
spies, wound round in by-roads until finally they 
came into the Beardstown road. Four or five 
days after, the Traylers came back in search of 
Fisher. This gave rise to the suspicion that 
Fisher had been foully dealt with, and caused the 
greatest excitement among the people, William 
May and Lamborn engineered the matter; seized 
the Traylers, and had the timber searched for 
four or five days, in order to find Fisher. They 
soon found the place, where it was supposed 
Fisher was killed, and search was continued in 
order to find the body. In the afternoon of the 
third day, I went down in the timber, and met 
two men, who inquired if I had seen the place 
where Fisher had been killed, I replied that I 
had not; they then led me into the brush about 
fifty yards, where there was a circular spot, per- 
haps twelve or fifteen feet in diameter, cleared 
off, and near the center was a stump with a num- 
ber of sprouts growing round it, and close by 
the stump there was an impi'ession in the soil, 



resembling exactly what the back of a man's 
head would make in falling wuth considerable 
force. Directly after, Dr. Merriman and six or 
eight others came into the circle opposite; some 
one wondered if there was any hair or blood 
about the stump; Dr. Merriman examined it 
critically on his hands and knees; no hair or 
blood was found, the next day quantities of hair, 
even the man's whiskers, were found about the 

"In the evening I went down town, and the 
street opposite the Mayor's office was crowded 
with people, and Lamborn among them. Being 
w^ell acquainted with him, he took me to one 
side, and informed me that he had told William 
Trayler that he had testimony to hang the whole 
three of them, and the only way of escape was 
to turn State's evidence; he became so alarmed 
that he was willing to give testimony to the kill- 
ing of Fisher. The next morning, I and five or 
six others went to the lower road to see Hickox's 
mill pond opened, in order to find Fisher. When 
opposite the spot where Fisher should have been 
killed, a young man came running down, shout- 
ing 'they found plenty of hair, even the man's 
whiskers.' I informed him that game would 
not work, as Dr. Merriman had examined the 
spot the evening before, and no hair could be 
found. This circumstance led to the suspicion 
that a conspiracy had been formed to encompass 
the death of Archibald Trayler. Five or six 
hundred people met at the mill. William May 
mounted a log and made a speech, urging the 
necessity of drawing off the water, in order to 
find the body. It was a dry season, and water 
was valuable to Hickox. I opposed it, without 
first paying a just compensation. He then ap- 
pointed a committee of five, Morris Lindsay, 
chairman, to wait on Hickox and ascertain the 
damage. Two hundred dollars were demanded. 
The committee reported, and May thought it 
too high, and sent them back with instructions 
to offer fifty dollars or nothing; so Hickox was 
compelled to submit. 

"When the water was reduced about four 
feet, we went up to where the Beardstown road 
crossed the stream, and a number went into the 
water in search of the body; the crowd on the 
bank and Archibald Trayler, under bonds, stood 
off about forty yards from the crowd, a forlorn 
spectator of the scenes. I went to him, with 
the desire to find out what grudge May and 
Lamborn had against him; but he appeared so 
depressed that I gave it up and went back to the 
crowd on the bank. It so happened that I had 
lost an axe at that point, in getting ice, and I 

proposed to give a dollar to the man that would 
find it, and that they would be more likely to 
find the axe than Fisher. They looked ' daggers' 
at me, and a low murmur went through the 
crowd, and I discovered my imprudence when 
it was too late. About sundown we left without 
Fisher. When we arrived at Springfield, a 
doctor in the vicinity of Wm. Trayler's home, 
hearing of the excitement, was there declaring 
that Fisher was at home and well. They seized 
the doctor, declared him an accomplice, and de- 
manded that Fisher must be presented in per- 
son. Archibald Trayler's partner and Mr. John 
Maxcy, I was informed, went for Fisher. They 
returned late in the evening, and the next day 
the trial came on. After an elaborate train of 
circumstantial evidence, together with Wm. 
Trayler's positive testimony, were given. Judge 
Logan, Archibald Trayler's attorney, stated that 
he would introduce just one witness. He made 
a sign, and introduced Fisher, to the consterna- 
tion of all present. 

"The result was that Archibald Trayler's use- 
fulness was destroyed, and he wandered about 
like a person in a dream. About two years 
after, a messenger came for me at twelve o'clock 
at night, to see Trayler, w^ho w^as very sick; when 
I saw him he was exhausted, and in a few hours 
departed this life. The plain, natural and just 
solution of this mysterious affair appears to be 
simply this. Wm. Trayler had a great fancy for 
Capt. Ransdell's niece, and she had a fancy for 
him, and the Captain was i\itensely opposed to 
it. Trayler was determined to steal the girl, 
and she was willing to be stolen, and in order to 
be prepared for the theft, the three men went 
down into the timber to find if there were any 
by-roads that would lead into the Beardstown 
road ; then Fisher is sent home on foot, and ar- 
rangements made with the girl to meet him in 
the timber. When he departed for home he took 
that direction, and the girl being unable to es- 
cape the vigilance of the Captain and his spies, 
did not appear; after waiting a reasonable time, 
he then w^ent to the Beardstown road on his way 

"This unfortunate affair had a good deal 
of truth and falsehood mixed up together, and 
demonstrates thatwdien people become greatly 
excited they lose all their reasoning powers ; 
that mobs and strikes and factions are developed 
in like manner ; that they contain more or less 
fanatics, and cannot possibly exist without lead- 
ers, and when political factions become strong 
in numbers they are dangerous to civil govern- 



" From the fourth of March, 18 i?, to the fourth 
of March, 1841, Van Buren was President. The 
State was sunk to the lowest depths of embar- 
rassment; she could not pay the interest on her 
bonds; they depreciated to a mere nominal value; 
emigration ceased, and repudiation appeared to 
be inevitable. Governor Ford then made ar- 
rangements to call a convention, to amend the 
Constitution so as to provide for the payment of 
the interest and principal of the State debt. 
The convention provided that two mills on the 
dollar (twenty cents on the hundred dollars) of 
the State tax should be set apart for the express 
purpose of paying the interest and principal of 
the State debt. It was submitted to a vote of 
the people and adopted. The people declared, 
by their vote, we will pay the debt, to the last 
dollar, let it cost what it will. That act of the 
people fixed the destiny of the State; the bonds 
began to rise; emigration flowed in, and wealth 
increased to such an extent that Governor Mat- 
teson, in his last message to the legislature, de- 
clared that from the ratio of increasing popula- 
tion and wealth, the State of Illinois would not 
owe a dollar in 1868. The increase in popula- 
tion and wealth was even greater than Matteson's 
estimate. Notwithstanding, when 1868 came 
around we were millions in debt. It is said the 
State is now — 1881 — out of debt; but the people, 
failing to profit by experience, and getting rail- 
roads on the brain, have embarrassed counties 
and towns to a great extent. 

"In 1840, the Democratic party nominated 
Van Buren a second term for President, and the 
Whig party. General Harrison for the same 
ofiice. In that campaign, the leading principles 
of the Whigs were ' coon-skins, log cabins, with 
the string of the latch never pulled in, and hard 
cider; two dollars a day and roast beef.' The 
side issues were the extravagance of the White 
House, with its gold spoons, and a high protect- 
ive tariff on foreign importations. A member 
of Congress, by the name of Evans, made a 
speech in favor of protective tariff ; it was 
printed in pamphlet form, and sent broadcast 
over the country; the Whigs thought it a 'stun- 
ner,' and exulted to a great extent over it. There 
was a Democrat over the Illinois river, named 
Bob Burton, who had a mill, and the Whigs 
thought to convert him, if he would read the 
speech; after reading it carefully he made a 
new toll dish, according to the reasoning in the 
speech, double the size of the one he iised, and 
he called it Whig, the other he called Demo- 
crat. He placed them side by side, and when a 
Whig came he pointed out the two measures, 

and informed him that he would toll hi.s corn 
with the Whig measure because it was made ac- 
cording to Evans' speech, and that is, the bigger 
the toll the less you pay for grinding, and the 
more meal you get. It was said that he, by this 
practical illustration of the speech, converted a 
number of Whigs to the Democratic party. 
The speech appeared to be a tissue of sophistry, 
and the gist of it was simply this, the higher 
the prices, the more you paid for merchandise, 
the less it cost you. 

"In this campaign, great excitement prevailed 
over the country. A man came to Springfield, 
announced himself as ' General John Ewing, 
from Vincennes, Indiana,' and challenged the 
whole Democratic party on the issues of the 
day, threatening to annihilate it by the power of 
his eloquence. The leaders of the party, Ed- 
wards, Stewart, Baker, Lincoln, and Logan, as 
talented men as Indiana or any other State in 
the Union could boast of, concluded to let this 
boaster try his hand. We had Douglas and 
Calhoun. We pitted Douglas against him. At 
that time there was no 'red taj^e,' as it is now, in 
our public meetings. The contesting parties 
arranged and timed their speaking. In this 
case, each one was to speak an hour alternately, 
and be timed by one from each party; to begin 
at eight o'clock, adjourn at twelve; meet at two, 
and continue to sundown each day, until the 
contest would be ended. At the close of the 
fifth day, 'General John Ewing, from Vincennes, 
Indiana,' threw up the 'sponge,' and a vigorous 
shout was given by the Democrats. On the 
northwest corner of the public square stood a 
market-house. There we met, and each speaker, 
mounted on a butcher-block, rolled out his elo- 
quence. E. D. Baker, mortified at Ewing's 
defeat, mounted a butcher-block, and began to 
address us. We protested that that game of 
'two pluck one' could not be tolerated. He 
persisted, and immediately the cry was raised, 
'Pull him down,' 'Pull him down.' At length 
he yielded, otherwise it would have ended with 
a number of broken heads. General Harrison 
was elected; but the 'two dollars a day and 
roast beef,' promised the laboring man, never 

"In 1844 1 became impressed with a strong 
desire to live in the country; I bought eighty 
acres of land, eight miles southeast of Spring- 
field, and in the spring of 1845 moved on it, and 
then commenced farming and the practice of 
medicine; right here I made the great mistake 
of my life, when I left Springfield. It is thought 
by many, that if a doctor locates in the country, 



he loses all the brains and mental acquirements 
he ever had, as if location determined a man's 
ability, when, in fact, the most notorious 'quacks' 
that disgrace the profession, congregate in cities 
and towns. 

"The National Democratic Convention nomi- 
nated James K. Polk in 1844, under the opera- 
tion of the two-thirds rule, and many Democrats 
were enquiring 'who's James K. Polk?' demon- 
strating the fact that an obscure man was put in 
nomination, and the prominent leading men ot 
the party cast aside. Having studied Thomas 
Jefferson's doctrines of a Republican form of 
government, his great fundamental principle, 
that the fairly expressed will of a majority of 
the people, expressed their sovereign vriU, and 
that the minority should yield imj^licit obedience 
to the will of the majority, I opposed the two- 
thirds rule as a direct violation of his principles, 
and being a zealous and sincere friend of Stephen 
A. Douglas, I came to the conclusion that he 
never could be President under its operation. 
The South, being in a large minority, dictated 
terms to the North through its power, and the 
North yielded for the sake of power and control 
of the Government. 

"In 1852, General Pierce was nominated, an- 
other obscure candidate, and Douglas' political 
head cut off. My zeal for Douglas carried me, a 
'high private,' beyond the bounds of discretion, 
and caused me to offer a series of resolutions, in 
a county convention, denouncing the two-third 
rule as anti-Republican, anti-Democratic; and, 
to my utter astonishment, the friends of Douglas 
voted them down, and denounced them 'another 
firebrand.' The resolutions, seventeen, are re- 
corded in the Sangamon Journal of October, 
1852. I felt then that Douglas might justly 
exclaim, in the language of Julius Cfesar, 'May 
the gods protect me from my friends, and I'll 
take care of my enemies.' This action of mine 
brought me in 'bad odor' with a number of 
Democrats, and 'if I did not like the way 
they conducted political affairs, I was po- 
litely invited to leave the party.' I had, at that 
time, great faith in the party, and did not feel 
justified in leaving. In 1856, the National Demo- 
cratic party nominated James Buchanan, one of 
the prominent leaders, who afterwards turned 
out to be a kind of a milk and water ' dough- 
face,' but suited the South, as it was preparing^ to 
bring on a crisis. In 1860, it met at Charleston, 
South Carolina, and it was said that Douglas re- 
ceived a majority on the first ballot, but the two- 
third rule defeated him in getting the nomina- 
tion. The friends of Douglas clung to him with 

great firmness, as it was the last chance, but 
they were ten or twelve years behind time. 

"The South was preparing for rebellion, and 
Douglas was too patriotic, too energetic, too firm 
a man to be at the head of the Government. The 
consequence was that the convention burst into 
two factions, the South and the North ; they ad- 
journed to meet again in Baltimore. When they 
met there the friends of Douglas would not yield, 
and they burst up again, and each faction nomi- 
nated its candidate; the South, Breckenridge, 
and the North, Douglas. It appeared to me, from 
the aspect of affairs, that it was impossible to 
elect Douglas, and when Lincoln was nominated, 
I then j)laced my hope in his election to save the 
Union, and bid a longfarewell to the Democratic 
party. Some men boast that they never changed, 
that is, they never split their ticket when a con- 
vention told them who they should vote for, and 
aspirants for office frequently use it as an argu- 
ment in their favor. It is an old saying that 
' wise men change, but fools and idiots never 
change.'' If a man discovers that he is in error, 
it is his right, it is his duty to change ; but if a 
man changes through sordid, selfish motives, he 
is dishonest and corrupt. 

"The Republican party had a grand rally on 
the eighth of August, 1860, in honor of Lincoln, 
and a procession said to be eight miles long was 
formed. Mr. Armstrong, a manufacturer, had a 
platform on a wagon and a loom with a web in 
it; in passing Lincoln's house, a tailor took his 
measure ; cloth was woven, and a pair of panta- 
loons made and presented to him on the return 
of the procession. In that procession I carried 
a banner with the motto: 'Free labor elevates, 
Slave labor degrades ' " 


The following is a portion of a lecture deliv- 
ered by William H. Herndon, shortly after the 
close of the rebellion. In the Life of Lincoln, 
by Mr. Holland, the biographers used these 
words: " When inefficient men become very 
uncomfortable, they are quite likely to try emi- 
gration as a remedy. A good deal of what is 
called the pioneering spirit, is simply the spirit 
of discontent." Mr. Herndon combats this idea 
in this address, which was re-delivered at Sweet 
Water, Menard county, Illinois, at the Old Set- 
tlers' meeting, August 31, 1881: 

"There have been four distinct and separate 
waves — classes of men, who have followed each 
other, on the soil we now daily tread. The first 
is the Indian. The second is the bee and beaver 
hunter, the embodied spirit of western and south 

C^^Lcu oC.<Aj(:i^^^^iyif\ 



western pioneering; they roam with the first 
class, nomads, wandering Gipsies of the forests 
and the p.ains. The third class, with sub-classes 
and varieties, is composed of three distinct varie- 
ties of men, coming as a triple wave. The first 
is the religious man, the John the Baptist, 
preaching in the wilderness; the second is the 
honest, hardy, thrifty, active and economical far- 
mer, and the third class is composed of the wild, 
hardy, honest, genial and social man — a mixture 
of the gentleman, the rowdy and roysterer; 
they are a wild, rattling, brave, social and hos- 
pitable class of men; they have no economy, 
caring only for the hour, and yet thousands of 
them grow rich; they give tone and caste and 
character to the neighborhood in spite of all that 
can be done; they ai'e strong, shrewd, clever fel- 
lows; it is impossible to hate them, and impossi- 
ble to outwit or whip them. The fourth class, 
with sub-classes and varieties, have come among 
us seeking fortune, position, character, power, 
fame, having ideas, philosophy, gearing the 
forces of nature for human uses, wants and pur- 
poses. They come from the east, the middle 
states, from the south; they come from every 
quarter of the globe, full grown men. Here are 
the English and the German, the Scotch and the 
Irish, the French and the Scandinavian, the 
Italian, the Portuguese, the Spaniard, Jew and 
Gentile; and here and there and everyiohere is 
the universal, the eternal, indomitable and ine- 
vitable " Yankee," victorious over all, and I as a 
" Sucker," say welcome all. All, all, however, 
have their divine purposes in the high, deep, 
broad and wide extended, the sublime economy 
of God. 

"I am necessitated, as it were, in self-defense, 
to speak some words of the second and third 
class, with sub-classes and varieties. The 
fourth class needs none. The original west- 
ern and southwestern pioneer — the type of 
him is at times a somewhat open, candid, 
sincere, energetic, spontaneous, trusting, tol- 
erant, brave and generous man. He is hos- 
pitable in his tent, thoroughly acquainted with 
the stars in the heavens, by which he travels, 
more or less; he is acquainted with all the dan- 
gers of his route — horse fiesh and human flesh. 
He trusts to his own native sagacity — a keen 
shrewdness, and his jihysical poAver — his gun 
and dog alone. This original man is a long, 
tall, lean, lank man; he is a cadaverous, sallow, 
sunburnt, shaggy-haired man, his face is very 
sharp and exceedingly angular; his nose is long, 
pointed, and keen, Roman or Greek as it may 
be; and his eyes are small, grey or black, and | 


sunken, are keen, sharp and inquisitive, pierc- 
ing, as if looking through the object seen, and 
to the very background of things; he is sinewy 
and tough, calm or uneasy, according to circum- 
stances; he is all bone and sinew, scarcely any 
muscle; is wise and endless in his determina- 
tions — obstinate. He wears a short linsey-wol- 
sey hunting shirt, or one made from soft buck 
or doeskin, fringed with the same; it is buckled 
tightly about his body. His moccasins are 
made of the very best heavy buck. His trusty 
and true rifle is on his shoulder or stands by bis 
side, his chin gracefully resting on his hand, 
which covers the muzzle of the gun. The gaunt, 
strong, hungry cur, crossed with the bull dog, 
and his hound, lie crouched at his feet, their 
noses resting on and between their fore paws, 
thrown straight out in front, ready to bound, 
seize master and defend. The lean, short, com- 
pact, tough and hardy, crop-eared, shaved-mane 
and bob-tailed pony browses around, living 
where the hare, the deer, mule or hardy moun- 
tain goat can live. It makes no difference where 
night or storm overtakes him, his wife and 
children sleep well and sound, knowing that the 
husband, the father, protector and defender, is 
safe from all harm. He sleeps on his rifle for 
pillow, his right hand aicake on the long, sharp, 
keen hunting-knife in the girdle, carved over 
and over with game and deer. The will in the 
hand is avmJce. Such is the conscious will on 
the nerve and muscle of the hand, amid danger 
of a night, placed thpre to watch and ward 
while the general soul is asleep, that it springs 
to defense long before the mind is fully con- 
scious of the facts. How grand and mysterious 
is mind! The family makes no wild outcry — 
'He's shot or losti' This man, his trusty long 
rifle, his two dogs — one to fight and one to 
scent the trail — the long, sharp and keen 
butcher knife, that never holds fire or flashes in 
the pan, are equal to all emergencies. As for 
himself, his snore on the grass, or brush-pile, 
cut to make his bed, testify to the soul's con- 
scious security. Whether in a hollow tree or 
log, or under and beneath the river's bank for 
shelter — screen or fort — in night or daytime, 
his heart beats calm; he is a fatalist, and says 
'what is to be Avill be.' He never tires, is quick 
and shrewd, is physically powerful, is cunning, 
suspicious, brave and cautious alternately or all 
combined, according to necessity. He is swifter 
than the Indian, is stronger, is as long-winded, 
and has more brains — much more brains. This 
man is a bee-hunter, or trapper, or Indian 
fighter. He is nervous, uneasy, and quite fidgety 



in the village where he goes twice a year to ex- 
change his furs for whisky, tobacco, powder, 
flints and lead. He dreads, does not scorn our 
civilization. Overtake the man, catch him, and 
try to hold a conversation with him, if you can. 
His eye and imagination ai*e on the chase in the 
forest, when you think you are attracting his 
simple mind. He is restless in eye and motion 
about towns and villages; his muscles and nerves 
dance an uneasy, rapid, jerking dance when in 
presence of our civilization. He is suspicious 
here, and dangei'ous from his ignorance of the 
social world. This man is a man of acts and 
deeds, not of speech; he is at times stern, silent, 
secretive and somewhat uncommunicable. His 
words are words of one syllable, sharp nouns 
and active verbs mostly. He scarcely ever uses 
adjectives, and always replies to questions asked 
him — 'yes,' ' no,' 'I will,' 'I won't.' Ask him 
where he is from, and his answer is — 'Blue 
Ridge,' 'Cumberland,' 'Bear creek.' Ask him 
Avhere he kills his game, or gets his furs, and 
liis answer ever is — 'Illinois,' 'Sangamon,' 
'Salt creek.' Ask him where he is going — 
'Plains,' 'Forest,' 'Home,' is his unvarying 
answer. See him in the wilds, as I have seen 
him, strike up Avith his left hand's forefinger the 
loose rim of his old home-made or other hat, 
that liangs like a rag over his eyes, impeding 
his sight and perfect vision, peering keenly into 
the distance for fur or game, Indian or deer. 
See him look and gaze and determine what the 
thing seen is — see him at that instant stop and 
crouch and crawl toward the object like a 
hungry tiger, measuring the distance between 
twig and weed with his beard, so as to throw no 
shadow of sensation on the distant eye of foe 
or game — the thing to be crept on and inevita- 
bly killed. See him watch even the grass and 
brush beneath his feet, as he moves and treads, 
that no rustle, or crack or snap, shall be made 
by which the ear of foe or game shall be made 
aware of his danger. See him wipe off and 
raise his long and trusty gun to shoulder and 
to cheek — see him throw his eye lockward and 
along the barrel — watch him, see first upcoil of 
smoke, before the crack and ring and roll and 
roar comes. The bullet has already done its 
work of death. Caution makes this man stand 
still and reload before moving a foot. Then he 
eyes the dead keenly. 'There's danger in the 
apparent dead,' he whispers to himself, cocks 
his gun and walks, keeping his finger on the 

"The third class which I am about to describe 
— the brave, rollicking roysterer — is still among 

us, though tamed by age into a moral man. He 
is large, bony, muscular, strong almost as an ox. 
He is strongly, physically developed. He is 
naturally strong-minded, naturally gifted, brave, 
daring to a fault. He is a hardy, rough-and- 
tumble man. He has a strong, quick sagacity, 
fine intuitions, with great good common sense. 
He is hard to cheat, hard to whip, and still 
harder to fool. These people are extremely 
sociable and good natured — too much so for 
their own good, as a general rule. They are 
eflScient, ready, practical men, and are always 
ready for any revolution. I wish, I am anxious, 
to defend these men, as well as the God-given 
spirit of pioneering. One of the writers on Mr. 
Lincoln's life says, in speaking of Thomas 
Lincoln, 'When inefficient men become very 
uncomfortable, they are quite likely to try emi- 
gration as a remedy. A good deal of what is 
called the pioneer spirit is simply the spirit of 
shiftless discontent.'' But more of this hereafter, 
not now and just here. 

" These men, especially about New Salem, could 
shave a horse's main and tail, paint, disfigure, 
and ofi'er for sale to the owner, in the very act 
of inquiring for his own horse, that knew his 
master, but his master recognizing him not. 
They could hoop up in a hogshead a drunken 
man, they being themselves drunk, put in and 
nail down the head, and roll the man down New 
Salem hill a hundred feet or more. They could 
run down a lean, hungry wild pig, catch il, heat 
a ten-plate stove furnace hot, and putting in the 
pig, could cook it, they dancing the while a 
merry jig. They could, they did, these very 
things occasionally, yet they could clear and 
clean a forest of Indians and wolves in a short 
time; they could shave ofi: a forest as clean and 
clear as a man's beard close cut to his face; they 
could trench a pond, ditch a bog or lake, erect a 
log house, pray and fight, make a village or cre- 
ate a State. They would do all for sport or fun, 
or from necessity — do it for a neighbor — and 
they could do the reverse of all this for pure and 
perfectly unalloyed deviltry's sake. They at- 
tended church, heard the sermon, wept and 
prayed, shouted, got up and fought an hour, and 
then went back to prayer, just as the spirit 
moved them. These men — I am speaking gen- 
erally — were always true to women — their fast 
and tried friends, protectors and defenders. 
There are scarcely any such on the globe for 
this virtue. They were one thing or the other 
— praying or fighting, creating or destroying, 
shooting Indians or getting shot by whisky, just 
as they willed. Though these men were rude 



and rough, though life's forces ran over the 
edge of its bowl, foaming and sparkling in pure 
and perfect deviltry for deviltry's sake, yet place 
before them a poor, weak man, who needed their 
aid, a sick man, a man of misfortune, a lame 
man, a woman, a widow, a child, an orphaned 
little one — then these men melted up into sym- 
pathy and charity at once, quick as a flash, and 
gave all they had, and willingly and honestly 
toiled or played cards for more. If a minister 
of religion preached the devil and his fire, they 
would cry out, ' To your rifles, oh boys, and let's 
clean out the devil, with his fire and all; they 
are enemies to mankind.' If the good minister 
preached JesuS; and him crucified, with his pre- 
cious blood trinkling down the spear and cross, 
they would melt down into honest prayer, pray- 
ing honestly, and with deep feeling and humil- 
ity, saying aloud, ' would to God we had been 
there with our trusty rifles, amid those murder- 
ous Jews.' 

"I wish to quote the author's sentence again. 
It reads: 'When inefficient men become very 
uncomfortable, they are quite likely to try emi- 
gration as a remedy. A good deal of what is 
called the 'pioneer spirit,' is simply the spirit 
of shiftless discontent.'' Here are two distinct 
allegations, or assertions, rather charges: first, 
that the ineffi.cient men, through the spirit of dis- 
content at home, emigrate as a remedy for that 
uncomfortableness; and, second, that a good deal 
of the spirit of pioneering comes from the sjnrit 
of shiftless discontent. I wish to say a few 
words on this sentence, first, as to fact, and 
secondly, as to principle. It is not, I hope, 
necessary for me to defend the particular man 
spoken of— Thomas Lincoln, the father of Pres- 
ident Lincoln. It is not necessary that I should 
flatter the pioneer to defend him, yet I feel that 
other men and women in New England, possibly 
in Europe, may be grossly misled by such an as- 
sertion, such an idea, as is contained in this sen- 
tence. It is admitted by me that man's condi- 
tion at home sometimes is exceedingly uncom- 
fortable. To throw off that condition of un- 
comfortableness, is the sole, only, and eternal 
motive that prompts and drives men and women 
to pioneering. Menof capacity, integrity, and 
energy — for such are the generality of pioneers 
in the West — emigrate to this new land from 
their old homes, not because they ai'e inefficient 
men, men unable to grapple Avith the home con- 
dition, but rather because they refuse to submit 
to the bad conditions at home. Their manly 
souls and indomitable spirits rise up against the 
cold, frigid, despotic caste crystalizations at 

home — a glorious rebellion for the freedom of 
man. All men emigrate from their homes to 
new lands in hojie of bettering their conditions, 
which at home are sometimes chatingly uncom- 
fortable. The spirit of pioneering is not a spirit 
of shiftless discontent, nor any part of it, but is 
the creating spirit, a grand desire, wish, and will 
to rise up in the scale of being. It has moved 
mankind — each man and woman — since God 
created man and woman and placed them on the 
globe, with genius in their heads and hope and 
faith in their souls. God's intentions, purposes, 
and laws, as written on the human soul, forever 
interpret themselves thus: 'My child, my good 
children, man, woman, and child, each and all — 
hope, struggle; I am with you, and will forever 
be; go on, go upward, go westward, go heaven- 
ward, on and on foi'ever.' Good men and 
women do not, from the spirit of shiftless dis- 
content, quit the sacred ashes of the dead loved 
ones, and wildly rush into a cold, damp, un- 
cleared, gloomy, unsettled, wild wilderness, 
where they know they m,ust struggle with 
disease, poverty, nature, the wild wolf and 
wilder men, and the untamed and ungeared ele- 
ments of nature, that sweep everywhere un con- 
fined. They do not go for game, nor sport, nor 
daring adventure with wild beast, nor daring 
sport with wilder men. They go or come at 
God's command — 'Children, my good children, 
and all, man, woman, and child, all, all — hope, 
struggle, to better your condition — onward, for- 
estward, upward — and on and on forever, or 
miserably perish, and quit the globe, to be re- 
peopled by better beings.' Men, tender and 
lovely women, do not quit their homes, where 
are comforts, luxuries, arts, science, general 
knowledge, and ease, amid the civilized and civ- 
ilizing influences at home, to go westward, from 
a spirit of shiftless discontent. What! are these 
brave men and women all through the West, 
and such as these the world over,inerticient men, 
inactive consumers, unenergetic inefticients, lazy 
and do-nothing people, bursting westward from 
the spirit of shiftless discontent, where they in- 
voluntarily clap their hands to their heads, and 
spasmodically feel for their crowns, in order to 
preserve their scalps, as the quick flash and fire- 
steel gleam of the Indian's knife glints and 
glistens against the Avestern sky! What! are 
Grant and Jackson, Douglas and Benton, Clay 
and Lincoln inefficient men, coming toest from 
the spirit of shiftless discontent? Is fire effi- 
ciently hot? Is lightning efficiently active? Is 
nature efticiently creative, massing and rolling 
up all these visible worlds to heat and life and 



light, and holding them suspended there by 
God's will — called by men gravity — for a human 
idea's sake? If these things are so, then these 
men and women whom I have described, the 
jnoneers, with their brave hearts and their defi- 
ant and enduring souls, are and were efficient 
men and women — efficiently warm, for they con- 
sumed and burnt the forest, and cleared and 
cleaned it. They had and have energy and cre- 
ative activity, with capacity, honesty, and valor. 
They created States, and hold them to the 
Union, to liberty, and to justice. They and 
their children after them can and do point with 
the highest pride and confidence, to the deep, 
broad-laid, tolei'ant, generous, magnanimous 
foundations of these mighty several Western 
States, whereon our liberty and civilization so 
proudly and firmly stand, that they, the pioneers, 
in the spirit of jjioneering embodied in them, 
made and created, and hold up to light and heat 
and life, suspended there rolling, by the electro- 
magnetic power of the intelligent popular will. 
"My defense has ended. The wild animals 
that preceded the Indians are gone, the Indian 
treading closely on their heels. The red man 
has gone. The pioneer, the type of him, is 
gone, gone with the Indian, the bear, and the 
beaver, the buffalo and the deer. They all go 
with the same general wave, and are thrown 
high on the beach of the wilderness, by the 
deep, wide sea of our civilization. He that 
trampled on the heels of the red man, with his 
wife and children, pony and dog, arc gone, leav- 
ing no trace behind. He is the master of the bee 
and beaver, the Indian and the bear, the wolf 
and buffalo. He and they are gone, never to 
return. God speed them on their way, their 
journey and destiny. As path-makers, blazers, 
mappers, as fighters and destructives, tliey have 
had and have their uses and purposes in divine 
plan. Such are succeeded by the Armstrongs, 
the Clarys, the Rutledges, the Greens, Spears, 
and Lincohis, who too have had their uses and 
purposes in the great idea, and are succeeded by 
others, now among us, who are forces in the 
same universal plan. And let us not complain, 
for the great Planner knows and has decreed 

what is best and wisest in his grand and sublime 
economies. The animal is gone; the Indian is 
gone. The trapper, bee and beaver hunter is 
gone — all are gone. A few of the third class 
still remain among us, standing or leaning like 
grand, gray old towers, with lights on their 
brow, quietly inclining, leaning, almost dipping 
in the deep, the unknown, the unknowable and 
unfathomable deeps of the future, that roll 
through all time and space, and lash up against 
the Throne. They did not come here from the 
spirit of shiftless discontent, nor shall they take 
up their soul's greatest pioneer march on to God, 
through the cowardly spirit of shiftless discon- 
tent. They are fast going one by one. Respect 
them while living, reverence them when dead, 
and tread lightly on their sacred dust, ye all. 
The children of such may be trusted to preserve 
and hand down to all future time what they 
created, wrought and planted in the forest. The 
fourth class is ready to clasp hands with the 
third, taking an oath of fidelity to liberty, sa- 
cred as Heaven. We thus come and go, and in 
the coming and going we have shaded — risen 
up, progressed — during these various and varied 
waves of immigration, with their respective 
civilizations, through force, cunning and the 
rifle, to dollars, the steam engine, and the idea. 
We have moved from wolf to mind. We have 
grown outward, upward, higher and better, liv- 
ing generally in more virtue, less vice, longer 
and more civilized, freer and purer, and thus 
man ever mounts upward. So are the records 
of all time." 

In concluding his address, Mr. Herndon gave 
a description of Illinois, giving: its geography, 
length, breadth, its good people, etc. He de- 
clared that Illinois was the real Eden of the 
world, and that the central portion of Illinois 
was the best part of that Eden. He closed hy 
showing by facts and figures the extent of the 
Union, its area in 1790 and its area in 1880; 
said that its present population of fifty-one mil- 
lions would be increased in 1901 to one hundred 
millions of souls — the wisest, most intelligent, 
richest, bravest and most jjatriotic people, as a 
mass, on the face of the globe. 



Chapter XI. 


There is no instrumentality, not even except- 
ing the Pulpit and the Bar, which exerts such an 
influence upon society as the Press of the land. 
It is the Archimedian lever that moves the world. 
The talented minister of the gospel on the Sab- 
bath day preaches to a few hundred people ; on 
the following morning his thoughts are repro- 
duced more than a thousand fold, and are read 
and discussed throughout the length and breadth 
of the land. The attorney at the bar, in thrill- 
ing tones, ijleads either for or against the crim.i- 
nal arraigned for trial, often causing the jury to 
bring in a verdict against the law and the testi- 
mony in the case. His words are reproduced 
in every daily reached by the telegraphic wire, 
and his arguments are calmly weighed by unpre- 
judiced men and accepted for what they are 
worth. The politician takes the stand and ad- 
dresses a handful of men uiDOn the political ques- 
tions of the day ; his speech is reported and read 
by a thousand men for every one that heard the 
address. Suddenly the waters of one of oixr 
mighty rivers rises, overflowing the land for 
miles and miles, rendering thousands of people 
homeless and without means to secure their daily 
bread. The news is flashed over the wire, taken 
up by the Press, and known and read of all 
men. No time is lost in sending to their relief 
— the Press has made known their wants and 
they are instantly supplied. " Chicago is on fire ! 
Two hundred millions worth of property de- 
stroyed! Fifty thousand people rendered home- 
less!" Such is the dread intelligence pro- 
claimed by the Press. Food and clothing are 
hastily gathered, trains are chartered, and the 
immediate wants of the sufferers are in a measure 

The power for good or evil of the Press, is to- 
day unlimited. The short comings of the poli- 
tician are made known through its columns; the 
dark deeds of the wicked are exposed ; and each 

fear it alike. The controlling influences of a 
Nation, State or county is its Press, and the Press 
of Sangarmon county is no exception to the rule. 
Since Hooper Warren started the Sangamo 
Spectator, in 1826, the Press of Sangamon county 
has been an important factor in all things tend- 
ing to the general welfare of the county. Not 
only in the county, but throughout the State its 
influence has been recognized and acknowledged, 
and even beyond the borders of the State has its 
opinions been eagerly sought after, especially in 
the political world. 

The local Press is justly considered among the 
most important institutions in every city, town 
and village. The people of every community 
regard their particular newspaper or newspapers 
as of peculiar value, and this not merely on ac- 
count of the fact already alluded to, but because 
these papers are the repositories wherein are 
stored the facts and the events, the deeds and 
the sayings, the undertakings and achievements 
that go to make up final history. One by one 
these things are gathered and placed in type ; 
one by one the papers are issued ; one by one 
these papers are gathered together and bound, 
and another volume of local and general, indi- 
vidual and local history is laid away imperish- 
able. The volumes thus collected are sifted by 
the historian, and the book for the library is 
ready. The people of any city or town naturally 
have a pride in their home paper. 

As already intimated, the Sangamo Spectator 
was the first newspaper printed in Sangamon 
county. Hooper Warren, who had been pub- 
lishing a paper at Edwardsville, called the 
Edwardsville Spectator, removed his office to 
Springfield in the winter of 1826-7, and imme- 
diately commenced issuing from that place. So 
far as is known not a copy of the paper is now 
in existence. Mr. Warren, in a letter to P. P. 
Enos, Secretary of the Old Settlers' Society, 



dated October 20, 1859, says of this paper: "It 
was but a small affair, a medium sheet, worked 
by myself alone most of the time, until I made 
a transfer of it in the fall of 1828 to S. Mere- 
dith." Mr. Warren was considered a good 
writer, an intelligent man, but a not very suc- 
cessful manager. 

The Springfield Journal and Sangamo Gazette 
was built upon the ruins of the Spectator, the 
first number bearing date February 16, 1829. 
This number was chiefly occupied with the mes- 
sage of Governor Edwards. It was a five col- 
umn folio, well edited, but never received sufli- 
cient encouragement to make it a paying institu- 
tion, and therefore after the expiration of a few 
months it ceased to exist. 

The Illinois Herald was the next attempt in 
the newspaper line, and was commenced some 
time in the year 1830. Samuel S. Brooks and 
Mr. Fleming were the publishers, Mr. Brooks 
being the editor. Like the previous attempt in 
the business, the Herald was short-lived, going 
out with the melting of the big snow. 


On the lOth day of November, 1831, the first 
number of the Sangamo Journal made its ap- 
pearance, with S. & J. Francis, editors and pub- 
lishers. The paper was a six-column folio, and 
presented a neat appearance. The salutatory of 
the editors was short, containing no special 
promises easily broken. Says the editors: " \Ve 
know that it is usual on occasions like this to 
eulogize the advantages of the Press — to make 
promises that can never be realized. All we 
have now to say is — give us a fair opportunity; 
and we doubt not that the reasonable wishes and 
expectations of our patrons will be gratified. 
We have cheerfully embarked in the establish- 
ment of the Journal, a good portion of the little 
means at our command, with a firm determina- 
tion to apply ourselves to the duties of our oflice 
with unremitting industry, and it now rests with 
others to say whether our hopes shall be blasted, 
or our exertions rewarded with the cheering con- 
fidence and patronage of the citizens of this part 
of Illinois." In addition to the salutatory ap- 
pears well written editorials on the " Missouri 
Election," in which strong ground is taken in 
favor of a national bank, protective tariff and in- 
ternal improvements; " The Eatonian Contro- 
versy," a controversy that arose in regard to the 
exclusion of Mrs. Eaton, the wife of a member 
of President Jackson's cabinet, from Washing- 
ton society; "Calhoun on Nullification," "Anti- 
Tariff Convention," and several shorter articles. 

A fair number of advertisements appeared, 
among them being one of Mr. Wadley, in which 
he proposed to show his mode of teaching Eng- 
lish grammar; John Williams, H. F. Hill & Co., 
II. Yates, William P. Grimsley, Jabez Cappa, 
Bell & Tinsley, Thomas D. Potts, general mer- 
chandise; H. M. Armstrong & Co., hat manu- 
factory; E. S. Phelps, watch repairing; John H, 
Ebey, potter's ware; Bennett C. Johnson, gro- 
ceries and liquors; Drs. Merryman & Rutledge, 
physicians, Smith & Moffett, cabinet makers, 
and several legal notices. 

The first issue of the paper was creditable to 
the proprietors. The types were good, the mis- 
cellany well selected, the editorial vigorous and 
to the point. The pledge modestly implied in 
their salutatory was more than fulfilled, as the 
early history of the paper proved. This paper, 
thus founded in a new country, had many serious 
obstacles to overcome; but its twenty-four col- 
umns of reading matter went out among the 
people every week, and by their excellence won 
the favor of all readers. These men, who had 
made Springfield their home, and had embarked 
in this enterprise, were determined to succeed, 
and they did. Their office was in a two-story 
brick building, on the southwest corner of Wash- 
ington and Fifth streets. Here they put up 
their cases, fixed their primitive press, issued 
their paper, and waited for the verdict of the 
people. That verdict was not favorable at first, 
but the decision was speedily reversed. It must 
be remembered that the Sangamon county of 
that time was not the Sangamon county of to- 
day. It included the present counties of Logan, 
Mason, Menard and Cass, with portions of Mor- 
gan, Christian, McLean and Marshall. The in- 
habitants were few and scattered, the population 
of Springfield being only about six hundred. 
Mail facilities were of the poorest description. 
There were no railroads, and no telegraphs. 
The wagon roads were unimproved, and con- 
stantly liable to the damaging effects of wind 
and water. The mails were brought in stages — 
sometimes on horseback — from Vandalia, then 
the capital of the State, and from Edwardsville, 
Carrollton and Terre Haute. The people were 
without news, and, from habit, were willing to 
remain so. A newspaper was not a necessity 
then, as now, and the new paper especially was 
not acceptable. The inhabitants of Central 
Illinois at that time were chiefly from the South- 
ern States. The new paper was edited by Con- 
necticut "Yankees." That was enough. Even 
in those days a Yankee was distasteful to people 
from South of the Ohio. Certain persons at 



once raised a cry against the paper, and went so 
far as to say there some people in the county 
who would not give the Francis brothers a place 
to be buried in, if it was known where they 
came from. Prejudice was thus fed, and the 
hundred and fifty names on their subscription 
book did not receive speedy increase. But the 
curiosity of the people was at last excited by the 
reports about the paper and its proprietors, and 
many new subscribers came in, who "wanted to 
take the thing just to see what it was." The 
result was natural. Each person for his two 
dollars and a half received fifty-two papers filled 
with good reading. They were pleased, sub- 
scribed again, and told their friends to do like- 
wise. The storm was thus weathered, and the 
prosperous future of the Journal established. 

It has already been stated, the first number of 
the Journal was issued November 10, 1831. The 
paper was full of news. The very latest from 
Washington and New York was from two to 
three weeks old; from St. Louis four days, and 
the last from England was dated September 9. 
The clippings were from papers published weeks 
before, and just at hand, while the letters of 
correspondents had been longer on the way from 
different parts of the country than a letter now 
is in going from New York to Omaha. Yet it 
was news, the latest news, and relished as much 
by the readers as the Washington, London or 
St. Petersburg telegrams in our morning papers 
of events happening the evening before. 

In principles the Journal was from its com- 
mencement the opposer of the Democratic party. 
It was Whig throughout during the existence of 
the party. In 1832 it mainly supported Henry 
Clay for the Presidency, fought its battle to the 
best of its ability, and submitted to defeat with 
the expression, " The Presidential game is up and 
the day is not ours." It opposed the spirit of 
nullification with its might. It advocated all 
needed reforms, supported all measures of public 
improvement, and sought to promote the inter- 
ests of all classes of society. 

The partnership between S. & J. Francis con- 
tinued until February 21, 1835, when J. Francis 
retired. Simeon Francis continued as sole propri- 
etor until April 28, 1838, when Allen and J. New- 
ton Francis were admitted to the firm, which 
took the name of S. Francis & Co. The young 
men learned the printing trade in the Journal 
office, and were therefore not strangers, at least 
to the local patrons of the paper. 

The manner of conducting a newspaper at 
that early day was not such as it is at the present 
time. The patronage of the office was neces- 

sarily limited, and it became nece!*sary at times 
for the proprietor to be editor, compositor, devil, 
and man-of-all-work generally. Under the head 
of " Editorial Comforts," Mr. Francis thus nar- 
rates his experience for one day: "Editor at 
the case. Enters A. 'I wish to get a handbill 
printed immediately. I intend to give them 
scoundrels their dues.' 'It is impossible, sir, we 
have as much as we can do until Monday.' 
' Confounded strange if I ain't allowed to defend 
myself. Will you do it then?' 'Yes, and sooner 
if in our power.' Goes out in a huff. Click, 
click, click, goes the type. A pause of ten min- 
utes. Enters a lad. ' Pa wants the last hand- 
bill printed to-day. [It was during a political 
campaign, and candidates were setting forth 
their claims by means of handbills.] 'We have 
jirinted no handbills to-day — we are sorry we 
can't supply your father with a new handbill.' 
Click, goes the type, and after a free breathing 
of an hour, B. comes in in great flurtation. ' Sir, 
I want you to keep my manuscript out of sight, 
and not give a copy of my bill to any human 
being until you deliver the same to myself.' 
'Very well, sir.' Exit last visitor. Again the 
operation of setting type is resumed. 'Mr. F.' 
says another visitor, 'have you any news of the 
cholera? ' 'None in particular. We believe the 
atmosphere is choleric' 'Have you any hand- 
bills that I havn't seen?' * We don't know; all 
we have are on the line. Help yourself.' 'Gond 
morning,' as C enters the oflice. ' I have pre- 
pared a communication for your columns, at the 
request of several friends, and which I think is 
perfectly unexceptionable. It reads:' — (Reads 
pax"t of the communication.) The writer then 
states that the remainder of his article is made 
up of an argument founded on divers considera- 
tions, designed to show that ' Old Mac' should 
be made Governor. We regretted to state to our 
friend that we could not possibly publish his 
communication — our columns were then filled, 
corrected and ready for the press. 'Well, sir, it 
will create a rumpus among Mac's friends.' 'We 
do not see how we can avoid it.' 'Have you 
done my bill?' ' No, sir.' ' There are six men 
waiting for it. Can you have it done in two 
hours?' 'It cannot be done before ten o'clock 
at night.' Leaves grumbling. 'Well, you must 
be making your fortunes.' 'Making our for- 
tunes! Do you suppose that money is any con- 
sideration for the mental torture we are com- 
pelled to suffer?' 'Mr. F., I want to have added 
a little to your account against me. I suppose 
you would as lief print for me as anybody. I want 
to have you get my bill done so I can start for 



Athens early in the morning. Only two short 
certificates, with a few remarks. ' We can't 
possibly do your work until Monday.' ' Can't 
you do itV ' ' It is impossible.' 'Well, then I 
must Avait until Monday.' Enters M. in great 
haste. 'If there should be a handbill printed 
against me I want you to give me a chance to 
make an immediate reply.' 'You must wait 
your turn.' 'What! do you intend to deny me 
the use of your press?' 'No, sir; we only intend 
to give every man his regular chance.' Such is 
the epitome of our editorial history for one day. 
We retire at ten o'clock — to sleep on a ' bed of 
roses' Avhich Guatemozin would have hardly en- 
vied — but supported by the consideration that 
amid all the conflicting views and passions of 
the parties by which we are surrounded, we 
have aimed to do right." 

On the twenty-fourth day of October, 1835, the 
Journal was enlarged to a seven column folio 
and otherwise improved. No further change 
was made in the paper until the death of J. New- 
ton Francis, which occurred on the tenth day of 
November, 1843. Mr. Francis had started out 
on a business tcur in the eastern part of the 
State, and had taken his rifle with him to be- 
guile the hours of his journey. While near 
Monticello, he saw some game, and springing out 
of the vehicle in which he was riding, he drew 
the rifle toward him by the barrel, when it ac- 
cidentally exploded, carrying the charge into the 
neck, causing instant death. Simeon Francis, 
the elder brother, had this to say of the deceased: 
" We know it might well be left to another hand 
to record his virtues. They are written in our 
heart. Yet why should we not give ej^pression 
to thoughts common to all who knew him? He 
was manly and generous and just; in his friend- 
ship. Arm ; in his duties, constant ; in his man- 
ners, frank ; in his feelings, kind. No man was 
more free from selfishness, and falsehood was 
utterly foreign to his nature. He died yoking, 
but he has left a void in society, which will not 
be easily filled ; and in the circle of his friends 
and kindred there is a grief which words cannot 
describe. We have seen him grow from youth 
to manhood and take his place in the business 
and conflict of life. Together we have struggled 
with misfortune, and rejoiced in prosperity. To- 
gether we have formed plans for the future, 
which death has dashed in pieces ; and now, 
whatever of trial or disaster is in store for us, 
must be sustained without the aid of his counsel, 
or the consolations of his sympathy. But all 
these words are vain. He is dead ! Already the 
mould rests upon his bosom, and to-night the 

wind sighs mournfully over his grave. When 
the bitterness of grief is past, his friends will 
feel a mournful pleasure in speaking of his 
blameless life and upright character ; and to 
hearts that are quivering with anguish now, it 
will be a consolation to feel that — 

' The ashes of the just 
Smell sweet, and blossom in the dust.' 

The name of the firm as publishers of the 
Journal remained unchanged, it being continued 
by S. and A. Francis, under the firm name of S. 
Francis & Co. In September, 1847, the name of 
the paper was changed from Sangomo to Illinois 
Journal, and Albert T. Bledsoe became asso- 
ciated with Simeon Francis as editor. This re- 
lation was continued for some time. 

In 1835, the Francis brothers erected a two- 
story frame building, forty-four by twenty feet, 
on the lot at the northeast corner of Washington 
and Sixth streets. This was the first Journal 
building, and was occupied for about eighteen 
years, until the completion of a new and better 
building erected on North Sixth, between Wash- 
ington and Jefferson, and used until November, 

On the twenty-third day of September, 1847, 
the name of the paper was changed to the Illinois 
Journal, and on the thirteenth of August, 1855, 
to the Illinois State Jounal, its present name. 

Simeon Francis was born in Wethersfield, 
Connecticut, May 14, 1796. At an early age he 
entered a printing office in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, and served a regular apprenticeship; 
after which, in company with Mr. Clapp, he 
published a paper in New London, in the same 
State. After his marriage in New London, he 
sold his interest in the newspaper, and moved 
to Buffalo, New York, where he formed a part- 
nership under the firm name of Lazevell & 
Francis, and published the Buffalo Emporium, 
until it was forced to suspend in 1828, in conse- 
quence of the excitement in reference to the ab- 
duction of Morgan, charged against the Masonic 
fraternity, of which Mr. Francis was a member. 
In 1831, he came to Springfield, and soon after 
engaged in the publication of the Journal. On 
retiring from the Journal, Mr. Francis started 
the Illinois Farmer, which he continued as pub- 
lisher and then editor for some three years. In 
1859, he closed his business in Springfield, and 
moved to Portland, Oregon. Here he engaged 
in the publication of the Oregon Farmer, and 
was President of the Oregon State Agricultural 
Society. In 1861, President Lincoln appointed 
him Paymaster of the United States Army, with 



residence at Fort Vancouver, Wasliington Ter- 
ritory. Ttiis position lie lielcl until is 70, when 
he was retired on half pay. He then returned 
to Portland, Oregon, where he di6d October 25, 

Josiah Francis was born January 17, 1804, at 
Weathersfield, Connecticut. After severing his 
connection with the Journal, he was married to 
Margaret Constant, near Athens, Illinois, and in 
1836 engaged in mercantile pursuits in Athens. 
While there, he represented Sangamon county 
in the State Legislature, in 1840. A few years 
later, he returned to Springfield, and was elected 
Sheriff of Sangamon county, and still later 
Mayor of Springfield. He died in 1867. 

Allen Francis, brother of Simeon, and asso- 
ciate in the publication of the Journal, was born 
in Wetherstield, Connecticut, April 12, 1815, 
and came to Springfield in 1834, and sub- 
sequently entered into partnership with his 
brothers. He remained in connection with the 
office until its disposal to Baker & Bailhache. 
He was married December 25, 1838, in Spring- 
field, to Cecilia B. Duncan, by whom he had six 
children. Mr. Francis was for several years a 
member of the City Council of Springfield, 
from the first ward. He erected the old Journal 
buildings on Sixth street, north of the square. 
In 1861, President Lincoln appointed him Consul 
at Victoria, Vancouver's Island. He left for 
that point February, 1862, and remained in 
official connection until 1871, when he resigned, 
and with his two sons engaged in the fur trade 
with the Indians, on the Pacific coast. 

In July, 1855, Messrs. Francis sold the estab- 
lishment to Bailhache & Baker, who had formerly 
been publishers of the Alton Telegraph. In 
their valedictory the publishers say: "On an 
occasion like this — on leaving a business and an 
establishment in which we have been engaged 
the best years of our lives — we might say much. 
We indeed feel that it is our privilege to do so; 
but we will only now say that we have labored 
for what we conceived the best interests of our 
town, our State and our common country, and 
for the success of Whig principles, which we be- 
lieved were connected with those interests. Our 
work, our labors, are before the public. We will 
not say that we have not erred, and that often. 
We would not be mortals if we had not. If we 
have injured, we ask to be forgiven. If, on the 
whole, we have merited favor, we ask that our 
labors be kindly considered." 

On assuming control of the Journal the new 
publishers said: " While we are well aware that 
there are few callings or professions so thank- 


less, so little appreciated or so little understood, 
as that of the conductor of the public Press, 
we believe there is no newspaper in the State 
which has since its establishment sustained itself 
so uniformly, 'borne its faculties so meekly,' as 
the Illinois Journal, and the simple fact that it 
has been in profitable existence for fully twenty- 
four years, under the retiring proprietors, speaks 
for them a volume of commendation. In taking 
upon ourselves the ownership and management 
of the Illinois Journal, we dare promise but little. 
Our own experience tells us that it will be diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, to please or meet the 
views of all; for in these days of political free- 
dom, every man thinks independently and acts 
for himself. We shall, however, give our undi- 
vided attention to making the Journal an inter- 
esting newspaper, which will not be exclusively 
devoted to mere politics, but which will likewise 
advocate and sustain all the great interests of 
society, and lend its aid to the cause of virtue, 
morality and education. In its politics, the 
Journal will continue to wear much the same 
general features which have distinguished it in 
the past, but in its strictures upon the present 
administration, or upon the tendency of the 
measures of opposing parties, it will be found 
occupying national conservative ground, in every 
emergency upholding the Constitution and the 
Union, and opposed to fanaticism and extreme 
views, -vherever they may be found. The most 
casual observer cannot fail to perceive that the 
political cauldron is at the present time in a 
state of violent commotion. Into what distinc- 
tive forms the elements will eventually be re- 
solved, cannot now be determined; but in every 
event we shall do battle fearlessly and independ- 
ently for the right, exposing error and falsehood 
wherever they nlay show their heads, and ap- 
proving and encouraging what is good and true 
in all political organizations." 

As stated in their salutatory, the political ele- 
ments at this time were in a state of violent 
commotion. The Whig party was in process of 
disintegration; the American or Know-Nothing 
party, which had been formed some years pre- 
vious, was gaining strength, especially in the 
South; the newly organized Republican or Anti- 
Nebraska party was absorbing all the anti- 
slavery elements in the Whig and Democratic 
parties, and much ill-feeling was engendered in 
consequence of the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise. The Journal, under its new manage- 
ment, was rather cautious in the expression of 
its views. Its sympathies were doubtless with 
the American party, and on the nomination of 



Millard Fillmore for the Presidency by that 
party, it advocated his endorsement by all the 
elements opposed to the Democracy. As the 
canvass proceeded, the anti-slavery views of the 
editors were strengthened, and when John C. 
Fremont was nominated by the Republicans, it 
instantly hoisted his name, and became an earn- 
est and enthusiastic advocate of his election. 
From that time to the present, the Journal has 
never wavered in its advocacy of Republican 

Baker & Bailhache continued in partnership 
as publishers of the Journal until December, 
1862, when Mr. Bailhache received a Govern- 
ment appointment, and sold his iiiterest to D. L. 
Phillips, who continued its publication under 
the firm name of Baker and Phillips. 

W. H. Bailhache was born in Chilicothe, Ohio, 
in 1 825, and was brought by his parents to Alton, 
Illinois, when quite a small boy. He received a 
thorough English education in Shurtleff College, 
at Alton, and when about eighteen years old 
entered his father's office to learn the trade of 
printer. Subsequently he became associated 
with his father in the publication of the Alton 
Telegraph. As already stated, he came to 
Sprirgfield in 1855, and purchased an interest in 
the Journal. He served in the army as Assist- 
ant Quartermaster, with rank of Captain, and 
was with the Army of the Tennessee. After 
his retirement from the Journal, he went to 
Quincy, and engaged in the newspaper business 
for a time, and finally received an appointment 
in the Quartermaster's Department, and is now 
at Santa Fe, New Mexico. He was mar- 
ried in 1859, to a daughter of General M. Bray- 

Edward L. Baker was born in Kaskaskia, Illi- 
nois, June 3, 1829. He was educated at Shurt- 
leff College, Upper Alton, and graduated in 
1847. After graduating, he read law two years 
with his father, David J. Baker, after which he 
attended Harvard Law School, graduated there- 
from, and was admitted to the Bar in 1855, at 
Springfield. After leaving he returned to Al- 
ton, which bad been his home for some years, 
and in connection with W. H. Bailhache, he 
published the Alton Telegraph for some five 
years. In 1857, as already stated, he became 
part owner and editor of the Illinois State Jour- 
nal. In 1869 he was appointed United States 
Assessor for the Eighth District of Illinois, re- 
maining in that office until it was abolished. In 
December, 1873, he was appointed United 
States Consul at Buenos Ayres, Argentine Re- 
public, S. A., which office he still retains. 

When Mr. Phillips became connected with 
the Journal, it was at a time when our army had 
suffered several defeats and treason was ram- 
pant. In his salutatory, he said: 

" I am a cordial supporter of the present ad- 
ministration — as I would be of any other in its 
hour of trial and peril — and in favor of em- 
ploying all the means known to the Constitu- 
tion and laws to suppress effectually and forever, 
the existing rebellion against the Government. 
In the prosecution of the war I recognize no 
distinction between Democrats and Republicans 
in arms against the assassins who are attempt- 
ing to destroy the heritage bequeathed to us by 
our fathers, and seal up in endless night all 
hopes of human progress and human liberty. 
The meed of praise will be alike given to men 
of all parties who peril their lives for the pres- 
ervation of that government which we hold as 
a common trust for posterity. I am a Repub- 
lican, yet I pledge myself to no stereotyped line 
of politics. The future is too dark and uncer- 
tain to define with any degree of certainty, a 
political course to be pursued by any true lover 
of his country, other than so far as I have al- 
ready indicated. My best effoi'ts will be em- 
ployed in giving the public a paper free from the 
taint of treason, corruption and immorality, and 
unalterably devoted to the interests of our 
brave Illinoisans who are shedding imperishable 
lustre upon our arms in all parts of the Repub- 
lic, cursed with the views of secession and re- 

On the 28th of August, 1865, W. II. Bail- 
hache, having retired from the army, purchased 
a share in the Journal, and again became identi- 
fied with the paper. Previous to this, however, 
the legislature of 1863 passed an act incorpor- 
ating the Journal Company, and in February of 
that year the company was organized and some 
twenty thousand dollars in stock issued. Baker 
and Phillips retained by far the larger portion 
of this, and the paper as before was published 
in their name, the entire management of the 
concei"n being in their hands. 

On the 7th of March, 1866, Mr. Phillips 
retired from the Journal, disposing of his stock 
to Mr. Bailhache. In his valedictory he said: 
"While I have been connected with the Journal, 
we have passed through a great civil war — a war 
for the Union made by our fathers — a war in 
defense of humanity, law, and order, and against 
disunion, barbarism, and universal disorder. 
The Journal in the darkest hour of the past four 
years has never faltered in its stern, unfiagging 
support of the Government, the vigorous prose- 



cution of the war, and words of cheer to the 
brave men who saved the Nation. It will be 
my proud recollection that in those long, dreary 
years of blood and carnage, not one disloyal 
sentence ever found utterance in the columns of 
the Journal, nor one discouraging word to the 
heroic men who fought the s^reat battles of the 

Baker and Bailhache, as principal stock- 
holders, continued the publication of the Jour- 
nal until February, 1873, when Mr. Bailhache 
retired, and the stock was purchased by Edward 
L. Baker, D. L. Phillips, Charles Edwards, and 
J. D. Roper. Mr. Phillips was elected Presi- 
dent, Mr. Baker Secretary, and Mr. Roper Treas- 
urer. No further change was made in the man- 
agement until September, 1878, when the stock 
of the company was purchased by Paul Selby, 
M. F. Simmons, and H. Chapin. 

David L. Phillips, who so long held the posi- 
tion of managing editor of the Journal, was of 
Welsh descent, his parents emigrating from that 
country prior to the Revolutionary war. David 
L. was born October 28, 1823, near the present 
town of Marion, Illinois. In common with the 
mass of young men of that time, he had only 
those opportunities of education afforded by the 
common schools of the period, which were none 
of the best; but, gifted with an active mind and 
a strong thirst for knowledge, he made such 
good use of them by study during the winter, 
while laboring on the farm during the summer, 
that by the time he had attained to manhood, he 
was fitted to teach, and acquitted himself with 
credit in that profession for several years. 
About that time the learned and able Dr. John 
M. Peck, the distinguished pioneer teacher and 
preacher of the Baptist denomination, was in 
the very prime of his manhood and usefulness, 
and from the seminary which he founded at 
Rock Spring was exerting a vast influence upon 
the young men of the State, and even in other 
States. It was no doubt due to the direct influ- 
ence of this able and gifted man, that at the age 
of eighteen years young Phillips was received 
into the Baptist Church, and some two years 
later entered the ministry of that denomination 
with all the zeal and fervor peculiar to his youth 
and sanguine temperament. He remained in 
this profession probably eight years, teaching 
and preaching at intervals in St. Clair, Wash- 
ington, Union, and perhaps other counties in 
Southern Illinois. In the early part of his 
career as a minister, he was married to Miss 
Charlotte Tate, of St. Clair county, who still 
survives him, and the young couple began life 

together at Elkton, in Washington county. Mr. 
Phillips possessed elements which made him a 
popular pulpit orator, and it is not too much to 
say that his zeal, earnestness, and enthusiasm 
had attracted attention to him widely in that 
section of the State. This finally resulted in 
his being called to take charge of the Baptist 
Church at Jonesboro, where he acquitted himself 
with his usual ability. 

About 1854, having withdrawn from the charge 
of the church at Jonesboro, on account of a dis- 
agreement on political questions, Mr. Phillips 
became associated with the management of the 
Jonesboro Gazette, then, as it is now, a Demo- 
cratic paper. The excitement over the " Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill," removing the restriction against 
the introduction of slavery north of the parallel 
of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes — known 
as the " Missouri Compromise," — was at its 
height, and Mr. Phillips took strong ground 
against it. Into this contest he entered with all 
the fervor of an ardent, zealous nature. As a 
result he soon found himself arrayed against his 
party as he had previously been against his 
church. His partner withdrew and, for a time, 
the Gazette dispensed to its readers the most 
radical Republican doctrine, although the Re- 
publican party had not then been organized. 

One of the earliest acts of Mr. Lincoln, after 
his accession to the Presidency, was to appoint 
Mr. Phillips United States Marshal for the 
Southern District of Illinois, to which position 
he was re-appointed in 1865. He continued to 
hold the ottice until removed by Andrew John- 
son in 1866. The administration of this oflice 
during the dark and troublous period of the war, 
brought Mr. Phillips in close and intimate re- 
lations with the most trusted and confidential 
agents of the Government, and imposed upon 
him many delicate and responsible duties, in the 
discharge of which he was not found wanting, 
in either ability, courage or integrity. 

In the fall of 1875 Mr. Phillips made a visit 
to California, spending seven months in that 
region. He bore a commission as Special Agent 
of the Treasury Department, empowering him 
to enquire into the management of custom 
houses and internal revenue offices in that sec- 
tion of the Union. During his stay on the 
Pacific Coast, he wrote a series of letters to the 
Journal, descriptive of places visited, scenery, 
climate, customs, and public works, which were 
subsequently issued in book form, and which 
impart a more vivid and comprehensive idea of 
that interesting region than can be obtained 
from almost any other source. The following 



touching extract is from a letter bearing date 
January 1, 18 76: 

" Since my last letter was finished, another 
year has been numbered with the unreturning 
past. Its joys and sorrows, its successes and 
failures, its lights and shadowfi, are all garnered 
in the storehouse of Eternity. Each of my read- 
ers, and the writer of these Pacific Coast letters, 
stand another year nearer the portals of the Un- 
known. But, through the infinite goodness, 
mercy and wisdom of God, while our steps may 
be sobered and our gray hairs increased, we are 
permitted to look outward and onward to the 
end, stimulated by hope and unawed by fear; 
standing in the right as it is given us to see it, 
and rejoicing in the evening glories of the nine- 
teenth century. Renewing ray faith in the 
fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, 
from the shores of the Pacific I send to my read- 
ers, and the tens of thousands of good friends 
and loved ones of and about whom my thoughts 
are busy to-day, my ardent, earnest wishes for a 
happy New Year for them and theirs." 

In the fall of 1876, Mr. Phillips received the 
Republican nomination for Congress, but was 
defeated, the district being overwhelmingly 
Democratic. His canvass was an able one, and 
as a slight appreciation of his services, he was 
appointed Postmaster of Springfield, by Presi- 
dent Hayes. 

Paul Selby, in a "Memorial Address on the 
Life, Character and Public Services of David L. 
Phillij)s," delivered before the Illinois State 
Press Association, held at Springfield, February 
16, 1881, pays him the following tribute: 

"' With the exception of about two years, 
between the early part of 1868, up to his retire- 
ment from the Journal, in 1878, it was my for- 
tune to be associated with Mr. Phillips almost 
continuously. The opportunity I thus had of 
knowing our brother journalist has, I think, 
given me the right, as well as the ability, to 
speak of him as a man, as a journalist, as a poli- 
tician, and as a public ofiicer. In all that period, 
our friendly relations were never interrupted for 
a moment. It was necessary that, in such a re- 
lation, there should be mutual trusts and confi- 
dences; in these he was never found wanting. 
Whatever may have been his imperfections — 
and be was a man, and no man is perfect — he 
was as true in his journalistic relation to those 
associated with him as he was patriotic in his 
political relations, and honest and faithful in 
the discharge of his ofticial duties. 

"Mr. Phillips was essentially a self-educated, 
self-made man. While, with the majority of the 

youth of his day, he possessed few advantages in 
early life, he distanced the great mass of his 
associates in the progress which he made and 
the results he achieved, lie was entitled to all 
the more credit for what he accomplished, 
though his achievements were necessarily un- 
equal. He possessed natural ({ualities of intel- 
lect which fitted him for wide and profound 
research. His oflicial duties during most of the 
period when he was associated with the public 
Press, did not permit him to engage in general 
journalism for any length of time. His tastes 
led him rather into special fields. In these he 
was full, comprehensive and exhaustive. In- 
clined to the discursive and florid in style, a 
strong and vivid imagination still enabled him 
to clothe his thoughts in a garb which never 
failed to command the attention of the reader, 
whether the latter agreed with him or not. He 
was never dull or prosaic — never wrote common- 
place merely to fill up the page, but his utter- 
ances came from a mind overflowing with living 
facts and arguments. Gifted with a memory 
that surprised those who knew him by its 
extraordinary sweep and tenacity, his mind was 
the repository of an amount of knowledge of 
men and things, gained from reading and ob- 
servation, possessed by few men of his time." 

Mr. Phillii^s died in Springfield, June 19, 

Under the management of the present pro- 
prietors, the Journal has been made a success in 
every particular, and the oflice is well supplied 
with material for any kind of work, from a visit- 
ing card to a mammoth poster. 

Paul Selby, editor-in-chief of the Illinois State 
Journal, was born in Pickawav county, Ohio, 
July 20, 1825. His father. Dr. William H. Selby, 
was a native of Anne Arundel county, Maryland," 
•while his mother, Mary (Young) Selby, was born 
at Fairfield, Connecticut. The former grew^ to 
manhood, when, having qualified himself for the 
practice of medicine, he removed to Western 
Pennsylvania, where he made the acquaintance 
of, and married. Miss Young, whose parents had 
emigrated to Uniontown, in the latter State, 
while she was yet in her infancy. Soon after 
marriage, the young couple removed to Eastern 
Ohio, residing for a time at Zanesville, Marietta 
and Mt. Vernon, in that State. During their 
residence at the latter place. Dr. Selby engaged 
for a time in the mercantile business. The w^ar 
of 1812-15, with England being then in progress, 
he went as surgeon with a body of volunteers 
raised for the relief of the scattered remnants of 
General St. Clair's defeated army. 



Some years after the close of the war the 
Selbys removed to Pickaway county, where the 
subject of this sketch was born, being the fifth 
of a family of six children (five sons and one 
daughter), all of whom grew to manhood and 
womanhood, but of Avhoni he is now the only 
survivor. In ISSY the family moved West, set- 
tling in the DesMoines Valley (VanBuren 
county), in what was then the Territory of Iowa. 
Both in Ohio and Iowa, Dr. Selby pursued the 
business of a farmer, and thus Paul grew up as 
most farmers' sons do — working upon the farm 
in summer and going to school in the winter, 
when opportunity offered — though his parents 
being intelligent, reading people, his advantages 
may have been somewhat better than the avei*- 
age. The common schools, especially in the lat- 
ter State, were none of the best, but furnished 
the only educational advantages then open to 
him except those which he enjoyed at home or 
by means of independent study, until after he had 
reached manhood. 

In 1843, Paul's father died, and in the follow- 
ing year, at the age of nineteen, he left home to 
make his way in the world, and while contribut- 
ing to the support of his mother, determined to 
acquire an education. The following winter and 
spring were spent in teaching in Washington 
county, Illinois, when, more liberal inducements 
being offered him, he removed to Madison 
county, where he engaged in the same occupa- 
tion. He spent about three years in Madison, 
half of the time being at the same place, a few 
miles above St. Louis, on the Alton road. In 
1848, having acquired some means, he determined 
to carry out his long cherished purpose of ac- 
quiring a more liberal education, and then went 
to JacKsonville, entering Illinois College for a 
classical course. Here he remained three and a 
half years, but before the expiration of his course 
(in March, 1852,) he formed a business connec- 
tion for the publication of the " Morgan ( now 
Jacksonville) Journal," assuming editorial charge 
as successor to Col. E. R. Roe, late Marshal of 
the Southern District of Illinois. He then had 
no intention of abandoning his studies, but find- 
ing his time fully occupied, he reluctantly with- 
drew from college in the middle of his junior 
year, though subsequently honored by his Ahna 
Mater with the honorary degree of A. M. 

Mr. Selby's connection with the "Morgan 
Journal " continued nearly seven years, covering 
a period of great political excitement and agita- 
tion, during which the Republican party came 
into existence. Though a Whig in politics, his 
tastes were rather literary tban political, and he 

preferred an independent position in journalism. 
This was in part due to the fact that he foresaw 
the breaking up of the organization of parties, 
which occurred on the passage of the bill re- 
moving the restriction against the admission of 
slavery north of thirty-six degrees thirty min- 
utes, introduced by Mr. Douglas. New ques- 
tions having thus been brought to the surface, he 
entered with zeal into their discussion, and, as was 
inevitable, soon took a position on the side of 
the Republican party — in fact, was among the 
first to be identified with the new party organi- 
zation in Central Illinois. In the fall of 1855, 
the paper with w^hich Mr. Selby was connected, 
suggested a meeting of the anti-Nebraska edi- 
tors of the State, to be held at some central point 
in the State, for the purpose of giving form and 
direction to the sentiment of the new party and 
agreeing upon some general line of policy. The 
suggestion was approved by others, and in the 
next few months the proposition took form, the 
convention being called at Decatur, February 
22, 1856. When the convention met, in view of 
his agency in securing it, Mr. Selby was, by 
unanimous consent, chosen to preside over its 
deliberations. In an address delivered by him 
before the Illinois Press Association, at its 
winter meeting held at Springfield, February 
6, 1879, under the title of "A Quarter of a Cen- 
tury of Journalism," he made the following al- 
lusion to this assemblage as an incident in the 
political and journalistic history of the State: 

"On the 22d day of February, 1856, an Edito- 
rial Convention of a somewhat different charac- 
ter was held at Decatur, in this State. The 
number in attendance was small — not amount- 
ing to over fifteen or twenty, all told — a sort of 
"forlorn hope," so to speak — but they assisted 
to set in motion agencies which have left their 
impress on the political history of this State 
and the Nation. The Convention was composed 
of representatives of newspapers opposed to the 
so-called Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which liad 
passed Congress in 1854, and which had pro- 
duced a degree of popular excitement seldom 
known in the previous history of the country, 
proving a fore-runner of the w^ar of the rebel- 
lion which followed a few years later. It was 
called for the purpose of outlining a policy for 
the Anti-Nebraska party — as the opponents of 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise called 
themselves — and was one of the first and most 
effective steps towards the formal organization 
and consolidation of the Republican party of 
the State, which took place in May following. 
The printed record does not show a full list of 


the names of those present, but from the list of 
committees and officers I am able to find the 
following: V. Y. Ralston, Quincy Whig; Dr. 
C. H. Eay, Chicago Tribune; O. P. Wharton, 
Rock Island Advertiser; T. J. JPickett, Peoria 
Republican; George Schneider, Chicago Staats 
Zeitung; Charles Faxon, Princeton Post; A N. 
Ford, Lacon Gazette; B. F. Shaw, Dixon Tele- 
graph; W. J. Usrey, Decatur Chronicle; Paul 
Selby, Jacksonville Journal. 

A platform was adopted at this meeting which 
would now be regarded as very conservative 
Republicanism, but it was assailed by the oppo- 
sition Press of the day as the wildest Radical- 
ism — or rather "abolitionism." Resolutions 
were adopted recommending that a State Dele- 
gate Convention be held at Bloomington, May 
29th following, for the purpose of organizatioii, 
and a State Central Committee was appointed 
to fix an apportionment of delegates and issue 
the formal call. That Committee performed its 
duty; the convention was held at the time and 
place designated; General John M. Palmer, 
then a rising young lawyer and liberal politi- 
cian of Carlinville, present proprietor of the 
Register in this city, presided; a ticket com- 
posed of General W. H. Bissell, for Governor; 
Francis Hoffman, (afterwards replaced by Hon. 
John Wood, of Quincy,) for Lieutenant Gover- 
nor; O. M. Hatch, for Secretary of State; Jesse 
K. Dubois, for Auditor; James Miller, for Treas- 
urer, and W. H. Powell, for Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, was put in nomination and 
was elected in November following. And thus 
the Republican party sprang at once into polit- 
ical ascendancy in this State — an ascendancy 
which it has never since wholly lost." 

In May, 1858, while still residing at Jackson- 
ville, Mr. Selby was married to Miss Erra A. 
Post, an amiable and worthy young lady who 
had been a pupil, and for a time, a teacher in 
the Female Seminary at that place. During the 
following fall he severevi his connection with 
the Jacksonville Journal, and the next spring 
removed to Springfield, where he spent the sum- 
mer of 1859. Though not immediately connected 
with the Press during this period, he did con- 
siderable political writing for the State Journal, 
and otherwise. One of his principal labors dur- 
ing this summer was the preparation of a pampli- 
let giving the history of the celebrated "Canal 
Scrip Fraud" which was brought to the atten- 
tion of the public soon after the retirement of 
Joel A. Matteson from the Governorship of the 
State. This pamphlet was widely distributed 
throughout the State, and exerted no small in- 

fluence upon the elections of the next few years. 

In September, 1859, in compliance with the 
urgent solicitation of friends already in the 
South, Mr. Selby accepted an invitation to take 
charge of a boys' school at Plaquemine, Louisi- 
ana, and removed there with his family. After 
remaining here one year he was offered strong 
inducement to fate charge of an institution for 
the education of young ladies and gentlemen, at 
Amite City, in the same State, which he ac- 
cepted. Before the close of this year, the war 
between the North and South, which had been 
gradually coming on, opened with all its bitter- 
ness and fury. Perceiving that he could no 
longer be of any service there in the profession 
Avhich he had chosen, and that the safety of 
himself and family would be in peril by longer 
remaining in the South, at the close of the term 
of 1860-61, Mr. Selby determined to return to 
the North, and disposing of what property he 
could, and leaving his library, which, in the con- 
dition of the country at that time, could not be 
transported, and which was plundered and scat- 
tered during the war, on the evening of the 3d 
of July, 1861, he left New Orleans for Illinois. 
The journey was made by railroad, by way of 
Columbus, Kentucky, and Cairo, though many 
persons then seeking to reach the North were 
meeting with serious trouble, and all communi- 
cation was cut off between Columbus and Cairo, 
by the seizure of the steamer running between 
those two places, by the rebels, a few days after. 
Almost immediately after his ai-rival in Spring- 
field, leaving his family here, Mr. Selby returned 
to Cairo, to accept a position which had been 
tendered him in the employment of the Govern- 

After a stay at Cairo of about eight months, 
and a short period spent in the Transportation 
Department at Paducah, Kentucky, during which 
the movement up the Tennessee river to Pitts- 
burg Landing took place, Mr. Selby returned to 
Springfield, and in July following was offered 
and accepted a position upon the editorial de- 
partment of the State Journal, which continued 
unbroken up to November, 1865. At this time 
he was called to suffer a deep affliction in the 
loss of his wife. His household having been 
broken up, he severed his connection with the 
Journal, and soon after went to New Orleans, 
where he spent the winter. Returning north in 
June, 1866, after a few weeks' rest, he was of- 
fered and accepted a position on the editorial 
staff of the Chicago Evening Journal, but soon 
after taking a similar position on the Chicago 
Republican now the Inter- Ocean. 



In 1868, Messrs. D. L. Phillips and William 
H. Bailhache, of the State Journal, purchased the 
Whig, at Quincy, Illinois, and Mr. Selby was in- 
vited to take editorial charge of it. Subse- 
quently he became the successor of Major Bail- 
hache in proprietorship of the Whig, at the 
same time retaining the position of managing 
editor. At the close of the year 1873, the Whig 
was sold to its present proprietors, when Hon. 
E. L. Baker, editor of the State Journal, having 
been appointed Consul to Buenos Ayers, Mr. 
Selby was offered his old place upon the Journal. 
Pie accepted, entering on his duties January 1, 
1874, and his connection with the paper has re- 
mained unbroken ever since. In September, 1878, 
the Journal became the property of the "Spring- 
field Journal Publishing Company," of which Mr. 
Selby is a member, being a director and secretary 
of the board. Mr. Selby was married a second 
time in December, 1870, to Mrs. M. J.Hitchcock, 
a gifted lady of Quincy, who still survives. Two 
daughters born to him of his first wife still live ; 
but a daughter and a son born to him of his pres- 
ent wife, died in December, 1878, within a few 
days of each other. 

In June, 1880, Mr. Selby received from Presi- 
dent Hayes the appointment of Postmaster for 
the city of Springfield, in place of Hon. D. L. 
Phillips, deceased, entering upon the duties of 
the office July 4, and on the assembling of Con- 
gress, in December, was nominated, confirmed 
and re-commissioned. 

Horace Chapin, Treasurer and Business Mana- 
ger of the Journal, was born in Springfield, 
Massachusetts, December 27, 1827, and emi- 
grated to Morgan county, Illinois, in 1851, and 
settled near the present village of Chapin, the 
junction of the Wabash and Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quincy Railroads. The early life of 
Horace was spent on his father's farm, and in 
attending the public schools and academy of 
his native place. On coming to Morgan, he en- 
gaged in farming in connection with his brother 
Lyman, which occupation he continued until 
August, 1861, when he enlisted as a private in 
Company K., Twenty-Seventh Illinois Infantry. 
On the election of officers of the company, Mr. 
Chapin was elected First Lieutenant. The regi- 
ment shortly after was ordered to Cairo, where 
it became a part of General McClernand's 
brigade. After the battle of Belmont, Lieuten- 
ant Chapin was promoted to Captain of Company 
D. During the three years of his service. Cap- 
tain Chapin participated in many of the im- 
portant battles of the war, including Island No. 
10, Union City, Farmington, Corinth, Nashville, 

Laverne, Franklin, Stone River and Chicaniauga. 
In the battle of Chicamauga, Captain Chapin lost 
a leg, and was sent to the hospital at Nashville, 
where he remained four months and then re- 
ceived a furlough home. He was mustered out 
of service on the twenty-seventh of September, 
1864, his term of service having expired. In 
1865 he moved to Jacksonville, and in April, 
1867, received the appointment ot Postmaster of 
that city, which position he held for four years. 
About the time of his appointment of Postmaster, 
he purchased an interest in the Jacksonville 
Journal, but was not actively engaged in its 
management until his retirement from the post- 
office. Captain Chapin severed his relationship 
with the Journal in 1876. On the formation of 
the present State Journal Company he was 
elected Treasurer and Business Manager, which 
position he yet retains. 

Horace Chapin and Augusta Swazey, of 
Bucksport, Maine, were united in marriage 
January 9, 1859, at St. Anthony, Minne- 

Captain Chapin was originally a Whig, and 
was afterwards identified with the Free Soil 
movement. On the organization of the Repub- 
lican party, he -became an active worker in its 
ranks, and no man has ever been a more enthus- 
iastic one. 

Milton F. Simmons, President of the State 
Journal Company, was born in Schoharie county, 
New York, December 21, 1842. He received 
an academical and collegiate education in his 
native State, and subsequently read law with 
Lyman Tremaine, of New York City, and was 
there admitted to the Bar. After receiving a 
license as an attorney, he moved to Mexico, 
Missouri, where he engaged in practice for some 
six years, with success. In 1871, he purchased 
the office of the Mexico Messenger, which paper 
he edited and published until his removal to 
Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1876. While in Mexico 
he was elected to the State Legislature, and 
served one session. On his arrival in Jackson- 
ville, he became associated in the publication 
of the Jacksonville Journal, which relation 
continued until 1878, when he came to 
Springfield, and became one of the Journal 

Milton F, Simmons and Philena Eliza 
Humphrey were married at Mexico, Missouri, 
November 11, 1867. Four children have 
resulted from this union — Ida Mabel, Anna 
Maggie, Minnie Myrtle, and Katie Maud. 

Mr. Simmons has always been a Republican 
in politics. 




The Journal first appeared as a daily Monday, 
June 13, 1848, containing twelve columns, 
twelve inches long. That paper printed the first 
telegraphic dispatch ever received directly by 
the Press in Springfield. Diminutive as was 
the sheet, its advent marked a new era in the 
history of the Press of that city. It seemed a 
hazardous undertaking to establish a daily, but 
the paper met with immediate support, and when 
but eleven days old was enlarged to a sixteen 
column sheet, of respectable size. Its news col- 
umns were well filled, and in all respects it was 
fully up to the demands of the times. It was 
issued in the evening, as most of the mails left 
early in the morning, and the clumsy hand press 
could not have a morning paper ready in time. 

The conduct of a daily at that time was widely 
at variance with what it is to-day. Printing ap- 
pliances were unwieldy; labor was scarce; ex- 
penses heavy, and the people at large found a 
weekly enough for their wants- Notwithstand- 
ing these and other obstacles, the Journal suc- 
ceeded well. On the first of January, 1850, the 
daily was again enlarged, by increasing the 
length of its columns and adding four to their 
number. No change was made thereafter until 
the 22d of December, 1853, when it was again 
enlarged. It then became a twenty-four column 
paper. These changes were made to meet the 
demands of advertisers. Again about the begin- 
ning of the war, first to a seven and then an eight- 
column folio. This form was continued until 
July, 1880, when it was changed to a six-column 
quarto, its present form. 


The Republican was established May, 1835, 
by John A. Roberts and George R. Weber, who 
coniinued its publication until the summer of 
1839. The Republican was a firm supporter of 
the Jackson policy, and dealt some powerful 
blows to the opposition. It was a fearless and 
radical sheet in its utterances, and gave no un- 
certain souYid. Its enemies always knew where 
to find it. In the spring of 1837, Stephen A. 
Douglas was appointed by President Van Buren, 
Register of the Land Ofiice at Springfield, and 
thus became a resident of the place. At this 
time he was very boyish in appearance and man- 
ner; was a ready wit, and a bold and fluent 
speaker. He made politics his chief study, to 
the neglect of his profession. He wrote much 
for the columns of the Republican, which ap- 
peared both as editorial and communicated. The 
paper, in political circles, was therefore generally 

regarded as the organ of young Douglas. Under 
the nom de plume of an "Old Settler," a well 
known citizen of Springfield contributed to a 
local paper of the city, in 1871, the following 
interesting reminiscence of the Republican, and 
Stephen A. Douglas' connection with it: 

"A law providing for the removal of the seat 
of government from Vandalia to Springfield 
had passed the legislature of 1835-36, and three 
commissioners appointed to superintend the 
building of a new State House at the latter 
place. Dr. Henry was the acting commissioner. 
He was an able political wi'iter, and contributed 
largely to the columns of the Sangamo Journal, 
both editorially and otherwise; hence, the news- 
paper fights of that day between the Journal 
and Republican, were mainly between Douglas 
and Dr. Henry, as the champion writers of their 
respective parties. 

"Douglas, in several anonymous communica- 
tions, attacked Dr. Henry as acting State House 
Commissioner, denouncing him, with much bit- 
terness, as being unqualified for the position, 
and burlesquing many of his ofiicial acts, advis- 
ing the Gov.ernor to remove him for incompe- 
tency, and to appoint a practical builder — a 
mechanic or architect, as doctors and lawyers 
knew but little about building State houses. 
Dr. Henry and many of his friends, believing 
Douglas to be the author of the offensive arti- 
cles, determined to demand the name of the 
author by calling on the editor. A committee 
was appointed for that purpose, which, armed 
with cane and pistols, waited upon the editor 
(until then supposed to be a meek man), and 
made the demand. Douglas happened to be in 
the printing ofiice when the committee arrived. 
The demand was made with threats and a flour- 
ish of the cane, when the meek man of the press 
planted his fist in the face of the chairman of 
the committee, informing him that he was re- 
sponsible for everything that appeared in his 
paper. The committee was thus dispersed. 
Douglas being an eye-witness of the disastrous 
defeat of the committee, gave a highly colored 
description of what had occurred in the next 
paper, which, when the paper appeared, resulted 
in a determination of certain aggrieved parties 
to destroy the printing establishment of the Illi- 
nois Republican. 

"On the evening of June 27, 1837, while the 
editor and hands were at supper, a mob appeared 
before the office door which was locked. The 
leader, being the Sheriff of the county on a 
'spree,' picked up a stick of cord wood and 
burst open the door, and ordering his men to 



tlirow the printing materials into the street, 
promising to pay all damages. By this lime the 
Weber brothers — three in number — Douglas, 
Dr. Early (afterwards assassinated), and a few 
others, rushed into the office, and kicked and 
Hung the mobocrats from the building. Several 
other personal conflicts ensued. The next day 
the mob rallied and made another attack, in 
which the leader of the mob, the Sheriff, was 
stabbed, and fainting fell, covered with blood, 
he was carried home. Thus ended the mob. 
These things gave notoriety to the paper. The 
spicy and able articles of Douglas, like pure and 
good Democratic seed sown in good ground, 
resulted in his nomination for Congress by the 
Democratic party of the Third Congressional 

George R. Weber was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland, May 29, 1808. He was taken, when 
an infant, to Shepherdstown, Virginia, by his 
parents, and remained thereuntil after he reached 
his majority. In 1832, he was married to Miss 
Susan Shepherd, and soon after moved to New 
York City, where his wife soon died. Mr. 
Weber then returned to Shepherdstown, and 
from there came to Springfield, Illinois, arriving 
here April 15, 1835. He Avas married in Spring- 
field to Catherine Welch, by whom he had eight 
children. Mr. Weber learned the trade of a 
printer before coming to Springfield, and has 
worked at the case off and on for a period of 
nearly sixty years. In 1839, he suspended the 
Republican, and shortly after became a part- 
ner in the Register, retaining his connection 
therewith until 1846, when he sold out to Mr. 
Walters, and enlisted in Company A, 4th Illi- 
nois Infantry, under Colonel E. D. Baker. 
While encamped on the Rio Grande, in 
Mexico, news of Mr. Walter's death reached 
there, and Mr. Weber, being interested in the 
State printing, it became necessary that he 
should return. Accordingly he was detailed to 
return home with those soldiers who were unfit 
for duty, and was never recalled. After the 
time expired for which he was elected Public 
Printer, he severed his connection with the 
office, and moved to his farm. 

Mr. Weber sei'ved six months as State Com- 
m.issary, in our late civil war, and was subse- 
quently appointed as Commissary at Camp l^ut- 
ler, which position he retained until the close of 
the rebellion. 


The Illinois State Register was started in 
Vandalia, February, 1836, under the name of the 


Illinois State Register and Vandalia Republi- 
can, by William Walters. Mr. Walters was a 
native of Delaware, and for some years was a 
journeyman printer in Washington City, and 
foreman in the office of the old National Intel- 
ligencer. While occupying this position he 
contributed a number of articles to the Press of 
that day, and thus attracted the notice of the 
Democratic or Jackson members of Congress 
from this State. Desiring a strong neAvspaper 
advocate of the Jacksonian school at the capital 
of the State, Mr. Walters was induced to make 
the venture. He arrived in Vandalia in Jan- 
uary, 1836, and on the 10th of February, the first 
number of the new paper appeared. At this 
time Judge John York Sawyer was publishing 
the Illinois Advocate at Vandalia, and was State 
Printer. Judge Sawyer died during this year, 
and the Advocate suspended publication. 

The legislature, at its session of 1 830-3 V, 
elected Mr. Walters State Printer, and made 
the Register the official paper of the State. 
During this session the vote was taken on the 
removal of the State capital to Springfield, and 

In 1839, the offices of the State Government 
were removed to Springfield, and were followed 
a few weeks later by the State Register, Mr. 
Walters removing the office to this city. Here 
the paper assumed the double name of Illinois 
State Register and People's Advocate, with 
William Walters and George R. Weber as edi- 
tors and publishers. The name of the Advocate 
wag quietly dropped out some months after- 
wards, and the name of Illinois State Register 
alone appeared as the name of the paper. The 
first number of the Register printed in Spring- 
field, dated August 10, 1839, made the following 

"To OUR Patrons: — We have the pleasure to 
address the patrons of the State Register from 
Springfield, the new seat of Government of the 
State of Illinois. The most of our readers 
are aware that, until within a few weeks past, 
the Illinois Republican (the leading and spirited 
Democratic paper) has been published in this 
place for several successive yeai's. , The removal 
of the seat of Government to Springfield made 
it the duty of the public printer to remove with 
it; and hence, as there was not a probable 
demand for two Democratic papers in the same 
place, Mr. Weber, the editor of the Republican, 
discontinued that journal, and purchased an in- 
terest in this paper. The change will, no doubt, 
be advantageous to our subscribers. To the 
subscribers "of the Illinois Republican, this 



paper will henceforth be sent, unless otherwise 
instructed by them." 

In 1845, Mr. Weber sold his interest in the 
Register to his partner, Mr. Walters, who con- 
tinued it until 1S46, when the war with Mexico 
broke out, Avhen he leased the office to Charles 
H. Lanphier, and enlisted as a private soldier in 
the Second Regiment, Illinois Volunteers. Mr. 
Walters confidently expected the position of 
Major of the regiment, but it was given to an- 
other. Ilis friends in Washington, learning this 
fact, secured a commission as Commissary for 
him, and mailed it to him at St. Louis. Mr. 
Walters never lived to reach the front, but died 
in St. Louis before the departure of the regi- 

Mr. Walters was a very able political writer, 
and was very popular with the people; and his 
loss was deeply felt. 

On the death of Mr. Walters, Charles H. Lan- 
phier became proprietor of the office, and con- 
tinued the publication of the paper one year, 
when he associated with himself George Walker, 
and the Register was published from 1846 to 
January 1, 1858, by Lanphier & Walker, when 
Walker withdrew, as appears from the follow- 

Dissolution of Partnership. — Notice is hereby 
given that the partnership uuder the style of Lanphier 
& Walker, in the printing business and publication of 
the Illinois State Register, is this day dissolved, by 
mutual consent. * * * 

Chas. H. Lanphier, 

Jan. 1, 1858. Geo. Walker. 

George Walker was born in Vermont, in 1821, 
and in 1836 came with his parents to Belvidere, 
Illinois, His father was the original proprietor 
of that town. Mr. Walker came to Springfield 
at an early day ; studied law with Ebenezer Peck, 
and was admitted to the bar. Subsequently, he 
was appointed deputy by Mr. Peck, who received 
the appointment of Clerk of the Supreme Court. 
He acted as Deputy Clerk until 1847, when he 
became connected with the Register, as editor 
and publisher. 

Mr. Walker was a fine scholar and a brilliant 
writer. While he wrote or spoke in a manner 
not to be misunderstood, he was choice of his 
words, and every sentence showed the scholarly 
man. After retiring from the Register, he en- 
gaged in no active business, and died at the 
house of Mr. Lanphier, in 1864. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, the 
following article appeared in the Register, from 
the pen of Charles H. Lanphier, on the duty of 
the hour: 

"The fratricidal blow has been struck! Civil 
war is upon us. The rebels have opened their 
batteries upon Fort Sumter, and the prospect of 
a long and bloody strife is before us. It has 
come as the consequence of causes so often and 
emphatically deprecated by Democrats and other 
conservative men — as the consequence of sec- 
tional agitation by Northern and Southern ex- 
tremists. But it is useless and unprofitable now 
to discuss the causes which have placed the 
country in its present unhappy condition. The 
Government has been resisted in the perform- 
ance of its legal functions. Rebels to the Na- 
tional authorities have fired upon the flag of the 
country, and assaulted one of its garrisons, when 
an effort was being made to re-in force and pro- 
vision the noble Anderson and his gallant little 
band. Most gallantly have they resisted; bravely 
have they defended their country's flag and their 
country's rights. But they have been overcome 
by the superior force that has surrounded them. 

"The news has been productive of the most 
intense feeling and excitement here, as it will 
be throughout the land, but whatever may be 
men's opinions as to the causes which have 
brought war upon us, there is but one feeling, 
and that is in behalf of the Government and 
the flag of the Union. This is as it should be. 
With the true patriot, whatever may be his 
opinions of the causes of war with his country's 
enemies, he is for his country and his country's 
flag; and his hearty support, morally, and phj^si- 
cally if necessary, should be rendered to the 
country's cause." 

In an article on "The National Trouble," the 
editor says: 

"We are proud to record that Douglas and 
his counsels, now that blow^s have ensued, are 
with the Government. Ever faithful, ever true, 
the champion of popular rights is for the cause 
of his country — of the Constitution and law. 
Whatever may be our party leanings, our party 
principles, our likes or dislikes, when the con- 
test opens between the country, between the 
Union, and its foes, and blows are struck, the 
patriot's duty is plain — take sides with the stars 
and stripes! As Illinoisans, let us rally to one 
standard. There is but one standard for good 
men and true. Let us be there. Through good 
and through evil report, let us be there — first, 
last, and all the time." 

Upon the retirement of Mr. W^alker, Edward 
Conner was associated with Mr. Lanphier in the 
publication of the Register until June 10, 1859, 
when the following announcement was made: 


Dissolution of Co-paktneksiiip. — Notice is hereby 
given that the partuership in the publication of the Illi- 
nois State Register, heretofore existing under the name 
of Lanphier & Conner is dissolved bj' mutual consent. 
The business will hereafter be conducted by Chas. H. 
Lanphier. Chas. H. Lanphier, 

June 10, 1859. Edward Conner. 

Mr. Lanphier alone, continued the publication 
of the Kegi.ster until 1864, when he sold out to 
certain parties and the "Illinois State Register 
Printing Company" was organized, with George 
Judd, Esq., business manager, and I. N. Higgins 
editor. (Mr. I. N. Higgins is now editor of the 
Morning Call, San Francisco.) 

Charles H. Lanphier was born in Alexandria, 
Virginia, April 14, 1820. His father, Robert 
Goin Lanphier, was a native of the same place. 
His grandfather, Goin Lanphier, was one of the 
first settlers of that ancient town. He w^as of 
Irish birth, coming to Virginia an infant, with 
his father, Thomas Lanphier, in the year 1732, 
from County Cork, Ireland, where the family 
(French Hugenots) had emigrated in 1650. At 
the age of four years, the parents of Charles H. 
Lanphier removed to Washington City, Avhere 
Mr. Lanphier received a plain, English educa- 
tion, in the primary schools of the day. In 
May, 1836, just turning his sixteenth j^ear, Mr. 
Lanphier came to Illinois with his brother-in- 
law, William Walters, who, in January of that 
year, had established the Illinois State Register 
at Vandalia, then the seat of government of the 
State. Mr. Lanphier entered that establishment 
as an apprentice to the printing trade, and when 
the paper was moved to Springfield, he came 
with it. Completing his apprenticeship, he con- 
tinued in the concern as printer, clerk or re- 
porter, until 1846. On the breaking out of the 
Mexican war, Mr. Walters entered the vol- 
unteer army, leaving Mr. Lanphier in charge 
of the paper as editor and manager. Mr. Wal- 
ters died at St. Louis, soon after his regiment 
reached there, en route for Mexico. Mr. Lan- 
phier then attained the proprietorship of the 
paper. At the next session of the legislature 
(1846-f) he was elected Public Printer, being 
the last person to fill that office, w^hich was there- 
after abolished by constitutional provision. In 
1847 he took into partnership, in the publication 
of the Register, Mr. George Walker, one o( the 
most accomplished scholars and journalists of 
his day. This partnership continued until Jan- 
uary, 1858, when Mr. Walker withd.rew, and 
Mr. Lanphier continued the publication of the 
paper, until the fall of 1863, when he sold out 
the establishment, after a connection with it of 
nearly twenty-eight years. In 1860, on the 

breaking out of the Southern rebellion, Mr. 
Lanphier was appointed by Governor Yates a 
member of the "Board of Army Auditors," in 
connection vrith Judge William Thomas, of 
Jacksonville, and Hon. James H. Woodworth, 
of Chicago. In 1864, Mr. Lanphier was elected 
Clerk of the Circuit Court, of Sangamon county, 
and in 1868, w^as re-elected. Before the expira- 
tion of his last term, in 1872, Mr. Lanphier was 
nominated as the Democratic candidate for 
State Treasurer, but with his w^iole party, was 

In February, 1846, Mr. Lanphier was mar- 
ried to Margaret T. Crenshaw, daughtei- of 
John Hart Crenshaw, of Gallatin county, Illi- 
nois, one of the early pioneers of the State, set- 
tling wdth his parents and family in that county 
in the year 1812, from North Carolina. After 
the adoption of the present city charter, Mr. 
Lanphier w^as chosen a member of the City 
Council for three terms, and as Chairman of the 
Ordinance and School Committees, was largely 
instrumental in shaping the city laws undfr the 
new charter, and in organizing the present sys- 
tem of city schools. During the ascendancy of 
the Democratic party in the State, as the editor 
of its leading exponent at the Capital, Mr. Lan- 
phier bore a conspicuous part, and through the 
Register, was influential in shaping the policies 
of the State. Contemporary and intimate 
friend of Judge Douglas during his wiiole pub- 
lic career, he was an earnest champion in nearly 
all his pixblic efforts, sharing his confidence and 
possessing his highest respect and esteem. As 
editor of the Register, w^hile it was controlled 
by him, he was bold and fearless in giving ex- 
pression to his views of men and principles. 
His quick perception enabled him to judge al- 
most unerringly of the motives of the former, 
and w^hile respectful to his oj^ponents, if he 
thought them sincere, he was unsparing in his 
criticism of those he believed unprincipled and 
corrupt. His integrity was unquestioned and in 
these days, when venality so far pervades the 
Press, however lamentable the contemplation, it 
would not be time illy spent, to compare the 
course of the Register under his management 
with the latter day political journalism. As a 
writer, Mr. Lanphier w^as terse and pointed in 
style. He never indulged in fanciful phrases at 
the expense of clear, lucid expression. When 
he meant to say a thing he said it, and there 
could be no misunderstanding his meaning. In 
short, his entire editorial career was as able and 
consistent as his private life has been upright 
and honorable. 



In December, 1864, J. W. Merritt & Sons pur- 
chased the Register, and by them it was con- 
tinued something less than two years, when J. 
W. Merritt retired, and the paper was then run 
by E. L. Merritt & Bro., as publishers, with J. 
AV. Merritt, editor, and E. L. Merritt, associate 
editor. In 1873, on account of advanced age, 
J. W. Merritt resigned editorial charge, and E. 
L. Merritt became editor-in-chief. 

In June, 1877, E. L. Merritt & Bro., disposed 
of their interest to a stock company composed 
of John M. Palmer, E. L. Merritt, J. M. Higgins 
and John Mayo Palmer, forming the State Reg- 
ister Printing Company. 

John W. Merritt was born in New York City 
July 4, 1806, and died November 16, 1878. The 
Register, with which he was so long connected 
as editor, thus speaks of the man: 

"John W. Merritt was born in New York City 
in 1806, and had the benefit of a common school 
education. Before arriving at manhood he 
evinced a decided literary taste, and his conti'ibu- 
tions to the magazine and newsj^apers of the 
time were greatly admired. He studied law and 
built up a very lucrative practice in connection 
with Hon. James T. Brady, the profits of which 
were invested in real estate. He made himself 
independent at a comparatively early period in 
life, and was in a fair way to become wealthy 
when the financial revulsion of 1887, in a short 
time destroyed the value of his earnings and in- 
A'estments. That he must have been greatly 
disheartened by his misfortunes seems certain, 
but it is true that none of his most intimate 
friends ever heard him repine. With his wife 
and a young dependent family he removed with 
the remnant of his goods to St. Clair county, in 
this State, in 1841. His culture and energy soon 
gained him friends, and he purchased the Belle- 
ville Advocate, which paper he conducted with 
considerable success from 1848 to 1851. He also 
carried on a farm, and wi'ote letters for New 
York papers and contributed to eastern maga- 
zines. During this period, also, he wrote and 
published a novel called Shubel Darton. The 
style of this work now seems antiquated, and its 
construction more complicated than jDleases 
modern taste, but the plan of the story shows 
considerable skill, and the composition is remark- 
able for power in many passages. About this 
time he formed a strong personal friendship for 
Judge ]^reese, which continued to the close of 
Breese's life. 

" Some years later, Mr. Merritt moved to Salem 
and established the Advocate, which paper he 
conducted for many years, and where he had his 

sons instructed in the art and mystery of print- 
ing. In 1861, he was elected a member of the 
Constitutional Convention, and in 1802, a mem- 
ber of the legislature. In 1864, the State Regis- 
ter, as the organ of the Demowacy of the State, 
suffered the fate of the party it had so long 
represented. The efforts of powerful political 
opponents, and the treachery of pretended ad- 
herents, had reduced the party to what seemed a 
hopeless minority, and upon the State Register 
fell the stigma of copperheadism and disloyalty. 
Mr. Merritt resolved to attempt the task of re- 
establishing the paper, and supported by his son, 
took editorial charge January 1, 1865. The en- 
terprise was not a prudent one, but it was gal- 
lantly undertaken, and, like most bold projects, 
succeeded. By hard v^^ork, and by the aid of 
business skill and editorial talent, the paper was 
set upon its feet again. 

"For some years Mr. Merritt conducted the 
editorial columns of the Register with great 
ability; and although it may be said that he was 
not always temperate in his expressions, the 
fault will be pardoned by those who know how 
high the tide of political and personal feeling 
swelled after the war was closed. For some 
years, in addition to editorial duty on the Regis- 
ter, Mr. Merritt supplied the St. Louis Republi- 
can with its Springfield correspondence. But 
years of great labor began at last to tell against 
the veteran, and in 1^73, he retired from active 
duty, and since then has spent his time in well 
earned and honorable repose. His children are 
Hon. Thomas E., who for several terms has rep- 
resented his district in the House of Represent- 
atives, and who was at the late election chosen a 
State Senator; General Wesley, who graduated 
at West Point in 1861, and who rose to distinc- 
tion in the Union army, and who is Colonel of 
the Fifth United States Cavalry; John H., who 
at one time was editor of a Democratic paper at 
Carlinville, and who is now one of the editors of 
the Marion County Herald; Charles W., who, in 
1873, was appointed a Second Lieutenant in the 
Ninth United States Cavalry; Edward L., of this 
city; Joseph D., clerk of the Southern Peniten- 
tiary; and William W., conductor on the Ohio 
and Mississippi Railroad, and two daughters. 

"In politics, Mr. Merritt was a sound, uncom- 
promising Democrat of the old school, and his 
faith he never hesitated to declare or defend. 
He lived his allotted period in the fear of God, 
and always acted with due regard to the rights 
of man. He commanded the respect of his 
fellow-men by adherence to principle, and he 
won many friends through life. He was a de- 



voted member of the Episcopal Church, and he 
died in its full communion, and in an abundant 
faith in its doctrines. The world is better for 
his life and actions, and those who survive him, 
though not able to surpass him in ability, may 
emulate his virtues, respect his integrity, and 
learn an example by his industry. The State 
Register casts its sprig of rue and myrtle on the 
bier of one of its most able and brave of the 
long succession of its editors." 

The Salem Advocate, in its obituary notice of 
Mr. Merritt, says: "John W. Merritt is dead, 
but his amiable character and kind acts will long 
be cherished and remain green in the memory of 
those who knew him best. He had hosts of 
friends, whose hearts are saddened because he 
has been called from the busy scenes of earth 
But all should rejoice that he has entered upon 
a life beyond death's dark I'iver, in the ever- 
green shades of Heaven's rich domain. He was 
pleasant, courteous and genial in manners, and 
his friendship extended to men in all the walks 
and stations of life." 

Edward L. Merritt was born June 25, 1836, 
in New York City, and came with his parents 
to this State in 1841. He received but few 
advantages in the way of an education in the 
public or private schools, the whole time of 
his attendance probably not exceeding twelve 
months. But at a very early age he was placed 
in the " Poor Man's College," a printing office, 
to learn the trade of a printer. His first work 
at the case was when about eleven years of age, 
in the office of the Belleville Advocate. When 
his father removed to Salem and commenced 
the publication of the Salem Advocate he took 
a position in that office, and soon became a 
thorough, pi'actical printer. Subsequently and 
previous to 1858, he served about four years as 
Civil Engineer on the Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 
road. In 1858, in connection with one of his 
brothers, he became the proprietor of the Salem 
Advocate, his father, J. W. Merritt resuming 
editoi'ial charge. In 1861, E. L. Merritt became 
sole proprietor of the paper, continuing its pub- 
lication until he became connected with the pub- 
lication of the State Register. As already stated, 
as editor and publisher Mr. Merritt was identi- 
fied with the Register for many years, and as 
such became known not only throughout the 
State but throughout the Union, the Register 
always being the recognized organ of the party 
of the State. 

In 1866, President Johnson appointed Mr. 
Merritt United States Pension Agent. Being 
an avowed Democrat, it is thought his appoint- 

ment had much to do with hastening the pass- 
age of the tenure-of-office act, necessitating the 
presentation of his name to the United States 
Senate for confirmation. It was accordingly 
sent in; and that body being strongly Repub- 
lican, he was rejected. It was again sent in by 
the President, and again rejected. The third 
time did the President present the name of Mr. 
Merritt for confirmation, and the third time was 
it rejected. No other reason was assigned for 
his rejection, but that he was not of the 
political faith to suit the majority. His ability 
to discharge the duties of the office was not 

In 1875, Mr. Merritt was appointed a member 
of the School Board of Springfield; was re-ap- 
pointed in 1878, and again in 1881, for the term 
of three years. 

On December 13, 1879, the sale of the State 
Register to Geo. W. Weber, J. R. Weber, J. H. 
Oberly and Chas. Edwards, was consummated. 
Mr. Oberly did not remain in the new company, 
which was organized January 5, 1880, with Geo. 
W. Weber as president. The editorial chair 
was temporarily tilled; and finally, the permanent 
editorial arrangement was announced, in the state- 
ment that thereafter the paper would be " edited 
by the proprietors." George W. Weber was the 
acknowledged editor-in-chief, and succeeded in 
making an interesting paper, 

George W. and J. R. Weber are the sons of 
George R. Weber, the founder of the Republi- 
can, and one of the original proprietors of the 
Register, on its removal from Vandalia. They 
were both born in Springfield, and are both 
practical printers. George W. has had much 
experience in editorial life, having edited the 
Taylorville Democrat for some time, and assist- 
ed on other papers. He is a ready and graceful 

The Illinois State Register has been owned 
and published since June 18, 1881, by Messrs. 
Smith, Clendenin & Rees, who purchased it of 
Governor Palmer and the old State Register 

The firm as above named is constituted of 
George Smith, Henry W. Clendenin, and 
Thomas Rees. These gentlemen are all old 
newspaper men, having been engaged in edi- 
torial and practical work in the States of Ohio, 
Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri for from twenty to 
thirty years. For the past five years, they have 
been engaged in publishing the Keokuk (Iowa) 
Daily and Weekly Constitution, which under 
their management became the leading Demo- 
cratic paper of Iowa. Mr. Clendenin acted as 



editor-in-chief of the Constitution under his 
firm's proprietorship. 

George Smith was born in Newark, Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1827. He began his career as a printer 
and publisher early in life. He has followed it 
without variation until the present time. Mr. 
Smith has no superior as a journalist in his de- 
partment. IJe brings to the Register the ex- 
perience of thirty-five years and the natural 
energy and acquired skill that always placed 
him at the top in every newspaper enterprise 
with which he has been connected. Mr. Smith 
has general supervision of the practical depart- 
ment of the Register. 

H. "VV. Clendeninwas born in Bedford county, 
Pennsylvania, August 1, 1838. His father, Sam. 
M. Clendenin, an old-line Jefl:ersonian Demo- 
crat, removed to Iowa in 1839, and settled at 
Burlington, where he occupied various offices of 
trust and profit in the gift of the Democracy. 
Mr. Clendenin received an academical educa- 
tion at Burlington, and served his time as a 
printer on the Burlington Hawkeye, Avhich was 
under the management, a portion of the time, of 
James M. Broadwell, a brother of Judge Broad- 
well, of Springfield. Mr. Clendenin has occu- 
pied various practical and editorial positions in 
this and other States. He had charge of the 
Metamora (Illinois) Sentinel for one year, and 
of the Burlington Gazette for about the same 
length of time. He entered the army from 
Philadelphia, enlisting in the Twentieth Penn- 
sylvania Infantry, serving a portion of his time 
under General McClellan. Mr. Clendenin has 
editorial charge of the Register as editor-in- 
chief, the same position he occupied on the Con- 
stitution. His articles attract attention, and are 
widely quoted; and under his management the 
Register is fast attaining the leading position 
which it should occujjy as the central organ of 
the Illinois Democracy. 

Thomas Rees comes of a family of journalists. 
His father, the late Wm. Rees, Sr., was an editor 
of many years standing, and several of his 
brothers are at present following the "art pre- 
servative of all arts" in different portions of the 
"West. Mr. Rees was born in Pittsburg, Penn- 
sylvania, May 13, 1850, and came with his father 
to the West when a small child. He served his 
time as a practical printer in his brother's office 
at Keokuk. Since his manhood he has ever oc- 
cupied responsible positions in connection with 
various newspapers in Missouri and Iowa. When 
the firm of which he is a member, and which own 
the Register, purchased the Keokuk Constitution, 
he became business manager, and has gained 

and deserves the reputation of being one of the 
best business managers in the West. He occu- 
pies the position of business manager of the 
Register, and under his skillful and honorable 
tactics the business department of the paper is 
kept up to the highest and most successful 
standard. The Eegister, under its present pro- 
prietors, has been improved in every department, 
until it is one of the handsomest, ablest and best 
conducted papers in the State. The daily has a 
large and increasing circulation. The proprie- 
tors have enlarged the weekly to an eight col- 
umn quarto, each page being twenty by twenty- 
six inches in size — eight pages, eight columns to 
a page. A new dress has been put on. It is now 
the largest paper in the State, not excepting the 
Chicago papers; and will bear comparison in ap- 
pearance, make-up and general character of its 
contents with any paper in the country. No men 
ever met with a warmer or more cordial reception 
than they met from the people and Press. Every 
Democratic paper in the State felt and expressed 
satisfaction that the recognized organ of the 
party at the State Capital had fallen into the 
hands of men with capital, brains and backbone 
to make the paper a true representative and 
worthy exponent of Democratic views. The 
Republican papers, while not Avishing them any 
success politically, wished them every pecuniary 
success. In the "Proprietor's Announcement," 
the publishers said: 

" In assuming control of the Illinois State 
Register, its new proprietors take off their hats 
to the citizens of Springfield and the people of 
Illinois, in acknowledgment that they are the 
obedient servants of a g^eat constituency, en- 
trusted wdth the guardianship of great interests. 
We profoundly feel the importance of our new 
position. We do not mean to be prolific in 
promises, nor boastful of our ability; but we 
desire with becoming modesty to take posses- 
sion of a field of labor that has been enriched 
and adorned by the culture, the talents and the 
genius of the distinguished gentlemen who 
have preceded us in conducting the paper during 
the many years of its useful life. The responsi- 
bilities of conducting the Register, in view of 
its past history and the important possibilities of 
the future, are manifold and great, and in 
assuming them we shall endeavor to perform the 
duties devolving upon us with earnestness, zeal, 
industry and courage. In doing this we trust 
too, and are confident we shall, receive the 
cordial support and warm sympathy of the busi- 
ness community and the citizens of Springfield 
and the State of Illinois. 



" We have purchased the Register and paid 
for it. It is our property so far as the material 
is concerned; but in a broader, wider sense we 
want the Register to be the people's paper. We 
intend to be its defender of theirrights andacon- 
server of their interests in every contest waged 
against the people, either by monopolizing cor- 
porations, corrupt political parties or selfish in- 
dividuals. Above capital, above parlies, above 
the most conspicuous man or men, above the 
Nation with a big N, tower the PEOPLE, every 
letter big, every right belonging to them in- 
violable. We are convinced that it is not only 
important, but absolutely essential to the safety 
of the republic and to the preservation of the 
liberties of the people that pure Democratic 
principles shall prevail. We shall maintain the 
courage of our convictions. The Register will, 
therefore, ever be found advocating those pure 
and patriotic Democratic pi'inciples, handed 
down through generations of freemen from the 
founders of the republic. In doing this, it shall 
respect those who honestly differ with it as to 
methods. While waging an unrelenting war- 
fare upon every form of encroachment upon 
popular liberty as a Democratic paper, it will 
recognize that in eveiy party there ai'e good and 
pure men, battling for what they conceive to 
be the best interests of humanity, and will 
deal courteously with its unerring opponents. 
Strongly, intensely Democratic, the Register 
will be the organ of no man or set of men. 
With cliques and factions it will hold no fellow- 

"The new proprietors of the Register have 
come to Springfield to become citizens and to 
identify themselves with the interests of the 
city, the county and the State. The ' Springfield 
idea' and the 'Illinois idea' will be the object 
of our most earnest exertions. Our efforts will 
be largely devoted to making the Register a 
valuable local paper — an indispensable visitor 
at every home in the city, and a most influential 
factor in the growth and prosperity of the city 
and State. We come among the people of this 
section of the State comparative strangers, but 
with such indorsements as but few newspaper 
men have ever received at the hands of a gener- 
ous Press throughout the states of Illinois, Iowa 
and Missouri. We are confident we shall soon 
feel at home, locally and socially. We shall 
strive to prove worthy of the confidence and 
esteem of the people. 

"The business of the Register will be con- 
ducted on business principles. Thomas Rees, 
the junior member of the firm, becomes man- 

ager, and will make his own anuouuceuients in 
the local department of the paper. Mr. Georo-e 
W. Weber, who has filled the editorial chair for 
a year and a half, retires, and H. W. Clendenin 
becomes managing editor. Mr. Weberhas our 
best wishes for success in whatever field he may 

"No change is contemplated in the local 
or mechanical departments, except that Mr. 
George Smith, the senior proprietor, will have 
general supervision of the mechanical work of 
the establishment." 

As soon as all necessary arrangements could 
be completed, both the Daily and Weekly Reg- 
ister appeared in new type, presenting a very 
handsome appearance. The weekly was en- 
larged to an eight column quarto, making it the 
largest paper in the State. 

As a printing office, the Illinois State Register 
establishment is mammoth and complete. It 
occupies a building erected especially for the 
business, fronting on Monroe street, between 
Fifth and Sixth, and extending back to the alley, 
one hundred and fifty-seven feet. On the 
ground floor are located the business office, sub- 
scription department, job room, press room, 
stock room, and boiler room; also a fire-proof 
vault for the preservation of the files of the 
paper. On the floor above are located the edi- 
torial rooms, and back of same, the composing 
room. The building is well lighted wdth win- 
dows on both sides the entire length, and heated 
by steam, conveyed in pipes throughout the 
entire structure. In addition to the newspaper, 
an extensive book and job business is carried on, 
which gives employment to a large number of 

The whole establishment is laid out on a scale 
for carrying on a large business. The press 
room is supplied with six first-class presses, a 
steam paper cutter, and other suitable conveni- 
ences. Four of the presses are expensive cylin- 
der machines, three being of the world-renowned 
Hoe pattern. 

There are about forty hands employed in the 
business, besides a corps of correspondents scat- 
tered throughout the country. The pay-roll is 
in proportion to the business carried on, and 
amounts to thousands of dollars more, every 
year, than the amount collected from the citi- 
zens of Springfield; so, that the city is con- 
stantly receiving a greater financial benefit from 
the Register, than the Register receives from 
all the people living in the city, — to say nothing 
of the indirect benefit that a live paper is to any 



The Daily Register is issued every day in the 
week, except Monday, and the Weekly is issued 
every Wednesday. 

Under the management of Smith, Clendenin 
& Rees, the daily has more than doubled its cir- 
culation, and the already large list of the weekly 
has received many new names. The list will be 
at least trebled the first year. 


The Daily Register was commenced in 1848, 
and its history is substantially that of the weekly, 
already given. The same editors and publishers 
of the one have been publishers of the other. 
It is now under the control of Smith, Clendenin 
& Rees; a large eight-column folio, printed on 
new type, and filled each day with general and 
local news. In every department it shows good 
management and business tact. 


On the first day of May, 18*73, the first num- 
ber of the Sangamo Monitor appeared, with T. 
W. S. Kidd, editor and proprietor. The Moni- 
tor presented a very neat appearance, being an 
eight-column folio, and filled well with readable 
matter. The editor was well known to every 
citizen of Springfield and Sangamon county, 
and not altogelher unknown throughout the 
State, especially by those having had business in 
the United States Court or the Supreme Court of 
this State, having been Crier of the United 
States District Court for many years. Being a 
cajiital story-teller, of the Lincoln school, he 
made many friends. Of course the j^eople 
looked for something spicy in the newspaper 
line, nor were they disappointed. The saluta- 
tory of the editor read as follows: 

" We would rather the readers of the San- 
gamo Monitor would watch the course pursued 
for the first year of its existence and draw their 
own conclusions in reference to our position on 
matters of i^ublic interest, than to set ourselves 
about defining the same. Custom has made the 
practice of newsj^apers foreshadowing the course 
pursued by them, obligatory upon us to intimate 
where we may be found on the questions of the 

"We loill be independent — we ?co?i'^ occupy 
a neutral position on any question, if we have 
concluded as to the right course. We know the 
truthfulness of the old adage, ' Wise men 
change, fools never,' too well however to say 
that we will not change front on matters of pub- 
lic interest, when convinced of error. 

"■ Our predilictions may, and as all well know 

will, have much to do in forming our opinion on 
public topics, and ve are perfectly willing to 
trust them. American all over, in our National 
pride — Democratic ( not in a partisan sense) to 
the marrow, in our sentiments and principles, — 
educated by an honest woman, and naturally 
disposed to take the golden rule as our guide, 
and the side of the underdog in the fight, in the 
relations of life, we will ask an indulgent public 
to credit us in the outset with a reasonably good 
basis, on which they can rest assured that the 
chances for our being right in the main aie at 
least good. ' No pent up Utica' shall confine 
our power to wield what infiuence we have on 
the side of the people. Springing ourselves 
from the forge, used to the hard knocks of the 
apprentice, then the jour, and lastly having 
' bossed' it a little, we think we possess, in a rea- 
sonable degree, such sympathies as will lead us 
not to forget the ' int from whence we have been 

"Politically, the Jtonest man, when placed by 
his party friends upon a ticket, or struggling in- 
dependently for a place in the service of the 
people, can fully expect justice at our hands, 
while the manipulator of cliques and the cat's- 
paw of rings, need expect no mercy, let him be 
the nominee of any convention held by whatso- 
ever party. We naturally detest deceit, whether 
practiced by cliques or individuals, under the 
cloak of religion, politics, law, or morals, and 
we intend to wage war against all such with all 
the energy and vim of our nature, regardless of 
greenbacks or relations, leaving consequences to 
take care of themselves. 

"In a word, the Monitor will aim to be just 
what its name indicates, watching the acts and 
doings of the world at large, and reporting the 
same with impartial truthfulness to the readers 
every week; the iron-clad and double-turreted 
coaster, watching our National and State pros- 
perity; ready with shot and shell to do battle 
for the 'greatest good for the greatest number.'" 

The Monitor from the beginning has made 
war against monopolies, and in favor of the 
rights of the people. Starting at a time when 
the people, especially the farming community, 
had raised the standard of anti-monopoly, the 
Monitor naturally sided with those battling for 
this cause, and its columns will bear witness of 
the many points made in defense of the doc- 
trines advocated. 

In the fall election, in 1873, the Monitor ad- 
vocated the election of the Democratic nomi- 
nees, and has since continued to support the 
men of that party, though feeling and exercis- 



ing the liberty of criticising the acts of every 
public officer. 

The Monitor was started under what might be 
termed very unfavorable circumstances. Pos- 
sessed of but little capital, as regards dollars 
and cents, but with plenty of pluck and perse- 
verance, its editor and publisher has triumphed 
over every obstacle, and has made the Monitor 
a success in every particular. Few daily or 
weekly papers in this country have been estab- 
lished without sinking a large amount of capi- 
tal, but the Monitor can boast of no such expe- 
rience. From the start, it has had a living 
patronage, and from its profits has been gath- 
ered together the material of a complete news- 
paper and job office. Both the daily and weekly 
pay the publisher a fair profit, having each a 
large circulation and a good advertising patron- 


The Sangamo Daily Monitor made its first 
appearance Thursday, June 28, 18Y7. The fol- 
lowing characteristic editorial appeared in the 
first number: 

"Shake — Fathers, Give Us a Grip — Sons, 
Pass Us Your Paw^ — Mothers, Accept Our 
Most Profound Bow — Sisters, We Embrace 
You — R Delicate Duke — Bless and Believe 
Us, FOR We Mean Business. — Like the gaily 
bedecked merry-maker of the big show, we 
bounce into the ring of daily journalism, hoping 
to be able to hold our own for another 'thirty 
days" trip into the sea of journalistic troubles, 
and a daily change of programme. We have 
grown tired of seeing and unfolding our bosom 
and budget to you but once a week. We want 
to talk to you daily, and tell you all we know of 
war, of crops, of politics, of religion, of law, and 
what we have heard in our rambles, about news 
and matters transpiring during the fast-unfold- 
ing events of twenty-four hours. We have 
grown chafed and weary of seeing those whom 
we hope to stir up to a little more evidence of 
life, have six words to our one, when 'talk's 
cheap,' and printers can be had for nothing; 
when paper-makers and type foundries furnish 
freely and gratis, and when close corporated 
monopolistic champions of the freedom of the 
Press are gaining such enviable notoriety by 
furnishing news to the people at a penny a line. 

"We are among you. You all know us, and 
can trust us or not, as you like; of this we have 
no fear. Our motto, 'Do your best, with cor- 
rect motives; then let the consequences take 
care of themselves,' has seen us through so far, 
and we hope will to the end. We propose to 


take a hand in 'posting the people.' not to preju- 
dice them, but letting everybody know what 
everybody else is doing who don't, won't or can't 
behave themselves according to the old ten, 
or new or eleventh commandment. Naughty 
humanity, behave yourself, if you don't desire a 
blast from the Monitor. ' Hold your horses,' 
fast youth, or crooked beauty, unless notoriety 
is more precious than the quiet calm of virtue's 
peaceful abode, and the joy of domestic felicity 
irksome to the speed of untamed nature, when 
without the balance wheel of wisdom and the 
pleasure-producing quality of proper motive. 
Remember us editorially, bearing in mind the 
fact that if you desire your hens to be emulated, 
'lay your largest egg' on ou7' editorial table. 
We are ever ready to chronicle events; our jour- 
nalism teaches us a broader and more general 
definition than the style of making reading only 
to the fev.\ 'personal' distinction to fewer, while 
those upon w^hom the smile of total endorsement 
is to be 'smolen' are fewest. If you want to 
know a little bit of everything, dive into your 
breeches pocket, get a three-cent piece, and stop 
the cry of the newsboy by buying a Daily 

"We ask and shall expect your encouragement, 
not as a craven, but as an honest man who knows 
he will give an equivalent in every respect. It 
may seem a trifle; it is — but remember your 'lit- 
tles ' are our ' nickels,' and while you are many 
and we few, a stoppage of your little for a week 
or two, by enough of you, might make a hole big 
enough to sink even a Monitor. Much depends 
upon trifles in this world; the ocean would cut 
but a sorry figure swimming fellows like our 
Grant or Tom Hendricks to England to show 
our bully old relative how we have 'skipped out' 
of our 'short frocks and things' since we swelled 
up his left optic in 1812, if not for trifles; and a 
great many big fellows around our own neighbor- 
hood were oncevery trifling little trifles. 'Despise 
not the day of small things!' Small beginnings 
make heavy endings, as the fellow said of the 
avalanche; and it may be that the little Monitor 
may yet be big enough to defy a torpedo. Give 
us your hand; your helping hand is the one 
asked for — we have several of another kind now 
pressing close on our skirts — and it might be 
while entertaining the Monitor you may be en- 
tertaining several small angels in disguise, float- 
ing around the homes and firesides of the boys 
depending for their bread upon the success of 
this enterprise. 

" For ourselves, we are carrying a big load, 
going up a steep hill, and each little fifteen cent 



drawback is ' tbe feather that breaks the camel's 
back' of our success, and the welfare of our set 
of printers. When we get to the level plain and 
the load is not so burdensome, we will have lots 
of time and take bushels of pleasui-e in returning 
you our grip of satisfaction at your action by our 
frequent notices of your 'style,' business, 'gait,' 
etc., in an occasional send-off on business, pleas- 
ure, when you marry, run for office, trade horses, 
swap dogs, or get into jail. We stand ready 
with the Monitor to fight to the blue for the 
honest in life matters, whether clothed in 'pur- 
ple or fine linen,' or the scanty wardrobe of a 
tramp, while you live, and when dead will do 
just as we would you should do with us, bury 
our faults and foibles, and string togetheramong 
life's cherished ornaments the sparkling beads 
of wortli found in every nature. Shake!" 

Thomas W. S. Kidd, editor and proprietor of 
the Monitor, was born in New Castle, Delaware, 
October '22, 1^28. His parents were John and 
Ann (Smith) Kidd, both natives of Delaware, 
but of Irish descent. His grandfather Kidd, 
was a farmer, and grandfather Smith, a Presby- 
terian minister. Both families came across the 
water on the same vessel; being four months on 
the ocean. The mother of Thomas died about 
three years after his birth, quite suddenly after 
giving birth to his only brother; and his father, 
about one year after, partly from a cold con- 
tracted by exposure, and partly by grief from 
the loss of his wife. 

On the death of his father, young Kidd was 
taken by a most estimable aunt, Mrs. M. J. Mc- 
Pherson. Remaining in New Castle about one 
year, the family moved to Quarryville, where 
his aunt had taken the contract to board a large 
number of hands who were employed by the 
Government, in getting out stone for the Dela- 
ware Breakwater, then being constructed by the 
Government. Here they remained four years, 
and where Thomas attended a school about six 
weeks, which comprised the entire time spent in 
the school room. Returning to New Castle 
when he was about nine years old, he spent the 
next four years in such labor as a boy could do, 
in order to help the family to a comfortable ex- 
istence. In 1840. the family moved to Phila- 
delphia, where Thomas engaged as an errand- 
boy in a merchant-tailoring establishment, and 
served about two years. At this establishment 
T. S. Arthur and other literary celebrities were 
wont to congregate, and young Kidd, in listen- 
ing to their conversation, first conceived the 
idea of learning something of books and of the 
world. At the expiration of his two years' ser- 

vice as an errand-boy, he entered the printing 
office and stereotype foundry of John Fagin, to 
learn the trade. At this time he could scarcely 
read, and knew nothing at all about writing. 
By patient endeavor he learned to read well and 
write a fair hand, and before many months ex- 
pired he was made one of the proof-readers in 
the establishment; but the life of a printer did 
not suit him. He had for many years a desire 
to learn the trade of a machinist, and when two 
years had passed of his printer's life, he ran 
away to Wilmington, Delaware, and applied 
for a situation in the railroad and machine shops 
of that city. He was told they could not give 
any attention to his application without recom- 
mendations. He then went on foot to New 
Castle and asked old friends of his father, and 
those who had known him when a small boy, to 
recommend him. This they did; and armed 
with his recommendations he returned to Wil- 
mington, to be told that he must wait three 
weeks before an opening could be made. This 
he could not do; he was away from home, with- 
out money and without friends. Starvation was 
staring him in the face; he must get work — and 
at once. He therefore bound himself to the firm 
of Hollingsworth & Teas, to learn the trade of 
blacksmith and machinist. Before the expira- 
tion of his term of service the firm failed, and 
he then engaged with Elliott & Huston, loco- 
motive builders, of Wilmington. Here he re- 
mained until 1849, when he received an invita- 
tion from Mr. Hollingsworth, who had removed 
to Chicago, to come to that city and take charge 
of the iron-shops that he was about to establish. 
He accepted the invitation and entered upon the 
work, where he remained a short time, and then 
received and accepted the appointment of trav- 
eling agent of an agricultural firm. In this line 
of business he continued with success until 1857 
— save for a short period in 1853-4, when, his 
health having failed him, he returned to his old 
home in Delaware. While east he was married, 
July 1854, to Charlotte, daughter of Jesse Jan- 
ney, of Cecil county, Maryland. Six children 
have been born unto them, two of whom are 
now living — Lizzie G. and Presco Wright. 

In February, 1856, Mr. Kidd brought his 
family to Springfield, where they have since 
continued to reside. In 1857, he served as 
bailiff in the United States Marshal's office. 
In 1858, he was elected Coroner and was also 
appointed Deputy Sheriff. In the winter of 
1858-9 and 1859-60, he served as Sheriff" of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois. In 1860, be was ap- 
pointed by Judge Treat, Crier of the United 


States District Court, which position he contin- 
ued to hold until the spring of 1S77. In addi- 
tion to the offices mentioned, Mr. Kidd served 
as Assessor in Springfield for a period of fifteen 
years, and Collector by election, two years. 

While serving as Deputy Sheriff, Mr. Kidd 
read law, and passing a successful examination 
before Judge Walker, of the Supreme Court, 
was licensed to practice. He never opened an 
office and tells upon himself that he never had 
but two cases, in the latter one he took offense 
at the answers of a colored witness, and struck 
him over the head with an iron square, and vvas 
fined by the Justice of the Peace three dollars 
for contempt of court. He then retired from 
active practice. 

As a writer Mr. Kidd has a peculiar style of 
his own. He follows the model of no man. 
When he writes a sentence, no man can mistake 
its meaning. It is plain and to the point, yet so 
worded that it cannot be thought to be from the 
pen of another. 


In 1844, the Democratic party in Sangamon 
county was somewhat divided on purely local 
issues. The Register espousing the side of one 
faction, left the other without representation. 
This necessitated the starting a second Demo- 
cratic paper in Springfield, and S. S. Brooks, 
who in 1829-30 published the Illinois Herald, 
was induced to make the venture. The new 
paper was called the Springfield Times. It was 
a small folio sheet, but edited with the vim 
characteristic of the Brooks family, who were 
born newspaper men. The Times only existed 
about one year, the party not being able to sup- 
port two organs, and the breaches in the party 
being healed. Mr. Brooks, though an excellent 
newspaper man, was no business manager, and 
never succeeded in his chosen profession. An 
old man, he wandered back to Springfield occa- 
sionally, and worked at the case in the Register 
and other offices, to secui-e a livelihood for him- 
self and family. 


Harmon G. Reynolds, the founder and editor 
of the Masonic Trowel, is one of the oldest 
Masons in the State, having taken his degrees 
in Warsaw Lodge, in 1843. He was Grand 
Marshal of the Grand Lodge in 1848, and was 
elected Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge 
and Chapter, and continued as Grand Secretary 
of the Lodge until 1851. In 18G8, he was 
elected Grand Master, and held this position for 

two years. He remained Seci'etary of the Grand 
Chapter until 1869. He assisted in the initia- 
tory work of forming the Grand Council of 
Royal and Select Masters, and was the first 
Recorder of that body. Mr. Reynolds has been 
Master of three lodges, and High Priest of three 
Chapters, and was first Commander of El wood 
Commandery No. 6, of this city. All of Avhich 
positions he filled with credit to himself and 
honor to the fraternity. He also received, in 
1854, the thirty-second degree ol the Ancient 
Scottish Eites, and the thirty-third in Boston, in 
1864. In 1858, he located in this city, and 
established, in 1862, the Masonic Trowel, with 
which paper he retained his connection until 
1868. He has always had the editorial control 
of its columns, and his labors therein have re- 
dounded to the general welfare and prosperity 
of the craft at large. By the fire, on the night 
of the 22d of February, by which the Trow^el 
was destroyed, he was stripped of every dollar 
of his earthly possessions. 


In 1857 a paper under the above name w^as 
started in Springfield by J. J. Clarkson, with 
Elliott B. Herndon, editoi-. As its name implies 
it was a Democratic paper, and was started to 
combat the heresies supposed to exist in a por- 
tion of the Democratic party, headed by Stephen 
A. Douglas. It lived about three years. 


This was a five column quarto, issued every 
Sunday morning by The Mail Company, and 
was well filled with local news. It was short- 


Many attempts have been made to publish a 
German paper in Springfield, but until the Frei 
Presse was started, all prior to that had proven 
failures. On the eleventh day of January, 1872, 
Edward Rummel, then Secretary of State, com- 
menced the publication of the Frei Presse, an 
eight column folio, in support of the Liberal 
movement then being advocated by such men as 
Horace Greeley, Charles Sumner, John M. Pal- 
mer and others. Mr. Rummel only retained con- 
nection about three months, and then sold to 
Gehring & Hotze,two practical German printers. 
Mr. Gehring assumed editorial control of the 
paper, and has since continued to act as manag- 
ing editor. The success of the paper was assured 
from the start, the Germans largely supporting 
the new movement. It has had a uniform, steady 



growth, and is not only regarded as the most 
successful German paper, but is said to be the 
most successful German or English paper in 
Springfield. The office is well supplied with 
type and presses, and does a general book and 
job business in connection with the publication 
of the paper. After a time, Mr. Hotze retired, 
and Mr. Gehring became sole editor and pro- 

Frederick Gehring was born in Baden, Ger- 
many, March 4, 1841. His early life was spent 
in that country, in attendance upon the common 
and high schools. In 1856, he came to America, 
and settled in Lafayette, Indiana, where he en- 
tered a German newspaper office, to learn the 
trade of a printer. Here he remained about 
three years, and then went to Indianapolis and 
worked as a journeyman printer. From Indian- 
apolis he drifted on to St. Louis, where he was 
when the war for the Union commenced. Re- 
turning to Indianapolis, he enlisted as a private 
in the Fifteenth Indiana Infantry, and served 
three years, being wounded at the battle 
of Stone river. On his recovery he was placed 
on detached duty, where he remained until the 
close of his term of enlistment, when he was dis- 
charged. Returning to Indianapolis, he served 
for some years as local editor of the Telegraph, 
rf that city, and for about six months as po- 
litical editor of a German paper. On the 19th 
day of October, 1805, he was united in marriage 
to Miss Ivathrina May, of Indianapolis. They 
have had six children, three of whom are now 
living — two boys and one girl. In April, 1872, 
Mr. Gehring and his family came to Springfield, 
and he purchased an interest in the Frei Presse. 
In 1874 he was elected a member of the legis- 
lature, by the combined Liberal and Democratic 
vote, and was classed in the House, i)olitically, 
as a Democratic-Liberal. He now claims to be 
a Liberal-Democrat, and the Frei Presse as a 
Liberal-Democratic paper. In the legislature, 
he was placed on the committee on mines and 
mining, the committee on printing, and also on 
education. The committee on mines and mining 
framed the law that was passed regulating the 
government of mines. Mr. Gehring is a mem- 
ber of the A. O. U. W., and Turn-Verien. He 
was the originator of the Building Associations 
of Springfield, and has taken great interest in 
their work. Lie is a good writer, and a prac- 
tical business man. 


The Staats Wochenblatt is a large seven 
column quarto, and was established in the fall 

of 1878, its first number bearing dale November 
21, H. Schlange is the editor and proprietor. 
The Wochenblatt has been a success from the 
start, it i^ow having a bona fide circulation of 
fifteen hundred copies weekly. Mr. Schlange 
was born November 16, 1844, at Hanover, Ger- 
many, As soon as sufficiently advanced he 
entered the Jacobson Institute, where he re- 
mained until he was sixteen years of age. He 
then entered the army as a private, and passed 
the various grades of promotion until he was 
made Assistant Quartermaster. In 1865 he came 
to America and landed at New Y^oik in the early 
part of December, where he remained a few 
days and proceeded to Springfield, Illinois, his 
destination, arriving there January 2, 1866. 
At Springfield, he learned the trade of cigar- 
maker, and continued in that business until he 
established the Wochenblatt, in 1878. At this 
time there was no Republican German paper in 
Springfield, and Mr. Schlange thought it to be a 
good opportunity to establish one. The result has 
more than exceeded his most sanguine expecta- 
tions. Mr. Schlange and Anna Ahrtns were 
married in Lincoln, Illinois, February 25, 1868. 
Two children have been born unto them — 
August and Lena. 


In 1873 Lowdermilk & Stover commenced the 
publication of the Auburn Herald, a six column 
folio. The paper was started mainly for the 
purpose of affording the business men of Auburn 
an advertising medium, but the citizens believed 
it should be something more, and therefore the 
experiment was tried of giving the community a 
good local paper. Not having an office of their 
own, the printing was done in Yirden at the 
office of the Virden News, and the paper circu- 
lated from Auburn. After the expiration of 
about five mo]iths, a stock company was formed 
for the purchase of office material, and the outfit 
was purchased of the Virden News in August, 
1874, M. G. Wadsworth, of Auburn, and W. F. 
Thompson, of Virden, becoming publishers, by^ 
purchase from the stock company. 

A sketch of the senior proprietor of the Her- 
ald — W. W. Lowdermilk — will be found in con- 
nection with the History of Auburn. A. B. 
Stover, the junior, came from Havana, Illinois. 
He was at one time editor of the Mason County 
Herald. When he came to Auburn he engaged 
as a clerk in a dry goods store, retaining con- 
nection after engaging in editorial work. He 
was an easy and fluent writer. After the Herald 
changed hands, he made a profession of religion 



and conducted a series of meetings in Auburn 
with great success. He was induced to go before 
the Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and by that body was licensed to preacli 
the Gospel. He is a good talker and is now 
meeting with success in the ministry. 

When Wadsworth & Thompson became the 
proprietors of the Herald they rented a room in 
the bank building and continued its publication. 
At the commencement of the second volume the 
name was changed to the Auburn Citizen, and 
the paper enlarged to a seven column folio. The 
following spring the senior bought out the junior 
partner's interest, and has since been sole jDro- 
prietor. The Citizen was enlarged to an eight 
column folio April 22, 1880, and changed to a 
five column quarto, December 9, 1880. The 
Citizen has no political bias, its si^ecial mission 
being local news. It is at present the only paper 
published in Sangamon county outstde of Spring- 

Moses G. Wadsworth was born in Hallowell, 
Kennebec county, Maine, February 3, 1826, and 
is the son of Daniel and Margaret F. Wads- 
worth. His parents were of English and Welsh 
origin, the father being descended, on the 
father's side, from Peregrin White, the first 
white child born in America. Moses G. came 
to Illinois, m his fifteenth year with his parents, 
settling in (old) Aixburn, where the parents are 
still living, the father in his eighty-third and 
the mother in her eightieth year. They have 
resided in the same house about thirty-eight 
years. Moses G. Wadsworth was married in 
September, 1849, to Elizabeth F. Wheeler, of 
Macoupin county, who died in May, 1857, leav- 
ing five children, four of whom are living. He 
was married again in November, 1862, to Mary 
E. Day, of Chatham, who has borne him seven 
children, four of whom are living. Until after 
the death of his first wife, Mr. Wadsworth fol- 
lowed farming. After that he worked princi- 
pally at carpenter work, until his connection 
with the Auburn Herald (afterwards Citizen,) in 
1879. He was clerk of his township three 
years; assessor one year, and tax collector nine 
years. He has been school trustee ten or more 
years, and Secretary of Ark and Anchor Lodge 
of Masons, eleven years. 


The only evening paper at present published 
in Springfield, was established in January, 1880, 
the first number being issued on the 3d. Its 
publication was decided upon by a number of 
printers and newspaper men of the city, who 

were out of employment at the time, caused by 
a strike in the composing room of the Register 
oftice. There being no evening paper in the city, 
they decided to occupy the field, and incorpo- 
rated the Capital Co-operative Publishing Com- 
pany, with a capital of l^ljOOO, which was subse- 
quently increased to |2,000. Charles W. Bovard, 
F. H. B. McDowell, Andrew McWeeney, J. H. 
Duggan, W. H. Mursinna, William F. Aitken, 
T. F. Harrington, J. M. Higgins, Louis Souther, 
and Louis Schuckers, were the original stock- 
holders. F. H. B. McDowell was elected editor- 
in-chief, with J. M. Higgins and Louis Souther 
as associates. During the first month, Messrs. 
Souther and Higgins withdrew from the com- 
pany. Mr. McDowell continued as editor-in- 
chief until the latter part of May in that year, 
when, owing to a dissatisfaction among the 
stockholders and a desire on their part to sus- 
tain the principles of the Greenback party, he 
withdrew. At that time, the paper had become 
well established, and its circulation was the 
largest it attained during the year. Mr, J. K. 
Magie was elected editor-in-chief, on Mr. Mc- 
Dowell's withdrawal, and occupied that position 
until August 1, when, the business of the paper 
having been badly damaged by his administra- 
tion, at the request of the Board of Directors, 
Mr. McDowell again assumed its management, 
and he now owns nearly all the stock of the 
company. The paper is a handsome seven- 
column folio, having been enlarged from a six- 
column folio on the 16th of October, 1881. Its 
political tone is of the stalwart Republican 
order, and it exerts no little local influence. Its 
circulation is largely among the working classes. 
Its subscription price is |5 per jear. 

Among those who have contributed to the 
success of the paper, a mournful tribute is due 
to the late Henry G. Fitzhugh,who died Novem- 
ber 13, 1880, at the age of twenty-two years, at 
the time of his death being its city editor. He 
was one of the brightest young journalists the 
city has ever produced, and his sad death, after 
a short illness of pneumonia, was a shock to all 
who knew him. His remains were interred at 
Oak Ridge. 

The present editorial staff of the paper is 
composed of F. H. B. McDowell, S. P. Y. 
Arnold, and L. M. Snell. 

Mr. McDowell was born at Freeport, Illinois, 
January 7, 1854. Compelled at the age of thir- 
teen to leave the High School, by the necessity 
of his earnings for the 8up])ort of his father's 
family, he entered the oftice of the Freepoi't 
Bulletin, in March, 1868, as an apprentice, and 



acquired the printer's trade. In January, 1872, 
he left his home for Chicago, Avhere he remained 
until the fall of 1876, working at his trade in 
the Chicago Tribune composing room. In No- 
vember of that year he formed a partnership 
Avith W. W. Lewis in the publication of the 
Carroll County Gazette, at Lanark, Illinois. The 
jjartnership continued until February, 1878, 
when Mr. Lewis retired, and he continued its 
l)ublication until January, 1879, when he dis- 
posed of the paper and removed to Chicago. In 
September of that year he was elected Secretary 
of the State Bureau of Labor Statistics, which 
position he now holds. He was married to 
Anna Magnusson JeM'ett, of Chicago, in Novem- 
ber, 1876. 

S. P. V. Arnold, associate editor and business 
manager of the Post, was born in Steubenville, 
Ohio, in 1854, where he resided until twelve 
years of age, when he removed to Columbus, 
Ohio. He was educated at Otterbein Univer- 
sity, at Westerville, Ohio, and graduated at the 
National Normal School, at Lebanon, Ohio, in 
1875. Previous to and after graduating, he 

taught school for seven years. In the fall of 
1878, he went to St. Louis and established the 
American Trade Journal, which he continued 
until August, 1881, when he sold his interest in 
the paper and came to Springfield, and became 
connected with the Post as associate editor and 
business manager, 


Many campaign papers have been issued in 
Springfield; the most noted of which were the 
'•Old Soldier," published in 1840, by the Whig 
general committee; and the "Old Hickory," 
published by the Democratic general commit- 
tee. Each of these papers had a circulation of 
35,000 copies, and were very effective campaign 
sheets, and will readily be called to mind by the 
old settler. 

The "Conservative" was a seven-column folio, 
issued during the presidential campaign of 1856, 
and supporting Millard Fillmore for the presi- 
dency. It was edited by a committee of the 
Springfield Fillmore Club, and was an interest- 
ing political sheet. 



Chapter XII. 


Since the discovery of the New World by- 
Christopher Columbus, there has ever seemed 
a disposition to push on toward the setting sun. 
Like the story told children of the sack of gold 
placed at the termination of the rainbow, which 
creates an earnest desire in their hearts to secure 
the treasure, so there appears before the eyes of 
all men, in dazzling splendor, visions of untold 
wealth and honors, to be secured in the great 

Early in the spring of 1 846, a party was organ- 
ized in this county for California and the Pacific 
coast. Gold had not then been discovered, but 
a knowledge of the beautiful Sacramento valley 
had been obtained, and it was thought a home 
could there be made which would he delightful 
and pleasing to all. The party left Springfield 
April 14, 1846, full of hope and spirit, looking 
forward to the time when they should reach 
their destinations and be at rest. Little did 
they anticipate the trials and tribulations that 
awaited them as they passed over the mountains 
and across the great American Desert. When 
they left Springfield, the party numbered thirty- 
four persons. The following named were among 
the number: 

James F. Reed and Mrs. Margaret W. Reed, 
his wife, with their four children, Virginia 
E. B., Martha J., James F., Jun., and Thomas 
K.; also Mrs. Sarah Keyes, the mother of Mrs. 

George Donner and Mrs. Tamsen Donner, his 
wife, with their five children, Elitha C, Leanna 
C, Francis E., Georgiana and Elizabeth P. 

Jacob Donner and Mrs. Elizabeth Donner, his 
wife, with their five children, Isaac, Lewis, 
Samuel, George and Mary; also William and 
Solomon Hook, children of Mrs. Donner by a 
former marriage. 

There were also Milford Elliott — often men- 
tioned as Milton Elliott — James Smith, John 

Denton, Eliza and Bayless Williams, Walter 
Herron and Hiram O. Miller. There were some 
others, but I have been unable to learn their 

Leaving Springfield, their first point of desti- 
nation was Independence, Missouri, where they 
were to make the final preparation for crossing 
the plains. They were joined at various points 
by parties from other places, as follows: 

From Lacon, Illinois: Jay Fausdick and 
Mrs. Sarah F'ausdick, his wife. Mr. and Mrs. 
Graves, with their eight children, Frank, Mary, 
William, Ellen, Lavina, Nancy, Jonathan and 
Elizabeth. Mrs. Fausdick was a daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Graves. 

From Iowa: Patrick Brien — spelled, in some 
places, Brei-n and Breen — Margaret Brien, Mar- 
garet J., John, Edward, Patrick Jun., Simon, 
James and Peter Brien, and Patrick Dolen. 

From Belleville, Illinois: J. P. Eddy, Mrs. 
Eddy and W. H. Eddy. 

From St. Louis, Missouri: William Foster, 
Mrs. Foster and George Foster; and from Ray 
county, Missouri: William McCutchen, Mrs. 
Mc(^utchen and Harriet McCutchen. 

From Tennessee: Lemuel Murphy, Mrs. Mur- 
phy, Lander, Mary, William and Samuel Mur- 
phy; William Pike, Cynthia Pike and N. Pike. 

From Germany: Mr. and Mrs. Kiesberger, 
or Keysburg, B. and L. S. Keysburg. Mrs. 
Wolfinger, Mr. Rhinehart, Mr. Spitzger and 
Carl Berger. 

From Springfield, Ohio: Samuel Shoemaker. 

From Chicago, Illinois: C. T. Stanton. 

At Independence the party laid in their sup- 
plies for the long journey across the plains. At 
that time it was absolutely necessary that emi- 
grants should travel together in large bodies in 
order to protect themselves from the Indians, 
and it was never safe to start until the grass had 



sufficiently grown to afford subsistence for the 

Early in May the journey began from. Inde- 
pendence. No trouble was experienced until 
they came to Big Blue river, four miles above 
its month. They found the stream quite full, 
and had to provide themselves with rafts before 
crossing. Just before reaching this place, Mrs. 
Keyes, the mother of Mrs. Reed, became ill, and 
while here, on the morning of May 29, breathed 
her last. All work was suspended and each per- 
son vied with the other in rendering to her the 
last tribute of respect. A neat coffin was con- 
structed, the remains placed in it and buried on 
a beautiful elevation, near a burr-oak tree. Re- 
ligious services Avere conducted by a minister 
present with the party. The grave was sodded 
and the tree made to serve the purpose of a head- 
board. On it was cut the following inscription: 

"Sarah Keys, aged 70 years. Died 29tli May, 1846. 
From Springfield, Illiuois." 

At the foot, a coarse white stone, resembling 
marble, was placed, containing the words: 

"Mrs. S. Keys. Aged 70 years." 

Flowers and young cedars were placed at the 
head and foot of the grave. 

Between Independence and Blue river the 
Reed and Donner party fell in with Colonel W. 
H. Russell and company, who had left Inde- 
pendence a few days before them. Passing Blue 
river, they all traveled together until they reach- 
ed Little Sandy river, where a sej^aration took 
place, the majority of them going to Oregon; 
Colonel Russell heading the latter. The day 
after the separation the Reed and Donner party 
elected George Donner, Captain, and from that 
time it was known as the "Donner Company." 
They continued their journey up the valley of 
the Platte river, passing Fort Laramie and cross- 
ing the Rocky Mountains to Fort Bridger with- 
out any serious mishap. This had occupied the 
entire summer. They tarried at the Fort four 
days. Letters had been left here for the party, 
warning them against taking the Plasting's Cut- 
Off, and advising them to go by the Foit Hall 
route. The latter was an established and well 
known route, but much longer than the former, 
and required a detour to the northwest. The 
Hasting's Cut-Off passed through Webber's 
canyon to the south end of the great Salt Lake, 
near where the city of Salt Lake has since been 
built. This route being more direct and some 
three hundred miles shorter, was an inducement 
to emigranis to go that way. Unfortunately, the 

letters were not delivered, and the Donner party 
concluded to take the shorter route. 

Approaching the mouth of the Webber can- 
yon, they found a letter sticking in the top of a 
sage bush from Hastings, the discoverer of the 
new route. He was then piloting a company 
through, and proposed to the Donner Company 
that, if they would send messengers for him, he 
;would return and pilot them through a better 
way than the one by which they were directed. 
In response to the letter, Reed, Stanton and Mc- 
Cutchen, of the Donner party, hastened on to 
accpt the offer of Mr. Hastings. The latter then 
came back part of the way and after piloting the 
three men a few miles, gave them directions, and 
returned to the first party he was piloting 
through. Reed, Stanton and McCutchen then 
returned to their own party, and all went to work, 
and by digging and cutting timber, made a road 
passing to the south end of Salt Lake, crossing 
the outlet of the lake, now" called the river Jor- 
dan. Passing to the northwest around the lake, 
they were detained a few days by the death, 
from consumption, of Mr. Halloran, one of the 

A few more days' travel brought them to the 
springs where they were to provide water and 
grass for crossing Hasting's Desert, an akaline 
desert, destitute of water and vegetation. They 
were led to believe it was less than fifty miles 
across, but it proved to be nearer eighty. It was 
understood that they must travel day and night, 
stopping only long enough to feed and water 
the cattle. When about two-thirds of the way 
across, the stock manifested signs of being ex- 
hausted, and Mr. Reed vas requested to go for- 
ward until he found water and then report. 
After traveling about twenty miles he found 
water, and returning, about eleven o'clock at 
night, he met his teamsters driving the cattle, 
having left their wagons. After directing them 
how to proceed, he went on to meet his family 
and the remainder of the company. Soon after 
leaving his teamsters one of their horses sunk 
down in the road, and while they were endeav- 
oring to raise it, the cattle scented the water, 
scattered, and nine yoke of them were never 
found. Only one ox and one cow remained. 

About daylight the next morning, Mr. Reed 
succeeded in reaching his family, and found 
them alone, the remainder of the party having 
continued their journey, none of them having 
taken their teams from the wagons except Mr. 
Reed's men. Not knowing that his cattle were 
lost, Mr. Reed waited with his family all day, 
expecting some of his men to return and haul 



them to water. Not receiving any information, 
and their supply of water being nearly gone, he 
started with his family on foot, carrying his 
youngest child in his arms. In the course of the 
night the childi'en became exhausted, so they 
spread a blanket on the ground and all lay down 
on it, covering themselves with shawls. A cold 
wind commenced blowing soon after they lay 
down, and the children could only be kept warm 
by having their four dogs lie down against them 
outside the shawls. 

About daylight they moved on, and soon came 
to a wagon which belonged to Jacob Donner 
and which contained his family, Mr. Donner 
having gone forward for water. He soon after 
returned and took his own and Mr. Reed's 
family to the source of the supply, where they 
remained in camp for about one week, spending 
the time in searching for the lost cattle. The 
search was unavailing, it being believed the 
Indians had secured all of them. Mr. Reed, as 
soon as he became convinced his cattle could 
not be found, divided among others his pro- 
visions, except what he could haul in one wagon, 
and leaving seven wagons on the plains, the 
party again resumed their journey. Winter was 
close upon them and the party was hundreds of 
miles from any human habitation. 

After proceeding some days on their journey 
it was found that provisions were running short. 
An estimate was made of the quantity it would 
take for each family. It was now proposed by 
Mr. Reed, that two of the number should hur- 
riedly proceed forward to Captain Sutter's, in 
California, and secure supplies, Mr. Reed becom- 
ing personally responsible for the payment. 
William McCutchen, of Missouri, and Mr. Stan- 
ton, of Chicago, volunteered for this purpose. 
They started upon their journey and weeks 
passed without any tiding from them. It was 
now suggested that Mr. Reed go in advance to 
see what had become of them, and hurry up 

At this time the two Donner families were in 
advance of the main body. Walter Ilerron was 
with the Donner's and when Mr. Reed over- 
took them, Herron volunteered to go with him, 
which offer was accepted. Having but one 
horse, they rode by turns. Their provisions giv- 
ing out, they traveled for days without food, 
except wild geese and other game which they 
occasionally killed on Truckee river. When 
they reached the Sierra Nevada mountains, Her- 
ron wanted to kill the horse, and Mr. Reed per- 
suaded him from it by agreeing to kill him 
rather than perish with hunger. That afternoon 


Herron became delirious for want of food. 
They found five beans. Ilerron ate three of 
them, and Reed the other two. The next morn- 
ing they came upon some abandoned wagons, 
which they ransacked, but failed to find any 
food. Taking the tar-bucket from one of the 
wagons, and scraping the tar from the bottom, 
Mr. Reed discovered a streak of rancid tallow 
in the bottom, which he made known to Herron, 
who swallowed a piece about the size of a wal- 
nut without giving it a smell. He swallowed a 
second piece, and wanted more, which Mr. Reed 
refused to give him, having himself eaten some 
which made him deathly sick. They soon after 
descended into Bear river valley, where they 
found some emigrants in wagons, who gave 
them food and relieved their sufferings. They 
there met Mr. Stanton and two Indians sent by 
Captain Sutter to aid in carrying provisions. 
Mr. Reed was so emaciated that Mr. Stanton 
did not recognize him until they had conversed 
with each other several minutes. The next 
morning, October 23, 1846, each party continued 
their journey. Mr. Reed went on to Captain 
Sutter's, where he secured thirty horses, one 
mule and two Indians to aid him in bringing out 
the sufferers. He was joined by Mr. McCutchen, 
who had been separated from Mr. Stanton by 
sickness. With some flour and meat they 
started to meet the suffering emigrants in the 
mountains. After weeks spent in unavailing 
efforts, they had to return, as men and horses 
sank out of sight in the snow. It was evident 
that nothing could be done until spring, the 
mountaineers all being absent fightingMexicans, 
the war with Mexico having commenced the 
year before, and the natives of Spanish and 
Indian blood having expressed a determination 
to exterminate the Americans. 

Snow commenced falling the latter part of 
October, and caught the whole party, not in a 
body, but scattered along some distance, the ex- 
tremes being probably a day's journey apart. 
The following journal, kept by one of the suf- 
ferers, includes the time from October 31, 1846, 
to March 1, 1847, and is from the Illinois State 
Journal, of September 16, 1847: 

Truckee's Lake, November 20, 1846. — Came 
to this place on the 31st of last month; went 
into the Pass, the snow so deep we were unable 
to find the road, and when within three miles 
from the summit, turned back to this shanty, on 
Truckee's Lake. Stanton came up one day, after 
we arrived here; we again took our teams and 
wagons, and made another unsuccessful attempt 
to cross the mountains, as it continued to snow 



all the time. We now have killed most part of 
our cattle, having to remain here until next 
spring, and live on lean meat, vi'ithout bread or 
salt. It snowed during the space of eight days, 
with little intermission, after our arrival, though 
now clear and pleasant, freezing at night; the 
snow nearly gone from the valleys. 

Nov. 21 — Fine morning, wind northwest; 
twenty-two of our company about starting to 
cross the mountains this day, including Stanton 
and his Indians. 

Nov. 22 — Froze hard last night; fine and clear 
to-day; no account from those on the mountains. 

Nov. 23 — Same weather, wind west; the ex- 
pedition across the mountains returned after an 
unsuccessful attempt. 

Nov. 25 — Cloudy; looks like the eve of a 
snow storm; our mountaineers are to make an- 
other trial to-morrow, if fair; froze hard last 

Nov. 26. — Began to snow last evening; now 
rains or sleets; the party do not start to-day. 

Nov. 29 — Still snowing; now about three feet 
deep; wind west; killed my last oxen to-day; 
gave another yoke to Foster; wood hard to be 

Nov. 30 — Snowing fast; looks as likely to con- 
tinue as when it commenced; no living thing, 
without wings, can get about. 

Dec. 1 — Still snowing; wind west; snow about 
six or six and one-half feet deep; very difficult 
to get wood, and we are completely housed up; 
our cattle all killed but two or three, and these, 
with the horses and Stanton's mules, all sup- 
posed to be lost in the snow; no hopes of find- 
ing them alive. 

Dec. 3 — Ceased snowing; cloudy all day; warm 
enough to thaw. 

Dec. 4 — Beautiful sunshine; thawing a little; 
looks delightful, after the long storm; snow sev- 
en or eight feet deep. 

Dec. 5 — The morning fine and clear; Stanton 
and Graves manufacturing snow-shoes for an- 
other mountain scramble; no account of mules. 

Dec. 8 — Fine weather; froze hard last night; 
wind southwest; hard work to find wood suf- 
ficient to keep us warm, or cook our beef. 

Dec. 9 — Commenced snowing about eleven 
o'clock; wind northwest; took in Spitzer yester- 
day, so weak that he cannot rise without help, 
caused by starvation. Some have a scant supply 
of beef; Stanton trying to get some for himself 
and Indians; not likely to get much. 

Dec. 10 — Snowed fast all night, with heavy 
squalls of wind; continues to snow; now about 
seven feet in depth. 

Dec. 14 — Snows faster than any previous day; 
Stanton and Graves, with several others, making 
preparations to cross the mountains on snow 
shoes; snow eight feet on a level. 

Dec. 16 — Fair and pleasant; froze hard last 
night; the company started on snow shoes to 
cross the mountains; wind southeast. 

Dec. IV — Pleasant; William Murphy returned 
from the mountain party last evening; Bayless 
Williams died night before last; Milton and 
Noah started for Donner's eight days ago; not 
returned yet; think they are lost in the snow. 

Dec. 19 — Snowed last night; thawing to day; 
wind northwest, a little singular for a thaw. 

Dec. 20 — Clear and pleasant; Mrs. Reed here; 
no account from Milton yet; Charles Berger set 
out for Donner's; turned back, unable to pro- 
ceed; tough times, but not discouraged; our 
hopes are in God. Amen! 

Dec. 21 — Milton got back last night from 
Donner's camp; sad news; Jacob Donner, Sam- 
uel Shoemaker, Rhinehart and Smith are dead; 
the rest of them in a low situation; snowed all 
night, with a strong southwest wind. 

Dec. 23 — Clear to-day; Milton took some of 
his meat away; all well at their camp. Began 
this day to read the "thirty day's Prayers;" Al- 
mighty God grant the requests of unworthy 

Dec. 24 — Rained all night and still continues; 
poor prospect for any kind of comfort, spiritual 
or temporal. 

Dec. 25 — Began to snow yesterday; snowed 
all night and snows yet, rapidly; extremely dif- 
ficult to find wood; offered our prayers to God 
this (Christmas) morning; the prospect is ap- 
palling, but we trust in Him. 

Dec. 21 — Cleared off yesterday; continues 
clear; snow nine feet deep; wood growing 
scarcer; a tree, when felled, sinks into the snow, 
and is hard to be got at. 

Dec. 30 — Fine clear morning; froze hard last 
night; Charles Berger died last evening about 
ten o'clock. 

Dec. 31 — Last of the year; may we, with the 
help of God, spend the coming year better than 
we have the past, which we propose to do if it 
be the will of the Almighty to deliver us from 
our present dreadful situation; Amen. Morn- 
ing fair, but cloudy; wind east-by-south; looks 
like another snow storm; snow storms are dread- 
ful to us; the snow at present is very deep. 

(Tan. 1, 1847 — We pray the God of mercy to 
deliver us from our present calamity, if it be 
His holy will. Commenced snowing last night, 
and snows a little yet; provisions getting scant; 



dug up a hide from under the snow yesterday; 
have not commenced on it yet. 

Jan. 3 — Fair during the day; freezing at 
night; Mrs. Reed talks of crossing the moun- 
tains with her children. 

Jan. 4 — Fine morning, looks like spring; Mrs. 
Reed and Virginia, Milton Elliott and Eliza 
Williams started a short time ago, with the hope 
of crossing the mountain; left the children 
here; it was difficult for Mrs. Reed to part with 

Jan. 6 — Eliza came back from the mountains 
yesterday evening, not able to proceed; the 
others kept ahead. 

Jan. 8 — Very cold this morning; Mrs. Reed 
and others came back, could not find their way, 
on the other side of the mountains; they have 
nothing but hides to live on. 

Jan. 10 — Began to snow last night; still con- 
tinues; wind west-north-west. 

Jan. 13 — Snowing fast; snow higher than the 
shanty; it must be thirteen feet deep; cannot 
get wood this morning; it is a dreadful sight 
for us to look upon. 

Jan. 14 — Cleared oif yesterday; the sun shin- 
ing brilliantly renovates our spirits; praise be 
to the God of Heaven. 

Ja)i. 15 — Clear day again; wind northwest; 
Mrs. Murphy blind; Lanthron not able to get 
wood; has but one axe between him and Kies- 
burg; it looks like another storm; expecting 
some account from Sutter's soon. 

Jan. 17 — Lanthron became crazy last night; 
provisions scarce; hides our main subsistence; 
may the Almighty send us help. 

Jan. 21 — Fine morning; John Battise and 
Mr. Denton came this morning with Eliza. She 

will not eat hides; Mrs. sent her back to 

live or die on them. 

Jati. 22 — Began to snow after sunrise; likely 
to continue; wind north. 

Jan. 23 — Blew hard and snowed all night; the 
most severe storm we have experienced this 
winter; wind west. 

Jan. 26 — Cleared up yesterday; to-day fine 
and pleasant, wind south; in hopes we are done 
with snow storms; those who went to Sutter's 
not yet returned; provisions getting scant; peo- 
ple growing weak; living on small allowance of 

Jan. 28 — Commenced snowing yesterday — 
still continues to-day. Lewis (Sutter's Indian,) 
died three day's ago; food growing scarcer; 
don't have fire enough to cook our hides. 

Jan. 30 — Fair and pleasant; wind west; thaw- 
ing in the sun; John and Edward Breen went to 

Graves' this morning; the seized on Mrs. 

goods until tJiey would be paid; they 

also took the hides which herself and family