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Full text of "History of Santa Barbara county, California, with illustrations and biographical sketches of its prominent men and pioneers"

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'In the fairest of valleys, on the tiaiiquilest shore. 
By mountains walled in, and an ocean before. 
With her brow on the hills, and her feet to the sea, 
Santa Barbara stands — the Queen that's to be. 

"O, these skies are the brightest, these heavens more bin 
And the air is the softest that ever shed dew; 
The stars are so near, the sun's beams so mild. 
They fall on the cheek like the hand of a child. 

' 'Tis the land of all lands, where Flora, in pride. 
Each month of the year has a rose by her side ; 
Flowers, bright-hued, most fragrant and rare. 
Like rainbows, entwine her, perfuming the air. 

' Pomona's soft and exuberant hands 
Here mellow the fruits of the sunniest lands. 
And the fig, and the date, the orange and lime. 
Fall in her lap in the glad autumn time. 

'Shall we sing of the vintage, and tell of the vine. 
Its rich, purple clusters, and red, gushing wine ; 
Of ripe, golden harvests, that volunteer now. 
Unlabored, unsown, unve.xed with the plow, 
Where an unwilling soil, and sweat of the face. 
No longer are known as the curse of our race ; 
But reapers returning, rejoice as they come 
To their bright, happy homes in the land of the sun ! 

'We'll sing not of granaries fdl'd to the brim. 
Of fields and of flocks, in a pastoral hymn. 
Santa Barbara, these are thy gifts to the strong. 
The burden and theme of the laborer's song; 
Yet greater, by far, than all thou canst boast 
Is the health-giving breeze of thy mountains and coast. 
Thy clime is thy glory — humanity hails 
And welcomes the sick to thy health-giving vales. 

' Montecito's evergreen boscage and vale, 

Fair, at the foot of the mountain reposes. 
Like a beauty asleep, while the partridge and quail 

Wing o'er her brow the fragrance of roses. 
The emerald oaks o'er the hills slope away 

To the verge of the sea in arboreal shade. 
While the thatch-and-tile cot of a primitive day 

Peep out o'er the homes that the Saxon has made.' 

'Would you know of this land, and the hue of its skies. 

The perfumes of its gardens and groves ever green, 
The glories of morn, or the day's matchless guise. 

Till the jewels of night in the clear heavens gleam. 
And their crystalline beauties are seen, not afar. 
Through the gates of Elysium, smiling ajar. 
Then come to this valley, and, wondering, behold 
Its charms more enchanting than poets have told. 


The publishers of this volume have been engaged many years in county publications, 
and consequently speak from experience when they assure the patrons of this work that 
it has come the nearest to being a labor of love of any of their numerous projects. We 
have kept as near the facts as our means of information would permit. 

When the historian once entered the field of exploration, boundless vistas of for- 
gotten incidents came to view, where years might be spent with profit, where the polit- 
ical economist, as well as the student in ethics and sociology would find rich material 
for thought. This was particularly true regarding the pastoral age, and also, to a great 
extent, in the missionary period. The recorded facts regarding those periods are exceed- 
ingly' few. Most of the actors are dead, and the few remaining are chary of referring 
to their ancient greatness, being conscious of a want of strength, in being displaced by 
the stirring man of money. If there is not as full a relation of these events as some 
might deem proper, the want of time must be our excuse. 

The earlier years of American occupation, or from 1846 to 1868, a period of over 
twenty years, were full of stirring incident. The paper published for a few years by 
Keep & Hubbard gives but a sample of the times previous to the great emigration 
about 1868, and the publishers have to beg the indulgence of the public in regard to that 
portion of it, in consequence of the difliculty of obtainining true accounts thereof. 

After the establishing of the Press by J. A. Johnson there is no lack of material for 
history. The papers of the day give a perfect picture of the change of ownership in 
land, and the setting up of new proprietors, new thoughts, and new industries. Here 
again time was necessary to arrange and digest the great amount of rich material. 
When the reader eonsidei-s that the historian, with his assistants, was in the field from 
October, 1881, to September, 1882, and gathered his material from every source — news- 
papers, county records, thousands of interviews, and much travel, much of the infor- 
mation being of uncertain value, often contradictory, and aggregating perhaps 1 0,000 
pages of manuscript, all of which had to be put in shape for. the printer and boolt- 
binder in five months, he can form some idea of the magnitude of the work, and cease to 
wonder that errors will creep in. Five hundred pages in five months! What an amount 
of labor! As many years could be pleasantly and profitably spent in the writing and 
compilation of such a work by one person. 

The publishers have been assisted very much in the work by numerous persons who 
have given the historian access to valuable files of newspapers, as well as to private 
manuscripts. Among these may be mentioned Geo. P. Tebbetts, whose files of the early 
Santa Barbara papers have been invaluable. The bound volumes of the Press also were 
put at the service of the historian, as well as the files of the other papers, at San Buena- 
ventura, Lompoc, Santa Maria, etc. Many thanks are due to them all. 

The county records have been thoroughly searched for any valuable facts, and many 
things have been gleaned from them of great value. The officers of the courts of both 
counties have invariably shown our historian the utmost courtesy. 

Many individuals have given us the use of their private papers, without which many 
things would have been imperfectly related. Among those who have furnished us valu- 
able papers and maps may be mentioned, S. E. I. Sturgeon, Hon. Charles Fernald, Capt. 
W. B. Greenwell, of the Coast Survey, Hon. P. J. Barber. ex-Mayor of Santa Barbara, 
Hon. Charles B. Huse, R. C. Carlton, Wm. N. Bledsoe, besides many others too numerous 
to mention. It would be impossible to uTention all who have given their cordial assist- 
ance. Those not mentioned must take our thanks for granted. 

With more time the publishers could have improved the order and arrangements of 
the matter. Some things unimportant have been included, and, perhaps, important 
things left out, but the publishers feel confident in presenting the book to its patrons as 
one exceedingly valuable for the compact and clear manner in which the incidents are 
related; many of which, but for this publication, would have inevitably been lost in the 
dim mists of the past. The book will grow valuable as time buries still deeper the 
memory of the facts related. 

The illustialimis and portraits are deemed excellent, and the}' are presented to the 
patrons with full confidence of meeting their approbation. 

As the publishers contemplate a comprehensive history of the State in which many 
of the events related in this history will be incorporated, the reader who discovers a 
material eiTor will confer a great favor by sending them a true statement of the facts. 




Ignorance of the Wurlil in Regard to the Pacific Coast Fifty 
Years Since — Spleuflid Fictions Concerning the Northwest 
— Allotment of Lauds by the Pope to the Emperor of 
Spain, and by Him to Cortez — Kxpedi'inns of Coronado and 
Cabrillo — Discovery of the Canons of the Colorado and the 
Walled Cities— Discovery of the Coast of Californi', and 
the Islands off the Coast of Santa Barbara —Accounts of 
the Xative Inhabitants — Numerous Villages — Death and Bu- 
rial of Portala — Discoveries of Sir BVancis Drake... 13 to 15 

Native Saces- -Remains of Indian Towns — Antiquities of Santa 
Barbara County — Dr. Dimmick's Account of the Indians — 
Contemporaries of the Mound-Builders — Ancient Skeletons 
— Smoking and Fishing Apparatus — Cassac's Explorations — 
Dos I ueblos — Later Discoveries — Painted Kocks — Painted 
Cave — From Cabrillo's Time to the Missionary l^eriod. . . . 
16 to 19 

The Exiles of Loreto — Father Tie ra's Methods of Conversion — 
Death of Father Tierra — Arrest of the Jesuits — Midnight 
Parting — Permanent Oc.nipation of California — Missions in 
Charge of Francisco Friars — Character of Father Junipero — 
Exploring Expeditions — Origin of the Name of the Bay — 
Mission Dolores — Death of Father Junipero 19 to 22 


Their Moral and Political Aspect — Domestic Economy — The Es- 
tablishments Described — Secular and Religious Occupations 
of the ^Neophytes — Wealth and Productions — Liberation 
and Dispersion of the Indians — Final Decay 22 to 25 

Extent of the Mission Lands — Varieties of Produc:t — Agricul- 
tural Implements and Means of Working — A Primitive 
Mill— Immense Herds and Value of Cattle— The First 
Native Ship 25 to 27 

Missions of Santa Barbara County — Santa Barbara Mission- 
Naming the Mission — Life of Santa Barbara — Vital Sta- 
tistics — San Buenaventura Mission — Mission La Purissima 
Concepcion — Destruction of the Mission — New Purissima — 
Santa Ynez Mission — The Insurrection 27 to 33 

Secularization of the Mi.-isious— Colonists ag.iinst the Missions 
—Provincial Regulation for the Secularization of the Mis- 
sions of Upper Califor' ia — Distribution of Pn'perty and 
Lands — Political G'^vernment of the Villages — Ristrictions 
— General Regulation.- — Provisional Regulation for the Sec- 
ularization of the Missions — Pious Fund — The Hijar Col- 
ony — Santa Ana's Revolution — Land Grants — Secularization 
Completed— Death of Governor Figneroa 33 to 37 

Under the Colonial System — Refugio Ranch — Josi' Chapman — 
After Secularization — A'varado's Rebellion — A Pronunoi.i- 
menti — .-Xdvance of the Grand Army towards Santa Bar- 
bar.. — Farnham's Account .S7 to 40 

The Graham Insurrection — Character of the Affair — Description 
of Graham — Arrest of the Foreigners — List of Names — 
Treatment of the Prisoners — Description of the Court at 
Monterey — Appearance of the Governor — Visit to tlie Al- 
calde — Appearance of the "Don Quixote" in the Harbor — 
Trial of the I'risoners — Removal of the Prisoners to Santa Bar- 
barii — Their lU-Treatmeiit — Relief by ihe Padres — A Glimpse 
of Social Life — Public Rejoicing— Return of the Prisoners. 
40 to 43 

Eminent Families— De la Guerra Family— The Carrillo Family— 
The Ortega Family— The ArroUanes Family— Daniel Hill- 
Nicholas A. Den— The Cota Family— The Olivas Family- 
Other Prominent Families— Prominent Persons not of Span- 
ish Descent 43 to 49 

Land Grants — Santa Barbara — Domestic Life — Beds— Washing 
Days —Hospitality — The Mission Forty Years Ago — The 
Old Town — Summer Residences — Amusements — Horse Rac- 

ing ■ 

Description of the Harbor — Santa Barbara — Method of Landing 
— A Southeaster — Taking on Passengers 55 to 06 


Voyaje to M >utcrey— Character of the Coast — General Style of 
t le Dress of the People— Pure aid Mixed Blood— Fine 
V.iioes — Talifornia Money — Methods of Travel — Amuse- 
ments — Return to Santa, Barbara — Dull Town— Another 
Southeaster — A Day Ashore — Singular Funeral — Cock 
Fightittg — Horse Race — Daueing — Among the Breakers — 
Festival January 10, 1836— Curious Custom — Love's Offer- 
ing 59 to 64 

Accession of Micheltorena as Governor — Pio Pico Governor — 
Condition of California in 1845 — Fremont's Coming — His 
Departure and Sudden Retur — Capture of Sonoma — The 
Famous Bear Flag— Fremont's Battalion— U. S. Flag Raised 
in Monterey — Fremont's Capture of Military Stores — Pio 
Pico's Remonstrance — Stockton to the Front — Second Con- 
quest — Flores' Proclamation — Approach of General Kear- 
ney — The March to Los Angeles — Fremont's March — Van- 
dalism — Battle of San Gabriel— Fremont's Treaty — Political 
and Military Storm — Occupation of Santa Barbara by Ste- 
venson's Regiment — Story of the Lost Cannon. ... 64 to 74 



The Discovery of Gold at C'oloma — Customs in the Golden 
Age — Ranch Life — Bull and Bear Fight — A Series of 
Murders 74 to 78 


Trouble in U. S. Congress — Constitutional Convention — Fight 
over the Admission- -Organization of the County of Santa 
Barbara — Business Matters — Santa Barbara a Thrifty Town 
— Persons Engaged in Business — Land Sales — County Offi- 
cers — Delinquent Tax Payers — The San Gabriel AflFair — 
The Arroyo Burro Affair — Gambling — From Gambling to 
Highway Robbery — Solomon Pico's Gang — Jack Powers — 
Jack Powers' Horsemanship — Murder of the Basques — 
Anecdotes of Powers — Staying an Execution — Plan to Res- 
cue Dunn — Attempt to Murder Martin — Matters 
— Notes from the Records of the Court of Sessions — First 

Roll (1850) 78 to 91 

Statement of John Nidever — Removal of Indians in 1836— 
Sign>i of Life on the Island in 1851— Second Visit — Discov- 
ery of the Woman — Unexpected Welcome — In the Hunter's 
Canii, T>enioval to Santa Barbara — General Interest in 
the W...nan— A Subject of Kindness— Her Death. 91 to 95 



Operati ais of the County Government — Qualifications for Office 
—Conscious Greatness— Court at La Graciosa — Lawless 
Element Among the Araerioaus — County Jail — Roads — 
First B.ard of Supervisors— Establishment of the First 
Newspaper — The Oazette — Military Company — Discovery of 
<^'hl Mines — Notice — City Government — Indian Affairs — 
Big Ssorni— School Matters in 1856- Delinquent Taxes- 
County Treasur.r in Trouble — Trouble for the Gazette — 
Problem in Ethnology— Funny Jury— Banditti— Light 
House— City Improvements Called For 95 to 105 

Ned McGowan in Santa Barbara — Mounted Riflemen Dis rmed 
— Sharp Correspondence — McGowan 's Story — Search in the 
delaGuerraGar en and Burniiigof the Tules— Close Quarters 
— Escape — Received at Dr. Den's — Mail Facilities — Overland 
Stage — Roads — Proposed Penal Colony — Proceedings i^f the 
Board of Supervisors — Earthquake in 1857 — The last of 
Jack Powers — Excitement at San Buenaventura — End of the 
Gazette 105 to 1 13 

Tax Rates in 18.57— Officers Elected i'l 1857- Trouble with 
the Cou ity Treasurer— Officers Elected in 1858- The Treas- 
urer Again— County Officers Elected in 1859— San Marcos 
Road— Frim the Assessment Roll of 18.57 -School Districts 
in 18.57— Sinking Fund— Tax Rates for 1858— Hoji. Charles 
Fernald — Dignity of the Supervisors— Alpheus B. Th mp- 
son— Election Returns for 1860— Streets in San Buen.iven- 
tura — Tax Rates for 1861 — County Road— Election of 1861 
—Contested Election— Tax Rates for 1862— High Tide of 
Prosperity — Statistics from the Census Returns for 1860 — 

Season of 1861-62— The Matanza— Thomas W. Moore 

113 to 123 



Statistics for 1862, 1863, and 1864— Misfortunes Beginning— 
The Great Drought— Native Cavalry— Hon. Russel Heath 
— Oil Springs and Mining — Thomas R. Bard — Purchase of 
a County Safe — Statistics of 1865 — More Dignified Conduct 
of the Supervisors — New Election Law — Precincts Estab- 
lished — Trouble with the District Attorney — Statistics for 
1857— Fruit Farming Tried 123 to 132 

Immigration of Americ ms — A Newspaper Again — Politics in 
1868— Election Returns for 1868— First Full Statement of 
County Finances — Grand Jury Report, June 1, 1868 — Roads 
—Santa Ynez Turnpike Road— Tulare Turnpike Road Com- 
pany — Organization of Protestant Churches — The Congrega- 
tional Church — The Eijiscopal Church — The Presbyterian 
Church— The M. E. Church in Ventura— Thj Congrega- 
tional Church in San Buenaventura — William H. Sewanl in 
Santa Barbara — Statistics from the Assessment Roll of 
1870-71— Sauta Barbara Press- Election of 1869— Judici- 
ary Election of 1869 — Rates of Assessment — Bear Fight, in 
Which the Bear Got the Best of It, and Other Bears— Ir- 
regularities of Officers — Creation of Ventura County Agi- 
tated—Schools—Don Pablo de la Guerra 132 to 145 


Southern Pacific — Railr .ad Meet ng January 5, 1870 — Numbers 
of Railroad Projects — Ambitious Towns — Railroad Meet- 
ings—Failure Indicated — War Between the Press and Times 
— Oppositio 1 — Dr. Shaw Vindicated — What No Railr.i;;d 
Means— Before the Supervisors, September, 1872— End of 
the Railroad Project— HoUister to the Front — Huse t.i the 
Front — Sarcastic on Sauta Barbara— Whoop 'em up Lively 
—Defeat of the Subsidy— New Efforts for a Road— Change 
of Base-/H(/tu', June 9, 1874— Railr. >ad Meeting in the City 
Hall— Meeting of Fel)ruary 5, 1876-Raaroad Bill— Board 
of Supervisors— Fourth Effort 145 to 158 



Krectioii of County Buildings — The Modoc Road — Hotel Accom- 
modations—Election Retunn for 1S71— Sisterly Feeling- 
Election Returns in 1S72 — Edwards Elected Supervisor — 
Supervisors in Abundance — Too Much Fence —Swearing a 
Chinaman — County Finances — Machines Smashed — Streets 
Used as a Pasture — Wharves — Catholic Cemetery — Charles 
E. Huae— The Newspaper War 15S to 170 



Father Gonzales — Local Option — Movement for a New County 
— Attempt to Build up Manufacturing — Booth, Pacheco, 
and Geo. T. Bromley at Santa Barbara— The Ufa on John- 
son and Richards — Candidates for Olfices in 1S75 — The 
Republiciu Meeting — Pre-is Raitius — Returns of Election 
1S75 — Returns for Judiciary Election lS7o — Humor — Fracas 
— County J.iil — Campaign of 1876 — Election Returns 1876 
—Statistics— The Big Grapevine 170 to 184 



Discovery of Quicksilver — First Mines— Product of the Mines — 
Quicksilver in Sauta Barbara — Description of the Mines — 
A Cinnabar Castle — Santa Ynez Mines — The Santa Ynez 
Furnace — Enoiraous Mass of Cinnabar — Title — The Ter- 
mination of Mining — Sad Story — Child Lost at the Patera — 
The City Government — Fire Engine — Haley Survey — Action 
of the Trustees — Errors in the Haley Survey — Btfore Judge 
Maguire-In the District Court— Haley Survey Settled- 
Old and New 184 to 194 



Chandler's Letter— Los Prietos y Najalayegua — Legal Proceed- 
in s— Dominguez' First Petition — Confirmation of Domiu- 
guez' Title— Value of the Grant— Abstract of Titb — Side 
Claim — In Cmgress — Parson's Letter — Dominguez' State- 
ment— Confirmation— To >n Title — Packard's Protest — 
Public Feeling — The Survey — G. Howard Thompson's 
Letter — Decision of the Commissioners Regarding the Sur- 
vey — Survey Rejected — Public Meeting — Public Meetings 
Continued- Affidavits— Poetry— San Francisco "Times"— 
The Clouds Lifting— Counter Affidavits—" Press" Editorial 
— Signs of a Reaction in Congress — Conclusion — The Ex- 
Mission Graj.t — Editorial in the " Alta. " 195 to 214 



Dry Se. soil— Size of the City— Squirrels— Coal Mine Excite- 
ment-Sargent- CAroH/c/e Affair— Trouble with the Sheriff 
— Strange Decision — Sewirs — New Year's D;iy of 1878 — 
Ro ids — Rciad to the Cinjiabar Mines— Spiritualism — Spirit- 
ualism in Santa Barbara— \V. F. Peck— The Dark Sv-ance- 
Correspondence — Isaac Shepard — A Surfeit of Spiritualism 
— Present Condition — Great St^mns — Critical Situation — 
Breakwater— Iiivestig.itiivn of County Finances — County 
Clerk — Sheriff's Office — Assessor — Records — Elections — 
Courts — Hospital — Roads — Sources of Revenue — County 
Indebtedness— Statistics 214 to 230 | 



,v Proprietors — Taxpayers on So.OOO and Upwards— Conven- 
tions in ISSO-Democratic— U. Yndart— Greenback— C. E. 
Sherman— Republican— David P. Hatch — Joseph M. Garret- 
so 1 — The Assassination of Theodore M. Glancey — Circum- 
stances — Responsibility of Society— The Murder — Public 
Opini(m-The Trials and Acquittal— Life of Theodore M. 
(ilancey — Road Fund— Official Distances— Consolidation of 
County Offices— J. M. Andonaegui— The GarfieM Obsequies 
— Art Loan Exhibition — Floral Exhibitions— Job V. Kim- 
ber — Supervisor Districts — 1. K. Fisher— Conventions in 
1882 — Sewerage — Fruit Canning — Railroads— General Con- 
clusions— Geo. ge P. Tebbetts- Religious Affairs. 2SI to 252 

The Islands— The Channel— New Harbor— Geology of Santa 
Cruz — Anacapa — Seals — Fish— Cave — Extinct Inhabitants 
of the Islands— Whitmore's Ves el — Santa Cruz- Matanza 
— Great Storm-Santa Rosa — Santa Rosa Matanza— Indian 
Relics— Natural Resources- Seal Hunting— Otter Hunting 
— Fish in the Channel— Abalone Shells— Turtles— The Har- 
bor— Petition to Congress — Material for a Breakwater — 
Place for a Colony 252 to 263 


Suburbs of Santa Barbara— District of Montecito — Products of 
Lowl nds — Successful Farming- -A Rural Home — Ornamen- 
tal Trees — The Hot Springs — Virtues of the Springs — Fire 
— V'iews Near the Springs — Picturesque — Big Grapevine — 
The Carpenteria Valley— The First Family— William S. 
Callis— Thomas C. Callis — Farmers in 1809- Lima Beans — 
John Bailard— First Church of Carpenteria — Floods 
—The Rincon— The Carienteria Wharf— F. and J. M.— 
Smith— Goleta — Early History— La Patera — The Farm of 
J. D. Patterson — San Jose Vineyard — James McCaffrey — 
More's Home Ranch — The Santa Barbara Nursery — Joseph 
Sexton— W. N. Roberts — The San Antonio Dairy Farm 
—Dos Pueblos— Greenleaf C. Welch— The .Stow Estate— 
Hollister's Place— EUwood— Eucalyptus— Olive Oil— Fine 
Arts— Pedro Baron 263 to 281 



.ompoc Valley and Vicinity — Lompoc Coltniy — Early Remi- 
niscences — Origin of the Colony — Conditions of Sale — Ex- 
citement— Lompoc Record — Crusade Against Licjuor — Jesse 
I. Hobson — Progress — Great Storm — Liberality ■ HoUister 
& Dibblee — Condition in 1880- John Franklin l<ii. iddic — 
(Jeorge Roberts — Explosion — Meeting of the Iw ights of 
Pythias— The Fourth in 1881— Prosperity in ISS'2—C. fiada 
Hondo — La Purissima Kancho— Jesse Hill— Santa Rita 
Rancho — Outrage and Hanging of the Perpetrator — J. AV. 
Cooper — Santa Rosa Rancho — Canada de Salsipuedes— San 
Julian Rancho— Geo. H. Long— The Profit of Sheep-raising 
— Rancho Punta de la Conci-pcion — Raucho Sefiora del Refu- 
gio— The Gaviota Pass 281 to 294 


Los A'amiis Valley — Ju m B Careaga— La Laguna Eancho— Los 
Alamos Kancho — Town of Los Alamos — C. D. Patterson — 
Alex.imler Leslie — Highway Robbery — J. D. Snyiler — To.los 
Santos Raneho — Jesus Maria Uanclio — Lompoc Wharf— 
Casmali Raneho — Point Sal — Incidents at Point Sal — 0. 
H. Clark — CImte Lauding— The Upper Santa Ynez Valley — 
Las Cruues — Gen. W. Lewis — Las Cruces Raneho — San 
Carlos de Jonata Raneho— R. T. Biiell— Corral de Cuati 
Raneho — La Zaca — College Raneho — Town of Santa Ynez — 
San Marcos Raneho — 'Ihe Tequepis Raneho — Los Prietos y 
Naja'ayegua — Kancho las Loma^ dela Puriticacion — Raneho 
Nojoqui- Falls of Nojoqui 294 to 306 

Santa M^iria Valley — Wm. L. Adam — Samuel Connor — John H. 
Rice — Guadalupe Raneho — Town of Guadalupe — Guadalupe 
at Present — J. W. Hudson — John Dunbar — James S. Tyler — 
Thomas Hart— Products — Battista Pezzoni — Antonio Tog- 
nazzini — Thomas Salsbury — Puuta de la Laguua — Central 
City and Vicinity— John G. Prell— Thomas Wilson— James 
M. McElhaney— S. M. Blosser— W. T. Morris— Rudolph 
D. Cook— Madison Thornburgh— T. A. Jones & Son- 
Henry StowcU — Isaac Miller — J. A. Crosby — George Jos- 
eph Trott — Reuben Hart — J.imes F. Go.idwin — Emmet T. 
Bryant — Samuel Kriedel — Maiks Fleisher — Robert Brauu 
— Prosperity — Charles Bradley — Tepusquet — Sisquoc — 
Tinaquaic — The Foxen Family — Wm. Domingo Foxen — Wm. 
J. J. Foxen— Thomas F. Foxen— Fred. R. Foxen— J. R. 
Stone — J. Charles Foxen — F. Wickenden — La Graciosa — 
Cuyama 306 to 324 

Education — Common Schools — First Free School — Public School 
in Santa Barbara in 1855— Santa Ynez College— Santa 
Barbara College — Saint Vincent's Institute — Newspapers — 
The Gazette— Post— Press— Times— /ndex—W. F. Russell— 
Daily iVf w«^DailyMoming RepvUkaii — Santa Barbara Daily 

Advertiser Democrat — . vdepetident IheGacita Small 

Papers — Liimpoc Record — Guadalupe 7'elegraph — Societies — 
Secret Sccietiis — Masonic— Odd Fellows-Kuights of Pyth- 
ias — Woman's Missionary Society — Agricultural Society — 
Immigration Bureau — Natural Hi.'.tory Association — Hotels 
The Arlington — Farmera' Grange Association — Uuiou Club 
— Fires — Burning of the American H'ltel — Burning oftlie St. 
Vincent Institute -Pioneer Fire Company — Protection Hook 
and Ladder Compauy — Crime — Murder of Mr. and Mrs. Wm 
Corliss— Samuel Barthman — Abadie — Brophy — Lorenzana 
—Mr. and Mr.^. Shedd— Xorton— Trinadad German— Tra- 
bueco — Dick Fellows — Water Companies — Street Railroads 
—Gas Works 324 to 347 




Old IVmilies- Don ^ gnacio del Valle— American Residents — 

Fourth of July, 

-Wet Winter of 1861-62— Dry Season 

of 1864— Town Surveys, etc. — Inhabitants of San Buena- • 
Ventura — High Water in 1867 — Division of Ranches — 
Fourth of July Celebration— Building the Wharf— Desire 
for a C unty — Newspaper Established — Statistics in 1871 — 
Passage of the Act — The Law Creating the County — Bou id- 
aries — Building of a School House — Number of School Chil- 
dren — Water Companies — Santa Clara Irrigating Company — 
Farmers' Canal and Water Ditch — Political Affairs — Organ- 
ization of the County Government — Town-hips Formed — 
Super>isor Districts — Eleeticui Precincts — The First Elec- 
tion — Republican Ticket — Democratic Ticket — Voting Pla- 
ces—County Officers, 1873— Dr. Cephas L. Bard— City 
Council — Road Districts — County Bonds Issued — Settle- 
ment with Santa Barbara — Court Hous- 349 to 360 


Bradley Retires from the Signal — Retrospection- Murder and 
Lynching — Land-holders- Regular Election of 1873 — Year 
of Prosperity — IJank of Ventura — Trotting Park — Low 
Fares— Shipments of Produce— The Fourth of 1874— Hon. 
Walter Murray — Local Option — Nativity of the Settlers — 
Chief Tax payers in 1874 — Excessive Rain-fall — Fire Com- 
pany — Ventura Gas Company — Ventura Planing Mill— 
Newsp;iper History — Free Press — Newspaper War — Politi- 
cal Affairs in 1875— People's Party— Election Returns for 
1875— L. F. Eastin 360 to 367 



Loss of the Kalorama — The Centennial at Various Places — 
County Officers of 1876 — Presidential Election — Heavy 
•Tax-Payers— W. S. ghaff e— Drought of 1877— Loss of the 
Wharf — Petition for a Breakwater — Bard and Murphy — 
Election of 1877 — Election Returns — Town Officers — Judi- 
ciary Elections — Progress — Casitas Pass Road — Hook & 
Ladder Company— W. E. Shepherd as Editor— Political Mat- 
ters in 1879 — Democratic Convention — Candidates — Elec- 
tion Returns in 1879 — Agricultural Statistics — Mysterious 
Affair- A Wild Ride— Commercial Affairs in 1880— Matters 
in 1881— Garfield Obsequies— I. T. Saxby— W. J. Walton- 
Election Returns of 1882 — Present Condition of Affairs — 
Furniture Factory — Machine Shop — Societies — Newspapers 
— "Signal" — F. W. Baker — "Free Press"— Thomas (Jlark, 
of the Ventura Mill Company- T. E. Mills— HoteU-Halls 
and Places of Resort — Ve tura Bank — Churches — Congre- 
gational Church — The Presbyteria i Church — Methodist 
Church 367 to 380 


Raneho La Colonia — First Cultivation — John Scarlett — P. B. 
Hawkins — John G. Hill — Edward K. Benchley — Hueneme 
War— Artesian Wells— Growth of the Town— Good Tem- 
plars — Hueneme in 1880 ^Shipments of Grain — The 
Light-house — lames Fenlon — Guadalasca Raneho — W. E. 
Broome's Estate — Las Posas Raneho — Peter Rice — Simi 
Raneho — Tapo Raneho — Springville — J. B. Palin — Inde- 
pendent Baptist Church — Wm. A. Hughes — The Calleguas — 
Juan Camarillo — The Conejo Raucho 380 to 393 



3anta Clara Valley— John Hears, .Joseph H. McCutchan— Friiit- 
raising-Abner Hai.ies-San Miguel Rancho- Kaymuudo 
Olivar— George G. Sewell— Santa Paula y Saticoy Rancho— 
Rev. S. T. Wells— Briggs' Orchard— Settlersin 1S67— Mich- 
ael Fagan— Other Settlers-N.W. Blanchard -Orange Orch- 
ard-James A. Day-G. W. Faulkner-Pork-raising-John 
F Cummiugs- Towns— The Farmers' Canal— Chnaman and 
WiUoughby-Good Farmera-M. D. L. Todd -John Mc- 
Kenna— Santa Paula— S. P. Gniberaon— Sationy— Geo. F. 
Rotsler— Santa Clara Del Norte— New Jerusalem -Sespe 
Rancho— Scenega-B. F. Warring- The Camulos-San 
Francisco Rancho 393 to 408 


San Buenaventura Valley— Ex-Mission-San Miguelito— Green 
B. Taylor— Rock Soap— Can ida Largo o Verde Rancho - 

Ojai Rancho— R b-rt Ayers 

W. S. McKee- Other Set- 

tlers-Theo lore Todd— Disagreeable Visitor— Statistics of 
the Ojai-Schools- Quality of the Soil-As a Sanitarium- 
Joseph Hobart-Roada to the Ojai-Nordhoff-Frauk P. 
Barrows— Private Houses— H. J. Dennison— Views Near 
the Upper Ojai— Poetry— John Montgomery— Cloud-bursts 
-Glacial Theory— Liability to Clond-bursts— Is There Any 
Help?— Santa Ana Rancho— Colonization Project— Matilija 
Sulphur Springs— Other Parts of the County— M. S. Dim- 
mick t«8to4-20 

Oranges— Grapes and Wine— Raisins-Olives— Mineral Soap- 
Agriculture- Gold Mining— Silver— Sulphur— Petroleum- 
Local Character-Geo. S. Gilbert— Wonderful Springs— 
The Standard Oil Company 420 to 431 

Libtl Suit— lU-Feeling-The Crime -Traces of the Murderers- 
Development of Facts — New Evidence -Trial of F. A. 
Sprague— Sentence— ,1 ones' Defection— Great Excitement- 
Jones' Second AtHdavit— Case Reviewed by the (Jovernor- 

The Hon. Joaquin CarriUo— The Hon. Pablo de la Guerra— 
Augustus F. Hinchman— Albert Packard- Charles E. Huse 
—Charles Fernald— Eugene Lies— Edwanl S. Hoar— Eugene 
Fawcett— John Francis Maguire— S. R. I. Sturgeon- Milton 
Wasou— Walter Murray— R. M. Dillard— J. T. Richarda- 
0. L. Abbott— Judge J. D. Hines- Thomas McNulta— B. F. 
Thomas— C. A. Thompson— S. A. Sheppard— W. E. Shep- 
herd—A. A. Oglesby— C. W. Goodchild— Judge D. P. Hatch 
—Orestes Orr— James L. Barker— Col. A. J. Cameron— VV. 
T. WiUiama- B. T. Williams— I,. C. McKecby— John 
Haralson— R. C. Carlton— Hon. C. A. Storke— Paul K. 
Wright— R. B. Canfield— Charles N. Bledsoe— J. H. Kin- 
kaid— W. C. Stratton— F. Leslie Kellogg— John J. Boyce— 
E. S. Hall— N. Blackstock— J. Marion Brooks- E. B. Hall 
— L. C. Granger Requa— Caleb Sherman . 44'2 to 454 


Climate-J. W. Hough's Description-Mrs. V. F. Russell on 
Nervous Diseases— Temperature at Santa Barbara— Com- 
parative Tempera' ures— Humidity— E.xceptional Weather- 
Hot Weather— Rains out of Season— Dr. Dimmick's Gar- 
den—Temperature of the Sea— Rain-fall- Here and There— 
Now and Then— The Fine Arts— Poetry— Recompense— In 
Santa Barbara— Flower Land and Frost Land— The Dying 
Day— Painting 454 to 463 


Andonaegui, J. il -- - 240 

Bard, Cephas L - - 359 

Bard, Thomas E. (steel) - - 356 

Bell, Johns, (steel) - 124 

Benchley, Edw. K. - - - 384 

Blanchard, N. W - - •100 

Brinkerhoff, S. B. (steel) -10 

Brooks, J. Marion _ - . - 453 

Buell, E. T_ - - -303 

Camarillo, Juan - - 392 

Del Valle, Ygnacio 350 

Den, Nicholas A. (steel).-- 46 

Dunbar, John - 311 

Fernald, Charles (steel) . . _ - 36 

Fisher I. K 244 

Foxen, Benjamin — - - 322 

Foxen, Mrs. Benjamin 322 

Glancey, Theodore - 239 


Guerra, Pablo de la.... 144 

Hatch,D. P - ---- 234 

Heath, Eussel (steel).- - 24 

HoUister, W. W. (steel) - 20 

Long, Geo. H 292 

Maguire, J. F 445 

McGlasban, C. F. (steel) 140 

More, T. Wallace (steel) - 256 

Moore, Thomas W. (steel) - - - 60 

Eice, Peter --- - 388 

Sherman, C. E 234 

Stearns, John P. (steel) - - - - 92 

Tebbetts, G.P - 250 

Thompson, Dixie W. (steel) 108 

Thornburgh, Madison 315 

Wason, Milton 446 

Wood, W. O. (steel)- - - - - 364 

Yndart, W... - - 232 



Adam, Wm. L - - 307 

Arlington 337 

Arnofd, Cutler 386 

Artesian Well . . 360 

Ayers, Eobert _ _ - 372 

Bailard, John_ _ _ . . . 280 

Baker, F. W., Jr..._ 340 

Ballard, Town of 301 

Bank, Santa Barbara Co., National -14 

Bard, Thomas E 356 

Baron, Pedro 272 

Barrows, Frank P . _ _ . _ . . 413 

Bell, John S 128 

Benchley, Bdw. K . . . . - 384 

Blanchard & Bradley . . - 400 

Blosser, S. M - - 48 

Bradley, Charles.. ---- 320 

Braun, Eobert - 52 

Broome, "Wm. Eich'd 56 

Buekhorn Eanch - 408 

BuelL E.T 302 

Callis, Thomas C 268 

Callis, W. S 268 

Canada Honda 292 

Careaga, Juan B - 296 

Carpenteria Wharf 264 

Central City Hotel. - - 300 

Chaifee, W. S - 369 

Chrisman & Willoughby 402 

Clark, C.H 300 

Clark, Thomas --. 378 

Contor, Samuel 224 

Cook, E. D - 318 

Cooper, J. W 56 

Court House, Santa Barbara - 12 

Court House, Ventura 352 

Crosby, J. A 300 

Cummings, J. F 401 

Day, James A 372 

Dennison H. J . . 415 

Diramick, M. S. . _ 420 

Dinwiddle, J. F _ 228 

Fagan, M 388 

Faulkner, G. W 405 

Fenlon, James _ 386 

Forbes, J. M 280 

Foxen, Fred. R 324 

Foxen, John C 325 

Foxen, G. J. J 321 

Foxen, Thomas 322 

Garretson, Jos. M 236 

Gilbert, George S _ . _ 430 

" Glen Annie '" 276 

'' Glenrose " 420 

Goodwin & Bryant _ .. 318 

Haines, Abner 394 

Hart, Eeuben 232 

Hart, Thos _ - . . 311 

Hawkins, P. B 382 

Heath, Eussel - 28 

Hill, Jesse...- 288 

Hill, John G 383 

Hobart, J 412 

Hobson, Jesse I _ 285 

Hollister, W. W 276 

Hudson, J. W _. 319 

Hughes, W. A 430 

Independent Office _--... _ - 44 

Jones, S.J - - 52 

Jones, T. A 52 

Kimber, Job V 244 

Kriedel & Fleisher.. 319 

"La Patera" -.- 224 

Leslie, Alexander 297 

Lewis, George W 301 

Long, George H 292 

McCaffrey, James 272 

McCutehan, J. H 388 

McElhaney, J. M -. 340 

McKee,W.S -- -.- 410 

McKenna, John 412 

Mears, John - 392 

Miller, Isaac ---- 316 

Mill (Blanchard & Bradley) 400 

Mill (Eeuben Hart) - - 232 

Mill (Ventura Mill)... - .. 378 

Mills, T. E - 380 

Mission, La Purissima . _ . 288 

Mission, Santa Barbara . 16 

Montgomery, John - - 416 

Moore, Magdalena 64 

Morris, W. T - 302 

"Oak Glen" Cottages.. 410 

" Ojai Valley " House. 413 

O'Keefe, J. J 16 

Orange Orchard 400 

Palin, J. B.... 390 

Patterson, C. D - - - 68 

Pezzoni, Battista .- 312 

Point Sal, Creamery 312 

Prell, John G 285 

Press, Santa Barbara 329 


Eice, J. H - 308 

Roberts, George - 2^4 

Roberts, W.N - - 224 

Robinson, Richard 

Rotsler, G. P - 

Salsbury , Thomas 

San Jose Vineyard - 

Santa Maria Hotel - - 

Saxby, Isaac T 

Scarlett, John - 

Sewell, George G 

Sexton Joseph - - - 32 

Smith, F. and J. M - 264 

Smith's Wharf ....264 

Snyder, J. D '^2 

Stearns' W harf - 48 

Stone J. R 228 

Stowell, H - - - 317 

Stow, S. P.-- - 232 



Taylor, Green B 409 

The Arlington 337 

Todd, M. D. L 403 

Todd Theodore 411 

Tognazzijii, Anlonio 332 

Trott, George J 317 

Tyler, James 332 

Union Hotel.. 72 

Ventura Flouring Mill 378 

Walton, W.J 376 

Warring, B. F 408 

Welch, G. C 64 

Wells, S. T 397 

Wharf, Carpinteria 264 

Wharf, Santa Barbara 48 

Wickenden, Fred 323 

Wilson, Thomas 314 

Wood, W. 0. 364 

Biographical and Descriptive Sketches. 

Adam, William L - 307 

Andonaegui, J. M 241 

Ayers, Robert - . - 410 

Ballard, John.... 269 

Baker, F. W., Jr - 378 

Bard, Cephas L. 359 

Bard, Thomas R - ■ 356 

Baron. Pedro.. 281 

Barrows, Frank P. 414 

Bell, John S - - 124 

Benchlev, Edw. K .- ■ 384 

Blanchard, N. W - 399 

Blosser, S. M . . 315 

Bradley, Charles ■ 320 

Braun, Robert.. ... - 320 

Brinkerhoff, S. B . 40 

Brooks, J. Marion 453 

Broome, Wm. Rich'd 387 

Bryant, E. T - . - - 319 

Buell,R. T... - ... 302 

Callis, Thomas C ..268 

Callis,W.S --■ 268 

Camarillo, Juan 392 

Careaga, Juan B 295 

Chaffee, W. S 369 

Chrisman & WiUoughby . . - - - 402 

Clark, C.H.. - -299 

Clarke, Thomas .... 378 

Connor, Samuel 307 

Cook, R. D - 315 


Cooper, J. W 291 

Crosby. J.A 317 

Cummings, J. F 401 

Day, James A 401 

Del Valle, Ygnacio 350 

Den, Nicholas A — 46 

Dennison, H.J... 415 

Dimmick, M. S 419 

Dinwiddle, J. F - - - 286 

Dunbar, John 310 

Eastin, L. F - . - 366 

Fagan, M 399 

Faulkner, G. W ... 401 

Fenlon, James - - 387 

Fernald, Charles 36 

Fisher, I. K 244 

Fleisher, Marks.. 319 

Foxen, Benjamin 322 

Foxen, Mrs. Benjamin. 322 

Foxen, Fred. R 323 

Foxen, John C 323 

Foxen! G.J.J 322 

Foxen, Thomas 322 

Garretson, Jos. M 235 

Gilbert, George S.... -430 

Glancey, Theodore ... 238 

Goodwin, James F 318 

Guerra, Pablo de la 144 

Haines, Abner - 396 

Hart, Reuben . 318 



Hart, Thomas.- -- 311 

Hatch, D. P --- - -- 234 

Hawkins, P. B 382 

Heath, Russel - - - - - 24 

Hill, Jesse - 289 

Hill, John G 383 

Hobart, J 412 

Hobson, Jesse I 285 

Hollister, W. W - - . - 20 

Hudson, J. W.--- --- --- 310 

Hughes, W. A - 391 

Huse, Charles B 166 

Jones, S. J --- 316 

Jones, T.A.. 316 

Kimber, Job V . 243 

Kriedel, Samuel . . _ - - - - - - 319 

Leslie, Alexander 297 

Lewis, George W 301 

Long, George H . . - - ■ 292 

Maguire, J. F... - - 445 

McCaffrey, James. 273 

McCutchan, J. H - - ..395 

McBlhaney, J. M 315 

McGlashan, C. F.. 140 

McKee, W. S.. 410 

McKenna, John 403 

Mears, John 393 

Miller, Isaac -- 316 

Mills, T. B -.....- 379 

Montgomery, John - - - 416 

More,T. Wallace 256 

Moore, Thomas W 60 

Morris, W. T -- -- 315 

Palin, J. B 390 

Patterson, C. D - 296 

Pezzoni, Battista 312 

Prell, John G 314 

Rice, J. H 308 

Rice, Peter .388 

Roberts, George - - 286 ■ 

Roberts, W. N...: 275 

Rotsler, G. F 405 

Salsbury. Thomas . _ 312 

Saxby. Isaac T . . . . . _ 375 

Scarlett. John .... _ . 382 

Sewell, .George G...- ... 396 

Sexton, Joseph 274 

Sherman, C. E . . 233 

Smith, F.& J. M 271 

Snyder, J. D.. 297 

Stearns, John P 92 

Stone, J. R.. ...-323 

Stowell, H 316 

Taylor, Green B 409 

Tebbetts,G. P .- 249 

Thompson, Dixie W- - .-- 1 

Thornburgh, Madison - . 315 

Todd, M. D. L 403 

Todd, Theodore.... 411 

Tognazzini, Antonio 312 

Trott, George J 317 

T3'ler, James . . 311 

AValton, W. J 376 

Warring, B. F .- ' 

Wason, Milton 446 

Welch, G. C ■.... , 276 

Wells, S. T 397 

Wickenden, Fred - 323 

Wilson, Thomas 314 

Wood, W. O 364 

Yndart, U . - - - 232 


Santa Barbara and Vhntura Counties, 



( ' H A P T E R I . 

Ignorance of the World in Regard to the Pacific Coast Fifty 
Years Since^Splendid Fictions Concerning the Northwest 
— Allotment of Lands by the Pope to the Emperor of 
Spain, and by Him to Cortez — Expeditions of Coronado and 
Cabrillo — Discovery of the Canons of the Colorado and the 
Walled Cities — Discovery of the Coast of California, and 
the Islands off the Coast of Santa Barbara —Accounts of 
the Native Inhnbitants — Numerous Villages — Death and 
Burial of Portala — Discoveries of Sir Francis Drake. 

Those who studied !i;eogra])hj' fifty ycai-.s ninc-c, 
recollect how little was known of the "Great West." 
"Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Rocky Mount- 
ains" contained about all that was known of the 
Pacific Coast: and hundreds of persons now living 
remember that that jjortion of the map. ncjw occupied 
by Arizona and California, was used for a table of 
distances between the cities of the United States. 
The Rocky Mountains were re^iresented as a single 
range running from the Isthmus of Darien to the 
North Pole. More facts concerning the Pacific Slope 
were learned in the first fifty years after the discov- 
ery of the New World than in the following 200. 
The deserts of Arizona and the Great Cafion shut ofl' 
exploration and settlement from this direction, though 
rumors of a country rich in gold had circulated 
among the hordes that had overmn Mexico soon 
after its conquest by Cortez and his followers. On 
such rumors was founded the story of " Sergas," by 
Esplandin. the son of Amadis of Gaul, which con- 
tained the story of a country called California, very 
near to the terrestrial jiaradise. which was peopled 
by black women, without any men among them, 
because they were accustomed to live after the man- 
ner of the Amazons. They were of strong and 
hardened bodies, of ardent courage, and great force. 
The island, from its steep and rocky cliffs, was the 

strongest in the world. Their arms Avere all of gold, 
as were the trappings of the wild horses they rode. 

At that time the world was full of rumors of won- 
derful discoveries, both by sea and land. Some, like 
l)e Soto, set off in seai'ch of the " S])ring of Eternal 
Youth," which, it was confidently asserted, was just 
the other side of a range of mountains which many 
had seen. It was easier to believe in a land of gold 
than in a spring which would confer eternal beauty 
and strength on all who would drink of its waters, 
so the land of gold was the object of general search. 
This exciting book, written to satisfy the wants of 
the age, was universally read in Spain, and was prob*- 
ably the cause for the expedition which afterwards, 
under the chai'ge of Hernando Grijalva. actually dis- 
covered Califoi'nia, and thus came near realizing the 
romance, and gave name to the land which was to 
pour into the commercial arteries of the world the 
fabulous sums which confused all the values of prop- 
ertj-, and set up a new race of money kings. 

Cortez had achieved the conquest of Mexico with 
but a handful of soldiers, and nine years after re- 
turned to Spain laden with the spoils of an empire, 
larger, and richer, and, perhaps, more civilized than 
Spain herself, also with accounts of countries still 
richer and larger northwest of Mexico. He was re- 
ceived with distinguished honor bj' Charles V., who 
rewarded him with many gifts and honors, among 
which was the right to one-twelfth of all the precious 
metals he could find, and a perpetual vice-royalty for 
himself, and liens over all the lands he might dis- 

It will be remembered that the Pope, in <irder to 
disseminate the -True Faith," had granted to the 
Emperor of Spain all the lands that his subjects 
might discover, so that Cortez, from the condition 
of a roving, piratical vagabond, bounded into royal 




Returning to Mexico, he immediately commenced 
organizing new expeditions, both by land and sea, 
but such was the difficulty of building and equipping 
ships on the "Western coast, that he did not get them 
off until 1535. He landed on the Peninsula of Cal- 
ifornia, but found the land so barren and uninviting, 
that he abandoned the expedition, and returned to 
Mexico in 1537. On his return, he heard of the De 
Soto expedition, which like all the other expeditions, 
had nearly, but not quite, reached the country where 
arms, as well as the trappings for horses, were made 
of pure gold. This led to the fitting out of two ex- 
peditions, one by land under the command of Vas- 
quez de Coronado, the other by sea, commanded by 
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo. The first, making their 
way towards the northwest, came to the Colorado 
River, and gave to the world the first account of the 
wonderful canon, a mile deep between perpendicular 
walls, so deep that daylight could not reach its dark 
depths. He also spoke of the walled cities, accounts 
of which had reached him through some Franciscan 
friars. The stories of the deep canons, a mile or 
more in depth, of walled cities, and of a race of 
giants, were consigned to the same fate as the stories 
of mermaids, and other sea monsters, and were con- 
sidered as the after-dinner stories of some bibulous 
explorer; but the recent explorations of the Colorado 
River by the United States Government, have con- 
firmed the statements of the earlj^ explorers in most 
particulars, and made known to the world perhaps the 
most wonderful of all river scenerj'. It remained for 
another people, than the Spaniards, to find the marvel- 
ous silver and gold mines which had excited their 
cupidity, and moved them to action. 

The other exploring party got off a couple of years 
later, and though the result was at the time consid- 
ered as a failure, it eventually resulted in nearly all 
that the Spanish explorers had dared to hope for. 
Cabrillo was the first European to discover and ex- 
plore the coast of Upper California. His visit here 
was made in 1542, only fifty years after the discovery 
of America by Columbus, eighty years previous to 
the settlement of New England by the colonists of 
the Mayflower, and more than 200 years before the 
Franciscan missions were founded on this coast. To 
Cabrillo we are indebted for the earliest accounts of 
the native inhabitants of Santa Barbara County, their 
character and condition before they were subjected to 
the destructive influences of the white races. 

On Saturday, October 7, 1542, the two ships com- 
posing the exploring expedition, arrived at the islands 
of Anacapa and Santa Cruz, which they named La 
Vittoria and San Salvador, after the names of their 
ships. The historian states that they anchored off 
one of them, when there issued a great quantitj' of 
Indians from among the bushes and grass, yelling and 
dancing, and making signs that they should come on 
shore. The women were frightened, and ran away, 

but the men, after receiving friendly signals from the 
ships, laid down their bows and arrows on the 
ground, and launched a good canoe, in which eight 
or ten Indians came to the vessels. The Spaniards 
gave them beads and little presents, with which, 
greatly delighted, they presently went away. After- 
wards the Spaniards went on shore, and were re- 
ceived in a friendly manner. And old Indian made 
signs to them that on the main-land men were jour- 
neying, clothed and with beards like the Spaniards. 
They doubtless had heard of Coronado's expedition 
in Arizona, made two years before, in search of the 
seven cities of Cibola. October 10th, they ap- 
proached the main-land, probably of the Santa Clara 
Valley, where there was an Indian village near the 
sea, and the houses large, in the manner of those of 
New Spain. They anchored in front of a large val- 
ley. To the ships came many good canoes, which 
held in each one twelve or thirteen Indians. They 
go covered with skins of animals; they are fishers, 
and eat the fish raw; they also eat agaves. The 
country within is a very beautiful valley, and they 
made signs that there was in that valley much maize 
and much food. " There appears within this valley 
some sierras, very high, and the land is very rugged." 
The Indians call the village Xucu. They sailed from 
this place on the 13th, up the coast, on which they 
saw many cabins and trees, and the next day they 
anchored opposite a valley, very beautiful and 
very populous, the land being level, with many 
trees. The natives came with fish in their canoes; 
they remained great friends. On the 15th thej^ 
held on their voyage along the coast, and there 
were always many canoes, '■^ for all the coast is very 
populous," and many Indians were continually com- 
ing aboard the ships, and they pointed out to us 
the villages, and named them by their names. All 
these villages are in a good country, with very 
good plains, and many trees and cabins; they go 
clothed with skins; they said that inland there were 
many towns, and much maize at three days' dis- 
tance. They passed this day along the shore of a 
large Island (Santa Rosa), and they said it was very 
populous. On the evening of the 16th, they anchored 
opposite two villages (Dos Pueblos). The next day 
they proceeded three leagues, and there were with 
the ships from daybreak many canoes, and the cap- 
tain continually gave them many presents, and all 
the coast where they passed was very populous. 
They brought them a large quantity of fresh sardines, 
very good. 

"They say that inland there are many villages 
and much food; these did not eat any maize; they 
went clothed with skins, and wear their hair 
very long, and tied up with cords very long and 
placed within the hair, and these strings have many 
small daggers attached, of flint and wood and bone." 

On the 18th they went running up the coast, and 
saw all the coast populous, but because a fresh wind 
sprung up, the canoes did not come. They came 


neai" a point which forms a cape, which they named 
Cabo de Galera (Point Concepcion). Thence they 
sailed to two ishinds, the smaller of which they 
called La Passession (San Miguel), and the larger, 
San Lucas (Santa Rosa), They found both of these 
islands inhabited. They departed fi-om these islands 
intending to sail up the coast, but meeting with 
rough weather, they sought the shelter of Point Con- 
cepcion, and cast anchor in front of a large town 
called by the natives Xexo, But because wood did 
not appear abundant, thej' sailed back down the 
coast to Pueblo de las Sardinas (Goleta or I'atara). 
Here they remained three days, taking in wood and 
water, and the natives aided them, and brought wood 
and watei- to the ships. 

"They call the village Cieacut, and gave us the 
names of sixteen more villages extending up to Cabo 
de Galera. An old Indian woman is princess of 
these villages. Cieacut appeared to be the capital 
of the other villages, as thej' came from the other 
villages at the call of that princess. They have their 
houses round, and covered well down to the ground; 
they go covered with the skins of animals; thej' eat 
acorns and a grain which is as large as maize, and is 
white, of which they make dumplings; it is good food. 
They say that inland there is much maize." 

Between this place and Xucu. where they first 
landed, the historian gives the names of twenty- 
tive villages. On November 6th they sailed up 
the coast, but as there was little wind, they did 
not reach the cape until the fourth daj'. During this 
time the Indians came to them with water and fish^ 
and showed much good disposition. 

" Tbej' have in their villages large public squares, and 
an indosure like a circle, and ai-ound the inclosure they 
have Tnany blocks of stone fastened in the ground, 
which issue about three palms, and in the middle of the 
inclosure they have many sticks of timber driven in the 
ground like masts and very thick, and they have many 
pictures on these posts, and we believe that thej' wor- 
ship them, for when they dance, they go dancing 
around the inclosure." 

November 11th they made the second attempt 
to explore the northern coast. This time they 
went up as far north as Bodega Bay. On their 
return they reached San Miguel Island November 
23d. Here they made their headquarters during the 
winter, and here their able commander and skillful 
navigator, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, died, and was 
buried where the shifting sands have concealed the 
place of his rest. The history of the expedition re- 
cords the names of two villages on San Miguel 
Island, three on Santa Eosa, and eight on Santa Cruz 
Island, and states that the Indians of these islands 
are verj^ poor. 

"They are fishermen; they eat nothing but fish; 
they sleep on the ground. In each house they say 
there are fifty souls. They live verj' swinishly. 
They go naked." 

After a trip to the main-land at Galeta to obtain 
wood, they returned to San Miguel, and on Februarj- 

18th, in accordance with Cabrillo's last request, they 
made another trip u]) the coast. This time they 
passed above ("ape Mendocino. On the fifth of 
March they returned to San Miguel. Imt cdnlil not 
enter the harbor by reason of a storm, sd tluy ran to 
Santa Cruz Island. During the-next four days tluy 
made a trip to the main-land, and returning to the 
islands, they departed down the coast.* 

These expeditions were so unsatisfactory, that Cor- 
tez resolved upon exploring the coast himself Three 
vessels were fitted out at Tehuantepec, and dispatched 
u]) the coast, going no farther, however, than the 
Gulf of California. He marched overland with a 
large number of soldiers, settlers, and priests. In 
these expeditions it was discovered that Lower Cali- 
fornia was not an island, but a peninsula. Several 
attempts were made to settle the land, but it was 
poor and sterile. The native Indians were destitute 
of energy and character, both sexes going nearly 
naked. Other expeditions were sent out from time 
to time, but the energy, which twenty-five years be- 
fore had conquered a kingdom, was wanting, and the 
discoveries in Upper California were suffered to jiass 
unheeded for a full century, while the world's atten- 
tion was turned towards the rich silver mines of 
South America and Mexico. 


Sir Francis Drake reached the Pacific Ocean in 
1578, through the Straits of Magellan, thirty-six 
years after Cabrillo had named the Cape of Mendo- 
cino, and, not having heard of the former expedition, 
took possession of the whole country in the name of 
Queen Elizabeth. It has been claimed for him that 
he discovered the bay of San Francisco, but the lati- 
tude in which he located it (37° 59' 5") proves it to 
have been some miles north at a place now called 
Drake's Bay, though the most of the old geographers 
give the present seaport iis '• The Bay of Sir Francis 
Drake." It remained for another exploring party to 
discover and name the great harbor of the world. 
It seems strange that the navigator, having, as he 
did, much intercourse with the natives, should have 
failed to have learned of the inland sea, which could 
have been seen from the mountains in sight of his 
anchorage. A century passed before the Golden 
Gate was plowed by the keels of commerce. The 
discovery was made while the fathers were establish- 
ing the missions which formed so important a part in 
the settlement of California. 

brillo'ii e.vpeditioii wu are indebted to 
t Santa Barbara. 




Native Races — Remains of Indian Towns — Antiquities o£ Santa 
Barbara County — Dr. Dimmick's Account of the Indians — 
Contemporaries of the Mound-Builders — Ancient Skeletons 
— Smoking and Fishing Apparatus— Cassac's Explorations — 
Dos f ueblos — Later Discoveries — Painted Rocks — Painted 
Cave — From Cabrillo's Time to the Missionary Period. 

An account of the native races, as they were seen 
by Cabrillo and the other explorers, will be necessary 
to a proper understanding and a])preciation of the 
herculean labors of the missionaries. In treating 
of this subject, it will be necessary to refer to many 
explorations made in late years by scientists, of the 
ancient villages, burial places, and utensils of the 
now almost extinct races, for the Indians whom the 
missionaries gathered into their folds seem to have 
been very different from those which Cabrillo and 
the other early explorers saw. 


The hundreds of mounds in various parts of Santa 
Barbara and Ventura Counties, on the islands as well 
as on the main-land, demonstrate the former density 
of the population. It is believed by many that a 
larger number of people inhabited this portion of the 
country than any of the same extent known. Some 
of these towns are miles in extent, almost deserving 
the names of cities. The frequency of these remains 
ffldicate a general occupation of the country rather 
than a concentration of population. Within the last 
year, the winds drifting the soil away from an ex- 
posed point on Santa Rosa Island, uncovered fifty or 
more skeletons of persons, which seem to have per- 
ished by one common catastrophe. One of the 
towns on Santa Rosa Island bears evidence of having 
been three miles in length by a half mile in breadth. 
Over fourteen tons of relics have been exhumed and 
forwarded to the Smithsonian Institute at Washing- 
ton. The most of these were of an entirely differ- 
ent character from the utensils and arms found in the 
Indian camps in the northern part of the State. 
Many able persons have explored these ancient town 
sites. One of the most active in the search was 
the Rev. Stephen Bowers, who mingled a goodly jjor- 
tion of science with his theology. The following 
account of one visit, taken from the Press of August 
7, 1875, will show the interest taken in the matter, 
and also the success of the search: — 


" Southern California is particularly rich in antiq- 
uities, and affords a fine field for the antiquarian 
and the archseologist. Indeed, this entire coast, from 
Washington Territory to San Diego, abounds in the 
remains of former races. But Santa Barbara has 
proved to be the richest of all in antiquities. Some 
months since, the writer discovered a burial-place in 
an old raneheria at More's Landing, near Santa Bar- 
bara, which yielded several skeletons, a number of 
arrow-heads, shell ornaments, etc. This was on the 

premises of Mr. Thomas Wallace More. Last month 
the writer conducted a division of the Wheeler 
United States Geographical and Geological Survey, 
under Doctors Yarrow and Rothrock, of the United 
States Army, to this spot, who further explored it 
with success. This led to the discovery of another 
' bonanza ' near by, on what is called the ' Island.' 
This is a tract of land belonging to Mr. Alexander 
More, containing about seventy acres, and at high tide, 
twice a month, is completely surrounded by water. 
It is made of decomposed slate, with a dip of about 
30° west, and is post pliocene. This island is covered 
with marine shells, and other kitchen refuse, to the 
depth of from two to six feet. The overflowed land 
surrounding was once a day yielding vast quantities 
of edible mollusks, upon which the tribes on this and 
the adjacent elevations subsisted. 

" From the two locations mentioned, the *Wheeler 
part}' shipped fifty boxes of antiquities, amounting to 
some ten tons, which has about exhausted the place. 
In the first-mentioned place, the skeletons were lying 
with faces downward and heads to the west, while 
on the ' Island,' the heads were generally to the 
north, faces down, and knees drawn up against the 
breast. The skulls differed but little from existing 
aboriginal races on this coast, the facial angle denot- 
ing ordinary intelligence. The bones were large, and 
the processes on them denoted great physical devel- 
opment. The remains of but few animals were 
found, except seals, fish, and mollusks, and occasion- 
ally the bone of a dog. Large quantities of a small, 
black seed were found in some places, supposed to 
have been used in making a beverage. Numbers of 
pipes indicated the smoking propensities of the own- 
ers. They were made from steatite, some of them 
being a foot in length, having polished bone mouth- 

" The principal antiquities found were ollas, finely 
carved from magnesium limestone, pipes, vases, cups, 
ladles, tortilla stones, from same material; beads and 
innumerable trinkets, manufactured from shells; mor- 
tars, pestles, and war-dubs from sandstones, etc. 
The mollusks upon which they subsisted were prin- 
cipally haliotis, chione succinfa, pectens, tapes, crepedu- 
las, and oysters. The ollas were used for many 
cooking vessels, while many of the smaller vessels, 
and haliotis shells were, doubtless, used as drinking- 
cups. A few iron implements, wrapped in fur, were 
found; also an old Spanish axe ornamented with 
feathers, the impressions of which were visible in the 

"Among the ornaments were ear-pendants, brooches, 
beads, etc. Rude knives of flint were common, and 
occasionally one of obsidian. Bone drill-heads, per- 
forators, etc., were somewhat abundant. Instru- 
ments of flint, from three to six inches long, chipped 
into the shape of a three-cornered file, were found 
with the skeletons, which, I presume, were used for 
the double purpose of rasp and spear-head. The war 
clubs were made of sandstone and limestone, and 
were from twenty to twenty-six inches in length. 
They were usually about two and a half inches in 
diameter at the larger end, and gradually tapered to 
about one and a half inches at the smaller end, 
where an ornamental knob or band kept the hand 
from slipping. The spear and arrow-heads were veiy 
fine. The former were sometimes ten inches long, 
manufactured from whitish flint, and showing the 
highest workmanship. Some of the vessels had 
been broken while in use, and cemented with asphal- 
tum, holes being drilled on each side of the fractui-e, 
and thongs inserted. A small portion of a fish net 



was found, which had ingoniously been made of 
threads nianutiu'tuved of some kind of grass. In 
some instanci.'s iialiolis slu'lls and small stone vessels 
had been tilled with paint. In other instances tlie 
paint had been made into balls and squares, and 
ornamented. Beads of shell and stone were used for 
embroidery, and for other ornamental purposes. The 
remains of old dug-outs or boats made of redwood 
were found. In all the oUas and graves were found 
pieces f)f redwood, showing a superstitious regard 
for that wood. Wampum, made of olivella shells, 
was common among the trinkets. Several speci- 
mens of a kind of flute made of bone, were found 
among the remains. 

'• The place had undoubtedly been inha'bited for sev- 
eral hundred years, and was not abandoned until the 
present century, or until after the presence of 
the white race. In one instance I found be- 
side a skeleton a war-club of stone, a harpoon 
of coppei-, and a spear of iron. The iron was con- 
siderably decayed. Here was a representation of 
the three difl'erent ages of man, the stone, the lironze, 
and the iron. The skeletons, which were numerous, 
were buried from two to six feet below the surface." 

Dr. L. X. Dimmiek, to whoni we are indebted for 
many valualile jiapers on this subject, furnishes the 
following accomit of the Indians of this vicinity: — 



''Of the inhabitants of this country, previous to its 
discovery hj Cabrillo in 1542, nothing is known except 
as is developed by a minute examination of their 
rancherias and cemeteries. From these have been 
obtained many tons of their household utensils, tools, 
weapons, ornaments, and various other articles that 
throw light upon their domestic economy, occupa- 
tions, character, and history. When this coast was 
discovered by Cabrillo, no other portion was found .so 
densely populated as this vicinity. The early records 
of the missions give the names of over 150 clans or 
rancherias that were located in the limits of the ter- 
ritory, afterwards incorporated into the county of 
Santa Barbara. The supply of food seems to have 
been so abundant that there was no struggle for ex- 
istence, and the climate so even and di lighlfnl. that 
they showed their appreciation of these conilitions 
by crowding it with a dense population, who. for a 
long period, enjoyed here a peaceful and indolent life. 
Excavations into the cemeteries show that many of 
the localities had been occupied continuously, prob- 
ably for ten centuries at least. 


" With the skeletons, that, from the measui'e of 
decay, seem to have been buried from 100 to 300 
yeai's, were found a few modern beads and other 
articles of European manufacture, mingled with 
stone; wood, bone, and shell implements. Still 
deeper beneath these gi'aves were found remains 
more decayed, with only the stone and shell utensils. 
Layers were found of deeper and deeper interments, 
in which the human remains crumbled into dust on 
being exposed to the air. NotwithstandiuLi' the dry 
character of the soil would favor their longer preser- 
vation, these skeletons exhibited an antiipiity e(puilly 
great with the remains of the mound-builders in the 
Mississippi Valley. The .skulls resemble those of the 
more intelligent of the native races. The bones in- 
dicated a muscular race, of medium stature, some- 

w-hat taller than the more inland tribes. The sites 
ot their villages are covered with the remains of 
molhisks, tish. and seals, showing that from these 
animals they obtained the larger portion of their 
food. The"rarity of warlike implvments indicates 
that they were a" |)eaceful race. Their care for the 
dead j.roves that thev were not destitute of natural 
atl'ection. and the fact that they Imi'ied with their 

of value belonging to tliiMu, testitii's that they lie- 
lieveil in a future state of existence, where these arti- 
cles might he of value to them. The bodies were 
usually buried with the face downward, and the 
knees drawn up under the body. 


-With many of I he skeletons of females were fcnind 
halls of red ochre. Sometimes this was carefully pre- 
servetl in ahalone shells or in small stone cups. Hrace- 
lets and necklaces of bone and shells, together with 
sti-ings of shell beads and shell ear-rings, had been 
buried with them. The most common domestic 
utensil was the stone mortar and pestk'. which were 
of all sizes, from those holdint; three or four gallons 
down to those holding a pint. In these they'doul.t- 
less pounded their acorns and other seeds, which 
they seasoned with grasshoppers when the\- wei'i' 
|»lentiful enough. They had tortilla stones cut oul ol 
soapstone, or steatite, that were fireproof, on which 
they baked their acorn cakes. They also carved 
from this same kind of stone neat cooking utensils. 
They are globular with rather narrow apertures, 
often encircled by raised rims, and will hold from half 
a gallon to four gallons. Cups, bowls, and ladles 
were carved from serpenthie and highly polished. 
Eude knives and awls were made from flint and bone. 
Abalone shells were used for drinking purposes and 
for plates. Xcedles were made of boue. 




'•Highly polished serjientine pipes, with hollow bone 
mouth-])ieces. cemented in ])lace with asphaltum, in- 
dicate that they liked to enjoy their ease when 
smoking, as the straight elongated pipe was only 
adapted to be used with comfort when the smoker 
was in a recumbent position. They made fish-hooks 
of both bone and shell. Axtow and spear-heads were 
of flint, as also were the scrapers with which they 
dressed and prepai-ed the seal skins for their cloth- 
ing. Remains of nets and the abundance of sinkers 
found on the islands near the best fishing-grounds, 
show they were experts in this mode of catching 
fish. These sinkers were generally discoidal stones, 
with the opening in the center beveled. It is prob- 
able that they had secondary uses for these stone 
rings, and that they were used in playing games. 
One vai'iety of these discoidal stones is club-headed 
in form, and is supposed to have been used on sticks 
of wood for convenience in digging the ground for 
roots. Whistles and flutes of hollow bones of birds 
show that they were not entirely destitute of musical 
taste. Their shell money was generally small, round 
]iieces of flat shells, pci Inrated in the center, or else 
small shells like the "livelhis. t i-imcated at the apex to 
permit them to be strung t'lgeihei-. Beautiful models 
of boats were eaiwed in serjieiitine. As the northern 
tribes on the Sacramento River and around the bay 
of San Francisco knew nothing about boats, having 
oidy bahns, which were small rafts of tules or rushes, 
the jjossession of these small models, which they 
evidently prized highly, and the boats which they 
possessed in abundance when Cabrillo first visited 



them, and which he describes as constructed with 
bent planks, cemented with bitumen, the largest of 
them capable of carrying twenty persons iu safety 
across the channel between the main-land and the 
outlying islands, proves them to have been a much 
more intelligent race than any of the more northern 
tribes. But as soon as the eye of the white man 
rested upon them they began to melt away. A little 
more than 300 years later and the native race was 
almost extinct. This fair domain, once their exclu- 
sive possession, is now in the occupancy of another 
race, who wander over the deserted homes that are 
all the record this vanished race left of their history 
" of their inner life, their aspirations, hopes, and fears 
in the unrecorded past." 

Cassac, a learned Frenchman, explored this region 
some years since, and expi-essed a decided opinion 
that the Indians were of the same races that settled 
Mexico. This opinion was based on the character of 
the implements found in their burial-places. The 
boring tools of siliceous stone found on the coast, 
pestles and mortars made of sandstone, amulets and 
small vases made of schist, or staurotide and steatite, 
in which the wealthy kept their shell jewelry, all 
indicated a higher race than the Shoshones which 
occupied the northern part of the State. Some prog- 
ress had been made in agriculture, as was proved 
by the use of a stone implement with a wooden 
handle, which was used to cultivate or pulverize the 
ground. The pipes made of steatite, he thought, were 
used in religious ceremonies, not for smoking tobacco 
but to offer incense to their deities. A plant was used 
for this purpose called the " California Stafiata." He 
also thought the same pipes were used to make a dry 
blister or moxa in some forms of disease. The Indian 
remains at Tulare Lake and on the Cuj^amas Eiver, 
he thinks, were of the same origin. The boundaries 
of the territory of this race, he thinks, were San Fer- 
nando on the east, Soledad towards the north, and the 
Arroyo Grande, in San Luis Obispo County, on the 
coast. They spoke a different language from the In- 
dians of San Luis Obispo. There were different dia- 
lects among themselves, showing a long and jJerma- 
nent residence in their separate localities. Each of 
the islands had a dialect. Mons. Cassac assured the 
people that they had in their midst antiquities which 
had begun to interest the whole world. 


Within the memory of persons now living, there 
were two Indian villages at the Dos Pueblos. The 
people of these two towns, though separated only by 
an insignificant stream, spoke different languages, 
and were of an entirely different character, one 
people being short, thick, and swarthy, the other tall, 
slender, and of light complexion. One village was 
peopled by congeners of the Shoshones, the other by 
the Aztec race. Which was the older, which the 
aggressor, whether a long series of wars had taught 
each to respect the rights and territories of the other, 
is unknown. The depth of the kitchen refuse and 
the presence of shells of an extinct variety of mol- 

lusks at a depth of several feet, fixes the residence of 
the Indians here nearly as far back as the Christian 
era, and contemporary with the mound-builders. 


Since the examinations of the Indian villages by 
Cassac, Yarrow, Bowers, and others, many things 
have been discovered which increase our interest in 
the matter. Three different places are known, north 
of the Santa Barbara Mountains, where paved circu- 
lar courts exist, which evidently were used for relig- 
ious or other public purposes. These are usually 
fifty feet or more in diameter, but one on the Sisquoc, 
fifty miles from its junction with the Santa Maria, is 
neai'ly two hundred feet in diameter, and so elaborate 
in its character as to point it out as a place of much 
importance in former times. It is composed of an 
outer circle of stones set a few inches above the 
ground. Inside of this circle is a paved court, with 
alleys or walks made with similarly elevated stones 
leading towards the center of the circle. 

The center seems to have been set with several 
pieces of timber, possibly flag-staff's. Cabrillo saw 
something of this kind on the islands. It will be 
recollected that the North American tribes of In- 
dians had a habit of dancing or leaping around a 
post, on which were hung trophies of battle. This 
ancient temple is situated on an elevation between 
two creeks or ravines, which empty into the Sisquoc 
nearly together, and commands an extensive view up 
and down the river. The country around seems to 
have been thickly settled. 


About eighty miles from Santa Barbara, near the 
boundary line of the county, on a level piece of land 
near the foot of the mountains, is one of the most 
singular and important relics of the pre-historical 
races, perhaps, that exists in California. It appears 
to have been a stone wigwam forty or fifty yards in 
diameter, built on a stone floor of so compact a char- 
acter as to much resemble a natural stone. The cen- 
ter of the place, as in the paved court before referred 
to, is of earth, as if to receive posts or timbers. The 
roof has fallen in, and the place is much dilapidated; 
all of the walls remaining are covered with paintings 
of halos, circles, with radiations from the center, like 
spokes, and in some instances, squares. Every avail- 
able space is occupied with figures of some sort. A 
variety of colors is used, though blue seems to 
predominate. A cross, five feet in length, in white 
paint, on the highest portion of the remaining walls, 
seems to have been a work of some of the fathers 
at a recent date. 

On the Cuj^amas Eiver are found some rocks of a 
lightish gray sandstone, also painted with figures dif- 
fering from the others. One of these is a representa- 
tion of the sun. Another figure represents a man 
with extended arms, as if reaching for something. 
The Spanish population named it El Sol. All of these 
works evidently belong to another race than the 


swarthy Indian, that occupied California at the com- 
ing of the white man. 


Near the summit of the Santa Barbara Mountains, 
and not lar from the San Marcus Road, is one similar 
in character, though other things than circles arc 
introduced, some of the paintings representing non- 
descript dragons and snakes, monstei's in fact. Every 
available inch of space is covered with paintings of 
some kind. The cave is about sixteen feet in depth 
by twelve in width, and is in a perpendicular rock some 
lifty feet or more in height, the mouth being several 
feet above the base of the rock, is a soft, friable 
sandstone, which is breaking away from exposure 
to rains and weather. The face of the rock gives 
indications of once having been also covered with 
paintings. Five different colors are recognized in the 
decorations, if they may be called such. They must 
have been the work of many months of industry. 
Other rocks in the vicinity are painted, but in a less 
pretentious manner. There is no doubt but these 
figures are the work of people living some hundred 
years since. Th^ir design and use may possibly be 
deciphered by Mexican antiquarians. 


Some extraordinary fatality must have overtaken 
the Indians during the century which elapsed be- 
tween the discovery of the coast and islands by 
Cabi"illo, and the coming of the missionaries, for no 
such numbers as Cabrillo mentions were found by 
Father Junipero Serra. There are traditions of a 
terrible destruction of the island Indians by the 
hunters of the otter from Alaska and the Aleutian 
Islands. The gentle Aztec was no match in a strug- 
gle for life with the fierce Shoshone of the interior. 
Even the Spanish, with their fire-arms and supe- 
rior knowledge, often found their match when the 
Mokelkos and Cosumnes swooped down upon their 
herds of cattle and horses. "What chance then had 
the comparatively peaceful Aztec ? There are many 
indications of a catastrophe among the island In- 
dians. Numerous skeletons have been unearthed, 
which showed fractures of the skull. Dui-ing a re- 
cent high wind fifty or more skeletons were uncov- 
ered, all having the appearance of perishing by vio- 
lence. Those who study the type of the few remain- 
ing Indians will have no difficulty in distinguishing 
the mild, dignified, and intellectual face of the Aztec 
from the swarthy, low-browed, square-built Shoshone, 
who retreated into the mountains at the coming of 
the white man, and kept up a predatory warfare 
until the coming of the gold-hunters made a change 
of base necessary. The character of the Indians 
found at the coming of the missionaries will be fully 
treated in connection with their Christianization by 
the Fathers. 

The Exiles of Loreto— Father Tierra's Methods of Conversion- 
Death of Father Tierra— Arrest of the .lesuits— Midnight 
Parting— Permanent Occupation of California — Missions in 
Charge of Francisco Friars — Character of Father Junipero — 
Exploring Expeditions— Origin of the Name of the Bay- 
Mission Dolores — Death of Father Junipero. 

It was the custom ot the Spanish Ciovcrnnicnl to 
send out a certain number of Christian missionaries 
with each expedition, whether for discover}- or con- 
quest. When the conquerors took possession of a 
new territorj', in the name of the King of Spain, the 
accompanying Fathers also claimed it for the spirit- 
ual empire of the Holy Church, and in this manner 
Calii'ornia became, at mice, the possession of both 
church and State, by right of discovery and con- 

As before slateil. ('aliforni;i w;is disc,,veiv,l in 
1534, i>y an expedition wiiieli Corlez liad caused to 
be fitted out in the inland seas of Tehuantepec. 
From that time, during a period of 150 years, some 
twenty maritime expeditions sailed successfully Irom 
the shores of Now Spain to the coast of Calii'ornia 
with the object of perfecting its conquest ; but none 
of them obtain ed any satisfactory result, beyond an 
imperfect knowledge of the geographical situation of 
the country. The barren aspect of the coast, and 
the nakedness and poverty of the savages, who lived 
in grottoes, caves, and holes in the ground, clearly 
indicated that they had searcelj- advanced beyond 
the primitive condition of man, and discouraged the 
adventurers who were in search of another country 
like Mexico, abounding in natural wealth and the 
appliances of a rude civilization. After the expendi- 
ture of immense sums of both public and private 
wealth, the permanent settlement of California was 
despaired of. The Spanish Government would ad- 
vance no more money, private enterprise was turned 
in another dii'ection, and it was decided to give over 
the so far fruitless experiment to the fathers of the 
church. Many attempts had been made to Christian- 
ize the natives of the Pacific Coast. Gortez is said 
to have had several ecclesiastics in his train, though 
there is no account of their having attemptjd to con- 
vert the natives, or even of landing them. The first 
recorded attempt was made about the beginning of 
the year 1596 by four Franciscan friars, who came 
with Viscaino's expedition. During their stay of two 
months at La Paz, they visited many of the Indians, 
who thought them children of the sun, and treated 
them veiy kindly. Three Carmelite I'riars also came 
with Viscaifio's third expedition in 1()02, two Jesuit 
missionaries in 1()48, two Franciscans in 1688, and 
three Jesuits in 1683. the latter with the ex))edition 
of Admiral Otondo. The celebrated Father Kuhno 
was one who came with the latter expedition. Once, 
when attempting to explain the doctrines of the res- 
urrection to the savages, he was at loss for a word to 



express his meaning. He put some flies under the 
water until they appeared to be dead, and then 
exposed them to the rays of the sun, when they 
revived. The Indians cried out in astonishment, ■' / 
bimuhueite ! I bimuhioeife / " which the father under- 
stood as "they have come to life," the expression he 
wanted, and ajiplied it to the resurrection of the 

No substantial success was, however, achieved 
until about 1675. Then appeared the heroic apostle 
of California civilization, Father John Salva Tierra, 
of the Society of Jesus, commonly called Jesuits. 

Father Tierra, the founder and afterwards visita- 
dore of the missions of California, was a native of 
Milan, born of noble parentage and Spanish ances- 
try, in 164-t. Having completed his education at 
Parma, he joined the order of Jesuits, and went as a 
missionary to Mexico in 1675. He was robust in 
health, exceedingly handsome in person, resolute of 
will, highly talented, and full of religious zeal. For 
several years he conducted the missions of Sonora 
successfully, when he was recalled to Mexico in con- 
sequence of his great ability and singular virtues, 
and was employed in the chief offices of the prov- 
inces. After ten years of ineffectual solicitation, he 
obtained permission of the Viceroy to go to Califor- 
nia, for the purpose of converting the inhabitants, 
on condition that the possession of land should be 
taken in the name of the King of Spain, without his 
being called on to contribute anything towards the 
expenses of the expedition. Tierra associated with 
himself the Jesuit father, Juan Ugarte, a native of 
Honduras. On the 10th of October, 1697, they 
sailed from the, ])ort of Yaqui, in Sonora, for Lower 
California, and, after encountering a disastrous storm, 
and suffering partial shipwreck on the gulf, landed 
on the 19th of that month at San Bruno, at Saint 
Dennis Bay. Not finding that place suitable for 
their purpose, the fathers removed to St. Dyonissius, 
afterwards named Loreto, and there set up the sign 
of civilization and Christianity on its lonely shore. 
Thus Loreto, on the east side of the peninsula, in 
latitude 25° 35 north of the equator, may be consid- 
ered the Plymouth Rock of the Pacific Coast. This 
historic and memorable expedition consisted of only 
two ships and nine men, being a corporal, live pi'ivate 
soldiers, three Indians, the captain of the vessel, and 
the two fathers. 

On the 19th of October. 1697, the little party of 
adventures went ashore at Loreto, and were kindly 
received by about fifty natives, who were induced to 
kneel down and kiss the crucifix. 


It is said of Father Ugarte that he was a man of 
powerful frame. When he first celebrated the cere- 
monials of the church before the natives they were 
inclined to jeer and laugh over solemnities. On one 
occasion a huge Indian was causing con-siderable dis- 
turbance, and was demoralizing the other Indians 

with his mimicry and childish fun. Father Ugarte 
caught him by his long hair, swung him around a 
few times, threw him in a heap on the floor, and 
proceeded with the rites. This argument had a 
converting effect, as he never rebelled again. As 
the conversion of the natives was the main object of 
the settlement, and a matter of the greatest impor- 
tance, to the natives at least, no means were spared 
to effect it. When the natives around the mission 
had been Christianized, expeditions inland were 
undertaken to capture more material for converts. 
Sometimes many lives were taken, but they generally 
succeeded in gathering in from fifty to a hundred 
women and children, the men afterwards following. 
Two or three days' exhortation (confinement and 
starvation) was generally sufficient to effect a change 
of heart, after Avhich the convert was clothed, fed, 
and put to work. Father Ugarte worked with them, 
teaching them to plant, sow, reap, and thresh, and 
they were soon good Christians. 

The imposing ceremonies and visible symbols of 
the Catholic Church are well calculated to strike the 
ignorant savage with awe. Striking results were 
often attained with pictures. When moving from 
one mission to another, and especially when meeting- 
strange Indians, the priests exhibited a picture of 
the Virgin Mary on one side of a canvas, and Satan 
roasting in flames on the other side. They were 
offered a choice, to become subjects of the Holj' 
Mother, or roast in the flames with Satan, and gen- 
erally accepted the former, especially as it was accom- 
panied with food. 


Aftei- twenty years of earnest labor, privation, 
danger, and spiritual success, Father Tierra was 
recalled to Mexico by the new ViceroJ^ for consulta- 
tion. He was then seventy years old; and, notwith- 
standing his age and infirmities, he set out on horse- 
back from San Bias for Tepic; but, having fainted by 
the way, he was carried on a litter by the Indians to 
Guadalajara, where he died July 17, 1717, and was 
buried, with appropriate ceremonies, behind the 
altar in the chajjel of Our Lady of Loreto. 

The historic village of Loreto, the ancient capital 
of California, is situated on the margin of the gulf, in 
the center of St. Dyonissius' Cove. The church, 
built in 1742, is still in tolerable preservation, and, 
among the vestiges of its former richness,'has eighty- 
six oil paintings, some of them by Murillo, and other 
celebrated masters, which, though more than a hun- 
dred years old, are still in a good condition; also, 
some fine silver work, valued at $6,000. A great 
storm in 1827 destroyed many of the buildings of the 
mission. Those remaining are in a state of decay. 
It was the former custom of the pearl-divers to dedi- 
cate the products of certain days to Our Lady 
of Loreto; and, on one occasion, there fell to the lot 
of the Virgin a magnificent pearl, as large as a 
pigeon's egg, of wonderful purity and brilliancy. 




AViLLiAM Wells Hollister. 

Who does not know Colonel Hollister, the man 
with the big soul, broad eharities, and immense bus- 
iness capacity, whose face wins the respect of men. 
the admiration of women, and the love and confi- 
dence of children? When a railroad is to be built. 
Colonel Hollister is consulted. When an agricultural 
colony is to be organized, Colonel Hollister's good 
sense is sure to show a way thi'ough every difficulty. 
If a large charity or benevolence is contemplated. 
Colonel Hollister is sure to respond with a liberal 
donation. If an agricultural experiment is to be 
tried, Colonel Hollister is the man to stand the 
expense. When a visitor to this coast wishes to see 
some of the productions which have rendered Cali- 
fornia so famous, he is referred to Colonel Hollister's 
place; in short he is the representative man of South- 
ern California, with an almost world-wide fame for 
his wealth, virtues, and hospitalities. 

He comes of a family famous for its sturdy and 
manly virtues for centuries, the coat of arms indicat- 
ing the ancient vigor of the race being preserved as 
a curiosity. 

In 1802 John Hollister, the father of the Colonel, 
removed to Licking County, Ohio, where in the then 
unsettled state of the country, he had ample oppor- 
tunity to practice those rugged virtues for which the 
family were famous. Indeed, Ohio received at that 
time that infusion of New England blood, which has 
since made it the leading State in political and moral 
reforms, and sent such men into the world as Chase 
Wells, and hundreds who might be named. The 
Hollister and Wells families intermarried, the blood 
of both flowing in the Colonel's veins, Gideon Wells, 
the late Secretary of the^Navy, being a near relative. 
The elder Hollister, like the son, had a commanding 
presence, the result of strong moral convictions, 
keen intellect, and a perfect physical development, 
qualities which are well calculated to win success in 
a wild country as Ohio was eighty years and Califoi-- 
nia thirty years ago. William Wells, the second son 
and fifth child of John and Philena Hubbard Hol- 
lister, was born in Licking County, Ohio, January 
12, 1818. After getting such education as the schools 
in his vicinity afforded, he was sent to Keuyon Col- 
lege, where his natural talents for mathematics and 
natural science had opportunity for development. A 
severe attack of inflammation of the eyes, induced by 
over study, compelled him to forego the contemplated 
college course, and he returned to his home to take 
charge of the farm left without a manager by the 
death of the elder Hollister. The estate contained 
about 1,000 acres of land; to this the son, bj* industry 
and good management soon added another thousand, 
thus early giving evidence of the business capacity 
which afterwards made him the leading farmer of 
Southern California. He also engaged in merchan- 
dising in connection with farming, which he carried 
on with varying success. 

In 1852 he joined the immense throng of emi- 
grants who were making their way to California by 
way of the plains, and after the usual fatigues, acci- 
dents, and mishaps, he reached San Jose October 3, 

After a look over the country, he saw the op])or- 
tunity to exchange with profit the coarso-wooied, 
inferior native shee]) for the breed with fine wool and 
delicate flesh of Ohio, and the sjjring of 1853 found 
him on the way to California with G,000 graded 
sheep and a company of fifty men. The enterprise 
of driving sheep across sandy plains, destitute of 
water and grass, and also beset by tribes of hostile 
Indians, seemed desperate, but the promise of the 
future, in case he should succeed, seemed to justify 
the attempt. He was accompanied bj' his brother, 
J. H. Hollister, of San Luis Obispo, and his sister, 
Mrs. S. A. Brown. There were deep rivers to swim, 
wild animals, as well as the still wilder Indians, to 
contend with, but his former trip had given him a 
thorough knowledge of the necessities, and enabled 
him to disappoint all that had |)redicted disaster and 
destruction. The route lay from St. Joseph to Salt 
Lake, thence to San Bernardino by the old Mormon 
trail. When he began the desc^ent into California, at 
San Bernardino, less than a fourth of the sheep had 
survived the hardships of the trip, and the feeble 
remnant, wending their wearj' way along the cactus 
hills and plains, gave little promise of the future. 
The grass which was growing fresh and green at 
Los Angeles, soon restored strength to the animal.«, 
which easily reached San Juan in Monterey County, 
not only without further loss, but with the addition 
of 1,000 lambs bom on the way. It will be seen 
that the enterprise required nearly a year, and that 
the long drive involved the necessity of arriving 
at the time that grass should be growing, hence the 
choice of the Southern route, which should admit of 
crossing the Sierra Nevada in the winter season. 

At San Juan he became associated with Flint, 
Bixby, and Company. The first land purchase was 
that of the famous San Justo Ranch. Other pur- 
chases soon followed, until the firm became perhaps 
the largest land-holders on the Pacific Coast, hold- 
ing at one time so much land as to offer the right of 
way for a railroad for eightj' miles. 

Although a great land-holder, he was the pioneer 
in breaking up the large land-holdings to facilitate 
settlement. The San Justo Ranch was subdivided 
and sold to a colony of settlers for some 825,000 less 
than was offered by a speculator. The colony of 
Lompoc was also formed through his influence and 
liberality. When a hard season" reduced the colonists 
to a condition of embarrassment, the Colonel came 
forward and relieved them, by throwing oft" principal 
and interest to the extent of some 825,000, thus 
enabling them to tide over the hard times. 

Colonel Hollister was married in San Francisco, 
June 18, 1862, to Miss Annie, daughter of Samuel L. 
and Jane L. James, Thomas Starr King performing 
the marriage ceremony. They have five children 
who bid fair to become as illustrious as their parents. 
Mrs. Hollister is a refined and accomplished woman, 
and attends personally to the education of the chil- 
dren until they are "of suitable age to receive the 
benefits of the higher institutions of learning. 

Soon after the sale of the San Justo Ranch, ho 
made Santa Barbara bis borne, to wbiob plaoe be 


since has given most of his time and attention, hav- 
ing expended nearly half a million of dollars in and 
around the city. Every commendable enterprise has 
had the benefit of his purse and judgment. The 
Arlington House was raised principally through his 
enterprise. The Santa Barbara College was also 
greatly indebted to him, as was also the Odd Fellow's 
Building and Odd Fellow's Free Library, now 
merged into the public library. On the occasion 
of dedicating the library to public use, the Rev. 
Dr. Hough, perhaps the most eloquent speaker that 
ever made Santa Barbara his home, made some 
very felicitous remarks which desei-ve to be preserved 
in a form more substantial than that of a newspaper. 

[Santa Barbara Press, September 17, 1875.] 

'■Ladies and Gentlemen: I have the honor of 
presenting to your acquaintance this portrait of Col- 
onel Hollister (here the veil was removed). If ever 
I was called upon to perform what our Catholic friends 
call a work of superogation, it is in being asked to 
introduce Colonel Hollister to the people of Santa 
Barbara. There is not a Spanish muchacho in our 
streets; there is not a sheep-herder between this 
place and Point Concepcion who would not instantly 
recognize in that picture the representative man of 
California, the man who holds the plow or the pen 
with equal facility, the man who is equally at home 
in planting an almond orchard at Dos Pueblos, man- 
aging a rancho at San Julian, assisting to found a 
colony at Lompoc, or aiding to rear an Odd Fellow's 
Hail and Public Library at Santa Barbara * * * 
I have entei'tained the idea that in the earlydays of 
the order there occurred, somehow, a. mistake in the 
name, and that it was intended they should be known 
to the world not as the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, but as the Independent Order of Good Fel- 
lows. I do not know whether Colonel Hollister is an 
Odd Fellow or not. 1 know that he has sometimes 
been named, quite against his own taste, a Pastoral 
Prince, but I am sure that neither he nor you will 
quarrel with me, if I combine the two, after the 
fashion that suits me best, and call him the Prince of 
Good Fellows." 

Colonel IloUister's home place is called Glen Anne 
in honor of his wife, and contains 2,750 acres of land 
composed of plain, rolling hills, long sunny slopes, 
and secluded, sheltered valleys. In one of these, 
which, though named a glen, is elevated enough to 
overlook the sea for a great distance, he has built an 
extensive cottage some 60x100 feet, with wide ve- 
randas overlooking a plantation of 2,000 or more 
orange and lemon trees in bearing. On this farm he 
has 30,000 almond trees, 1,200 oranges, 1,000 lemons, 
500 limes, 350 plums, 200 peaches, besides other 
fruits, foreign and domestic in variety. Roads wind- 
ing under great oaks, around rolling hills, across 
rustic bridges, over deep glens, now coming in view 
of a farm-house for his workmen, or a fanciful barn 
for his stock, showing here a glimpse of the spark- 
ling sea, now a field of grain, and now portions of 
his orchard, are among the attractions of the place. 

In company with T. B. Dibblee he is the owner of the 
San Julian Rancho, situated in the western part of 
Santa Barbara County, which is as fine a piece of 
property as a prince might wish to own. It is com- 
posed of the ranches San Julian, Salsipuedes, Bspada, 
Santa Anita, Gaviota, and Las Cruces, containing in 
all about 100,000 acres of land classed as follows: 
valley, 17,000; rolling hills, 50,000, most of which 
can be cultivated; strictly pasturage, 35,000. It 
carries from 50,000 to 75,000 head of sheep and 500 
cattle. The sheep are pure merino, and the cattle 

thoroughbred. The annual sales are from 8125,000 
to $150,000, the expenses being from $25,000 to 
$30,000. The Gaviota Wharf is part of the property, 
though much produce is shipped from the Santa Ynez 
Valley by this wharf It will be seen that the prop- 
erty pays an interest on at least $1,000,000. It is 
the intention of the proprietors to subdivide and sell 
it when it shall become worth more for agricultural 
purposes than for grazing. 

Col. Hollister has inaugurated some very extensive 
reforms. What is called the trespass law was en- 
acted mainly through his exertions. In early days 
cattle were allowed to run at large, compelling every 
person to fence who wished to cultivate the ground. 
Though a stock-raiser himself, he insisted on not 
only the justice, but the policy of compelling every 
man to herd his stock under pains and penalties of 
trespass if they did damage. Public opinion was 
much divided on the matter, but one county after 
another came into the arrangement, until the justice 
and expediency of the " Trespass Law " is now gen- 
erally conceded. 

The subject of Chinese labor is still under consid- 
eration. Whether the public will come to his way of 
thinking is doubtful. He wields a vigorous pen, and 
is evidently sincere and earnest. He is a great 
believer in the value of labor, and enforces his belief 
by being about the hardest worker in the State. As 
a public speaker he is to the point and lucid, never 
attempting to be ornate or poetical, but is often 
humorous and sometimes sarcastic, though it requires 
great provocation to bring out the latter quality. In 
politics he is a Republican, earnest, but not rabid. A 
few extracts from his writings will give a better idea 
of his style than any description. 


" Antecedent to all trade is labor. England grows 
rich, not because she is smarter than other nations, 
but more industrious. France lives and thrives, and 
pays the frightful war indemnity because her citi- 
zens work. Did she care for the millions of coin 
paid out, and fear that thereafter she would have no 
measurers of value left inside her dominion ? Not at 
all. She went to work, and so brought them back 
from all nations with whom she had commercial 


"Labor is the sum total. Go to work and grow 
rich. If the nation continues idle, nothing can save 
it. If idle, it will be immoral. Poverty and crime 
go together. If you would have a moral community, 
make it prosperous. You can only do that by unflag- 
ging industry. 

" Labor is the penalty we pay for civilization. If 
there is an American who does not wish to work, let 
him don the scant apparel suited to the climate, go 
to the tropics, be a savage, and nature will feed him 
from a tree. If he wants the comforts and luxuries 
of a better life, let him take off his coat and go to 

" Without work there is no wealth. There is not 
a dollar added to the wealth of the nation without 
labor. Congress may make a promise, but it cannot 
create a dollar. The labor of 1 he people alone can 
do that. When the Government issued its green- 
backs, it simply promised to the world that the 
American people would create by labor a dollar's 
worth of property for every dollar of paper issued. 
That promise we must fulfill. When we have done 
that, greenbacks will be as good as gold, and not an 
hour before. 



The fathers thought proper to change its destina- 
tion, and presented it to the Queen of Spain, wiio 
gratefully and piously sent Our Lady of Loreto ii 
magnificent new gown. Sonu- pcoplo wore unkiml 
enough to think the (^hu■^■n had the better of the 


The Jesuits continued their missionary work in 
Lower Califoniia for seventy j-ears. On the second 
day of April, 1797. all of the Order throughout the 
Spanish dominions, at home and abroad, were ar- 
rested by order of Charles III., and thrown into 
prison, on the charge of conspii-ing against the State 
and the life of the King. Nearly 6,000 were subjected 
to this decree, which also directed their expulsion 
from California, as well as all other colonial depend- 
encies of Spain. The execution of the despotic order 
was intrusted to Don Gaspar Portala, the Governor 
of the province. Having assembled the Fathers of 
Loreto on the eve of the nativity, December 24th, 
he acquainted them with the heart-breaking news. 
Whatever may have been the faults of the Jesuits in 
Europe, they certainly had been models of devoted 
Christians in the new world. They braved the dan- 
gers of hostile savages, exposed themselves to the 
malarious fevers incident to new countries, and had 
taken up their residences far from the centers of 
civilization and thought, so dear to men of cultivated 
minds, to devote themselves, soul and body, to the 
salvation of the natives, that all civilized nations 
seemed bent on exterminating. It is probable that 
the simple-minded son of the forest understood little 
of the mysteries of theology; and his change of heart 
was more a change of habit than the adoption of any 
saving religious dogma. They abatidoned many of 
their filthy habits, and learned to respect the family 
ties. They were taught to cultivate the soil, to 
build comfortable houses, and to cover their naked- 
ness with garments. They had learned to love and 
revere the fathers, who were ever kind to them. 


After seventy years of devoted attention to the 
savages, after building pleasant homes in the wilder- 
ness, and surrounding themselves with loving and 
devoted friends, they received the order to depart. 
They took their leave on the night of February 3, 
1768, amidst the outcries and -lamentations of the 
people, who, in spite of the soldiers, who could not 
keejj them back, rushed upon the departing fathers, 
kissing their hands, and clinging convulsively to 
them. The leave-taking was brief, but affecting: 
"Adieu, my dear children ! Adieu, land of our adop- 
tion ! Adieu, California ! It is the will of God ! " 
And then, amid the sobs and lamentations, heard all 
along the shore, they turned away, reciting the litany 
of the Blessed Mother of God, and were seen no more. 

For 160 years after the discovery of California, it 
remained comparatively unknown. It is true that 
many expeditions were fitted out to explore it for 

gold and precious stones. The first was fast locked 
ill the mountains of the Sierras, which were occupied 
liy bands of hostile and warlike Indians; and the last 
have not yet been found. The circumstances attend- 
ing the discovery of the great bay will always be of 
interest, and deserve a place in every record; for up 
ti) 17()!i, III) navigator ever turned the prow of his 
vessel into the narrow entrance of the Golden Gate. 

On the expulsion of the Jesuits from Lower Cali- 
fornia, the property of the missions, consisting of 
extensive houses, flocks, pasture lands, cultivated 
fields, orchards, and vineyards, was intrusted to the 
College of San Francisco in Mexico, for the benefit 
of the Order of St. Francis. The zealous scholar, 
Father Junipero Serra, was appointed to the charge 
of all the missions of Lower California. 

Father Jinipero, as he was called, was born of 
humble parents in the island of Majorca, on the 24th 
of November, 1713. Like the prophet Samuel, he 
was dedicated to the priesthood from his infancy, 
and having completed his studies in the Convent of 
San Bernardino, he conceived the idea of devoting 
himself to the immediate service of God; and went 
from thence to Palma. the capital of the province, 
to acquire the higher learning necessary for the 
priesthood. At his earnest request, he was received 
into the Order of St. Francis, at the age of sixteen; 
and, at the end of one year's probation, made his 
religious profession, September 15, 1731. Having 
finished his stmiies in jiiiilosophy and theology, he 
soon acquired a high rei>utation as a writer and 
oi-ator, and his services were sought for in every 
direction; but, while enjoying these distinctions at 
home, his heart was set on his long-projected mission 
to the heathen of the New World. He sailed from 
Cadiz for America, August 28, 1749, and landed at 
Vera Cruz, whence he went to the city of Mexico, 
joined the College of San Fernando, and was made 
President of the missions of Cerra Gorda and San 
Saba. On his appointment to the missions of Cali- 
fornia, he immediately entered upon active duties, 
and proceeded to carry out his grand design of the 
civilization of the Pacific Coast. Acting under the 
instructions of the Viceroy of Mexico, two expedi- 
tions were fi.ted out to explore and colonize Upper 
or Northern California, ot which little or nothing 
was known, one of which was to proceed by sea, 
and the other by land; one to cany the heavy sup- 
plies, the other to drive the flocks and herds. The 
first ship, the S<in Carlos, left Cape St. Lucas, in 
Lower California, January 9, 1769, and was followed 
by the San Antonio on the 15th of the same month. 
A third vessel, the San Jose, was dispatched from 
Loreto on the 16th of June. After much suffering, 
these real pioneers of Califoniia civilization reached 
San Diego; the San Carlos, on the 1st of May; the 
San Antonio, on the 11th of April, 1769, the crews 
having been well-nigh exhausted by scui-vy, thirst, 
and starvation. After leaving Loreto, the San Jose 
was never heard of more. 




The overland expedition was divided into tveo 
divisions; one under command of Don Gaspar de 
Portala, the appointed Military Governor of the New 
Territory; the other, under Capt. Rivera Y. Moneado. 
Rivera and his company, consisting of Father Crespi, 
twenty-five soldiers, six muleteers, and a party of 
Lower California Indians, started from Viilaceta on 
the 24th of March, and reached San Diego on the 
14th of May, 1769. Up to that time, no white man 
had ever lived in Upper California; and then began 
to rise the morning star of our civilization. 

The second division, accompanied by Father 
Junipero, organized the first mission in Upper Cali- 
fornia on the 16th of July, 1769; and there the first 
native Californian was baptized on the 26th of 
December, of that year. These are memorable points 
in the ecclesiastical historj' of this coast. 

On the 14th of July, 1769, Governor Portala 
started out in search of Monterey, as described by 
previous navigators. He was accompanied by 
Fathers Juan Crespi and Francisco Gomez; the party 
consisting of fifty-six white persons, including a 
sergeant, an engineer, and thirty-two soldiers, and a 
company of emigrants from Sonora, together with a 
company of Indians from Lower California. They 
missed their course, and could not find the bay of 
Monterey, but continued on northward, and, on the 
25th day of October, 1769, came upon the great bay 
of San Francisco, which they named in honor of the 
titular saint of the friar missionaries. 


It is said that, while on this expedition, a regret 
was expressed that no mission was as yet named 
after the patron of the Order. Says Portala, " Let 
the saint guide us to a good harbor, and we will 
name a mission for him." When they came in 
sight of the bay. Father Gomez cried, '' There is the 
harbor of San Francisco," and thus it received its 

Father Junipero Serra was not of this illustrious 
company of explorers, and did not visit the bay of 
San Francisco for nearly six years after its discov- 
ery. The honor belongs to Fathers Crespi and 
Gomez, Governor Portala, and their humbler com- 
panions. The party then returned to San Diego, 
which they reached on the 24th of January, 1770, 
after an absence of six months and ten days. Six 
years thereafter, on the 9th of October, 1776, the 
Mission of San Francisco de los Dolores was founded 
on the western shore of the great bay, the old church 
remaining in tolerable preservation to the present 
time, the most interesting landmark of our present 


One may retire from the noise and bustle of the 
city, and spend a pleasant hour among the quaint 
surroundings of the old church. The adobe walls, 

the columns of doubtful order of architecture, the 
bells hung with rawhide, which called the dusky 
converts to worship, all were doubtless objects of 
wonder and mystery to the simple-minded natives. 
From 1776 to 1882, what changes on either side of 
the continent. A hundred years is much in the life 
of men. little, except in effect, in the life of a nation. 

Father Junipero, who founded these missions, and 
under whose fostering care they reached such unex- 
ampled prosperity, reposes in the old church-yard at 
Monterey. His life reads like a romance. 

Church History. — It is related of him as illustrat- 
ing his fiery zeal, that, while on his way to found 
the mission of San Antonio de Padua, he caused the 
mules to be unpacked at a suitable place, and the 
bells hung on a tree. Seizing the rope he began to 
ring with all his might, regardless of the remonstra- 
tions of the other priests, shouting at the top of his 
voice, "Hear! hear, O ye Gentiles! Come to the 
Holy Church! Come to the faith of Christ ! " Such 
enthusiasm will win its way even among savages. 


At length, having founded and successfully estab- 
lished six missions, and gathered into his fold over 
7,000 wild people of the mountains and plains, the 
heroic Junipero began to feel that his end was draw- 
ing near. He was then seventy years old; fifty-three 
of these years he had spent in the active service of 
his Master in the New World. Having fought the 
good fight and finished his illustrious course, the 
broken old man retired to the Mission of San Carlos 
at Monterey, gave the few remaining days of his life 
to a closer communion with God, received the last 
rites of the religion which he had advocated and 
illustrated so well, and on the 29th of August, 1784, 
gently passed away. Traditions of the " boy priest" 
still linger among the remnants of the tribes which 
were gathered under his care. 


Their Moral and Political Aspect— Domestic Economy — The Es- 
tablishments Described — Secular and Religious Occupations 
of the Neophytes — Wealth and Productions — Liberation 
and Dispersion of the Indians — Final Decay. 

Certain writers upon the early history of Califoi'- 
nia have taken an unfavorable view of the system 
under which the missionary friars achieved their 
wonderful success in reducing the wild tribes to a 
condition of semi-civilization. The venerable fathers 
are accused of selfishness, avarice, and tyranny, in 
compelling the Indians to submission, and forcibly 
restraining them from their natural liberty, and 
keeping them in a condition of servitude. Nothing 
could be more unjust and absurd. It were as well to 
say that it is cruel, despotic, and inhuman to tamo 
and domesticate the wild cattle that roam the great 



plains of the continent. The s^'stem of the fathers 
was onh" our modern resei'vation pt)licy humanized 
and Christianized; inasmuch as they not onlj- fed and 
clothed the bodies of the improvident natives, but 
likewise cared for their imperishable souls. The euro 
of Indian souls was the primary object of the friar 
enthusiasts; the work required of the Indians was 
of but few hours' duration, with long intervals of 
rest, and was only incidental to the one great and 
holy purpose of spiritual conversion and salvation. 
Surely, " No greater love hath any man than that 
he lay down hia life for his friend;" and it is a cruel 
stretch of sectarian uncharity to chai'ge selfishness 
and avarice to the account of self-devoting men who 
voluntarih- went forth from the refinements, pleas- 
ures, and honors of European civilization, to traverse 
the American wilderness in sandals, and with onlj' 
one poor garment a year, in order to uplift the de- 
graded and savage tribes of paganism from the 
regions of spiritual darkness, and lead them to the 
heights of salvation; nay, even to starve and die on 
the "coral strand" of California in helpless and 
deserted age. In 1838, the Eev. Father Sarria act- 
ually starved to death at the Mission of Soledad, 
after having labored there for thirty years. After 
the mission had been plundered through the perfidy 
of the Mexican Government, the old man, broken by 
age and faint with hunger, lingered in his little 
church with the few converts that remained, and one 
Sunday morning fell down and died of starvation 
before the altar of his life-long devotion. O, let not 
the Christian historian of California, who is yet to 
write for all time to come, stain and distort his 
pages by such cruel and unworthy charges against 
the barefooted paladins of the cross. No one who 
has not felt the divine influence that pervaded and 
strengthened the devoted missionaries in their labors 
and privations in the wilderness can appreciate the 
sincerity of their actions and the hopefulness of their 
lives. To entirely comprehend the sj'stem and pro- 
ceedings of the friars, it will be essential to know the 
meaning of certain descriptive terms of their insti- 
tutions of settlement. These were — 

1st. Presidios. 

2d. Castillos. 

3d. Pueblos. 

■Ith. Missions. 
The presidios were the military garrisons, estab- 
lished along the coast for the defense of the country 
and the protection of the missionaries. Being the 
headquarters of the military, they became the seats 
of local government for the dift'erent presidencies 
into which the country was divided. There were 
four of these presidios in Upper California — at San 
Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey, and San Francisco. 
They were uniform in structure, consisting of adobe 
walls twelve or fourteen feet high, inclosing a square 
of 300 feet on each side, defended at the angles by 
small bastions mounting eight twelve-pounder bronze 
cannon. Within were the barracks, store-house, a 

church for the soldiers, and the commandant's resi- 
dence. On the outside they were defended by a 
trench, twelve feet wide and six feel deep, and were 
entered by two gates, open during the day and dosed 
at night. The number of soldiers assigned to each 
presidio was limited to 250; but rarely were there so 
manj' at any one station. In addition to the duty of 
guarding the coast, small details of four or five men, 
under a sergeant, accompanied the fathers when they 
wont abroad to establish missions, or on other busi- 
ness. A certain number of troops were also assigned 
to each mission, to keep order and defend the place 
against the attacks of hostile natives. They dressed 
in buckskin unifoi-m, which was supposed to be im- 
pervious to arrows, and the horses, too, were encased 
in leather armor, like those of the knights of old. 

The Castillo was a covered battery near the p e- 
sidio, which it was intended to guard. It was 
manned and mounted with a few guns, and though 
but a slight defense against a powerful enemy, it 
served to intimidate and keep off the feeble and 
timorous Gentiles. 

The pueblo was a town, inhabited originally by 
discharged soldiers who had served out their time at 
the presidios. It was separate from the presidio and 
mission, the lands having been granted by the fathers. 
After a while other persons settled there, and some- 
times the inhabitants of the pueblo, or independent 
town, outnumbered those of the neighboring mission. 
There were only four of those pueblos in Upper Cal- 
ifornia — Los Angeles, San Jose, Branciforte, near 
Santa Cniz, and Santa Bai-bara. San Francisco was 
not a pueblo. There were thi-ee classes of these 
settlements in later times — the pueblo proper, the 
presidio, and the mission pueblo. The rancherias 
were King's lauds, set apart for the use of the troops 
to pasture their cattle and horses. 

The mission was the parent institution of the 
whole. There the natives resided, under religious 
treatment, and others were not allowed to inhabit 
the place except for a verj' brief time. This was to 
prevent the mingling of whites and natives, for it 
was thought that the former would contaminate and 
create discontent and disorder among the natives. 
The missions were all constructed on the same gen- 
eral plan. They were quadrangular adobe structures, 
two stories high, inclosing a court-j-ard ornamented 
with fountains and trees, the whole consisting of a 
church, father's apartments, store-houses, barracks, 
etc. The four sides of the building were each about 
600 feet in length, one of which was partly occupied 
by the church. Within the quadrangle, or court, a 
gallery or porch ran round the second story, opening 
upon the workshops, store-rooms, and other apart- 

The entire management of each mission was under 
the care of the friars; the elder attended to the 
interior and the other the out-doors administration. 
One large apartment, called the monastery, was 
occupied exclusively by Indian girls, under the watch- 



ful care of the matron, where they were instructed 
in such branches as was deemed necessary for their 
future condition in life. They were not permitted to 
leave the monastery till old enough to be married. 
In the schools, such children as manifested adequate 
capacity were taught vocal and instrumental music, 
the latter consisting of the flute, horn, and violin. In 
the various mechanical departments, the most ingen- 
ious and skillful were promoted to the foremanship. 

The daily routine of the establishment was usually 
as follows: At sunrise they all arose and repaired 
to the church, where, after morning prayers, they 
assisted at the mass. The morning religious exer- 
cises occupied about an hour. Thence they went to 
breakfast, and afterwards to their respective employ- 
ments. At noon they returned to the mission, and 
spent two hours at dinner and in rest; thence to 
work again, continuing until the evening angelus, 
about an hour before sundown. Then all betook 
themselves to church for evening devotions, which 
consisted usually in ordinary family prayers and 
rosary, but on special occasions other devotional 
exercises were added. After supper, they amused 
themselves in various games, sports, and dances till 
bedtime, when the unmarried sexes were locked up 
in separate a[)artments till morning. Their diet con- 
sisted of good beef and mutton, with vegetables, 
wh eaten cakes, puddings and porridges, which they 
called atole and pinoh. The men dressed in linen 
shirts, pants, and a blanket, the last serving for an 
overcoat; the women had each two undergarments, 
a new gown, and a blanket every year. "When the 
missions had grown rich, and in times of plenty, the 
fathers distributed money and trinkets among the 
more exemplary, as rewards for good conduct. 

The Indians lived in small huts grouped around, 
a couple of hundred yards away from the main 
building; some of these dwellings were made of 
adobes, and others were of rough poles, conical in 
shape, and thatched with grass, such as the people 
had been accustomed to in their wild state. Here 
the married Indians resided with their families. A 
tract of land about fifteen miles square, was appor- 
tioned to each mission for cultivation and pasturage. 
There is a wide distinction between the signification 
of the terms "Mission" and "Mission lands;" the 
former referred to the houses, vineyards, and orchards, 
in the immediate vicinity of the churches, and also 
included the cattle belonging to the establishments; 
while mission lands, assigned for grazing and agri- 
culture, were held only in fief, and were afterwards 
claimed by the Government — against the loud remon- 
strance of the fathers, however. The missions were 
originally intended to be only temporarj^ in dura- 
tion. It was contemplated that in ten years from 
the time of their foundation they should cease, as it 
was then supposed that within that period the In- 
dians would be sufficiently prepared to assume the 
position and character of citizens, and that the mis- 
sion settlements would become puehlos, and the 

mission churches parish institutions, as in older civil- 
izations; but having been neglected and undisturbed 
by the Spanish Government, they kept ou in the old 
way for sixty years, the comfortable fathers being in 
no hurry to insist on a change. 

From the foregoing, derived chiefly from Gleeson's 
valuable work, " History of the Catholic Church in 
California," it will be inferred that the good fathers 
trained up their young neophytes in the way in 
which they should go. Alexander Forbes and other 
historians say that during church-time a sort of 
beadle went around with a long stick, and when he 
perceived a native inattentive to the devotions or 
inclined to misbehave, gave him or her an admoni- 
tory prod, or a rap over the cabesa I But all authori- 
ties, both Catholic and Protestant, agree concerning 
the gentleness and humanity of the fathers, who 
were absolute in authority and unlimited in the 
monarchy of their little kingdoms. Not that there 
was never any application of severe and necessary 
discipline; there were among the Indians, as well as 
in civilized society, certain vicious and turbulent 
ones, incapable of affection and without reverence 
for authority, and these were soundly whipped, as 
no doubt they deserved, as such crooked disciples 
now are at San Quentin.. Occasionally some discon- 
tented ones ran away to the hills, and these were 
pursued and brought back by the mission cavalry. 
They generally returned without much trouble, as 
they had an idea that, having been baptized, some- 
thing dreadful would happen to them if they stayed 

While modern sentimentalists may lament that 
these poor people were thus deprived of their "nat- 
ural liberty and kept in a condition of servitude, it 
must be admitted that their moral and physical 
situation was even better than the average poor in 
the European States at that time. Their yoke was 
easy, and their burdens were light; and if, in the 
Christian view of things, their spiritual welfare be 
taken into account, the fathers, instead of being- 
regarded as despots and task-masters, must be 
viewed as the substantial benefactors of the swarthy 

The wealth ci-eated by some of the missions was 
enormous. At its era of greatest prosperity, the 
Mission of San Gabriel, founded in 1771, numbered 
3,000 Indians, 105,000 cattle, 20,000 horses, 40,000 
sheep; produced, annually, 20,000 bushels of grain, 
and 500 barrels of wine and brandy. Attached to 
this mission were seventeen extensive ranches, 
farmed by the Indians, and possessing 200 yoke oi 
oxen. Some of the old fig and olive trees are still 
bearing fruit, and one old Indian woman still sur- 
vives, who is said to have reached the incredible age 
of 140 years. In 1831, the number of Indians at the 
missions of Upper California was upwards of 30,000. 
The number of live stock was nearly a million, includ- 
ing 400,000 cattle, 60,000 horses, and 300,000 sheep, 
goats, and swine. One hundred thousand cattle were 


Hon. Russell Heath 

As his name frequently appears in the history of 
Santa Barbara, some account of his early life, as 
well as his later career, will be of interest to our 
readers. He was born in Herkimer County, New 
York, in 1826. If the rocks and mountains and 
climate have anything to do with the formation of 
character, as ethnologists assert, due credit for many 
of Mr. Heath's best traits must be given to the inhos- 
pitable character of the climate and soil where he 
first saw the light, for only a race with an abundant 
store of mental and physical ability could prosper 
amid such adverse conditions. Transplanted to such 
a land of plenty as Santa Barbara, such traits make 
success doubly sure. 

Mr. Heath comes of ancient and honorable stock. 
General Heath, of Eevolutionary fame, being one of 
his ancestors. His mother was a descendant of 
General Herkimer, of New York, in whose honor 
the county of Herkimer was named. 

As in nearlj' all the countries where industry and 
intelligence are reckoned among the cardinal virtues, 
Herkimer County was even then famous for its 
schools, and young Heath was soon employed in 
making his way up the hill of science. After a 
suitable attendance at the common schools he was 
placed in the High School at Fairfield, which then 
had a corps of teachers second to no school of its 
grade in the United States, Professor Davies, the 
author of the series of mathematical works bearing 
his name, used in all the institutions of learning in 
the United States, being one of the teachers. 

After completing his academical course, he entered 
the law office of Capron & Lake, of Herkimer, where 
he spent some years in studying the general princi- 
ples of law as applied to the organization of national 
communities, acquiring in that class of law studies a 
knowledge of political economy as well as law prac- 
tice, a knowledge which subsequently gave him an 
opportunity of doing good service to the State of 
his adoption. 

He came to Santa Barbara in a veiy early day, 

when the community was in a transition state be- 
tween Spanish patriarchy and American law and 
order; when one influence had nearly ceased and the 
other only commenced; when to be an officer required 
much firmness tempered with discretion. He was 
rapidly promoted by the community, who soon learned 
to appreciate his sterling qualities. He was admitted 
to practice in 1852; was appointed District Attorney 
in 1853, which position he resigned in 1854 to take 
the position of Sheriff by appointment, which office 
he held by election until 1858, when he was elected 
to the Legislature. 

While he was acting as Sheriff' he met with many 
hair-breadth adventures, which, but for his constitu- 
tional coolness and self-reliance, would have ter- 
minated fatally to him. (See his encounter with 
Solomon Pico related in a former chapter.) 

"When in the Legislature, he, as a member of the 
Judiciary Committee, performed one of the most 
important services to the State by helping to annul 
the so-called " Estill State's Prison Contract." The 
matter is thus briefly related b}' Tuthill in his " His- 
tory of California:" — 

" In 1851, by an unfortunate contract for a term of 
ten years, that institution (the State's Prison) was 
turned over to the control of James M. Estill. There 
were so many abuses, so many escapes of prisoners, 
sometimes encouraged if not even planned by the 
keepers, so much and such well-grounded complaint, 
that the Legislature declared the lease forfeited, and 
the State officers resumed its management. They 
erected a wall twenty feet high about the premises 
at San Quentin, inclosing a square of 500 feet on 
each side, and initiated many reforms. 

" Still the concern did not prosper, and the Legis- 
lature of 1856, doubtless thinking it wise economy, 
made a new lease of the prison buildings and labor 
to the same Estill, he engaging to maintain and keep 
safely the convicts, and the State to pay him SIO.OOO 
a year for five years. Very soon he assigned the 
lease to one, McCaulcy, at half the agreed rate of 
compensation. The abuses now were worse than 
ever. Prisoners were maltreated and continually 


"The Legislature again declared the lease forfeited, 
and Governor Weller in the spring of 1858 took 
forcible possession of the property, and gave the 
keys to a new warden." 

There were thirteen ex-Sheriifs in the Legislature 
that session, and the bad, faithless management of the 
institution was well known to them all, the frequent 
escapes of the convicts being notorious. The finan- 
cial management was bad, and so far from being self- 
supporting the institution was constantly increasing 
a debt already large. There was little speech-mak- 
ing done; the work was mostly in committee, and 
there Mr. Heath was the peer of any of the mem- 
bers. The bill was perfected in committee, and 
though Estill had many personal friends, who fought 
the bill in every stage of its passage, it went through 
both Houses the same day, was signed by the Gov- 
ernor the following day, and was immediately en- 
oreed. Thus was a nuisance and wrong abated. 

After his return from the Legislature he was again 
elected District Attorney, which office he held until 
1862. Though a lawyer by profession, he has little 
love for the mere technicalities, and has rather 
avoided the practice than otherwise, like Cincin- 
natus, preferring the pleasures of a rural life to the 
strifes incident to politics and law. In 1858 he pur- 
chased property in the Carpenteria, to which he has 
constantly added, until now he has over 200 acres of 
what is justly considered the most desirable agricul- 
tural land in the State, every acre being a fortune to 
its owner. One hundred acres of orchard, in wal- 
nuts, lemons, oranges, and other valuable fruits, are 
yielding him a princely revenue. He has turned his 
attention to the cultivation and handling of the citrus 

fruits, and has demonstrated the fact that, with 
proper treatment, they are not inferior to those of 
Sicily or any of the Oriental countries. 

Some years since he built an elegant villa, a view 
of which is given in this work, that I'ises above the 
trees and shrubbery which surround it, and permits a 
view from the tower of the beautiful valley of the Car- 
penteria, with its numbers of elegant residences, the 
rugged mountains towering to the skies in the rear, 
and the billows of the great Pacific rolling on the 
beach in a snowy surf in front, with the historic 
islands of Santa Eosa and Santa Cruz in the dis- 
tance, the view occasionally varied by the passing ot 
a sailing vessel or the smoky trail of the coast 

He was married in 1856 to Miss Harriet E. Sherman, 
the marriage being the result of a mutual attachment 
existing from childhood. The parties met at San 
Francisco, she going from New York and he from 
Santa Barbara. The marriage ceremony was per- 
formed by Bishop Kip, their former pastor in New 
York. They have one child, a son, born in 1857. 

Few families are better prepared to enjoj- the 
aftei-noou of life than Colonel Heath's, and few 
deserve it more, for not once in his long career as a 
citizen and as a public officer has he laid the hand 
of oppression or rapacity upon man. woman, or child 
but has ever extended sympathy to the unfortunate 
and dealt justice to all. Still in the vigor of man- 
hood, notwithstanding bis nearly three-score years, 
he bids fair to add another quarter of a century to 
his years of usefulness and enjoy the rewards of a 
life of industry and the love and respect of his 



slaughtered annually, their hides and tallow produc- 
ing a revenue of nearly a million of dollars, a I'cvenue 
of equal magnitude being derived from other articles 
of export. There were rich and extensive gardens 
and orchards attached to the missions, ornamented 
and enriched with a variety of European and tropical 
fruit trees, including bananas, oranges, olives, and 
figs, to which were added productive and highly 
cultivated vineyards, rivaling the richest grape-fields 
of Europe. When the missions wei'e seculaiized and 
ruined by the Mexican Government, there were 
above a hundred thousand piasters in the treasury ol' 
San Gabriel. 

Extent of the Mission Lands — Varieties of Product — Agricul- 
tural Implements and Means of Working — A Primitive 
Mill — Immense Herds and Value of Cattle — The First 
Native Shop. 

Up to the time of the American conquest, the pro- 
ductive lands of California were chiefiy in the hands 
of the missionaries. Each of the missions included 
about fifteen miles square, and the boundaries were 
generally equi-distant. As the science of agricul- 
ture was then in a very primitive condition in Spain, 
the monks of California could not be expected to 
know much about scientific farming. They knew 
nothing about the utility of fallows, or the alter- 
nation of crops, and their only mode of renovating 
exhausted soil, was to let it lie idle and under the 
dominion of native weeds, until it was thought capa- 
ble of bearing crops again. Land being so abun- 
dant, thei'e was no occasion for laborious or expen- 
sive processes of recuperation. 

The grains mostly cultivated were Indian corn, 
wheat, barley, and a small bean called frijol, which 
was in general use throughout Spanish America. 
The beans, when ripe, were fried in lard, and much 
esteemed by all ranks of people. Indian corn was 
the bread staple, and was cultivated in rows or drills. 
The plow used was a very primitive atfair. It was 
composed of two pieces of wood; the main piece, 
formed from a crooked limb of a tree of the proper 
shape, constituting both sole and handle. It had no 
mould-board, or other means for turning a furrow, 
and was only capable of sei-atehing the surface of 
the ground. A small share, fitted to the point of the 
sole, was the only iron about the implement. The 
other piece was a long beam, like the tongue of a 
wagon, reaching to the yoke of the cattle by which 
the plow was drawn. It consisted of a rough sap- 
ling, with the bark taken off, fixed into the main 
piece, and connected by a small upright on which it 
was to slide up or down, and was fixed in position by 
two wedges. When the plowman desired to plow 
deep, the forward end of the tongue was lowered, 
and in this manner the depth of the furrow was reg- 
ulated. This beam passed between the two oxen, a 

pin was ])ut through the end projecting from the 
yoke, and then the agricultural machine was ready 
to run. The plowman walked on one siile. holding the 
one handle or stilt with his right liaiul, ami managing 
the oxen with the other. The yoke was |il:i(c(l on 
the top of the cattle's head close lnhind the luirns, 
tied firmly to the i-oots and to the forehead by thongs, 
so that, instead of drawing by the shoulders and 
neck, the oxen dragged the plow bj- their horns and 
foreheads. When so harnessed the poor beasts were 
in a very deplorable condition; they could not move 
their heads up, down, or sidewise, went with their 
noses turned up, and every jolt of the plow knocked 
them about, and seemed to give them great pain. 
Only an ancient Spaniard could devise such a con- 
trivance for animal torture. When Alexander Forbes 
suggested to an old Spaniard that perhaps it might 
be better to yoke the oxen by the neck and shoul- 
ders, "What!" said the old man, "can you suppose 
that Spain, which has always been known as the 
mother of the sciences, can be mistaken on that 

The oxen were yoked to the carts in the same 
manner, having to bear the weight of the load on 
the top of their heads, the most disadvantageous 
mechanical point of the whole body. The ox-cart 
was composed of a bottom frame of clumsy construc- 
tion, with a few upright bars connected by smaller 
ones at the top. When used for carrying gi'ain, it 
was lined with canes or bulrushes. The pole was 
large, and tied to the yoke in the same manner as 
with the plow, so that every jerk of the cart was 
torture to the oxen. The wheels had no spokes, and 
were composed of three pieces of timber, the middle 
piece hewn out of a log, of suflJcient size to form the 
nave and middle of the wheel, all in one; the middle 
piece was of a length equal to the diameter of the 
wheel, and rounded at the ends to arcs of the cir- 
cumference. The other two pieces were of timber 
naturally bent, and joined to the sides of the middle 
piece by keys of wood grooved into the ends of the 
pieces which formed the wheel. The whole was 
then made circular, and did not contain a particle of 
iron, not even so much as a nail. 

From the rude construction of the plow, which 
was incapable of turning a fun-ow, the ground was 
imperfectly broken by scratching over, crossing, and 
re-crossing several times; and although four or five 
crossings were sometimes given to a field, it was 
found impossible to eradicate the weeds. "It was 
no uncommon thing," says Forbes, in 1835, "to see, 
on some of the large maize estates in Mexico, as 
manj' as 200 plows at work together. As the plows 
are equal on both sides, the plowmen have only to 
begin at one side of the field and follow one another 
up and down, as many as can be employed together 
without interfering in turning round at the end, 
which they do in succession, like ships tacking in a 
line of battle, and so proceed down the same side as 
they come up." 


Harrows were unknown, the wheat and barlej" 
being brushed in by a branch of a tree. Sometimes 
a heavy log was drawn over the field, on the plan of 
a roller, save that it did not roll, but was dragged 
so as to carry a part of the soil over the seeds. 
Indian corn was planted in furrows or ruts drawn 
about five feet apart, the seed being deposited by 
hand, from three to five grains in a place, which 
were slightly covered by the foot, no hoes being 
used. The sowing of maize, as well as all other 
grains, in Upper California, commenced in Novem- 
ber, as near as possible to the beginning of the rainy 
season. The harvest was in July and August. 
Wheat was sown broadcast, and in 1835 it was con- 
sidered equal in quality to that produced at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and had begun to attract atten- 
tion in Europe. All kinds of grain were threshed at 
harvest time, without stacking. In 1831, the whole 
amount of grain raised in Upper California, accord- 
ing to the mission records, was 46,202 fanegas — the 
fanega being equal to 2J English bushels. Wheat 
and barley were then worth two dollars the fanega; 
maize, a dollar and a half; the crop of that year at 
the several missions being worth some $86,000. 

The mills for grinding grain consisted of an up- 
right axle, to the lower end of which was fixed a 
horizontal water-wheel under the building, and to 
the upper end a millstone. As there was no inter- 
mediate machinery to increase the velocity of the 
stone, it could make only the same number of revo- 
lutions as the water-wheel, so that the work of 
grinding a grist was necessarily a process of time. 
The water-wheel was fearfully and wonderfully 
made. Forbes descinbed it as a set of cucharas, or 
gigantic spoons, set around its periphery in place of 
floats. They were made of strong pieces of timber, 
in the shape of spoons, with the handles inserted in 
mortises in the outer surface of the wheel, the bowl 
of the spoons toward the water, which impinged 
upon them with nearly its whole velocity. Rude as 
the contrivance was, it was exceedingly powerful — 
a sort of primitive turbine. There were only three 
of these improved mills in the country in 1835, and 
the possession of such a rare piece of machinery was 
no small boast for the simple-hearted fathers, so far 
away from the progressive mechanical world. It 
was not a primitive California invention, however, as 
Sir Walter Scott, in his romance of " The Pirate," 
describes a similar apparatus formerly in use in the 
Shetland Islands.* 

Before the advent of foreigners, neither potatoes 
nor green vegetables were cultivated as articles of 
food. Hemp was i-aised to some extent, and flax 
grew well, but its culture was discontiuued for want 
of machinery for manufacture. Pasturage was the 
principal pursuit in all Spanish colonies in America. 
The immense tracts of wild land aff'orded unlimited 

'This f.^rm of water-wheel was summon in the Eastern States during the 
earlier part of this century, and was known as the tub or spur wheel. Even 
the mounting- of the millstones vias in the manner described.— Editor. 

ranges. But few men and little labor were i-equired, 
and the pastoral state was the most congenial to the 
people. The herds were very large; in the four 
jurisdictions of San Francisco, Monterey, Santa Bar- 
bara, and San Diego, there were, in 1836, 300,000 
black cattle, 32,000 horses, 28,000 mules, and 153,000 
sheep. Great numbers of horses ran wild, and these 
were hunted and killed to prevent their eating the 
grass. There was hardly such a thing as butter or 
cheese in use, butter being, in general, an abomina- 
tion to a Spaniard. 

In the earlier times immense droves of young bulls 
were sent to Mexico for beef The cattle being halt 
wild, it was necessary to catch them with a lasso, a 
process which need not here be described. The pro- 
cess of milking the cows was peculiar. They first 
let the calf suck for a while, when the dairyman 
stole up on the other side, and while the calf was 
still sucking procured a little of the milk. They 
had an idea that the cow would not " give down" 
milk if the calf was taken away from her. The 
sheep were of a bad breed, with coarse wool; and 
swine received little attention. The amount of the 
annual exports in the first few years after the open- 
ing of the ports to foreign vessels, was estimated at 
30,000 hides and 7,000 quintals of tallow, with small 
cargoes of wheat, wine, raisins, olives, etc., sent to 
the Russian settlements and San Bias. Hides were 
worth $2.00 each, and tallow $8.00 per quintal. 
Afterwards the exportation of hides and tallow was 
greatly increased, and it is said that after the fathers 
had become convinced that they would have to give 
up the mission lands to the Government, they caused 
the slaughter of 100,000 cattle in a single year for 
their hides and tallow alone. And who could blame 
them ? The cattle were theirs. Notwithstanding all 
this immense revenue, these enthusiasts gave it all to 
the church and themselves went away in penury, 
and, as has been related heretofore, one of them 
actually starved to death. 

In 1836 the value of a fat ox or bull in Upper 
California was $5.00; a cow, $5.00; a saddle-horse, 
$10.00; a mare. $5.00; a sheep, $2.00; and a mule, 

The first ship ever constructed on the eastern 
shores of the Pacific was built by the Jesuit father, 
Ugarte, at Loreto, in 1719. Being in want of a 
vessel to survey the coast of the peninsula, and there 
being none available nearer than New vSpain or the 
Philippine Islands, the enterprising friar determined 
to build one. After traveling 200 miles through the 
mountains, suitable timber was at last found in a 
marshy country; but how to get it to the coast was 
the great question. This was considered impossible 
by all but the stubborn old friar. When the party 
returned to Loreto, Father Ugarte's ship in the 
mountains became a ghostly joke among his brother 
friars. But, not to be beaten and laughed down, 
Ugarte made the necessary j)i"eparations, returned 
to the mountains, felled the timber, dragged it 200 


miles to the coast, and built a hai>di<onie ship, which 
he appropriately named The Triumph of the Cross. 
The first voyage of this historic vessel was to L:i 
Paz, 200 miles south of Loreto. whore a mission wah 
to he founded. 


Missions of Santa Barbara County — .Santa Barbara Mission- 
Naming the Mission — Life of tlie Santa B irbara Vital Sta- 
tistics — San Buenaventura Mission— Mission La Purissima 
Concepcion — Destruction of the Mission — New Purissima — 
Santa Ynez Mission— The Insurrection. 
It is said that the Franciscan friars had a <j;ood 
practical knowledge of the value of land, the benefits 
arising from a favorable climate, and the methods of 
cultivating the soil so as to accomplish the greatest 
results in agriculture. They not only believed in 
converting the soul to Christianity, but the body as 
well; hence, thej- took into account all the pecul- 
iarities of climate and soil, which has since made 
Santa Barbara so famous. The valleys of Santa 
Clara and Ventura, with their streams of pure, cold 
water, which abounded with trout, the wide, grassj^ 
plains of the Santa Mai-ia, Lumpoc, San Julian, Los 
Alimos, Santa Rita, Jonata, and other places, all sug- 
gested to the practical fathers the wealth which they 
have since realized for their owners. And we have 
seen that soon after the policy of establishing mis- 
sions was adopted, the missions of San Buenaventura, 
Santa Barbara, Lumpoc, Purissima. and Santa Ynez 
were the centers of vast grain-fields, and the homes 
of immense herds of cattle, horses, sheep, and hogs. 
The palm, orange, lemon, olive, fig, grape, and other 
fruits were planted in great abundance. The fount- 
ains of clear water, bursting and spouting among the 
shrubbery and fruit-laden trees, gave the Indian a 
more exalted idea of the value of civilization than 
any sermon or homily, and the stores of grain and 
meat formed a strong inducement to forego the pre- 
carious freedom and starvation of the mountains and 
adopt the religion of the friars. 


This mission was founded December -t, 1786. An- 
tonio Paterna and Christoval Oramar were the first 
priests in charge. The first church was built not far 
from the present center of the town, near the old 
presidio walls. It was of bowlders laid in mortar, a 
part of the arch over the main entrance still stand- 
ing. After the new church, or present mission build- 
ing, was ei-ected, the old church was used for a 
.school house, until it became unsafe. Hero under 
the favorable circumstances — a mild climate and a 
fertile soil — the mission grew in wealth and popula- 

In 1802 Humboldt, who was visiting the city of 
Mexico, examined the return of the Missions of Alta 
California, and expressed much astonishment at the 

amount of cattle and other stock which had accumu- 
hiled in twenty yeai-s, especially as a large number 
of Indians had to be fed from the yearly productions. 
In 1H12 the mission fed 1.300 people, had 4,000 
head of cattle. 8,000 sheep. 250 swine, 1,H32 hoi-ses, 
and 142 mules. Productions for the year, 8,853 
bushels of wheat, 400 corn, 12(j barley, twenty-six of 
beans. The earthquake of December, IKll, injured 
the church very much, as it did all the others in the 
county, and necessitatcl ihc nKuilding of it in a 
more substantial form. Work was commenced on 
the present site within two years from the famous 
arios temhlores and went slowly forward until the 
church was dedicated in 1822. There were but few 
skilled persons to teach the Indians to cut stone, burn 
brick and lime, or to make mortar, but the priests by 
an immense energy succeeded in teaching the Indians 
to work. Lime rock was found up the canon. Timber 
for the roof was hauled from the mountains forty miles 
away. A road had to he constructed, the remains of 
which arc still visiliK". The timbers were first hewn and 
then dragged along the ground. The timbers recentlj' 
removed from the church roof show by the scarred 
lines the hard usage incident to the peculiar method 
of hauling. The Mission Canon furnished a very 
good sandstone, resembling granite, which could be 
easily split and hewn to the proper shape. Hun- 
dreds of Indians were engaged at this work alone. 
Tools necessary for the work, except a few axes and 
cai'penters' tools, had to be fashioned out of iron 
such as ships could bring, and consequentlj' black- 
smithing had to be taught to the wondering and 
simple natives. Brick was moulded and burned to 
line the aqueduct, which was to supply water from 
the canon, also to form the mouldings and arches ot 
the towers. Adobe houses were constructed for the 
Indians who had families. The Indians were assured 
that this was to be their home; that the houses, vine- 
yards, orchards, fields of grain, herds of cattle, sheep, 
and horses were theirs. There were many tribes of 
Indians who had not only to be reconciled to the 
work, but to each other. It seems that the names of 
forty diffei-ent tribes of Indians were left by Cabrillo. 
Those living near the Patera were called Geleic. and 
were probably descendants of the Aztec races, as 
they were whiter than the others. The chief's name 
was Waha. The Cahuillas lived in Bartlett Cafion. 
Those living in and around the Mission Canon were 
called Janaya. The Lumjjocs. Pirus. and Mupus were 
neighboring tribes. All these conflicting elements 
had to be harmonized as well as civilized. The work 
was in the charge of Fathers Rapoli antl ^'ictoria. 
The latter is said to have been a man of varieil 
learning and accomplishments, architecture being a 
favorite study with him. He is held in great vener- 
ation by sonie <if tlu' nlder citizens of Santa l!arl)ai-;i, 
who recollect him well. Both of them must havi^ 
been able and devoted men to have accomplished so 
much with so poor material. Venegas. one of the 
early explorers says of them that — 




" Nowhere on the globe could be found a nation so 
stupid and of such contracted ideas, so weak in body 
and mind, as the unhappy Californians. Their char- 
acteristics are stupidity and insensibility, want of 
knowledge and reflection, inconstancy, impetuosity, 
and blindness of appetite, an excessive sloth, and ab- 
horrence of fatigue of every kind however trifling, in 
fine, a most wretched want of everything which 
makes the real man, which makes him rational, in- 
ventive, tractable, and useful to himself and society." 

The mission building, with its walls, was reared 
however; the statues of the saints were set in their 
places. The neophytes were taught to bow before 
the cross. The unmarried girls and children were 
gathered into the nunnery, and taught to clothe 
themselves, and to card, spin, and weave the fabrics 
of which the clothing was to be made. The water 
was turned into the fountains through the long aque- 
duct, which had, with immense labor, been dug and 
lined with brick. The aqueduct, with its lining of 
brick, and the stone dam, laid in mortar and faced 
with brick, though sixty years old, are in a good 
state of preservation. The stream, in its course, was 
made to turn a mill, and thus relieve the aching 
wrists of the squaws of the labor of pounding corn, 
or rubbing the corn and wheat. The mill, though an 
insignificant affair, was a wonder to the simple 
natives, who ascribed more than human wisdom to 
the fathers, who could plan such a wondrous ma- 
chine. Olives, pears, apples, and other fruits were 
planted, and the machinery of the mission established 
to convert the heathen to a knowledge of the truth. 
set in motion. 


Every mission is named after a saint, and as Santa 
Barbara has become famous throughout the world" on 
account of the beautiful place named in honor of 
her beauty and virtues, a short history of the re- 
nowned lady will be acceptable to our readers. The 
following, written for the Santa Barbara Press by 
Father O'Keefe, of the mission, may be considered 


" The life of our saint is very obscure. All we have 
to rely upon is a collection of documents on the au- 
thority of Barronius, a truly learned man, and a 
librarian of the Vatican, but there is some doubt re- 
garding the exact time of her birth, and a few minor 
incidents. Yet, following Barronius and what we 
have been able to glean from a few ancient docu- 
ments, Santa Barbara, virgin and martyr, was born in 
the city of Necomedia, the capital of ancient Bithy- 
nia (now Askimid, a small town in Asia), on or about 
the beginning of the third century. Her father was 
Dioscorus, a rich man, of most noble birth, and a 
most obstinate idolator. Barbara was his only child. 
She was endowed with extraordinary beauty, and 
gifted with surprising intelligence, a noble soul, and 
a most singular prudence. Dioscorus was extremely 
fond of his only daughter, Barbara, and wishing 
to retain all her affection, he resolved to separate her 
from the intercourse and society of men. To this 
end he ordered apartments to be fitted up in a very 
high tower, where he placed her with a number of 

servants, and gave her, as masters and instructors, a 
few old men of great wisdom and learning, for he 
discovered in her talent of a superior order, and 
wished her to cultivate it. From one of her instruc- 
tors she learned of the Christian, Origen, who was 
considered one of the most learned men of the age. 
She found means to communicate with, was instructed 
in the mj-steries of faith, and finally baptized, by him. 
Having embraced Christianity, she desired to follow 
the maxims and counsels of the gospels, as a rule of 
her life, and renounce all the enchantments and van- 
ities of the world. She considered chastity a most 
sublime virtue, and wishing to preserve herself pure 
and spotless, she resolved to dedicate herself to the 
service of her Lord Jesus Christ, by a life of soli- 
tude and the practice of religion. Her father, how- 
ever, had ideas far difi'erent, and at a ju'oper time 
spoke to her about a matrimonial union he desired 
her to contract with a distinguished person, but Bar- 
bara despised this union, and spoke so resolutely 
against it, that her father said no more to her on the 
subject for the time being, and, as he had to leave 
home for some time, he believed he would find her, on 
his return, favorable to his plans for her welfare. On 
his return he went to the tower to see his daughter, 
embraced her tenderly, and asked her if she had 
changed her resolution. Our saint answered very 
sweetly: ' Dear father, the love I bear you will not 
allow me to separate myself from you, and so leave 
j'our home for a husband. You are now old, dear 
father, so please permit me to take care of you in 
your old age.' Barbara was just verging on her 
nineteenth year, and her father, overcome by her 
obliging answer and request, resolved she should 
leave her tower and take care of his house, believing 
that by mingling more in society, she would eventu- 
ally change her ideas. She obeyed her father in this, 
however much she regretted to leave her solitude. 
On entering her father's house, she found it filled 
with idols, for Dioscorus was a most superstitious 
pagan. Then she, full of indignation, asked her 
father, ' Of what use are these ridiculous puppets in 
the bouse?' Her father, enraged, asked her if she 
did not know they were gods, and therefore entitled 
to respect? To which the saint answered, ' Is it pos- 
sible, dear father, that a man of sound judgment can 
call these works of hands gods ? No. my dear 
father, there is but one only God, omniscient and all- 
powerful Creator and Sovereign, Lord of the uni- 
verse, and the only Judge of all men. This God, 
the only one worthy of respect and veneration, is 
the God of the Christians.' Dioscorus then, to in- 
timidate her, gave her up to be punished as a Chris- 
tian, but the Judge, finding that she could not be 
induced to believe in idols and deny her faith as a 
Christian, ordered her to be beheaded. As soon as 
the sentence was passed, it is said that her father 
solicited, as a favor, the pi'ivilege of being her execu- 
tioner; but immediately upon committing the deed, he 
was struck dead. She sufi'ered martj'rdom at 
Nicomedia, in the reign of Maximinus I., who raised 
the sixth general persecution after the murder of 
Alexander Severus, in the year 325. Our lovely 
saint is honored with particular devotion in the 
Latin, Greek, Muscovite, and Syriac calenders. Her 
feast is celebrated on the fourth day of December." 

The following items, concerning the old mission, are 
taken from Farnham's " Travels in California," a 
work written forty years ago. Farnham was here 
in the interest of the prisoners who were arrested by 


Alvarado in 1840. on a t-liavgo of conispiraoy to ovit- 
turu his govonmieiit, of which more will lio related 
in its proper place. 

"There is an old Catholic mission one mile and 
three-quarters above the town, called El Mission de 
Santa Barbara. The church itself is a stone edifice, 
with two towers on the end toward the town, ami 
high gable between them. The friars complimented 
Father Time by painting on the latter something in 
the shape of a clock-diaL In the towers are hung a 
number of rich-toned bells, which were imported 
from Spain nearly 100 years ago. The roof is cov- 
ered with burnt-chiy tiles laid in cement. The resi- 
dence of the padres, also built of stone, forms a wing 
towards the sea. The prisons* form another towariis 
the highlands. Hard by are clusters of Indian huts, 
constinicted of adobes and tiles, standing in rows, 
with streets between them." 

(Compiled from the Records of the Mission.) 























































38, 2 











38' 6 











23 4 











44 i 7 











33 14 











45 8 











32 11 










59 11 

































































































































































Total number of Births 3,817 

" Deaths . 1,520 

" " " Marriages 707 


This was founded March 31, 1782, by Junipero 
Serra, President of all the missions in California, 
Fathers Benito and Cambon being the first in charge. 
The first mass was said in a shanty erected for that 
purpose near the southeastern corner of the old 
orchard. The church was first erected near the 
same place, but a freshet, a sudden rise in the Ventura 
Eiver, washed the foundations of the walls, endan- 
gering the security of the structure. The new church 
was erected on an elevation above any such danger. 
Palms, walnuts, and other fruits were, as usual, 
planted in great abundance. Three palms, the larg- 

This is the first intimation the writer has had that the ilust«r of buildings 
through which the ca^on road was cut was ever used for prison purposes.— 


est iK'rha])8 in California, were for many yeai-s a 
source of much ])ride to the citi/ens. They were 
some filly feel or iiKH-e in lieiglil. It i- doiiliiliil 
whether they v\v\- Lore, tlumgli tradition say> >o 
A high wind a few years since felled one of lluni to 
the ground. When a heading was wanted lor ihe 
illustrated pajier puhlished hy .lohnson. a view ot 

tanee, were chosen tor 
The ol<i fence inclinU 
acres, and may be tn 
foundation for the wall, 
grove of eighty year-r 
Palace lloul, "llie San 

an area of aliout seventeen 
lmI by the remains of the 
The Court House, with the 

olive lives, .\yers- Hotel, 
Clara House.' and nearly 

half the stores on the main street, are on ground 
once included in the old garden. As in the case of 
all churches liuilt in years subsecjuent to the great 
earthiiuake. which happened in Decemlier. ISIl. the 
present rhureli is huilt very massive, the walls lieing 
of brick si.\ feet thick, though the up])er portion, 
which is protected \>y the roof, is of adobe. An 
aqueduct six miles long conveyed water from the 
Ventura Eiver, a clear and cool trout brook. The 
resei-voir, fountains, and old mill are still objects of 
curiosity to the visitor. Some of the old olive trees 
are two feet in diameter, eighty to a hundred years 
old, and still bearing abundantly. The massive tim- 
bers for the roof were hauled with immense labor 
from the pine mountains fitly miles away. 

The church was dedicated September 9, 1809. 
P^our priests are interred within its walls, viz.. Father 
Vicente de Santa Maria, who died July !(!, 1806, 
whose remains were removed to the church the 
daj- it was dedicated; Father Jose Senan, who died 
August 24, 1823; Francisco Saner, who died January 
17, 1S31; and one other, name not learned. This 
mission, like the others, had Ir.Miueiit trouble with 
the Indians, many of the tribes, especially those on 
Mu])n and Piru Creeks, and those living in and above 
the Santa Paula Canon, being particularly warlike 
and dangerous. It is said that the soldiers stationed 
at the mission never dared to pursue them, when they 
made a raid on the stock, further than the Santa 
Paula Canon. There is a tradition that the Spanish 
soldiery exterminated a tribe on the Sulphur Mount- 
ain, leaving hundreds of skeletons to bleach in the 
winter rain, but the writer could trace it to no 
authentic source. Petty insurrections were frequent, 
but terminated usually in nothing serious. The habit 
of shutting up the Indian girls when thej' arrived at 
maturity was the cause of more trouble than any- 
thing else. The Indians used to plan to carry them 
off. One of these insuiTections occurred as late aa 
1840, and was headed by an educated Indian named 
Jesus. The attack was made on a Sunday morning, 
when the Indians were at church. A man named 
Olivas, one of the rancheros near the Santa Clara 
Eiver, was on guard, and struck the Indian with a 
knife in the neck, inflicting a severe, though not 
mortal, wound, which caused the Indians to retreat. 



A niece of Luis Frank, the last of the Saticoy 
Indians, relates the story of an insurrection which 
occurred in 1834. A great number of hostile Indians 
gathered in the willows across the Ventura Eiver, 
and threatened the existence of the mission. Some 
big guns on the hill were fired at them, but the magi- 
cian, or medicine man, made a rush on the guns and 
put a spell on them so they could not be fired. Ac- 
cording to the statement of " Con de lara Eivas," the 
relative of Luis Frank first mentioned, the medicine 
man also put the Indians under a spell, so that the 
balls of the smaller guns could not hit them. While 
things were in this condition, the domestic Indians, 
who had remained true, put on their war-paint and 
dresses and rushed into the fight. At first the 
people thought the mission Indians had rebelled too, 
but they fought the rebel Indians so effectively with 
clubs that they soon departed. None were killed, and 
but few wounded. 

As it was the habit of the good fathers to avoid 
taking human life if possible, the firing of a cannon 
and muskets without shot only confirmed the Indians 
in the belief in the power of the medicine man. 

In the earthquake of 1857 the tile roof of the 
church fell down, without damaging the walls of the 
church, however, and it was replaced by one of 

The first marriage ceremony performed at the 
church was August 8, 1782, by Father Francisco 
Dumet, the parties being Alexander Sotomayor, of 
Fuerta, Mexico, and Maria Concepcion Martiel, of 
Alamos, Sonora, Mexico. The first baptism was that 
of Jose Crecencio Valdez, son of Eugenio Valdez 
Bspanal, April 27, 1782. 

The number of persons buried in the little lot west 
of the church, about 100 feet square, is 3,850. But 
few were buried in coffins. Wrap]3ed in mats or 
cloth, the bodies soon decayed and made room for 
more burials. 

The massive building with walls six feet thick is well 
preserved, though most of the out-buildings, where 
the Indian women were taught to spin, weave, make 
dresses, and cook, are in ruins, as well as the mill 
and shops where the men worked. Father Eubio, 
an accomplished linguist and genial gentleman, takes 
much pleasure in showing visitors through the 
church and over the grounds. The records, intact 
from the beginning, written in a clear, beautiful 
hand, are well preserved. The old bells, which rang 
out for daily worship nearly a century ago, bear date 
as follows : Largest, 1825; smaller ones, 1812, 1781, 
1781. They hang in the four lower arches, and are 
strapped to the cross-beams with rawhide. The bells 
in the upper arches are made of wood and are never 
rung, and consequently it is impossible to tell what 
the character of the tones may be. The metallic 
bells have a clear, pleasant sound. 

In 1825 the mission owned 37,000 head of cattle, 
600 head of horses, 200 yoke of working oxen, 500 
mules, 30,000 sheep, 200 goats, a thrifty orchard. 

$35,000 worth of foreign goods, and $25,000 in silver | 
and gold coin. The church ornaments and clothing i 
were valued at $61,000. Cattle at that time were I 
worth about $5.00 per head, horses $10.00, and sheep 
$2.00. In 1831 the property, owing to the secular- 
ization, had shrunk enormouslJ^ The population, j 
all told, was but 731. The productions were, wheat, [ 
1,750 bushels; corn, 500; beans, 400; barley, 2,000; i 
number of cattle, 4,000; horses, 300; mules, 60; sheep, | 
3,000, and no hogs. | 


This mission was founded December 8, 1787, a few i 
days more than a year later than that of Santa Bar- i 
bara. Perhaps no more promising field for a sue- , 
cessful mission could be found in California. The 
wide-spreading plain, covered with verdure, the 
rugged, timbered mountains in the rear, the fresh 
sea-breeze, which swept away every atom of mala- 
ria, and the convenience of the presence of great 
numbers of Indians, presented a favorable combina- 
tion of circumstances not often met with, and the 
fathers went to the work with high hopes. Select- 
ing a place sheltered from the ocean winds, contigu- 
ous to a splendid stream of water, and overlooking 
the plain for miles in every direction, it would seem 
that no disaster could overtake them. The mission 
works were laid out on a scale commensurate with 
the surroundings. The mountain stream was turned 
from its channel, and though seventy years have 
elapsed since its abandonment, so thoroughly was 
the work done that the water still bubbles into the 
light at the same place as it did near 100 years 
since. The grand square or quadrangle was about 
400 feet each way. The church was about 200 feet 
long and sixty feet wide, the walls being thirty feet 
high; but here is a noted difference from the walls of 
other churches. Instead of being six or seven feet 
thick, as in almost every instance, they were barely 
three feet thick, though they were subsequently 
strengthened with extra walls and, in some instances, 
buttresses. The extra walls were evidently a subse- 
quent thought, as they were not in bond with the 
first, and were sometimes laid up against a wall 
that had previously been plastered and painted. 

Large rooms, sometimes 100 feet in length and 
twenty-five in width, indicated extensive dining- 
rooms and work-shops. Some of the rooms were 
closed on all sides, as if for dungeons, though they 
might have been intended for store-houses. The 
quadrangle was also flanked by numerous buildings 
of adobe, probably intended as residences for the 
Indians, or other members of the mission with fami- 


On the morning of the 8th of December, 1811, on 
the anniversary of the founding of the mission, it 
being the feast of the purissima, the earth commenced 
shaking, and soon the church was in ruins, the tall, 
thin walls of adobe crumbling to pieces and falling 



on many of the worshippers; numbers were killeil 
; and injured. The simple-minded natives, whose in- 
1 8tinets and education induced them to believe that 
every violence or phenomenon was the act of an 
angry God, left the place in terror, believing that 
God had caused it. The walls were repaired and the 
place put in condition for occupation, but the natives 
could never be induced to reside in it again, and the 
I now Purissima, on the opposite side of the Santa 
Ynez River was ei-ected. It may be mentioned here 
that the missions were not oi-iginally covered with 
tile, but with thatch; but this being easily sot on tiro 
(and was, in several instances, by hostile Indians), 
Father Junipero and others met in council and de- 
vised the tile covering, which subsequently became 
such a feature in the Oalifornia residences. The San 
Luis Obispo Mission was the first to use tile. The 
, walls erected to repair and strengthen the old Puris- 
^ sima walls have numerous pieces of broken tile in 
them, thus showing the adoption of the tile roof as 
early, at least, as 1812. 

The ruins of the mission give an ancient and rather 

romantic air to the town of Lompoc, which seems 

to be a modern outgrowth of the old establishment. 

The neutral tint of the adobe harmonizes well with 

tlie brown hills and Indian-summer atmosphere of 

California, and it is still an unsettled question, whether 

the adobe is not only the best, but the cheapest and 

most durable form of building. Those who have 

resided in them are united in pronouncing them the 

most comfortable, and as to fleas and other vermin 

' which are said to abound in them, would not a house 

' with wooden walls, kept in the same condition, be 

\ quite as subject to their presence? 

The adobe wall, when well constructed, will last 
much longer than a wooden wall, and has many ad- 
: vantages. The walls of the mission, though sev- 
enty years exposed to the rains and winds, are still 
quite sound and firm. A buttress of adobe, eight feet 
square, is displaced so as to hang partially suspended 
on one corner, and still holds its shape as if made of 
brick or stone. It is quite pi-obable that a return to 
th^ use of adobe for some of the purposes for which 
lumber is now used, such as barns, out-buildings and, 
more particularly, fences, which, from the dry, sun- 
baked condition of the earth many months in the 
year, ai-e liable to destruction by fire, would be a 
wise economy. 


This, as has been mentioned before, is on the oppo- 
Bite side of the Santa Ynez, some three miles from 
the old one, and though not as extensive as the old 
work, is a very imposing building, with its brick 
arches, wide verandas, and extensive fa9ade. The 
walls, as a result of the earthquake experience, are 
very massive, and bid fair to last as ruins many 
years after the timbers, which are now rotting and 
giving away, shall have ceased to exist. Many ])or- 
tions of the tile-covered roof have fallen in, but the 

general design and uses of the building can bo easily 
determined. The sacristy, with its carved <l()ors, 
making pretentions to elegance ; the jjiilpit, with its 
painted canopy; the organ loft, approached by a 
ladder with wide steps, where the half-civilized, 
half-imbecilo natives assayed, with violin, horn, driuii, 
and voice, the solemn Gregorian chants, are in toler- 
able preservation. Standing in the rickety pulpit, 
which looks as though it might fall and tiiinliK' one 
on the rotten floor below, and recalling In n\ind 
the scenes of half a century since, when the floor was 
covered with the half-naked natives, saying; their 
Fater N'osfers and Aoe Marias, we may well ask, 
^' What of it?" 

The mind wanders back to the time of the discov- 
ery of this continent, to the myriads of human beings 
who crowded each other in the preservation and 
perpetuation of life, to their destruction by millions 
in consequence of the avarice and greod of the con- 
querors, to the eff'orts for their preservation and 
conversion to Christianity liy Father Las Casas and 
others, and finally to the almost utter annihilation 
of the native races, in spite of all eff'orts to benefit 
them, and wo may ask " What of it" ? and feel over- 
whelmed with the review and its sequence. In our 
remarks on the Indian races, wo have shown the 
probability of the existence of a former race in 
immense numbers, which had been swept away by 
the swarthy, fighting Indian who inhabited the laml 
at the coming of the Americans or European races. 
When and from whence will be the next invasion ? 

When the new churches were built at Lom]ioc, 
Guadalupe, and Santa Maria, through the et^'orts of 
Father McNally, the bells, vestures, and furnilnre 
were transferred to them. 

The history of this mission in its later yoai's dif- 
fers little from the others. The Indians rebelled 
at the same time the Santa Ynoz and Santa Barbara 
Indians did. Three soldiers were killed in trying to 
quell them. There is a cross standing where they 
were buried. The names of the men were Dolores 
Sepulveda, Ramon Sotelo, and Simon Sopulveda. 
Seven of the Indians, according to Pedi-o Ortega, who 
lives in the Refurgio Canon, were shot by order of 
the Mexican Government. He thinks the date was 
about 1825. 


This was one of the last missions to be founded, 
having the date of September 17, 1804, the San 
Rafael and Sonoma Missions, only, bearing a later 
date. This is not entirely abandoned, as service is 
occasionally held on the anniversary of its founda- 
tion, and perhaps on other occasions, as the burial 
ground shows many recent interments. The build- 
ing shows a similarity to the other mission buildings 
of the time. The quadrangle is about 400 feet square, 
the building or church with its otfices occupying one 
corner of the square. The south fa9ado includes the 
towers of the church and the longest front of the 
pile, the wing for dormitories, dining-room, and 


workshops resting oa twenty brick columns, twelve 
feet high and twenty feet apart, with well-turned 
arches of brick. The wing has several entrances 
from the wide corridor formed by the arches. The 
entrance to the church is from within the quadrangle. 
Ther^are still five bells hanging in the dilapidated 
towers. The capacity of the buildings for receiving 
members is less than that of the other missions, not 
having so many adobe huts for the residence of the 
Indian families, though these were erected, in most 
cases, as they might be required, from time to time. 
In 1831, perhaps its most prosperous period, the 
mission had under its charge 142 men, 136 women, 
82 boys, and 96 girls, making a total of 456 souls. 
Tho fertile soil capable of producing every cereal 
in abundance, and the grassy hills, furnished an 
abundance of all that the mission required. As 
usual, a living stream was turned from its channel, 
and carried some miles in a brick-lined aqueduct, to 
supply a mill and irrigate the gardens and orchards. 
Portions of the fountain and mill are in a good state 
of preservation, though the orchard, if any there 
was, is nearly destroyed. There is a report that 
some very valuable old paintings are still existing in 
the church, among the rest a genuine Murillo, worth 
many thousand dollars. Others, who are well in- 
formed, say that the paintings are of the ordinary 
type in the mission churches, and of little value. 
Father McNally, now of Oakland, who resided some 
years at Santa Ynez, is of the opinion that the paint- 
ings are rare and valuable as works of art, though 
fast falling into decay in consequence of the damp- 
ness of the place. All authorities agree, however, 
in the fact of a once valuable and extensive library, 
which has been scattered or perhaps distributed to 
other churches. The paintings and library indicate 
the work of an accomplished scholar, who abandoned 
the libraries and art collections of the Old World to 
give his life to the welfare of the savages of the new 

Father Lynch has charge of the mission and col- 
lege at present. Father Basso, who died in October, 
1876, resided seventeen years at the mission. The 
college, which will be referred to again under the 
head of education, was organized to educate mission- 
aries for the conversion of the Indians, and was 
never advanced beyond a rudimentary school in its 
educational course. 


There was always manifest a tendency among the 
natives to break away from the restraints of the 
church, and take to the woods. After having helped 
to build the missions, rear the cattle, and raise the 
grain, they considered themselves part owners at least, 
and when they wished to have their share like the 
prodigal son and depart, they could not see the jus. 
tice of a refusal. They were incited to acts of insub- 
ordination by the Tulare and Mohave Indians, who 
would make raids on the ranches and missions, driv- 

ing off the horses, using them for food; in fact the 
old missionaries between defending themselves 
from the attacks of wild Indians and pacify- 
ing the discontented of the domestic ones, had 
quite enough to do. According to Father Eubio of 
the Ventura Mission, the colonists sometimes fomented 
disturbances among the Indians. The most serious 
difficulty occurred in the year 1822. Whether any- 
thing unusual had irritated the natives does not 
appear. According to the best accounts the hostile 
body numbered a thousand, made up of disaffected 
domestic or tame Indians, and the wild ones from 
Tulare and Mohave. They surrounded the mission 
buildings, set fire to them, shut up the priests, wound- 
ing one of them, and also killing several of the ser- 
vants and domestics. The outbreak occurred on 
Saturday morning. Those inside succeeded in keep- 
ing the fire down, and prevented the general destruc- 
tion and robbery of the place, more by acting on the 
fears and superstition of the Indians than by any 
show of strength, as they had few or no fire-arms. 
A member of the mission, Francisco Bermuda, man- 
aged to evade the siege, though he received a severe 
wound in the affair, and succeeded in reaching Santa 
Bai-bara, when Captain Noriega dispatched fifty 
men, under Anastacio Carrillo, to the assistance of the 
beleaguered people. By making haste they arrived 
the same evening. Carrillo and his party were in 
want of ammunition, and in order to get at a small 
quantity in the sacristy, they were obliged to cut 
their way through several walls. The natives were 
finally conquered; but a few refusing to surrender 
shut themselves up in an adobe house with thatched 
roof, which was set on fire and all inside perished- 
The bulk of the Indians engaged in this affair fled to 
the Tulare, where they stayed for two years or more; 
they were induced to come back by a visit from the 
priest, the promises of the soldiers that they should 
be kindly treated not being heeded. 

The next day (Sunday) at Santa Barbara the 
Indians refused to go into the church, and showed 
other signs of rebellion. Captain Noriega sent some 
men to quell them, upon which they fled also to the 
Tulare Valley, where they stayed until the retui-n of 
the others from the Santa Ynez. 

Stephen C. Foster, one of the oldest American set- 
tlers, who resided for a long time at Los Angeles, 
and perhaps, as well acquainted with the circum- 
stances as any man living, writes of the Santa Ynez 
Mission as follows: — 

"The sight of the old mission of Santa Ynez re- 
called to mind an incident that occurred there at the 
time of the outbreak in 1822. When the Indians 
rose there were two Spanish priests in the mission. 
One of them fell into the hands of the Indians, and 
was put to death under circumstances of the most 
atrocious cruelty. The other, a powerful man, suc- 
ceeded in breaking away, and escaped to the guard- 
house, where, as in all missions, a guard of four 
soldiers, commanded by a corporal, was always kept 
as a sort of police force. The Indians were destitute 



of fire-arms, but their overwhelming; numbers anil 
the showei-s of aiTows they direeted a-iainst the port 
holes, had quite demoralized the garrison when the 
priest appeared and took eommanil. It must have 
been a singular scene. The burly triar with shaven 
LTown and sandalled, clad in the gra\' gown, girt 
with the cord of St Francis, wielding carnal wca|ions; 
now encouraging the little garrison, now shouting 
defiance to the swarming assailants. 

'•' Ho, father.' cried a young Indian acoiyu'. is 
that the way to say mass ? ' 

" 'Yos, I am saying mass, my son. Here (holding 
n\) his cai'tridge box) is the chalice; here (holding up 
his carbine) is the crucifix, and here goes my bene- 
diction to you, j'ou . using one of the foulest 

epithets the Spanish language could supply, as he 
leveled his carbine and laiil the scoffer low. 

•'A large force was finally collected from the difi'er- 
ent towns; the Imiian converts were followed into 
the Tulare Valley and captured; the ring-leaders were 
shot, and the others were brought back to the mis- 
sions. When my informant had occasion to go to Mon- 
terej-, and on his way, having occasion to call at San 
Luis Obispo, he found there the hero of the Santa Ynez. 

" ' Welcome, countryman. " was his greeting. ' The 
same to you, father,' was the reply; • but, lather, thej- 
tell me you are in trouble.' ' Yes, my son, the Presi- 
dent of the missions has suspended me from the 
exercise of clerical functions for one year, on account 
of the unclerical language I used at that affair at the 
Santa Ynez. The old fool! He knew 1 was a soldier 
before I became a priest, and when those accursed 
Indians drove me back to my old trade, how could 1 
help using my old language ? ' Then taking a couple 
of decanters out of the cupboard he continued, ' Here, 
countryman, help yourself Here is wine; here is 
aguadiente. The old fool thinks he is punishing me. 
Behold I have no mass to say for a year, and nothing 
whatever to do but eat, drink, and sleep.' " 

Secularization of the Missions— Colonists against the Missions 
— Provincial Regulation for the .Secularization uf the Mis- 
sions of Upper California — Distribution of Property and 
Lands — Political Government of the Villages — Restrictions 
—General Regulations — ProWsional Regulation for the Sec- 
ularization of the Missions — Pious Fund — The Hijar Col- 
ony — Santa Ana's Revolution — Land Grants — Secularization 
Completed — Death of Governor Figueroa. 

The feeling of the colonists towards the missions, 
with their large tracts of land (144,000 acres being 
the usual quantity), aud large herds of cattle, was 
much what the Americans, who had been accustomed 
to 160-acre ranches, felt towards the 40,000-acre 
owners of California some thirty years since. The 
big land-holder is an object of aversion, whether the 
party is a railway incorporation, a Spanish mission, 
or a Spanish ranchero; so universal is the feeling in 
this respect, that no people remain at rest long under 
such a dispensation. The Spanish grantees, though 
tenacious of their lands when the Americans came, 
were by no means pleased with large land-holdings 
when the missions were the owners. This feeling 
was intensified by the presence of hundreds of dis- 

charged soldiers who wished to have lands conven- 
ient to a town, as do many men of the present day. 
The tyi-anny of the priests towards the Indians was 
urged as one reason. The Governments of Mexico 
and Spain, both, had always contemplated the mis- 
sions as a means of making the Indian self-support- 
ing, and fifty years was surely enough time to make 
an Indian a good citizen, if it was to be done at all. 
Accordingly, in 1824 and 182(5, the Mexican (Govern- 
ment passed laws manumitting the Indians, and sus- 
pending the pay ot the priests. This action on the 
part of the Government proved premature. Released 
from restraint the Indian retrograded and took to 
the woods, and commenced a series of robberies that 
threatened the existence of the colonies. His edu- 
cation had taught him the vices of civilization, which 
took the place of the rude virtues which character- 
ized him in his natural state. Idle, dissipated, 
and incapable of self-control, he became a nuisance 
to the settlei"s. Stock, by hundreds, was run off 
into the hills and canons which form the mountain 
ranges of the northern part of the county. A year 
later, the law, being disastrous in its efi'ects, was re- 
pealed, and most of the Indians returned to their 
work, and things went on somewhat as before. 


The breach was not healed but widened. The 
vicious element which had come in witii the dis- 
charged soldiers of the war for libertj', sometimes 
carried things with a high hand, even inciting the 
Indians to insurrection. Manuel Victoria, who was 
appointed to succeed Jose Maria de Echeandia for 
the express puqwse of reforming these abuses and 
restraining the criminal element, was a man of much 
ability, but had a military turn of mind which could 
not brook insubordination, and a few cases of sum- 
mary punishment aroused the people into open hos- 
tility. The outbreak commenced at San Diego, and 
was headed by Jose Maria Avila. Victoria's friends, 
however, put down the incipient insurrection, and 
kept Avila in irons to await the Governor's pleasure. 
Governor Victoria, hearing of the trouble, left Mon- 
terey with a small escort, and reached San Fernando 
December 4, 1831. A party of the insurgents 
reached Los Angeles the same evening, and induced 
a number of citizens to espouse their side. Avila 
was released, and placing himself at the head of the 
dissatisfied, swore that he would kill Victoria, or die 
in the attempt. The two parties met about eight 
miles west of the city, on the Santa Barbara road, 
near the Cahuenga Pass, and both parties halted for 
a parley, bat Avila, putting spurs to his horse, rushed 
upon Victoria, wounding him severely in the side. 
The thrust was partially parried bj- Honmaldo Pa- 
checo,* who, before he could recover his guard, was 
run through by Avila. While the lance was still 
quivering in Pacheco's body, Victoria drew a pistol, 

Father of the member of Congress of that « 



and shot Avila dead, Paeheco aud Avila both falling 
from their horses nearly at the same moment. A 
sudden panic seized both parties at such a prospect 
of civil war. Victoria and his party, who were 
termed Mexicans, went to the Mission San Gabriele, 
carrying the wounded Governor with them, while 
Avila's party, who termed themselves Californians, 
returned to the town. Victoria resigned his poaition, 
and left for San Bias on the ship Pocahontas, Janu- 
ary 15, 1832. The bodies of the slain were found as 
they fell, and were taken to town the same evening. 
They were buried side by side by mutual friends. 

For some time after the expulsion of Victoria, 
there was much confusion in regard to the matter 
of Governor. Avila's partisans pronounced for Echean- 
dia, but finally rallied around Pio Pico, who became 
Governor ad interim, Los Angeles being the capital 
de facto. Echeandia retired to the mission of San 
Juan Capistrano, and organizing a body of vagrant 
Indians, under the pretense of maintaining law and 
order, commenced plundering all in the surround- 
ing country who would not recognize him as Gov- 

The northern part of the State adhered to Victoria, 
notwithstanding his abdication, aud set up, as his 
representative, Captain Augustin V. Zamorano. There 
was little law and order until the 


Who was a man of much executive ability, and who 
succeeded in restoring something like security to life 
and property. 


In August, 1834, the Governor issued the following 
directions for the enforcement of the law of August 
17, 1833. 


Article 1. The political chief, according to the 
spirit of the law of August 17, 1833, and in compli- 
ance with instructions received from the Supi-eme 
Government, jointly with the religious missionaries, 
will convert the missions of this territory partially 
into villages — beginning in the approaching month 
of August, 1835, with ten, and the rest thereafter 

2. Religious missionaries shall be relieved from 
the administration of temporalities, and shall only 
exercise the duties of their ministry so far as thej^ 
relate to spiritual matters, whilst the formal division 
of parishes is in progress, and the Supreme Diocesan 
Government shall provide parochial clergy. 

3. The Territorial Government shall resume the 
administration of temporal concerns, as .directed, 
upon the following foundations. 

4. The approbation of this provisional regulation 
by the Supreme Government shall be requested in 
the most prompt manner. 


5. To each head of a family, and all who are more 
than twenty years old, although without families, will 

be given from the lands of the mission, whether tem- 
poral (lands dependent on the season) or watered, a 
lot of ground not to contain more than 400 yards in 
length and as many in breadth, nor less than 100. 
Sufficient land for watei-iug the cattle will be given 
in common. The outlets or roads shall be marked 
out by each village, and at the proper time the cor- 
poration lands shall be designated. 

6. Among the said individuals will be distributed, 
ratably and justly, according to the discretion of the 
political chief, the half of the movable property, tak- 
ing as a basis the last inventory which the mission- 
aries have presented of all descriptions of cattle. 

7. One-half or less of the implements and seeds in- 
dispensable for agriculture shall be allotted to them. 

8. All the surplus lands, roots, movable securities, 
and property of all classes, shall be under the charge 
aud responsibility of the steward or agent whom the 
political chief may name, subject to the disposal of 
the Supreme Federal Government. 

9. From the common mass of this property, shall 
be provided the subsistence of the missionary monks, 
the pay of the steward and other servants, the ex- 
penses of religious worship, schools, and other mat- 
ters of cleanliness or ornament. 

10. The political chief, as the person charged with 
the direction of temporal concerns, shall determine 
and order beforehand the necessary qualifications, all 
the chai-ges to be distributed, as well to carry this 
plan into execution as for the preservation and in- 
crease of the property. 

11. The missionary minister shall select the place 
which suits him best for his dwelling and that of his 
attendants and servants; he is also to be provided 
with furniture and necessary utensils. 

12. The library, holy vestment, and furniture of 
the church, shall be in charge of the missionary min- 
isters, under the responsibility of the person who 
officiates as sexton (and whom the said father shall 
select), who shall be paid a reasonable salary. 

13. Inventories shall be made of all the property 
of each mission, with a proper separation and expla- 
nation of each description; of the books, chai'ges, and 
dates of all sorts of papers; of the credits, liquidated 
and unliquidated, with their respective remarks and 
explanations; of which a return shall be made to the 
Supi-eme Government. 


14. The political government of the villages shall 
be organized in accordance with existing laws. The 
political chief shall take measures for the election 
and establishment of Boards of Magistrates. 

15. The internal police of the villages shall be 
under the charge of the Board of Magistrates; but 
as to the administration of justice in matters of dis- 
pute, these shall be under the cognizance of inferior 
judges, established constitutionally in the places near- 
est at hand. 

16. Those who have been emancipated shall be 
obliged to join in such labors of community as are 
indispensable, in the opinion of the political chief, in 
the cultivation of the vineyards, gardens, and fields, 
which for the present remain unapportioned, until 
the Supreme Government shall determine. 

17. Emancipated persons shall render the minister 
such services as may be necessaiy for his person. 




18. They shall not soil, mortiianv. n..r dispose „f 
the lands \<;ranto(l to thcin, milluT >li;ill tlicv soil 
thoir cattle. Contract* niailo in contravention of 
these pi'ohibitions shall lie of no etloct. ami the (fov- 
ernment shall seize' the property as heloni^ini; to the 
nation, and the purchasers shall forfeit their nionov. 

19. Lands, the pro]>rietors of which die without 
heirs, shall revert to the nation. 


20. The political chief shall name the commission- 
ers he may deem necessary for carrying out this sys- 
tem and its incidents. 

21. The political chief is authori/.ed to determine 
any doiiht or matter Involved in the execution of this 

22. Whilst this regulation is being carried into 
operation, the missionaries are forbidden to kill cattle 
in anj' large number, except so far as is usually re- 
quired for the subsistence of the neophytes (con- 
verted Indians) without waste. 

23. The unliquidated debts of the mission shall be 
paid, in preference, from the coinnion tiiml, at the 
places and upon the terms which the political chief 
may determine. 



That the fultillment of this law may l>e perfect, the 
following rules will be observed: — 

1st. The commis.siouers, so soon as they shall re- 
ceive their appointment and orders, shall ])resent 
themselves at the respective missions, and com- 
mence the execution of the plan, being governed in 
all things by its tenor and these regulations. Thev 
shall present their credentials res'iioctivcly to the 
priest under whose care the mission is, wi\]\ whom 
they shall agree, preserving harmony ami proper re- 

2d. The priest shall immediately hand over, and 
the commissioners receive the books of account and 
other documents relating to property claims, lirpii- 
dated and unliquidated; afterwards, general invento- 
ries shall be made out. in accordance with the 13th 
article of this regulation, of all property — such as 
houses, churches, workshops, and other local things 
— stating what belongs to each shop, that is to say, 
utensils, furniture and implements; then what belongs 
to the homestead, after which shall follow those of 
the field, that is to say. property that grows, such as 
vines ami v.^eialilc-. with an enumeration of the 
shrubs (if ]„.ssil.|..,. mills, etc; after that the cattle 
and whatever appeitains to them; but as it will be 
difficult to count them, as well on account of their 
numbers, as for the want of horses, thej- shall be es- 
timated by two persons of intelligence and probity, 
who shall calculate, as nearly as may be, the number 
of each species to be inserted in the inventory. 
Everything shall be in regular form in making the 
inventory, which shall be kept from the knowledge 
of the priests, and under the charge of the commis- 
sioner or steward, but there shall be no change in the 
order of the work and services, until experience shall 
show that it is necessary, except in such matters as 
are commonly changed whenever it suits. 

3d. The commissioner, with the steward, shall 
dispense with all superfluous expense, establishing 
rigid economy in all things that require reform. 

-lib. Before he takes an inventory of articles bo- 
longing to the field, the commissioner will inform the 
natives, explaining to them with mildness and 
patience, that the missions are to be changed into 
villages, which will (Uily be under the government of 
the priests, s.) far as relates to si.iritual' matters; that 
the lands and property for which each <me labors 
are to belong to himself and to be maintained and 
controlled by himself, without depending on any one 
else; that the houses in which they live are to be 
their own. for which they are to submit to what is 
ordered in these regulations, which are to lie ex- 
plained to them in the best possible manner. The 
lots will be given to them immediately, to be worked 
by them as the 5th article of these regulations pro- 
vides. The commissioner, the priests, and the 
steward, shall choose the location, selecting the best 
and most convenient to the ])0])ulation, and sliall 
give to each the quantity of ground which he can 
cultivate, according to his fitness and the size of his 
family, witlioui ixi i ding the maximum established. 
Each one shall nunk bis land in such manner as may 
be most agreeable to him. 

5th. The claims that are liquidated shall be paid 
from the mass of property, but neither the commis- 
sioner, nor the steward, shall settle them without the 
express order of the Government, which will inform 
itself on the matter, and according to its judgment 
determine the number of cattle to be assigned to the 
neophytes, that it may be done, as heretofore, in con- 
formity with what is provided in the 6th article. 

t)th. The necessary effects and implements for labor 
shall be assigned in'thc quantities .'Xiircssed by the 
7th article, eitlier individually or in common, as the 
commissioners and priests may agree upon. The 
seeds will remain undivided, and shall be given to 
the neophytes in the usual quantities. 

7th. What is called the " priesthood " shall imme- 
diately cease; female children whom they have in 
charge being handed over to their fathers, explaining 
to them the care they should take of them, and point- 
ing out their obligations as parents. The same shall 
be done with the male children. 

Sth. The commissioner, according to the knowl- 
edge and information which he shall acquire, shall 
name to the Covernment, as soon as possible, one or 
several individuals, who may appear to him suitable 
and honorable, as stewards, according to the provi- 
sions of the 8th article, either from among those who 
now serve in the missions, or others. lie shall also 
fix the pay which should be assigned to them, accord- 
ing to the labor of each mi.ssion. 

9th. The settlements which are at a distance from 
the mission, and consist of more than twenty-five 
families, and which would desire to form a separate 
community, shall be gratified, and appropriation of 
the funds and other propertj' shall be made to them 
as to the rest. The settlements which do not con- 
tain twenty-five families, provided thej' be perma- 
nently settled, where they now live, shall form a 
suburb, and shall be attached to the nearest village. 

10th. The commissioner shall state the number of 
souls which each village contains, in order to desig- 
nate the number of inunici])al officers and cause the 
elections to be held, in which they will proceed con- 
formablv, as far as ])ossible, to the law of June 12, 

11th. The commissioner shall adopt all executive 
measures which the condition of things demands, giv- 
ing an account to the Government, and shall consult 
the same upon all grave and doubtful matters. 


12th. In everything that remains, the comTnission- 
ers, the priests, stewards, and natives, will proceed 
according to the provisions of the regulation. 

AuGusTiN V. Zamorano, ) Jose Figueroa. 
Secretary. J 

Monterey, Aug. 9, 1834." 

The missionaries had but little to comfort them. 
The laymen, or secular part of the community, had 
out-talked them, out-worked them. What was 
called the 


Had previously been confiscated. This fund, produc- 
ing about $50,000 a year, had been set apart as a 
fund for the propagation of the true faith, but the 
Mexican Congress had encroached on it several 
times, but had hardly dared to appropriate it in toto, 
but when Santa Ana vaulted into power, he absorbed 
it without a pang of remorse. Still the immense 
flocks and crops of grain would have served the pur- 
poses of the poor Franciscan 'friars very well, but 
these were now to go. It is said the padres hoped 
for a providential interference, for a counter resolu- 
tion, for anything that would stay the spoiler, but 
no help came. Mexico was far away, and the clamor 
for the spoliation of the missions was stronger there 
than in California. 


In 1834 a colony, composed of both men and 
women, under the leadership of Jose Maria Hijar, 
was dispatched for Upper California, with full au- 
thority to take possession of all the missions, includ- 
ing the stock, agricultural machinery, also direc- 
tions to General Figueroa to surrender the adminis- 
tration of the Govei-nment to him on his arrival. 
Of all the schemes for the spoliation of the missions, 
this seems to have been the most contemptible. The 
expenses of the expedition, which were advanced by 
the Mexican Government, were to have been repaid 
in tallow. In fact, the whole organization was for 
speculative puposes; a steal in which the Govern- 
ment was to share! Little wonder that the Califor- 
nians had no respect for the parental Government. 


The party landed at San Diego, and disembarked 
a part of the colony; the rest proceeded to Monterey, 
where a storm threw them on the coast. 

When Hijar presented his water-soaked creden- 
tials for the surrender of the keys of power to him, 
he was met by a later paper. 


President Farias, the patron of Hijar, had been 
dethroned, and Santa Ana had vaulted into power. 
General Figueroa was ordered to continue as Gov- 
ernor, and the disappointed Hijar and his compan- 
ions went to swell the ranks of the rabble hungry 
for the mission spoils. It is said that they were, of 
ail who had ever come to California, thejmost un- 

fitted for usefulness. Goldsmiths, where jewelry was 
unknown; carpenters, where the houses were made of 
adobe; blacksmiths, where rawhide was used instead 
of iron; painters, musicians, and artists, shoemakers 
and tailors, but never a farmer, composed the crowd. 
They were loud in their complaints, and finally be- 
came so importunate that the most disaifected were 
sent back to Mexico. 


During these years of trouble, large quantities of 
the land had been alienated from the chui-ch or mis- 
sions. The condition, in the application for a grant, 
was that the land was not needed for the cattle and 
herds of the missions. The fathers were not in a 
condition, with so many malcontents around them, 
to refuse their assent to this condition, and so the 
lands were allotted to the influential families in 
vast quantities. Having lands, it was no great affair 
to stock them from the herds which fed thereon, and 
thus a new set of proprietors came into power. 


Hemmed in on all sides, abandoned by the Mexi- 
can Government, and plundered by the Californians, 
the fathers saw that ruin was inevitable, and com- 
menced to realize on their property. Cattle were 
slaughtered by the thousand, the flesh being thrown 
away. Hitherto cattle and sheep were only killed as 
the meat was wanted, but anything now to save some- 
thing from the wreck. One-half the hides were given 
for killing and skinning, and the plains were strewn 
with the rotting carcasses. It is charged against 
the padres that they even cut down the orchards 
and up-rooted the vineyards, that they might not 
fall into the hands of the spoiler. This might have 
been true in some instances, but the missions of San 
Buenaventura and Santa Barbara had extensive 
orchards at the time of the conquest. 

In the meantime the machinery for disposing of 
the mission property had been set in motion by the 
Government. Administrators of the mission prop- 
erty were appointed. There was but little to ad- 
minister upon, and when they left, there was noth- 
ing! The destruction of the mission was complete. 
Happily, land cannot well be destroyed; cattle soon 
multiplied, and in a few years the ranches were as 
well stocked as ever. The Indians who had homes 
at the missions, who had learned to consider the 
property as theirs, were relegated to barbarism, and 
kept up a predatory warfare on the herds until the 
coming of the Americans. The well-stocked ranches 
of the coast wei-e a prey to all. Bands from the 
Mohave, the San Joaquin Plains, and even from more 
distant quarters, would raid the cattle ranches, driv- 
ing off for food, by preference, the horses. Oregon 
Indians also joined in the plunder, and, in one in- 
stance at least, a band came from the Rocky Mount- 
ains. " Peg-leg" Smith, a noted mountaineer and 
scout, led a band of Indians, about 1840, from Bear 




Hon Charles Fernald 

The Fornaia luniily h;ivo a loii^^ ami lioii,,rahlc 
record in the annals of Now h^ni^'laiKl, and came of 
good stock in the mother country, beina; connected 
with almost every event of importance in the early 
Bettlement of the Eastern States. 

The following notes are made uj) from Bclkiiaji's 
"History of New Hampshire," •• Rambles about 
Portsmouth," and other historical works concernini; 
the early history of New England: — 

The history' of the family in New England com- 
mences as early as 1G23, when Renald Fernald was 
connected with Captain Mason's company in the set- 
tlement of New Hampshire. He is also mentioned as 
the first surgeon who settled in New Hampshire. 
(Belknap's History of New Hampshii-e Vol., 1, pp. 
47, 275, 278.) Another of the ftxmily, Capt. John 
Fernald. had command of one of the vessels engaged 
in the attack on Louisburg and Cape Breton in 1745, 
under Sir William Pepperell. (Belknap, Vol. 1, p. 
265.) The Fernalds early became landed proprie- 
tors, in those daj's a mark of distinction. The island 
.now owned and held by the Government for fortifi- 
cation and defensive purposes, near the mouth of the 
Piscataqua River, and on which Port Sullivan now 
stands, was formerly the property of the family. The 
northern island was known as Badger Island, the 
middle one as Fernald Island, and the southern one 
as Seaveys Island. The island was conveyed to the 
United States June 15, 1806, and is now used for 
national purposes. 

Hercules Fernald, grandfather of the subject of 
this sketch, was a soldier in the Revolution, partici- 
pating in many of the battles, particularly Bunker 
Hill and Saratoga, being in Stark's command at the 
former place. He was also at Valley Forge when our 
little army suffered so fearfully for want of food and 
clothing. Hercules died in 1839 at North Berwick, 
Maine, nearly a hundred years old. He retained his 
momorj' of the stirring events of the Revolution to 
the last, and often related to his grandson the inci- 
dents of the scenes in which he had participated. 
Among the things related was the fact that for three 
days previous to the battle of Stillwater, which pro- 
ceded the surrender of Burgoyne, he had no food 
but some raw cabbage, picked up on their march, 

II.' Ii 

is fine di 

tion of the appcuM 
and equipments as contrasted with our own ])0()rly- 
clad officers. The grandfatlicr also IVeqiicntly related 
to his ('Iiarics. thru ..nly ciii-ht" or nine 
years old. I he sl,,ry of ll,c sumTings of ,,„i- bare- 
footed sol(ii(.-rs, at \' alley i''orge. marcliing ovi'r frozen 
ground into winter quarters, and leaving a bloody 
trail to show the line of march. It was such history 
as this that taught the grandson the cost of our free 
institutions and the obligations of the present gener- 
ation to pi'csei've our national integrity. Raised amid 
such traditions and influences as these, it is not sti-ange 
that the subject of our sketch should have grown up 
with an intense love for the Union, and an equally 
intense pride in his ancestry, which had been so 
instrumental in building it up; and to these circum- 
stances may be ascribed the ever-])resent, constant 
feeling of self-respect which has characterized him 
throughout his long and honorable career. 

Charles Fernalil was born in North Berwicki 
Maine, May 28, 1830. At a suitable age he com- 
menced attending the common schools of his native 
town, and continued therein until he was twelve 
years of age, when he went to the High School at 
Great Falls, New Hampshire, taught l)y Professor 
Hobart. He was subsequently fitted for college at 
Dorchester, Massachusetts, but was obliged to aban- 
don the collegiate course in consequence of financial 
reverses. When the discovery of gold opened a new 
field for the energetic, he turned his course toward 
California, making the passage around the Horn, and 
arriving in San Francisco June 25, 1849, when every- 
thing, social, moral, political and fimineial, was in the 
most chaotic condition. Wishing to see for himself 
the source of the excitement which was causing such 
waves of commotion in the financial world, he made 
a visit to various ])arts of the mines, ivtniiiing to San 
Francisco in the following autumn. 

During his high-school years he had mingled the 
study of the history of the common law with his 
studies, with a purpose of acquiring general infor- 
mation rather than the expectation of making the 
law a profession; but meeting with favorable induce- 
ments he pursued in earnest the study of law at San 



Francisco from 1850 to 1852, alternating with his 
study the practice of a law reporter for the XTorning 
Post and other papers. In the great fire of 1851 he 
lost his law library of 2,000 volumes, which had been 
forwarded from the East. This was an irreparable loss 
and necessitated a still longer editorial career. In 
1852 he was again burned out, losing office, clothing, 
and what few books he had been able to accumulate. 
This was so discouraging that he seriously enter- 
tained the idea of abandoning California; but desiring 
to view the southern portion of the State, he visited 
Santa Barbara, arriving July 1, 1852. Here he found 
A. F. Hinchman, Edward S. Hoar, and Charles B. 
Huse in the practice of the law, and also met with 
Abel Stearns, a pioneer and leading citizen of Los 
Angeles; also the Dens, Captain Thompson, and mem- 
bers of the leading Spanish families, who made such 
representations of the prospects of Santa Barbara 
and the southern counties as induced him to stay and 
cast his lot with them. 

At this time (1852) the feeling between the Span- 
ish and the American population was not the most 
cordial, as may have been discovered by reading the 
former part of our history, but the personal appear- 
ance and reputation of Mr. Pernald was such as to 
win the confidence of all parties, and prepare the 
way for the preferments afterwards bestowed upon 
him. He was appointed Sheriif and afterwards Dis- 
trict Attorney by the Court of Sessions, and, subse- 
quently. County Judge by the Governor of the State, 
John Bigler, to which office he was afterwards elected 

three consecutive terms. In 1860 he received per- 
mission, by act of the Legislature, to have leave ot 
absence for six months. The Hon. Pablo de la 
Guerra introduced the resolution by the unanimous 
consent of the Senate, explaining its purport, and 
informing the Senate that the person asking leave 
of absence was appointed in 1853, and served the 
public so well that he had been almost unanimously 
chosen at every judicial election since; that a leave 
of absence was only an act of justice to an officer 
who had so long and ably performed his duties. The 
resolution passed without oi^position. 

In 1855 he was admitted to practice in the Su- 
preme Court, and subsequently in the Supreme Court 
of the LTnited States; carried to a successful ter- 
mination the important suit of Jones vs. Thompson, 
involving the island of Santa Rosa and a vast amount 
of stock in its consequences. The suit was termi- 
nated in favor of his client by an able exposition of 
the laws of partnership and agency, and resulted in 
a restitution of several hundred thousand dollars' 
worth of property to its rightful owner. From this 
time his practice has been of a high order, involving 
large interests and important principles. Judge Fer- 
nald has little liking for criminal law, and never has 
assisted or aided in any way the turning- of criminals- 
loose to prey upon society. 

He is now mayor of Santa Barbara, having been 
elected April, 1881, by all the votes cast at the muni 
eipal election except eleven. 


River into C'uiit'i>nii;i. ami dnn-c oH' ..vcr 1.7(1(1 liciul 
of horses.* 

^filiiy woll-iiifonm-d Mexir;uis ;ire nt' I lie .)|iiiiioii 
(liat Imt for the eoiKHio^t l.y tlie Americans, llir .le- 
st met ion of the eattle ranches Ky the imlians wms 
inevitable, and only a matter ot time. The reader will 
reeolleet that Sonora. in Mexico, was nearly depopu- 
lated hy the ravai^es of the Apaches. 


He was probably the most able and Imnoralile 
man ever at the head of Caliihrnia affairs. The tide 
of desti'uetiou swept over the country in s])ite of all 
his efforts to establish order. Dis<j;usted with the 
rapacitj- of the people, and perplexed beyond meas- 
ure with the general dishonesty of the oflSeials, he 
sickened and died September 29, 1835, aged forty- 
three. The "Most Excellent Deputation," in session 
at Monterey, with that universal ability to recognize 
the merit of a countryman after he is dead, hastened 
to pass resolutions of appreciation and respect, ex- 
tolling him as the " Father of his country." His 
remains were carried in an Ameincan vessel to Santa 
Barbara and deposited in a vault of the mission with 
military honors. 

Under the Colonial System— Refugio Ranch — Jos.^ Chapman- 
After Secularization — Alvarado's Rebellion — A Pronunciamento 
— Advance of the Orand Army towards Santa Barljara — Farn- 
ham's Account. 

Many causes induced people to seek the Paeitic 
Coast for homes. The grassy plains and rolling hills 
which would sustain vast numbers of cattle; the fer- 
tile soil that would produce a hundred fold with 
scarcely anj- culture; the mild climate that formed 
such a contrast to the Atlantic seaboard, all formed 
so many inducements for the settlement of the coun- 
trj'. Every mission and presidio had more or less 
soldiers, who, after a certain period of service, were 
discharged and permitted to seek their own pros- 
perity. As early as 1874 it was ordered by the home 
Government that discharged soldiers be permitted to 
marry native women, and that lands should be allot- 
ted them on which to live. This was a concession 
rendered somewhat necessary by the fact that serious 
punishments did not ))revent marriages de facto, but 
were rather productive of infanticide to cover up an 
implied crime. The padre of the San Gabriel Mission 
reported serious irregularities of this kind, notwith- 
standing the utmost watchfulness on the part of the 
fathers. This was a beginning of colonization. In 
addition to this, many of the officers had wives; these 
formed a nucleus of society and still further settle- 
ment, until within fifty years the colonists began to 
crowd the missions and set in motion the eom]ilaints 

^The writer heard this from his ovn mouth in 1S60. 

wliich eventually resultoil in tlie laws for the sccular- 

i/.ation of the Christian inslilulidns, which had ac- 
complished such wonderfMl lesnhs in .ivilizing the 
Indians an<l accunuilalinu^ walth. Tiu' families 

history of Calilornia, commenced mit;-ra(iiitr to this 

coast with the formati )f the mission at Lorelo, 

Ijower CaliforTiia. .lose Noriega came to California 
in 18(11. being appointed ensign to a eonii.any sta- 
tioned at Monterey. Arguollo had pi-cccdcd Noriega 
hy some years (1775) as a lieutenant in Ww ai-my. 
()![.■ of th,' Ortegas was sent at a slill .'arlicr period 



as i)rivate and commander of a eotn]iany. com 
mencing April 16, 180(1, and terminating with the 
American occupation, 1846, a period of over liirly 
years. It appears, also, that Antonio Maria Lugo 
had been discharged in 1810, after seventeen years' 
service at Santa Barbara. This would carry the 
beginning of his acting as a soldier as far hack as 
1793. Many bearing the names of De la (iiierra, 
Carrillo, Ruiz, Vallejo, Cota, as well as English 
names, are his descendants through his four daugh- 
ters. He was born in 1765, and was the youngest 
son of Francisco Lugo, who came to this coast in 
1771. The younger Lugo died at Los Angeles in 
1859, aged eighty-five. 

Though nearly all of these early settlers eventually 
became proprietors, it was not until the time of the 
secularization of the missions that the bulk of the 
land was granted to the colonists. The afterwards 
proprietors generally were satisfied with some posi- 
tion around the presidios; furthermore, it had been 
the custom of the Government to grant land for 
colonics onlj' when such land was not needed for thi^ 
herds of the missions. 

The following list of jirojierty of the missions as 
late as 182S will show to what extent the grazing 
ground was utili/.ed in Santa Barbara County: — 



Santa Barbara 40. Odd 3.000 20.00(1 160 

San Buenaventura 37.000 1,!)00 300 400 

La Purissima 40.000 (;.(;()() :',(). 11(1(1 000 

Santa Ynez had property estimated at 8^00,000. 

When we take into consideration that the monks 
could hardly resist the temptation to drive off the 
cattle when the enumerator came along, which ho 
did once a year to enalile the CJovernment to appor- 
tion the expense of keeping up the presidios, we may 
safely say that the totals would be much greater. 
We may judge from these numbers that the ])astur- 
age was generally utilized. Some of the ranches, 
like the Refugio, were established at an early day. 
Thus we leam that as early as 1818 the Refugio was 
a place rich enough in cattle to provoke the attacks 
of a privateer, or pirate, as it was called, which 



landed some men at the Canada, and burned and 
plundered the country, until a party of men, com- 
manded by Lugo of Los Angeles, assisted by others 
under Anastacio Carrillo, drove them back and made 
several prisoners. 

There is a tradition connected with this affair 
which is told on the authority of S. C. Foster, who 
writes of it as follows in the Los Angeles Evening 
Express: — 


One day in the year 1818, a vessel was seen ap- 
j^roaching the town of Monterey. As she came 
nearer she was seen to be armed, her decks swarm- 
ing with men, and she flew some unknown flag. 
Arriving within gunshot she opened fire on the 
town, and her flre was answered from the battery, 
while the lancers stood ready to repel a landing, if 
it should be attempted, or cover the retreat of the 
families in case tln'ir etlort at repulse should be un- 
successful, for Spain was at peace Math every mari- 
time nation, and the traditions of the atrocities 
committed by the Buccaneers at the end of the 
seventeenth centurj-, on the Spanish main, were 
familiar to the people. After some firing the strange 
vessel appeared to be injured by the fire from the 
battery, and bore away and disappeared. The alarm 
spread along the coast as fast as swift riders could 
carry it, and all the troops at every point were 
ordered to be on the alert. The strange craft next 
appeared oft" the Ortega Ranch, situated on the sea- 
shore above Santa {Barbara, and landed some men, 
who, while plmiilcriiii;- the ranch, Avere surprised by 
some soldiers from Santa Barbara, and before they 
could regain their boats some four or five were cap- 
tured. She next appeared oft' San Juan t'apistrano, 
landed and plundered the mission, and sailed away, 
and never was heard of more. All that is known of 
her is that she was a Buenos Ayrean privateer, and 
that her captain was a Frenchman named Bouchard. 

As to those of her crew she left behind, the circum- 
stances under which they were captured niii;lit have 
justified severe measures, but the conunandante was 
a kind-hearted man, and he ordered that if any one 
would be responsible for their presentation when 
called for, they should be set at liberty until orders 
should be received from Mexico as to what disposi- 
tion should be made of them. 

When the alarm was given, Corporal Antonio 
Maria Lugo, who, alter seventeeen years of sei-vice 
in the company of Santa Barbara, had received his 
discharge and settled with his family in Los Angeles, 
in 1810, received orders to proceed to Santa Bai-bara 
with all the force the little town could spare. He 
was the youngest son of Private Francisco Lugo, 
who came to Oalifornia 105 years ago, and who, 
besides those of his own surname, as appears from 
his will dated at Santa Barbara in the year 1801, 
and still in the possession of some of his grandsons 
in this country, was the ancestor, through his four 
daughters, of the numerous families of the Vallejos, 
Carrillos, de la Guerras, Cotas, Ruizes, besides numer- 
ous others of Spanish and English surnames. He 
was the venerable old man whose striking form was 
so familiar to our older residents, and who, seventeen 
years ago, at the ripe age of eighty-five years, died 
in this place, honored and respected hy all. 

Some two weeks afterwards Dona Dolores Lugo, 
who with other wives wa.s anxiously waiting, as she 
stood at nightfall in the door of her house, which 
still stands on the street now known as Negro Alley, 

heard the welcome sound of cavalry and the jingle 
of their spurs as they defiled along the path north ot 
Fort Hill. They proceeded to the guard-house, 
which then stood on the north side of the plaza, 
across Upper Main Street. The old church was 
not yet built. She heard the orders given, for the 
citizens still kept watch and ward, and presently she 
saw two horsemen mounted on one horse advancing 
across the plaza towards the house, and heard the 
stern but welcome greeting, "Ave Maria Purissima," 
upon which the children hurried to the door, and, 
kneeling with clasped hands, uttered their childish 
welcome and received their lather's benediction. The 
two men dismounted. The one who rode the saddle 
was a man fully six feet high, of a spare but sinewy 
form, which indicated great strength and activity. 
He was then forty-three years of age. His black 
hair, sprinkled with gray and bound with a black 
handkerchief, reached to his shoulders. The square- 
cut features of his closely-shaven face indicated char- 
acter and decision, and their natural stern expression 
was relieved by an appearance of grim humor — a 
purely Spanish face. He was in the uniform of a 
cavalry soldier of that time, the cuera hlanca, a 
loosely-fitting surtout reaching to below the knees, 
made of buckskin doubled and quilted, so as to be 
arrow-proof; on his left arm he carried an adarga, 
an oval shield of bull's hide, and his right hand held 
a lance, while a high-crowned heavy vicuna hat sur- 
mounted his head. Suspended from his saddle was a 
carbine and a long, straight sword. The other was 
a man about twenty-five years of age, perhaps a 
trifle taller than the first. His light hair and blue 
eyes indicated a different race, and he wore the garb 
of a sailor. 

The senora politely addressed the stranger, who 
replied in an unknown tongue. Her curiosity made 
her forget her feelings of hospitality, and she turned 
to her husband for an explanation. 

" Whom have you here, old man ?" 

" He is a prisoner whom we took from that buc- 
caneer — may the devil sink her — scaring the whole 
coast and taking honest men away from their homes 
and business. I have gone his security." 

'• And what is his name and country?" 

" None of us luukTstand his lingo, and he don't 
understand ours. All I can find out is, his name is 
Jose, and he speaks a language they call English. 
We took a negro among them, but he was the only 
one of the rogues that showed fight, and so Corporal 
Ruiz lassoed him and brought him head over heels, 
sword and all. I left him in Santa Barbara to repair 
damages. He is English, too." 

'' Is he a Christian or a heretic ?" 

" I neither know nor care. He is a man and a 
prisoner in my charge, and I have given the word of 
a Spaniard and a soldier to my old commandante for 
his safe keeping and his good treatment. I have 
brought him fifty leagues on the crupper behind me, 
for he can't ride without something to hold to. He 
knows no more about a horse than I do about a 
ship, and be sure you give him the softest bed. He 
has the face of an honest man, if we did catch 
him among a set of thieves, and he is a likely-look- 
ing young fellow. If he behaves himself, we will 
look him up a wife among our prettj^ girls, and then, 
as to his religion, the good padre will settle all that. 
And now, good wife, I have told you all I know, for 
you women must know everything; but we have had 
nothing to eat since morning, so hurry up and give 
us the best you have." 

Lugo's judgment turned out to be correct, and a 


few days afterwards, tlio Yaidvoo privatoorsinati 
might have been seen in the mountains, in what is 
known among the Californians as the ••('hurdi 
Canon," ax in hand, helping Lugo to get out (iinhers 
for the construction of tiie church, a work wliich tiie 
excitement caused by his arrival had interrujited. 
The church was not 'finished till four years after- 
wards, for they did not build in Los Angeles, in those 
days, as fast as now. Chapman conducted himself 
well, always ready and willing to turn his hand to 
anything, and a year afterward he had leai-ne<l 
enough Spanish to make himself understoixl, and 
could ride a horse without the risk of tumbling otf. 
and he guessed he liked tlie country and the jicoplc 
well enough to settle down, and iook around for a 
wife. So he and Lugo started otf to Santa Barbara 
on a matrimonial expedition. Why they went to 
Santa Barluira for that purpose, 1 do not know, but 
this much I do know, that in former times the Angele- 
nos always yielded the point that the Barbarenos 
had the largest portion of pretty women. 

In those days the courtship was always done by 
the elders, and the only privilege of the fair one, 
was the choice of saying ■• yes " or ■' no." Lugo ex- 
erted himself, vouched for the good character of the 
suitor, and soon succeeded in making a match. The 
wedding came oft' in due time, and Lugo gave the bride 
away, and as soon as the feast was over, the three 
started back to Los Angeles, One fashion of riding 
in those days was the following: A heavy silk sash, 
then worn by the men, was looped over the pommel 
of the saddle, so as to form a stirrup, and the lady 
rode in the sadille, while her escort mounted behind, 
the stirrups being shifted back to suit his new ])08i- 
tion, and in this style Chapman once more set out on 
the long road from Santa Barbara to Los Angeles, 
for the second time, again a prisoner. But now in 
the saddle before him, instead of the grim old sol- 
diei', armed with targe and lance, rode the new-ma<le 
bride, armed with bright eyes and raven tresses; for 
the Senorita Guadalupa Ortega, daughter of old 
Sergeant Ortega, the girl who one short year before 
had fled in terror from the wild rovers of the sea, as 
pistol and cutlass in hand, the^' rushed on her 
father's house, and who had first seen her husband a 
pinioned prisoner, had bravely dared to vow to love, 
honor, and obey the fair yringo. And years after, 
when the country was opened to fniri-ii int( rmur^c, 
on the establishment of Mexican|).'iMli'n(c in 
1822, and the first American advini ur. i-. i 
and mariners, found their way to C^alifoniia, they 
found Jose Chapman at the Mission of San Gabriel, 
fair-haired children playing around him, carpenter, 
millwright, and general factotum of good old Father 
Sanchez; and among the vaqueros of old Lugo, the}- 
also found Tom Fisher swinging his riata among the 
wild cattle, as he once swung his cutlass when he 
fought the Spanish lancers on the beach at the 
Ortega Ranch, 

Chapman died about the year 1849, and his de- 
scendants now live in the neighboring county of 
Ventura. 1 saw Fisher in September. 1848, when I 
met him in the Monte. The news of gold had just 
reached here, and he was on his way to the placers 
to make his fortune, and he has never been heard 
from since. 

To my readers of Castilian descent, I would say 
that I have not used the prefix of Don, for I pre- 
ferred to designate them by the rank that stands 
opposite to their forefather's names on the old muster 
roles of their companies, now in the Spanish archives 
of California. 

And in conclusion of my humble contribution to 
the Centennial history of Los Angeles, I have only 
to say, whieh I do without fear of contradiction, that 
the first .\merican jvioneers of Los Angeles, and, as 
far as history and tradition goes, of all California, 
were Josi- el Imj'es. Joseph, the Knglishman, iiUu» Joe 
Chapman, a native of New Knglaiid. and El Xeyro 
FiiKir, <ili<is Tom Fisher. S. C, F. 

The moriojioly of the missions liaving been ab<il- 
ished, the j)resumption would be that the peoi)le 
would go on getting rich, and h'ave ]iroiiunciamcnlos 
to the winds.' But the angel of diM-oni had not de- 

eanie in 1 luir ohUt.' S.Mnr bad ol.lain.-d' ni.n-e oflbe 
spoils, land, an<l cattle, than iierhai)s. they were en- 
titled to. and territorial lines often induced trouble. 
Santa Barbara and Los Angeles were anxious to 
have Ibe |irovincial caiiital. \ little bree/.e in the 
custom b.iuse al .Monleivy <;nne near plunging tlie 
territory into a war. In iSiU;. ;ifler tlie dealli of 
Figueroa, Jose Castro was a]ipointc(l Governor, but 
held this ]iositioii but a short time when be was 

Gutierrez, all in tlie sjiace of one year. 

the custom house at .Monterey, was Juan B, Alvarado 
a good-looking an<l popular young man who had 
been educated at the missions and understood several 
languages. Governor Gutierrez, according to the 
chronicles of the time, sus))eelod him of taking bribes 
of the commanders of vessels and allowing goods to 
pass ashore without the jjaj-ment of duties; others 
relate that Gutierrez knew of his taking bribes, but 
was dissatisfied because be did not have the lion's 
share; at any rate, the Governor insisted ujion 
placing giiards around the vessel ostensiblj- to see 
that no g(jod8 were smuggled ashore. Alvarado pro- 
tested that such a course was an insult to the com- 
mander of the vessels, and. waxing wroth, be ullered 
language that was considered s.Miitidu^, and (iovernor 
Gutierrez ordered him under arrest. Alvaia<lo tied 
and took refuge with Isaac Graham of Santa Cruz. 
This man destined to jilay so ])romiiient a part in the 
petty insurrection- of tlii< coast was one of those 
characters who are found along the frontiers, 
who i-ely upon their own tourage and power, rather 
than the law, to secure their rights of person or prop- 
erty. Though large hearted enough when aijpealed 
to for assistance, their notions of right and wrong 
would hardly .square with the rules of courts. He 
was a man of inflexible courage and immense physi- 
ical strength. Wben .\lvarado appealed to him for 
aid in getting up a revolution. Graham saw nothing 
unworthy in the project, particularly as Alvarado 
promised him and the other Americans largo tracts of 
land if successful. Graham in a few days rai.sed fiftj- 



riflemen and joined a company of one hundred Cali- 
fornians under Jose Castro, and the revolution was 
inaugurated by entering Monterey at night and tak- 
ing possession of the town. In the morning they 
called upon the Governor to surrender. Gutierrez 
commenced parleying in high-toned, diplomatic lan- 
guage, but a solid shot through the tiled roof, rattling 
the fragments down on the table, around which the 
Governor and his council were sitting, brought 
Gutiei'rez to terms and the revolution was accom- 

A PRONUNciAMENTO made Alvarado Governor, Don 
Mariana Gaudalupe Vallejo head of the mililarj' de- 
partment, or commandante of the Republic of Upper 
California, which was to become an independent 
State. The religion was to be Roman Catholic with- 
out admitting the exercise of any other, though no one 
was to be molested for non-conformity. The Mexi- 
can Governor and officers were banished from the 

The missions were again plundered to pay the ex- 
. penses of the government, for to tax the citizens who 
now owned nearly all the land and cattle, would en- 
danger the stability of the new government. The 
northern part of the territory being the home of 
Vallejo, submitted quietly to the new rule. In the 
south some opposition was manifested. Don Carlos 
Carrillo, though the new Governor was his nephew, de- 
clared in favor of allegiance to Mexico, which was at 
this time in a state of revolution, but which manifested 
energy enough to fulminate a series of high sounding 
proclamations, which did not mend or disturb the 
existing relations. Don Carlos Carrillo was appointed 
Governor as a reward for his patriotic conduct. 


Carrillo sent a messenger to Monterey ordering 
Alvarado to lay down his arms under penalty of 
bringing down upon himself the wrath of the great 
Republic of Mexico.* Alvarado accompanied by 
Castro and the grand army, which included a hundred 
men, Graham's riflemen being of the party, set out 
at once. Carrillo's forces dwindled away on the ap- 
proach of Alvarado, and he was taken prisoner, and 
placed in his own house at Santa Barbara, and a 
guard set over him. His advisers and officers were 
sent off' as prisoners to Sonoma, and placed under the 
charge of the General Commandante Yallejo. Alva- 
rado sent an explanation of all these matters to 
Mexico, relating the circumstances in such a way as 
to induce them to confirm him as Governor; he at the 

'Farnham, who wrote a work on California about the time of these matters, 
gives a somewhat different accomit from the above. He states that tlie 
grand army a .companyinf; him from Monterey only consisted of six men; 
that Santa Barbara surrendered on his approach; that Carrillo was entuinped 
on a hill two miles from Santa Barbara and on the approach of Alvarado re- 
treated to San Buenaventura; that Alvarado arrested Pedro Carrillo, one of 
Don Carlos' sons; that he then made a forced march in the nijfht and to,)k up 
a position on the hill west of San Buenaventura and demanded the sun-ender 
of the town which was refused; that cannon and musket shot succeeded fitr 
two days, with the r)ss of one man on one side, and one wounded on the other, 
when Carrillo capitulated, and that the fraternizing was such that tlie pejple 
of the town could not tell, and never did know who surrendered; that Alvarado 
proceeded to Los Angeles and subjected the whole country to his sway. It 
may be remarked that Alvat-ado's army was increased by recruits from Santa 
Barbara until it outnumbered Carrillo's. 

same time recognizing the supreme authority of 
Mexico. Carrillo was pacified with having the island 
of Santa Rosa added to his land holdings and so 
peace was restored. 

A recent writer on Santa Barbara speaks of its 
once having been the capital and place of meeting of 
the Departmental Assembly; also of the elegance of 
the hall in which the assembly met with its sculptured 
stone columns. As a pretty thorough exploration of 
Santa Barbara has failed to reveal any building of 
that character, or in any way answering to that de- 
scription, except the one on State Street, near Cannon 
Perdido, and as a thorough search in the chronicles 
of California, fail to show any period, even for an 
hour, when the Government had its seat at Santa 
Barbara, the beautiful legend must be relegated to 
the land of fiction. A building was fitted up as a 
government building for Governor Carrillo in Los 
Angeles, and from this the pleasant fiction may have 
been derived. 


The Graham Insurrection — Character of the Affair — Description 
of Graham — Arrest of the Foreigners — List of Names — 
Treatment of the Prisoners — Description of the Court at 
Monterey — Appearance of the Governor — Visit to the Al- 
calde — Appearance of the "Don Quixote" in the Harbor — 
Trial of the I'risoners — Removal of the Prisoners to Santa Bar- 
bara — Their 111-Treatment — Relief by the Padres — A Glimg^e 
of Social Life — Public Rejoicing — Return of the Prisoners. 

It is very doubtful whether anything like an insur- 
rection was contemplated; that none was attempted 
is quite certain, but as the aftair was generally 
known as the Graham insurrection, it may as well 
be described under that name. The reader will 
recollect that when Alvarado was threatened with 
arrest, he fled to the cabin of Isaac Graham, and 
with him planned the affair which terminated in 
making Alvarado the recognized Governor of Cali- 
fornia. Graham was one of those characters that 
could have been raised nowhere except on a frontier. 
He was a native of Tennessee, and at a very early 
age left the civilized part of the United States and 
struck into the vast wilderness which formed the 
western half of the American Continent. He was of 
immense physical strength, with endurance and per- 
sistence that knew no failure. Whether making 
his way across lofty mountains, trackless deserts, or 
fighting a horde of Indians, he was always the same 
self-reliant and persistent character, destitute of fear. 
Thrown in early life into scenes where his own prow- 
ess was his reliance for the pi-otection of his life and 
property, he had come to regard his own notions of 
right and wrong as his guide, and the law as a mere 
cobweb to be brushed aside as of little account; 
hence Alvarado had little difficulty in inducing him 
to engage in a revolution. When that revolution 
was accomplished, and Alvarado was Governor, Gra- 

Samuel Bevier Brinkerhoff 

Was burn, ScptcmlxT 24. 1828, on tlu' f^li.ircs a\ 
Owasco Lake, Cayuga County, Nuvv York. The pa- 
ternal ancestors were of the Dutch extraction, the 
progenitor landing in New York in 163S. He iiaii 
three sons, one settling in Brooklyn, one on the 
Hackensaek near Bergen. They were all God-fear- 
ing men, of respectable standing in the community. 
The subject of this sketch came of the hraneli that 
Jived on the Hackensaek Eiver. On the molliers 
side the family was connected with the Huguenot 
stock. The first of the family to immigrate to this 
country was Louis Bevier, who settled in Ulster 
County, on the Hudson Elver, in 1650. After the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes, which permitted 
the Protestants to remain in France and enjoy life 
and property, the fugitives found refuge in HoUaiul, 
from which place many came to the United States, 
among them Bevier. Thus came about the mixture 
of French and Holland blood, the name of Bevier 
being retained as an additional name. The blood of 
the DeMarests, now spelled D-e-m-a-r-e-s-t, also flows 
in the Brinkerhofi" family, this alliance taking place 
after the Bevier connection; so that, though the 
name was Dutch, the Brinkerhoffs were more French 
than otherwise, a fact illustrated in the mercurial and 
lively nature of Dr. Binkerholf. Bevier was one of 
the twelve persons to whom was granted a stignory, 
or tract of land called New Paltz. 

The tract of country where Dr. Brinkerhntf was 
born, and spent his childhood, is perhaps one of the 
most romantic in New York. The lovely lake of 
pure water reposing among the gentle hills, which 
were crowned with the evergreen spruce and hem- 
lock; the peaceful homes of the well-tilled farms, 
which in summer were mirrored in the bosom of the 
placid sheet of water, and in winter became frozen 
over with a thick, strong ice which made a skaters' 
paradise — were elements which became, in the sus- 
ceptible mind of the young Brinkerhotf, associated 
with all that was romantic and poetical in his nature. 
Here he rowed, iished, hunted, worked when the 
farm required it, and went to school, ripening into a 
well-rounded man, a lover of the woods and lakes 
and all things beautiful. After having acquired all 
that was to be taught in a district school, and having 

rations woke him int.. a dilVereiil lilr. Jle now. lor 
the first time, got a glimpse ol ihe wide, wide world, 
which to every young man s.eins so glorious and 
also so easy to conipier. Here he resolved on a pro- 
fession, and fell into the eurrent of stuily leading to 
medicine. From the Homer School he drifted to .\l- 
tica, a village some thirty mik's east of Butfalo, 
where he studied medicine with his cousin. Dr. Isaac 
Russell, after which he attended medical lectures at 
Butfalo, where he graduated. 

Close attention to study had impaired iiis iiealth. 
which had never been ol'the best, and he abandoned 
study for a while, to work out the dream of his boy- 
Ijood — a voyage to the New Foundland cod banks. 
This took all the poetry out of fishing, and Ihe next 
voyage was made to the West Indies. After re-t's- 
tablishing his health, he commenced the practice of 
his profession at Ashtabula, in Ohio, where he 
remained but a short time, going thence to Mansfield, 
in the same State, where he formed a partnership 
with a Dr. Paige. His health beginning to fail, he 
resolved upon an entire change of base, and turned 
his attention to California, as his only ho|ie; lie 
made his way by the Isthmus of Panama. His first 
location, Marysville, proving unfortunate, on account 
of malaria, he tried another sea voyage to get relief. 
July 23, 1852, the steamer, Ohio, on which he was a 
passenger, came into the Santa Barbara Channel, 
and Dr. Briidierhoft' sighted the white Mission tow- 
ers, and then the cluster of adobe houses of which 
the town of Santa Barbara was composed. All the 
landing was done by surf-boats, and to get ashore 
without a wetting was a lucky matter, which was 
accomplished, however. At that time, Don laiis 
Burton had the big store, and was a rich man. His 
confidential clerk, decorated with jewelry and im- 
mense-shirt studs, and mounted on a fine hoi-se, was 
superintending the landing of some goods, and Dr. 
Briukei-hoft' mentions as an association of the sub- 
lime and the ridiculous which he never could dissolve, 
that the venerable Mission, the purple mountains, 
and the pompous clerk were together in his mind 


evei' after. The first meal of victuals was obtained 
in a saloon kept by an Italian. 

Dr. Brinkerhoff was here when the row with the 
Jack Power gang occurred; was appointed surgeon 
of the party who were going out under Sheriff Twist 
to dispossess them, and saw the shooting on the plaza, 
in front of the Aguerre House, which resulted in the 
death of Vidal and the severe wounding of Twist. 
Dr. Brinkerhoff was not the first American physician 
here, Dr. Den having been here some years. 

From this date. Dr. Brinkerhoff got into notice, 
and had a large share, or nearly all, of the paying 
practice. He became the recipient of many family 
secrets, and was in fact considered by his patients a 
friend as well as a physician. 

Dr. Brinkerhoff was not one of ordinary character; 
he possessed a pronounced individuality, and was, 
in fact, eccentric. His eccentricity, however, was of 
the kind which made no enemies, and endeared him 
more greatly to his friends, who will always remem- 
ber with a smile of affection his odd acts and quaint 
conceits. He possessed untiring energy, and led a 
life of great activity, while never neglecting nor 
slighting the calls of his profession. Being passion- 
ately fond of legitimate speculation, he inaugurated 
and took part in developing many business enter- 
prises, which resulted not always in pecuniary profit to 
himself. In business affairs he was strict and exact- 
ing, but in every other respect liberal and generous. 
He was the silent benefactor of the poor, and day 
after day secretly performed gentle acts of charity. 
This he considered a weakness, and seemed always 
annoyed if his generous deeds were discovei-ed and 
spoken of. 

Santa Barbara had no more public-spirited citizen 
than Dr. Brinkerhoff". He took the deepest interest 
in the improvement and development of the city and 
county. He had great faith in their ultimate pros- 
perity and wealth, and lent his mind and energies 
towards hastening their growth. He was identified 
with, a-nd generally the prime mover in, nearly every 
public enterprise beneficial to the community. 

In his profession, Dr. Brinkerhoff was a successful 
practitioner. He constantly overstepped the strict 
line of professional duties, and was as well the faith- 
ful and tender nurse as the skilled physician. He 
was called by the native Californians "the poor 
man's doctor." No matter what the weather, what 
the hour, or how tired or ill himself, he never failed 
to answer the call of the indigent; indeed they 
seemed with bim to take precedence. 

In society he was a favorite, and his presence was 
welcomed and his absence regretted at every social 
gathering. He loved to be with the young people; 
childlike in nature himself, fond of all innocent en- 
joyment, he was the boon companion of the youths, 
and originated and took part in yachting, fishing, 
and hunting excursions, and was the life of them all. 

He loved music, poetry, and art, and found them 
all in nature. He was happiest in the woods. His 
great pastime was the beautifying of his property 
with trees and orchards, planting them with his own 
hands, and watching them as a mother her offspring. 

January 10, 1877, he was united in marriage to 
Lucy A. Noyes, a lady of superior education, ability 
and refinement, possessed of a love and talent for 
literature und art. She was destined to share but 
little of his joyous life, and was his companion, ad-- 
viser and comforter in the dark days when care and 
sorrow were upon him, and was alone by his bedside 
ministering to him when the angel of death came. 

At the time when he expected and was entitled to 
have a "youth of labor" crowned with an "age of 
ease," trouble came and crushed him. He was 
threatened with financial ruin at the hands of those 
whose benefactors he had been. He never recovered 
from the shock; it made of him prematurely an old 
man, and brought him to the grave before his allotted 

He has left a vacant spot in the community 
where he lived so long. We miss the enterprising 
citizen, the good doctor, the genial companion, the 
true friend. 


ham had as little reverontc tor the man he h:ul 
assisted to ottiro. or his authority, as for any otlu'r^ 
It is said that, torLCettiii<; the hinh ami iiiii^lity title 
with whieh Alvarado itecorated his name, Cirahani 
would slap hitn familiarlj' on his hack and pass sf)me 
joke, as he would to a iellow-trapper who slept under 
the same bear-skin in the cleft in the roeks in the 
Sierra Nevadas. lie had accumulated considerable 
property in distillini? grain and raising cattle. He 
had a famous race-hoi-se which had won for him 
many thousands of doUaivi, much of which was still 
due him from those who had matched their horses 
with his. Alvarado had ]iromised him land for the 
services he had performed, which promise he had 
neglected to fullill, though repeatedly reminded of 
it. Graham and his friends were getting persistent, 
impertinent, and troublesome. Alvarado conceived 
the plan of getting rid of the -whole tribe" at one 
swoop. He charged them with having formed a 
conspiracy to overturn the Government, and ordered 
the arrest of nearly all the Americans in and around 
Monterey, or within several hundred miles of the 
place. The arrest had to be done quietly or the 
sturdy old hunters would get alarmed and put them- 
selves on the defensive, and Alvai'ado well knew 
their fighting qualities. They were, by twos and 
threes, privately informed that Alvarado wanted to 
see them, and when confronted with him, were 
charged with conspiracy and chained up to be shot. 
So quietly had this been carried on that 160, nearly 
the whole number, were inveigled into town before 
the alarm was I'aised. Thej^ did not try to entrap 
Graham in this way, however. He was too wary to 
be caught that way, and would be likely- to make a 
big fight when they attempted to put chains on him, 
even if the Governor was present. They undertook 
to kill him outright. Six of them went to his bed- 
side in the night when he was asleep, and he was 
awakened by the discharge of a pistol so near his 
head that the flash burned his face, the ball passing 
through the collar on his neck. As he arose to his 
feet, six other pistols were discharged so near him 
that his shirt took fire in several places. One shot 
only hit him, that passing through his arm. After 
this firing, the party fell back to reload, for old Gra- 
ham was on his feet, and no one eared to meet th? 
old man, who was now thoroughly aroused. He had 
concluded that discretion was the better part of 
valor when the assailants were six to one, and com- 
menced retreating, which so encouraged the arrest- 
ing party that they made a rush and succeeded in 
overthrowing him. One of them undertook to stab 
him, but the dirk passed into the ground between 
Graham's arm and his body. Before the assassin 
could repeat the blow, Graham was dragged away 
to where Jose Castro, who was the leader of the 
part}', was standing, whereupon Castro struck him 
on the head with the flat of his sword so severelj- as 
to bring him to the ground, at the same time oi'der- 
ing him be shot, which, however, was not done. 

The whole party connected with (n-aham in farming 
ami (listilliiiLC wiTr carried in cliain-^ to .Monterej' 
and thrown into the adoln' prismi on the mud floor, 
which, as it was during the rainy season, April. 1840, 
was in reality a mud floor. Here the whole number 
were detai:.e<l several days with insutticient food and 
water, while the authorities debated the (inc^tion of 
shooting all of them. .\t this juncture a minhant 
vessel came into the harbor and succeeded, by some 
pretensions of authority, in imlucing the authorities 
to send the ]>risoners to San Bias for trial. The 
names of the parties arrested were, Lewis Pollock, 
John Vermillion, William McGlone, Daniel Silb, 
George Frazer, Nathaniel Spear, Captain .McKi-nley. 
Jonathan Fuller, and Captain Beechay, of San l-'ian 
Cisco; William Blirkin, George Ferguson. 'I'honias 
Thomas, William Langleys. Jonathan .Mirayno. Wil- 
liam Weeks, Jonathan Caijpiiiger, William Hants, 
Charles Brown, Thomas Tomlinson, Richard West- 
lake, James Peace, Robert McAlister, Thomas Bowen, 
Elisha Perry, Nathan Daily, Robei-t Livermore, Wil- 
liam Gulcnac, Jonathan Marsh, Peter Storm, Job 
Dye, William Smith, Jonathan Warner, and two 
Frenchmen, of San Jose; Wm. Thompson, James 
Burnes, F. Eagle, Henrj' Knight, Jonathan Lucas, 
Geo, Chapel, Henry Cooper, Jonathan Hei-ven, James 
Loyado, Francisco La Grace, Michael Lodye, Joseph 
Whitehouse, and Robert King of Santa Clara; Isaac 
Graham, Daniel Gofi", Wm. Burton, Jonathan Smith, 
and Henry Niel, of Natividad (Graham's neighbor- 
hood); Wm. Chard, James O'Brien, Wm. Bruda, 
Wm. Malthas, Thomas Cole, Thomas Lewis, Wm, 
Ware, James Majows, of Salinas; Leonard Carmichael, 
Edward Watson, Andrew Watson, Henry McVicker, 
H, Hathaway, Henry Bee, Wm. Truivan, Jonathan 
Mayward, Wm. Henderson, James Meadows, Jona- 
than Higgins, Mark West, George Kenlock, Jeremiah 
Jones, Jonathan Chamberlain, Joseph Bowles, James 
Kelley, James Fairwell, Walter Adams, Mr. Horton, 
James Attei'ville, Mr. Jones, Jonathan Christian, 
Wm, Chay, Wm. Dickey, Charles Williams, and .\1- 
van Willson. 

It does not appear that any of Santa Barbara's 
residents were molested, though reference is made 
to some foreigners being interru|ited while burving 
a countryman, the coqjse iKJng disinl< rnd ami left 
to decay above ground. 

The treatment of the prisoners was most inhuman. 
There were neither mattresses nor blankets to rest 
upon, and not much provision was made for food. 
Thomas O. Larkin was ])ermitted to feed the prison- 
ers occasionally, otherwise they would have suff"ered 
for food. Some could not stand up. and all were 
emaciated and pale. No consjtiracy could be proved 
against them, except bj- tlie testimony of a worthless 
character, whose name does not deserve to be re- 

While things were in this uncertain condition, an 
American merchant vessel came into the harbor. At 
first no persons were permitted to land, and the 



alternately stood out at sea and in shore for a 
day or two. The vessel appeared to be communica- 
ting with a fleet outside of the harbor, and one of 
the passengers, who had landed, acting as a sort of 
agent, induced Alvarado to suspend the sentence of 
the prisoners to be shot, and send them to San Bias 
for trial. 

A description of the style of the court of these 
days is worth preserving. 

■' The first duty, on setting foot in California, is to 
report one's self to the Governor, and obtain from 
him a written permission to remain in the country. 
This I proceeded to do. Mr. Larkin was obliging 
enough to accompany me to the Governor's residence. 
We found before it a number of men who were usu- 
ally complimented with the cognomen of 'guard.' 
They consisted of five half-breed Indians, and what 
passed for a white corporal, lounging about the door 
in the manner of grog-shop savans. The outer man 
is worth a description. They wore raw buli's-hide 
sandals on their feet, leathern breeches, blankets 
about their shoulders, and anything and everything 
upon their heads. Of arms, they had nothing which 
deserved the name. One made pretension with a 
musket without a lock, and his four companions 
were equally heroic, with kindred pieces, so deeply 
rusted that the absence of locks would have been an 
unimportant item in estimating their value." 

Governor Alvarado is represented as a well-formed, 
full-blooded California Spaniard, "five feet, eleven 
inches in height, with coal black, curly hair, deep 
black eyes, fiercely black eyebrows, high cheek- 
bones, an aquiline nose, fine, white teeth, brown com- 
plexion, clad in broadcloth, and whiskers." 


" The alcalde was at home, or rather in his adobe 
den, for there is neither a home nor the semblance of 
it in all the Spanish world. He was taking his siesta 
or midday nap on a bull's hide in the corner of the 
apartment. The dog, which had barked us into his 
presence, had awakened him; so that when we 
entered the room, he was rolling his burly form 
towards a chair. After being well seated, and hav- 
ing, with some difficulty, brought his eyes to bear 
upon us, he was pleased to remark that the weather 
was fine, and that various other things existed in a 
defined state; 'that his dog was very fat; the bean 
crop gave good promises; the Hawaiian Islands were 
ten miles from Monterey; the Californians were very 
brave,' " etc. 

The following permit, to i-emain on shore as long 
as his health required, took one hour and a quarter's 
time to write: — 

" Mr. Thomas J. Farnham, passgero en la borca 
Americana Don Quixote, habiendama manifesta do el 
pasporte de su consul y queriendo quidar en tierra a 
(vertarttesse) en su salud le dog el presente bolito de 
des den enbarco en al puerta de Monterey, A. 18 de 
Abril de 1840. Antonio Maria Orio." 

The result of the whole matter was tbat iorty-one 
were retained for trial at San Bias, and the rest liber- 
ated. The forty-one were placed on board a ship, 
and started south with the intention of putting in at 

Santa Barbara, Jose Castro being in charge. The 
bark Quixote, the merchant vessel spoken of, followed 
the course of the vessel containing the prisoners. 
They had a most disagreeable trip, being treated 
much as they were in the prisons of Monterey. 
Farnham gives the following account of the prison- 
ers coming from Monterey to Santa Barbara: — 

" On the first day of May, 1840, the American 
(Farnham) made application to see the prisoners 
and was refused. He had heard that they were in 
want of food, and proposed to supply them, but was 
forbidden by Jose Castro, the officer in charge. The 
prison ship had arrived at Santa Barbara on the 25th 
of April, and landed forty-one of the prisoners. Four 
others were retained on board to work. These 
fortj'-one men, during the whole passage from Mon- 
terey, had been chained to long bars of iron, passing 
transversely across the hold of the ship. Thej^ 
were not permitted to go on deck, nor even to stand 
on their feet. A bucket was occasionally passed 
about for particular purposes, but so seldom as to be 
of little use. They were furnished with a mere 
morsel of food and that of the worst quality. Of 
water, they had scarcely enough to prevent death 
from thirst, and so small and close was the place in 
which they were chained that it was not uncommon 
for the more debilitated to faint and lie some time in 
a lifeless state. "When they lauded, many of them had 
become so weak that they could not get out of the boat 
without aid. Their companions in chains assisted 
them, though threatened with instant death if they 
did so. Alter being set ashore they were marched, 
in the midst of drawn swords and fixed bayonets, 
dragging their chains around bleeding limbs, one 
mile and three-quarters, to the mission of Santa Bar- 
bara. Here thej^ were put into a single room of the 
mission pi'isons without floor or means of ventilation. 
The bottom of the cell was soft mud. In this damp 
dungeon, without food or water, these poor fellows 
remained two days and nights. They had not even 
straw on which to sleep. At the end of this time it 
came to the ears of the friar in charge of the mission 
that one of them was dying of hunger and thirst. 
He repaired to the prison and inquired of Pinto, the 
corporal of the guard, if such were the fact. The 
miniature monster answered that he did not know. 
The friar replied: "Are you an officer and a Catho- 
lic, and do not know the state of your prisoners? 
You, sir, are an officer of to-day, and should not be 
one of to-morrow." The good man entered the cell 
and found one of the Englishmen speechless; admin- 
istered baptism and removed him to the house of a 
kind family, where I found him on my arrival, still 
speechless and incapable of motion. The friar ex- 
tended his kindness to the other prisoners. He 
ordered Castro to furnish them food and water, but, 
evading the direction so far as was possible, he gave 
them barely enough of each to tantalize them, until 
the ari'ival of the American in the Don Quixote. . . 
From the first of May, therefore, they had plenty 
of food and water. 

" On the fourth the American was permitted to 
see the prisoners. Thej^ had been scrubbing them- 
selves at the great tank, and were allowed, at his 
suggestion, to take their dinner in the open air. 
They had evidently been sulfering exceedingly since 
they left Monterey, for their countenances had lost 
the little color which the dungeons of that place had 
left them. Their hands looked skeletonwise; their 
eyes were deeply sunken in their sockets. They 



tottorod when tlioy walked. Poor men! For no 
other fault tlian their Anglo-Saxon blood, they fared 
like felons. They had a long voyage and shivery in 
the mines ot' Mexico before them, and were sad. 
They asked the American if he would lead them in 
an attack against the guani. lie pointed out the 
hopelessness of such an attempt in their enfeidiled 
condition, and comforted them with the reiterated 
assurance that he would meet them at San Bias." 

The Knglishman before spoken of, died with his 
last wants administered by some of the hospitable 
and kind ladies of the town. Farnham speaks of 
spending the evening at the house of Mrs. J. A. Jones 
y Carrillo. the wife of the former American t'oiisul at 
the Sandwich Islan<ls, and lier sisters. 

■■ A stroll a tete-a-tete and the sweet guitar. The 
air was balmy; the smiles were fascinating; the laugh 
savoreil of the dee]K>st impulses of the soul; the music 
was the warm breath of the best att'ections. All be- 
j'ond was barbarism and wilderness! The vast pam- 
pas, the unexplored streams, the unpruned forests, 
the howling hosts of beasts that war with life and 
gnaw each others bones, the roaring seas, the wild 
men. woman, and children; uneducated, homeless, — 
the untamed fields of earth, and the deserts of the 

human heart lay outside They tell of 

heroic deeds, of martyrdom and glorious conquests. 
Thej' bring back the events of buried years; the 
deeds of those who acted and died here, and as the 
scene moves on, this land with its countless beauties 
and charms, its gray wastes and soft landscapes ])ass 
as in a panorama to the mind." 

The successful terniiniition of this affair caused 
great rejoicing among Alvarado's friends. It was 
considered of so much importance that a general 
thanksgiving was ordered in May, 1840. Two months 
later a French ship and the American ship-of-war St. 
Louis entered the harbor of Monterey to iiuiuire into 
the circumstances. Alvarado left immediately to 
attend to some Indian disturbances in the interior, 
and as Castro was in Mexico with the prisoners, there 
was no military man or person in authority to hold 
responsible for the affair, and after a few days the 
ships sailed away, and Alvarado returned to his j)ost. 

In the July following, the pinsoners were returned 
to Monterey on a Mexican shij). They were much 
improved in personal appearance, and had been re- 
munerated for their loss of time, and were also sent 
back at the expense of the Government. The change 
in their condition was brought about bj- the inter- 
vention of the British Consul at Mexico, who had 
sufficient influence to have the prisoners liberated 
and the guai-d imprisoned. After this things resumed 
their old ways. 

(MA I'TKI! .\ 
Kmineiit Kiimilics — l>o la (iuerra Kaiiiily — The Carrillo Family — 
Tliedrtega Family — The Arrellaiuts Family — The Cota Fam- 
ily — The Olivas Family— Other Prominent Families— Promi- 
ucut Persons not of Spanish Descent. 

TuE secularization of th 


d much 

^ of the 
< one of 

and is. .Irten.lrd by slalrsm,',, as nrc'ssary and right. 
The Spanish lainijirs and cili/.rns wh.. bad niigral.Ml 
to the country under proniis.^ of lands and a chance 
to become the founders of a line of wealthy families, 
felt themselves oversh;ido\ved by the church, which 

virtuidly owned all ihe prnperty an.l (■.,nlr..lled the 
counli'v. The colonists could see no eijuily in keep- 
ing the ( 'astilians in an inferior position to confer a 
doubtful benefit on the savages, who, even by the 
fathers themselves, were considered as ■• men without 
reason. ' a literal translation of the term ■■ i/e7ite sin 
razon" usually applied to the natives. To atid force 
to this complaint, it was lound that the natives learned 
the vices of civilization much more rapidly than its 
virtues; that the}^ were, in s])ite of all the care for 
them, slowly becoming exterminated. The habits 
taught and enforced by the fathers, of sleejjing in 
close quarters, subjected the Indian, who was a 
growth of open air and sunshine, to numbers of new 
diseases. The contact with the whites introduced 
diseases which for want of proper treatment soon 
permeated the whole Indian population, and acceler- 
ated the decay of the race. It was found that in- 
stead of raising three children, the number necessary 
to keep up a population, Indian parents did not aver- 
age even two. Though waste and destruction followed 
the secularization, the ultimate result was the growth 
of a bettor form of humanity. The succeeding decade 
gave growth to, perhaps, the most fascinating and 
felicitous rural life that ever existed on this conti- 
nent, the Arcadia of Longfellow to the contrary 
notwithstanding. Any history of Santa Barbara 
Count}' which failed to fully treat of this matter 
would be fearfully deficient. 

It was in this period that the virtues of hospitality 
to strangers, liberalif}' and fair dealing with each 
other, kindness and sympathy for those in distress, 
and general domestic fidelity, became such promi- 
nent traits as to win the admiration of all who came 
to these shores. It was in this period that the art of 
horsemanship was cultivated with such success that 
all the Californians became models for imitation, 
reaching a perfection in the art that has never been 
equalled since. It was in this period that dignity 
and gentleness with the men, grace and beauty 
among the women, reached their highest ])erfection ; 
when, in the daily intercourse with each other and 
with strangei-s, the"gentle politeness which is never 



oppressive or annoying, the deference to age, char- 
acter, wealth, beauty, and virtue which all cultivated 
people admire, were taught and practiced in every 
adobe hnt. It was for these people who had no 
furniture nor costly dresses, no palaces nor elegant 
dwellings, who had no intercourse with the outer 
world except through the occasional vessel which 
came to carry away hides and tallow, whose daily 
avocations were the most common and simple, whose 
mental cultivation was a mere nothing, for not one 
in a hundred ever looked into a book or knew how 
to read, it was for these jieople who were developed 
out of their own innate strength to become models 
in social life for the rude though energetic Americans 
who afterwards conquered and possessed the country ; 
and when in after years the student, in the search 
for the sources of civilization, shall read of the won- 
derful virtues ^of the shepherds of the far-off coast of 
California, he will not compare the story unfavorably 
with that of the development of ]ioetry, painting, 
sculpture, and architecture among the Greeks, civil 
and military law among the Romans, or even the 
wonderful development of all these among the rude 
Anglo-Saxons. We must attribute much to the tra- 
ditions and memories of Spanish grandeur; much to 
the teachings and influence of the padres, who were 
men of learning and devotion; much to the easy 
circumstances of the people who were not compelled 
to practice that pinching economy so destructive to 
the virtues of hospitality; and much to the climate, 
which, especially in Santa Barbara, was so conducive 
to the growth of physical perfection and a calm and 
cheerful disposition. 

Though a revolution occurre.d in the Government 
during the period of which we are about to write, it 
scarcely ruffled the surface of the society of the 
time, and he who looks for exciting narratives of 
war or insurrection will be sadly disappointed. The 
historian's task will be rather to give a picture of 
the people in their every-day life, believing that it is 
worthy of being preserved for the future people of 
this country to read. 


As the Government of the country was princi])ally 
patriarchal, notwithstanding the fact of a Governor 
and Departmental Assembly, some account of the 
families who gave tone to and shaped public opinion 
will help the reader to understand the narratives 
which are to follow. In giving the names of the 
families to the present generation, we have antici- 
pated time. in some respects, but have considered 
that it will lead to less confusion than any other 


By general consent this family stands at the head 
of the Spanish families of Santa Barbara County. 
The founder was Don Jose de la Guerra y JSToriega 
who Was born in Novales. in the Province of Santan- 

der, in Spain, in 1776. He was of an ancient and 
honorable family, dating back to the time of the 
Moorish wars, as is shown by the coat of arms cher- 
ished bj'' the family. The old Noriega residence 
(where the founder of the California branch of the 
family was born) is still an imposing edifice, though 
erected some hundred years since, and covers a block 
of land in the principal town of the province. Two 
large gateways on opposite sides of the block have 
the family arms, carved in stone, surmounting them. 

The parents of the young Noriega desired him to 
become a merchant, and placed him at an early age 
under the instruction of Don Pedro Noriega, a wealthy 
merchant residing in Mexico, but finding the duties 
irksome, and wishing a more active life, in 1798 he 
obtained, through family influence, the appointment 
of cadet in the royal army. In 1800 he obtained the 
position of Ensign in the company of troops then sta- 
tioned at Monterejr, in California, joining his compan}- 
in 1801. In 1806 he was made Lieutenant of the 
company stationed at Santa Barbara. In 1804 he 
married Dona Maria Antonia Carrillo, the daughter 
of Don Raymundo Carrillo, then Commandante of the 
Presidio of Santa Barbara. In 1810 he was named 
Hibitado General of both Californias Lo the Vice- 
Royal Government of Mexico, and took his departure 
with his family by way of San Bias. Here he was 
taken prisoner by the Curate Mercallo, a partisan of 
Hidalgo, and carried with many others to Istlan, 
where all his fellow prisoners were assassinated, he by 
good fortune escaping the fate of the others. This 
revolution having deprived him of the position to 
which he was appointed, he commenced his return to 
California. At Tepic he performed military service 
which gave him a better footing with the Govern- 
ment, and prepared the way for future honors. In 
1811 he returned and was appointed to the command 
of the troops stationed at San Diego, where he re- 
sided with his family for several years. In 1817 he 
was appointed Captain and Commandante of the troops 
stationed at Santa Barbara, which place he after- 
wards made his permanent home. 

In 1819 he again went to Mexico as Habitado 
General, taking his family with him. After a short 
service, a revolution caused him to return to Califor- 
nia. The Government had now become so unstable 
that he resolved to resign his position as general del- 
egate for the department of California, but it was not 
accepted. He was continued in the office of Captain 
and Commandante of the troops of Santa Barbara by 
the Mexican authorities. In 1828 he was named 
Deputado to the Mexican Congress, but on arriving 
at the capital, his position was contested by Don 
Gervasio Arguello, who obtained the seat. From 
this time he gave up politics and engaged in ranching 
and stock-raising on a large scale, which now became 
possible by the secularization of the missions, and in 
a few years we find him in possession of eight of the 
principal ranches of the country, among which were 
Las Posas, Simi, Conejo, San Julian, and others. 

\wn iPi' \wM '^^ 

fir liir" WW 1-°-"-^- 

m ■ m\ ' 





His iiitoirrity, ability, ami kimliu'ss. onahlod him to 
become the Perit-los of the community in which lie 
lived, and to act ahnost as an iuToditary umiiire be- 
tween his neighbors. an<l l)ctwccn his [n'oplc and tiic 
tbrciirn i-esidents, who soon tilled up the comiiry. 

Jose de la Guerra, y Noriega manieil .Maria Antonia 

Eldestson, Jose Antonio de la (iuerra.t marrieil 
Concepcion Ortega. Sons. Jose Antonio, .lose 
RamonJ Guillermo. and Alexandi-o: daughters, 
Dolores, Catharina, Sola, Christina, and Juami. 

2d son, Juan de la Guerra, was never married; 
was educated in England, and a graduate of three 
colleges; was considered the ablest in the family, hut 
died earl3\ 

3d, Francisco de la (iuerra, was married first to 
Aseencion Sepulveda, ami had children l)y her: 
Francisco, Jr., and Maria Antonia. His second wife 
was C'oneepcion Sepulveda, sister to the first. They 
had: sons, Juan, Osboldo, Jose, Hercules, Pablo, and 
Anival: daughters, Anita (Mrs. F. W. Thomi)s..u). 
Erlinda, Rosa, and Diana. 

4th son, Pablo de la Guerra, married Josefa 
Moreno, and had children: daughters, Francisca 
(Mrs. Dibblee), Delfina, (one of twins), Ernina, and 

5th son, Miguel de la Guerra, married Trinidad 
Ortega, had children: sons, Gaspar, Ulpiano, and 
Leon; daughters, Maria (Mrs. Taylor), Josefa, 
Olympia, Joaquina, and Paulina. 

6th, Joaquin de la Guerra, was never manned; was 
for a time Sheriff of Santa Barbara County. 

7th, Antonio Maria de la Guerra was never mar- 
ried. Died in October, 1881. Was several times 
Mayor of the city of Santa Barbara, also State Sena- 
tor, and was Captain of the company of native cavalry 
raised in Santa Barbara in the war for the Union. 

The eldest daughter of Jose de la Guerra y Noriega, 
Theresa de la Guerra, married AVm. E. P. Hartnell 
of England, and had twenty-two children; names 
remembered, Giiillei-mo, Juan, Adelbert, Uldario, 
Pablo, Jose. Alvano, Natanieles, George, Franco,, 
Benjamin, Teresa, Matilda, Anita, Magdalena, and 

2d daughter, Maria de las Angustias de la Guerra, was 
married to Manuel Jimeno of Mexico, who was sub- 
sequently Secretary to Governor Alvarado, and others, 
and intimately connected with the land system after 
the secularization of the missions. By this marriage 
she had children: Manuela, Maria Antonia, Angus- 
tias, Carolina, Jose Antonio, Porfiro, Santiago, 
Enrique, Belisario, Juan, and Alfredo; and by a second 
marriage to Doctor Ord, of the United States Army, 
Rebecca Ord. 

3d daughter, Anna Maria Antonia de la Guerra, 
married to Alfred Robinson of Boston, Massachusetts. 


i universall.v sp jken of 

tSeveral times Shei-iiT ol' San Luis Obispt 
IGl-aduated in Georgetown. 1). C. 

the mojt charitable and bene.-olent 

They had ehihlren: sons. James.* .Mfredo, Miguel, and 

.lames iM ,laii-hters Elena. .Maria. Antonia and 

4lh and yoinmesi daughter, .\ntonia .Maria de la 
tiuerra. nianicd ( 'esario Lalaillade, of Spain, and 
li;id cbildren by that marriage: Cesario, Jr., and 
.Maria .\hionia. By a second marriage to Gaspar 
Orena of Spain, she had: sons. Leopoldo, Dario, 
Orestes, and .Vrlhur; daughters, Anita. Cerena. Rosa, 
Acasia, and Teresa. 

The youngest daughter .if the family, .Mrs. Orena, 
was considered by m:iny as the greatest beauty of 
the family, and c-ven of'tbr (Miasl. 

Don HayniumloCarrillo, oneoftlieHrsI .-ommanders 
of the ].ost of San Dieg.) and Sanl;i H;irliara. was 
the found<'i'of the extensive family in ibisSl-ile. now 
numbering hnndreils. lie mai-rieil Tomasa Lugo, 
a daughter of one of the oldest soldiers stationed at 
Santa Barbara. His eldest son was Carlos Antonio, 
who married Maria Castro, a sister of Governor 
Castro. They had: sons, Jose, who married Catarina 
Ortega; Pedro, who married Josefa Bandini; Jose 
Jesus, who married Tomasa Gutierrez; daughters, 
Maria Josefa, who married William Dana; Encarna- 
cion, who married Thomas Rolibins; Francisca, who 
married Alpheus Thompson; Mamicla, who married 
John C. Jones; Maria Antonia who married T^uis 
Burton, and two daughters who died young. 

The second son, Anastacio, married Concepcion Gar- 
cia, and had: .sons, Raymundo, who married Dolores 
Ortega; Francisco, dead; Jjuis, who married Refugio 
Ortega; Guillermo, who mari'ied Manuela (Jrtega; 
daughters, Micaela, dead; Manuela, who married Joa- 
quin Can-illo; Soledad, dead. 

Domingo Carrillo,t third son, married Concepcion 
Pico, They had : sous, Joaquin, who married Manuela 
Carrillo; Jose Antonio, who married Felecitas Gutier- 
rez; Francisco, who married Dorotea Lugo; Alejando, 
dead; Felipe, dead; daughters, 3Iaria. who married 
J. M. Covarrubias; Angela, who married Jgnacio del 
Valle; Maria Antonia, dead. Antonio, fourth son, married Estefana Pico. 
His daughter was Luis Burton's second wife, mother 
of Ben Burton. 

The only daughter^ of Don Itaynmmlo Carrillo, 
married Captain Jose <le la (iuerra y Noriega. 


This family was quite renowned a hundred years 
ago. The founder of the branch which resided in 
Santa Barbara, was Capt. Jose Maria Ortega, who 
was Commandante of a company of cavalry at Loreto, 
Baja, Lower California. His wife's name was An- 
tonia Carrillo, and they had seven children: Ignacio 

■ Died at West Point, at seventeen .vears of axe. Alfred 11 ibinsiin came from 
Boston in 1S2», on the ship Brooklyn, owned b.v Br.vant. Stur^iis, and others. 
He waj* many years engaj^'ed in mercantile bunine^s, and v- — - .^ * 
of the Pacifle Steamship Comjianv in 1849. 

the first avent 

t other authorities say that Pio Pico's wife was of this'family. 



Jose Maria. Jose Vicente, Francisco, Juan, Maria 
Louisa, and Maria Antonia. These children were 
all born at Loreto. They were of the Sanjre Azul, 
or pure Castilian descent. Their ancestors came 
from Spiiin, tarrying a while at Guadahxjara, in 

The second son was the founder of the Refugio 
Ranch, aboat the year 1790, which remains with the 
family to the present day. 

. Ignacio Jose Maria Ortega married Franeisca Lopez, 
and had: sons, Martin Ortega, who married Incencia 
Moraga; Jose Vicente, who married Maria Estefana 
Olivera, also Antonio Maria, Jose Dolores, Jose Jesus, 
and Joaquin, who did not marry; daughters. Pilar, who 
married Santiago Arguello; Soledad, who married 
Luis Arguello; Maria de Jesus, who married Jose 
Ramirez; Concepcion, who married Jose Antonio de 
la Guerra; Oatarina, who married Jose Carrillo. 

This family were renowned for their beauty. They 
were tall, well formed, and active, with brown hair 
and eyes. It is related that when General Ramirez, 
of "the city of Mexico, saw the wife of one of the 
Arguellos, who was residing at San Jose, he expressed 
great astonishment that the far-off province of Cali- 
fornia should have beauties that should eclipse those 
of the Capital. He was told that the younger sister, 
Maria de Jesus, then living on the Refugio Ranch, 
was, if possible, a gi-eater beaiitj- than her elder 
sister. He asked for a letter of introduction to the 
family, which announced General Ramirez as seeking 
the acquaintance with a view of marriage, if the 
parties should be mutually pleased with each other. 
They met, and her beauty and accomplishments being 
all that one woman could well possess, he carried her 
in triumph to the Capital. The descendants are still 
remarkable for their physical perfection. 

Juan Ortega married Rafaela Arrellanes; had chil- 
dren: Bmigdio Ortega, who married Concepcion Dom- 
inguez; daughters, Maria, who married Guadalupe 
Hernandez; Buenaventura, who married Joaquin Co- 
ta; Maria Antonia, who married Pedro Dejeme; Maria 
de Jesus, who married Fernando Tico. 

Ignacio Olivera married Maria Antonia Feliz, of 
Los Angeles; died September 28, 1868. He had 
children — Lucas, Anna Maria, Diego, (born ]Srovember 
12, 1786,) and Maria Estefana, who married Jose' 
Vicente Ortega. 

Diego Olivera furnished much of the information 
from which the history of the family is made up. 
The notes were taken by Alexander S. Taylor shortly 
before the death of the old gentleman. He was a 
type of the old Castilian stock, with a high sense of 
honor and politeness. He dressed in the old style, 
with jewelled buckles on his shoes, silk stockings, etc. 
His sword, which he had a right to carry, had the 
following motto engraved on it: N'o me sagnes sin 
razon, no me emhaines sin honor, which may be trans- 
lated, Do not draw me without just cause, nor sheathe 
me without honor. Maria Estefana Olivera, sister to 

Don Diego Olivera, married Jose Vicente Ortega. 
It was to this family that Daniel Hill allied himself 
in 1826. 

Jose Vicente Ortega married Maria Estefana Oli- 
vera and had children: Louis, who died young; 
Louis, second, who also died young, Manuel, who 
died some years since; Pedro, living, born May 16, 
1815; Rafaela Louisa, who married Daniel Hill. He 
had children : Rosa A., married to N. A. Den; Josefa 
G., married to Alexander S. Taylor; Susanna, mar- 
ried to T. Wallace More; Maria Antonia, married to 
H. O'Neill: Lucretia, died young; Adelaide, Helena, 
Vicente, Jose Maria, Juan, Thomas, Ramon, Hen- 
rique, Daniel. 


Was born in Billerica, Massachusetts, in 1799, and 
came to California in 1822 in command of a vessel 
called the Rebecca, engaged in trade with the Sand- 
wich Islands. His father's name was Job Hill; his 
mother's maiden name was Susan Blanchard. They 
were of Presbyterian antecedents. 

He was a man of varied accomplishments — carpen- 
ter, stone-mason, soap-maker, and farmer, as occa- 
sion required. He first engaged in merchandising, 
his place of business being near the old mission. He 
also acted as a superintendent for the padres in some 
of their farming and building operations, his varied 
mechanical ability being in demand with them. He 
built several houses in theVicinity of the Clock-House, 
some of which have been removed to make way for 
State Sti-eet. A portion of one, the house in which 
the Carrillo family lives, is a sample of his work done 
fifty years since. These were the first houses built in 
Santa Barbara that had a ivooden floor. 


Was born in Waterford, Ireland, in 1812. The family 
was known as the Dens of Grenman. The name was 
given from some connection with an affair in a den 
of lions, the arms of the family being a lion rampant 
and guardant, holding a cross. The motto is "ex 
FIDE FORTES." The family claim to be of Norman 
descent, coming to England with William the Con- 
queror. The wife of the present Marquis of Water- 
ford is a sister of Dr. Den. Another sister is moving 
in the higher circles in Paris. He was engaged in 
the study of medicine at Dublin, when a financial 
affair swept away his father's property and compelled 
him to abandon the design. His attention was 
directed, like many others in like circumstances, to 
the New World, and, taking letters of introduction 
from several distinguished men in Ireland to influen- 
tial people in the United States, he started on life's 
voyage. The following, in his diary, not intended 
for any eye but his own, will show his sense of honor : 

" It may he useless for me to insist here that I left 
my native country with an unblemished character, 
which I trust I shall ever uphold, no matter to what 
lands or casualties the Almighty may consign me." 




Having relatives at Nova Scotia, lie niaile that coun- 
try his lirst landing-place in the Xew World. A cousin, 
who was engaged in mercantile business, promised to 
assist him by gi\nng him employment. The following 
day, when he was being inducted into the business, he 
found that much of the work he was expected to do was 
as waiter and valet to his cousin. His blood boiled 
some at the low rank to which he was assigned, but 
his wrath burst all bounds when a pair of shoes was 
given him to clean and polish. He took the shoes 
and gave his cousin a severe thrashing over the head 
with them, and left the house in disgust. A vessel 
happened to be in the harbor bound for the North- 
west, a country which was as little known as the 
north pole is now. It was much like bidding adicii 
to the world to go in that direction, but thai was 
precisely what he felt like doing. As he was no 
sailor he shipped as a green hand, but when his 
education became known he was set to keeping the 
ship's papers, and excused from some of the heavier 

Dr. Den reached Santa Barbara by way of Mon- 
terey, Friday, July 8, 1836, having been out from 
Boston, the vessel's starting-place, 157 days. The 
ship Europea, spoken of in Dana's ■' Two Years 
Before the Mast," was at anchor in Monterey when 
he arrived. At Monterey he experienced some of 
the kindness so characteristic of the Spanish people 
of this time. One of them inquired into the state of 
his finances, judging that a man before the mast was 
not likely to have a surplus of funds. Den replied 
that he had enough for immediate wants but not 
much more, upon which his new friend went to 
another room and returned with a double handful 
of silver coin, saying that he should have more when 
he needed it. On his arrival at Santa Barbara he 
was entertained at the house of Daniel Hill, whose 
daughter he afterwards married. He was about the 
first educated man speaking English that resided in 
Santa Barbai-a, and the respect paid to his supposed 
knowledge was most profound. 

He immediately engaged in stock-raising, and soon 
achieved a marked success. During one of his exten- 
sive business transactions he had need of a large sum 
of money. There were no banks to make loans, but 
Father Narcissa, one of the priests of the Santa 
Barbara Mission, sent him, by an Indian boy, a cora 
(a kind of Indian basket holding about four gallons) 
full of money, with a remark that he should applj' 
to his padre when he needed assistance. 

Dr. Den had at the time of his death 10,000 head 
of cattle. He owned the San Marcos, Dos Pueblos, 
Canada del Coi-ral, and Tequepis, and also rented the 
College Ranch at $3,000 per year. He died March 
3,1862. He left the following children: Catherine, 
married to John S. Bell; Mary, married to Thomas 
R. More; Rosa, died 1878, aged eighteen years; 
Susie, Emanuel, Nicholas, William, Alfred, Alphonso, 
and Augustus. 

TIIK .\UUF.I.I..\NKS K.\sm.V. 

and wore among llir liiu:li>--l and \n--\ ..I' thrii' rai'c. 
They were higli-mindt'd, honest to simplicity, and 
generous to the last dollar, and when surrouTidcd by 
those who were e(|ii\lly honorable, who did not alius,- 
their lios|,italily, lliry roni:iiu,M| wrallliy. Tlii'V had 

elder, had three sons. Luis. Cliiiio ( believed lo be a 
nickname), and Antonio. The latter once gave 200 
head of fine beef cattle, which, however, were only 
valued at $5.00 per lu-a.l. tWi- -a highly oi-nanicutcl 
saddle. They welcoincl all. .■specially strangcr>, I., 
their hou^e when thcv had (he nicans't,, cntci-tain. 

The following newspaper accounts of the death of 
two of the first-born of Santa Barbara will be read 
with interest. Lugo, the grandfather of Senoras de 
la Torre and I'i.'o. was ih,. Lugo who assisted in 
beating off the pirate, couimandcd by Hoiichard. 
which made an attack on the Refugio Rancho in 
1818, and carried John Cha])man, who was one of the 
pirates, on his horse behind him as a prisoner, ho 
being the same man who subsequently married one 
of the noted beauties of the Ortega family. 

'■San Francisco Bulkt'm, 1877: Mrs, Maria de Los 
Angeles de la Torre died at Monterey last Sunday, 
and was buried on Monday. She was born at Santa 
Barbara, California, in 1790, and was consequently 
eighty-seven when she died. Her father was Don 
Pablo Cota, ensign of the comi)any at Santa Barbara, 
and her mother was Dona Rosa Lugo. At the age 
of thirteen years she was married in Monterey to 
Don Jose Joaquin de la Torre, who at the time was 
cadet and commissary of the company stationed 
there, and afterwards Secretary to Governor Sola. 
When her death occurred she had been married 
seventy-four years. She left three sons, three daugh- 
ters, forty-three grandchildren, thirty-four great 
grandchildren, and several great great grandchildren." 


••October 2,1869: Senora Maria Isabel Cota de 
Pico, whose death at this place (Castroville) was 
announced last week, was a lady whose great age, 
extensive acquaintance with our earliest ]>ioneers, 
and relationship to the most prominent families in 
the State, make her demise an occurrence of more 
than usual interest, and worthy of more than pass- 
ing notice. She was born at Santa Barbara, in this 
State, on the 28th day of May, 1783, ^ At the age of 
nineteen she intermarried with Jose Dolores Pico, 
one of the three brothers, Jose Maria Pico. Patricio 
Pico, and Jose Dolore; Pico, who came to (,'alifornia 
with the first Mexican Colony as officers in the mili- 
tary service of the Spanish Viceroy alty of Mexico, 
Jose Dolores was active and efficient in founding the 
missions, and coping with and civilizing the Indian 
tribes then powerful in the southern jjortions of the 
State, He died in 1827, having given fifty years of 
military service to his country, first under the Gov- 
ernment of Spain and then under that of Independ- 
ent Mexico. The children born of this marriage 
were thirteen in number. Thej% with their cousins, 
the Castros, children of their father's brothers, and 



allies by marriage, were all powerful in the Govern- 
mental affairs of California up to and at the time of 
the American invasion. One of the most conspicu- 
ous of the sons was Antonio Maria Pico, who died 
at San Jose May last (1869), having filled several 
high offices, both before and since the conquest. 
Seiiora Pico's descendants numbered over 300, one 
being of the sixth generation, nearly all living in 
this State, bearing the names of the most prominent 
native California families, and many of them those 
of some of our leading American citizens, who mar- 
ried members of those families. 0:ie of her grand- 
sons is Captain Pico, of San Jose, who commanded a 
company of cavalry in the service of our country 
during the late civil war. She died full of years 
and surrounded by many descendants." 


Eaymundo Olivas was born in Los Angeles in 1801 ; 
came to this county in 1821; was the original grantee 
of the San Miguelito or Cassita Ranch, which was made 
in 18-10. He was a man who delighted in home and 
its legitimate hospitalities. The following account, 
taken from a paper published in Oakland, by a 
visitor, will give an idea of the noble character of 
the man : — 

"Below Valley Mound Ranch, and on a high bluff 
overlooking the Santa Clara River, lies, nestled in a 
luxuriant grove, the homestead of the venerable 
patriarch of Ventura County, R. Olivas, now on the 
verge of fourscore years. One of the most pleasant 
reminiscences of this trip will be the brief visit made 
at his hospitable mansion on Sunday last. A bevy 
of gaily-dressed Senoritas, preceded bj-- the lord of 
the manor, extended a cordial welcome to their 
Yankee visitors. Under a leviathan fig-tree, saluta- 
tions were interchanged, after which we were ushered 
into the dwelling. This is a long, adobe structure 
some fifty years old, recently modernized and beauti- 
fied. The main drawing-room, opening into the 
spacious court-yard, presents an inviting appearance 
to the stranger guest. The walls are elegantly 
papered and family portraits and quaint relies adorn 
the apartment. The dining-hall, in the center of the 
house, is large, airy, and cheerful, and beyond it the 
kitchen, amply big for a moderate-sized hotel. This 
is well, for the family requires no little room and 
food. The Don has twenty-one children by his first 
and only wife, who is now living, a hale and hand- 
some matron still, sixty years of age. In this old 
homestead at present dwell no fewer than forty- 
three descendants of this venerable couple, eighteen 
of whom are sons and daughters. The young ladies 
favored us with sweet music, and, although maintain- 
ing a maidenly nwerve. exerted themselves to render 
the sojourn oi' llicii- visitors agreeable. Besides the 
forty-five son--, liauulid'i's and grandchildren of this 
household, the Umi has a daughter living at Santa 
Cruz, in this county, who is the mother of ten chil- 
dren. The old gentleman is rich, and enjoys an 
income of $6,000 per annum from his leased lands. 
He owns 2,400 acres in this valley, most of which is 
sown with barley and planted with corn. He is a 
remarkably well-preserved specimen of the native 
Californian, has few gray hairs, fewer wrinkles, and 
bids fair to become a centenarian." 


There were other families of eminent respectabil- 
ity, such as Del Valle, Arnaz, Camarillo, and others 

whose genealogy and history we failed to get, who 
acted prominent parts in the history of the country. 
The Pico.s, Castros, and Vallejos were actors in other 
parts of the State. 


Having given an account of the Spanish families 
at the most interesting and also most historical 
period in the settlement of the country, also of some 
of the persons allied to them by marriage, others who 
acted a prominent part should also be mentioned. 

Joseph Chapman, the hero of the pirate ship and 
of the romantic affair with a daughter of the Ortega 
family, built a house still standing in the rear of the 
Episcopal Church, and left many descendants. 

Capt. James W. Burke, a native of Galway, Ire- 
land, came from Lima in 1820; settled permanently 
in 1828. 

Wm. B. P. Hartnell, a native of Bristol, England, 
arrived in Santa Barbara in 1822. Was afterwards 
Government translator at Monterey. Is mentioned 
in connection with the Noriega family. 

Capt. Thomas Bobbins, a native of Nantucket, 
came in 1827, and died in 1857. 

Capt. Wm. G. Dana came from Boston in 1877. 
Lived most of the time on the Nipoma Ranch in 
San Luis Obispo County. Is mentioned in connec- 
tion with the Carrillo family. 

Alfred Robinson, mentioned in connection with the 
Noriega family, is still living, a resident of the city 
of San Francisco, and has furnished valuable infor- 
mation concerning the early history of the county. 
His work entitled "Life in California," published in 
18-46, has been frequently consulted. 

Robert Elwell, of Boston, came in 1825, and sur- 
vived until 1853. He was a man of marked ability 
and individuality of character. 

James Breek of Boston came in 1829. 

Julien Foxen, of England, arrived in 1828, and 
became owner of the " Tinequaic," where he lived 
until his death, February 19, 1874. He was a man 
of marked character, fearless and independent. He 
left numerous descendants, whose names will appear 
in this book as it progresses to completion. 

Capt. Alpheus B. Thompson came from Honolulu 
in 1834. He also left numerous descendants who 
have helped to make the history of this county. 
His name will be found in the family history of the 

Lewist T. Burton, also connected with the Carrillo 
family, came in 1831 from Kentucky as a hunter. 
He engaged here in otter hunting. He was set upon 
by robbers and nearly killed near Port Harford, but 
escaped to Santa Bai-bara, where he was received by 
his countrymen, Jones and Thompson, aad nursed 
back to health by the ladies of the Carrillo family, 
into which he soon after married. 


S. M. BLOSSER.OWNERa proprietor. 





Annustus Janssons. (if Belgium, c-;>me in 18H4. 
He was a son of Lioutenant-Colonel Jaiissens. wlio 
commanded the French forces that captured St. 
Denis in 1815, in the last Napoleonic war. 

(!apt. John Wilson, of Scotland, came from Peru 
in 1830, and was for a long time a merchant, lie 
died in 18(10 at San Luis Obispo. 

Francis Ziba Branch, of New York, came fioni 
New Mexico in 183H, was a merclianl, and died in 
San Luis Obispo in 1874. 

Isaac J. Sparks, of Maine, came overland in 1832. 
He was a merchant and the first man who held the 
appointment of po.straaster; he also built the first 
brick house, which now forms a part of the Park 

James Scott, of Scotland, came in 1830; died in 

George Nidever, of Arkansas, came in 1835. His 
name is famous in connection with the lost woman of 
the San Nicolas Island. 

Capt. John F. Smith, a native of France, came in 
1833. He built the first wooden dwelling-house in 
Santa Barbara, not far from the gas house. Died 
in 1860. 

John C. Jones, mentioned in the history of the 
Carrillo familj-, also frequently in subsequent history, 
came from Honolulu in 1835, to which place he was 
American Consul. 

Albert Packard, who has helped to make much 
history, came from New England in 1845. 

Wm. A. Streeter, of New York, who was a mill- 
wright by profession, but was capable of practicing 
every kind of handicraft, and also occasionally acted 
as dentist and physician, came in 1845. 

Laud Grants — Santa Barbara — Domestic Life — Beds — Washing 
'Days— Hospitality — The Mission Forty Years Ago — The 
Old Town — Summer Residences— Amusements — Horse Rac- 

Large tracts of land were now donated to the 
heads of families. Land could be had in abundance 
for asking. The policy of the Mexican Government 
had been to limit each holding to eleven leagues, which 
would contain something over 48,000 acres. This, in 
time, came to be considered a small tract, and many 
of the families acquired several times that by 
exchange, purchase, or Government favor. This was 
the ease with the Noriega family, who, at one time, 
owned not less than 200,000 acres. As before related, 
there was little difficulty, in the confusion which 
ensued after the secularization, in stocking the 
ranches, and the amount of property of all kinds was 
raised to a higher amount than under the missions. 
The following list from Hoffman's reports on land 
cases will show how the earth was appoi-tioned to 
the people. Though some of the grants date back to 

1700, the most of them were made subsequent to 
183t). In the following list of grants will be found 
some which were in other counties. They arc j)Ut in 
here because they were made to memlicrs of families 
who resided in Santa Barbara: — 

TiiK Xipo.M.\ R.\NC!I was granted lo William hana. 
April (J. 1837; acreage, 32,728.(;l'. Dana was a 
member of the Carrillo family. 

The liOMPOC was granted to Jose ,\nloniii Carrillo. 
April 15, 1837; acreage, .38,335.78. 

San JiLiAN to George Rock, April 7,ls:>7; acre- 
age, 48.221.68. The claim was purchased, and the 
title perfected by Jos6 dc la Guerra y Noriega. 

GuADALAscA to Isabel Yorba, May 6, 1K46; acre- 
age, 30,593.85. 

S1.MI, OR San Jose de oracia, to Patricio Javier y 
Miguel Pico, in 1795, by Governor Diego de Boi-ica; 
claim revived by Alvarado to Noriega April 25. 1842; 
92,341.35 acres. 

Sespe to Don Carlos Antonio Carrillo, November, 
1833; six leagues. This number was pronounced a 
fraud in the trial for title, and dos (2) substituted. 
The grant will be refei-red to again. 

San Buenaventura to Fernando Tieo, March 24, 
1845; 29.90 acres. 

Guadalupe to Diego Olivera and Teodoro Arrel- 
lanes, March 21, 1840; 30,408.03 acres. 

CuvAMA to Jose Maria Rojo, April 24, 1843; con- 
firmed to Maria Antonio de la Guerra and Cesario 
Lataillade; 22,198.74 acres. 

Huerfano (San Luis Obispo) confirmed to Francis 
Branch, member of the Carrillo family; originally 
granted to Mariano Bonilla. 

Tequepis to Joaquin Viila; confirmed to Antonio 
Maria Villa; 8,919 acres. 

SisQuoc to Maria Antonio Caballero, June 3, 1833; 
confirmed to James B. Huie; 35,485.90 acres. 

Santa Rosa Island to Jos6 Antonio and Carlos 
Carrillo, October 4, 1843; contains about 60,000 acres. 
This island was given to Jones and Thomp.son. who 
married into the Carrillo family. 

Canada Larga o Verde to J. Alvarado. Joaquin 
Alvarado jjushed the claim confinnation; contains 
about 2,220 acres. 

PuNTA DE LA Laguna to Luis Arrellancs and E. 
M. Ortega, December 24, 1844; 26,648.42 acres. 

CoNEjo to Jose de la Guerra y Noriega, October 
12, 1822, by Governor Sola; 48.674.56 acres. 

Arroyo Grande, or San Ramon (in San Luis 
Obispo) to Zeferino Corlon, April 25, 1841, confirmed 
to Francisco Branch, who married into the Carrillo 

Ojai to Fernando Tico. April 6, 1837; 17,792.70 

Name unknown to Teodore Arrellancs, January 
22, 1835: 4,440 acres. 

Mission or San Diego to Santiago Arguello, June 
8. 1846; small quantity. 

Island of Santa Cruz to Andres Castillero, May 
22, 1839; about 60,000 acres. 



Mission Vieja de la Purissima to Joaquin and 
Jose Antonio C'arrillo. November 20, 1845: 4,440 

CoERAL DE CuATi to Augustine Davilla; confirmed 
to Maria Antouia de la Guerra Lataillade; 13, .300. 24 

Tequepis to Thomas Olivera, April 7, 1837; con- 
firmed to Antonia Maria de Cota, 8,900.75 acres. 

La Laguna to Miguel Abila, November 3, 1845; 
confirmed to Octaviano Gutierrez; 18,212.48 acres. 

TiNAQUAic to Victor Linares, May 6, 1837; con- 
firmed to William D. Foxen; 8,874.60 acres. 

La Calera or Las Fositas to Narciso Fabrigat, 
May 16, 1843; confirmed to Thomas M. Robbins and 
Manuela Carrillo de Jones; 3, 281.70 acres. 

ToDOs Santos to Salvador Osio, November 3, 1844. 
This tract contained 22,200 acres; another tract on 
the Cosumnes, granted at the same time to the same 
party, contained 26,640 acres. These tracts were 
confirmed to William B. Hartnell. 

Canada de San Miguelito to Ramon Rodriguez, 
March 1, 1846; 8,880 acres. 

Alisal to W. E. Hartnell, January 26, 1843; 
2,971.26 acres. 

La Zaca to Maria Antonia de la Guerra y Latail- 
lade, 1838; 4,480 acres. 

LoMAS DE LA FuRiFicAciON to Augustin Janssens, 
December 27, 1844; 13,320 acres. 

Las Posas to Jose Carrillo, May 15, 1834; con- 
firmed to Jose de la Guerra y Noriega; 26,623.26 

San Marcos to Nicolas A. Den, June 8, 1846; 
35,573 acres. 

One square league to Mcelina, August 16, 1843; 

confirmed to Maria de la Guerra Lataillade. 

San Francisco (partly in Santa Barbara County) 
to Antonio del Valle, January 22, 1839; confirmed to 
Jacob Feliz. 

Las Huertas confirmed to Maria Antonia de la 
Guerra Lataillade; granted July 26. 1844; 13,000 
varas square. 

Los Alimos to Jose Antonio Carrillo, March 9, 
1839; 48,803.38 acres. 

Santa Clara del Norte granted Jiian Sanchez 
May 6, 1837; 13,988.91 acres. 

Calleguas granted Jose Pedro Ruiz, May 10, 1847; 
9,998.29 acres. 

San Migiel to Raimundo Olivas, July 6, 1841; 
4,693.91 acres. 

La Liebre to Jose Maria Flores. April 21, 1841 ; 
eleven square leagues. 

three square leagues to Jose Ramon 

Malo, April 12, 1845. 

Santa" Rosa to Francisco Cota, three and a half 
leagues, granted July 30, 1839; and a subsequent 
addition November 19, 1845. 

Purissima to Ramon Malo, December 0, 1845; 14,- 
927.62 acres. 

Ex Mission San Buenaventura to Jose Arnaz, 
June 8, 1846. Confirmed to Poli. 

Camulos to Pedro C. Carrillo, October 2, 1843; 
17,760 acres. 

NoJOQUi to Raimundo Carrillo, April 27, 1843; 
13,522.04 acres. 

Santa Ana to Ci-isogono Ayalo and others, April 
14, 1837; 21,522.04. 

to Jose Chapman, 4,440 acres, 1838. 

Confirmed to Guadalupe Ortega de Chapman. This 
is the Chapman who was taken prisoner on the 
Ortega Ranch, in 1818, while engaged in plundering 
the place, and who a year later married one of the 
fair daughters of the Ortegas. 

Dos Pueblos to Nicolas A. Den, April 18, 1842; 
15,535.33 acres. 

Canada del Corral to Jose Dolores Ortega, Novem- 
ber 5, 1841; 8,875.76 acres. 

La Goleta to Daniel Hill, June 10, 1846; 4,440 

Temescal to Francisco Lopez, March 17, 1843; 
13.320 acres. 

Nuestra Sonora del Refugio to Antonio Maria 
Ortega, August 1, 1834; 26,529 acres. 

Jesus Maria to Lucas Olivera, April 8, 1837; 42,- 
184.93 acres. Two-thirds confirmed to Luis Burton 

San Carlos de Jonata to Joaquin Carrillo, Sep- 
tember 24, 1845; 26,631.31 acres. 

Mission Santa Ynez to Jose Maria Covarrubias 
and others, June 15, 1846. This claim was rejected 
by Commissioners. 

Pueblo de Santa Barbara to Common Council: 
granted in 1782; claim filed February 1, 1853; 
rejected bj' Commissioners August 1, 1854. Con- 
firmed by District Court March 1, 1861. 

Island of Catalina to Thomas Robbins, July 4, 

Santa Paula y Satiooy to Manuel Jimeno Casarin^ 
April 1, 1843; 17,733.33 acres. 

Casmalia to Antonio Olivera; September 12, 1840; 
8,841.21 acres. 

College Ranch or Canada de la Pino; 35,499.37 

Santa Barbara Mission to Richard S. Den, June 
10, 1846. 

Mission lands allotted after secularization — San 
Buenaventura, 36.27 acres; Santa Barbara, 37.83 
acres; Santa Ynez, 17.35 acres. 

Though the grants of lands from eleven leagues 
down would seem large enough for any reasonable 
purfiose, many persons thought they needed much 
more, and we find influential families acquiring terri- 
tory enough for a kingdom. The Carrillo family 
had twelve grants, Castro twenty, de la Guerra twelve, 
Foster eight, Limantour eight. Murphy thirteen, 
Ortega nine, Pacheco eight, Rodriguez seven, Sanchez 
twelve, and Vallejo fourteen. 

Santa Barbara, next to Monterey, was the most 
important town in the territory. The Carrillos, 
Noriegas, and Ortegas, were families who exercised 
almost judicial authority in determining matters. 
The governors appointed by the Mexican Government 

DAYS OF thp: shepherd kings. 


generally tarried here a few days to learn something 
of the duties incidental to the otfiee, and were some- 
times the guests of the Carrillos, and sometimes of 
the Noriegas. Chico, who became (iovernor in 
183(j, spent a few days with Don Carlos C'arrillo. 
Here ho met Jacob P. Loose, the future millionaire, 
by request, to learn something of the lynching of two 
persons at Los Angolos. in which attair Leese had 
acted a principal part. The occurrence as related to 
•Chico by Captain Noriega was rather discreditable 
to the citizens at Los Angeles, but as explained by 
Leese seemed to bo a matter of necessity. Leese 
was never ti'oubled about it. Chico and Leese made 
the trip overland to Monterey together, the Governor 
obtaining much valuable information from Leese. 

It was the groat center of the hide and tallow 
trade. Everything tended toward this point for a 
hundred miles around. Here were seen the cavaliers 
with fiery, but well-trained horses, caparisoned with 
saddles and bridles trimmed with silver and silk 
ornaments, racing to and fro, or prancing their horses 
before the admiring eyes of the senoritas who esti- 
mated elegant horsemanship as among the chief 
accomplishments of a man. The low adobe stores 
kept by Burton and others, were filled with rich, 
showy goods, silks from the Indias, jewelry from 
Paris, and the cunning work of the artists of every 
land, for the love of beauty and its adornment I'eigned 
supreme, and was anything too good to deck the 
dainty limbs of the daughters of the cattle kings ? 
The mission buildings formed the ideal of architecture, 
and no attempt was made to erect palatial dwellings. 
The adobe with its clay floor and bare walls satisfied 
the wants of the peojile, and they lavished their 
wealth in personal adornments. The men were not 
less fond of ornaments than the women. The gala 
dress of the Don was a pair of broadcloth ])ants open 
at the side, which showed drawers of fine snowy 
white material beneath. Silver buttons, or gold if 
the owner's purse could afford them, were placed 
thickly along the sides of the legs of the pants, as a 
reminder that they once were buttoned, but now 
they were never used for that purpose. A sash or 
scarf ■ of fine silk encircled the waist of the man. 
This was the sword belt reduced to the uses of peace, 
though tradition had not entirely vanished regarding 
its use, for the pistol or knife found in the sash a 
readj- and cDnvtMuenl |ilace for use when jealousy or 
woumU-ii III. mil- callr.l tijcin into action. 

The fc/nialrs found means to displaj', as well as hide, 
their charms in a skirt of bright colors, over a gar- 
ment of snowy white linen or cotton. Stockings of 
fancy colors would set off a well-turned ankle or 
betray the well-rounded limbs over which they wei-e 
drawn, and the universal vhosa, or shawl, which had 
centuries of use among the Spanish and .Moorish 
beauties, was as effective as in centuries past in half 
masking the batteries of the glorious black ej-es, 
which in all ages have driven mad Kings and states- 
men, as well as poets. To wear this gracefully, 

requires a hereditary skill, a dim recollection of 
triumphs achieved by maternal ancestors. 

Parasols, reticules, ho(iuets. portmonnaies, and all 
the other machinorv usrd to show the graceful move- 
ments of the hands ami arms of belles, are nothing to 
the rebosn, wliirh ran !»• used to hide all emotions or 
embarrassment, when desirable or overwhelm a poor, 
beauty-struck hombre with a display of channs thai 
would bring him to insiani submission. 

Scarcely a house had a fire-i)lace, floor, window, or 
chimney. A fire was built in one corner of the room 
on the day floor, where the cooking was done. A 
copper or iron kettle, the mek for imlverizing maize, 
which was but little in advance of the Indian mortar, 
and the soap-stone rock for baking the tortillas, con- 
stituted the entire culinary apparatus. The kettle 
was used to boil beef and mutton with chile Colorado 
(red pepper) and such vegetables as they might raise. 
No dishes or table ware, or oven tables, were used. 
The abalone or clam shell was plate and knifo and 
fork. These could be picked up on the beach when- 
ever wanted, consequently there was no washing of 
dishes. The *metnle used for pulverizing corn or 
wheat is made of some kind of porous stone found 
on the islands. It may be amygdaloid or some kind 
of volcanic rock. It is flat, perhaps twelve inches 
by eighteen, and is set on three legs, one end being 
raised two or three inches above the other, so that 
the flour, when fine enough, may work toward the 
lower end, where it is caught by a raised rim. The 
rubbing was done with a smaller stone. A woman 
can make flour enough for a family supply of tortillas 
in a few minutes, though the work is rather hard on 
the wrists and arms. Persons who were compelled 
to do much of it had enlarged and deformed wrists, 
so that making flour was con.sidered degrading. 

Scarcely anything was used in the way of bedding, 
a rawhide on the ground would be about all that was 
necessary, as the adobe houses retained the heat of 
the sun absorbed through the day and maintained 
an equable temperature. When the door and the 
holes which served to let in the light during the daj^, 
were closed, the children required very little cover- 
ing, and lay huddled together until hunger would 
arouse them at daylight. Clothing was worn as 
much for ornament and modesty's sake as for com- 
fort, and even now it is not uncommon to see, in the 
houses outside of the town, children three or four 
years old, plump and healthy, running around the 
houses entirely naked. 


Certain days seemed to be set apart for washing 
the white cotton goods, which were so essential a 
part of the holiday attire of both male and female. 



There were no wash-tubs or laundries in these days, 
but dozens would gather at the springs or the fount- 
ains of the missions and pound the clothing on a log% 
occasionally dipping it into the water, until it reached 
the requisite whiteness. The atfair was social as 
well as industrial, and all the wit, sarcasm, and fun 
of the parties were brought into play, much as 
related in the Odyssey of similar occasions 2,000 
years ago. The love affairs, the latest rumors ot 
inconstancy or scandal were exchanged, so that 
washing day was looked upon rather with favor 
than dread. The hot springs were used for this 
purpose, the hot water being found much better 
adapted to cleansing than cold water, and hundreds 
would sometimes assemble there. AVheu the wash- 
ing was hung on the bushes to dry, the social recre- 
ations would reach the highest point. 


Hospitality is a growth from several conditioiis. 
Plenty is at the basis. "We sometimes read of shar- 
ing the last morsel with a stranger, but a common 
practice of such a virtue would result in the annihi- 
lation of both parties, instead of one, and it may be 
set down as a fact that a starving community will 
attend to its own wants first. Several circumstances 
combined to produce the hospitality that has justly 
been the object of so much admiration. First, the 
Californians had an abundance; second, they were 
isolated, and a stranger from another mission, or 
from another pi'ovinee, had much to relate that was 
interesting. This condition of affairs prevailed much 
the same in the Western and Southern States fifty 
years since. The stranger was expected to be as 
free with his knowledge as the host was with his 
fare. Virtues as well as vices have their growth in 
conditions, though much in the case of the Californians 
must be ascribed to the traditions which had been 
inherited from Old Spain, also to the religion which 
enjoined the hospitality to strangers as one of the 
cardinal virtues. Whatever its source, their hospi- 
tality, before the conquest had soured the temper 
and humiliated the pride of the Dons, or before the 
discovery of gold had begotten the avarice and 
selfishness of money-making, was unbounded. No 
stranger was ever turned away from their door, 
however humble it might be; rest and food was 
certain. It was even an offense to pass a house 
without giving an opportunity to proffer hospitality. 
It was said by one traveler that so great was their 
hospitality that " Old Sooty" himself would not be 
turned away if he asked for entertainment, though 
the inmates might have to say padre nostras until 
morning. Music, songs, accompanied by the guitar, 
and even dancing, were improvised for his entertain- 
ment, and if the subject of the hospitality should 
prove unworthy, it did not prevent a repetition the 
following day if opportunity should offer. There 
was not a hotel in all California until the discovery 
of gold. Large parties were entertained at the mis- 

sions or at the houses of the wealthy. Wherever the 
circumstances seemed to justify it, money was deli- 
cately tendered to the visitor by leaving it at his 
bedside to help himself if he chose. With a saddle 
and bridle of his own he could, and was expected to, 
catch a fresh horse every morning, turning the ex- 
hausted animal loose to find its way back to the owner. 
If he had no saddle an Indian would accompany him 
to bring it back. Even a condition of war did not 
change this custom. When Lugo, the soldier, cap- 
tured Jose Chapman, the pirate, at the Ortega Caiiou, 
in 1818, and took him prisoner to Los Angeles, he 
was treated as a guest by the family. The Noriegas, 
Carrillos, and Ortegas expected to entertain those of 
their own rank with their retinue of outriders and 
servants. To have declined accepting their hospital- 
ity would have been a direct insult, to be atoned for 
in blood. Many of the Americans, such as Burton, 
Jones, Thompson, and Dana, were entertained in this 
way by the families into which they afterwards 


No prominent writer has left a description of the 
missions as they were sixty years since, or at least 
such a description as we would like to have of the 
everyday affairs of life, and even twenty years later 
is getting to be a myth. J, T. Farnham, who visited 
Santa Barbara in 1840, has left a somewhat lively 
description of the mission, which is worth preserv- 
ing. The book is now out of print and but few 
copies are to be found in California. 


'' The old padres seem to have united with their 
missionary zeal a strong sense of comfort and taste. 
They laid oft' a beautiful garden, a few rods from the 
church, surrounded it with a high, substantial fence 
of stone laid in Roman cement, and planted it with 
limes, almonds, apricots, peaches, apjjles, pears, 
quinces, etc., which are now annuallj^ yielding their 
several fruits in abundance. Before the church they 
erected a series of concentric urn fountains, ten feet 
in height, from the top of which the pure liquid 
bursts and falls from one to another till it reaches a 
large pool at the base; from this it is led off a short 
distance to the statue of a grizzly bear, from whose 
mouth it is ejected into a reservoir of solid masonry 
six feet wide and seventy long. From the pool at 
the base of the urn fountains water is taken for 
drinking and household use. 

"The long reservoir is the theater of the battliug, 
plashing, laughing, and scolding of the washing day. 
Around these fountains are solid, cemented, stone 
pavements, and ducts to carry off the surplus water. 
Nothing of the kind can be in better taste, more 
substantial or useful. 

'•Above the church and its cloisters thej' brought 
the water around the brow of a green hill, in an 
open stone aqueduct, a rapid noisy rivulet, to a 
square reservoir of beautiful masonry. Below and 
adjoining this are the ruins of the padres' grist-mill. 
Nothing is left of its interior sti-ueture but the large 
oaken ridge-pole. Near the aqueduct which carries 
the water into the reservoir of the mills stands a 
small stone edifice ten feet in length by six in width. 


This is the bath. Ovei- the door outside is the rep- 
resentation of a lion's head, from whic-ii ])()iirs a 
beautiful Jet of water. This little struetiire is in a 
good state of preservation. A cross surmounts it, 
as, indeed, it does over^-tiiinu; used in- the ("atholie 
missionaries of these wilderness reifious. Helow tlie 
ruins of the i;ri>t-mill is aiiotlier tank 120 feet s(|uare 
by twenty deep, eonslrueted like the one above. 

' ■In this was eolk'ded the water for supplying the 
limntuins, irrigating the grounds bolow, and' for the 
]iropulsion of different Ivinds of maehinery. Below 
the mission was the tan-yard, to whieh the water was 
earried in an aqueduct, built on the top of a stone 
wall, trom four to six feet high. Here was manu- 
factured the leather used in making harnesses, sad- 
illcs. bridles, and Indian clothing. They cultivated 
large tracts of land witli maize, wheat, oats, peas, 
pr>tatoes. beans, and grapes. Their old vineyards 
still cover the hill-sides. When the mission was at 
the height of its prosperity, there were several hun- 
dred Indians laboring in its fields, and niany thou- 
sands of horses gi-azing on its pastures. But its 
splendor has depai'ted, and with it its usefulness. 

• The Indians who were made comfortable on these 
premises are now squalid and miserable. The tields 
are a waste! Nothing but the church retains its 
ancient appearance. VVe will enter and describe its 

"It is 160 feet long by sixty in width. Its walls 
are eight feet in thickness. The height of the nave 
is forty feet. On the wall, to the right, hangs a 
picture representing a king and monk up to their 
middle iii the flames of purgatory. Their posture is 
that of praj-er and penitence, but their faces do not 
indicate anj' decided consciousness of the blistering 
foothold on which they stand. On the contrarj-, 
they wear rather the quiet as])ect of persons who love 
their ease, and have an indolent kind of pleasure in 
the scenes aniuiid llnin. On the other side, near 
the door of the cMntissinnal, is a picture of hell. The 
devil and his staff are re])resented in active service. 
The flames ot' his furnace are curling around his victims 
with a 111.. ad re<l -lare that would liavedriven Titian to 
madness. The old monarch himself appears hotly 
engaged in wrapping serpents of fire arnimd a beau- 
tiful female figure, and his subalterns, with flaming 
tridents, arc casting torments on others, whose sins 
are worthy of less honorable notice. Immediately 
before the altar is a trap-door opening into the 
vaults, where are buried the missionary padres. 
Over the altar are many rich images of the saints. 
Among them is that of San Francisco, the pati-on of 
the missions of Upper California. Three silver can- 
dlesticks, six feet high, and a silver crucifix of the 
same height, with a golden image of the Saviour sus- 
pended on it, stand within the chancel. To the left 
of the altar is the sacristy, or priest's dressing-room. 
It is eighteen feet square, splendidly' carpeted and 
furnished with a wardrobe, chairs, mirrors, tables, 
ottoman, etc. 

" In an adjoining room of the same size are kept the 
paraphernalia of worship. Among these are a recep- 
tacle of the host, of massive gold in pyramidal form, 
and weighing at least ten pounds avoirdupois and a 
convex lens set in a block of gold, weighing a number 
of pounds, through, which, on certain occasions, the 
light is thrown so as to give the appearance of an 
eye of consuming fire. 

" A door in the eastern wall of the church leads from 
the foot of the chancel to the cemetery. It is a small 
piece of ground inclosed by a high wall, and conse- 
crated to the burial of those Indians who die in the 


faith of the Catholic Church. It i^cnriousl 

t iM in depth, to a level with the sm-facc. He 

their feet toiieh one wall and their heads tli.' r. 
These grounds have been long since filled. In ..nler 
however, that no Christian Indian mav lie biirie.l in 
a less holv l)lace, the bones, alter the flesh has 
dei'aved. are exhumed and de|.o.sited in a little build 
iiig on one c.irner of the premises. 1 entered this. 
Three nr four cart-loads of skulls, rilts. spines, leg- 
bones, arm-bones, etc., lay in one corner. Beside them 
stood I \v(i hand-hearses, with a small cross attached 
to eai'b. .\li.iiil the walls hung tlu' nn.iil.l .if .leath." 

The was 1 he first l.iwn ; t bis was a spa.-e p.u-- 
haps l.DilOfeet s:piare, iu,-l.ise.l will, an wall 
ten or twelve feet high. \l f he ciriier were bastions, 
on which cannon were inouiiteil. The walls would 
sustain the weight of a eaiinon. but a heavy discharge 
of artillery w.iuld shatter tliein aii.l make a breach 
in the inclosuiv. The .il.l wall ran nearly 
parallel with State Street, between that and Anacapa, 
the south line crossing Santa Barbara Street near the 
gas-house; the west was not far from the Clock 
House, and the northern line on the brink of the 
ravine, between Santa Barbara and the hill north of 
the town. The bowlders forming the base of t he wall, 
may be traced a portion of the way. As the settle- 
ment grew stronger, houses were built outsi.le of the 
inclosure, and the walls were suft'ered to go down, 
and ill places were removed to make room for build- 
ings. The courts of the Noriega and Carrillo houses 
were laid out partly outside and partly within the 
])residio walls. Forty years ago there were less than 
forty houses in the town, an.l n.i tw.i streets ran 
parallel to each other. 

On J writjr was of the opinion that the town was 
laid out by means of a huge blunderbus loaded with 
adobe houses and discharged from the top of Doctor 
Finch's Hill. Another one thought that the town 
resembled a fainilj' of pigs of all ages around the 
maternal swine; the maternal port being represented 
by the i'vw large houses of the principal people. As 
has lieen mentioned before, the tastes of the people 
did not run to fine buildings. The Burton Mound 
had the same building on it then as now. The trees 
around it, which partly hide it, have grown since, but 
at that time, the building, ne.xt to the mission, was 
the most prominent object seen in approaching the 
■om the sea. 



As the winter rains ceased, the people would leave 
their smoke-stained adobe houses and go to the 
countiy, or on the j)ueblo lands, where a lot of about 
five acres was allotted to each family for garden pur- 
poses. A house (haeal) of brush and hides was con- 
structed to keep oft' the sun and dew, and the |iatch 
was plantcfl with beans, pumpkins and melons. The 
cattle were driven to the distant ranches or herded 



iiway from the hacals. The summer season was 
looked for with intense pleasure. Melons, corn, 
onions and beans constituted their principal food. A 
few planted grapevines, but these had to be aban- 
doned in the winter, as at the beginning of the rainy 
season all went back to the town. These summer 
residences extended several miles each side of the 
town, in Carpenteria and La Patera. The hills of 
iVTontecito, with their fine streams of water, large 
shade trees and freedom from mosquitos, was a 
favorite place, though the canons above in the vicin- 
ity of the hot springs were lurking places for the 
grizzly bear, which would occasionally destroy a gar- 
den patch or make a raid on the melons. Here, as 
elsewhere, social pleasures reigned supreme. The 
work of house-keeping was light. The juicy melon 
was food and drink. The beans, onions and corn, 
with a little dried beef, furnished a more substantial 
meal, and when a gay caballero came charging up 
to the hacal with fiery horse and jingling spurs, the 
cup of happiness was full. The summer was spent 
in drying beef and laying up a store of corn, beans 
and onions for the winter. This was the work of the 
women and children. The men were off with the 
herds of cattle and sheep and were received as visi- 
tors to be fited and feasted when they made their 


There was no lack of things to keep the spirits up. 
The laity had not settled here to harass their souls 
with penances, or to weep over the sins of their 
grandmother Eve. They believed in enjoying the 
sunshine and the fruits the sunshine would bring. 
There was no sour-faced Puritan among them preach- 
ing abstinence from food, the mortification of the 
flesh, or the sin of having a cheerful s])irit. The 
flowers were not made to be miserable, neither were 
bright-eyed, laughing maidens, or j^oung men rejoicing 
in their strength, and so the dance was in vogue, 
where the graceful carriage was learned in keeping 
step to the music of the violin and guitar. The 
long soft moonlight evenings of the winter were 
spent in social enjoyments, and the dance and flash- 
ing eyes revealed the tale no lips might tell, of the 
depth of woman's love and man's adoration. The 
wai-m, but not enervating climate, the abundance of 
food, the manly exercises of horseback riding and 
handling of cattle, the absence of care and anxiety, 
had evolved the highest physical perfection in man, 
and the perfection of beauty in woman. Perhaps in 
no place in the world, not excepting even 

" The isles of Greece, the isles of Greece ! 
Where burning Sapho loved and sung," 

is better adapted to the development of physical 
beauty, than the mild climate of Santa Barbara. 
When time shall have changed the almost insane 
fury of the Americans for making money into a sense 
of rational enjoyment of the blessings we have; when 
the irritable temperament marking the spirit of the 

dyspeptic and thin and dangerous man, Shakes- 
])eare speaks of, shall have given place to placid 
sweetness, as it will in half a century, then, and not 
till then, will the Anglo-Saxon belle rival her dark- 
eyed Castilian sister. Much of this beauty remains 
to their descendants, notwithstanding the misfortunes 
of the Californians. A walk along the streets at 
sunset, when the shutters are opened to let in the 
cool air of the evening, will frequently bring a view of 
the glorious black eye so full of hope and love and joy, 
that one glance would make a priest forget his vows, 
or a sage his philosophy. The writer, in a recent 
trip to Santa Barbara on the steamer, fell in company 
with a company of Eastern tourists, who wished to 
see some of the famed Spanish beauties of Santa 
Barbara. There was little chance to see them during 
the short stay of the vessel, but it happened to be on 
Sunday, and half of the fashion of Santa Barbara 
was there, and among them a large number of the 
far-famed belles, who were there to welcome some 
friends on the boat, whose beauty justified all that 
had ever been said of it. 


Among a nation of horsemen, this would, of course, 
occupy a prominent position. The beach, at low 
tide, with its yielding but secure foothold, formed the 
best of tracks, and on f@te days, horse racing became 
a prominent amusement. All kinds of races were in 
vogue. Races a quarter, half, or whole mile, and even 
twenty miles were frequent, the latter to test the 
endurance of the horses. When a race between two 
noted horses was on hand, the whole country came 
to see. Cattle and even ranches were sometimes bet 
on a favorite horse. The nrastang, though sure- 
footed, tough, and capable of a great amount of 
rough work, was no match for the Kentucky 
thoroughbred, and when matched against him, invari- 
ably lost the race. It is said that the arrest of Isaac 
Graham and forty others, for an alleged conspiracy, 
was because many of the natives had lost much 
money in races with his horse. This will be referred 
to again. 

There were other forms of horsemanship in vogue 
as amusements. One was to pick up an article from 
the ground while riding at full speed. There were 
said to be some who could jump a stream, and get a 
cup of water at the same time. These tricks were 
done by holding on to the saddle by means of the 
spurs, and reaching downwards to the water or 
ground. Another exercise was to urge the horse to 
his utmost speed, and then suddenly stopping to see 
how far the horse would slide on his feet; also to 
race to a given point, and then to stop in the shortest 
distance. The powerful bit used by the Mexicans, 
gave one the most complete control of the horse, 
which would dare any danger rather than feel one 
pull of the terrible machine in its mouth. The spur, 
too, in itself, was a monster of torture, when used to 
the extent of its power. The Spaniards contend 


tluil tlu' whole ritr of :i saddle horse, as use.l hy (hem. 
is more mereifiil (o the beast ami safer to llie rider, 
tliaii aiiythiiii;- useil in the Eastern Stales. Wlial 
ever may ho thought of the eomparative merits of 
the respective saddles and other ijear. there was no 
dispute ahout the merits of the riders, all freely 
conceding the vast suiierioritv of the .Mexicans. 

They were inveterate gumhlers. inonte heing I 
favorite game. I'litil the coming nf the .\mei-ira 
this was ])ursued 011I3' as an amusement. Tlie loss 
either of time or money in the matter, were 1 
such as to disturb the general industries, or n 
many of the peo|ilo. The passion, if we may cal 
such, was ruinous to the Indian, who. as in all oil 
places, chose to learn the dissijiation.s rather than 1 
industries of the superior race. They would 1 
their last horse, blanket, shirt, and, in some cas 
where there was an acknowledged value to the ai 
cle. their wives. The results to them were povei 
and extinction. 

During the life of the Noriega, business had to be 
carried on sj'stematically. He visited his several 
ranches once a year, and the thousands of cattle had 
to be driven in herds for review before him. as he sat 
smoking his pipe, and partaking of his wines. This 
habit he kept up as long as he was able to travel. 
In his last years he traveled in a kind of wagon 
drawn by oxen. Beds and cooking conveniences 
were taken along. Traveling by easy stages, he was 
able to see his ranches. The cavalcade, which 
amounted to fifty or sixty persons, would start from 
Santa Barbara in the morning. At night he would 
be at Carpenteria, a camp having been prepared for 
him. By the third or fourth day he would arrive at 
the Las Posas or Simi, where the vaqueros would 
marshal the stock for review. It is said that in his 
later days his boys would deceive him as to the num- 
bers, by driving the same herd in review several 
times. This was, to some extent, necessary to cover 
up their peccadillos, for it Ls related of them that 
when they wanted a lark, they would drive off' a herd 
of cattle, and sell them to cover expenses. Sometimes 
a couple of hundred were necessary to make things 
even. On one occasion one of them had 2,300 head 
in motion for this purpose. The old patriarch, how- 
ever, learned of this, and intercepted the drove. In 
the early fifties, his annual sales would amount from 
$50,000 to $100,000 annually. The money was kept 
in a room under lock in open boxes. It is said that 
his younger sous, who were not equal to driving oft' 
a herd of cattle, would abstract the coin from the 
boxes by reaching il through a hole in the ceiling 
with a stick tipped with asphaltum. 

cii .\ rrr. 1; .\ii. 

Description of the Harbor — Santa B.irbar .— Mutlioil nf I,aiuliny 
— A Soutlieaster — Taking on I'assen(,'er3. 

The best picture of Santa Barliara. as it existed 
forty years sinr,., was wriiien l>y K. 11. Dana in his 
••Two Years \\v\\,vr il„' M.aM, lie he.'ame one of 
the hesl writers of ,,ur day. At that time lie was 
a student in Harvard College. His health was n<il 
quite perfect and his friends deemed it liesl thai he 
go on a long sea voyage and i)erfortn the iliities of a 
common sailor. The residt was restored heidlli and 
the most rharming liook ,,n sailor life, perhaps, that 
was ever written. He s|ient some months on this 
coast, .-md has left us a pen i.icture of Santa Hiirhara, 
which is nuicli hetler than anything the writer of 
this work can ilo. and that must be the excuse for 


•■The bay, or, as it was commonly called, the cdnal 
of Santa Barbara, is very large, being tornied liy the 
main-land on one sid<3 (between Point t'once])cion on 
the north and Point Santa Buenaventura on the 
south), which here bends like a crescent, and by three 
large islands opposite to it and at a distance of some 
twenty miles. 

■ These points are Just sufficient to give it the 
name of a bay, while at the same time it is so large 
and so much exposed to the southeast and northwest 
winds that it is little better than an open roadstead; 
and the whole swell of the Pacific Ocean rolls in here 
before a southeaster, and breaks with so heavy a surf 
in the shallow waters that it is highly dangerous to 
lie near into the shore during the southeaster season, 
that is between the months of November and April. 

"This wind (the southeaster) is the bane of the 
coast of Caliibrnia. Between the months of Novem- 
ber and Ajiril (inclinling a part of each), which is the 
rainy season in this latitude, you are never safe from 
it; ami aeeordingly in the ports which are open to it, 
vessels are obliged, during these months, to lie at 
anchor at a distance of throe miles from the shore, 
with slip-ropes on their cables, ready to slip and g^ 
to sea at a moment's warning. The only jjorts which 
are safe from this wind are San Francisco and Mon- 
terey in the north and San Diego in the south. 

"As it was January when we arrived, and the 
middle of the southeaster season, we came to anchor 
at the. distance of three miles from the shore, in 
eleven fathoms of water. an<l bent a slip-rope and 
buoys to our cables, cast oft' the yard-arm gaskets 
from the sails, and stop|)ed them all with rope-yanv . 
After we had done this tiie boat went ashore with 
the captain, and returned with orders to the mate to 
send a boat ashore for him at sundown. I did not 
go in the first boat, and was glad to hear that there 
was another going before night, for after so long a 
voyage as ours had been, a few hours seem to be a 
long time \o be in sight and out of reach of land. 
We spent the day on board in the usual duties; but 
as this was the first time we had been without the 
captain, we felt a little more freedom, and looked 
about us to see what sort of a country we had got 
into and were to pass a year or two of our lives in. 

" It was a beautiful day, and so warm that wo 



wore straw hats, duck trowsers, and all the summer 
gear. As this was midwinter it spoke well for the 
climate, and we afterwards found that the thor- 
mometer never fell to the freezing point throughout 
the winter, and that there was very little difference 
between the seasons, except that during a longpei'iod 
of rainy and southeasterly weather, thick clothes 
were not uncomfortable. The large bay lay about 
us nearly smooth, as there was hardly a breath of 
wind stirring, though the boat's crew who went 
ashore told us that the long ground swell broke 
into a heavy surf on the beach. There was only one 
vessel in the port, a long, sharp brig of about 300 
tons, with raking masts and very square yards, and 
English colors at her peak. 

" We afterwards learned that she was built at 
Guayaquil, and named the Ayneucho^ after the place 
where the battle was fought that gave Peru her 
independence, and was now owned by a Scotchman 
named Wilson, who commanded her, and was en- 
gaged in the trade between Callao and other parts ot 
South America and California. She was a fast sailer, 
as we frequently afterwards saw, and had a crew of 
Sandwich Islanders on board. Beside this vessel there 
was no object to break the surface of the bay. 

" Two points ran out as the horns of the crescenf, 
one of which, the one to the westward, was low and 
sandy, and is that to which vessels are obliged to give 
a wide berth when running out for a southeaster: 
the other is high, bold, and well wooded. 


" In the middle of this crescent, directly opposite 
the anchoring ground, lies the mission and town of 
Santa Barbara, on a low plain, but little above the 
level of the sea, covered with grass, though entirely 
without trees, and surrounded on three sides by an 
amphitheater of mountains, which slant off to the 
distance of fifteen oi twenty miles. The mission 
stands a little back of the town, and is a large build- 
ing, or rather collection of buildings, in the center of 
which is a high tower with a belfry of five bells. 
The whole, being plastered, makes quite a show at a 
distance, and is the mark by which vessels come to 
anchor. The town lies a little nearer to the beach — 
about half a mile from it — and is composed of one- 
story houses, built of sun-baked clay, or adobe, some 
of them whitewashed, with red tiles on the roofs. I 
should judge that there were about a hundred ot 
them; and in the midst of them stands the presidio, 
or fort, built of the same material and apparentlj' 
but little stronger. The town is finely situated, with 
a bay in front and amphitheater of hills behind. The 
only thing which diminishes its beauty is that the 
hills have no large trees upon them, they having been 
all burnt by a great fire which swept them off about 
a dozen years ago, and they have not yet grown 
again. The fire was described to me by an inhabit- 
ant as having been a very terrible and magnificent 
sight. The air of the valley was so heated that the 
people were obliged to leave town and take up their 
quarters for several days upon the beach. 


" Just before sundown the mate ordered a boat's 
crew ashore, and I went as one of the number. We 
passed under the stern of the English brig, and had 
a long pull ashore. I shall never forget the impres- 
sion which our first landing on the beach of Califor- 
nia made upon me. The sun had just gone down; it 
was getting dusky; the damp niglit wind was begin- 

ning to blow, and the heavy swell of the Pacific 
was setting in and breaking in loud and high " comb- 
ers" upo\i the beach. We lay on our ours in the 
swell, just outside the surf, waiting for a good chance 
to run in, when a boat which had put off from the 
Ayacucho came alongside of us with a crew of dusky 
Sandwich Islanders, talking and hallooing in their 
outlandish tongue. They knew that we were novices 
in this kind of boating and waited to see us go in. 
The second mate, however, who steered our boat, 
determined to have the advantage of their experi- 
ence, and would not go in first. Finding, at length, 
how matters stood, they gave a shout, and, taking 
advantage of a great comber which came swelling 
in, rearing its head ami liftinL^- up the sterns of our 
boats nearly perpendicular, ami again dropping them 
in the trough, they gave three or four long and 
strong pulls and went in on the top of a great wave, 
throwing their oars overboard and as far from the 
boat as they could throw them, and jumping out the 
instant the boat touched the beach, they seized hold 
of her by the gunwale on each side and ran her up 
high and dry upon the sand. We saw at once how 
the thing was to be done, and also the necessity ot 
keeping the boat stern out to the sea; for the instant 
the sea should strike upon her broadside, or quarter, 
she would In' driven up broadside on and cap-sized. 
We pulU'd strongly in. and as soon as we felt that 
the sea had gut hold of us, and was carrying us on 
with the speed of a race horse, we threw the oars as 
far from the boat as we could and took hold of the 
gunwales, ready to spring out and seize her when 
she struck, the officer using his utmost strength with 
his steering oar to keep her stern out. We wei-e shot 
up on the beach, and, seizing the boat, ran her up 
high and diy, and picking up our oars stood by her, 
ready for the captain to come down. 

"Finding that the captain did not come immedi- 
ately, we put our oars in the boat, and leaving one 
to watch it walked along the beach to see what 
we could of the place. The beach is nearly a mile 
in length between the two points, and of smooth 
sand. ' We had taken the only good landing-place, 
which was in the middle, it being more stony toward 
the ends. It is about twenty yards in width from 
high-water mark to a slight bank at which the soil 
begins, and so hard that it is a favorite place for run- 
ning horses. It was growing dark, so that we could 
just distinguish the dim outlines of the two vessels 
in the otfing. and the great seas were rolling in in 
regular lines, growing larger and larger as they 
approached the' slmio. and hanging over the beach 
upon which they w.rc to break, when their tops 
would curl over and turn white with foam, and begin- 
ning at one extreme of the line break rapidly to the 
other, as a child's long card-house falls when a card 
is knocked down at one end. 

" The Sandwich Islanders, in the meantime, had 
turned their boat round, and ran her down into the 
water, and wore loading her with hides and tallow. 
As this was the work in which we were soon to be 
engaged, we looked on with some curiosity. They 
ran the boat so far into the water that every large 
sea might float her, and two of them, with their 
trousers rolled up, stood by the bows, one on each 
side, keeping her in the right position. This was 
hard work, for beside the force they had to use upon 
the boat, the large seas nearly took them oft" their 
feet. The others were running from the boat to the 
bank, upon which, out of the reach of the water, 
was a pile of dry bullock's hides, doubled lengthwise 
in the middle, and nearly as stift" as boards. These 




tlu'V took upon their heads, one or two at a tiiui'. 
ami carried down to the boat, in wliieh one of th'ir 
number slowed them away. 'Tliev were olilifjed to 
earrv them on their heads' to keej. them out of the 
water, and we observed tliat they iiad on tliiek woolen 
caps. • Look here. Bill, and see wiiat you ai-e eom- 
iuii to! ■ sai<l one of our men to aiiotiier wiio stood liy 
the boat. • W'ell. Dana.' said the second mate to me. 
'this does not look nuudi like Harvard ('olle.iie. does 
it? But it is what I call head work, head work.' 
•To tell the truth, it <loes not look very encouraginjc.' 
.\fler they hail got through with their hides, the 
Kanakas laid hold of the bags of tallow (the bags 
are made of hide and are about the size of a common 
meal ba;r). and lifted each upon the shoulders of two 
men. one at each end, who walked otl' with them to 
the boat, when all prepared to go aboard. Here too. 
was something for us to learn. The man who steered 
shi]ipetl his oar, and stood up in the stern, and those 
that ])ulled the two after oars, sat upon their benches, 
with their oars shipped, ready to strike out as soon 
as she was afloat. The two men remained standing 
at the bows, and when, at length, a large sea came 
in and floated her, seized hold of the gunwales, and 
ran out with her until thej' were up to their armpits, 
and then tumbled over the gunwales into the bows, 
dripping with water. The men at the oars struck 
out. but it wouldn't do, the sea swept back, and left 
thera nearly high and dry. The two fcllnws juiuiicd 
out again, and the next time, they suciH'dcd ImMii-, 
and, with the help of a deal of outlanili--li lialliMiing 
and bawling, got her well off. We watched them till 
they were out; of the breakers, and saw them steer- 
ing for their vessel, which was now hidden in the 
darkness. The sand of the beach began to be cold 
to our liare feet, the frogs set up their croaking in 
the marshes, and one solitary owl, from the end of 
the distant point, gave out his melancholy note, mel- 
lowed by the distance, and we began to think it was 
high time for • the old inau,' as a ship-master is com- 
monly called, to come down. In a few minutes we 
heard something coming towards us. It was a man 
on horseback. He came on the full gallojj. reined up 
near us, addressed a few words to us, and receiving 
no answer, wheeled round, and galloped off" again. 
He was nearly as dark as an Indian, with a large 
Spanish hat, blanket cloak or serapa, and leather leg- 
gins, with a long knife stuck in them. • This is the 
seventh city that ever I was in, and no Christian one 
neither,' said Bill Brown. 'Stand by!' said John, 
'you haven't seen the worst of it j^et.' In the midst 
of this conversation the captain appeared, and we 
winded the boat round, shoved her down, and pre- 
pared to go off'. The captain, who had been on the 
coast before, and ' knew the ropes,' took the steering 
oar, and we went oft' in the same way as the other 
boat. I. being the youngest, had the pleasure of 
standing at the bow and getting wet through. We 
went oft' though the seas were high. Some of them 
lifted usMip, and sliding from under us. seemed to let 
us drop through the air like a flat plank upon the 
body of the water. In a few minutes we were in the 
low, regular swell, and pulled for a light, which, as 
we neared it. we found had been run up {•> our trv- 
sail gatt'. 

•• Coming aboard, we hoisted up all the boats, and 
diving down into the forecastle, changed our wet 
clothes, and got our supper. After supper the sail- 
ors lighted their pipes (cigars, those of us who had 
them), and we had to tell all we had seen ashore. 
Then followed conjectures about the people ashore, 
the length of the voyage, carrying hides, etc., etc.. 

unlil eight bells, when all hands wore called afl. ami 
the ■ anchor watch' set. 

•We were to stanil two in a watch, and as (he 
nights were |)retly long, two houi-s were to make a 
watch. The second mate was to keep the deck until 
eight o'clock. All hands were to he called at day- 
break, and the word was jiassed lo keep a bright 
lookout, and to call the male if it should come on to 
blow from the southeast. We had, also, orders to 
strike the bells every half hour through the night, 
as at sea. My watchniate was John, the Swedish 
sailor, and we stood from twelve till two, he walking 
the larboard side, and I the starboard. At daylight 
all hands were called, and we went througli the 
usual process of washing down, swabbing, etc.. and 
got breakfast at eight o'clock. In the course of thi! 
forenoon, a boat went aboard of the Aytcueho. and 
brought oft' a ipiarter of beef, which made us a fresh 
bite for dinner. This we were glad enough to have. 
While at dinner, the cook called, • Sail ho ! ' and. com- 
ing on deck, we saw two sails bearing round the 
point. One was a large shi]) under toi)-gallant sails, 
and the other, a small lierma|phrodite brig. They 
both backed their (op-sails, and sent boats aboard of 
us. The ship's colors had |)uy,y,led us. and we found 
that she was from Genoa, with an assorted cargo, and 
was trading on the coast. She tilled away again, and 
stood out, being bound up the coast to San Francisco. 
The crew of the brig's boat were Sandwich Island- 
ers, but one of them, who s|ioke a lit lie Rnglish, told 
us that she was the Lorioti,:, ('aplain Nye, from 
Oahu, and was engaged in the hide and tallow trade. 
She was a lump of a thing, what the sailors call a 
butter box. This vessel, as well as the Ayacucho, and 
others which we afterwards saw engaged in the same 
trade, have English or Americans for ofticei-s, and 
two or three before the mast to do the work upon 
the rigging, and to be relied upon for seamenship, 
while the rest of the crew are Sandwich Islanders. 
who are active, and veiy useful in boating. 

.\ SOl'TnEASTEJt. 

'•This night, after sundown, it looked black al the 
southward and eastward, and we were told to keep a 
a bright lookout. Expecting to be called, we turned 
in early. Waking about midnight, I found a man 
who had just come down from his watch striking a 
light. He said that it was beginning to puff from 
the southeast, that the sea was rolling in, and he had 
called the captain; and as he threw himself down on 
his chest with all his clothes on, I knew that ho 
expected to be called. I felt the vessel pitching at 
her anchor and the chain surging and snapjiing, and 
lay awake prepared for an instant summons. In a 
few minutes it came — three knocks at the scuttle 
and -all hands ahoy! bear a hand, up and make sail!' 

•' We sprang for our clothes, and were about half 
dressed when the mate called out, down the scuttle, 
• Tumble up here men, tumble up, before she drags 
her anchor!' We were on deck in an instant. 

•' ' Lay aloft and loose the sails!' shouted the capt- 
ain, as soon as the first man showed himself. Spring- 
ing into the rigging, I saw that the Ayacueho's 
topsails were loosed, and heard her crew singing 
out at the sheets as they were hauling them home. 
This had probably started our ea])tain, as • Old Wil- 
son,' the captain of the Ayacucho, had been many 
years on the coast and knew the signs of the weather. 
We soon had the topsails loosed; and one hand 
remaining, as usual, in each top. to overhaul the 
rigging and light the sail out, the rest of us came 
down to man the sheets. 



"While sheeting home, we saw the ^j/ocmcAo stand- 
ing athwart our hawse, sharp npou the wind, cutting 
through the head seas like a knife, with her raking 
masts and her sharp bows running up like the head 
of a greyhound. It was a beautiful sight. She was 
like a bird which had been frightened and had spread 
her wings in flight. After our top-sails had been 
sheeted home, the head yards braced aback, the fore- 
topmast stay-sail hoisted, and the buoys streamed, 
and all ready forward for shipping, we went aft and 
manned the slip-rope, which came through the stern 
port with a turn round the timber heads. 'All ready 
fprward?' asked the captain. 'Aye, aye, sir!' an- 
swered the mate. 'Let go!' 'All gone, sir,' and the 
chain cable grated over the windlass and through 
the hawse-hole, and the little vessel's head swinging 
oif from the wind under the force of her backed head 
sails brought the strain upon the slip-rope. ' Let go 
aft!' Instantly all was gone, and we were under 
way. As soon as she was well ofl:' from the wind we 
filled away the head yards, braced all up sharp, set 
the foresail and try-sail, and left our anchorage well 
astern, giving the point a good berth. ' Nye's off, 
too,' said the captain to the mate; and looking astern 
we could just see the little hermaphrodite brig under 
sail, standing after us. 

" It now began to blow fresh; the rain fell fast, and 
it grew black; but the captain would not take in sail 
until we were well clear off the point. As soon as 
we left this on our quarter, and were standing out to 
sea, the order was given and we went aloft, double- 
reefed each top-sail, furled the foresail, and double- 
reefed the try-sail, and were soon under easy sail. 
In these cases of slipping for southeasters there is 
nothing to be done, after you have got clear of the 
coast, but to lie-to under easy sail and wait for the 
gale to be over, which seldom lasts more than 
two days, and is sometimes over in twelve hours; but 
the wind never comes back to the southward until 
there has a good deal of rain fallen. ' Go below the 
watch,' said the mate; but here was a dispute which 
watch it should be. The mate soon settled it by 
sending his watch below, saying that we should 
have our turn the next time we got under way. 
We remained on deck till the expiration of the 
watch, the wind blowing very fresh and the rain 
coming down in ton-euts. 

" When the watch came up, we wore shi]) and 
stood on the other tack, in towards land. When we 
came up again, which was at four in the morning, it 
was ver}^ dark, and there was not much wind, but it 
was raining as I thought I had never seen it rain 
before. We had on oil-cloth suits and southwester 
caps, and had nothing to do but to stand bold upright 
and let it pour down on us. There are no umbrellas 
and no sheds to go under at sea. 

" While we were standing about on deck, we saw 
the little brig drifting by us, hove to under her fore- 
top sail double reefed, and she glided by like a phan- 
tom. Not a word was spoken, and we saw no one 
on deck but the man at the wheel. Toward morning 
the captain put his head out of the companion-way 
and told the second mate, who commanded our 
watch, to look out for a change of wind, which 
usually followed a calm with heavy rain. It was 
well that he did, for in a few minutes it fell dead 
calm, the vessel lost her steerage way, the rain 
ceased, we hauled up the try-sail and courses, squared 
the after yards, and waited for the change, which 
came in a few minutes, with a vengeance, from the 
northwest, the opposite point of the compass. Owing 
to our precautions, we were not taken aback, but 

ran before the wind with square yards. The captain 
coming on deck, we braced up a little and stood 
back for our anchorage. With the change of wind 
came a change of weather, and in two hours the 
wind moderated into a light, steady breeze, which 
blows down the coast the greater part of the year, 
and, from its regularity, might be called a trade 
wind. The sun came up bright, and we set royals, 
sky-sails, and studding-sails, and were under fair 
way for Santa Barbara. 'The little Loriotte was 
astern of us, nearly out of sight, but we saw nothing 
of the Ayacueho. In a short time she appeared, 
standing out from Santa Eosa Island, under the lee 
of which she had been hove to all night. Our capt- 
ain was eager to get in before her, for it would be a 
great credit to us, on the coast, to beat the Ayacueho, 
which had been called the best sailer in the North 
Pacific, in which she had been known as a trader for 
six years or more. We bad an advantage over her 
in light winds, from our royals and sky-sails, which 
we carried, both at the fore and main, and also from 
our stuilding-sails when on the coast. 

''As the wind was light and fair, we held our own 
for some time, when we were both obliged to brace 
up and come upon a taut bowline after rounding the 
point; and here he had us on his own ground, and 
walked away from us as you would haul in a line. 
He afterward said that we sailed well enough with 
the wind free, but that give him a taut bowline and 
he would beat us if we had all the canvas of the 
Royal George. 

"The Ayacueho got to the anchoring ground about 
half an hour before us, and was furling her sails 
when we came-to it. This picking up your cables is 
a nice piece of work. It requires some seamanship to 
do it, and to come-to at j'our former moorings with- 
out letting go another anchor. Captain Wilson was 
remarkable among the sailors on the coast for his 
skill in doing this, and our captain never let go a 
second anchor during all the time that I was with 
him. Coming a little to windward of our buoy, we 
clewed up the light sails, backed our main top-sail, 
and lowered a boat, which pulled off, and made fast 
a spare hawser to the buoy on the end of the slip- 
rope. We brought the other end to the capstan, and 
hove in upon it until we came to the slip-rojje, which 
we took to the windlass and bitted, the slip-rope 
taken round outside and brought into the stern port, 
and she is safe in her old berth. 

" After we had got through, the mate told us that 
this was a small touch of California, the like of which 
we must expect to have through the winter. After 
we had furled the sails and got dinner, we saw the 
Loriotte nearing, and she had her anchor before 
night. At sundown we went ashore again, and 
found the Loriotte's boat waiting on the beach. The 
Sandwich Islander who could speak English, told us 
that he had been up to the town: that our agent, Mr. 
Robinson, and some passengers were going to Mon- 
terey with us, and that we were to sail tte same 


" In a few minuted Capt. A. B. Thompson, with two 
gentlemen and a lady, came down, and we got ready to 
go off. They had a good deal of baggage, which we 
put into the bows of the boat, and then two of us took 
the Seiiora in our arms, and waded with her through 
the water, and put her down safely in the stern. 
She appeared much amused with the transaction, and 
her husband was perfectly satisfied, thinking my 
arrangement good, which saved his wetting his feet. 



I pulled I he" alter oar, so that I heard tho coiiversn- 
tion, and learned that one of the men, who, as well as I 
could see in the darkness, was a younji lookiiiDj man, in 
the European dress, and covered n\^ in a larije cloak, 
was the a,i;ent of the tinn t" which our vessel beloniied; 
and the other who was dressed in the S|.ani>h (iress 
of the country, was a hrother of our captain, who had 
been many years a trader mi the coast, and that the 
lady was ids wife. She was a delicate, dark coniplex- 
ioned youui; woman, of one of the respectaMe families* 
of California. 1 also fiuhd thai Ihcy were to ^ail the 
same idght. 

As soon as we got on hoard the boats were hoisted 
up, the sails loosened, the windlass manned, the ship- 
ropes and gear cast off. and after about twenty min- 
utes of heaving at the windlass, making sail, and 
bracing yards, we were well under way, and going 
with a i'air wind up the coast to Monterey, The 
Loriotte got under way at tho same time and was 
also bound up to Monterey, but as she took a ditler- 
ent course from us, keeping the land aboard, while 
we kept well out to sea, we soon lost sight of her. 

•' We had a fair wind, which is something unusual 
when going up, as the prevailing wind is the north, 
which blows directly down the coast, whence the 
northern arc called the windward, and the southern 
the leeward ports." 


Voyage to Mouterey^Character of the C last — Geaeril Style of 
tlie Dresi of the People— Pure aid Mixed Blood— Fine 
Voices — Califoroia Money — Methods of Tr.ivel — Amuse- 
ments — Return to .Santa Barbara — Dull Town — Another 
Southeaster — A D.iy Ashore — Singular Funeral — Cock 
Fighting — Horse Race — Dancing — Among the Breakers — 
Festival January 10, 183G — Curious Custom — Lo»'e's Offer- 

■We got clear of the islands before Mnii-i>e the 
next morning, and liy twelve o'clock were out of the 
canal and ott' Point Coucepcion, the place where we 
first made the land upon our arrival. This is the 
largest point on the coast, and is an inhabited head- 
land stretching out into the Pacific, and has the 
reputation of being very windy. Any vessel does 
well which gets by it without a gale, especially in 
the winter season. We were going along with stud- 
ding-sails set on both sides, when, as we came round 
the point, we had to haul our wind and take in the 
lee studding-sails, 

'As the brig came more upon the wind she felt it 
more, and we doused the sky-sails, but keiit the 
weather studding-sails on her, bracing the yards for- 
ward so that the swinging-boom nearly touched the 
sprit-sail yard. She now lay over to it, the wind 
was freshening, and the captain was evidently • drag- 
ging on to her.' His brother and Mr. Robinson 
looked a little disturbed, said something to him, but 
he only answered that he knew the vessel and what 
she would carry. He was evidently showing off, and 
letting them know how he could carry sail. He 
stood up to windward, holding on by the backstays 
and looking up at the sticks to see how much they 
would bear, when a putf came which settled the 
matter. Then it was -haul down' and -dew up' 
niyals. Hying jib. aii<l studding-sails all at once. 


••There was what the sailors call a •mess" — 
everything let go, nothing haidi'd in, and everything 
flying. The ))oor Mexican wcunan came lo thie com- 
panion-way, looking as pale as a ghost and nearly 
t'rigliteneil to death. The mate and some men for- 
ward were trying to haul in the lower studding-sail, 
which had blown over the sjirit-sail j-ard-arm and 
round the guys, while I hi' topmast -studding-sail 
boom, after bucklin>; up and spriiiuiini; out again like 
a piece of whalebone, broke ofi' at the b.M.miron. I 
jumped aloft to take in tlu- main top-gallant studding- 
sail, but before I -di lo the top the lack parted 
and away went the >ail. swinging forward the top- 
gallant-sail and tearing and slatting itself lo pieces. 
The halyards were at this momciil let go by the 
run, aiul such a piece of work I never hiul before in 
taking in a sail. Aftei^ great exertions I got it, or 
the remains of it, into the toji, and was making it 
fast, when the captain, looking up, (tailed out to me, 
'Lay aloft there, Dana, tmd furl that main royal,' 
Leaving the studding-sail I went u]) to the cross 
trees, and here it looked rather squally. The foot of 
the to]i-gallant mast was working between the cross 
and tni>sel trees, and the mast lay over at a fearful 
angle, with the topmast below, while everything was 
working and cracking, strained to the utmost. 

" There's nothing for Jack to do but to obey orders, 
and I went up upon the yard, and there was a worse 
mess, if i)ossible, than I ha<l left below. The braces 
hail been let go, and the yard was swinging about 
like a turnpike gate, and the whole sail, having blown 
out to leeward, the lee leeeh was over the yard arm, 
and the sky-sail was all adrift and Hying about my 
head. I looked down, but it was in vain to attempt 
to make myself heard, for everyone was busy below, 
and the wind roared, and tho sails were t1ap))ing in 
all directions. Fortunately, it was noon and broad 
daylight, and the man at the wheel, who had his 
eyes aloft, soon saw my difficulty, and after number- 
less .signs and gestures got some one to haul the 
necessary ropes taut. During this interval I took a 
biiik below. Kverything was in confu.sion on deck; 
the little vessel was tearing throtigli the water as it 
she had lost iier wits, the seas flying ovbr her and 
the masts leaning over at a wide angle from the 
vertical. At the other royal masthead was Stine- 
son, working away at the sail, which was blowing 
from him as fast as he could gather it in. The top- 
gallant sail below me was soon clewed up, which 
relieved the mast, and in a short time I got mj' sail 
furled and went lielow; but I lost overboard a now 
tarj a din hat. which troubled me more than anything 
else. We worked for about half an hour with 'might 
and main, and in an hour from the time the squall 
striK'k us, from having all our flying kites abroad. 
We came down to doublc-reefi'd to]>sails and the 

-The wind had haul.Ml ahead during I be s,piall and 
we were standing <lireelly in for the point. So, as 
soon as we had got all snug, we wore round and 
stood ott' again, and had the jileasant prospect of 
beating up to Monterey, a distance of 100 miles, 
against a violent head-wind. Before night it began 
to rain, and we had five days of rainy, stormy 
weather, under close sail all the time, and were 
blown several hundred miles ott' the coast. In the 
midst of this we discovered that our fore topmast 
was sprung (which. nodoid)t. hapiiencd in the sijuall), 
and were obliged to send down the fore top-gallant 
mast and carry as little sail as jiossible forward. 
Our four passengers were dreadfully seasick, so that 


we saw little or nothing of them during the five 
days. On the sixth day it cleared off an"d the sun 
came out bright, but the wind and sea were still very 
high. It was quite like being in mid-ocean again; 
norland for hundreds of miles, and the captain taking 
the sun every day at noon. Our passengers now 
made their appearance, and I had for the first time 
the opportunity of seeing what a miserable and for- 
lorn creature a seasick passenger is. Since I had 
got over my own sickness, the third day from Bos- 
ton, I had seen nothing but hale, hearty men, with 
their eea-legs on and able to go anywhere (for we 
had no passengers on our voj'age out), and I will 
own there was a pleasant feeling of superiority in 
being able to walk the deck, and eat, and go aloft, 
and compare one's self with two poor, miserable, pale 
creatures, staggering and shuffling about decks, or 
holding on and looking up with giddy heads to see 
us climbing to the mastheads or sittiag quietly at 
work on the ends of the lofty yards. A well man at 
sea has little sympathy with one who is seasick; he 
is apt to be too conscious of a comparison which 
seems favorable to his own manhood. 


" After a few days we made the land at Point Pinos, 
which is the headland at the entrance of the bay of 
Monterey. As wo drew in and ran down the shore, 
we could distinguish well the face of the country, 
and found it better wooded than that to the south- 
ward of Point Concepcion. In fact, as I afterwards 
discovered, Point Concepcion may be made the divid- 
ing line between two different faces of the country. 
As you go to the northward of the point, the country 
becomes more wooded, has a richer appeai-ance, and 
is better supplied with water. This is the case with 
Monterey, and still more so with San Francisco; 
while to the southward of the point, as at Santa 
Barbara, San Pedro, and particularly San Diego, 
there is very little wood, and the country has a 
naked, level appearance, though it is still fertile. 


■" The dress of the men was as I have before 
described it. The women wore gowns of various 
texture — silks, crape, calicoes, etc. — made after the 
European style, except that the sleeves were short, 
leaving the arms bare, and that thej' were loose 
about the wuisf. ciirscts not ln-iii<;- in use. They 
wore shoes of kill oi- satin. s;islu-s oi' lielts of bright 
coloi's. and ulmiist ;il\v:ns a necklace and car-rings. 
Bonnets, they had nunc. I only saw one on the 
coast, and tiiat liclonucii to tlic wife of an American 
sea ca|itain. who had settled in San i)iego, and had 
impoi-ied the chaotic mass of straw and ribbon, as a 
choice [)re-cnt to his new wife. They wear their hair 
(which is almost invarialilj- black, or a verj' dark 
brown) long in their nocks, sometimes loose, and some- 
times in long braids, though the married women often 
do it up on a high comb. Their only protection 
against the sun and wcallur is a large mantle which 
they put over theii' heads, drawing it close round 
their faces, when they t;o out of doors, which is gen- 
erally only in pleasant weather. When in the house, 
or sitting out in front of it, which they often do in 
fine weather, they usually wear a small scarf or 
neckerchief of a rich pattern. A band, also, about the 
top of the head, with a cross, star, or other ornament 
in front, is common. 


•' Their complexions are various, depending — as well 
as their dress and manner — upon the amount of 
Spanish blood they can lay claim to, which also set- 
tles their social rank. Those who are of pure Span- 
ish blood, having never intermarried with the aborig- 
ines, have clear brunette complexions, and sometimes 
even as fair as those of English women. There are 
but few of these families in California, being mostly 
those in official stations, or who, on the expiration of 
their terms of office, have settled here upon property 
they have acquired, and others who have been ban- 
ished for State offenses. These form the upper class, 
intermarrying and keeping up an exclusive system in 
eveiy respect. They can be distinguished, not only 
by their complexion, dress, and manners, but also by 
their speech; for, calling themselves Castilians, they 
are very ambitious of speaking the pure Castilian, 
while all Spanish is spoken in a somewhat corrupted 
dialect by the lower classes. From this upper class 
they go down by regular shades, growing more and 
more dark and muddy, until you come to the pure 
Indian, who runs about with nothing upon him but a 
small piece of cloth, kept up by a wide leather strap 
drawn around his waist. 

" Generally speaking, each person's caste is decided 
by the quality of the blood, which shows itself, too 
plainly to be concealed, at first sight. Yet the least 
drop of Spanish blood, if it be only of quadroon or 
octoroon, is sufficient to raise one from the position 
of a serf, and entitle him to wear a suit of clothes, 
boots, hat, cloak, spurs, long knife, all complete, 
though coarse and dirty as may be, and to call him- 
self Espanol, and to hold property, if he can get any. 
The fondness for dress among women is excessive, 
and is sometimes their ruin. A present of a fine 
mantle, or of a necklace or pair of ear-rings gains the 
favor of the greater part. Nothing is more common 
than to see a woman living in a house of only two 
rooms, with the ground for a floor, dressed in span- 
gled satin shoes, silk gown, high comb, and gilt, if 
not gold ear-rings and necklace. If their husbands do 
not dress them well, they will soon receive presents 
from others. They use<! to spend whole days on 
board our vessel, examining;' (he tine clothes and orna- 
ments, and frequently making purchases at a rate 
which would have made a seamstress or waiting- 
maid in Boston open her eyes. 


'■ Xext to the love of dress, I was most struck 
with the fineness of the voices and beauty of the 
intonations of both sexes. Every commtm ruf- 
fian-looking fellow, with a slouched hat, blanket 
cloak, dirty underdress, and soiled leather leggins, 
appeared to me to be speaking elegant Span- 
ish. It was a pleasure to listen simply to the sound 
of the language before I could attach any meaning 
to it. They have a good deal of the Creole drawl, 
but it is varied by an occasional extreme rapidity of 
utterance in which they seem to skip from consonant 
to consonant, until, lighting upon a broad, open 
vowel, they rest upon that to restore the balance of 
sound. The women carry this peculiarity of speak- 
ing to a much greater extreme than the men, who 
have more evenness and stateliness of utterance. A 
common bullock-driver, on horseback, delivering a 
mc-sage, seemed to speak like an embassador at a 
roj'al audience. In fact, thij- sometimes appeared to 
me to be a people on whom a cui-se had fallen, and 

Thomas W. Moore. 

As there were two prominent men of this name in 
the early years of Santa Barbara, it may be well to 
explain, for fear of confusion, that the two had no 
relation to each other, one coming from the State of 
Ohio, the other from Ireland, one spelling the sur- 
name with one o, the other with two; the latter 
being the subject of this sketch. 

Thomas W. Moore belongs to an old Irish family 
that has sent so many eminent men into the world, 
among whom was Sir Thomas Moore, famous in the 
war of the Peninsula, and also the Thomas Moore of 
song, both of whom were near relatives. He was 
born in Galway, Ireland, in 1819, and was the fourth 
son of Captain John Moore, of H. B. M. service. 
Like all younger sons, he had but little of the patri- 
monial property left to him, and was obliged to rely 
on his own energies and ability to gain a place in life. 

His father being a commander of a man-of-war, a 
sea-faring life was early planned for him, and he was 
shipped as cabin boy on a sailing vessel when he was 
but thirteen. At twenty he had attained the posi- 
tion of master. When the rebellion of 18-18 was 
terminated it was Captain Moore who carried the 
rebel, D'Arcy McGee, to America, though a reward 
of 8500 was offered for his delivery to the English 
authorities. McGee was received with an oration at 
Philadelphia, Captain Moore sharing the honors. 
On the breaking out of the California excitement he 
sailed for the gold region with a load of passengers, 
but when off the west coast of South America the 
vessel sprung a leak, which compelled him to put 
into Valparaiso, where the vessel was condemned as 
unseaworthy. He was engaged for awhile on a 
coaster betwesn Callao, Panama, and Mazatlan. In 
the latter part of 1849 he was put in charge of the 
steamer McKim, from Panama to Monterey. The 
steamer, being a fresh- water vessel, proved utterly 
unfit for sea service, the boilers being burned out before 
half the voyage was accomplished. The vessel made 
but slow progress and the passengers were reduced 
to a state of distress. To add to their horrors, the 
Panama fever broke out, and proved fatal to 300 out 
of 460 of the passengers. 

The voyage was prolonged to four months, and the 
daily rations at last became a mouldy cracker and a 
pint of water per day. The dead were lying around 
the deck, and the sick were necessarily destitute of 

proper attendance. Captain Mooro fared the same 
as the rest, and paid for the attendance of the sick 
as far as it could^be done out of his own pocket, and 
even divided his clothing among the needy. He had 
a tent put upon deck to shelter the sick from the sun. 
To add to the horrors a terrible storm struck the vessel 
and continued for several days, and it was only by al- 
most superhuman exertions that the vessel was saved. 
At one time the vessel lay on her beam ends, and it 
was thought that the sea would swallow the victims 
spared by the fever. When fifty miles out of San 
Diego, she was sighted, and her signals of distress 
perceived. The Sea-bird was sent to her assistance. 
Never was assistance more needed or more welcome. 
When the situation of the vessel became known, 
every means was taken to assist them. The hotels 
were thrown open and the passengers made welcome. 

We next hear of him as engaged in catching salmon 
up the Sacramento River, which ho made very 
profitable for a couple of years. In 1855, his 
health failing, he came to Santa Barbara, where ho 
engaged in the purchase of hides for the San Fran- 
cisco market. He also engaged in general mer- 
chandising near Lompoc, and for many years had 
the only store between San Luis Obispo and Santa 
Barbara. He also engaged in agriculture, and rented 
for some years the Salsipuedes Eancho, near Lompoc. 
In 1859 he purchased the Purificacion Eancho, on 
the Santa Ynez River, which place he made his 
home until he built a residence in the city of Santa 
Barbara. He was married in 1856 to a daughter of 
John Burke, Miguel Burke being her brother. While 
in Santa Barbara he held many positions of honor and 
profit, among others that of Supervisor for the Third 
District for several terms, the duties of which he 
discharged to the satisfaction of his constituents. 

By his industry and enterprise he aecuniulalecl a 
large estate, embracing 13,000 acres on the Purifica- 
cion Rancho, and considerable town property. 

His death occurred at San Francisco June 13, 1881. 
His remains were interred at Santa Barbara, the 
services being conducted by the Rev. Father Mc- 
Nally, of Oakland, who had long been acquainted with 
the deceased. Pall-bearers, Charles Pierce. T. B. Dib- 
blee, John Seollen, John Edwards, D. J. Mehriu, and 
Dr. J. B. Shaw. 


stripped them of evervthinu; Iml their |)i'iilc, tli 
manners, and their voices. 


•■ AnothiT thiiisj thai sui-i>ri>cil iiu' was the .|iiaiilil\ 
of silver in eireiihitioii. . . . The Iniih is they 
have no credit system, no i)anks, and im way ■>! in 
vesting money l>iit in cattle. Resi(h's silver. the\ 
have no circidatini; medium hut iiides. which the 
sailors call • Calitornia hank notes.' Kverylhin;;- Ihat 
they huv must he paid for hv one or (he other of these 
means. " The hides they hring down dried and doubled, 
in clumsy ox carts, or upon mules backs, and llu^ 
monej- they carry tied u|) in handkerchiefs, fifty or 
a hundred dollars and half-dollars. 


• The men appeared to mc to be ahvaj's on horse- 
hack. Horses are as abundant out here as dogs and 
chickens were in Juan Fernandez. There are no 
stables to keep them in, but they are allowed to run 
wild and gi-aze wherever they please, being branded, 
and having long leather ropes, called las.sos, attached 
to their necks and dragging along behind them, by 
which they can be easilj' taken. 

■' The men usually catch one in the morning, throw 
a saddle and bridle upon him and use him for the day, 
and let him go at night, catching another the next 
day. When they go on long journeys, they ride one 
horse down, and catch another, throw the saddle and 
bridle upon him, and, after riding him down, take a 
third and so on to the end of the journey. There are 
probably no better riders in the world. Thej- are 
put upon a horse when only four or live years old, 
their legs not long enough to come half-way over 
his sides, and ma}' almost be said to keep on him 
until they have gi-own to him. 

"The stirrups are covered or boxed up in front, 
to prevent their catching when riding through the 
woods; and the saddles are large and heavy, strajijied 
very tight upon the horse, and have large jiommels. 
or loggerheads in front, around which the lasso is 
coiled when not in use. The_y can hardly go from 
one house to another without mounting a horse, there 
being generally several standing tied to the door-posts 
of the little cottages. When they wish to show their 
activitj' they make no use of their stirrups in mount- 
ing, but, striking the horse, spring into the saddle as 
he starts, and sticking their long spurs into him, go ott' 
on the full run. Their spurs are cruel things, having 
four or five rowels, each an inch in length, dull and 

'■ The flanks of the horses are often sore from them, 
and I have seen men come in from chasing bullocks, 
with their horse's hind legs and quarters covered with 
blood. They frequently give exhibitions of their 
horsemanship in races, bull-baitings, etc.; but as we 
were not ashore during anv holidaj^. we saw nothing 
of it. 


■California is also a great place for cock-fighting, 
gambling of all sorts, fandangos, and various kinds 
of amusement and knavery. Trapjiers and hunters, 
who occasionally arrive here from over the Rockj- 
Mountains, with their valuable skins and furs, arc 
often entertained with amusements and dissipation, 
until they have wasted their opportunities and their 
money, and then go back stripped of everything. 

I! Ainu 

left il. 


leir e\ eryi Mlllg w;ls |ireny muen 
arge bay without a ve~-.'l in il. ihi 
rolling" in ujjon the beach, the while mission, 
dark town, and the high. Ireeless mountains. 

■. too. we had our soiuhcasler tacks aboard 
I. -lip ro|,e>. l.iiov ro|M~. -nil-. Juried wilh reefs 

-We lav at Ihi- plac-e a lortnii^hl. employed 
in landing an.l taking otV hides, occasionally, 
when the suH was not high: but there did not appear 

to lu e-half the business doinij; here that there was 

in .Monterey. In fae(.-o lar a-^ we were concerned, 
the town m'ight almo>l as w.'ll hav been in the mid- 
dle of the Cor.lilleras. We lay al a di-tanceof three 

-The next Sunday was Ka-ter. and as there ha<l 
been no liberty al San I'edro. it was our turn to go 
ashore and iniss|(cni| another Sunday. Soon after 
breakfast, a large boat filled with men in bluejackets, 
scarlet caps, and various colored uinlei'dothes, bound 
ashore on liberty, left the Italian shi]> and passed 
under our stern, the men singing beautiful Italian 
boat-songs, all the waj-, in fine, full chorus. Among 
the songs I recognized the favorite -O Pescator 
dell'onda.' It brought back to mj' mind piano- 
fortes, drawing-rooms, young ladies singing, and a 
thousand other things which as little befitted me, in 
my situation, to be thinking upon. Supposing that 
the whole day would be too long a time to spend 
ashore, as there was no place to which we could take 
a ride, we remained quietly on board until after 
<linner. We were then pulled ashore in the stern of 
the boat. — for it is a point with liberty-men to be 
pulled ott' and back as ]iassengers by their ship-mates, 
— ami. with orders to be taken on the beach at sun- 
down, we took our way for the town. There, every- 
thing wore the ajipearance of a holiday. The people 
were dressed in their best; the men riding about 
among the houses, .•md the \vomen sitting on carpets 
before the doors. I'lider the piazza of a pulperia 
two men were stated, decked out with ktiots of ribbons 
and bouquets, and playing the violin ami the Spanish 
guitar. These are the only instruments, wilh Ihe 
exception of the drums and trumpets at .Monterey, 
that I ever heard in California, and I suspect they 
play u|ion no others, for at a great at 
which I was afterward present, and where they 
mustered all the music they could find, there were 
three violins and two guitars, and no other instru- 
ments. As it was now too near the middle of the day 
to see any danciiiij. and hearing that a bull was 
expected down from the country, to bo bailed in the 
presidio square in the course of an hour or two. we 
took a stroll among the houses. 


-Inquiring for an American who. we had been told, 
had married in the place, and kept a shop, we were 
directed to a long, low building, at the end of which 
was a door, with a sign over it. in Sjianish. Entering 
the shop, we found no one in it, and the whole had an 
emjjty. deserted air. In a few minutes the man made 
his ajjpearance and apologized for having nothing to 



entertain us with, saying that he had had a fandango 
at his house the night before, and the people had 
eaten and drank up everything. 

" '0, yes! ' said I, • Easter holidays! ' 

"'No! ' said he, with a singular expression on his 
face; 'I had a little daughter die the other day, and 
that's the custom of the country.' At this 1 felt 
somewhat awkwardly, not knowing what to say, and 
whether to offer consolation or not, and was begin- 
ning to retire, when he opened a side-door a«id told 
us to walk in. Here I was no less astonished; for 1 
found a large room, filled with young girls, from 
three or four years of age up to fifteen and sixteen, 
dressed all in white with wreaths of flowers on their 
heads, and bouquets in their hands. Following our 
conductor among these girls, who were playing about 
in high spirits, we came to a table, at the end of the 
room, covered with a white cloth, on which lay a 
coffin, about three feet long, with the bod}- of his 
child. The coffin was covered with white cloth, and 
lined with white satin, and was strewn with flowers. 

" Through an open door we saw in another room 
a few elderly people, in common dress, while the 
benches and tables, thrown up in a corner, and the 
stained walls, gave evidence of the last night's ' high 
go.' Feeling, like Garrick, between Tragedy and 
Comedy, an uncertainty of jjurpose, I asked the man 
when the funeral would take place, and being told 
that it would move toward the mission in about an 
hour, took my leave. To pass away the time we 
hired horses and rode to the beach, and there saw 
three or four Italian sailors, mounted, and riding up 
and down on the hard sand at a furious rate. We 
joined them and found it fine sport. The beach gave 
us a stretch of a mile or more, and the horses flew 
over the smooth, hard sand, apparently invigorated 
and excited by the salt sea-breeze and by the contin- 
ual roar and dashing of the breakers. 

" From the beach we returned to the town, and 
finding that the funeral procession had moved, rode 
on and overtook it, about half-way up to the mission. 
Here was as peculiar a sight as we had seen before 
in the house, the one looking as much like a funeral 
procession as the other did like a house of mourning. 

"The little coffin was borne by ein'ht girls, who 
were continually relieved bv oilieis running forward 
from the procession and taking their places" Behind 
it came a straggling company of girls, dressed, as 
before, in white and flowers, and including, I should 
suppose by their numbers, nearly all the girls 
between five and fifteen in the place. The}- played 
along on the way, frequently stopping and running 
altogether to talk to some one, or to |)ick up a flower, 
and then running on again to overtake the coffin. 

"There were a few elderl}- women in common 
colors, and a herd of young men and lioys. some on 
foot and others mounted, followed them', or walked 
or rode by their side, frequently interrupting them 
by jokes and questions. 

"But the most singular thing of all was that two 
men walked, one on each side of the coffin, carrying- 
muskets in their hands, which they continually 
loaded and fired into the air. Whether this was to 
keep off the evil spirits or no I do not know. It was 
the only interpretation that I could put upon it. 

" As we drew near the mission we saw the great 
gate thrown open, and the padre standing on the 
steps with a crucifix in his hand. The mission is a 
large and deserted-looking place, the out-buildings 
going to ruin, and everything giving one the impres- 
sion of decayed grandeur. A large, .stone fountain 
threw out pure water from four mouths into a basiji 

before the church door; and we were on the point of 
riding up to let our horses drink, when it occurred to 
us that it might be consecrated, and we forebore. 
Just at this moment the bells set up their harsh, dis- 
cordant clangor, and the procession moved into the 
court. I wished to follow and see the ceremony, but 
the horse of one of my companions had become 
frightened and was teai'ing off toward the town, and, 
having thrown his rider, and got one of his hoofs 
caught in the tackling of the saddle, whicji had 
slipped, was fast dragging and ripping it to pieces. 
Knowing that my shipmate could not speak a word 
of Spanish, and fearing that he might get into diffi- 
culty, I was obliged to leave the ceremony and ride 
after him. 

" I soon overtook him trudging along, swearing at 
the horse, and carrying the remains of the saddle, 
which he had picked up on the road. Going to the 
owner of the horse, we made a settlement with him 
and found him surprisingly liberal. All parts of the 
saddle were brought back, and being capable of 
repair, he was satisfied with six reals. We thought 
it would have been a few dollars. We pointed to the 
horse which was now half-way up one of the mount- 
ains, but he shook his head, saying, ■ No importa,' 
and giving us to understand that he had plenty 


" Having returned tp the town, we saw a crowd col- 
lected in the square before the principal pulperia, and, 
riding up, found that all these people^men, women 
and children, had been drawn together by a couple of 
bantam cocks. The cocks were in full tilt, springing 
into one another, and the people were as eager, 
laughing and shouting, as though the combatants 
had been men. 

"There had been a disappointment about the bull; 
he had broken his bail and taken himself off, 
and it was too late to get another, so the people 
wei'e obliged to put up with a cock fight. One of 
the bantams having been knocked in the head and 
having an eye put out, gave in, and two monstrous 
prize cocks were brought on. These were the objects 
of the whole attair, the bantams having been merely 
served up as a first course to collect the people 
together. Two fellows came into the ring holding 
the cocks in their arms and stroking them, and run- 
ning about on all fours, encouraging and setting 
them on. Bets ran high, and like most other con- 
tests, it remained for some time undecided. Both 
cocks showed great pluck, and fought probably bet- 
ter and longer than their masters would have done. 
Whether in the end it was the white or red that 
beat I do not recollect, but whichever it was, he 
strutted oft' with the true veni-vidi-vlci look, leaving 
the other panting on his beam ends, 


" This matter having been settled, we heard some 
talk about 'caballos' and 'carrera,' and seeing the 
people streaming off in one direction, we followed, 
and came upon a level piece of ground just out of the 
town, which was used as a race-course. Here the 
crowd soon became thick again, the ground was 
marked off, the judges stationed, and the horses led up 
to one end. Two fine-looking old gentlemen — Don 
Carlos and Don Domingo, so-called — held the stakes; 
and all was now ready. We waited some time, 
during which we could just see the horses, twisting 
round and turning, until, at length, there w:i.? a 
shout along the lines, and on they came, heads 


stretched out and eyes startiiiii. workiiis; all over. 
Iioth man and beast.' The steeds eanie by us like a 
couple of chain shot, neck and neck, and now we 
could see nothinu; but their backs and their hind 
hoofs ttyins; in the air. As fast as the horses ])assed. 
the crowd broke u|) behind them and ran to the 
troal. When we got there we found the horses 
returninj; on a slow walk, having run far beyond the 
mark, and heard that the long, bonj- one had come 
in head and shoulders before the other. The riders 
were light-built men, had handkerchiefs tied around 
their heads, and were bare-armed and bare-legged. 
The horses were noble-looking beasts, not so sleek 
and combed as our Boston stable horses, but with 
fine limbs and spirited eyes. After this had been 
settled and fully talked over, the crowil scattered 
again, and tlocked back to the town. 


•' Returning to the large pulperia, wo heard the 
violin and guitar screaming and twanging away, 
under the piazza where they had been all day. 

" As it was now sundown, there began to be some 
dancing. The Italian sailors danced, and one of our 
crew exhibited himself in a sort of West India shuffle, 
much to the amusement of the bystanders, who cried 
out, • Bravo 1 ' -Otra Vez! ' and ' Vian los Marmeros;' 
but the dancing did not become general, as the 
women and the 'gentede razon ' had not yet made 
their appearance. We wished very much to stay and 
gee the style of dancing, but, although we had our 
own way during the day, yet we were after all, but 
fore-mast jacks; and, having been ordered to be on 
the beach by sunset, did not venture to be more than 
an hour behind time, so we took our waj- down. 


•'We found the boat just pulling ashore, among the 
breakers, which i*ere running high, there having 
been a heavy fog outside, which, from some cause or 
other, always brings on, or precedes, a heavy sea. 

" Liberty-men are privileged from the time they 
leave the vessel until they step on board again; so we 
took our places in the stern sheets, and were congrat- 
ulating ourselves on getting oif dry, when a great 
comber broke front and aft the boat, and wet us 
through and through, filling the boat half full of 
water. Having lost her buoyancy by the weight of 
the water, she dropped heavily into every sea that 
struck her, and by the time we had pulled out of the 
surf into deep water, she was but just atloat and we 
were up to our knees. By the help of a small bucket 
and our hats, we bailed her out, got on board, hoisted 
the boats, eat our supper, changed our clothes, gave 
(as is usual) the whole historj- of our days adventures 
to those who had stayed on board, and. having taken 
a night smoke, turned in. Thus ended our second 
day's libertj^ on shore. 


"Great preparations were now being made on shore 
for the maiTiage of our agent, who was to many 
Dona Anita la Guen-a de Noriega y Carritlo, youngest 
daughter of Don Antonio Xoriega, the grandee of 
the place, and the head of the first familj^ in Califor- 

" Our steward was ashore three days making pastry 
and cake, and some of the best of our stores were 
sent off with him. On the daj- appointed for the 
wedding, we took the captain ashore in the gig, and had 
orders to come for him at night, with leave to go up 

to the house and see the fandango. Returning on 
board we found preparations making for a salute. 
Our guns were loaded and r\in out. men appointed to 
each, cartridges served out, matches lighted, and all 
the flags ready to be run up, I took my place at the 
starboard after gun, and we all waited for the signal 
from on shore. At ten o'clock the bride went up 
with her sister to the confessional, dressed in black. 
Nearly an hour intervened when the great doors of 
the mivsion church o]icned. the bells rang out a loud 
discordant peal, the ]irivalc signal for \is was run u]) 
by the ca])tain ashore, the bride, dresscil in complete 
white, ciune out of the church with the bridegroom, 
followed bv a long )irocession. 

••Just asshestci)i)ed from the clnircli door, a small. 
white cloud issued from the bows of our shi|i, which 
was full in sight, the loud report echoed among the 
hills and over the bay. and instantly the ship was 
dressed in flags and pennants from stem to stern. 
Twenty-three guns followed in regular succession, 
with an interval of fifteen seconds between each, when 
the cloud blew ott' ;uiil our ship lay dressed in her 
colors all (lay. At sundown another salute of the 
same iiunil>er of guns was fired, and all the flags run 

"This we thought was pretty well — a gnu every 
fifteen seconds— for a merchant-man with oidy four 
guns and a dozen or twenty men. 

" After supper the gig's crew were called and we 
rowed ashore, dressed in full uniform, beached the 
boat and went up to the fandango. The bride's 
father's house was the principal one in the place, with 
a large court in front, upon which a tent was built, 
capable of containing several hundred people. As we 
drew near we beard the accustomed sound of violins 
and guitars, and saw a great motion of the people 
within. Going in, we found nearly all the people of 
the town — men, women, and children, collected and 
crowded together, leaving barely room for the dancers; 
for on these occasions no invitations are given, but 
every one is expected to come, though there is always 
a private entertainment within the house for particu- 
lar friends. 

•' The old women sat down in rows, clapping their 
hands to the music and applauding the young ones. 

" The music waslivelj^ and among the tunes we rec- 
ognized several of our po])ular airs, which we, without 
doubt, have taken from the Spanish. 

••In the dancing. I was much <lisappointed. The 
women stood upright with their hands down l)y their 
sides, their eyes fixed upon the ground before them, 
and slid about without any perce|)tible means of 
motion; for their feet were invisible, the hem of their 
dresses forming a circle about them, reaching to the 
ground. They looked as grave as though they were 
going through some religious ceremony, their faces 
as little excited as their limbs, and on the whole, in- 
stead of the spirited, fascinating, Spanish dances 
which I had expected, 1 found the Californian fan- 
dango, on the pari of the women at least, a lifeless 

••The men did belter. They <laiiee<l with grace and 
spirit, moving in circles around their nearly stationary 
partnei-s, and showing their figures to advantage, 

" A gi'eat deal was said about our friend Don Juan 
Bandini, and when he did ai>i>ear, which was toward 
the close of the evening, he certainly gave us the 
most graceful dancing that I had ever seen. He was 
dressed in white pantaloons, neatly made, a short 
jacket of dark silk gaily figured, white stockings and 
thin morocco slippers upon his verA- small feet. His 
slight and graceful figure was well adapted to danc- 



ing, and he moved about with the grace and daintiness 
of a young fawn. 

" He was loudly applauded, and danced frequently 
toward the close of the evening. After the supper 
the waltzing began, which was confined to a very 
few of the " gente de razon," and was considered a 
high accomplishment, and a mark of aristocracy. 
Here, too, Don Juan figured greatly, waltzing with 
the sister of the bride (Dona Angustia, a handsome 
woman and a general favorite), in a variety of beau- 
titul figures, which lasted as much as half an hour, no 
one else taking the floor. They were repeatedly and 
loudly applauded, the old men and women jumping 
out of their seats in admiration, and the young people 
waving their hats and handkerchiefs. 


"The great amusement of the evening — owing to its 
being the carnival — was the breaking of eggs filled 
with cologne, or other essences, upon the heads of 
the company. The women bring a great number of 
these secretly about thein, and the amusement is to 
break one upon the head ol a gentleman when his 
back is turned. He is bound in gallantry to find out 
the lady and return the compliment, though it must 
not be done if the person sees you. A tali, stately 
Don, with immense gray whiskers, and a look of 
great importance, was standing before me, when I 
felt a light hand upon my shoulder, and, turning- 
round, saw Dona Angustia (whom we all knew, as 
she had been up to Monterey and down again in the 
Alert), with her finger upon her lip, motioning me 
gently aside. I stepped back a little, when she went 
up behind the Don, and with one hand knocked off 
his huge sombrero, and at the same instant, with the 
other, broke the egg upon his head, and, springing 
behind me, was out of sight in a moment. The Don 
turned slowly rouml, llic coloiiiie running down his 
face ami nver his rlolln^. aiitl ;i loud laugh breaking 
out from uvfiy (|iiarlcr. A ^rful many such tricks 
were played, and many a war of sharp manoeuvering 
was carried on between couples of the younger peo- 
ple, and at every successful exploit a general laugh was 

love's offering. 

•'Another of their games I was for some time at a 
loss about. A pretty young girl was dancing, named 
— after what would appear to us an almost sacri- 
legious custom of the country — Espiritu Santa, when 
a young man went behind- her and ])laced his hat 
directly upon her head, letting it fall down over her 
eyes, and spi-ang back among the crowd. She danced 
for some time with the hat on, when she threw it off, 
which called forth a general shout, and the young 
man was ohli^■ed to go out upon the fluor and ]iiek it 
up. I sdiiii iM'gan to suspect tlu' niciiiiiiig of the 
thing, ami was allerwards told tlial il was a compli- 
ment, ami ail (illVr to become the laily's gallant for 
the rest of the evening, and to wait upon her home. 

" The captain sent for us about ten o'clock, and we 
went aboard in high S])irits, having enjoyed the new 
scene much, and were of great importance among the 
crew, from having so much to tell, and from the pros- 
pect of going every night until it was over; for these 
fandangos generally last three days. The next day 
two of us were sent up town, and took care to come 
back by way of Senor Noriega's and take a look into 
the booth. The musicians were again there, upon 
their platform, scraping and twanging away, and a 
few people, apparently of the Ipwer classes, were 

dancing. The dancing is kept up, at intervals, 
throughout the daj-, but the crowd, the spirit, and the 
e'lVe come in at night. The next night, which was 
the last, we went ashore in the same manner, until 
we got almost tired of the monotonous twang of the 
instruments, the drawling sounds which the women 
kept up, as an accompaniment, and the slapping of 
the hands in time with the music in place of castanets. 
We found ourselves as great objects of attention as 
any persons or anything at the place. Our sailors' 
dresses were much admired, and we were invited from 
every quarter to give them an American dance. Our 
agent, with a tight, black, swallow-tailed coat just 
imported from Boston, a high, stiff cravat, looking as 
if he had been pinned and skewered, with only his 
feet and hands left free, took the floor just after 
Bandini, and we thought they had had enough of 
Yankee grace. The last night they kept it up m 
grand style, and were getting into a high-go, when 
the captain called us off to go aboard, for, it being 
southeaster season, he was afraid to remain on shore 
long; and it was well he did not, for that night we 
slipped our cables, as a crowner to our fun ashore, 
and stood off before a southeaster, which lasted 
twelve hours, and returned to our anchorage the next 

Accession of Miclieltoreua as Governor — Pio Pico Governor — 
Couditiou of California in 1845 — Fremont's Coming — His 
Departure and Sudilen Retur — Capture of Sonoma — The 
Famous Flag— Fremont's Battalion— U. S. Flag Raised 
in Monterey — Fremont's Capture of Military Stores — Pio 
Pico's Remonstrance — Stockton to the Front— Second Con- 
quest — Flores' Proclamation — Approach of General Kear- 
ney — The March to Los Angeles— Fremont's March— Van- 
dalism — Battle of San Gabriel— Fremont's Treaty — Political 
and Military Storm — Occupation of Santa Barbara by Ste- 
venson's Regimant — Story of the Lost Cannon. 

We left Alvarado enjoying the authority and 
emoluments of the position of Governor. The latter 
formed much the largest attraction to men of Alva- 
rado's character. He was not allowed to enjoy the 
proceeds in peace, however. Many of the influential 
families, among whom was Vallejo, were engaged in 
gutting a successor appointed. Alvarado had as 
earnestly worked to have a new general appointed 
ill place of Vallejo. Both were gratified, in some 
respects at least; both were removed. 

In August, 1842, tfeneral Micheltorena arrived 
with the appointment to the Governorship of Cal- 
ifornia. He was an old soldier, having fought in 
Texas with Santa Ana and learned something of 
the fighting qualities of the American people. He 
brought many of his old soldiers with him who 
were said to be an undesii'able element even in 
frontier society. Manj' of them had wives of the 
sort that follow cjiinps. He was received with re- 
joicings, however, for a new Governor would be the 
occasion for fandangos and bull-fights. He landed 
at San Diego, and was traveling northward, receiv- 
ing the homage and hospitality of the country, when 
he received a message that made him retrace his 





steps. Commodore Jones, of the Uniteil States Navy, 
had sailed into tlie liarlioi- of the eapitai with tie 
sloop-of'-war Ci/ane and tlie frigate Uniteil S/<i/en. ai:d 
had tulcen possession of the town in the name of tiie 
United States, hoisting the stars and stripes. Alva- 
rado, the aotiiiff Governor, rather favored this trans- 
fer than otlierwise. preferring to yiel<l up li's authority 
to the United States, perhaps looking to future favors. 

The act was an astounding one under any eireum- 
stances. The two nations were supposed to be at 
peace. There had always existed a fear that the 
wild trappers from the Rockies would capturr the 
country, but ni',n-of-wir were supi)osed to be in the 
command of gentlemen. The circumstances re(iuire 
an explanation. Both the United States and England 
had been looking with a longing e_ye to the harbor of 
San Francisco. Both had possessions on the coast, 
and both were well-informed as to the value of the 
harbor and its surrounding, as well as to the weak- 
ness of the Mexican Government, which could exert 
but a nominal authority over the distant colony, 
which, it was expected, would soon drop like a ri])e 
apple into the hands of some stronger power. Texas 
had some years before achieved its independcTice, and 
had made application to be admitted into the Union. 
After the death of Harrison the project of admission 
was favored by the administration, though not actu- 
ally consummated until the last year of Tyler's rule. 
The politicians had expected on the admission of 
Texas, that Mexico, who, through her minister, had 
said that the admission of Texas would be considered 
a justifiable cause of war, would go on the war-path. 
Our tlcL't had been ordered around here w'ith instruc- 
tions to take possession of the country at the earliest 
excusable opportunity. Commodore Jones' informa- 
tion was premature; the war had not commenced, 
and he hauled down the flag, making such apology 
as the case denlanded — that it was a great mistake; 
that he tendered the Government his most distin- 
guished consideration, and all that sort of tine talk. 

Micheltorena assumed the chair of state without 
opposition. Lest Commodore Jones should again 
make a mistake and eaptui-e Monterey, he removed 
the ammunition and war stores to the mission of 
San Juan. Alvarado, having surrendered to a for- 
eigner without firing a gun, and was not in favor 
with the new administration, united with the discon- 
tented Vallejo, and, aided by Castro, captured the 
military stores and organized an insurrection. After 
some parleying the discontents refused to laj- down 
their arms, and proposed to attack the capital, 
Micheltorena summoned General Sutter, whose fol- 
lowers now amounted to near a hundred, to his 
assistance. Before consenting, he stipulated that 
grants of land should be made to his friends as he 
might direct, which were assented to; but he made 
such slow work of coming to the assistance of the 
Governor that his men mostly left him. On the 21st 
of February, 1843, the revolutionists under Castro 
moved out of Los Angeles to meet the Government 

foi-cos under Micheltorena. .\s there was about thu 
same number of foreigners on either side, if was 
mutually agreed that they should stand aloof, leav- 
ing the initives to settle the ((uostioii of suprem- 
acy. Whether anj- battle occurred is doubtful, but 
one was reported to the home Government, with 
Micheltorena defcalid and nunil.ei-s slain, the de- 
feated parly, with siich ..f his otlieer- ami adherents 
who had not intermarried with the ( "alifornians, 
going on hoard of an American slii]) and sailing for 
San Bias. It is a notable circumstance that inter- 
niarriiii;-*- with the Mexican families was considered 
sceurity li>r tlir good behavior of a foreigner; hence 
Burton, Thom])son, Jones, and otiui- .Vniericans of 
Santa Barbara were not molested in the atl'air or 

I'lo IMCO litlVKHNoK. 

Pico was appointed (Jovcrnor by the Departmental 
Deputation, and can\e into possession of the custom, 
Castro, of course, commencing to intrigue against 
him. Pico was the last of the California Governors. 
So fiir the revolutions had not broken the surface of 
every day affairs. The cattle in the thousand valleys 
went on multiplying, making their owners rich, with- 
out regard to the collection of customs at Monterey; 
but the time had come when a new order of events 
was to succeed. 


The secularization of the missions, and the conse- 
quent immigration, had worked a mai'velous change- 
From a few hundred scattered among the missions, 
the European population, and their descendants, had 
become at least 15,000. Of these, 2,000 were from 
the United States, made up. as a general thing, from 
the most daring and active of the Western States. 
They were settled, to a great extent, in the northern 
part of the Territory. They were used to privations, 
and knew how to defend themselves either from 
the attacks of wild beasts, wilder Indians, or the 
half-civilized Caliibrnian. It is quite probable that a 
few years more would have seen the story of Texas 
re-enacted on the Pacific Coast, and a new Anglo- 
Saxon empire carved out of the once vast Spanish 
possessions. The American population only needed 
an oiciision and a leader, and these are scarcely ever 
wanting, to oust the Spanish population and set up 
a dominion of their own. 

While local circumstances were jjointin-- to this 
final result, the relations between Mexico and the 
United States were becoming every day more criti- 
cal, and it was evident to every intelligent man that 
a near collision between the two nations was inevi- 
table. War with the hated griiu/o was popular in 
Mexico, and the extension of national boundaries by 
con<iuest. not less so in the United States. 


While things were in this eventful condition, the 
United States Government dispatched John C. Fre- 
moTit on a third tour across the plains, ostensibly to 



find a better route to the mouth of the Columbia 
River, but with a private understanding that he 
should be sufficiently near to assist in the event of 
the breaking out of hostilities between the two 
nations. He reached the frontier early in March, 
1846, with a force of only sixty-two men. The force 
was ample to cross the plains, or to make a scientific 
exploration, but very much too small for military 
purposes; he was a natural leader of men, daring 
and decisive, and, if necessary, could organize 
the Yankee population into a battalion that would 
soon settle all questions of the supremacy of the 
Anglo-Saxon or Spanish races. He visited the capital, 
and asked permission to recruit his men and horses 
in the San Joaquin Yalley, where there was plenty of 
game and grass, but no ranches, before proceeding 
on his way to Oregon, which was granted. Castro, 
however, thought he saw the opportunity of getting 
into favor with the Mexican Government, by captur- 
ing Fremont and his band, and immediately com- 
menced raising a company for that purpose, and in a 
few days had 300 mounted men. He now, under 
plea of fresh instructions from Mexico, ordered Fre- 
mont out of the country under penalty of utter 
extermination. Fremont refused to depart after hav- 
ing had permission to remain, and entrenched him- 
self at " Hawk's Peak," about thirtj' miles from Mon- 
terey. Castro issued several high-sounding procla- 
mations, and rode furiously around the little band, 
but made no attack, having a wholesome fear of the 
unerring rifles of Fremont's party. It is likely that 
both parties were not desirous of bringing on fight- 
ing, as the destruction of Fremont's party would 
have arrayed all the Americans against the Govern- 
ment, and the death of many of the Mexicans would 
have made the pacification of the people more diffi- 
cult in case he was to take possession of the country. 
If, however, Fremont could be frightened into sur- 
rendering, without bloodshed, as Mrs. Toodles would 
say, "it would be so convenient." but he did not sur- 


Finding that there was little danger of being 
attacked, he left his fortified camp, and leisurely 
traveled towards Oregon, leaving Castro to boast of 
having driven him out of the country. When Fre- 
mont had reached the Oregon line, he learned that 
an officer of the United States Army was on his trail 
with important dispatches. He immediately retraced 
his steps atid met Lieutenant Gillespie, who had 
crossed the continent from Vera Cruz to Mazatlan, 
and thence to Monterey, in a sloop of war, with 
unwritten, but important dispatches, the written 
letters only commending him to Fremont's favor and 
confidence. A letter from Thomas H. Benton and 
other members .of the family, contained paragraphs, 
which would have appeared innocent enough if cap- 
tured by the custom house, or other authorities, but 
which, explained by the verbal communications, 

were momentous. On his return to the Sacramento 
Valley, Fremont found the settlers in a state of ex- 
citement. The determination of the Californians to 
drive out the gringos was becoming more apparent 
every day, and in the absence of better information, 
they were led to believe that Frer^ont had actually 
fled before Castro's cavalry. There was a report 
that Castro was advancing with a force upon Sacra- 
mento Valley, and the settlers immediately began to 
flock to Fremont who had his camp near the mouth 
of Feather River. The story of the actual move- 
ment of troops to expel the settlers was so far true, 
that horses for mounting a legion to expel the Amer- 
icans were being taken from Sonoma and other val- 
leys to San Jose. It was deemed wise and justifiable 
to interfere with this arrangement, and actual hostil- 
ities were commenced by intercepting the horses and 
sending word to Castro by the vaqueros, that if he 
wanted the horses, he must come and take them. 


A party of twelve men, under Merrit, seized 
Sonoma with nine brass cannon and 250 stand of 
arms. They also made prisoners Vallejo and several 
other prominent persons, sending them to Sutter's 
Fort at Sacramento. The town of Sonoma was 
garrisoned by eighteen men under William B. Ide, 
which force was, however, soon increased to forty- 
Ide issued a proclamation setting forth a list of 
wrongs which justified the taking of authority into 
their own hands, and recommended the people gener- 
ally to continue their usual avocations, assuring them of 
protection. Castro also issued a proclamation request- 
ing the people to rise and annihilate the rapacious in- 
vader. Ide's proclamation seemed to draw best, for in 
a few days he felt strong enough to send out an attack- 
ing party to avenge the death of two^oung men who 
were captured and brutally murdered while on their 
way to Bodega. The attacking party was com- 
manded by Lieutenant Ford, and numbered twenty- 
one men; the other by Captain De la Torre, and 
numbered eighty-six, the latter company having 
received a large accession without the knowledge of 
the Americans, or the result might have been differ- 
ent, but De la Torres' party was routed with the loss 
of eight killed and two wounded. 


A decent regard for the opinions of mankind, con- 
sidering that a state of war existed, prompted the 
rebels to rear a flag under which to fight, fulminate, 
and negotiate, and the famous bear flag, which was 
a rather inartistic representation of a grizzly, done 
with a compound of berry juice and shoe blacking, 
laid on with a blacking-brush, was the result. This 
flag, much faded, is now in the possession of the 
Society of California Pioneers, at San Francisco, and 
is occasionallj^ brought out. It is highly valued, and 
is preserved with great care. 




Fri-'moiit was now busy in ovij;:uii/.in>r a liallalion 
to maintain the dignity of tlio now State. Nearly 
tho whole Amcrieaii popuhition joined or sent in 
assurances of suiiport. Still, many things were 
wanted liesiiles mm. Nearly all had arms, but 
horses and. more than all. boats, were scarce, and 
the timber Irom which to eonstruct them fifty miles 
away. Word was brought that Castro was crossing 
the baj" with 200 soldiers to fall ujion Ides garrison. 
In thirtj--six hours he. with ninety riflemen, had 
ridden eighty miles to Sonoma, but Castro did not 
put in an appearance. De hi Torre's force was the 
only one on the north side of the bay, and that made 
all haste to cross. Some of the rear guard and nine 
pieces of cannon fell into Fremont's possession, but 
the main body made their escape across the bay by 
means of a boat which had just arrived. This was 
the last time the Mexican flag was seen floating on 
the north side of the bay. Fremont, accompanied 
by Carson and Gillespie, and a few others, crossed 
the bay to the Presidio, took the commander of the 
port prisoner, spiked the ten guns, and returned to 
the north shore. July 5, 1846, the form of declaring 
an independent State was gone through with. The 
grand army, or Fremont's battalion, now numbered 
160 mounted riflemen. The pursuit of Castro was 
now detei-mined upon. There was no means of 
crossing to the south side nearer than the Sacra- 
mento, which involved several daj^s' ride, but nothing 
deten-ed by this. Fremont and his battalion started. 
Castro was understood to be intrenched at San Jose. 
After Fremont had departed on this errand, news 
came which necessitated another change of affairs. 


Commodore Sloat arrived in Monterey July 2, 
181:6. Instructions had been forwarded to him, dated 
May 15th. to take Mazatlan, Monterey, and San 
Francisco, and hold them at all hazards, but they 
had not reached his hand. He was even insti-ucted 
to strike if he heard of the existence of war, without 
waiting for an official notice. Fremont's bold opera- 
tions furnished sufficient information, and he con- 
cluded to co-operate with him in capturing Castro. 
There wei-e other reasons also. An English fleet was 
watching the American fleet. War was expected, 
and if any pretext could be found, such as a revolu- 
tionary^ piii'ty appealing to the British squadron for 
protection, they would also assert authority over the 
country. When the American ship sailed out of 
Mazatlan, the English ship sailed out of San Bias, 
both making every effort to reach Monterey first. 
When the English arrived, the American flag was 
flying from the Custom House. It was now learned 
how near California came to being an English pos- 
session. Mr. Forbes, the former agent of the Hudson 
Bay Company, had, some years before, written a 
book on the resources of California and its valuable 

harbors, and had convinced the British authorities 
of the policy of getting the country, .-^s early as 
Aj)ril, 1846, Forbes had an interview with Governor 
Pico, Castro, and Vallejo, in reference to a protectorate. 
The excuse that the Yankees were about to take it 
would be suflScieut to ajipease Mexico. Thomas (). 
Larkin was the first tn get knciwlecl^-e of ihc matter. 
The plan did not suit all of the .Mexicans. A pionii- 
nent native opposed it. saying, •' 1 1 seems ice are to 
fall into the jaws of (he bull-iloij or the greyhound ; the 
latter is first in the race, let him take California.' The 
project of Anglicizing the province included an enor- 
mous land grant, amounting to 3.000 square leagues, 
to an Irish colonj^ which wa.s to take jjossession of 
San Joaquin Valley. This latter plan had been com- 
municated to Fremont by Lieutenant (^illesjjie, and 
was also known by Thomas O. Larkin, so Commo- 
dore Sloat sent 250 marines, under Captain Marvin, 
and took possession of the Custom House and other 
public buildings, July 7th, and California became 
virtually a port of the American domain. When 
the Sonoma party heard of the matter they hauled 
down the Bear flag and ran up the stars and stripes 
with much rejoicing; in fact, the act was a cause of 
rejoicing throughout all California. The flag was 
raised at San Francisco the 8th, and at Sonoma the 
10th of July. 

Fremont's capture of military stores. 

It will be remembered that when Castro and Alva- 
rado ousted Micheltorena, they first of all captured 
the military stores concealed at the mission of San 
Juan. These had not been removed, and one of the 
first measures taken bj' Sloat was to get possession 
of them. Purser Fauntleroy was sent on this ei-rand, 
but an hour before he arrived Fremont had dashed 
into the town and captured the stores, unearthing 
nine pieces of cannon, 200 old muskets, and a large 
quantity of powder and shot. Fremont received a 
polite request to report on board the Savannah. 
Accordingly, the next day, Fremont and Gillespie 
visited the Commodore, who was anxious to know 
under what or whose oi'ders he was making such a 
row. Fremont disclaimed any authority for doing 
as he had done; was acting on his own judgment. 
Sloat had acted on the presumption that Fremont 
had orders! Commodore Sloat felt inclined to be 
angry; thought he had made a fool of himself, as 
('ommodore Jones had in 1842; would return home 
at the first opportunity. 

pio Pico's remonstrance. 

Pico, who was acting as Governor, and made 
Santa Barbara his headquarters for the time being, 
addressed a long letter to Thomas O. Larkin, the 
United State Consul at Monterey, protesting against 
the acts of Fremont and Ide as being contrary to 
the law of nations and unworthy of civilized people; 
that until centain knowledge of actual war between 
the two nations was received, it was the duty of all 


citizens to maintain peace, and he called on Larkin, 
as the representative of the American Government, to 
interfere and prevent such lawless acts as Ide and 
Fremont were committing. This letter was dated 
June 29, 1846. Larkin replied to Pico under date of 
July 5th, disclaiming any authority or responsibility 
in the case, and pointed out the probability of a col- 
lusion between Ide and Valiejo, since the latter had 
surrendered to an inferior force without firing a gun. 

It seems that there is some confusion existing as 
to when the knowledge of actual hostilities was 
received. Walter Colton, who was appointed Alcalde 
of Monterey soon after its occupation by Commo- 
dore Sloat, says that the British brig-of-war. Spy, 
brought the news from San Bias, but would not 
make it known, August 10, 1846; that the United 
States ship, Warren, brought the news from Mazatlan, 
arriving at Monterey August 12th. 

Sloat's proclamation of July 7th relates the fact of 
the battles between General Arista and General 
Taylor, and the captui-e of Brownsville the 8th and 
9th of May. Sloat considered the acts as proving a 
war in fact, without waiting for the formal recogni- 
tion by act of Congress. It was considered by most 
persons that the orders issued to Taylor to cross the 
river Keuces was, in fact, a declaration of hostilities 
towards Mexico. This order, and its almost certain 
consequences, may account for the active measures 
in California countenanced or advised by the Admin- 


Commodore Stockton came into Monterey on the 
15th of July in the frigate Congress, and heartily 
co-operated with Fremont who now turned over his 
battalion, glad to have the responsibility rest on a 
naval officer. Sloat returned to the East when he 
found himself out of favor for not having done more 
instead of less. As proclamations seem to suit the 
California jjeople, Stockton issued a grandiloquent one 
full of high-sounding sentiments, but did not, how- 
ever, rest his hopes of success on them, for he imme- 
diately sent Fremont with his battalion to San Diego 
to sweep northward from that point. He embarked 
on the Cyane, August 23d, Stockton embai-king for 
San Pedro the 30th of the same month. He touched 
at Santa Barbara, which town offering no resistance, 
he garrisoned with a force of ten men under Lieu- 
tenant Talbot, and proceeded with the vessel to San 
Pedro. Here he learned that Fremont could not 
mount his battalion, the horses all having been driven 
away from that part of the country ; consequently, 
he received no assistance from that quarter. 

Stockton, however, determined to move upon Castro 
even if he did so on foot. So the. marines were put 
ashore and drilled as infantry. Six small cannon 
were landed from the ships for artillery. Cattle for 
provisions were inclosed in a hollow square. Thus 
iu-ringed they commenced their march, and made the 
distance in one ilay, entering Los Angeles the next 

morning at eight. There was much threatening on the 
part of Castro to exterminate the invaders if they set 
foot in the city, but he retired as Stockton came in, 
making good his retreat to Sonora. Soon after the 
surrender of the place he was joined by Fremont and 
his battalion who had been unable to intercept the 
flight of Castro into Sonora. There were several 
routes, and Fremont's party being badly mounted, 
and Castro having an abundance of fresh horses, his 
escape was inevitable. Leaving small garrisons at 
San Diego, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara, the 
army returned to Monterey on several vessels. 


The conquest of the country was now considered 
completed. Stockton was welcomed by both Mexi- 
cans and Americans; by the former, because thej^ 
hoped for a stable government, and by the latter 
because they hoped to have equal rights with the 
natives. He was contemplating the extension of the 
war into Mexico, when an uprising in the southern 
part of the State forced him to do the work over 
again. Several prominent citizens who had signed a 
parole not to serve until exchanged, among whom 
was General Flores, organized an insurrection and 
invested Los Angeles with a large force September 
23d. Lieutenant Gillespie, who was in command, was 
obliged to capitulate, but was allowed to march to 
Monterey. The garrison at San Diego escaped on 
board a whaler that was in the harbor. Lieutenant 
Talbot, who was left in charge of Santa Barbara, 
with ten men, would not surrender though surrounded 
by two hundred horsemen. They made their way 
out by night and took to the mountains, where they 
were hunted for some time by the Californians, who 
burned over the country to route them out of their 
hiding place. But a friendly canon in the pine forest 
concealed them, until they were found by Cholo, an 
Indian chief who conducted them to the San Joaquin 
Valley, from which place they made their way to 
Monterey, where they arrived half starved, after 
having traveled five hundred miles. 


Almost the whole native population were now in 
arms. Flores issued a proclamation, in which over 
three hundred persons joined, as follows: — 

" Mexican Army, ) 
"Section of Operations Angeles, Oct. 1, 1846. J 
" Fellow-Citizens: It is a month and a half that, 
by lamentable fatality, fruit of the cowardice and 
inability of the first authorities of the department, we 
behold ourselves subjugated and oppressed by an 
insignificant force of adventurers of the United States 
of America, and placing us in a worse condition than 
that of slaves. 

" They are dictating to us despotic and arbitrary 
laws, and loading us with contributions and onerary 
burdens, which have for an object the ruin of our 
industry and agriculture, and to force us to abandon 
our property, to be possessed and divided among 


r/l z 



•And shall wo bi' capable to allow ourselves to be 
Mibjutcated. and to aeeept by our silenc-o I lie weiithtv 
ehains of slavery ? Shall we permit to be lost the soil 
inherited from our fathei-s, which cost them so much 
blood and so many sacritices ? Shall we make our 
families the vic^tim's of the most barbarous slavery? 
Shall we wait to see our wives violated, our iinioccnl 
children ]ninishe(l by American wlii]is. our projicrty 
sacked, our temples profaned, and. lastly, to drai; 
throut^h an existence full of insult ami shame? Nol 
a thousand times, no! Countrymen, death first! 

• Who of vou docs not feel li'is heart beat with vio 
lence ? who "docs not feel his blood boil, to contcni 
plate our situation; and who will be the Mexican who 
will not fed indiiinant and will not rise to take up 
arms to destroy our oppressors ? We believe there i^ 
not one so vile' and cowardly. With such a motive 
the majority of the inhabitants of the districts, justly 
indignant against our tvrants. raisv (he cry of war. 
with arms in their hand's, and with one accord swear 
lo sustain the tollowini;- articles: - 

■■1st. We, the inhabitants of the de|)artmciil .if Cali- 
fornia, as members of the great Mexican nation. 
declare that it is and has been our wish to bilonu' to 
her alone, free and independent. 

-2(1. Coiiseipicntly, the authorities intended and 
named by the in vad'ini; forces of the United States are 
lield null an.l void. 

••3d. All the North Americans being enemies of 
Mexico, we swear not to lay down our arms till they 
are expelled from the .Mexican territory. 

■ -Ith. All Mexican citizens from the age of fifteen to 
sixty, who do not take up arms to forward the pres- 
ent plan, are declared traitors and under the pain of 

"5th. Every Mexican or foreigner who may directly 
or indirectlj- aid the enemies of Mexico will be pun- 
ished in the same manner. 

• (ith. The property of the North Americans in the 
department, who may have directl}' or indirectly 
taken any point with, or aided the enemies, shall be 
confiscated ami used for the ex])enses of the war; and 
their jicrsons shall be taken to the interior of the 

''7th. All those who o))])ose the present plan shall be 
punished with arms. 

"8th. All the inhabitants of Santa Barbara, and the 
district of the north, will be invited immediately to 
adhere to the present plan. Jose Ma. Flores. 

Camp in Angeles, September 24. 184G.'' 

Some ot the beauty and force of this pajicr may 
have been lost in the translation, but the stj-lc would 
do honor to any 4th of July orator that ever lived. 


The vessels of war were mostly at San Francisco, 
to which point Commodore Stockton hurried with all 
speed, and dispatched the frigate Savannah to San 
Pedro, where Captain Mervine, with about three 
hundred and twenty men were roughly handled by a 
large force of mounted Californians about twelve 
miles from the port. Stockton reaching the place in 
the frigate Congress a few days after, renewed the 
attack with better success; but in order to give Fre- 
mont, who had gone to Santa Barbara, time to 
meet and co-operate with him. he embarked all his 
forces and sailed for San Diego, where in trying to 
enter the harbor the frigate Congress grounded on 

the bar. While in this disabled condili..n the Call 
fornians made an attack on ihc town, wliirli wa- 
repulscd. The jirospect was anyl liing but eiiroura^' 
ing. ll \va- in llic rainy -.aMin, when I he i;Tounil 
was soft, and ulicn tin rr \va- little grass, 'fo add lo 
the criliiai rirninislanccs. Krcmonl was unable to 
niouni lii> nun al Santa Barbara, and was obliged to 

from Ihc •ihcrn pari ol' tli.' Irrrilory. StocUlon 

establi^JR.d a t..rlilir.| camp and scl hi- men makin- 
sad.llo, bridles, l.aniosr-.. cl.-.. prci.aralorv to a .-am 

(1 wa>. 

co-operate in the conipiest of (Jalifornia. but hearing 
that the conquest was completed, he turned the 
larger part of the troops south to 0[)erate on what 
was called the northern line. During his march ho 
captured a mail-carrier with two letters which stated 
that the country was in arms and the Americans 
driven out, which he did not ci'cdit. though it was 
true of the southern part of California. He did not 
expose his weakness, lest, the letter being captured, 
he might be attacked. Apprehending the situation, 
however, Stockton dispatched Gillespie the same 
evening with thirty-five men to meet Kearney. On 
the 0th of December another messenger informed 
Stockton of an attack at San Pascal with a loss of 
eighteen men killed and as many more wounded and 
the loss of one howitzer. He had fortified himself 
on a rocky eminence. Iml was nearly destilutc 
of ammunition and sii]i]ilics. Stockton was on 
the |>oiut of moving with his whole force to meet 
Kearney when favorable news came; he therefore 
sent two hundred and fifty men under Lieutenant 
(iray. who ctt'ectcd a junctiiin with him, and escorted 
him into the camp. To illustrate how poorly Stock- 
ton and his party were prepared for war it may be 
mentioned that all the available horses were used by 
Gillesijlc and his i)arty, and that when Kearney came 
in Stockton had fo receive him on foot. All the 
machinciy for conducting a land campaign were 
wanting, horses, artillery, ambulances, provisions; all 
had to be created or gathered from the enemy, but 
orders were given to start December 28th. 


Tlu' distance to fjos .Vngeles was 145 miles across 
sandy plains, adobe hills, and rugged mountains. 
The I'lifirc force consisted of 540 sailors and marines^ 
with sixty of Kearney's dragoons, and six pieces Of 
artillery. The horses were so poor that Captain 
Tumer of the artillery, declined using them, while the 
draft horses for stores were so poor that many 
gave out daily. This necessarily made the progresg 
slow and labnrio\is to the men who were obliged to 



expend much labor in moving the trains of baggage 
and artillery. The well mounted Californians were 
hovering around watching for an opportunity to sur- 
prise and cut off straggling detachments; but the dis 
astrous results attending the loose marching of Caj^t- 
ain Mersdne on a former occasion, were constantly 
in view, and a solid front was presented in every 
direction. Kit Carson, the celebi-ated scout, had 
command of a few mounted rangers and kept the little 
army well infoi-med of the pi-esence or threatening 
attitude of the enemy. January 9th, Stockton opened 
communication with Fremont who had succeeded in 
mounting his men with horses from the Sacramento 
which had been obtained by Edwin Bryant and 

Fremont's march. 

The battalion was made up of his own raugei-s who 
had crossed the plains with him, volunteers from the 
Sacramento, who were mostly recent immigrants and 
good with a rifle, a few "Walla Walla Indians, and 
some native Californians, numbering altogether 
428. Each man carried a rif!e, holster-pistols, and 
sometimes pocket-pistols, and knife. There was no 
uniform, each one wearing buckskin, Kentucky jeans, 
or both, as they happened to be provided. The 
stores were packed on mules, and a drove of five or 
six hundred mules were driven along as relays. A 
hundred cattle were to furnish meat. They began 
their march the 30th day of November. The rains 
had softened the trails so that but fifteen miles a day 
was the average march. The streams which in the 
summer were dry gorges were now swimniing, and 
the artillery had to be rafted over. The cattle were 
soon used up, but they foinid a good supply of sheep 
at San Luis Obispo, which enabled them to move on. 
They captured some prisoners, men who were found 
in arms after having been paroled. Among these 
was one of the Pico family. An example was con- 
sidered necessary and Pico was tried by a court mar- 
tial, and sentenced to be shot. Many of the Califor. 
nians paroled at Santa Barbara and other places, had 
taken up arms. They had, to the number of 200 
arose upon Lieutenant Talbot, with his ten men left 
at Santa Barbara as a garrison. General Flores and 
1 de la Torre were among those who had 
their parole. They, with many others had 
been dismissed with the assurance that themselves 
and property would not be molested, but war has its 
disagreeable side. When horses and cattle were 
wanted they were taken sometimes without even a 
scrap of paper to show by whom or for what purpose. 
This rough treatment was considered a sufficient 
reason for bi-eaking their promise not to serve again, 
whether justly or not, let military men determine. 
Pico was condemned to be shot but a procession of 
women interceded and the man's life was spared. 
The act won the hearts of the people, and perhaps 
was a wise measure. A great number of Californians 
had assembled at the Gaviota Pass to dispute Fre- 
mont's passage. This pass is some twelve or fifteen 

miles long, and in many places had perpendicular 
walls of hundreds of feet where rocks might be tumbled 
down on the passing army without danger to the 
attacking party. But Fremont was to wary to be 
caught in this cul de sac. Under the guidance of 
William Foxen, he passed over the Santa Ynez Mount- 
ains, some miles to the left. Christmas day he was 
dragging the cannon up the steep canons amid a 
driving rain, which made a torrent of every depres- 
sion, and swept away many of the animals. He 
reached the base of the mountain after dark with a 
portion of his force, but so wet was everything that 
no fire could be kindled. The next day the balance 
of the force and baggage was brought down, but the 
loss of animals was so great that the men could not 
all be mounted. Fremont was somewhat exasper- 
ated. Half the people of Santa Barbara had broken 
their parole, and it is said he seriously contemplated 
the destruction of the town, which, considei'ing the 
weather would have caused an immense amount of 
suffering among the women and children. Some of 
the American citizens, among whom was W. B. 
Streeter, who had resided there for some years inter- 
posed on the side of mercy. Captain Noriega and 
other prominent Californians also interceded and 
Fremont entered the town in a friendly manner 
December 27th, and remained encamped there a week, 
exchanging such civilities with the citizens as the 
circumstances would permit. 

January 5, 1847, he resumed his march. The ship 
Cyane had been ordered to attend him at the Rincon 
Pass. This is a narrow pass, overflowed at high tide, 
between the sea and the mountains which here jut 
boldly into the sea. The place had often been the 
scene of stubborn resistance in the petty revolutions 
of California, but no enemy put in an appearance and 
it was safely passed. Some miles north of Ventura 
a body of sixty or seventy horsemen seemed disposed 
to dispute their progress, but retired as Fremont 
pressed toward them, and the San Buenaventura Mis- 
sion was reached without loss. 


In a recent publication Fremont is charged with 
camping in the missions on this campaign and per- 
mitting his men to use the records of the churches 
and other costly and valuable manuscripts to build 
camp-fires. Some of his unlettered followers might 
have been guilty of vandalism, but the writer can 
find no reason for charging Fremont with a willful or 
even indifferent destruction of the records. The San 
Buenaventura records are certainly complete. The 
writer alluded to, presuming upon the impossibility 
of proving the contrary, draws a veiy graphic picture 
of an earthquake, some fi fty years since, which shook 
down all the buildings, and was succeeded by a tidal 
wave, which swept out to sea the bodies of priest, 
men, women, and maidens, to become food for sharks, 
or to be tossed upon the sandy beach to rot in the 
sun, all of which was duly recorded in the manu- 


script!* destroyed by Fremont. Iliivinn- fnllowod 
Fremont's fortunes to near the elosini;- act. we will 
now return to Stocl<ton's eommand. 


StocUion met no serious opposition milil tlic ith "t 
January, wlien he reached the river San (ialirid, not 
far from the mission of that name. A thousand or more 
men were posted here in a position to command tiie 
fort, intending to contest the passage of Stockton's 

The hank on wliieli the enemy restcil was a 
mesn or table-land considerably elevated aliov<' the 
river aswell as the opposite bank. January sih. Stock- 
ton formed his men, and gave orders that not a gun 
should be tired until all were across, which was carried 
out though the Californians kept up a continued, 
though ineffectual fusilade from the opposite bank. 
The soldiers were reminded that this was the anniver- 
sary of the battle of New Orleans, but the incentive of 
exchanging their half-starved and water-soaked con- 
dition for comfortable quarters at Los Angeles would 
have been a sutficient inducement to have fought well 
without any appeal to their patriotic feelings. While 
in the act of crossing, word was sent to Stockton 
that the water was four four feet deep, running over 
a bed of quicksand; that the cannon could not bo 
safely crossed. Stockton said, quicksands or not, the 
guns must go over. They did go, Stockton himself 
pulling at the ropes. When the force was well across 
the river, Kearney charged up the declivity with one 
detachment, while Stockton with another met a 
charge in flank which was made at this time, which, 
being repelled, Stockton pushed up with the artillery. 
When the Americans reached the crest of the mesa, 
they found the Mexicans drawn up in order of bat- 
tle. This was precisely what Stockton desired; the 
Mexicans were superior only in swift charges, coming 
and going like a whirlwind, while the superior rifle 
practice of the Americans would tell in a regular 
stand-up fight, and in a few minutes the Mexicans 
gave way. A portion of their right wing swung 
ai-ound on the rear of the Americans, endangering 
the baggage, but Captain Gillespie met them so vigor- 
ously that they retreated across the river. The main 
body retreated towards Los Angeles, offei-ing but little 
resistance to the progress of the Americans until they 
came to a plain where there was ample room to exert 
their horsemanship. Here they made a vigorous 
attack on three sides at once. A second anil a tliii<l 
time they charged, but wei-e unable to break the 
lines, and they fled in disorder, and Stockton took 
possession of Los Angeles June 10th, the enemy 
retreating towards the north, where they were met 
by Fremont, and here commenced the difficulty 
which eventually terminated in Fremont's suspension, 
and being sent home in disgrace. The Californians 
put on a show of resistance, refusing to surrender, 
but seemed willing to negotiate. 

FrcMioiit was not aware that Stockton had refused 
to entertain any proposals tor a -^unTiiclcr. but had 
threatened all who had broken I heir parole with suni- 
niarv vengeance, or he might not have entered into 
any negotiations as ho did: but the natives jirofessed 
to admire his clemency at Santa Harbara. and finally 
induced him to enter into negotiations for peace. Com- 
missioners, consisting of 1'. M. Redding. Captain Ijouis 
McLane,«ind Col. Wm. H. Huss,.||, on Ww part oftho 
Americans, and Don .lose Antonio Cairillo ami .\u- 
gustin Olivera on the pari of the Calil'ornians. met 
an. I agreed that n.. person sIh.uI.I Uc mol.'stc.l tor 
having broken iheir parole, l.ul that all should be 
permiltod to retire to their homes and should assist 
in maintaining the iieaee. The proceedings were 
ratifie<l by Fremont, as •■ .Military Commandant of 
California, " an<l by Andres Pico, as '• Commandant 
of Squadron and Chief of the National Forces of 
California." It was publicly announced as dosing 
the war. Flores fled to Sonora. It is doubtful if 
Flores had been among the parties to the treaty 
whether Stockton would have assented it. 

The treaty brought peace to the country, for it 
virtually ended the war; but the jealousies of the 
three chiefs, Fremont, Stockton, and Kearney, con- 
tinued, each of whom claimed to be the superior 
officer, de facto, at least. Fremont thought that 
Kearney had little right to claim the ])osition as 
chief of the military, since he came with no army 
and held no position except by rank. Neither wore 
in a condition to reject Fremont's treaty, so it was 
recognized. The natives who had been pardoned 
for an offense, criminal by all the laws of war, always 
looked upon Fremont as their friend. He turned his 
command over to Stockton, who appointed him Gov- 
ernor, Kearney protesting. Fremont now took his 
quarters in the Government mansion, where several 
Governors before him. had resided, and enjoyed for 
seven weeks the honors of the position. 

IE l'( 

•A I. ANl 


Kearney claimed to be the lawful (fovernor of 
California by virtue of seniority in the United States' 
service, and by virtue of direct orders to conquer 
California and establish a territorial Government, 
and after Stockton had departed found himself in a 
position to enforce his claims. Commodore Shubric 
reported to him as Governor, both, perhaps, jealous of 
so young a man as Fremont, who had vaulted into fame 
with such ease. Fremont now received orders to muster 
his battalion into the regular service, or proceed to 
San Francisco and discharge them; and was further 
informed that he was not Governor. A new man. 
Colonel Mason, was appointed to supersede him. 
Fremont now made his famous ride, 350 miles in 
three days and a half, from Los Angeles to Mon- 
terey, but General Kearney refused any reparation, 
even the payment of his battalion, and sent Fremont 


East as a prisoner. He was tried for mutiny and dis- 
obedience by a court martial, found guilty, and dis- 
missed from the service. Though he was pardoned 
by the President, he refused to acknowledge the jus- 
tice of the sentence by accepting of the pardon. 
Though condemned by a court martial, he became 
a favorite of the people, who did not believe in the red 
tape of West Point. When the State of California was 
admitted to the Union, he was made a Senator, and 
subsequently a candidate for President. The natives 
of Santa Barbara and the other southern- counties 
voted for him almost unanimouslj', showing their 
appreciation of his kindness to them. 


The American Government from the first looked 
upon California with longing eyes, as a choice bit of 
the earth to be held and cultivated with American 
habits and customs. A regiment for occupation and 
settlement was enlisted under the command of J. D. 
Stevenson, composed of citizens of all sorts, politi- 
cians and professional men not being forgotten. 
Many were men of sterling character, who would 
have made their mark in any country. Some of 
these rose in power and influence, and occupied high 
positions, while others, taking advantage of the want 
of law and order, set out in a lawless career and 
went rapidly downwards, producing a confusion and 
disorder. The regiment left New York in several 
shijis, in September, 1846. Some of them arrived in 
San Francisco in March, 18-17. Three ' hundred of 
that regiment came to Santa Barbara April 8, 1847. 
They were stationed here to prevent any disturb- 
ance which might make a third conquest of the 
country necessary, and also as citizens to identify 
themselves with the industries of the country, after 
]5eace should be declared. They were quartered at 
the Agerea House. Their relations to the people 
were generally friendly, although some of the rough 
ways of volunteers, whose unemployed vigor some- 
times led them to excesses, were not altogether to 
the liking of the dignified Castilian. Among other 
things the soldiers would play ball in the streets, and 
the flying ball, with the running of the excited ])lay- 
ers, was not in accordance with the Spanish ideas of 
law and order. An attempt was made to prohibit it 
by city regulations, but it did not succeed. The 
soldiers gave a big ball at the Agerea House, which 
was attended by all the respectable people. Two 
notorious banditti, Joaquin Muriatta and Solomon 
Pico, were present for a short time, although the 
Americans were looking for them. 

The dancing was mo.stly what is called the square 
or cotillion contra dance, and the waltz, the calling 
being done in both languages. The music was made 
with violins and guitars. The affair ]3assed off with- 
out ill feeling. The upper classes were much niore 
inclined to fraternize than the lower. |niha|is from 
having more to lose in the case of disturbance. 


The following story of the lost cannon was com- 
municated to a citizen of Santa Barbara by Col. J. 
D. Stevenson, who is now living at San Francisco, 
and is presumed to be correct. It was first published 
in the Daily Press of July 3, 1882:— 

" Late in the winter of 1847, or early in the spring 
of 1848, the American brig Elizabeth was wrecked on 
the coast at Santa Barbara, and soon went to pieces. 
Among the property saved was a gun, which re- 
mained on the beach long after all the remaining 
property had been removed. Being without its car- 
riage, the gun was useless. Early in the month of 
May it disappeared. After some time had elapsed, 
Captain Lippett, the officer in command of the Post, 
conceived the idea that it had been stolen by the Cal- 
ifornians for the purjiose of attacking his quarters, in 
case the disaffected natives should rebel against the 
authorities Inquiry was made at every point, but 
the gun could not be found. As a number of vessels 
had touched at Santa Barbara in the meantime, it 
was readily concluded that it had been taken aboard 
and transferred beyond reach of Captain Lippett's 
command. This officer, though a good soldier, was 
a nervous, restless man, very deficient in judgment 
and tact. Either from real fear of an attack, or to 
exhibit his watchfulness and zeal in the jjerformance 
of dutj', without notifying his superior offieei". Colonel 
Stevenson, he sent a courier to Colonel Mason at 
Monterey, at a cost of 8400, giving his version of the 
loss of the gun, magnifying its value and the dan- 
gers inevitable from its possession by the Californiaus. 

" Colonel Mason, being some 400 miles distant, and 
unawai-e of the weak and excitable temperament of 
Captain Lippett, immediately issued the following 
military order: — 

" • Headquarters 10th Military Department, ) 
" ' Monterey, Cal., May 31, 1848. J 
[Order No. 30.] 

" ' A gun belonging to the wreck of the American 
brig Mizaheth, having been stolen from the beach at 
Santa Barbara, Cal., and ample time having been 
alliiweil ti) the citizens of said town to discover and 
|jrn(lu(o said gun, and they having failed to do so, it 
is ordered that the town be laid under a contribution 
of $500, to be ;i^-^c^~cil in the following manner; — 

"'1. A capitation tax of 8-. (HI on all males over 
twenty ye:irs of a^e. Thi' lialaiice is to be paid by 
the heads of faniilios ami i)ro|)crty holders, in the 
proportion ol' tin" value of their I'esiicctive, real and 
personal estate, in the t(j\vn of Santa Barbara and its 
immediate vicinity. 

'■'2. ( 'ol. .r. I ). Stevenson, commanding S. M. Dis- 
trict, will (lirrcl the appraisement of property and 
assessment of this contribution, and will repair to 
Santa Barbara on or before the 25th of Jime next, 
when, if the misi^iiig gun is not produced, he will 
cause the said contribution to he paid in before the 
first day of July. When the whole is collected he 
will turn it over to the A. A. Quartermaster of the 
Post, to be held for further orders. 

"'3. Should any person fail to pay his capitation 
or shai-e of a.ssessment, enough of his property will 
be seized and sold at public auction to realize the 
amount of contribution due by him, and costs of sale. 

•' ' By order of Col. R. B. M. Mason. [Signed.]— W. 
T. Sherman, 1st Lieut. 3d Art.; A. A. Adj. General.' 

" Thus a quiet and inoffensive people were jilaced 
under censure, and an unjustifiable contribution levied 



upon those who for two years liad lieeii upon the most 
friendly terms with all the Amei-ieaii authorities of the 
District. Upon receivin-;- this order. Colonel Steven- 
sou felt that the peaee and (|uiet of tlie eountry were 
endangered by the fears or folly of a nervous and 
fidgety offieia'l. However, he e()uld hut obey and 
carry out the order in the least offensive manner, 
and he aeeonlingly issued an ortler |o.C"a]itaiu Lip- 
pett, directing him to make out a roll of all ]ii'rsons 
subject to the assessment under the order of Colonel 
Mason, together with the valuation of the property of 
the principal inhabitants, and to prejtare an Assess- 
ment Roll, cautioning him to be most careful in his 
actiiin. to give as little offense as possible, and to 
make known that ujxju Stevenson's arrival he would 
examine earelully the assessment, and wouhl impose 
as ^mall a bui-den as the order of General .Mason 
woukl allow. This order was issueil June 15th, and 
Colonel Stevenson left Los Angeles for Santa Bar- 
bara, reaching there the 23d. Immediately on his 
arrival he held an interview with Don Pablo de la 
Guerra, a son of one of the most respected gentlemen 
in California. He was a native of old Spain, and 
held a cou'imission in the Spanish army at the time 
Mexico was separated froin Spain. He resided in 
Santa Barbara, surrounded by a family of sons and 
daughters, universallj' considered the best educated 
and the most elegant and accomplished men and 
women in the countrN-. Tlie\- sinikc and wrote Eng- 
lish with eUM. aii.l lluViM y. ainlllir eldest. Don Pablo, 
subsequently ili>iinmii~lir(l liiui-clt' :i^ a member of 
the Assembly of the State ol ( alilornia, and at the 
time of his death was .hidtii- of lii^ district. 

"To Don Pablo. Coluinl Stevenson expressed his 
regret at the ridiculous course Captain Lippett had 
taken. At first he was very indignant, and said he 
greatly feared the people woidd not pay the assess- 
ment. But he assured Colonel Stevenson that the}' all 
understood hi^ position in the matter, and (hat nothing 
would induce them ti) comi)ly except as a mark of per- 
sonal respect to him. The conversation was long and 
interesting, and Colonel Stevenson finally obtained 
his promise to use his best efforts to have the affair 
peaceably settled. As they were parting, Don 
Pablo said, significantly, ' Colonel, is not the headquar- 
ters of a regiment wherever the commander may be, 
if he chooses to have it so?' and he then added, 
' Since you are likely to be here some time, cannot 
you make this your headquarters and order your 
band up here?' addmg also, that the peo])le of 
Santa Barbara hail never heard a band of music, and 
he knew of nothing that would affonl them so much 

"Colonel Stevenson instantly comprehended his 
meaning, and soon an order was issued, making Santa 
Barbara the regimental headquarters, and orderiTig 
the band thither, having them an-ive on the 3d ni 

■■Colonel Stevenson |)eiveived that the ditticidtv in 
the matter of the gun might be solved by delaying 
the call for the military assessment until'tlie 4tli of 
.luly, and having the band arrive the eveniim' [)revious. 
playing a Spanish national air as they entered the 
town. In the meantime Colonel Stevenson spent 
most of his time visiting the inhabitants, and it was 
only too evident that their indignalioTi against Capt- 
ain Lippett was such that bis life was in danger. 

■'One of the oldest inhabitants. Cajitain Egcrea, 
the owner of a fine bark then ready for a voyage to 
the lower coast, notified (.'aptain Lippett that he was 
about to leave port. An order was at once served 
forbidding him, and threatening to attach his bark 

as sei'urity for his portion of the military contribu- 
tion. This was about the most ridiculous instance of 
Captain Lipjietl's folly, for I'lgerea owned property 
in town li> the value of ?20.0no. The threatened 
seizure of the bark drove the old man erazv. and 
had not Colonel Stevenson arrived at this junet'ure. it 
would have gone hard with Caiitain lJ]ipett. Ten 
minutes after his arrival Don Pablo and Ki^.^ea called 
<m the Colonel, and staleil the ease of the <letenfion 
of the vessel. Captain Lipped was ,,rdere<l toajiol- 
ogize. and was laughed at as lir was seen to iC" 
aboard for the ]iurpose. 

'■ Promjitly, as ordered, the full Regimental Hand 
from Los .Vngeles reached Carpenteria at three r. m., 
July Hd. Instiui-tions were issued to enter llu' town 
at dusk, anil march to the residence of Captain de la 
(iuerra, and open the serenade at his door with their 
best-known Spanish air. Their arrival hai)|)ened 
while the family were at dinner. The first note 
startled the entire town. The citizens rushed to the 
streets, and a more enraptured peo]>le were never 
beheld. In the midst of the serenade Colonel Steven- 
son called on Don Pablo, and received the warmest 
thanks of himself antl family for the high compli- 
ment bestowed on them; for the Spanish airs, above 
all, the captain thanked him, his tears manifesting 
the intensity of his emotion. The band continued 
playing about town, in front of the French Consul's 
residence, at the church, and (he barracks, until near 

The morning of the 4th was ushered in by the 
band, and by the firing of small arms, there being 
no artillery. The payment of the contribution had 
been fixed at 10 o'clock, and, as had been anticipated, 
in consequence of the enthusiasm created bj' the pres- 
ence of the band with their insjiired strains, the 
inhabitants cheerfully tendered their assessments, 
with but a very few excejitions. While the paj'- 
nients were being made, the assembled citizens re- 
ipicsted Colonel Stevenson to deliver an oration. 
With this he promptly complied, and the oration 
was readiljr and clearly interpreted b}' Dr. Foster, 
now a resident of Los Angeles. The day was de- 
lightfully passed, and in the evening a ball was held 
in his honor, and for the happj' termination of the 
trouble which had threatened in consequence of Lip- 
pett's absurd actions. The whole community enjoj'ed 
the music and festivities, and when Colonel Steven- 
son was about to depart the whole population turned 
out to do him honor; and the venerable Ca])tain de 
la Guerra most kindly addressed him in his native 
language, and was answered for him by his noble- 
hearted friend, Don Andres Pico, who, at his request, 
had joined him at Santa Barbara. Colonel Stevenson 
freely confesses he feared some bold spirits had deter- 
mined to resist the payment had force been resorted 
to. Hut the music conciliate<l and charmeil all. 

■Thus was celebrated our national anniversary. In 
this favored town, thirty-four years ago. 

■ It is interesting to know that upon an order 
being issued to turn over to the Mexican authorities 
the money tints absurdly demandeil, they refused to 
accept any portioti of it. Eventually it was handed 
over to some American officer authorized to receive it. 

'• The memory of this has been ))rescrvcd by the 
citizens of Santii Harliara by naming the street whieb 
runs ].ast the theater, Cannon I'erdido— the lost can- 

A storm subsequently exposed the cannon, which 
had been buried in the sands for ten years. It was 
injudiciously sold to a Jew for junk for a consider- 



atiou of $80, and removed to San Francisco. It 
should have been retained as a souvenir. 

Stevenson's regiment was mustered out of service 
in September, 1848, and the members were merged 
into the common public. 



The Discovery of Gold at Coloma — Customs in the Golden 
Age — Ranch Life— Bull and Bear Fight — A Series of Mur- 

Though the main discovery occmn-ed at Coloma in 
1848, gold had been mined for some years with con- 
siderable success, in the vicinity of Santa Barbara 
County. The matter rests upon the testimony of 
Don Abel Stearns and Alfred Robinson, the latter of 
whom carried it to the mint at Philadelphia, taking 
the mint receipt for the same, which is now in 
the archives of the Pioneer Society at San Francisco. 
The following letter from Abel Stearns to the Pio- 
neer Society, San Francisco, fixes, bej^ond doubt, the 
fact and time of the discovery; — 

Los Angeles, July 8th, 1867. 

Sir: On my arrival here from San Francisco, some 
days since I recived your letter of June 3d, last past, 
reqiiesting the certificate of gold sent by me to the 
mint at Philadelphia, in 1842. I find, by referring to 
my old account books, that November 2, 1842, I sent 
by Alfred Robinson, Esq. (who returned from Cali- 
fornia to the States by way of Mexico), twenty 
ounces, California weight (18f ounces mint weight) 
of placer gold, to be forwarded by him to the United 
States Mint at Philadelphia, for assay. 

In his letter to me dated August 6, 1842, you will 
find a copy of the mint assay of the gold, which 
letter I herewith enclose to you to be placed in the 
archives of the Society. 

The placer mines from which this gold was taken 
were first discovered by Francisco Lopez, a native of 
California, in the' month of March, 1842, at a place 
called San Francisquito, about thirty-five miles north- 
west of this city (Los Angeles). 

The circumstances of the discovery by Lopez, as 
related by him, are as follows; Lopez, with a com- 
panion, was out in the search of some stray horses, 
and about mid-day they stopped under some trees, 
and tied their horses out to feed, they resting under 
the shade; when Lopez, with his sheath knife, dug 
up some wild onions, and in the dirt discovered a 
piece of gold, and searching further around found 
some more. He brought these to town, and showed 
them to his friends, who at once declared that there 
must be a placer of gold. After being satisfied, most 
persons returned; some remained, particularly Sonor- 
enses (Sonoranians) who were accustomed to work 
in placers. They met with good success. 

Prom this time the placei-s were worked with more 
or less success, and principally^ by the Sonorenses 
(Sonoranians) until the latter part of 1846, when the 
most of the Sonorenses left with Captain Flores for 

AVhile worked, there were some six or eight thou- 
sand dollars taken out per annum. 

Veiy respectfully yours, 

Abel Stearns. 

The letter was responded to to the effect that the 
gold weighed^ before melting, 18/„*j ounces; after 
melting, 18^^^; fineness, j^jyo; expenses, $4.02. Net 
value, $340.73. 

Dated, August 6, 1843. 

This was the first gold dug in California. 


This affair, which not only affected the de stinies of 
Santa Barbara, but the whole world as well, occurred 
in June, 1848. General Sutter had erected a saw- 
mill on the south fork of the American River, about 
fifty miles above his fort. The tail race, or o utlet, not 
being deep enough or of sufficient capacity to dis- 
charge the water, a stream was allowed to run over 
night to effect the required enlargement. The next 
morning James Marshall, one of the hands, found 
some small pieces of gold at the bottom of the race. 
The news soon spread that the streams of California 
were so rich in gold that a man with a tin pan could 
wash out in one day from five to even a h\indred dol- 
lars. Gold was discovered over a tract six hundred 
miles long and fifty miles wide. Then commenced 
the most unparalleled immigration the world ever 
saw. Fifty thousand crossed the plains, and as many 
more came by sea. The harbor of San Francisco, which 
one year before had only a vessel or two in it, had more 
than 600 vessels bearing the flags of all nations. 
California had become the center of attraction for 
the whole world. Prices of everything rose accord- 
ingly. Common laborers received sixteen to forty 
dollars per day. Provisions went up to a fabulous 
price. Flour and meat were sold for a dollar a 
pound. Everybody could get gold by digging for it. 
Never was seen such a saturnalia. Gamblers from 
the Mississippi River, members of Congress, lawyers, 
doctors, clergymen, merchants, all went to make up 
the stream which rolled into the Golden Gate or 
crossed the plains. 


To none more than the ranches of Southern Cali- 
fornia this prosperity came. Every bullock was now 
worth a pile of silver dollars. The herd of cattle 
which was formerly slaughtered for the hides, to be 
exchanged for gewgaws at five hundred per cent, 
advance over Boston prices, would now roll in gold 
twenties instead of dollars. Men who before could 
only indulge in cheap gala attire on a holiday, could 
now, if they chose, pave their residences with silver 
dollars. The Guadalupe Ranch had 40,000 head of 
cattle upon it. Nearly as many could be and were 
collected at one rodeo. The de la Guerras, with their 
eight ranches could do still more, and we are told 
that the sales of a month would often amount to 


840,000. If tho shophoni raiiclu-ros woiv kiiins 
before, they were doiihly so now. Momy liy llio 
thousands, money that would luin^ lionor wa- iliciiv- 
The popuhition that poun-.l into i\n> Stale liardly 
touched the .southern counties. A few professional 
nu-n. a few whose easy nature made them tall in love 
with the uidiesitatniii hospitality of the natives, and 
some who saw in the guileless and free Spaniard the 
way to fortune came here, as well a.s the professional 
gambler, who for a while was looked upon as a 
gentleman by the simple and generous natives who had 
no conception of their inherent depravity. Entertain- 
ment was tendered to all of respectable appearance. 
The greed of gohl had not frozen out all the 
humanities. The ill feelings engendered by the war 
were forgotten and the whilom enemy was welcomed 
to the house and its cheer. The young impecunious 
Americans were even sought out. Not only food and 
rest were proffered, but money was gently and deli- 
cately urged on them. In some instances, when it 
was known to be needed, suits of underclothing were 
laid upon the bed to bo put on in the morning. Per- 
hajJS no people in the world had a more delicate Avay 
of manifesting kindness. In mauj' instances this hos- 
pitality was rewarded bj' base ingi'atitude; by assist- 
ing in the spoliation of their property when misfor- 
tunes came. 


The following, made uji from the Santa Barbara 
Index of June 27, 1874, written bj- an eye-witness, 
will give a correct idea of Santa Barbara life among 
the natives after the discovery of gold. 

•On the discovery of gold by Americans and the 
rush of American immigration the inhabitants of 
Santa Barbara Valley were living in a state of patri- 
archial simplicity. Thej' were the owners of ranchos 
almost boundless in extent, and depended for sub- 
sistence on the profits of vast herds of cattle. The 
pueblo, or town, was little more than a trading post, 
to which the ranchero could bring his hides and 
tallow for sale and transportation, and when the 
coast trade could find a port for the disposal of his 
wai-es. Its streets, or rather by-ways, between its 
houses, were strewn with refuse horns and hoofs from 
domestic lieef slauglilei-. each family slauulilefing its 
own animals, and were iui|ia\cd and wound iqi in cul 
lie st(rs and conrls. and. to^cilicr with lijni;- rows of 
adobe houses, were set at random with one another. 
The Sj)aidard who could count his cattle and sheep 
by the thousand. Iiuilt himself a comfortable dwelling. 
It was of adobe, for this was the building common to 
Santa Barbai-a's rich as well as to her i)oor; but it was 
lighted with windows, had massive dom's and broad 
corridors, and was finished in a manner with plaster 
and whitening. The number of these structures, 
however, was .small. The house, characteristic of the 
town, was a low, one storied adobe with a roof of red, 
burnt clay tiles. The tiles were supported by poles 
or rafters, laid from the outer walls to a center beam, 
under the apex or comb of the roof Between these 
poles or beams and the tiles was woven a matting of 
cane or bamboo. The dwelling was neither floored 
nor ceiled. It had no windows other than square 

openings which were closed with wooden shutters, 
and. within and without, the walls were lell to the 
nuighness and brown of the adobe. Very few Cal- 
ifornians had stoves or chimneys. They "built their 
fires in one corner of the room on the hard clay floor. 
A circle of stones was placed around it. aiid the 
smoke found its way through the <loorway, windows, 
or in the roof A claily subjection to this 
sooty atmosphere dee]>ened the gloomy line of the 
abode. Scarcely any gloomier home can be con- 
ceived than within "llie-e clark ami snn)ke-staiin'<i 

"After the discovery of gold by ihe .\mencaMs. the 
cattle of California, nearly worthless before, became 
of almost fabulous value, so that, as one writer said, 
every bullock of their herds was as a skinful of silver, 
and his marrow was as fine gold. Hut money came 
to the Californian as to a child. lie knew nothing of 
the value of the wealth, which circumstances, not of 
his own creation, had thrust upon him, and he seems 
to have been dazed with the magnitu<le of his pros- 
perity, and at a loss for objects within the range of his 
appreciation upon which to exjiend his wealth. Dress, 
furniture, horses, gainbling. bullfights, cockfights, fes- 
tivities, ami high living filled the sum of his existence. 
Mirth and vanity reigned over every other sentiment. 
In the poorest hovels, relics of those halcyon days of 
luxury are still displayed before the eyes of the curi- 
ous stranger. There are pieces of old-fashioned and 
woi'n furniture, high-topped bedsteads, hair-cloth 
sofas, high mahogany bureaus, and curious antique 
picture frames. Still more interesting are the luxu- 
rious bed curtains of lace and crimson damask; the 
pink-covered ]ullows with lace casings; the orna- 
mented sheets and coverlids, and the lace-covered, 
tucked, and frilled underwear. These were of the 
finest linen, and computed by the scor3. Senoras, 
we are told, in those years, never deigned to draw 
on a stocking less daint}' than silk, and the clay floor 
was no stranger to the sweep of regal satin and 
snow-flecked gossamer. Purple and fine linen were 
every-day habiliments, and were worn reganlless of 
time, place, occasion or occupation. 

"Yet this gorgeous paraphernalia of pomp and van- 
ity was scarcely more at variance with the rude 
character of the habitations of (»ld Santa Barbai'a than 
were the manners and mien of the people. Though 
the unlearned, uncultured, and the unambitious occu- 
pant of a dark, adobe hovel, the Californian has 
instinctively a gentle bearing. He has something of 
the dignity of the aboriginal American, with the 
poetry, the grace, and pleasure-loving seidiment of 
ancestors of old Spain; and enveloped in her Sjianish 
shawl, manj' a seiiorita is as daintily graceful and as 
extravagantlj' haughty as a dramatic queen. 

" American and English gold, the miners and immi- 
grants demand for cattle, brought one long gala daj- 
to the inhabitants of Santa Barbara. They moved 
in gay cavalcades, silver-buttoned caballeros and sefi- 
oritas, decked in Castilian splendor, rebosos of fine 
silk. On Sundays their gay processions from the 
tile-covered houses in the country, to kneel at the 
shrines of the mission church, made the country 
seem like the home of the gaj- scenes described by 
Sir Walter Scott. The aged rode in rude carts drawn 
l>y oxen. And when the slight penance, exacted for 
their small sins, was ])aid. the sweet voices of hope- 
ful, happy maidens iningling with the jingling of spui's 
and the clattering of hoof's echoed along the trails 
that led to their homes. The ruddy light of the 
evening fire cast its glow on the faces of young and 
old dancing to the sound of the guitar and violin, old. 



middle-aged, and j'oung enjoying the amusement. 
There was food for all. No thoughts of want occu- 
pied theii" minds. The fashion of small families 
had not been established; in theii' present happy sim- 
plicity, could not be entertained. The tenth was as 
welcome as the first. The twentieth and even the 
thirtieth were matters of envy rather than commis- 
eration. Man-iagf festivities were ]n-olonged for 
days, and even the funei-als iiad little of that somber 
melancholy and despair eliaracteristic of colder tem- 
pered nations, for were not tlie departed objects of 
affection angels now ?" 

The following description of a rodeo at Den's 
Ranch will give an idea of the customs of the mixed 
families: — 


''Mr. Den points out to us the site of the Indian 
villages from which the rancho takes its name, " Dos 
Pueblos." From the mounds on this rancho the 
Wheeler expedition procured fine specimens of antique 
burial urns and many relics of a past age, and the 
Smithsonian Institute has acquired here antiquities 
of value. The rancho house is about seventy years 
old, and yet in gooi I |ii'esei-vaiioii. The Dos Pueblos 
rancho a few years a^i> contained 15.000 acres, but 
has now been subdivided among heirs of the estate. 
Mr. Den has a Spanish mother and an English 
father, from whom he inherits blue eyes and blonde 
hair, while from his mother he gets his broad acres 
and the graceful nonchalance of the Spanish 
He is seated upon a mustang that he has 
from a herd of horses a half hour ago, and yet he 
has him so well trained that the animal falls back 
on his haunches and stands motionless while the 
rider, dismounting, throws the rein loosely over his 
neck and leaves him standing;- alone while he brands 
a cow. Mr. Den is ednsidei'ed the best horseman 
and horse trainer in Smit liei-n ( 'alifornia.f He boasts 
that it is impossible to unseat him, and he comes to 
this rodeo fresh from a great hurdle race at Los 
Angeles, in which he won the prize, and which was 
contended for by English bloods, who were to ride 
only English horses. Just as all the high-toned 
arrangements were made, Mr. Den appeared, claimed 
the right of entry on account of English descent, and 
rode his snowy English thoroughbred to victory. 
Many of the Spanish vaqucros are seated on saddles 
that are one flash of brilliants and gold lace. The 
wealth and position of nati\-e ( 'alifoi-nians are deter- 
mined by the elegance of the saddle, and more of the 
same sort. 

" At noon we were invited by Mr. Den to lunch 
with him at his rancho house. Attended by quite a 
body guard of Den brothei's, all of them attired in 
handsome Spanish rodeo eostunu-s. or fanciful hunt- 
ing suits, we tiiiMMMl our ponies toward the low-roofed 
rancho houst-, and made <j4iite a picture, could our 
friends have seen iis. riding in state, surrounded by 
80 gay a cavalcade of n-rai'cfiil riders. 

"At the dwelling we were introduced by Mr. Den 
to his mother, who could not speak a word of Eng- 
lish, and his sister Maria, a beautiful girl, with the 
olive complexion, soft, dark eyes, and wealth of 

'The date of tlii- 
of " The Golden ,\ 
ladies mentioned, v 
events noted, howe 

the earlv years 
to some of the 
■ cheelts. The 
vious to 1865. 

purple-black hair that betokened her Castilian origin. 
She was dressed in white muslin, and her straight, 
black hair was combed back from a broad, low fore- 
head, and fastened with a jeweled comb, from which 
it fell down her back nearly to her knees. Then 
Mr. Don introduced iis to I'lis baby sister, Rosita 
(little rose). She Avas a hlusliing, dimpled, pink-and- 
whito Ijeaiity. with blonde, waving hair, and large, 
long-laslicd liliic eyes. She wore a blue lawn dress 
and liliic lililioiis. and was near sixteen years old. 
I never saw a greater contrast in ]iersonal appearance 
than was pi-esented liy these sisters, and one moment 
I was charmed l.y the curving lips ,,|- little Rose, and 
the next moment decided her face was commonplace 
and faded beside the rich coloring of Senorita Maria. 
While waiting tor lunch, Mr. Deu entertained us 
with music on the piano. . . The old Spaniffi-ds 
will have no carpets on their floors, and often rich 
modern ornaments are seen in their old adobe houses, 
to which they cling with such love and temicity, 
even when they have the means to build an elegant 
modern house." 


The grizzlies often attacked the cattle and de- 
voured them. Monteeito, from its vicinity to the 
deep canons of the mountains, suffered great losses 
in the early days. As late as 1868 a monster bear 
took a beef every three or four days, until he became 
such a nuisance that the people raised a purse of 8300 
for the man who should kill him. The following 
description of a contest between a bull and a bear, 
by one who was forced to climb a tree by a herd of 
wild cattle, is interesting: — 

"While in this position, with the prospect of a 
weary night before me, and suffering the keenest 
physical anguish, a very singular circumstance oc- 
curred to relieve me of further apprehension respect- 
ing the cattle, though it suggested a new dangei", for 
wliicli I was eijually uiipreiiai'ed. A fine young bull 
hail descended to tl'ie bed uY the creek in search of a 
water-hole. While pushing his way through the 
bushes he was suddenly attacked by a grizzly bear. 
The struggle was terrific. I could see the tops of 
the bushes sway violently to and fro, and hear the 
heavy crash of the drift as the two powerful animals 
writhed in their fierce embrace. A cloud of dust 
rose from the spot. It was not distant over a hun- 
dred yai'ds from the tree in which I had taken 
refuge. Scai-eely two minutes elapsed liefoi-e the bull 
broke through the bushes. His head was covered 
with blood and great flalces of flesh hung from his 
fore-shouldcis; liul instead of manifesting signs of 
defeat he seemed to litei-ally glow with defiant rage. 
Instinct had taught him to seek- an open place. A 
more s|ilenilid specimen ot' an animal I never saw; 
lithe and wiry, yet wonderfully massive about the 
shoulders, combining the rarest qualities of strength 
and symmetry. For a moment he stood glaring at 
the bushes, his head erect, his eyes flashing, his nos- 
trils distended, and his whole formfixed and rigid. But 
scarcely had I time to glance at him, when a huge 
bear, the largest and most formidable I ever saw in 
a wild State, broke through the opening. 

" A trial of brute force that baffles description now 
ensued. Badly as I had been treated by the cattle, 
my sympathies were greatly in favor of the bull, 
which seemed to me to be much the nobler animal of 
the two. He did not wait to meet the charge, but, 


lowering his head, boldly rushed upon his savage 
adversary. The grizzly was active and wary, lie 
no sooner got within reach of the bull's horns, than 
he seized them in his powerful grasji, keei)ing the 
head to the ground bj- main strength and the tre- 
mendous weight of his bodj', while he bit at his nose 
with his teeth and raked strips of flesh from his 
shoulders with his hind paws. The two animals 
must have been of very nearly equal weights On 
the one side there was the advantage of su))eri()r 
agility and two sets of weapons, the teeth and the 
claws; but on the other, greater powers of endurance 
and the most inflexible courage. The position thus 
assumed was maintained for some time, the hull 
struggling desperately to free his head, while the 
blood streamed from his nostrils, the bear straining 
every nerve to drag him to the earth. No advantage 
seemed to be gained on either side. The result of 
the battle evidently- depended on the merest acci- 
dent. As if bj- mutual consent, each had gradually 
ceased struggling, to regain breath, and as much as 
five minutes must have elajised while thej- were 
locked in this motionless but terrible embrace. Sud- 
denly the bull, bj- one desperate effort, wrenched his 
head from the grasp of his adversary and retreated a 
few steps. The bear stood up to receive him. I 
now Watched with breathless interest, for it was evi- 
dent that each animal had staked his life on the con- 
flict. The cattle from the surrounding hills had 
crowded in and stood moaning and bellowing around 
the combatants; but, as if withheld bj^ terror, none 
seemed disposed to interfere. Rendered furious by 
his wounds, the bull now gathered up all his ener- 
gies and charged with such impetuous force and 
ferocity that the bear, despite the most terrific blows 
with his ])aws, rolled over in the dust, vainly strug- 
gling to defend himself. The lunges and thrusts of 
the former wore perfectly furious. At length, by a 
sudden and well-directed motion of his head, he got 
one of his horns under the bear's bell^'- and gave it a 
rip that brought out a clotted mass of entrails. It 
was apparent that the battle must end soon. Both 
were grievously wounded, and neither could last 
much longer. The ground was torn up and covered 
with blood for some distance around, and the pant- 
ing of the struggling animals became each moment 
heavier and quicker. Maimed and gory, thej' fought 
with the desperate certainty of death, the bear roll- 
ing over and over, vainly striking out to avoid the 
fatal horns of his adversary, the bull rijiping and 
tearing with irresistible ferocity. 

" At length, as if determined to end the conflict, the 
bull drew back, lowered his head, and made one 
tremendous charge; but blinded by the blood that 
trickled down his forehead, he missed his mark and 
rolled headlong on the ground. In an instant the bear 
whirled and was upon him. Thoroughly invigorated 
by the prospect of a speedy victory, he tore the flesh 
in masses from the ribs of his fallen foe. The two 
rolled over and over together in the terrible death 
struggle; nothing was now to be seen save a heav- 
ing, gory mass, dimly perceptible through the dust. 
A few minutes would certainly have terminated the 
bloody strife, so far as my fiivorite was concerned, 
when, to my astonishment, I saw the bear relax in 
his efforts, roll over from the body of his prostrate 
foe, and drag himself feebly a few yards from the 
spot. His entrails had burst entirely through the 
wound in his belly, and now lay in long strings over 
the ground. 

" The next moment the bull was on his legs, erect 
and fierce as ever. Shaking the blood from his eyes, 

he looked around, ami seeing the i-eeking mass bo- 
fore him lowered his head for the final and most 
desperate charge. In the death struggle that ensued 
both animals seemed endowed with supernatural 
strength. The grizzly struck out wildly, but with 
such destructive energj- that the bidl, upon drawing 
back his head, presented a horrible and ghastly 
spectacle; his tongue a mangled mass of shreds 
hanging from his mouth, his ej-es torn completely 
from their sockets, and his whole face strijjped to 
the hone. On the other hand, the bear was ripped 
completely open and writhing in his last agonies. 
Here it was that indomitable courage ])revailed; for 
blinded and maimed as he was, the hull, after a 
momentary pause to regain his wind, dashed wildly 
at his adversary again, determined to be victorious 
even in death. A terrific roar escaped from the 
dying grizzly. With a last frantic cft'ort he sought 
to make his escape, scrambling over and over in the 
dust. But his strength was gone. A few more 
thrusts from the savage victor and he lay stretched 
upon the sand, his muscles quivering convulsively, 
his huge body a resistless mass. A clutching motion 
of the claws, a groan, a gurgle, and he was dead. 

" The bull now raised his bloody crest, uttered a 
deep, bellowing sound, shook his horns triumph- 
antly, and slowly walked oft', not, however, without 
turning every few steps to renew the struggle, if 
necessary. But his last battle was fought. As the 
blood streamed from his wounds a death chill came 
over him. He stood for some time, unyielding to 
the last, bracing himself uj), his legs apart, his head 
gradually drooping; then dropped on his fore-knees 
and lay down; soon his head rested upon the ground; 
his body became motionless; a groan, a few convul- 
sive respirations, and he, too, the noble victor, was 

During this strange and sanguinary struggle, the 
cattle, as I stated before, had gathered around the 
combatants. The most daring, as if drawn towards 
the spot by the smell of blood, or some irresistible 
fivscination, formed a circle within twenty or thirty 
yards, and gazed at the murderous work that was 
going on with startled and terror-stricken eyes; but 
none dared to join in defense of their champion. No 
sooner was the battle ended, and the victor and 
the vanquished stretched dead upon the ground, 
than a panic seized upon the excited multitude, and 
by one accord they set up a wild bellowing, switched 
their tails in the air, and started off at full speed for 
the plains. 


Two persons, a Hessian and an Irishman, left the 
mines, in 18-19, for the sea-board. When this side of 
Stockton they found two returning miners asleep 
under a tree, whom thej^ murdered and robbed, and 
then continued across the mountains, passing through 
the Soledad Pass. Here they fell in with three 
deserters from the navy. The party, now consisting 
of five, organized for the purpose of plunder. The 
San Miguel Raneho was the first subject for prac- 
tice. Mr. Eeade, the owner, was an Englishman, 
and hospitably entertained the whole party when 
they called upon him. The following night they 
returned and murdered the whole family, consisting 



of Mr. Eeade, his wife, who was a native Califor- 
nian, three children, a kinswoman with four chil- 
dren, and two Indian domestics — twelve persons in 
all. Mr. Eeade was known to have made $10,000 
recently in the mines, and was supposed to have 
had the money in his house, which was a mistake, 
however, as he had deposited it at Monterey on his 
way home. The party, after plundering the house, 
continued on their way i)ast Santa Barbara, but the 
news was following and they were overtaken on the 
beach near the Ortega Hill. A desperate fight en- 
sued, in which one of the pursuing party, Rodriguez, 
of Santa Barbara, was killed, and one of the robbers 
wounded and drowned, the balance being taken 
prisoners and brought back to Santa Barbara. In 
the absence of civil and military authority, a com- 
mission of three men, consisting of Luis T. Burton, 
Captain Robbins, and Henry Carnes, was chosen to 
try them. While the trial was in progress. Governor 
Mason sent General Ord down to quiet the excite- 
ment. He arrived while the men, having been found 
guilty, were under sentence of death, but he did not 
think best to interfere with the course of justice. 
They were sentenced to be shot to death in military 
style, with three guns to each criminal and a fourth 
in reserve in ease of accident. The place of execu- 
tion was a short distance north of Mrs. Shoupe's 
boarding-house. The men all fell at the first fire. 
The bodies were interred at the mission by the 
padres who attended them in their last moments. 
Governor Mason did not approve of the action, and 
thought of having the parties to the execution tried 
by court-m.irtial, but the affair was dropped. This 
affair was excused on the ground that there was no 
legal remedy, the Mexican authorities having ceased 
to act, and the American law not having been estab- 
lished. It will be remembered that Bon Jose de la 
Guerra y Noriega was appointed Judge of the First 
Instance, but it does not seem that he ever acted, or 
asserted his authority. 


Trouble in U. S. Congress— Constitutioaal Convention — Fight 
over the Admission- Organization of the County of Santa 
B.irbara— Business Matters— .Santa Barbara a Thrifty Town 
—Persons E igaged in Business- Land Sales— County Offi- 
cers— Delinquent Tax Payers— The San Gabriel AflFair— 
The Arroyo Burro Aff.iir— Gambling— From Gambling to 
Highway Robbery— Solomon Pico's Gang— Jack Powers- 
Jack Powers' Horsemanship — Murder of the Basques — 
Anecdotes of Powers— Staying an Execution— Plan to Res- 
cue Dunn— Attempt to Murder Martin — Financial Matters 
— Notes from the Records of the Court of Sessions — First 
Assessment Roll ( 1850). 

The treaty of peace between Mexico and the 
United States was signed February 2, 1848, before 
the discovery of gold had made California valuable, 
or before it was generally known. The American 

people early began to hold public meetings, and dis- 
cuss the questions of political organization. As early 
as June, 1849, a meeting was held at Monterey to 
consider the matter of a territorial organization, 
Walter Colton, the Alcalde, being called upon to 
draft a statement expressive of the sense of the 
meeting, which was that a convention, in which all 
the districts of the Territory should be represented, 
should be held in Monterey on February 27th, to frame 
a suitable constitution. These statements and recom- 
mendations were sent to all the principal towns, but 
a more careful consideration induced the movers to 
postpone it until after the action of Congress, which 
was then considering the matter of the Government 
of California. But Congress failed to come to any 
agreement in the matter, for the question of slavery, 
which ten years afterward divided the nation, was 
raising its hideous form to view, which would not 
down at the bidding of any man or any party. The 
question was argued and voted upon, until adjourn- 
ment, without coming to any agreement. The Pres- 
ident recommended the citizens to submit as to a 
Government de facto, until time and circumstances 
should favor the formation of something better. 
Colonel Benton, who had taken much interest in 
this coast, also issued a private manifesto, in which 
he denounced the military regulations as unsuitable 
for free, American citizens, and null and void, and 
recommended the people of California to hold a con- 
vention, form a constitution, and make application 
for admission as a State. He assured the people 
that by the treaty they were American citizens with 
a constitutional right to make laws for themselves. 
Senator Douglas also took especial interest in Cal- 
ifornia, and shortly after the meeting of Congress 
introduced a bill for the admission as a State of all 
the territory acquired from Mexico by treaty, re- 
serving the right of Congress to admit other States 
out of the territory east of the Sierra Nevada, when- 
ever the people should apply for it. These measures 
provoked much discussion in which great men uttered 
the greatest absurdities. Mr. Dayton thought there 
were not men enough, nor would be, to form a State. 
He classified the population as twelve or fifteen 
thousand, remnants of the old missions, retired ofiicers, 
and soldiers, with crazy gold-diggers, who would 
have to be lassoed to bring them to a State convention; 
that more disappointed miners would come back than 
gold-dust. Mr. Webster thought a military govern- 
ment the best at present. Robert C. Schenck pro- 
posed to return to Mexico all the land we had ac- 
quired, by treaty in consideration of $12,000,000 
on account, or retain San Francisco and pay $9,000,- 
000, which proposal actually received a majority of 
the House in committee, the vote being eighty-five 
yeas and eighty-one nays, though when it was re- 
ported to the House, it was rejected by 194 to 11. 
General Dix thought the people ought to pass through 
the stage of territorial action, and learn to govern 
themselves before being admitted as a State. The 



discussion continiiod until Saturdaj' ni<;ht, March 3(1. 
Congress expired by limitation, March 4th. Some of 
the Senators, among whom was Senator Foot of 
Mississippi, denied that Congress was in session, and 
asserted that it had expired, that the members wore 
only a mob without authority, but Congress adjouriu'd 
to meet on Sunday. The appropriation bill and the 
bill for providing a (Tovernmcnt for California had 
been tacked to each other; a jnethod of legislation 
sometimes adopted to move a stubborn minority. 
On Sunday a tacit understanding was had, the meas- 
ures were separated, and both were passed. Ports of 
entrj' were provided for, and the boundaries of the 
territory were established. 


Not much was expected of Congress in view of the 
divergency of the opinions of the members, and pub- 
lic meetings were held in ditferent places to consider 
the necessity of a more thorough organization. Gov- 
ernor Eiley issued a proclamation, as he said, b}' the 
advice of the President, calling for a Convention to 
be held at Monterey, September 1st. The number of 
delegates was fixed at thirt^'-seven, and the members 
wei'e apportioned as well as circumstances would 
admit. The vote was exceedingly small, and the 
assumed name of " Territorial Convention" seemed a 
burlesque, but the members met according to the call. 
Many men, afterwards famous in the history of Cal- 
ifornia, were present, among whom where H. W. 
Halleck, John A. Sutter, Thomas O. Larkin, Charles 
T. Botts, John McDougal, General Covari'ubias, Pablo 
de la Guerra, General Vallejo, and Dr. Gwin. W. E. 
P. Hartnell was made interpreter; J. Brown, 
official reporter. Notwithstanding the multitude of 
orators, the business of the Convention went stead- 
ily on. To Mr. Shannon belongs the credit of intro- 
ducing the article which was destined to keep Cali- 
fornia still longer out of the Union, and help bring 
on the great and inevitable struggle, which even then 
was looming up in the political horizon, which pro- 
vided that '' Neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude, except for the punishment of crime, shall 
ever be tolerated in this State." For once, in the 
world, this sentiment did not produce an angry 
debate, being passed in the committee of the whole 
unanimously, though a desperate eifort was made to 
prohibit the immigration of free negroes. An effort 
was made, also, to make the proposed State include 
what has since been incorporated into a half dozen 
States, including Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Ne- 
vada, as well as Utah, and New Mexico. This, it 
seems, was designed to prevent the agitation of 
slavery in Congress. 

A day for an election was appointed, and the Con- 
stitution adopted by a vote of 12,064 for, and 811 
against. This was a much smaller vote than was 
expected, and was accounted for by a drenching 
rain, which kept the people away from the polls. 

A month after the adoption of the Constitution, 

the fir^l Tjogislature met at San Jose, which was 
made the capital. On the third day of the session, 
the two houses mot in joint convention to elect Sena- 
tors. Fro'nonl w;i-< cKM'lod on llic first l)Mlli)t, and 
Wni. M Gwin oi, the third ballot. In (i.^liTiniiiin;; 
for the longer or shorter term, the latter fell to 


Fremont and Gwin wiiit to Washington, asking 
admittance for California into the family of States. 
The prohibition of slavery raised a contest which 
seemed for a while likely, not only to keep California 
out of the Union, but to dissolve that Union itself. 
Though the acquisition of territory was ostensibly 
made for the extension of the area of freedom, the 
real purpose was known to be the extension of slave 
territory, and the perpetuation of the pro-slavery 
dominion; hence the agitation which followed the 
defeat of their project. Never were the sources of 
power and the nature of our Government more ably 
discussed. In this discussion the nature of the Consti- 
tution, its relation to States, the relation of States to 
each other, the rights of citizens in States and Terri- 
tories, were found to be very differently considered by 
different portions of the Union, as each were inter- 
ested in the result. Congress spent four months 
wrangling over the question, and t!alifornia was 
finally admitted b}- making a conditional compromise 
on several other bills, the opposition all coming from 
the slave-holding States. Little did the hundred 
thousand immigrants, who were coming to California 
by land and sea that summer, di-eam of the terrible 
strain the structure of our Ship of State was under- 
going. The storm passed over, and peace, for another 
decade, rested on the land. 


The boundaries, as determined at the first session 
of the Legislature, were: — 

"Beginning on the sea coast at the mouth of the 
creek called Santa Maria, and running up the middle 
of said creek to its source; thence due northeast to 
the summit of the Coast Range, the farm of Santa 
Maria falling within Santa Barbara C!ounty; thence 
following the summit of the Coast Range to the 
northwest corner of Los Angeles County; thence 
along the northwestern boundary of said county to 
the ocean, and three English miles therein; and 
thence in a northwesterly- direction parallel with the 
coast, to a point due west of the mouth of Santa 
Maria Creek, which was the |)lace of beginning, 
including the islands of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas, 
San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and all others 
in the vicinity. Santa Barbara shall be the county 

The machinery of the county government went 
into operation in August, 1850. Joaquin Carrillo was 
County Judge. The first matter before him as Judge of 
the Probate Court was the estate of James Scott, 
deceased, who was a partner of Captain WilLson in 
trade. The will was approved, and Pablo de la 



Guerra and N. A. Dcu were appointed appraisers of 
the estate. J. W. Burroughs acted as sheriff, county 
auditor, coroner, and justice of the peace. 

Henry A. Tefft took his seat as Judge of the Sec- 
ond Judicial District, August 5, 1850. John M. Hud- 
dars acted as Clerk. Eugene Lies, of New York, 
was admitted to practice, and was sworn in as inter- 
preter and translator. A demand was made of the 
Alcalde, Joaquin de la Guerra, for the records of the 
Court of the First Instance, which was refused, for 
some reason, Jose de la Guerra y Noriega having 
been the Judge. It is quite likely that the Castilian 
contempt for the new Court which was set up super- 
seding the old authorities, may have been the cause. 
N. A. Den was made foreman of the first Grand Jury, 
the names of which were not given. At a session 
held April 7, 1851, a better record was kept. 

Grand Jury impanelled: Antonio Arrellanes, John 
Kays, Rafael Gonzales, Octaviano Gutierrez, Man- 
uel Cota, Raymundo Olivera, Bsteban Ortega, Geo. 
Nidever, Augustus F. Hinchman, Jose Lorenzano, 
Juan Rodriguez, Cevero Bncinas, Robert Parks, John 
Davis, Juan Rodriguez, Ygnacio Oi'tega, Antonio 
Maria Ortega, Simon B. Steere, Raymundo Carrillo, 
Juan Sanchez, Daniel A. Hill, Ramon Gonzales. Ex- 
cused from serving, Antonio Maria Ortega, Guillermoe 
Carrillo, Edward S. Hoar, A. F. Hinchman, Jose Car- 
rillo, Lewis T. Burton, Augustine Janssens, Joaquin 
Carrillo, Vicente Hill. The following pei-sons were 
fined 125.00 for not answering to their names. An- 
tonio de la Guerra, Jose Antonio de la Guerra, Luis 
Carrillo, Antonio Rodriguez, Teodoro Arrellanes, Gas- 
par Orena, Jose de Jesus Carrillo, and Juan Camarillo. 
In the case of the People vs. Francisco Romeo et. al. 
the defendants having escaped from custody the wit- 
nesses were discharged, and the sureties relieved. 
It is said that the jail was a most convenient affair 
To get rid of a troublesome man it was only necessary 
to put him in jail for some little oifense, when he 
would break and leave for good. The grand jury 
found indictments against Francisco Figueroa and 
Guadalupe Sanchez for murder, and made a present- 
ment or complaint of the jail as unfit for use, and 

Edward S. Hoar, brother of the famous Massachu- 
setts Senator, was appointed District Attorney. The 
records of this Court were kept for some months in a 
pocket memorandum, and were carried around in a 
coat pocket by the Clerk who fished and hunted 
abalone shells. In fact all of the county records 
were very badly kept for a time as the history will 

The Court ordered a county seal described as fol- 
lows: — 

" Around the margin the words, County Court of 
Santa Barbara County, with the following device in 
the center: A female figure holding in her right hand 
a balance, and in her left a rod of justice; aljove the 
figure a rising sun, and below, the letters CAL." 

Pablo de la Guerra was the first State Senator, and 
J. M. Covarrubias and Henry Carnes the first Assem- 


Licenses for doing business were granted as fol- 
lows: — 

No. 1. John A. Vidal & Co., August 23d, to retail 

No. 2. Luis Burton, August 23d, merchandise and 

No. 3. Francisco Caballero, August 23d, retail liquors. 

No. 4. Francisco Leiba, August 23d, retail liquors. 

No. 5. Pascal Bottilleas, August 24th, retail liquors. 

No. 6. Isaac J. Sparks, August 24th, general mer- 

No. 7. John Todd, August 24th, liquors. 

No. 8. John Kays, August 24th, merchandise and 

No. 9. Josd de la Guerra, August 26th, liquors 

No. 10. W. A. Streetei', San Buenaventura, August 
27th, merchandise and liquors. 

No. 11. Ramon Valdez, August 27th, liquors. 

No. 12. Juan Camarillo, August 28th, liquors. 

No. 13. Francisco Badillo, September 2d, liquors. 

No. 14. Miguel Unzuela, September 7th, circus 

No. 15. Don Pablo Blancaste, September 10th, gen- 
eral merchandise. 

No. 16. Circus Co., September 14th, Sunday exhi- 

No. 17. Felipe Figueroa, September 17th, liquors. 

No. 18. Circus Co., September 21st, exhibition. 

No. 19. Juan Ruiz, September 29th, puppets 

No. 20. Circus Co., September 30, exhibition. 

No. 21. Senora Sierra Jonseca, October 1st, mer- 

No. 22. Senora Palty y Torres, October 14th, gen- 
eral merchandise. 

No. 23. Garino Duarte, October 15th, general mer- 

No. 24. Francisco Valdez, October 24th, general 

No. 25. Ignacio Ortega, October 25th, liquors. 

No. 26. John A. Vidal, October 26, liquors. 

No. 27. Francisco Valdez, November 1st, liquors. 

No. 28. Victor Juanes, November 1st, general 

No. 29. Gaspar de Orefia November 5th, liquors. 

No. 30. Francisco Pico, November 25th, liquors. 

No. 31. Pascal Bottilleas November 25th, liquors. 

No. 32. Francisco Leiba, November 25th, liquors. 

No. 33. John Todd, November 25th, liquors. 

No. 34. Domingo Sierra, December 1st, general 

No. 35. Jose Lorenzano, December 24, liquors. 

No. 36. Juan Camarillo, December 24th, liquors. 

No. 37. Jose' Antonio Valdina, December 26th, li- 

No. 38. Francisco Badillo, December 26th, liquors. 



No. 39. Bias Garcia, January 4, ISol, liquors. 

No. 40. Antonio Plores, January Gth, liquors. 

No. 41. Morritz Goldstein, January 14th, general 

No. 42. Morritz Goldstein, January ISth, general 
merchandise and liquors. 

No. 43. William Hatch, January 21st, general mer- 

No. 44. Francisco Badillo, January 22d, liquors. 

No. 45. Manuel Rodriguez de Poll, January 22d, 
general merchandise. 

No. 46. Manuel Kodriguez de Poli, January 22d, 
general merchandise and liquors. 

No. 47. Manuel Anguesola, January 22d, liquors. 

No. 4S. Rimon Valdez, January 24th, liquors. 

No. 49. Juan Camarillo. January 30th, liquors. 

No. 50. Morritz Goldstein, February loth, general 

No. 51". Luis Fleeshman, February- 22d, general 

No 52. Luis Fleeshman, February 22d, general 
merchandise and liquors. 


Of the fifty licenses, issued from August to Febru- 
ary, thirty-two were for the sale of liquors. As a 
general thing, the Californians were not addicted to 
excessive drinking. The simple methods of living, 
the mild climate, and plenty of vigorous out-door 
exercise had not educated the stomachs of the people 
to the morbid desire for artificial stimulants charac- 
teristic of the Americans. When they took a social 
drink, they usually bought a glass of aguadiente, and 
each took a sip. When, for the first time, a crowd of 
Americans came to a saloon, and demanded each a 
glass of liquor, the astonishment of the native, who 
often had but one glass, knew no bounds; he would 
rush out to his neighbors to borrow theirs, and tell 
them of the terrible Los Americanos who would 
swallow, at a gulp, a glass of fiery whisky. They 
soon learned, however, the capacity of the American 
stomach for whisky, and provided proper accommo- 
dations. The number bearing the names of the first 
families who engaged in the liquor trade, is rather 


Some took out licenses for three mouths, and 
renewed them at the end of the time. During the 
year 1851, the following persons were in trade of 
some kind: — 

Pascal Bottilleas, Domingo Sierra, Francisco 
Oaballero, Fernando Tico, John Fitle, Ygnacio 
Adaro, Gaspar Orena, Policarpio Lopez, Juan 
de Dias Bravo, Eamon Valdez, Leonardo Luco, 
Emanuel Block, M. Pauli Sehultz, Jose Lorenzano, 
B. H. Reed, Morris & Co., Jose Valdez, Lewis T. 
Burton, Nicholas Den, Isaac J. Sparks, John Kays, 
Juan Camarillo, Santiago Unda, Jose' Girand, Joaquin 
Armat, Augustin Janssens, L. B. Steere, Jesus Flores, 

Francisco Pico, Francisco Leyba, Juan Ilippolyto, 
Manuel de Poli, Pedro de Aneolar, Ijoe & Story, 
Janssens & Valdina, Matilda Vnez, Pedro de Aeblar, 
Manuel Morrilles, Jose Jesus L'ordero, Faust & Adler, 
John Richardson, William liuttler, B. Tannebaum, 
Eliliu Hernandez, Roman Viabla, G. Newman, Anas- 
tacio Flores, Ventura Pico, Egenia Garcia, Harris 
Levy, W. 11. Harmon & Co., David Edwards, Apolo- 
nio Pico, Lcandro Saing, Sanchez & Co., Jos6 Maria 
Moreno, Dolores Orchoa, W. Hammond & Co., Gold- 
berg & Co., Charles Schachne, Vicente de Feliz, Luis 
Cranthal, Antonio Peralta, Toby Scherwinsky. 
Domingo Davila, Jacob Fitzgerald. 


Previous to the advent of the Americans, a sale or 
purchase of land was very rare. Soon, however, it 
became a common matter. Among the first was 
that of the tract called Cocheno. by Nicholas A. Den 
to Daniel Hill, September 10, 1851; consideration, 

October 13, 1851, Anastacio Oarrillo and Conces- 
sion Garcia to Isaac J. Sparks, part of the Rancho 
Puenta de la Concepcion, containing 13,320 acres; 
consideration, $2,400. 

J. M. Covarrubias and wife to Pablo do la Guerra, 
one-half the San Carlos Jonata, including all the 
cattle on the land; consideration, $25,000. 

December 31, 1851, Francisco Villa de Domingucz 
to Charles Fremont, Rancho San Lonidio; considera- 
tion $2,000. 

December 30, 1851, Francisco de la Guerra to 
James B. Bolton, southeastern half of the island of 
Santa Cruz; consideration, $13,000. 


Considerable confusion existed as to county officers, 
under the new. government. Sometimes persons 
were elected who were utterly incompetent, and 
would not qualify. The Americans who understood 
the machinery of courts, were few, while the voters 
who knew nothing about law, other than the dicta- 
tion of a powerful family, were manj-. The follow- 
ing items from the records will give an idea of the 
•'rotation in office" during this period: — 

Antonio Rodriguez gave bonds as Justice of the 
Peace, for $5,000. 

E. S. Hoar, County Assessor, in 1851. 

Raymundo Carrillo, Notary Public, May 12, 1851. 

A. F. Ilinehman, Justice of the Peace, 1851. 

J. W\ Burroughs, elected Sheriff, 1851; J. W. Bur- 
roughs, appointed County Recorder, September 3, 
1851; J. W. Burroughs, api.ointed Justice of the 
Peace, September 16, 1851. 

Manuel J. Cota, apjiointed Justice of the Peace, 
February 25, 1852. 

John A. Vidal, aiqiointed Justice of the Peace, 
March 10, 1852. 

Antonio Rodriguez, appointed Justice of the Peace, 
March 17, 1852. 


C. B. Huse, appointed Couuty Clerk, April 14-, 1852. 

J. VV. Burroughs, appointed County Treasurer, 
April 14, 1852. 

Jose Carrillo, Justice of the Peace, appointed April 
26, 1852. 

Francisco de la Guerra, appointed County Assessor 
by County Judge, Joaquin Carrillo, April 14, 1852. 

Jose Moraga, appointed Justice of the Peace, April 
28. 1852. 

January 23, 1852, J. W. Burroughs acted as 
County Clerk; A. F. Hinchman, Deputy. 

July 5, 1852, Henry Carnes acted as District Judge 
in place of Judge Teffts who was drowned at Port 
Harford while trying to land, to hold Court at San 
Luis Obispo. 

Pedro C. Carrillo, Justice of the Peace, August 9, 

Charles Fernald appointed Sheriif ^by Court of 
Sessions, August 9, 1852, to fill the place of Valen- 
tine Hearne, who resigned. 

Manuel Gonzales, Vicente Moraga, and Fernando 
Tieo, Constables in San Buenaventura, August 23, 


J. M. Covarrubias and A. F. Hinchman, Assembly- 
men; Pablo de la Guerra, Senator; William Twist, 
Sheriff; Francisco de la Guerra, Assessor; Vitus 
Wrackenreuder, Survej^or; J. W. Burroughs, Clerk 
and Recorder; Charles Fernald, Disti-iet Attorney; 
Eaymundo Carrillo, Public Administrator; Francis J. 
Maguire, Justice of the Peace, Township No. 2. 

November 8, 1852, J. M. Covarrubias, Countj^ 
Clerk; Vitus Wrackenreuder, Deputy. 

Eaymundo Carrillo, was appointed County Treas- 
urer by Court of Sessions, December 6, 1852. 


Taxes were not paid more promptly then than now. 
Manuel Cota, owner of the San Domingo Eancho, of 
13,320 acres, valued at $10,000, improvements, $1,000, 
was delinquent on $103. 12J; property three times 
exposed for sale with no buyers. 

John Temple, 4,440 acres, Ex-Mission Purissima, 
valued at $1,200, taxes, $19.50; three times exposed 
for sale, without buyers. 

January 26, 1852, Joaquin Carrillo resigned as 
County Judge, to accept of the position of Judge of 
the Second Judicial District, which position ho held 
for foui'teen years. 

August 17, 1853, the assessment on Teodoro 
Arrellanes' personal property was raised $10,000. 


Two men left the steamer Savannah at San Diego, 
on its way up the coast, for the purchase of cattle, 
having considerable sums of money with them. 
When camped near the San Gabriel River, they 
were murdered by Zavaleta and another native, the 
murderers making their way to Santa Barbara, 

where they commenced spending money very freely 
among the lowest houses. A copy of the Los 
Angeles Star, giving a description of the murderers, 
was brought into town, and they were recognized 
and arrested by a number of citizens acting with the 
Sheriff, Valentine Hearne. It is said that the Amer- 
icans were more than willing to assist in arresting 
criminals, provided they were Mexicans, while the 
natives themselves were considerable less than will- 
ing to arrest their own countrymen accused of crime. 
After the arrest, without a warrant, and, perhaps, on 
what then seemed insufficient evidence, the chief 
families, among whom was Captain Noriega, pro- 
tested against the summary treatment of the men. 
Serious ill-feeling resulted between the law-and-order 
party, as the natives and their American friends 
called themselves, and the hoys on the other part. 
A mounted guard of twenty-five men was made up to 
accompany the men Sack to Los Angeles', among 
whom were the following persons, Henry Carnes 
being the Commander: John Bowers, P. H. Dun, 
John Dun, John Seollan, Thomas Ganon, Valentine 

Hearne, Carter, John Robinson, John Vidal, 

Theodore McCarty, Thomas Martin, Theodore Smith, 
and Geo. D. Fisher. 

A semi-official demand was made upon the town of 
Santa Barbara for horses, with threats of retaliation 
if the horses were not forthcoming. The horses 
were furnished. (See account of the proceedings on 
the bills in Court of Sessions, October 11th.) The 
men confessed the murder, even to the details, and 
pointed out the place where the bodies were buried. 
The people of the town (Los Angeles) took the men 
to Castle Hill and hung them, the guard of twenty- 
five staying until the work was done. Hearne was 
Sheriff, and his part of the transaction not pleasing 
Dr. Den and the de la Guerras, who were his prin- 
cipal sureties, they withdrew from his bonds, thus 
forcing him to resign. W. W. Twist, a native of 
Nova Scotia, and, as some say, not a citizen, was 
appointed to succeed Hearne. 


The American population were not always dis- 
posed to acquiesce in the large land holdings of the 
natives, and of the Americans who had intermarried 
among them. John Vidal, a member of Carnes' 
Company, of the Stevenson Regiment, was one of 
the dissatisfied. He bad rented for a time a tract of 
land on the Arroyo Burro, a small creek which runs 
into the ocean, west of Santa Barbara. When the 
lease expired he claimed the land under the pre- 
emption laws as Government land. Suit was brought 
in the proper courts, and the title adjudged to rest in 
Dr. Den, of whom Vidal had rented. The Sheriff 
(Twist) was ordered by the courts to oust Vidal and 
put Den in possession. Vidal was known to have 
many friends among the gamblers, who often num- 
bered a score or more, among whom was the, even 
then, notorious Jack Powers, and the matter of dis- 



possessing Vidat was considered hazardous. Wiicthcr 
wisol)- or not, Twist called out a posse comilatus to 
execute the writ of ejectment. The people bejuan to 
take sides as thej' ftivored the gamblers or the 
law-and-order, or respectable party. Vidal's friends 
gathered t<i the place in dispute and fortified it, wiih 
the determination of holding the ground at all Iimz- 
ards. It is said by some of the partisans of Vidal 
that the presence of his friends at the Arroyo Burro 
was merely friendly; that no resistance to the law 
was contemplated. Some 200 men wore enlisted in 
the posse comilatus. and an hour set for the departure 
of the army the next morning. A surgeon (Dr. 
BriiikerhofT) was emploj-ed to accompanj' the force. 
The party was to assemble at the Egerea House, then 
used as a Court House, at 9 o'clock. A small cannon 
was on the plaza, to be taken and used if necessary 
in knocking down the fortifications. Before the 
party had assembled Vidal and some of his com- 
panions came riding up as if to commence the fight 
there. Old residents differ materially as to the inci- 
dents. Some say that Vidal had come to avert the 
war or aflfect a compromise; that he stayed in town 
all night to answer a summons if need be; while 
others say that his whole party had come out from 
the fort that morning with the intention of captur- 
ing the cannon and thus break up the proposed 
attack. As Vidal came riding up, two men, one 
called " Little Mickey," and the other a short, 
swarthy Spaniard covered with a serape, las- 
soed the cannon and commenced to drag it away. 
It is said that Mickey was drunk, and that this part 
of the affair was mere fun or bravado on his part. 
Whatever it might be, Twist fired upon them, and 
firing immediately became general. Vidal was shot, 
by whom is unknown, but he fell ft-om his horse 
near where Rhynerson's Mills are. The swarthy 
man in the serape drew a long knife from his belt 
and rushed at Twist, and apparently plunged the 
knife thi-ough him. The knife was turned by a rib 
and the wound did not prove dangerous. Twist, 
however, shot his assailant dead. A running fight 
ensued for a few minutes, without any more seri- 
ous casualties. Vidal lived fourteen days, without 
being able to speak, attended by Dr. Brinkerhoff. 
He had a ring on his finger, which he was evidently 
anxious to leave to some one, but he was never able 
to say to whom and it was buried with him. Vidal 
was much the best of the party, and seems to have 
been almost forced into the affair bj' his companions. 
He was a Justice of the Peace at the time of his 
death, and had been Associate Justice with Joaquin 
Carrillo. In a well-settled community he would 
undoubtedly have been a valuable citizen. Twist 
soon recovered. 

The affair caused a great deal of excitement, and 
there was serious talk of driving out the whole gang 
of " hounds," as they were sometimes called. The 
slightest affair would now have produced a bitter and 


.w(| and tl 

relentless war betwi 
la Guerra party. Pablo ih- la (^utim wont to tiie 
fort the next da\' with a flag of truce, and induced 
Powers and the others who were with him to submit 
to the legal authorities, and the att'air ended, though, 
liy I he advice of the do la Guorras, the citizens of 
Santa Barbara generally remained in thoir houses 
till' following evening. The next morning a ship-of- 
war was found anchored in the ofting, having sailed 
from Monterey the day before to enforce order if 

The land in dispute was afterwards jn'oiiounced 
public ground, but the courts were undoubtedly cor- 
rect in deciding that Vidal was a naked trespasser, 
the adverse party having had peaceable possession 
for years, a fact acknowledged by Viilal in the pay- 
ment of rent for it. 


The discovery of gold and its easy acquisition, by 
almost every one, made a harvest for gamblers. 
It is said that every one gambled. This was not 
quite true; but a stranger looking through the town 
would think that it was the principal business of the 
inhabitants. This was not true of Santa Barbara 
more than other California towns. From Siskiyou 
to San Diego, the abundance of gold had the same 
effect, to demoralize man, and make him seek foi'tune 
by chance, rather than hard work. Mining itself, is, 
or was, a kind of gambling. No amount of experience 
would insure one against ill-luck, and sometimes the 
greenest boy would •• strike it rich." A few days' 
work in the mines sometimes resulted in acquiring 
thousands of dollars. Would not a successful run on 
a monte bank do the same? So those who were 
constitutionally disinclined to work, would risk dol- 
lars in the hope of making their thousands. Gold was 
seen everywhere in glittering ])ilcs, to tempt the 
weak. Men gambled then, who have since sat high 
in the councils of the nation. Merchants, who in the 
East would as soon have stolen money, as gamble for 
it, would first risk a quarter on a card for fun, then 
a dollar to see how their luck run, and in a little 
while were as keen gamblers as though they had run 
on a Mississippi steamer for j^ears. Preachers, find- 
ing their profession at a discount, would lay aside 
their prayers and deal a monte game. The lawyer 
without briefs thought gambling a brief waj' to fort- 
une. The ranchero, who spent a dull life among 
his herds liked the excitement, and so nearly all 
gambled more or less. Gold lay in thousands upon 
the table, and the reckless and thoughtless helped to 
swell the piles to a greater size. Strange theories 
were in circulation about the chances of winning. 
The theory of chances by a mathematician and an 
enthusiastic votary of the card-table would not har- 
monize. A favorite rule was, double your bet every 
time you lose and you are certain to get your money 
back and eventually break the bank. This is true; 
but the certainty of breaking, even a small bank. 



involves a possibility of millions of dollars. A man 
has been known to win or lose twenty-five bets in 
succession without a change of luck. What if that 
number of bets should go against a man. Doctor 
Brinkerhoflf relates in his notes an incident of the 
kind illustrating the mutation of fortunes. 

" Late one night I was accosted by a man by the 

name of , who asked me for twenty dollars. I 

at first refused, but he begged so hard I let him have 
it. The next day he came to me and returned the 
money saying, that he had won six thousand dollars 
and entirely cleaned out the bank," (meaning the 
monte bank). 

The gambler with his " store clothes," and high- 
toned style, was the envy of the men and the admi- 
ration of the women. Colton says of them they first 
seek a mistress and then a horse. All kinds of crime 
followed in the wake of gambling.. Prostitution, 
drunkenness, robbery, and murder seemed but the 
legitimate fruits of the gambling saloon. It was said 
of the profession that no man could take another's 
money without a consideration any length of time, 
without preparing himself for the halter. 


Soon after the discovery of gold it became appar- 
ent that a new era of crime as well as of money was 
inaugurated. The southern portion of the State was 
traversed by cattle buyers who carried as high as 
$50,000 at a time. Many of these traveling south 
from San Jose were never seen again, or if seen were 
recognized by shreds of clothing when the winter 
rains should expose their decaying skeletons. 


This band flourished in the early fifties, and in its 
best days numbered forty or more, composed mostly, 
if not entirely, of Californians or Mexicans. The 
leader or principal was Solomon Pico, a cousin of 
Andres and Pio Pico; so that he had the prestige of 
aristocratic blood. The headquarters of the gang 
for a long time were the Los Alimos and Purissima 
Eanchos. Though driving and trading in stock was 
the ostensible object of the company, it soon became 
apparent that the robbery of men, who came to the 
southern part of the State to purchase cattle, was the 
most flourishing part of their business. Many parties 
of two or three in number with saddle bags well filled 
with gold coin, were never heard of after passing 
San Luis Obispo; and in subsequent years, numbers 
of human skeletons found in out-of-the-way places 
with the ominous bullet hole in the skull, told the 
story of violence in a former day, and accounted for 
the mysterious disajipearance of so many cattle trad- 
ers. Their victims were mostly Amei'icans whom 
the native population felt were natural enemies, and 
thus the crimes which they committed were never 
divulged, or if brought to trial, resulted in an ac- 
quittal, for blood was thick, and to testify against 
one's countryman, when an American or Gringo was 

the prosecutor, was something that few, who boasted 
of Castilian blood, would be guilty of, and thus none 
of the gang were ever convicted. They generally 
avoided contests with county oflicials, who, perhaps, 
with a prudent regard for consequences, were quite 
as willing to let the banditti alone. It happened on 
one occasion, however, that the Sheriff' of Santa 
Barbara and Pico, the leader of the gang, came face 
to face, and for some hours maneuvered to get or 
retain the advantage. As the affair is intei'esting, 
not only as an incident between two men of coolness 
and courage, but as showing the style of doing busi- 
ness in those years, the matter will be related at 

Halleck, Peachy, and Billings, of San Francisco, 
had some kind of a lien on the Los Alimos Eaneho. 
The matter involved a large amount of money, and 
it was necessary that the papers should be properly 
served, and the Sheriff, Russel Heath, was requested 
to do it in person. When it was known that not only 
a writ was to be served on Jose de la Guerra, one of 
the hereditary magnates of the country, but that the 
property was to be put under attachment, a look of 
consternation came over the county officials' faces 
Some thought that a posse comitatus of thirty 
or forty was necessary, and that it should be called. 
It was ascertained that Pico himself, with a large 
number of his band, was lurking around the Los 
Alimos. But Heath was loth to acknowledge, by 
any act of the kind, the danger of the undertaking, 
and resolved to serve the papers alone. The dis- 
tance was too far to ride in one day, unless with the 
intention of stopping over night, and so a neighboring 
rancho, some fifteen miles this side, where he was sure 
of being among friends, was made the base of opera- 
tions. The Sheriff' had never met Pico, and his face 
was unknown, but he not only got a correct descrip- 
tion of the man, but also of his favorite saddle-horse, 
a powerful animal of peculiar color and marks, which 
Pico never permitted any but himself to ride. He 
was especially cautioned to never, under any circum- 
stances, as he valued his life, let Pico get in his rear 
as it would surely result in his getting shot. Heath 
obtained a powerful horse at the rancho spoken of, 
and after the sun was well up he visited the Los 
Alimos, which he found nearly deserted, de la Guerra 
himself, with a few of his retainers, only being 
present. The two were well acquainted, and after 
exchanging civilities, the Sheriff announced his busi- 
ness, and expressed his regret at being obliged to 
perform such a disagreeable duty. De la Guerra 
expressed no ill-feeling towards the Sheriff, knowing 
that it was in the line of his duty, but saw the attach- 
ment placed on the premises with the stoicism of a 
Castilian of the age of chivalry; pressed Mr. Heath 
to stay and partake of refreshment, which, however, 
he politely declined, pleading the hurry of business, 
etc. After obtaining explicit directions as to the 
proper trail to take, for there were no roads, he 
departed. In the multitude of cattle trails leading 



from the rancho, he missoil his way and went up the 
wrong ridge. Across the valley, whieh was impassa- 
ble, he ooiild see the trail whieh he ought to have 
taken, and, as his present course was out of his waj', 
he was obliged to retrace his steps for some distance, 
until he could find a place to cross the gully between 
the ridges. The ravine was lined with willows, and 
he wound his waj- among them until he saw a place 
where he could, by a loaj) into the gully, whieh might 
he four or five feet deep, and a bound out, attain the 
opposite bank. As he reached the opposite side, 
what was his astonishment to see Pico, quietly sit- 
ting his horse, apparently in ambush for some one 
coming up the trail, which he had missed. Thej' 
were so suddenly brought face to face that neither 
had any advantage over the other, so they both, 
after passing the usual compliments, commenced the 
ascent of the hill together, side b}" side. In a few 
minutes Pico discovered that his saddle was loose; 
Heath thought his was loose also, and as Pico slack- 
ened his pace, so did Heath. During the ride Heath 
had discovered that Pico's pistol was in a holster in 
the rear, while his was in front — a decided advan- 
tage for Heath. After examining the fastenings Pico 
thought his saddle was all right; Heath came to the 
same conclusion regarding his own, and both con- 
tinued the trip, though Pico was evidently puzzled 
by the coolness of Heath. A second time Pico tried 
to get in the rear in the same way, and was again 
thwarted. This time he gave a significant look, as 
much as to say, "Who the devil are you?" Pico now 
thought the horses he was looking for were in 
another direction, and again slackened his pace so as 
to fall in the rear, but Heath promptly' wheeled his 
horse so as to keep Pico in his front. Pico, up to 
this time, had been riding with his bridle-rein in his 
right hand, his left resting on the pommel of his 
saddle. He now made a move as if to change the 
bridle to his left, but he was promptly chocked by 
Heath, who said, "Pico, don't you move your hand. 
I know you. What are you doing here?" "I am 
hunting horses," said Pico, who now discovered that 
the stranger was no chicken, but as wary and 
cool as himself. "Well, sir, I am the SheiMlT of 
Santa Barbara. Take that trail and don't you turn 
until you have got a reasonable distance. I have 
nothing to do with you. Now go." Pico assented 
with a word or two in Spanish, and passed back 
down the trail. After he had got out of pistol shot 
he turned, and, with a wave of his hand, bade Mr. 
Heath Adios, true to his Castilian training to the 

Mr. Heath, not knowing how many of the band 
might be in his vicinity, gave the rein to his horse, 
and in two or three hours reached the rancho from 
which he had started in the morning, where he was 
warmly welcomed as returning from a dangerous 

Knowing the character of the men he had to deal 

with, ho tho\ight he had better be on his waj' early 
in the morning, as men miglit be put u])on the trail 
to Santa Barbara to shoot him as he i)assed. His 
friend vi.hinteered to accoinpany liini a jiortion of 
the way. At three in llu' morning they were on 
the roail. 

A few miles on their way was a cattle rancho 
which was sus]>ected of harboring I'ico's men. where 
a large number of dogs were kept. Making a wido 
detour, so as not to alarm the dogs, they reached tho 
dangerous part of the road at daylight — dangerous 
because it ofl'ered 0])])ortunities for ambush, which tho 
road, since parting with Pico the day before, liad not 
aft'orded. Cautiously avoiding ever^- ])lace for am- 
bush, or giving it close attention, they discovered 
three men, apparently waiting. They made no hostile 
demonstrations, for two armed men were too many 
for three to fight in open contest. It was learned 
afterward, however, that the three were a part of 
the Pico gang, and that they had stopjied at the Jog 
ranch for the purpose of intercepting Heath. 


After the dispersion of Solomon Pico's gang, some 
of the remnants were gathered up by Jack Powers, 
who became one of the most successful and noted 
bandits of the time. Ho belonged originally to Ste- 
venson's Regiment, Company F, commanded by 
Captain Lippett, and was said to have been a man 
of considerable character and standing when ho was 
enlisted into the regiment. Shortly after being mus- 
tered out he commenced his career as a gambler, 
making it a decided success. It is reported that he 
was at one time in possession of a quarter of a million 
in coin, but this is probably untrue. His first opera- 
tions were in San Francisco, where he made many 
friends among the sporting men and politicians of 
the time.* He made his appearance in Santa Bar- 
bara in an early day, and managed, as the phrase 
goes, to "pretty much run tho town" for a while; at 
least he exerted an influence which was greater than 
that of any other man. Looking back thirty years 
from our present stand-point of security for life and 
property, it seems astonishing that one man, or even 
a few men, should overawe a communitj- and prevent 
the efl'ective operations of the courts. There were 
many.waj-s in which it could be done. Witnesses to 
a crime were hurried out of a country, or kept mute 
with the certainty of a desperate quarrel if they testi- 
fied to the facts. A solitary juryman in the interest 
of a criminal can hang a jury and render a conviction 
impossible. Lawj-ers, able ones, can be found to 
shut their eyes at perjury, or even approve of it, and 
make an effective defense on known false testimony. 

JACK powers' horsemanship. 

He was considered the best rider in the State. In 
a match at San Jose he rode 150 miles in six hours, 

'The reader may wiinder t'lat the two <l-i8ses are thus mentioned timether, 
but he may feel ajsurej that the moral worth of either cUsa was nothinK to 
spealc of. 



changing horses as often as he saw fit. He had a 
gray mule which would carry him 100 miles in 
twelve hours. He was in Santa Barbara within ten 
hours after a robbery committed near San Luis 
Obispo. The number of his robberies is unknown. 
He continued his career for nearly four years, his 
operations extending from San Diego to San Jose. 
Like the banditti of Italy or Greece, he robbed only 
those who were strangers to the country, spent his 
money freely, and kept on the good side of the 
people. His operations were so shrewdly conducted 
that for years many people believed that he was a 
persecuted and slandered man. 


Two brothers, who were Frenchmen (Basques), 
had bought a drove of cattle in Ventura County, and 
passing through Santa Barbara on their way north, 
attracted the attention of Powers' gang, and were 
attacked by some of the party under the leadership 
of Powei's. By some means the attack was not 
planned with Powers' usual skill, for he found him- 
self in a desperate hand-to-hand conflict. A shot 
from one of the brothers passed through his leg, 
through a portion of the saddle, and killing the horse 
which he rode, which was a fine black charger, 
belonging to Miguel de la Guerra, of the San Julian 
Raneho. The Basques were killed and the cattle 
driven by Powers' band into the San Joaquin Valley 
and sold. Notwithstanding Powers' wound, he was 
in San Francisco the same night, when a circus pro- 
prietor, who was a great admirer of Powers for his 
horsemanship, procured a schooner and sent him to 
Cape St. Lucas, where he remained until his leg 
was healed.'*' 


When Zavaleta, one of the principals in the San 
Gabriel murder, was about to be hung, he expressed 
a desire to be executed in a new suit of clothes. 
Jack Powers, who was present, ordered a suit in 
accordance with the wishes of the condemned, and 
enabled him to make his exit with the dignity and 
decency of a Castilian. 


During the time that Twist was Sheriff, an Indian 
named Alisal, was to be hung for murder. »While 
the sentence was pending, a petition was sent to the 
Governor to have the sentence commuted to impris- 
onment for life. The day for execution having arrived, 
and no order for a mitigation of the sentence having 
been received, the Sheriff proceeded to perform his 
duty. When the Indian was about to be hung. 
Jack Povvers moved a stay of proceedings on the 
ground that the commutation of the sentence was 
probably on the steamer which was then overdue. 
A vote of the spectators was taken and the hanging 

'Authorities differ in regard t"> this affair. S >m? sav that he was seen in 
Santa Birhvra the sanie ni.rht, that D-. Bfinlcerhoff privately attended him: 
but the writer fnund mthin;? in D-. B -inkerhiff's notes respecting it, neither 
couli he trace the report to any^rellable source. 

postponed. The expected paper was on the steamer, 
so the Indian, instead of being hung, was subjected 
to imprisonment for life. Twist was much blamed 
for this, and his sureties withdrew from his bonds, 
compelling Twist to resign, when Brinkerhoff, by 
virtue of being Coroner, became Sheriff, a position 
he held until Russel Heath was elected. 


As Patrick Dunn was fbr years a prominent citizen 
of Santa Barbara, the following bit of biography 
from the Arizona Miner, of May 23, 1866, will be of 
interest: — 

"Patrick Dunn was born in the State of Maine, 
1825. At an early age he learned the trade of a 
printer, principally, we believe, in the office of the 
New York Repress. Subsequently he was connected 
with Mike Walsh's celebrated paper, the Subterranean, 
and at one time was the editor of it. He reached 
California in a whaling vessel in 1846, and ran away 
from the vessel, taking refuge in Sonoma County, 
where among the first persons he met was Theodore 
Boggs, now of Prescott, a son of ex-Governor Boggs 
of Missouri. Mr. Dunn was one of several daring 
men who went to the rescue of the Donner partj' of 
emigrants from the East, who were snowed in near 
the Sierra Nevadas, in 1847. At that time his feet 
were severely frosted, and he suffered more or less 
from them to the day of his death. We believe that 
Mr. Dunn worked as a printer in California, and once 
published a paper in Sonoma. He came to Sonora, 
Arizona, in 1857, and settled at Tucson, where, for a 
time, he edited the Arizonian, a paper printed for a 
year or two, in the interest of the Cerro Coloi'ado 
and Santa Rita Mining Companies. As may be said 
of most men who have lived in Arizona, he had sev- 
eral desperate fights with the Apaches. In one, at 
Cook's Caiion, on the Messilla road, he was severely 
wounded. Mr. Dunn came to this part of the territory 
with Jack Swilling, in May, 1863. After remaining 
here for some time, working in the placers, and 
acquiring an interest in the Chase Mine, he returned 
to Tucson, and has since, excepting an occasional 
absence in California, remained there. He was 
elected to the Upper House of the first Legislature 
of the Territory. Upon the resignation of Mr. Hay- 
den, as Probate Judge of Pima County, he was 
appointed to his place." 

Dunn had the reputation of belonging to Power's 
gang. He was, when sober, rather companionable, 
but when in liquor, a fiend, and a man without fear, 
and reckless to the last extent of personal safety or 
reputation. He got into a quarrel with a passenger 
from a steamer, who was said, however, to have been 
a gambler and rough; one who, like Dunn, always 
carried his life on the toss of a dime. According to 
the traditions, the difficulty commenced something 
like this: — 

Dunn: " That's a damn fine hat you have." 
Stranger: " I don't know that it's any of your 

Dann: "Say, I'd like that hat." 
Stranger: " You can have it if you can take it." 
From this came shooting, or a shot, for the stranger 
foil dead at the first fire. The shooting occurred on 



the plaza in front of the de la Giicrra house, and was 
witnessed by several of the ladies of the family, but 
such was the dread of incurring the enmity of the 
gang, that oiilj^ the solemn assurance, by the Court, 
that they should be protected, induced thom to tes- 
tify. Dunn was tried for murder, and plead justifiable 
homicide in self-defense. The trial lasted twenty- 
one d-dys, and resulted in a disagreement of the jury. 
He was tried a second time at Los Angeles, with 
similar results. While the trial was in progress at 
Santa Barbara, the Sherift', Judge, and District Attor- 
ney-, each received a warning that they would be 
killed if thej- prosecuted the case. Six deputies 
were privatelj' sworn in, with instructions to 
instantly shoot Dunn and Powers if any attempt was 
made to interfere with the proceedings. The cer- 
tainty of becoming targets for half a dozen revolvers 
probably kept them quiet. 



Martin had some way incurred Dunn's displeasure, 
and, as usual, Dunn '• went for" the object of his wrath. 
He loaded a double-barrelled shot-gun with slugs, and 
commenced hunting Tom, and, on coming up with 
him, .snapped both barrels without effect. For this 
he was arrested, tried, and sentenced to the State's 
Prison for a term of years. Powers determined to 
rescue Dunn in his passage from the jail to the boat. 
Twenty-five men were sworn in as deputies, with 
instructions, as before, to shoot both Powers and 
Dunn, if any attempt to rescue him was made. Rus- 
sel Heath, the Sheriff, assured him that in case any 
attempt was made, that he, Powers, would be the 
first to ftiU. Powers' friends numbered about forty, 
as was supposed, so the fight was likely to be serious 
if it once commenced. The men followed the van con- 
taining the prisoner, from the jail to the boat, where 
he was put on by means of a lighter. Powers and 
his friends, to the number of thirty, were on the 
beach on horseback, but the transfer was effected 
without any interruption. 

The crowds of well-di'essed people, who now flock 
to the steamer to welcome returning friends, or bid 
adieu to those about leaving, have little idea of the 
stirring scenes there thirty years since. 

Dunn died in Arizona in 18G6. Powers left Cali- 
fornia about 185(5, and, with most of his gang, went 
to Mexico, where he soon stocked a ranch with stolen 
cattle. He was shot in some difficulty with his own 
men, and was found in hia corral half devoured by 


A small supply of public money was first obtained 
for licenses, for selling merchandise and liquor. The 
Treasurer's account commenced August 23, 1850. 
January 4, 1851, when an accounting was made, he 

was charged with State taxes - $5,507 18 

County taxes 2,753 59 

88,260 77 

Commission on .'»ame 5S0 66 

Paid State tax 5,086 87 

Total credits 85,667 53 

Leaving for salaries, etc 2,5!I3 24 

There was received up to date for the sale 

of licenses 8 800 59 

February 22. 1852. paid State tax 3,946 89 

Delinquent taxes for 1851 were collected 

amounting to 833 27 

Taxes for 1852 turned over to Treasurer: 

October 4 8 1,687 00 

9 2,000 00 

" 18 1,148 80 

" 20 420 00 

" 23 •-... 975 00 

" 25 710 50 

" 27 680 00 

Nov. 15 300 00 

Jan. 8,1853 lul 32 

88,022 62 

January 14th, paid State Tax 83,028 54 

Percentage to Treasurer - . . 33 69 

Mileage ^ 140 00 

TAXES, 1853. 

Treasurer Poll Taxes from Assessor 8 432 00 

September 20, 1853, Eec'd from Sheriff. .. 6,060 00 

25, " " " 1,650 00 

October 3, " " " 718 09 

November 7, " " " 1,211 53 

14, " " " 500 00 

January 5, 1854, " " 1,000 00 
February 28, " " " on 

Act of Judgment in Court of R. T. 

Lee, J. P., for sale of licenses. 132 27 

March 17, on account of Taxes 167 13 

Total collection for 1853 811,871 02 

Paid State Treasurer 85,853 64 

Percentage and Mileage 358 35 

For the purpose of showing the working of the 
financial machines, some items from the records of 
the Court of Sessions have been appended to this 
chapter. It will also show who were the leading 
land-holders and capitalists, also who were the office- 
holders and seekers for place. 

notes from the records of the court of sessions. 

November 18, 1851. 
Judge, Joaquin Carrillo; Associates, Samuel Barney, 
William A. Streeter. 

Bills allowed to the amount of. 8600 00 

Sheriff allowed for services fi-om August 1st 

to date 576 00 

Samuel Barney, for lumber.. 11 40 

D. B. Streeter, Deputy Sheriff, allowed 103 50 

A. F. HiNCHMAN, Clerk. 


November 19th. 
Justice, Carrillo; Associates, Bavuey aud Streeter. 

Communicatioa from A. B. Thompson regarding 
the assessmftnt of his property. Communication 
referred back for amendment, also requesting him 
to appear in person. 

Dr. Auseliii for medical attendance on an Indian 
allowed $25.00. 

A petition from the Mayor of Santa Barbara for 
remuneration of expenses on a trip to see the Gov- 
ernor of the State was laid aside for further con- 

November 20th. 
Same Board. 

Petition of the Mayor refused. 

N. A. Dan aud Francisco de la Guerra appointed 
to prepare jury lists. 

November 21st. 

W. A. Streeter allowed $25.00 for making county 

A. B. Thompson's petition considered. He set 
forth that Teodoro Arrellanes had agreed to deliver 
to said Thompson 1,300 head of cattle, which he had 
failed to do, but that he, Thompson, had been as- 
sessed for the whole of said cattle; whereupon the 
Board remitted two-thirds of the taxes and ordered 
them paid bj' Arrellanes. Octaviano Gutierrez, as 
Coroner, allowed $33.00. 

An order was made allowing all jurors for services 
up to date, $1.00 per day each. 

November 22d. 

Polling places for election established. 

For Santa Barbara, corridor at Lewis T. Burton's; 
San Buenaventura, corridor at W. A. Streeter's; 
Santa Ynez, Mission Building. 

January 1-t, 1851. 
Judge, Joaquin Carrillo; Associate Justice, Emidio 


Settlement with County Treasurer. 

February 19th. 
Judge, J. Carrillo; Associate Justices. E. Ortega and 

A. Rodriguez. 
A. F. Hinchman allowed for services and ex- 
penses for Court of Sessions, one day. ..$ 62 GO 
The Recorder was allowed for 91 days audit- 
ing of accounts, $1.00 per day 91 00 

Sheriff allowed for services. 185 00 

February 18th. 
Same Board. 

Isaac J. Sparks allowed for lumber $25 00 

John Davis, blacksmith, for ironing prisoners 7 00 
County Attorney allowed ten per cent, on 

collection of delinquent taxes 13 74 

Jailer allowed $1.00 per day 71 00 

Samuel Barney allowed for five criminal in- 
vestigations 50 00 

Edward S. Hoar appointed Assessor vice Lewis T. 
Burton, resigned. 

February 24th. 
I. J. Sparks allowed for lumber used by the county, 

Francisco Badillo, Sheriff of Los Angeles County, 
requested to make out his bill for arresting Guada- 
lupe Sanchez in more explicit terms. 

Rates of licenses established as follows: — 
For retailing liquors by glass or half pint, 

one year $100 00 

For selling goods, foreign and domestic, other 

than liquors, one per cent, on sales 

amounting to not less, in course of the 

year, than 350 00 

For peddlers, three per cent, on sales every 

three months 

Theaters, circuses, sleight-of-hand shows, 

each performance 10 00 

For banking, dealing in exchange, buying 

and selling notes and accounts, per year 300 00 
For selling clocks and watches,- per year 50 00 

February 26th. 
Judge, Joaquin Carrillo; Associates, Emidio Ortega 

and A. Rodriguez. 
Associate Judges allowed $6.00 per day each, $42 00 
Sheriff Badillo's (Los Angeles) bill for arresting 
Guadalupe Sanchez refused 
County Clerk allowed $7.50 per day for ser- 
vices - $30 00 

For acting as Justice in a criminal case 10 00 

Bill of Deputy Sheriff and Treasurer of Los 
Angeles County in the Sanchez arrest 
allowed 391 40 

March 24th. 

Same Board. 

Emidio Ortega allowed for acting as Coroner 

on the body of an Indian $40 00 

Sheriff allowed for acting as Jailer and feed- 
ing prisouers, one month 30 00 

For services from April 4th to May 20th 216 00 

Octaviano Gutierrez for acting as Coroner on 

the body of an Indian.. 33 00 

Rent for building used as C. H., 7 months... 315 00 

August 4, 1851. 
Same Board. 

Teodoro Arrellanes, Juan Camarillo, and de la 
Guerra complained of their assessments being too 

August 5th. 
Jury lists made by Court. 

August 6th. 

A. F. Hinchman appointed Justice of the Peace, 
to act as Associate Justice. 

List of taxable citizens made by the Assessor and 
accepted by Court. 

Grand Jury list made out. 

August 7th. 
Rate of taxation established at fifty cents on each 


E-iteb:vn Ortega and A. F. lliiu'hin:iii, as Ii\<li;in 

Commissioners, presented a report on tlio condition 

of the Indians. 

V. llearne, Djputy Sheriflf, presented account 
of Slieritt", for services as Jailer and feed- 
ing prisoners from Maj' 23d to June 9th; 
allowed St57 00 

Deputy Sheriff Streetcr allowed for feeding 

prisoners, twelve days <3 00 

Sheriff allowed for ten days' attendance 

(subseq^usntly reconsidered) SO 00 

County Assessor E. S. Hoar allowed 2(50 00 

Assistant Assessor Rodriguez allowed 144 00 

October 7, 1831. 

E. Ortega as Associate Justice, three days, 

allowed 8 18 00 

E. Ortega as Coroner in Heavey's case 50 00 

J. W. Burroughs, as Sheriff, from August 7th 

to October 7th - 90 00 

As Clerk of Board of Sessions and money 

for stationery 20 00 

Thomas Bobbins allowed for rent of Court 

House, for six months. 447 00 

Antonio Maria de la Guorra, County Treas- 
urer, for county expenses 332 24 

Eugene Lies, as Interpreter 12 00 

October 10th. 
A. F. Hinchman thirty-nine days as Auditor. $133 00 
Complaints were made by Teodoro Arrellanes, 
Luis Arrellanes, Luis T. Burton, and Isaac J. Sparks, 
that their property in San Luis Obispo County had 
been assessed as in Santa Barbara; whereup m the 
Assessor was instructed to confine his operations to 
Santa Barbara alone. 

December 9th. 
Judge, Carrillo; Associates, Ortega and Burroughs. 
Francisco Leyba allowed for rent of C. H., 

two months S 50 00 

Esteban Ortega as Coroner and J. P 103 00 

J. W. Burroughs as County Clerk and Audi* 

tor, for three months 189 00 

December 10th. 

Account of County Treasurer, Antonio Maria 
de la Guerra, from January 14th to De- 
cember 9th, allowed ..$328 00 

Account of J. W. Burroughs as J. P 33 00 

February 16, 1852. 
Ordered that taxes paid by Teodoro Arrellanes on 
projjerty in San Luis Obispo be transferred to that 
county. Ortega allowed, as Associate Justice, $24 00 

Esteban Ortega allowed, as Coroner 31 00 

J. W. Burroughs allowed, as J. P. and other 

services 38 00 

FEBRr.\RY 18th. 
Bill of Clerk for services and stationery $71 45 

April Gth. 
Wholesale resignations and appointments. 

Edward S. Hoar resigned as .Vsscssor; Antonio 
Maria do la Guorra, as Treasurer and J. W. J5ur- 
roughs, as County Clerk. 

J. W. Burroughs was appointed Treasurer, Fran- 
cisco do la Guerra Assessor and Charles E. Huso 
County Clerk. 

County Auditor was allowed per day •? 1 00 

Treasurer from December 8, 1851, to April .. 

8, 1852 122 00 

J. C. Vidal as Coroner and Justice of the 

Poace 00 00 

County Clerk 71 00 

April 26, 1852. 
IJatcs of taxes established at one-half of one per 
cent. It being doubtful whether this amount could 
be assessed, it was conditionally set at one-fourth of 
one per cent. 

June 8th. 
A. F. Hinchman appointed District Attorney. 

July 2d. 

Sitting as a Board of Equalization, the following 
assessments were raised: — 

Juan Fittlcs from $4 000 to $5 000 

John Todd 980 to 1250 

Thomas Gannon 170 to 500 

Ramon Malo 8 741 to 11 741 

Pascal Bottilleas was raised $1,000, Jos6 Lorenzano, 
$3,000, Isaac J. Sparks, .$5,000, William Foreman, 
$2,000, Luis Arrellanes, $2,000, William Hatch, $2,000, 
Leandro Saing, $1,000, Maria Jesus Olivera de Cota, 
$12,000, Gasper Orona, §8.500. 

AuausT, 1852. 
John A. Vidal as Justice of the Peace, and Associate 

Justice was allowed ?93 00 

Colin Campbell, as Interperter 40 00 

Edward S. Hoar as Assessor 560 00 

C. E. Huse as County Clerk and Clerk of 

Board of Sessions and Auditor ..151 00 

Ordered that an additional tax of one quarter of 
one per cent, be levied to build a jail. 

October 11th. 
Judge, Joaquin Carrillo; Associates, Jose Carrillo, 

and Pedro C. Carrillo. 

Claims were presented for taking Zavaleta and 
two other persons to Los Angeles. These persons 
were the murderers from San Gabriel, mentioned in 
a former part of the chapter. The parties presenting 
bills for horses were 

Pacifico Sanchez $40 

Jose A. Ramon 10 

Leandro Gonzales 80 

Jose M. Romero 10 

The affair looked so much like lawlessness, that 
Judge Carrillo refused to entertain it, and upon his 
associates recommending the allowance, he stepped 
down from the bench, and refused to sanction the 
matter, even by his presence. 




Charles Fernald Sheriff for summoning Jury. $47 50 

For serv^iees in the Courts of J. P 68 50 

Jos6 Carrillo for criminal investigation 62 00 

Pedro Carrillo for same 75 00 

Charles E. Huse for acting as County Auditor 

and for stationery 298 00 

The pay of E. S. Hoar as Census taker was fixed 
at $16.00 per day. 

October 13, 1852. 
Judge, Joaquin Carrillo; Associates, Pedro C. Carrillo, 

Jose Carrillo. 
The bill of the Treasurer, Burroughs, allowed 

for 179 days' service $179 00 

The house of Fabrigat was rented for a Court 

December Ist. 
Judge, Joaquin Carrillo; Associates, Pedro Carrillo, 

Vicente Moraga. 
W. W. Twist, Sheriff, for arresting Wm. Taylor, and 

board allowed 86 00 

December 4th. 
Antonio Rodriguez, taxes refunded to the 

amount of $281 17 

County Clerk authorized to purchase books 

and stationery to the amount of 300 00 

January 10, 1853. 
Joaquin Carrillo appeared as County Judge for 
the last time, becoming Judge of the 2d Judicial 

February 21st. 
No Judge having been ajjpointed, the Court ad- 
journed sine die. 

April 4th. 
Charles Fernald appeared as County Judge, ap- 
pointed by Governor Bigler. 

Russel Heath was appointed District Attorney to 
fill the place made vacant by the resignation of 
Charles Fernald. 


Names on for $5,000 and upwards. 
The details as to the kind of property, other than 
personal and real, were given. 

Aguerre Antonio $ 1,000 

Arrellanes Tcodoro 19.460- 

Ardissan Estevan, ) 

Rancho del Rincon. f ' 

Arrellanes Luis 2,648 

Ayala Crisogono 5,500 

Burton Lewis T 4,056 

Carrillo Carlos Antonio, 

Lompoc Rancho. 

Carrillo Joaquin 11,400 

Carrillo Anastacio 6,750 

Carrillo Jose 2,140 

* Carrillo Raymundo 2,340 




$ 8,000 

$ 9,000 





















Names. Personal. Real. Total. 

Caraarillo Juan 4,340 1.660 6,006 

Cavallero Francisco 4,100 4,350 8,456 

Covarrubias Jose'Ma.... 7,360 8,550 15,910 

Cota Francisco 18,560 8,970 27,530 

Cota Manuel 750 12,000 12,750 

Cordero Miguel 8,190 1,810 10,000 

Den Nicolas A 19,00D 12,000 31,000 

Den Richards 2,800 6,600 9,400 

Dominguez Francisco Vil- 
la (widow) 2,550 2,900 5,450 

Foxen Benjamin 2,654 2,600 5,245 

Gonzales Leandro — 12,700 22,100 34,800 

Gonzales Rafael 9,560 1,260 10,820 

de la Guerra Jose y No- 
riega 89,440 39,444 128,884 

de la Guerra Antonio Ma. 8,336 8,970 17,306 

Hill Daniel 7,100 5,500 12,600 

Janssens Augustin 3,860 4,330 8,190 

Kays John _ 6,000 4,000 10,000 

Moraga Joaquin Al varado 

(widow) 1,750 4,050 5,800 

Olivera Diegot- 7,844 5,150 12,994 

Ortega Antonio Ma. ... 670 4,800 5,470 

Ortega Madalina de Cota 1,624 5,400 7,024 

Orena Gaspar 6,560 6,190 12,750 

Reyes Jose.. 3,435 2,700 6,135 

Robbins Thomas M 9,425 6,450 15,875 

J Rodriguez Maria Roma- 

nade 4,940 4,120 9,000 

Ruiz Jose Pedro, estate 11,500 

Sanchez Juan 21,660 9,500 31,160 

Isaac J. Sparks 19,900 1,100 20,000 

College of Santa Ynez-_. 16,600 10,880 27,480 
Santa Barbara Commons 

(town land) _ 18,000 

Thompson Alpheus B... 17,992 9,645 27,637 

Tico Fernando... 7,055 5,600 12,655 

Santa Cruz Island 12,000 

§Valenzueala Joaquin... 3,700 1,500 5,200 

Ximenes" Manuel 4,000 7,050 11,050 

Lewis T. Burton, Assessor. 

The reader will notice the evident lumping of the 
pi'operty into fives and tens of thousands, and an 
apportionment afterwards into real and personal 
property. The total assessment was $992,676. The 
American names on the roll under $5,000 were: 
Samuel Barney, Charles Brown, Wm. Brown, James 
Burke, Henry Carnes, John Davis, Robert Ellwell, 
John Fahy (Priest), the Chapman children with 
Spanish Christian names, Wm. T. Johnson, Francis 
W. Lewis, Geo. Nidever, James B. Shaw, John 
Spai'ks, W. D. Streeter, David B. Streeter, Simon B. 
Steere, John Temple, John Todd, John A. Vidal, 
Thomas Warner, John Wilson, Albert Packard, James 
Scott, J. B. Meacham. 

*Ten of this name on the Assessment Roll. 
tTen by this name on the Roll. 
tEleven by this name. 
§Ten of this name. 


Cattle were generally valued at 88 per head, sheep 
$3, and land at twenty-five cents per acre, and some- 
times, in case of a widow, or a poor and deserving 
person, as low as ten cents per acre. 

Jose de la Guerra y Noriega had the ranches: — 

Conejo, containing 53,280 acres 

Simi, " 108.000 " 

LasPosas, " 26,640 " 

San Julian, " 20,000 " 

Salsipuedes, " 35,200 " 

.Statement of John Nkbver — Removal of Indians in 18.36— 
Signs of Life on the Island in 1851— Second Vi<it— Discov- 
ery of the Woman — Unexpected Welcome — In the Hunter's 
Camp — Removal to Santa Barbara — General Interest in 
the Woman — A Subject of Kindness — Her Death. 

The subject is a favorite with romancers, and has 
been written up so much that the public is greatly 
misinformed, and a plain statement of the facts, with- 
out any attempt to weave it into a romantic form, 
will be the most accsptable. The story begins with 
the removal of a number of Indian women from the 
Island of San Nicolas, in 1836. According to the 
best authorities, the Island of San Nicolas, as well as 
the othei's, were once thickly populated; in fact, the 
large piles of shells, bones, and other refuse prove the 
fact without other evidence. According to Nidover 
and others who hunted around here as early as 1835, 
the Alaska Indians were in the habit of making 
periodic visits to the islands for otter and other skins. 
They were a savage race, and made fierce attacks 
against all who attempted otter hunting on any of 
the islands. They were supplied with fire-arms, and 
were dangerous foes even to the white man, and 
much more so to the natives who had only stone 
implements of warfare. In 1836 a comjjany of these 
Indians who were loft on the islands by a Russian 
vessel, chased Nidever and his party to their landing, 
and were only repjUed by a sharp fire which killed 
several of their man. The chase was on the water 
in boats, and the contest was in trying to prevent 
them from landing at the only practicable place. 
According to the best authorities, a party of these 
Indians took possession of San Nicolas Island for the 
purpose of hunting otter, and finally took possession 
of the women, and slew every man and male child 
on the island, in the quarrel that ensued. When the 
Indians abandoned the island, after the hunt was 
over, they left the women to their fate. It was some 
years subsequent to this that the padres employed 
Sparks and the others to remove the survivors. 
Recent investigations in the remains on the islands 
place the former inhabitants among the Toltecs or 
Aztecs, and hence the white skin and pleasant man- 
ners of the wild woman. The fo. lowing account is 

mostlj' compiled from notes furnishod by Dr. Dim- 
mick, of Santa Barbara — 


I arrived on the coast in the year 1834, in tho 
month of November. In the early part of the fol- 
lowing j'car (1835), 1 came to Santa Barbara, and 
engaged in otter hunting, which I have followed 
almost uninterruptedly until within a few 5'ears. At 
the beginning of 1835, Isaac J. Sparks and Luis T. 
Burton,* Americans, also, otter hunters, settled here, 
and chartered the schooner Feor es Kada (worse than 
nothing) for a trip to the Lower California coast. 
The schooner was commanded by Charles Hubbard, 
who was hired by the owner of the schooner, a 
Spaniard at Monterey. Tho crew placed in her by 
Sparks and Burton was, with two or three excep- 
tions, composed of Kanakas. Tho Feor es Nuda left 
Santa Barbara about the latter part of April, 1835. 
About three months after, she returned to San Pedro, 
and from there went directly to tho Island of San 
Nicolas for the purpose of taking off the Indians 
then living thei-e. Sparks, who hunted with me for 
several years afterwards, told about removing the 
Indians, but I cannot now recollect who authorized 
or caused their removal. I remember distinctly, 
however, that a man by the name of Williams, a 
former acquaintance of mine in the Rocky Mount- 
ains, was an interested partj^ as he assisted in their 
removal. I am under tho impression also that 
another man in Los Angeles took an active part in 
the ail'air. The circumstances of leaving the Indian 
woman alone upon the Island were, as near as I can 
recollect, from what Sparks told me, as follows: — 


Having got all the Indians together on the beach 
ready for embarking, one of them made signs that 
her child had been left behind, whereupon she was 
allowed to go back and fetch it. She was gone some 
time, when a strong wind springing up, they did not 
dare to wait longer for her, fearing for the safety of 
the schooner. 

The water, which is quite shoal about the island, 
becomes exceedingly rough in a storm, and there is 
no harbor of any kind that would aft'ord shelter in a 
heavj' gale. They ran before the wind, and reached 
San Pedro in safety. Here the Indians were put 
ashore, some being taken to Los Angeles, and r-ome 
to the Mission of San Gabriel. It was the intention 
of the captain of the schooner to return for the 
woman who hadjieen left on the island, as soon as 
possible. From San Pedro the Peor es Nada came 
direct to S:inta Barbara, took Sparks and me over to 
the Santa Rosa Island, ar.d then sailed for Monterey 
where she had been ordered, to take a cargo of 
lumber to San Francisco. At the entrance to the 
Golden Gate the Peor es N'ada capsized, and her crew 



were washed ashore. It was afterwards reported 
that the schooner drifted out to sea, and was picked 
up by a Russian vessel, though the report was never 
confirmed. There were now no craft of any kind 
larger than the Indian canoe, and the boats of the 
otter hunters left on the coast, and none cared to 
attempt the passage of the channel in an open boat. 
It was soon known throughout the coast that an 
Indian woman hid been left on the island, but so far 
as I can learn, no attempt was ever made to rescue 
her. As years passed by, all thought she had per- 


In 1851 I had occasion to visit the San Nicolas. 
I found signs that led me to believe that the woman 
still survived, or that a human being was living upon 
the island. I had with me a man named Tom 
Jeffries. He and I with one of the Indians landed 
near the lower end of the island and walked along 
the beach, and on the bank close to the beach for a 
distance of five or six miles. Soon after starting out 
we found the foot-prints of a human being, that, in all 
probability, had been made during the ])revious rainy 
season. They were sunk quite deep in the ground, 
that was now quite dry and hard. They were dis- 
tinctly defined, and from their size we concluded 
that they were those of a woman. We also discovered 
three small circular inclosures, about two hundred 
yards back from the beach, something like a mile 
apart and situated on slightly rising ground. They 
were circular in shape, six or seven feet in diameter, 
with walls, perhaps five or six feet high, made of 
brush. Near the huts or inclosures, there were 
stakes of drift-wood stuck in the ground, and sus- 
pended upon them, at a height of five or six feet, 
were pieces of dried blubber, which had the appear- 
ance of having been placed there within a month or 
two, as they were still in a good state of preservation. 
With these exceptions there was nothing about the 
inclosures, or, as I call them, wind-breaks, that indi- 
cated that they had been occupied for years. We 
had come ashore early in the morning, and, after 
finding tbe foot-prints and wind-breaks, we intended 
to make further search, but before noon a strong 
wind sprung up, and we hastened back to the 
schooner. We were hardly on board when the wind 
increased to a gale and continued to blow for about 
eight days, so strong at times that we expected to be 
blown out to sea. We were on the south side of the 
island, or under its lea, and in a measure protected 
from the wind, but the sea was so rough that we 
found it almost impossible to remain at anchor. 
Once our anchor dragged and we were compelled to 
improvise a second one by filling a bag with stones. 
The eighth day tbe wind having gone down, we were 
enabled to leave the island. 


In the winter of 1852 I made a second trip to the 
island for otter, having seen large numbers on my 

previous trip. On this trip I was accompanied by 
Charles Brown. We landed, as on our former visit, 
at the lower end of the island. We took two Indians 
ashore with us and left them in charge of the boat, 
while Brown and I walked along the beach, or on 
the top of the bank when we could not get down to 
the beach, towards the head of the island. We went 
partly to see where the otter lay, and partly to see if 
we could find any signs of the Indian woman, as 
Father Gonzales, to whom we had reported the dis- 
coveries made on our former visit, assured us there 
was no longer any doubt of her being alive. We had 
decided to go to the head of the island, as, for vari- 
ous reasons, we concluded that if alive she would be 
most likely to be found there. The water is better 
and more abundant there, and it is a better place for 
both fish and seal. We visited the huts that Jeffries 
had discovered and found them and their surround- 
ings unchanged, except that it seemed to me that the 
seal blubber, which I had seen on my former visit, 
had been removed and fresh blubber hung in its 
place. In the neighborhood of the huts near the 
shore we saw seven or eight wild dogs. They were 
about the size and form of a coyote, of a black and 
white color. I have seen the same kind of dogs 
among the Northwest Indians. They were very 
wild and ran off' as soon as they saw us. When 
within about a half a mile of the head of the island, 
we struck a low, sandy flat that extended from one 
side of the island to the other. Here we thought she 
must, in all probability, be living, as the ground both 
to the north and east of this flat was high and 
exposed to the wiod. After searching around for 
some time and finding no signs of her, we were about 
to return, having concluded that the dogs must have 
eaten her, as not even her bones were to be found, 
when I discovered in the crotch of a bush or small 
tree a basket, and upon throwing off the piec i of 
seal skin that covered it, we found within carefully 
laid together, a dress made of shag skins cut in squire 
pieces, a rope made of sinew, and several smaller 
articles, such as abalone fish-hooks, bone needles, etc. 
After examining them Brown proposed replacing 
them and returning the basket to the tree where we 
found it, but I scattered them about on the ground, 
telling him that if upon our return we should find 
them replaced in the basket it would be positive 
proof of the woman's existence. As it was now quite 
late we returned to the schooner, intending to renew 
the search at the first opportunity, as the extreme 
head of the island was still unexplored by us. For 
the next few days, however; we were busy hunting 
otters, and about the fourth or fifth day a southeast 
wind began to blow, which soon increased to a gale. 
We waited about six or seven days for it to go down 
and then with some difficulty we ran over to the 
San Miguel Island. 


I next fitted out for a hunt on the San Nicolas in 




John P. Stearns. 

The subject of this sketch is a (lesceudant of 
Charles Stearns, one of the tirst settlers of Water- 
town, Massachusetts, who came to America fi-om 
Suftblkshire. England, in the ship with Governor 
Winthrop, in the year 1G30, and. strange as it may 
seem, he is only the fifth generation from that ances- 
tor. Shubajl Stearns, his father, was born at Am- 
herst, New Hampshire. May 20, 178.3, being the 
twenty-third child of Samuel Stearns, who was 
seventy years of age at the time of the birth of 
this, his youngest child, who emulated the example 
of his illustrious sire so far as to become the lather 
of sixteen children, notwithstanding ho died at the 
early age of sixty-one years. John Peck Stearns, 
the eleventh child of Shuba?land Lydia Peck Stearns, 
was born at Newport, Vermont, August 18. 1828. 
His mother was a descendant of John Peck, who, 
when eleven years of age, with the rest of his father's 
family, emigrated from Suffolkshire, England, in the 
year 1638, and settled in Rehoboth, Massachusetts, 
where manj' of his descendants now live. 

Writers on the subject of the growth of races and 
families assert that the people take the impress of 
character from the surroundings; that the climate 
and picturesque mountains of Athens, the fertile 
plains and lofty mountains of Italj", the sunny clime 
of Provence, and the dai'k. fog-obscured land of the 
Saxons, all left the impress of circumstances on the 
characters of the people who became such factors in 
the civilization of the world From England to 
Massachusetts, and especially that part of it inhab- 
ited by Mr. Stearns' ancestors, was not intended to 
breed etFeminacy in the character of any race, for the 
climate, soil, and surroundings permitted only " the 
survival of the fittest." Rocks on rocks, which have 
to be dug out and carted away, stand between the 
owner of the land and a harvest. But, though the 
harvest in grain is scant}', the strife necessary to 
maintain life results in a crop of men and women 
who become, on more genial soil, centers of wealth 
and refinement. 

In his youth Mr. Stearns received the rudinionts 
of an English education in the common schools of his 
State, and afterwards pursued his studies still further 
at Brownington Academy, then one of the leading 
institutions of that class, in Northern Vermont, 
and when about twenty-two years of age he immi- 

grated to Stevenson ('(iiinly. Illinois, ami some two 
years later, following the example of many young 
men of the West, crossed the plains to C!alifornia, 
reaching the Sacramento River the 27th day of 
August, 1853, at Redding, Shasta Count}-. The first 
few years after leaving Vermont he directed his 
attention to school teaching, devoting the most of 
his spare moments to the study of law, and was 
admitted to the practice in the District Court of the 
Third Judicial District, and was soon after elected 
District Attorney of Santa Cruz County, which 
office he held for two consecutive terms, and for 
some years afterward was associated with his suc- 
cessors in the prosecution of the most noted criminal 
cases of the county. The celebrated murder case of 
People es. Sanchez, reported in the 24th Cal. Reports, 
was prosecuted by him alone. Near the close of the 
late war he was appointed U. S. Assistant Assessor 
for the division of Monterey and Santa Cruz Coun- 
ties, and served some three years, with credit to 
himself and to the full satisfaction of the Government. 

In the fall of 1867 he quit the practice of law, sold 
his library, and removed to Santa Barbara, where he 
opened a lumber yard and a general assortment oi 
building material, being the first establishment of 
the kind ever opened in the county, and for ten years 
did an extensive business in that line. During this 
time, seeing the commerce of the place suffering for 
want of suitable wharf facilities, he resolved on con- 
structing the wharf now bearing his name at the 
foot of State Street, in this city, at a cost of $41,000. 
said to be the largest structure of its kind on the 
Pacific Coast outside of the bay of San Francisco. 

A wharf sufficient to accommodate lighters from 
vessels which anchor out near the ke/p had been 
liuilt by the Santa Barbara Wharf Comp;iny some 
years previous, but no vessel larger than a hundred 
tons dared to make fast to it. Passengers ami goods 
from the steamers or sailing vessels were passed over 
the sides of the vessels in the swell, and took the 
clianci's of a drenching, both at the vessel and at the 
wharf, where the waves frequently broke near the 
sea end of the structure. Passengers were landed 
by means of stairs, and sometimes would fail to 
mount them in safety. Though no fatal accidents 
ever occurred, the landing in this way was always 


Notwithstanding the new wharf was a great im- 
provement on the old one, and, of course, a great 
benefit to the town, the project was opposed by 
many citizens who had property in the old wharf, 
but the advantages of landing directly from vessels 
gradually drew away the greater part of the trade. 
Mr. Stearns finally obtained possession of the major- 
ity of the shores and shut it up. No repairs being 
made, the teredo soon gnawed the piles so that 
every storm carried away more or less, and now but 
few are left to point out the former locality. The 
opposition to the Stearns Wharf was even cai-ried 
into the City Council, and an ordinance was passed, 
requiring a license for cariying on the landing busi. 
ness. Mr. Stearns positively refused to pay any 
license, alleging that the enterprise was one that 
needed encouragement; that the prices of landing 
goods must be increased if a license were exacted. 
While the matter was under consideration a storm 
drove one vessel through the wharf and dashed 
another one in pieces against it. Mr. Stearns posi- 
tively refused to repair the break until the onerous 
license tax was abandoned, after which the wharf 
was repaired, and business again flowed in its usual 

From his boyhood he has ever taken a deep inter- 
est in educational affairs, having served some fifteen 
years as a trustee of the public schools of the State. 
He was one of the most liberal benefactors to the 
Santa Barbara College, his donations amounting to 
seven or eight thousand dollars. He has also taken a 
deep interest in all public improvements. Twice he 
has visited New York and St. Louis in his efforts to 
bring the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad thi-ough this 
county. He early espoused the cause of the Repub- 
lican party, and has ever taken a lively interest in 
its affairs; has repeatedly served as Secretary and 
Chairman of its County Committee; has been a mem- 
ber of its Congressional Committee and of the State 
Central Committee; has eight times attended the 
State Convention, as a delegate, at Sacramento, and 
was elected an Alternate Delegate to the National 
Convention at Chicago in 1880, when Garfield was 
nominated for the Presidency. In the late State 
Republican Convention he received 141 votes, being 
second in the race for Lieutenant Governor. 

He was married in Santa Cruz County October 15th) 
1862, to Martha Turner, a native of Dorsettshire, 
England. She is a daughter of Samuel Turner, her 
mother's maiden name being Jane Membrey, a mem- 
ber of the Membrey family owning the large landed 

estate of that name in Dorsettshire. She has the 
benefit of a good education, being a graduate of the 
Albany State Normal School of New York, of the 
class which graduated January 31, 1856. 

They have one child, a daughter, Leonora Electa, 
born in Santa Cruz County, December 6, 1863, now 
a member of the Senior Class of Mills' Seminary. 

John P. Stearns is a man of marked ability and 
character. Possessed of an indomitable will, unflinch- 
ing courage, and a tenacity of purpose that never 
yields while there is a possibility of success, with a 
love for contest and strife, and the ability to take as 
well as give hard blows, he is a man that makes 
himself a force in every community. He is warm 
in his friendships as well as in his enmities, and is the 
kind of man that Dr. Johnson so profoundly admired 
— a good hater. Whether in a political convention 
or in a commercial negotiation, he carries the air of 
conscious strength in every movement. He despises 
humbug, finesse, and clap-trap, and solves every dif- 
ficulty by meeting it fairly and squarely. As a 
military man he would have been another Blucher; 
as a magistrate or ruler he would have been a Peter 
Stuyvesant, the famous Dutch Governor of New 
York, whom he much resembles in personal appear- 
ance. Like all men of such positive traits, he is 
feared and respected as well as hated and loved, but 
trusted by all for his straightforward and unflinching 

He has a good library of works on law, science, 
and literature, where, in the intervals of business, 
he nourishes the spiritual man, that it falls not 
into the narrow groove of mere money-getting. 
Here, in the midst of books, surrounded by his family 
and friends, we may see the man in his best mood, 
and learn that beneath the stern visage, incident to 
business and politics, there beats a warm heart, 
amenable to the calls of society, hospitality and 

Soon after Mr. Johnson ceased to be editor of the 
Press, the paper fell under the control of Mr. Stearns, 
and was run according to his directions. He occa- 
sionally wrote an editorial, which was sharp and to 
the point, and bore the marks of the positive and 
aggressive character of the man. Mr. Glancey was 
acting as editor for Mr. Stearns when he was assas- 
sinated by Clarence Gray for articles appearing in 
the paper. It is said the conspiracy, or plan of 
assassination, involved him as well as the editor; 
indeed, it was well understood in certain circles that 
Stearns was the one to be sacrificed. 



July, 1853. My crew consisted of Charles Brown, 
one Irishman and four Mission Indians. This time I 
went with the intention of makinij a thorou<i;h search 
for the missing woman. We arrived off the island in 
the earl}- part of the daj- and anchored opposite the 
middle on the northeast side about 10 a. m. Brown 
and I went on shore to see where the otter lay and 
to select a suitable camping place. We left two of 
our Indians in charge of the boat. We then kept 
along near the shore without finding anj- signs of the 
Indian woman, until wo reached the head of the 
island. Here I sat down to rest while Brown went 
around the head and down some distance on the other 
side. When he returned he told me he had seen 
fresh tracks of the Indian woman and had followed 
them from the beach up over the bank, but on the 
side of the ridge which formed the head of the island 
he had lost them, the ground being covered with 
moss. I was at first disposed to think that our men 
from the schooner had gone over there, but a 
moment's reflection convinced me that it would be 
impossible for them to get in advance of us, and, 
besides, Brown said the tracks were too small to have 
been made bj^ either of our men. It was now getting 
late and we returned on board with the determination 
of making the next day a thorough exploration of 
the upper portion of the island. Accoi'dingly, after 
breakfast the next morning we started with all of 
our men excepting the cook. Eeaching the low, 
sandy flat, before mentioned, Brown and the four 
men stretched out in a line and crossed to the other 
side of the island, while I continued along near the 
shore, on the same side I had come, towards the head 
of the island. Brown and his men made no discov- 
eries in passing over the island. He then sent the 
men bacls to search along the borders of the sandy 
flat, and among the bushes where the basket had 
been found. He went up towards the head on that 
side until he struck the track he had seen the 
night before. He followed it up again until it was 
lost in the moss, and then continued up the side of 
the ridge until he found a short piece of drift-wood. 
From this he concluded that she had been down to 
the beach for fire-wood, and had dropped this piece 
on her way up. From this point he saw further up 
the ridge three huts. Upon reaching them he found 
them made of whale ribs, covered with brush, 
although they were now open on all sides. The 
grass was quite high within them, showing that no 
one had occupied them for some time. He was now 
on one of the highest parts of the ridge, and he began 
to look about in all directions. The sandy flat was 
in plain sight and he could see most of the men. At 
last his eye caught sight of a small, black object a 
long distance off that seemed to be moving. It looked 
at first very much like a crow. Walking toward it 
he soon saw that it was the Indian woman. She 
was seated in an inclosure similar to those already 
described, so that her head and shoulders were 

barely visible above it. As he approached her two or 
three dogs, like those we had seen before, that were 
close to her, began growling. Without looking in 
the direction of Brown, she gave a yell and the dogs 
disappeared. Brown had halted within a few yards 
of her, and at once l)egan to signal to the men by 
placing a hat on the ramrod of his gun and raising 
and lowering it. He soon succeeded in attracting 
their attention and they came towards him. In the 
meantime Brown had an opportunity of observing 
the woman. She was seated cross-legged on some 
grass that covered the ground within the inclosure, 
and which no doubt served as a bed. Her only dress 
was a kind of gown, leaving her neck and shoulders 
bare, and long enough, when she stood up, to reach 
her ankles. It was made of shag skins cut in squares 
and sewed together, the feathers pointing down- 
wards. Her head had no cover save a thick mass of 
matted hair of a 3'ellowish-brown color, probably 
from exposure to sun and weather, and which looked 
as if it had rotted off. She was engaged in stripping 
the blubber from a piece of seal skin, which she held 
across one knee, using in the operation a rude knife 
made of a piece of iron hoop. Within the inclosure 
was a smouldering fire, and without a large pile of 
ashes and another of bones, which would indicate 
that this had been her abode for a long time. From 
the time Brown first arrived within hearing distance 
she kept up a continual talking to herself, occasion- 
ally shading her eyes with her hand and gazing steadily 
at the men who were seen walking around on the 
flat below. She was evidently much interested in 
their movements. As the men came near. Brown 
motioned them to spread out so as to prevent her 
escape if she was so disposed. Just before the men 
reached her camp. Brown, who had not yet been 
seen by her, came around in front. 


To his great surprise she received him with much 
dignity and politeness, bowing and smiling with ease 
and self-possession. As fast as the men came up she 
greeted them in the same way. The men seated 
themselves on the ground around, the woman all the 
time talking, although not a word of hers could be 
understood, although our Indians spoke several dia- 
lects. From a sack or bag made of grass she took 
some roots, known among the Californians as the 
carcomites, and another root whose name I did not 
learn, and placed them in the fire. When they were 
roasted she offered ihcm to us to eat. We found 
them very palatable, indeed. We were now desir- 
ous of taking her on board the schooner. Wc did 
not apprehend that she would attempt to escape, as 
she seemed much pleased with our company. We 
commenced making signs for her to go with us, but 
she seemed unable to comprehend them until we 
intimated that she must gather up all her food, when 
she set about the work with the greate&t alacrity, 
and commenced putting them in a large basket, such 



as is in general use among the Indians of this coast. 
She had considerable dried blubber of the seal and 
sea elephant. This was all carefully collected. There 
was al-o a seal's head, in such a decayed condition 
that the brains were oozing out. At her desire this 
was also taken along. She seemed desirious of pre- 
serving everything that would sustain life, thus indi- 
cating the sad experiences of her eighteen years of 
solitude. When all was ready she took a burning 
stick in one hand and loft her camp. Each of us 
had a portion of her household goods in our hands 
or on our shouldei'S. She trotted merrily along, and 
led us to a spring of good water, which came out 
under a shelving rock near the beach. Here we 
found a store of bones in the clefts of the rocks. It 
would seem that in time of scarcity she would come 
here and suck the bones as long as any nutriment 
could .be obtained from them. Here, also, were 
pieces of dried blubber hung on stakes, above the 
reach of the foxes and dogs which inhabited the 
island. We gained the woman's confidence by tak- 
ing care to preserve all these articles. On the way 
to the schooner she led us past another spring, which 
she seemed to have used for bathing, as she stopped 
and washed her hands and face. This spring was not 
far from the landing. When we reached the boat 
we made motions for her to step in, which she did, 
kneeling down in the bow, holding to the sides with 
her hands. When we got on the vessel she sought 
the vicinity of the stove, keeping as near to it as 
possible, which act indicated more of her bitter 
experience on the island. We offered her some of 
our food, which she ate with relish ; in fact, from this 
time she appeared to pi-efer our style of food to her 
own. Brown went to work that afternoon and made 
her a skirt or petticoat out of some bed-ticking, with 
which she was much pleased, continually calling our 
attention to it. This skirt, with a man's shirt and 
neck-tie, constituted her new wardrobe. While 
Brown was sewing she made signs that she wished 
±0 sew, and Brown gave her a needle and thread. 
She did not know how to put the thread through the 
eye. After this was done by one of us she knew 
how to use it. I gave her an old cloak or heavy 
cape, which was much torn and dilapidated. She 
very patiently sewed up all the rents, and made it 
quite serviceable in the cold, windy weather, which 
prevailed occasionally. In sewing she thrust the 
needle into the cloth with her right hand and pulled 
it through, drawing the thread tight with her left 

IN THE hunter's CAMP. 

The following day we moved on shore, and made 
a camp on a narrow piece of ground between the 
beach and the rocks, and made a shelter by leaning 
some poles against the rocks and covering them with 
sail cloth. We made a similar shelter for her at a 
short distance, covering it with brush. We remained 
on the island hunting otter about a month. During 

this time she evinced no disposition to leave, but was 
generally talking, singing, and wandering about the 
island. She assisted in the camp work, bringing 
wood and water when it was needed. Her vessels 
for eai'rying water were quite unique. They were 
woven of grass, shaped somewhat like a demijohn, 
except they had wider mouths, and were lined with 
a thin coating of asphaltum. The process of lining 
them was rather ingenious. She put several pieces 
of the asphaltum, which is found in great quantity 
along the beach, in the bottom of the basket, and then 
on the top of them some hot pebbles. When the 
asphaltum was melted, by a quick, rotary motion, 
she would cover the inside of the basket with an 
even coating, after which the surplus, with the rocks, 
was thrown out. These baskets were water-tight, 
and would last a long time. She had several of 
these baskets in process of construction when we 
found her. She would work at one a few minutes, 
abandon it, and try another. I am not aware that 
she ever completed one when with us. When we 
killed otters we usually, after skinning them, threw the 
bodies into the sea. One day we killed a large female 
which was with young. When about to cast it into 
the sea, as usual, she, in her mute way, protested. 
The young one, which was nearly grown and covered 
with fur, was taken out and the skin stuffed by one of 
the party and made to look quite natural. She took 
a great fancy to the young otter, and suspending it 
to a pole of her shelter would swing it backwards 
and forwards for hours, talking to it in a kind of 
sing-song tone. The carcass of the mother seal 
becoming putrid in a day, she made no objections to 
its removal. 


After hunting successfully for about a month, we 
put everything on the schooner and sailed for Santa 
Barbara. Not long after sailing, a furious gale arose, 
which threatened to engulf the little vessel. She 
made signs that she could allay the wind, and kneel- 
ing down, facing the quarter from whence the wind 
blew, she commenced making incantations orpi'ayers, 
which she continued for some time, and at intervals 
during the storm. When the wind abated, she 
pointed in triumph to the patch of clear sky, as 
much as to say, "See what I did!" We approached 
the shore early in the morning. It was evident that 
she had never seen it before, or any of the ordinary 
sights of a settlement. An ox-team, with a Spanish 
cart, passed on the sand. It is doubtful whether 
pleasure or wonder predominated in her mind. The 
yoke which tied the animals to each other and to 
the cart; the uncouth wheels, with their rotary 
motion, which she imitated with curious gestures, 
were inexpressibly wonderful, delightful, and ludi- 
crous. She laughed, talked, and gesticulated all at 
once. After landing, a horseman, among others, 
came to the beach. This was a now creature, but 
she had the courage to examine it, touching horse 



and man in succession. She turned to her friends, 
for so may be considered her captors, and straddled 
the first two fingers of her right hand over her left 
thumb, and imitating the galloping of a horse with her 
fingers, gave a shout of delight. She was taken to 
Nidever's house and eared for by his wife. 


The story soon spread that the lost woman of 
the San Nicolas was found. The possibility of 
there being a woman living alone on a desert 
island in the ocean, with only wild animals for 
companions, had been discussed in many house- 
holds, and with such warm-hearted people was a 
subject of intense interest. As the years had passed, 
and nothing was heard of her, the general conclusion 
was that she had perished, probablj- devoured by the 
wild dogs. The fathers of the mission had exerted 
themselves in the matter, and had oftered a reward 
of S200 for information that would lead to her recov- 
ery. When Nidever reported finding tracks on the 
island, and other evidences of life. Father Gonzales 
had confidently asserted she was alive, and the inter- 
est in the matter became intense. 

Hundreds flocked to Nidever's house. Among 
others came Fathers Gonzales, Sanchez, and Jimeno. 
Though familiar with all the dialects of the coast, 
not a word of her language could they understand. 
Indians from Santa Ynez, Los Angeles, and other 
places, were brought, with no better success; not one 
of them understood a word of her language. She 
soon became very expert in conversing by signs, 
however, and continued to tell portions of her story, 
so that but little uncertainty attended the narrative. 
She relates that when she went back after her child 
she wandered a long time without finding it; that 
when she concluded that the dogs had eaten the 
child, she lay down and cried a long time and became 
sick, could not eat anj'thing, and got so weak that she 
could not walk; that she recovered so she could get 
around, and began to eat. She had oftenseen vessels 
on the sea, but none of them ever came to take her 
awa}'. She finally became reconciled to her fate, and 
commenced the routine of life which was to be varied 
only by hunger, thirst, cold, and fear of wild ani- 
mals for near a score of years, 


She was received with the utmost kindness. Almost 
every one made her a present of money, clothing, or 
trinkets, which, however, she would immediately 
give to her friends, or to the children who came to 
see her. In those da3-s the Panama steamers used 
to touch at Santa Barbara, and all the passengers 
were desirous of seeing the lost woman. She would 
often put on her finest dress of feathers and go 
through some movements which the people termed 
dancing, though it had little resemblance to the 
graceful movements of a ball-room. She became 
very much attached to the family, which, however, 

was mutual, for Mr. Nidever several times refused 
largo sums which were offered him to have her 
exhibited to the public at San Francisco. 

She was estimated to be about fifty years old at 
I lie time she was recovered. As near as coulil be 
made out from her signs, she had, at the time of her 
being left on the island, two children, one of which 
was a nursing babe, the other some years older, 
though in the opinion of some, the older child had 
died some time previous. She had a smooth face, 
though the skin on her body and limbs was much 
wrinkled. It was but a short time before her death 
that they succeeded in making her understand their 
desire to have some words of her own language. 
The following are about all that were learned of it: 
A hide she called "tocah;" man, "nache;" the sky, 
'■t03-gwah;" the bod^', "puoo-chay."' 


She was like a child in every respect, with no con-- 
trol over her appetite. She was excessively fond of 
fruit, which she would eat at all hazards. It pro- 
duced a dysentery, which, in spite of careful nursing 
and attendance, terminated fatally in about four 
weeks. During her sickness it was thought that a 
diet of seal's meat, such as she had been accus- 
tomed to, would relieve her. Some was jiroeured 
and roasted, but she shook her head and laughed, 
and rubbed her finger along her worn-out teeth, sig- 
nifying that they were too old. She was buried 
by the fathers, and the most of her trinkets, includ- 
ing the best feather dress, taken to Rome. 

The thoughtful reader will be apt to make a men- 
tal inquiry as to the secret of her having kept her 
heart warm through the long solitude, for that she 
had the warm love, gratitude, and affection of a 
child, none who knew her will deny. They will also 
ask wh}- the other dre^s 1 Was it made and kept for 
eighteen years in readiness for the visit of the man 
who never came? The answer may possibly be found 
in the ever mysterious realms of woman's nature. 

The story of the lost woman will be a subject of 
wonder and romance as long as history is read. 


OPERATIONS OF THE COUNTY GOVERNMENT. of the County Government — Qualifications for Office 
— Conscious Oreatnesi — Court at La firaciosa — Lawless 
Element Among the Americ^ms — County .Jail— Koads — 
First B >ard of Supervisors— Establishment of the First 
Newspaper — The O'lzelle — Military Company — Discovery of 
Oold Mines — Notice — City Government — Indian AfTairs^- 
Big .Storm — School Matters in 18.30 — Dclinqueut Taxes — 
County Treasurer in Trouble — Trouble for the Oozelle — 
Problem in Ethnology — Funny Jury — Banditti — Light- 
House— City Improvements Called For. 

The whole American policy of jui-isprudence rests 
on the supposition that the masses yf the people are, 
to some extent at least, acquainted not only with the 


spirit but the form of the law. Substantial justice 
may be done without the forms of law, and great 
outrages on the rights of persons and property are 
sometimes perpetrated under legal pretensions. Pri- 
vate quarrels and difficulties among the natives wei-e 
often settled by a resort to arms or physical strength. 
The office of Alcalde was, to a great extent, advisory. 
When an oflfeuse of great magnitude had been com- 
mitted, public opinion, led by the principal families, 
who were almost hereditary arbitrators, would mete 
out wholesome punishment, and thus prevent a repeti- 
tion of the crime. A jury trial was as for from the 
policy of the Spanish Government as an ecclesiastical 
trial for a criminal offense would be in the United 
States. When put on either a grand or trial jury, 
the average Mexican had little idea of the law, con- 
sequently his oath to decide according to the law 
and evidence was an unmeaning ceremony. A few 
men among them, taught by the constant responsi- 
bility of maintaining law and order, were fitted for 
exercising judicial functions. Of this number we 
may reckon Pablo de la Guerra and Joaquin Carrillo, 
both of whom, though unacquainted with the Amer- 
ican forms of law, and one not even acquainted with 
the language in which the laws were written, exe- 
cuted impartial justice, and gradually taught their 
countrymen the importance of trusting the settle- 
ment of the rights of persons and property with a 
higher tribunal than private vengeance. Sometimes, 
in the beginning of this system, a jury would acquit 
even a notorious criminal, thinking that the pun- 
ishment was properly a right of the friends of the 
victim. As an instance in kind, the case of Ordaz 
may be mentioned. He was said to be the son of a 
priest, and, of course, illegitimate, inheriting the 
curse of violated moral laws in a double degree. It 
was said that he was a member of Solomon Pico's 
gang, and so heartlessly cruel that he was not consid- 
ered respectable enough for membership in a band of 
highway robbers and was expelled. On one occa- 
sion, when practicing some kind of trick in horse- 
manship in Santa Barbara, he was so badly beaten 
as to get the laugh on him. A few minutes after- 
wards he obtained a weapon, and without further or 
other cause for offense, he instantly killed his suc- 
cessful rival. It was done in the presence of a 
multitude of persons, yet he was acquitted by a jury. 
When murder was so cheap an offense, and likely 
to be committed on slight provocation, the necessity 
of self-defense often compelled persons who were far 
from being murderers to take life; and instances of 
this kind occurred where a slight misstatement of 
facts, or want of knowledge of the circumstances, 
would make the matter look bad. Of this kind was 
the affair, which occurred about October 1, 1851, 
between John Scollan and George Heavey, who 
acted for some time as Deputy Sheriff. Heavey had 
threatened Scollan's life, and the parties met in a 
lonely gorge between Santa Barbara and the Santa 
Ynez Eanch, the difficulty being about the owner- 

ship of land in that vicinity. Scollan came into 
town, acknowledged the killing of Heavey, but 
claimed that it was in self-defense, which, on an 
examination before a magistrate, was decided to be 
the case. If public opinion did not justify the act, 
it excused it, and he was not subject to any annoy- 
ance about it afterwards. 


It was to be expected that the natives should elect 
to office those whom they had learned to reverence 
and obey. It mattered little to them that few of 
their countrymen were qualified to execute the laws. 
They were not only ignorant of the laws, but their 
whole life had been spent, not in a lawless manner, 
but under a code entirely different in its details if 
not in general results. As Justices of the Peace, 
they would exert a sort of advisory authority; as 
Constables and other peace officers, they were out of 
place, as they were in acting as County Clerks, 
Treasurers, Deputy Sheriffs, or anything that re- 
quired clerical functions. Many times native Cal- 
ifornians were elected to office, the duties of which 
were a total mystery, and an American deputy was 
an unavoidable necessity; and hence an entire change 
of programme in the magisterial affairs often became 

It must be said, however, that the Americans 
themselves were not wholly qualified for putting in 
motion the machinery of county government. Many 
of them were young lawyers, making their first 
flights in law and logic, inflated with a sense of the 
responsibility of the profession, and rather unfamiliar 
with the pi'actical application of the principles laid 
down in Blackstone and Kent. The American law 
system was as mysterious to the natives of California 
as was the famous wooden horse to the Trojans, and 
contained in its body as many possible evils when it 
was once admitted into the civil citadel. 

Among those who had only a common-school edu- 
cation upon which to base their administrative abil- 
ity, the case was not less confusing. The apportion- 
ment of taxes, the appraisement of property, the collec- 
tion and disbursement of the revenue to those who had 
never handled more money than would pay a month's 
board, were quite often beyond their comprehension, 
as they often are of older heads. They found the 
county out of debt, but they soon had evidence of 
their want of skill in a debt of $2-1,000, without a 
public building, road, or improvement of any kind. 
They seemed to have adopted the principle of using 
money freely when it was in the treasury, and when 
it was not to be had to issue promises to pay. 


A sense of importance characterized most of the 
officers under the new arrangement. To become a 
magistrate was to be elevated above the common 
people. It entitled a man to honor and respect- 
When the " court was in session" the dignity of the 



m:iy;istratti had in it somethiiij^ awful, that was not 
to bo trifled with. Hj stood in phico of the i^reat 
Amji-ican G.n'criiinont. He spake with the author- 
ity of 40,0011,000 of people. Bohiiid him was the 
big guns and vessels and armies. 


A man by the nanu of Green, occupying the po'^i- 
tion of magistrate, was holding an inquest over the 
body of a mm who had been killed there. The 
place of meeting was at the store or saloon, which 
was. in fact, the only public building in the settle- 
raent. While the inquest was being held, one of the 
Arrollanes, a family of wealth and character, came 
in, and, stepping to the bar in accordance with the 
custom of the country, asked for a drink. Unaward 
of the awful dignity of the magistrate who was pre- 
siding over the cadaver, he failed to remove his hat. 
The watchful Justice of the Peace, however, saw the 
offense, and with a magisterial frown fined the Don 
$5.00 for contempt of court. Arrellanes very respect- 
fully apologized to the court, saying that he intended 
no disrespect; that he had often drank there, and 
had not considei'ed the unusual circumstances of hav- 
ing a court in session. Now for the vindication of 
outraged dignity. In view of the eminent respect- 
ability of the offender, the court would remit the 
fine if the Don would stand treat for the crowd; so 
justice was placated. 


To add to the difficulties of maintaining law and 
order, a strong and active element among the Amer- 
icans practically denied the authority of any officer, 
American or native. Jack Powers and his crowd, 
together with the Dunns, would have been trouble- 
some customers even in the older States, where law 
and order were crystalized into custom. The daring 
and recklessness of such men begat a kind of admir- 
ation among the people, which, while it could not be 
considered esteem, was not wholly the result of fear, 
but was rather the respect paid to power. It must 
not be thought of Santa Barbara that that place 
alone had hero worshipers of that Itind. The respect 
and sympathy for the James Brothers, in Missouri, 
one of the oldest settled States in the Union, are 
more deplorable than the actions of the " hounds" in 
Santa Barbara. In the first case the admiration for 
the men extended, in some degree, all over the Union; 
in the latter case the demoralization was but small 
in comparison, and, to some extent, excusable in a 
country just emerging from the chaos incident to 
war. Santa Barbara was no worse than other Cal- 
ifornian towns, perhaps not quite so bad as San 
Francisci), where the hounds had several " runs." 

In the election of 18.')3, the roughs laid a plan to 
capture the whole Legislative and other officers by 
petting the watches and clocks around the town 
back, so as to organize the election boards with their 
own men as officers. They succeeded so well, that 

there were two sets of ofticers returned as elected. 
The Legislature at the capital recognized the law- 
andorder officers. 

The elections generally went Democratic. Huso 
was, however, a Whig, and oftentimes received the 
entire Democratic vote, the highest compliment that 
could be paid him. 


In the year 1853 measures were taken to erect a 
secure jail. Proposal and plins were called for. 
Three plans were considered, coming from M. M. 
Phelan, Henry Barnes and George Black, the plan 
of the latter being accepted. It contemplated a 
building 40xl8i feet, made of brick, with one large 
cell 14x14, and several smaller ones, lined with boiler 
iron. The price was limited to $6,000. W. I. Box's 
proposal to build it was accepted, with forfeiture of 
$500.00 for each day beyond December 1st, that it 
remained uncomp'eted. Henry Games, Isaac J. 
Sparks, and Antonio Ma. de la Guerra were appointed 
Commissioners to superintend its erection. 

August 24, 1853. 

Election precincts and polling places established, 
and officers appointed. 

Township No. 1. House of Ramon Valdez, of 
San Buenaventura. Inspector, W. S. Morris; Judges, 
Ramon Valdez, Corysanto Lorenzano. 

Township No. 2. Polling place, house of Valen- 
tine Cota. Inspector, J. P. Carr; Judges, Valentine 
Cota, Geronimo Ruiz. 

City of Santa Barbara. Polling place, house of 
Don Luis Burton. Inspector, Antonio Ma. de la 
Guerra; Judges, Luis Carrillo, S. B. Brinkerhoff. 

Township No. 3. Polling place, house of Augustin 
Janssens. Inspector, Augustin Janssens; Judges, 
Jose Antonio Carrillo, Gregario Lopez. 

October 12, 1853, the County Court instituted 
measures to purchase the house of Dona Magdalena 
Cota, to be used as a Court House, to be paid out of 
the accumulated jail funds. Appraisers were ap- 
pointed, and notice was given that the Court wished 
to occupj- it immediately. 

The facilities for transacting judicial business were 
very bad. The official papers were kept in an open 
case with pigeon holes, so that any paper could be 
abstracted or destroyed with little risk. The jail was 
a place where a prisoner was held more upon honor 
than any merits of a jail as a place of forced deten- 
tion. The walls were adobe and the roof of tile. A 
stout jack-knife would enable one to dig through the 
walls in half an hour. A favorite way with the 
Indians to open an adobe corral, and take stock out, 
was to saw down the walls with a rawhide lariat, an 
Indian on each side of the wall pulling the lariat to 
and fro. At this time the jail-room adjoined the 
court-room, and did not differ from it materially in 

October 4, 1853, the Court of Sessions appropri- 


ated •:^26.00 for the j^urpose of making doors and 
back to the case containing the county papers. 

February 16, 1854, a petition was received from 
Francisco de la Guerra and others, praying for 
appointment of W. W. Twist as Sheriff, and also a 
communication in connection therewith, from Padres 
Ma. Jesus Gonzales, Antonio Jimeno, Jose J. Jimeno, 
and Jose de Jesus Sanchez. J. S. Smith also asked 
to be appointed Sheriff. The Court appointed Eussel 
Heath as Sheriff; also Charles B. Huse as District 
Attorney, Heath resigning the latter position to 
become Sheriff. 

April 3, 1854, Charles Fernald became Judge by 
the election of September, 1853, having held the 
position up to that date by virtue of an appoint- 
ment of Governor Bigler. Judge Carrillo, of the 
District Court, administered the oath. 


The question of highways began to be more fre- 
quently considered. Hitherto the ordinary means of 
travel, bej'ond a Spanish cart, was on horseback. A 
Spanish cart would run almost anywhere, but the 
gradual introduction of wheeled vehicles necessitated 
the construction of better highways. The county 
was laid oft into road districts corresponding with 
the townships. District No. 1, from the southern 
boundary of the county to the Rincon; District No. 
2, from the Rincon to the Rancho Del Refugio; Dis- 
trict No. 3, to the San Luis Obispo County line. 
Supervisors were appointed as follows: — 

San Buenaventura — Fernando Tieo, Ramon Valdez, 
Juan Sanchez. Santa Barbara — Henry Carnes, Dan- 
iel Hill, Francisco de la Guerra. Santa Ynez— 
Augustin Janssens, Jose M. Ortega, Ramon Malo. 

June 14th the following road-mastei's were ap- 
pointed: — 

District No. 1, M. S. Mans; District No. 2, Henry 
J. Dally; District No. 3, I. L. Smith. 

November 6, 1855, the Board of Supervisors 
ordered that each citizen, liable to road tax, should 
■work five days on the public roads. 


Up to 1854 the county business was transacted by 
the Court of Sessions. It was now entrusted to a 
Board of Supervisors, holding oflSce for three years. 
The first Board was composed of Fernando Tico, 
Pablo de la Guerra, and Ramon Malo. 

According to the report of the Treasurer, the 
amount of taxes collected in 1853 amounted to 
$20,172.29. This showed a considerable increase in 
the revenue. The receipts, beginning with 1850, 
were as follows: — 

1850, $9,118.57; 1851, $8,091.47; 1852, $12,619.24; 
1853, $20,172.29. 

The receipts for 1854 fell off considerably, being 
but $16,412.02. 

The amount of bills allowed the last year was 
«17,587,44, showing a deficit of $1,175.42. 


Notwithstanding Santa Barbara had set up claims 
as a metropolis, and even, at one time, laid claim to 
the capital of the province, it never had a newspaper, 
and probably, until the coming of the Americans, 
never felt the want of one; in fact, none was printed 
throughout California, though an apology for a press 
and font of type, which had been used by a priest to 
print some religious tracts for the use of mission 
schools, was found at Monterey when the Americans 
took possession of that place. 

Newspapers were not wanted. The information 
usually disseminated in a newspaper had no market 
value in California. The mission register kept a 
record of the births, marriages, and deaths, which 
made up the sum total of life. The rest, which was 
of consequence, was taught by the fathers, and so a 
newspaper was not necessary. 


This Santa Barbara enterprise was inaugurated by 
R. Hubbard, T. Dunlap, and B. W. Keep. It was 
independent in politics and religion, with very little 
local news. It contained a highly colored account of 
a marvelously beautiful people discovered on the 
island of Terra del Fuego, 3,500 feet above the level 
of the sea. Both men and women were remarkable 
for personal beauty and gentleness of manner. They 
lived on fruits and milk, and were hospitable and 
brave, with a strong belief in religion. It is quite 
likely that all travelers, since that time, have been 
induced to remain and marry among that people, as 
none have ever come away to tell the tale. The new 
postage law, making the postage three cents on 
letters carried 3,000 miles or less, and ten cents on 
all over that, was noticed. The Crimean war also 
received a line or two. The project of dividing Cal- 
ifornia into three States was also discussed, and the 
measure condemned. The skeletons of two men, 
apparently murdered, were found between the Puris- 
ima Ranch and Santa Rosa. The loss of the Gplden 
Age was also announced. In an article on the pub- 
lic schools, Don Pablo Caracela announced that the 
incredible number of sixty-five children were attend- 
ing the public school. Considering the size of the 
county, that it was 150 miles on the coast, and 
extended from the ocean to the Sierra Nevada, and 
included the large islands off the coast, the number 
was certainly astonishing. Among the advertise- 
ments were hair-dressing and repairing of clothes by 
D. B. Streeter; Pacific Express Co., and dry goods 
and genei'al merchandise, by L. T. Burton & Co.; C. 
V. R. Lee, Attorney at Law; Pedro C. Carrillo, 
Surveyor and Inspector of the Port; A. Flying & 
Brothers, blacksmiths. 

The third page was in Spanish, and contained the 
same general news and a few items of Mexican and 
SouthAmerican affairs. The fourth page contained 
mostly San Francisco advertisements. Price, $5.00 
per year. 



The second number contained an article on the 
fearful amount of crimes committed between Mon- 
terey and San Diego, on the lines of travel, and the 
discovery of more victims of the highwaymen. 
This was a beginning, perhaps, of the wave of pub- 
lic opinion, and vigorous executive measures which 
broke up Jack Powers' gang, for at this time he 
was in full career, and often made Santa Barbara his 
home; but it would probably have cost anj- man his 
life to have denounced Powei-s as a highwayman, for 
he had numerous friends, and, then, who knew any- 
thing about it? So men made it a virtue to mind 
their own business, and insure comparative safety by 
keeping a wise tongue. The absurdity of trying to 
keep prisoners in an adobe jail, was also the subject 
of a paragraph. 


During the summer of 1855 a company of mounted 
riflemen was organized, Henry Carnes being Cap- 
tain, C. R. V. Lee, First Lieutenant, Charles Pierce, 
Second Lieutenant, G. Millhouse, Surgeon, and S. D. 
Johns, Secretary. The object of this was a love of 
military display, and, perhaps, also a probability 
that, in the disturbed condition of society, a military 
company would cause more respect for the laws and 
give greater security to life and property. The fre- 
quency of murders and the presence of numbers of 
persons in the town without any visible means of 
sa])port, all tended to cause a general sense of inse- 
curity. Perhaps, too, this j^ear was about the time 
when, in the change of government, the old system 
had ceased to awe the lawless, and the new had not 
become respected. 


The names of the delegates are given to show the 
political standing of the individuals: Township No. 
1, Fernando Tici and Pacifica Sanchez. Town- 
ship No. 2, Carpenteria — Juan Pablo Ayala. Santa 
Barbara — Joaquin Carrillo, Russel Heath, Jose Car- 
rillo, Jose Lorenzano, Antonio Ma. de la Guerra, 
Pedro C. Carrillo, Juan Carrillo, Guillermo Carrillo, 
Jose Maria Covarrubias, R.' G. Glenn. Township 
No. 3 — Antonio Maria de la Guerra cast three votes 
for the township. 

Nominations: State Senator, Pablo de la Guerra; 
Assemblyman, Jose Maria Covarrubias; Sheriff, Rus- 
sel Heath; County Clerk, G. D. Fisher; Assessor, N. 
A. Den; Treasurer, Raymundo Carrillo; County Sur- 
veyor, Pedro C. Carrillo. 

The Whig party was in so hopeless a minority as 
to scarcely make any organization. At the election 
the 5th of September, Pablo de la Guerra received 
321 votes, all others 60; Chai'les E. Huse, for District 
Attorney, received 252 votes, all others 1. The reader 
will perceive that the nomination for District Attor- 
ney on the Democratic ticket was left blank. This 
was to give the means of voting for Huse, who was 
a Whig, showing that sometimes a sense of the merit 

of a man is stronger than party ties. Russel Heath 
received the entire vote, 377. The op])osition vote 
varied from zero to (JO. Prohibitory liquor law — 
Yes, 39; No, 248. In San Luis Obispo, which formed 
a part of the Senatorial District, Pablo de la Guerra 
received 145 votes, to 8 of all others. 


Southern California was for a while the scene of 
as much excitement as Northern California was in 
1848. Mariano Lo|)ez, while watering his horse at a 
ravine on the College Farm, near the mission of 
Santa Ynez, picked up several particles of gold, 
which were forwarded to Santa Barbara and exhib- 
ited to the people. On the receipt of the intelli- 
gence, quite a number left for the place of the 
discovery. Gold was found in every gulch and 
ravine in the vicinity. John Kays, a well-known 
merchant of that time, visited the spot and reported 
that the men were making an average of 84.50 a 
day, which, perhaps, was quite as much as the Sierra 
Nevada miners averaged in the palmiest days, and 
thought that, with water and the machinery used in 
the Sierra Nevadas, the average would be at least 
810.00 per daj\ The face of the country resembled 
the mining districts of the north, and the gold was 
much like that taken out on the North Yuba. It 
will be remembered that gold was discovered on this 
range in 1842, and worked until the retreat of Flores 
into Mexico in 1846. The location of the mines was 
about thirty miles from Santa Barbara, in a north- 
erly direction. The travel across the San Marcos 
Ranch became so annoying that the Major-domo, 
Lopez, put up the following notice: — 

" To all persons trafficking by the road to, or by, 
S;in Marcos, that if they do not | resent and report 
themselves at the dwelling-house, and if I shall meet 
or find them within the limits of said rancho, shall 
treat them as suspicious persons, and shall have them 
taken prisoners and hold them responsible for the 

[Signed] "Mari.\no Lopez." 

This slyle was rather more than the peojile cared 
about enduring, and was likely to produce a conflict 
between them and the ranch owners, but Dr. Den, 
the owner of the rancho, published a notice in 
the Gazette, over his signature, that the warning was 
given without his knowledge or advice, while he was 
in San Francisco; so the speck of a war-cloud blew 
over. Considerable gold was taken out of the mines, 
but they did not prove extensive or rich, and were 
soon j)ractically abandoned. 


The City Government had from time to time exer- 
cised the rights of removing nuisances and punishing 
disorderly conduct, and must needs have an incom6. 
Taxes were imposed as follows: — 



For the vending of general merchandise per 

month $ 1 25 

Retail liquor saloons 5 00 

Traveling peddlers (footmen) 5 00 

" " (with wagons) 15 00 

Billiard tables, each per quarter 15 00 

Ten-pin alley " '■ 7 50 

Sleight-of-hand performance, theaters, circuses, 

etc, each exhibition 5 00 

The city also passed ordinances respecting the 
alienation of the citj'' lands, providing that not ex- 
ceeding 500 square yards should be deeded to those 
who had resided on the land for ten years. To those 
who have resided on the lands three years, the 
land should be deeded on payment of fifty cents per 
lineal yard, measuring around the tract. Lands 
would be sold to those who had not resided on them, 
for a fair consideration, to be fixed by the Council; 
but in no case should a tract containing more than 
500 square yards be sold to one person, and then 
only on his erecting thereon a house containing two 
habitable rooms, and inclosing the lot with a. sub- 
stantial fence. 

It will be seen that the city fathers set their faces 
against land speculations. Certain lots were reserved 
for the following purposes, viz.: Nos. 215 and 197, to 
be called Washington Square; Nos. 299 and 3,000, to 
be called Junipero Square; Nos. 58, 59, 73, 74, 8-4, and 
89, to be a public promenade or alameda. An ordi- 
nance was enacted, prohibiting the carrying of deadly 
weapons, also closing the places of business on the 


Reports got into circulation that the Government 
contemplated the removal or discontinuance of San 
Sebastian Raservation, situated in the Tejon Pass, 
which constituted the only protection against the 
depredations of the Tulare Indians, who had in for- 
mer times been a terror to the southern counties of 
California. The exposed situation of the ranches, 
extending, as they did, over immense extents of ter- 
ritory, made them particularly liable to Indian dep- 
redations. It was estimated that 3,000 horses were 
stolen in 1851-52-53. Including the adjoining coun- 
ties, the loss was estimated at 12,000. Life was 
always endangered, and frequently lost. Santa Ynez 
was actually stormed once, and the horses taken 
from the corral, while the owner and his family only 
saved their lives by barricading themselves in the 

At San Cayetano a body of Indians surrounded 
the house, because a citizen, who had made himself 
obnoxious to them, was visiting there. The Indian 
depredations for three years for the southern coun- 
ties was estimated at $200,000. It was the general 
opinion that the breaking up of the reserve would 
bring about a general Indian war. 

The reservation was not discontinued until some 

years after, and the Indians were never again trouble- 

[Oazette, January 13th ] 

" On Monday afternoon, a little before sunset, dark 
and portentious clouds arose in the northwest, and 
before morning the heavens were overspread and 
some rain fell. Early on Tuesday the wind began to 
blow from the southeast, and continued to increase in 
violence during the day, and at night had become 
terrific, attended with frequent showers of rain. A 
schooner, named £liza Thornton, which had been 
previously hauled up on the beach, was driven inside 
of a cornfield and had a hole stove in her bottom. 
The sloop Mazzini was unable to make an offing and 
was beached by her captain and consideVably dam- 
aged. Two men who were in charge of her suc- 
ceeded in swimming safely to the shore. The surl 
rolled in with great fury, and the mad force of the 
waves dashed into fragments the hulks of two large 
vessels, the Uallowell and Pilgrim, which, for several 
years, have been comparatively undisturbed by the 
tide. Many fences have been prostrated, but no 
serious damage done, so far as we have yet learned, 
except what is above stated." 


According to the Gazette the Spanish popuktion of 
Santa Barbara County had hitherto manifested great 
opposition to having English taught in the common 
schools. This condition of aff'airs was changed dur- 
ing this season. The School Commissioners, Hill, 
do la Palma y Mesa and iluse, assisted by Geo. D. 
Fisher, County Superintendent, held an examination 
of teachers: Present, Mr. Baillis, Owen Connolly, 
Victor Mondran, and Pablo Caracela. Owen Con- 
nolly and Victor Mondran were permitted to teach 
school for one year, beginning February 1st, unless 
the certificates were revoked. The monthly salary 
of teachers was fixed at $75. The cartificate of Cara- 
cela was revoked, to take effect January 30th inst. 
One appropriation of the State School Fund was lost, 
through failure of the County Superintendent to re- 
port. An attempt was made in the Legislature to rem- 
edy the matter and permit Santa Barbara to receive 
her quota. It was urged in objection, that Santa Bar- 
bara had no school house; that the English language 
was not taught there at all. The failure to report 
was said to be in consequence of the want of mail 
facilities. The teaching of English was commenced 
this season, and the quota due Santa Barbara was, 
after some difficulty, paid over. The school tax of 
five cents on each hundred dollars, levied in 1854, 
began to bear fruit, and the schools were no longer a 
place for a helpless and useless man to draw a com- 
fortable salary. Santa Barbara was particularly 
fortunate in having a teacher who could appreciate 
its beautiful surroundings. If the question should 
ever arise, Who discovered Santa Barbara? that is 
the Santa Barbara of the poets and esthetics, the fol- 
lowing communications from the teacher of the only 
English school will forever settle the question beyond 
a doubt: — 


" To (he Honorable the Board of C ommissioners and 

Coun/i/ Sup'rinfendent of Public Instruction in 

Santa Barbara — 

"Gentlemen": 1. and the pupils of my school, 
together with the iieojiU' ot'Siiiita Burhani, rejoice at 
j-our enteriiig upon the (hities of vourottice as School 
Commissioners, and regard it as the advent of bettor 
times for the cause of education in this conimunitj-. 
AVe therefore most cordially welcome and invite you 
to visit our school at as early a day as your other 
important duties will allow j'ou. By your so dDini; 
we shall not only feel hajjpy and encouraifed. luii 
also highly honored: and when you do come we hojie 
you will not be wholly uninterested if the result 
should be no more than the finding of a largo number 
of nice young ladies and gentlemen assemblecl 
together, cheerfully and eagerly pursuing useful and 
necessary studies. 

'•And permit me here to state for your information , 
that I have been teaching this school for nearly a 
year past at a salary of only S75 per month. I now 
respectfully and earnestlj- appeal to your honorable 
Board, hoping you will be kindlj' pleased to increase 
my salary, and thereby give us new impetus in tlu' 
discharge of our laborious duties. 

"I have the honor to bo, gentlemen, yours most 
respectfullj', Owen Connoli-v, 

•' Teacher of the Public School of this city. 

•■ Santa Barbara, Dec. 11. 1S56. 

This communication not having the desired etfecl 
of raising his wages, he tried another, and this time, 
doubtless, did all that he could do in the way of elo- 
quent writing. He introduced the subject by stating 
that the school was flourishing; that it numbered 
seventy-eight pupils between four and fifteen. Half 
the number were young ladies (whatever their age 
may be), one-third being Americans, the rest Spanish; 
that the best of feeling prevailed between the pupils; 
but that in consequence of the depreciation of the 
county scrip, in which he was paid, he felt obliged 
to tender his resignation. 

■The studies under recitation, at present, are or- 
thoLrraphy, reading, penmanshiji, arithmetic, geog- 
raphy, syntaxieal analysis, ajid grammar, of both 
English and Spanish languages. To this course I 
intend soon to add book-keeping, comjjosition, and 
declamation, and also the higher branches, when the 
pupils are prepared to begin them. And it is to be 
hoped the day is no! far distant when the visitors 
of these M-linoU will havf their ej-es and ears greeted 
by the ihi~-ii-. i1k' ari- and sciences, for the cultiva- 
tion of which .Santa ]'.:irliara is peculiarly adapted to 
inspire a taste; with its climate, unsurpassed for 
mildness and salubriousness hy any in the world; its 
picturesque and sublime scenery, both by land and 
sea; its beautiful and foi'tile valleys, abounding in 
evergreen and classic oaks, and gorgeously carpeted 
the greater part of the year with profusions of 
flowers, common to California but unknown else- 
where; its hot and cold springs of medicinal and life- 
giving properties; its ancient churches and missions, 
whose dilapidated ruins still exhibit specimens of 
their former magnificence and grandeur; its pine- 
clad hills and lofty mountains, scaling high the 
heavens, noddin<r to and picturing forth their God; 
its capacious harbor, into which noble ships and 
steamers come, all, all spreading out before the eye 
and imagination an everlasting feast of what is rich- 

est and rarest in nature, inviting alike the pen of the 
poet and the pencil and chisel of the artist and 
sculptor, and encouragement for agriculture and corn- 
to me. and you know as well as I do that muves 
invitai ad laborum. so that if you do not increase my 
salary, and pay me for my services. I herewith tender 

r lello 


the hr 

lor to he. g( 
and most 1^ 

■ tie 


1st of some of the delinquents are given to show 
iites of taxation on the large ranches:— 
II... .I,»o .\ntoiii,., \ L,„niioe and Mis.-;ion 

■^\ 98 



»nd h. 



Pirn and lot in Santa 



rtancho . . 

ta, rjamon dc la 


Doniinguez. Jose. I?a 

Gonzales, Francisco, \ Piru 

(ruorra, Jose Antonio do la, Los Alinios. 
Hartnell, heirs of, Rancho Todos Santos 
Lorenzano, Jacinto, heirs of, I Conejo.. 

Orniat, Joaquin, J Santa Clara 

Ortega, Antonio Maria, \ Relugio 48 30 

I Ortega, Dolores Leiva, § Canada de Corral. 32} 
i Ortega, Jose Dolores, heirs of, i Canada do 

Corral . _ _ 

j Palmer. J. C \ Jonata, \ Santa Ynez 

j Pico. Andres, \ Lompoc, i Vieja, i Jonata. 

\ Santa Ynez ^ 

Poll, Manuel E. de. Ex-Mission, San Buena- 
ventura _ 

Thom])son, A. B.. guardian of children of J. 
C. Jones, \ Santa Rosa Island, and 2 lots 

in Santa Barbara 

Vaieny.uela. Salvador. \ Santa Clara 

Villa. Joaquina. heirs of. Kanclio Tcquopis. 

20 4-1 

i:i 8(1 

8 1.") 

104 (j.') 

57 50 

37 95 

40 82} 


,31 05 
30 47} 
6 90 


Wo have several times referred to the fact that 
the books of the county wore badly kept. The 
Treasurer. Raymundo Carrillo, had not reported 
according to law, and the Grand Jury, in accordance 
with their oath, reported the delinquency. As the 
consequences of the oliicial investigation extend 
through several jears. the atlair will he lully de- 


'• To the Ihnioitilil ■. the Court of Sessions of Santa 

Barbain County: — 

'• The Grand Jurj- of the countj' of Santa Barbara, 
upon their oaths, present the Board of Supervisors 
of Santa Barbara County, consisting of Antonio 
Maria de la Guerra. Esteban Ortega, and Juan Rod- 
riguez, and declare the said de la Guerra, Ortega and 
Rodriguez have wholly failed and neglected to publish 
any report ol the Treasurer, as enjoined upon them 
by law; and the Grand Jury declare that a report of 
the County Treasurer, made to the Board ot Super- 



visors in the month of November, a. d. 1855, has 
never been published, nor has any other report 
soever upon the condition of the public funds of this 
county, and upon the accounts of the Treasurer, 
been published by them since they have held the 
office of Supervisors, namely, since the last general 
election; and the Grand Jury further charges that 
the said Supervisors have not required the Treasurer 
to furnish a report at the regular sessions, as required 
by law, but have utterly and wilfully failed, omitted, 
and neglected to do so, and they have thus withheld 
from the public information which they were entitled 
to possess, and which it was the plain duty of the 
Supervisors to convey as is provided by law. 

'' Chas. Pierce, Foreman of Grand Jury." 

The names of the jury were Thomas Martin, Mig- 
uel Garcia, Vicente Garcia, Horatio Robinson, Martin 
Kimberly, Juan Garcia, Daniel Flying, W. D. Hob- 
son, Francisco Leyba, Gervacia Ayala, Jose Carrillo, 
Pablo Valencia, Manuel Cota, Paseual Bottilleas, Chas. 
Pierce, Jose Olivera, and John Haskell. 

[Editorial of " Gazette," April 24, 1866.] 

"Since the publication, last week, of our views 
upon the pro])riety of exacting from the officials a 
full compliance with their public duties, and of our 
approval of the action of the Grand Jury in present- 
ing the Board of Supervisors on account of their neg- 
lect to cause the reports of the County Treasurer to 
be published, we have heard it announced that we 
were actuated by improper motives, and were instru- 
mental in bringing the matter to the attention of the 
Grand Jury. It is a part of our business, as journal- 
ists, to expose public abuses and grievances, when- 
ever they come to our knowledge, and no officer, 
however lofty his station, need expect that we shall 
be silent upon official neglect or misconduct that 
comes to our knowledge, if we suppose an exposure 
of them will have a tendency to cause their correc- 
tion or remedy. From this course we shall not be 
deterred by low, muttered threats, or hostile insinua- 
tions from any quarter. We have long been aware 
of the bitter opposition to this paper, which has 
been, and still is, entertained on the part of some of 
the officials, who love darkness rather than the light, 
and of the obstacles which they have studiously 
thrown in our path. We can assure them that their 
unremitting efforts to withdraw us from the proper 
course of our duties are utterly unavailing, and that 
the blows dealt upon us will recoil with double force 
upon their own heads. The acts of officials are pub- 
lic property, and we shall treat them as such. With 
the men, as individuals, we have nothing to do, but 
with their acts as officers we are concerned, and 
claim the right to comment upon them. So long as 
we have facts to go upon, and draw legitimate con- 
clusions from them, we are sure that .pur patrons and 
the public will sustain us. If there be any, in such 
case, who carp at it, we shall regard them with the 
scorn and contempt which their degradation deserves. 
The threat publicly made by an official, the other 
day, that he would annihilate this press, we regard 
as supremely ridiculous, positively ludicrous, and we 
can scarcely suppress an outburst of cachinnation as 
we sit upon our three-legged stool and remember it. 
Let him be careful lest his infernal machine or fou- 
gasse, which he may resort to' for effecting his pur- 
pose, explode in his hands before he can set it under 
our office. We take it for granted that he meant a 
material annihilation, for we doubt if his stupid brain 
is capable of conceiving any other. 

" We should be sorry to have it supposed that we 
were instigated by any individual motives in agree- 
ing with the Grand Jury that those reports should 
be published. The paltry sum which would be paid 
for publishing them, in depreciated county scrip 
of uncertain value, is entirely too insignificant and 
trifling to attract or claim consideration for a sin- 
gle moment; yet we know that an obsequious set of 
vulgar sycophants, too timidly crouching and sneak- 
ing to make an open charge, have secretly and 
maliciously whispered and hinted, and given utter- 
ance to vague and intangible surmises that greed 
of pelf incited us to make the comments which 
we did, and to take the part which we have done. 
It is true that one of us gave testimony before 
the Grand Jury; it is also true that such attend- 
ance before that body of inquest was under a sub- 
poena, duly served by the Sheriff; and it is also true 
that the questions propounded to us were answered 
to the best of our knowledge, and we suppose it to 
be true that the presentment of the Board of Super- 
visors was, in some measure, based upon information 
which we had it in our power to give. 

"These vipers who emit their venom against us 
would have wished us, no doubt, to perjure ourselves, 
and conceal from the grand inquisition anything de- 
rogatory to their bantlings. This is the only rational 
conclusion at which we can arrive, in view of the 
whole matter. If we have been the means of con- 
tiibuting, in any way, to the correction of a public 
abuse, and have conduced to the introduction of a 
more strict and faithful discharge of duty on the part 
of the officials, we may rejoice at it, however much 
the galled jades may wince. We hope to hear no 
more of this matter, for it is really too puerile." 

In the Court of vSessions, Judge Fernald presiding, 
the following opinion was announced: — 

" That the charges contained in the presentment 
are not sufficient to warrant the Court in instructing 
the District Attorney to draw an indictment thereon for 
the purpose of putting the parties mentioned upon their 
defense in this Court. The offense charged consists 
of an omission to which no penalty attaches crim- 
inally; and, further, the presentment does not charge 
willful and corrupt misconduct, which it would seem 
are necessary to form a basis of comj)laint for re- 
moval from office." 

The matter came before the District Court, pre- 
sided over by Joaquin Carrillo, a relative of Ray- 
mundo, the County Treasurer, and was sent to Los 
Angeles for trial. 

August 5, 1855, the Supervisors requested the 
Treasurer, Raymundo Carrillo, to give a statement 
of the condition of the County Treasury, its debts 
and revenues, also amount of taxes in 1851-52. 

A second communication was made to the Treas- 
urer, requesting a statement of all moneys received 
from the imposition of fines. One to the District 
Attorney asked for a statement of all the fines im- 
posed by the Justices of the Peace in Township No. 2. 

August 17th the Supervisors again asked for in- 
formation of the Treasurer as to the number and 
amount of county warrants that had been approved 
or authorized by the Court of Sessions. 

The Grand Jury for the June term, 1855, H. B. 
Blake foreman, indicted Henry Carnes, Deputy Treas- 


urer, for embezzling the public tuiuls, and also George 
D. Fisher, County Clerk, as accessory. 

September 27th the Supervisors settled with Ray- 
mundo Carrillo as County Treasurer, and his aeconiit 
for 8577 was approved in full. From the ap])earanee 
of the records it would seem that a portion of the 
Grand Jury, a majority of the Board of Supervisors, 
and the Gazette, which, of course, represented a ])or- 
tion of the public, formed a party, determined to 
bring Kaymundo Carrillo and his Dejjuly. Henry 
Carnes, into the position of embezzlers of the j)ublie 
money. The amount in dispute was about S4,000. 
The cases were brought belore the Court, but post- 
poned to the next term, when they were dismissed 
without trial. The Supervisors eventually made a 
settlement which did not show the Treasurer to be a 

May 1, 185G, the Gazette contained an editorial, 
complaining of the want of an active city govern- 
ment which should repress disorders and crime. 

•• It does not sound well to hear it said that, since 
the incorporation of this city, more than six years 
ago, Jiot a single public improvement of general util- 
ity has been made, if the survey and maps be 
excepted. 2vot a single street has been graded at 
the public expense, nor an artesian well sunk, nor a 
gulch filled up, nor a tree planted, nor a school-house 
constructed, nor a public edifice of any sort even pro- 
jected, nor a wharf at the landing attempted or 
planned, or its cost estimated." 


A report was circulated that Bishop Amat pro- 
posed to build a new church, and convert the old one 
into a nunnery. The Gazette asked whether it indi- 
cated an advance in civilization, or retrogression 
towards the mediaeval ages? A writer took up the 
subject as follows; — 

" Editors of the Gazette — Gentlemen: I read with 
some surprise a paragraph in the last number of your 
paper, which, after stating that a cathedral would 
soon be built here, continues thus: — 

" Eeport further says that, on the completion of 
the cathedral, the building now used as a cathedral, 
will be converted into a nunnerj'. Quare. Is this an 
evidence of the proc/ress of civiiizatio, nor does it indi- 
cate a retrogression towards the medictval ages? 

"Now, Sirs Editors, I previously thought your 
policy was neutral in politics as well as in religion, 
but, at the same time, must freelj- confess that, 
although the paragraph was ushered in under the 
imposing ' we ' of journalists, I believe it was written 
by some of the highly educated gentlemen of our little 
community, who, on all occasions, endeavor to 
exhibit their profound learning, and indulge their 
unmitigated bigotry towards the religion of the 
majorit}- of the inhabitants of the South. 

"The gentleman, whoever he is, who put the 
learned ' quoere,' no doubt, not alone, expects that all 
of his color would give a unanimous assent to the 
latter part of the sentence, but his learning and 
bigotiy would be equally shocked if anj-one would 
have the temerity to doubt a conclusion at once so 
logical and so well established. So he thinks. 

"Now, Sirs, I, for one, will not give in my adhe- 

sion to the latter part of the celebrated 'quoerv,' 
because 1 am firmly convinced, and it is an admitted 
fact, that the mediiuval ages would be dark were not 
the learning and the arts preserved most sacredly by 
the monks, who devoted their lives, not alone to the 
8er\'iee of God, but were solely instrumental in the 
preservation of the learning handed down to poster- 

■It is iHii necessary for me, Sirs, to defend the 
instit ution of the Sisters of Mercy; their fame, virtues, 
and holy labors, are not only potent, but appreciated 
by the world. Y'et there are some young gentlemen 
whose delicate nerves are discomposed at the mere 
thought of lovely ladies being shut up, and buried 
in a cloister, instead of being ornaments of society 
they voluntarily fly from, while the sensitive gentle- 
man is left to mourn in hopeless bachelorhood! 

•Enough, Messrs. Editors. 1 am sick of an exhi- 
bition of sneering ignorance, bigotry, and intoler- 
ance, and regret that your sheet was made the 
medium of its dissemination. 

" Yours respectfully, 

" A lioMAN Catholic. 

" Santa Barbara, May 10, 1856." 

editor's reply. 

•• We know of nothing ever published in this paper 
since we controlled it, from which Roman Catholic 
could infer that its ' policy was neutral in politics and 
religion.' We claim to be independent in both. His 
communication seems intended to be a thrust at some 
one, but whom it may be, we know not, and care 
less. How he comes to believe that the paragraph 
referred to was written by some one of those ' highly 
educated gentlemen,' as he styles them, is rather 
strange, as it is not embodied in any communication, 
and we suggest that this expression of his belief is 
not very courteous to ourselves. We have to inform 
him that his belief is entirely eiTOucous. We can 
discover nothing in the ' qua3re ' which smacks of any 
' attempt to exhibit profound learning,' or which dis- 
closes any ' unmitigated bigotry.' We do not wish 
to undertake to follow him in the description of the 
character of ' monks who were instrumental in the 
preservation of learning handed down to posterity.' 
We do not profess to know much about posterity, for 
we are not seers, and will therefore content ourselves 
with aftairs of the present. We do not deny that we 
are youmj, and if this be a reproach, we candidly con- 
fess that we merit it. Being of robust constitution, 
however, we hope to outgrow it in time. Really, 
we thmk, that if ' Roman Catholic ' will calmly 
examine his communication, he will find it open to 
some of the very charges which he studiously seeks 
to direct against us, or somebody, by perverting the 
paragraph in question, and striving to wrest and 
extort from it a meaning, which the plain import and 
construction of its terms will not convey. 

" We wish to have it distinctly understood that our 
columns cannot be used by anyone for the purpose of 
attacking a private individual or class of individuals, 
or as a vent for malice or private hostility, from 
whatever cause it may proceed. We have, in this 
instance, admitted the foregoing communication, 
with all its objectionable features, because it is signed 
by one w-ho may, perhaps, re])resent a class of our 
subscribers for whom we entertain high respect. 
They need have no fears that this paper will array 
itself against their laith or doctrines, but they will 
also understand that it is not to be drawn into a 
labored advocacy of them by opposing those of any 
other class. We like the doctrine of the widest 


liberty to all in matters of religion, consistent with 
the rules of propriety and public order." 

The object in admitting these things into a perma- 
nent history is two-fold; 1st, to show the temper of 
the times, and 2d, to show how the paper, bj' impru- 
dent speech, gradually alienated its supporters, until 
it was compelled to supend publication. 


May 22, 1856, being Corpus Christi day, was made 
the occasion of festivities, and according to the cus- 
tom of the country, as Ciesar would say, many of the 
participators got hilarious, on the aguardiente, and 
fell by the wayside, so that the city marshal had to 
provide them with free lodgings. Many of the 
rioters were Indians, and, as a severe law had been 
enacted against selling liquors to Indians, the occas- 
sion was favorable for a multitude of petty suits. 
Several merchants were fined for the offense, but in 
the course of the investigations, the matter of '■ white 
man or Indian," so mixed was the population, was 
difficult to determine. One of the merchants, a 
respectable and influential citizen, was accused ot 
violating the law, by selling to a Yaqui native. The 
trial for misdemeanor was before Antonio de la 
Palraa y Mesa, the question of guilty or not guilty 
resting on the decision, whether a Yaqui was a white 
man or an Indian. An immense amount of ethno- 
logical lore was brought to bear on the case, in 
which the origin and locality of the white races, the 
requisite shades and facial angles requisite to make a 
man an Indian, were fully set forth. Expedience, or 
rather the inexpediency, of making a respectable 
merchant guilty of a misdemeanor, won the day, 
and the learned Justice decided that the prominent 
cheek bones, yellow skin, straight, black hair, and 
and dark, black lustre eye of the Yaqui were the 
effects of climate and not of heredity, so the Yaqui 
was a white man, and the very eminent and respect- 
able merchant, who sold him liquor, had not violated 
the law which prohibited the sale of intoxicating 
liquors to the Indians. 


The ludicrous trials did not all occur before the 
Spanish Justices of the Peace. During the summer 
of 1856 some farmers at Carpenteria got into difficulty 
about the right to mow grass on a certain lot. John 
O'Connor and James McGloekin were arrested for 
assault and battery, one McDonahue being the com- 
plaining witness. The case was bi-ought before 
Valentine Hearne, Esq. O'Connor was tried first, 
and, after listening to the testimony, the jury retired 
and, after due consideration, brought in a verdict of 
guilty against McGloekin, who had not been put 
upon trial! Upon being sent back they returned 
with a verdict of not guilty, and directed that the 
complaining witness, McDonahue, should pay the 
costs. McGloekin was then put upon trial and after 
a thorough investigation the jurj^ brought in a ver- 

dict of guilty against McDonahue, who had not been 
accused of any misdemeanor. A bystander •■suggested 
that in view of the unusual ability of the jury, the 
question as to "who struck Billy Patterson? " might 
be finally settled by that court: 


The following was about the last outrage that was 
perpetrated by a band of criminals for plunder. The 
unanimity of the people, both Mexicans and Ameri- 
cans, in the pursuit of the criminals, showed a grow- 
ing sense of the importance of law and order. 

"GAZETTE," JUNE 12, 1856. 

"On Saturday last, at about eight o'clock in the 
evening, a series of crimes was committed at the 
Rancho of "Las Cruces," in this count}'. A party of 
six Mexican desperadoes entered two of the dwelling- 
houses and stole money to the amount of about !(?20U. 
In one of the houses two of the gang bound with a 
strong cord the hands of a widow lady, some sixty 
j^ears of age, who resides there, and committed vio- 
lence on her person. One Thomas Romero, a resident 
of Monteeeto, who was tarrj-ing there, was shot in 
the breast; the ball traversed a thick part of the door 
behind which he was standing. * * * rpj^^ 
reports of three outrages reached this city about ten 
o'clock, on Sunday. The messenger brought a letter 
from Las Cruces, and two memorandum books, which 
were reported to have been dropped at the house by 
the villains who fired the pistol. The books con- 
tained several accounts with vaqueros, bills of sale of 
cattle, and other items, which pointed to S. C. Foy as 
the owner of them. This gentleman had passed 
through this city a week ago with a band of cattle, 
and suspicions were at once aroused that he had been 
robbed and perhaps murdered. A posse of nine well 
armed men was collected by the Sheriff' and dis- 
patched on the road leading to Las Cruces, which, by 
accessions at diflfei-ent points, was soon increased to 
eighteen. On Sunday evening news arrived that 
reinforcements were needed, and a requisition being 
made by the Sheriff' upon the Santa Barbara Mounted 
Riflemen, a detachment of twelve members, armed 
and equipped, were promptly at hand and dispatched. 
The force which first started proceeded to the rancho 
of Las Cruces and ascertained that the occurrence 
was substantially as stated. Some of the party 
returned on Saturday and some on josterday. They 
brought in two Sonoranians as ]u'isonci-s. who will be 
examined before a magistnitc io (hiy. Another 
Sonoranian named Jesus, against whom there is some 
evidence, succeeded in making his escape. Being 
mounted upon a fleet horse he eluded all pursuit. 
We have learned that Mr. Foy has been heard from 
beyond the Rancho of Las Cruces, and it is therefore 
probable that he lost the memorandum books spoken 
of somewhere upon the i-oad between this city and 
Las Cruces, and that they were picked up by the 
person who let them fall at the house." 

The circumstances of this robbery and outrage 
were so heartless and savage that the community 
was thoroughly aroused. The necessity of a stand- 
ing force was apparent. A supply of ammunition and 
rifles was obtained by subscription. Native Califor- 
nians, as well as Americans, uniting in the matter. 
The fact of the robbers being (apparently) Sonoran- 
ians, between whom and the native Californians much 



ill-will existed on account of t'ormor raids, induced llio 
Mexican population loco-o])erate iieartily in lirinjj;iii4' 
the otteuders to Justice. The most of the baud were 
•subsequently captured. 


The lii^ht-house near Santa Barbara was built this 
season and was ;-!.^x2(l feel with basement and twn 
stories, walls of hard brick, window sills and cajjs. 
and stairs of granite; walls of hard stone and brick, 
eighteen to twenty-four inches thick; circular stairs 
to tower; doors and windows of eastern lumbeiv 
locks and hinges ot brass; iron gallery on the 
summit of tower. G. D. Xagle. of San Francisco, 


The Gazette again called attention to the needed 
improvements; thought the visitors who came bv 
every steamer would leave in disgust unless more 
attention was given to the streets and highways; 
suggested that the city fathers, from whom so nnich 
was expected, had fallen into some nf tlic i>]ien wells 
with which the citv abounded. 


The Santa Clara Eiver was said to be dry at its 
mouth. There was little feed on the hills, and manj' 
cattle were slaughtered to enable the rest to escape 
starvation, and there was a general reduction of the 
herds, although the drought bear no propm'tion in its 
disasters to the one a few years later. 


Ned McGowan in .Santa Barbara — Mounted Kiilemen Disarmed 
— Sharp Correspondence — McGowan's Story — Search in the 
de la Guerra Garden and Burning of the Tales— Close (Quarters 
— Escape — Recei^'ed at Dr. Den's — Mail Facilities — Overlaml 
Stage — Roads — Proposed Penal Colony — Proceedings of the 
Board of Supervisors — Earthquake in IS.")7 — The last of 
Jack Powers^Excitemeut at Buenaventura — End of the 

The summer of 1856 was made famous by the oper- 
ations of the Vigilance Committee in San Francisco. 
There are different views concerning the origin or 
necessity of that committee, and it is not the .pur|)ose 
of the historian of Santa Barbara to give an opinion 
on the subject, or even a history thereof, except as 
it may be necessary to make intelligible one of the 
most exciting and amusing affairs that ever happened 

The immediate organization of tlie Vigilance (_'om- 
mittee was caused by the shooting of James King of 
William, editor of the BuUetin, by James P. Casey, 
who also edited a paper. Casey had a bad record, 
which King was showing up, and it was also said 
that he belonged to a ring that had jjlundered the 
public funds, stuffed the ballot-boxes, corrupted the 

courts, thwarted justice, and protected criminals. 
Whatever may be tlie truth in regai-<l to it. the 
people organized into a I'ormidable committee, num- 
bering about O.OOd, and took the law and its execu- 
tion into their own hands, hung several murderers, 
instituted a general iiunl I'or ballot-box stutl'ers and 
crimiimls generally. Ned McGowan was considered 
one of the most prominent of the general offenders, 
and, furthermore, was believed to be accessory to the 
shooting of James King of William, by loaning a 
l)istol for that i>urpose and otherwise assisting and 
advising Casey: hence, when the hunt for suspects 

eai)ed, not withstanding everj^ avenue was sup])osed 
to be guarded, and made his way down to the coast 
of Santa Barbara, where ids coming and niception 
was related in the Gazette .luly 10, 185(i, as follows: — 

•• On Sunday last a report was circulated that Ned 
McGowan hud been recognized at the City Hotel, in 
this city. Several citizens declared thnt" they had 
seen him, knew him well, and were perfectly confi- 
dent ot his identity. The Sheriff was called upon 
to go and arrest him, but he delayed for some time, 
because he had no bench warrant for his apprehen- 
sion, antl had no moans of knowing, except by rumor, 
that Ned McGowan had been accused of the com- 
mission of crime. At length he proceeded to the 
City Hotel, accompanied by a jiosse of six or eight 
men, and was informed that the stranger had gone 
out to take a walk about five minutes before his 
ai-rival. The Sheriff then divided his forces and 
sent them in different directions through the city, 
with orders to take McGowan should he be encoun- 
tered. At this time considerable uneasiness began to 
be manifested by several ))ersons, who have acquired 
no small notoriety here and elsewhere, and their 
anxious fluttering convinced the Sheriff and his 
party that the stranger was not far off. The Noriega 
Garden was then searched, as it was reported that 
he had been seen going in that direction. In the 
rear of the garden is a lagoon covered with a dense 
growth of tall tules. The tules were fired to drive 
the .stranger out, if, perchance, he had taken refuge 
there. The dense smoke which rolled up, and the 
sight of men with muskets hurrying about, soon, 
attracted a large number of individuals to the spot, 
and the excitement became general; but no addi- 
tional clue could be found. 

"There is little doubt that McGowan is still con- 
cealed in the citj-. He is represented as being mucii 
worn down and chafed by his journey on horseback 
to this place, and unable to rido except with much 
difficulty and pain. It is grcatlj- to be lamented that 
a fugitive from justice should be harbored and pro- 
tected by any in this commuiuty, but it is evident 
that there arc some individuals here who have inter- 
ested in McGowan's behalf with an extra- 
ordinary .Irgree ol zealousncss and devotion. 

'• We forbear to allude to reports now in circula- 
tion, that aid has been furnished to him bj' some 
whose intelligence and station should have been 
employed in arresting instead of secreting him, for it 
is much to be desired that these reports, though now 
apparently well founded, may turn out to be false 
and that they are solely the offspring of heated 
imaginations, wrought up to intensitj- by a natural 
horror of the crime charged against McGowan. For 
the honor of humanity and the credit of this com- 



niunity we hope that these allegations -will prove to 
be unfounded." 


Public opinion hei-e, as elsewhere, was much 
divided on the subject, and there wa^ strong talk 
of the formation of a branch of the Vigilance Com- 
mittee to attend to the home affairs of Santa Barbara. 
There is some difficulty in getting at the truth after 
the elapse of a quarter of a century, but there is no 
doubt but that the condition of the public mind 
caused Captain Carnes to deliver the rifles belonging 
to the mounted riflemen into the custody of the 
Mayor for safe keeping, which act was considered 
hostile to the vigilance movement, and brought out 
some very sharp correspondence. 

[From the "Gazette."] 

'' Can anybody explain why the Mayor of this 
city caused the rifles belonging to the S. B. M. E. to 
be transported to his oflice yesterday? Who ever 
heard before of the Mayor's office being turned into 
an arsenal ? Does he believe that this independent 
company had resolved itself into a band of vigilantes ? 
Is not the step he has taken an ojjen and direct 
insult to the members of the company, which has at 
all times been ready to aid the Sheriff when called 
upon ? We really desire to know if the Mayor of a 
city can disarm a military company and render it 
powerless whenever a wild freak happens to come 
into his head ? 

" Since writing the above we learn that the 
mounted rifle company held a meeting, and on learn- 
ing that their arms had been placed in charge of the 
Mayor, by order of the Captain, they indignantly 

The San Francisco Bulletin commented on the act 
in no favorable terms, which brought out the Mayor 
in a characteristic letter, as follows: — 

'■July 17, 1856. 

" Editors op the Gazette — Gentlemen : Will you 
have the goodness to insert in your respected sheet 
the following remarks : — 

" In the San Francisco Bulletin of the 10th inst. I 
have seen a letter, sent from Santa Barbara, in which 
it appears that the writer handles me without gloves; 
and, while I consider the writer of it wholly unde- 
serving of a reply, I have resolved to say something 
in order to remove the unfavorable ideas which may 
have been formed respecting my public character. 
In that published letter it seems that, although 
Pablo de la Guerra, my brother, is quite a gentle- 
man, he, nevertheless, has brothers who are not of 
that stamp, and particularly the one who is now Mayor, 
because he takes pleasure in protecting and being on 
friendly terms with criminals. Miserable wretch! 
It is true that I protect criminals, and always will 
protect them to the extent of my power, when- 
ever I ascertain that it is intended to commit with 
them, if seized, a greater crime than that charged 
against them. As I am not permitted to know the 
name of the author of the letter published in the 
Bulletin, I cannot speak of him individually, but I 
can allude to the motives which the author, or 
authors, have had in expressing themselves against 
me in such uncourteous terms. Some months since 
an attempt was made in this city to commit a foul 
assassination, and the guilty agents were appre- 

hended and thrown into prison. Thereupon some 
individuals collected together, and, without good 
cause, resolved to apply to the prisoners lynch law; 
but being weak-minded men, they sent their emis- 
saries to me to ascertain whether I would aid them 
in such an enterprise. My answer was that so far 
from aiding I would take steps to hinder them from 
carrying out such measures, and they have become 
indignant, without courage to declare themselves, 
save by resorting to an anonymous newspaper arti- 
cle. In this they give proof of the baseness of their 
sentiments. The article in the Bulletin says my 
brother enjoys a high reputation, because he has 
filled high otfices of this State. The authors of the 
article have not had mu h care in selecting their 
language, for they forget that I, too, have enjoyed 
almost the same. If I am not now holding a high 
part in public life, it is because my ambition does not 
covet it. 

"I think that I have said enough to exhibit the 
character of this defamer, who avenges some personal 
spite which he has against me by venting calumnies. 
The only answer which this sort of peojile deserve is 
reproof They are snakes which crawl in the road 
and spit out their venom upon the traveler. 
" Respectfully yours. 

" Anto. Ma. de la Guerra, 
" Mayor of Santa Barbara." 

It will now do to introduce Ned himself, and let 
him tell his own story. McGowan was quite literary 
in his tastes, and wrote a readable book of his ad- 
ventures at Santa Barbara, while trying to escape 
from the Vigilance Committee. He had made ar- 
rangements to continue his way to Mexico, but an 
unaccountable whim seized him to visit Santa Bar- 
bara, where he was recognized by Dr. Brinkerhofl', 
Albert Packard, H. B. Blake, and others, and soon 
became aware that he had run into difficulty. There 
was a noise of shouting in the distance, a sound which 
indicated an enraged multitude, which his own experi- 
ence taught him was dangerous. 

"At this moment, when I was about giving up all 
for lost, a horseman came dashing toward us at full 
speed, mounted on a magnificent animal, beautifully 
caparisoned. He reined up in front of us, and, spring- 
ing to the ground, said to those who were with me: 
' The party is made, and the hunt is up for him,' 
pointing to me. I recognized the speaker at once. 
It was Jack Power. Bandit and destroying angel 
though he may be, he was my guardian angel then, 
and may heaven, which sent him to my succor, be 
merciful to him in his hour of need. I had seen him 
in San Francisco in 1849, and he recognized me at 
once. 'Judge,' said he, 'there is no time to be lost. 
Will you trust yourself to me ? I will proctect you 
as far as I am able.' . . Something prompted me 
to at once assent to his proposal, and I did so. In 
an instant we were gone. . . Jack ran with me 
about twenty yards up a street at right angles with 
the one on which he found us, passed me through 
the window of a house, rolled me up in about forty 
yards of carpeting he found lying on the floor, and 
told the woman of the house, in Spanish, what he 
had done, cautioned her to say nothing, and then 
rushed out and joined in the pursuit, louder than the 
loudest; while the woman quietly took her seat in 
the doorway and commenced to sing. It was all 
done in less time than it has taken me to write it. 


1 had. in an instant, as it were. Wen snatciiod from 
certain death! 

"The pack was now in I'lill cry. and as 1 lay in (lie 
carpel, how wihily 1 heard my 'heart lieat as I heard 
them a]iproaeh nearer and nearer, ami liow sweetlj' 
hope whis]iered to me as the noise receded ! As T 
afterward learned, tiiere were at least 1(10 men in 
the pursuit, some mounted and some on fool, armed 
with gnns. pistols, and swords. All the idlers, loaf- 
ers, and scum of Saida Barbara hail joined in the 
'hue and ery.' They thouij;ht their hands were upon 
me, and in an instant I had vanishiid like a dream, 
and none, save two, in all that city eoiild saj' where. 
. . The din was terrible; the trampint; of hoofs 
and yells of the mob as the chase swept, pell-moll, up 
one street and down another; the men shouting, and 
the women (prone naturally to the side of the weak) 
bespatterinsi; them with the most unsavory epithets, 
whose bitterness can only be ex|)ressed in the Span- 
ish tongue; now roaring past the very house in 
which I was lying, now djMiig away in the distance — 
all contributed to make up the most fiendish and 
unearthly howl that ever had rung in my ears. And 
there I lay. with jialpitating heart; they ransacked 
Santa Barbara, but came not to me. Jock Power 
was /eiiilliKj them!" 


A ci-y was now raised that he had been seen going 
towards the tules in the rear of the de la Guerra gar- 
den, and thither the crowd betook themselves, doing 
much damage to the trees and shrubbery. Th3 tules 
were set on fire, and it is said that several hundred 
persons examined the tules afterwards, with the ex- 
pectation of finding his blackened and half-burned 


"It was one of the hottest days I ever experi- 
enced. The heat of the carpet and the excitement 
nearly killed me. I was tormented, too, by myriads 
of fleas, of which the carpet was full. I lay still, 
however, for 1 considered that to move was death. 
After I had lain there about an hour and a half, I 
heard footsteps in the room and presently Jack's voice. 
I implored him, in mercy, to give me some brandy 
and water, for I was nearly fainting with suff'oca- 
tion. He replied, "Lie still, or directly' 3-oii won't 
have a throat to drink with," and immediately 
passed out again. I suffered another hour and a 
half, and by that time it was quite dark. The 
woman of the house lit a candle, and commenced 
washing her children and putting them to bed. Pres- 
ently I heard voices at the door, and could distinguish 
that of Power speaking in English. A party wanted 
to enter the house and search it. My protector told 
them there was no one there, and it was of no use 
to disturb the children. They said they had searched 
every other house without opposition, and they did 
not intend to make an exception of this. I now 
thought that my time was come, and, slipping out of 
the carpet. I silently cocked my pistol, grasped my 
knife, and making a short prayer to heaven, sta- 
tioned myself just inside the door-jiost, within two 
feet of the men who were asking admittance, deter- 
mined to sell my life as dearly as possible. Power, 
however, as Providence woidd have it, mana"ged to 
make such resistance to their entrance that they 
finally walked away. I had forgotten that there 

was an open window behind me. and. as there was a 
light buriung in the room, thev had onlv to turn ihe 
corner of the house to see me standing against the 
door-post. The instant thev had turned I'rom .lack, 
he turned his tace to me and whispere.i, " Tn-ler. for 
your life!" 1 dropi)ed and crawled under the bed, 
and in the same moment they passed the ojien win- 
dow. 1 again begged for water, and he jiushed to 
me with his foot the basin in which the children had 
been washed, and 1 ])luiiged mv face into it and 
drank it all, and never in' my litV bdore did I taste 
so refreshing a draught as tillliy water was 
to me." 

The hunt gradually ceased, and ilcGowan, with 
the assistance of Power, managed to reach the hills 
back of Santa Barbara, where, betwixt starvation, 
fear of the bears and rattlesnakes in the mountains, 
and the Vigilantes of the town, he passed several very 
uncom'irtable weeks. When the knowledge of his 
being m Santa Barbara reached San Francisco the 
Vigilance Committee sent down a vessel with twenty 
or thii'ty men on board, to track down McGowan and 
apprehend him if possible. At that time McGowan 
was concealed in the neighborhood of the Arroyo 
Hondo, not far from the Gaviota, and once some of 
the Vigilantes actually approached the house while he 
was in it, but according to McGowan, Providence 
befriended him and turned them away from him. 
McGowan, according to his own story, was actually 
induced to pray for divine assistance! On one occa- 
sion General Covarrubias, whose acquaintance he had 
made at San Jose in 18-19, rode from Santa Barbara, 
thirty-five miles, to let him know that a deputation 
of the Vigilance Committee had arrived by steamer to 
make a search for him the next day. General Covar- 
rubias, old as he was, making the round trip, seventy 
miles, before daylight in order to avoid giving any 
clue to the lurking-place of McGowan. It is also 
said that Pablo de la Guerra freely entertained the 
Committee at his house to a late hour, to prevent 
them from commencing the search that evening, but 
as hospitality was a prominent trait of the de la 
Guerras, Ned may have been mistaken in supposing 
that it was all on his account. During this time the 
papers of the State were full of rumors of Ned 
McGowan's having been seen at Salt Lake, in Sonera, 
in >.'cw Mexico, until he began to be termed "the 
ul)iquitous." Many of these reports were put in 
circulation by the friends of McGowan, to throw the 
pursuers oflf the true scent. Power, himself, succeeded 
so well in starting false rumors that the larger por- 
tion of the Committee, who came down from San 
Francisco in search of him, departed south, going as 
far as the Colorado Piver. 


The Arrovo Hondo* becoming an unsafe hiding-place, 
Ned resolved to seek new quarters. He had learned 

I fe.v miles from the Gaviota, and must 



through a nephew of Pablo de la Gaerra, a son of 
W. S.-'^P. IlartnelJ, that Dr. Don of the Dos Pueblos 
had little sympathy with the Vigilance Committee; 
he resolved to throw himself upon that gentleman's 
generosity; so without bidding his friends good-by, 
for some of the family had proved traitorous, he left, 
going towards the Dos Puehln^. ir.iveling along the 
beach by night, past the Ortega L'lucho. and arrived 
at Dr. Den's place in the morning about sunrise. 

"My appearance seemed to cause them much a.ston- 
ishment. They eyed me very closely as I went 
boldly towards the house and inquired for Dr. Den. 
With difficulty they made me understand that the 
Doctor was absent from home on a visit to Santa 
Ynez. They also informed me that his lady, whom 
they called' Dona Rosa, had not yet i-isen." I sat 
down on the tongue of a wagon near the house, and 
keeping a good lookout. iletermiiic(l to wait until the 
family wn-.' moving. Wliili" I was sitting hen: I was 
very un].Kasaiil ly scnitini/Ail li\' a tail, gray-haired 
old vS])aniaril, wlio, i afterwards learned, belonged to 
Monterey. 1 sat for about an hour and became 
quite uneasy uniler the stare of the old man, when 
the door of the house opened, and a very gentle, 
amiable looking lady appeareil. llcr coiiiiiK'.xion was 
much fairer than that of the giiicralily of ( 'alifornia 
ladies, and she had a remarkably sweet expres.sion of 
countenance. I at once decided in mj^ mind that she 
was the wife of my friend, the Doctor. I addressed 
her in English, but discovered that she did not 
understand the language. I then tried French, but 
was equally unsuccessful. Directly, however, she 
said to me: ^ poco tienipo,' and entering the house 
she presently returned with a beautiful little child 
who proved to be her daughter! * * * There 
was something about the child which made her 
appear to my eyes like an angel of mercy, as she 
fearlessly approached me, and said to me in silvery 
tones and perfect English: ' What is your will, sir?' 
I replied to her: 'My dear, I am very hungry and 
want something to eat; and then if you can get it for 
me, I want a ]ien, ink and paper to write a note to 
General ( 'ovarrubias.' As soon as I mentioned 
' Covarriiliias' Dofia Rosa hastily beckoned to me to 
come at once into the house. I saw at a glance that 
shehad heard oliny iierseeution ami susprcted who I 
was. vShe a]i|irai-.M| io he in I hr i;ri'alfst t rrpidation, 
and I at once entered the hou>-e and infonned her 
who I was. llersweel little danuiiter. Kate (Catha- 
rina), informed me, in ]iurer jMiglish than I (.'ould use, 
that the road had been lined t'oi- many days with 
armed horsemen, who were huntini;' nie. "and that her 
mother was feai-ful 1 would yet l.e eaptured unless I 
was very careful. Dona ' Rosa at once set her 
servants to work to prepare a break last for nie. and 
informed me. through her little interpiei er. that her 
husband, the Doctor, had gone to the Collewe tarnr 
at Santa Ynez. to attend to some hu-iness for the 
Archbisho|i and w,,uld n..( l.e at home for four or 
five days. She expressed her fears that it would be 
unsafe for me to remain there, because, although she 
could be responsible foi- her own ]ieople. she feared 
that the old Californian, who had eyed me so. and 
who, she informed me. was from ^lonterev. would 
betray me. Her own family eonsi-teil of heiself and 
daughter and a very liamNome yonnu- lady, her 
sister, whom she introduced as Miss Hill. ' There 
were also some twenty to twenty-five house and farm 

i Mrs. John S. Boll.— Editor. 

servants with their children. Thej' were mostly 

The old Monterey Californian had expre.ssed the 
opinion that the visitor was McGowan and suggested 
his arrest, so that it was not considered safe for him 
to stay there, but he remained in the vicinity and 
was fed and concealed by Den for some months. 
According to his book, Pablo de la Guerra, General 
Covarrubias, Thomas W. Moore and other prominent 
citizens were let into the secret of his being in the 
county, and aided him in many ways. After some 
months he was received in Dr. Den's house. On one 
occa.sion, as the family were sitting down to dinner, 
Russel Heath, the Sheriff, was announced. Now the 
law officers were not feared so much as the self 
constituted officers of the Vigilance Committee, but it 
was thought prudent for Ned to remain out of sight, 
though probably Heath had no warrant for 
McGowan's arrest. 

It is not proposed to give a full history of his 
career either at Santa Barbara or San Francisco; 
suffice it to say that his serious troubles were over; 
that after the Legislature met at Sacramento he made 
a triumphal entry into the capital; that the Legis- 
lature passed a bill granting a change of venue for 
the trial on the charge of murder that was hanging 
over him; that he never was tried, and that he was, 
a few years .since, living in fair health and relating to 
his friends his wondrous escapes in Southern Cali- 
fornia. He had an abusive tongue, and the writer 
has not seen fit to preserve any of the vile epithets 
applied to the citizens of Santa Barbara. 


Up to this time, 1856, the mail facilities for Santa 
.Barbara were very imperfect. Luis T. Burton was 
the first Postmaster, and so little preparation was 
made for the business incident to the position, that 
the letters for distribution were kept in a candle box, 
for any one to help themselves. The making up of 
the mail was in the same way. When the Panama 
steamers began to call, letters were received from, 
and carried to San Francisco, but so little attention 
was paid to the letter-bag that it often got wet in 
its passage from the steamer to the landing. On one 
occasion several gallons of water were turned out of 
the mail bag along with the letters and papers. 
This kind of mail service was not satisfactory to any- 
one, for, even in the old colonial times, a mail was 
carried on horseback, at the rate of a 100 miles a 
day, between Monterey and San Diego, going once a 
week. The following letter to the Postmaster Gen- 
eral, will give a correct idea of the situation: — 

''Washington (>ity, March 14, 1856. 
" Sir.- Whilst traveling in the coast region of Cali- 
fornia, I was requested bj- the citizens of the coun- 
ties of Monterey, San Luis ()liis]io, Santa Barbara, 
Los Angsles, and San Diego, that during my sojourn 
in AVashiiigton, I would ask, in their name, your 
attention to the great inconveniences and losses 



DixiK W. Thompson. 

It may be uskod liy tliosi' wlio liavo ncvrr onjoycil 
life at the Arlinj^ton. ■■ Who was ho, that ho should 
have been selected tor such a rosponsiblo and deli- 
cate position?" He was born in Topshain, Maine, in 
1826, and is a relative of Capt. A. IJ. Thompson, who 
came here in 1822, and married, some years after- 
ward, a daughter of Carlos Antonio Oarrillo, and 
thereby got half of the Santa Rosa Island; so he 
belonged to a lucky family, which is a great point 
in his favor. Dixie, when only a young man of 
twenty, left his native town for Boston, and went as 
cabin-bo}'' on the ship Richmond. Capt. Geo. F. Mus- 
tard, now living, commander. The vessel was en- 
gaged in the cotton trade to Europe, and he suc- 
cessively visited Liverpool, Havre de Grace, Ham- 
burg, and other European towns, becoming, in the 
course of two years, second mate of the hark Sdvan- 
nah, and then master. 

In 1849 he started for California, by way of the 
Isthmus of Darien. This was before the construction 
of the railroad, before any means of transit had been 
provided, except by row-boats, propelled by the 
naked natives. They were three days on the Chagres 
River. When he got across the isthmus, the trouble 
had just commenced. Tickets on the steamers were 
sold for three months ahead, but an uncle who was 
in command of one of the tirst steamer.* (the Falcon.) 
that was on the route, managed to have Dixie work 
his passage up to 8an Francisco, the only chance to 
go, as tickets were sold for f 800 premium. Many 
of the passengers died of Panama fever The}' 
reached San Francisco December 28, 1849. He 
remained in San Francisco until July of the follow- 
ing year, when he went to the mines with a part}' 
from Maine, making the passage as far as Mar^^s- 
ville in a schooner. At Marysville they camped on 
I the ground now occupied by Front Street. Here 
I they were informed that the mines were '• worked 
I out," -a piece of information that was often volun- 
I teered to new-comers as far back as 1848. The 
[ party, however, shouldered their blankets, cooking 
I and fining utensils, and pushed out. They were 
I the first on Bidwell's Bar. They mined about 

Ihroo iiKMilhs u'llhoiit o-olliiii; iniic-h hollor ctf. lor 
when TlMiiuiison lofl San FranriscM, ho harj .SKM); 
wlion lio ivUinio.l t,, Sail Fraiioi-MM, iio was a h:idly 
baiikru])ted individual, with -no or a red;" in faol. 
was obliged to work his i)a-'sage down to Mai-y>villo 
by rowing a boat, lie had an exiiorionoo in the 
•''49 prices," while at Onion Valley, which was 
common enough then, but which souihIs strangely in 
these days of pientj^ — onions and potatoes. .Sl.OO [ler 
pound, molasses, $1.5(1 por ImhiIo. Wluii at Marys- 
ville they slept on the hank of the rivor. among the 
piles of boxes, bales of hay, ami nlhoi' iininls. TJio 
place, like all other landing-|ilacos at that tiino. 
swarmed with rats, that wont tr(iii|iinn- over thoir 
faces when they were trying to sloo|i. When he 
returned to San Francisco ho got a Jul) with a man 
on Government works at Vancouver, whoro ho wont 
to work at .58.00 per day, as carpo.iior. Hnishing 
otl' log houses built by the soldiers. 

After this, ho tuniod his naiilical oxpiTionco to 
account, and acted as mate and o(iiiiiiianilor of several 
steamers and sailing vessels — the Indejiewtence, Wil- 
liam Robinson, Ohio, etc. In 1852 he bought the 
schooner Sophia., and took 3,000 sheep off the island 
of Santa Rosa. He made Santa Rosa, then, as now 
the property of the More brothers, his heaili|uarters 
from 1853 to 1857, hunting an<i sliijiping stock. The 
cattle had grown to be nearly as wild as Imtfalo. and 
were far more dangerous. Tho nialos wore caught, 
castrated, and disarmed, that is, their horns chopped 
oft", so as to render them harmless. lie was also 
connected with Captain Grecnwell in the coast 

After a few years ol'this kind .it lifo, ho pinvhased 
a portion of the San Miguel Ranclio, adjoining the 
town of San Buenaventura, and commonood fanning 
on his own account. The land is finely situated on 
a mesa along the sea-shore, and is of the best iiuality, 
producing usually large crops of corn and other 
grain. In 1880 the product of wheat reached as 
high as sixty bushels to the acre. He has the tract 
under a high state of cultivation. He also owns 227 
acres of land near Santa Barbara. 



It is said there are hundreds of men who can 
write poems, orations, or magazine articles, who can 
manage a law case with consummate ability, or make 
a splendid Fourth-of-July speech, who cannot run a 
hotel. The latter business requires a man of rare 
and peculiar talent. Several persons had tried the 
Arlington, and had failed either to suit the public or 
bring dividends to the stock-holders. What peculiar 
talent he possessed, none could say. His whole life 
had been passed in rougher phases than the keeping 
of a first-class hotel. He certainly had none of the 
traditional qualities of the typical hotel clerk. He is 
neither haughty, lofty, nor dignified, but he can run 
a hotel notwithstanding. A residence of some weeks 
is required to learn all of the secret, though it may 
be summed in the one sentence — " Mak-. tlv. guests 
comfortable:' This principal command, when taken in 
all its ramifications, is what few people can do. It 
means well-aired rooms and bedding, clean towels. 

fresh water, comfortable fires, wholesome, appetizing 
food, cheerfully-performed service from the emploj-ees, 
pleasant recreations and amusements, and numerous 
questions pleasantly answered. All this is found at 
the Arlington. If a guest wants information about 
a point in the neighborhood, Mr. T. will cheer- 
fully furnish it. If a guest wishes to know where a 
team, carriage, or driver can be had, Mr. T. knows 
all about it, as much as if he had made a special 
object of getting the information. Invalids ask his 
advice about the sea-bathing, or the hot springs; the 
sportsman as to where he is likely to start a duer; 
the naturalist where to find shells and curiosities. If 
a hackman or tradesman has made extortioiuite 
charges, he will see that restitution is made. In 
short, his whole demeanor is that of a friend, rather 
than of an avaricious, crusty Boniface. He is atten- 
tive without being obtrusive; polite, pleasant, and 
respectful without servility, and dignified without 
being haughty. 



which thcv suffer for want of moans of intercommu- 
nication by mail. From Monterey to San Dieijo, a 
distance of about (iOO miles, the only mail service is 
now performed by sea, and only three ])oiiits south 
of Monterey are touched, namely: Santa Barbara. 
Los An<reles (by the port of Sa'n Pedro), and San 
Diego. The inhabitants, intermediate of these points, 
iiave therefore no ])ublic means of intercommunica- 
tion with each other, or with the rest of the world. 
At San Luis Obispo, only, is there a post-office, and 
that is not furnished with a mail. When I was there 
in September last, that important port, village, and 
surrounding settlements had just received their first 
mail in a space of four months, and that was brought 
by a special messenger, paid from private subscrip- 

'• The coast country from Monterey to Santa Bar- 
bara includes some of the old mission establishments 
ol' California, namely: La Soledad, San Antonio, 
San Miguel, San Luis Obispo, La Purissima, and 
Santa Ynez, as well as two important seaports. 
San Simeon and San Luis Obispo, and a large num- 
ber of the oldest farms and settlements in the State. 
It is peculiarly hard, and the inhabitants ieel it a great 
injustice that this extended district should have no 
public means of intercommunication. 

'• From Santa Barbara to Los Angeles and from 
thence to San Diego, the distances are not so great, 
and there is moi'e travel, and hence more facilities for 
communicating by private means. Nevertheless, 
between each of these points, there ought also to be 
additional post-offices, and a regular land mail for the 
public convenience. 

'• The hardships of this non-intercommunication 
are the more felt, particularly in the districts between 
Santa Bai-bara and Monterey, from the fact that at 
the two distant points of San Francisco and Los 
Angeles, the Government of the United States is 
prosecuting an active litigation against a large num- 
ber of the inhabitants, with respect to their titles to 
lands, leaving the inhabitants at the same time, with- 
out facilities for corresponding with their attorneys, 
and attending readily and prompth- to the defense of 
their rights. It is my knowledge that just causes 
before the courts have been long delayed, and are 
endangered for this reason. The inhabitants of the 
coast country of California were better provided 
with means of intercommunication under the Spanish 
Government, eighty years ago, and during the con- 
tinuance of that government, and even under the 
inefficient one of Mexico, than they are now. In the 
time of the Spanish domination, couriers were dis- 
patched twice in each month to Monterey, the capi- 
tal of the province, one to San Francisco at the north, 
and one to San Diego at the south, 8top])ing at each 
mission, presidio, and village on the route. The journey 
to San Diego was made in seven days, and back again 
in the same space of time. Under the Mexican Gov- 
ernment the same system continued, and, though 
not efficiently and regularlj^ carried out. did not "at 
any time leave the country, as now, entirely desti- 
tute of a public mail. 

" It is believed that a regular weekly mail, carried in 
the same space of time as that occupied by the Spanish 
couriers — seven days from point to point — might be 
economically established between Monterey and San 
Diego. The contract, I believe, would be taken by 
responsible persons at from S7.000 to 810,000 per 
year. It would gratify the people of the country, 
and at the same time be no more than their due. It 
would promote travel and intercourse, and the set- 
tlement of that interesting region. A mail carried 

by sea. ami thus delivered oidy at long ilistances, 
does not answer any of these advantageous ])iirpose8, 
and can only accommodate, and that but indiffer- 
ently, a small ))art of the community. 

•I respectfully re<iuest yr>ur early attention to this 
subject, and remain Your obedient servant, 

" Wm. Cary Jones. 
• To Hon. James Campbell, Foalmaster General." 


Within a year or two the overland stage, carrj'ing 
mails ami passengers, was established by the United 
States Government. It was ex]>ected to open a line 
of settlements from Texas through to California. 
The cost was about a half a million a j-ear. The 
nii'asure was considered in the interest of the South- 
ern States. Few passengers were carried through, 
and. as the schedule time was not much less than by 
steamer, the large Eastern mail was not diverted 
from the main lines of passenger travel. The route 
was through the coast counties, and afforded to the 
people the long-needed mail facilities. The rebellion, 
of course, put an end to the overland stage, the 
horses and other stock being soon scattered. 


The Gazette did not rest contented with Santa Bar- 
bara as it was, or spend much force in lauding it 
above all else in the world, but read frequent lectures 
to the people on the necessity of public improve- 
ments. Twenty-five years later the necesnity of all 
the improvements the Gazette so vigorously advocated 
would have been readih" acknowledged, but, consid- 
ering the eminently conservative character of the 
old families, who for half a century had given tone 
to public opinion, the course of the Gazette in mov- 
ing faster than the people would follow was highly 
imprudent. The paper again took up the question 
of roads, and told some very plain and unpalatable 

'■ The Gaviota Pass had been considered and per- 
mitted to be impassable until a party of emigrants 
constructed a substitute for a road, and passed 
through it with wagons, thus solving the question." 

" Granted that a given wagon has escaped the 
steep ascents and descents of the infernal 'Costa' 
without leaving a wheel behind; has floated safely 
over the de|itbs of the Quemada; has succeeded in 
getting relay oxen at the Arroyo Hondo, and has 
met with no fresh land-slide at the Gaviota; and 
granted that at the Cruces 'it goes about and fetches 
the "Alisal' on the other tack,' and the valley of 
Santa Ynez is reached, with the prospect of a fair 
voj'age henceforward, what has the traveler gained? 
He has starte<l west, then northwest, and then north- 
east, to make a X. northwest course. He has traversed 
innumerable mountains to avoid crossing one mount- 
ain. He has beat about for days in order to accom- 
plish a few hours plain sailing, and described the 
sides of a triangle instead of a hj'pothenuse. . . . 
The mountain of San Marcos is the only thing in the 
way. We remember that Colonel Fremont crossed 
it with his artiller}' in a rainy day. . . . We can- 
not conceive that the energies of Santa Barbara are 
unequal to the building of a road over it," 



The editor appeals to some of the citizens to tear 
themselves away from the blandishments of keno 
and billiards to examine the routes for a road, and 
make estimates of the cost. The only available 
wagon road, up to this time, between Santa Barbara 
and San Buenaventura was along the beach, around 
Punta Gorda and Rincon Point, and the character of 
this road was so changeable in consequence of the 
falling down of masses of earth from the clitfs, which 
in some places were 400 feet high, and from the 
washing of sand and gravel by the waves, that the 
road for the transportation of goods was nearly 
worthless. Many propositions had been made for 
improvement. Wm. Johnson, employed by the county 
to survey the road, recommended a causeway to be 
erected above high tide, to be protected with a plank 
facing, or of building a causeway of stone six feet 
above the tide, with openings for the passage of 
water and places for turn-outs. These plans were 
estimated to cost from |35,000 to $50,000 each. It 
was urged that with these roads the trade to the 
southern mines could be secured in preference to Los 


The conservative character of the old town con- 
tinually stirred the editor's bile. When appeals for 
Btraightening the streets and removing obstructions 
were without avail, the editor discoursed thus: — 

" When the city is built towards the hay, as it undoubt- 
edly will be, because in that direction the streets are not 
sold, obstrucled. and, disfigured with slau/hter houses, 
corrals, pig-sties, and groggeries, the jiresidio may be 
converted into a jail or penal colony." 


The proceedings of the Board are interesting in 
many respects. The Castilian dignity is often appar- 
ent. The prices allowed for services .of the different 
officers will be of interest. 

February 7, 1856. 

Bill of Russel Heath for board of prisoners for 
$411.12; approved, $399.25. 

Ordered that the Sheriff be allowed seventy-five 
cents per day each for board of prisoners. 

Clerk ordered to communicate with Wm. Johnson, 
engineer, as to the cost of making a road around 
Rincon Point and Punta Gorda. 

March 20th. 

The plan of Wm. Johnson was referred to Pablo 
de la Guerra for examination. 

March 25th. 

The Clerk ordered to invite proposals for building 
a county jail according to plans in the office. 

Ordered that the Sheriff and Auditor report in full 
their transactions with the County Treasurer. 

Attention was called to the fact that the County 
Government had not been extended to the islands 
which formed part of the county. 

May 10, 1856. 
Ordered that they hereafter be considei-ed a part 
of Township No. 2. 

Ordered that the plan for a jail be submitted to 
Russel Heath, Eugene Lies, and Jose Maria Covar- 
rubias for amendment. 

May 14th. 

Reports of Treasurer, Auditor, and Sheriff received, 
and considered for four days. 

August 16th. 
Treasurer requested to furnish reports of the dif- 
ferent funds on separate sheets. 

May 21st. 
Accounts of Treasurer Raymundo Carrilio exam- 
ined up to December 31, 1855. Ordered that the 
accounts be published. The report made the county 
indebtedness April 30, 1856, $24,593.50. 

August 5th. 
Improved plan of jail accepted, and the Clerk 
ordered to invite proposals for building it. 

August 9th. 
County Treasurer asked leave to withdraw his 
report for amendment. The amended report was 
referred to the District Attorney for examination. 

August 11th. 

Assessment roll considered. Pedro Arrellanes' 
assessment raised !g5,000; Bauman & Co., 1,000; 
S. B. Brinkerhoff, 5,000; L. T. Burton, 1,500; Juan 
Camarillo, 5,000; Nicolas A. Den, 4,500; R. S. Den, 
1,500; Chas. Fernald, 550; Gaucheron & Abadie 
Brothers, 18,000; Russel Heath, 1,500; Jose 
Herrera, 1,000; Cook & Co., 5,000; Augustin Janssens, 
700; L. T. Burton & Co., 4,000; Raymundo Olivas! 
3,500; Juan Rogalla, 1,500; Joaquin Romero, 1,000; 
Leandro Saing, 2,500; Pacifico Sanchez, 3.000; F. 
Schiaj^papietra, 1,000. 

Gaucheron & Abadie Brothers stated they had 
$4,000 of .solvent debts due them, which were not 
assessed, which, added to the other made an increase 
of their assessment of $22,000. 

August 26th. 

One hundred and twenty-five dollars appropriated 
to purchase standard weights and measures. Reports 
of District Attorney regarding Treasurer's report 
laid on table. Taxes assessed at 70 cents on ,each 
hundred dollars for State purposes, 50 cents for county 
purposes, the latter being apportioned at 35 cents for 
General Fund, 10 cents for Jail Fund, and 5 cents for 
School Fund. The Board also assessed 40 cents on each 
hundred for jail purposes, and 5 cents for school 
purposes, making a total of $1.65 on each $100. 

The County Clerk was ordered to make an abstract 
of the Treasurer's report for publication. 

October 14th. 

Elections ordered and polling places and officers 


Mission of San Buenaventura, house of Emidio 
Ortega. Inspector, Jose Moraga; Judges, Ramon 
Gonzales, F. Tico. Carpenteria, house of Henry Dally. 
Inspector, Geronimo Ruiz; Judges, Henry Dally, C. 



Santa Barbara, house of \j. T. Burton. Inspector. 
Pedro C. CarriUo; Judi^es, V. W. llearuo. Guillermo 


House of Au{);ustiu Janssens. Inspector, Juan 
Ysrnacio Cota; Judges, Augustin Janssens, M.Ortega. 
Guillermo Carrillo appoiut.ed School Supei'iutendent. 

November lUtb. 
" The Board sitting as a Board of canvassers, hav- 
ing received the election returns of all the [jrecincls 
oflhe county, opened the same and ordered that the 
said election returns i-emain on the table, until the 
Clerk shall estimate the vote of the county and draw 
up a statement of the same." 

This note is copied from the records and shows a 
cui-ious state of atfairs, considering that Pablo de la 
Guerra was on the Board. 

2sOVE.MBER 11th. 
'• The Board, sitting as a Board of canvassers, 
received from the Clerk the statement of the vote of 
the County of Santa Barbara, and declared the fol- 
lowing to be the result of the general election held on 
the 4th of November inst." 

Here follows a statement of the persons receiving 
the highest vote, the Eepublican electors receiving 1 83 
votes each; others not mentioned. 

'• it was ordered that the returns be sealed up and 
directed to the County Judge, that he might decide 
who were elected Supervisors of the County," 

It was the custom to refer nearly all the matters 
to some person about the Court House for examina- 
tion. The Sheriff's accounts would be referred to 
the District Attorney, his accounts to the Clerk, and 
cice versa. 

November 18th. 
Fourteen bills referred to Geo. D. Fisher for exam- 

Feruary 17, 1857. 
Ordered that the report of the engineer, Johnson, 
who was directed to make a survey and estimate the 
cost of putting the road in order around the Eincon 
and Punta Goi-da be referred to the member of the 
Legislature, Jose Maria Covarrubias. 

ilARCH ith. 

New Board, Ramon Gonzales and Antonio Maria de 

la Guerra. 

It was somewhat difficult to tell from the records 
of the Board of Supei-visors who were elected, but 
the Gazette contains the following list, under the 
heading of County Directory: — 

Judge Second District, Joaijuin Carrillo; County 
Judge, Charles Fernald; District Attorney, Charles 
E. Huse; Sheriff", Russel Heath; Deputy, Harry 
Swain; County Clerk, George D. Fisher; Treasurer, 
Raymundo Carrillo; Assessor, Nicolas A. Den; Sur- 
veyor, E. Nidever; Superintendent of Schools, John 


This was one of the greatest ever experienced in 
California, although the destruction of life and prop- 
erty was less than in 1811. The niorning was clear 
and cool, the sun shining brightly, and, to an ordi- 
nary observer, there was no indication of the throes 
the earth was about experiencing. Rivers were 
turned from their beds, the San Gabriel at Los 
Angeles being particularly disturbed. At Fort Tejon 
the earth opened ton or fifteen feet for a distance of 
thirtv or forty miles, extending in the direction of 
the trend of the mountains, almost in a straight lino. 
At Santa Cruz a portion of the bluffs were loosened 
and fell with a crash. The Gazette gives the follow- 
ing account of the shocks at Santa Barbara: — 


■' On Friday last, January 9th, this city and adja- 
cent settlements was visited by a succession of earth- 
quake shocks, one ot which was the most severe 
which has visited the coast for a large number of 
years. It extended from Point Concepc-ion to Los 
Angeles. There was no unusual condition percept- 
ible in the atmosphere. At about ten minutes past 
eight there was a sudden vibration of the eai'th, 
which, however, was of short duration. Some twenty 
minutes later the severest shock commenced and con- 
tinued from forty to sixty seconds. It was univers- 
ally felt throughout the city, and was so violent that 
all the inhabitants left their dwellings. Many of the 
people fell on their knees in terror, and began 
to invoke the saints. The shock or temblor com- 
menced gently but gradually increased in foi-ce, and 
attained an undulatory motion like the swell of the 
ocean, and then gradually ceased. It fortunately 
passed off with no destruction of life and but little 
damage to property, though many of the adobe walls 
of our houses were cracked. 

" During the day several lighter shocks were felt, 
and probably a properly-constructed instrument 
would have shown that the earth was in a trembling 
condition the entire day and night. The reservoir 
at the mission rocked so that the water slopped over 
each of the four sides until quite a stream was set to 
running. Near the hot springs several large rocks 
were detached from the cliff's and rolled into the 

"At San Buenaventura the Mission Church was 
badly injured; the roof gave way, falling partly 
down, and the belfry was badl}' damaged, 

" The time of the shocks at Ventura were: 8 o'clock 
24 minutes a, m., 8 o'clock 34 minutes a. m., 8 o'clock 
36 minutes a. m., 8 o'clock 38 minutes a. m., the last 
accompanied with a rumbling noise; vibrations N. E, 
and S. W. 

"In the evening of the same day were several 
lighter shocks, occurring as follows: 8 o'clock 27 
minutes, 8 o'clock 50 minutes, and 10 o'clock 36 

"At Santa Barbara a shock was felt at midnight, 
and also the following morning." 

It was also severely felt at Point Concepcion, 
where the tower of the light-house was severely 


During the wititer of 1836-57 a series of murders 
and robberies occurred in Los Angeles, which aroused 



the whole country. The organization, for such it 
was, for murder and plunder seemed to be extensive, 
and strong enough to defy the county authorities 
and render for awhile business and ordinary jiursuits 
impracticable. Bands of twenty or thirty men would 
be encountered, armed and drilled to act in concert, 
in fact, the leader, Flores, was a trained dragoon, and 
put in practice the tactics he had learned in the 
army. Jack Power was suspected of belonging to 
this gang, and was arrested in Los Angeles and 
examined before Justice Millard, but no proof of 
being connected with the depredations appearing, 
he was discharged. When he put in an appearance 
at Santa Barbara he was again arrested. He urged 
that he was not in Los Angeles at the time of the 
murders, and could have had no connection with 
them; desired counsel, and was taken to the oiflce of 
Eugene Lies, who undertook his defense. Lies asked 
that a writ of habeas corpus might issue to bring 
out any evidence which existed against him. Mr. 
Lies asked that Power should be left with him in 
his office for a short time, agreeing to be responsible 
for his appearance. In the course of the evening, 
however, he left without notice. The Sheriff blamed 
Lies for the escape, and he, in turn, laid the blame 
on Power, who had given his word not to attempt 
an escape. Many persons thought that the whole 
affair was irregular; that a Sheriff should put a 
person charged with a criminal offense into the 
custody of a lawyer, and that a lawyer should take 
his word not to escape, was bad practice. It was 
believed that Power was concealed in the town, and 
the Gazf.tte, as it had often done before, appealed to 
the citizens not to harbor criminals. An ex parte 
hearing of the .matter was had before Judge Fer- 
nald, who decided that there was sufficient ground 
for detaining Power. Lies inserted the following 
notice in the Gazette: — 

"Whereas, John Power, a prisoner in charge of 
the Sheriff at Santa Barbara, effected his escape 
while in consultation with me as his counsel, I 
hereby promise to pay Two Hundred and Fifty 
Dollars for his apprehension and delivery into the 
hands of the Sheriff". Eugene Lies. 

Power left and no more troubled this part of the 
country. His future career is mentioned elsewhere. 


The short distance from Los Angeles, and the 
facility with which a band of robbers could surprise 
the town from the south, induced the citizens to form 
themselves into a "Vigilance Committee, to apprehend 
suspected persons, and to more readily assemble for 
defense, in case of necessity. Late in the evening of 
February 3d, two hor.semen were seen approaching 
the town, apparently intending to pass unobserved 
towards the Rincon. When they found they were 
noticed they endeavored to escape-; one, however, 
who gave his name as Jos6 Jesus Bspinpsa, was 

apprehended. He confessed his connection with 
Flores' band, and gave the names of several who 
belonged to it. He was taken to Los Angeles and 
hung on Fort Hill, with others of the gang. In this 
case, as in the Las Cruces' affair, the native Califor- 
nians co-operated with the Americans in exterminating 
the bands of murderers, thus helping to secure pro- 
tection for life and property and bring about a good 
feeling between the different races. 


The editors had taken an independent and fearless 
course, denouncing crime and lawlessness, and read- 
ing the people many sermons on the necessities of 
improvements, perhaps not always in prudent lan- 
guage. It had made enemies by its disrespectful 
manner towards the Catholics; it had alienated the 
good- will of some of the powerful families by its denun- 
ciatrons of some of the county ofiicers. The editorials 
were generally vigorous and well written, and the 
proprietors thought they were doing the community 
a benefit by their independent and fearless course. 
The following, published in November, 1856, will 
show the status of the paper: — 

" The Gazette congratulates itself upon its success. 
It did not start with any expectations of getting 
ri'ch, and have not been seriously disappointed; they 
have not chronicled all the improvements on State 
Street, as here everybody knew it, and away people 
cared little about it. Property in the county had 
appreciated at least fifteen per cent, during the year, 
and there was a steady growth of the population. 
Occasionally crimes were committed, but the ai-rested 
criminals quietly broke jail and left, giving the county 
no more trouble. The proprietors had not had a 
party of men, or even individuals, wait upon them 
to extinguish their editorial career, by shooting or 
otherwise, nor had they been called upon to do any 
shooting, for all of which they were truly grateful.'' 

The Gazette might have continued to live and pub- 
lish its criticisms on Santa Barbara, but the threat 
of one of the hereditary magnates of Santa Barbara 
that he would crush the paper had a meaning. Most 
of the means for keeping up the sheet came from the 
legal advertising. During the session of 1856-57 
the Legislature passed a bill authorizing the county 
officers to publish legal notices by posting written 
copies in several places throughout the county. This 
was the death blow to the paper. It was sold to two 
Spaniards, who removed it to San Krancisco, con- 
verting it into a" Spanish paper, with locals from the 
southern towns to give it interest. It is believed 
that no file of it was ever preserved. Some years 
since the private papers of the editor, with odd 
numbers of the Gaceta, were destroyed as useless by 
the priest, who attended the man in his last hours. 



Tax Rates ii> 1857— Officers Klecteil in 1S57— Trouble vviih 
the Cmuity Treasurer — Officers I'^lected in ISoS — The Treas- 
urer A;iaiu— County Officers Elected in ISoJ— Sau Marcos 
R lad — From the A-'seismoiit Roll of IS57— School Uiatricts 
in 1S57— Sinkins Kuiid— Tax Rates f.>r 1858— Hon. Charles 
Fernald — Dif;iiity of the Supervisors — Alpheus B. Thomp- 
son — Election Returns for ISliO — Streets in San Buenaven- 
tura—Tax Rates for ISGl— County Koad— Election of 18(51 
-Contested Election— Tax Rates for I8G2— High Tide of 
Prosperity — Statistics from the Census Returns for 1800 — 
Season of 18(il-62— The Matanza— Thomas \V. Moore. 

Those who think a newspaper serves a town much 
as the brain serves the body, that is, keeps it alive 
and moving, are often astonished to see things go on 
in the even tenor of their way after the loss of the 
newspaper. Santa Barbara survived the loss, per- 
haps, because it was then in that torpid condition 
that not much nerve force was necessaiy to keep its 
internal arrangements up to the slight movements 
required. The Board of Supervisors proceeded to 
appoint three places in each township, where legal 
notices should be posted, presumably selecting the 
most public places, viz.: In San Buenaventura, Town- 
ship No. 1, the houses of Ysidro Obiol's, Ramon 
brothers, and Pacifico Sanchez. In Township No. 2, 
the City Hall, Court House, and Orena's billiard 
saloon. In Township No. 3, residence of Augustin 
Janssens, corridor of the mission buildings at Santa 
Ynez. and the residence of the Yndart brothers, on 
the Nojaqui Ranch. 

Some irregularities of the Justices of the Peace 
becoming known, several of them were ordered to 
attend the sessions of the Board of Supervisors with 
their dockets for inspection. The Clerk of the Board 
was authorized to consult C. E. Huse regarding the 


Were fixed as follows: — 

State tax on each -SIOO. 70 cts. 

General Fund " " 35 " 

Jail " '' - _ 10 ■■ 

School ■■ '• " 7i •■ 

Sinking " " " 40 ■■ 

Total §1 G2i 

August 3d the Board consisted of Antonio Ma. do 
la Guerra, Rafael Gonzales, and Gaspar Orefia. The 
report of the County Treasurer was referred to the 
District Attorney, as were the accounts of Juan 
Lej-ba, Russel Heath, and de la Palma y ilesa. The 
District Attorney reported favorably on the Treas- 
urer's report, which was ordered to be published by 
being posted in nine different places, according to 

At this time the Board was purchasing outstand- 
ing warrants at a discount of thirty per cent. Gero- 

nimo Gaucheron sold upwards of •■?3()0 to the county 
at this rate. 


Sherift'. .loaquiii de la Gtierra; Clerk, George P, 
Fisher; Surveyor. K. Nidever; Treasurer, Raymundo 
Carrillo; Coroner, James L. Ord; District Attorney, 
R. G. Glenn; Assessor, Miguel Smith; Superintendent 
Public Instruction, John L. Smith; Public Adminis- 
trator, L. T. Burton; Supervisors, Ysidor Obiols, 
Antonio Ma. de la Guerra, Francisco Alisaldo. 

Romualdo Pachoco was elected State Senator from 
Second District, including Santa Barbara and San 
Luis Oiiispo. 

September 22d. 

The following vacancies were filled by appoint- 
ment: W. A. Streeter, Coroner; C. E. Huse, District 
Attorney; A. F. lliuchman, Superintendent Schools. 


Septe.mber 2;t, 1857. 

There was in the treasury SS.724.77i, the largest 
sum ever known. The Supervisors took the matter 
under consideration, and fixed the Treasurer's bonds 
at >?20,000. Charles Huse, Pablo de la Guerra, and 
R. Heath were appointed a Commission to take 
charge of the books and papers in the office of the 
County Clerk. There is no note how the office 
came to be vacant. The order to have the Commis- 
sion take charge of the office was in Spanish, and 
gave no reason for the change. It will bo remem- 
bered that Fisher was one of the parties indicted 
by the Grand Jury for conspiracy to defraud the 

November 2d. 

The District Attorney was requested to examine 
the Auditor's books for the current fiscal year, 
although it is difficult to perceive the legality of the 
order. A portion of the time, after Geo. D. Fisher 
ceased to be County Clerk, the records are in Span- 
ish, some of the Boai'd acting as Clerk. Fisher pre- 
sented bills to the amount of 8433.77 for services, 
which were rejected. He was out of luck with the 


Showing the rates at which land was assessed: — 

Arrellanes, Luis, .V Punta Laguna.. 6,000 83,500 

Teodoro, Jr Guadalupe .. 6,000 8,000 

iPuntaLaguna 6,000 3,500 

Total 89,125 

Ayala, Crisogono, j Santa Ana 13,750 3,000 

Total 7,179 

Bigg.s, M. H., Rincon 4,000 2,000 

Burton, Luis T., Jesus Maria . . 44,000 6,000 

Total assessment 25,345 

Camarillo, Juan, Ojai 17,760 7,200 

Anastacio, el Cojo 8,880 4,000 

Carrillo, Jose Antonio, h Lompoc 13,500 6,500 

Manuella (heirs of) | " 6,000 4,500 



Cordero, Maria Antonia, (widow) | 

Las Cruces _ . 4,000 750 

Cordero, Miguel (heirs of) | Las 

Cruces. 4,000 750 

Cota, Francisco (heirs of ) ^ Santa 

Rosa ..." 8,670 2,500 

" Madaliua (widow), i Refugio.. 13,000 2,500 

Den, N. A., Trustee \ Dos Pueblos 16,000 8,000 

for wife and children J i San Marcos 17,000 2,500 

Total assessment 29,770 

Den, N. A., (agent) College Ranch 3,200 8,000 

Total for College Ranch 22,750 

Den, R, S., I San Marcos 17,000 2.500 

" " ex-Mission Santa Bar- 
bara. 6,000 3,000 

Total assessment 13,400 

Estrado, Jose Antonio, Las Flores 4,440 1,000 

Foxen, Benjamin, Tiniquaic 8,880 1,900 

Gonzales, Leandro, I Santa Clara . . 2,000 1,000 

" Rafael | " " .. 2,000 1,000 

Guerra, Jose de la, Conejo 10,000 2,500 

Simi* 40,000 14,000 

Las Posas 15,000 5,200 

San Julian 32,000 8,000 

Total 131,950 

Gutierrez, Octaviano, Laguna... . 13,000 3,000 
Hartnell, W. E. P. (heirs of), Todos 

Santos 20,000 5,0U0 

Hm, Daniel A., Goleta & Patera 6.000 4,000 

Total assessment 18,400 

Halleck, Peachy and Billings, | 

Tequepis. 4,000 900 

Yndart, Jose Maria, Alisal 6,000 2,000 

Janssens, Augustiu, Purificacion . . . 12,000 2,000 

Jones, Manuela, i Santa Rosa 15,000 500 

Kays, John, Salsipuides 6,000 2,000 

Lataillade, Cesario, Cuyama 30,000 3,000 

Lorenzana, Felipe, i San Miguel or 

Casitas 4,340 2,500 

Malo, Ramon T., Purissima and 

Santa Rita 20,000 5,000 

Maitoreua, Ysabel, Laguna 8.670 2,0U0 

Moraga, Joaquina (widow), Canada 

Larga 6,000 1,500 

More, T. Wallace, San Cayetano... 26,000 10,000 

Total 33,350 

Olivas Raymundo, |- San Miguel de 

Cassitas 4,340 2,500 

Total 13,237 

Olivera, Antonio Maria, Casmali . . . 4,340 900 

Olivera, Diego, ^ Guadalupe 8,000 

Orefia Gaspar, Verdernalis 9,000 2,000 

Total 17,500 

Ormas, Joaquin, i Santa Clara 2,000 1,000 

Ortega, Antonio Wm., i Refugio... 13,000 2,500 

Ortega, Ygnacio, Canada de Corral. 8,000 2,000 

Palmer, Joseph, l Jonata 12,000 3,000 

i Mission St. Ynez. 1,500 500 

'The Simi contained 96,000 acres. 


Pico, Andi-es, |- Lompoc 6,000 3,000 

" " i Jonata... 6,000 1,500 

" •■ i ex-Mission Santa 

Ynez....' 1,500 500 

Poll, Manuel R. de, ex-Mission of 

San Buenaventura 43,000 9,000 

Robbins, Encarnacion, Positas . 4,000 1,500 

Rodriguez;, Ygnacio (heirs of )Conejo 10,000 2,500 
Ruiz, Mona (widow), i Calleguas... 2,000 1,000 
Ruiz, Jose Pedro (heirs of), i Cal- 
leguas 2,000 1,000 

Sanchez, Juan, |. Santa Clara 6,000 3,000 

Shaw, James B. (agent) Island 

Santa Cruz 40,000 10,000 

Total assessment 29,965 

Thompson, A. B. (Guardian) | 

Island Santa Rosa 15,000 5,000 

Total assessment . . 22,000 

Unknown ownei-s, Sisquock 34,000 3,400 

Santa Paula .. .. 16,000 12,000 

Tequepis 4,000 800 

San Pedro 4,640 2,000 

Valencia, Miguel, Nojaqui 4,340 1,500 


From being one school district, Santa Barbara 
County now contained four. This was thought at 
the time to be munificent, extravagant even. The 
question then as now, and in all time, was. What good 
does education do ? Will it enable a man to herd 
cattle, ride a horse, or throw a lariat any better. If 
answered in the negative, then of what use are 
schools. To induce men to try to live without work; 
to obtain an office at the county seat; to make him 
worthless for business. Such were the reasons urged 
twenty -five years since. When one sees the school 
houses at Ventura, at Santa Barbara, and in all the 
little towns, and even in the canons and other places 
considered worthless tliirty years since, and considers 
the higher plane on which life exists now than then, 
he may well point to the school house as the agent 
which has had much to do with the improved condi- 
tion of the people. . 

District No. 1 included all the land between the 
Los Angeles line and the Rincon Ranch, extending 
back to Kern County, including all that is now 
the county of Ventura, or upwards of 1,500 square 
miles. Though one-half this is under the domain of 
the shepherd, yet a dozen or more school houses 
send out a throng of happy children, more numerous 
that the one school a quarter of a century since. 

Disti-ict No. 2 extended from the Rincon to Nopal 
Street, Santa Barbara. This included Carpenteria, 
Montecito, and what is called the Estero, now con- 
taining more population than the whole county at 
that time. 

District No. 3, from Nopal Street to the Cafiada 
del Corral, near the Gaviota Pass, included all of 
Santa Barbara City, on the west side of the Estero, 


and the thriving towns of Goleta or Patera, Dos 
Pueblos, etc. 

District No. 4, from the Canada del Corral to the 
■western lino of the county, is about the territory of 
the proposed new county of Santa Maria, including 
the growing towns of Lompoc, Guadalupe, Santa 
.Vfaria, Los Alimos. and many smaller places. What 
a change! Not only wore the districts large, but the 
Bchools. in many instances, were but apologios or 
miserable substitutes for the institutions of the pres- 
ent. The pupils were so scattered that the bill for 
making the school census was ncarlj' one dollar per 
scholar, a sum that would, iu a well-regulated and 
settled community, go far towards maintaining a 


This began to accumulate, and in accordance with 
law the proposals were invited for the surrender of 
warrants. On the 9th of November, 1857. G. Gau- 
cheron proposed to surrender twenty-two warrants 
on the general fund, amounting to §1,777.32, for a 
discount of thirty per cent., or for $1,244.13, which 
proposition was accepted. A year later warrants 
were purchased at a still lower rate. 

treasurer's ACCOUNTS. 

The subject was a frequent source of official inves- 
tigation. The system of accounts was not only 
obscure but imperfect. It is said that the only true 
condition of the funds was obtainable by estimating 
the amounts on the stubs of the warrants. Novem- 
ber 18, 1857, C. E. Huse and Isidro Obiols were 
appointed a commission to examine the books of the 
Treasurer, with authority to demand all papers con- 
nected with the matter. The Treasurer was notified 
that on the first day of the regular term, the Super- 
visors would count the money in the treasui-y. The 
following order was also made, viz.: ''It appearing 
that the accounts of the Treasurer and Auditor do 
not agree, ordered that those officers be instructed 
to compare books and accounts, ami investigate the 
cause of the difference." 


Assemblyman, Eugene Lies; County Clerk, C. E. 
Cook; District Attorney, Albert Packard; County 
Assessor, Antonio Arrellanes; County Treasurer, 
Isaac J. Sparks; Coi'oner, James L. Ord; Public 
Administrator, Thomas Dennis; Superintendent ot 
Schools. A. F. Hinchman. "Whole number of votes 
cast, 319. 

the treasurer again. 

September 20, 1858. 
An extraordinary meeting of the Supervisors* was 
called to consider the condition of the treasury. C. 
E. Huse was appointed Commissioner to make an 
examination and see if each fund had the amount of 
money that was due. The Treasurer was ordered 
to produce books and papers. 

• Isaac J. Sparks resif^ed Auf^ist 1st, 

October 2d. 
" Ordered that Charles E. llusc. the Commissioner 
appointed to examine and arrange the accounts of 
the late Treasurer, sign his name under each of the 
balances struck by him. and make a general state- 
ment in the books of the respective balances in each 
fund, and separate the funds so as to conform to the 
existing law; and that the present Treasurer con- 
tinue to keeji his accounts in the same books, follow- 
ing the signature of the (Commissioner." 

November Ist. 
New Hoard: Antonio Maria de la Guerra, Felipe 
Piiig, Angel Escandon. 

November 3d. 
The Board and Auditor and District Attorney met 
at the office of the Treasurer and examined the 
books. Ordered that the ledger, cash book, journal, 
and license book be turned over to the Auditor, the 
Treasurer taking a receipt for them. The Treasurer 
was authorized to get new books in which to keep 
the accounts. 


Tax rates as follows; — 

On each $100 for— 

State Fund $ .60 

General Fund 30 

Jail Fund... 20 

School Fund. 10 

Sinking Fund 32J 

Hospital Fund... ; .06 

Road Tax 03 

Total.... ii?1.62J 

The total vote for Governor was 462, of which 

; Milton S. Latham received 431 and Leland Stanford, 

j 31. The balance of the State ticket varied from 

441 to 425 Democratic to 19 to 40 Republican. 

For a Convention, 401; against 13; for a Territory, 

395 against 51. 

COUNTY officers ELECTED IN 1859. 

Member of Assembly, Jose Antonio Covamibias, 
the opposing candidate being J. F. Maguire; Dis- 
trict Attorney, Russel Heath; County Clerk, Charles 
E. Cook; Sheriff, Albert A. Chateneuf; Treasurer, 
Victor Mondran; Coroner, Gustavus Mill house; 
Assessor, Wm. Carrillo; Surveyor, E. Nidever; Super- 
intendent of Schools, J. F. Maguire. 

Supervisors — Fii'st District, Jose dc Arnaz; Second 
District, Antonio Maria de la Guerra; Third District, 
Francisco Puig. 

At this election the islands were made a precinct. 

The Sheriff' fiiiling to qualify, Thomas Dennis was 
a])pointed to fill the vacancy. 

James Lord was appointed Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction for the same reason. 


On each «100 for— 

State Purposes 8 .60 

Jail Fund 20 

School Fund 10 

Sinking Fund 33 

Hos|)ital Fund 08 

Road Fund 03 

Funded Debt 20 

General Fund .33 

Total $1 87 




S. B. Brinkerhoff made application to the Board of 
Supervisors for a franchise to construct a toll-road 
over the San Marcos Pass, which the Board granted 
with the following conditions: that the road should 
be commenced within ten -months from date; that no 
obstruction should be caused to an,y other road; that 
the road should be completed in three years. The 
franchise was to run twenty-five years. 

As the Sinking Fund accumulated, bids were made 
by the holders of warrants for redemption. The 
price was generally below seventy-five per cent. A 
day was set to hear proposals for surrendering the 


On each $100 for— 

State Purposes - - . $ .70 

General Fund -.. 30 

Jail Fund - - .10 

School Fund - - - - - .10 

Sinking Fund 32i 

Total -- $1.52J 

A road tax of $2.00 was levied on each man 

between twenty and fifty. 

It was also ordered that one-sixth part of all 

taxes raised be set apart as a hospital fund. 


The members evidently felt the importance and 
responsibility of the duties involved in the office, and 
had a good appreciation, of the dignity pertaining to 
their position. " Ordered that the Assessor attend 
the Board until the business of examining the assess- 
ment roll is completed." The Assessor, not comply- 
ing with the order, was fined twenty dollars. The 
Sheriff was considered an appendage to the Board, 
and for lacking in constant attention was fined, 
though the dignity of the body having been asserted, 
the fine was subsequently remitted. About the time 
of the building of the county roads, a livery stable 
was opened in Santa Barbara. Among other articles 
of luxury and elegance, was a double-seated thorough- 
braced wagon. This was considered particularly 
appropriate for a body of men acting as a committee 
of examination to travel in, and accordingly the order 
was often entered: '-James Tompson will put his 
stage and team at the disposal of the Road Commis- 
sioners." These were amusing though hai-mless 
peculiarities, and were, perhaps, relics of Castilian 
dignity; but with these traits was also that high 
sense of honor, which never, as in modern times, in- 
duced or allowed a Supervisor to make money out of 
a public contract, for no Board of that day was ever 
suspected of being peculiarly interested in the public 
works under its control. 

They were also veiy watchful as to useless expend- 
itures. The Sheriff, Thomas Denis, having made 
some repaii's in his office without orders from them, 
they caused the following protest to be spread on the 
records: — 

" Whereas the undersigned, the Board of Supervi- 
sors, see that the Sheriff of the County, is making, 
without our knowledge, great alterations in the 
Court House, there being no necessity for the same, 
and by such alteration incurring great expenses, we 
deem it our duty to protest against the same, and we 
do hereby protest that such alterations are unneces- 
sary and uncalled for, and, by virtue of this protest, 
we do not consider the County liable for such expense. 
Maria Antonio de la Gderra, 
Signed, Felipe Puig, 

Jose Arnaz. 

They also ordered the Sheriff to sell at auction the 
two large chairs in his office. When the Sheriff' pre- 
sented his account, " lumped together," it was 
referred back for sjDecifications. When the amended 
bill was returned, the items for the repairs of the 
office-room were rejected. 

January 26, 1861. 

The Supervisors relented and ordered the Sheriff 
to complete the repairs and put the Court House in 
good condition. 

THE treasurer UNDER ORDERS. 

The Road Fund seems to have been used by the 
Treasurer as a contingent or general fund, at least to 
some extent. The Supervisors about this time made 
an order that the Treasurer should replace what he 
had taken out, less the express charges and his com- 
missions. They showed no favor even to Carrillo. 
March 4, 1861. 

The report of the Treasurer being received, and 
found to be incorrect, a discrepancy of $2,000 appear- 
ing, it was referred back for amendment. 


It would seem that through some laxity of their 
own, the county became involved in a legal difficulty 
with a neighboring county, in which the assistance 
of an attorney was required to extricate themselves or 
the county from the (rouble. The Attorney, Judge 
Feniald, charged $150 for legal service. When 
the appropriation was made, they ordered that 
the same sum be deducted from their salaries. 
On a reconsideration of the matter, they concluded 
that the Treasurer and District Attorney was also 
involved in the transaction. They then made them 
partners in the loss, and resolved that each of the 
officers concerned should be mulcted to the extent of 


As the name of Thompson will frequently appear 
in the history, an account of the first of the name in 
Santa Barbara will be of interest. Alpheus B. 
Thompson was a native of Topsham, Maine, and was 
of an extensive and respectable family, whose mem- 
bers had been connected with almost every public 
enterprise in that part of the State. Having a good 
education and a general knowledge of the world, he, 
like most enterprising j'oung men of Maine, resolved 
to spend some years in travel before settling down 
to the stern realities of New England life; but the 



opportunities ho saw tor trade, and other sources of 
|)i'osperity, never ]ierniitted him lo return and spend 
Ills days among the granite-ribbed, frost-bound hills 
of his native State. Karly in life In- made a voyage 
to China, and thence to Honolulu. Here he con- 
ceived the idea of a fur trade between the Northwest 
("oast and China, which he imniediately proceeded 
to put into operation, shipping the furs to Canton, 
anil taking Chinese and other goods from thence to 
the coast of Mexico and the South .Vnieric;in States. 
He then learned the value of the trade in hides and 
tallow, which formed the stai)le export of the cattle- 
raising provinces, and began to include that trade in 
his cycle of exchanges. What a combination of in- 
terests were connected with his trade; teas and silks 
from China, furs from Russian America, hides and 
tallow from Santa Barbara, and calicoes, docks, and 
luirdware from Boston. He visited Santa Barbara 
as early as 1820, but though he duly appreciated its 
climate, soil, and other advantages, it was not until 
1835 that he shaped his affairs so that he could make 
a permanent residence here. He married a daughter 
of Don Carlos Carrillo. one of the most prominent 
men in California, John C. Jones, U. S. Consul to 
Honolulu, marrying a sister at the same time. The 
two brides were dowered with the Santa Rosa 
island, a tract of land containing more than one 
hundred square miles, more than half of which was 
susceptible of cultivation, and nearly all suitable for 
grazing. The two, Thompson and Jones, immedi- 
ately stocked it with cattle and sheep, and in a few 
yeai's were receiving a princely i-evenue from the 
sales, amounting in some years to $100,000. As many 
as 60,000 sheep have been carried on the island. He 
died in 1869, on the 29th of February, leaving a f:im- 
ily of six children, three sons and three daughters, 
whose names will appear in these pages, as the his- 
tory progresses to its close. 


The split in the Democratic party on the slavery 
question extended to Santa Barbara. It will be seen 
that each party felt the necessity of putting a native 
Californian on their ticket; so that the general result 
was not materially affected. 

The electoral ticket was as follows: — 

Douglas Democrat — Humphrey Griffiths. .305; 
Richard Hammond, 305; Pablo de la Guerra. 302; 
Geo. T. Price, 30.5. 

Breckinridge Democrat — Vincent Geiger, 122; 
Antonio F. Coronel, 122; Zach Montgomery, 122: A. 
P. Dudley, 122. 

Republican — Antonio Maria Pico, -15; C. A. Mark- 
ham, 46; W. H. Weeks, 46; C. A. Tuttle, 4G. 

For a Constitutional Convention, 382; against, 23; 
for paying the debt, 311; against, 40. 

Officers elected: Sheriff, Thomas Dennis. Assess- 
ors — First District, Victor Ustusaustegui; Second 
District, Guillermo Carrillo; Third District, Ygnacio 

Ortega. Superinten<lent of School 
County Surveyor. D. \V. ;i|i .lonrs. 

The then little i)urg begun to Ik' anxious to have 
streets laid out regularly, though some were bitterly 
oi)posed to it. The town was. |n'rhai)S, not quite so 
irregular in its outline, lull, like Santa Barbara, 
.seemed an outgrowth from the cluster of buildings 
first erected, the buildings lying scattered around in 
all ])ositions and all stages of growth, backs, sides, 
and fronts connubiating in a social way. The gar- 
den or s(|uare seomeil to be in the wav of hning out 
a town. Man^^ were in favor of laying out a street 
iii front of the mission, segregating it from the 
orchard, the matter being the subject of many peti- 
tions and protests. The street party won the day, 
and to that decision the town owes its fine main 
street, which became the starting or base line for 
the plan which left it to grow into a beautiful vil- 

T.VX H.\TKS FOR 1861. 

For General Fund, 40 cents; School, 10 cents; Hos- 
pital, 5 cents; Roads, 5 cents; Funded Debt, 60 cents; 
Sinking Fund, 70 cents, making a total of $1.90. 

Although the debt incurred previous to 1860 was 
the result of waste and extravagance, the people 
resolutely resolved to pay it. It seemed to be the 
fate of the counties, as well as the State, lo incur a 
debt without -AXiy assets or consideration to show 
for it. The result, disastrous in many respects, was 
owing more to business inexperience than to malad- 
ministration, as in other parts of the State, and the 
proposition to repudiate it woidd not have been 
listened to for a moment, for Castilian honor was a 
reality in financial matters. The following law was 
enacted by the Legislature, in accordance with the 
expressed wishes of the |)eople: — 


(Appro\ed April i, la^tQ.) 

The^ People of the State of California, represented in 
Senate and Assembly, do enact as foUows : — 
Section 1. The Board of Supervisors, in and for 
the county of Santa Barbara, in addition to other 
taxes they might levy under authority of law, shall 
annually levy a special tax of twenty-five cents on 
the hinidred dollars, on real and personal property 
subject to taxation in said county, or at their discre- 
tion may iticrease it to any sum not exceeding 
seventy-five cents, to be collected in the same manner 
as other taxes, and payable in legal currency of the 
United States, and the money derived from said 
special tax, together with one-third of any and all 
amounts of money received into the County Treasury 
for county purposes derived from licenses, shall con- 
stitute a Sinking Fund for the extinguishment of 
the public debt of said county, and shall be held and 
disbursed in pursuance of the provisions of this Act. 
Sec. 2. Whenever there shall accumulate in the 
County Treasury, from proceeds of the special tax 




and of the licenses, as provided for in the foregoing 
section, the SLim of five hundred dollars, it shall be 
the duty of the County Ti'easurer to give notice, by 
posting three public notices in English, and three 
public notices in Spanish, in three public places in 
said county, of the amount of money in the said 
Sinking Fund as above provided, and that sealed 
proposals for the redemption of county warrants 
drawn on a day previous to the first day of March, 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, directed to 
him and the Countj^ Auditor, will be received and 
opened by them on a day and hour named, which 
shall not be less than twenty-one, nor more than 
thirty days from the posting of said notices; and 
upon the day and hour designated in the notice, 
the County Auditor and County Treasurer shall 
attend at the office of the latter, and then and there 
open said proposals, and accept the lowest bids for 
the redemption of warrants, as aforesaid; provided, 
that no bid for more than the par value of said war- 
rants, or no bid unless accompanied by a responsible 
guaranty, shall be considered. 

Sec. 3. Whenever any bids are accepted, it shall be 
the duty of the County Auditor and County Treas- 
urer to take the number and description of the war- 
rants to be redeemed and make a several record 
thereof in their respective offices, and thereupon the 
County Treasurer is authorized and directed to pur- 
chase the warrants designated in the accepted bids 
as aforesaid, and to pay for the same out of the 
money in the Sinking Fund upon the production and 
cancellation of said warrants, and said cancelled war- 
rants shall be the only vouchers to the County 
Treasurer of the payment as aforesaid in the settle- 
ment of his accounts. The bids being at equal rates, 
the preference shall be given to the person offering 
the smallest amount of warrants, and the bids and 
amount of warrants being equal, each shall be ac- 
cepted pro rata. 

Sec. 4. The County Treasurer shall keep a sepa- 
rate account, under 'the head of Sinking Fund, of 
all moneys received from the sources specified in the 
first section; and the said money shall be never used 
nor mixed with other funds except as herein pro- 
vided for, and on final settlement of his accounts, he 
shall be chargeable with all the nioneys as received, 
subject to credits in his favor equal to the amount 
or amounts of canceled warrants produced by him 
and recorded in the offices of County Auditor and 
County Treasurer, as herein directed. 

Sec. 5. Warrants drawn on the County Treasurer 
and bearing date previous to the first of March, one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, shall be paid 
and discharged only in the manner designated in 
the foregoing sections, and warrants drawn as afore- 
said, bearing date subsequent to the date last afore- 
said, shall be paid out of any money in the County 
Treasury not in said Sinking Fund; provided, noth- 
ing in this section shall be construed so as to author- 
ize any change in existing laws concerning the 
various funds received, or to be i-eceived, by the 
County Treasurer, except so far as warrants drawn 
on a day previous to the said first day of March, one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-six. 

Sec. 6. This Act shall continue in force until all 
county warrants, issued prior to the first day of 
March, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, 
shall be redeemed and paid, and no longer. 


An act was passed to authorize the Supervisors to 

call an election to see whether the voters would incur 
a debt of $15,000 for the construction of a road 
through the county, which election was appointed 
for May 21, 1859. In the same act the Legislature 
appropriated $15,000 towards the same object, to be 
paid over and expended under the direction of the 
authorities of Santa Barbara, when they should 
expend a like sum for that purpose. 

Little interest seemed to be manifested in the 
matter, for the whole number of votes cast was 105, 
of which number eighty-six were for the road and 
nineteen against. The road was to intersect or run by 
the Salinas, or salt pond, east of the town, Monte- 
cito, Cai'penteria, Rincon, Punta Gorda, Canada 
Sauses, Pitos, San Buenaventura, Puerta la Somas, 
Las Posas, Canada de Quimada, and Santa Susana, 
to the Los Angeles line. The north route to go to 
the San Luis Obispo County line. The Supervisors 
called for bids at cash rates, the bonds not to be sold 
less than eighty per cent. 

Charles Fernald, Jose de Arnaz and Pablo de la 
Guerra were appointed Road Commissioners to view 
the line, and E. Nidever, the County Surveyor, was 
requested to accompany them to make estimates. 

W. H. Leighton was directed to make a reconnoi- 
sance for a road to the San Susana Ranch. His 
plan was accepted, and he was paid for the report 

T. Wallace More made a proposition to construct 
the wagon road through the county for the sum of 
115,000 in bonds. 

Pablo de la Guerra, John F. Maguire, Russel 
Heath, James L. Ord, and Francisco Arrellanes were 
appointed Commissioners to confer with the Overland 
Stage Company in regard to the road. 

The building of the County road was awarded to 
T. Wallace More, and the Road Commissioners 
ordered to draft a contract in accoi-dance with the 
terms of the offer, the President of the Board being 
authorized to sign the contract on the part of the 
county. More gave a mortgage on valuable property 
for $20,000 for a faithful performance of the contract, 
though he afterwards asked the mortgage be can- 
celed, and that a bond for $5,000 be substituted 
therefor, with N. A. Den and himself for sureties. 
October 8, 1860. 

At a special meeting to consider the wagon road, 
T. W. More presented a petition that the $15,000 
given by the State should be turned over to him. 
The petition was referred to the Road Commission- 
ers, who recommended that the contractor, T. W. 
More, receive at present but $10,000; that $5,000 be 
placed in the County Treasury, subject to future 
order; also requiring him to give bonds for the com- 
pletion of the road, with Henry and Alexander More 
as sureties; also appointing N. A. Den and Thomas 
Davis as Commissioners respecting the change of the 
location at the Arroyo Hondo. 



December 4th. 

T. W. More asked for more time to complete the 
road, ax it was not possible to get suitable laborers 
for the work. The matter was referred to the Road 
Commissioner, who recommended an extension of 

February 12, 18(51. 

George Black, engineer of the road, presented a bill 
of S866.50 for services; $450 was allowed, and it was 
ordered that T. W. More, the contractor, pay the 
same. A resolution was spread on the records jtro- 
testing against the general management of the con- 
struction, and, upon learning that Mr. More had con- 
siderable money in his hands, still unexpended, 
resolved that he should not receive another cent until 
he gave bonds for the performance of his work. 

M..VRCH 5, 1861. 

T. W. More announced that he was unable to com- 
plete the road, whereupon the Supervisors ordered 
the Commissioners to take possession of the work, 
and complete the road at the expense of the con- 
tractor. T. W. More offered to deliver to the Com- 
missioners all the teams and tools and lumber, etc., 
connected with the work. 

Ji-NE 29th. 

Suit ordered to commence against More and his 
sureties for the performance of the road contract, 
Jose de Arnaz being appointed to conduct the same. 

It would seem at this point that James Thompson 
had been employed to build the road, as the Presi- 
dent of the Commissioners was directed not to pay 
any money to the contractor, James Thompson, 
without a full specification of the work done. 

August 8, 1861. 

Ordered that the Eoad Commissioners be relieved 
from further duties, with the thanks of the Board of 

AIay 5, 1862. 

Charles Fernald presented a proposition from C. 
Hubert, of San Francisco, to prosecute the suit 
against T. W. More to a successful termination, for 
$300 down, and §300 at the conclusion of the trial in 
the District Court, with a contingent of $200 more if 
it was appealed. 

conclusion of road business. 

September 8, 1862. 
" Ordered the claim in damages against T. W. 
More for not having completed the road from the 
county of Los Angeles to San Luis Obispo, as per 
contract with the Board of Supervisors of Santa 
Barbara County, June 21, 1860, having been settled 
between the parties by said More giving two notes 
payable to the county of Santa Barbara, or order, 
one for $300 payable on the 15th day, 1862, and the 
other for $650. payable on the first day of May. 
1863. It is hereby ordered that upon the payment 
of said notes, said More shall be relieved from all 
claims against him for damage, or otherwise, under said 

contract, and that all bonds and other securities 
whatsoever shall be held to be canceled, and consid- 
ered null and voiil, and shall bo returned to him. Set- 
tlement on the above basis is agreed upon by all 
parties, the Supervisors, District Attorney, and N. 
Hubert, special Attorney, signing the statement." 

Thus ended the road business which had such a 
brilliant beginning, promising to create an extensive 
trade and travel with the adjoining count ic-*. The 
disastrous result seemed to have been eau-ied first by 
a want of technical knowledge of the cost of con- 
struction, second by an almost, unpardonable laxity 
in the business transactions by which large sums of 
money were ]>,iiil <uit upon inadciiuale vouchers of 
proper expcndiluic 

election of 1861. 

No newspaper being published to lash the public 
into a fury on politics, the election piissed very quietly, 
the principal interest being personal favor towards 
the county candidates. The vote on State officers 
stood: — 

For Governor — John Conness (Douglas Demo- 
crat), 436; Leland Stanford (Republican), 131; John 
R. McConnell (Lecomptou Democrat), 24. 

Lieutenant-Governor — Richard Irvin (D. D.), 477; 
J. F. Chillis (R.), 118; G. 0. Farrel (L. D.), 18. 

Congressmen (D. D.)— J. C. McKibben. 477; Henry 
Edgerton, 462; J. R. Gitchel, 337. 

Congressmen (R.)— T. G. Phelps, 115; A. A. Sar- 
gant, 112; F. Y. Lane, 110. 

Congressmen (L. D.)— D. O. Shattuck, 17; H. P. 
Barber, 18; Frank Ganoht. 12. 

The following County officers were elected: — 

Senator, Romujldo Pacheco; Assemblyman, Charles 
Dana; County Judge, Jose Maria Covarriibias; 
County Clerk, F. Thompson; Treasurer, Guillermo 
Carrillo; Sheriff, Thomas Dennis; Assessoi', Augustin 
Janssens; Surve3-or, E. Nidever; Coroner, James L. 
Ord; District Attorney, C. E. Huse; Superintendent 
of Schools, Pablo de la Guerra. 

Frank Thompson, a son of Alpheus B. Thompson, 
who married a daughter of one of the Carrillos, 
appeared first in this election. His relation by blood 
to the Spanish families, and his knowledge of their 
language, enabled him to become a power in county 
politics that was nearly irresistible for the next suc- 
ceeding twenty j^ears. 

contested election. 

The righl of .F. .M ('<)v:irrubi;isto hold the jiosition 
of Couuly Judge w.u (•:>ntested by Cyrus Marshall, 
his competitor at the election, on the ground that 
Covarrubias was not a citizen. An extraordinary 
meeting of the Board of Sujjervisors was appointed 
for November 8th, and the contestant and defendant 
cited to appear. The Board was composed of Felipe 
Puig. Gaspar Orefia, and Juan Rodriguez. 

Charles Fernald appeared for the relator, Cyrus 
Marshall, and objected to Orefia sitting on the Board, 



as he was a relative of the respondent within the 
fourth degree of consanguinity. The Board over- 
ruling this objection, Fernald then asked for a decree 
annulling the election, on the ground that Covarru- 
bias did not appear within the ten days specified 
in the citation according to the law, which petition 
was also denied. 

« Albert Packard appeared for Covarrubias, and 
presented as witnesses Antonio Ma. de la Guerra and 
Pedro Carrillo, which testimony was objected to by 
Fernald on the ground that it was secondary and 
not admissible as long as Governor Alvarado was 
alive and his testimony attainable. Baeciagalupi 
and Santiago Fonseca were also oifered by the re- 
spondent's attorneys as witnesses. From the papers 
offered in evidence, and the specifications of the com- 
plaint, the objections to the eligibility of Covarrubias 
rested ujjon his w^nt of citi^^enship, the right to it 
depending upon his being a legal citizen of Mexico, 
and of being habilitated with American citizenship on 
the cession of California to the United States. Co- 
varrubias' attorney, Packard, presented a document 
written by Alvarado, proving the fact of citizenship 
by the recognition of Covarrubias as such by the 
act of the Mexican Government. Fernald, on the 
part of Cyrus Marshall, denied the competency of 
this testimony also, so long as the testimony of Gov- 
ernor Alvarado was attainable. The objections being 
overruled and the testimony decided to be admissi- 
ble, Fernald then asked that the Board should 
decide that if the respondent was proved to have 
been a naturalized citizen of Mexico at the time of 
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and a resident 
within the territory ceded by the treaty to the 
United States, that he was not a citizen thereof, 
unless made so by some court o^ authority, or by 
act of Congress. 

The matter was considered for several days, many 
witnesses being examined, among whom was Pablo 
de la Guerra, to prove de facto citizenship previous 
to the conquest of California by the United States. 
The identity of a certain paper presented by the 
defendant's attorney to prove citizenship, became a 
matter of discussion. Pablo de la Guerra was unwill- 
ing to assert positively that it was the same paper 
that had been received from the Commissariat, or 
officer under the Mexican Government, previous to 
1846, but recognized it by the water marks of a 
deer, and believed it to be the same. The paper was 
admitted as evidence, Fernald filing exceptions. 

It was then contended by the attorneys of Mar- 
shall that Alvarado was not the lawful Governor of 
California and that, consequently, his employment of 
Covarrubias in any capacity whatever could not 
imply citizenship. 

Our readers will recollect that Alvarado was made 
Governor by a revolution; that the Mexican Gov- 
ernment afterwards recognized him as the lawful 
Governor, and repudiated Carrillo, who held the 

commission of Governor by appointment. The Su 
pervisors decided that Alvarado was the lawful Gov- 
ernor at the time of issuing the document in ques- 

The attornejr for Marshall then made another 
point, i. e., that the Provincial Governors had no 
right to confer citizenship on foreigners; that it was 
only the function of the Government of Mexico. 

Our readers may wonder that a question involving 
such constitutional questions should have been tried 
before the Board of Sujjervisors instead of the Dis- 
trict Court, or some tribunal of competent authority, 
as the jurisdiction of the Board of Supervisors would 
end in declaring the lawful vote in the matter. The 
proceedings must be regarded as a harmless assump- 
tion of authority. The following is the decision 
spread upon the records in Spanish. It is an inter- 
esting document in many respects, showing not only 
the history of the matter, but the style of the lan- 
guage as written by the better classes of California: 

El Pueblo del Bstado de California ^ Ante el Cuerpo 
Por el Delator Cyrus Marshall [ de Supervisors 
vs. j del Condado de 

Jose Maria Covarrubias. J Santa Barbara. 

El delator en estos procedimiento disputa al dele- 
tado el derecho, depoderocupar el empleo de Juez de 
Condado del Condado de Santa Barbara fundandose 
en que el deletado no era en la fecha en que 
fue electo para tal empleo Ciudadano Americano. 
El deletado admite ser nacido en Francia y declara 
bajo juramento haber emigrado a Mexico en el aflo 
de 1817 siendo de edad de nueve anos, y haber Veci- 
dido en el Territoi-io Mexicana hosta ratificacion del 
Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo en cuyo tiempo, y 
por 13 anos antes, residio en California; que corri- 
endo el aiio de 1837 reeibio carta de naturaleza expe- 
dida por el Gobernador de la Alta California, y a la 
fecha que el Territorio que hoy constituye este 
estado fue ocupado por los Estados Unidos. El 
deletado era Secretario del Goberno Depar. mental. 
Cuyo nombraminento oparece agregado a su declar- 
acion jurada. Se disputa y se niega por el delator la 
validez de la carta de naturaleza por dos razones; 
1' por que el que la expidio 6 concedio no tenia para 
ello facultadad; 2' por que auu cuando dicha carta 
fuese valida por su origen, esta antefochada y no fue 
dada en la fecha que en ella se ve; ademas se arguye 
que aun suponiendo que el deletado fuese Ciudadano 
Mejicano, con todo por el Articulo IX del Tratado de 
Guadalupe Hidalgo se requiere una acta del Con- 
greso para admitirlo a la Ciudadania Americana. 

El Cuerpo de Supervisores halla 1' ser punto his- 
torieo que Juan B. Alvarado era en 1837 Gobernador 
de la Alta California y por tanto el expedir la carta 
citado de Naturaleza ejercio su legitima autoridal ; 2' 
que la tal carta es genuina y no encuentra razonos 
Buficientes para jusgarla antefechada, y 3' que en 
cuanto al ultimo punto o argumento, queda este 
amplisimamente contestado por el articulo 2' de la 



Coiistitueion do estado quo os ^^\\ si una aola solcm ;i) 
dal Congreso Goueral. 

El Cuerpo no puede menos quo ajfixgar quo la Uv 
Mejieaiui de 28 de Marzo de 1837 requiera <iuo. para 
Icsempenar el cargo de Secretario dol (iol)iorii() 
Departamoiital so necessita scr ciudadaiio Mojioano en 
ejeroicio de sus dereclios y el deletatlo piMU'iia liaber 
ocupado difho ompleo, cuyo heeho no nioga. y es do 
creer que el Gobernador al noniliralo y las donias 
Autoridudes departanientales al rooono oorlo oonio 
tal Seerotario ballarian en el deletado todos los roiiiii- 
Bitos exigidos por la ley. Poro aun suponieiulo quo 
lo dicho no tiiose bastanto para que el deletado eslab- 
leciese su Ciudadania Mejicana, mas alia de toda 
duda, viene ademas en su favor la Constitueion Meji- 
cana de 1836, la que en su ley 1' Articulo 1' dice 
Son Mejicanos; y en su parrafo 5' dice •■ Ijos no naci- 
dos en el ( Terriforio Repuhliea )" que oste'ban fijados 
en la Ropubliea cuando esta declaro su independeii- 
cia, juaron la acta de clla, y ban continuado rosidi- 
endo aqui." Y en la misma \&y constitucional, Arti- 
culo r dice Son Cuadadanos de la Republica Meji- 
cana parato 1' Todos los conipreudidos en los cinco 
primeros parrafos del articulo ]n-imero &c." 

Pcrtanto el Fallo del Cuerpo de Supervisoros os. 
Que Jose' Maria Covarrubias era elegible para Juezde 
Condado del Condado de Santa Barbara el dia de su 
eleccion, y que el delator Cj-rus Marshall pague las 
costas de esta causa. 

f Felipe Puig, 

[Signed] } Gaspar Orena, 


Supervisors County Santa Barbcmi. 

Fernald asked for time to obtain further proof of 
the ineligibility of Covarrubias; but all serious objec- 
tions ended here. 


Was a native of France, and emigrated ti> Mexico in 
the year 1817, where he resided for nine j'ears. In 
1826 he removed to Alta California, where he was 
employed as Secretary in the Department of the 
Government, having been made a citizen for this 
])urpose by letters of naturalization. Naturally fond 
of ])eace and the stability of the Government, he 
took little ])art in the short-lived revolutions which 
afforded so much amusement to tho native population 
of California. 

When the country came into tho possession of the 
Americans the people turned to him. who, from 
education, character, and habits, and knowledge of 
the wants and necessities of the natives, was so well 
fitted to help build up a permanent government and 
encourage the development of the resources of the 
country, and he was made a member of the Conven- 
tion which met to form a Constitution, also first Leg- 
islature, which assembled at San Jose to form a code 
of laws. He was re-elected in 1852. 1853, 1855, and 
1859, and in 1861 was elected County Judge, when 

•ont him from fill- 
tizenshii). lie dis- 

I the futile ott'ort was mad,' tt 
ing the posili.Mi by dmymg 
charged the duties in an able and impartial manner, 
and retained to the last the confidence and esteem of 
his follow-citizens. Ho loft a family of sons and 
dauj;htors, Nicolas Covarrubias, so often elected 
Sheriff, and so long a power in the ])()litios of Santa 
Harbara, being his son. He died April 1, 1870, aged 
sixty-ono years. 


State Tax, 62 cents; County, (ionoral Fund. Kl 
cents; Sch<n)l. 1(( cents; Hospital, 5 conts: l!,iad, .'> 
cents; Funded Debt, 50 cents; Sinking Fund, 5ii 
cents; making $2.22 on each SlOU of taxable i)rop- 
erty. Thus the extravagance and carelessness of 
ten years before, when monej^ was plenty, was loft 
to be paid when hard times began to be felt. 

About this time wei-e frequent orders to the Treas- 
urer to take sums of money, varying from 8300 to 
S500, from the various funds, especially the Sinking 
Fund, to replenish the Contingent Fund to enable the 
County (Jovornmont to move. The necessity was, 
porhajis, unavoidable, but it showed the former laxity 
of tho nianagomont of tinanoial matlors. 


The following statistics are mostly made up of (he 
census returns, and are interesting as showing the 
culminating poiht in the prosperity of the Shepherd 
Kings, for already tho prices of cattle were falling, 
probably the result of over-production and the fail- 
ure of the mines, which furnished the best market 
for beef. Soon after this came tho great drought, 
which completed the ruin of the rich proprietors and 
introduced a new order of business and business 
men into the affairs of Santa Barbara. The state- 
ments are, perhaps, as reliable as the estimates of 
the Assessor, but must be taken with much allow- 
ance. When the Assessor comes around a low esti- 
mate is put on property to have low taxes, a natural 
result of the love of mone3^; when the Census Mar- 
shal visits us we like to appear " well-to-do" in the 
world, hence liberal estimates. In comparing the 
sworn estimates of the owner to the Assessor with 
the same man's returns to the Census Marshal, there 
is often a wide difference, in some instances the latter 
being ten times that of the former. According to the 
Assessor's report the total of all property in 1860 
was $1,038,645. According to the host authorities 
the true value was $2,302,334. 


Name. Lund. \ uhie. Hiirscs. Cattle. Sheep. Tofl Val. 

E. Carrillo Robbins 10,1.50 §12,000 120 514 800 S <),.")o4 

A.B.Thompson... 60,000 .SCOOO ,SO,0:ki 

R. S. Den 45,000 22,000 220 1,350 .-fS.SOO 

S. B. Brinkerhoff, City prop'y 7,(i()5 

A.Packard " " 5,000 

Domingo Abadie . . 5,000 

L. T. Burton .34,000 17,000 200 286 2.%30u 




Value. H.iises. 


Sheep. Tofl Val. 

Domingo Abadie . . . 


Geo. Nidever 




Daniel Hill 


10,000 100 



James B. Shaw. . . . 


4,000 200 




Mariano Olivera... 


5,000 75 




Thomas Hope. . . . 


2,000 75 




De la Guerras 


36,950 800 




Joaquin Armat. . . . 


10,000 30 



T. Wallace More . . 


18,185 ... 


Nicolas Den 


18,800 200 



Francisco Vidal . . . 


5,000 60 



Luis Arrellanes. . . . 


20,000 300 




M. Elisalde 


5,000 100 



Thomas W. Moore. 


10,000 50 




John Kays 


5,000 21 



Octaviano Gutierrez 


12,000 25 







Ygnacio Ortega 


6,000 25 




Victor Cota 


1,000 20 





1,500 16 




Ulpiano Yndart. . . 


3,000 100 



Pacifico Ortega. . . . 



11,000 la Guerra 


27,000 25 




Jos6 Antn. Estrada 


3,000 30 




Juan Hartnell. ... 


12,000 25 




Antonio Arrellanes 


35,000 260 




Diego Olivera 


15,000 100 



Francisco Elisalde. 


6,000 200 



Jos(5 A. Camarillo. . 


12,000 30 

Estate Ramon Malo 


17,000 100 




1,000 50 




Rafael Leira 

2,500 200 



Miguel Valencia. . . 


5,000 100 



Benjamin Foxen . . 


10,000 100 



Rafael Gonzales . . . 


2,000 300 



Pedro CarriUo 


1,500 67 



Josefa Gonzales 


5,000 150 




John Nideaer 


3,000 40 



Jnan Sanchez 


20,000 70 




Pacifico Sanchez... 


2,500 40 




Juan Camarillo. . . . 


10,000 80 




Jos.5 Moraga 


3,000 20 






30,000 60 




Crisogouo Ayala... 


6,000 25 




Manuel Reyes. . . . 




Raymundo Olivas. . 


8,000 200 



Jos6 Sanchez 


2,000 40 




Alex. Cameron* . . . 


1,000 40 



s) 7,000 

Rafael Gonzales . . . 


2,000 300 



Isabel Yorba 


22,000 70 



Juan Rodriguez. . . 


4,000 100 




Anto.M.delaGuerra 70,000 

30.000 50 



MadalinaOrtega. .. 


24,000 50 



Gaspar Orena 


35,000 5 




Jos6 Manuel Ortega 


12,000 44 



N. C. Peters 


1,000 5 




John Miller 





THE SEASON OF 1861-62. 

Like the rest of the State, vSanta Barbara had an 
excess of rain. The rivers of Santa Barbara Countj^ 
are comparatively short, and cannot collect such vast 
amounts of water as the Sacramento and San Joa- 
quin, with their tributaries, that overflow farms and 
cities, and bring destruction to so much of the pro- 
ducts of industry; but the results, though different, 
are quite as striking. The soft rock of the mount- 

1860, 1,000 bushels of wheat and 

ains, so easily disintegi-ated and converted into soil, 
furnish material for changing the beds of rivers, fill- 
ing up estuaries and otherwise changing the face of 
the country. Until 1862 the estuary of the Groleta 
(so called because a schooner was constructed there 
in the early fifties by L. T. Burton and others) was 
a kind of harbor, accessible to light craft, and, pos- 
sibly, if attended to in season, might have been 
made into a safe harbor in any kind of storm at a 
reasonable expense. The freshets of 1861 and 1862, 
however, put a negative on any such project by fill- 
ing it with gravel and sand from the mountains 
beyond redemption. Formerly the streams termi- 
nated in miry places, or balsas, as they were some- 
times called, with no regular channel to the ocean. 
This season the streams swept out a channel with 
the result stated. Immense slides of earth and rocks 
took place in the mountains, resulting in considerable 
change in the appearance of the country. At San 
Buenaventura the face of the hill, along which the 
aqueduct was carried, nearly all slid more or less, 
nearly destroying the canal, which had to be recon- 
structed-. Many cattle were caught in the rapid 
streams and drowned, and the losses in some in- 
stances were considei'able; but cattle were plenty 
and land was abundant; there was little farming to 
be affected, no fences to be swept away, and the 
trifling disasters were forgotten in a year. 


The extraordinary price of beef, ten to fifteen 
cents a pound on foot, had stimulated the growth of 
cattle in every part of the State. In 1850 the San 
Joaquin and Sacramento plains were entirely desti- 
tute of cattle, except where an immigrant had com- 
menced a home with the few cattle that survived the 
trip across the plains. From 1852 to 1854 large herds 
were driven over the plains, and the business of stock 
raising was entered into by thousands besides the 
native Californians. A cow could be bought in Mis- 
souri for $10.00, which was worth $100 in Califoi'nia, 
and a single herd of cattle driven over the plains 
would make quite a fortune for its owner. In 1860 
not only the great plains of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin were covered with cattle, but even the 
mountain valleys were hunted out, and it was said 
that every acre of grass from the ocean to the Sierra 
Nevada was grazed during some portion of the 
year. The counties of Sonoma, Mendocino, Napa, 
Klamath, and Trinity were swarming with cattle. 
The assessment roll of 1858 showed nearly a million 
head of cattle in the State. Many perished in the 
hard winter of 1861-62, but the abundance of grass 
the following year re-established the prosperity of 
the business and the increase of the herds was but 
little retarded. 

For many years only the male portion of the 
increase was slaughtered, and thus the abundance 
of cattle was not manifest until the herds had 
acquired a size that necessitated a reduction. From 



SlOO per head broediiii;; cows foil, in tlu' courso ol' 
ten j'ears, to S25, or oven less, for in ISli:.' Iieef was 
sold in the mines, in quantity, at two cents per pound 
on foot. There was little sale for Sjianish eattle at 
any price. The distance from the market of the 
southern counties, the lonir ilrives over a country 

and the unavoidahle shrinka','e incideul \i< a lun-- 
journey, tiie inferiority of the beef after a market 
was reached, tojiether with the extra trouble of 
handling the wild steers, all served to depress the 
value of the herds in Santa Barbara and the other 
southern counties. A reduction of the herds in some 
way became absolutely necessary, and the matanza 
was the result. The word signifies more than a ])lace 
for killing cattle for beef, it means a wholesale mas- 
sacre; and in this instance it was wholesale, for the 
slaughter was well into, according to some authorities, 
a hundred thousand. $5.00 per head was the usual 
price. The hides were salted and dried, and the car-, 
cass was put into a steam bath, where it was subjected 
to such a heat that the flesh fell from the bones and 
became a mass of jelly and fat, which was put in a 
powerful press and every particle of tallow extracted 
the jelly going to the manufacture of glue, the horns 
being sent East to be manufactured into combs and 
other useful articles. The cake or pressed meat was 
fed to hogs, so that everj" particle of the beef was 
utilized. The works were situated between Santa 
Barbara and Carpenteria on the seashore, where the 
refuse might be swept away at high tide. It is said 
that notwithstanding the low price paid for cattle, 
the enterprise was unprofitable to the projectors. 
The result might have been diffei-ent but for the 
unparalleled destruction of cattle in the winter of 
1863-4, hereafter to be described, which rendered a 
matanza entirely unnecessary; but as it was. a great 
loss was suiTered by the projectors. 

Statistics for 1862, 1863, and 1864— \Iisfortuiie.s Beginning— 
The Oreat Dronght— Native Cavalry— Hon. Russel Heath 
—Oil Springs and Mining — Thomas R. Bard — Purchase of 
a County .Safe— Statistics of 1865— More Dignified Conduct 
of the Supervisors — .Vew Election Law — Precincts Kstab- 
lished— Troulile with the District Attorney— Statistics for 
1857— Fruit Farming Tried. 

1862 — Assessments raised by a Board ol' Super- 
visors acting as a Board of Equalization: — 

Luis Arrellanes, $4,000; A. Salony & Co., $2,000; 
S. B. Brinkerhoff, !!!2,000; E. Straelswiteh, $2,700; 
Francisco Cota, $2,500; Weil Bros., .$3,500; Cook 
Bros., $4,600; A. Arrellanes, $18,000; Juan Camarillo, 
$2,400; T. W. More, $12,000; Gaspar Oreiia, .-^SS.STS; 

Joaquin Ormark, $ ; Andres Pico, $4,040; Kamon 

Herederas Malo, $2,000; Waterman, Vassault & 

Gould, 813,200; besides some thirty othei-s, whose 
assessments were raised in sums from 61,000 up. 


For State Superintendent of i'uMic Inst rurlioii, 
John Swett, 235; .1. 1). Stevenson, i:!.".. 

I'roposid amendments to the Constitution ; .\riirlis 
1. .">. II. and !) received 353 votes, with no o|,ii(,>iiion. 

County officers elected: Member of the As>cnilily, 
Elamon Hill; County Treasurer, Alfred Robinson; Sur- 
veyor. Thomas Sprague; Superinteinlent of Schools, 
Pablo de la Guerra; Supervisors — First District. .luan 
Camarillo, Second District, Caspar Tliirtl Dis- 
ipe Puig. 

riot. F 

il (|U: 

,te(l I. 
ips,,n V 


.1 F. Ma- 
August 7, 
a vacancy 

ISi;:!. .V. H. Tl.omps,.n was a|>pointr(l 
of the same uffivv. 

T.\X U.\TES FOR ISO.'!. 

Stale Tax. SO cents on each one- liuridivd dollars: 
Insane Asylum. 5 cents; State Cajiilol. 5 cents; 
County (General Fund), 40 cents; School, 10 cents; 
Hospital, 5 cents; Road, 5 cents; Funded Debt, 
50 cents; Siidving 50 cents; Volunteer, 2 cents. 
Total, $2.52. 


For Governor — F. F. Low (Republican). 4S1 ; J, G. 
Downey (Democrat), 143. 

Lieutenant-Governor — F. A. Machin (R.), 5(15; K. 
W. McKinstry (D.), 113. 

Members of Congress — T. B. Shannon ( ]{.). 522; 
Wm. Higby (R.), 521; C, C. Cole (R.). 521: .lolui B. 
Weller (D.), 102; John Bigler (D.). 1(11 : X. F. White- 
sides (D.), 101. 

Officers elected — State Senator. .luan Y. Cota, 
Member of Assembly, Ramon .1. Kill; Sh.ritf. Jose 
R. de la Guerra; County Clerk, F. A. Thompson; 
• "ounty Treasurer, J. M. Yndart; District Attorney; 
S. R. I. Sturgeon; Surveyor, Thomas Sprague; 
Asses.sor, Augustin Janssens; Superintendent of 
Schools. A. B. Thompson; Coroner. W. B. Streeter, 

A marked dirt'erenco is seen in the number ot 
voters, showing a steady increase of iln' population. 


Sujiorintendent of Public Instruction — John Swett, 
524; A. J. Moulder, 70: Wozencraft. 5. 

Justices Supreme Court — O. L. Shatter, 581; S. 
Sawyer, 581; John Curry, 4; A. L. K'hodes. 74; S. 
W, Samierson, 86: R. Spiai;ue. 55; W. T. Wallace. 
55; T. R. Hall, 55. 

District Judge— Pablo de la (iuerra. 431 ; Benjamin 
Hayes, 161; Joaquin Carrillo, 45. 

J. F. Maguire was elected County Judge. 

The Records of the Supervisors show fre(|uent 
orders to pass monej- from the Sinking into the Con- 
tingent Fund. 


Almost every meeting of the Board witnessed the 



appointment of commissioners for some pur]30se or 
otlier; sometimes to examine tlie county records; to 
examine the bonds of officials; to ascertain whether 
a certain stocli of goods had been given in at a 
correct or an approximate value. J. F. Maguire, 
Alfred Robinson, and Charles Fernald were appointed 
a commission to examine the store of vSchiappapietra, 
of San Buenaventura, and report u])on its probable 

Charles Fernald, Alfred Robinson. Miguel Smith, 
Russel Heath, and J. B. Shaw were appointed a 
commission to consult with the Supervisors in regard 
to the condition of the county for the payment of 

A. Robinson, E. J. Goux, and Charles Fernald were 
appointed a commission to examine the store of A. 
Cohn and report on its value. 

These commissioners were appointed in the course 
of one week, and were expected to serve without 
pay. In accordance Avith the report of one of these 
commissions. Burton's assessment was raised $10,300; 
Gaspar Orena's, $17,800; Schiappapietra's, $2,000. 
James B. Shaw's assessment was raised $6,000. 

February 6, 1864, the salary of the County Judges 
was fixed at $1,000 per annum; County Clerk, $500, 
and Sheriff, $1,000. The County Clerk also received 
a salary for acting as clerk to the various boards. 


State, $1.25; County (General Fund), $1.25; School, 
10 cents; Hospital, 5 cents; Road, 5 cents; Funded 
Debt; 50 cents; Sinking Fund, 50 cents. Total, $3.08. 


The fact of an excess of cattle and low ]nnces of 
beef has been referred to as occurring even before 
the dry season. Titles to land had begun to change; 
numbers of mortgages were on record in different 
parts of both counties. In some instances merchants 
had furnished goods at enormous prices, to be jiaid 
with interest at a future date. These goods in many 
instances were luxuries -which might have been dis- 
pensed with without interfering with the comforts of 
the family. When the sum of indebtedness had 
accumulated to a figure that would justify it, a mort- 
gage of a rancho was usually asked and obtained as 
security. In most instances these were never 
redeemed. As land was held at about twenty-five 
cents an acre, a few thousand dollars indebtedness 
was a sufficient reason for a jjaortgage on a full 
ranch, eleven leagues or 44,000 acres. In this way 
the Santa Clara del Norte, the Las Posas, Simi, and 
other ranches were alienated from the original own- 
ers. Taking one instance of mortgages as an illus- 
tration: Gaspar Orena had in 1862 the following on 
the assessment roll: — 

Rancho Simi, 92,341 acres _ _ $11,542 

House and orchard on same . _ . 3,000 

Rancho Las Posas, 26,600 acres _ . 3,325 

Improvements _ 400 

Rancho Conejo, 24,400 acres 4,880 

Rancho San Julian, 48,210 acres 9,644 

Improvements 800 

Rancho La Bspada, 8,800 acres .' 1,760 

Improvements 240 

Rancho Pedernales, 8.800 acres 2,200 

Rancho Cuyamas, 13,200 acres _ 1,320 

Town property 6,520 

5,000 beef cattle _ 10,000 

5,000 sheep 2,500 

250 mares 1,250 

50 horses 600 

Other property 500 

Total valuation of all kinds . _ $60,435 

Several of the ranches were assessed to him as 
being under foreclosure of mortgage. The original 
indebtedness was incurred by purchase from him of 
the Espada for $50,000 on time, a mortgage on sev- 
eral other ranches being taken for security of pay- 

In 1864, after the foreclosure of the mortgage, but 
while it was subject to redemption, the matter of the 
taxation of the mortgage came up before the Board 
of Supervisors, of which Orena was a member. He 
declined acting in the case, being interested. By a 
vote of the Board, it was referred to District Attor- 
ney Sturgeon, who reported as follows: — 

" The mortgage referred to is personal property, 
properly assessed to the mortgagee, under the ruling 
of the Superior Coui't in the case of the People vs. 
Parks. The mortgage under consideration has been 
merged in a decree of foreclosure, and a sale for the 
same in the sum of .1p50,000, and a Sheriff's certifi- 
cate given in pursuance of such sale. This certificate 
can be redeemed at any time during six months, by 
the payment of the aforesaid sum of $50,000 in legal 
tender notes, which would be the sum at which it 
ought to be assessed if our taxes were payable in 
currenc3^ As they are, however, payable in gold or 
silver, which at forty cents on the dollar witl leave 
the sum of $20,000 subject to taxation, at which it 
should be put by the Board of Equalization. 

" S. R. I. Sturgeon, 
" District Attorney." 

The total assessment was reduced $41,100, and 
subsequently $12,000 more. 

It will be seen that the sum of $20,000 or loss 
would have saved from loss to the mortgagor the 
ranches Simi, Las Posas, Conejo, San Julian, and 
Bspada, numbering in the aggregate 200,000 acres or 


Nearly all the rancheros of note asked and ob- 
tained reductions on assessments. Among others 

were Estudillo _ $ 1,900 

De la Guerra, Antonio Jose 8,750 

Noriega, estate o± 6,800 

De la Guerra Pablo, Francisco, Miguel and 

Antonio 1,200 


John S. Bell. 

Not fill- from the town of Los Alamos, on a site 
overlookintf the valley, amid a cluster of gigantic 
oaks, is the elegant residence of John S. Bell, the 
patron and founder of the town. Mr. Bell was born 
on the island of Tahiti. June 27, 1842, of Scottish 
parents. His father was a merchrtut and sugar 
planter, owning the island of Moria, called by the 
natives " Obenhoo." When he was six years old he 
left the island of Tahiti for the Sandwich Islands in 
charge of a preceptor, from which place they drifted 
to San Francisco with the crowd that came on the 
discovery of gold, arriving in San Francisco on 
Christmas daj^, 1849. His mother, who was an 
invalid, went to the Navigator Islands for her 
health, where she soon after died. His father, in a 
few years, followed the mother to the grave, leaving 
John an orphan. From this time until his majority 
he was under the guardianship of Uis uncle, Thomas 
Bell, a banker of San Francisco. He remained in 
San Francisco until 1862, when he went to Europe 
to finish his education. While there his health failed, 
and at the solicitation of his uncle he retui-ned to 
California. The question of restoring his health 
being the first consideration, all plans available were 
canvassed. An active, out-door life in one of the 
salubrious valleys of California was determined on, 
and the Los Alamos Valley selected as the best point 
for operations. A tract of four leagues, containing 
17,760 acres, was purchased for $12,000 of the orig- 
inal proprietor, one of the de la Guerras. At that 
time the country was as wild as the imagination 
could conceive. The freebooters, Solomon Pico and 
Jack Power, had hardly left the place. There was 
not a house, save the old Los Alamos homestead, 
within miles, excepting the adobe of Dr. Shaw's on 
the Laguna. But Bell, now in his majority, went in 
the stock business with a will and soon achieved a 
marked success, carrying as high as 12,000 sheep 
on the ranch, which he gradually stocked with cattle. 
Grain-raising was cautiously tried and found to be 
successful, and in 1878 he resolved to change the 
system to that of raising grain. This was the begin- 
ning of the town, as it involved the employment of 
large numbers of men. The rancho was subdivided 
into convenient tracts and rented on terms that 
induced many people to come to the valley. A flour- 
mill was erected, which enabled the fiirmers to utilize 
their grain and realize a price beyond what it would 
bear for shipment. The crops proved enormous, 
wheat reaching as high as seventy-eight bushels to 

* It is currently reported that wheat has reached one hundred bushels to 

the aero.* The tlour made at this mill has taken 
several premiums at county tiiirs. owing in a great 
measure, it is believed, to the extraordinary good 
qualities of the wheat, which ranks in quality with 
that of the valleys of tiir .lonala. College Ranch, 
Ojai, and others (if that cliaractrr. 

It is hardly possible to conceive the existence of 
a pleasantor location than the Los Akmos, or one 
combining more valuable resources with natural 
beauty. The valley is rather tortuous in its course, 
so that the sea breeze, which usually sweeps too 
strongly for comfort through the coast valleys gen- 
erally, here gets batlied and confused, bringing only 
a gentle reminder of its origin, although there is 
health and vigor in its freshness and parity. The 
thermometer rises high enough in the summer to 
mature the grape and fig, and in sheltered places 
the orange and lemon. The long, gentle slopes of 
sandy loam bordering the valley that now produce 
such crops of corn and wheat are finely adapted to 
the raisin grape, and undoubtedly in the years to 
come will be famous for the immense well-matured 
clusters. The higher portions of the surrounding 
hills will also produce the olive in perfection. If one 
can but consider the farms reduced to forty acres and 
divided into patches of grapes and orchard, the hill- 
tops crowned with the dark green of the olive, and 
cottages here and there peeping out of the foliage, 
and the voices of children making everything glad, 
he will only have anticipated the sure march of events 
for a few years. The main part of the valley is 
moist enough to produce any kind of vegetables 
through the summer without irrigation, the natural 
grasses remaining green all the year. The natural 
formation of the country makes it quite certain that 
artesian water in flowing wells may be obtained with- 
out cost; but, as Mr. Bell says, they would not know 
what to do with the water if it was brought to the 
suri'ace; have no use for it. If there is a pleasanter 
and better spot in the world than where Mr. Bell is 
located, the writer has never seen it. 

He married Catherine, the accomplished daughter 
of Dr. Den, mentioned more fully on J)age 47 of this 
volume. She is not only well versed in general 
topics, but is a writer of considerable merit, having 
had. the advantages of thorough training in belles- 
lettres at one of our best institutions. 

As a business man Mr. Bell is considered above 
reproach, justice and liberality marking all his trans- 
actions. His portrait and a view of the house accom- 
pany this article. 



anssens, Augustin 1 ,000 

■. rmat, Joaquin . . .- 1,900 

■ alo, estate of 2,000 

parks, Isaac J - 1 2,000 

The reduftion amouiitotl to fully ten per cent, of 
^e total assessment, and even with all tlio roductions, 

venty names were struck fnun tlio (Iclinquout tax 
st as unable t > pay. 


Whole number of votes cast, 429; for Republican 
electors, 342, for Democratic electors, 81. 

Congressman— D. C. McRuer, (R.), 303; J. I). 
Trockett, (D.), 83. 


The average rain-fall of Santa Barbara is about 
twelve inches, some seasons being as low as four 
inches, in others rising to twenty. When the latter 
condition occurs, as it did in 1861-62, grass is pro- 
duced in great abundance; when but four inches fall, 
the grass is scant, and many cattle perish. The 
winter of 1861-62 was a season of excessive rains all 
over the State. The destruction of property was 
enormous. Many towns were overflowed, the State 
capital among the rest, and in the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin Valleys, steamboats left the channels of 
the rivers, and traversed the farming lands with a 
depth of fifteen feet of water. A steamboat was 
swept through the city of Sacramento, lodging near 
where the Crocker residence was afterwards erected. 
The face of the country in many places was consider- 
ably' changed. The rivers sought new channels, 
destroying entirely some valuable farms, and injur- 
ing all more or less. In the mining portions of the 
State the vast masses of dirt and gravel that had 
been moved by hydraulic mining and lodged in the 
upper branches of the rivers, was again turned loose, 
and sent down by the floods by the million cubic 
yards, burying beyond recovery some of the most 
productive land in the State. So serious was the 
danger considered that engineers were called upon to 
propose plans for future security. Various plans 
were proposed, such as impounding the waters by 
means of dams in the upper Sierras, and one man 
proposed to widen the Straits of Carquinez so as to 
afford better egress for the floods. Sacramento, 
ambitious and energetic, went to work and filled the 
business portion of the city above high- water mark. 
The fear of floods was entertained by all through- 
out the State. A year or two served to rejjair 
the damages, which, however, were trifling com- 
pared to those of the great drought, which came two 
yeai's after, and was general through the State, 
though much severer in the southern counties than 

A little rain fell early in December, and the usual 
fears of a hard winter were aroused, but there was 
not enough rain to more than lay the dust in 
S mta Barbara. As has been mentioned before, the 


county was overstocked with cattle, and the dried 
grass was eaten to the ground l>efi)re the usual time 
tor niiiis. December and January |Assed without 
rlciuils The hills, brown and bare, had not a 
in..inliful of feed to the acre. The cattle and horses 
wandered listlessly around with dazed eyes and 
gaunt forms, with a presentiment of impending mis- 
fortunes. The weaker portion were daily falling to 
rise no more. Slill (Iutc was hope of spring rains. 
There uas no tradition ol an entire winter without 
rain. If the usual spring rains came, grass would 
grow, and some portions of the herds could be saved; 
but the rains came not. Day after day the sun rose 
in a brassy sky. that seenied of molten heat, ready 
to settle down and e.xtinguish all animal and vege- 


100 nil 


There was no available^ grass 
the op|>osite side of the Sierra Nevaila were some 
valleys watered bj- the melting snows centuries old, 
that had not felt the drought, where grass was grow- 
ing fresh and green. But a rainless desert lay be- 
tween, and the staggering cattle were not equal to a 
day's march without food, and there was no relief 
from that quarter. Even the lowlands around the 
Tulare Lake were destitute of feed, though when 
summer came without rain, the cattle in that vicinity 
were capable of moving by easy stages to N evada 
where there was feed enough to sustain life, and thus 
many herds were saved. The cattle along the coast 
were utterly incapable of a long march. Some were 
saved by feeding upon the foliage of oaks that were 
cut down for this purpose. Even now, near twenty 
yeai-s later, one may see. from the trunks of the 
fallen ti-ees and the bleaching bones around, where 
the last stand was made to save the cattle, the only 
source of wealth to the Shepherd Kings. As the 
summer progressed thi.s poor resource was exhausted, 
for the trees were suffering for moisture, and the 
leaves fell prematurely, leaving the naked skeleton 
limbs reaching upwards as if begging for life at any The carcasses, or rather the dry shells of the 
animals, for the dry dessicating atmosphere hardly 
permitted decay, strewed the plains and valleys in 
every direction. There was little fretting or lament- 
ing by the owners who seemed to look on it as 
an unavoidable, Providential dispensation. The same 
stoicism that characterized the Castilian in other 
adversities, marked his demeanor now. Trust in 
Providence and hope for the future were taught in a 
hundred households, when disaster was sweeping 
away their means of comfort, respectability, and 

The assessment roll of 1863 showed over 200,000 
cattle in Santa Barbara. It is likely that this did 
not include more than two-thirds of the real number. 
When the grass started in the winter of 1864-65, 
less than 5,000 head were alive to be benefited by it! 
The great herds were gone, and the Shepherd Kings 
were kings no more, for their places were mortgaged 
beyond redemption, and within the next five years, 



entirely out of their hands, scarcely one 
retaining his patrimonial estate. It is not pleasant 
•to dwell upon the subject. The Castilian politeness 
and dignity remain, but the means to play the hos- 
pitable host are gone, for hospitality without the 
means to practice it, is as a soldier without weapons, 
or a knight without a horse. 


Some writer, wishing to make a sensation, sent to 
the San Francisco papers a lively and exaggerated 
account of the matter, and asserted that many of the 
people were reduced to the necessity of living on the 
flesh of cattle that had died from starvation, and that a 
famine was imminent. The people of San Francisco, 
ever alive to such calls, raised $3,000 immediately for 
the relief of the needy, and a first installment of 
delicacies for the feeble and debilitated was for- 
warded by steamer. The fact was, that there was 
plenty of food. A hundred tons of beans were 
stored awaiting a market. As soon as possible the 
stream of charity was turned back aa unnecessary, 
though of course, the kindness of the people of San 
Francisco was duly appreciated. There was some 
destitution among both American and Spanish, but 
not more than the people were able to relieve. 


Notwithstanding the Democratic character of Santa 
Barbara as far as county politics were concerned, the 
county was almost unanimous in favor of the Union. 
The whole number of votes cast was 429. Of this 
number 343 were cast for the Republican electors and 
eighty-one for the Democratic. This overwhelming 
vote in favor of the Union was owing to the influ- 
ence of a few leading families, like the de la Guerras 
and Carrillos. 


One of the former families, Antonio Maria de la 
Guerra, raised a company of native cavalry, of about 
100 troops, for service on the frontier, where they did 
excellent service as scouts and escorts, though they 
did not reach the line of the most serious fighting. 
Being expert horsemen, they were eminently adapted 
to this kind of work in such a rough country as New 
Mexico and Arizona, where they were stationed 
Their friends were anxious that they should have the 
privilege of going to the front as they desired when 
they enlisted, believing that they would prove them- 
selves superior to any cavalry in the army. Captain 
de la Guerra returned with broken health incident to 
the exposure in the service. 


The flowing springs of petroleum early attracted 
the attention of the settlers. The oil was flowing 
from the earth in hundreds of places, sometimes 
forming large pools into which cattle, sheep, and 

publish a full account of the services of 
ents with the Orderl.v Sergeant for the 
-heir history, but the material arrived 

*The editor of this work intended t 
the company, having made arranijer 
roster and other facts connected with 
too late to be of use. 

horses, as well as wild animals, would venture and 
get caught, leaving their bones as a warning of dan- 
ger for future visitors. Sometimes it flowed into the 
streams and would float away for miles before it 
evaporated. There were hundreds of acres, perhaps 
thousands, covered with the residuum left after the 
evaporation of the lighter parts. Springs of it also 
occur in the Santa Barbara Channel, and the first 
navigators had fears of the near vicinity of a hot 
place, from the villainous smell that pervaded the 
atmosphere where the oil was floating on the ocean. 
Williamson's report. 
Col. James Williamson, who was engaged in 1852 
in the preliminary survey for a transcontinental 
railway, noticed these oil springs on the Ojai Haci- 
enda as follows: — 

'■ No. 1 is a well thirty feet in diameter, full of 
tarry oil boiling with the escape of marsh gas. It is 
situated in the midst of a gentle slope, forming a 
part of a terrace or plain, elevated at least 1,000 feet 
above the sea. This plain, which is about one and 
a quarter miles long by three-quarters of a mile 
wide, appears to have been formed by the long accu- 
mulation of asphaltum, from the evaporation of the 
overflow of this great oil spring. The depth of thi-s 
great mass of asphaltum is, of course, a matter of 
conjecture, as no explorations have been made upon 
it; but it is safe to estimate its contents on a mile 
square at one yard in depth, which would give over 
3,000,000 cubic yards of fuel, from which a good coke 
is readily prepared, or which is capable, by distillation, 
of yielding a large return of oil. There are several 
minor points of flow over the area, but we consider the 
whole as one great oil spring. The present contents of 
the spring are foul with the decomposition of numerous 
cattle mired and drowned in the petroleum — an acci- 
dent of frequent occurence in the dry season, when 
the half-famished and thirsty animals wander to 
browse, or drink the sulphurous water along the 
margins of these dangerous places. When once in- 
volved they never escape." 

He also noticed large quantities of iron, copper, 
cinnabar, lead, sulphur, salt, and coal, in the vicinity, 
which he thought would be future sources of wealth. 
The coal is probably a myth, as others of considera- 
ble standing as miners, have been misled into believ- 
ing the asphaltum to be genuine coal. A few more 
notes will be appended, because the descriptions are 
brief and comprehensive, and the subsequent excite- 
ment about the oil wells will be partly explained by 
reading his testimony regarding them. 

At "Station 286" he makes this note: — 

"A rich vein of mineral bitumen, resembling the 
famous coal of Nova Scotia (called Albert) burning 
as well, and of a superior quality. We used it as 

"Station 516. On a dry stream a semi-bituminous 
coal, something like the Cannel, cropping out on the 
edge of the run." 

"Station 576. At the bottom of a range of hills or 
lomas a large number of pits, dug by the Indians for 
the oily substance which runs from the crevices 
of the rocks and hills, are still visible, and contain a 




large quantity of the fatty substance in the bottom 
of the hollows, which the natives used for fuel." 

"Station 1,200. There is a constant escapement of 
gas, which, on the application of a light, instantly 
ignited, and continued to burn until blown out by a 
gust of wind." 

"Station 476. On this mud flat, near a creek, bub- 
bles up in various places an oily, fluid substance, 
which runs down the stream and suddenly spreads 
out on the surface of the water into a thin film of 
beautiful colors, and floats down in this form with 
the current. About 500 feet farther it bubbles up 
and forms small hills or cones. At these places, I 
think, will be found a large bed of oil." 

"Station 973. Is a beautiful hill. Half way up a 
fine vein of copper ore is seen; it is well charged 
with copper. A piece dug out with a hatchet, 
weighing two pounds, yielded seventy-nine per cent. 
of pure copper." 

Numbers of other places, rich in indications, were 
mentioned. He also speaks of an amber or wax- 
colored substance (parafine), seen in several places. 
All these stations are on the Ojai Rancho. The 
indications are as good, and in some instances better, 
for a hundred miles in either direction, being seen as 
far north as Santa Cruz, and south towards the Mex- 
ican line. 

As California was the land of wonders at the time 
the survey was made, no account was made of these 
petroleum indications at the time. As the Pennsyl- 
vania regions were worked, making numerous mil- 
lionaires in a short time, attention was turned to 
these springs. 


George S. Gilbert was the first to attempt the 
utilization of the oil. He put up a refinery on a 
small scale on the Ojai Ranch, at a place since known as 
Well No. 1, and he also had a similar establishment 
at the Mupu Canon, or, as it is better known at pres- 
ent, the Santa Paula Canon, a few miles from the 
town of that name. He commenced operations in 
1861, and though he succeeded in making a good 
quality of illuminating and lubricating oil, owing to 
the high price of labor and projjer machinery, difli- 
culties of transportation, and other causes, it was 
not a financial success, and he abandoned the eflFort 
in 1862. after having manufactured about 400 bar- 
rels of oil. 

While Gilbert was operating, other parties — W. 
D. Hobson, Brown, Chattee, Gilbert, Burbanks, 
Crane, Hankerson — formed a mining district, with 
Hobson for Recorder, after the manner prevailing in 
mining regions. It does not appear that they made 
any money except by selling claims or prospects. 
A site in the Wheeler Canon was sold to Hayward 
& Co. for $4,000. 


Professor Silliman had examined the oil indica- 
cations on Oil Creek, in Pennsylvania, and, acting 

under his advice, the capitalists had explored the 
ground and found immense quantities of oil, and 
acquired largo fortunes. He was on this coast in 
1864, and hearing of the existence of oil in quantity 
in Santa Barbara, he made the place a visit, and was 
directed to Mr. Gilbert for information as to its local- 
it^-, quality, etc. The natural outflow, as compared 
with the area being astonishing, he immediately 
wrote to some of the capitalists of New York and Phil- 
adelphia, advising the purchase of the Ojai property. 

"The property covers an area of 18,000 acres in 
one body, on which are at present at least twenty 
natural oil wells, some of them of the largest size. 
The oil is struggling to the surface at every available 
point, and is running away down the rivers for miles 
and miles. Artesian wells will be fruitful along a 
double line of thirteen miles, say for at least twenty- 
five miles in linear extent. The ranch is an old 
Spanish grant of four leagues of land lately confirmed 
and of perfect title. It has, as I have said, about 
18,000 acres in it of the finest land, watered by four 
rivers, and measuring in a right line in all near 
thirteen miles. As a ranch it is a splendid estate, 
but its value is its almost fabulous wealth in the 
best of oil." 


The result was the formation of the " California 
Petroleum Co.," with a capital .stock of $10,000,000, 
Thomas A. Scott, who afterwards was such an active 
manipulator of Pacific Coast afi'airs, being one of the 
company. They purchased not only the Ojai Rancho, 
but the Canada Larga, Collonia, Caleguas, Simi, and 
Las Posas. The two latter were purchased under 
foreclosure of mortgage for $30,000.* 

Soon after this nearly the same parties organized 
another company called the Penn. and C. Petroleum 
Co., so as to operate in two diff'erent places, making 
the additional purchase of the San Francisco Rancho, 
and also some others, the latter company being 
under the management of Dr. J. L. Letterman, for- 
merly of the Army of the Potomac, assisted by J. 
De Barth Shorb, of Los Angeles. The Ojai property 
was under the management of W. H. Stone, of New 
York, assisted by Thomas K. Bard, who soon after 
was made sole manager of the Ojai and all the 
ranches purchased. 

The companies immediately sent out from New 
Yoi-k a large equipment of tools, comprising three 
engines, a refinery, furnace and retort, drills, pumps, 
piping materials, tanks, and everthing that was nec- 
essary to operate a mine in first-class style; even 
boarding-houses and machines came ready to put 
together. Some of the heavy machinery was lost in 
the heavy surf in landing it from the vessels, there 
being no wharf, and the onl}' means of landing being 
by lighters. 


Well No. 1 was started in what is called the 
Ventura Canon, seven miles from the town of San 


Buenaventura, near a large bed of tar. It was sunk 
500 feet without getting any furtlier indications of 
oil. It was then concluded that the shaft was im- 
properly located, and another was tried with about 
the same success. Several wells having been sunk 
without obtaining a desirable supply of oil, the Pres- 
ident of the company, with some experts in oil min- 
ing came out from the Bast, and some more experi- 
ments resulted in a like result, although a " spouter'* 
was struck, which sent off a quantity of gas and oil 
for a few minutes, with a noise that could be heard 
for miles, but in a short time the spouter gave no 
signs of life. Several tannels were run, but, though 
the flow was somewhat larger than from the natural 
springs, it did not equal the expectations of the com- 
pany, and four years later the works were abandoned 
at a loss, as far as mining was concerned, of about 
$200,000. A tunnel, which the company run about 
300 feet, discharged ten barrels of oil a day for sev- 
eral years, without decrease of supply, being allowed 
to run to waste until it was estimated that 25,000 
barrels had been lost. 


About the same time the Pennsylvania and New 
York comjjanies commenced operations, Leland 
Stanford, A. P. Stanford, William T. Coleman, Levi 
Parsons, and others commenced operations on the 
south side of the Sulphur Mountain, in Wheeler 
Canon, Coehe Canon, and at other points. In the 
Wheeler Canon a tunnel yielded fifteen barrels of 
light oil daily. The results were not satisfactory, 
and work stopped about the same time as with the 


When such men as Thomas Scott, Leland Stan- 
ford, Alvinza Haywai-d, William T. Coleman, and 
dozens of othei-s that might be named, rushed into 
the oil busiijess, it was the signal for hundreds of 
others who did not have the faculty, Midas like, of 
turning everything to gold, to do likewise. Where- 
ever the black stuff was found oozing out, which was 
in hundreds of places, claims were staked oif, or the 
land bonded. It ran out of Ortega Hill, and the 
Ortega Oil Company was formed, and it is said their 
prospect was considered worth a half a million. At 
the Eincon, at More's Landing, on the top of the 
Santa Barbara Mountains, everywhere, fortunes wei-e 
made on paper in the oil business. There was an 
" oil boom " just as a " copper boom " was raging in 
the northern part of the State. Men, without seeing 
the ground, or without any knowledge of mining 
matters to form a sound opinion if they did see it, 
invested in oil mining. Sharpers took the field of 
course, and it is said bled freely many companies for 
assessments, by digging holes, and pouring into them 
a few barrels of gree^i oil purchased for this purpose; 
in short, all the tricks of mining sharpers were 

the surface, 

the resemblanci 

played for the robbery of the credulous. The 
oil sharp was known by the tar stickiug to his 
clothes; it was prima facia evidence that he had 
^'■struck He." 


The breaking up of the great ranches by the 
drought of 1863-64, and the discovery, or rather the 
explorations for oil, caused a great immigration to 
Santa Barbara, the building up of the town, the cul- 
tivation of wheat, and, in fine, a thorough revolution 
in its political, social, agricultural, and financial con- 
dition, which will be described in other chapters, as 
well as the revival of the oil business and its 
operations on an economical basis, after failure and 
disaster had convinced the visionary of the necessity 
of exercising prudence and judgment in its search. 


The Board of Supervisors deemed a safe necessary 
for the better keeping of the public funds and valu- 
able papers, and appropriated $250 for that purpose, 
and purchased one which had been used by T. Wal- 
lace More. There being no wharf, the safe, which 
was quite a large one, had to be lightered ashore 
from the steamer by means of a boat, and as the 
boat drew considerable water, a cart was run out 
into the water to bring it to dry land. A huge wave 
buried both cart and safe so that the latter got a 
wetting from which it never recovered. Ever after 
papers kept in it grew mouldy, and soon decayed. 
The safe passed from one owner to another, ever at 
a decreasing price, until it rested with C. E. Huse at 
the value of $25.00. Goods, as well as passengers, 
were landed in this way previous to the erection of a 


The assessment roll of 1865 showed many changes 
and revolutions. New names came in, and others, 
who had been prominent as large tax-payers, wei-e 
seen no more. 

Arrellanes, Luis, Laguna 8,800 1,760 2,968 

Abadie, GuiUermo 9,948 

Briggs, S. G., Santa Paula .... 17,760 15,260 17,923 
Burton, Lewis T., Jesus Maria_ 30,000 6,000 

Part of Ospe 5,778 1,155 20,624 

Brinkerhoff, S. B - 5,675 

Cota, Ma de Jesus Olivera, 

Santa Rosa _ 48,400 12,100 12,500 

Camarillo, Juan, Jonata _ 13,200 1,100 

" " Caleguas (in 

part) 900 450 

Camarillo, Juan, Santa Clara.. 2,200 1,100 18,404 
Cooper, Hollister & Dibblee 

Lompoc.- 40,000 10,000 10,500 

Cohen, R., Arroy del Burro..- 310 585 5,487 

Den, N. A., Dos Pueblos 4,440 1,100 

Tequepis 4,440 538 

San Marcos 8,880 888 

Orchard 800 



Don.X. A.,Ilouso . _ . .. , 
Dubbers,' Henry, Santa Ana . . 13,200 
de la Guerra, Pablo, Santa 

Clara 2.222 

de la Guerra, Jose Antonio. 

Los Alamos . . _ 44,000 

Noriega, estate. San Julian . . . 48,884 

" '• Couejo 24,442 

Cattle.. 1,500 

Hope, Tliomas, Positas 8,600 

HoUister & Cooper, personal . 
Hartnell, heirs of, Todos Santos 17,7(10 
Hill, Daniel, Patera & Goleta. . 3,500 

Huse,C. E.,Jouata 13,200 

" I Conejo 9,999 

Jones, Estate, Purissima 20,400 

Letterman, Dr. J., Las Posas. . 26,600 

Simi 92,341 

San Fran- 
cisco - 7,600 

Loureyro Bros., Nojaqui. . 8,000 

Maguire, J. F., personal 

Massini, Pedro, " 

Moore, Capt. T. W., Purifica- 
tion 13,200 

More Brothers, Santa Rosa_. . 60,000 
" " San Cuyetano 

Orena, Gaspar, Saca 9,000 

Sparks, J. J., city lots and per- 
sonal property 

Sparks, Sally, city lots and per- 
sonal property ... 

Shaw, J. B. & Co., part of 

Ortega 1,119 

Shaw, J. B. & Co., Island of 

Santa Cruz 60.000 

Sprague, Thomas, part of Del 

Refugio 2,960 

Schiappapietra, A., Santa Clara 12.500 

Stanford, A. P., Sisquoc 34,000 

Scott, Thomas A., Caleguas .. 
" •• Canada 

Larga . . 

Scott, Thomas A., Santa Clara 

" " Najalayegua 

Vassault, F., ex-Mission San 

Buenaventura 53,328 

Ward, F. J., Guadalupe 26,664 

" " Casmali 4,444 

Cqjo... 11,110 

Yorba Ysbell, Laguna 48,400 

Total assessments. Personal 


This was near S300.000 less* than in 1860. 

0,600 8.011 



















3,800 38,411 


























1,000 48,500 













January .'-;. ISOC, ihe Suiicrvisors tnoU under eoii- 
.sideraticin a rejKJrl of tiic Grand Jury, wherein they 
condemned the jail in use and recommended the 
building of a new one. The result of their delibera- 
tions was spread upon the records in Spanish, and is too 
long to be inserted here. They commenced in true 
Sjjanish style, by passing high compliments upon tlie 
intelligence and eiiaracter of the Grand Jury as a body, 
and regretted vi-ry much that they should have 
given so nuieh of their valualjle lime to a matter so 
much l)eneatli their attention ,1- a jiuMie Jail. Tlu' 
Sujiervisors were, and had icing lieen, aware of the 
unfitness of the Jail for the purposes required: that 
they relied more on the watchfulness and vigilance 
of the jailers to prevent escapes than an}' obstruc- 
tions the walls of the building might otier; were 
sorry that the public funds of the county were so 
inconsiderable, notwitlistanding the high taxes, that 
the project of building a new jail could not be enter- 
tained by the Board, and much more of the same 

May 30. ISOO. Tax rat.-s established as f,,ll„ws:— 
State, 81.10; .Militia, 5 cents; Insane Asylum, 3 
cents; Count}' (General Fund), 80 cents; School. 35 
cents; Hospital, 5 cents; Roads, 5 cents. 


This went into operation in 186(i. The method of 
election in vogue, previous to this j-ear, admitted of 
a great many irregularities, and was justly the source 
of much dissatisfaction. Any cluster of pci'sons uum- 
bering thirtj- could get up a precinct at an hour's 
notice. Xo practicable or reasonable test of citizen- 
ship was required. One of the laws regulating elec- 
tions specified that after the applicant for voting had 
sworn that he was a citizen he should not be ques- 
tioned further. The word ''citizen" had no ])articular 
limitation in practice, and many persons voted who 
never were, and never intended to become, citizens, 
or to fake oath of allegiance. Men would go from 
one precinct to another, voting at each one, some- 
times without even a change of name. .V ])oll list 
could be made out of hundreds of votes that were 
never voted, with ballots in the box to correspond. 
In one instance a Panama steamer passenger list was 
copied entire, and a precinct which was known to 
have less than twenty votes made a return of 160. 
In one instance a tribe of Indians was voted. These 
excesses were bringing the election laws into con- 
tempt, and were mosth- remedied by the new law, 
which provided that every voter should have his 
name put on the '-Great Register,' with such par- 
ticulars of his birth or naturalization, age, residence, 
and business as should fully indentify him; and it 
was further provided that he should have the privi- 
lege of voting only at his own precinct. The most 
of the small precincts were abolished, so that many 
sources of fraud and error were avoided. 



Township No. 1, First District — Rio de Santa 
Clara. Secretary, Francisco Menchaca; Judges, Wm. 
Harris, Ramon Gonzales; Alternates, Warren Bur- 
bank, Pacifico Sanchez, H. P. Flint, Guadalupe El- 
well, Francisco de la Guerra. 

Second District — Village of San Buenaventura. 
Secretary, Tadeo Sanchez; Judges, Angel G. Es- 
candon, W. S. Chaffee; Alternates, Juan Camarillo, 
Frank Bixby, Fernando Tico, Ysidro Obiols, Alberto 

Third District— Secretary, Vicente Moraga; Judges, 
Jose Moraga, D. W. Pierpont; Alternates, W. D. 
Hobson, Manuel Gonzales, Manuel Morales, Pohuino 
Ayala, Ramon Valdez. 

Township No. 2, First District — Secretary, Ramon 
Hill; Judges, Juan Pedro Olivera, James McCaffey; 
Alternates, Jose Maria Hill, A. C. Scull, Jose Antonio 
Ortega, Thomas W. Moore, Samuel Shoup. 

Second District — City of Santa Barbara. Secre- 
tary, W. W. Haynes; Judges, GJispar Orena, James 
L. Ord; Alternates, Antonio Maria de la Guerra, W. 
H. Sparks, "William Benn, Ygnacio Ortega, Thomas 

Third District — Secretary, Russel Heath; Judges, 
Ylario Ornelas, John Nidever; Alternates, S. H. 
Olmstead, Juan Rodriguez, R. King, Charles Bixby, 
Henry Lewis. 

Township No. 3, First District — Los Alimos. Sec- 
retary, Miguel Smith; Judges, Wm. de la Guerra, 
Juan de Jesus Alizalde; Alternates, Ramon de la 
Guerra, Marcus Alizalde, Jose A. de la Guerra. 

Second District — Secretary, Thomas B. Dibblee; 
Judges, Juan E. Hartnell, Wm. Foxen; Alternates, 
Wm. Ballard, Frederic Wickenden, Santiago Burke, 
Antonio Arrellanes, Jose Maria Yndart. 


The Supervisors did not generally work in har- 
mony with the other county officers. Sometimes it 
was the Sheriff and sometimes the Treasurer who 
did not conduct business to suit them. The District 
Attorney now fell under their displeasure. They 
had at a former meeting cited ^im to appear to show 
cause why he had not collected the delinquent taxes 
of Gaspar Orena. He produced a letter from the 
authorities in San Francisco to show that the neces- 
sary papers had been accidentally displaced, so that 
the suit could not be pi'osecuted. The reader will 
recollect that Sturgeon was the officer who advised 
the Supervisors that the assessment on the $50,000 
mortgage should be reduced from a currency basis to 
a gold one. This act, with other things, had dis- 
pleased the Supervisors, and accordingly they laid a 
heavy hand upon him. He was required to file new 
bonds for the collection of the delinquent taxes, the 
bonds being for a sum larger by $10,000 than the old 
ones. On his refusal they declared the office vacant. 
The case was taken to the County Court, under 

the title of State of California Ex Relator S. R. J. 
Sturgeon vs. Jose de Arnaz, Jose Maria Loureyro, 
and T. W. Moore, Board of Supervisors, by a writ oj 
certiorari. The matter having been decided against 
them, the Board proceeded to review the decision of 
the County Court and annul it. The District Attor- 
ney then filed a protest as follows: — 

'• The District Attorney excepts to the Board's 
reviewing the action of the County Court in a case 
in which the Board is one of the parties to the suit 
(defendant), for the reasons, 1st, that the Board of 
Supervisors of this county is not an appellate court; 
2d, that they have no jurisdiction to review the pro- 
ceedings of any court of record of this State; 3d, 
having had their day in court their only remedy is 
by appeal in case they think the County Court has , 
exceeded its jurisdiction in granting the aforesaid 
im-if of certiorari, or in the judgment it has rendered 
on the hearing of the parties on the return of said 

The Board resolved to employ Albert Packard as 
counsel, to continue the contest and deprive Sturgeon 
of the office. The resolution was in Spanish, and 
Sturgeon again excepted to the action of the Board, 
Ist, because the resolution was spread upon the 
records in Spanish; he also affirmed that the Dis- 
trict Attorney was the legal adviser of the Board, 
and that they had no right to employ any other 

The bonds the District Attorney had filed, on 
assuming the duties of his office, were: Chas. B. 
Huse for $10,000; Thomas Denis, $1,000; Thomas 
Sprague, $2,000; Joaquin Carrillo, $5,000; R. B. Tib- 
betts, $1,000; and F. A. Thompson, $1,000. 

The Board urged that as C. E. Huse was only 
assessed for $7,181, and that of this amount a house 
and lot assessed at $1,225 was a homestead and 
exempt from execution; that a mortgage to the ■ 
amount of |5,695 encumbered the balance; that a 
judgment of $463 rested against him, showing an 
excess of liens and exemptions on his property over 
the assessed value of |202, his bond for $10,000 was 
worthless. They also stated Thomas Denis was 
assessed for only $450, and that on a house and lot 
exempt by a recorded homestead; that Joaquin Car- 
rillo was assessed for the sum of $3,280, and that the 
property had a mortgage and other liens on it to the 
amount of $2,089; that Thomas Sprague was assessed 
for $4,044, and that a mortgage of $2,200 rested 
on that, and, furthermore, he was on another 
official bond for $2,000; that R. B. Tibbetts was 
assessed for $879, $121 less than for what he was on 
the bond; that F. A. Thompson was assessed at $700, 
and was on the bond for $1,000. 

They unanimously agreed that the bonds were 
insufficient, and that a certified copy of notice to 
that effect be served forthwith on the District At- 

Supervisor Moore moved to expunge from the 
records all that portion that related to a review of the 
actions of the County Court, but the majority would 



not accede to it. wisliina; to remain on record as con- 
demning the whole system of official bonds. 

Sturgeon remained District Attorney, the decision 
being in effect, that the securities were as good as 
when they were accepted ami the Boanl could not 
go back on their work. 

The Sheriff was ordered to file additional bonds 
for $5,000, on the ground that the sureties were 
not on the assessment roll for the amount of their 
bonds, his bondsmen being Angel Escandon, G. S. 
Gilbert, Thomas Denis. R. B. Tibbetts, R. Cohen, 
W. Burnett. Isaac Ysbell. The County Clerk, Chas. 
E. Huse. was also ordered to file additional bonds of 
85,000. Subsequently- the Board ordered Sturgeon 
to file $9,000 additional bonds before undertaking 
the collection of the delinquent taxes, which amounted 
to about §2,000. 

In reviewing the action of the Board after a 
period of years sufficient to remove all prejudice in 
the matter, the conduct of the Board of the Super- 
visors shines brighter by contrast than that of the 
other officers. Either the property was assessed 
much below its cash value, which is probable, or the 
bonds of the officials were mere straw. The Super- 
visors were evidently on their honor as gentlemen 
and as citizens, and though they sometimes assumed 
an unnecessary dignity, they intended to obey the 
law and serve well their constituents. In the care- 
lessness of the county officials we may see something 
of the causes which, a few years earlier, plunged a 
county of only 400 voters into a debt of $24,000, 
without a hundred dollars of assets to show for it. 
As this was about the last Board with a majority of 
native citizens on it, they should receive due credit for 
their endeavors to put the county affairs on a sound 


State tax on each $100, $1.13; General Fund, 80 
cents; School, 35 cents; Hospital, 5 cents; Road, 5 
cents; Interest and Sinking Fund, 70 cents; total. 

It will be seen that the schools were being cared 


The accompanying table furnishes the first oppor- 
tunity of forming an idea of the comparative size of 
the towns. The total vote was but 624, though that 
is a considerable increase on the former vote. 

The vote in many instances was very even, so 
much so that several counts were required before the 
elections were determined; in several instances the 
mass of votes returned did not tally with the returns; 
in other instances the papers were not properly 
sealed, and sometimes appeared to have been opened, 
for which reasons the several candidates, or their 
friends, would make demands that such precincts be 
thrown out. The Board held, however, that where 
no fraud seemed to have been perpetrated, an irreg- 
ularity was not sufficient reason for rejecting any 


H. H. Haight, D... 
Geo. C. tiifrham, R. 
County Clerk— 

V. Yn 

County Surveyor— 

Wni. H. Norway. 

!•:. Ha.lley 

-Arza Portor 

.V. A. Covarrubias. . 
District .attorney- 
R. S. I. Sturgeon. 

A. M. lie la Guerra. 

























































































































The reader will notice the election of T. R. Bard 
to the Board of Supervisors. His election marks an 
era in the character of the officers, and gave such 
men as Bard, Edwards, and Dibblee to the control of 
county affairs, men who were trained to business 
habits and who examined for themselves the official 
matters instead of tuniiiig them over to a commis- 


S. G. Briggs, the famous Marysvillo orchanlist, 
bought in 1862 a large tract of several thousand acres 
of land on the north side of the Santa Clara River, 
with the intention of supplying San Francisco and 
California generally with early fruit, judging that, 
being 300 miles south of San Francisco, where there 
was scarcely any winter, he would be able to put 
fruit in the market much earlier than could be done 
from the northern part of the State. A thousand 
acres, or more, were set out in fruit, for he does 
things by wholesale. After a trial of several years, 
he abandoned the desfgn as a failure, finding that 
the country that had no winter had no summer 
either, that is, such a summer as is usual at Marys- 
ville. The thermometer rarely reached 80°, even in 
mid-summer, and so far as the fruit ripening an 
month earlier than at Marysville, it was quite a 
month later. He also complained of the cold winds 
which swept through the vallej^, and concluded that 
fruit farming could not be made a success. His 
orchard was suffered to be destroyed. Twentj- 
years later the same ground is covered with fine 
orchards. The fruit, though not so early as at 
Marysville. is quite equal in flavor, and bids fair to 
become an extensive and remunerative indtistry. It 
will be treated more fully in a fuliire chapter. 



Immigration of Americ;ins — A Newspaper Again — Politics in 
1868— Election Returns for 1868— First Full Statement of 
County Finances — Grand Jury Report, .Tune 1, 1868 — Roads 
—Santa Ynez Turnpike Road— Tulare Turnpike Road Com- 
pany — Organization of Protestant Churches — The Congrega- 
- tioual Church — The Episcopal Church — The Presbyterian 
Church— The M. E. Church in Ventura— The Congrega- 
tional Church in San Buenaventura — William H. Seward in 
Santa Barbara — Statistics from the Assessment Roll of 
1870-71— Santa Barbara Press— Election of 1869— Judici- 
ary Election of 1860— Rates of Assessment — Bear Fight, in 
Which the Bear Got the Best of It, and Other Bears— Ir- 
regularities of Officers — Creation of Ventura County Agi- 
tated — Schools — Dun Pablo de la Guerra. 

The great drought was considered an irreparable 
disaster. The loss of a quarter of a million head of 
stock, the utter ruin of many families of wealth and 
distinction, and the apparent worthlessness of the 
land for agriculture, gave the drought the appear- 
ance of an unmitigated evil. To the families affected 
it was so undoubtedly; to the public at large, a bless- 
ing in disguise. The plow will double, and, perhaps, 
quadruple the productive results of land over that of 
grazing it. Santa Barbara, with its two or three 
hundred families, when it was a grazing country, 
and when it was the home of ten times as many 
under the agricultural system, are quite different 
affairs. Then there was but one school, wiih scarcely 
as many scholars as may now be found in any little 
valley. If some of the families were enabled to dis- 
pense a pi'incely hospitality, now multitudes are the 
centers of intelligence, refinement, and domestic vir- 

When it became known throughout the State that 
the great ranchos were being broken up, that the 
best of land was obtainable, in some instances, as 
low as twenty-five cents per acre, an immigration 
comm^enced that resulted in revolutionizing the whole 
industrial and social condition of society. The new- 
comers opened a variety of industries. Wheat, which 
before had only been raised in small quantities, and 
manufactured into an inferior' flour for home con- 
sumption, was now raised for export. It was found 
that large tracts were, if properly cultivated, emi- 
nently adapted to its production. It is true that 
little inducement was found to raise it for exporta- 
tion, as there were no wharves from which it could 
be transferred to ships. It could be put on to shipping 
only by surf-boats, which were liable to be over- 
whelmed by the breakers. As the capacity of the 
soil for agriculture became known, wharves were 
projected, which eventually furnished practicable 
shipping points for all who wished to engage in 
agriculture. Among the first to engage in it exten- 
sively was Dr. J. B. Shaw, on the Los Alamos, on a 
tract of ground that was considered worthless in 
early days for anything but grazing. Report says 

that the yield was as high as 100 bushels to the acre- 
This is probably an exaggei-ation, but the yield was 
abundant, and demonstrated beyond a doubt the 

profits of wheat farming. 


This was constructed in the summer of 1868 by a 
company of citizens. Previous to this all freight 
was received from the ships a mile or two from the 
shore and transferred by surf-boats. If a successful 
lauding was made, the goods came ashore dry. 
Sometimes a huge roller would sweep over the boat 
and drench everything. It was complained that the 
mail-bags were frequently wet. Passengers were 
carried on the backs of sailors from the boat beyond 
the reach of the waves. Though the ticket for 
passage included a landing, most of the passengers 
thought best to tip their carriers with a half-dollar, 
or a quarter, at least, as it was soon discovered that 
it had a tendency to prevent accidents. Many funny 
incidents are related of some (Jews, of coui'se), who 
would pay no extra, being ducked by a misstep as a 
huge wave would roll in. The sailors wading from 
the beach to the boat were wet any way, and cared 
nothing for the ducking. Dana relates that this style 
of embarking passengers was prevalent in 1840, and it 
seems that no better was discovered until a wharf was 
built. This only extended beyond the surf at ordinary 
tides or winds, and could only be approached by light- 
ers, a 100-ton vessel being the largest that could 
make fast to the wharf with safety. It was a 
great improvement on the old method, however, and 
marked an era in commercial affairs. This method 
was not without danger, for the surf would some- 
times break at the wharf where the passengers 
landed by means of stairs without railing. Sea-sick 
passengers would occasionally have difficulty in climb- 
ing them. One lady fell into the water and was 
rescued with difficulty. Even as early as 1868 the 
towns along the coast began to compete for immigra- 
tion. A Los Angeles paper remarked that the pas- 
sengers for Santa Barbara were dumped into the sea 
and forced to swim to the shore or drown. The 
newly-established Post indignantly denied the state- 
ment, and said no lady need wet the sole of her 
shoe; but added that that method of landing passen- 
gers was common at San Pedro and San Diego, 


On all steamers or vessels belonging to the port, 
from ten to one hundred tons burden, per annum, 
$10.00; over one hundred tons, per annum, S50.00; 
other vessels of ten to twenty-five tons, per day, 
$3.00; of twenty-five to one hundred tons, per day, 
$5.00; on general merchandise, per ton, $1.00; lum- 
ber, per M., $1.00; shingles, per M., 15 cents; wool, 
per ton, $1.50; sheep and hogs, per head, 1 cent; 
cattle, per head, 25 cents; hides, each, 1 cent. 




With the coming of the Amei-icans came the (icsirc 
for a newspaper. The Post was started Maj- 29, 
1868, by Boust & Ferguson. The paper was of 
good size, well printed, and ably edited; professed to 
he neutral in politics, but would give the use of its 
columns to political articles not per.sonal in their 
character. No. 2 contained an article on the per- 
sistent discouragement of American immigration by 
the old residents, by representing the land as utterly 
worthless for agriculture; that it only rained once in 
three or four years. 

Reference was made to the Gazette (Gaceta), which 
had lingered out an existence of eleven years, be- 
tween being edited and printed in San Francisco and 
published in Santa Barbara. The Post knew too 
well the story of the failure of the Gazette to live 
through the loss of the good-will of some of the 
older fomilies, but proposed to run a paper notwith- 

The Post took decided ground against the practice 
of assessing land at ten to twenty-five cents per acre, 
which could not be bought for less than fifty or one 
hundred times that sura, and thought the remedy 
might be found in compelling the Assessors to visit 
the land and appraise it themselves, instead of fur- 
nishing the owners with a blank sheet to make out 
their own appraisement. 


With the coming of the newspaper, politics awoke 
to life, and the political machinery of public meetings, 
fiery orations, and torch-light processions was set in 
motion. A Republican meeting was held September 
2, 1868, with the following oflBcers: — 

President, N. W. Winlon; Vice-Presidents — G-en- 
eral Oovarrubias, C. Fernald, Captain Hiirloe. B. Van 
Valkenberg. W. T. MeElhaaey, Jose de Alizalde, Arza 
Porter, Gr. P. Tebbetts, Francisco Ayala, Captain 
Kimberly, J. H. Neal, Jose' G. Moraga, Capt. J. 
Burke, Capt. A. B. Thompson, C. E. Huse, Juan 
Carrillo, C. A. Thompson, Francisco Leyba y Felix, 
Juan Rodriguez; Secretaries, Frank A. Thompson, 
E. B. Boust. 

Colonel Stevens addressed the meeting; charged 
the Democracy with being responsible for the late 
Rebellion and the terrible consequences following it; 
thought the Democracy had sunk itself so deep in 
infamy that should the angel Gabriel blow his horn, 
awakening the dead at the farthest corners of the 
earth to march into line; when the sun should be 
dimmed and the beauties of the moon would fiide; 
when all nature would be convulsed with the awful 
solemnity of the moment, the Democratic party 
would be sunk so deep in its own mire and quick- 
sands as to be utterly unable to catch the faintest 

This oft-used sentiment, or hyperbole, or whatever 
it miy be called, has not been improved upon since. — 

It shows that the orators of that ilay wen- fully ujito 
the average of the present ago. The style reminds 
one of an old ])oem written bj' a crack-brained book- 
seller who tlourishod in the latter part of the last 
century. Whether rampant orators flourished then, 
or whether the words were prophetic, the reader 
must determine. He describes the machinery, in- 
vented by a wonderful mechanic, that — 

"Struck out poems, editorials, ami orations, 
.Suitable for Fourth of July celebrations." 

And again — 

*' He hammered out a lawyer's jaw-mill, 
Which went by water like a saw-mill. 
With so much fire and fury 
It thunderstruck the Judge and jury." 

F. M. Pixley then took the stand and gave a 
detailed account of the history of the parties from 
the beginning of the Rebellion, showing from the 
records the .standing of each. Mr. Huso translated 
the substance into Spanish for the benefit of the 
natives. The audience was said to have been the 
largest that had ever assembled at Santa Barbara. 




























John B. Felton, R 

O. L. Lajrranie, R 

D. B. Hoffman, R 

Alfred Reilin^'ton, R 

Charles We,tmorelanrt, R. . . . 










E. .7. C. Kewen. D 

W. T. Walli^e, D 


UuM-^'e Pier.e, D 

Cou^'rci-iman — 

Frank M. Pixley, R 

S. B. .\xtell, D 

Suner\ isor, 3J District- 
Thomas B Dibblee 


S. D. Williams 


Total Vote, 729. 

This is nearly double what it was previous to the 
breaking up of the cattle ranches. 


The beneficial effect of having business men like 
Thomas R. Bard and Thomas B. Dibblee on the 
Board of Supervisors is shown in the fact that for 
the first time in the history of the county, a full 
statement of public finances was given for publica- 
tion: — 

Statement of the existing debt of the .County of 
Santa Barbara, California, January 31, 1869, made 
and published in accordance with the provisions of 
Section 15 of an Act entitled -'An Act to create a 
Board of Supervisors in the counties of this State, 
and to define their duties and powers." Approved 
March 20, 1855. 



Bonds of 1859 bearing T/o in- 
terest .$16,500 00 

Less coin on hand for redemj)- 

tion 2,500 00 

Bonds issued in 1864 bearing 

T% interest 19,900 00 

Certificates of indebtedness of 

1864, bearing 1% interest. . . 1,605 52 

$20,505 52 
Less cash on hand to apply... 2,300 00 

$14,000 00 

18,205 52 

Unpaid Warrants of 1864-65 . . 269 99 

Cash on hand to apply - 59 35 

Unpaid warrants of 1865-66. . 1,739 79 

Cash on hand to apply _ 28 88 

Unpaid warrants of 1866-67 . . 273 97 

Cash on hand to apply 70 30 

Unpaid warrants of 1867-68. . 1,430 65 

Cash on hand to apply 153 51 

Warrants on Contingent Fund 

unpaid -.. 10 00 

Less cash on hand to apply .. . 1 12 

Total unpaid warrants. 

1,277 14 

!,411 24 

Total indebtedness of county. $35,616 76 

Less cash balance in Hospital 

Fund... $ 132 30 

Less cash balance in General 

Fund - - 1.951 69 

Total indebtedness. 

$33,532 77 

The unpaid taxes amounted to quite a sum. Some 
of this might have been collected by proper efforts 
on the part of the several District Attorneys. 

Unpaid taxes of 1862-63 

.$ 360 24 

347 51 

. 529 52 

. 2,219 55 

1866-67 2,134 39 

1867-68 2,605 69 

Total $8,696 90 


Occasionally men got on the jury who were not 
satisfied with a merely formal observance of the law 
which made it their duty to examine official matters 
generally, but made a thorough search into all the 
financial matters especially. This jury repoi-ted in- 
debtedness as follows: — 

Amount of Bonded Debt _ $16,500 00 

Bonds issued in 1859 19,900 00 

Certificates of 1864. _ 606 24 

Total debt $37,006 24 

Outstanding warrants: — 

On General Fund, 1864-5 369 99 

" 1865-6. _ 1,739 79 

" 1866-7 273 97 

" 1867-8. 467 72 

Hospital " 100 00 

$39,957 71 

They report that they find a systematic fraud 
]3racticed in the City Government,; that the records 
are kept in Spanish; only one out of the five 
Trustees speaks English. They find that 7,000 acres 
of the public lands have been granted away within 
the last two years for less than $6,000; that these 
lands have not been granted for settlement or im- 
provement, but for speculation, and that some of the 
members of the Council are implicated. The Re- 
corder's books show conveyance to one man of 900 
acres for $888, when lands of a similar class were 
selling at §6.00 per acre. Reported $2,490 in City 

The names of the Grand Jury who made this 
report were: F. Meninchaca, D. W. Thompson, 
Rafael Leyba, Anastacio Flores, Juan Gonzales, 
Chas. W. Shaw, Geo. S. Gilbert, E. B. Higgins, John 
A. Kuhlman, Tunis V. Hankinson, M. Striedl, Gus- 
tavus Staude, Wm. Benn, N. W. Winton, Foreman. 

Benn and Shaw reported adversely as to city 
affairs, the former being a member of the Council. 
This report brought out a reply from Mr. Yndart, a 
member of the Council, who maintained that the 
land had not been sold for speculative purposes, but 
according to a well-settled axiom of American law, 
that the land should not be disposed of for revenue, 
but to furnish poor people with homes; that the land 
had been given to those who had resided on it long- 
est, in suitable tracts for cultivation. He stated that 
Mr. D. W. Thompson, who wrote out the report for 
the Grand Jury, had applied for 300 acres and 
received but ninety, and that much against his 
(Yndart's) will in the Council. 


The road fund now amounted to a considerable 
sum, and in general was well disbursed. Road dis- 
tricts were formed and competent road-masters 
appointed. The natural face of the country, except 



when the mountainous ridges were to be crossed 
was favorable for road-building. One of the fii-st 
essentials in a civilized country is free communica- 
tion, and as a result, cheap transportation. The 
ftvilure of the scheme at an early day to build a good 
road through the county had not discouraged the 
enterprising part of the people. Private enterprises 
were undertaken. Among the most important of 
these was the 


This was organized August 6, 1868, and officers 
elected as follows: — 

President, Chas. Fernald; Secretary, Henry Carnes; 
Directors — Thomas Bell, of San Francisco; Dr. M. 
H. Biggs, Dr. S. B. Brinkerhoff, Charles Fernald, C. 
E. Huse, Dr. J. L. Ord, Eli Ruudell, Dr. J. B. Shaw, 
and — Bixby, Monterey. 

One year from that time the rates of toll were 
fixed: For one horse and vehicle, $1.00; for two horses 
and vehicle, |1.50; for four horses and vehicle, $2.50; 
horses and cattle, in herds or single, per head, 25 
cents; sheep, 5 cents. 


Was organized December 1-5, 1808, by electing 
Charles Fernald President, C. E. Huse, Treasurer, and 
H Carnes, Secretary. The Havilah mines were now 
attracting considerable attention, and Santa Barbara 
people thought that an outlet to the sea by way of 
their port would bo desirable. In February, 1869, a 
a party was sent to make a reconnoissance of a route, 
another party from Tulare agreeing to meet them at 
an intermediate point. It was probably the first visit 
of the explorers to the mountains in the north part 
of the countj', and they got lost in a dense fog in the 
ranges of mountains, and did not connect with the 
other party. 

The project was not dropped, however. May 31, 
1869, a large meeting was held to consider the sub- 
ject. The names of the officers and speakers at the 
meetmg are given to show who were enterprising 
enough to consider the building of a road, for, though 
the road was never built, we shall see that the pro- 
jectors were the future leaders in other projects 
which did succeed. 

J. A. Johnson, Chairman; Vice-presidents — Dr. J. 
B. Shaw, Dr. M. H. Biggs, T. B. Dibblee, J. F. 
Maguire, Antonio de la Guerra, Charles E. Huse, D. 
Yndart, F. W. Frost, Chas. Pierce, Capt. \V. E. 
Greenwell, Dr. S. B. Brinkerhoff, Geo. P. Tebbitts, 
0. L. Abbott, Dr. J. L. Ord. Eli RundcU, W. T. Wil- 
liams; Secretaries, J. T. Richards, C. A. Thompson, 
E. B. Boust. 

Mr. Huse estimated the expense at $15,000. " The 
opening of the road to the Santa Ynez River is a 
good beginning. Over the second range of mount- 
ains, the ascent and descent is by means of a moder- 
ate inclination. This route, when completed, would 

bo the best route to Iluvilah, White Pine, and Kern 
River Districts." 


The coming in of Protestant Americans caused 
churches other than the Catholic to be organized. 
There had been occasional preaching, but no regular 
services were held until the American movement. 
Adam Bland, Presiding Elder of the Los Angeles 
circuit, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, hold 
service as early as 1854. The circumstances not 
being encouraging, no regular service was attempted 
until 1867, when the Rev. R. R. Dunlap was appointed 
to the charge of the community embracing Santa 
Barbara, La Patera, Monteeito, Carpenteria, and San 
Buenaventura, though there was no organized society 
in any of these places. In 1868 the Rev. P. Y. Cool 
was ajjpointed to the service, and succeeded in organ- 
izing a church, and building a parsonage and chapel. 
It is said the native population were much averse to 
having Protestant service in the town, but did not 
offer any serious obstruction. The first worship was 
conducted in the Court House, then called the Egerea 
House. On one occasion, when service was being 
held, some of the Mexicans caught a shoat in front 
of the building, and allowed the animal to do some 
vigorous squealing for some time. As the interrup- 
tion was not serious, no notice was taken of it. 

The members of the first church were, S. String- 
field, Sarah M. Cool, Elizabeth Stringfield, K C Clark, 
Susan R. Clark, Harriet Cooley, Mary Cooley, Belle 
M. Martin, Georgia A. Crabb, Isaac G. Foster, Sam- 
uel Shoup, Mary Shoup. Martha M. Hammol, Amelia 
A. Schlutter, Lewis Stark, Matilda Stark, Mary E. 
Goss, and Mary Ann Rhodes. 


Was organized by the Rev. J. A. Johnson, afterwards 
the famous editor of the Santa Barbara Press. He 
preached his first sermon in the Court House, Novem- 
ber 25, 1866. At the close of the service a resolu- 
tion was adopted, asking him to remain permanently 
in the town, and form a societj'. The following 
month he settled in the town with his family, and 
commenced, it is said, the first permanent Protestant 
worship. In 1867 a permanent society was organized 
under the Congregational form, with J. A. Johnson 
as Pastor. C. E. Huse, David Nidever, and E. F. 
Maxfield were elected trustees; and N. W. Winton 
and P. S. Brinkerhoff. deacons. Mr. Johnson's min- 
istry closed in April, 1869. The next in charge was 
the Rev. E. M. Betts, who remained for two j'cars. 
Dr. Stone, of San Francisco, and Dr. Dwindle, of 
Sacramento, visited the city in the interest of the 
church, in 1869-70. 


As early as 1868 Dr. J. B. Shaw, Mr. Fitzhugh, and 
John B. Church met at the Lick House in San Fran- 
cisco, to consider the formation of a church. The 



following day they met with Bishop Kip, and laid the 
circumstances before him, but nothing was done to 
mature the project. In looking over and canvassing 
the population of Santa Barbara, they only found 
forty-three Americans, and of these, not more than 
ten or twelve would be likely to join an Episco- 
pal organization. The following year saw some 
favorable changes, and the Rev. T. Gr. Williams was 
sent to the place; and succeeded in effecting an 
organization. Dr. J. B. Shaw, Russel Heath, John 
Euddick, M. M. Kimberly, and D. W. ap Jones being 
the first trustees. The Court House and school 
house were used as places of worship until 1869, 
when they occupied a brick chapel constructed by 
them on Gutierrez Street. 


Was organized June, 1869, by the enrollment of nine- 
teen members. A large portion of these'were former 
members of the congregation organized by Mr_ 
Johnson. Rev. Thomas Frazer effected the organiza- 
tion. The Rev. H. H. Dubbins was the first Pastor. 
Ludwell G. Oliver, Jonathan Mayhew. N. W. Win- 
ton, Enoch Covert, S. R. I. Sturgeon, and A. J. C. 
Willson were the first Board of Trustees. Dr. 
Phelps, of San Francisco, was the next pastor. He 
was a very able man, and succeeded in gathering a 
membership of nearly one hundred. 


Was organized about the same time as at Santa Bar- 
bara, through the agency of the Rev. Mr. Dunlap, 
this forming a part of his charge. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. P. Y. Cool, who increased the member- 
ship of the church. The opening of the Briggs 
tract in 1867, for settlement, had the effect of bring- 
ing in many families who became members and sup- 
porters of churches. 


Was the first Protestant church in the territory of 
Ventura County, having been organized in 1867. 
Mr. B. Starr was the first preacher. The first mem- 
bers were Rev. Mr. Bristol, Rev. Mr. Harrison, Eliza 
Shaw, Francis L. Saxby, Isabella L. Hobson, Hanna 
E. McCarty, Mary A. Herbert, Matilda P. Barnard, 
Geo. Beers, Sarah Beers, Edward B. Williams, Eliza- 
beth A. Williams, Amanda Baker, Maria A. Wason, 
Nancy L. Banny, Celia A. Simpson, Fanny Williams. 
W. E. Barnard and Geo. S. Gilbei-t were the first 
deacons, the former being clerk. A church edifice 
was erected in 1870. 


Wm. H. Seward visited Santa Barbara September 
23, 1869. He was introduced to the people by C. B. 
Huse, who made a few appropriate remarks on the 
part acted by the distinguished visitor, ip the tremen- 
dous struggle our nation had passed through. 

Mr. Seward addressed the audience for a few min- 

utes, referring to the struggle just passed, the 
immensity of our national resoui'ces, and the bril- 
liant prospects for the future. He visited the big 
grape vine, took its measurements, and continued on 
his way.* 


Real estate sold in 1868. 

Ranchos Zaca and Corral de Cuati, containing four 
square leagues (17,760 acres) were sold by Lattaillade 
to C. P. Emmet, Augustus Mahe, and C. Parellier for 

G. H. Briggs sold 900 acres of the Santa Paula 
tract to W. Elf, for $13,000. 

Eighty new buildings were erected during the 

Lumber was used in Santa Barbara in 1870 valued at 
$70,700; number bricks, 600,000; estimated increase 
of property in the county, $1,000,000. 


Acres assessed, l,154,106f; value of real estate and 
improvements, $395,583.48; personal property, $478,- 
229.72; total value, $1,137,795.10; taxes levied, $33,- 
565.01; collected. $26,343.93; delinquent, $7,221.08. 

Live stock, 1869;— 

Horses, 4,558; mules, 477; asses, 22; cows, 5,757; 
calves, 2,719; beef cattle, 2,610; oxen, 108; total 
cattle, 11,094; sheep, 193,167; goats, 280; hogs, 757; 
chickens, 10,200; turkeys, 800; geese, 84; ducks, 624; 
hives of bees, 450. 

Assessed value of real estate, $755,864; assessed 
value of personal property, $626,267; total, $1,482,- 

Estimated population, 8,600; subject to road tax, 



Ayers, Albert, Ojai 1,500 §450 $6,807 

Argues, Joaquin R., Laguna 4,438 3,000 3,950 

Arrellanes, Luis 5,630 

Ashley, J. B - 11,000 

Arnaz, Jose de, Santa Ana 4,294 
Amat, Tadeo (Bishop). City 

Lots - 6,000 69,971 

Boeseke & Co., Merchandise 4,000 

Bell, John S, Laguna 11,095 11,095 

" Los Alamos.. 24,409 24,409 43,006 
Buel, R. T., San Carlos 

Jonata 13,314 9,985 12,685 

Biggs, M. H., Rincon .... 3,000 3,000 

" Valley land. 300 1,800 18,385 

Bailard, , Rincon 400 2,400 6,955 

Burke, Miguel - . . 5,615 

Brinkerhoff, S. B., Laguna 3,000 2,225 9,650 

Bard, T. R., Colonia ..... 24,111 60,225 61,185 

Curry, John, Sisquoc 16,756 6,702 6,702 

•[Note. The paiievs contain what purports to be his speech, but the lan- 
yiiaffe is 30 inferior to Seward's terse and comprehensive style, that we are 
afraid it was manufactured after Seward left, or badly reported, and if pub- 
lished, would add nothing to Seward's fame as an orator.) 








and } 

W. W. 

Hollis- 1 



Curry & Conner, Sisquoc . . 17,729 7,(lfll 
Ciiesta, Eamon do la, No- 

jaqui 2,000 1,500 

Ciitt9& Cooper, Dos Pueblos 1,455 4,3(i5 

Cumarillo, Juan, Jonata... 13,31-1 9,985 

del Corral 3,000 2,225 

Camarillo, Juan, Santa Clara 4,780 23,900 

" " Calleguas.. 1,535 2,302 

San Julian 48,321 48,321 

La Espada 13,308 6,654 

Santa Ana 13,308 6,654 

La Gaviota 8,872 4,336 

Salsipuedes 6,654 6.654 

Lompoc .. 32,450 64,900 

Las Cruces 1,000 500 

1^ Sheep 43,231 42.231 

Den, N. A., Dos Pueblos. . . 9,160 27,480 

Den, E. E., Dos Pueblos... 719 2,157 

Ells, James, Santa Paula 

and Satieoy 1,126 5,632 

Estrada, Jose A., Los Ala- 
mos 4,438 4,438 

Elizalde, Ygnacia Marcia, 

Laguna 8,876 6,000 

Fcxen, B., Tinequaic 8.876 6,657 

Frost, F. W., Town Lots.. 

Guerra, Jose A., Los Alamos 13,314 13,314 

Guerra, Jose, estate of, 

Conejo 24.442 18,331 

Green, John P., Ojai 10,862 16,290 

Goux, J. E., Town Property 

Houston, W. E. P., Todos 

Hernsten, Geo., & Co, Mer- 
chandise, etc 

Huse, C. E., Conejo 

Hill, John G.,.Colouia 

Hollister, J. W. ") Santa Rosa 
and V Lompoc . . 

Cooper, J. W. ) Sheep 

Hope, Thomas, Las Positas 

Hill, R. 0., Patera 

Heath, Eussel, Carpentaria 

Hollister, W. VV., Dos 


Hollister, W. \V., Improve- 
ments 8.000 

Higgins, E. B., Santa Paula 1,415 

Kays, John C, Town Lots 
and Merchandise 

Leach & Rynerson, Town 
Lots and Merchandise. . . 

Laeosta, John, estate of, El 

Cojo 8,000 

Lobero, Jose. Conejo 6,000 

" " Town Lots 
and Merchandise 

More, T. Wallace, Patera.. 1,000 6,000 







17,776 13,332 13,332 

























2,517 7,551 



T. W: 



8,876 17,752 






More. A. P., Santa Rosa 

Moore, Thomas W., Purifi- 


McKeeby & Chaffee, Mdso. 

Massini, Pedro, Mdse 

Mendoza, F. F., Santa Rita 
La Pur- 

issima . 

May hew, Jonathan, Mesa.. 


Nidevor, John 

Olrastead, S. C, Carpenteria 
Olivas, Raymundo, San Mi- 

Orcila, Bruno, City Property 
Ord, James L.,City Propertj' 
Orona, Caspar, Cuyama . . . 
" " Town Prop- 

Philadelphia f Simi 

& Las Posas . . 

California < San Fr'ncisco 
Petroleum Improvem'ts 
Company [& Machinery 
Pura, William, San Marcos 
" " Tequepis .. 

" " Nojaqui .. . 

Pierce, ^Charles, Town Prop- 
erty and Lumber Yard. . 
Pringle, E. J., Town Prop- 
erty and Hot Springs..-. 
Pendana & Gondoli, Town 


Packard, Albert, Town 


j Eivas, Ramon Gonzales, 

j Santa Ana 

I Rea, William, Santa Rita.. 

I Rodriguez, Juan, San Miguel 

Snodgrass, Larkin, Santa 


Scott, Thomas A., Canada 


Scott, Thomas A., Calleguas 

Stage Company, Stock . 

Shaw, Jas. B., Laguna 

" " Los Alamos 

" " Patera 

" Ortega 

Sparks, Sally, Town Prop- 

Schiappapietra. A.. Santa 


Santa Cruz Is. Co., Santa 
Cruz Is 









13,314 6,657 


550 2,750 

2,219 11,095 

13,200 6,600 













































Santa Cruz Is. Co., Sheep.. 23,819 23,819 56,159 

Sisters of Charity, Building 

and Lot - 6,090 

Thompson, D. W., San Mi- 
guel 2,200 1,100 17,128 

Santa Barbara Wharf Co. . 6,000 

Thompson & Bard, Eancho 

del Corral... 4,438 3,328 8,125 

Temple, Mahe, & Paviller, 

Corral de Quati 13,322 9,991 

Temple, Mahe, & Paviller, 

Zaca _ 4,458 3,343 13,335 

Valle, Yguacio del, Piru _ . . 13,200 6,600 
" " San Fran- 
cisco.. --- 1,290 3,870 27,419 

Wallsworth, E. B., Santa 

Paula -.. 1,650 8,250 

Ward. John B., Guadalupe 26,664 53,328 

Casmali .. 4,444 4,444 71,782 

Yorba Ysbel, Guadalasca.. 26,300 10,890 14,669 

Total of Real Estate for the County. ..$1,965,138 29 

Total of Personal Property 851,795 

Total .$2,816,933 29 

After regulation by Board of Equaliza- 
tion - . .$2,882,526 87 

The reader will notice that many of the ranches 
are mentioned several times. But few of them 
remained intact, and became the property of many 
owners, in lots varying from hundreds to thousands 
of acres. When a name of a ranch is mentioned, 
generally only a part is included; the number of acres 
will show what part. Cattle began to bear a good 
price, and were generally assessed $10.00 per head; 
sheep at fifty cents to $1.00, according to the grade of 
the flocks. The flocks of Dibblee Bros. & Hollister 
were assessed at §1.00 per head, being partly merino; 
those on the islands, at fifty cents. The most care- 
less observer will not fail to notice the predominance 
of the foreign or American names on the assessment 
roll, and the sparsity of those of the native Califor- 
nians. Their names are missing on the assessment 
roll as tax-payers, but may be found on the Great 
Register as voters. 

The great changes in the proprietorships were not 
altogether the result of misfortunes, but of folly as 
well. In the early days a monte dealer loaned 
money to those whose credit was good, at 12i cents 
on the peso (dollar) per day. In large sums he 
charged twelve per cent, per month. A $20.00 loan 
once took a 4,000-acre ranch, doubling every eight 
days, until the size of the debt justified a mortgage. 
He died worth a quarter of a million of dollars. He 
had a Spanish name, and, as there are many respect- 
able descendants of the same name, it is, perhaps, as 
well to let it pass. 


June 24, 1869, J. A. Johnson, who heretofore was 
known aa a clergyman, bought the Post, and discon- 

tinuing the name, commenced the publication of the 
Press, a paper which afterwards became famous 
throughout the State. He organized the first Prot- 
estant church in the county, and built up quite a 
society, which, however, becoming somewhat divided, 
he was induced to engage in an editorial career. He 
was a man of indomitable industry, of considerable 
talent as a writer, and had much more zeal than dis- 
cretion. Kor want of the latter article, he got into 
numerous difliculties, from which he did not always 
extricate himself with credit. Some disagreement 
about business matters ensued with E. B. Boust, 
former editor and proprietor of the paper which was 
merged into the Press. Boust thereupon started a 
new paper called the Times. Then commenced a 
newspaper war, which, for venom, spleen, ill-temper, 
and personal abuse, could hardly be surpassed. Per- 
sonal encounters were frequent, not only with the 
editor of the Times, but with citizens of towns. All 
the abuse that could be raked out of the criminal 
records or manufactured in the saloons, was freely 
used by both editors. A full history of the affair 
would baldly be suitable for any book. Only a few 
of the choice epithets can be preserved here. Mr. 
Johnson asserted of persons, by name, that they were 
" coarse, brutal, and vindictive ruffians," a " news- 
paper pirate," a "brassy fellow," a "graceless ruf- 
fian," a " coarse bully," a " low fellow," " destitute of 
honor," etc. 

The Times termed Johnson " the contemptible, 
pusillanimous renegade, who was doing the dirty 
work of men meaner than himself;" " a dirty, lying, 
cowardly sneak," and intimates to Johnson that if he 
is aggrieved, Johnson knows how and where to find 
him (Boust). 

The war extended to individuals also. Mr. John- 
sou had forwarded his paper to persons who were 
not subscribers, and, perhaps, according to law, was 
entitled to recover pay. A bill, presented to Mr. 
Packard, a lawyer and man of property and influ- 
ence, brought the following rejslj': — 

" In regard to this bill, I must say it would be a 
strange rule of justice that would impose on a man 
the obligation of paying a tax to a newspaper editor 
whom he regards as a public slanderer. If you hug the 
delusion, that all the men you wantonly choose to 
libel, are so lacking in the spirit of manhood, that 
you can compel them to contribute to the support of 
the instrument that tortures thi'm, I think you will 
err, with some at least. You need not anticipate any 
support from me on such a proposition. As soon as 
I observed that you had undertaken to force your 
libelous paper on me, I inserted a notice i " ~" 
respecting it. 

the Times 
A. Packard. 

" January 4, 1870." 

The Press, July 30, 1870, contained an article 
descriptive of a collision between the editors as fol- 
lows: — 

" The ' Parson ' flew into a rage, and thrust his 
cheek with such force against our open hand as to 
paralyze our arm and disable our fingers. Not con- 



tent with this sudden und unexpected act of vio- 
lence, he immediately turned upon us, and socked his 
nether extremity against the toe of our boot with 
such eftcct that our foot has been an almost useless 
appendage since that time, and we have furthermore 
to bewail the utter destruction of that hoot. We 
retreated, utterly demolished and dejected." 

The Times was started February 1, 1870. It was 
a respectable paper in appearance, and was edited 
with ability in the role the paper assumed. In the 
first number was an article concerning the proposed 
new county of Ventura, a project which was begin- 
ning to be discussed. The reasons urged against the 
measure were that the revenue was too small to 
justify any such measure; that the assessment roll 
only showed a total of $l,61-t,78-4.lO, with a revenue 
of only $47,606.75; that if this was divided, these 
would not be sufficient to sustain a government in 
either county; and furthermore Santa Barbara did 
not care to part with good company. 


The whole number of votes cast was 1172, the 
candidates for county clerk, Thompson and Den 
receiving the largest number of votes. These per- 
sons were both allied to the native families, with 
whom personal friendship went farther than politics. 
Frank Thompson, as in the future elections for a 
number of years, showed himself a skillful politician. 
The number of votes cast indicated a rapid increase 
in the population, an increase of 200 per cent, since 
the great drought which was thought to be such an 
irreparable disaster. 

The election machinery did not work smoothly, 
the Supervisors having considerable trouble in count- 
ing the votes. On opening the package for San 
Buenaventura, the ballots were wanting. A sum- 
mons was sent for the election officers of those pre- 
cincts to appear. E. Surdam, in behalf of the Board 
of Officers of San Buenaventura, appeared with a 
package of votes with the certificate of the clerks of 
the election attached, that they were the original 
ballots cast at the election in said precinct. A simi- 
lar certificate accompanied the list of voters of Santa 
Clara. J. H. Linville, Chairman of the Democratic 
County Central Committee, objected to the counting 
of the votes of Santa Paula on account of the 
informality. The reader will notice that there was 
a majority against Murphy, Democratic candidate for 
Senator, of thirty-three votes. The Board of Super- 
visors, by the votes of Dibblee and de la Guerra, 
rejected the list of votes, and proceeded to make a 
count as per returns. The whole vote was finally 
counted with the intention of getting the will of the 
people irrespective of the want of formalities, in 
accordance with the established custom of rejecting 
no votes or returns for want of form when the pur- 
port was apparent, and probably a fair expression 
of the will of the voters was obtained. 

The strife for votes at this election was very great, 
the operators acting much like hotel runners, almost 

seizing a man by force. We have the following 
anecdote on the authority of \V. T. Williams: — 

About the close of I he clfclion, a Mexican was 
passed along the line, and the ticket thrust at him 
until he became so confused that he thought ho was 
going to be mobbed. Ho made an effort to retreat, 
but the crowd, closing up behind him, cut off egress 
in that direction, and in terror he started towards the 
polls; seeing daylight under the ballot-box, he made 
a lunge underneath the table. Rising too soon, he 
scattered the ballot-boxes and officers and escaped 
through the rear of the house (the Aguerra House) 
mid yells of Hang him! Shoot him! etc., from the 
amused and merciless crowd. 


























State Senator- 

R. Pache-o, R 

P. W. Murpln, D 

Me n. Assembly— 

J. E. Stevens, R 

A. G. Kscandon, D 


Ai-za Porter, R 


























































































































County Clerk- 

1'-. A.Thompson, R 


Assessoi — 


J. J. Elizalde, R 


District Attorney— 

William T. Williams, R 

J. H. Kincaid, D 

County Treasurer— 

P W Frost R 





W H Norway R 


H. H. Linville, D 

Supt. of S.-!honl5— 
J c Hamer R 


T. G. Williams, D 

W A Hayne, D 



C. J. Freeman. R 

0. H. O'Neil, D 

Charles Gibson 

C. W. Thacker 

T. V Hankersnn 





The candidates for District Judge were Pablo de 
la Guerra and Walter Murray, the latter of San 
Luis Obispo. There was now considerable strife 
between the natives and the new-comers. From 
being magnates in the land the old families were 
bjing crowded to the wall. It was urged against 
Pablo de la Guerra as a candidate for Judge that he 
would have to abdicate the bench in nearly half the 
cases that would come before him. being directly or 
indirectly related to nearly half the families in the 
county. Two of the Board of Supervisors were 
members of his family, Antonio Maria de la Guerra 
being a brother, and Thomas B. Dibblee a son-in-law. 
When the Supervisors met to canvass the vote, S, R. 
I. Sturgeon presented the following protest: — 

"Now comes Walter Murraj', bj' S. E. I. Sturgeon, 
his attorney, and objects to Thomas B. Dibblee sitting 
as a member of the Board of Canvassers in the case of 



District Judge, on the ground that he is related to 
Pablo de la" Guerra, one of the candidates for said 
office, within the prohibited degree, being his son- 
in-law. And, further, objects to Antonio Maria de 
la Guerra sitting, on the grounds of relationship, he 
being brother to the aforesaid Pablo de la Guerra, 
candidate for District Judge." 

Overruled by the Board. 

October 26, 1869. 

Present — De la Guerra, Dibblee, and Bard. 

Sturgeon to the front again. 
" To the UonoriMe Board of Supervisors, etc.: — 

" in the matter of canvassing the votes for Dis- 
trict Judge. Now comes "Walter Murray, by S. R. 
I. Sturgeon, his attorney, and objects to the counting 
of the votes or reception of the returns, in any man- 
ner, of the election District of the town of Santa 

"1. On the ground of illegal and fraudulent acts 
of the Board of Enrollment in and for said precinct, 
by which this objector has suffered injury. In this, 
that, as this deponent is informed and believes, and 
so alleges the fact to be, the aforesaid Board of 
Enrollment did enroll names of men to vote in said 
election district who do not reside therein and who 
were duly enrolled in the election district in which they 
do reside; and in this, that they enrolled men to vote 
in said district who were not residents of the county. 

"2. On the ground of illegal and fraudulent acts of 
the Inspector and Judges of the election on the day 
of the election, after opening the polls, by which 
illegal and fraudulent acts this objector has suffered 
injury. In this, that, as this deponent is informed 
and believes, and so alleges the fact to be, that the 
said Board of Inspectors and Judges did, after open- 
ing the polls on said day enroll men to vote who 
were not on that day residents of the aforesaid elec- 
tion district; that they did illegally and fraudulently 
alter names on the enrolled list to enable persons to 
vote who are not residents of the district nor, so far 
as can be known, of the county or district, and that 
they did illeg illy and fraudulently allow men to vote 
under names other than the names of which said 
parsons are properlj' known. S. R. I. Sturgeon, At- 
torney for W. Murray. Sturgeon, being sworn, affirms 
that the party interested is not a citizen of the 
county, and cannot verify it himself, and that the 
same is true of his own knowledge, except the mat- 
ters stated on information, and he believes them to 
be true." 

Protest overruled and the Board proceeded with 
the canvass and count of the ballots of the precincts 
of Santa Barbara, Montecito, Carpenteria, San Buena- 
ventura, La Canada, Santa Paula, and Santa Clara. 
The Board then canvassed and recounted again the 
ballots of the precincts of Los Alamos and Santa 
Maria, with the same results as before, on the 25th 
inst. The following was the official result: — 





























Justice Supreme Court— 






















W.i. or Murray 












When the returns from San Luis Obispo were 
received, it was found that Pablo de la Guerra w as 
duly elected Judge of the Second Judicial District. 


Most of our readers will remember the general 
complainL of the inequality of the rates twenty or 
even fifteen years ago. The law provided that all 
property should be assessed at its cash value. Land 
improvements and stock were the largest items on 
the assessment roll. Land in the northern part of 
the State was assessed at S20.00 per acre; in the 
southern part of the State the same quality of land 
was assessed at twenty-five cents per acre. The 
large rancheros had some influence by which they 
would get their large tracts at a nominal rate, fre- 
quently as low as three cents per acre. The man 
who purchased a small tract, and by his own industry 
made it productive, was assessed at the highest rates. 
Gash in hand was assessed without deduction. In 
some instances, when a wholesale increase of the 
assessment was made, this was raised above its 
actual count. 

Complaints became so loud after the assessment of 
1869 that a general increase of estimated values took 
place, and the appraisement of 1870, though much 
below the cash value, was a great advance on pre- 
vious years. 

Among the cases cited were the lands of the Dib- 
blees and Hollisters: — 

Two-thirds of the Lompoc, 26,644 acres, assessed 
at $9,322.40; Gaviota, 8,888 acres, at $3,666; Santa 
Ana, 13,196 acres, at $3,958; La Espada, 13,300 acres, 
at S3,325; San Julian, 48,221 acres, at $14,466.30; 
Salsepuides, 6,657 acres, at $1,664.25; Las Cruces, 
1,000 acres, at $300. 

A total of 117,926 acres assessed only $35,701.95. 

This was not considered a tenth of the value of 
the land; in fact, the Lompoc alone was sold a few 
years later at more than ten times the assessed value 
of the whole of the ranches. 

The Philadelphia Petroleum Company's lands were 

Simi, 92,340 acres, at $23,085; Las Posas, 26,600 
acres, at $7,980; San Francisco, 5,313 acres, at $2,656; 
Thomas R. Bard, San Pedro, 4,439 acres, at $6,658. 

This was less than thirty cents per acre. 

It was remarked that these low rates were recog- 
nized by Thomas B. Dibblee and T. E. Bard, as 
Supervisors, themselves being owners. 

The Hollister, Dibblee, Cooper, and Bard tracts, 
amounting to 319,189 acres, was assessed at $103,696. 

Jose Arnaz's land, on the Santa Ana, was assessed 
at thirty cents per acre, though he asked $20 an acre. 

In town it was not much better. J. A. Johnson 
sold a block to O. L. Abbott for $5,000 which was 
assessed at $350. Lot 230 on State Street that was 
sold for $5,000, and held afterwards at $16,000, was 
assessed at $400, though the Supervisors subse- 
quently raised it to $1,000. 




C. F. McGlashan. 

Charles Payette McGlashan was born near 
Janesville, Wisconsin, August 12, 1847. His ancestors 
were from Clan McGlashan, in the Highlands of 
Scotland. His father, Peter McGlashan, was one of 
the pioneers of Wisconsin, having removed thither 
from western N'ew York. The mother dying in 
1849, the father started to California in 1851, with 
his seven children, of whom the subject of this sketch 
was nest to the j'oungest, and was the only son. Stop- 
ping one year in Missouri, and one at Salt Lake, 
they reached California in 1854. His boyhood was 
passed in the Coast Range Mountains, about twenty 
miles west of Cloverdale, and his earlier education 
was received in the Sotoyome Institute, at Healds- 
burg. At seventeen, he engaged in teaching, first in 
the Sotoyome Institute, and subsequently in El Do- 
rado County. In 1868, he went Bast, and took a 
course of instruction at Williston Seminary, East- 
harapton, Massachusetts. Returning to California 
in 1871, he was Principal of the Placerville High 
School for a year and a half December 25, 1871, he 
married Miss Jennie M. Munsow, at Cold Springs, El 
Dorado County, and their daughter. Undine, is now 
living in San Francisco. In 1872, he became Princi- 
pal of the Truckee Public Schools, which position he 
retained until October 1874, when he went to Utah 
as correspondent of the Sacramento Record- Union, 
and spent some months in investigating the Mount- 
ain Meadows massacre. The accounts published in 
the Record-Union gave to the world for the first 
time, the real facts of that awful tragedy, and un- 
doubtedly exerted an influence in securing the arrest 
and conviction of John D. Lee. In 1875, he began 
the practice of law, in Truckee, and for four years 
met with very encouraging success. During these 
years, however, he continued to correspond regularly 
with the Record-Union, and becoming interested in 
journalism, edited the Truckee Republican, and finally 
became its proprietor. While occupying this posi- 
tion, be undertook the task of collecting the facts 
connected with the fate of the Donner Party, who in 
1846-47, were imprisoned in the wintry snows of the 
Sierras, on the shores of Donner Lake. He visited 
nearly all of the twcntj'-six survivors, devoting a 
considerable portion of two years to interviews and 
correspondence upon the subject. The " History of 
the Donner Party," an octavo volume, of about 300 
page.s, met with a rapid sale, and has already passed 
through four editions. April 7, 1878, he married Miss 
Nona G. Keiser, at Truckee, and they have had three 
daughters, Nettie V., June Laura, and Gertie, the 

last-named dying during infancy. In May, 1880, he 
sold the Republican to good advantage, and removed 
to Santa Cruz. In September, 1880. after the assassin- 
ation of Theodore Glancey, Mr. McGlashan became 
the editor of the Santa Barbara Press, and in Decem- 
ber following ho purchased the paper. 

About the year 1871, he began experimenting upon 
a method of aerial navigation, the distinguishing 
feature of which was that the balloon, or aerostat, 
should be connected by a rope, or cord, with a truck 
moving upon rails or wires stretched along the sur- 
face of the earth. In endeavoring to transmit 
electricity from these earth wires to the balloon, he 
also discovered a method of telegraphing to moving 
railway trains. In March, 1882, he gave a public ex- 
hibition of his Train Telegraph, at San Francisco, 
which was pronounced an entire success by the metro- 
politan journals. Almost every prominent news- 
paper in America has since commented upon the 
practicability and necessity of such a system of tele- 
graphing to moving trains, and Mr. McGlashan is 
now preparing to go East to endeavor to introduce 
his invention upon the great trunk lines of railroad. 

Mr. McGlashan's career as a journalist is likely to 
be obscured by the importance of the train telegraph 
discovery, but nevertheless deserves recogtiition. He 
had been employed on the /ifecorc?-{7nio», by that vet- 
eran journalist, W. H. Mills, and to him, perhaps, he 
owes his trenchant, matter-of-fact, but at the same 
time, candid method of stating facts. His letters con- 
cerning the Mountain Meadows massacre came like a 
revelation to the public. Mr. McGlashan has also 
written the liveliest descriptions of snow-bound trains, 
snow-plows and other incidents of life in the upper 
Sierras ever put in print. When he was jilaced on the 
that Press at Santa Barbara, he had a work to perform 
i^.yf journalists would care to undertake. Journalism 
in Santa Barbara was a sui generis, something unlike 
the profession generally. The journals had been ably 
edited; there had been no lack of talent, in fact, 
many of the writers have since been employed on 
the metropolitan journals. Thej' were of the violent 
order. Bitter personalities marked their editorials. 
One editor had been assassinated; another had been 
pounded and cowhided. An incendiary fire, kindled 
in one office, had aroused the people at midnight. The 
daily papers had been in the habit of flinging the lie, 
the coward, poltroon, and swindler at each other for 
years. The readers of the papers had become used 
to it — were not alarmed or frightened, in the least, at 
the terrible fusillade of paper bullets. It was even 


thought that they rather enjoyed it; that a paper 
could not flouriish without the daily seasoning of bit- 
ter personalities. 

Mr. McGrlashan has demonstrated the conti-ary. 
He has abused no one. Uniform courtesy has marked 
his editorials. While he has advocated positive Re- 
publican principles, he has treated all diverging 
0])inions with respect. The Greenbacker cannot 
complain of being misrepresented. The Democrat is 
surprised and delighted to find that he is not charged 
with being a thief, traitor, or ignoramus. No sneers 
at an honest opinion, however mistaken the editor 
might think it, were ever allowed to find place in the 

No anecdotes of doubtful influence, even though 
penned by a Prentice, were displayed in its columns. 
Mr. McGlashan judged rightly that a clean, respect- 
able sheet would be appreciated and supported. 
Under the guerrilla system the Press, though often 
stimulated by donations from the rich men of the 
county, had run down until the moral and jihysical 
fiber necessary to make even a presentable aijpearance 
were wanting. Under his care the subscription list 
increased; the ads became a sure thing, valuable to 
the paper for the price that w;iS paid for them, and 
to the tradesman for the increased sale of his wares. 
Some of the old patrons, who bad in times past made 
donations to the paper, predicted the necessity of an 
appeal to them for the cash to make good the ex- 
pected deficit, which, however, never came. No 
bonus was received to bind the editor or compromise 
his independence. There were no suspicions, as in 
times past, of the paper being the organ of any 
clique, land association, or scheme to swindle the 
public, and what was better than all, the ledger 
showed a balance on the right side. It is said that 
it is the only paper in Santa Barbara that has ever 
paid. The business prospered until new type, new 
machinerj', and material were necessary. Mc, as he 
is familiarly called, is a hard worker. If anybody 
can work eighteen hours out of the twenty it is he. 
When thelastline of proof had been read and thedaily 
publication taken off of his mind, then he turned to 
the project of train telegraphy. When all Santa Bar- 
bara was asleep, he was poring over the books in 
which the scanty knowledge of electricity was found, 
and when day by day, night by night, one after 
another of the necessarj' conditions were worked out 
and the project of telegraphing to and from moving 
trains became probable, how reluctantly he left the 
studio to snatch that minimum of sleep which his own 
experience had taught him was necessary for mental 

The in ichine was wrought out and tested on the 
rails of the Cential Pacific near San Francisco, and a 
message, the first ever sent from a moving train, for- 
warded to his wife, she who had been to him almost 
a source of inspiration when all the papers were rid- 
iculing the idea as visionary. Those who have never 

triumphed over the forces of nature and the doubt- 
ing sneers of an incredulous public, can form no idea 
of the sublime pleasure of such a moment. 

The immense importance of the discovery can 
only be conjectured. If the machine can be made to 
work on long lines, as on short ones, Mr. McGlashan 
may live at rest, if such a thing is possible for him, 
the rest of his days. The general principle may be 
easily understood though the machinery is too com- 
plex to be understood without a drawing. The fol- 
lowing diagram will perhaps help to form an idea of 


Let A and B represent two wires at the same height, 
running along near a railroad track, mounted on 
insulators. These wires maybe ten, twenty or thirty 
miles long, a half inch in diameter, and perhaps a 
foot apart. The wire marked A is connected with 
the battery at A, and is insulated everywhere else. 
The B wire is connected with a battery at B, or car- 
ried in the ground, and is also insulated at all other 
points. It will readily be seen that if a truck is 
made to run over these wires at any point between 
A and B. the two points A and B will be in contact. 
But the truck is composed of two parts, separated by 
insulation, and here is the merit of the invention. 
The two parts are connected by a wire which passes 
through the writing machine in the car running at the 
same rate of speed as the truck, and thus the train is 
in telegraphic communication with A and B. 

It will readily be seen that though two wires are 
up, the portions of each wire from the connecting 
truck towards the insulated part are not used, thus 
making the wii'e in use just the length of one wire. 
The machinery to put this principle in practice is 
complicated, and is necessary to make the workings 
practical over crossings, turnouts, switches, past 
depots, and stations, with which communication 
must be kept up. 

The skill of able railroad men and machinists will 
undoubtedly help work out the problem. The Penn- 
sylvania Central has put their machine shops at his 
service for any work which he wishes done. Rail- 
road men generally through the United States man- 
ifest much interest in the discovery. 

Mr. McGlashan has always a pleasant word for his 
numerous friends. He is possessed of a splendid 
physique, and but for a rigid determination to do 
three men's work, would enjoy the best of health. 

He is fond of society, takes part in musical festi- 
vals, and all other meetings tending to promote 
social intercourse. He is fond of the woods, mount- 
ains, and streams, and will often trench on his sleep- 
ing hours, getting up early in the morning, and 
walk several miles to surprise game at their sunrise 
haunts. The Santa Barbara people will miss his 
pleasant companionship. 



The San Francisco Chronicle and other eit_y papera 
took up the matter, and showed that while the whole 
real estate in Santa Barbara was assessed at S""5,8()4, 
a sinj^le estate (the Petroleum Company's) was held 
at $2,000,000. A correspondent taking the whole 
assessments under consideration, proved that the 
forty-five small owners paid on 12,802 acres eighty 
times as much per acre as the lai-ge holders. 

The following article, reprinted from the working- 
man's paper at San Francisco, aii)icarcd in the Times 
of ^ray 25, 1870:— 

• We aflarm that in Santa Barbara County, as else- 
where, it has been the custom of Assessors to rate 
the lands of monopoli.sts at ten cents per acre, or 
some other such nominal sum, while the same quality 
of land belonging to a ftirmer was assessed at 815. 00 
to 820.00 per acre. In these localities the large land- 
holdei's, at convention or election times, will trade off 
every other candidate for the Assessor, in order to 
escape equitable taxation, and the scoundrel wretch 
elected under such patronage is in duty bound to 
perjure his soul, and oppress the poor b_y taxing them 
to the utmost farthing, and suffering the rich to go 

'■ . . If the laud-sharkf) continue their depredations 
and annoyances, the settlers ought to take them out 
to the woods, together with their own shyster abet- 
tors and advising confederates, and hang and have 
done with them. Nothing less fei-vid than the flames 
of hell should be the portion of the scheming villain 
who, through the tricks and technicalities of the law, 
would unhouse and expel the industrious settler and 
his family, driving them forth houseless, homeless, in 
the unspeakable desolation and deeper-than-midnight 
gloom of despair, cursing the demon-like cruelty of 
man and repining at the seeming forgetfuluess of 

The Times generally denounced the unequal assess- 
ments; the Press, on the contrary, approved of the 
existing rates, as the Times said, in the interest of 
the big landholders. It was shown in hundreds of 
instances that land was sold for four, ten, and twenty 
times its assessed value. In one instance land was 
sold for $100, when it paid taxes at a valuation of 
82.75 per acre. 

Sturgeon, under the nom de plume of - El Cabo,'' 
stirred up so much feeling by newspaper articles that 
the assessments of large tracts in 1870 were neai-ly 
double what they were the year before. 


(" Post," May 5, 1869.) 

On Friday evening last, Mr. William Hampton, 
who resides on the north side of the San Marcos 
Mountains, about fifteen miles from this place, killed 
a young bear near his home, and on turning around 
found himself, with his gun empty, in rather dis- 
agreeable proximity to the old bear. Thinking dis- 
cretion the better part of valor, he quietly withdrew 
and made moderate time for his house, forgetting, in 
his thoughts for personal safety, the bear that he 
had shot. Next morning, accompanied by bis part- 

ner and a dog, he returned to the place to find the 
dead bear, hoping, also, to meet the living one. IIo 
was met by the infuriated beast, who had roraaiiiod 
by the cub during the night. The bear overturned 
him before he had a chance to use his gun, and com- 
menced mangling Mr. Hampton at a rate that would 
soon have reduced him to fragments. To make mat- 
tors still worse his partner's gun, placed against the 
bear's head, failed to explode. The dog, a large one, 
however, made such an attack in the rear that the 
bear let go the man to attend to his new enom}', 
giving the man a chance to haul off for repairs. Mr. 
H. was able to ride to town, and is in a fair way of 
recovery. Does not care to meet the animal again. 

I Santa Barbara Papers.] 

An enormous bear had been preying upon the 
stock around Montecito for years, the damaga being 
estimated at upwards of 81,000. Large rewards 
were offered for his destruction, but he eluded traps 
and poison, and seemed invulnerable to bullets, until 
July 17, 1873, he was slain by Callis and Hubbard, 
of Carpenteria. He weighed over 1,000 pounds. 

Bears are so destructive at Montecito that the 
citizens have offered a reward of |50.00 for every 
one killed within certain limits of the town. 

A bear at the Lone Tree Ranch, at Santa Rita, 
visited the house and drove the inmates up a ladder 
After looking around at things he left. 

Signal, April 29, 1871, says that wild animals are 
so abundant in the mountains as to make the country 
practically useless for grazing. 


The loose way in which county business was trans- 
acted has often been referred to. W. T. Williams, 
District Attorney, discovered an appropriation or 
retention of funds not wan-anted by law on the part 
of the District Judge, Pablo de la Guerra, and the 
Clerk of the Court, F. A. Thompson, and had them 
brought before Justice H. G. Crane for preliminary 
examination. C. E. Huse, A. Packard, and Judge 
de la Guerra himself were sworn. The testimony 
elicited the facts that some of the fees were paid to 
the Judge, but that the most of them were retained 
by the Clerk and not accounted for. It was apparent, 
also, that those which the Judge received were net 
charged to him when he drew his salary, so that all 
the fees were nearlj' unaccounted for. The examina- 
tion lasted several days. 

Judge Crane held Thompson to answer before the 
Grand Juiy in the sum of §1,000. A writ of habeas 
corpus was sued out before Judge Maguire, returnable 
on Tuesday, February 19, 1872. 

Judge Maguire said that he had spent some hours 
in examining the testimony taken before the Justice 
of the Peace, and that it was not necessary to 
repeat it. 

Judge Feraald, for defendant, claimed that no 



money as fees had been proved as received; that no 
defalcation could lie until District Attorney Williaitis 
showed receipts for $192; thought the whole exam- 
ination was a fraud; that the acquittal of the defend- 
ant was a foregone conclusion. A dispatch was 
produced from the Controller's office in Sacramento, 
that no money had been deducted from the salary of 
Judge de la Guerra on account of fees. Fernald 
denied any importance to the dispatch; that it was 
not sworn to; that it was not even known that he 
was a Clerk in the office. 

Judge Maguire said the accounts of the Clerk were 
evidently loosely kept. Some litigants had paid in 
advance, and others not at all. He I'emarked that 
the Clerk was a long-time friend, but that setting as 
a Judge he knew no friends, no enemies; but must 
conclude that after a thorough "examination of the 
testimony he could not hold'the defendant to answer, 
and ordered him to be discharged. 

The following scene occurred (according to the 
Times) at the close: — 

Fernald: "Thank God! Justice at last." 

District Attorney Williams: "Well, 1 presume this 
don't prevent the next Grand Jury from opening the 

Judge Maguire: "Mr. District Attorney, you will 
please not interrupt me until I have' finished my 

District Attorney: " I presume you won't place an 
injunction on the next Grand Jury's taking up the 

Mr. Fernald: "I except to this kind of interrup- 
tion from counsel." 

District Attorney: "You can except, as much as 
you please under the protection of the court, but you 
can't go outside and except." 

Mr. Fernald (demonstratively): "You may be a 
big man, Mr. Williams." (Here Sheriff Porter seized 
Mr. Williams, who was approaching Fernald, who 
also appeared belligerent. Judge Maguire called 
Williams to order without avail, and the Sheriff tried 
to push him into a chair.) 

District Attorney to Sheriff: "Why not sieze him 
(pointing to Fernald). He raised his cane to sti-ike 

Judge Maguire: "Mr. Williams, you are not now 
before a Justice of the Peace. I order you to keep 
the peace, or I will place you under arrest." 

Mr. Williams insisted on the other man being 
taken into custody too, referring to Fernald. 

Deputy Sheriff Ames: " I have him in charge; he's 
all right." 

Order was finally restored, and peace returned to 
bless Santa Barbara. 

The whole affair seemed to involve but $192, the 
most of which Frank A. Thompson had dropped 
into his pocket without giving it further thought. 

Judge de la Guerra acknowledged having received 
money to a trifling amount, how much, or how little, 

he could not tell, as he had made no account of it. 
It was very annoying to him iindoubtedly, but the 
manly way in which he confessed his carelessness 
endeai-ed him to the people, who would have par- 
doned a much greater matter in one so thoroughly 
upright and honest. 


It was early foreseen that the incorporation of the 
southeastern part of the county into a new body 
was a probable event. It seemed to be separated 
from the rest of the county by high mountains, 
which came boldly down to the sea, making commu- 
nication at times very difficult. There was ample 
territory' of fertile land, which was fast being settled 
up. The project, of course, was not well received by 
the western part of the county. The Supervisors 
issued a remonstrance in the following words : — 


Office of Board of Supervisors J .^^,,^^ ^^^^ 
Of Santa Barbara County. j ' 

Whereas a Bill has lately been introduced in the 
Assembly of this State to divide the county of Santa 
Barbara, and to form a new county to be called 
" Ventura," to be composed of the first township of 
this county. 

Be it Resolved, That in the unanimous opinion of 
this Board, the proposed division would result very 
disastrously to the general interests of the whole 
countj^, as well as to the district proposed to be segre- 

1. By subjecting the few property owners of said 
district to an onerous taxation for the support of 
the machinery of a new county government, namely, 
from 130,000 to $40,000 per annum, to be raised from 
a population of about 2,000, including men, women, 
and children. 

2. In, that the balance of the county likewise will be 
subject to a much heavier taxation than at present 
inasmuch as the expenditures woiild be materially 
unchanged, and the same amount would necessarily 
have to be raised from a much less amount of prop- 
erty, and, in that the county is already encumbered 
with arrears to the amount of $30,000. 

3. In, that the heavy taxation would necessarily 
cripple the agricultural and other interests which are 
but lately begun, and are struggling against the dis- 
appointments and irreti'ievable losses resulting from 
the hitherto unfavorable, and yet critical season. 
That the owners of a large amount of the taxable 
property of the section sought to be cut off from the 
count}', and who, according to the best information of 
this Board, being nearly the whole of the tax-payers 
of the balance of this county (being in effect more 
than three-fourths in amount of all the tax-payers of 
Santa Barbara) are strongly opposed to the attempted 
division. That in accordance with the requirements 
of the law, the tax levy for the fiscal year of 1870, 
should be made before the first day of March. This 


Board has been cmnju'lleii to fix, and has already 
fixed the rate of tax, based upon the assessed valu- 
ation of the total real and personal pi'operty in the 
whole count}'; that such rate is barely sufficient in 
the judgment of the Board, to meet the necessary 
county expenditures; that the withdrawal of a large 
part of such assessed property will cause the revenue 
of the county to fall far short of its expenditures, and 
seriously clog the administration of its affairs; that 
any disturbance of such levy maj' endanger its legal- 
ity, occasion litigation, and throw the finances of the 
county into confusion. 

Reso'oed, that it is our duty as public officers, rep- 
resenting the whole county, to remonstrate, as we 
here do, against the passage of sa d bill, and to pre- 
sent the foregoing to the Honorable Senate and 
Assembly of the State of California, for their con- 
sideration. (Signed) 

Antonio Ma. de la Guerra. 
Supervisor of Second District, President. 
Thomas R. Bard, 

Supervisor of First District. 
Thomas B. Dibblee, 

Supervisor of Third District. 

dibblee's report. 

The undersigned, who was requested by the Board 
of Supervisors of Santa Barbara Count}-, to furnish 
a statement of certain facts applicable to the question 
of a division of this county, to be appended to the 
resolution of the Board in the above matter, presents 
the following: — 

Total amount of tax of Santa Barbara County per 
assessment roll of 18139, and necessary for State and 
County purposes, for present fiscal j'ear of 18G9-70, 
$47,608, of which tax the amount assessed in prop- 
erty in first Township (the section proposed as a new 
county) has con«i lerably less than one-third, namely, 
about $13,400. 

Total number of names registered in the county 
up to January 1, 1870, was l,fi25. of which number 
there is in the said Township 469. 

N. B. Many of these are names of transient per- 
sons who have removed from the county. 

Total number of votes cast in this county at the 
last general election 1,177, of which number there 
were in the first Township 382. 

Population of Assembly District, composed of San 
Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties, 11.000 to 

Population of first Township of Santa Barbara 
County (the proposed new county now demanding 
for itself in the Bill one member of Assembl}') 1.900 
to 2,000. 

Distance from Santa Barbara, the countj'-seat of 
the present county, from San Buenaventura, named 
as county seat of the proposed new county, twenty- 
seven miles, with regular daily mail stage each way; 
traveling time, 4J to five hours. 

(Signed) Thomas B. Dibblee. 

xtensively circulated 
ed the following .sig- 

A romonsl ranee was 
through the county, and 
natures: — 

James L. Oi-d, Charles Fernald, M. 11. Biggs, 
Samuel Levy, Albert F. Thompson, S. B. Brinkerhotf, 
Ben S. Rowe, John C. Fairbanks, S. U. (Cohens, Geo. 
P. Tebbetts, J. E. Goux, C. H. Bates, Gaspar Orerta, 
F. A. Thompson, C. A. Thompson, H. Cook, Clarence 
Gray, C. J. Shaw; Thomas B. Dibblee and Antonio 
Maria dela Guerra, Supervisors; J. B. Ashley, M.Kahn, 
Henry Carnes, D. S. Sebendeller, C^as. Kundel, Geo. B. 
Childs, E. Van Valkenberg. C. W. Shaw, F. D. 
Havens, H. H. Linville, A. A. Cranston, W. W. Fur- 
long, C. M. Opdyke, James Ward, Robert P. Nash, A. 
L. Packard, D. Flaying, M. J. Woodles, P. J. Barber, 
F. T. Hare, S. E. Bisbey, Wm. A. Streeter, S. R. I. 
Sturgeon, M. Harlow, A. Packard, Richard King, E. 
S. Lowrej-, Geo. Hernster, John Scollan, J. H. Brad- 
ley, H. H. Snow, J. E. Orr, N. M. Jones, G. W. 
Leland, James Kays, S. H. Olmstead, E. Bodio, J. B. 
Shaw, Charles Gilman, W. E. Greenwell, Newton' M. 
Coates, Chas. C. Chamberlain, Jose M. Loureyro, T. 
Wallace More, Cyrus Marshall, Crowson Smith, Wm. 
McCloud, Michel Wurch, Robert M. Smith, Silas 
Bond, A. L. Follet, F. B. Brown, A. W. Russel, 
Alfred Davis, M. O. Hanimar, E. H. McCulley, J. C. 
Townsend, W. R. Gift, John IL Neale, Wm. H. Nor- 
way, Thos. G. Williams, H. G. Crane, L. W. Musick, 

C. E. Alvord, J. J. Ryle, Wm. H. Johnson, John C. 
Kays, Wm. W. Hollister, S. Martin, L. Conklin, E. 
B. Boust, John P.Stearns, T. M. Lewis, J. J. Elizalde, 
Russel Heath, A. Warner Rose, Henry J. Dully, C. 
J. Weldon, T. B. Curley, C. E. Ablett, M. D. Lane, 
P. Y. Cool, John O. Pierce, J. C. Fruchey, Samuel 
Brownhart, S. G. C. Willett, W. H. Wallace, Wm. R. 
Thompson, J. S. Roberts, Isaac Ferguson, W. W. 
Haynes, D. M. Rice, A. W. Williams, J. Dunshee, 
Thomas Williamson, Pedro Lugo, C. C. Rynerson, 

D. C. Maxfield, John Shields, B. W. C. Brown, D. W^ 
Thompson, P. Varnum, Robert B. Ord, M. T. Hig- 
gins, I. N. Caldwell, Peter Davis, Albert Dot}-, John 
Saunders, James Logan, F. Cooley, J. B. Wentling, 
James B. Freer, A. Hopper, Sevier Stringfield, J. C. 
Hamer, M. B. Keep, J. H. Summers, B. Gutierrez, 
J. A. Nelson, F. J. Maguire, Francisco V. Carrillo, 
J. W. Eames, Charles E. Huse, L. Kohn, Jose Loron- 
zana, Ramon Gonzales, Jose Lobero, H. B. Blake, 
O. N. Ames, Jose Gallego, A. P. More, J. Broadbent, 
J. Hanford, D. W. ap Jones, II. G. Trussell, E. Cov- 
ert, F. W. Frost, Ben Burton, J. S. Bell, Ramon J. 
Hill. P. F. .Vubrey, James W. Burke. 


One of the results of the Americanization of Santa 
Barbara was the creation of schools which increased 
faster even than the population. Schools were estab- 
lished or had an existence in Santa Barbara and San 
Buenaventura in Spanish times. It is said that not 
one scholar in the San Buenaventura school could 
read, and that the teacher, who was from Chili, 



thought the largest river in the world was a little 
stream in Chili, which was but a little larger than 
the Ventura River. The following school districts 
were organized soon after the American Occupation; — 
Santa Clara Valley, August 13, 1868; Springville, 
November 10, 1868; Santa Paula, August 3, 1869; 
San Pedro (near New Jerusalem), August 5, 1869; 
Ojai Ranch, August 5, 1869; Santa Maria, September 
23, 1869; Los Alamos, September 23, 1869; Pedregosa 
(Hope District), December 22, 1869; Briggs (part of 
Santa Paula), February 8, 1870; Live Oak, May 3, 
1870; Pine Grove, September 3, 1870; Las Cruces, 
November 1, 1870; Sespi, November 7, 1870; Ocean, 
December 19, 1870. 


Among all the names of distinguished persons who 
have been connected with the history of Califoi'nia 
during the last half ceiitury, his stands pre-eminent 
for ability, character, and a happy influence. Whether 
we consider him as a member of a family who were 
almost hereditary rulers, settling the difiiculties of 
neighbors and friends, who instinctively turned to 
him for counsel; as interposing between a proud but 
humiliated people and their conquerors, counseling a 
peaceable and respectful submission on the one hand 
and a moderate and considerate course on the other; 
as a member of Legislative bodies, framing constitu- 
tions and laws or acting as a presiding officer and 
guiding their deliberations, or as sitting as magistrate 
in the highest courts, expounding the law and admin- 

istering justice, we find him equal to any emergency 
in which he was placed, retaining, unimpaired, the 
confidence of the people in his ability and integrity 
to the end. 

He was born in Santa Barbara November 29, 1819. 
His father was Don Jose Antonio de la Guerra y 
Noriega, who was at that time in command of the 
Presidio of Santa Barbara. He was educated at 
Monterey by the fathers of the Catholic Church, and 
while at that place held the oflSce of Surveyor of 
Customs. Some years later, when California had 
become a Territory of the United States, he was 
elected a delegate from Santa Barbara to organize a 
State Government. He was successively United 
States Marshal for the Southern District of Califor- 
nia, Judge of the First Instance, and Mayor of the 
city of Santa Barbara, State Senator during four 
successive terms, President of the California Senate, 
and Lieutenant-Governor, and was elected Judge of 
the First Judicial District of California, then com- 
prising the counties of San Diego, Los Angeles, Santa 
Barbara, and San Luis Obispo. When the Second 
Judicial District was created out of the northern part 
of the First, he was elected the first Judge, which 
office he held until the progress of a fatal disease 
compelled him to resign. 

Don Pablo de la Guerra, perhaps, exerted a greater 
influence over his countrymen than any of the native 
Californians. His unselfishness, generosity, charity, 
liberality of opinion, and unswerving honesty, with the 
inherited prestige of family, which, with the Spanish 
population, is a power unknown in other races, made 
him the natural counselor and father of all who came 
in connection with him. 

The influence which he exerted during our late 
Civil War, in moulding the native population into 
advocates and defenders of the Union, more than 
anything else, endeared him to the American popula- 
tian. When Southern California seemed ripe to fall 
into the Confederacy, he came to its rescue. Though 
promises of place and power were made him if he 
would turn his friends and countrymen towards dis- 
union, he remained true, and to his and his familj's 
influence is due the fact that Southern Califoi'nia 
became a bulwark of defense. His family raised and 
officered a company of cavalry, wliicli did effective 
service on the frontier in resisting the Indians. 

As a judge his rulings and decisions were such as 
to win the respect of litigants and attorneys. His 
name is frequent in all the history of Santa Barbara 
to the time of his death, which Dccurred February 5, 
1874. His health had been faiiini;- for some time 
and he had been to some extent unable to perform 
the duties incident to the office. When the report 
of his death reached the Capitol, the Hon. Philip 
Roach arose in his place and addressed the Senate 
as follows: — 

"Mr. President: 1 have just received a telegram, 
directed to Lieutenant-Governor Pacheco, announcing 


the death of Don Pablo do hi Guorra, at his hUo 
home in Santa Barbara. The deceased was a gen- 
tleman whose career was intimately connected with 
the early history of California. He was a repre- 
sentative of the Spanish-American population of our 
State, and from the time of the acquisition of Califor- 
nia bj' our Government until the time of his decease 
he had filled manj' positions of honor and trust by 
their election. He was a man of fine education, of 
the most courteous manner, and possessed of such 
advantages of person as to command the respect of 
all who knew him. For the past twenty-five years 
his life had been spent in the public service. 

On the great questions of the day, which in that 
period of our history occupied the public attention, 
Senator de la Guerra displayed great ability, judg- 
ment, and knowledge of the science of government. 
He spoke our language with fluency, though with an 
accent that proclaimed that it was not his mother 
tongue; yet its liquid softness and his choice of 
words caused the Senate-chamber to be filled with 
an admiring audience whenever it was known that 
he would speak on an important question. In 1863 
he was elected District Judge of Santa Barbara Dis- 
trict, which office he held until a few weeks ago, 
when illness compelled him to resign. He died on 
the 5th day of February, 1874, aged 55 yeai's. He 
leaves a widow and four children to lament his loss, 
and he leaves to the people of California, whom he 
served so faithfully and long in various capacities, 
the memory of his stainless record as a public man. 
In moving that when we adjourn we do so in respect 
to the memorj^ of Don Pablo de la Guerra (it is an 
homage due to official uprightness of character), as 
a proof of sympathy for his family and friends, and 
as an evidence of our desire to honor the memory of 
a man who was regarded as the representative of the 
native California population." 

The following from the Times, a Santa Barbara 
newspaper, will give an idea of the universal respect 
entertained for him by the people: — 


"A great tribute was paid to the memory of the 
late Don Pablo de la Guerra by our citizens, who 
attended in great numbers his obsequies on Sundaj' 

■ Never has such a throng gathered in Santa Bar- 
b:ira to pay the last mark of respect to a fellow- 
citizen. It is estimated that at least 2,000 persons 
had assembled to attend the funeral — not drawn by 
curiosity, but by a desire to show their regret at the 
loss to the community of a distinguished, honorable, 
and upright man, and the respect they held for his 

" The procession formed under the directions of our 
Sheriff, N. A. Covarrubias, at ten o'clock Sunday 
morning, in front of the late residence of the de- 
ceased. The pall-bearers were chosen from members 
of the bar, and consisted of the following gentlemen: 
F. J. Maguire, Chas. Fernald, J. H. Kincaid, E. M. 
Dillard, Clarence Grav, Jarrett T. Richards, and 
Thos. McNulta. 

" The remains, encased in a metallic coffin, upon 
which was a silver tablet giving the name, time of 
birth, and death of the deceased, were placed in an 
open wagon and covered with the American flag. 
The following is an outline of the funeral cortege: 
First, Lobero s band in uniform; second the priests in 
their robes, the sisters of charity, and the orphans; 
third, the hearse and the pall-bearers, who wore 

white sashes trimmed with crape; fourth, the mem- 
bers of the medical and legal ])rofessions; fifth, the 
family and relatives of the deceased; sixth, the mem- 
bers of the press, and lastlv, the friends and acquaint- 
ances of the deceased. 

•■The ])rocession was very imposing, and the 
funeral march was very solemn. At the chapel the 
usual services were had, which lasted about ten 
minutes, and the remains were then taken to the 
mission. The whole plain between the mission and 
town was dotted with pedestrians and carriages; 
hundreds followed the remains on foot. The view of 
the great moving throng from the mission steps was 
most picturesque. The whole scene was wonderfully 
impressive. The remaiits were taken into the Mis- 
sion Church, where a solemn requiem mass was 
celebrated. The church presented a beautiful, sug- 
gestive appearance. The pillars were draped in 
mourning, memorial festoons fell from the ceiling to 
numerous chandeliers; the altars, as well as every 
part of the church, were brilliantly illuminated with 
candles. In the center of the church a large cata- 
falque had been erected, blazing with numbers of 
lights, in front of which the coffin rested during the 
service.. After mass the remains were entombed in 
the family vault beneath the church. 

"Everyone seemed deeply impressed by the serv- 
ices. The grief of the I'clatives of the departed 
one, rendered doubly intense bj' the solemnity of the 
obsequies, was sad to behold, and moved many a 
heart among the witnesses of the ceremonies. 

" This tribute of our people to the memory of the 
deceased, and their S3'mpathy expressed towards the 
bereaved ones, wi'!, in the future, be a source of 
great comfort and gratification to Don Pablo's afflicted 
famil}' and friends.'' 

Southern Pacific — llailriad Meet iig .January 5, 1S70 — Numbers 
of Railroad Projects — Amliitious Towns — Itailroad Meet- 
ings — Failure Indicated — \Var Between the Press and Tunes 
^Opposition — Dr. Shaw Vindicated — What No Railroad 
Means— Before the Supervisors, September, 1872— End of 
the Railroad Project— HoUister to the Front— Huse to the 
Front — ^.Sarcastic on Santa Barbara — Whoop 'em up Lively 
— Defeat of the Subsiily — New Efforts for a— Change 
of Base— /n'/fx, June 9, 1S74— Railroad Meeting in the City 
Hall— Meeting of February 5, 1876— Railroad Bill— Board 
of Supervisors — Fourth Effort. 

Although no great lines traverse the county, there 
has been, to use a Western phrase, " a heap " of talk 
and fight over the building of railroads, involving a 
great deal of effort. Even as a failure it was a 
credit to Santa Barbara, and can no more be left out 
of its history than other things which have resulted 
in success. 

With the coming of the Americans in numbers 
came the project for a railroad. As early as 1868 
the subject was agitated among the business men, 
and the benefits of a railroad communication to 
other })arts of the world fully understood. In 
Januarj-. 18(58, the matter began to assume shape, 
and an application to Congress was made for a charter 
to build a coast road and also asking for a donation of 



land along the line of the route. The grant was made 
to the "Santa Barbara Branch of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad," and named James B. Shaw, Thomas B. 
Dibblee, Pablo de la Guerra, Francisco de la Guerra, 
Thomas W. Moore, James L. Ord, John SeoUan, 
Walter Murray, Jesse D. Carr, B. B. Boust, O. L. 
Abbott, M. H. Biggs, B. Yan Yalkenberg, Antonio 
Maria Gutierrez, M. M. Kiraberly, Marcus Harloe, F. 
A. Thompson, Robert Ord, Miguel Smith, Baseom 
Williams, Gaspar Orena, N. B. Jacobs, Livingston 
McGowan, Robert Gushing, William B. Hyde, J. G. 
Foster, David R. Patten, William P. Bagley, and 
Richard 0. Kirby as incorporators. It granted the 
right of way for 200 feet wide, also the right to take 
timber, earth, stone, or other material from the public 
lands for the construction of the road, necessary ground 
for turn-tables, switches, work-shops, and stations; 
also every alternate odd section of public land for ten 
miles on each side of the road (not mineral) between 
Santa Barbara and the junction of the branch to the 
main line in Tulare County. The word " mineral" 
not to include iron, coal, or asphaltum; and provided 
that the lands granted should be sold to actual settlers 
in quantities not exceeding 160 acres, at prices to be 
fixed by the company, not exceeding $2.50 pev acre; 
that patents for said lands should issue as fast as the 
road in ten-mile sections should be completed. 


About the time the Central Pacific was completed 
the same company proposed to build a road from 
their own line to the Colorado River, to intersect 
some of the roads which were projected to cross the 
Colorado River into California. This road was the 
one which eventually swallowed all the others, and 
defeated the hopes of Santa Barbara of being either 
a railroad terminus or of being on the line of a trans- 
continental road. In the strife which ensued the 
reader will have no difficulty in perceiving the 
agency of the Central Pacific shaping things to their 
own ends. It was to this company, when it first 
projected the Southern Pacific, that Santa Barbara 
addressed itself When the route up the San Joaquin 
Valley was determined on by them, a junction with 
them east of Santa Barbara was sought for, and 
several meetings held to consider the project. 


January 5, 1870, a letter was read from Dr. J. B 
Shaw offering the right of way through his land. 
Charles Fernald, Thomas B. Dibblee, and S. B. 
Brinkerhoff were appointed to draft resolutions ex- 
pressive of the sense of the meeting. 

The committee appointed at a meeting of the citi- 
zens of Santa Barbara, held at the Court House on 
the 5th day of January, 1870, pursuant to public 
notice, for the purpose of considering the subject of 
the construction of a railroad through this county, 
having deliberated upon the matter, recommend the 
following resolutions as expressive of their views. 

and, in their belief, of the views of all the intelligent 
men of this county: — 

Resohed, 1st. That the rapidly-increasing popula- 
tion of this county, and the development of its great 
agricultural resources, require the speedy construc- 
tion of a coast railroad through this county. 

2d. That in aid of the construction of such road 
to connect us with San Francisco and the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, the county of Santa Barbara be 
authorized, by an act of the Legislature at its pres- 
ent session, to subscribe to the capital stock of such 
railroad at lea^t $500,000, gold coin of the United 
States; and that it pay such subscription with bonds 
bearing seven per cent, per annum interest, payable 
in gold twenty years after their issue. 

And, whereas, some of the largest land-holders in 
this county have, at this meeting, expressed their 
willingness to donate to said railroad the right of 
way through their lands, and so much as is necessary 
for depots, stations, etc., and also to donate tracts of 
land along the line of said road, in aid of its con- 
struction, and to subscribe to its capital stock; 

Resolved, 3d. That all of the land-holders in this 
county be, and they are hereby requested to grant 
the right of way for said road through their lands- 
( Chas. B. Huse, 
I Thomas B. Dibblee, 
Committee, -j Charles Fernald, 
I S. B. Brinkerhoff, 
[Thos. R. Bard. 

Thomas R. Bard, Charles Fernald, and S. B. Brink- 
erhoff were also appointed a committee to confer 
with the Southern Pacific Railroad and inform them 
of the sense of the meeting. 

C. A. Tho.mpson, Secretary. 

[From Bakersfleld " Couvier.") 

The Santa Barbara Index has been publishing a 
series of articles, now reaching the eighteenth num- 
ber, in regard to the " future railroad system of 
Southern California." Among the roads pointed out 
as necessary to be built, and that in course of time is 
certain to be constructed, is one connecting with the 
Southern Pacific Railroad at this point (Bakersfield) 
from Santa Barbara. The length of a practicable 
and easy route is estimated at 100 miles, and the 
advantage to both places is clearly pointed out. 
Santa Barbara having built herself up to the utmost 
extent po.ssible on health, and even gone beyond the 
basis of tangible speculation, now feels the imper- 
ative need of a back country, if a damaging collapse 
is to be avoided. The only way of obtaining it is by 
establishing a connection with this important valley, 
the richest and most extensive in the State, by means 
of the proposed road. It is argued that all our 
import, trade and stock, etc., would seek this as the 
shortest and cheapest route. There is no doubt that 
while such a road would benefit us greatly, it would 
benefit Santa Barbara relatively still more. In fact, 
that place can hardly do without it, while we can. 
As soon as the Southern Pacific crosses Tehachapi, 
the most of our export trade, with the exception of 
wool, for a considerable time at least, will be to the 
immense mining region that borders us on the east. 



and our immediate need of u eonvenieut seaport will 
not be pressing. But, in course of time, as our 
boundless resources develop, a road to Santa Barbara 
will affoi'd a convenient outlet, and, as an opposition, 
serve to keep freights and tares at reasonable figures. 
To Santa Barbara, however, the need of this road is 
great and immediate. It is the only means by which, 
during the life of the present generation, it can con- 
nect with the railroad system of the State, attract a 
trade suffie.ent to sustain real estate valuations and 
its present prominence as a health resort. 


This was about the time of the completion of the 
first line of railroad across the continent by Sanford 
& Company, and when the world began to awake 
to the grand success of what was considered a vis- 
ionary and impracticable scheme, San Diego, Los 
Angeles, and Santa Barbara, as well as other towns, 
immediately became ambitious to become the termini 
of transcontinental roads, and thereby become great 
cities. The plans for Southern California generally 
contemplated a route as far south as the 32d or 
35th parallel. The San Francisco people proposed 
building a road also, which should make that city the 
terminus, and the cities along the coast way-stations. 
The San Francisco project was called the California 
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company. Alvinza 
Hayward, a successful miner, was the President of 
this company. The company contemplated a road 
from St. Louis to San Francisco, intersecting the 
35th parallel, near the Rocky Mountains. 

The report of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad 
reports distances and grades as follows: through 
Missouri, 330 miles; Indian Territory, 389; Texas, 200; 
Kew Mexico, 415; Arizona, 397; California, 656. 
Heaviest grades: In Missouri, near Dixon, 105 feet 
to the mile; Indian Territory, North Fork Canadian 
River, 96 feet; Texas, near the western boundary, 63 
feet; New Mexico, 106 feet; Arizona, 105 feet. The alti- 
tudes in California are Colorado River, 664 feet; 
Cedar Pass, 5,187; Mohave River, 2,400; Summit of 
Soledad Pass, 3,215; at the head of Santa Clara 
River, 1,120; San Buenaventura, 20; Santa Barbara, 
25; San Marcos, 868; Santa Ynez River, 532; Summit 
at Foxens, 1.141; Santa Maria River, 200; San Luis 
Obispo, VM \ >vo Pass, 1,375; Watsonville, 28; 
between Watsonville and Santa Cruz, 400; Santa 
Cruz, 20; Tunnel near Pescadero Creek, 252; San 
Francisco tide water. Total length, 2,017 miles. 

The prospect of being on a through line rather 
than on a branch line, turned the attention of the 
advocates of a road to these companies. 

The Texas Pacific Company proposed to intersect 
the 32d parallel, hence the two roads were some- 
times known as the 32d and 35th parallel. The famous 
Thomas A. Scott, of Pennsylvania, was made Pres- 
ident of the former road, it was supposed on account 
of his oil interests, and became one of the great 
factors in the railroad problem. 


The towns along the coast, Santa Barbara, Los 
Angeles, San Buenaventura, and San Diego, were 
full of advocates for each one as a terminus for a 
continental railroad. Each, like a young girl putting 
on a gay dress and fascinating smile, coquetting 
with the capitalist for the road. Each one, when 
they had a chance, would privately make faces at 
the other, and say "you are no better than you 
ought to be." Santa Barbara did not think much of 
the hai'bor of San Diego; the channel was crooked 
and narrow, the anchorage shallow; could not get in 
or out except at high tide. The country was noth- 
ing but sand any way; no soil, no rain. Los Angeles 
had to lighter the goods and passengers; in a storm 
they could not land at all; the town was a long way 
from the water. Santa Barbara claimed to have the 
best harbor on the coast; would point to the fact that 
vessels were frequently unable to pass the bar at 
San Francisco on account of the swell; that when in, 
a norther would often bump them against the 
wharves, while the Santa Barbara harbor was always 
safe for entrance or anchorage; had the best climate, 
the most fertile soil, and all the accessories for a 
great city. 


A meeting to consider the necessity of giving 
assistance to ^he railroad project, was held May 
18, 1870. Resolutions proffering assistance were 
passed. W. W. Hollister, President; Geo. P. Tebbctts, 
Secretary. Committee on Resolutions, Charles Fer- 
nald. Dr. J. B. Shaw, Capt. W. E. Greenwell, John 
Edwards, W. Delancy, E. N. Woods. 

Resolution 3. That the property-holders and peo- 
ple of Santa Barbara County will, if necessary, grant 
material aid to promote the speedy completion of 
such a railway, if constructed on the line of the 
present survey through the county connecting San 
Francisco with St. Louis and the East. 

The Press warned its readers that raising the price 
of real estate, and then waiting for the road to come 
would not build it. 

May 28, 1872. Adjourned meeting to consider 
railroad matters. Committee of Conference — W. VV. 
Hollister, Geo. Young, James B. Shaw, John Edwards, 

D. W. ap Jones, R. K. Sexton, F. W. Frost. 0. L. 
Abbott, S. C. McKeebey, II. Ghleymer, C. E. Huse, 

E. B. Boust, M. Cook, S. B, Brinkerhoflf, W. E. 
Greenwell, M. H. Biggs, L. Raffour, T. Wallace 
More, D. W. Thompson, Charles Fernald, Russel 
Heath, L. T. Burton, Thos. B. Dibblee, James A. 
Blood, Pablo do la Guerra, J. A. Johnson. 

Resolutions were passed pledging five per cent. Of 
the property of the county. 

The speakers referred to the facts, gcnenillj' mis- 
understood by the people, that Santa Barbara was 
not in a direct line with the pro])osed road; that Tulare 
Valley was the arc, and Santa Barbara the chord; 
that Tulare Valley was mostly level, while this route 



was rough and mountainous; that there was plenty of 
Government land on the other route; none here; that 
to get the road on the longer and rougher route we 
must make a large donation. Mr. Huse expressed 
himself as willing to give half his property to have 
a road through here." 

About this time J. T. Richards became editor of 
the Times. Richards was supposed to be in the 
interest of the Scott road, as was Thomas R. Bard, 
formerly in the employ of Scott, and still manager 
of his vast landed estates. 

TERM, 1872. 

The citizens presented three petitions in favor of 
granting assistance to a railroad company, also one 
to postpone aid. The District Attorney filed opin- 
ions on same. The Board discussed the railroad 
project during the afternoon and drafted a letter to 
A. Hayward, Esq., President of the California Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Railroad Gompanj', and the Clerk was 
instructed to spread the letter at length upon the 
minutes of the Board. 

Office of the Board of Supervisors op Santa '\ 
Barbara Co., Cal. [■ 

Santa Barbara, September 12, 1872. ) 
Alvinza Hayward, President of the Calfor- 
NiA Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, 
San Francisco — Sir: A petition has been filed 
before the Board, signed by some of the members 
of the Railroad Committee, and other residents of 
the count}' of Santa Barbara, asking that there 
may be submitted to the qualified electors of the 
county at the next annual election, the question 
whether this county shall aid in the construction of 
the California Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, by the 
issue of its bonds equal to five per cent, of the value 
of its taxable property in this county, according to 
its valuation on the assessment roll of the fiscal year 
last past, subject to the conditions which may be 
proposed by this Board. We deem it proper to sug- 
gest that 3'our company, if it desires to obtain aid of 
this county in the construction of your road, shall 
prepare a petition and submit it, with your proposi- 
tions as to the conditions on which said aid shall be 
received by your company to this road, in time for 
action thereon on the 4th day of October next. In- 
closed herewith we transmit drafts of the petitions 
referred to, from which you will be enabled to ascer- 
tain the wishes of our people in the premises, and 
the conditions upon which they think it advisable to 
grant any aid to your road. It becomes our dutj', 
oflBcially, to see that proper safeguards are provided 
for the protection of the interests of the county, and 
inasmuch as very little time will be allowed for the 
interchange of ideas as to the proper mode of sub- 
mitting the question of subsidy to our people, we 
desire to say that it will be necessary that your 
proposition and agreements shall be in writing and 
duly executed, so that it shall bo of binding effect 
upon your company in the event that it shall be sat- 
isfactory to us, and in the event that the vote of our 
people shall be favorable thereto. We are of the opin- 
ion that it is necessary that a perfect understanding 
between your company and the Board be arrived at 

before the 5th day of October next, the time limited 
for calling the election. Yours very respectfully, 
Thos. R. Bard, 
[Seal] Thos. W. Moore, 

J no. Edwards. 
Supervisors Santa Barbara Go. 
Attest, F. A. Thompson, Clerk. 
Bj' John C. Platt, Deputy. 

The Supervisors adjourned from day to day to 
receive an answer to their communication. The 
President of the road accredited Mr. Coffin to the 
Supervisors to make all necessary arrangements and 
explanations. The discussions were very lengthy, 
and resulted in divided opinions. 

FAILURE indicated. 

In the Santa Barbara Press of September 7, 1872, 
was the first intimation of the failure of the project 
for building a coast line. The article intimated that 
the Central Pacific Company had probably entered 
into a compromise with T. Scott, in which the latter 
was to connect with the former on the line, by way 
of Bakersfield, the branch road to run from Los 
Angeles via San Diego. 

At a meeting of the Committee of Twenty-six, 
Charles Fernald resigned his position as President. 
It was evident that the committee were not a unit 
on the building of the road, as a proposition to bring 
about a county subsidy was met with much opposi- 
tion. A proposition to make Mr. Richards Chair- 
man was opposed on the ground that he was attorney 
for Scott. 

Three rival roads seem to have claimed the sup- 
port of Santa Barbara; the Colorado and Pacific by 
the Central Pacific Company, the Atlantic and 
Pacific, and the Texas Pacific. The first was pro- 
posing to run through Bakersfield with the main line, 
and reach the coast at San Diego and Los Angeles 
by a branch. The second proposed to run a coast 
line from San Francisco to San Diego, and thence to 
St. Louis. Alvinza Hayward was at the head of this 
company. The Texas and Pacific was supposed to 
be Tom Scott's road. 

The Times announces September 4, 1872, that the 
Press has commenced a daily in the interest of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, advocating an uncondi- 
tional subsidy. From this time it seemed that divided 
counsels governed the people regarding a railroad, 
one party being dominated by Hayward, and the 
other by Tom Scott. 

September 11, 1872. At a meeting of the Twenty- 
six, it was resolved that in case of aid being voted 
to assist in bringing a railroad into the county, and 
that in case the Atlantic and Pacific should fail to 
build the road in consequence of the neglect or 
refusal of San Francisco to denote or subscribe $10,- 
000,000 stock, then Santa Barbara should donate the 
subsidy to any road that should connect the county 
with San Francisco or St. Louis. 

The Signal -AwA Times favored the Tom Scott plan; 
the Press, the Atlantic and Pacific. Tom Scott was held 



up by the Southern California papers as the greatest 
]ihilanthropist and patriot of the ago. 


Did not cease or become less vindictive after J. T. 
Richards took the editorial chair. The Times, Sep- 
tember 14, 1872, said:— 

"lihQ Santa Barbara Press has comniencod a rail- 
road company's dailj'. Its professed politics is Re- 
publican; its religion, uncon<litional aid to the Califor- 
nia Atlantic and Pacific Railroad." 

The Press says, this "glaring falsehood," etc.; 
Mr. Richards ought to be ashamed of himself for 
such unblushing effrontery. But it is in keeping 
with his whole before the committee in which 
he seems to act as if the public were as stupid as he 
is brazen. . . Evidently he has no riiore regard 
for his own word than the people of Santa Barbara 
now have, after his attempt to mislead and frustrate 
them in their efforts to secure a railroad. Profess- 
ing to be a friend to the movement, he yet places 
every conceivable obstacle in the way to prevent the 
necessary action being taken by our citizens in order 
to secure the county against any possible, and at 
the same time secui'e the construction of the road. 

" . . The people have little use for hira or his 
opinions on railrond matters, and if he is the paid 
agent and retainer of Scott, he would do well to 
move his organ down to Hueneme, where Scott's 
legitimate interests lie, and there work for him in a 
manly and open-handed manner." 


In the meeting of the Twenty-six to inaugurate 
measures to vote a subsidy, it was evident that Rich- 
ards, Greenwell, and Dr. Shaw were opposed to the 
Atlantic and Pacific. Richards made a motion to 
adjourn sine die, which was seconded by Gi'ecnwell. 
The motion was lost by an overwhelming vote. 

The petition asked the Supervisors to call an elec- 
tion to determine whether the county would grant 
aid to the amount of five per cent, of its property to 
the construction of a i-ailroad connecting San Fran- 
cisco and St. Louis via Santa Barbara, subject to 
the following conditions: — 

That San Francisco should vote $10,000,000; that 
the proceeds of the bonds should be expended on 
the road within three years; that bonds should issue 
only as the work progressed in the county, and then 
for one-third in stock, not subject to assessment, and 
the balance in preferred stock; that the railroad 
extend to Santa Barbara all the advantages that it 
does to San Francisco, as far as the circumstances 

The I'oute was particularly described. 


Some reflections having been cast on Dr. Shaw for 
the course he took in regard to the Atlantic and 
Pacific Railroad by the Press and Index, the citi- 

zens got up the following testimonial, which was 
extensively signed (published in the Times): — 

•' We, the old residents of Santa Barbara, having 
known for many 3-ears Dr. James B. Shaw, our kind 
physician and good frieml, and hearing tliat he has 
been spoken disrespectfully of by the newspapers, 
the Press and the Index, of Santa Barbara, take the 
occasion to express to him our appreciation of not 
only his many acts of charity to the poor in our 
midst, but his continuous devotion to the interests of 
Santa Barbara, We look upon him as one of our 
people, and hope that his life may be long among us. 
i (Signed) P. Joseph, M. Gonzales, O. S. F., Rev. James 
! Villa, M. H. Biggs, U. Yndart, F. A. Thompson, Fran, 
de la Guoi-ra, B. Gutien-ez, W. E. Greenwell, Charles 
Fernald, J. F. Maguire, J. M. Andonaegui, Gaspar 
Orena, John C. Kaj-s, S. Loomis, R. Forbush, J. E. 
Goux, L. T. Burton, R. M. Wallace, Henry Games, 
Chas. Pierce, John S. Boll, Jose Lobero, N. A. Covar- 
rubias, Arza Porter, John ScoUan, I). W. ap Jones, 
R. Cohen, A. M. de la Guerra, J. J. Alizalde. 

At an adjourned meeting of the Twenty-six, Green- 
well, Shaw, and Richards took strong ground against 
the issuing of bonds, and a sharp discussion took 
place about the condition that the issuing of bonds 
should depend upon San Francisco issuing .$8,000,000 
or more. The measure was opposed by Huse, John- 
son, and others, but was carried by a vote of 8 to 7. 
A motion to adjourn sine die was lost by 4 to 12. 

Richards held several proxies, and a move was 
made that the places of several of the Board who 
were absent be declared vacant; carried, upon which 
the matter of Richards' amendment was taken up 
again, and an uproar succeeded, which ended by 
Greenwell, Shaw, Richards, and Biggs withdrawing. 
A counter petiton was circulated. 

The Times, September 21, 1872, took decided 
ground against the subsidj^ to the California Atlantic 
and Pacific Railroad, and published a dispatch that 
the Supervisors of San Francisco had postponed the 
subject indefinitelj-. 

The action of the Board of Supervisors of San 
Francisco effectually quieted the projects of Califor- 
nia Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The Index, in its 
fourth number, September 21st, significantly asked 
what it meant for Santa Barbara, and answered as 
follows: — 


'■ It means that wo are to live in the half-asleep 
state in which we have lived so far. It means that 
the steady and rapid increase of prices and values of 
real estate, since the prospect of a railroad has been 
taken into account, must now cease with the removal 
of the principal cause and be followed by a decline. 
It means that some of our business men, who are 
working more in hopes of future than for the present 
amount of trade, must suffer loss and anxiety. It 
means that prices of goods and clothing and house- 
hold wares must be higher, while yet profits on them 
are less, owing to decreased demand and lack of 
competition in the carrying trade. It means that, 



with the finest fruit country God ever made, we 
cannot become fruit growers for want of a market, 
easily and speedily accessible. It means that as a 
country we are to remain importers rather than 
exporters — not a prosperous condition. It means 
that we are to continue to sell potatoes during six 
months of plenty, at a cent a pound, and buy them 
back again the next half year at two cents. It means 
that money is to be, as it was before, hard to get 
and harder to keep. It means a loss of 12, 000,000, 
an amount equal to one-third of all our assessed 
propeity, which would have been paid out in our 
county, and mostly to our own people during the 
next three years, but will now go into the pockets of 
farmers and laborers beyond the Coast Range. It 
means that the bustle and business and flush times 
that invariably attend the building of a railroad are 
not for us to enjoy. It means that our chances are 
forever gone of being on a trunk railway between 
the East and the West, and that henceforth our 
ambition can look no higher than to be known as a 
station on some branch road, leading nowhere. It 
means that our prospects for becoming a popular 
place of resort and a great watering place are 
thrown far into the indefinite future. It means that 
the unexampled advertising and prominence our 
vicinity has lately enjoyed throughout the United 
States, in the columns of great newspapers and maga- 
zines, will result in small profit to us, when otherwise 
it would have been worth thousajids of doUai-s to the 
county. . . Is the picture a pleasant one to con- 
template? "What shall we saj' of the men and news- 
papers who cannot conceal their elation at the 

The Press, September 28, 1872, contends that the 
opposion to the California Atlantic and Pacific Rail- 
road was occasioned by the visit of Tom Scott to 
Santa Barbara. 


Colonel Hollister advocated immediate action by 
allowing the peojjle to vote on the question of assist- 
ance. ''No other road will ever be built here. This 
is our onlj' chance." He proposed to adjourn from 
day to day to get an answer from the Directors of 
the company. 

Mr. Fernald: ''.Does not this look like haste? Why 
adjourn from day to day ? Do we propose to tie this 
county to the company? I say, for one, No! Gen- 
tlemen say the people will vote for it. Which com- 
pany, may I ask, does Mr. Coffin represent? Why 
don't he come out and say where he stands? Who are 
his principals ? And what is this company, pray? It 
is a company of speculators and gentleman paupers! 
Alvinza Hayward is a prudent man; has $15,000,000 
invested in mining stocks. Is he going to build this 
road ?" 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, Septem- 
ber 22, 1872, Russel Heath, Colonel Hollister, and 
others urged action favoring a subsidy to the Califor- 
nia Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. Judge fernald 
plead for delay. 

Mr. Heath disclaimed being a lawyer or learned 
man like Judge Fcrnald, but thought he might 
answer some of the objections. 

Did not think Alvinza Hayward a gentleman pau- 
per, nor the Directors in San Francisco, nor the 
Board of fifty Trustees. 

He thought they were men of means. He thought 
the}' owned some 8,000,000 acres of land, which 
would become valuable when the road was built. 
The Directors were among the wealthiest people of 
San Francisco; were by no means paupers. 

" Now consider what Fernald has said about a vote 
of the people on this question. It is with poor grace 
that he sneers at the people and scorns their petition 
for a chance to aid the railroad. Who is he sent here 
to represent? Not the people, but a large bank 
interest. I would like to see the gentleman go 
before the people and say to them what he has said 
here. 1 say this is an uprising of the people, and 
they have a right to be heard. 

" The gentleman says he wants a railroad. If he 
has a proposition for one, if he represents any com- 
pany, let him say so. We are prepared to hear him. 
I am committed to no company, and only ask aid to 
this company because it is the only one that proposes 
to do an^'thing for us. I am ready to work with 
any company that will give us a railroad on fair 
terms, but I believe that Mr. Scott is opposed to the 
only road that ofters us any chance at all, and so I 
say give us the California Atlantic and Pacific 
Road. Does the gentleman say we cannot enter into 
a building contract with this company ? He will not 
take that position for he knows we can, and that we 
are safe in doing so." 

Mr. Fernald: " One word, if you please. I am in 
want of a road so much that I am determined not to 
be committed to any company that can keep us out 
of a road. I now solemnly declare that 1 do not 
represent any company, Scott, Stanford, or any one 
else. Come the charge from where it will, on the 
authority of a citizen or newspaper, i say what I 
say as a citizen. Talk about stock! What an absurd- 
ity! The county can't own stock, as the Bar of this 
State will attest. That won't wash ! It won't hold 
water! If the bonds of the company are worth 
anything, why not sell them? They won't sell for 
two bits a cord! . . I am in favor of a railroad as 
much as any one, but let us not be in haste; there is 
time enough." 

Hollister: " I am free to say that I do not under- 
stand the love of these gentlemen for a railroad. 
They seem to want it very much, but do all they can 
to oppose our getting one. They must love a rail- 
road much as the Fiji Islanders love the mission- 
aries — so well that they kill them and eat them up." 

The coast papers generally were very indignant 
over the pi-oceedings of the Board of Supervisors of 
San Francisco, which virtually killed the coast road. 
One paper, commenting on the opposition to a coast 
line of road, remarked that the engine might disturb 
the slumbers of grizzly bears, which wei'e common 
along the coast. 

The divided opinion regarding the policy of aid- 
ing the California Atlantic and Pacific Railroad 
seemed to have aifected the Supervisors. Some of 
them said they had no right to inaugurate means 
of assistance until the company should ask for it. 
Others thought the bonds might be used to pay 
expenses already accrued without building the road- 


Colonel Hollister aijreed to (.'liter into siifRcieut 
bonds to indemnity the county against all loss in 
the matter. 


The terms propo.sed by the Supervisors in their 
call for a vote on the question of aiding the road 
was such that the friends of the road repudiated it 
in the following address: — 

" To the Voters of the County of Santa Barbara: 
The Citizens' Railroad Committee of Santa Barbara 
County, in view of the changed circumstances for 
the present, in matters pertaining to the ('alifornia 
Atlantic and Pacific trunk line of railroad through 
our county, recommend at the forthcoming election 
that you vote No on the question of subsidj', for 
the following reasons: — 

"The order made by the Board of Supervisors 
ignores the will of the people, as manifested by the 
numerously-signed petitions laid before them, and 
the committee are not prepared to submit to the will 
of three men in opposition to the almost unanimously 
expressed views and opinions of the voters of this 

" Your committee believe that the people should 
be judges in such matters; but the Board of Super- 
visors, disregarding the expressed wishes of the 
voters, have arrogantly and unwarrantably usurped 
the power of constituting themselves the judges of 
what is best for you, and of miking and forcing 
upon you an order for which you did not ]H>tition. 

"We still firmly believe that the thirty-fifth par- 
allel can and will be built. Although our plan for 
aiding this road has been delayed, it has not been 
defeated. On this unsolicitated order of the Board 
of Supervisors, submitted to your suftrages at the 
ensuing election, we most emphatically say, vote no! 
" W. HoLLisTER, Chairman, 
" A. L. Lincoln, Secretary." 

At a meeting of the committee a resolution was 
offered and carried, censuring the Times and approv- 
ing the course of the Pi ess. 


At the fiiial meeting of the Board of Supervisors 
Colonel Hollister addressed them as follows: — 

" Gentlemen of th'- Board of Supervisors: I have 
heard in astonishment the words of this order as 
now read. A plain proposition was presented to 
you in the humble petitions of the California Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Railroad Company, and of j'our 
fellow-citizens. To these petitions you give no heed, 
and, instead, you grant an order which wo do not 
want and for which we do not ask; for which no 
one has asked that I have heard of You put us oft' 
when we came before you a fortnight ago, because 
the railroad company had not presented a petition 
and contract. They now present both. But what 
do you saj'? You otfer us an order which no com- 
pany, not a single citizen, has ever asked, and you 
refuse to grant us what we have been urgiTig and 
entreating you to do. Gentlemen, we have asked 
for bread, and you have given us a stone; we have 
asked for a fish, and you have given us a serpent, a 
huge anaconda, a monster of the monopolies of Scott 
and Stanford stretching from the north to the south 
along this coast, in the coils of which we are to be 
crushed to death, and then swallowed without re- 

morse! Gentlemen, we don't want tiiis order. It is 
death to us. It strangles all our hopes. It denies 
us all our rights. And at whose bidding is it done"/ 
Where is your petition asking for it? Where is j-our 
authority for making such an order "i" Have you any 
law for it? Does any citizi'n here want it?" 

Bard: -The Board has alivady agre.'d (,. this 
order, and it is useless t<i argue upon it." 

Hollister: "Will ycui not ronsent to insert the 
words, 'the California Atlantic ami Pacific, or any 
other railroad company?' ' 

Bard: " We have agreed (o this order as it stands." 

Abbott: " Why not make the order read so as to 
extend the route on to the Needles?" 

" As it now reads it stops on the boundary line of 
the county, about where Stanford's road is to run on 
its course to Los Angeles." 

Bard: "What do you say. Captain Moore, are you 
willing to amend it?" 

Moore: "No; let it stand." 

Bard: " That is all, I believe. The Board may as 
well adjourn." 

Huse: " Before the Board adjourns I would like to 
make one or two inquiries in order to understand the 
matter: Ist. Does the Board absolutely refuse to 
insert anj' words so as to apply this aid to the Cal- 
ifornia Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company? 
2(1. If you refuse to do that will you not insert, 
' and from the line of this county to the Colorado 
River, by route of the 35th parallel?' Now will the 
Board refuse? For what reason? Your order recites 
that the road commences at San Francisco and runs 
down the coast. Why not define its course after it 
leaves this county? Why should the Board be arbi- 
trary about the matter? For whose benefit? It 
seems to me that I am not asking too much of this 
Board. You are our fellow-citizens. You i-eside 
among us and have your own property here. The 
jieople have elected you to promote their prosperity, 
not to defeat it. If you sell it (this county) you will 
l)e.held responsible for it by the people." 

Bard: " I call you to order, sir." 

Moore: "Sit down, sir: you can't address this 
Board in that manner." 

Huse: "My language is proper anil I cannot with- 
draw it. I said, ' (■/" you sell out this county.' Vou 
may do il unadvisedly. I no not charge either of 
you with improper. motives. In this sense, I say we 
shall hold you responsible for j-our action in this 

Mo<ire: "You may go east as far as you have a 
mind to, but we don't want to lie bound to ain' 
company. " 

Hollister: ■• But, Cajitain Moore, that lets in any 
company through our count}* on the line of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Road. That will be f\ital to us. 
No other company can benefit us as much, as any- 
body can see. Our highest hopes will be more than 
realized bj- the construction of the road we are try- 
ing to aid. Now, it will not flo to let in anj- other 



company on their line. Better a thousand times for 
us all to let this fail entirely. Pass this order, and 
you take our weapons away from us. We are then 
entirely at the mercy of Scott and Stanford; but if 
you insert the words, • the California Atlantic and 
Pacific Company,' we are safe." 

Packard: "The Board is not bound to favor one 
company and exclude others." 

HoUister: " The petition is for the California At- 
lantic and Pacific, and none other." 

Packard: "1 thought I was hai-monizing all the 
interests. That is what I am aiming to do. I 
desire to pass an order aiding some road." 

Moore: " We don't want to be bound to any road. 
We are willing to aid the California Atlantic on 
reasonable terms." 

Hollister: " Make your own terms, and j'ou have 
my note and bond for 1300,000 to back the company." 

Packard: "I have a proposition which I would 
like to submit. I think we need not hurry. We 
can't build the road this year, anyway. Let us offer 
the subsidy to any company and make it a gift out- 

Abbott: " Is it not necessary to insert, ' a first-class 
trunk of the usual grade?' We ought to guard our- 
selves against any swindling schemes." 

Edwards: "The gentleman is correct, no doubt. 
The gauge of the road should be inserted." 

Johnson: "Four feet eight inches is the usual 
gauge, or four feet eight inches and a half" 

Bard: "The Clerk will insert the -w^i'ds, 'with a 
gauge of four feet eight and a half inches,' if that is 

Hollister: "This don't protect us. We want a 
trunk line connecting us dii-ectly with the East, on 
the line of the 35th parallel. Aid to any other road 
is a hindrance to this road, which is the only one we 
can offer to aid. We cannot afford to lose this trunk 
road. Better scalp us at once." 

Coffin: " I suppose it is useless to say much more, 
but I admire the easy grace and coolness with which 
the Board has appropriated our route, which has 
cost us thousands of dollars and two years of hard 
toil to survey and locate." 

Huse: "May I inquire if the minutes show how 
the members of the Board voted on the question?" 
Bard: "We have all subscribed to the order." 
Huse: " That don't show. If two voted for it the 
third would sign it. Let the records show how each 
one voted." 

The Board declined to act, and soon after adjourned. 
The Times of October 23, 1872, contained a fanci- 
ful description of the last meeting of the friends of 
the California Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. 


Referring to an article in the Santa Barbara Press, 
on the prospects of having a great city, the Alta 
(S. F.) says:— 

" The Press publishes a long editorial to prove that 

Santa Barbara is to become a great city, notwith- 
standing the opposition of Mr. Scott and Leland 
Stanford, who are supposed to be in terror lest the 
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad should take away their 
occupation. Santa Barbara has no doubt some reason 
for aspiring to a metropolitan position. It has room 
for many houses; clay for bricks can be found in 
abundance at no great distance; water can be stored 
in cisterns; fire-wood can be obtained in large 
quantities from Santa Cruz; an artificial harbor might 
be constructed; railroads could be built across the 
mountains which intersect the county in every direc- 
tion; and there is no law to prevent an inci'ease of 
the population by immigration or otherwise. In 
consideration of these advantages, in addition to the 
unsurpassed salubrity of the climate, we agree with 
the Press that Santa Barbara should become a great 

The Press replied in a column of indignation. As 
an evidence of the crowded state of the hotels, the 
Press, November 9, 1872, appeals to the young busi- 
ness men who have rooms at the hotels to vacate 
them, and take rooms in the outskirts of the town, 
that the numbers of strangers visiting the place 
might not be turned away, especially, as many of 
these strangers were invalids, wha had come a long 

A public meeting was held, and committees ap- 
pointed to secure rooms for strangers, so that it was 
thought 100 more visitors could be accommodated. 
It was proposed to erect a hotel villa, which should 
have a central dining-room and offices, with a number 
of small houses connected by planked walks. This 
could be erected at once so as to accommodate the 
traveling public, until larger hotels could be erected. 
The committee to provide rooms was composed of 
O. L. Abbott, N. W. Winton, R. Bently, J. Phelps, 
D. D.; J. W. Hough, D. D.; Capt. W. H. Johnson, 
G. P. Tebbetts. 

The papers up and down the coast generally com- 
menced the enterprising talk of the Santa Barba- 
renos, and wished them success. The Lompoc Record 
thought a railroad along the coast would treble the 
population in a year, and proportionally enhance 
values. Los Angeles was rather disposed to make 
fun of the matter, and headed an article 
"WHOOP 'em up lively." 

" Santa Barbara has gone into the railroad business 
in a frenzy, and her journals are full of the subject. 
So fervid are their disquisitions that one can almost 
sec the inflamed eye of a locomotive between the 
lines in their newspapers, and hear the snort of the 
iron horse as one unfolds the wrappers. In the 
graceful language which the dilettante editor of 
the Press sometimes permits himself to use, ' Whoop 
'em up.'" 

During the railroad excitement, Tom Scott and his 
party frequently visited Santa Rarbara. His pres- 
ence always created a flutter in the prices of real 



The question of subsidy came before the people, 
and resulted in an overwhelming defeat of the proj- 


ect, the vote standing foi" the subsidy IGS; against, 
1,110. 9 


It was generally understood that the defeat of the 
subsidy was a refusal to aid Scott in a San Diego 
road, and the efforts of newspaper and other advo- 
cates did not end here. Santa Barbai-a was spuukj-, 
and would not give the matter up. The Index wrote 
a series of articles numbering twenty or more, set- 
ting forth the advantages of Santa Barbara as a 
terminal point for a transcontinental road. These 
ett'orts of the Santa Barbara papers were not always 
received in a friendly manner by the coast papers. 

A writer in the Signal, March 14, 1874, comment- 
ing on the articles in the Index concerning Santa 
Barbara as a terminus for a railroad, says: — 

" He evidently thinks that the Atlantic and Pacific 
Company is composed of fools. He {Index man) 
says they (the Atlantic and Pacific Company) will 
build a road from St. Louis, and make Santa Bai-bara 
the terminus; that they will do, notwithstanding the 
first place they touch there is just as good a harbor 
as at Santa Barbara; a flourishing town, and better 
than all an extensive agricultural country to back it; 
that they will ignore the existence of these advan- 
tages, and construct a road thirty miles further up 
the coast, at a cost of not less than $600,000, in order 
to reach the town of Santa Barbara, where there is a 
good climate, no foys, no winds, perpetual sunshine, 
and where no one has died within the memory of the 
oldest inhabitant, and they even have the presum])- 
tion to ask San Francisco to aid them in this matter. 

" This last evidently refers to a proposition made 
in the Inlex to have the railroad terminate at Santa 
Barbara, and connect with San Francisco by a line 
of swift steamers. The Signal thinks that a road 
will be built up the Santa Clara River a distance of 
fortj' miles, within a few years, with or Avithout 


From opposing Tom Scott and his railroad schemes, 
the Press became an advocate of his measures. The 
reason was found in the following telegram: — 

"New York, August 9th. At the reorganization 
of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company to-day, 
Thomas A. Scott was elected President, Andrew 
Pierce, Jr., Vice President and General Manager, and 
Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, Treasurer. John Edgar Thomp- 
son, Thomas A. Scott, Alfred L. Lennis, and David 
Solomon, of the Pennsylvania Railroad, were chosen 
Directors. The election of Scott to the Presidency 
is said to indicate an alliance between the 32d and 
35th parallel transcontinental projects for one line of 
railroad to San Francisco.' 

The Press announced that henceforth they should 
look upon Tom Scott as a friend to Santa Barbara, 
though rather apprehensive that he would build up 
Hueneme rather than Santa Barbara, and pitied San 
Diego. It will be remembered that San Diego was 
to be the terminus of the 32d parallel, or Texas and 
Pacific Road. 

" Poor San Diego! The shadows gather darkness, 
if we read aright the omens. Our predictions con- 
cerning Scott's relations to the Atlantic and Pacific 
Road appear about to come true." 

In the 19th article on railroads the writer says; — 

" We have claimed, and now reiterate it, that Santa 
Barbara a few years hence will be the most impor- 
tant commercial city in Southern ("alifornia. As sure 
as a transcontinental railroail is ever built below the 
snow line, this prediction will be verified. ' But,' we 
hear many say, 'you have no harbor.' We answer 
whether you call our bay a harbor or not, we do not 
care. We have the safest place for transacting com- 
mercial business with sailing and steam vessels there 
is on the Pacific Coast. We make no exception to 
the land-locked bay of San Diego, or even the mag- 
nificent bay of San Francisco. The port of Santa 
Barbara can carry on a large commercial business 
safer and cheaper than can be carried on at San 
Diego, Wilmington, or San Francisco. We assert 
this without fear of successful refutation. Here any 
amount of ocean commerce can be transacted with 
greater safety to vessels and cargoes than at any 
other port on the Pacific Coast. In time, experience, 
and the low insurance on bottoms doing business at 
this port, and on their cargoes, will satisfactorily 
demonstrate the verity of our position beyond cavil. 
. . Here we have no use for tug-boats, or for 
channel pilots, or lighters. The expenses of these 
tug-boats, pilots, and lightei's are not added to the com- 
mercial transactions carried on at the port of Santa 
Barbara. . . Technically, according to a strict 
definition of the word ' harbor' as a nautical, the bay 
of Santa Barbai-a is not a harbor, or place of refuge 
in a storm, because the bay is not closely land-locked. 
But as regards the safety of the vessels at all seasons 
of the year, transacting commercial business, the bay 
of Santa Barbara is a harbor, and is far superior in 
the means of saving vessel and cargo, and in com- 
mercial conveniences, to the best land-locked harbor 
on the Pacific Coast. 

The whole of Santa Barbara channel maj^ be des- 
ignated as a harbor. . . The port of Santa Bar- 
bara is almost land-locked by the islands that inclose 
what is called the Santa Barbara Channel. The 
space between the island of San Miguel and Point 
Concepcion on the main-land is the entrance to this 
channel on the west, while the space between Point 
Conversion and the Anacapa Islands is the entrance 
on the east. Owing to the mountainous character of 
these islands, and also of the main shore, and the 
position of the islands lying, as they now do, in a 
row, and forming a protection against the storm of 
the open ocean, that portion of the sea known as the 
Santa Barbara Channel possesses all the advantages 
of a harbor, and is a harbor in reality. Everj- one 
who comes down the coast and through the channel, 
aboard ship, experiences sensations as the vessel 
rounds Point Concepcion, that he is entering a place 
of safety, a haven of peace, a harbor. He finds 
himself entering another sea, basking under another 
sun, soothed by another climate, and the prow of the 
vessel clearing its way through smoother waters. 
The cold northeast wind ceases, and a gentle, invig- 
orating sea-breeze mingles with a warm southern air, 
and every vo3'ager is stirred with new life and hap- 
pier feelings. During a period of thirty years pre- 
vious to the erection of our first wharf there were 
not twelve consecutive hours that surf-boats could 


not land freight and passengers on the Santa Bar- 
bara beach. 

"Never has a vessel been lost in Santa Barbara 
Channel by stress of weather. A southwestern storm 
is the only one that can effect a vessel in this port. 
These seldom occur. When they are coming the 
barometer gives the hint, and every vessel can run 
for the open channel, or lie under the mountain 
islands on the south of the channel. In all the past 
year there was not one day in which vessels could 
not come into or go out of this port, or lie alongside 
of our wharves, while, during the same time, there 
were a score of days when no vessel could go into or 
out of the bay of San Francisco through the Golden 

In the concluding number of the articles on the 
transcontinental railroad, the author suras up the 
reasons for constructing the Atlantic and Pacific as 
follows: — 

1st. It avoids the snow that blockades the Central 
Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads, and the expense 
of snow-sheds. 

2d. It avoids the blockade of the moving sand- 
hills of the Colorado Desert that would obstruct the 
Texas Pacific Road, a blockade worse than a snow- 

3d. It is the shortest route across the continent 
from the Mississippi Valley to a commercial port on 
the Pacific shore. 

4th. It can be more cheaply constructed and more 
cheaply operated than a railroad can be on any other 
of the transcontinental routes. 

5th. It will carry transcontinental freight at lower 
rates, and yield larger dividends from net profits, 
than would be possible on any other route. 

6th. It is so favorably located that when con- 
structed it will control a much larger through busi- 
ness than the Texas Pacific route could secure. 

7th. It will, at all seasons of the year, be the 
pleasantest for transcontinental passengers, tourists, 
and excursion parties. 

8th. It passes through a superior agricultural 
country, while nearly the whole route of the Texas 
Pacific is through a howling desert of sand and 

9th. It directly intersects or approaches to, on the 
right and left, the richest mineral regions in the 

10th. It would cause the construction of a larger 
number of feeders, or branch roads, than would a 
railroad constructed on the Texas Pacific route. 

11th. It would create for itself a more extensive 
way trade than it would be possible to create on the 
Texas Pacific route. 

12th. It would secure the trade of Utah as far 
north as Salt Lake Valley, and also the trade of the 
State of Nevada as far north as the mines of Eureka 
and White Pine. 

13th. It would save the general Government more 
money in the transportation of Indiati and military 
supplies than could be saved on the Texas Pacific 

14th. It would be more secure from destruction 
from an enemy in time of war than a roacLJocated 
near the Mexican boundary line. 

15th. It reaches a port on the Pacific Ocean through 
the Soledad Pass, nature's transcontinental railroad 
gateway, the only practicable route for a broad-gauge 
railroad from the interior of the continent to Pacific 

16th. Its western end would reach an inexhaust- 
ible supply of petroleum, which will soon take the 
place of coal as fuel for locomotives and steam ships. 

17th. Its Pacific terminus will be where the prin- 
cipal furnaces for the reduction and separation of the 
metaliferous ores of the Great Basin will be estab- 

18th. Its Pacific terminus would practically be at 
the city of Santa Barbara, the safest place on the 
coast for carrying on an extensive ocean commerce. 

19th. There is no port on the Pacific Coast where 
transshipment from cars to ocean vessels, and from 
ocean vessels to cars, could be carried on so con- 
veniently, and so cheaply, as at Santa Barbara. 


November 7, 1875, a resolution was passed indors- 
ing the appointment of *J. P. Stearns as delegate to 
the Railroad Convention to St. Louis; also of the 
appointment of J. T. Richards by City Council to 
same position ; also approving a transcontinental road, 
which should combine the Atlantic and Pacific Road 
ft-om St. Louis and the Texas Pacific at Albuquerque, 
in New Mexico, thence westward in a grand trunk 
line to some point near California, where the road 
could then branch to San Diego, Los Angeles, Santa 
Monica, and Santa Barbara, as insuring the interests 
of the whole Union, and as of vital importance to 
the interests of Southern California. 

Mr. Huse stated that he would say a word in sup- 
port of the resolutions and in explanation of them: — 

" It might seem strange that they embraced so 
broad a ground; but the railroad that is to be built 
is not for the benefit of one town, but it is to be a 
great national work. It would do us no good to 
have a road to the Mojave Desert. We must con- 
nect with a transcontinental road or else we are at 
the mercy of the great monopoly which controls the 
northern part of the State and would control the 
southern also. If we watch the course of the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad, which is already at Tehachapi 
Pass, and will shortly reach Los Angeles, and will 
cut into Arizona in the near future — unless gentle- 
men have watched this giant monopoly, they cannot 
be aware of this serpent which would crush it in its 
folds. [Here he read an extract from the Call, con- 
taining an account of a surveying party the Central 
Pacific had sent into Arizona towards the Needles, 
to be absent some months.] We may ask what does 
this mean? It means that the railroad which was 
subsidized about the time of the war has pushed its 
road down from the northern portion of the State, 
and is stretching out to the east. It has monopo- 
lized all California to keep out all other roads. No 

*• Appointed b.v the Go\ernor of California. 



individual can build the road wo propose. But this 
company (Central Pacitie) is rich, and if it is suft'ered 
to keep out other roads there will be no comi)elition; 
they will charge what faros and freights they like. 
Some companies, by their charters, are compelled to 
submit to prices fixed by the Government; but it is 
not so with the Central Pacific and Southern Pacific 
Railroads. Immigration is rapidly coming this way, 
and the country will soon be settled. Shall those 
who come this way be saddled with this overwhelm- 
ing monopoly? No. We want competition. We 
want those who come here to raise crops of wool, 
nuts, honey, oil, etc., not to be compelled to cross 
mountains for a market. By the route we propose 
we are 30t) miles nearer Salt Lake. But the (Central 
Pacific Railroad wants to take all the trade to San 
Francisco, which, like a sponge, is sucking up every- 
thing. They are not going to Tulare Vallej- and 
Los Angeles to benefit those places, but to reach 
Arizona, and thus leave us out in the cold. It is not 
enough that Government has given woods and lands 
to assist it; woods and lands will not build railroads, 
money is necessarj'. Money is dear, so we must 
have European capital; but we cannot get that unless 
we get good security. If we cannot get American 
capital we must have European; but that cannot be 
obtained if Government will not guarantee interest 
on the bonds. The railroad company asks GoveiMi- 
nient nothing but a guarantee, for which they will give 
their lands in return. The Government can secure 
itself against any possible loss by taking a mortgage 
on the track and rolling stock. When it gives this 
guarantee we can take the bonds to the Rothehilds, 
or any other capitalists, and get the necessary money. 
The people of the South want this road to open up 
the country, and will aid us. The grand thing for 
us is to get a connection with the main line. If the 
road were going through a thickly-populated country 
the people along the line would take a hand in it; 
but three-quarters of the way is through uncultivated 
land, and, therefore, we must have Government aid. 
If this road goes to Los Angeles and San Diego we 
shall have our share. San Diego is a good harbor, but a 
pilot is necessary; Los Angeles is fifteen miles from 
the coast; Santa Monica is building a road to meet 
the Independence and the Topeka and Atchinson 
Roads. If we get this road, then all the trade will 
come this way. We have a good harbor, well pro- 
tected; can build wharves where vessels can discharge 
every day; no pilots are required; there are no 
shoals; ships with cargoes of tea and silks from 
China and Japan can come alongside of our wharves 
and discharge any day in the year. The goods can 
be passed across the continent over a line that will 
never be snow-bound, where there are easy grades, 
and thus s ip^jiy not only the Eastern States but 
Europe itself." 

He compared our peaceful hirbnr with Santa 
Monica and Los Angeles, showing the permanent 
advantages of Santa Barbara as a transcontinental 
railroad terminus. 

Eussel Heath spoke in fiivor of the project. Had 
always recognized the importance of a road by the 
southern route. Whan the Government first lent its 
aid to a transcontinental road, from a variety of cir- 
cumstances it chose the northern route. The south- 
ern one was not understood or known by many 
people. Few people came that way. He himself 
came that way; saw no serious obstacles in its fon- 

struction. The time has come for us to act. It is 
now a necessity. Freights across the continent have 
doubled within a year. There is no neeessit}' for it. 
Labor and materials have not advanced. It is the 
work of the great monopoly; that is why the capi- 
talists of Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Or- 
leans, ami Texas have taken hold of it — have deter- 
mined to build a competing line. Colonel Hollister, 
Mr. Ivison, and Mr. Rynerson also spoke in favor of 
extending encouragement to the consolidated trunk 
line. Mr. Richards thought his business would not 
permit him to go to the convention. Mr. Stearns 
accepted the position and generously refused to 
accept anything towards defraying his expenses. 

The convention referred to was held in St. Louis 
to bring about a system of i-ailroading which should 
avoid the losses of competing lines, avoid the extor- 
tionate rates of monopolies, and organize a system 
of through lines which should carry freights at a 
living rate for both producer and consumer, and thus 
develop the country. 

For many reasons, too numerous to mention here, 
the new railroad combination foiled to work, and a 
second time Santa Barbara saw her hopes of a road 
dashed; but nil desperandum seemed to be their 
motto, and a third effort was made. This was to 
build a railroad along the coast from Ventura to San 
Luis Obispo, with the expectation of making, at some 
time, a through line from San Francisco into Mexico, 
also tapping the Southern Pacific at Newhall. The 
third effort was more modest in aims than the 
others, but was, nevertheless, creditable to Santa 
Barbara, and deserves to receive " honorable men- 


January 2, 1S7U, a committee, consisting of C. E. 
Huse, S. B. Brinkerhoff, W. W. Hollister, and 0. L. 
Abbott, drew up a set of resolutions in favor of build- 
ing a railroad from Ventura to San Luis Obispo by 
county bonds, and asking the delegates in the Legis- 
lature to obtain the passage of a law authorizing 
Santa Barbara to issue bonds to the amount of $500,- 
000 in aid of such an enterprise. A committee con- 
sisting of Hollister, Brinkerhoff, Heath, Huse, and 
Judge Hall was appointed to draw up a bill in accord- 
ance with the sentiments of the meeting. Mr. Grin- 
nell, a capitalist of New York, thought the bonds 
of Santa Barbara might be floated three per cent- 
interest, at ninety cents. 

January 3, 187G, a meeting to consider the neces- 
sitj' and method of building a railroad took place at 
Tebbetts' Hall. Hollister, Brinkerhoff, Huse, and 
Abbott were ajjpointed a committee to draft resolu- 
tions expressive of the meeting, which was done in a 
set of i-esolutions advocating an appropriation by 
the county of $500,000 towards the work, to be voted 
on at a special election, and that the chair appoint a 
committee to draw up a bill to be presented to the 
Legislature for action. Hollister, Heath, Brinker- 



hotf, Huse, Ivison, and Judge Hall were appointed. 
Mr. Stearns declined acting on account of private 
business. Mr. Grinnell, a banker from New York, 
gave his views as to the probable value of the county 
bonds in the money markets. Mr. Huse gave some 
facts about the taxable property of the county, 
and the unanimity of tax-payers in favor of the 
project; thought the opposition would come from 
those who paid no taxes, as the opposition to all 
works of improvement had, and instanced the stage 
road in 1858, and other cases. A bill was introduced 
into the Legislature, in accordance with the wishes 
of the people as expressed at these meetings. When 
the printed copy of the bill appeared, it did not meet 
the views of many of the people, and a series of 
meetings were held to consider the subject. 


J. T. Richards in the chair. The object of the 
meeting was to protest against the bill now before 
the Legislature. Mr. Hollister advocated the bill. 
Mr. Cook opposed it; thought we could not get out 
of the matter, if the bill was adopted, for millions. 
" Don't let us put a blot on this fair land, which 
would last forever. I know there is only one way to 
build it, and that is by putting our hands in our 
pockets, but I don't think that a railroad is an 
absolute necessity just at present, though I am sure 
there are men enough in this county with sufficient 
means, and who would be directly benefited, to 
build the road without county aid, and 1 would wil- 
lingly be one in a hundred men to give $5,000 
towards securing its construction, and I think by 
their giving that amount their lands would be tar 
more benefited without these bonds than with them." 
Mr. Huse replied to Mr. Cook; thought that the few 
people present should not act for the 6,000 of the 
county ; not a hundredth part were present. Mr. Strat- 
ton and Packard also spoke against the bill. Mr. Pack- 
ard thought best to wait till we could put our hands 
in our pocket and get the money. Mr. Stratton 
wanted to know who would pay the interest on the 
bonds before the road was completed, as the bill pro- 
vided. Mr. Huse admitted that $500,000 would not 
build the road; that the balance would have to be 
provided for. Judge Fernald thought we were not 
able to afford the luxury of a railroad at present. 
We might pay the bonds for a year or two, then a 
financial crash would come; an unfavorable season, 
which would take away the profit of the road, would 
precipitate a crash and disaster. Mr. He ith said his 
name had been put upon the committee without his 
knowledge; did not think the road would be of much 
benefit to the county. 

Mr. Stratton moved that the chair appoint another 
committee to di-aft a bill to meet the views of the 
meeting. Adjourned till Tuesday, to meet in Lo- 
bero's theater. 

A meeting of citizens opposed to the railroad bill 
took place February 12, 1876, and adjourned for 

further consideration. At the adjourned meeting, 
L. T. Burton, Thomas B. Dibblee, Chas. Fernald, 
Mortimer Cook, Wm. M. Eddy, R. T. Stevens, W. A. 
White, W. H. Woodbridge, Henry Tallant, E. H. 
Price, T. B. Jamison, C. C. Rynerson (the three 
latter being Supervisors), John P. Stearns, J. F. 
Maguire (County Judge), E. B. Hall, Francisco de la 
Guerra, Gaspar Orena, G. Carrillo, and J. M. Loureyra 
were made Vice-Presidents, and Clarence Gray, Sec- 
retary. As much of the bill as referred to the issu- 
ing of bonds, the payment of interest, and provisions 
for sinking fund, was read. Mr. Murphy objected to 
the whole project; thought that $3,000,000 might not 
cover the indebtedness; would prefer to donate 
$500,000 to any company that would build and 
operate a road; thought if it could always be in the 
hands of men like Colonel Hollister, it would always 
be safe; were not sure of getting such men. He also 
addressed the people in the Spanish language. A 
resolution was adopted, protesting against the bill. 


Colonel Hollister took the stand, much excited with 
what was going on. 

"Mr. President: I have been here for several 
years and have always done my level best for the 
good of the county and to help everybody. I be- 
lieve that no community can be settled without a 
railroad. . I have lent money at a lower rate than 
anyone; have helped to build the churches, schools, 
and public buildings, and have finally done my best 
to get a railroad bill that would meet the approval 
of the citizens. As you have decided not to have a 
railroad, we must go back to our primitive state of 
locomotion, viz., ox-teams; and in consideration of 
what I have done, all that 1 ask is that you yoke up 
a couple of Spanish bulls and send me back to my 
farm in the old Spanish style." 

Mr. Murphy offered the following resolution, and 
sustained it by a few remarks: — 

'^Resolved, That a committee of five citizens be 
appointed to draft a bill, to submit to the Legislature 
for adoption, empowering the county of Santa Bar- 
bara to issue bonds to the amount of $500,000, to be 
given to any railroad company that will construct 
and equip a railroad through the country, connect- 
ing with San Francisco or any transcontinental line; 
said road to be commenced within two years, and 
twenty miles thereof to be constructed each and 
every year until completed, and that on the comple- 
tion of each twenty-mile section of the railroad 
$100,000 of the $500,000 be issued and donated to 
said company." 

Mr. Cook spoke in favor of the resolution. The 
chair appointed as a committee to draft the bill, 
Messrs. Fernald, Hall, Dibblee, and Stratton. Mr. 
Fernald declined acting, for reasons known to the 
chair, but heartily indorsed the bill. Mortimer Cook 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. Mr. Russell made 
several efforts to speak, but the meeting declined 
listening to him. Mr. Taylor caused much merri- 
ment bj' trying to collect enough money to pay the 
expenses of tke meeting, and announced the sum of 



fourteen bits towards building ;i road. It is said 
that only two of the Vice-Presidents named were 
present at the meeting. 

The move was credited to Eichards and others 
favorable to the Tom Scott project. 


The text of this bill is too long to quote in full. It 
provided for a Board of Railroad Commissioners, to 
be elected bj^ the county at the general elections, 
the issue of bonds to the amount of $500,000, paya- 
ble in thirty years, bearing interest at the rate of 
seven per cent, per annum, payable semi-annually, 
and also providing for a sinking fund, to be levied 
after the twelfth year; also the right to mortgage 
the constructed part to procure monej^ for the com- 
pletion of the road from Ventura County to San Luis 
Obispo County; to enter into contracts with the 
Eailroad Commissioners of both of said counties for 
the proper management of the road — and other nec- 
essar}- things. An election was to be held the first 
Tuesday in May for the people to determine 
they would accept the conditions of the bill. 


The Board of Supei-visors unanimously adopted 
the following resolutions: — 

Whereas, At a mass meeting of the citizens of this 
county, without distinction of part>>f held at the city 
of Santa Barbara on the 9th day of February instant, 
a bill was framed and will be presented to the Legis- 
lature, to authorize an election to be held on the 1st 
day of June next, whereby the qualitied electors of 
this county may decide whether or not the county 
shall aid in the construction of a railroad by issuing 
bonds for $500,000 to a company or companies which 
shall be the first to bring a railroad through the 
county, according to certain conditions set forth in 
the bill, and which bill has already been forwarded 
to A. W. Ilayne, member of Assembly from this 
county, by the committee at said meeting, and 

Whereas, It appears to this Board that the citi- 
zens of this county, without distinction of party or 
locality, exhibit the deepest interest in the subject, 
and a strong desire to have the matter submitted to 
them at a special election, whereby they may express 
their opinion as to the matters mentioned in said 
bill, now be it 

Resolved, That the Honorable Senator and member 
of Assembly from this District, be and herebj' is, 
respectfully requested by this Board to use every 
endeavor to eifect the passage of said bill by the 
Legislature and its approval by the Governor. 

The City Council also indorsed the bill and urged 
its passage. 

This effort to have a railroad was frustrated bj" 
the refusal of the Legislatui-e to pass the bill on gen- 
eral principles that it was bad policy to build railroads 
by public subsidies. 

A fourth effort. 

After the refusal of the Legislature to grant the 
right to vote a subsidy, two or three meetings were 

hold by the ovcr-hopcful to consider the means of 
a branch to the Southern Pacific at Ncwhall. 

Tuesday evening, April 9, 187G, there was a largo 
meeting in Crane's Hall. Mayor Mortimer Cook, 
acting as Chairman, sot forth tho objects of the 
meeting. The first great need of Santa Bai'bara 
was a railroad; there is now but one practicable way 
to get it. The Southern Pacific Company is tho con- 
trolling power among railroads. They will need 
feeders, and if encouraged and assisted will build 
one to Santa Barbara. Ho suggested tho appoint- 
ment of a committee to confer with that or any 
other company that was likely to join with us. 
Upon motion of A. O. Pei'kins, the Chair appointed 
Ru.ssel Heath, B. Ivisoii, P. N. Newell, Wm. M. 
Eddy, and Milo Sawj'er. Judge Hall was called to 
the stand to entertain the audience while tho com- 
mittee retii'ed for consultation. Ho said that he had 
no specific plan to offer; that first of all it was neces- 
sary to bo united, to compromise, if necessary, upon 
a course of action, and then work heartily for it. In 
his opinion, the reason that all plans had failed here- 
tofore was that the people were divided in sentiment, 
different parties having pet schemes; that wo had 
frittered away our strength in opposing each other; 
instead of uniting our means to encourage the build- 
ing of a road we had prevented any company from 
building. Now, I am in favor of uniting even with 
the Central Pacific Company, if need be; better with 
them than no road. Anything for a railroad. 

The committee returned from their conferenco and 
recommended the following as names of a committee 
of business, to devise the most practicable means of 
obtaining a road: Col. W. W. Hollister, Elwood 
Cooper, John Edwards, C. B. Huso, E. B. Hall, E. H. 
Pierce, J. M. Hunter, J. P. Stearns, J. W. Cooper, T. 
B. Dibblee, S. P. Stow, Gaspar Orena, Judge Heacock, 
Charles Pierce, and Mortimer Cook. Mr. Heath said 
the committee recommended that other names should 
be added until the list should comprise twenty-five 
men. C. C. Rynerson, R. L. Chamberlain, J. J. Per- 
kins, H. K. Winchester, and A. A. Oglesby were 
added. Mr. Abbott spoke in favor of the project; 
thought there was a general willingness to take stock 
in a road. Clarence Gray objected to the composi- 
tion of the committee as containing no poor working- 
men. He professed himself strongly in favor of a 
road, but objected to the means used to obtain it; 
thought that poor men will not like to be taxed to 
build the road unless they have a voice in the matter. 
Mr. Ivison responded that so far no one had proposed 
to issue bonds or levy a special tax; that tho meet- 
ing was only a kind of preliminary consultation to 
devise the best means for obtaining a road. Mr. 
Ivison said, further, that if Mr. Gray would name a 
poor woi'kingman who would add strength to the 
committee he would cheerfully resign in his favor. 
Mr. Gray again attempted to divide the meeting in 
the name of the poor workingman, but was effect- 



ivel^- squelched by Judge Hall, who exposed his 
designs of arraying the citizens against each other 
on the property line. He assured Mr., Gray that 
the workingmen would have sense enough to vote 
for aid to a road, if it should come to that, knowing 
that it would benefit them as well as the property 
owners. It was evident that Mr. Gray was playing 
to ingratiate himself into the favor of the working- 
men. Mr. Pettygrove caused considerable merriment 
by remarking that Mr. Gray had loaded his gun by 
putting in the ball first; that when it went off it 
made a great noise but did no execution. Mr. Nor- 
way', having traveled extensively, reported a good 
feeling towards a railroad up and down the coast. 
The meeting adjourned with the expectation of meet- 
ing again soon. The fire was kept for some time, 
but no railroads were built through these means. 
The matter will be referred to again in a future 



Erection of County Buildings— The Modoo Road— Hotel Aceom- 
modatious— Election Return- for 1S71 — Sisterly Feeling — 
Election Returns in 187'2 — Edwards Elected Supervisor — 
Supervisors in Abundance — Too Much Fence— Swearing a 
Chinaman— County Finances — Machines Smashed — Streets 
Used as a Pasture — Wharves — Catholic Cemetery — Charles 
E. Huse — The >fewspaper War. 

Almost every Grand Jury for years had presented 
the Court House and jail as unfit for the uses to 
which they were devoted. The jail especially was 
so only in name, as any prisoner, with the small 
assistance of a jack-knife, could get himself out of it 
at any time that he chose, so far as the walls were 
concerned. It is said the murderer of Abadie was 
guarded until the expense amounted to $1,700, and 
then he escaped. The Boards of Supervisors had 
put off the subject from time to time until the finances 
of the county were in a better condition, until it 
was perceived that delay was no longer economy. 
In accordance with the request of the Board, the 
Legislature passed a bill authorizing the Board of 
Supervisors to issue bonds, not to exceed $50,000, 
bearing seven per cent, interest per annum, payable 
in thirty years from date. 


Many plans were received, but the one presented 
by P. J. Barber was accepted, after which came the 
construction of the building. 

Bids for building a Court House accordin j; to the 
plans of P. J. Barber were received as follows: — 

S. D. Statts & Co., Court House and Jail $51,680 

John Cox, mason work, $29,000; total 45,000 

Wallace & Flynn, brick work, at $9 per M, _. 
Marshall & Leibner, Court House and Jail. . - 44,950 

James Druly, carpenter work 21,900 

Beck & Walker, Court House and Jail 49,300 

P. O. Sullivan, mason work.. 27,044 

May 10,1872. 

The Board, finding the plans imperfect, rejected 
all bids and modified the plans, and ordered the pro- 
posals to be published in the San Francisco papers, 
and also to have duplicate plans left at an available 
point at San Francisco. 

A petition from W. B. Barnard and others for 
another school district, was left to the new county 
of Ventura to settle. As this was in advance of the 
operation of the act, it sounded something like sar- 

September 27, 1872. 

The San Buenaventura Wharf Company was au- 
thorized to charge the same tolls as the other 

The following communication was then ordered: — 

Office op the Board of Supervisors of Santa ") 
Barbara Co., Cal. [• 

Santa Barbara, September 11, 1872. ) 
B. Smith, Esq., W. M. Santa Barbara 
F. AND A. M., Santa Barbara, Cal. — 
e appointed the 5th day of October next 
as the time for laying the corner-stone of the new 
Court House and Jail of Santa Barbara, now build- 
ing, and hereby extend to you an invitation to per- 
form the ceremonies usual upon such occasions. 
Respectfully yours, 

Thomas R. Bard, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Jno. Edwards, 
Supervisors Santa Barbara Co. 

second bids for constructing the court house. 

To Chas. 
Lodge, 192 
Sir: We ha 








Stevens & Joyner 

Edward R. Fojfartv 

Cyrus Marshall ' 









SI 598 


Samuel Lutner 

Geo. J. Nasle 

W. H. St. John 

John Pettin^er 


Di'ury, Sullivan & Hall. 


Notice was sent to Stevens & Joyner that their bid 
for the mason work was accepted; also to Bdward 
R. Fogarty that his bid for carpenter work was 
accepted, and the District Attorney was ordered to 
draw up'contracts for the same. 


The Chairman of the Board of Supervisors, with 
the Treasurer and Auditor, was authorized to sign 
the bonds and forward them to the Bank of Califor- 
nia, to be subject to the orders of Perry, when the 
value thereof should be placed to the credit of Santa 

Bids for Court House and Jail bonds: — 

Woods & Freeborn $50,000 at 77 J cents 

Michael Reese 50,000 at 80 

J. Perry, Jr 50,000 at SO^'^f^ •' 

The Court House bonds were awarded to John 
Perry at 80^°^^. John Edw^ards was appointed to 
manage the matter. 




Also known as tlie Barber Road, from tlic fact that 
P. J. Barber was its principal advocate, leaves Santa 
Barbara near its western side, and, skirting the hills 
of the Hope Ranch, joins the main road j^joing 
towards Dos Pueblos, near the Goleta. The large 
landholders generally were averse to having roads 
divide their land into fragments, and Mr. Hope was 
no exception to the average. Several times he m3t 
surveyors and others and refused them permission to 
cross the ground. On one n 'casion he applied a club 
to the head of the surveyor. J. L. Barker, which 
amusement was thought to be cheap enough at 
81.000. The road is now one of the ploasantest 
drives out of Santa Barbara. It is still called the 
Modoc Road, from the many rough affairs attending 
its construction. 


Soon after the immigration set in, the number of 
visitors was so great that the hotels were insufficient 
to accommodate them. It was not uncommon for 
eighty or a hundred to land from the steamers. Men 
would walk the town during the night, unable to 
find lodging. The people were called upon to open 
their houses; even the floors were in demand, and 
temporary beds were spread in every available place. 

Extortionate charges were made, tor mankind are 
much the same everywhere. Persons were charged 
a dollar for a ride of a few blocks, and another dol- 
lar was charged for the convej'ance of their trunk. 
The citizens generally protested against extortions, 
and made every eti'ort to treat all with hospitality. 

The necessity of larger hotel accommodations at 
Santa Barbara brought out several plans and much 
rivalry in different portions of the town. (" The Sea- 
side Hotel" was formed in 1874. This 
company proposed to purchase the Burton Mound 
property, about eighteen acres, and erect a large 
hotel which should eclipse anything of the kind on 
the coast. It is a sightly place near the seashore, 
overlooking both the harbor and the town, and the 
coast for a long distance towards Los Angeles, and 
the islands to the south of the town. It is within a 
few yards of the beach and bathing grounds. It 
was proposed to erect bath-houses which should be 
supplied with sea water, heated to a suitable point 
for invalids. The kelp, also, was to be utilized by 
using it in steam-baths, the bromides and iodides con- 
tained in it being considered beneficial in many forms 
of disease. While this project was being agitated, 
the citizens in the upper and rival portions of the 
town also started a project for a hotel. The pro- 
moters of the up-town hotel were C. E. Huse, Mort- 
imer Cook, J. L. Barker, John Edwards, D. W. 
Thompson, W. H. Stanwood, J. W. Hough, and oth- 
ers. The last project resulted in the building of the 
Arlington. The Sea-side Hotel is still on paper. 



HtMiiv n. Huight 

Ncvvt.ui B..oth 

Lii'utciKiiit (i'.yemor- 

K iniiiiikl.j Pacheco 

Member Congress, First District 

Uiwrelice Archer 

S. O. Hcuijrllt™ 

Member .\sscmblv — 

.1. H. C.Miper..: 

Milton Wiissiia 

County Clerk- 

Ituasel Heath 

F. .\. Thompson 

District Attorney — 

.1. H. KincaiU: 

Jarret llichards 


N. A. Covarrubias 

County Treasurer— 

U. Yndart 

F. W. JYost 

B. F. Bonneil 

Cliarles E. Alvord 

H.-imon .1. Hill 

Suiierinteiulent Piibli-- S -li ;ols - 
Dr. I(. H. O'Neil 

Dr. C. J. Freeman 

Dr. C. B. Bates 

upcrvisor. Third Township- 

4636 8.1 



284 »4 58,44 53 <au 

Refund State Debt, Yes . 

I ■i:fi.-.v 16 13 34 

I 213 . 3,1.'V 13 

elected in IS71 : — 

F. A. Thompson, CK-k: J. il. Kimaid. District 
Attorney; N. A. Covarrubias, Sheritl'- J. C. Hamer, 
Superintendent of Schools; John T. Stow, Surveyor; 
F. W. Frost, Treasurer; C. E. Alvord. .Vssessor: C. J. 
Freeman, Coroner; Tlioinas \V. .Moore, Supervisor 
Third District. 

State Senator Pacheco having been elected Meu- 
tenant Governor, he resigned, and an election was 
ordered to fill the vacancy November 25, 1871, with 
the following result; — 


Special election held Xoveiiiber L'.'). 1S71, for 
election of Senator, Second Dislricl. 






La Canada 


















Santa Maria 

-| 44 

T 1 


445 1 021 




Supreme Court, Fall Term— 

A. L. Rhodes 

Seldon S. Wright 

Supreme Court, Short Term— 

A. C. Niles 

Jackson Temple 

Supt. of Public Instruction- 
Henry L. Bolander 

O. P Fitziferald 

County Judfire — 

J. F. Maguire 



Santa Barbara being older and larger than San 
Buenaventura, took it^upon herself to read lessons to 
her sister, which, perhaps, were not always kind or 
polite. The Signal responded as follows: — 

" And now, sister Santa Barbara, please give re- 
spectful attention to your younger sister Ventura. 
You have the name of being proud and of carrying 
your head a few degrees back of the perpendicular. 
You are famous for glorification and disparagement 
of your sisters Ventura and Hueneme. Have you 
not represented your heritage as mild, roseate, and 
heavenly, while sister Ventura was nobody, and 
her valleys too windy and dustj^ for mortals to 
bear, a sort of purgatory where these who deride the 
claims of Santa Barbara are firstly sent, and where 
they quickly experience the due reward of their sin. 
You are even said not to allow the modest and unpre- 
tending Signal a place in your public reading-rooms 
and hotels, lest visitors should hear of us, and come 
to this place of torment. Be admonished, sister. 
Your maidenhood has just passed, and you have 
just reached that uncertain age when a maiden is 
called an " old maid." Recollect too, that your heri- 
tage is small, and can ill support the style you aflfect 
and the airs you put on. A narrow strip, some thirty 
miles long and two miles wide, is all the land that 
pays you tribute, and soon a large portion of this 
will have its own wharf or landing, its stores and 
places of business. What of Carpenteria and Gavi- 
ota landings. Look at j-our sister Ventura. Her 
two rivers Ventura and Santa Clara, and her several 
canals furnishing her with abundance of water for 
manufacturing and irrigation of the 20,000 acres of 
land tributary to her on the north side of the Santa 
Clara. Have you any such rivers wherewith to irri- 
gate your tape line drawn along the sea? Why, 
Ventura Valley alone contains nearly as much fine 
land (and by the way, all of it is as free from dust 
and wind as Santa Barbara) as is contained in your 
whole estate. I have not spoken of the rivers of oil 
flowing out of the mountains, nor have I spoken of 
the vast extent of arable lands in Las Posas, Simi, 
Santa Clara, Del Norte, Colonia, etc., etc., containing 
over 200,000 acres of fine land paying tribute to us. 
Have you any artesian wells like ours ? Is there any 
such business or wealth in your future? If so, tell 
us where it is, or hereafter hold your peace." 


According to the Times, the most exciting event of 
election day was the marching of a body of eighty 

native Californians to the polls, with votes held aloft 
in the right hand, a clean, unscratched Democratic 
ticket; while in the left hand in the pocket was 
another ticket that they deposited, their left hand 
vote, being quite different from their right. 

The explanation made of the matter was that it 
was a piece club, designed to vote the Democratic 
ticket, including Russel Heath; that Frank Thomp- 
son interviewed them, through the treachery of the 
guards, to such good effect, that Heath was repudi- 
ated notwithstanding his watchfulness, and Thomp- 
son voted for. As Thompson received a much larger 
number of votes than any of the other candidates, 
this may have been the solution. Majority, 289. 

A call for the formation of a Grant and Wilson 
Club, was signed by T. R. Bard, Henry Carnes, O. 
L. Abbott, Otto Kaeding, G. P. Tebbetts, S. Leitner, 
J. A. Johnson, John Scollan, Chas. Walker, Crowson . 
Smith, E. Van Valkeuberg, Carmie Dibblee, J. A. 
Rich, L. J. Gutierrez, J. T. Richards, C. C. Rynerson, 
H. P. Stone, H. G. Crane, T. B. Curley, Wm. H. Nor- 
way, W. S. Maris, G. W. Lewis, Wm. Dowlaney, B. 
W. C. Brown, B. S. Lourey, J. Mallorquin, C. W. 
Leach, P. J. Barber, Wm. Ealand,.H. T. Woodworth, 
A. K. Charles, B. H. McCuUey, J. J. Blizalde, Joseph 
Howard, R. H. Duncan, Thomas W. Moore, E. B. 
Boust, B. S. Rowe, C. H. Eason, F. W. Frost, Ben 


Monday, March 23, 1872. Mortimer Cook, John 
Edwards, S. B. Brinkerhoff, Eugene Fawcett, G. W. 
Williams being named as Directors. 

Mortimer Cook was elected President, and A. L. 
Lincoln, Cashier. The articles of organization, prop- 
erly acknowledged before U. Yndart, with a state- 
ment of the character of the parties, by F. J. 
Maguire, County Judge, were transmitted to the 
comptroller of the currency. Capital stock, $100,- 
000, with power to increase it to $500,000. 

Mortimer Cook bad for some time been conducting 
a private banking-house. 

The following table of election returns will be of 
interest as being the last election held previous to 
the division of the county, the act of creating the 
county of Ventura taking effect January 1, 1873. 
The town of Santa Barbara had now more votes- 
than the whole county twenty years before. Then 
Santa Barbara County had but one school district, 
with sixty scholars attending, though about that 
time a school was started in San Buenaventura; 
now some twenty schools are well attended. Then 
the St. Charles, an adobe building, was the grand 
hotel; now several three-storied and spacious build- 
ings offer rest and comfort to the traveler. Then 
Burton's store was the wonder of the cattle-kings 
who came- to sell their annual product of hides for 
gay calicoes and finery; now dozens of stores, each 
one of which has goods enough to have stocked the 
town twenty years before, ornament the streets. 




.Tnhn B. Kelton. R 

J. r. Shnib, I 

.M.ivramask. 1) 

John V Miller H 

Joliri Nu-ent, D 

(hm.sS,ne.kles, R 

Jo. Hamilton, 1 

Z. Monti;.,meiv, 11 

J. F. Hale. R .' 

Pllllen, D 

J. O. Goodwin, R 

Peter Don..hue, I 

- — King.D 

T. H.Rose, R. 

John Yule, I 

Graves, D 

Member Congress— 

E. 0. Houghton, R 

E. J. C. Kewen, D 


James Daley 



X. A. Covarrubias having resigned the position of 
Supervisor in consequence of being elected Sherift", a 
new election for the Second Supervisor District was 
had with the following result: — 









John Edwards 

ripiano Yndart , 














Edwards took his seat May 9, 1872. 


The county of Ventura was created by a law, to 
take effect from January 1, 1873. Thomas R. Bard 
was elected Supervisor for Township One, in 18G9, 
and held his office for three years, or until a successor 
was qualified. In the organization of Ventura, some 
confusion arose as to the Supervisorship. Bard, in 
the belief that his official term had expired, left the 
seat November 14, 1872. Moore and Edwards, the 
two remaining members, caused the following testi- 
monial to be spread upon the records:— 

" We, the members of the Board of Supervisors of 
the county of Santa Barbara, deem it but our duty 
to testify by this resolution our warm thanks to 
Thomas R. Bard, Esq., the retiring member of this 
Board, for his uniform courtesy and urbanity of 
manner in his official capacity and the great aid he 
has given us in the dispatch of various matters 
brought before us, attributable to his varied and 
extensive knowledge, integrity, and talent, and re- 
solved further that this resolution be spread on the 

minutes of liiis Board, and a copy of the same fur- 
nished to Thomas Bard, Esq. 

" Thomas AV. Moore, 
"J NO. Edwards. 
" OJice of the Board of Supervisors. 

November IJ,, 1872." 

When the Board met in February, 1873, Bard 
reclaimed his seat, which was also c