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Full text of "History of Santa Cruz County, California; with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county, who have been identified with its growth and development from the early days to the present time"

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3 1833 01102 7940 







The leading men and women of the County, who have been 

identified with its growth and development from 

the early days to the present time. 

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Complete in One Volume 
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History of Santa Cruz County 7 

Early Settlers — Pueblo Branciforte — Mode of Living— Naming 
the County — Government — Selecting Court House Site — Fires — 
Earthquakes — Means of Travel — Railroads. 


Population, Manners and Customs 31 

Increase in Population Since 1850 — Progress of Last Decade — 
Variety of Products Raised in County — Industries — Principal 

The First Court House 44 

Its Location — Prominent Lawyers of Early Days — Court Notes — 
County Hospital— Earliest Settlers of County— Pioneer Days. 

Roads 53 

County Divided into Two Townships— Roadmasters Appointed — 
Source of Road Funds — Schools — Newspapers — Some Political 
and Literary Notables of Santa Cruz County. 


Pajaro Valley and Watsonville 61 

Evolution of El Pajaro — Immigration into Valley in Early '50s — 
Financial Conditions of That Period— Watsonville— Beet Sugar 


City of Santa Cruz 71 

Charter Granted in 1866 — Progress Slow at First — Cliff Drive — 
Bridges — Pacific Ocean House — Beach and Its Attractions — Pub- 
lic Library — Population — Society of Santa Cruz Pioneers — Father 
Quintana — Senora Alzina. 

Big Basin Region 85 

Location of Big Basin — Reminiscences of Stage Traveling Days 
— Banking Facilities of County — Relic of Slavery Days— Squatter 
Troubles — Spanish Documents. 

Statistics of Santa Cruz County 100 

Report of Agricultural Society. 


History of Fruit Industry of Santa Cruz County 103 

First Fruit Trees Planted in County — First Planting of Grapes — 
Apple Cultivation — Struggle against Insect Pests and Diseases 
Affecting Fruit Trees — Assistance of Agricultural Department 
of State. 


Abbott, Col. A. G 133 

Albright, Thomas J 290 

Alexander, T. D 244 

Aston, Joseph F 253 

Baldwin, F. D 146 

Bardmess, Abram 286 

Baxter, John W 297 

Beechler, James, M. D 247 

Bennett, M. V 276 

Bockius, Hon. Godfrey M 126 

Boyle, M. 217 

Burland, Robert 295 

Canfield, C. E 278 

Cassin, Charles M 280 

Chace, J. D 333 

Congdon, Willis R., M. D 140 

Covell, John H 320 

Cox, A. W 284 

Cox, Louis M 282 

Dake, L. J 234 

DeLamater, G. B. V 289 

Drullard, Hon. T. W 207 

Fagen, Pierce B., M. D 348 

Freiermuth, Harry D 292 

Grimes, Michael 160 

Grimmer, J M 342 

Hall, Hon. James A 200 

Hartman, Isaiah 303 

Hassett, Rev. P 173 

Heath, Frank L 153 

Helmer, Lawrence P 251 

Hodgdon, George R 305 

Horstman, William F 254 

Horton, William A 326 

Ingham, James 242 

Jordan, Albion P 301 

Joy, A. E 239 

Judd, A. N. 182 

Kelly, Edward J 270 

Knight, Benjamin K 274 

Krough, Fred P 260 

Lamb, Hon. William H 193 

Lee, Julius 155 

Leibbrandt, John 335 

Liddell, George 341 

Lynch, Sedgwick J 317 

McCornick, L. B 308 

McGowan, Matt. J 262 

MacQuiddy, F. S 186 

Maher, David F. 264 

Maher, Hon. J. B 213 

Makinney, Hampton E 209 

Martinelli, Stephen 163 

Menasco, J. S 204 

Miller, Fred W 354 

Miller, Samuel E 328 

Morehead, George A 299 

Morgan, John W 310 

Myrick, Mrs. Nancy 337 

Noble, Augustus 123 

Oliver, William 355 


Palmer, Hon. S. A 211 Swanton, Fred W. 

Peery, Joseph W 143 

Perkins, J. B 315 

Petersen, Henry A 266 

Porter, John T. 166 

Porter, Hon. Warren R 148 

Prettyman, F. D 331 


Reynolds, William W 268 

Rodgers, Winfield S 219 

Tait, R. S 324 

Thompson, Peter J 224 

Thurwachter, Frederick 323 

Trafton, George A 135 

Trafton, Howard V 129 

Tnttle. Owen 176 

Volck, William H 215 

Schwan, Jacob 230 

Scott, Hiram D 197 

Silliman, Charles 238 

Sinkinson, John H 236 

Smith, Charles 221 

Stoesser, Otto 350 

Walti, Fred R 339 

Waters, James 189 

Weisenburger, H. C 257 

White, Edward 227 

Wood, Hiram J 272 

Young, Wesley P. 313 



History of Santa Cruz County. 



Beginning at the south corner of San Mateo county at a 
point in the Pacific ocean south forty-five degrees west, tliree 
miles from the intersection of the east line of rancho Punta 
del Ano Nueva with said ocean forming the western corner, 
thence north forty-five degrees east to said point of intersec- 
tion thence northerly, following the eastern line of said 
rancho to its intersection with the south line of township eight 
south, range four west, Mount Diablo base and Meridian; 
thence east to the southeast corner of said township, thence 
north to the northeast corner of section 25 of said township, 
thence east to the northeast corner of section 26, township 8 
south, range 3 west, thence north to the summit of the Santa 
Cruz mountains being the western line of Santa Clara county ; 
thence southeasterly along the summit of said mountains on 
the western line of Santa Clara county to the Pajaro river, 
forming the southeast corner on the north line of Monterey 
county, thence westerly along said river on the northern line 
of Monterey county to the Bay of Monterey, and three miles 
westerly into the ocean forming southwest comer, thence 
northwesterly along the shore to the point of beginning. 

In 1850 the boundary as then established took in a little be- 
yond the town of Pescadero, now in San Mateo county. In 
1867 the people who were living in Pescadero petitioned the 


legislature to have a certain portion of Santa Cruz county set 
off to San Mateo county. An act was passed granting the re- 
quest of the petitioners. This was granted by reason, as 
stated in the petition, that there was no good road leading 
from Pescadero to Santa Cruz. Had there been good com- 
munication along the coast road Santa Cruz would probably 
have retained this portion which was taken. From Waddells 
creek the road ran then, and does now, along the beach. Dur- 
ing a severe storm the road is sometimes impassable. At the 
present time there is no improvement in this portion of the 
county in the shape of a good road. 




Some one has written that "all history is a lie." Another 
saying is "That you must not believe all that you hear and 
only half that you see." That inaccuracies and misleading 
statements may creep in and be incorporated in local histories 
are not to be wondered at ; oftentimes the events related have 
been colored to suit the narrator. In writing a history of the 
county of Santa Cruz I believe it will be better to set forth 
events that have transpired since the occupation of Cali- 
fornia by those who came here in a very early day, some of 
them prior to the change of government from Mexico to that 
of the United States of America, and therefore I preface this 
with a brief sketch of Mission history. Pioneer history is a 
source of attraction to many persons, especially to those of 
the present generation who like to read of the labors of their 
pioneer fathers and of the part that was taken by them in 
the upbuilding of this great commonwealth. 

Sir Francis Drake, one of the famous navigators and a 
grand sea-grafter, is supposed to have come very close to 
San Francisco bay, but appears to have missed entering that 
magnificent harbor and anchored at the place now called 
Drake's Bay, where he met the natives. Drake imagined 
from certain ceremonial performances that the Indians were 
inviting him to take possession of their lands and accept 
them as subjects of Great Britain. Drake gladly accepted 
their proffered allegiance and formally took possession of 
the country in the name of the English Queen, Elizabeth; 
this was in the year 1579. After a stay of fifty-six days 


Drake took his departure, much to the regret of the Indians. 
It is said that after a stormy voyage he arrived at Plymouth, 
England, from which port he had sailed about three years 
before. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth and accorded 
many honors. A large stone cross was erected in Golden 
Gate Park, San Francisco, a few years ago in commemora- 
tion of Sir Francis Drake, as having held the first service of 
the Church of England on the coast of California. The early 
Spanish navigators and explorers apparently paid more at- 
tention to Monterey than other portions of California. On 
the 30th of June, 1770, the Mission of San Carlos Borromeo 
de Monterey was formally founded with solemn church cere- 
mony, accompanied by the ringing of bells, the crack of 
musketry and the roar of cannon. Governor Portola took 
possession of the land in the name of King Charles III. On 
July 9th Portola sailed in the San Antonio for San Fran- 
cisco ; he never returned to Alta California. 

Any one interested in the history of California from the 
time of the Spanish and Mexican regime can find ample 
means for their researcli in Bancroft's History, to be found 
in the public library of Santa Cruz. It will be conceded, no 
doubt, that California was discovered by several navigators, 
but nothing materialized from the discovery until later years, 
during our own times, in which we are much more interested. 
At the time of the discovery of gold in 1848 California was 
almost a 'Herra incognita" (an unknown land), but not much 
time was lost in reaching the land of gold, the land of prom- 
ise to some and of great expectations to others, and a great 
disappointment to a great number. 

The last pueblo founded under Spanish domination was 
Villa de Branciforte, located on the opposite side of the river 
from the Mission of Santa Cruz. It was named after the 
Viceroy Branciforte. It was designed as a coast defense and 


a place to colonize discharged soldiers; tlie scheme was dis- 
cussed for a considerable time before anything was done. 
Governor Borica recommended "that an adobe house be built 
for each settler so that the prevalent state of things in San 
Jose and Los Angeles, where the settlers still lived in tule 
huts, being unable to build better buildings without neglect- 
ing their fields, may be prevented, the houses not to cost 
over $200." (Bancroft's history of Cal. Vol. I.) 

Ownership of the lands in the pueblos could not in strict- 
ness be affirmed. It amounted to little more than a restricted 
and qualified right to alienate portions to its inhabitants for 
building or cultivation and to use the remainder for commons 
for pasture lands, or as a source of revenue or for other 
public purposes. This right of disposition and use was in 
all particulars subject to the control of the government of 
the country. The right appears to have been common to the 
cities and towns of Spain from an early period of her history 
and was recognized in the laws governing her colonies of 
this country. 

The Villa de Branciforte not having a sufficient population 
for an ayuntamiento of its own, was attached, in 1826, to the 
civil jurisdiction of San Jose, but in 1828 it was detached 
from San Jose, together with the ranchos of San Sidro and 
Las Animas, again becoming subject to the civil and mili- 
tary authorities of Monterey, the ranchos above named, Las 
Animas (in Santa Clara county on which is located the town 
of Gilroy), San Sidro, in San Benito county. The following 
are the names of thirty-four citizens of Branciforte, four of 
whom were foreigners: 

Jose C. Boronda, Jose Ramerez, 

Juan Jose Castro, Marcos Amador, 

Miguel Villagrana, Samuel Buckle, 

Joaquin Pinto, Williiim Buckle, 


Jose Maria Perez, Francisco Sorio, 

Jose Maria Solar, Jaime Mendoza, 

Luis Garcia, Juan Jose Feliz, 

Julian Wilson, Francisco Roderiguez, 

Francisco Gonzales, Jose Antonio Robles, 

Jose Bolcof, Roman Roderiguez, 

Francisco Juarez, Joaquin Soto, 

Luz Garcia, Manuel Montero, 

Joaquin Buelna, Manuel Tego, 

Jose Maria Juarez, Joaquin Juarez, 

Juan Pinto, Juan Gonzales, 

Joaquin Castro, Macedonio Lorenzana, 

Martin Villa, Serafin Pinto. 

None of these are living at the present time, though numer- 
ous descendants are now residents of Santa Cruz county. 
The inhabitants of Branciforte acquired no titles to the lands 
of the pueblo, they simply held them by sutferance of the 
authorities of Monterey. We quote from Bancroft, relating 
to the establishment of the pueblo of Branciforte: 

"After the occupation of California by Spain in 1769, the 
title of land vested in the crown. There was no individual 
ownership of land. The King held actual possession of the 
ground occupied by the presidios and a few adjoining lands. 
The aborigines were recognized as the owners under the 
crown, of all the lands needed for their support. This ar- 
rangement limited tlie area, thus leaving a portion open to 
colonization. So it was that under the general law of the 
Indies four square leagues or their equivalent of land could 
be assigned to each pueblo. Neither missions, churches or 
religious orders owned any land, the missionaries had only 
the use of the land needed for mission purposes, namely to 
prepare the Indians tliat they might in time take possession 
as individuals of the land they were then holding in common- 


alty. This purpose once accomplished, the missions were to 
be secularized and made pueblos, the houses of worship nat- 
urally going under the control of the church and the mission- 
aries going to seek other fields of usefulness. It was planned 
from the beginning that each mission and presidio should 
eventually become a pueblo, and that other pueblos should 
likewise be founded, each having four square leagues of land 
assigned thereto. The settlement of boundaries was left to 
the future when called for by the increase of the number of 
the towns. The missions in their temporary occupation were 
not restricted as to area. The conversion of most of the 
presidios and missions into towns was finally affected under 
a law of 1834. This law, according to the spirit of the Span- 
ish laws, involved the distribution of the mission lands to the 

"The granting of land to natives or Spaniards in Cali- 
fornia was permitted as early as 1773. All grants, however, 
were forfeited, by abandonment, failure to cultivate or non- 
compliance with the requirements of the law. Such lands 
could not be alienated at all until full possession had been 
given. At the end of the eighteenth century there were in 
California eighteen missions and four presidios without set- 
tlers, but each was intended to become in due time a pueblo ; 
three towns of Spaniards, so called, with about one hundred 
heads of families ; and finally twenty or thirty men occupying 
ranchos under provisional permits, which involved no legal 
title to the lands. In 1822, after the Spanish sovereignty 
had ceased, the provincial disputation passed an act estab- 
lishing ayuntamientos (municipal council) for towns, but the 
change from the old system was only in name and in the addi- 
tion of a treasurer and secretary to the former list of ofiicials. 
After the government of Mexico became centralized and the 
new regime took effect in California, ayuntamientos were 


suppressed, being replaced by justices of the peace and pre- 
fects. Monterey, a presidio since 1770, was made a town in 
1820 and in 1840 was raised to the rank of a city and de- 
clared to be the capital of the then department of California." 

The following concerning the establishment of the pueblo 
of Branciforte (Bancroft's Pastoral) : 

''The necessity of an increase of the Spanish population 
being fully recognized it was contemplated to establish more 
pueblos of gente de razon (civilized people). In November, 
1795, orders came to select a proper site to found a viUa to 
bear the name of Branciforte, in honor of the Marquis de 
Branciforte, viceroy of Mexico. It was intended to be a mili- 
tary town, thoroughly fortified, and peopled by soldiers, 
though in the matter of land grants the existing pueblo regu- 
lation and the laws of the Indies were to be enforced. Every 
officer and soldier was to have his town lot, and between the 
lots of the officers were others to be assigned to chiefs of 
Indian rancherias who might wish to live among the Span- 
iards. The site finally chosen was Santa Cruz, because it 
afforded facilities for exporting merchandise, with abundance 
of fish and good building materials. It was concluded that 
the settlers should be from cold or temperate climes. Houses 
and granaries were to be built and made ready so that they 
could immediately after their coming devote themselves to 
the cultivation of the soil. The scheme of having Indian 
chiefs among the settlers was given up as impracticable, as 
there were no suitable chiefs at hand, but the mission Indians 
might be advantageously admitted in the colony to work with 
and learn from the gente de razon. Governor Diego de 
Borica, who was a man of practical views, called for four 
classes of settlers, to wit : robust tillers of the soil, mechanics, 
artisans and a few sailors to develop whale fishing, as whales 
abounded on the coast. The college of San Fernando ob- 


jected to the site selected so near a mission, but no heed was 
paid to it and Borica was directed in January, 1797, to pro- 
ceed at once with the foundation, which he did, receiving as 
settlers a number from San Jose and Los Angeles who had 
no lands. He was promised new settlers and artisans from 
Mexico, but the people sent out were not the best suited to 
lay the foundation of a moral, law-abiding community; per- 
haps it was hardly consistent with the eternal fitness of things 
that a colony bearing the name of one of the worst men that 
ever disgraced a country should succeed. Most of the new 
settlers were vagrants and minor criminals. The ship Con- 
cepcion arrived at Monterey May 12, 1797, with a party of 
such colonists in a most pitiable condition from ill-health and 

''Gabriel Moraga, as commisionado, carried out the founda- 
tion. His instructions were to see that the townsmen lived 
peaceably; to tolerate no prostitution, gambling, drunken- 
ness or neglect of work. Such oifences were to be severely 
punished. The observance of religious duties was to be en- 
forced; each settler had to produce from time to time a cer- 
tificate to the effect that he had attended to the church serv- 
ice, the confessional and communion as prescribed by the 
ecclesiastical authority. The colonists were to maintain the 
best relations with the friars, to have no intercourse what- 
ever with the natives of the neighboring mission. A number 
of other useful recommendations need not be detailed. 
Among them was one to see that the settlers prepared shelter 
for men and animals before the arrival there of Cordoba, 
the government engineer; Cordoba arrived in August, sur- 
veyed the lands, did something towards erecting temporary 
houses, began a canal for irrigation and made search for 
suitable materials for the permanent buildings. He fur- 
nished the governor with the estimate of the cost, $23,405, 


which was duly forwarded to the viceroy. In October the 
works were suspended for want of funds and thus was the 
greatness of the villa de Branciforte indefinitely put olf. 
Nevertheless the place did not remain empty, there were 
some temporary huts, nine settlers, the commisionado, and 
the military guard. These settlers were not convicts, though 
of a class that Guadalajara, from whence they came, could 
well afford to part with. They were provided with means 
to get along, after a fashion, for the first five years, but never 
showed a disposition for hard work. In 1798 Governor Borica 
requested Moraga to stir them up against their natural lazi- 
ness; indeed they were not only lazy but vicious, and the 
governor pronounced them a curse to the country for their 
dishonesty and immorality. Down to 1800 there was no 
change in the number, though a few discharged soldiers were 
added to the settlement. Moraga was in charge till 1799 
and was succeeded by Ignacio Vallejo, a very just man. The 
crop of 1800 was 1,100 bushels of wheat, maize and beans, 
and the live stock had reached 500 head of horses and meat 
cattle. The settlement of Branciforte was the last one at- 
tempted during the Spanish or Mexican domination. 

''The united population of San Jose, Los Angeles and 
Branciforte in 1800 was about 550 in a little over one hundred 
families, including twelve or fifteen men raising cattle in the 
vicinity, whose families mostly dwelt in the towns. About 
thirty of these families had been imported from Mexico and 
the increase resulted from children grown to manhood and 
discharged soldiers, some of whom were pensioners. Agri- 
culture and stock-raising were the only industries of the 
townsmen. In 1800 they had 16,000 head of cattle and horses 
and about 1,000 sheep and raised some 9,000 bushels of grain, 
the surplus of which found a ready sale at the presidios. 
Each settler cultivated his fields and delivered yearly to the 


common fund a certain quantity of grain, which served to 
defray the town's expenses. At each pueblo was a guard of 
soldiers who were practically settlers. The alcalde and regi- 
dores had charge of the municipal affairs and the commision- 
ado a general supervision. Most of the labor was done by 
natives not attached to the missions. Father Salazar re- 
ported that the settlers were idlers and cared more for gam- 
bling and guitar playing than for tilling their lands or edu- 
cating their offspring. Branciforte was still in debt to the 
government at the end of 1800." The foregoing may explain 
why Branciforte and Santa Cruz townships on each side of 
the San Lorenzo river remained separate and distinct for 
so many years. Branciforte was founded under such differ- 
ent auspices, near a mission yet not regulated by the laws 
governing a mission, nor yet fulfilling the hope of its found- 
ers as a successful pueblo. 

Since the American occupation it has been a township of 
homes, but few business houses existing, geographically just 
as pleasantly situated as Santa Cruz, and that it was not a 
part of Santa Cruz city, difficult to believe. When a special 
election was called in 1907 to determine if Branciforte and 
Seabright would become a part of the city of Santa Cruz 
some opposition was shown, but the necessary votes were 
received which made it a part of the city. Spanish families 
are in the minority in that portion of the city and the few 
remaining probably know little of the founding of the pueblo 
or the villa de Branciforte. 

There is much in Bancroft 's history ' ' California Pastoral ' ' 
that is of interest, giving one much knowledge of the struggle 
of the missionary friars, the Spanish and Mexican govern- 
ments and of the early occupation by the Americans. Ban- 
croft worked for years compiling his history, writing per- 
sonal letters to all persons known to possess interesting data. 


The University of California is enriched by the Bancroft 
library and the county of Santa Cruz is as much an heir to 
that as any county in the state, more so than some, for every 
county had not a mission and the history pertaining to it. 
The mission buildings have long been extinct, but paintings 
of the buildings or drawings have been preserved and they 
are pictured today for all the world to see on the ubiquitous 
and useful picture post card. 

October 18, 1868, the United States of America issued to 
Augustine W. Blair, at that time county judge of this county, 
a patent for 319 acres of section land in Branciforte in trust 
for the several uses and benefits of the occupants of the town 
of Branciforte, according to their respective interests under 
the act of May 23, 1844, and to his successors and assigns in 
trust as aforesaid. A. W. Blair, county judge mentioned, in 
pursuance of an act of the legislature of the state of Cali- 
fornia approved April 4, 1864, entitled "an Act to settle title 
to lands in the village of Branciforte," issued an order to 
the county surveyor to make a full and accurate survey of 
said village with the lots and parcels therein, designating 
the same by the names of the owners or occupants and to 
have made two maps or plats of said village deposited with 
the county recorder. Notice was ordered published in the 
Santa Cruz Sentinel ''for all claimants to file in the office 
of the county clerk of the county of Santa Cruz, a statement 
of his or their claim, describing particularly the lot or lots 
so claimed; and within sixty days after, December 23, 1864, 
the grounds upon which said claims were founded and proofs 
of such claims and payment of the price fixed on the lots or 
parcels of land claimed," as in said act provided. ''No 
claim shall be permitted to be made after the time pre- 
scribed." After the preliminaries were settled and complied 
with the county j udge made and executed deeds to the parties 


who bad proved their claims to the satisfaction of the 

By an act of Congress entitled "An act to quiet title to 
certain land within the corporate limits of the city of Benicia 
and the town of Santa Cruz in the state of California," ap- 
proved July 23, 1866, all the lands within the corporate lim- 
its of the town of Santa Cruz were ' ' relinquished and granted 
by the United States to the corporate authorities of said town 
and their successors in trust for and with authority to convey 
so much of said lands as were in the bona fide occupancy 
upon the passage of said act by themselves or tenants," to 
such parties. The trustees of the inhabitants of the town of 
Santa Cruz passed ordinances providing for the survey of 
said lands and for the issuance of deeds to those entitled 
thereto and have upon application and due proof deeds issued 
to such parties. Before this the titles to lands within the 
city of Santa Cruz (afterwards incorporated by that name) 
were very much unsettled, also in other portions of the county 
lands were held by squatters on Spanish grants- and much 
litigation ensued before land titles were finally settled. 

An ayuntamiento corresponded somewhat to our common 
council or board of supervisors; these people were saved 
from any such infliction, perhaps if this institution had been 
thrust upon them they might have progressed but it is ex- 
ceedingly doubtful. They belonged to the land of "Manana" 
and "pocotiempo," they lived not only the simple life but 
a primitive one and stood in no fear of any game warden or 
fish commission; they were never urged to make improve- 
ments, no bridges to build, no roads to keep in order ; if they 
desired to extend their travels outside of their territory there 
Avere mountain trails over which no wagon ha'd ever been 
hauled. This scribe made his entry into Santa Cruz over 
a mountain trail in 1851 and he retains a painful recollection 


of the same. In some places the trail was hardly wide enough 
for horses in single file to pass. John Gilroy gave some 
reminiscences of the habits and customs of the people of 
those days to the Alta Calif ornian in 1865. "What little 
wealth there was in the county was in the hands of the 
padres; the Missions contained all the wealth of the county, 
the friars supplied the government and supplied the troops 
with food from the products of the neophyte's labor. The 
needs of the common people were easily satisfied; they were 
not used to luxuries nor were they accustomed to what we 
would call necessities." Gilroy further stated that at the 
time of his arrival "there was not a saw mill nor a spoked 
wheel in California; such lumber as was used was cut with 
an axe. Plates were rare, ' ' and he might have added ' ' knives 
and forks." Frijoles, tortillas and jerked dried beef were 
the principal articles of diet among the common people. The 
late Judge Peckham, once a county judge of this county, 
informed me that he stopped at Gilroy 's house some time in 
the 40 's and was invited to dine; he, with the rest, was sup- 
plied with a tortilla and directed to dig into a pot containing 
a mess of stewed beef and chile; he had to use his fingers, 
no forks being in sight. 

Branciforte came very near being adopted as the name of 
this county instead of Santa Cruz. In the first session of the 
legislature held at San Jose in 1850 the name of Branciforte 
was suggested and reported on. A. A. Hecox and one hun- 
dred and forty-one citizens of Santa Cruz forwarded a peti- 
tion to the legislature protesting against the attaching to or 
being included in Monterey, the district of Santa Cruz, and 
praying that a county may be granted them known and styled 
as the county of Santa Cruz, which petition was read and 
referred to the committee on county boundaries. This was 
on January 16, 1850. So it seems there were "kickers" in 


those days as well as the present time. Had not this protest 
been received, very likely the county seat would have been 
Branciforte instead of being located as the city of the "Holy 
Cross." The village of Branciforte became a part of the 
county government and was controlled by the board of super- 
visors until it was annexed to and became a part and parcel 
of the city of Santa Cruz. The people of the pueblo of Bran- 
ciforte never applied to the authorities of Monterey to have 
commons set otf to them or a public square or plaza. It was 
the custom of the Spanish, likewise the Mexican, government 
to assign certain lands for the use of the people. The woods 
in the forests were also deemed to be the property of the 
public under certain restrictions. Water was also common 
and to be used by the inhabitants. No corporation could 
"gobble" up all the water rights; as water rights did not 
cut much figure in those days, no one thought of appropriat- 
ing the water of the several streams or rivers. At the pres- 
ent time water is quite a valuable asset of the land, for irri- 
gation purposes and for supplying power for electric and 
other machinery. 

The pabladores, inhabitants of the pueblo of Branciforte, 
were not oppressed by a complicated form of government; 
there were alcaldes to take cognizance of offenses against the 
laws of the land. In 1828 Branciforte is described as bounded 
by the bay of Monterey on the west, by Amesti rancho on the 
south, by Santa Cruz and the Sierra on the north and on 
the east by Santa Clara creek. Guadalupe Castro, who died 
a few years ago, one of the descendants of Joaquin Castro, 
used to amuse himself by writing letters to the authorities at 
Washington, D. C, in support of his claim to the whole of 
Branciforte territory. He died in penury and want, his 
"castles in the air" never materialized. The following were 
alcaldes of Branciforte at different periods: Jose Joaquin 


Buelna in 1826, Serafin Pinto in 1827, C. Boronda in 1838, 
Francisco Roderiguez in 1830, Jose Bolcoff in 1834, William 
Blackburn in 1847 and A. A. Abbott. Before the state gov- 
ernment was fully established, the alcaldes exercised con- 
siderable authority; Blackburn made several alcalde grants 
of lands in Santa Cruz during his term in office ; these grants 
were not subsequently confirmed, hence the grants were not 
considered instruments of title. Blackburn also exercised the 
functions of justice of the peace and disposed of civil and 
criminal cases; some of his decisions are matters of history 
and are interesting as his dictum seemed to be law from 
which there was no appeal. A noted case that he decided 
was that of a man charged with killing his wife ; having been 
found guilty he was sentenced to be shot. The prisoner was 
taken out and the sentence was duly carried out. There were 
no delays tolerated by this alcalde, no attorneys were allowed 
to prolong a trial by technicalities. "It was an eye for an 
eye, and a tooth for a tooth." There seems to have been a 
town council for the town of Santa Cruz at this period, prob- 
ably similar to the witenagemote of the English, where the 
people were given a chance to air their grievances. The 
members of the council in 1848 were president, Eli Moore, 
Griffith P. Jenkins, W. H. Hardy and secretary James 
Boucher. There is among the alcalde records a copy of a 
letter from Governor Riley, dated May 26, 1849, approving 
the election of J. L. Majors as alcalde, also stating that the 
town council will, until further orders, confine themselves by 
attending to the internal police of the town and district ac- 
cording to ancient custom and usage. The names of Walter 
Colton and Col. J. D. Stevenson appear frequently in the 
alcaldes ' records as having received grants of land and made 
transfers of the same to other parties. The town council 


appears to have left no records of its proceedings, hence 
their contribution to the history of the county is lost. 

The first election under the United States government was 
held in Santa Cruz on the first Monday in April of 1850; 
there were 313 votes cast at this election; A. C. Campbell was 
elected district attorney; Peter Tracy county clerk; for 
county judge William Blackburn, formerly alcalde ; for county 
attorney Abram Long; sheriff, Francisco Alzina; county re- 
corder, C. P. Stevenson; for assessor, J. Hammond; for 
treasurer, L. Majors ; and for county coroner, Henry Speels. 
The town councilmen were L. B. Clements, C. Schulte; for 
member of the assembly T. Per Lee; he was also assembly- 
man in the first session of the legislature from the district of 
Monterey. John H. Watson was appointed judge of the 
third district court in 1850, comprising at that time the coun- 
ties of Santa Cruz, Monterey, Alameda and Contra Costa. 
Watson served until the April term of court in 1851, being 
succeeded by C. P. Hester, who held office until 1859. Judge 
Blackburn, county and probate judge, took his seat April 6, 
1850. The first probate case was that of Dennis Bennett; 
Mary Bennett applied for letters of administration on the 
estate of Dennis Bennett and she was appointed adminis- 
tratrix of said estate. The county court was also designated 
as a court of sessions presided over by the county judge and 
two associate justices. George Parsons and Felipe Armas 
were elected as such associates. At this period this court 
took charge of the affairs of the county court, levied taxes, 
issued licenses and generally performed the functions of a 
board of supervisors until the latter were chosen and held 
their first meeting July 5, 1852. September 31, 1850, the tax 
on bowling alleys was reduced to $16 per month and they to 
be closed at 10 o'clock P. M. At this time Judge Blackburn 


resigned his oflfice as county judge and the Hon. T. Per Lee 
became the presiding judge in October of that year. 

Manuel Jimeno presented two petitions for reduction of 
taxes. At a special term of court, July, 1851, a tax of fifty 
cents on each $100 worth of real and personal property was 
levied. At the August term, 1851, the court orders that the 
valuation of the Bolsa del Pajaro be increased to $50,000; 
Amesti Rancho raised to $58,227.50; Aptos Rancho to $23,- 
000; the upper ranch of Martina Castro raised to $28,000; 
rancho of Sebastian Rodriguez reduced to $34,430; Jose Bol- 
coff's rancho be reduced to $45,000; the rancho of Manuel 
Jimeno be increased to $81,142. These figures are given to 
show the valuation of property at that period. The as- 
sessor went around with a book carried under his arm and 
as there were no subdivisions of ranches or city lots to as- 
sess, his work was not laborious and involved but a few 
days time to complete the assessment and he was paid $432 
for his labors. Twenty-seven days at $16 per diem, no cor- 
porations, no franchises, no mortgages to be assessed. 

During the term of the court of sessions the law seems 
to have been administered in an impartial manner, cases 
were tried promptly and with very little delay, several promi- 
nent citizens of that period were arrested for selling liquor 
to Indians, some pleaded guilty and were fined $25 and 
costs, another stood trial, was found guilty and had to pay 
$225. Judge Per Lee was succeeded by Henry Rice in June, 
1854. The court of sessions was relieved of its duties in the 
supervision of financial affairs of the county by the organi- 
zation of the board of supervisors. The board of supervisors 
organized July 5, 1852, consisted of Elihu Anthon}^, John 
Daubenbiss, John Haines, Eli Moore and Moses A. Meader; 
Anthony was elected chairman. In August, 1852, the claims 
allowed amounted to $52, salaries of officers not included. In 


1854 the board consisted of only three members — George 
Parsons, Jesse D. Carr and Montgomery B. Shackleford, 
with Parsons chairman. In 1860 the board directed the clerk 
of the board to advertise for a suitable piece of land for the 
erection of county buildings. F. A. Hihn was elected a mem- 
ber of the board in 1861. The building on Pacific Avenue 
generally known as the ^'flatiron edifice" was used for 
county purposes prior to the erection of a court house. In 
1866 Lynch and Gragg were awarded the contract to build a 
court house for $20,000. The same year the late R. C. Kirby 
offered to sell to the county a lot near the upper plaza for 
$400 ; this offer was accepted and afterwards rescinded. The 
advocates of the ''hill" were outgeneraled by those on the 
*'flat." A court house was eventually built which, at the 
time of its erection, was considered a wonderful structure, 
but it was totally inadequate even at that time for the busi- 
ness of the county. 

In April, 1866, the Cooper Brothers and T. W. Moore 
made a deed to the county of Santa Cruz of a lot on Cooper 
Street, 110 feet square, on conditions precedent that said 
county should, within a reasonable time, cause to be erected 
a court house in which shall be held the courts of record of 
said county and which said court house shall face the north- 
erly side of Cooper street and shall have suitable accom- 
modations for county officials ; unless said court house should 
be erected as thus designated no interest or estate whatever 
shall vest in the county of Santa Cruz, but shall revert to 
the grantors. This proved to be an expensive donation as 
will be seen hereafter. 

The spirit of manana was very much in evidence, the habits 
of the native Calif ornians seem to have permeated among 
their successors. In trying to be economical the supervisors 
were in a measure extravagant. The future of the county, 


that it might so)iie day increase in population and that the 
requirements would exceed the wants of the present, seem 
to have been entirely overlooked. At one time a petition 
was presented to the board by several citizens suggesting that 
more land would be needed for county purposes, that it 
would not be wise to allow other buildings to be erected near 
the court house, that it would be better to obtain the prop- 
erty now than to await advances in the value of adjacent 
lands. The board said manana, time enough to consider 
this proposition at some future date. It is easy at the present 
time to perceive what should have been done, but we must 
remember that in the earlier years of this county not much 
progress was made and if any enterprises were proposed 
more opposition than encouragement was strenuously put 

To many persons, the site of the city should liave been 
chosen on Mission liill, where a few business houses were 
started in 1850, but in common with many other places the 
level or flat portion seems to have been invariably chosen 
for town sites. At the time of the fight over the location of 
a county building on the upper plaza the Catholic clergy 
raised a strong opposition to such location, but a jail was 
built adjoining the Catholic church without any opposition. 
It was not only a jail, but a veritable dungeon. This jail 
cost a little over $8,000 and was a source of trouble for sev- 
eral years. The grand jury made several reports designat- 
mg this building as unfit for any person to be placed in; it 
was dangerous to tlie health of the inmates and taken al- 
together was considered a disgrace to humanity. Persons 
that were confined in this place for any length of time came 
out with the mark of a jail bird; they had no color whatever 
and were generally very much weakened by their confine- 
ment. During their incarceration in this prison house (which 


was equal to old Newgate jail in London) the prisoners were 
paraded tlirougli the streets on their way to the court house 
to be tried for their offenses and returned to prison in the 
same manner. 

In July, 1894, a deal was consummated whereby the county 
acquired a piece of land adjoining the court house lot for 
$16,000, after due notice was given that the board of super- 
visors intended to purchase the same for county purposes; 
no objections were made by anyone and the deed passed, 
securing to the county more room. At the present time there 
IS a court house, hall of records and a jail on the land owned 
by the county, too much congestion in case of fire. An entire 
square could have been purchased for a very trifling sum 
where there would have been less danger from fire. It was 
not done and it is idle to dwell on what ought to have been 
done or grieve over the mistakes of the past. 

A disastrous fire occurred in 1894, by which not only the 
court house was destroyed, but all the buildings on the op- 
posite side of the street as far as the Simpson block on Pa- 
cific avenue. The destruction of the court house compelled 
the building of another edifice. An examination of the 
Cooper deed made it necessary, or at least it was so held by 
the county authorities, that a small wooden building be 
erected in the grounds adjacent to the ruins of the court 
house for the purpose of holding the title to the lot acquired 
from Coopers et al. It had also to be taken into considera- 
tion, in adopting the plans and specifications for a new build- 
mg, that the entrance should be on Cooper street; this in- 
volved a sacrifice and changes in the original plans and spec- 
ifications and also in additional work being ordered. In 
April, 1906, the great earthquake that caused so much dam- 
age and disturbance in San Francisco, also included the city 
of Santa Cruz. The tower of the court house tumbled through 


the superior court room floor into the supervisors' chambers, 
knocked the county clerk's office into "pi" and raised a 
rumpus generally with the various offices. Previous to the 
rebuilding- the county rented offices in different parts of the 
city; other buildings suffered damage, the F. A. Hihn Co.'s 
l)uilding, tlie Leonard building and the Pilot building. In 
Watsonville the Pajaro Valley bank building, the Catholic 
church and the I. 0. 0. F. building suffered from the same 
temblor. Altogether the county escaped luckily compared 
with other counties. 

In several parts of the county landslides occurred, at 
Hinckley Gulch Mill, operated by the Loma Prieta Lumber 
Company, a regular avalanche buried the mill and cabins out 
of sight and killed nine persons. Above Boulder Creek two 
persons were killed. The Southern Pacific Railroad suffered 
extensively by the caving in of the tunnel on the narrow 
gauge road over the mountains between Glenwood and Laurel ; 
this tunnel was rendered impassable for trains for three 
years, much to the detriment of travel. During the inter- 
regnum the road was changed to a broad gauge and a change 
made by a cut-off from Los Gates to Mayfield, reducing the 
time to San Francisco and other places. There was a very 
heavy earthquake in 1868, but as there were but few large 
buildings at that time the damage done to property was not 
excessive. It may be that the earthquake of 1906 was a 
blessing in disguise, prior to that period we had boasted 
largely of what we could show in the way of big trees, big 
crops and other big assets; to all this the eastern people 
said we belonged to the Ananias club, but the catastrophe of 
1906 showed conclusively that on short notice we created quite 
a sensation when the news of the temblor reached the outside 
world. It convinced other people that we were not braggarts 


of what California had done in the past, in the language of 
the day "we were keeping up our lick". 

Locomotion and means of travel in the old days were for 
several years by means of horseback riding. A stage line was 
established in 1854 between Santa Cruz and San Jose via 
San Juan. It took two days to reach San Francisco, a stop 
over at San Jose and by boat from Alviso next morning. 
The roads were horrible, mud in winter and suffocating dust 
in the summer; in winter the passengers were obliged to 
leave the stage and assist in extracting the mud-wagon from 
being mired down. A route was established via Soquel and 
over the mountains to Watsonville. Another route was estab- 
lished over the Pajaro turnpike mountain road to San Jose 
from Watsonville. When the railroad was built from San Jose 
to Gilroy the stage route terminated at the latter town, this 
lessened the weary drive through dust and mud. In 1871 
the railroad was extended to Pajaro, in Monterey county, and 
Santa Cruz was dependent on a stage line until a narrow 
gauge railroad was built from Santa Cruz to Watsonville. 
This road was built mainly through the efforts of F. A. Hihn 
and was granted a subsidy, the road was opened for travel in 
1876. Much opposition was encountered in the construction 
of this road, rights of way over the route were obtained only 
m several instances by condemnation suits. The county of 
Santa Cruz issued bonds by way of a subsidy to this road to 
the amount of $100,000; this was done under the act of the 
legislature authorizing counties to vote subsidies for aid of 
railroads. An election was held December 11, 1871, submit- 
ting the question of this subsidy to the people of the county. 
The election was carried by a majority of 602, there were only 
seven election precincts in the county at that period. In 1880 
a railroad eighty-one miles in length was completed from 
Oakland to Santa Cruz over the mountain road via Felton 


and Big Trees. This was considered quite an undertaking; 
predictions were made that it would not be safe to build a 
road over the mountain route; the road was built by Isaac 
N. Davis without any subsidy. It was afterwards transferred 
to the Southern Pacific Coast Railroad Company and sub- 
sequently to the Southern Pacific. The first train to Santa 
Cruz met with bad luck by an accident, the train ran off the 
track on the grade just before it reached Santa Cruz. By 
this disaster fifteen persons were killed and more received 
severe injuries. The company incurred heavy damages, which 
were settled without recourse to the courts. It is supposed 
that the road was not sufficiently ballasted and possibly the 
road was used before it was in a proper condition for travel. 
There have been no serious accidents since the one mentioned. 
Excursion trains were run over this road in 1909, carrying 
a large number of passengers without any injury whatever, 
much to the advantage of Santa Cruz and other stations. 

The people seemed to have changed their views on sub- 
sidies to the railroads, when the Watsonville and Santa Cruz 
railroad was proposed. Before this they were decidedly in 
favor of granting aid in this direction, were clamoring and 
crying for better and speedier transportation. There was 
considerable delay in work being started in constructing the 
proposed road from Watsonville to Santa Cruz. However, 
tlio first installment of bonds was directed to be issued on 
the first six miles of the road being completed. In 1882 the 
county conventions of both the Democrats and Republicans 
passed resolutions directing the nominees for supervisors to 
withhold further payment on the bonds issued, declaring that 
the road had not been built according to the provisions of 
the act of the legislature, that the road should have been ex- 
tended up the coast, whereas it was only built from Wat- 
sonville to Santa Cruz and ended at the latter place. As a 


consequence the treasurer of the county declined to pay any 
more bonds or coupons to the Nevada Bank of San Francisco, 
which had possession of the bonds. A suit was commenced 
by said bank and an appeal made to the supreme court of the 
state. The bank obtained judgment. A writ of error was 
granted to the supreme court of the United States and pro- 
ceedings terminated there, nothing further being done. 

The county in 1865 had other bonds out for bridges which 
were refunded at a less rate of interest. Total amount of 
bonds at that time was $190,000, which have all been taken up 
and the county itself has no bonded indebtedness at this 
time except school bonds of several school districts. This 
IS not written to revive old grievances, but is simply a state- 
ment of the history of transactions concerning the construc- 
tion of this particular road. It was eventually absorbed by 
the Southern Pacific Railroad and made a broad gauge line. 
Prior to the construction of any railroad, several schemes 
were projected at public meetings, but none ever materialized 
until outside capitalists furnished the necessary funds. For 
many years a railroad to San Francisco from Santa Cruz 
on the coast line was agitated. We were regaled with news- 
paper reports at different times that such a road would sure- 
ly be built, that capitalists had examined the territory over 
which a road could be constructed and great expectations 
were indulged in that we would soon have a competing road. 
Not until the Ocean Shore Railroad Company was incorpor- 
ated was any move made towards constructing a road up the 
coast. The Southern Pacific had a survey made several years 
ago but nothing had been done by this corporation until the 
Ocean Shore people commenced operations. This latter cor- 
poration has completed the road to Davenport and are run- 
ning trains regularly to that place from Santa Cruz. In 
November, 1909, some trouble occurred which caused sus- 


pension of work; money was very much needed to further 
prosecute the work, and a movement was put on foot to re- 
organize and issue new bonds. J. Downey Harvey is the 
president of this line and with associates used every effort to 
secure sufficient funds to finish the construction of the Ocean 
Shore line. The Southern Pacific has also built a line to the 
Cement Company's plant at Davenport; surmises are plenty 
that this corporation will absorb the Ocean Shore road. The 
ways of railroad people are past finding out. The Southern 
Pacific has trains running to Boulder Creek and a road into 
the Big Basin is also contemplated. 

Santa Cruz is well supplied at the present time with rail- 
road facilities; seven trains depart daily over the mountain 
route via Los Gatos to San Francisco and other places ; four 
trains daily via Pajaro to Los Angeles, Hollister, Salinas 
and Monterey. Nine trains arrive daily via the mountain 
route from San Francisco, San Jose, Boulder Creek and 
other stations; four trains arrive daily from the south; a 
stage line competes with the Southern Pacific to Boulder 
Creek and the Big Basin. 




The population of Santa Cruz county in 1850 was 643, the 
majority living in and about the Mission of Santa Cruz. 
From Pescadero to the Pajaro river the population was 
limited to the owners of the several ranches, composed prin- 
cipally of California natives — "Hijos del pais." Previous 
to the grand rush to California the forei.gners who had ar- 
rived here associated with the natives on terms of equality, 
were well received and treated in a hospitable manner. Soon 
after the rush for gold commenced and the American popula- 
tion increased with the settlers from the eastern states, a 
line of demarcation seems to have been drawn, and continued 
to exist between the two races. Very little social intercourse 
was indulged in, although in some instances marriages had 
taken place between some of the Spanish families and Amer- 
icans. For purposes of trade and traffic the Californians 
were considered desirable customers. "Spanish as she is 
spoke ' ' was acquired by merchants and others for the purpose 
of the transaction of business with the natives. In elec- 
tion campaigns the natives were also to be counted upon, 
fandangoes and feasts were gotten up for their especial 
benefit just previous to an election and they were a voting 
force not to be despised. All this is changed by loss of prop- 
erty resulting in loss of prestige. The old dons died off and 
many of their descendants became scattered so that of late 
years, what was generally designated as the Spanish vote has 
not counted as much as it did in former years. There are 


numerous other voting elements that are catered to in cam- 
paigns of late years, including the American vote. Popula- 
tion of the county did not increase very rapidly. In 1853 
there was quite an exodus from the mining counties to the 
''cow counties," as all counties south of Sacramento were 
generally designated at that period. From San Francisco 
to San Diego there were no towns of any great size or popula- 
tion. San Jose was a village, the next town was San Juan 
Bautista; at Gilroy there was one house only. Salinas was 
unknown; Monterey, the ancient capital, had a number of in- 
habitants composed principally of the old Spanish families 
who dated back to the first settlement for their ancestry. San 
Luis Obispo, Los Angeles and San Diego were not over 
populated at this period and were unknown quantities and 
were the abode of undesirable persons and a rendezvous for 
horse thieves and desperadoes generally. 

At the Mission of Santa Cruz, as it was generally called 
and designated by all the old settlers for a number of years, 
some farming was carried on. In 1851 land now right in the 
heart of the city of Santa Cruz was rented for $100 per acre 
for raising potatoes. In 1852 several settlers started for the 
Pajaro valley. The rich land of that section had been found 
well adapted for crops of all kinds and a rush was made for 
that fertile region. About this time Judge Watson, who had 
resigned from the bench of the third district court, together 
with D. S. Gregory, an attorney, had secured interests from 
Alexander Rodriguez in the rancho Bolsa del Pajaro in which 
the town of Watsonville was subsequently located. The title 
passed by Watson and Gregory to different persons of the 
Bolsa del Pajaro, also to lots in the then village of Watson- 
viUe, were, after several years of litigation, declared to be 
invalid. The ranch was patented to Sebastian Rodriguez, a 
brother of Alexander, and the titles derived from the heirs 


of Sebastian were finally settled by the supreme court of 
the state and declared valid, pending this litigation. In the 
meantime squatters were numerous and had taken posses- 
sion of the choicest portions of the ranch and had also 
squatted on other ranchos to the detriment of the owners. 
These squatters insisted that it was all government land, and 
that the grants were fraudulent. Squatters leagues were 
formed in different portions of the state and held posses- 
sion for a number of years as squatters. At the rancho 
Amesti a fort was erected, the squatters were determined to 
''hold the fort" at all hazards. The strong arm of Uncle Sam 
was invoked and succeeded in restoring order and quieting 
titles. For a number of years land titles were in an unsettled 
condition; the owners were in the meantime complacently 
permitted to pay the taxes on their lands. 

Times have changed and we have changed with them. All 
sorts and conditions of people were to be found in the earlier 
days of California life. The language, habits and customs 
of the new comers were entirely different from those of the 
present period. From every state in the Union and from 
nearly every country of the globe, had arrived people de- 
sirous of bettering their conditions. The costume of the 
period consisted of pants held by a belt around the waist (or 
m some instances copying from the natives a red silk sash), 
together with a flannel shirt, this being about all the wearing 
apparel in vogue. Their speech partook of the locality in 
which they had formerly lived. ''I want to know" and "dew 
tell" were heard constantly. ''I vum" was another familiar 
expression from away down east. The Missourians if asked 
any question generally replied ''the which" and "hit are 
so"; the Southerners used "thar" and "whar". It was a 
heterogeneous population of all tongues and creeds. One uni- 
versal idea prevailed among them that all the land in sight 


was theirs, that ''Uncle Sam" had bought it right out and 
paid for it and when the treaty of Hidalgo was mentioned, 
by which the United States had solemnly agreed to respect 
the rights of Mexican citizens in California, and should have 
been respected by all, it was received with derision. Judge 
Watson was acting as attorney for some of the squatters. 1 
recollect an incident in relation to the matter. I was present 
at one time when the judge and his clients were holding a con- 
ference and he informed them very forcibly that they need 
not expect to win, that the land grants were valid and would 
be so declared by the Government, that several of the wit- 
nesses that had attested the several grants and had been 
present when possession was given, were still living and the 
grants would finally be confirmed; this kind of talk did not 
suit and was not the kind of advice they were looking for. 
These were like unto many other clients who in consulting 
attorneys want legal advice that agrees with their own views ; 
if not furnished wit^h their own ideas an attorney is con- 
sulted and, coinciding with the views of his clientele, is em- 
ployed and the client fees him. After a long trial in court the 
party so anxious to go to law is satisfied and perhaps has 
learned experience. ' ' So mote it be. ' ' As the people who set- 
tled in this county in the first period brought little funds with 
them, but little progress was made in building up the county 
by material improvements. 

More progress has been made in the development of the 
county and its several localities during the last ten years than 
m all the preceding ones since its organization. New style 
of architecture is everywhere manifest; building with brick 
has increased and in all parts the march of progress is up- 
ward and onward. New people have settled within the borders 
of the county bringing capital and have invested the same in 
substantial holdings. The principal towns, Santa Cruz and 



Watsonville, give unmistakable evidence of growth and pros- 
perity, also in other towns in the county a marked interest 
has been awakened and they have caught the spirit of en- 
terprise. The redwood shacks are being replaced by neat 
and attractive residences. In the early part of the '70s wheat 
was in demand and brought good prices, farmers received 
good prices for their crops, money was plentiful enough to 
enable the producers to buy more land, this was deemed the 
better way of investing the surplus derived from the sale of 
the crops and investments in land proved very successful. 
Land increased in value very materially and has been on the 
upward tendency since that time and now commands very 
high prices, especially the rich alluvial lands of the rich 
valleys. Mountain land years ago that was considered of 
little value has been and still is in demand at remunerative 
prices for orchards and vineyards. I. W. Taylor erected a 
sawmill in a canon near the mountain road from Watson- 
ville to San Jose some time in 1859. Not being endowed with 
a great deal of capital he was compelled to give up the un- 
dertaking, in fact went "flat broke" and "hiked" his way 
over the mountains seeking other fields. Going to Nevada, 
he there engaged in mining, and I believe was successful. 
The Watsonville Mill and Lumber Company furnished em- 
ployment to a large number of teamsters, and a long string 
of teams were busy hauling lumber to the Pajaro depot after 
the railroad was completed to that point. After the timber 
was exhausted the land was sold to settlers and is at this 
time occupied by those who purchased and have set out fruit 

During the years 1868 and 1869 the state of California, 
under Governor Haight's administration, issued patents to 
Charles Ford and Lucien Sanborn, for 640 acres, as assignees 
of Hinckley and Skelly; to James L. Halsted, 160 acres and 


160 acres to L. Sanborn ; to John B. Brown, 320 acres ; to 

Sanborn, 320 acres; William Williamson, 160 acres; Alvin 
Sanborn, 80 acres, all timber land. Some time afterwards 
this was merged into the Watsonville Mill and Lumber Com- 
pany. This corporation did an extensive business for many 
years and M^as a strong corporation materially, and politi- 
cally was generally known and designated as the "sawdust 
gang" and was a controlling power in the polities of the 

A great many quarter sections were squatted on in various 
parts of the county. The occupants in some instances ac- 
quired titles by preemption ; many, however, after the timber 
was stripped abandoned their claims and allowed the land to 
be sold for taxes, whereupon other parties made proof and 
obtained patents for the same. There is no government land 
m this county at the present time, except there may be some 
chalk-rock hiUs, now worth locating. The Spanish grants 
have been sold, divided into small portions; few of the 
original grantees own any portion of these large grants and 
the broad acres, once the pride of the Spanish race, are in 
the possession of the gringos. 

On the Soquel ranch were saw mills, some on government 
land and on land granted by patent from the United States 
to Martina Castro. The Loma Prieta Lumber company in 
1883 purchased from Carmel Fallon, widow of Thomas Fallon, 
a tract of land, principally in timber. This concern has 
done a large business and is still furnishing lumber, pickets 
and shingles to all portions of the state. A branch railroad 
line runs from Aptos to the mills of the company. This in- 
vestment proved a bonanza for the company. The original 
mcorporators were John T. Porter, W. P. Dougherty, Thomas 
B. Bishop, Alvin Sanborn, Lucien Sanborn, Charles Ford 
(all dead), A. C. Bassett, J. A. Linscott and N. T. Smith. 


Lumber has been a great source of revenue in this county for 
many years and will be for some time to come. The supply 
of timber is still quite extensive. There are more extensive 
establishments at the present time in the shape of saw and 
planing mills than at any time previous and giving employ- 
ment to a great number of persons. The total value of forest 
products in 1908 was $881,822, this including lumber, railroad 
ties, shingles, grape stakes, pickets, shakes, car stakes used 
m shipping apples, fuel and tan bark. 

Business improved very decidedly up to 1877 and '78, when 
there was a very great depression. Silver was below par 
and hard times was the cry all over the state. In 1878 an 
election was called for electing delegates to meet at Sacra- 
mento to prepare a new constitution. It seemed to be the 
idea that the old constitution was out of date and not in accord 
with the conditions at this period. Inequalities of assess- 
ments, large tracts of land being assessed at a nominal sum 
per acre, while small holdings were assessed the limit. A 
general discontent was abroad in the land and nothing but a 
decided change of affairs would satisfy the people. In what 
manner the adoption of a new constitution would relieve the 
distress was not apparent, ''anything for a change" was the 
cry. It had been the custom for years for the people to dis- 
cuss political questions and matters of public policy very 
freely; in the stores, saloons and on the street corners dis- 
cussions were frequent and at times very bitter. Of late years 
the people have dropped this mode of discussing public mat- 
ters and it is seldom that any opinions are expressed in pub- 
lic. The newspapers seem to have taken up the gauntlet en- 
tirely in this respect; the sovereign people go quietly about 
their business and express their views through the ballot 
without much demonstration. The adoption of the new con- 
stitution was carried in the county by a majority of 801 out 


of a total vote of 2,553. The contest was very bitter and 
created a very warm feeling of antagonism for some time 
after the election. All the wealth and power of the corpora- 
tions were opposed to the adoption of the constitution ; it was 
carried by the votes of the common people, who deemed it 
quite a triumph. Though their hopes and expectations were 
not realized, and the mortgages still remained unpaid and 
no immediate change in the condition of affairs was mani- 
fest, still the people at large claimed a victory. The dreadful 
evils predicted in the adoption of the present constitution 
did not materialize ; it was predicted that ' ' The tax on actual 
money will be so onerous that no business can be carried on 
in the manner now in vogue." "Business will have a long 
Sunday of rest should the constitution be adopted," ''It calls 
for changes so great and untried that it is revolutionary and 
dangerous;" — ''The liberty of the citizen is imperiled," "A 
straight jacket for the state." The above are excerpts from 
some of the newspapers of the day. It is hardly necessary 
to state that the evils predicted have not come to pass; in- 
terest is not as high now as formerly; whatever evils have 
come to pass and are complained of at the present day are 
not by reason of the adoption of the present constitution. It 
did not affect the old order of things or raise any great dis- 
turbance of business interests. At the present time no one 
seems to know or care what kind of a constitution is in force. 
The people seem to be abundantly able to take care of their 
own welfare and always will in spite of the political dia- 
tribes. In 1894 there was an election for governor and for 
state and county officers. Governor James Budd, Democrat, 
was elected. In this county the election was hotly contested 
for county officers; the calamity howlers were abroad in the 
land and left no stone unturned to gain their ends. They 
were defeated after a very exciting campaign. Since that 


time the elections have been generally very quiet, without any 
great excitement. The county and its several subdivisions 
have gone ahead substantially; a great number of people 
with means have settled within the borders of the fertile por- 
tions of the state and have contributed very materially to 
its wealth and progress. The population of Santa Cruz 
county on the census taken in 1900 was 19,270 and in 1910 was 
26,140, an increase of 6,870. 

Santa Cruz county fronts its entire length on the Pacific 
Ocean. It lies midway between Oregon and Lower California, 
and is in the heart of Central California. It is separated 
from San Mateo and Santa Clara counties by the Santa 
Cruz mountains, and from Monterey county by the Pajaro 
river. It is one of the smallest counties, and comprises a 
narrow strip of mountainous land about forty miles long and 
eighteen miles broad, forming a vast amphitheater, and slop- 
mg from the summits of the Santa Cruz range, whose high- 
est elevation, Loma Prieta, is 4,000 feet, southward and west- 
ward to the bay of Monterey. 

The curving line of shore and the corresponding curve of 
the mountain line inclose an irregular, crescent-shaped tract 
of country, with an average width of twenty miles, which for 
grandeur, beauty, and variety of scenery equals any expanse 
of similar size in the world. The sides of the mountains are 
closely set with forests of pine, redwood, madrone, and other 
trees, the redwoods having, in many cases, attained gigantic 

A number of streams rise in these hills, and bring down the 
rich alluvial loam into the valleys, which, in their normal 
condition, teem with native grasses and flowers, and when 
cultivated yield phenomenal results. These streams are, 
agriculturally as well as topographically, an important fea- 
ture, watering as they do every section of land. Besides 


these, natural springs are innumerable. Nearing the coast, 
there are many interesting topographical features. The 
leagues of wide, high, wind-swept grassy plateaus, which form 
remarkable grazing and dairy lands; the succession of chalk 
terraces ; tlie broad amphitheatrical valley of the Pajaro ; the 
salt lagunas, picturesque in configuration and surrounded by 
park-like groves of live oaks ; the high sandstone cliffs along 
the shore; the magnificent ocean drives — all are materials 
for pleasant investigation. 

Along the coast line, a series of raised benches forms a 
strip of elevated land. This widens to the south of the city 
of Santa Cruz, and affords a large area of fruitful soil, which 
has been brought into a high state of cultivation. From 
Santa Cruz south the soil consists of light loam, abounding 
m lime, potash, and phosphoric acid. 

In the Pajaro valley there is a great variety from the rich 
sedimentary alluvial wash to the light, sandy soil of the foot- 
hills. In the lower part of the valley a clayey loam predomi- 
nates. This is followed by a heavy adobe higher up, and then 
the dark, reddish loam of the plains, the latter being the 
favorite with fruit growers, for it is here that flourish the best 
orchards. The average annual rainfall, taken from a record 
of thirty-four consecutive years, is 25.26 inches, showing that 
this is a well watered district. 

The charm of Santa Cruz is her infinite variety. In lum- 
ber products she ranks third in the state. Her butter, cheese 
and cream might well win her a place in the dairy districts. 
Hay, grain, potatoes, and the whole range of cereals and 
vegetables give enormous yields. In the Department of Ag- 
riculture at Washington, D. C, there is a record of 130 
busliels of wheat per acre raised in the Pajaro valley, and 
while she does not claim to wear the ''citrus belt," yet 
oranges are raised for home consumption, and the cultiva- 



tion of the lemon is a profitable business; but lier deciduous 
fruits, large and small, her table and wine grapes, and her 
fine wines, are winning renown. From the summit of the 
range, more than 2,000 feet above the sea, down to the wide 
and fruitful valleys along the coast, grow and flourish de- 
licious fruits. Prunes, pears, apricots, peaches, cherries, 
Japanese and native plums, figs, walnuts, persimmons, olives, 
and nectarines thrive, but the crop of the largest profit is that 
of apples, their quality and size being astonishing and their 
yield as much so. From bellflowers in September to Newtown 
pippins in December the supply is steady. The extent of the 
apple industry is shown by these statistics, and each year 
finds a large increase in the crop. During the harvesting 
of the crop in the Pajaro valley, this industry gives employ- 
ment to 2,391 males and 698 females, drawing a daily wage 
of $6,308.09 and a monthly pay roll of $198,242.70. The 
average number of boxes delivered to the packing houses per 
day totals 57,872 and a total weight of 2,314,880 pounds. 
Horses used in hauling these number 3,193. 

The actual shipment of apples this season was 4,000 cars, 
shipments being made to Europe and other parts of the 
world. Independent of these shipments were apples used at 
the dryers, vinegar factories, canneries, and for home con- 

This year during the month of October there was held in 
the city of Watsonville an ''Apple Annual" or "show" given 
over entirely to the apple industry. As its name implies, 
it is intended to make this show an annual affair. 

The fish hatchery at Brookdale and at Scott's Creek Sta- 
tion have produced during the past year silver salmon, steel- 
head, and rainbow eggs amounting to 2,509,000. There were 
shipped to the United States Bureau of Fisheries and State 
Commission 68,000 steelhead eggs. 


Many acres have been set out in tlie last few months to 
eucalyptus trees, and many more are to be set out during the 
coming year. 

Of the small fruits, the strawberry is the most widely grown 
and furnishes a practically continuous crop. 

In the southern part of the county a large acreage is de- 
voted to the profitable growth of sugar beets, potatoes, beans 
and onions, and the yield is enormous. Market gardening is 

A great deal of asparagus and rhubarb are grown for out- 
side markets. 

Seeds, bulbs, plants, and cut flowers contribute largely to 
the supply for metropolitan markets. 

Dairying is a profitable industry, and thousands of acres 
of grazing land support well-selected herds of stock. 

Poultry raising is a profitable business, the climate and 
conditions being well adapted for such industry. 

Considerable capital is invested in the deep sea fisheries. 
The fish hatchery at Brookfield, on Clear Lake, has upward 
of 2,000,000 trout and salmon fry. 

During the fall and winter months 5,000 or 6,000 salmon 
eggs will be hatched and the fry liberated in the bay. Steel- 
head and rainbow trout abound in all the thirty odd streams. 

The forest covered mountains are a retreat for quail and 
deer, and the many lagoons and the four beautiful lakes in 
the Pajaro Valley in fall and winter are feeding places for 
aJ] varieties of wild ducks. 

At Santa Cruz the tent city, pavilion, casino and baths, 
representing an expenditure of $750,000, were opened two 
years ago, and this beautiful summer resort had practically 
the greatest concourse of pleasure seekers on the coast. It 
is estimated 100,000 people from San Francisco and interior 
visited our shores during the summer. 


Capitola, four miles east of Santa Cruz, can be reached by 
both steam and electric railroad. This is another beautiful 
summer resort. 

There are two Carnegie libraries in the county well stocked 
with the latest works. The public schools throughout the 
county are of a high standard, as are also the private schools 
and colleges. The many fine churches represent the leading 
denominations. There are many fraternal societies, and a 
large number of them hold meetings in fine lodge rooms in 
buildings of their own. There are fine banks in the county — 
all sound banking institutions. 

The supervisors have done and are doing good work in 
road building, and the most mountainous places can now be 
reached by easy grades. 

Many industries have developed to the profit producing 
point. The Santa Cruz Portland cement plant, located twelve 
miles north of the city of Santa Cruz, represents an expendi- 
ture of $5,000,000, and has the largest capacity for the manu- 
facture of cement of any similar institution of its kind. The 
power works, tannery, paper mill, soap and glue factory, plan- 
ing and sawmills, lime kilns and the bitumen industry, are 
all in active operation, and the general air of thrift and pros- 
perity is apparent. The output of lumber has been large for 
a great many years, but great tracts of forest still remain. 
Many of the trees are of ancient growth, and it is not un- 
common to see 35,000 feet of clear lumber cut from a single 

Santa Cruz, Watsonville, Boulder Creek, Soquel, Aptos, 
Ben Lomond, Brookdale, Felton, Capitola, Davenport, and 
Glenwood are the principal towns. 




The first court house of Santa Cruz county was located on 
the east side of wliat is now known as Emmet street in the 
upper Plaza. It was a frame building with a stairway on 
the outside. The building and lot were conveyed to the county 
by Thomas Fallon, who built it for a residence and used a 
portion of it for his business, making saddle trees and 
leather paraphernalia, for saddles were much in use in early 
days. Judge John H. Watson was the first judge, Peter 
Tracey first county clerk, Francisco Alzino the first sheriff. 
Watson resigned and was succeeded by C. P. Hester. When 
Hester's term expired Samuel Bell McKee was elected his 
successor. David Belden was the last judge of the old dis- 
trict court. In the superior court created by the new constitu- 
tion, J. H. Logan was the first judge, succeeded by F. J. Mc- 
Cann, who died in office. Judge Logan was appointed to fill 
the unexpired term of McCann. Lucas F. Smith succeeded 
Logan and is now the judge of the supreme court, elected in 
1898 and subsequently re-elected. J. H. Skirm is at present 
practicing, the only one alive of the old school of lawyers. 
C. B. Younger (deceased) practiced in the district a num- 
ber of years, and Julius Lee, who also practiced many years, 
is also deceased, having passed away in 1910. It is claimed 
that Judge Hester was defeated on the ground that certain 
lawj^ers had a ''pull" with him, and that he always decided 
their cases their way. This has been charged against almost 
every judge. 

Among the lawyers practicing before the district court in 


early days were D. R. Ashley (afterward state treasurer), R. 
F. Peckham, A. S. Gregory and J. H. Coulb. Peckham and 
Coulb had an office at one time in the old court house. W. T. 
Wallace, M. H. Patterson and several others practiced before 
this court. 

John H. Garber, whose death occurred a few months ago, 
was a young attorney at this period. He ran for district at- 
torney on the Democratic ticket, and, much to his chagrin, 
was defeated. It was the best thing that could have happened 
to him, a turning point in his career. He left Santa Cruz and 
went to Nevada, where he gained fame and success. Of late 
years he resided in San Francisco and was a leading member 
of the bar in that city. 


A noted criminal case was that of the People vs. Jesse I. 
Graham; an indictment was presented by the grand jury at 
the April term of the district court accusing Graham of the 
killing of Dennis Bennet on April 22, 1850. Entered on the 
indictment were the names of the witnesses and also of Will- 
iam T. Wallace, district attorney. Graham left for parts un- 
known soon after the homicide and the case was forgotten 
by almost every one except some members of the Bennet 
family. A bench warrant was issued for the arrest of Graham 
on April 26, 1888, thirty years later; he was arrested near 
Fresno and brought to this county for trial. The trial of 
the ease attracted considerable attention; the habits, customs 
and peculiarities of the time of 1850 were considered an- 
cient history resurrected. An eye witness of the affray was 
brought from Arizona; his recollection of the event as given 
by his testimony was clear and distinct. The trial occupied 
several days. The jury could not agree upon a verdict, and 
stood ten for acquittal and two for conviction. The jury, 


it was reported, took into consideration the time that had 
elapsed since the commission of the offense and the lawless- 
ness of early days, and the fact that the defendant had been 
living in the state for some years without any attempt of 
concealment on liis part, and his neighbors testifying that 
he bore a good character for peace and quietness, no doubt 
influenced the jury. The defendant was admitted to bail 
and the case dismissed and he was set free. 

A case that rivals the celebrated case of Jarndyce vs. 
Jarndyce is on record in the district court and the superior 
court of this county. William H. Moore died in November, 
1871, leaving a large estate. Probate proceedings were in- 
stituted which dragged along for many years, owing to con- 
flicting interests by the heirs and others who had acquired 
interests in portions of the estate. Considerable litigation 
has ensued and the case is not yet settled. The judges that 
were on the bench have all passed away. The attorneys that 
were enlisted in tlie various suits have ceased their arguments 
and have paid the common penalty of all mankind. 


''Over the hills to the poorhouse." In the first years of 
the county government the supervisors of each district were 
allowed a certain amount of money to be used by them for the 
support of indigent persons. There were not so many claim- 
ing aid as there are at the present time. As the years rolled 
on indigents and unfortunates increased and a county lios- 
pital and poor farm was established. At one time the prison- 
ers in the county jail were fed at the rate of sixty cents per 
diem, while the inmates of the poorhouse were starved by 
contrast at about thirty cents per diem. Complaints were 
made to the board of supervisors monthly of the treatment 
received, the poor food and ill treatment generally. In 1885 a 


new system was inaugurated by which supplies were pur- 
chased under the direction of the hospital committee of the 
board of supervisors, and the inmates received the benefit of 
this system and have been and now are treated humanely. 
Very many persons, especially the old Calif ornians, have a 
"holy horror" of being sent to end their days in the county 
hospital, preferring to eke out a miserable existence on the 
pittance allowed them by the supervisors. 

Under the present management the inmates have no cause 
for complaint; they are well cared for, have medical attend- 
ance when sick and are treated like human beings. Without 
any cares or anxiety they live to a ripe old age. One inmate 
who once owned ten acres of land right in the heart of Wat- 
sonville has been a boarder for several years, compelled by 
his own imprudence to accept a home in the poorhouse. On 
being asked how he was treated, answered "Just as good as 
I deserve; we all get good treatment here." 

The expenses for taking care of the inmates of this institu- 
tion average about thirty-five cents per day; this includes 
provisions of all kinds, clothing and medical attendance. The 
average monthly number of inmates during the year ranges 
from sixty to seventy. This institution is conducted on hu- 
mane principles and reflects credit on the officials of Santa 
Cruz county. 

A suggestion has been made to the board of supervisors to 
establish an old folks home, for a class of people who have 
some means and could afford to pay for accommodations at 
a reasonable compensation; where they might be allowed to 
end their days among their own surroundings, in a home 
similar to the Old Peoples Home in San Francisco, but not 
so expensive. This idea was placed before the board of 
supervisors some months ago. A communication on this 
subject was published in three of the newspapers of the 


county witli favorable comment. As it promises a new de- 
parture, it will take some time to develop. 


Among the first residents of Santa Cruz county was Eliliu 
Anthony, who arrived in California in 1847, moving with his 
family to Santa Cruz in 1848, and built the first wharf in 
Santa Cruz; he established the first foundrj^ P. H. Devoll 
first reached this coast in 1830. In 1868 he returned to Cal- 
ifornia and in 1872 settled in Santa Cruz and died here. 
John Daubenbis arrived in California in 1843 in company 
with John Hames; they built a flour mill and a saw mill on 
Soquel creek. During the early period of the state John 
Daubenbis kept open house; all travelers were made welcome. 

Francisco Alzino, a native of Spain, came to California in 
1846 and to Santa Cruz in 1847; he was the first sheriff of 
Santa Cruz county. His widow survives him, hale and hearty 
at eighty years of age. The son, Enoch Alzino, has been 
the trusted janitor of the court house for twenty-five years. 
Supervisors and other officials have been changed during this 
period but "Tokey,'* as he is generally called, keeps his 
position because he is trustworthy. 

William Blackburn came to Santa Cruz in 1845, and served 
as alcalde and county judge. Isaac Graham (Zayante), who 
settled on the Zayante Rancho in 1841, built the first sawmill 
in California. Paul Sweet arrived here about 1840, and 
started the first tannery in Santa Cruz county. Joseph L. 
Majors came here in 1832, and in 1839, he married Marie de 
Los Angeles. San Augustine Rancho was granted to Majors 
in 1841, and he was elected county treasurer in 1850. 

William Trevethan came here in 1835. William Hardy 
came here in 1845, and lived on Beach Hill for many years 
before his death. Jose Bolcolb Rusner came to California in 



1814, and occupied the office of alcalde a number of years ; he 
owned the Refuzio Rancho at one time, and died in poverty 
in 1866. A. A. Hecox arrived here in 1846, served as alcalde, 
also as county treasurer. Guy Omnes, native of France, who 
arrived in 1843, was a lumberman. Lajeunesse, generally 
called Ligeness, Canadian, arrived in 1844 or thereabouts ; he 
was a lumberman. Job F. Dye crossed the Rockies, arriving 
in this county in the '60s. 

William Ware, who came here very early, was associated 
with Isaac Graham. Prewett Sinclair, who crossed the 
Rockies in 1830, was a trapper and hunter ; he made his home 
in Santa Cruz many years, and voted at the first election in 
1850. At one time in his life he had a dispute over some 
land with one Dr. Vanderberg; Prewett took down his old 
rifle and proposed to go for the doctor. He happened to 
consult Judge Peckham, his lawyer, about the propriety of 
taking a shot at the doctor; Peckham told him that was not 
the right method and advised him not to attempt it ; Prewett 
took the advise in good part but thought his way best to 
settle such disputes, frontier style. 

Otis Ashley arrived in California in 1846; he lived on the 
Zayante Rancho, near Felton, from 1856, engaged in the 
lumber business and had twenty years of litigation. Lambert 
B. Clement came to California in 1845, and was justice of the 
peace at Soquel for several years. Joseph Pellissier landed 
at Sausalito in 1845, and lived in the Pajaro valley, Monterey 
county; he married the daughter of Vallejo. Moses A. Meder, 
who came to California in 1846, owned considerable land at 
one time in this county. Eli Moore came to this state in 1847 ; 
he owned a large tract of land up the coast, also property in 
the city of Santa Cruz. 

The pioneers mentioned have all departed from this mun- 
dane sphere and are free from trouble. They deserve a 


place in the history of the state. Others liave reaped the 
benefit of their labors and profited by their experiences. 
Witli one or two exceptions the probate court was not kept 
busy settling the estates of the pioneers. 


It must be borne in mind that many of the people that 
thronged to California in the golden era, especially those 
who hailed from **away down east," were provincial. They 
had never traveled outside of their own locality to any extent 
until they made up their minds to leave for a far distant 
state and an unknown country. For a person to have ven- 
tured 50 miles from home was deemed an undertaking in 
the year of grace 1848, hence their ideas of their fellow citi- 
zens of the south were rather narrow. The western people 
accustomed to travel were broader in their views of man- 
kind. One elderly person I call to mind whose realm was 
bounded by Royalton, Vt., deemed that place the center of 
the universe. Another younger man from Boston knew that 
city by heart, but outside this his knowledge was limited. 
He was not aware of any steamships traveling to Charleston, 
opposite Boston. A ten-acre field was a large farm to some 
of them; they did not seem to grasp the areas of California 
ranches; their ambition was to realize on their ventures here 
and return to the land of their fathers to enjoy the fruits of 
their labors; very few expected to stay any length of time, 
and had they been successful and realized their ambition 
the^^ would have made a trip east if for nothing more than 
to see the old folks. Fate decreed otherwise and the majority 
became old settlers and pioneers and rejoiced that they be- 
came actual and bona fide residents of the Golden State. 

In 1852 land in the town of Santa Cruz, now a well improved 
portion of the city, was rented for $100 an acre and a big 


crop of potatoes was raised on this land; potatoes that year 
brought as high as sixteen cents per pound. Flour in the 
month of December that year was $50 per barrel. En- 
couraged by the success of this potato crop many persons 
migrated from Santa Cruz to the Pajaro valley where J. 
Bryant Hill in that year had been very successful in farming. 
He was the first American to start the plow in the Pajaro 
valley on the Sal-si-puedes rancho that he had leased from 
Don Manuel Jimeno. 

Shipping was carried on by sailing vessels from Santa 
Cruz to San Francisco. At this period several schooners 
were wrecked on the beach at Santa Cruz. At Aptos a brig 
went ashore loaded with grain and potatoes, quite a valuable 
cargo thus being lost. In 1853 the potato crop was a failure 
owing to the large quantity raised and no market ; prices went 
down to nothing. The population of the state at this time 
was not large enough to absorb the immense amount raised 
and they rotted on the ground; this was a decided set back, 
as many had depended on the proceeds of this crop to make 
a stake and had calculated to go home; thus all their hopes 
were dashed by the collapse of the market. Some never re- 
covered from this misfortune, became reckless and disheart- 
ened, others by perseverance and pluck weathered the storm 
and buckled in again. The latter suffered severe hardships, 
as it was some years before they realized anything from 
their labors as fanners; money was scarce and not much in 
circulation, ''no credit" signs hung up in several of the 
stores. Not until 1857 did times improve, potatoes and other 
farm products were bringing good prices. About this time 
better times were in evidence, as noted by the change in 
dress; frock coats and white shirts were worn and in some 
cases plug hats. Very little progress was made in improve- 
ments, the redwood shanties still being in vogue, though in- 


dustries were being started in the shape of saw mills. Isaac 
Graham, a pioneer, is credited with having erected the first 
saw mill on Zayante creek in 1842 or '43. Pewett Sinclair, 
another pioneer, operated a mill on the Corralitos creek, and 
a very crude affair it was. In the early '50s government 
land, that is, section land, was being looked up and located. 
At first this land was taken up by squatters without any at- 
tempt to prove up by way of preemption ; the land offices paid 
but little attention at this period to what was going on in 
land matters. 




In 1851 the court of sessions divided the county with two 
townships. All north of Aptos was designated as Santa Cruz 
township, and south of Aptos as Pajaro township. The 
same authority appointed road masters for several districts. 
In March, 1851, the court of sessions directed that all able- 
bodied men between the ages of 18 and 45 should work on 
the roads four days in each year. This archaic system was 
kept up for several years without much improvement in local 
road building. At one time the roadmasters were elected by 
the people and were supposed to be subject to the orders of 
the supervisor of his district. These officials, being elective 
officers, considered that they were not subject altogether to 
the control of the supervisor, but assumed to be "boss" of 
the situation. Not much improvement was manifest under 
this system. The roads were still in a deplorable condition. 
A few years ago, in 1883, the office of road master was 
abolished and the supervision of the roads was given to the 
supervisors of their respective districts. Complaint of poor 
roads and road building is still heard; in some districts the 
roads are in better condition than in others. The mountain 
roads were laid out and built by men who evidently were 
not practical road builders; the road from the city of Santa 
Cruz to the Big Trees, one of the scenic roads of the county, 
has been a source of vexation and expense for years. Too 
much politics is urged as a reason for the inefficiency of 
road improvement. No one seems in earnest in advocating 
a system that will relegate politics and institute a practical 
system. Ephraim is joined to its idols. 


To make a change from the old established system would 
be hazardous and subservient to some people who look upon 
the system as a vested inheritance and one that should not 
be disturbed. Bismarck, the prime minister of Germany, in 
his lifetime is said to have remarked to an American during 
an interview on national customs, "Mein Gott, what has 
politics to do mit roads!" If he had ever lived here any 
time he would have discovered that politics governs all and 
every department in this state. A plan was suggested at one 
time by a property holder who had extensive timber holdings, 
that a general superintendent of roads who was a civil en- 
gineer and surveyor should be appointed to take full charge 
of the highways of the county. This was deemed eminently 
practical, but the suggestion has not been adopted. 

It may be possible to have a better system created, but it 
will take some time to educate the people at large and in- 
fuse new methods. Good roads seem to be the demand of 
the times, however, and the agitation caused by automobile 
manufacturers and owners may bring about the desired ne- 
cessity for better means of travel. It must not be inferred 
that no improvements have been made in past years, for 
good and substantial bridges have been built in several of 
the highways; one of these is between the county of Santa 
Cruz and Monterey crossing the Pajaro river, a very sub- 
stantial structure, called the Riverside bridge, which opens 
up a new traveled road. The bridges built in late years 
have been designed and constructed in much better shape 
than formerly and withstand the heavy freshets that occur 
in the rainy season. There was expended on roads during the 
last fiscal year the sum of $40,662.25 and on bridges $12,- 
389.65; the number of miles of public roads in the county 
is 458. 

In former years the supervisors were limited to tlie re- 


ceipts from the several road funds of the county in the ex- 
penditure of road fund. In recent years by amendments to 
the county government act, the supervisors seem to have 
been given privileges to draw on the general fund for the pur- 
pose of acquiring roads and for road improvements gen- 
erally. Some months ago the board of supervisors deemed it 
necessary to purchase a road known as the Highland way, at 
a cost of $15,000. This raised considerable opposition and 
the board was enjoined from proceeding any further in the 
matter. A suit to determine this matter is now on appeal 
from the superior court of the county to the appellate court 
of the state. It was urged by the opponents of this measure 
that the road question did not serve any great number of 
people, that it was more of a private than a public road. The 
advocates of the measure insisted that it was idle to invite 
people to settle and make improvements in their mountain 
homes unless they could be assured of having good roads 
accessible at all times. The decision of the case referred to 
is anxiously awaited. Unless the supervisors can draw on 
the general county fund for such purposes, that is to acquire 
roads, the prospect for improved roads will go glimmering. 
A large portion of the county above the city of Santa Cruz 
consists of land located on mountain tracts and on these 
tracts are located many settlers who are shut off from com- 
munication at times by reason of the road being sometimes 
impassable. Subdivisions have been made of several tracts, 
divided into lots suitable for residences, and, being located 
among the redwoods, are sought after for summer residences. 
It is very necessary that good roads should be laid out in 
order to accommodate the settlers in such localities. Santa 
Cruz county is bound to become a spot in time for people 
of means to erect summer homes ; no county in the state 
affords better advantages in the way of scenery, wooded 


retreats, fishing and hunting; the spirit of progress is mov- 
ing slowly but surely; old customs and ideas must give way 
to the new and in course of time a realization of the benefits 
to accrue by the march of improvements will be appreciated. 
Roads are oiled and sprinkled to a greater extent than in 
former years. About 30,000 tons of granite rock have recent- 
ly been ordered by the supervisors, to be distributed in 
several road districts where needed. This looks as if there 
was an impetus in road matters and it is hoped it will prove 
beneficial. In the state at large there is also a revival in 
road building; the postoffice authorities insist on good roads 
for free mail delivery for their carriers; "no good roads, no 
delivery," is the watcliword of the postal department. 


Mrs. Case is credited with having established the first 
school in Santa Cruz, a private one. The first public school 
in Santa Cruz was opened in 1853. The first school in 
Pajaro was opened that same year with Seneca Carroll as 
teacher. In those days no certificates of qualifications were 
necessary, the trustees examined the applicants or called 
on other persons to examine them, but few questions were 
asked. The teacher had to depend to some extent on the 
patrons of the school for compensation in the shape of rates 
for teaching or by subscriptions. There was no regulated 
system in vogue at that time in country districts; as schools 
were established tlie teacher was expected to board around. 
The salary of the school superintendent was $600 per an- 
num in 1866, as the incumbent was a teacher he was allowed 
to teach, in fact he had to earn a living. The salary at 
present is $1,800 per annum. There are sixty grammar and 
three high schools in the county, employing one hundred and 
thirty and twenty-seven teachers respectively. There is an 


industrial department connected with the schools in Santa 
Cruz and Watsonville, besides which there are five private 
schools and one business college in the county. 


For several years we of Santa Cruz county could say as 
did one of the early governors of Virginia, "Thank God we 
have no newspaper in the colony." The Pacific Sentinel was 
established in Monterey in 1855 and was moved to Santa 
Cruz in 1860 and the name changed to the Santa Cruz Sen- 
tinel. John McElroy, the editor and publisher, died at the 
Soldiers home in Yountville several years ago. In 1876 the 
paper passed into the hands of McPherson and Waldron, by 
whom it has been conducted since that time, and since 1884 
has been published as a daily. The Santa Cruz News was es- 
tablished in 1859 by W. M. Slocum, a brother of General 
Slocum. This paper was published as an abolition paper 
ahead of the times and lasted only a year. The Santa Cruz 
Surf, now published by A. A. Taylor, is the successor of 
the Local Item, published in 1875 by H. Coffin, and of the 
Courier Item, published by Patrick and Green Majors. In 
June, 1883, the first number of the Daily Surf was published 
and in 1889 the name was changed to The Surf, under which 
name it is still published. 

The Pajaro Valley Times was started in Watsonville by 
Kearney, McQuillan and Duehow. It was moved to Santa 
Cruz in 1867 and later was absorbed by the Santa Cruz 
Sentinel. The Pajaronian was first issued at Watsonville 
in March, 1868, by J. A. Cottle. C. 0. Cummings succeeded 
Mr. Cottle, and remained until 1876. when W. R. Radcliif 
bought a half interest in the paper. The latter is now cashier 
of the Bank of Watsonville and has eschewed newspaper 
work. The Pajaronian is now conducted by J. G. Piratsky 


and George Radcliff, and has been published as a daily for 
several years. It also issues a weekly edition. The Wat- 
sonville Transcript was first published by W. H. Wheeler, 
afterward by George W. Peckham, and is now published as 
a daily by the Watsonville Register Company. The Rustler, 
published in Watsonville by Joe Heatherington, now editor 
of the Salinas Index, did not fill a long-felt want, and suc- 
cumbed. In Boulder Creek, in 1889, a paper was started 
called the Hatchet. It did not last long, as the publisher 
left the country for the country's good. The Mountain Echo, 
a weekly paper, is published at Boulder by W. S. Rodgers, 
who is getting out a good paper under adverse circumstances. 
He is advancing the interests of his town both materially 
and morally. The Santa Cruz News, the latest acquisition to 
journalism, was started November 1, 1907, and published 
by the Devlin-Judah Company. It is a daily and promises 
to outlive its predecessor of 1859, of the same name. The 
Tribune, a weekly paper published in Santa Cruz by the 
Tribune Printing and Publishing Co. (Day, Fikes & Barrett), 
has been in existence for about three years. It is used as 
an advertising medium, free distribution being made with 
the San Francisco papers on Sunday. It often contains 
some pithy articles pertaining to the community. There 
were some other papers started, but as they did not last 
long it is better to let them rest in peace. 


Stephen M. White, United States Senator, son of William 
F. White, was reared in the Pajaro valley, elected United 
States Senator in 1893 and served a full term of six years. 
He died in Los Angeles in 1901. W. W. Stow, the well-known 
political boss, farmed on the Corralitos ranch; he was twice 
elected to the assembly of this county, and died in San Fran- 
cisco. Governor Blaisdell of Nevada once raised "spuds" in 


the Pajaro valley. Hon. J. K. Luttrell, who was elected to 
congress from the third congressional district in 1872, once 
taught school in Watsonville. Hon. Thomas Beck served as 
secretary of state from 1875 to '79 ; he is still living and very 
active. William F. White, a member of the constitutional 
convention of 1878, was elected from the senatorial district 
comprised of Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Benito counties. 
Daniel Tuttle was elected to the same convention from this 
county. Edward Martin was elected also as a delegate from 
the state at large. 

Concerning the literary folk of this county, we mention the 
following: One of the best known writers of short stories 
was Dr. James W. Gaily; his writings best known to the 
public are, "Big Jack Small," "Sand," "Frozen Fruit" and 
"Quarz." He was also a frequent contributor to the Argo- 
naut, Sacramento Union, and other papers. He died in Wat- 
sonville in 1891. 

Josephine C. McCracken, who wrote for Harper Brothers 
and for the Overland Monthly, is still living in Santa Cruz 
and is on the staff of the Sentinel. James M. McQuillam, 
one of the editors of the Pajaro Valley Times, was a graceful 
writer and very much of a poet. He used to print his poetic 
effusions in the Poets Corner of his newspaper occasionally. 
One of his poems, "Lost to Society — Lost," was a gem of 
the first water. 

One of the distinguished writers for the Overland Monthly 
was Georgina Bruce Kirby, who came to California in 1850, 
was married to R. C. Kirby, a pioneer tanner of Santa Cruz, 
and lived here until her death. She published a very inter- 
esting book of her life before coming to California, describ- 
ing her home life in England, her voyage to and work in 
America and her life at the noted Brook Farm community. 
Her California experiences were in manuscript form at the 


time of the death, and have never been published. William 
F. White was quite literary. He was author of the book, 
''Pioneer Times in California," and he also wrote several 
sketches for the newspapers. His "Striker" letters are still 
remembered by the pioneers. He was the best raconteur of 
the early days I ever met, liad an easy flow of language 
and was always entertaining. 

Dr. C. Anderson of Santa Cruz, a regular practitioner for 
many years, is a noted geologist and conchologist. His 
scientific articles are well known and his work at the Chau- 
tauqua assemblies at Monterey was notable for depth of 
knowledge. He acquired a very fine collection of shells and 
sea life. His writings for "Harrison's History of Santa 
Cruz" are most interesting. He is in very feeble health, 
known to but few residents, but not forgotten by old friends. 




About the middle of November, in the year of our Lord 
1851, three horsemen were wending their way from Santa 
Cruz to the Rio del Pajaro, stopping a short time at the 
village of Soquel to talk to a few of the inhabitants who 
were interested in knowing where this cavalcade was going 
and what the object was. On being informed that the destin- 
ation was Pajaro for the purpose of farming, sundry mis- 
givings were made as to the success of the undertaking. At 
that period the Pajaro was an unknown quantity and doubts 
were expressed as to the experiment of farming anywhere 
but in the vicinity of Santa Cruz. However, good luck and 
good wishes were freely expressed toward tlie advance guard, 
the pioneers of El Pajaro. The trio of horsemen parted 
company with Soquel and pursued their way. Occasionally 
they met a coyote which gazed indifferently at the intruders 
and appeared to be in no fear of being hurt; with these 
exceptions no other animals were in the road except a pack 
of yellow dogs from one of the ranch houses; they barked 
incessantly at the horses as much as to say, ''what are you 
doing on this road." About dusk the trio arrived at the 
Pajaro river and camped on its bank under the cottonwood 
trees that lined the banks at that time. When camp was 
struck, a fire was built and the simple life commenced. There 
was not a farm house in sight nor any appearance of a 
habitation; the only houses at that time were the adobe 
buildings of the several ranch owners. The camp mentioned 


was on the Sal-si-puedes rancho, owned at that time by Don 
Manuel Jimeno, who was then one of the acting governors of 
California under Mexican rule and to whom a grant of the 
Sal-si-puedes rancho had been made. J. Bryant Hill, one of 
the trio mentioned, had leased from the Don, 1,000 acres 
which he proposed to farm under improved methods, feeling 
confident that if under the antiquated methods of the natives, 
and their primitive methods of farming crops could be raised, 
with the American process much could be accomplished. At 
this period, 1851, at all the ranchos were congregated thou- 
sands of wild Spanish cattle which seemed to own all the 
land in sight and were ready to contend with anyone that 
denied them the undisputed possession of the land; coyotes 
and wolves were numerous and seemed to have formed a 
combination against the offspring of these wild cattle. The 
wolves left after a few years, but the coyotes remained to 
follow the depredations and were generally successful. Wild 
geese were numerous and as they had never been fired upon 
were comparatively tame; while riding near them the flock 
would simply leave the road open, but showed no fear of be- 
ing disturbed. In due course of time farming implements 
were brought to the rancho and the first furrow was run 
about three-quarters of a mile long somewhere near the land 
now owned by the Sellman brothers. The writer has been 
credited with turning the first furrow on the Sal-si-puedes 
rancho, but I think this is a mistake. I assisted in plowing 
this portion of the land, but as to running the first furrow, 
if I did, it must have been crooked. However that may be, 
grain was planted, also potatoes and other crops, which real- 
ized good prices. Owing to the insufficiency of the fences the 
wild cattle broke in and devoured several sacks of potatoes. 
The Pajaro river took a rise and became rampant and carried 


off several more, and as potatoes were worth in San Francisco 
sixteen cents per pound, quite a heavy loss was sustained. 

Toward the close of 1852 quite an immigration poured 
into the valley, composed mainly of miners who had been 
unsuccessful in their calling and concluded to try farming. 
Some of these people went to work for J. Bryant Hill, others 
dispersed over the valley, became squatters and farmed on 
their own account. The year 1853 was a disastrous one. 
Potatoes, which had been planted very largely on account 
of the prices obtained in 1852, failed to realize any money 
whatever. The crop was not a failure, but the price fell to 
nothing and the potatoes rotted in the ground. 

Sal-si-puedes rancho, containing 31,000 acres of land, was 
owned by Don Manuel Jimeno. The United States issued 
a patent for this rancho to John P. Davison, Stephen W. 
Tibbets, Joseph B. Crockett, Edward D. Baker, (Col. Baker, 
who fell at Bali's Bluffs in the Civil war), Mary J. Blair, 
widow, and Violet Blair, Jessup Blair and Lucy Blair, chil- 
dren of James Blair, deceased. The above were grantees 
of Don Manuel Jimeno, who conveyed his interests in the 
ranch to the above parties, subject to the lease of J. Bryant 
Hill, The principal owners at one time were N. W. Chitten- 
den, F. D. Atherton, Eugene Casserly, Eugene Kelly, W. F. 
Wliite, Charles de Roe and others. W. F. White was the 
only resident land owner on the Sal-si-puedes rancho. Mr. 
White owned quite a large tract of this ranch at one time, 
but was not successful in his farming operations. 

It must be borne in mind that farmers in the '50s labored 
under many disadvantages. Interest was very high and 
shipping facilities were poor. The first crop raised by Hill 
had to be hauled to Aptos for shipment to San Francisco. 
Afterwards a shipping point was established at the Watson- 
ville landing, now known as Camp Goodall, where produce 


was loaded in boats, carried through the surf by Indians and 
from the boats transferred to schooners. Interest on money 
borrowed was very high, hence the pioneer farmers of the 
valley did not reap any great income from their investments ; 
as a matter of fact many went "broke" and their lands 
passed into other hands. The people of later years profited 
by the experience of their predecessors and have been more 
successful than those of the earlier days. J. B. Hill disposed 
of his interests in the Sal-si-puedes to Jesse D. Carr and pur- 
chased a tract of land on the Salinas. The dry season com- 
ing on, his investment was a failure. In 1851 Hill was run- 
ning a threshing machine in this county. Of late years he 
has been a stock broker in San Francisco and is, I believe, 
still living at a ripe old age. 

Land in the Sal-si-puedes rancho in 1855 was sold for $30 
an acre. Eugene Casserly, in the '70s, divided a portion of 
his land into fifty-acre tracts and sold the same at $80 per 
acre. At the present time this same property commands a 
much higher price. Nothing but the bare land was offered, 
no fruit trees of any kind were in sight, and the adaptation 
of the land for fruit of all kinds had not been considered. 
To gaze upon the well-cultivated orchards, well-tilled farms, 
vineyards and other evidences of industry, enterprise and 
thrift, makes it hard to realize that the Pajaro valley was for 
a number of years a vast pasture for wild cattle of the na- 
tive Californians. The people on the Sal-si-puedes rancho 
were principally employed by Hill and until the latter part 
of 1852 were a community living by themselves. The county 
paid but little attention to this quarter until the election of 
1852, when a few candidates for office visited this section. 
In this year (1852) California had four electors who voted 
for Franklin Pierce : Santa Cruz county voted for Pierce 306 ; 
Winfield Scott 186: total vote 492. 



Situated in one of the richest agricultural valleys of the 
state, Watsonville was laid out by Judge H. Watson and D. 
S. Gregory and derives its name from the first-named. In 
the same year Llewellyn Thrift and wife and Charles Mc- 
Dermott (the latter being one of the three horsemen men- 
tioned at the commencement of the article on the Pajaro 
valley) started a tavern and general store on Main street 
about where the Hildreth block now stands, or a little below. 
Thrift remarked at the time ''If there is ever any town it 
will be right thar." It started ''thar," and is a good sized 
city today. A Mr. Phipps started a tavern about the same 
time on Main street, generally designated at that time as 
Pajaro street, near the site of the present Hoffman house. 
The architecture of that period was rather crude; the build- 
ings were mere temporary shanties but served the purposes 
of trade and traffic for several years. 

The Eancho Bolsa del Pajaro, consisting of 5,496 acres, 
was granted to Sebastian Rodriguez by Governor Alvarado in 
1837 on a patent from the United States issued to Sebastian 
Rodriguez January 4, 1860. The city of Watsonville com- 
prises a portion of this grant. Considerable litigation en- 
sued between the heirs of Sebastian Rodriguez and adverse 
claimants to lands of the Bolsa del Pajaro. It was finally set- 
tled by a decree of the circuit court in favor of Rodriguez 
under whom a majority had derived title, and there has been 
no further law suits affecting the title of Rodriguez. 

Those who had squatters' titles only were compelled to 
purchase or vacate. 

The titles to property being settled, improvements were 
made and new buildings were erected. Many years elapsed, 
however, before any decided progress was made. The vU- 


lage of Watsonville was incorporated by the legislature of 
1867. The first trustees of the town were, B. A. Barney, 
president, H. Jackson, G. M. Bockius, James Waters, Joseph 
McCollom, Ira Mabbit, clerk; first meeting May 25, 1868. 

The first years of the existence of the town were rather 
turbulent. There was a large number of what have been 
lately termed ''undesirable citizens." So called vigilant as- 
sociations were very much in evidence. Mob law was too 
much in vogue. The vengeance of the mob was generally 
directed toward a class that the courts could deal with and 
grant no favors. It is not worth while to be particular in, 
mentioning the crimes that were committed under the name 
of justice. 

Horse stealing was considered the highest crime, while the 
crime of murder was treated very lightly. In all portions 
of the state a similar state of affairs existed. All new coun- 
tries appear to have had the same experience. There was a 
certain class of bullies who claimed to ''run the town." They 
all died with their boots on. There was an impromptu duel 
by whicli the town was relieved of two characters who killed 
each other, both firing at the same time; there had been a 
fixed feud between the two for a long time, ending as above 
No unpleasant results followed this episode. 

Watsonville, like other towns on this coast, had its ups and 
downs. Town property remained dormant for a number of 
years. At tlie present time city property is valued at a high 
figure. The transposition of Watsonville from a shanty town 
to that of better and modern buildings has been slow but 
sure. The public school buildings will compare favorably 
with any city of the same size. 

The Bank of Watsonville, incorporated in 1874, has recent- 
ly erected a two-story modern building with all the latest 
improvements and conveniences. The Pajaro Valley Bank 




was organized in 188S and now owns a fine block in the cen- 
ter of tlie Plaza on Main street. Both banks are prosperous 
and do a large and extensive business. H. S. Fletcher is 
now president of the Bank of Watsonville. Hon. W. R. 
Porter, ex-lieutenant governor, is president of the Pa j arc 
Valley Bank. 

The Carnegie Library was opened and dedicated in Octo- 
ber, 1905. The building was built through funds obtained 
from Andrew Carnegie, who makes it his business to donate 
funds for public libraries on proper application. Before this 
a library was maintained in a rented building. The nucleus 
of a library was started in 1864 by the late Judge A. W. 
Blair, under the name of the Watsonville Library and Liter- 
ary Association. Pajaro Lodge No. 90, I. 0. 0. F., also 
started a library and the books were subsequently turned 
over to the city library. This library is maintained by funds 
furnished by the city of Watsonville, raised by taxation; it 
has several thousand volumes, and the leading magazines 
and periodicals are also on file. iVfuch interest is taken by 
the directors and the librarian. Miss Belle Jenkins. This 
library is situated on Union street, near the Plaza. 

The Plaza, which for a number of years remained un- 
noticed and uncared for (being used at one time as a site 
for a traveling circus and as a place in which to keep stray 
dogs) is now one of the beautiful spots of the city, of which 
the citizens are justly proud. The work of beautifying the 
Plaza was inaugurated by the Native Daughters of the 
Grolden West, El Pajaro Parlor, and now may be seen a 
handsome band stand and grounds beautifully ornamented 
with flowers and shrubbery. 

It is hardly necessary to detail all the troubles incident to 
the early settlement of this portion of Santa Cruz county, 
on the numerous farms and outlying orchards the past has 


been forgotten. A good deal has been written concerning 
the so-called romantic side of California. There was not 
much romance in the early days of this portion of the state. 
The tales of Bret Harte are read with avidity and pleasure, 
but as a true portrayal of California life they are a failure. 
The best story of early days in the mines was written by Can- 
field, whose death occurred recently. For a plain and truth- 
ful narrative of California life in the days of old this volume 
deserves a place in every library in the state. "Truth is 
stranger than fiction," but the latter is more sought after. 

There was a bright side in the life of the settler of the 
early days. There was more of a community of interest 
and a closer feeling among them than is to be found at the 
present time. In times of sickness, in the hour when death 
entered the house, friends were numerous in offering their 
services, there were "Mothers in Israel" who were always 
on hand in attending sorrow or sickness ; their services were 
freely given without money or without price, and they did 
not expect to have their pictures in the paper or to be ex- 
tolled for doing a simple neighborly duty. "What is there 
in it" was never mentioned nor thought of. 

Paul Lezere, a promoter, long since forgotten, at one time 
a resident of Paul's Island, in Monterey county, was the 
first to insist that a steamer would some day enter Elk Horn 
slough from the Bay of Monterey and carry freight and 
passengers. Paul used to visit Watsonville and advocate 
his scheme and endeavor to enlist supporters, but like other 
promoters he was ignored and laughed at. In 1860 sound- 
ings were made at the mouth of the slough and soon after- 
ward a steamer entered and made a landing at the head of 
the slough and a landing was established about four miles 


from Watsonville. Tliis enterprise was started by Brannan 
& Co., who were the pioneers in this business. Goodall and 
Perkins succeeded to the business and ran a line of steam- 
ers for several years. 

A railroad communication was established in 1871, the 
depot being at Pajaro, in Monterey county, about a mile and 
a half from Watsonville. Since that date the road has been 
extended to Monterey, Salinas and Los Angeles. A narrow- 
gauge railroad was opened for travel to Santa Cruz in 1876, 
and is now a broad-gauge road. 


Several years ago, some time in 1885 or '86, the late Claus 
Spreckels built a sugar factory in Watsonville to be used for 
the manufacture of sugar from sugar beets grown in the 
Pajaro valley. It ran successfully for several years, until 
it was abandoned and a new sugar factory established by 
Spreckels in Monterey county, which is running at the pres- 
ent time and is of greater capacity than the one formerly in 
use at Watsonville. 

Beets are hauled from Watsonville and vicinity by the 
narrow-gauge railway to Spreckels. At the time of the 
building of the factory at Watsonville Spreckels received a 
subsidy from the people of this county for several thousand 
dollars, and recently a deed from the land on which the 
factory is situated conditioned that if the factory ceased to 
be used for the purpose intended the site should revert to 
the contributors. It has not reverted up to the present 

The Young Men's Christian Association of Watsonville 
has recently erected a large building on the upper part of 


Main street at a cost of about $35,000, this amount having 
been raised througliout the valley by private subscriptions. 
The building is well equipped with the furniture necessary 
for a gymnasium, and other accessories. It is an institution 
that the donors take considerable interest in and they are 
very proud of this addition to the city. 




The city of Santa Cruz was granted a charter by the state 
legislature of 1866, amended in 1869 and 70, again in 1875 
and '76. A Freeholders charter was established in February, 
1907. The common council consists now of a mayor, seven 
councilmen, city clerk, city treasurer, police judge, city at- 
torney, superintendent of schools, board of education and 
other appointive officials. The present city officers are: 

Mayor, T. W. Drullard; City Clerk, J. L. Wright; City 
Treasurer, F. W. Lucas ; City Attorney, H. R. Osborn ; Chief 
of Police, Hugh Dougherty. 

Councilmen, Fred R. Hoew, J. A. Pilkington, W. S. Sprin- 
ger, Frank K. Roberts, Phillip Hynes, H. F. Anderson. 

The Fourth ward was rendered vacant by the death of the 
incumbent, in November, 1909. No councilman had been ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy up to January, 1910. 

Very little progress was made in building up the city for 
many years after this incorporation, no perceptible improve- 
ments were manifest. In 1872 the late John Brayer, at that 
time postmaster, decided to move the office from its location 
at the head of Pacific avenue to the I. 0. 0. F. building 
then newly erected. It was considered at that time that the 
office was being moved out of the way of business, for at that 
period to be near the postoffice was considered quite an ad- 
vantage from a business standpoint. The I. 0. 0. F. build- 
ing is now in the center of the city. The postoffice is now 
located on Walnut avenue, off Pacific avenue. On Sunday 
morning November 14, 1909, the I. 0. 0. F. building suffered 


from a disastrous fire. Tlie main lodge room was complete- 
ly destroyed, stores on the main floor suffered material dam- 
age to their several stocks, loss estimated at $50,000. May 
7, 1899, Sunday, this building suffered from a fire very simi- 
lar to the last one. It was later re-built and the stores were 
soon rented. 

In 1885 a new board of councilmen was elected, composed 
of younger men than liad heretofore been chosen. Under 
the guidance of the new council a system of sewers was 
built ; a municipal water system was acquired and several 
other improvements were made. Bonds were voted for and 
issued by the city to pay for the contemplated improve- 
ments. In 1887 a boom in real estate was started which did 
not last long and was a failure. Real estate was very much 
depressed for several years. For the last six years, however, 
there has been a steady improvement in land values and 
many new houses have been erected in different sections of 
the city, many residences of modern architecture have re- 
placed those of an earlier period. Sewers have been quite an 
important factor in selecting a building site. Of late years, 
"Is there a sewer" was invariably the question before any 
attempt was made to purchase a home. The main streets 
of the city have been placed in a better condition than ever 
before, and forty miles of concrete sidewalks have been laid. 
In East Santa Cruz, in the annexed district, about $50,000 
has been expended by the people under the direction of the 
city government for sewers. 

I had almost failed to note the Cliff Drive which follows 
the sea shore from the lighthouse up the coast, which for 
those fond of gazing upon the ocean is a trip long to be re- 
membered. The breakers dash against the rock-bound shore, 
especially during a storm, throwing the foam over the cliff, 


whicli is a magnificent sight and demonstrates the power of 
the waves when lashed into a fury by a southeast gale. 

The San Lorenzo river that runs through the city on its 
way to the bay of Monterey, with its banks well lined with 
trees of various kinds, is a very fascinating stream. In the 
proper season salmon are caught in large quantities, as they 
enter the mouth of the river and start to run up stream. A 
visit to the railroad wharf will repay anyone interested in 
fishing. Here may be seen the fishermen mending their nets 
in the same manner as the men of Galilee mended theirs, and 
the boats (some of them sailboats and others gasoline 
launches), are being made ready for the next trip. The fish- 
ermen seem to be a very contented class of people; they do 
not let the questions of the issuance of bonds disturb their 
harmony, but work on from day to day totally indifferent to 
the various troubles of the times. 

The sea gulls form an interesting picture ; being quite 
tame, they dart from the wharf to the water to pounce upon 
the refuse thrown aside by the cleaners. Whales visit the 
bay during the season for the amusement of the visitors — 
Fred Swanton has them trained to appear at the proper time. 

There are three bridges beside the railroad bridge near 
the mouth of the river, and another, a very handsome con- 
crete bridge, recently built by the Union Traction Company 
for its street railway, running towards La Veaga Heights. 
There is at this time a desire for more bridges across the San 
Lorenzo river to accommodate the increased travel. The 
main or covered bridge, as it is called, was built under a con- 
tract given to the Pacific Bridge Company in 1874 for $14,- 
000. The sum of $15,000 was appropriated for this pur- 
pose; bonds were issued to pay for this bridge and also for 
one across the Pajaro river at Watsonville. The above 
bridges are built of redwood timber, though the demand at 


tliis time is for concrete structures as being more durable 
and artistic. As there appears to be conflicting ideas about 
the cost of the bridge built several years ago it may be as 
well at this time to state the cost and method of payment 
which is above noted. 

La Veaga Park is a magnificent tract of land located about 
two miles from the city overlooking the bay. This was a 
gift from Sefior de La Veaga to the city of Santa Cruz and 
comprises several acres. Besides the natural woods Sefior 
La Veaga planted many eucalyptus and walnut trees and 
shrubbery of different kinds. Some day this gift will be ap- 
preciated more than at the present time. 

At the present time, January, 1910, the city of Santa Cruz 
is wrestling with the question of calling an election for is- 
suing bonds for necessary improvements. The question of 
municipal ownership of public utilities is also agitating the 
cities of Santa Cruz and Watsonville. Several other cities 
in the state appear to have similar troubles. 

Some years ago Santa Cruz refunded certain bonds that 
had been issued, but in doing so, before issuing the new 
bonds, neglected to have the first returned, hence were com- 
pelled to pay both. Somebody blundered. Since that time 
the question of issuing more bonds has received a set back. 


This liotel needs more than a passing notice. For a num- 
ber of years it was the leading hostelry of the county. Noted 
persons from all parts of the state and other lands have 
found a resting place here. It was the practice for a long 
time for the guests of the house to sit on the porch in front 
of the hotel and gaze on the passersby and exchange ideas 
with some of the old settlers. This custom has been abol- 
ished. At this hotel during the term of the old district court 


the ''bench and bar" made this their headquarters. During 
campaigns the leading politicians were to be found there. At 
a room in the Ocean house alley adjoining the hotel was the 
private retreat of the political rulers of the county. There 
slates were made and broken. All kinds of political schemes 
were concocted in that retreat; some of them went astray, 
the people did not always agree with the conclave. 

George T. Bromley, recently deceased, the veteran presid- 
ing- officer of the Bohemian Club of San Francisco, was at 
one time ''mine host" of the Pacific Ocean house. In his 
memoirs, "The Long Ago," written by himself, he states that 
he was not a success as a landlord. Very few of the num- 
erous landlords appear to have been successful financially. 

A disastrous fire that occurred November 3, 1907, de- 
stroyed the upper portion of the building, together with most 
of the furniture. Since that time it has ceased to be a hotel. 
The Sea Beach and St. George hotels are the leading hotels 
at the present time. 


On June 5, 1906, the casino, plunge, swimming bath and 
restaurant were destroyed by fire. This unfortunately hap- 
pened as the summer season approached. A big canvas tent 
was procured and set up on the ground for temporary use 
until a new building could be erected. In this tent the Re- 
publican state convention was held that nominated Governor 
Gillette. The Grand Lodge of the Odd Fellows also met here 
the same year. 

A larger and better structure has been erected on the site 
of the former casino, a larger and more commodious bath 
house and swimming tank also. A scenic railway is in full 
operation during the summer season, with other amusements. 
Santa Cruz has been a noted bathing resort for many years 


and with the increased facilities and accommodations since 
the building of the casino and the tent city, thousands have 
flocked here in the summer season for rest and recreation. 
The scenic views in and around Santa Cruz are numerous, 
among them a trip to the Big Trees, where are to be seen 
several giants of the forest, a remarkable group of Sequoias. 
This is a choice spot for picnics. Here President Harrison 
was entertained during his visit to California, May 13, 1901. 
President McKinley was invited, but could not come owing 
to the illness of his wife. John Hay and some other notables, 
part of McKinley 's cabinet, were entertained there. Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, during his visit here March 11, 1903, wa^ 
entertained by a grand barbecue at the Big Trees and ex- 
pressed himself as ' ' highly dee-lighted. ' ' In 1908 the officers 
of the Atlantic fleet squadron were feted in grand style, also 
the *'Jackies." Santa Cruz has the name of being able to 
entertain larger crowds and in a better manner than any 
other place of its size in the state. Numerous other subur- 
ban retreats will repay a visit. Leaving the Big Trees, a 
trip to Felton or Ben Lomond, on to Brookdale and Boulder 
Creek, and from there on into the heart of the redwoods, 
where the scenery is of the grandest kind. 


On April 14, 1904, a new and elegant building for the li- 
brary was completed and furnished at a cost of $20,211. 

It has become the fashion in recent years to associate mu- 
nicipal libraries with the name of Andrew Carnegie. Santa 
Cruz had a library, and a good one, a generation before Mr. 
Carnegie was heard of in connection with library affairs. 
Originally organized by a voluntary association in 1868, our 
local library was adopted by the city in 1881, and has been 
supported and encouraged, generously and ungrudgingly 


through all its history as a city institution. The year 1902 
was perhaps the darkest of our municipal life, though it pre- 
ceded only a short time the most prosperous era in our his- 
tory. Early in that year the supreme court of the United 
States decided the Santa Cruz refunding bond case in favor 
of the bondholders, and almost simultaneously Mr. Carnegie 
donated the city first $15,000, then an additional $5,000, mak- 
ing $20,000, for a public library building. Notwithstanding 
our embarrassed financial condition, the gift and its heavy 
obligations were accepted with equal cheerfulness, and prep- 
arations for a suitable site and a new building were at once 

In 1902 Santa Cruz had a population of about 6,500, a li- 
brary of 13,204 volumes and a circulation for home reading 
of 45,704 volumes. The site of the new building, 100x200 
feet, facing on two streets, was acquired by a special monthly 
payment contract with F. A. Hihn in 1903, under the adminis- 
tration of ex-Mayor D. C. Clark, a member of the present 
board of library trustees. On April 14, 1904, the new build- 
ing was completed and finally furnished at a cost of $20,211, 
the acquiring and filling of the lot, constructing and furnish- 
ing the building and installing the books in their new quar- 
ters having been carried out without any extraordinary de- 
mands on the city treasury. 

For a number of years after removal to the new building, 
the circulation of books was disappointing, though after the 
first year a steady increase was noted. In 1906 the circula- 
tion had climbed to 48,890; in 1907, to 54,774; in 1908, to 64,- 
595, and the year ending June 30, 1909, showed the extraor- 
dinary circulation of 77,096 volumes. It should be borne in 
mind that this does not include books consulted in the library, 
but only those carried out of the building for home reading. 

On July 11, 1907, a branch library was opened at Sea- 


bright, from which during the past year 6,900 volumes were 
taken by residents. During the present year a second branch 
was opened at Garfield Park, which promises to be another 
successful extension of the work. At the present time the 
number of volumes contained in the library, excluding gov- 
ernment reports, is 17,000, the wear and tear due to the very 
large circulation, preventing a rapid increase in the collec- 

The Santa Cruz Public Library is, and always has been a 
popular institution. Students find it a well equipped work- 
shop and frequently testify to the value of its contents and 
the high character of the service it renders. But professional 
students form only a small proportion of those who use the 
library. All sorts and conditions of men, women and chil- 
dren find within its walls refreshment, instruction and in- 
spiration. No institution was ever more thoroughly demo- 
cratic, and no effort is spared to make the humblest citizen 
feel that his or her co-partnership in the ownership of the 
building and its precious contents is a genuine fact, resulting 
in real, tangible privileges and benefits. 


For several years the pioneers have kept up an organiza- 
tion, keeping anniversaries of Admission Day in September 
of each year. F. A. Hihn is the president and has taken 
great interest in the welfare of his pioneer brethren. The 
membership at the present time is rather small and growing 
less every year. Soon the last of the pioneers will be sum- 
moned by the grim reaper, and the society of the pioneers 
will cease to be. To the Native Sons and Daughters is be- 
queathed the work that their fathers inaugurated, and by 
them must their memories be kept green. 



Some amusing incidents occurred in the early days, at a 
time when persons called themselves by any name that suited ; 
no questions were asked of Tom, Jim or Jack, and the sur- 
name was not often used. A Mr. Williams who had been ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace while taking a stroll encoun- 
tered an old man who looked very anxiously at him and fin- 
ally addressed him. It turned out that Williams had met his 
own fatlier unexpectedly; explanations ensued and Williams 
was thereafter knotMi as Winfield Scott Pearson. Why he 
had adopted the name of Williams was not explained or in- 
quired into, it was not essential. 


The Indians at the Santa Cruz Mission in the early days 
were not all of the same tribe, but perfect harmony prevailed, 
and when the season of work was over, many paid visits to 
their countrymen and seldom returned alone, for the good 
friars had the art of making labor attractive. The regula- 
tions of the mission were uniform. At daybreak the bell sum- 
moned all to the church for prayers and^mass, from which 
they returned to breakfast. Then all joined their respective 
bands and proceeded to their regular labor. At eleven they 
returned to dine and rested till two, when labor recom- 
menced and lasted till the angelus, which was rung an hour 
before sunset. After prayers and beads, they supped and 
spent the evening in innocent amusements. Their food was 
the fresh beef and mutton plentifully supplied by their folks, 
cakes of wheat and maize, peas, beans and other vegetables. 
Four soldiers and a corporal stationed near the mission were 
enough to keep hundreds of Indians under subjection, or, with 


more triitli, it was the kindness and religious influence of the 
good friars that had gained a hold on the hearts of the poor 
Indians. However, for proper precaution, the Fathers were 
not allowed to travel far from the mission, or go out at night 
without the escort of a soldier of two. 

The neglecting of this system proved fatal to Father 
Quintana in the year 1812. Late at night he was called down 
to the orchard, where an Indian was said to be sick. The 
friar, in order not to disturb the soldiers from their sleep, 
went alone with the Indian. While he was returning from 
the sick Indian, those who were lying in ambush got hold of 
the priest, and ordered him to prepare for death, since he 
would not see his native place any more. All his entreaties 
were of no avail. He was hung from a tree, just where the 
track of the Felton railroad now passes, not many yards 
from the tunnel. When he was dead, they brought his body 
in and put it in his bed, and covered it as if he were asleep. 
They could do this, because his associate priest was that 
night away to Monterey, and Quintana was here alone. His 
attendant called him at the usual hour in the morning, but 
found him dead. He was buried as if he had died a natural 
death. Nevertheless, his friends had ■ suspicions, and they 
took prompt measures to ascertain the truth. From an old 
paper we see that a surgeon came from Monterey to examine 
the body of the murdered man, having in his hand an order 
from the commanding officers in Monterey to the surviving 
missionary to allow the disinterment of his remains. The 
truth was then discovered. But who had done the deed? 
That was the dark and terrible secret. And long was it kept 
a secret ; for years was it kept. In a singular enough manner 
it was discovered. 

An Indian major domo went from the mission on business 
to New Year's Point. He knew the language of the Indians 


living there, but tiiose Indians did not know that he knew it. 
While his dinner was being prepared by them, he overheard 
some of them saying between themselves: "This fellow is 
from the Mission Santa Cruz. Don't you remember how we 
killed Father Quintana there so many years ago?" 

"Yes, we remember it well, but it was never found out." 

"Well, let us kill this fellow, too, before he gets away." 

The listening major domo pretended to be asleep while this 
talk was going on, but he heard and understood it all. 
Leisurely arousing himself pretty soon, he said to the In- 
dians: "Don't hurry about the dinner till I come back; I 
don't feel very well; I want to go down to the beach and 
take a bath." 

He went down to the beach, but among the rocks he quickly 
got out of sight, and soon found a horse that he could mount, 
and so escaped their designs. He made his way over the 
mountains to Mission Santa Clara, and there told his story 
and revealed the long-kept secret of the authors of the murder 
of Father Quintana. 

Information was at once sent to headquarters at Monterey, 
and the guilty parties were taken into custody. But, through 
the exertions of the missionaries their lives were spared; 
however, it is said they all died a filthy death, eaten up by 

Father Quintana was buried at the side of the old church, 
and it has been the intention of the present priest to find his 
grave and have him decently buried, and convert that place 
into a kind of mortuary chapel, where the old mementoes of 
the mission will be preserved. — Harrison's History of Santa 

The above sketch has been recently published by the Santa 
Cruz Sentinel. It is too late at attempt to cannonize Father 
Quintana, further more he does not deserve it. "In the Foot- 


steps of the Padres," by Charles W. Stoddard, makes 
very pleasant reading, but hardly conforms to the facts. 
Without any desire to belittle the works of the friars and 
speak disparagingly of their labors, yet the facts of history 
when examined closely will show that Father Quintana de- 
served the fate meted out to him. Anyone desirous of further 
information has only to examine Bancroft's History of Cal- 
ifornia, to be found in the Public Library of Santa Cruz, 
and it will be ascertained that it is better to let Father 
Quintana rest in peace. 


It may be interesting to the reader to learn of an interview 
which the scribe's assistant had with the oldest resident 
(so far as is known) of Santa Cruz. One would hardly ex- 
pect to find a woman of eighty years of age so engrossed with 
household and week-end duties that a call on Saturday after- 
noon was almost an intrusion. Nevertheless, with the per- 
sistence of a reporter, the scribe's assistant accepted the in- 
vitation to go in, even though Senora Alzina said she was 
very busy. A dear little old lady she is, appearing to be not 
more than sixty, active physically and alert mentally. ' ' ^Yhat 
were the questions to be asked?" "About the Mission." 
Did she remember the old Mission"? ''Why, she and her 
husband were married in the old Mission." 

Seiiora Alzina has lived in Santa Cruz for eighty years, 
and an account of her eightieth birthday and the party given 
to her by her children and grandchildren was in a local paper 
of the day before. Eighty years lived in one place and that 
place of the Holy Cross! 

Senora Alzina was born in Santa Cruz in 1828. Her father, 
Seiior Gonzales, a native of Spain, came to Santa Cruz from 
the Santa Clara valley. Their home was the property now 


occupied by the homes of Charles Cassir, Senora Alzina and 
Henry Willey. She was married to Francisco Alzina, also 
a native of Spain. They reared a large family and many 
are the kind acts told of Senora Alzina, of her knowledge of 
the medicinal value of native herbs and the use she had made 
of it in ministering to the sick. The scribe's assistant wished 
for some magic means to open up the pages of history stored 
in the Senora 's memory, but she was rather reluctant to talk 
about old days with a stranger. 

In answer to the question "Why was the Mission not kept 
in repair!" She replied '* Because there was no priest here 
for a long time to take charge of things." ''Do you remem- 
ber much about the Indians?" ''Yes, there were lots of 
Indians who had huts over back of the church on the Potrero. ' ' 
She remembered, too, of Indians who lived on the hill where 
the high school building now stands, who had charge of 
the wool and wove blankets. "Do you know who bought 
them?" "May be Father Junipera Serra." "Was the 
Plaza always there?" "Yes, always, and Sylvar street and 
the street leading down to the Potrero." (What a misnomer 
that Sylvar street should be named for a resident who ac- 
quired property of her father, rather than to be named for 
an old Spanish family!) "Were there many houses about 
the Plaza ? " " Yes, and all of adobe, ' ' the house now occupied 
and owned by Miss Neary being one, and the house just 
under tlie Mission school another. She remembered well the 
time when California passed from Mexican to the American 
government. "Did any of the Mexican governors ever visit 
Santa Cruz?" "No, Monterey was the scene of all social 
activity, being the capital, and I often went there to visit my 
sister, making the trip on horseback." "Do you think often 
of old Mission days?" A shake of the head was the answer. 
It was evident to the interviewer that the duties of each day 


occupied lier mind to the exclusion of past days, and the 
knowledge of the Saturday's work still undone moved the 
interviewer to take leave. As we stood on the porch looking 
towards the Catholic church, I asked "Can you see it all as 
of oldf" "Oh, yes, just the same." And pointing to the 
lot east of the church, she said that the old Mission stood 
there and occupied the entire frontage of the present prop- 




This tract of land situated in the northern part of Santa 
Cruz county has an area of about two thousand acres. It 
is easily reached from Boulder Creek by stage or automobile. 
In this tract are some of the very best redwood trees in the 
state. Attention was called to this magnificent tract by F. 
L. Clarke, a gentleman of literary tastes, and a suggestion 
was made several years ago that it should be acquired by 
the state for a state park. One of the San Mateo newspapers 
advocated the acquisition of this natural park by the state. 
The Santa Cruz Surf and other papers then took up the mat- 
ter and it was advocated that the state purchase it for a 
park for the people. The society of San Jose pioneers and 
other societies joined in the demand for a state park. Sev- 
eral well known writers contributed their quota to the news- 
papers of the entire state in advocacy of acquiring this 
superb redwood forest. After considerable agitation had been 
kept up, the legislature of the state passed a law by which 
about 3,800 acres of this basin was purchased and placed 
under the management of the state board of forestry. To 
enumerate all the persons that were active and used their 
influence towards acquiring this redwood park would be im- 
possible at this time. Among those more prominent in the 
case were Hon. George Radcliff, member of the assembly 
from this county ; David Starr Jordan ; United States Senator 
George C. Perkins, and H. S. Middleton. an extensive land 
holder, assisted materially in completing the purchase. W. 
S. Rodgers, editor of the Mountain Echo of Boulder Creek, 


devoted a great deal of liis time and energy towards con- 
summating the purchase for the state. 

In years to come, when electric roads are built to this 
sylvan retreat, it will be a source of attraction for visitors 
from all parts of the United States. Senator Perkins has 
said, ''I have traveled through the forests of Mariposa, and 
I have driven through the wonderful forests of southern 
Germany, yet I have never seen the equal of California Red- 
wood Park." Tliere are numerous streams running through 
the park which afford abundance of fishing for the disciples 
of Isaac Walton, game is also very plentiful. 

"Who saved the Big Basin?" ''I," said Duncan Mc- 
Pherson, ''for I went there in person." ''Not much," said 
J. F. Coop, "it was my gentle whoop that saved the Big 

"I'm not giving you a fill," said A. P. Hill, "What else 
could be truer with my camera obscura? I saved the Big 

"Nay," said Professor Dudley, fresh from the campus, 
"I was once pinched for a trampus, by a wicked constabulus 
of the town of Soquelibus. With my dissertation I saved the 
Big Basin," 

"What are you giving us," said AssembljTuan Walker; 
"my work in committee saved the Big Basin." 

"Listen to me," said George Radcliff, "Me and Senator 
Tom Flint gave the governor a hint that saved the Big 

"Come off," said Governor Gage, " 'Twas my pen on the 
page that saved the Big Basin." 

Tlie above argument occurred during the discussion over the 
cutting of timber in the Big Basin a few years ago. The cir- 
cumstance created considerable excitement among the friends 
who labored for the purchase of this site by the state. Every 


one that had ever heard of the Big Basin seemed to come 
forward and insist that he was the saviour of this forest 

Professor Dudley, dressed as a hobo, was near Soquel 
hunting bugs when the constable arrested him and brought 
him to Santa Cruz, where some of the pedagogues recognized 
him and secured his release. 


The knights of the whip have received due notice of their 
achievements in driving stage over mountain roads in the 
good old days of stage travel. These old drivers have been 
historically considered from the time of Hank Monk, the 
driver who brought Horace Greeley over the Sierra Nevada 
mountains in time for his lecture. * ' Keep your feet, Horace, 
we will bring you in all right," was Monk's salute to the 
noted editor when the stage threatened to dispossess him of 
his seat. Santa Cruz county can boast of a stage driver that 
savors somewhat of a romance. Charley Parkhurst, also 
known as ''Cock Eyed Charley," as much by the latter title 
as by his original name, drove stage several years in Nevada, 
also between Santa Cruz and San Juan Bautista. This in- 
dividual masqueraded under a disguise that was not dis- 
covered until death unraveled the mystery. Charley was a 
typical stage driver, swore at his horses and when necessary 
took his "nip" at the various stopping places on the road, 
carried the United States mail, performed his duties faithfully 
and was a general favorite on the road. Being tired of 
handling the reins, he started a half-way house, furnishing 
refreshments for man and beast, took care of the relay teams, 
bought twenty-five acres of land and settled down. In 1879 
Charley sold his ranch and went to live in a cabin on a ranch 
owned by one of his friends, lived alone and avoided people 


as much as possible; he took sick and died in 1879. While 
the necessary offices of the dead were being performed it was 
discovered that Charley was of the gentler sex, in other 
words Charley was a woman. This event was very extensive- 
ly circulated. It was first written for the San Francisco Call 
by the writer, copied by all the eastern papers and very 
much embellished by a story of a fair maiden in New Hamp- 
shire becoming disappointed in love and leaving her native 
state disguised in the habiliments of the sterner sex. A 
poem on the su])ject was written by a local poet. Charley 
succeeded in preserving her secrets very etfectively and was 
buried with them. Letters of administration were issued on 
the estate of Charles D. Parkhurst, deceased, for the pur- 
pose of quieting title to a certain piece of property. No 
heirs ever made any inquiries or endeavored to assert any 
claim to any property that may have belonged to the estate. 
Some persons were found digging about the cabin where 
Parkhurst resided, under the impression that some wealth 
was there buried, but none was ever found. On the great 
register of the county is found the name of Charley Darkey 
Parkhurst, nativity New Hampshire, occupation, farmer, age 
fifty- five. Date of registration 1867. Charley exercised the 
right of suffrage in spite of the law against women voting. 


There are five banks in the county, three at Santa Cruz 
and two at Watsonville. Each bank has also a savings de- 
posit bank carried on under the same management; they are 
all in a flourishing condition, using their own buildings, fitted 
in modern style with every convenience and are all in a very 
prosperous condition. Before the banks were established 
money was deposited in the safes of the merchants for safe 
keeping or in some instances deposited by the owners in 


some safe place known only to themselves. If a party wanted 
to borrow money he would apply to some one supposed to 
have money to loan and after arrangements were made by 
the execution of a mortgage or other security, the deal was 
closed, the documents put on record and the transaction was 
generally closed thus: "Well, whose treat is it? Guess it's 
mine." "Cum less take a drink." Written application for a 
loan and abstracts of title were seldom asked for in the days 
of old; interest was from ten per cent a month in the '50s 
and stood at three per cent a month for many years ; it ranges 
now from eight per cent per annum on ranch property to ten 
and twelve per cent per annum on city property. Some years 
ago there was a demand that mortgages should be taxed; 
the borrowers thought this would be an advantage ; experience 
has proved that the borrower gained little or nothing by 
this method; he was left at the mercy of the lender. "The 
borrower is a servant to the lender," was written centuries 
ago and the same law has prevailed to the present time. 


George H. Williams, of Watson ville, formerly of Cape 
Girardeau, Mo., having owned and held the bearer, a negro 
man called Alexander Nurenberg aged about fifty-eight years, 
a slave in the said county from 1841 until my emigration to 
California in 1852 and having brought him here to California 
with me under an agreement with him that I would emanci- 
pate him in consideration that he would serve me well and 
faithfully for two years ; and he having tendered to me good 
service for the term of two years, to my full satisfaction, I 
do by these presents emancipate and set free the said Alex- 
ander Nurenberg to the intent that he be and remain his own 
freeman forever. Signed, sealed and acknowledged before 
G. M. Bockius, County Judge. Armed with this document 


Alex left for Missouri and on arrival he presented the above 
to the proper authorities and he was allowed his freedom. 
Anotlier old darkey did not fare so well. Uncle Dan Rogers 
contended that he would like to go back on a visit to Arkansas 
and was given his emancipation papers; on his arrival his 
papers availed him nothing; "Golly, Massa," he told me on 
his return, "dey had dis nigger on de block and sold him." 
He had to buy his freedom and returned to Watsonville and 
attained the age of one hundred years. On a visit to San 
Francisco to see some of his relatives he was run over by a 
street car. Another colored man, James Erodes, brought 
here under an agreement that he should be free after working 
two years in the mines, came to the conclusion that the agree- 
ment was not to be carried out, hence he "skipped" to the 
Pajaro valley. For several years he was in terror expecting 
liis owner to come and claim him. The fifteenth amendment 
released him of any further danger. He lived to accumulate 
quite an estate; the property known as Watsonville Heights 
was conveyed by this man, James Erodes, to the present 
owners. "Nigger Jim," as he was first called and after hav- 
ing acquired property was designated by name, died in 1906 
and his estate was distributed to his heirs. 

Martina Castro, one if the numerous Castro family and 
daughter of Joaquin Castro of the San Andres, obtained a 
grant of the Soquel rancho from Governor Figueroa Novem- 
ber 23, 1833, for 1,668 acres, which was confirmed by the 
land commissioners on a patent issued by the United States 
government. She also obtained a grant for the Soquel 
Auymentation rancho of 3,272 acres and a United States 
patent was issued to her. This second tract contained vast 
forests of redwood timber, live oak, Madrona and other wood ; 
these tracts of land were conveyed by Martina Castro to 
other parties and a partition was made by the district court 


allotting the several interests to the respective owners. She 
was married first to Michael Sage and after his death was 
married to Louis Depeaux. She died in December, 1890, and 
at the time of her death she was not in possession of any of 
tlie broad acres acquired by the grants referred to. On De- 
cember 12, 1895, a petition for special letters of administra- 
tion was filed in the superior court of this county by M. 
Elizabeth Peck, a grand-daughter of Martina Castro, setting 
forth that there was considerable real estate belonging to 
the heirs of the late Martina Castro Depeaux, and it would 
be necessary to commence action at once to recover the 
property belonging to the estate, before the statute of limita- 
tions expired. M. Elizabeth Peck having been appointed 
special administrator, in due time the filing of suits against 
several hundred defendants who had obtained titles to their 
lands which were supposed to be valid, was quite a surprise, 
as no claims were ever made during the lifetime of Martina 
to any portion of the lands conveyed by the grants in ques- 
tion. After some litigation the suits came to an end and the 
various owners felt greatly relieved. It was urged that 
Martina was ''non compos" at the time she transferred her 
interests, but as forty years had elapsed before this claim 
was advanced it fell to the ground. About the last order 
made was that directing the suits instituted by M. Elizabeth 
Peck dismissed. This was the first case where the party 
had rested so long a time without attempting to enforce his 

It is no unsommon thing for descendants of the owners of 
ranch grants to entertain a belief that by some means they 
are still entitled to share in some portion of the land con- 
veyed by their ancestors. How these tracts were transferred, 
what influences were brought to bear by designing individuals 
it is unnecessary to inquire at this late day. Manifest destiny 


and the survival of the fittest have entirely changed the as- 
pect of affairs. The land on which Capitola is located was 
included in the suits referred to. 


Books suitable for records were probably difficult to be 
obtained in the early days. The book from which this rem- 
iniscence is copied has written on the fly leaf "Edward 
M. Abell, Edward Myers, Charles Myers, Peter Tracy, county 
clerk of Santa Cruz and from the state of California. James 
Kirk, Francis Kirk, both of San Francisco, lately from Cal- 
ifornia." Five pages of the book contain judgments written 
in several cases before the county court. The journal com- 
mences January 24, 1849, the day prior to our leaving Balti- 
more on our perilous, yet I hope, prosperous expedition. 
In the announcement which appeared in the newspapers for 
several days before our ship (Jane Parker) was to sail, 
passengers were requested to be on hand at the appointed 
time ; however, not only passengers, but crowds of spectators, 
both ladies and gentlemen, numbering some eight or ten 
thousand, filled the wharves, rigging and ships ; all the neigh- 
borhood were anxious to witness the departure of their friends 
on so lengthy an expedition. The Independent Blues brass 
band was stationed in the forecastle and discoursed excellent 
music, adding much to the pleasure and excitement of the 
scene. The Junior Artillery had their cannon posted on the 
wharf ready to fire a parting salute ; such a scene was never 
before enacted on the departure of any ship from any port, 
not even excepting the celebrated Christopher Columbus 
voyage of discovery. The writer regrets that the leave-taking 
had to be gone over again on the next day, as the ship was 
detained. Amidst the cheering crowds and the firing of the 


artillery, notwithstanding all this joyous demonstration, the 
parting at the last moment was very sad. A meeting of the 
passengers was held shortly after leaving the city, at which 
resolutions were passed complimentary to the citizens of 
Baltimore and to the artillery, and were ordered published 
in the city newspapers. At 10 P. M. we came to anchor and 
then, as one of the passengers observed ''the last link was 
broken" and many a longing look was cast towards shore. 

About two hundred yards from us lay the ship Silas 
Richards, bound for London, waiting for a fair wind. He 
invited us to visit his vessel, which some of us did and 
were treated very nicely and found the captain a gentle- 
manly and very agreeable man. After enjoying his hospital- 
ity we returned to our own vessel, and the weather being very 
cold the passengers flocked to the cabin, where a scene of 
confusion was presented which I will not attempt to de- 
scribe. After clearing my bunk (a sailor's word for berth) 
of the almost numberless amount of bundles which were 
crammed into it — here the journal ends abruptly, the leaves 
of the book being torn out, and whether Mr. Scliultz ever 
finished his journal or what became of it will remain a 

The journal shows the feeling at that time (1849) of the 
sailing of a vessel for California; the fears for a safe voy- 
age round Cape Horn and the hopes for a safe arrival in 
port and the return of the voyagers with their fondest ex- 
pectations realized. In these days the sailing of a vessel 
tor California excites no more interest than the sailing of 
a vessel from San Francisco to Santa Cruz. The sailing days 
were generally set for Sunday, that being considered a lucky 
day, besides it was a "dies non". Edward M. Abell was a 
voter in Santa Cruz at the first election held in 1850 in April, 
and at one time kept a hotel on Grant street in partnership 


with R. J. F. Scott. They subsequently moved to Watson- 
ville. C. Schultz was also a voter at the same election. All 
have long since ended their earthly voyage. This frag- 
mentary journal may be of interest to the pioneers who 
readied California by way of the Horn; it will remind them 
of their own leave taking, leaving with high hopes and ex- 
pectations of acquiring a competency in a few years and 
returning to the land of their birth to enjoy the same. To 
the Native Sons it may have an interest in depicting the 
hardships endured in reaching the Golden State, and 
their efforts in building up and clearing the way for others 
to follow by a much easier route. 

As some reference has been made to squatters, a brief 
sketch of some of the troubles may not be out of place. 

On the 14th of August, 1850, the city assessor was killed 
and Biglow, the mayor, was mortally wounded, others were 
killed in the same fight, among them Maloney, the leader of 
the squatters. Dr. Charles Robinson, who afterwards be- 
came governor of Kansas, was severely wounded. On the 
following day in a continuation of the same fight a few miles 
out of the city of McKinney, the sheritf of the county, and 
several others were killed. There were swarms of squatters 
in San Francisco and fights were frequent. Three hundred 
men, squatters on the Fitch Pana and Berressa grants, sit- 
uated about Heaklsburg on the Russian river and in Napa 
county, banded together for mutual protection in movements 
for defense and aggression. Sonoma and Santa Rosa val- 
leys, in common with almost all parts of the state covered 
with Mexican grants, have been the scene of repeated as- 
sassinations. In April, 1858, armed men attacked the govern- 
ment surveyor, Tracy; acting under instructions issued by 
Mandeville, surveyor general, they seized and tore in pieces 
his papers and informed him if he valued his life he had 


better go liome; he thought it was good advice and acted 
upon it and retired. Fights between squatters in Santa Clara 
were frequent and several were killed; in some way the 
sentiment got abroad that the owner's title was of no value, 
that anyone might settle on an unoccupied spot; the treaty 
of Hidalgo when ratified became a part of the constitution 
of the United States and was supposed to be respected, but 
was not taken into consideration. "Did not the United States 
buy all this land when California was purchased from the 
Mexican government? Certainly we bought it and the land 
is ours, treaty of Hidalgo be damned." This was the ar- 
gument used in support of the position of the squatters. 

Years of litigation ensued before order was restored. In 
this county happily no fights took place, no lives were lost 
in any conflicts between squatters and ranch owners. In 
Santa Clara the district court adjourned at one time not be- 
ing able to have orders obeyed. S. B. McKee, the judge of 
tlie court at that time, remarked that "if the processes of his 
court could not be enforced, he would adjourn until they 
could be." The squatters were strongly organized, suf- 
ficiently to defy the officers of the court. I append here an 
extract from an article by the late M. M. Estee. ' ' I was once 
employed by some public land men or squatters, as they were 
termed, and I advised them to appeal to the laws of their 
country and quit fighting. They said they would and in a 
few months one of their number called on me and said they 
were prepared for a peaceful mode of settling their land 
troubles. I was much surprised and asked him how? He 
replied that they had formed a squatters league and that 
every man but one within ten miles of his place belonged to 
it. Soon after I was called down to the so-called fighting 
line where they were going to try some forcible entry cases. 
When I got there I found they had a jury summoned, every 


one of whom was a member of the league; the justice and 
constable were members and the verdict was necessarily in 
favor of that body. After the trial the grant owner asked 
the men who had cut his hay, if they would pay the taxes on 
the land as they were in possession of it ; they answered that 
government land could not be taxed and they did not want to 
astonish the government by paying taxes on its own 
property. ' ' 


Spanish documents relating to the Branciforte pueblo have 
been in the custody of the officials of the court house for 
many years ; so far as can be ascertained they were trans- 
ferred from Monterey to the authorities of Santa Cruz 
county. In 1850 the legislature of the state authorized cer- 
tain documents to be procured from Monterey and in 1851 
arranged for classification and indexing the same, as well 
as their disposition; those relating to land titles were de- 
livered to the office of the surveyor-general, while those that 
pertained to the prefectorate remained. At the present time 
no one seems to know how these Spanish documents got here. 
I thought that perhaps some papers relating to the history 
of this county might be found and of some interest to the 
people. I find nothing of very great interest among these 
so called Spanish archives, it seems that the people of that 
period had troubles of their own similar to those of the 
present day. They told their troubles to the alcaldes, who 
appeared to have dispensed justice in their own manner. 1 
find a call for a meeting of citizens written in the French 
language asking that they assemble in accordance with the 
laws of the United States, purpose not stated. I also find a 
complaint against Joven (Young) Felipe Gonzales in 1845, 
alleging that he was guilty of conducting himself in a manner 


distasteful to the authorities. Felipe was afterwards a re- 
spectable citizen of Watsonville and died there universally 
respected by all persons. A letter dated Monday February 
4, 1799, from Diego Borica to the authorities of Branciforte 
recommending that they put in wheat, corn and beans so that 
they can be sure of an abundance of provisions without de- 
pending on the pueblo of San Jose. A communication ad- 
dressed to Governor Micheltorena signed by Diego Guillermo 
Weeks, Alberto Fernando Morris, J. L. C. Majors. "William 
Barton, Paul Sweet, Charles Heath, Samuel Buckel, stating 
that they are not responsible for the acts of Capt. Isaac 
Graham and assuring His Excellency that they are law-abid- 
ing and respect the law of Mexico. At Santa Cruz, in June, 
1843, it was reported that lumber valued at $7,000 was de- 
stroyed by fire supposed to have been incendiary; as this 
was a very grave crime the authorities were commanded to 
make a rigid investigation and apprehend the authors of the 

crime if possible y Libertad, Jose R. Estrado. 

I find nothing of a historical nature save a proclamation 
by the several Mexican governors, relating to the administra- 
tion of affairs in the pueblo. If any other documents were 
ever deposited with the authorities at the time of the estab- 
lishing of American authority they have disappeared; there 
were several communications from Father Real, the padre of 
the Mission, recommending that attention be given to better 
observance of the church festivals. Some one complained 
that he found three horses in possession of George Chapel 
and accused him of being a ladrone chief. There was at one 
time quite a feud between Chapel and Leggett, both for- 
eigners (estrangeros) resulting in the killing of one of them. 
Micheltorena, brigadier-general of the army, caUed the de- 
partment assembly to meet at Monterey on August 28, 1844, 
Don Pio Pico, Francisco Figueroa, Don Narcisco Borello, 


Don Esteran Murray, Don David Spence; this session was 
called to take into consideration the actual condition of the 
state of ai^'airs, that the country was threatened with war 
(Guerra Estrangeros), and it was necessary that something 
should be done. It is dated at the governor's palace of Cal- 
ifornia at Monterey, August 28, 1844, signed Manuel Michel- 
torena, Manuel Jimeno, Sio del Despacho. At this meeting 
Don Narcisco Borello was elected secretary in place of 
Zenon Fernandez, deceased. Among the first settlers of 
Branciforte were many undesirable citizens sent from Mexico, 
probably their characteristics descended to their successors. 
The Viceroy Branciforte, after whom the pueblo was named, 
was recalled to Mexico and his property confiscated owing to 
some troubles between him and the higher powers. Manuel 
Jimeno, April 30, 1844, issued an order that Diego Guillermo 
AVikes (Weeks) must not be molested by any person what- 
ever in the land he now occupies. In 1845 the authorities 
were informed that five sailors had deserted from La Fragata 
Argo, and were supposed to be in hiding at the house of Jose 
Buelna, and the officials were directed to find the deserters 
and return them to their vessel. 

One interesting bill is on file and made the subject of a 
suit of one Rousillon to Graham and Naile, itemized 

1 bottle grog 1 

1 gallon '^ 4 

1 bot. " 1 

1 Bbl Aguardente 60 

1 gal. grog. . 

and so on down to a keg of nails, a few nails to 

several gallons of grog. 

The bill receipted, marked paid through the court at 


Pasted in one of tlie alcalde's records is a notice written in 
Spanish of which the following is a translated copy : 

August 14, 1849. 

Suiz Lucaz agrees within three days after the arrival of 
Padre Anzar he will obligate to marry Marie Dolores 
Mojiza or pay $500 as a fine in default. 

Signed before J. S. Majors, Alcalde. 

Whether the parties were married or whether the $500 was 
paid the records do not disclose. 

These documents are of little value at present. I suggest 
that they be divided between the two principal libraries, 
where some future "Dryasdust" may have the privilege of 
examining them. 




Area, 500 square miles, or 320,000 acres. 

Number of farms 1,765 

Number of acres assessed 262,938 

Value of country real estate $ 4,640,260 

Of improvements thereon 1,625,800 

Of city and town lots 4,962,155 

Of improvements thereon 2,753,045 

Of personal property 1,903,765 

Total value of all property $15,885,025 

Expended on roads last fiscal year $ 40,662 

Expended on bridges last fiscal year 12,389 

Number of miles of public roads 458 

Road levy per $100 in 1908 60c 

Value of county buildings $162,500 

Railroads, steam — miles 51.49; assessed value 802,244 

Railroads, electric — miles 15; assessed value 55,045 

Electric power plants, 2 — assessed value 52,085 

Electric power lines — miles, 70; assessed value 18,500 

Number of acres irrigated 1,200 

Ocean Shore R. R. has 25.6 miles of road but it is not subject 

to assessment as yet. 
Number of fruit trees and vines: 

Total fruit bearing 889,015 

Total fruit non-bearing 121,585 

Total nut bearing 6,555 

Total nut non-bearing 3,175 


Total acres grapes bearing 1,370 

Total acres grapes non-bearing 2,615 

Total acres berries bearing 625 

Total cereals acres 2,600; tons 2,259; value $ 85,510 

Total hay acres 6,215; tons 11,467 ; value 157,637 

Total fruits and vegetables and this includes berries, 

apples, figs, grapes pounds production 114,954,945 

valued at $1,860,030 

Total dried fruits pounds 9,277,100 valued at 423,842 

Total canned fruits cases 10,500 valued at 25,855 

A case of apples contains 12-1 gal. cans. 

3,000 cars actual shipment of apples does not include 815,495 

boxes that were handled by the driers, vinegar plants and 

Live stock industry: 

Total stock of all kinds 20,095; value $663,890 

Manufactured output includes bituminous rock, cement, cigars, 

box shooks, lime, malt, hides, lard, meats, tallow, paper, 

glue, soap, powder, leather, barrels, and this is figured in 

tons, pounds, barrels, kegs, and thousands. 

Total value of forest products $ 881,822 

Miscellaneous products, such as bees, sugar beets, 

melons, etc 173,865 

Total manufactories of all kinds employ 1,200, value 

of output 4,600,415 

Poultry and eggs, value 213,818 

Wine, brandies, beer, vinegar gals. 1,202,025, value 272,460 
There are 12 wineries and 3 breweries. 

Fish industry, pounds, 1,419,133, valued at $42,575 

Dairy industry: 

Butter 245,535 pounds, value $76,115 

Cheese, 475,660 pounds, value 47,560 

Gals, cream, 11,195, value 12,315 


Number of dairies 20 and besides there are the products of 
several dairies that are delivered to home consumers. 

Of the men who worked on the Sal-se-puedes rancho for J. 
Bryant Hill in 1852, Louis Martinelli and this writer are the 
only survivors of the days that ''tried men's souls." Charles 
McDermott, one of the three horsemen mentioned in company 
with Hill, died several years ago in Arizona. All of the orig- 
inal merchants of Santa Cruz and Watsonville have ceased 
their labors except F. A. Hihn of Santa Cruz, who started as a 
merchant in 1850 and is now still active and interested in 
large undertakings. 

I have seen this county grow from a population of 350 to 
that of 25,000 and have seen great changes during the last 
half century. The advantages and possibilities of Santa Cruz 
county are yet in their infancy, awaiting development by the 
people who will be attracted here by climate and other attrac- 
tions for homes and investments. It is one of the beauty spots 
of the state, in a climate equable the year around and where 
men can work out of doors with their coats off at all seasons. 
In how many cities in the Union can the school children be 
seen eating their lunches seated on the lawn in the months of 
December and January, as they often do in Santa Cruz? 

With best wishes for the prosperity of Santa Cruz county^ 
I conclude this imperfect sketch. 

Edwakd Martin. 









The information contained herein was obtained largely 
from the survivors of the earliest white settlers of this county 
whom I have interviewed at various times for more than a 

This being the case, of course the data are necessarily in- 
complete and fragmentary. Nevertheless it will doubtless 
be of interest to our successors to be able to trace out the 
beginnings of what has developed into the greatest interest 
of our county. 

The first fruit trees and vines planted in Santa Cruz county 
were located at the Mission of Santa Cruz, which was founded 
in 1791. My researches have not enabled me to ascertain 
the date of the planting of this orchard by the Mission 
founders, but in accordance with their usual custom it is 
fair to assume that the planting was made shortlj^ after the 
founding of the Mission. According to the best information 
the area of this orchard was about ten acres and the varieties 
of fruits consisted of pears, olives and a few grape vines. 

The pears were of a variety unknown to the Americans, 
but possessed good eating qualities. They ripened in the 
early autumn but did not keep well. The olives were of the 


ordinary Mission variety. The few grape vines which were 
planted did not produce good grapes probably on account of 
the fact that the variety planted was not adapted to coast 
conditions. A few of those ancient pear trees are still liv- 
ing, but the greater j3art of the orchard was washed away by 
the floods of 1861-62. At the time of the arrival of the first 
Americans in the county, this was the only orchard, although 
an occasional pear tree was found growing near some of the 
old adobe ranch houses. 

The first planting of fruit trees by Americans was made at 
Soquel, during the winter of 1847-48, according to the state- 
ment of A. Noble, a pioneer of the state and resident of 
Soquel since 1856. He writes : "On the west side of Soquel 
creek John Daubenbiss, a pioneer of 1842, and John Hames, 
a pioneer of 1843, each planted a small orchard during the 
winter of 1847-48. Daubenbiss told me that they sent to 
Oregon for these trees. The varieties of apples planted were 
Virginia Grreenings, Baldwins and Rhode Island Greenings. 
These were the first apple orchards planted in Santa Cruz 
county." Some of the apple trees and one or two of the 
cherry trees planted at that time by those men still remain. 
According to the best authentic information, the next or- 
chard plantings were made in 1853, by Judge William Black- 
burn, in Santa Cruz, and Jesse D, Carr, in Pajaro valley. 
(Further details concerning the last named will be presented 
later in this article.) 

Regarding the first planting in Santa Cruz, Thomas Beck, 
a pioneer resident of that citj^, writes: 

''In the spring of 1853, Judge William Blackburn planted 
an orchard of ten acres of various kinds of fruit trees, on 
the southwestern portion of the Santa Cruz bottom land, 
and where a part of tlie town is now built. It extended from 
Pacific avenue westward to the slough, and from the Ocean 


bluff northward. In the following year (1854), an orchard 
of about twelve acres of apples and peach trees was planted 
by James Williams, on the same bottom land, west of Pacific 
avenue. The land upon which this orchard was planted is 
now the very center of the city. 

'*In 1855 I bought an acre of this orchard, facing on 
Pacific avenue, from Mr. Williams, upon which there were 
about seventy trees, and upon which I built myself a resi- 
dence. On this property there are now several fine stores. 
In this year (1855) J. B. Arcane and Captain Cathcart planted 
small orchards on the east side of Pacific avenue, and im- 
mediately opposite the land of Mr. Williams. 

'*In 1854 Jacob A. Blackburn planted an apple orchard of 
ten acres in what is called the Blackburn gulch on the Branci- 
forte river, about six miles from Santa Cruz. The varieties 
I do not remember. I think that it was in this year that 
Hiram Imus put out a small orchard on his land in the small 
valley northeast of the Catholic Church property, in Santa 

J. H. B. Pilkington, of Santa Cruz, formerly one of my 
associates on the Board of Horticultural Commissioners, and 
to whom I am indebted for material aid in collecting informa- 
tion around Santa Cruz for use in this article, writes in part 
as follows; 

"There are also cherry and apple trees planted by David 
Gharkey still standing in the Kron orchard on River street, 
Santa Cruz, planted in the '5'Os. One cherry tree produces 
yearly the earliest cherries ripening around here. It is a 
fine spreading tree, in good health and produces heavily. 

''F. A. Hihn, one of the first inhabitants of Santa Cruz, 
and at present the owner of the most extensive apple or- 
chard in this county, states that in 1856 he planted an or- 
chard of about four acres adjacent to his present home in 


Santa Cniz. Two pears and one cherry of the original trees 
still remain and bear fruit. 

"From the same authority, we learn that the first suc- 
cessful vineyard in the county was planted in 1852 or '53 by 
one Rene, a Frenchman. It was located one mile north of 
the old Mission and its area was about two acres. 

"Mr. Hihn also informs us that the first extensive venture 
in grape growing occurred in 1858, when George and John 
Jarvis and others planted about three hundred acres at Vine 
Hill, seven miles northeast of Santa Cruz. The product of 
these vineyards proved of excellent quality and this successful 
demonstration signaled the beginning of grape growing in an 
extensive way." 

On the question of the first planting of grapes there seems 
to be a difference of opinion. Concerning this question Mr. 
Pilkington writes : 

"Samuel Morgan tells me that the first grapes here were 
planted on the Potrero, near the Indian reservation, northerly 
from the old Mission and west from what is now Kron's tan- 
nery and within the present limits of Santa Cruz, by David 
Gharkey. They were Isabellas brought across the plains in 
1852, by him and planted the next year and claimed by him 
to be the first Isabellas grown in California." 

The orchard and vineyard industries in the middle and 
northern parts of the county made but slight advancement 
prior to 1880, most of the plantings being for family use, or 
at most a few acres. 

Some of the more prominent early growers in the above- 
named districts aside from those already mentioned were: 
J. Parrish, A. A. Hecox, H. Daubenbiss, V. Humphrey, J. 
Morgan, B. Pilkington, H. Morrell, Taylor, Burrill, Curtis, 
Schultheis and C. McKernan. 

Strawberries were first grown for market about the year 


1860. Our informant, Duncan McPherson, also adds that 
these first strawberries sold at $2 per quart. 

The far-famed Loganberry and Mammoth blackberry were 
originated by Judge J. H. Logan in Santa Cruz and were first 
introduced to the world in 1853. 

The early plantings of the various fruits had demonstrated 
that soil and climatic conditions existing in the valleys, foot- 
hills and caiions of the Santa Cruz mountains were ideal for 
the production of the highest type of the various fruits which 
had been tested. 

Encouraged by this knowledge and the prevalent attractive 
prices, owners of tracts of land suitable for fruit growing 
began to plant more extensively. This was about 1880 and 
this period marks the beginning of commercial fruit growing 
in that part of the county, since which time there has been a 
slow but steady increase in the area devoted to fruits. 

French prunes predominate in acreage and the quality is 
equal to the best raised in the state. 

Grapes rank second in acreage and for size, color and flavor 
and keeping qualities they cannot be excelled. Both table and 
wine grapes are grown in a wide range of varieties. 

Peaches, plums and apricots reach a high state of perfec- 
tion but are not extensively grown. 

Some of the choicest cherries produced in the state are 
raised around Highland, Skyland and other districts of con- 
siderable elevation. The Royal Anne and Black Tartarian are 
the favorites. 

Red varieties of apples — the Spitzenburg, Baldwin, Jon- 
athan and others — attain highest perfection around Boulder 
Creek, Castle Rock, Bonny Doon and other places, in elevation 
ranging from 1,000 to 2,500 feet. Bartlett and other pears 
succeed well at those elevations also. 

While all districts of the county are well adapted to the 


growing of fruits and are undergoing development along 
these lines, the topography of the territory is such that Pajaro 
valley district has taken the lead in commercial growing of 
fruits on a large scale. 

It should be explained here that while Pajaro valley dis- 
trict is mainly within Santa Cruz county it also embraces a 
strip of the northern part of Monterey county and in this case 
it is virtually necessary to include said strip in the Pajaro 
district, as the two constitute a unit when the fruit industiy 
is under consideration. 

The first orchard in this valley was planted as stated be- 
fore, in 1853 by Jesse D. Carr. Its location was two miles east 
of Watsonville on what is now known as the old Silliman 
homestead. This orchard was about two acres in area and con- 
tained a general mixture of fruit for home use. Some of the 
original trees are still bearing fruit. 

The second orchard planted was by William F. White, in 
1854. During the next two or three years several small fam- 
ily orchards were planted. The Coopers and others planted a 
few trees on their town lots. Scott planted fruit trees on a 
portion of what is now the plaza. The latter were still stand- 
ing as late as 1870. The writer recalls eating fruit from those 
trees at that time. 

G. M. Bockius was one of the early planters, he having set 
out fifty-two trees of mixed varieties in 1857. 

The first commercial orchards were set out by Isaac Will- 
iams and Judge R. F. Peckham in 1858. Williams planted 
thirteen acres to apples principally, on land now owned by K. 
F. Redman. Peckham j^lanted six acres on what is now called 
the Gaily place. The Moss peach orchard and the Sanford 
orchard were planted about the same time. These orchards 
were located on the Santa Cruz road at the extreme western 
limit of the valley. 


As these early orcliards were entirely experimental it was 
the rule to plant many varieties. With apples the popular 
varieties were Smith Cider, Rhode Island Greening, Rambo, 
Gravenstein, Jonathan, Newton Pippin and Bellflower. The 
favorite plums were the Egg plum, Washington, Jefferson and 
Green Gage. In cherries, Governor, Wood, Napoleon, Biger- 
reau, Blackheart and Black Tartarian. The Crawford was 
the favorite peach. In apricots the Royal and Moorpark were 
planted but the Moorpark proved a failure, as it flourishes 
only in warm dry climates. With pears the favorites were 
Winter Nellis and Bartlett. Most of the trees were procured 
from San Jose nurseries, and were hauled in wagons, there be- 
ing no other means of transportation. These trees cost at 
the nurseries from $1 to $1.50 each. 

In 1860 the total amount planted to fruit trees in our valley 
did not exceed fifty acres. By this time it had been demon- 
strated that our soil and climate were well adapted to the 
production of a great variety of fruits. Our apples particular- 
ly showed the highest perfection. High prices stimulated the 
planting of quite an acreage of apples during the next five 
years, or between 1860 and 1865. People began to plant on a 
larger scale — some planting as much as fifteen acres. 

In the winter of 1861-62 Jacob Blackburn planted an apple 
orchard of twelve acres. This was for many years the model 
orchard of the valley. This tract has recently been subdivided 
into town lots, but many of the original trees remain and bear 
good fruit. 

Blackburn might well be called the father of the apple in- 
dustry in Pajaro. He, above all others, through the experi- 
ments which he conducted, demonstrated the most profitable 
varieties to plant. Being a man of keen observation and 
rare judgment, thorough in all that pertained to the manage- 
ment of his orchard, and enthusiastic in the industry, his 


advice, always cheerfully given, was much sought and his or- 
chard methods widely adopted. 

The same winter, that of 1861-62, James Waters planted 
1000 apple trees on the bottom land now owned by William 
Birlem, and the adjoining piece belonging to the orphanage. 
After tlie abatement of the renowned flood of 1862 not one 
tree was left. All were either covered with debris or were 
washed away. Some pear trees which he planted on the 
hillside near by still stand. 

Louis Martinelli, Daniel Tuttle, Charles Smith, Lum Smith, 
Tliomas Beck, Mike Gagnon, Dunlap and others, followed with 
their plantings within the next year or two. In 1863 G. M. 
Bockius planted a pear orchard of ten acres. 

As this vallej^ was so isolated on account of such poor 
shipping facilities, and as other sections more favorably 
situated were raising enough to supply the markets, prices 
ruled low and few trees were planted during the period be- 
tween 1865 and 1875. 

To illustrate of how little consequence apples were con- 
sidered during this time, when J. M. Rodgers planted an or- 
chard of four acres, in 1868, he was derided by some of his 
friends and neighbors for planting so much. They said he 
would have more than enough for family use and could not 
sell the remainder. Their prediction proved true for a time, 
for during the next few years orchardists were glad to get 
twenty-five or thirty cents per box for their apples. 

This was not the case with pears at this time, however, for 
the late G. M. Bockius informed us that in 1868 Porter 
Brothers of Chicago came here and paid him $2.50 per box 
for his pears, and they furnished the boxes and did the pack- 

Jacob Blackburn and James Waters planted the first nur- 
sery in 1876. 


The first shipment of apples from Pajaro valley was made 
by Isaac Williams. They were shipped by way of Hudson's 
landing to San Francisco. Charles Williams, a merchant of 
Watsonville, was tlie first to buy fruit on the tree and handle 
it after the manner of our present system. This was in 
1869. In 1870 the space devoted to fruit trees in Pajaro val- 
ley did not exceed two hundred and fifty acres. The handling 
of our fruit w^as greatly facilitated on the completion of the 
railroad into our valley in 1870, but this did not stimulate 
tree planting. 

The first strong lasting demand for Pajaro apples dates 
back to the decline of the industry in Santa Clara and other 
bay counties which had been supplying the markets of the 
state with apples. Almost simultaneously two of the worst 
pests of the apple made their appearance in those districts, 
the pernicious or San Jose scale from the Orient appearing 
in 1873 and the codling-moth from Europe, by way of the 
eastern states, in 1874. Unable to check the inroad of these 
pests, the orchardists of those sections became discouraged 
and one by one, dug up their apple orchards, so that by 1880 
there was scarcely an apple tree left of over a million that or- 
iginally had been planted. 

With the decline of the industry in the sections mentioned, 
dealers began to search for apples in localities in which the 
pests had not secured a foothold. 

Marco Eabasa was the first apple dealer to come to Pajaro. 
This was about 1876. L. G. Sresovich followed shortly after- 
wards. Up to this time be had no fruit pests. Codling moth 
was brought into our valley in old boxes shipped in by these 
men in 1877. San Jose scale made its appearance in about 
1880 and probably originated from nursery stock brought 
from San Jose. 

The continued decrease in the output from San Jose, with 


consequent increase in demand and prices, greatly stimulated 
the planting of trees, and yearly from that period up to 1901 
there was a constantly increasing acreage planted. That year 
witnessed the most extensive planting in the history of the 
district, 156,000 apple trees or 1,780 acres being planted, the 
varieties almost exclusively Newton Pippins and Bellflowers. 

These early dealers paid the orchardists from $100 to $150 
per acre for the fruit on the tree, and in turn sold it at from 
$2.50 to $4 per box in San Francisco. It is said that one 
season in the late '70s, Rabasa secured the fruit on the Black- 
burn orchard for $1,800. After selling enough to pay for the 
fruit he sold the remainder to L. G. Sresovich for $8,000. 
The acreage planted to trees in 1880 did not exceed 500 acres. 

Another factor which figured in the increased acreage dur- 
ing this period was the strawberry industry. The completion 
of the Corralitos water system in 1878 afforded water for 
irrigation purposes and in the early '80s large acreages were 
planted to strawberries. As trees planted among the berries 
grew vigorously, and required no special care, and as berries 
could be profitably grown until the trees attained bearing- 
age, the thrifty berry grower made it a rule to plant out all 
berry fields to apple trees. The greater portion of the or- 
chards on level land north and east of Watsonville were 
originally planted to strawberry fields. 

J. M. Rodgers, in 1882, planted the first prune orchard, 
comprising four and a-half acres. In 1887, when the trees 
were five years old, the prunes in tliis orchard sold on the 
trees for $1,800. This sale was the primary cause of such a 
large acreage being planted during the next seven years. 
In 1894 there was close to 1,500 acres devoted to Petit prunes. 
Prices were so low by 1896 that most of the prunes in the 
valley proper were dug up and replaced by apples. . 

To give an idea of the extent of tlie industry when at its 


height, the reports for 1896 from the different drying plants 
in our valley give the total of 2,269,800 pounds green. The 
Pajaro Valley Fruit Exchange handled about one-half of these. 
With tlie decline of the prune the apricot came to the front 
in the foothill sections and is proving a profitable crop. 
Some portions of the district raise a very large, handsome 
canning apricot. The Royal is the favorite. By 1890 the 
area devoted to fruit trees was about 2,500 acres. , 

While there Tvas a steady increase in the acreage yearly 
planted to apples during the decade succeeding 1880, the 
most extensive planting in the history of the industry be- 
gan about 1890. By this time those who had hesitated fear- 
ing that the business would be overdone now gained confi- 
dence in the stability of the apple market. The chief factor, 
however, in bringing about this accelerated planting of trees 
was the establishment of the sugar factory in 1888. The 
farmer soon learned that he could raise trees and at the 
same time make the land yield a good profit by raising beets 
between the trees. To such an extent was this plan carried 
out that about 1895 the sugar factory officials, becoming 
alarmed lest no beet acreage would be left, and to discourage 
tree planting, refused to give out contracts for planting beets 
in orchards, stating, among other reasons, that they did not 
propose to ruin tlieir own business by encouraging fruit-tree 
planting. This, however, did not deter the farmer in the 
least, as he could raise other crops — beans, potatoes and 
corn between the trees. 

Wliile it was demonstrated in the '60s that the Newton and 
Bellflower attained their highest perfection here, and while, 
as time wore on, they continually gained in public favor, 
and were mainly planted, yet there were those who, thinking 
these two varieties would be overdone, planted other varieties, 
their preference running to red apples. 


Between 1885 and 1895 considerable acreages were planted 
to Missouri Pippin, Red Pearmain, Lawver and Langford 
Seedling. As these had to come in sharp competition with 
the eastern red apple, and as our Newton Pippin and Bell- 
flowers were more in demand and commanded higher prices, 
the two last-named varieties were planted almost exclusively 
between 1895 and 1905. During the last few years a strong 
demand with attractive prices has arisen particularly in Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, consequently the tendency is again 
toward planting the red varieties. 

At present there are in round numbers 1,000,000 apple 
trees planted on 14,000 acres in Pajaro district. Of this 
number fully seven-eighths are Newtons and Bellflowers, in 
the proportion of three Newtons to two Bellflowers. The 
remainder is made up of almost every known variety, with 
Red Pearmains (Pomme de Fer), Missouri Pippin, White 
Pearmain, Lawver, Langford and Smith Cider predominating 
in the order named. Less than one-half of the trees are in 
full bearing. 

The output of apples in 1890 in Pajaro district amounted to 
about 150,000 boxes and increased ten fold, or to 1,500,000 
boxes during the next decade. The yield for this season, 1909, 
closely approaches 3,000,000 boxes. Of course, this amount 
is not all shipped out green ; as will be seen further on, quite 
a percentage is converted into the by-products. 

The amount shipped green this season totals 3,200 car 
loads or considerably over 2,000,000 boxes, returning a sum 
exceeding $1,500,000. 

The dried apple product amounts to more than 3,200,000 
pounds, yielding in return $190,000; and to produce this it 
required 750 car loads or 500,000 boxes of apples. Four 
hundred and twenty car loads or 275,000 boxes of apples 


were converted into 12,000 eases of canned apples, 600 barrels 
of cider and 6,000 barrels of vinegar, valued at $255,000. 

The area devoted to apricots is about 1,500 acres and the 
dried product amounts to 2,000,000 pounds, returning to the 
growers $140,000. 

The prune industry has dwindled down to 400 acres produc- 
ing about 950,000 pounds, dried, and returning about $20,000. 
Of pears there are all told about 5,000 trees. Cherries amount 
to about 4,000 trees. There are about 200 acres planted to 
grapes both table and wine varieties. 

Pajaro valley has been for many years the leading berry 
producing district of the state. At present there are 1,000 
acres devoted to berry growing. The varieties, acreage and 
yield are as follows: 

Strawberries, 500 acres yielding 50,000 chests. 

Blackberries, 200 acres, yielding 12,000 chests. 

Loganberries, 200 acres, yielding 8,000 chests. 

Raspberries, 100 acres, yielding 4,000 chests. 

The returns of these berries this season amounted to up- 
wards of $250,000. 

According to the best information at hand, Santa Cruz 
county contains 772,410 apple trees, 83,014 apricot trees, 25,- 
541 cherry trees, 12,908 peach trees, 19,324 pear trees, 132,606 
prune trees and 1,022,800 grape vines. 

To close this article without making mention of the struggle 
against insect pests and diseases affecting the fruit-bearing 
plants would leave untold the story of a hard-fought con- 
test, the outcome varying at times from hope to despair 
and without which struggle, ending as it did in a means of 
control over all those pests, the fruit industry of this county 
would have been reduced to such insignificance that a history 
of it would not be worth the while. 

For the first twenty-five years in the history of the fruit 


industry of Santa Cruz county our fruits were practically 
immune from insect pests and diseases. 

Tliere was neither a spray pump nor need of one prior to 
about 1877, at which time the codling-moth made its appear- 
ance in our county and the pernicious or San Jose scale 
about tliree years later. 

Viewing with alarm the advent of those and other noxious 
pests, and witli a hope of checking their inroads, a number 
of orchardists in the early '80s appealed to the board of 
supervisors, with the result that a board of horticultural 
commissioners was appointed whose duty it was to advise 
best remedies and supervise destruction of the pests. The 
men who constituted this commission were B. Pilkington, Dr. 
C. L. Anderson and Samuel Drennan. These men put forth 
their best efforts in the performance of their duties, but 
accomplished little, as at that time there were no well-de- 
fined remedies known for successfully controlling the various 
noxious pests. 

This board served for a number of years and was succeeded 
by other boards of commissioners who successively served 
until 1895, at which time the commissioners then in office, 
discouraged by their inability to control the ever-increasing 
insect enemies of the orchards, resigned and announced their 
belief that the situation had resolved itself into a case of the 
''survival of the fittest" as between the fruit trees on one 
side and the pests on the other. Thus for five years matters 
drifted, without a board of commissioners and orchard pests 
increasing. However, in the meantime, scientists elsewhere 
had evolved remedies, amongst which were, paris-green for 
the codling-moth and kindred insects and the lime-sulphur- 
salt wash for the scale insects. 

In 1899 a number of far-seeing orchardists alive to the sit- 
uation and aware of the fate which would surely befall their 


business unless prompt and heroic measures were adopted, 
petitioned the supervisors to appoint another board of horti- 
cultural commissioners. The request was granted and the 
new board consisted of J. H. B. Pilkington for the Santa Cruz, 
or northern district; H. R. Dakin for the Soquel or central 
district; and the writer for the Pajaro or southern district. 
On December 27, 1899, the appointees met and formally or- 
ganized. Plans were mapped out and each went at the work 
in earnest in the territory assigned him. 

Mr. Dakin served about one year and was succeeded by 
F. W. Hitchings, the present incumbent. Mr. Pilkington 
served about four years and was succeeded by L. N. Trumbly, 
who is still in office. The duties of the commissioners at 
first were not the most pleasant, for the orchardists in general 
were ignorant as to best remedies and their application. 
Then, too, many were prejudiced against the use of remedies 
recommended and skeptical as to results. Taken altogether, 
quite a percentage of the growers rather resented the advice 
of the commissioners, preferring to drift and take their 

Realizing the power of organization in the matter of mould- 
ing public opinion and the absolute necessity of united ac- 
tion in this case, the writer, in the spring of 1900, issued a 
call and named a committee for the purpose of outlining a 
plan of organization. Through the recommendation of this 
committee the board of trade and the Pajaro Valley Orchard- 
ists' Association were launched, the latter as a branch of the 
board of trade, thus securing the influence and co-operation 
of the business men in the movement aiming toward the 
protection and improvement of the fruit industry. 

A campaign of publicity was inaugurated by the Orchard- 
ists' Association. Meetings were held for the consideration 
of the various problems confronting the orchardists. The 


life history of the various pests was studied and best remedies 
discussed. Specimens of the injurious together with the bene- 
ficial insects were placed on exhibition for the benefit of the 
uninitiated. The columns of both the local newspapers were 
generously proffered and liberally used by the association 
for the dissemination of knowledge of importance to the or- 
chardist. Experiments were conducted for the purpose of 
testing remedies and the results of those tests announced. 
Millions of lady-birds, as well as many varieties of other 
beneficial insects, were brought in and liberated in the or- 

Within two years even the most skeptical were convinced 
that the scale insects could be controlled, the lime-sulphur- 
salt wash proving most effectual for this purpose. All 
remedial measures used, however, in the attempt to control 
the codling-moth proved disappointing and often disastrous 
to foliage. Paris-green, the sovereign remedy in dryer 
climates, injured the foliage every time it was applied in 
this locality. 

Discouraged by repeated failures, while the ravages by 
codling-moth increased yearly, the Orchardists' Association, 
in 1902, appealed to the agricultural department of the State 
University for scientific aid. In response the university au- 
thorities in 1903 placed Prof. C. W. Woodworth, chief of 
the Entomological Department in charge of the project, with 
Prof. W. T. Clarke as field assistant. Acting upon the belief 
that high-grade paris-green would prove safe and effectual 
this remedy was recommended and widely used that year. 
The result was as always before, disastrous to the foliage. 

W. H. Volck succeeded Prof. Clarke in 1904 in the ex- 
periment work. During that year and the next he tested 
every known remedy suggested for the codling-moth, includ- 
ing the various brands of arsenate of lead then on the market. 


These tests demonstrated that properly prepared arsenate of 
lead was the only safe remedy, but all the various brands of 
this material proved variable, hence unreliable. 

The necessity of evolving a stable compound became ap- 
parent, hence in 1906 Chemist E. E. Luther was detailed to 
assist in the work. Co-operating with Mr. Volck, the two 
perfected an arsenate of lead which has proven absolutely 
safe under our peculiar climatic conditions and entirely ef- 
fectual in combatting the codling-moth. 

The problem which the university had undertaken being 
satisfactorily solved, Mr. Volck, in 1907, was employed joint- 
ly by Santa Cruz and Monterey counties to continue the re- 
search work with a view to simplifying and cheapening the 
methods of control of orchard pests. In 1907 a factory was 
established in Watsonville under the management of Chemist 
Luther for the manufacture of spray chemicals needed by 
the growers of orchards. 

Aside from the great results accomplished through the 
university, the services of the U. S. Department have been 
enlisted. Since 1906 experiments have been conducted by 
government experts with a view to improving the keeping 
qualities of our apples, in both natural and cold storage. In 
1908 an exhaustive soil survey of Pajaro valley was made 
for the purpose of determining whether the different kinds 
of soil effect the keeping quality of our apples. 

In 1909 W. S. Ballard, a government plant pathologist, was 
detailed to this locality for investigation work with a view 
to devising remedies for diseases to which some of our fruits 
are subject, particularly aiming to control the powdery mil- 
dew of the apple. 

Though the few have had to bear the brunt of the reform 
work carried on unceasingly during the decade now ending, 
it is gratifying to note that the pest problem is solved and 


that no further doubt exists on the part of the orchardist re- 
garding the efficacy of remedies now prescribed. Further, 
that our people as a whole are at last awake to their best in- 
terests and are profiting by applying those remedies. 

With a skilled entomologist, plant pathologist and chemist 
all working for the improvement and clieapening of remedies, 
together with the existence in our midst of a factory which 
furnishes the growers the necessary compounds for pest- 
fighting at prices twenty-five per cent less than is charged for 
like materials in any other section, our district is enjoying 
advantages protectively unequaled anywhere. 




An English family of the middle class, hearing concerning 
the opportunities to be fomid in the United States, took pas- 
sage on a sailing vessel during the year 1820 and crossed the 
ocean to the new world. Their original home in this country 
was in Baltimore, Md., and there in 1823 a son was born to 
whom was given the name of Augustus. During 1828 the 
family removed to Salem, Mass., and there the boy was sent 
to the public schools, obtaining a fair education. After leav- 
ing school he served an apprenticeship to the trade of cooper 
and on the expiration of his time he worked as a journejTuan. 
As soon as news reached Massachusetts of the discovery of 
gold in California he determined to seek his fortune in the 
west and joined an expedition consisting of two hundred and 
twenty young men, hardy and brave, such j^ouths as formed 
the flower of New England. Buoyant and ambitious, the 
young adventurers set sail from Boston on the ship Capitol, 
bound for the golden shores of California, by way of Cape 
Horn. The voyage consumed six months. Out of the large 
number of yoimg men composing the party only two now 
survive. The others have taken the last long journey to the 
shores whence no traveler returns. 

Mining for a time occupied the attention of Augustus 
Noble, who went with two companions to Sacramento and 
mined on the American river near Folsom, later followed the 
same occupation at Marysville, also on a fork of the Yuba 
river. The average was about $15 per day for each man. 


The rainy season of November drove liim from the mines 
and he returned to Sacramento. There he noticed a large 
demand for whiskey kegs, to be loaded on the backs of mules 
and transported across the country. Procuring the needed 
tools, he started to work at his trade. Business flourished 
and soon he had five coopers in his employ. One of these 
men earned as much as $30 per day, but notwithstanding high 
wages and high rents, he prospered to such an extent that by 
November of 1851 he had accumulated $10,000 in his venture. 
Selling out the shop, he took his gold with him and returned 
to Boston, where in 1852 he married Miss Johanna Shaw, a 
native of Massachusetts. 

On leaving California it had been the intention of the 
young cooper to invest his $10,000 in the east and remain 
there permanently. The first part of his plan he carried out, 
but with such disastrous results that in a few months the 
money was gone. It was easier, he ascertained, to lose money 
in the east than to earn it in the west. Therefore he decided 
to return to California and in 1852, accompanied by his bride, 
he came west via the isthmus. When he reached Sacramento 
he found that the town had been destroyed by fire. Then he 
went back to San Francisco, bought a cooper shop for $1,000 
and began to work at his trade. At the end of three years 
he had earned another $10,000. With this as a capital he 
came to Santa Cruz county in 1856 and settled in the village 
of Soquel, investing the money in the purchase of the ranch 
that he still owns. The family residence occupies a very 
healthful location, on high lland, overlooking the village. Ten 
mountain springs furnish pure water for the stock and for 
family use. The ranch comprises one hundred and twenty- 
one acres of tillable land, of which he has planted forty acres 
in an orchard of apples and cherries. In addition he owned 
one-twelfth interest in thirty-three thousand acres of moun- 


tain and timber land. The ranch originally was owned by 
the Castro family, prominent in the Spanish history of Cali- 
fornia, it having come into their possession through one of 
the Spanish grants. The adobe house, in which the Spanish 
family lived and reared their children, still stands to this 
day, an interesting landmark of the era of Spanish domain 
in our state. 

For a long period Mr. Noble has been connected with the 
Society of California Pioneers. Possessing an excellent 
memory, his many tales of early days are interestingly told 
and, if published, would form a valuable addition to the 
pioneer history of our state. In his family there are six 
children. The eldest son, George, is engaged in ranching at 
Visalia. The second and third sons, Edward and Walter, 
have operated the home ranch since the retirement of their 
father from active agricultural cares. Next to the youngest 
son, Charles, a man of classical education and fine mental 
attainments, occupies a chair as professor in the University 
of California at Berkeley; he has crossed the ocean many 
times and visited points of interest throughout the world. 
The two daughters are Mrs. Lawson of Berkeley and Mrs. 
Frederick Cox of Santa Cruz, the former being the wife of 
the manager of the Wells-Fargo Company at Berkeley. 



During a noteworthy portion of his career the personal 
advancement of Judge Bockius was coincident with the prog- 
ress of the Pajaro valley. When he arrived here for the 
first time, during the latter part of the year 1852, he found 
the beautiful valley in the primeval state of nature, destitute 
of roads or houses or fences. The few settlers who had pre- 
ceded him were dwelling in tents. It would require an opti- 
mistic faith to predict for the region its present condition 
of material and commercial development. The little band of 
pioneers possessed such optimism and with a faith born of an 
inward vision of the future they labored unceasingly, each in 
his own narrow sphere accomplishing little, but all by their 
collected, harmonious efforts accomplishing much for the per- 
manent welfare of the locality. 

Tracing the history of Judge Bockius, we find that he was 
born in Philadelphia in 1818, member of an old and well-to- 
do family of that city. Primarily educated under private 
tutors, he early displayed a fondness for the study of the 
sciences, and in order that he might enjoy exceptional ad- 
vantages along that line he became a student in the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia, where he remained for four years, 
graduating before he had attained his majority. Though 
Destiny led him into commercial and agricultural pursuits, 
he never lost his fondness for scientific subjects and his read- 
ings during his last years were almost wholly confined to 
works upon his favorite themes. His marked preference for 
scientific experim.onts led him to serve an apprenticeship in 
the manufacture of scientific apparatus, including mathemat- 
ical and optical instruments. 

Soon after Daguerre discovered the process by which pic- 
tures were produced on chemically prepared surfaces by the 


action of light, Mr. Bockius entered into the manufacture of 
photographic apparatus and material in partnership with the 
late Dr. Kennedy, who afterward obtained distinction as a 
scientist and as president of the Philadelphia Polytechnic 
Institute. The art of photography was then in its infancy. 
Its disciples were so few in number that there was little de- 
mand for material and equipment; hence the new firm met 
with little success and its affairs were closed up by its pro- 
jectors. The next venture of the young man led him from 
the field of scientific experiments into the domain of mer- 
chandising. First in Pliiladelphia and then in New Jersey 
he engaged in mercantile pursuits. The success of these 
ventures would have satisfied many, but Mr. Bockius was am- 
bitious to earn more than a mere livelihood and he deter- 
mined to seek a new domain of activity in the west. As early 
as 1844 he had established domestic ties, being united with 
Miss Harriet Rambo, of Camden, N. J. When they started 
west their family consisted of two children, and these were 
carried across the Isthmus of Panama on the backs of natives. 
Arriving at the Pacific coast it was found that the cholera 
was raging and soon one of the children fell a victim of the 
dread disease. The ship, Golden Gate, which at San Fran- 
cisco was reported to have been lost, was in the harbor, de- 
tained by an outbreak of plague among the passengers and 
the crew. Eventually the ship left the port and the surviving 
passengers were finally landed in San Francisco without fur- 
ther disaster. 

The first occupation which engaged the attention of Mr. 
Bockius in the Pajaro valley was the butchering of cattle and 
the selling of meat to the ocean vessels. The meat was deliv- 
ered by means of surface boats. The work was profitable 
but exceedingly distasteful, and as soon as possible it was 
abandoned for agricultural pursuits. Throughout the re- 


mainder of his life lie was more or less interested in the 
raising of grain, having acquired an interest in the great 
Pajaro valley ranch. By buying and selling farms and town 
property he made considerable money and laid the foundation 
of subsequent success. A portion of the Pajaro valley ranch 
was subdivided and the land laid out in town lots, which were 
sold at a fair profit. For years he loaned money with land as 
first mortgage and the interest being high in those days he 
found the business quite profitable. From the organization 
of the Bank of Watsonville in 1874 until his death in 1905 
he was intimately associated with its history, first as a stock- 
holder, and after 1884 as president. The other officers were 
as follows: H. S. Fletcher, cashier; Charles Ford, H. S. 
Fletcher, G. M. Bockius, William G. Hudson, Thomas Snod- 
grass, Lucius Sanborn and Edward White, directors. With 
a paid-up capital of $100,000 and a surplus of $25,000, the 
bank rose to a high position in the confidence of business 
men and controlled a large share of the business of the valley. 
Politically a stanch believer in Republican principles. Judge 
Bockius was prominent in his party during the early days. 
In 1856 he was elected associate justice with Judge Rice. At 
the expiration of his term he was elected county judge and 
filled the position with eminent success, notwithstanding the 
fact that he had never received a law education. During 1872 
he was elected to the state legislature, where he took a warm 
interest in movements for the benefit of the community with 
whose prosperity his own success had been identified. In 
1874 he was bereaved by the death of his wife. Seven chil- 
dren had been born of their union. Four are now living, 
namely: Edwin S., director and vice-president of the Wat- 
sonville Savings Bank and also the owner of considerable 
ranch property ; Belle, wife of H. S. Fletcher, of Watsonville ; 
Godfrey and Charlotte S., also of Watsonville. The death 


of Judge Bockiiis was deplored as a loss to the city where 
so many years of his useful life had been passed. He en- 
tered eternity with the well-merited honors of his fellow- 
citizens, and their tributes of respect formed a garland that 
sought visible expression in fragrant flowers strewn over the 
new-made grave, where the body was laid to rest beside all 
that was mortal of the wife of liis youth. 


The sheriff of Santa Cruz county enjoys the distinction of 
having been the first native of this county to be chosen for 
the office he now holds and in addition, when elected marshal 
of Watsonville some years ago, it was announced that he was 
the first native of that city to be chosen for the position con- 
cerned. The record he has made as an official is one of which 
he may well be proud. His fearless, strong and forceful 
qualities eminently adapt him for the task of enforcing the 
laws and administering justice to offenders. Though genial 
and companionable, he can be stern when occasion demands 
and his bravery has never been called into question. Re- 
peated election to offices calling for the quahfications he pos- 
sesses indicates a recognition of his ability on the part of his 

Born in Watsonville, June 11, 1871, Howard V. Trafton 
is a son of George A. and Melissa (Matthis) Trafton, natives 
respectively of Canada and Hlinois. Elsewhere in this vol- 
ume will be found extended mention of the father, a pioneer 
of Santa Cruz county, having settled at Watsonville during 
the year 1859, since which time he has been prominent in 
business affairs. Howard V. Trafton was educated in the 
public schools of Watsonville and at the age of sixteen years 


began to work on a ranch near that town, where he remained 
for two years. On returning to town he entered the employ 
of the Watsonville fire department and continued in the 
capacity of engineer until his election as marshal. It was 
during April of 1902 that he was chosen marshal, as the suc- 
cessful competitor of C. W. Bridgewater. In November of 
the same year he was elected sheriff of the county on the 
Democratic ticket, defeating Milton Besse by four hundred 
and fifty votes out of four thousand votes that were cast. 
At the expiration of his term, in 1906, he was re-elected in a 
three-cornered contest, there being two candidates against 
him. This time he received a plurality of sixteen hundred 
and eighty-eight votes out of a total of forty-three hundred. 
The increased plurality at the second election bore testimony 
to the recognition by the people of his efficient service in the 

The first marriage of Howard V. Trafton was solemnized 
m 1895 and united him with Miss Beatrice Soto, who died in 
1901, leaving one son, Frank. The following year he was 
united in marriage with Miss Rose Veldaz, by whom he has 
one son, Chester. The majority of the fraternal organizations 
in the county number Mr. Trafton among their members and 
in several of them he has held important positions. Like 
others of his family, he is identified with the volunteer fire 
department of Watsonville. His father was one of the first 
chiefs of the department and others of the name have pro- 
moted the welfare of an enterprise so indispensable in a grow- 
ing city. Other movements for the benefit of town and county 
have had his aid as occasion offered and he has displayed a 
progressive spirit in promoting measures calculated to prove 
of permanent advantage to the people. 


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Of that noble band of young men wlio, fired by loyal devo- 
tion to the Union cause, offered their services to their country 
during the Civil war and went forth to do battle for the great 
end of universal freedom, comparatively few are spared to 
enjoy the fruits of their sacrifices and to witness the re- 
markable prosperity of a reunited country. Among those 
who served faithfully and well and who remain among us, 
raention belongs to Colonel Abbott of Santa Cruz, whose serv- 
ice was so impressively loyal as to bring him an honorary 
commission as lieutenant-colonel from Governor Sloane of 
AYisconsin. To this rank he arose from his service as a 
private soldier, solely through his personal bravery, unaided 
by the prestige of influential friends or those other adventi- 
tious aids to success. 

The northern part of New Hampshire, where he was born 
in 1839, was the scene of the childhood home of Colonel 
Abbott, who received his schooling largely across the line in 
Canada. During 1854 he accompanied his father from New 
Hampshire to Wisconsin and settled near Columbia, a village 
not far from Madison. The father took up land and under- 
took to clear the same preparatory to cultivation. In this 
arduous pioneer task he was aided by the son for four years. 
At the expiration of that time the youth started out to earn 
his own way. Under a trained and skilled "boss" he served 
an apprenticeship to the trades of blacksmith and wagon- 
maker, and while he was thus employed the Civil war broke 
out in all of its fury. Immediately he determined to leave 
his work and go to the aid of the Union. September 19, 
1861, he enlisted as a private in the Fourteenth Wisconsin 
Infantry, and was sent to the south shortly afterward, join- 
ing the force commanded by General Grant at Shiloh just 


previous to that famous engagement. He remained at the 
front and took part in many engagements. It was his good 
fortune not to suffer a day from illness during his entire 
service. During the siege of Vicksburg he helped to take a 
battery of six guns and one of these guns was later mounted 
and placed on the grounds of the state capitol of Wisconsin. 
While at Shiloh he witnessed the drowning of the war gov- 
ernor, Harvey, of Wisconsin, who was at Shiloh looking after 
the condition of tlie Wisconsin troops. After the surrender 
of Vicksburg, which occurred on the 4th of July, 1864, Colonel 
Abbott was mustered out of the service. Although never ill, 
he had endured misfortune in battle, receiving two wounds 
in the shoulder and suffering the loss of his right eye. 

The residence of Colonel Abbott in California dates from 
1870, wlien he settled at Newcastle, Placer county, and erected 
the first brick building in the village. For twenty-three years 
he made his home in that town, meanwhile following the 
trades of blacksmith and wagonmaker, and also for some time 
working in the construction department of the Central Pacific 
Eailroad. Upon the organization by the Knights of Pythias 
of Foothill Lodge at Newcastle he became one of the charter 
members and afterward took a warm interest in the phil- 
anthropic efforts of the order. In addition he became a 
charter member of the lodge of Odd Fellows at Newcastle 
and was further identified with the Improved Order of Red 
Men. During those years he passed through all of the chairs 
in the different lodges. The Grand Army of the Republic 
has received his sympathetic support and he welcomes with 
an undying fervor the reunions of the veterans, when the old 
soldiers meet to tell their campfire tales of war and danger 
and battles bravely won. Politically he has been a Repub- 
lican ever since casting his first ballot. While still living in 
W^isconsin he married, December 31, 1866, Miss Martha 


Abbott, a native of that state and a woman possessing many 
^Taces of character and attainment. Three children came 
to bless their union, namely : Glencora, wife of Jack Wener, 
of Santa Cruz; Abbie, who married J. J. Clancey, a gunner 
in the United States navy; and Guy E., residing at Elm- 
hurst. During 1893 the family removed to Santa Cruz, hop- 
ing that the climate would prove beneficial to the health of 
Colonel Abbott. The expectation was justified by the results 
and he is now the sole owner of the San Lorenzo livery stable, 
in which for a time he owned one-half interest, but subse- 
quently purchased the interest of his partner, and since then 
has managed alone the large business there established. 


The discovery of gold in California was the direct cause of 
the removal of tlie Trafton family from their quiet home in 
a Missouri town, where a sojourn of years had brought them 
many warm friends, to the newly settled regions of the west, 
where an arduous struggle awaited their courageous efforts. 
Misfortune and bereavement came to them in the course of 
the journey, which began auspiciously at St. Joseph, Mo., 
on the* 1st of May, the expedition comprising almost forty 
wagons. Young Trafton, who was then about sixteen years 
of age, was given charge of six yoke of oxen, and to the others 
similar duties were assigned as desired. There had been con- 
siderable anxiety as to hostility on the part of the Indians, 
but the red men did not molest them; on the contrary, their 
troubles were of a radically different nature, but no less 
alarming. Cholera had thrown its dread shadow over many 
of the expeditions and had depleted their numbers more 
rapidly than the bullets of an enemy. The disease broke out 


among" the members of this company and thirty days after 
leaving Missouri the elder Trafton was taken from his family 
by a swift attack of the epidemic. The body was buried on 
tlie plains and the bereaved wife and children hurried for- 
ward with the expedition, eventually entering California by 
way of Carson Pass. During October of the same year the 
mother with her children took up land on the Cosumnes 

The adventurous spirit of the sixteen-year-old son would 
not allow him to remain contentedly on a ranch until he had 
made an effort to mine for gold. Accordingly he went to 
the mines of Amador and Sacramento counties and prospected 
for a time. Since then he has been interested in mining at 
different times and in various localities, but after he had at- 
tained his majority he ceased to devote his entire attention 
to that occupation, returning instead to the pursuit of ranch- 
ing. For a time his mother remained on the home ranch, 
but eventually she came to Watsonville and here passed her 
declining years. Of her five children three are living, name- 
ly: John, of Monterey county; George Arthur, of Watson- 
ville; and Mrs. 0. H. AVilloughby, also of this city. The 
brothers engaged in ranching in partnership for some time, 
buying land in the Pajaro valley, whose fertile soil and health- 
ful climate had attracted them to its citizenship. 

The marriage of George A. Trafton was solemnized in 
Sacramento in 1858 and united him with Miss Melissa A. 
Matthis, who was born in Illinois and came to California in 
1852. It was the pleasant privilege of Mr. and Mrs. Trafton 
to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of their marriage, on 
which memorable occasion they were the recipients of con- 
gratulations from a host of devoted personal friends. Their 
union was blessed with six children, but one of these died in 
infancy. Those who attained mature years were as follows: 


Mrs. Mary Emma Jameson, now deceased; Hon. W. A. Traf- 
ton, who is associated with his father in business and has been 
honored with the office of mayor of Watsonville; Mrs. Alice 
Amelia Evans, of Watsonville; Howard V., who holds the 
office of sheriff of Santa Cruz county; and Mrs. Ida Evelyn 
Trimble, a resident of Bakersfield. The children were edu- 
cated in the schools of Watsonville and were carefully trained 
by wise parents in order that they might be fully qualified 
to meet the responsibilities of life. 

Many of the qualities that individualize Mr. Trafton come 
to him from a long line of English ancestry. Shortly after 
the new world began to be colonized members of the Trafton 
family crossed the ocean to Maine, where several generations 
struggled bravely in an endeavor to wrest a livelihood from a 
sterile soil. A young couple of that name crossed the line 
into lower Canada and established a temporary home with- 
in the British possessions. While living there a son was 
born to them October 5, 1834, and this child was given the 
name of George Arthur. However, his earliest recollections 
are not of Canada or New England, for during infancy he 
was tai^en to Missouri and there passed the years of early 
youth, his father being a manufacturer and merchant at 
Bocheport, Boone county, that state. 

Possessing a temperament that led him to become interested 
in speculative affairs, Mr. Trafton was not content to pursue 
the quiet round of ranch duties, but while yet living in the 
country he formed large interests in the potato-raising busi- 
ness. Over-production brought a heavy decline in prices and 
he suffered large losses. During 1863 he disposed of his 
farm holdings and came to W^atsonville, where he bought and 
sold farm products, principaUy grain. During 1868 he es- 
tablished the first exclusive hardware store in the town and 
for seventeen years he conducted business along that line, 


meanwhile buying real estate and in 1872 erecting a brick 
building for store purposes. The building, which adjoins, 
the Lewis house, was at the time of its erection considered 
one of the finest business structures in the entire county. 
Fortune favored Mr. Trafton in the quiet round of business, 
enterprises, but his fondness for mining speculations proved 
his financial undoing, and after an experience of ten years 
in the development of quicksilver mines in Santa Clara county 
he found himself bereft of fortune and hampered by an in- 
debtedness aggregating about $75,000. Eventually his debts 
were paid and no one but himself lost by his reverses. For 
four years, beginning in 1881, he conducted a partnership 
in mercantile pursuits with A. J. Jennings under the firm 
name of Trafton & Jennings. After disposing of his in- 
terest in the business, he resumed the buying and selling of 
grain and with M. A. Hudson as a partner he built up the 
largest trade of its kind in the Pajaro valley, the partners- 
owning a large storage warehouse at AVatsonville. 

At this writing Mr. Trafton is interested in gold mines in 
Mexico, and he has a patent from the government for land 
fifty miles south of HoUister, where he located the vein of 
coal that now is being developed as the Trafton mine. 
Through all of his long and active career he has been warmly 
interested in movements for the well-being of the community. 
Particularly in educational matters has he been alert to aid 
plans for the furtherance of the free-school system. A service 
of four years as a member of the school board gave him an 
opportunity to favor measures for the raising of the standard 
of education in the local schools. For fifteen years he was 
a member of the board of town trustees and during seven 
years of that period he held the office of chairman of the 
board. The inauguration of a movement looking toward the 
establishment of a volunteer fire department met with his 


hearty approval, and lie became identified with the same. 
After years of faithful service his name was transferred to 
the honorary list, in which association he continues to the 
present time. In fraternal relations he holds membership 
with the Watsonville Masons, being identified not only with 
the blue lodge, but also with the chapter and commandery. 
It has been his aim to exemplify in his life the teachings of 
philanthropy and brotherhood for which the order stands. 
Foremost in movements for educational, fraternal, civic 
and social development, the name of G. A. Trafton is in- 
dissolubly associated with the upbuilding of Watsonville. 
Whether we consider him as a business man, willing to sac- 
rifice his own funds in an effort to develop local enterprises; 
or as a citizen, serving gratuitously for years as a town trus- 
tee and school director; or as a neighbor, stanch, faithful 
and true, we must accord him a high position in the citizen- 
ship of the place where for almost one-half century he has 
made his home. As proprietor of the grist mill, which he 
established about 1889, he proved a factor in the growth of 
an important local industry. With commendable enterprise 
he equipped his mill with the latest approved machinery need- 
ed in the preparation of graham flour, corn meal and other 
products. From the first the mill proved of great advantage 
to the farmers of the valley and its proprietor added to the 
prestige of his enviable business reputation. It is to such 
progressive men as he that the valley owes its high standing 
throughout the state and its established reputation in the 



In the character and professional attainments of the physi- 
cians who have engaged in practice in its towns, Santa Cruz 
county has been particularly fortunate, and of its practitioners 
perhaps none is more prominent than the present incumbent of 
the office of county physician, Dr. Willis R. Congdon, who has 
met with encouraging success in the practice of materia 
medica. Prepared for his tasks by a thorough training in one 
of the most famous institutions in the country, fortified by 
a thorough classical education, and still further aided by the 
encouraging counsel of his father, a talented and experienced 
physician of the old school, he thus had the assistance of those 
adventitious circumstances that silently but surely determine 
our destinies. Of this favorable environment he availed him- 
self to the utmost, thereby acquiring a thorough knowledge 
of the science which enables him to complete his diagnoses 
with accuracy and to apply promptly those remedial agencies 
suited to the particular case. 

The son of Dr. J. R. Congdon, who practiced medicine for 
many years in Indiana, Willis R. Congdon was born at Bristol, 
that state, April 20, 1868, and from an early age was destined 
for the medical profession. It was his good fortune to attend 
Notre Dame University in Indiana for a number of terms and 
he benefited greatly by the thorough training for which that in- 
stitution is famous. Later he took a course of lectures in Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, from which he was graduated in 
1889. Upon receiving his diploma he returned to Indiana and 
began to practice in his native town, whence later he went to 
Chicago to engage in professional labors. During 1896 he 
came to California and settled in Santa Cruz, where since he 
has built up a growing and important practice. To the office 
of county physician, which he now holds, he was elected in 



1906 on the independent ticket, and in addition he has been 
honored with the presidency of the Santa Cruz County Medi- 
cal Society. 

The marriage of Dr. Congdon was solemnized in September, 
1901, and united him with Miss Edith Case, a native of Cal- 
ifornia. One son, Willis R., Jr., blesses the union. To a 
gentleman of Dr. Congdon 's genial temperament, fraternal 
atTiliations appeal with inviting emphasis, and we find him 
prominent in various orders. Included among these may be 
mentioned the Masons of the Knight Templar degree, the 
Maccabees, Foresters and Druids, and in a number of the 
lodges he has officiated as physician. In addition to the affilia- 
tions mentioned he is a member of the naval militia of Cal- 
ifornia, with the rank of lieutenant, and is acting assistant 
surgeon of the Staff. In his citizenship he has been progres- 
sive, alert to promote the prosperity of his adopted city, 
generous in his praises of local advantages and slow to criti- 
cise where such criticism would deter the desired growth of 
civic enterprises. 


Occupying a picturesque location in a valley in the heart 
of the Santa Cruz mountains lies the village of Boulder 
Creek, its site being at the junction of the San Lorenzo river, 
Bear creek and Boulder creek, from the last-named of which 
it receives its name. The village has an elevation of four 
hundred and eighty-four feet above sea level. Between it 
and the ocean there is a high range of mountains that pro- 
vides protection from the raw trade winds and the heavy 
fogs. Wliile the village is small from the standpoint of 
population, it is not lacking in enterprise and progressive 


spirit, as it evidenced by the fact that there are several 
churclies and public halls, as well as a free library and a school 
occupying a substantial building well equipped for educa- 
tional uses. The Southern Pacific Railroad runs through the 
town and affords facilities for the shipment of the farnj 
products raised in the neighborhood. In every respect the 
village offers a comfortable home and an opportunity to earn 
a livelihood amid healthful surroundings. 

A portion of the land upon which the village was built 
originally belonged to Joseph W. Peery, who still is a large 
property holder as well as an influential citizen. He is a 
member of a southern family and was born in Cabell county^ 
W. Va., October 2, 1830, being a son of Hiram and Ruth 
(Lesley) Peery, natives of Tazewell county, Va. Hiram 
Peery was a soldier in the war of 1812 and at its close en- 
gaged in operating a farm in West Virginia, but later re- 
moved to Kentucky, where he owned and conducted a planta- 
tion. The family proceeded still further west in 1842 and 
settled in Missouri, where Joseph W. assisted in transform- 
ing a raw tract of virgin prairie into a fertile farm. During 
1850 he crossed the plains with a large caravan of emigrants 
who traveled in ''prairie schooners" drawn by oxen. For 
three years he tried his luck in the western mines, but in 1853 
he returned to Missouri and took up farm pursuits in that 
state, where he remained for six years. During 1859 he be- 
came a pioneer of Nebraska, where he unsuccessfully en- 
deavored to wrest a livelihood from the occupation of farming. 

Discouraged by the failure of his agricultural efforts in 
Nebraska, Mr. Peery in 1862 started across the plains, ac- 
companied by his wife, who was in poor health. Wlien they 
were in the neighborhood of Austin, Nev., Mrs. Peery be- 
came worse and soon died, leaving him to proceed alone, after 
her body had been laid to rest near the place of her death.. 


Thirty-seven years afterward the remains were brought to 
Boulder Creek and buried in the cemetery at this place. Aft- 
er coming to California Mr. Peery settled in the San Joaquin 
valley and engaged in farming. Three years were spent in 
Stockton, and he then came to Santa Cruz county. The fol- 
lowing year (1868) he settled at Boulder Creek and bought 
a water-power sawmill. Afterward he engaged extensively 
in the sawing of lumber, giving employment to several men 
and clearing eighteen hundred acres of land in Santa Cruz 
county. At this writing he owns a farm of two hundred and 
sixty acres and he also has been a large property owner in 
the village. After settling permanently in the west he mar- 
ried Mrs. Thomkins and they have an adopted daughter, Eva 
N. By her former marriage Mrs. Peery has the following- 
named children: Willis E. ; Josephine; Thomsen; Jennie, 
the widow of George Bowen; Walter T., a soldier in the 
Spanish- American war; Julia, Alice and Elmer. The family 
are identified with the Methodist Episcopal church and assist 
generousl}^ in its maintenance, as well as in the support of its 
missionary and social activities. During the existence of the 
Whig party Mr. Peery supported its principles, but after its 
disintegration he became an adherent of the Republican party 
and had the pleasure of voting for Abraham Lincoln and 
Ulysses S. Grant for the presidency. 



The earliest recollections of Mr. Baldwin are of his boy- 
hood New England home in Plymouth county, Mass., where 
he was born April 18, 1847. There it was his privilege to 
receive good educational advantages for the times, and he 
made the best use possible of his opportunities, to the end that 
while still quite young he was thoroughly equipped for the 
teacher's profession, for which he had a natural adaptation. 
At the age of nineteen years he went to West Stockbridge, 
Mass., taking charge of a school there, and in 1867, came to 

Thus far in his life Mr. Baldwin had had no practical ex- 
perience outside of the school room, but this proved a valuable 
asset, for his knowledge and ability were soon recognized and 
put to good account in Marin county, where he taught for two 
years. During this time he was also interested in dairying, 
but at the end of this time he gave up his interests in Marin 
county and for the following year was located in Monterey 
county. It was at this time that he was seized with a desire 
to visit his old home in the east, but a stay of a few months 
sufficed to satisfy him that the west was the place for a young 
man of push and determination, and he therefore returned 
and once more took up the struggle with conditions that ex- 
isted at that early day. For him, as for many others, mining 
with its alluring possibilities of sudden wealth, had its at- 
tractions, and for one year he experienced all the hardships, 
joys and hopes of the miner, but at the end of that time he 
gave it up to engage in something with more dependable re- 
turns. It was therefore with considerable satisfaction that 
he resumed teaching and for three years he followed it in 
Placer county, the scene of his mining experiences. Going to 
Monterey county once more, he secured a position as teacher 


in the public schools, where he taught for two years, and in 
addition to his professional duties also engaged in the dairy- 
ing business on his own account. This proved to be a busi- 
ness well chosen and one for which he was well adapted, for he 
not only followed it successfully in Monterey county, but also 
for twenty-three years in Santa Cruz county, five years of 
this time being passed in Watsonville, and sixteen years in 
Santa Cruz. 

In 1896 Mr. Baldwin retired permanently from dairying and 
in its place took up apple-raising, an undertaking which has 
proved eminently successful and one in which he has engaged 
for fifteen years in the fertile Pajaro valley. Personal affairs, 
however, have not absorbed all of Mr. Baldwin's time and 
abilities, as those know who are familiar with his life and ac- 
complishments. In the year 1890, as a candidate on the Re- 
publican ticket, he was elected supervisor of Santa Cruz coun- 
ty, a position which he filled with efficiency for four years, 
and in 1896 he was again the successful candidate for this 
position, and during both terms of four years each he gave his 
time and energy conscientiously to forwarding the best inter- 
ests of his county. In 1904 he was chosen chairman of the 
Republican central committee of Santa Cruz county. He was 
a member of the board of freeholders who framed the pres- 
ent city charter, as he was also of the former board, which 
drafted the preceding charter. Wise, conservative judgment 
has made Mr. Baldwin's opinion in financial matters command 
the consideration of all with whom he is associated in the 
banks with which his name is identified. In 1900 he was made 
a director of the City Bank of Santa Cruz and also of the 
City Savings Bank, and in 1902 he was elected president of 
both institutions, the City Bank having since then been changed 
from a state bank to the First National Bank of Santa Cruz. 
That Mr. Baldwin is giving satisfaction as the head of these 


institiitious is amply attested in the long list of satisfied de- 
positors and patrons. 

In 1873 Mr. Baldwin was united in marriage with Mary A. 
Baldwin, a resident of Santa Cruz and the daughter of James 
and Lydia (Race) Baldwin. She is a native of Massachusetts. 
Four children were born to the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. 
Baldwin, but one is deceased. Those living are Grace, a 
teacher ; Arnold, the present county surveyor ; and Roscoe, an 
orchardist of the Pajaro valley. 


WTiile fortuitous circumstances may bring temporary 
prominence, yet permanent success presages ability, energy 
and an honorable ambition, and it is to the possession of 
these attributes that Ex-Lieutenant-Governor Porter owes his 
commercial standing, his political pre-eminence and his so- 
cial popularity. Wise parental influence inspired his early 
j^outli. The inestimable blessing of a judicious father 
and a cultured mother was his, yet it may be asserted con- 
fidently that, imder an environment less congenial, he would 
have emerged into the limelight of an assured success. From 
boyhood he has been intensely loyal to the progress of Cal- 
ifornia. This was not merely the loyalty of the patriot to the 
state of his nativity, but in addition it was the loyalty of a 
progressive citizen inspired by the wonderful possibilities of 
his commonwealth and enthused by its genial climate, fertile 
soil and open-hearted people. The hopes of his boyhood have 
not drifted into the sea of oblivion, but have met with a rich 
fruition in the rise of California to a position among the 
leading states of the Union. 

Born in Santa Cruz, March 30, 1861, Warren R. Porter is 


the only son of the late John T. Porter, a man who unaided 
by others worked his way upward from humble labor to the 
ownership of large landed holdings and the presidency of 
one of the leading financial institutions of his part of the 
state. This example before him, the pioneer's son had every 
incentive for study. He availed himself of the excellent ad- 
vantages otfered by St. Augustine College at Benicia, this 
state, and on his return home secured emplojTnent as a book- 
keeper in the Bank of Watsonville, founded by his father. 
During 1884 he was chosen bookkeeper for the Loma Prieta 
Lumber Company at Watsonville and two years later he be- 
came secretary of the concern. When the headquarters of 
the company were removed to Loma Prieta he went to that 
village and continued the management of the business affairs. 
^Aiile he returned to Watsonville in 1899 he did not resign 
as secretary of tlie company until June, 1901, and since then 
he has remained a member of the board of directors. 

Upon the incorporation of the Pajaro Valley Bank at Wat- 
sonville Mr. Porter was chosen a member of the board of di- 
rectors and upon the death of his father in 1900 he succeeded 
him as president, since which time the financial policy of the 
institution has been guided by his progressive spirit and 
shaped by liis sagacious judgment. Throughout the valley 
the bank has gained a reputation for soundness, conserva- 
tism, wise investments and courteous consideration of all, 
and this reputation is in large part due to the intelligent 
supervision of the Porters, father and son, assisted by a 
corps of painstaking officials and directors. For some years 
after the elder Porter died the estate was conducted by War- 
ren R., as vice-president and manager of an incorporated 
company, and his wise oversight proved of the greatest as- 
sistance to the heirs. In addition to many other interests he 
found leisure to investigate lands and from time to time he 


made purchases, until lie acquired holdings in every county 
comprising the sixth congressional district. The manage- 
ment of his vast interests does not tax his energies, how- 
ever. On tlie contrary, he has found leisure for participa- 
tion in county and state political affairs and has also been 
prominent in society and in various fraternities. On the 
organization of the Watsonville Parlor No 65, Native Sons 
of the Golden West, he became a charter member and after- 
ward was honored with the office of president. In addition to 
being a member of the local blue lodge of Masonry he is as- 
sociated with Watsonville Commandery No. 22, K. T., and 
ever has been stanch in his allegiance to the principles of 
charity and kindness represented by the order. 

The marriage of Mr. Porter was solemnized August 23, 
1893, and united him with Miss Mary E., daughter of Rev. Gr. 
A. Easton, rector of St. Mark's Episcopal church at Berkeley. 
They became the parents of the following-named children; 
John Easton ; Warren R., Jr., who died at the age of fourteen 
months; Mary Frances and Thomas B. From boyhood Mr. 
Porter was an enthusiastic defender of Republican principles. 
At an early age he had been taught by his father concerning 
the various parties and their platforms, hence he maintained 
an intelligent interest from youth. For many years he has 
been prominent in his party. In 1900 he was a presidential 
elector and an alternate delegate to the national Republican 
convention at Philadelphia. His political prominence led to 
his appointment by Governor Gage as a member of the board 
of state prison directors and this appointment, tendered in 
June of 1901, was received by his friends with the heartiest 
approval. Further political honors awaited him as a result 
of duties intelligently performed and in 1906 he was honored 
with the office of lieutenant-governor of California, which 
position he filled four years. His election was received with 


enthusiasm throughout all of Central California, where he 
has hosts of warm friends and earnest political supporters. 


Although primarily a people of commercial instincts and 
strong preferences for business avocations, Americans are 
not blinded to the beautiful in landscape and in art by the 
lure and the glitter of gold. While the strictly utilitarian ap- 
peals to their stern sense of duty and feeling of personal 
responsibility for financial success, they maintain neverthe- 
less a love of all that appeals to the highest tastes in man- 
kind. The beautiful in art pleases their eyes and the beauti- 
ful in music touches the hidden tender chords of the soul. 
Not in vain, therefore, does the artist depict upon canvas the 
harmonious hues of sea and sky, the sweet faces of child- 
hood and the dainty flowers of the forest. Long after the 
hands of the painter shall have been folded in rest, the pic- 
ture will live to breathe into heart-hungry humanity its mes- 
sage of hope and happiness. 

It has been the good fortune of Frank L. Heath to attain 
prominence in art while yet in the prime of his strength, 
with the hope of many years of usefulness in art before him. 
Throughout the west his fame as a painter in oil has become 
known and his skill recognized, while in other parts of the 
country he enjoys a growing reputation as his works are 
becoming more widely known and their beauty more deeply 
appreciated. Born near Salem, Ore., July 3, 1857, he is the 
son of the late Hon. Lucian Heath, a pioneer of 1852 in 
Oregon and distinguished as its first secretary of state. Dur- 
ing the fourteen years of his residence in Oregon he formed 
a large circle of acquaintances among the pioneers of that 


commonwealth, where his fine powers of mind aided in the 
decision of early problems of state importance. Coming to 
California he became a pioneer of Santa Cruz in 1866 and 
opened one of the first mercantile stores on Pacific avenue, 
continuing in successful business for many years. In this 
city he passed away in 1889, mourned by the many warm 
friends he had won by his kindly disposition, high prin- 
ciples of honor and recognized ability. 

A brief experience as clerk in his father's store convinced 
Frank L. Heath that he had no inclination toward commer- 
cial affairs. Indeed, from his earliest recollections he has 
been fond of drawing and a lover of art. The wise over- 
sight of his father rendered possible excellent training along 
the line of his specialty. During 1877 he went to San Fran- 
cisco and entered as a student the California School of De- 
sign, which later became known as the Hopkins School of 
Art. In that institution he had the advantage of training 
under specialists. For three years he continued his studies 
in drawing in that school and later he took lessons in sketch- 
ing in the studio of R. D. Yelland, a well-known artist of 
San Francisco. Since then he has worked alone, developing 
his talent with no other aid than his own unerring tastes. 
Outdoor scenes form the greater part of his collection of 
paintings. To secure studies he has traveled throughout the 
United States. Many landscapes of beauty in mountain and 
valley and sea have been transferred to his canvas, and in 
■every instance his faithful rendition of Nature's handiwork 
has elicited the warmest praise. His paintings are to be 
found in every part of the United States. The walls of 
man}' of the most elegant residences in the country are 
adorned with specimens of his work. Many charming scenes, 
outlined on canvas by his brush with the utmost realism, 
may be seen in his pleasant studio at No. 19 Tliird street. 


Santa Cruz. The same rooms contain attractive specimens 
of the artistic ability of his wife, whom he married in 1897 
and who was Miss Lillian J. Dake, a native of Milwaukee, 
Wis. Her talents have led her to make a specialty of water 
color and china painting. Her work in California fruits has 
attracted particular attention. Those who come to admire 
Mr. Heath's paintings seldom leave without words of praise 
for the dainty specimens of his wife's skill with the brush. 


It would be difficult, if not indeed impossible, to mention a 
name more intimately identified with the history of law and 
jurisprudence in Santa Cruz county than that of Julius Lee, 
who from the year 1862 until his death had made his home in 
Watsonville and who from the time of his arrival until his 
retirement during the opening years of the twentieth century 
occupied a position of the highest influence at the bar of his 
home city. Liberally endowed by nature with logical reason- 
ing faculties and fluent command of language, he supple- 
mented his native endowments by the most arduous applica- 
tion and acquired a thorough knowledge of the laws of this 
and other states, as well as a familiarity with the classics, 
with literature of all ages and with art. From an intellectual 
standpoint he presented the spectacle of a man well-rounded 
in character, well-informed in the profession of his choice 
and well qualified to attain a position of eminence through- 
out the locality where the efforts of years were centered. In 
addition to the valuable practice which he established in his 
home city and countj^, he became known elsewhere as a coun- 
selor of sagacious judgment, and he was frequently called to 
the counties of Santa Clara, Monterey and San Benito, for 


consultation with local attorneys. The fees accruing from 
his extensive practice were invested with the sagacity char- 
acteristic of his every act and resulted in the accumulation 
of important property interests. 

The reputation which Mr. Lee acquired in the law was en- 
hanced by his readiness at repartee. Professional antago- 
nism ofttimes was converted into friendliness by the choice 
hon mot that fell from his lips. The most difficult situation 
was relieved by his good-humored sallies. Friends familiar 
with his mental characteristics were never surprised at his 
epigrams, but to a stranger they always came with a shock of 
surprise, for the appearance of the attorney suggested medi- 
tation rather than humor. Of an impressive physique, his 
smooth-shaven face gave no hint of his age, but revealed the 
strong features that marked the man. On one occasion a 
friend inquired of him regarding his ancestry. His quick- 
ness at repartee is shown in the fact that he immediately re- 
plied by quoting these lines: 

''My ancient though ignoble blood 
Has flowed through rebels ever since the flood." 

The reply though apt was not wholly germane to the case 
in hand, for the Lee family is not of ignoble origin. Its 
branches, both in the north and in the south, have been hon- 
orably associated with the history of their places of residence 
and have displayed a love of home and a valor in war that 
entitles them to rank among the best citizens of our country. 
One branch of the Lee family became established in New 
England very early in the colonization of the new world. 
Though less conspicuous than the southern Lees, they were 
not less valiant in war and industrious in the arts of peace. 
Julius Lee descended from the Connecticut branch of the 
race and was born in the village of Granby, near Hartford, 


May 25, 1829. When he was not yet four years of age lie 
was bereaved by the death of his father ; the surviving mem- 
bers of the family removed to Ohio, settling in the hamlet of 
Hiram, afterward famous as the home of James A. Garfield 
and the scene of his educational activity as president of 
Hiram College. 

On the completion of the studies taught in the Hiram 
public schools, Julius Lee found himself ambitious for greater 
opportunities, yet lacking the means necessary for a college 
course. In early youth he had mastered the classics to an 
unusual extent. Destiny seemed to call him to a high place 
in the world of- thought. Eager to prepare himself for 
achievement, he sought the means of enlarging his fund of 
knowledge. A favorable opportunity soon came. While 
studying at the Twinsburg Institute in Summit county he was 
also a teacher there of those parts of the curriculum with 
which he was most familiar. In that way all expenses were 
defrayed and he was enabled to devote particular attention 
to the study of higher mathematics. When about twenty-two 
years of age he entered the sophomore class of Alleghany 
College and by teaching was enabled to meet the expenses of 
the college course as he had those in the academy. In 1853 he 
was graduated with the honors of class salutatorian and 
valedictorian of his college society. 

A service of two years as tutor in the Twinsburg Institute 
was followed by an acceptance of the chair of Greek and 
Latin in the Washington College near Natchez, Miss. One 
year later, at the age of twenty-seven, he retired from educa- 
tional work. While pedagogy was used by him merely as 
a stepping stone to the law, he was unusually successful as 
a teacher and that portion of his career was no less gratify- 
ing than later labors along another line of mental activity. 
Leisure hours in his experience as an instructor were de- 


voted to the study of law and then for a year he studied 
under tlie preeeptorship of Hon. Thomas A. Marshall, of 
Vicksburg, Miss., after which he was admitted to practice in 
tlie supreme court of that state. It was not, however, his 
intention to remain in the south. The west had already cast 
its fascinating spell upon him. Its opportunities appealed 
to his aspiring energy. The country which a few years be- 
fore had drawn eager Argonauts from all parts of the world 
seemed to him to present other opportunities besides those 
of the mines and he made his plans to remove thither. 

The large and carefully selected library which indicated 
Mr. Lee's love of study was shipped around the Horn, but he 
chose a quicker route to the coast and came via the Isthmus 
of Tehauntepec, landing in San Francisco on the last day of 
June in 1859. Pending the arrival of his library he accepted 
a position in the office of Hon. S. W. Holladay, city attorney 
of San Francisco and one of the leading lawyers of the state. 
A few months later the library arrived safely and the young 
lawyer thereupon brought the books to Monterey, where he 
opened an office. Shortly after his arrival Mr. Gregory re- 
signed the office of district attorney in order to attend the 
Charleston convention and Mr. Lee was appointed to the 
position. At the expiration of the term he was duly elected to 
the office, which he tilled until the election of his successor in 
the fall of 1862. Earlier in the same year he had removed 
to Watsonville, where he served as district attorney for two 
successive terms. Later the Republican party nominated him 
for superior judge, but he declined the nomination for the 
reason that an election would necessitate removal to Santa 
Cruz, thus causing the loss of the excellent law practice he 
had established in his home city. While serving as district 
attorney he engaged as his deputy at the county-seat J. H. 
Logan, who afterward served as district attorney of this 


county and also was honored with the office of superior judge. 
During the year 1869 Mr. Lee married Marcelia Elmore, a 
native of New York. They became the parents of a son, 
Julius Elmore Lee, now of Watsonville, who was educated 
at Heald's Business College at San Francisco and the Uni- 
versity of the Pacific in San Jose. 

In closing this article we wish to quote from the Pacific 
Coast Commercial Eecord of San Francisco. While the men- 
tion of Mr. Lee made by that paper occurred over twenty 
years ago, in 18S9, it applied appropriately up to the time 
of his death, with the exception that he was retired from 
practice and transacted no professional work other than act- 
ing as advisor in various very important cases. "As an of- 
fice practitioner and counselor-at-law, Mr. Lee is recognized 
as possessing great ability, judgment, and a close and in- 
timate knowledge of precedents and authorities on legal 
questions of all kinds. He is quick to grasp the salient points 
of any case brought to his consideration, and being a master 
of English, with a remarkably fine command of language, 
expresses himself in an extremely forcible and convincing 
way. He is impressive in address and possesses the faculty 
of presenting his argument to the court and jury in a con- 
cise and powerful manner, which carries with it great force 
and effect. His predominating characteristics may be 
summed up as suaviter in modo, fortiter in re. This gentle- 
man is familiar with and is a recognized authority on land 
titles and matters. He has made this branch the subject of 
his special study, and has been retained as leading counsel 
in important suits arising from disputed or apparently con- 
fused land grants from the Mexican government previous to 
the cession of California to the United States. 


"Personally Mr. Julius Lee is a man of strong individual- 


ity, a gentleman of education not only in his profession, but 
in general subjects. He enjoys the respect and esteem of 
the community, both in a professional capacity and as a 
private citizen. Though Mr. Lee has just passed his sixtieth 
year, his age sits very lightly upon him, and at an age when 
many men are thinking of getting old, he is robust, active and 
vigorous in mind and body. This gentleman has great faith 
in the future advancement of the city of Watsonville and of 
the Pajaro valley and lends his support to any enterprise 
having as its object the good of this charming locality." 

The death of Mr. Lee occurred in Watsonville March 28, 
1910, and was the occasion of universal mourning in his home 
city and surrounding country, for his was a personality that 
drew all men to him, none knowing him but to love aiid revere 


Ancestors of this progressive farmer of Santa Cruz county 
resided in the Emerald Isle as far back as the lineage can 
be traced. Each generation was characterized by loyalty 
to country and devotion to family, and in their humble spheres 
of activity they labored long and faithfully. The unyielding 
soil of their native country was made to return them a living 
only after the most arduous labor, and from year to year 
conditions seemed to grow worse in this respect rather than 
better. It was this condition of affairs that led Michael 
Grimes to consider the advisability of coming to the United 
States and establishing himself in a country where opportun- 
ity held out a welcoming hand to the young man of push 
and enterprise. 

Bom in county Galway, Ireland, in 1831, Michael Grimes 
continued in the land of his forefathers until 1854, when he 


came to the United States. He remained in the east for 
some time after his arrival, principally in New Jersey, where 
he was' variously employed for six years. Having in the 
meantime become interested in California he determined to 
come to the far west and cast in his lot with her citizens, which 
he did in 1860. He first went to Oakland, but after remain- 
ing there for about six years he came to the Pajaro valley and 
took up the property upon which he now lives. This con- 
sists of one hundred and thirty-two acres of land well lo- 
cated, and altogether he has one of the most thrifty ranches 
in this part of the valley. For many years hay and grain 
were his princijoal products and still are, although in the 
meantime, 1898, he set out an orchard of thirty acres in ap- 
ples which has been very productive and added consider- 
able to his income. 

The marriage of Michael Grimes united him with Cather- 
ine Murry, who like himself was a native of Ireland, and all 
of the eight children born to them are still living. They 
are as follows: John, a resident of Monterey county; 
Thomas and James, of Watsonville; Annie, the widow of 
Charles McGreer of Berkeley; Katie, the wife of William 
Webb, also of Berkeley; Sarah, Mrs. Frank Strode, residing 
in Salinas; Rose, at home; and Ella, a resident of Alameda. 


Far removed from his old home and birthplace in Switzer- 
land Mr. Martinelli finds in Santa Cruz county, Cal., a 
climate not unlike that with which he was familiar during 
his childhood and youth, and here he finds an opportunity for 
progress in business unknown in his native country. "Wlien 
he came to the new world over fifty years ago he was a young 



iiiau oi' about seventeen years, full of enthusiasm and courage 
not easily daunted by adverse conditions, and with the pass- 
ing of years he has accumulated a competency and become 
an important factor in the business community of Watson- 

Born in the canton of Ticino, Switzerland, January 5, 1843, 
Stephen Martinelli is a son of parents who passed their entire 
lives in sight of the mountains of Switzerland, where as 
farmers they made a modest living and reared their children. 
AVlien Stephen was seventeen years of age he had reached 
the conclusion that the business outlook in his own country 
was limited and circumscribed, as completely indeed as the 
country was hedged in by the mountains. Many of his coun- 
trymen had realized this condition before him and found an 
outlet for their ambitions and a field of labor in the United 
States, and hither he came in 1859. The vessel on which he 
made the voyage landed him in the harbor of San Francisco 
June 5 of that year and from the metropolis he came direct 
to the Pajaro valley, where for over half a century he has 
made his home uninterruptedly. His first experience was as 
d farm hand in the valley and during the two years he re- 
mained with this employer he gained a fund of experience 
along agricultural lines that has stood him in good stead 
throughout the remaining years of his life. Finally he un- 
dertook the maintenance of a ranch of his own, carrying this 
on until 1866, when he gave it up and entered upon a widely 
different venture. This was the manufacture of soda water 
and other soft drinks, a line of endeavor which he has ever 
since followed with unqualified success. After a few years, 
however, he became convinced that by specializing on one 
product of unexcelled quality he could get better results than 
by scattering his efforts and it was at that time that he began 
the manufacture of apple cider, the superior quality of which 


lias made his name a lioiiseliold word througliont this part of 
the state. At all state fairs his product is entered for com- 
petition and invariably it receives the highest awards, this 
being especially true of the Mid-winter fair in San Francisco, 
where he received a special gold medal for the best apple 
cider. At the state fair at Sacramento he was awarded a 
silver medal and at the exposition at Atlanta, Ga., he received 
the same recognition for the excellence of his product, be- 
sides seven diplomas of honor from various expositions 
throughout the United States where his special brand of cider 
has been exhibited. He takes a commendable pride in the 
fact that his cider is the only brand that has been awarded a 
medal in the United States. 

In connection with his cider mill Mr. Martinelli maintains 
an orchard of forty acres all in Bellflower apples. Without 
doubt tliis is the most highly developed orchard of its age 
in the county, and the fact that Mr. Martinelli has offered a 
prize of $100 to anyone in the vicinity or elsewhere who can 
show trees more highly developed than his own has stimulated 
an interest in this branch of agriculture which is highly com- 
mendable. He is strongly opposed to the one-time practice 
of cutting back fruit trees, which practice injures the tree, 
causes it to become forked as well as developing a lot of 
suckers that have to be cut back the next season. He is also 
opposed to winter pruning, for when the tree is dormant it 
causes the bark to split and peel off and the tree to decay. 
To do so when the tree is growing heals over the wound at 
once and no suckers will grow from the place where cut. 
Dating from about the year 1900 Mr. Martinelli has been the 
means of practically changing the method of the fruit-grow- 
ers in the valley. He believes in assisting nature, not in 
destroying it. 

A marriage ceremony performed in Watsonville July 3, 


1S90, united the lives of Stephen Martinelli and Jennie Leask, 
the latter a sister of Samuel Leask of Santa Cruz. Three 
children, two sons and one daughter, Stephen, Annie C. and 
Leask, have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Martinelli, all of 
whom are pupils in the public schools of Watsonville. Out- 
side of his business as an orchardist and manufacturer of 
cider Mr. Martinelli found pleasure as well as profit in in- 
structing and leading what was known as Martinelli 's Band 
and later the Swiss Band of Watsonville being connected 
with them for about thirty years. Fraternally he is affiliated 
with a number of orders, being a member of Pajaro Lodge 
No. 9, L 0. 0. F., of Watsonville ; Santa Cruz Lodge, K. P. ; 
and the Rebekahs of Watsonville. Mr. Martinelli is counted 
among the live, enterprising citizens of his home city, and 
as a member of the Watsonville Board of Trade he con- 
tributed immeasurably to her standing as a progressive busi- 
ness center of the state. 


The life which this narrative delineates began at Duxbury, 
Plymouth county, Mass., in 1830, and closed at Watsonville, 
Santa Cruz county, Cal., in February of 1900. Between these 
two dates an era of activity brought financial success, high- 
standing as a citizen and wide influence for good. Of eastern 
parentage and ancestry, fate had reserved Mr. Porter for 
pioneer labors in tlie west. Ere yet he had reached his 
majority he was startled by the news of gold in California. 
With boyish enthusiasm he determined to migrate to the 
coast and remain at the mines until he had accumulated 
$10,000, when he would return east and establish a permanent 
home. Prior to that time he had led an uneventful exist- 


ence, tlie chief event of his youth having been a sojourn in 
Wisconsin, whither liis father had taken him in order to 
have his aid in farming and saw-mUling operations and also 
for the purpose of terminating his apprenticeship in the 
drug business, wliicli he had commenced to learn. A common- 
scliool education qualified him for ordinary business affairs 
and he opposed his father's plans for a collegiate course. 

As the family would not consent to a California trip he 
formulated plans in secret, but was prevented by sickness 
from joining his party. Upon recovering his health he re- 
turned to Boston, where Capt. Caleb Moore, of the ship 
Herculean, agreed to take him without the customary sign- 
ing of articles, but with merely a verbal promise to remain 
with the vessel until discharged at San Francisco. Mean- 
time the elder Mr. Porter had heard of his son's proceedings 
and endeavored to prevent their consummation. Upon as- 
certaining that it was too late, he tactfully withdrew his 
strenuous opposition and bade the youth farewell with pray- 
ers for his success. In due time the Herculean rounded the 
Horn and entered the Golden Gate. The most of the crew 
made a rusli for the mines, but three or four, including Mr. 
Porter, stood by the captain, who showed his appreciation by 
handing his young assistant $50 after the cargo had been un- 
loaded, Captain Moore also offered him unusual inducements 
to make the return trip to Boston, but the offer was de- 

Upon the banks of the Yuba river and in other localities 
Mr. Porter mined for gold, but soon he found that the $10,000 
of his dreams hung further aloof from his ambition than the 
famed castles of the air. Leaving the mines he went to 
Sacramento and thence to Stockton, where he was employed 
as contractor to load a hay-boat bound for San Francisco. 
Next he engaged as buyer of supplies for the Webb street 


house in San Francisco and later was employed by Thomas 
H. Selby & Co., on California street near Battery. In a few 
mouths he refused a liberal advance offered by the firm and 
embarked in the draying business for himself. At the end of 
two years, in the fall of 1853, haviiig secured the necessary 
capital, he came to Santa Cruz county and embarked in mer- 
cantile pursuits with Edward Porter at Soquel. During the 
autumn of 1855, owing to bad crops and scarcity of money, 
he was obliged to relinquish his business, after which he en- 
gaged in farming for a year or more. 

At that time Santa Cruz county unwillingly harbored many 
of the worst characters in the state. The last and greatest 
vigilance committee in San Francisco, that of 1856, drove a 
horde of desperadoes from that city and they took refuge 
in Santa Cruz county, where their presence proved disastrous 
to safety and progress. Society soon became almost disor- 
ganized. Property was in constant jeopardy. In such a 
crisis it was necessary to elect a sheriff able to cope with a 
desperate situation and the people decided that Mr. Porter 
possessed the qualifications necessary for the difficult task. 
In 1856 he was elected sheriff and entered upon his duties 
with fearlessness. The people were not disappointed in him. 
For two terms of two years each he discharged his hazardous 
duties. Criminals and outlaws were captured and brought 
to justice. Those not captured were so terrified that they soon 
fled to other places and eventually peace settled down upon 
the county. 

Upon retiring from the office of sheriff Mr. Porter accepted 
an appointment as collecter of the port of Monterey, ten- 
dered him by President Lincoln. During 1865 he resigned 
this position. Afterward he engaged in different kinds of 
business in various parts of the state. Few pioneers were 
more familiar with California than he, and in the course of 


his activities, both as official and as business man, he traveled 
over a wide range of country. The favorite mode of travel 
was on horseback. For some years he spent a large part of 
his time in the saddle, ^'lien evening came a camp-fire was 
lighted and a lunch prepared and enjoyed, after which he 
slept in his blankets upon the prairie with the earth for a 
pillow and the sky for a counterpane. Physically he was 
admirably qualified for such an existence. Fully six feet 
tall, he was built in proportion and possessed a sturdy con- 
stitution upon wJiich hardships and exposure left little im- 
press. In 1876, after an absence of nearly twenty-seven 
years, he returned to his old eastern home, but the changes 
tliere had been many. Few of his kins-people or friends 
remained, but with such as were left he enjoyed a renewal of 
the pleasant associations of youth. 

During 1859 Mr. Porter married Miss Fannie Cumming, a 
native of Canada and the recipient of a thorough classical 
education. In young womanhood she taught several terms of 
school and proved as efficient in that profession as in her 
Jater duties as a home-maker. The only daughter of the 
union is Mrs. Florence Pfingst. The only son, Hon. Warren 
R. Porter, served as lieutenant-governor of California. The 
family residence has been in the suburbs of Watsonville ever 
since 1874, when Mr. Porter was a prime factor in the or- 
ganization of the Bank of Watsonville. The residence was 
surrounded by forty acres of grounds and formed a beauti- 
ful rural homestead. In addition Mr, Porter acquired two 
hundred and eighty acres in the same neighborhood as well as 
six hundred acres further up the Pajaro valley. Numerous 
other holdings here and elsewhere also passed into his owner- 
ship from time to time and at his demise he left a large and 
valuable estate. During September of 1901 the heirs incorpor- 
ated the John T. Porter Company, with the son as vice-presi- 


dent and manager, the object of the incorporation being to ad- 
minister the estate for the best interests of all concerned. 

The establishment of the Pajaro Valley Bank in 1888 was 
largely due to the efforts of Mr. Porter and he became its 
first president, the other officers being A. Lewis, vice-presi- 
dent, and J. J. Morey, cashier. The first board of directors 
comprised the following-named gentlemen: J. T. Porter, 
A. Lewis, P. McAllister, F. Mauk, A. B. Chalmers, E. L. Gold- 
stein, John Sheehy, W. R. Porter, P. Cox, L. J. Beckett and 
G. W. Sill. The bank was organized with a capital of $100,000. 
One of the first results of its establishment was a reduction 
in the rates of interest charged to borrowers, a matter thor- 
oughly appreciated by farmers and business men. During 
August of the same year (1888) the Pajaro Valley Savings 
and Loan Society was established as an outgrowth of the 
original institution and with practically the same gentlemen 
at the head of its affairs, the presidency, however, being 
held by A. Lewis, while P. McAllister officiated as vice-presi- 

After the organization of the Republican party Mr. Porter 
was steadfast in his allegiance to its principles. The state 
conventions, which he almost invariably attended, felt the 
impress of his virile personality and his devotion to the party 
welfare. It was his privilege to be a member of the first con- 
vention that nominated Leland Stanford for governor of 
California. In politics as in business his strong individuality 
commanded attention and won respect. Frank and outspoken 
in manner, he was yet affable and courteous to all, and the 
eminence that he attained was merited by the possession of 
qualities which enabled him to rise from humble manual toil 
to large financial responsibilities. 



Long before the town of Watsonville came into existence 
a Catholic church had been built in the Pajaro valley, on 
Amesti lake, where is now located the Pajaro valley orphan 
asylum, this being the only church of the denomination be- 
tween San Juan and Santa Cruz. As the population in- 
creased the need of another church to supply the spiritual 
requirements of the community became apparent and Father 
Roussel, who was in charge of the orphan asylum, conceived 
the idea of establishing a parish in the young and growing 
town of Watsonville. It was in 1864 that Father Roussel 
began the erection of St. Patrick's from plans furnished 
by James Waters. The style of architecture was Roman- 
esque, and the structure had a frontage of forty-eight feet 
and a depth of one hundred and ten feet. Built of redwood, 
it rested on a foundation of brick which was manufactured 
in the locality, and tlie window and door frames, as well as 
the sash and mouldings, came from San Francisco. Only 
the exterior of the church was finished at that time, and it 
was not until 1874 that the building was completed. The bells 
which called the worshippers together formerly did service 
in the old San Antonio mission, in the lower part of Monterey 
county, and were brought to Watsonville by permission of 
Bishop Amat. Accompanied by Joseph Pallisier, John Mc- 
Auliffe and James W^aters, Father Roussel set out in April, 
1865, to get the bells, which without doubt had hung in the 
tower of the mission for three-quarters of a century. An 
eventful trip of four days brought them to their destination, 
and after a stay of several days at the mission, in charge of 
Father Ambrose, the bells were loaded on the wagon and the 
visitors returned with their precious burden, by way of San 
Juan, to Watsonville. 


Father Roussel was the first pastor of the new church, 
dividing his attention between tliis and the orphan asylum, 
for a number of years, or until 1869, when Father Mahoney 
became its first resident priest. A few years later, in 1874, 
a contract was made with the pastor to take up the work of 
church completion, and after several months of unremitting 
labor the edifice was finished in the interior and furnished 
with pews and other necessary furniture. Personally Father 
Mahoney was a man of liigh mental and moral equipment, 
added to wliich was rare business judgment, and under his 
administration the affairs of the parish were arranged on 
an orderly and substantial basis, the church edifice was com- 
pleted and the church debt practically liquidated during his 
pastorate of ten years. 

In 1879 Father Malioney was promoted to a charge in Los 
Angeles and the same year Father M. Marron became rector 
of the church. Not unlike his predecessor he was a man of 
many noble qualities, working long and earnestly for the 
welfare of the parish, but a stroke of paralysis in 1897 com- 
pelled him to retire from his labors. It was during this same 
year, 1897, that Rev. P. Hassett was placed in charge of the 
affairs of the church, although it was not until April 17, 
1905, that he received his regular appointment. Upon as- 
suming charge of the work of the parish Father Hassett 
readily perceived the necessity for a larger house of wor- 
ship, and to him more than to any other person is due the 
present magnificent church edifice, which is the pride of every 
resident of the community and which elicits the admiration 
of the stranger. Work on the present house of worship was 
begun in 1901 and was completed in 1903, at a cost of about 
$50,000, including furnishings. During this time the parson- 
age had also been remodeled. The earthquake of April, 1906, 
wrought considerable damage, and necessitated repairs to 


the extent of $3,000 on the church and a like amount on the 
parsonage. The okl church edifice which had done duty for 
over forty years was raised at this time, at an expense of 
$2,000. At the time of the earthquake the bell in the tower 
rang loudly, owing to the swinging of the tower, which was 
all but thrown down. Since Father Hassett assumed charge 
of the affairs of the parish he has expended for buildings, re- 
pairs, etc., over $70,000. 

As has been stated, work was begun on the new church in 
1901, the contract being signed on September 10, and on Jan- 
uary 1, 1903, it was completed and ready for occupancy. 
The structure is sixty-eight feet wide and one hundred and 
thirty feet deep. The English Gothic style of architecture 
has been adhered to throughout the general design, being 
modified only where necessary to suit local conditions. 
Streng-th and durability were not lost sight of in the con- 
struction of this beautiful structure, as may be judged by the 
statement that three hundred and fifty thousand brick were 
used and the heavy concrete foundations required over four 
hundred barrels of cement, in addition to the necessary rock, 
sand and crushed granite. The slates on the roof are fas- 
tened with copper nails, which makes the roof practically in- 
destructible, besides which about three tons of sheet lead were 
used for plashings, gutters, etc., and one ton of copper was 
used in the spire. From the level of the sidewalk the spire 
rises one hundred and thirty-two feet and is the crowning 
feature of this magnificent structure. The front entrance is 
of buff terra-cotta, with Gothic ornamentation, and oak en- 
trance doors open into the spacious vestibule. The choir 
loft has a seating capacity of fifty persons, and the audi- 
torium, which is made with sloping floor, will accommodate 
six hundred persons. 

A valuable adjunct to St. Patrick's church is the Moreland 


Nolle Dame Academy, the gift of Mrs. S. M. Moreland to 
the Sisters of Notre Dame of San Jose. Its original cost 
was $30,000, and after the earthquake repairs to the extent 
of $7,500 were necessary to put it in proper condition. 

Rev. P. Hassett is a native of Ireland, born in County 
Tipperary in 1872, the son of Michael Hassett. Early in 
life he evinced qualities requisite for the priesthood and his 
parents wisely directed his training along this channel. Soon 
after his graduation from All Hallows College, in 1896, he 
came to the United States, making his way direct to Cali- 
fornia, where, in Santa Cruz, he was appointed assistant to 
Father McNamee. He held this position until coming to 
Watsonville in 1897, in the meantime gaining a knowledge 
of inestimable value to him in coping with problems and 
emergencies. Personally Father Hassett is beloved by his 
parishioners, who find in him a sjTupathetic leader in whom 
they place implicit trust. 


Agricultural pursuits occupied the attention of Mr. Tuttle 
for many years both in Iowa and in California and brought 
him a degree of success commensurate with his intelligent 
industry and merited by his arduous application to daily 
duties. Born in Richland county, Ohio, December 30, 1827, 
during 1838 he accompanied his father, Hiram Tuttle, to 
Iowa, settling on a tract of unimproved land in Van Buren 
county on the Des Moines river. During the years of youth 
he left the home farm in order to learn the trade of a stone- 
cutter, but later he returned to farming. After the demise 
of his father he bought the old homestead and there he re- 
mained until the failure of his health through bronchial 


trouble caused him to removed to California. His first trip to 
the Pacific coast was made in 1850 during the memorable 
excitement caused by the discovery of gold. For four years 
he worked in the mines near Placerville and during that period 
he became so favorably impressed by the country that, when 
he left Iowa, in the fall of 1872 he came to the Pajaro valley 
and spent the winter and in 1873, there was no hesitancy in 
his decision to settle in the west. After his arrival in Wat- 
sonville he bought seventy-five acres near town. Twelve 
acres were in hops and he enlarged this crop to forty-five 
acres, building kilns and storage houses for the care of the 
product. For some years he was one of the largest hop grow- 
ers in the Pajaro valley, but a dechne in prices led 'him to 
give more attention to the raising of apples. However, it 
was not until 1901 that a marked decline in the price led his 
estate to abandon the hop industry. 

Purchasing the old Scott boarding house on Main street 
opposite the plaza in 1891, Mr. Tuttle removed the building to 
the rear of the lot and remodeled it for a barn and this has 
been again remodeled into a residence. On the front of the lot 
he built a comfortable and substantial residence and here he 
remained until his death, which was caused by heart failure, 
July 2, 1899. Of liis family one child died in infancy, and a 
daughter, Mrs. Annabel Radcliff, passed away eight months 
after his death. The other members of the family are as 
follows: Hiram D., an attorney of San Jose; Morris B., liv- 
ing near Watsonville; Emory 0., of Alameda, this state; 
Nannie, widow of E. L. Craig, of Los Angeles, president of 
the E. L. Craig & Co.; Adella, who married Dr. Aaron 
Schloss, of San Francisco; Iowa H., who lives on the home 
place near Watsonville; and Victor H., a member of the firm 
of R. L. Craig & Co., wholesale grocers of Los Angeles. 

Surviving Owen Tuttle is his widow, Mrs. Mary E. (Burns) 


Tut tie, wlio was born and reared in Iowa. Her parents, 
James and Mary (McDonald) Burns, were natives of Venango 
county. Pa., the latter having been of Pennsylvania parentage 
but of Scotch ancestry. The mother of James Burns was a 
daughter of Hector McNeal, who served in the Revolutionary 
war. At an early day James Burns removed from Pennsyl- 
vania to Iowa and settled in Van Buren county on the Des 
Moines river ; on the homestead there established the daughter 
grew to womanhood and there in 1855 she was married to 
Owen Tuttle, with whom she came to Watsonville in 1873. 
Her father died in Iowa, but her mother afterward came to 
California and made her home with Mrs. Tuttle until 1892. 
Mrs. Tuttle still owns the property they purchased shortly 
after their arrival in this state and has an income sufficient to 
provide for her the comforts of life. While rearing her family 
she had little time for outside activities. The housework on 
the farm, the family sewing, the care of a large family and the 
many duties falling to a farmer's wife, left her no leisure for 
participation in movements for the public welfare, but after 
the removal of the family to town in 1891 and after the 
children had left the parental roof for homes of their own, 
she devoted her splendid energies and fine mind to enter- 
prises for the upbuilding of the community and the intellectual 
advancement of the people. In her support of the suffrage 
movement she has been ardent and steadfast, believing with 
Patrick Henry that taxation without representation is tyranny 
and believing further that much good accomplished by the 
heroism and self-sacrifice of women has been wrongfully 
credited to men. 

The establishment of a public library in Watsonville was 
a philanthropy that for years received thoughtful attention 
on the i)art of Mrs. Tuttle. During heT work with the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union she became aware of 


the urgent need of a reading room and library for tlie boys 
and girls growing up in the town. The suggestion she made 
was carried out by the Union and the library always has been 
under the management of the women. The movement was 
organized under the legislative act of 1880, which authorized 
cities of a certain class to lew a tax of one mill on the dollar 
for library purposes. Influential citizens signed the petition 
circulated by the women and the board of trustees levied one- 
half of the tax allowed by law, amounting to five cents on the 
hundred dollars. Two years later this amount was increased 
to seven cents, which thus brought about $840 per year for 
the rent, fuel, librarian's salary, subscription to periodicals, 
and purchase of new books. Personal donations have been 
of the greatest aid to the library fund. The Ford estate con- 
tributed $250, which was invested in books, and the lodge of 
Odd Fellows donated their library. 

In addition to aiding in the many duties connected with the 
establishment of the library, Mrs. Tuttle has not neglected 
other enterprises for the benefit of the community. Few 
women are more conversant than she with the industries that 
give prominence to the valley. Long experience with fruit- 
growing on the farm gives her a broad fund of information on 
this subject. The Watsonville Register, of December 19, 1908, 
published an article from her pen concerning the history of 
the apple industry in the Pajaro valley. The account showed 
her familiarity with one of the enterprises that has brought 
fame to the Pajaro valley, and we quote from it as follows: 
"Fifty years ago there were few apple trees in Pajaro valley^ 
and it was many years before there was a market for the 
surplus. Less than thirty-five years ago great quantities of 
fruit rotted on the ground underneath the trees. The lum- 
bermen, who were then engaged in stripping our canons of 
the giant redwoods, thought nothing of filling a few barley 


sacks with apples as they passed an orchard, and would have 
resented with indignation any suggestion of paying for them. 
If a few pickets were knocked out of the fence, it was all 
set down to the credit of the freedom of pioneer days. At 
tliis time nearly all of the valley was sown to grain, and the 
threshing machine made its annual visit. There was scurry- 
mg of busy feet to the tune of three meals a day for twenty- 
five or thirty men, and the orchard then was a never-failing 
source of good things for the hungry men, and also for the 
anxious cooks. Apples, pears, plums, apricots and peaches, 
just ready to drop from the trees in luscious ripeness, were 
to be had for the picking and never seemed to pall on the 
taste of the busy, hungry people. 

''A healthy lot of care-free youngsters roamed the or- 
chards biting into anything and eating only what suited their 
tastes. There was usually a picket missing at a convenient 
place, and a well-worn path which strangely went out of the 
way and sought only favorite trees. Even neighbors' or- 
chards were noted for varieties of wonderful excellence and 
were sampled on the way home from school. About this time 
there ajDpeared a stout old man by the name of Marco Rabasa, 
who offered to buy fruit on the trees. In the parlance of 
the present day, people sat up and took notice. This was 
the beginning of the apple business in Pajaro valley. For 
years the old orchards were gradually enlarged, but 
the old happy-go-lucky selection of fruit was at an end. Belle- 
fleurs and Newtown Pippins took the lead. The old orchards 
were cleared up and soon took on a commercial aspect, mis- 
sing pickets were attended to, and it even became desirable 
to have the roads sprinkled, to keep the fruit clean. For 
years the apple business was a growing success. The Aus- 
tralian market was to be supplied. Rabasa divided his busi- 
ness with an increasing number of people who affixed an " ich" 


to their names, and a new and peculiar style of architecture 
was apparent about town. Packing houses sprang up in the 
most select neighborhoods and Watsonville, by reason of its 
appearance and odor, deserved the name of Appleville. 

''We boasted of our wormless apples; for, although the 
woolly aphis, like the poor, was always with us, the damage 
had been slight, and excejjt that Mr. Nugent required Rabasa 
to disinfect his often-used boxes, before bringing them into 
his orchard, there was no precaution used against insects. 
We thought that the fog and cool nights would not foster 
pests. But one of the famed Pandora boxes came this way and 
was turned upside down over our great valley orchard. The 
war began and the result is not yet told. We have sprayed 
until the orchards during the spring have shocked the artistic 
soul of many residents by their ghastly appearance, making 
nervous, sensitive people shiver with dread as they pass them 
in the night. The orchardist has groaned in spirit, not only 
in sympathy with the appearance of his orchard, but because 
of lime, sulphur and salt in his eyes and on his clothes, horses 
and harness. Paris green has been used as well as other 

solutions suggested by the many bugmen. And kill the bugs 


we will, if every orchardist is sacrificed in the war. Verily, 
when Pandora's box was emptied there were other things 
besides caterpillars inside. 

"The whole valley has become an immense orchard. The 
packing houses have become segregated near the railroad, the 
business in taking permanent shape. There are changes in 
the management of trees. Weeds, which were a horror to old 
orchardists, are now allowed to grow, and are later turned 
under the plow to enrich the soil. It would seem that a soil 
which produces mustard as high as a horse hardly needs any 
more nitrogenous food, and that possibly the mustard takes 
more of moisture and other properties from the soil than it 



gives back. The neat little pea vine used in Southern Cal- 
ifornia between the rows of orange trees, to be plowed under, 
would be much to be preferred in point of beauty and per- 
haps in utility. But, after all, the thorough cultivation of 
former days had many advantages over later methods. Usu- 
ally our orchards are kept in good shape, but occasionally the 
trees are permitted to grow scraggy and go unpruned, until 
one wishes she might act as forester for awhile, to chop out 
the old trees and substitute young ones. Many women in 
Pajaro valley own and manage orchards, and when it comes 
to packing apples, we could hardly do without them. Hun- 
dreds of women work in the packing houses during the sea- 
son, and many make boxes quite as well as men. ' ' 

A. N. JUDD. 

Very early in the colonization of New England, in 1636, the 
Judd family became established along the bleak Atlantic coast. 
Authentic annals of the colonial era record that one of the 
name, who had married a sister of the illustrious Roger Will- 
iams, suffered banishment and exile from Massachusetts by 
reason of his religious views. Accompanying Williams 
through the unsettled country toward the south, he aided in 
the founding of Providence and Newport. Three hundred 
years later Williams and Judd were restored to citizenship 
by the legislature of Massachusetts. Descended in the third 
generation from this famous pioneer was George B. Judd, 
who prior to the free-trade act of 1856 operated an iron 
foundry at Great Barrington, Mass., but closed out the busi- 
ness when a change in the tariff laws made it no longer profit- 
able. For some years he was engaged in the lumber in- 
dustry. One of his cousins, Hon. Norman B. Judd, repre- 


sented Cook county, 111., in the United States congress for 
a number of terms and during the period of his public ac- 
tivity he had the honor of nominating Abraham Lincoln for 
president when that able statesman was as yet comparatively 
unknown throughout the country. 

The death of George B. Judd occurred at Loudon, N. H., 
and there both he and his wife, Mary Ann, were buried. They 
were the parents of five sons and four daughters, but only 
two of these ever came to the west, namely: A. N.; and 
Belinda, who married W. S. Morse and settled at Los An- 
geles. Mrs. Mary Ann Judd was a sister of Hon. William 
H. Bissell, the tenth governor of Illinois, born in New England 
in 1811 and deceased in Springfield, 111., in 1860, during the 
period of his service as chief executive of the state. Dur- 
ing the Mexican war he had fought with distinction and 
bravery and at the battle of Buena Vista he was seriously 
wounded. Later he became one of the leading statesmen of 
the north and for years represented his district in the United 
States congress. At one time he was challenged by Jefferson 
Davis to fight a duel, an altercation having arisen as to the 
honor due the Second Illinois Infantry for results in the war. 
Governor Bissell had the privilege of choosing the weapons 
and he named muskets loaded with buckshot at a distance of 
forty yards, with permission to walk up to within ten paces. 

Had the duel been fought with Governor Bissell as winner, 
the history of the Civil war would have been different, for it 
would not have contained the name and personality of Jef- 
ferson Davis. However, before the time set for the meeting, 
the father-in-law of General Davis interfered and brought the 
matter to an amicable settlement, no apology being asked for 
from Governor Bissell. The story of the affair has since be- 
come known and is often told among the members of the 
Bissell family and their connections. After having risen to 


prominence solely through his own abilities and sagacious 
judgment, Governor Bissell died in the midst of his public 
service and was followed to the grave by tributes of admira- 
tion and respect. Over his last resting place is a stone erected 
by the State of Illinois, in 1874, bearing the words, "Hero, 
Statesman and Patriot." 

During the residence of the Judd family at North Lee, 
Berkshire county, Mass., A. N. Judd was born April 26, 1843. 
At the age of fourteen years he went to Wisconsin and at 
Rubicon, Dodge county, he served an apprenticeship to the 
trades of painter and wagon-maker. Later he worked in a 
sawmill at Whitewater, Wis., and from there he removed to 
Iowa to work at the painter's trade. August 9, 1861, he en- 
listed at Anamosa, Iowa, as a private in Company H, Four- 
teenth Iowa Infantry, and accompanied his regiment to the 
south, where he took part in the engagements at Springfield 
and Fort Henry. His third battle was at Fort Donelson, 
February 15, 1862, and there he was wounded in the neck. 
While in the "hornet's nest" at Shiloh he was taken by the 
enemy, together with practically all of Tuttle's brigade, of 
which he was a member. However, before they had reached 
Corinth he managed to escape with some other prisoners 
and made his way to the Federal lines at Crump's Landing 
on the road to Pittsburg Landing. Soon afterward he was 
transferred to Company A, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, which re- 
ceived marching orders under General Sully March 16, 1863, 
and traveled northward, where he served until the close of the 
Civil war, principally in the Dakotas and along the Canadian 
border. Among the princij^al engagements of that part of his 
service were the battles of White Stone Hill, September 3, 
1863; Big Knife river, July 28, 1864; and the Bad Lands, 
August 7-8-9, 1864, which routed the Indians so that there- 
after it was safe for immigrant trains to travel without es- 


cort. His military service ended under General Sully and he 
was honorably discharged at Davenport, Iowa, November 27, 
1865," after a service of four years and three months. 

Going to Chicago and taking up work at the painter's trade, 
Mr. Judd was busily occupied thus for a few years, but 
when the first railroad was completed across the continent 
he determined to come to California. During July of 1868 
he traveled with the first excursion on the railroad and arriv- 
ing in the west he settled at Watsonville, where ever since 
he has made his home. On the present site of the Watson- 
ville Bank he conducted a painter's shop and in addition he 
followed other lines of work for some years. During 1873 
he became interested in farming and in 1886 he began to plant 
fruit trees, making a specialty of apples. At this writing he 
owns a fruit farm of fifty-two acres west of the city and he 
also owns a comfortable residence at No. 263 East Lake street, 
"Watsonville. Throughout all of his active life he has been 
interested in public affairs. Strong in his opposition to graft 
in every form, he believes in electing officials who will give 
the public clean, pure and faithful service. Concerning the 
various forms of graft noticeable among many public men 
throughout the country he does not hesitate to express his 
views in strong terms. The only office he has held was that 
of deputy assessor. Had he been chosen for others, he would 
have given the public the same faithful service that he gave 
to his country during the four darkest years of its history. 
Fraternally he is connected with Pajaro Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., 
and R. L. McCook Post No. 26, G. A. R., in both of which he 
is warmly interested. 

The marriage of Mr. Judd and Caroline Williamson was 
solemnized July 22, 1872, and was blessed with five children. 
The eldest, Carrie Belle became the wife of Jesse Wood, of 
Watsonville. Elbert Hayes died at the age of twelve and 


Ida May at the age of sixteen years. Hugh William, a clerk 
ill tlie Watsonville postoffice, married Jessie Tinan, of San 
Jose, member of a pioneer family of the Pajaro valley. Os- 
wald Bissell, a farmer and surveyor, married Franc Turney 
and resides at Watsonville. The father of Mrs. Judd was 
William Williamson, a native of Ireland, who came from 
Illinois to California during 1854 and afterward engaged in 
lumbering in the Santa Cruz mountains. He aided in the es- 
tablishment of the Pioneer flour mill and at one time he was 
interested in mining and merchandising at Forest Hill. At 
the age of sixty-five years he passed from earth, his death 
occurring at about the same time as that of his devoted wife, 
Artimesia (Sands) Williamson, and both were interred in the 
cemetery at Watsonville near the scenes familiar to them 
for years. They were respected by all who knew them and he 
was said among friends everj^where to be one of Nature's 
noblemen, a man with acute reasoning faculties, warm-hearted 
to the point of self-sacrifice, kindly toward all, fond of little 
children and thoughtful toward the aged, possessing the cheer- 
ful optimism characteristic of his race blended with the ener- 
getic temperament of the American. 


No work transcends in importance and far-reaching results 
that of an educator. The minister appeals to a weary human- 
ity. The physician labors to help those handicapped by dis- 
ease. The lawyer pleads for justice and the observance of 
our laws. Indispensable as are these professions, that of 
teaching surpasses all of them in importance and future influ- 
ence upon our race. To the teacher come the sturdy little 
children to be tauglit the laws of health and hygiene. Thither 


come the inquiring minds to be taught good from evil. The 
bright and the dull, the quick and the slow, alike come under 
the influence of the educator, and the results cannot be meas- 
ured by the present, but extend into the shadowy future. 
Many thoughtful students of history maintain that our gov- 
ernment could not long survive the enormous foreign element 
added to the population each year, were it not that the chil- 
dren of these immigrants, through their studies in our free 
schools, become transformed into intelligent, loyal and patri- 
otic Americans, ready to die, if need be, for the preservation 
of our nation. 

The profession of teaching has occupied the mature years 
of Professor MacQuiddy, who holds the responsible position 
of superintendent of the Watsonville schools. He enjoys the 
honor of being a native-born son of California. Born in Han- 
ford, Kings county, in 1879, he is a son of J. T. MacQuiddy, 
and a grandson of Major T. J. MacQuiddy, whose association 
with the early settlement of California is recorded in the 
annals of our state history. Primarily educated in the gram- 
mar-schools of Hanford and Traver, he later attended the 
high school of Hanford and in 1898 was graduated from the 
Stockton high school. After leaving that school he was em- 
ployed for one year in the ofl&ce of the Stockton Register, but 
resigned at the expiration of that time in order to devote his 
attention to advanced study. During 1899 he matriculated in 
the University of California, from which he was graduated 
in 1903 with the degree of B. S. During the last year of his 
university study he acted as assistant in the zoological depart- 
ment and accomplished results as an instructor that would 
have been creditable to a teacher of wide experience. 

For two years after leaving the university Professor 
MacQuiddy acted as principal of the high school of Winters, 
Yolo county. During 1905 he came to Watsonville as head 


of the science department. Early in the year 1907 Super- 
intendent Townsend resigned his position and Professor 
MacQuiddy was appointed to fill the vacancy created by the 
resignation. Since then he has given his attention closely to 
his many responsible tasks. There are under his supervision 
thirty-one teachers and about one thousand pupils, and only 
those who have undertaken similar responsibilities realize the 
magnitude of his work. The results, fortunately, are justify- 
ing the mental strain and physical effort. Steady progress 
is noticeable in every department of the work. The deep 
respect which the whole student body has for the superin- 
tendent is a powerful factor in his oversight of the school. 
Kindness has inspired respect. Yet, while kind, he is also 
firm. These two elements are so mingled in his administra- 
tion that he has gained wide recognition as a disciplinarian. 
Without prejudice he can view every side of a case of disci- 
pline, which enables him to be just in the treatment of offend- 
ers. His influence has never been doubtful, but is always 
positively on the side of the elevating and the noble in life. 

During his residence at Winters as principal of schools 
Professor MacQuiddy formed the acquaintance of Miss Vivian 
Englehart, whom he married in 1905 and by whom he has a 
son, Malcolm. Mrs. MacQuiddy is a daughter of the late 
Edward Englehart, who came across the plains to California 
in 1850 and from that time until his death many years after- 
ward, remained a resident of this state, loyal to its welfare 
and interested in its growth. Since his death Mrs. Englehart 
has continued to make her home at Winters. Both Professor 
and Mrs. MacQuiddy are members of the Episcopal church 
and stanch believers in the doctrines of the denomination, 
while fraternally he has identified himself actively with both 
the Masons and the Elks. 



It is a tradition among the present representatives of the 
Waters family that they are descended directly from an Eng- 
lishman who accompanied the colony of John Smith to Amer- 
ica during 1607 and settled in the southern part of Mary- 
land, where a grant of land was tendered by Lord Baltimore. 
From that time to the present the land has remained in pos- 
session of tlie family and is still cultivated by descendants 
of the original immigrant. On that old homestead Joseph 
Waters was born and reared, and thither he brought his 
bride, Elizabeth Jane Ayres, a member of an honored Scotch- 
American family. Not many years afterward death entered 
the home and removed the young wife. The only daughter 
died at the age of seven j^ears. This left the father alone 
with his boy, James, who was born in Somerset county, Md., 
October 18, 1828, but accompanied his only surviving parent 
to Baltimore at the age of six years. There he gained a 
common-school education and at the age of sixteen years be- 
gan to learn the trade of carpenter under his father's over- 
sight. In the four years following he acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the occupation. 

The discovery of gold in California proved the direct 
means of transferring the citizenship of Mr. Waters from 
Maryland to the western coast. During June of 1849 he em- 
barked on the brig Osprey and rounded the Horn and cast 
anchor at San Francisco after a long and tedious voyage. 
It had been his intention to immediately embark in mining, 
but an offer of $1 and hour as a carpenter proved too tempt- 
ing to decline and for a time he was busily and profitably 
engaged in building enterprises in the western metropolis. 
From there he went to the mines on the Feather river and on 
the banks of the American, where he remained for two years, 


but tlie fortune so ardently desired did not come to him. 
Returning to San Francisco he resumed work at his trade. 
The failure of the banking house of Page, Bacon & Co., in 
1855, brought him a heavy misfortune in the loss of the sav- 
ings he had accumulated since coming west. His claim 
against the bank he sold for $500 and then he removed to 
Santa Cruz, where he took charge of the saw mill owned 
by Major Hensley. With Thomas Beck as a partner in 1857 
he began to take building contracts. Two years later he 
came to the Pajaro valley for the purpose of rebuilding the 
Catholic church and St. Francis college. Immediately he de- 
termined to remove hither as soon as his business affairs 
would permit him to do so, and in 1860 he bought his first 
holdings at Watsonville. 

From boyhood Mr. Waters had evinced a love for the 
study of plant life. Horticulture fascinated him with its 
possibilities. Naturally he decided to improve his new prop- 
erty with fruit and he chose apples and strawberries as be- 
ing especially adapted to the soil and climate. Trees were 
planted in sufficient numbers to render possible the establish- 
ment of a nursery business in a few years and meanwhile 
he supported himself by carpentering. Eventually, however, 
the nurserj^ demanded his entire attention. During 1860 he 
bought forty acres and planted more than two thousand 
apple trees, but this immense orchard was entirely ruined in 
1862 by an overflow of the river and he then sold the land 
to the Catholic church. With J. A. Blackburn as a partner 
in 1867 he planted five acres of nursery stock, and in 1873 
he bought his partner's interest, becoming the sole propri- 
etor. Upon purchasing twenty-seven acres from Captain 
Sudden he moved the nursery to the corner of what was 
then known as Sudden and Fourth streets, Watsonville. His 
next purchase consisted of fifty acres adjacent to the Sudden 


tract and the new property he set out in strawberries, but 
eight years later he planted the fifty acres to apples, from 
which large crops Have since been harvested. Meanwhile 
the nursery business had outgrown its quarters and he there- 
upon moved his plant to his new acquisition of fifty-two 
acres near the Pajaro depot in Monterey county. Later he 
purchased adjacent land, so that eighty acres were devoted 
to nursery stock. 

The demand for the products of the nursery increased so 
that orders were not limited to California, but came from 
Oregon and even from Australia. By years of experience and 
experiment the proprietor reduced the business to a science. 
The stock was mainly raised from seed or from cuttings, 
but large importations were made from France and other 
foreign countries and in this way rare varieties of fruit were 
started. Every variety of seed and stone fruit was raised as 
well as trees for shade and ornamental purposes, and al- 
though no traveling men were ever employed, orders were 
<3onstantly booked ahead of the supply ready for delivery. At 
the 1889 exhibition of the Pajaro Valley Fair Association, of 
which Mr. Waters was then president, he displayed a tree 
of the French prune variety, only six months from the bud 
and raised without irrigation, but already more than twelve 
feet tall. For the past few years he has experimented with 
seedlings and some of these experiments have met with grati- 
fying success. Of the small fruits strawberries have es- 
pecially interested him. As early as 1875 he sent east for 
Cinderella strawberries and planted five acres to that variety. 
He shipped the first strawberries from Watsonville to the 
San Francisco market. The variety, Linda, once very popu- 
lar, was originated by him and named in honor of his wife. 
Many of the large strawberry beds in the valley were started 
from stock bought at his nursery and, as he made it his aim 


to keep only the best varieties, the berries of the valley have 
acquired a widespread reputation for size and sweetness of 

Civic duties have not been neglected by Mr. Waters, not- 
withstanding his heavy business responsibilities. In politics 
he always has favored the principles of the Democratic party. 
From 1877 to 1879 he served as county supervisor, having 
been elected on the Democratic ticket. As one of the first 
trustees of Watsonville he aided in early movements for the 
benefit of the little town. Realizing the need of adequate 
banking facilities, he assisted in the incorporation of the 
Bank of Watsonville and the Pajaro Valley Bank, purchased 
stock in both, became a member of their boards of directors, 
and at this writing acts as vice-president of the Pajaro Val- 
ley National Bank. In earlier years he was prominent and 
active in Masonrj^, and is past master of the blue lodge, past 
high priest of the chapter and past eminent commander of 
the commandery of Knights Templar. It was his privilege 
to attend the 1887 convention of the Knights at St. Louis and 
at its adjournment he proceeded to Maryland, where he 
visited scenes familiar to his youth. For years he was one 
of the most influential and active members of the Santa Cruz 
branch of the Society of California Pioneers. 

I'he marriage of Mr. Waters was solemnized September 
9, 1860, and united him with Malinda J., daughter of Stephen 
Short. Three children blessed the union, but death removed 
the only son, Willie, at the age of twelve years, and the 
elder daughter, Lola, Mrs. James Walker, at the age of twen- 
ty-five years. The younger daughter, Adele, alone survives. 
Mrs. Waters came across the plains in 1852, with her parents, 
from Henderson county. 111., where she was born July 28, 
1841. They cam.e direct to Santa Cruz and from there to 
Watsonville, which has since been Mrs. Waters' home. In 


September, 1910, Mr. and Mrs Waters celebrated their 
golden wedding at their home and the occasion called together 
many old-time friends and pioneers. The family hold mem- 
bership in the Episcopal church, of which Mr. Waters is a 
vestrjTnan. JMrs. Waters is a sister of Mrs. J. A. Blackburn 
and is a member of a family of eight brothers and sisters, 
all of whom were spared until the eldest had attained a very 
advanced age. Their mother also lived to a ripe old age and 
there was no break in the family circle until about 1887, when 
Mr. Short met with an accident that resulted in his death. 


The commercial and real-estate enterprises associated with 
the modern development of Santa Cruz owe much to the pub- 
lic spirit and judicious energy of Mr. Lamb, who since coming 
to this city in 1893 has been identified inseparably with the 
advancement of movements tending toward its permanent 
prosperity. Throughout the greater part of his active life 
he has been closely connected with the building up of towns 
and the improvement of property, than which no greater task 
can fall to the lot of an American citizen, cognizant of the 
rich but undeveloped resources of our great land. While 
working for the material growth of the country he has at the 
same time developed a noble, honorable character, the most 
valuable contribution a man can make to posterity. The 
richest bequest he will leave behind him at death will be an 
example of integrity never questioned, energy never daunted 
and responsibilities never evaded. 

Born in Norwich, Chenango county, N. Y., January 15, 
1838, William H. Lamb was graduated from the high school 
of his native town at the age of eighteen years and then went 


to Boston, Mass., where he secured employment in the whole- 
sale and retail dry-goods house of George W. Warren. Short- 
ly after his location in the east the country became involved 
in the memorable Civil war. At the opening of the struggle 
he enlisted in the Second Battalion, Independent Riflemen of 
Boston, but was rejected. Undaunted by the failure he at 
once went back to his old home in New York, where he was 
accepted as a member of the Forty-fourth New York Regi- 
ment of Infantry, commanded by Colonel Ellsworth. After 
a time he was transferred to the Ninetieth New York In- 
fantry. His service in the Union army covered a period of 
four years and eight months and included at its close con- 
siderable reconstruction work in the southern states. With 
Generals Grant, Hooker, Reed and George B. McClellan, he 
participated in many of the most important engagements of 
the war, and six times he was wounded while in battles, but 
fortunately he escaped serious injury. 

At the close of the war the young soldier returned to his 
old home at Norwich, N. Y., with a splendid record for mili- 
tary service, in which he had been honored with many promo- 
tions from the ranks as a fitting recognition of his bravery and 
intimate knowledge of war tactics. Taking up the avocations 
of peace, he entered into business at Norwich, where he re- 
mained for six years. At the expiration of that time he was 
engaged by the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad Company 
to act as their land agent in South Dakota. The road had 
recently built out into Dakota and its officials were solicitous 
to open up that country for settlement. Accordingly Colonel 
Lamb laid out and established the village of Clark in Clark 
county, S. Dak., and, while acting as land agent for the road, 
also conducted a general real-estate business and was pro- 
prietor of a hardware store. Taking up land from the govern- 
ment, he laid out towns on the railroad from Watertown, Cod- 


ington county, as far west as Redfield, Spink county. Mean- 
while he had gained the warm confidence and high regard of 
the pioneers of the region and their admiration for his abilities 
found recognition in his election to the state legislature, as 
representative of a district embracing nine counties, or about 
one-third of the entire state. Through able service in the as- 
sembly he was instrumental in benefiting his district, and few 
of the pioneers were more closely associated with local de- 
velopment than he, his time, means and influence for years 
being given to the task of promoting interest in that part of 
the northwest. 

The failure of his health obliged Colonel Lamb to seek a 
less rigorous climate and with that object in view he came 
to California in 1891, settling at Petaluma, Sonoma county, 
but remo\dng to Santa Cruz in 1893. Shortly after his ar- 
rival in this city he purchased a hardware store, one of the 
first established in the town, and since then with his two 
sons he has been active in its management, carrying a large 
stock of hardware and serving customers from all parts of 
the county. Aside from his commercial activity, he has been 
prominent in local politics. During his service as mayor of 
Santa Cruz he was instrumental in promoting many needed 
improvements and largely through his personal efforts the 
state militia decided to hold here its annual encampment. In 
partnership with T. L. Bell he located the site and erected 
the famous hotel Rowardennan at Ben Lomond in the Santa 
Cruz mountains, ten miles from the city of Santa Cruz. For 
many years he acted as president of the corporation, with 
H. F. Anderson as secretary, and under his executive leader- 
ship the enterprise met with encouraging success. Recently, 
however, he sold his interest in the company, in order that he 
might devote more attention to other important matters. With 
a number of other business men he organized a company and 


purchased the Anthony property on Pacific avenue. It is 
the intention of the company to extend the avenue through 
the land, thereby increasing the value of the surrounding 

The first wife of Colonel Lamb was a Miss Hart of Boston, 
who died leaving a son, John R. During 1869 he was united 
in marriage with Miss Anna D. Peck, daughter of Hon. S. S. 
Peck, a member of the Canadian parliament. Two children 
were born of the second marriage, namely; William H. J., 
and Anna Louise, the latter a recent graduate of the Santa 
Cruz high school. Fraternally a Mason, Colonel Lamb has 
taken all of the Masonic degrees up to and including that of 
Knight Templar. During the summer months the family oc- 
cupy their picturesque summer home, Edgewood, situated near 
Ben Lomond and surrounded by a well-improved estate of 
eleven acres. In Santa Cruz he purchased what was known 
as the Chinese Garden on Mission hill and afterward extended 
Davis street, which has become one of the finest residence 
streets in the city. In addition he owns forty-four acres of 
valuable shore property near Capitola on the ocean front. 
Whatever community might be chosen as the scene of his 
labors, it would be safe to predict that his identification there- 
with would be intimate, for Nature endowed him with. the 
abilities that everywhere would bring prominence and popu- 
larity. It was the good fortune of Santa Cruz that its charms 
of scenery and climate attracted him hither and led him to 
throw his splendid energies into the task of developing prop- 
erty and attracting settlers, in which labor he has enjoyed 
the comradeship of men equally loyal to the city and equally 
solicitous to advance the local prosperity. 



Even before tjie era made famous by the discovery of 
gold there had been adventurous men, attracted by the soil 
and climate of California, who had sought homes on these 
fair western shores and had brought to the Spanish aris- 
tocracy of the region a glimpse of the energy and enter- 
prise for which Americans are famous the world over. 
Among those who identified themselves with the west dur- 
ing the Spanish regime, mention should be given to the 
late Hiram Daniel Scott, for years one of the prominent 
ranchers of Santa Cruz county. In common with the ma- 
jority of the pioneers, he was fond of mining and exper- 
ienced all the changes of good and ill fortune incident to 
that occupation. When he came to this county there were 
few Americans, but he found the Spaniards friendly, and the 
Indians as well (of whom there were still a large number), 
gave him t]ie kindest of treatment, their friendship at times 
proving of great personal benefit to him. 

Born at Pittston, on the banks of the Kennebec river in 
Maine, January 28, 1822, Hiram Daniel Scott was a member 
of a large family, all of whom were forced to assume the 
task of self-support at the earliest possible age. Taking up 
the life of a sailor he rose by steady promotions until he 
was made second mate of a ship and in that capacity he 
sailed the high seas, visiting many of the ports of the west- 
ern hemisphere. As second mate of the sailing vessel J. C. 
"VVlnting, he sailed into the beautiful bay of Monterey during 
the year 1846. The ship had sailed from New York and had 
rounded the Horn on its way to San Francisco. Life as a 
sailor had grown distasteful to the mate and the view of 
the land near the bay was so inviting that he deserted the 
ship. For several days the captain waited for him, mean- 


while instituting a thorough search, but a Spanish family 
befriended him until the vessel had left the port. The little 
Spanish settlement of Santa Cruz presented no resemblance 
to the present progressive city. The houses were made of 
rough boards and shakes and contained no furniture not ab- 
solutely essential. As a rule, they were barren of com- 
forts, yet the people were happy and contented in their 
peaceful community by the sea. 

When in 1848 news came of the discovery of gold at Sut- 
ter's mills, Mr. Scott and a companion were building a ves- 
sel on the beach, at a point in front of the present site of the 
Sea Beach hotel. The vessel was large and was being built 
for trading purposes along the coast. Although only about 
one-half completed when the news came, the men dropped 
their tools and abandoned the boat in order to hurry to the 
mines. It is not known how long Mr. Scott remained at the 
mines, but his remarkable success at that time is known. 
On leaving the mines he went to the present site of the city 
of Stockton, where the firm of Scott, Bonsall & Doak built 
and controlled the ferry and also built and operated a large 
hotel. This was known as the St. Charles and was the first 
hotel in Stockton; it was built at a cost of $100,000. Hun- 
dreds of cattle crossed the ferry every day at a rate of $1 
per head, and other charges were in proportion, so that 
money came easily. 

Eeturning to Santa Cruz county in 1852 Mr. Scott bought 
for $25,000 a tract of land which was known as the San Au- 
gustine ranch, but which is now known more commonly as 
Scott's valley. The ranch was situated six miles from town 
and was utilized for the raising of potatoes, hay and fine 
horses. In addition he bought a ranch on a creek that after- 
ward was given his name. During 1850 he was joined by two 
sisters, namely : Lucy, who afterward became Mrs. Ferguson, 


of Linden, San Joaquin county; and Sarah, who married 
Thomas Cooper, of Watsonville. The two girls came by- 
way of Panama and their passage cost $1,000. A few years 
later the fatlier, Capt. Daniel Scott, and two brothers, Ed- 
ward and Joseph, came to the western coast. During 1854 
Hiram D. Scott returned to the old Maine homestead and 
after a visit with old friends brought to the west the remain- 
ing members of the family, including his step-mother and 
two younger brothers, Henry and Frank ; also a sister, Delia, 
who afterward became the wife of Jerome Porter; and an- 
other sister, Victoria, now Mrs. Snow, of Watsonville; to- 
gether with the youngest sister, Carrie, now Mrs. Sanborn, 
of San Francisco. The only surviving members of the once 
large family are Mrs. Sanborn, Mrs. Snow and Frank Scott, 
of San Francisco. 

The marriage of Hiram Daniel Scott took place in San 
Jose August 11, 1861, and united him with Miss Agnes Cum- 
ming, a native of Ontario, Canada, and a woman of endear- 
ing qualities of heart. Three children blessed their union, 
namely: William N., of Sacramento; Frances A., wife of E. 
H. Ford, of Wilmington, Del.; and Miss N. Maude, who re- 
sides with her mother at No. 19 Vine street, Santa Cruz. 
The framework of their residence was brought around the 
Horn in 1849 on a sailing vessel and is still in a fine state of 
preservation. The house was one of the very first frame 
structures erected in the town and was then, as now, the 
center of a warm hospitality graciously extended to all whose 
good fortune it was to be entertained within its walls. Dur- 
ing his latter days Mr. Scott retained his interest in mining 
ventures. At one time he was connected with the Silver 
Mountain mine in Alpine county, but that prospect had a 
disastrous termination. After an absence of five years from 
Santa Cruz he abandoned mining temporarily and returned 


to bis home in Santa Cruz, bnt the fascination of the mines 
still lingered witli him and a few years later he began to 
mine near Phoenix, Ariz. A fair degree of success was re- 
warding his efforts in that region when, in 1887, he died at 
Casa Grande, near tlie location of one of his mines. Many 
years have come and gone since he passed away. Changes 
have been wrought in the landward aspect of the beautiful 
bay on which his vision first rested from shipboard in 1846, 
but the same sun still brings harvests of grain and fruit and 
Ihe same balmy air wafts contentment and happiness to the 
dwellers by the sunset sea. 

Mr. Scott employed several Indians and was ^ut in charge 
of the grandchildren of Captain Frukee of the Piutes. Many 
of these have become famous, among them Chief Natchez, 
who became chief of the Piutes. Sarah afterwards became 
prominent as a lecturer, known as Princess Sarah, and others 
have also attained prominence. Princess Sarah was edu- 
cated in a convent by Mr. Scott for a period, this constitut- 
ing the foundation of her education. 


"VYliile the profession of the law lias engaged the attention 
of Mr. Hall throughout the greater part of his active career, 
its practice by no means represents the limit of his activities. 
Versatile in mind, energetic in temperament, resourceful in 
action, and logical in reasoning faculties, his broad and 
rounded abilities qualified liim for intelligent identification 
with enterprises widely different in their sphere of useful- 
ness. As district attorney he displayed a comprehensive 
knowledge of the technicalities of the law; as legislator he 
accomplished much in the interests of the struggle against 


monopolies, and more recently, he has added to his fame by the 
writing of a book entitled, "Starving on a Bed of Gold," 
which narrates with thrilling vividness his actual experiences 
in Alaska. 

The Hall family was established in California many years 
ago. Richard F. Hall, who passed away February 4, 1901, 
was long identified with the ranching interests of Central 
California and contributed his quota to the material advance- 
ment of this part of the state. His wife, who passed from 
earth in 1873, was the mother of James A. Hall, who was 
born near Salinas, Monterey county, November 9, 1857, re- 
ceived ]iis primary and grammar-school education at Wat- 
sonville, and completed his studies in the Santa Clara Col- 
lege and the University of California. The study of law 
was prosecuted in the Hastings Law College and in the of- 
fice of Judge A. S. Kittridge, also with Judge Logan. The 
funds necessary for his education in the classics and in the 
law ]ie obtained by teaching school, which occupation he fol- 
lowed in the country during a part of the tliree years begin- 
ning with 1878. When examined before the supreme court 
he answered every question correctly and this splendid rec- 
ord not only gained for him admission to the bar, but also 
brought him the high compliments of the court. 

Entering upon the practice of his profession at Watson- 
ville in 1880, Mr. Hall was elected district attorney two years 
later and at the expiration of his term he removed to Santa 
Ouz, but about 1888 returned to Watsonville. During the 
year last named he was elected to the state legislature, where 
he introduced an anti-trust bill that caiised widespread com- 
ment throughout the state. His labors in behalf of anti- 
monopoly legislation formed the most conspicuous portion of 
his public service. Shortly after his retirement from the 
legislature he removed to San Francisco in 1891 and formed 


a partnership with ex-Senator Cross under the firm name of 
Cross & Hall. Two years later the title was changed to Cross, 
Hall, Ford & Kelly, continuing as such for two years, when 
the partnership was dissolved, and from that time until 1900 
Mr. Hall continued alone in San Francisco. In 1902, after 
having recovered his health that had been seriously impaired 
by Alaskan experiences, he returned to Watsonville and has 
since practiced in all of the courts, but makes a specialty of 
probate court work. A service as city attorney for several 
terms has enabled him to promote the permanent welfare of 
his home town, in which labor he has had the further ad- 
vantage of a practical experience as president of the board of 
school trustees of the city of Watsonville. Civic atfairs owe 
much to his loyal spirit and thorough knowledge of the law 
relative to villages and cities. Fraternally he is connected 
with several orders. In 1911 his friends insisted upon his 
becoming a candidate for mayor of Watsonville. 

The marriage of James A. Hall united him with Louise 
Marie, daughter of Joseph McCarthy, a pioneer of San Jose, 
where Mrs. Hall was born and reared. On the completion 
of her studies she began to teach school and for ten years 
she followed that profession with signal success and now 
holds a life diploma. Of her marriage there are two children 
living, AVarren J. and Alice Marie, Hazel Louise having died 
in infancy. In the family of Mr. Hall's father there were 
four children, namely: Sarah Rebecca, who died in girlhood; 
James A.; Alice, wife of George W. Sill, who cultivates the 
Hall homestead; and Adelia, who is the wife of William G. 
Taffinder. The father left a large estate at his death. Of 
tlie paternal property James A. Hall inherited one hundred 
and thirty-six and one-half acres. This he sold to the Pajaro 
Fruit and Land Company on the incorporation of that or- 


Any sketch of the life of James A. Hall would be incom- 
plete were mention not made of his experiences in Alaska. 
Desiring a northern trip for the purposes of rest and recrea- 
tion, as well as to gain a knowledge of our country's penin- 
sular possession, April 23, 1900, he started for Alaska via 
the steamer Thrasher. On the 15th of July he started from 
Teller, Alaska, with two companions, for the purpose of 
prospecting. It was the intention to return in three days and 
ample provisions were taken for a trip of that duration. His 
equipment consisted of blankets, army knapsack with provi- 
sions, a cup and a sheath knife. During the first day his 
companions suggested that they use his provisions as theirs 
were in tablet form. He acceded to their suggestion. During 
a heavy fog the next evening he became separated from his 
companions and was left without compass, with no food but 
a small slice of bacon, and with only a few matches. Unable 
to get his bearings, he wandered day after day. In spite of 
hoarding his bacon, it was finally gone, and he then subsisted 
on the few berries he could find. Soon, however, he could 
discover no more berries and he then began to eat grass 
and even snails. Many would have succumbed, but will 
power kept him on his feet week after week. After a time he 
began to suffer greatly from the heavy rains and cold nights, 
and it became a question as to whether freezing or starvation 
would first conquer him. For four days and nights he re- 
mained on the ground, momentarily expecting death. Toward 
noon of September 22 he heard voices. Too feeble to raise 
his head, he called out, "Help! Help!" With untold joy he 
heard the response, "Hello!" His rescuers were Jack O'Brien 
and Frank Hanson, both of Nome. They took him to their 
camp seven miles away and thence to Teller, where careful 
nursing finally restored him to health, although it was long 
ere he felt himself again to be a strong man, none the worse 


for his agonizing experience. Many western papers recounted 
at length the storj' of his trials and spoke of his heroism in 
terms of the highest praise. 


By the hosts of friends drawn to him by noble character- 
istics, and by the many business and other associates who 
profited by his unusual executive and financial ability, J. 
S. ]\[enasco is remembered as one of the representative citi- 
zens of Watsonville, whose well-being he advanced in an un- 
mistakable manner. The excitement that was aroused by the 
Southern Pacific Railroad Townsite Company when it under- 
took to establish a town at Pajaro is within the memory of 
old pioneers. In order to create sentiment along this line 
a free excursion was run from San Francisco, to the music 
of a fine brass band, and literature exploiting the project 
was in evidence everywhere. The residents of the town of 
"Watsonville arose in defense of their rights for recognition, 
and with Mr. Menasco as leader a public meeting was ar- 
ranged, at which those present pledged themselves to dis- 
courage the proposed establishment of the river town. On 
the day of the excursion, farmers, merchants and citizens of 
the valley who possessed vehicles went to Pajaro en masse 
and when the excursion train arrived, invited the people to 
Watsonville, where every etfort was made to prove to them 
the advantages of that locality over the proposed one as a 
railroad terminus. Here they found the metropolis of the 
valley alive and active, needing only the recognition of the 
railroad company to make it the thriving town that it has 
since become. It is generally conceded that this action on the 
part of Mr. Menasco saved the town of Watsonville, and it 


is the opinion of at least one of Mr. Menasco 's warm admirers 
that the erection of a monument on the plaza would be a 
fitting way to commemorate the event. 

TJie hero of the event just mentioned was born in Arkansas 
in 1852, the son of southern parents, who, while he was a 
small child, left that part of the country and came to Cal- 
ifornia to establish a liome and rear their children. While 
he was still quite a small boy Mr. Menasco became a clerk 
in the store of J. S. Payne, on the Pajaro side of the river. 
Naturally painstaking and energetic, the diligence with which 
he performed his tasks made him a desirable employe and he 
had no difficulty in securing advancement. Later he was taken 
into the stationery store of Hon. Ed. Martin, where in addi- 
tion to his other training he learned telegraphy. This latter 
knowledge he subsequently put to practice at Sargent, where 
in the capacity of railroad agent he was employed at the 
time, the incident above recorded was being arranged. Sar- 
gent was at that time the terminus of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, as well as the end of the southern stage line, no 
change being made until the railroad was extended to Salinas. 
AVith the approach of the railroad toward Pajaro Mr. Men- 
asco resigned his position with the railroad to accept a posi- 
tion in the general merchandise store of Ford & Sanborn as 
clerk in Watsonville. This was in 1875. Here as in his 
previous positions, his diligence, industry and honesty were 
quickly recognized, and when Lucius Sanborn retired from 
the firm Mr. Menasco was taken into partnership, the name 
of the firm then becoming Ford & Co. This was in 1880, just 
five years after he had entered the store as clerk. Some 
years later the business was incorporated under the name of 
Charles Ford Company, with Mr. Menasco holding the larger 
part of the stock aside from that held by Dr. Ford. After 
having actively managed the store for several years he was 


offered and accepted the presidency of the company, a posi- 
tion which lie still held at the time of his death. Not only 
is he remembered as the head of one of the largest mercantile 
firms in south central California, but he was equally well 
known as president of the Watsonville Oil Company and 
as one of the largest and most prosperous apple orchardists 
in tlie Pajaro valley. With justice he may be called the 
father of the apple industry in the valley, carrying out his 
ideas on a large scale near Corralitos, Santa Cruz county, 
and his wisdom and forethought are now perpetuated in the 
orchard on his old home place. 

No more account of the business success of Mr. Menasco's 
life would have meaning, if to that were not added the causes 
which paved tlie way. Being the son of honest. God-fearing 
parents, his start in life was a good home training, an hon- 
est character, a clear head and a willing pair of hands. In 
every purpose of his life he was self-reliant, self-respecting 
and honest for honor's sake. It was with all this as a basis 
that he began the work which was to ultimately bring him 
the large fortune which he acquired, not one cent of which 
was tainted by dishonor or stained by usurious methods. In 
view of what has already been said of his characteristics it 
would be superfluous to say that he was modest and unpre- 
tentious in whatever he did, avoiding rather than seeking 
laudation for his accomplishments or benefactions. His life 
is an open book which may be read with profit by all, both old 
and young. As a son, he was dutiful, appreciative and help- 
ful ; as a husband, tender, considerate and congenial ; as 
a father he was kind and indulgent ; and as a friend he could 
be trusted implicitly. Besides his wife, he left a son and 
daughter, S. T. Menasco and Mrs. L. R. Fulmer, of Chico, a 
mother, Mrs. Martha J. See, and a sister, Mrs. Ed. Henry. 
As a mark of respect for one of her most devoted and best- 


beloved citizens, business was suspended for three hours in 
AVatsonville during tlie funeral exercises which preceded the 
burial of the remains in the beautiful cemetery of the city 
he called home. 


Probably no citizen enjoys a wider acquaintance among 
the people of Santa Cruz than does Dr. DruUard, who for 
more than twenty years has engaged in the practice of the 
dental profession in this city and meanwhile has established 
a reputation that is not limited to recognized professional 
skill, but also extends into municipal affairs and commercial 
activities. Implanted deep in his heart is an intense affec- 
tion for the city of his adoption. Its increasing popularity 
as a residential point and its attractions of climate constantly 
winning wider recognition, interest him not alone as a resi- 
dent and property-owner, but more especially as a citizen 
proud of his home town and loyal to its charms. In his of- 
fice of mayor, which he holds at the present writing, he has 
been enabled to promote movements for the local welfare and 
supports with enthusiasm yet with sagacious judgment those 
measures calculated to leave an impress upon the city of per- 
manent value. 

The mayor of Santa Cruz is a native of Illinois and was 
born in Naperville in 1848. The local schools afforded him 
advantages superior to many institutions of that period and 
he developed into intelligent, resourceful manhood. Mean- 
while the Civil war had cast its dark shadow over the land and 
when he was thirteen years of age he witnessed the national 
strife with its culmination of war. From the first he was 
ardent in his support of northern principles, but he was too 
young to enter the service and had to satisfy himself with a 


careful reading of all accounts of battles. At the age of six- 
teen he was accepted as a volunteer and assigned to the Twen- 
ty-third Illinois Infantry, in which he served at the front until 
the close of the Rebellion. After the end of the war he re- 
turned to his Illinois home and there remained until 1871, 
when he came to California, settling first in Stockton and 
taking up the study of dentistry. In order to earn the means 
necessary for continued study he engaged in teaching school. 
Upon the completion of his dental studies he opened an office 
for practice in Modesto, where he built up a growing patron- 
age in the line of his specialty. For fifteen years he remained 
in Modesto and then removed to Santa Cruz, where he has 
since engaged in professional practice. 

While making his home in Stockton, during the year 1874, 
Dr. Drullard there married Miss Coralinn Meseroll, who was 
born and reared in California, her parents having been pio- 
neers of the state. Dr. and Mrs. Drullard have two daughters, 
one of whom is the wife of W. H. Raymond, of Seattle, Wash., 
and the other, Marjorie, is with her parents. Fraternally Dr. 
Drullard holds membership with the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows and the Masons and during his identification 
with both organizations he has been steadfast in his support 
of their philanthropic principles. While by no means a parti- 
san nor a politician, he has been active in civic matters and 
has contributed his quota to local advancement. Those who 
recognized his executive ability, resourceful mind and keen 
intelligence urged him to accept nomination for the mayor- 
alty of Santa Cruz, and his consent being obtained he was 
elected to the office in 1906, remaining in the position for one 
term. Again in 1909 he was elected to the office on the in- 
dependent ticket and in his second term, as in the first, he has 
been conspicuous for his support of movements having in 
view the welfare of the city and the prosperity of the people. 



For more than forty years prior to liis death Mr. Makinney 
was identified with the history of Santa Cruz county and 
during eighteen consecutive years of the period he lield pub- 
lic office. Preceding his service as a county official he was 
identified with the educational interests of the county and 
after the close of his labors as a county officer he was en- 
gaged actively in the abstract business as a partner of L. J. 
Dake under the firm name of Makinney & Dake. The search- 
ing of records and bringing down of abstracts enabled him to 
acquire a thorough knowledge of the real-estate interests of 
the county. Indeed, perhaps no citizen became more con- 
versant than he with the values and titles to the various prop- 
erties that were bought and sold in late years. After his 
death his partner purchased the business, which is now con- 
ducted under the name of L. J. Dake. 

Mr. Maldnney was born at Eaton, Preble county, Ohio, July 
31, 1843, and was a son of John and Basheba (Wilkins) 
Makinney, natives respectively of Ohio and Delaware. Pri- 
marily educated in local schools of Ohio, he was a youth of 
seventeen years when the family took up the trail toward the 
west and became pioneers of Iowa. As he had received a 
better education than most of the young people of the com- 
munity where he settled, he was induced to accept a country 
school and for three years he engaged in teaching in the 
vicinity of the parental home. In the meantime he had mar- 
ried, and with his wife came to California. The Civil war 
was in progress and the Indians had become very hostile to 
emigrants, many of whom were massacred by the savages. 
The government had its troops mainly in the south and was 
therefore unable to furnish needed protection for travelers 
on the plains. After many narrow escapes from the Indians, 


the young couple finally arrived in California none the worse 
for the perilous journey. 

After having taught several terms of school at Placerville, 
Eldorado county, Mr. Makinney removed to Santa Cruz 
county, arriving in the city of that name on the 29th of De- 
cember, 1866, and immediately after his arrival he began to 
teach school. In a very short time he received an appoint- 
ment as school superintendent and during 1867 he was elected 
to the office, which he filled with conspicuous success for a 
period of six years. Upon retiring from the superintendency 
in 1873 he was elected to the office of county clerk, the work 
of which also included the filling of the positions of county 
recorder and auditor. It was recognized that he possessed 
qualifications admirably adapting him for official labors and 
he was retained in the clerk's office for a period of twelve 
years, retiring in 1885 to engaged in business for himself. 
Besides his work as an officer of the county he also served as 
a member of the city board of education for many years and 
in that position he favored all movements for the upbuilding 
of the schools. His experience as a teacher fitted him for 
successful work as a trustee, for he realized the needs of the 
schools and the trials encountered by a painstaking instructor. 

Supplementary to the other offices he held, Mr. Makinney 
acted as deputy district attorney from 1885 to 1887 and filled 
the position with accuracy notwithstanding his lack of a col- 
lege course in the law. The Republican party received his 
stanch support throughout his life and he was ever firm in 
his allegiance to the principles for which the party stands. 
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Masons num- 
bered him among their members in the Santa Cruz lodges of 
the orders and he was generous in his aid of their work. At 
his death, October 8, 1910, he left a wife and two children, 
Fred W. and Pearl. The daughter remains at home, but the 


son has secured a position in Honolulu and at this writing 
resides on the Hawaiian Islands. 


The president of the Santa Cruz Chamber of Commerce 
has made his home in California from early childhood, but 
is a native of the east, having been born at Springbrook, Erie 
county, N. Y., October 4, 1856. The family came to Cal- 
ifornia during the year 1863, leaving the associations dear to 
them by the ties of years and making their way by boat to the 
Isthmus, which they crossed, then by boat again to San Fran- 
cisco. The boy of seven years was old enough to be im- 
pressed by the journey, although too young to appreciate the 
vastness and possibilities of the country to which they 
traveled. On Ms arrival in the west he settled with the fam- 
ily in Sacramento and soon was attending the city schools, 
gaining a fair education and at the same time becoming favor- 
ably impressed with the western country. When a little less 
than eighteen years of age he was graduated from the Sac- 
ramento high school. 

The first business experience gained by Mr. Palmer was 
as a clerk in the drug store of E. B. Polhemus, then under 
the management of A. C. Tufts. Upon leaving Sacramento 
he went to San Francisco and secured employment with A. 
L. Leng-field during the spring of 1875. In order that he 
might secure a more thorough knowledge of the drug busi- 
ness he matriculated in the California College of Pharmacy 
in the autumn of 1876 and took a complete course of study 
along the line of his specialty. After a residence of five 
years in San Francisco he returned to Sacramento and be- 
came a clerk with M. S. Hammer, a prominent druggist of that 


city. Forming a partnership in 1882 with James C. Sepulveda, 
he purchased a drug business owned by J. S. Trowbridge 
and established the firm of Palmer & Sepulveda. Since that 
time he has owned drug stores in different parts of the state, 
including Livermore and Oakland. It was during 1887 that 
he came to Santa Cruz and purchased the drug business that 
he has conducted up to the present time. As a pharmacist he 
is skillful and prompt and in the handling of drugs he com- 
bines accuracy with dispatch, by which means he has gained 
a reputation equalled by few men in his business. 

Upon removing to Santa Cruz and establishing a home in 
this city, Mr. Palmer brought with him his wife, whom he 
had married three years before and who bore the maiden 
name of Sarah S. Livermore. Various fraternal organiza- 
tions of Santa Cruz have the benefit of his earnest co-opera- 
tion, notably the Order of Foresters, Benevolent Protective 
Order of Elks, U. P. E. C. and Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, becoming identified with the latter order at Sac- 
ramento. Devotion to educational advancement is one of his 
hobbies and for eleven years after coming to Santa Cruz he 
rendered able assistance to the cause of local education by 
ser\dng as a member of the school board. During a portion 
of the time he was honored with the chairmanship of the 
board. In his opinion few local movements can compare with 
the schools in importance, both as relating to present results 
and to future civic growth. Along another line he is promot- 
ing municipal prosperity through his labors as president of the 
Chamber of Commerce. From 1907 until 1909 he officiated 
as mayor of Santa Cruz. It may be said with justice that no 
mayor surpassed him in amount accomplished for the up- 
building of the city. During his period of service in the 
mayor's chair new streets were opened, new sidewalks were 
constructed, the east side sewer (that has since been com- 


pleted) was started, several miles of sewers in the main part 
of the city were built, plans were formulated and specifica- 
tions drawn for a new bridge across the San Lorenzo river, 
and a general advancement was affected along many different 
lines, all of which proved the energy and progressive spirit 
of the then incumbent of the office of mayor. 


In point of years of active association with the lumber in- 
dustry Mr. Maher has the distinction of being the oldest dealer 
now engaged in the business at Santa Cruz. When he came 
to California during the year 1884 and settled in the city 
where he still resides, he turned his attention to the buying 
and selling of lumber as offering an excellent field of labor in 
a growing community. Few men had preceded him as lum- 
bermen in the region and he was a pioneer along the line of 
his specialty. From the first he was able to earn a fair live- 
lihood. Encouraged by the start, he decided to continue in 
the enteri3rise and devoted his time to building up a larger 
trade. It soon came to be known that all of his orders were 
filled with the utmost promptness possible and also that he 
endeavored to secure the best grades of lumber obtainable. 
The Casino at the beach was constructed of lumber furnished 
by him under a contract and many other structures in the 
city and surrounding country were built of lumber purchased 
from him, so that this name is associated with many local 
building enterprises of importance. 

On a farm in Columbia county, Wis., where he was born 
in 1852, J. B. Maher passed the years of boyhood and mean- 
while acquired the habits of industry and self-reliance that 
characterize his manhood. Ever since he was sixteen years 


of age be has been interested in lumbering, for at that age 
he went into the woods as an employe of a lumberman. Later 
he acquired a knowledge of mill-work. For a considerable 
period he worked in the Wisconsin woods, but in 1875 he 
started for the west, going first to Idaho. For some years 
he engaged in freighting in that state, Oregon and Washing- 
ton. His principal work was the hauling of freight to mining 
camps, and he drove the first large freight teams from Wood 
river in the Salmon river district to the mines of Idaho. The 
wages were excellent, but the work exhausting and the sur- 
roundings unsatisfactory, so he was led to remove to Cal- 
ifornia in 1884, since which year he has made Santa Cruz his 

The Democratic party has received the ballot of Mr. Maher 
in local and general elections ever since he attained the right 
of franchise on reaching his majority. On that ticket he was 
elected a member of the city council of Santa Cruz. In his 
work as councilman he displayed no partisanship, but ever 
made manifest a desire to aid the general welfare of the city, 
and his service of fifteen years in the position reflected credit 
upon his patriotic spirit and intelligent civic pride. As the 
Democratic nominee in 1908 he was elected a member of the 
state assembly, and there, as in the council, he manifested the 
same devotion to the common welfare characteristic of his 
private life. Although not an office-seeker, he has excellent 
ability for service along public lines and the positions he has 
filled are conspicuous for his faithful work therein. During 
1890 he was united in marriage with Miss Zena A. McClosley, 
member of a Santa Cruz family. Fraternal relations have 
brought him into membership in the Benevolent Protective 
Order of Elks, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and 
the Knights of Pythias, and he had held official chairs in 
both branches of the Odd Fellows. 



Since the modern era in the history of our commonwealth 
has witnessed a diminution of interest in mining and an in- 
crease of activity in horticulture, various new problems have 
been brought up for solution and numerous specialties have 
been created for the benefit of the industry so indissolubly 
identified with modern progress. Among these problems are 
those connected with the insect pests so fatally destructive to 
our orchards. During the early period of fruit culture in 
the Pajaro valley the locality seemed happily immune to pests 
and it was believed by many that the fogs and cool nights 
would prevent them from developing to any serious extent. 
Ultimately, however, the valley was called upon to solve the 
problems that had fallen to orchardists in all other parts of 
the state and during 1903 the Orchardist's Association urged 
the California State University to take up the study of the 
codling moth. The following year, by an arrangement be- 
tween the association and the University, Mr. Volck was sent 
to Watsonville to take up entomological work. In 1906 the 
counties of Santa Cruz and Monterey authorized an appro- 
priation suflBcient to make the position permanent and since 
then Mr. Volck has acted as county entomologist. The wis- 
dom of the act was proved by the solution of the problem 
connected with the codling moth, the most serious enemy of 
the apple and pear crop, and in solving this important ques- 
tion his labors were recognized as being of the greatest value. 

The Native Sons of the Golden West number Mr. Volck 
among their members. Riverside having been his native city. 
His father, Stephen Volck, was born in Germany, but was 
brought to America at an early age by his parents. During 
the Civil war he enlisted in the Union army and was sta- 
tioned at Washington as a member of the celebrated Lincoln 


Guard. The close of the conflict brought liiiii an honorable 
discharge and ho thereupon turned his attention to civic af- 
fairs, settling in Pennsylvania, from which state he came to 
California during the year 1873. After he had settled in the 
west he married Miss Ella Hunter, member of an old family 
of Virginia, where she was born. Her death occurred in 
California and in the southern part of this state Mr. Volck 
still makes his home. 

Born in Riverside September 24, 1879, W. H. Volck was 
reared principally in Long Beach and received advantages 
that were exceptionally good, even for the young men of this 
state. Being a diligent student, he availed himself to the 
utmost of the opportunities granted him. After his gradua- 
tion from the Long Beach high school he matriculated in the 
University of California, where he made a specialty of the 
scientific study of insects. While all departments of zoology 
appealed to him as interesting and important, he was par- 
ticularly impressed with the value of entomology by virtue 
of his connection with the fruit industry, and he therefore 
specialized in that branch. During 1902 he was assigned to 
his first field work. For a time he acted as assistant to the 
entomologist for the State University in the orange sec- 
tion. Later he enjoyed a varied experience in other parts 
of the state. 

From the first it was evident that he possessed a peculiar 
adaptability for his selected task. Quick to comprehend, 
eager to learn, untiring in experiments, and logical in rea- 
soning from cause to eifect, he conducted his investigations 
with unwearied patience and sagacious judgment. His 
laboratory and office are located on Rodriguez street, Wat- 
sonville, while many of his experiments are made on the 
ranch of C. S. Rodgers. After certain methods have been 
given a thorough test and unvarying results have been se- 


cured, lie issues bulletins to the orcbardists and gives tbem 
tlie benefit of the tested methods. The value of his work 
cannot be overestimated, for the pests if uncontrolled would 
m a brief period wipe out the present prosperity of our 
orchard! sts, which they have gained through energetic labors 
with a fertile soil and in a genial climate. 

M. 0. BOYLE. 

The annals of Santa Cruz county record the name of M. 0. 
Boyle as a pioneer of 1858, from which year until that of his 
demise (1890) he was intimately associated with building and 
business enterprises of local importance. Born in Ireland in 
1805, he was a young man of twenty years when in 1825 he 
crossed the ocean in a sailing vessel and settled in Massa- 
chusetts. During youth he had learned the trade of a stone- 
mason and had acquired singular proficiency in that line. It 
was not long until he was qualified to take contracts for stone 
work and he was thus occupied after settling in Worcester, 
Mass., where he had the contract to build the famous stone 
arches that are standing to this day. In addition he con- 
structed the foundations for many of the large mills of that 
city. From his undertakings in the east he acquired wealth 
and influence, but being fond of travel and adventure, when 
he learned of the discovery of gold in California, he deter- 
mined to make the long voyage to the Pacific coast. As early 
as 1849 he landed in San Francisco off a vessel from the 
Isthmus of Panama, Without any delay he went on to the 
mines of Tuolumne county and began to prospect for gold. 
Two years passed there busily and with some degree of suc- 
cess, but at the expiration of that period he was called back 
east by the death of his wife, who had remained in Worcester 


witli their children. After he had settled her estate he came 
back to California, accompanied by a part of the family, for 
whom he built a house in Tuolumne county. During the fall 
of the same year (1852) the other members of the family 
came to the west. 

Leaving the mines in 1858 Mr. Boyle came to Santa Cruz 
county, of which he was a pioneer. At first he was engaged 
as inspector and receiver of the Major flouring mills, of 
Santa Cruz. After he had straightened out the financial af- 
fairs of the mill he began to engage in contracting, also farmed 
for a short time. During 1875 he erected the first cement 
reservoir on the brow of the hill on Logan Heights in Santa 
Cruz. The reservoir still stands, as substantial as when con- 
structed. Besides this he superintended the building of the 
stone jail, which for many years stood as a landmark of 
pioneer times, but recently was torn down to be replaced by a 
modern structure. In different parts of Santa Cruz he owned 
valuable real estate, including one-third interest in the Colt 
property on the east side. A man of honesty and integrity, 
he enjoyed the esteem of his large circle of acquaintances and 
was accounted a citizen of worth. Frequently he was chosen 
foreman of the grand jury and in that responsible position he 
proved reliable, impartial and a logical reasoner. From the 
time of becoming an American citizen he upheld Democratic 
principles and it was always a matter of pride with him that 
he had the privilege of casting his ballot for John Tyler as 
the tenth president of the United States. Both by precept 
and by example he gave his influence to the cause of prohibi- 
tion, and for years he maintained an active part in the work- 
ings of the Sons of Temperance and the Temple of Honor. 



The struggles and hardships incident to frontier existence 
formed the daily portion of the boyhood of Winfield S. 
Rodgers, a native Californian, born at Placerville, October 
28, 1853. Around his memories of childhood there cluster 
thoughts of eager prospectors gathering from all parts of the 
world; recollections of the crudities and lawlessness of the 
mining camps, with their swarming thousands of excited 
miners; and serious, saddening reminiscences of a devoted 
mother, toiling all day and far into the night, in order that 
she might give proper care to her beloved family. The 
death of that dear mother, in the autumn of 1868, was the 
heaviest bereavement of his boyhood and cut asunder forever 
the ties that bound him the closest to the parental home. He 
was the youngest of fourteen children and had few of the 
advantages that come to the present generation. On the 
other hand, he was obliged to earn his own support while 
yet young. However, he was not wholly deprived of ad- 
vantages, for the mother made every sacrifice in order that 
the sons and daughters might attend school. After the fam- 
ily moved to the Sacramento valley in 1858 he was sent to 
the public school at Walnut Grove and there secured a knowl- 
edge of the three R's. During 1866 the family removed to 
San Mateo county and settled at Lahonda, where the mother 

Wlien in his seventeenth year, in 1870 Mr. Rodgers came to 
Boulder Creek, Santa Cruz county, but later returned to the 
Sacramento valley and secured employment on a ranch. 
From there he went to San Mateo county in 1871 and during 
the summer months worked with the crew of a threshing 
machine. Returning to Boulder Creek in the fall of 1872, he 
became a resident of Santa Cruz county, where later he took 


up a raw tract of land from the government. Patient devo- 
tion to the improvement of the land brought its ultimate re- 
ward in an increased valuation, which was further enhanced 
by the growth of the county, and he now has the satisfaction 
of owuing a valuable tract of land. His marriage took place 
January 25, 1877, and united him with Miss Cleo E. Wood, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Wood, of Boulder Creek. 
This estimable lady died January 17, 1889, leaving, besides 
her husband, seven children to mourn the demise of a de- 
voted, sacrificing mother. The children are, named in the 
order of their birth, as follows: Elwin D., of Albuquerque, 
N. Mex. ; Jesse, who died December 30, 1907; Myrtle, the 
wife of Charles Kreesmayer, of San Francisco; Seymour 
W., a resident of Santa Cruz ; Dalton C, who died in the fall 
of 1889, at the age of four and a half years ; Winfield S., Jr., 
of Boulder Creek; and Olin, who died in infancy. After the 
death of the mother of these children Mr. Rodgers was mar- 
ried again, April 18, 1892, to Miss Fannie E. Brimblecom, 
the daughter of Capt. Samuel E. and Sarah (Ware) Brimble- 
com, pioneers of Boulder Creek, locating here in 1869. In 
1890 Mr. Rodgers moved from the ranch into town and has 
since made it his home. In 1897 he sold his ranch. In 1896 
he and his brother, C. C. Rodgers, started the Mountain 
Echo, a newspaper which W. S. Rodgers has conducted to 
the present time. 

During 1888 Mr. Rodgers was elected county supervisor 
by a large majority and filled the office for one term, mean- 
while giving his support to such enterprises as he believed 
to be conducive to the general welfare. In April, 1905, he 
was appointed city recorder of Boulder Creek, an office which 
he has held continuously ever since. He is very actively 
identified with a number of fraternal organizations, being a 
member of Boulder Creek Lodge No. 152, I. 0. 0. F., in which 


he has held all of the chairs; Santa Cruz Encampment, I. 0. 
0. F., and Lodge No. 251, Rebekahs, of Idlewild Lodge ; Court 
Wildwood No. 633, L 0. F., in which he has also held all of 
the chairs, besides serving as financial and recording secre- 
tary for many 3^ears; Boulder Creek Lodge No. 323, A. 0. 
U. W., of which he has been financier since its organization 
in 1898; and Santa Cruz Parlor No. 90, N. S. G. W. 

Personally Mr. Rodgers is a man of unostentatious de- 
meanor, but beneath a quiet exterior is hidden a strong, 
forceful individuality and much force of character. Accomo- 
dating in his relations with neighbors, courteous to strang- 
ers, generous to the needy and helpful in community enter- 
prises, he furnishes another example of the type of pro- 
gressive ranchers who have promoted the development of 
Santa Cruz county. In religion he and his wife hold member- 
ship in the Unitarian Church of Santa Cruz. 


A residence in the west extending over a period of many 
years has given Mr. Smith a broad knowledge of the resources 
of the region, as well as a patriotic and affectionate regard 
for our commonwealth. None have been more loyal to the wel- 
fare of California than those who have witnessed its growth, 
contributed to its progress and aided its development through 
a long period of activity. This in brief may be said to de- 
scribe Mr. Smith's association with the state, which dates 
from the year 1860. A native of the east, he was born in 
Saratoga county, N. Y., March 20, 1839, and up to the time 
of attaining his majority his life was associated with the 
vicinity of his birth. A combination of circumstances con- 
spired at this time, however, to change the whole course of 


his life. The ill-health of a brother-in-law made his removal 
to a more salubrious climate than prevailed in the east neces- 
sary and Mr. Smith was selected to accompany him to Cal- 
ifornia. Going direct to Santa Clara county, they were lo- 
cated in San Jose for some time, or until 1864, when Mr. Smith 
came to Watsonville for the second time, having been here in 
February, 1861, when he was held by rain for seven days. 
Later he returned to San Jose for a short time, but the fall of 
the year 1865 found him in Santa Cruz county once more and 
here he has been content to pass the remainder of his life. 

What was known as the old Judge Peckham ranch near 
Watsonville was the scene of Mr. Smith's first undertaking in 
the west, making his home on the i^roperty for three years, 
and thereafter he had charge of the Bockius ranch for one 
year. The latter property was a large tract of choice land and 
was a fair representative of the large ranches that prevailed 
in that day, being held intact from one generation to another. 
Being favorably impressed with this section as a desirable 
place to live Mr. Smith prevailed upon Mr. Peckham to sub- 
divide his property and at once purchased forty-two acres of 
it. This was the first of the ranches to be subdivided and 
was the beginning of a new era in the history of agriculture in 
the state. Mr. Smith then subdivided his ranch into small 
farms, selling one-half of the tract to his brother-in-law pre- 
viously mentioned, and later selling ten acres of the remainder 
to Thomas Leon. After making his home on the remainder of 
the tract for twelve years he disposed of it, and coming to 
Watsonville, built a home for his family. With this city as 
his headquarters, he had charge of various farms in the 
vicinity until 1875, when he went to Hollister and bought a 
tract of one hundred and twelve acres, carrying this on for 
two years. Having contracted rheumatism, in the meantime, 
however, he had to give up the enterprise and after renting 


his ranch to a tenant he returned to Watsonville. Three 
miles from town he purchased a ranch of eighty-six acres 
which he set out to fruit trees, this being the first orchard of 
any size in the valley at the time, 1878. Six years later he 
had a thri\4ng orchard of twenty acres, the fruit from which 
he himself retailed from a cart, and five years later he sold 
the ranch and orchard in order to enlarge his business out- 
look. This he found in the Stony Ford ranch of five hundred 
and ninety-four acres, upon which in addition to carrying on 
general ranching he also set out an orchard of ten thousand 
trees. This is still his field of activity, although in the mean- 
time, 1893, he moved upon the property which he now occupies, 
having erected thereon a fine residence suited to the needs of 
his family. 

In the spring of 1866 Mr. Smith was united in marriage 
with Miss Jane Wilcox, of Watsonville, and eight children, 
six sons and two daughters, have been born of their marriage. 
The eldest of the children, Charles F., lives on the home ranch 
with his wife and three children ; Walter Scott, who also lives 
on the ranch, is married and has four children ; Florence, un- 
married, also makes her home on the ranch ; Albert Eugene is 
a carpenter by trade and makes his home in Watsonville ; Clar- 
ence Howard is an employe of the Ford store in the same 
place; Helen Grace is the wife of F. Rodgers of Watsonville; 
Harry Ellsworth is interested with his brothers in maintain- 
ing the home ranch, as is also the youngest of the family, 
Henry Augiistus. Mr. Smith is proud in the possession of 
fourteen grand-children. 

Watson\dlle can claim no more public-spirited citizen than 
she has in Charles Smith, who has watched her progress in 
years past and has lived to see many of his hopes in her be- 
half realized. He has not been an idle witness, however, but 
on the contrary has taken an active part in bringing about 


present conditions. This is especially true of the sewer sys- 
tem, which was brought about during his term of service as 
trustee. He also served as trustee and clerk of the board of 
Railroad district school, served in the same capacity for 
four years in the Vega district, and was the moving spirit in 
having the latter district established. This is a thriving school 
district which maintains two schools and has seventy pupils 
in attendance. AYliile living on the ranch in San Benito county 
he had good roads built to his ranch and on to Gilroy, giving 
land for that purpose through his ranch and working in- 
defatigably to bring the matter before the board of super- 
visors. He has always been favorable to every movement for 
progression that has been brought forward in whatever locality 
he has made his home. Fraternally M'r. Smith is an Odd Fel- 
low, holding membership in Watsonville Lodge No. 90, I. 0. 
0. F. 


Those who are familiar with the stock-raising industry in 
Santa Cruz county recognize the intimate association there- 
with of Peter J. Thompson, a native of the Pajaro valley and 
one of its most successful ranchers. Born in 1857, he was 
one of eleven children comprising the family of John Thomp- 
son, who for many years prior to his death engaged in farm- 
ing and stock-raising and held a high rank among the val- 
ley's pioneer ranchers. A stanch believer in education, he 
gave liberally of time, influence and means to the establish- 
ment of the early schools of the county and impressed upon 
his children the necessity of study in order that they might 
be qualified for the responsibilities awaiting them in the 
world of activity. Other worthy movements besides those 
connected with the schools received his support. Especially 


was lie interested in the introduction into the valley of high- 
grade stock and by his own effort? in this direction he gave 
an impetus to the stock industry. His was the task of the 
pioneer, but it was also his privilege to enjoy the results of 
his labors and in his later days he was surrounded by the 
comforts rendered possible by assiduous application to farm 

After having completed the studies of the district schools 
Peter J. Thompson began to assist his father in the handling 
of stock and soon acquired a thorough knowledge of that 
department of agriculture. At the age of twenty-five years he 
left home to embark in ranching and stock-raising for him- 
self and from the first he met with gratifying success. About 
1886 he was united in marriage with the widow of P. J. 
Kelly and their union has been one of happiness and mutual 
helpfulness. Mr. Kelly, who had owned a ranch in the 
Pajaro valley, was a nephew of Eugene Kelly, member of 
the firm of Donohoe, Kelly & Co., bankers of San Francisco, 
New York City and Savannah, Ga. At his death he left to 
his widow a valuable ranch, the supervision of which fell to 
her personal care. Her father, Patrick McAllister, was a 
wealthy pioneer of the Pajaro valley and she had been 
reared in com^fort, yet from childhood had been taught the 
inestimable advantage of habits of industry, self-reliance 
and intelligent application to an honorable occupation. In 
young girlhood she became the wife of Mr. Kelly, with whom 
she lived happily until his death in 1882, and four years later 
she married Mr. Thompson, the friend of her childhood days. 
Of her first marriage there were four daughters and two 
sons, and to them she gave the excellent educational ad- 
vantages rendered possible by the financial standing of the 

During young manhood Mr. Thompson gained a vide 


reputation for liis skill in the management of horses. The 
Mexican vaqiieros could not surpass him in the unerring 
accuracy with which he threw the lariat and in all California 
probably no horseman was more expert and accomplished, 
and of later j^ears he has built up a good business in high- 
grade cattle, having a reputation throughout the coast coun- 
try as a successful stockman. The family homestead, situated 
three miles northeast of Watsonville, is surrounded by an im- 
mense acreage, a portion of which is rich valley land, unsur- 
passed by any soil in the entire state. The ranch begins in 
the center of the fertile plain at the base of the foothills and 
extends over the low spurs of the Santa Cruz mountains 
into the adjoining county of Santa Clara. Outside of the val- 
ley land that is well adapted to grain and fruit, there is a 
large tract of hill and bench land, affording pasturage for 
cattle and also to some extent utilized for the raising of 
grain. The finest breeds of cattle and horses may be found 
on the ranch. The building up of a herd unsurpassed for 
quality has been a matter of interest to Mr. Thompson, who 
has few superiors as a judge of live stock. 

Concerning the family home we may appropriately quote 
from the Pacific Coast Commercial Record: "The family 
residence is one of the finest in the Pajaro valley. A num- 
ber of evergreens, beautifully trimmed in various designs, 
are especially noticeable. The residence, also the several 
outbuildings in the background, are nicely painted in white. 
In its interior furnishings and adornment, the elegant struc- 
ture is in full keeping with its external appearance, and 
readily betrays the taste and refinement of its fair mistress. 
From one of the several elevated points on the Thompson 
ranch a view is obtained of exceeding grandeur and beauty, 
and embracing in its scope a vast range of the surrounding 
country. On one side lies the charming valley of Pajaro, 


dotted with orchards, farms and vineyards, with Watson- 
ville and Pajaro near at hand, with Monterey and Santa 
Cruz and the water of the broad Pacific in the distance, and 
with the double line of willows which fringe 'the river' wind- 
ing tlirough the scene. In other directions are spread out 
the adjoining counties of Monterey, Santa Clara and San 
Benito, where the unaided eye of the observer may easily see 
the towns of Salinas, Gilroy and Hollister set like jewels in 
this masterpiece of Dame Nature's handiwork. This is in- 
deed a scene of grandeur and beauty fit for the poetic pen 
of a Longfellow or for the brush of a Van Dyke." 


Ever since the discovery of gold in California the White 
family has been identified with the history of the coast coun- 
try, its founder on the shores of the Pacific having been Hon. 
William F. White, a pioneer of 1849 who had enjoyed no 
educational advantages, yet who was able to achieve more 
than ordinary success. A native of Ireland, he had immi- 
grated to the United States with his parents in 1820 and had 
settled with them in the city of Binghamton, N. Y., later, 
however, removing to the south. During 1848, in Savannah, 
Ga., he was united in marriage with Miss Fannie J. Russell, 
a niece of Hon. Stephen M. Mallory, one of the most dis- 
tinguished citizens of Florida during the Civil war era and 
a member of the cabinet of Jefferson Davis, holding the chair 
of secretary of the navy. The late United States Senator 
Mallory of Florida added lustre to the family name by his 
long and brilliant public career. 

The young married couple determined to seek a home in 
the far west and during January of 1849 they left New York 


for California as passengers on the clipper ship South 
Carolina that sailed around the Horn. There were three 
hundred passengers on the ship, Mrs. White being the only 
woman. The ship passed safely to the end of its cruise, en- 
tered the Golden Gate and cast anchor in the harbor of San 
Francisco, June 10, 1849. In a very short time Mr. White 
had become familiar with the cosmopolitan city of his adop- 
tion and had purchased a lot on the corner of Bush and 
Montgomery streets, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits 
with John A. McGliun and D. J. Oliver as partners. The 
disastrous fires common to the early history of San Francisco 
destroyed his store building and merchandise on two dif- 
ferent occasions and caused him to determine to locate else- 

Under a partnership formed with Messrs. W. T. Sherman, 
E. D. Baker and Montgomery (the first two prominent at- 
torneys and the last-named a member of the cabinet of 
Abraham Lincoln), William F. Wliite acquired for $40,000 
an interest in the Sal Si Puedes, comprising thirty-two 
thousand acres in the Pajaro valley, and purchased from 
Don Manuel Jimenez. Moving to the large tract, he there- 
on erected, at a distance of five miles from Watsonville to 
the northeast, the first substantial house in the valley. The 
outside lumber was shipped from Maine and was of such 
high-grade quality that the building is even now in a fair 
state of preservation. One of the ranch-partners. Colonel 
Baker, was killed in the battle of Ball's Bluff. Mr. AVliite 
retained his interest in the estate until 1889, when he sold 
out and moved to Oakland. In that city he died the follow- 
ing year. His widow survives and makes her home in San 
Francisco. Throughout his long identification with the his- 
tory of California he maintained a warm interest in all 
movements for tlie upbuilding of the state. Intelligence and 


broad-minded patriotism brought to him considerable promi- 
nence and the highest esteem of acquaintances. During 1880 
he was a candidate for governor on the Workingman's ticket, 
his opponents being George C. Perkins and Hugh J. Glenn. 
Later he was appointed to the position of bank commissioner 
and in that capacity he continued for eight years. In addi- 
tion he enjoyed the honor of serving as a delegate to the con- 
stitutional convention which drafted the last constitution of 
California. Other public honors came to him in the course of 
his long life and ]iis labors for the people won the warmest 
praise of all classes of citizens. 

In the family of William F. White there were eight chil- 
dren, two of whom were sons. One of these, Senator Stephen 
Wliite, attained to national prominence. The other, Edward, 
while of a more retiring disposition and therefore less wide- 
ly known, was none the less successful in his special sphere 
of labor. A native of San Francisco, he was born June 25, 
1851, in a little liouse that stood on what is now the corner 
of Turk and Taylor streets. At the time this was the only 
house in a distance of two miles. As a boy he attended local 
schools and afterward became a student in Santa Clara Col- 
lege, where he completed his studies. From an early age he 
was interested in ranching and aided his father at home. 
When the time came to select an occupation his tastes led him 
to choose agriculture, but he has since specialized as an or- 
chardist. The Calabasa ranch, which he purchased in 1884 
and has since owned, lies about six miles from Watsonville 
and contains a very valuable orchard of fifty acres. In addi- 
tion to the supervision of the ranch he is identified with the 
Orchard Realty Company, also has extensive lumber inter- 
ests, was one of the original promoters of the Watsonville 
Oil Company anrl in many other ways has aided in the up- 
building of the locality. 



The marriage of Edward White was solemnized July 1, 
1889, and imited him with Anna E. Royce, daughter of John 
Royce. They became the parents of eight children, namely; 
Edward, Ellen, Stephen, Lucille, Raymond (deceased), Will- 
iam, Mildred and James. Politically Mr. White always has 
been stanch in his adherence to Democratic principles and 
has supported with enthusiasm the men and measures ad- 
vocated by the party. For four years he represented his 
locality as a member of the county board of supervisors. 
At this writing he holds office as trustee of the Agnew State 
Hospital at San Jose, which he had filled by appointment for 
sixteen years. The Knights of Columbus, of which he is 
state deputy, have enlisted his allegiance and secured his in- 
telligent aid in influential capacities, and in addition he also 
has fraternal associations with the Native Sons of the Golden 


The passing of this California pioneer October 14, 1910, 
was the cause of general mourning in the locality which had 
been his home for so long a period. He was born at Hessian, 
Frankenburg, Germany, on the 22d of February, 1822, and 
received the excellent advantages offered by the schools of 
his native land. Upon leaving school he served an appren- 
ticeship to the trade of a baker and afterward worked as a 
journeyman. The military service obligatory in Germany 
was displeasing to him and to avoid the same he determined 
to emigrate to America, but this he could not do without first 
resigning all claim to any property in his possession. Hence 
he had nothing whatever to bring with him when he crossed 
the ocean in 1848, but he was hopeful, brave and strong, and 
the lack of capital did not daunt him. Immediately after his 


arrival in New York City he secured employment in a bakery. 
Soon he formed the acquaintance of Miss Elizabeth Trust, 
who had come to America in 1846 from the same district in 
Germany as himself. Their marriage was solemnized in 
1849 and they began housekeeping in the eastern metropolis. 

During the year 1853 Mr, Schwan and his wife took pas- 
sage on the ship Helen, under Captain Langdon, bound for 
San Francisco with twenty-two passengers and fifteen hun- 
dred barrels of flour. Before starting from New York on the 
long voyage one of the men passengers asked the captain 
what kind of food would be served on board ship. His reply 
was, ''The same as you get at home, turkey every day." The 
man taking the answer in earnest, asked (after they had 
been out a few days) where the turkey was, but the captain 
answered, ''You can't expect turkey every day." With the 
exception of a stop of four days in Valparaiso the ship made 
few pauses on the voyage. On the way up the Pacific ocean 
a small schooner was seen with the signal of distress float- 
ing. A leak had sprung and the danger was great. The large 
ship took the crew on board their vessel and then the schooner 
was set on fire by the captain, in order that it might not be- 
come a derelict and an obstruction to navigation. 

San Francisco was reached after a tedious voyage of six 
months. In subsequent years Mr. and Mrs. Schwan often men- 
tioned the excitement of the morning when the ship sailed into 
the Golden Gate and the passengers watched the sun rise over 
the hills of the land where they anticipated happiness and 
prosperity awaited them. Of the hopes that filled the hearts 
of the emigrants, many were doomed to disappointment, but 
it may be said for Mr. and Mrs. Schwan that the years brought 
them all that they dared to hope for. Health and usefulness 
were their portion ; friends and a competency rewarded their 
energetic, honorable labors. They found San Francisco a 


city of tents and crude buildings. The residential section 
was limited to Telegraph Hill. They built a house on what is 
now tlie corner of Post and Taylor streets, and Mr. Schwan 
also built and operated a bakery. During I860 they drove 
down over the mountains to Santa Cruz, paying toll on many 
of the roads. The trip was made in their bakery wagon, a 
substantial affair that remains in this section to this day, 
although its period of usefulness is over. 

Shortly after his arrival in Santa Cruz county Mr. Schwan 
took up from the government one hundred acres near Santa 
Cruz at what is now known as Twin Lakes (he being the 
founder of this community). In 1862 he built a house, which 
still stands in excellent condition. From this place he moved 
to the home in which his last years were passed, on the 
banks of Schwan lake. The land cost him originally $1.25 
an acre, but, while land was low, commodities were high. 
When he arrived at San Francisco he found that potatoes 
were selling at eighteen cents a pound, eggs were $3 per 
dozen, six loaves of bread were $1 and apples were $1 each. 
As an increased number of people became interested in gar- 
dening and farming prices were lowered, but he was able to 
command fair prices during the greater part of his active 
career as a farmer. 

In November of 1909 Mr. and Mrs. Schwan celebrated the 
sixtieth anniversary of their marriage. All of their children 
had died at an early age, but on the anniversary their adopted 
daughter, Mrs. William Hance, of Berkeley, with her family, 
was with them, and many relatives and friends came to offer 
congratulations and warmest wishes for future happiness. 
Many changes had been wrought in the locality between the 
time of their settlement here and their sixtieth anniversary. 
Twin Lakes, midway between Santa Cruz and Capitola, had 
become prominent as the site of the summer conventions of 


the Baptists, Mr. Scliwan having donated a large acreage for 
tliat purpose, as well as the right-of-way for the street rail- 
road to Capitola. Extensive improvements followed in quick 
succession and what was formerly farming and grazing land 
was converted into a thriving settlement. It was the privilege 
of Mr. and Mrs, Swan to celebrate their golden wedding, but 
tlie sixtieth anniversary was even more important and ap- 
preciated. The house was appropriately decorated, and in 
the center of the dining room was a large bridal cake, with 
the inscription, '* 1849-1909," the gift of Elias Trust, a cousin. 
Telegrams of congratulations were received from several 
unable to attend, but with few exceptions the invited guests 
responded personally. The marriage ceremony was per- 
formed by Rev. H. E. Milnes, assisted by Rev. H. K. Hamil- 
ton, and the bride and groom were attended by their nephews 
and nieces. Their health was toasted appropriately after 
the dinner had been served, and the guests departed, after 
having bestowed upon them congratulations merited by an 
occasion so unusual, interesting and important. During his 
long residence here Mr. Schwan was prominent in the work of 
the Methodist Episcopal church and labored unweariedly in 
the cause of Christianity, counting no effort too great that 
would upbuild the kingdom of the Lord on the earth. Mrs. 
Schwan is still actively interested in the various organiza- 
tions of this church. The work that she and her husband ac- 
complished should be an inspiration to young people starting 
out in life, with a future of great usefulness possible to 
them. Invariably they put public interest before private gain 
and labored for the spiritual and moral upbuilding of the 
many rather than for their own material advancement. Mr. 
Schwan died October 14, 1910, at his home in Twin Lakes, 
and was buried in the Odd Fellows Cemetery at Santa Cruz. 


L. J. DAKE. 

An intimate identification with occupations of various kinds 
during different periods of his long residence in California 
has given to Mr. Dake a knowledge of the resources and pos- 
sibilities of the state and has made of him an ardent champion 
of the golden west. Like the majority of the men who have 
come from eastern homes to earn a livelihood on the coast, he 
possesses an enthusiastic faith in the future of this region. 
This future, from his standpoint of vision, is not limited to 
agriculture, but covers the domain of commerce, facilities for 
which will be greatly enhanced with the development of the 
west and with the shipment of our products in an ever-in- 
creasing amount to supply the crowded countries of the 
Orient, The completion of the Panama canal will also open 
another avenue of commercial activity, so that the future 
lies bright before our sunny land. 

Mr. Dake was born in New York City March 24, 1858, and 
is a son of Moses and Eliza J. Dake, both natives of New 
York. At an early age he accompanied the family to Chicago 
and there attended the public schools, later becoming a student 
in the schools of Milwaukee. On the completion of his educa- 
tion he began to earn his own livehhood. During 1879 he 
came to California and settled in Santa Cruz, where since 
he has been associated with sundry occupations. For a time 
he studied surveying. Later he worked as a bookkeejDer in a 
flour mill. With W. Gardner as a partner, he conducted a 
flour, feed and provision store, under the firm title of Gardner 
& Dake. Upon selling his interest in the store he went to 
Tulare county and established a sheep business, but two 
years later he abandoned the industry and returned to Santa 
Cruz, where he acted as deputy in the office of the county re- 
corder. For a period of twelve years he acted as court re- 


porter in the superior court under Judge Logan and Judge 
McCann. During almost this entire period he also served as 
chairman of the Republican county central committee and 
took a prominent jjart in local politics. 

After a comparatively brief experience as a proprietor of 
the California market on PacijSc avenue, an enterprise in 
which he had as a partner George A. Chittenden, during the 
year 1897 Mr. Dake became interested in the abstract busi- 
ness with H. E. Makinney as a partner, the firm title being 
Makinney & Dake. The junior partner proved of the greatest 
assistance to the older member of the firm by his accuracy in 
the searching of records. Much of the detail work was placed 
in his hands and in all of the important tasks committed to 
his care his accuracy was never questioned. Upon the death 
of Mr. Makinney in October, 1910, he purchased his interest 
and is now carrying on the business under name of L. J. Dake. 
Personally Mr. Dake possesses a genial disposition, is com- 
panionable and entertaining, and has a host of friends in 
business circles, as well as in the organizations of which he 
is an influential member, including the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows (lodge and encampment), the Masons, For- 
esters and Ancient Order of United Workmen. His marriage 
united him with M^iss Clara I. Chittenden, a native daughter 
of California and a lady of education and culture. They are 
the parents of two sons. The elder, Clarence G., is employed 
in his father's office. The younger son, Irving, is a student in 
the Santa Cruz schools. 



The gratifying degree of success that has attended the per- 
severing efforts of Mr. Sinkinson shows what may be accom- 
plished by i3atient industry, honorable dealings and unwear- 
ied application to such duties as the day may bring. When 
he came to the United States he had no moneyed capital, but 
he possessed a sturdy constitution, willing hands and true 
moral princiijles, and with these as a foundation he has laid 
the superstructure of personal success. While wealth has 
not come to him, he has attained a fair competence and in 
the afternoon of life's busy day he is surrounded by all the 
comforts that enhance the pleasures of existence. During the 
long period of his residence in Santa Cruz he has risen to a 
position of influence among the business men and also has 
been most helpful in religious work, his labors in that line 
having been associated with the Methodist Episcopal church, 
of which he is an earnest, sincere and liberal member. 

The early years in the life of John H. Sinkinson were 
passed uneventfully in the north of England, where he was 
born April 7, 1847, and where he received a common-school 
education. When a mere boy the necessity of self-support 
led him to take up the trade of wood-turning and he served 
an apprenticeship under a master who impressed upon him 
the importance of careful, painstaking application to the trade. 
In this way he received thorough preparation for life's re- 
sponsibilities and when he immigrated to the United States 
in 1870 he was fitted for efficient labor in his special line. 
Settling in New Jersey, he secured emplojTuent in the factory 
of the 0. N. T. Cotton Co., and continued in the same place 
for three years, his work being the turning of spools. Next 
he went to Ithaca, N. Y., and worked at his trade of a wood- 
turner. At the expiration of two years he returned to the 


employ of the 0. N. T. Cotton Co., but remained a short time 
only, having decided to migrate to the west. On the 4th of 
July, 1876, he arrived in Santa Cruz and since then he has 
made California his home. 

Business men of Santa Cruz of the present generation have 
a vivid recollection of their boyhood days thirty years ago and 
of the delight they found in playing with Sinkinson's tops as 
well as the other toys manufactured by the same friend of the 
children. Having no capital, Mr. Sinkinson was forced to 
begin in a very small way and he rented a corner of the Grover 
planing mill. This was transformed into a shop, where he en- 
gaged in the manufacture of toys, tops, feather dusters, etc. 
The utmost economy was necessary. Patient toil ultimately 
brought its merited reward. Eventually he had accumulated 
some capital and was able to embark in the planing-mill busi- 
ness. At this writing he owns the largest plant of the kind in 
Santa Cruz and engag;es in the manufacture of boxes, doors, 
sash, shingles, etc., and also saws lumber direct from the logs. 
The steady improvement in his financial condition shows what 
may be accomplished by perseverance, close attention to busi- 
ness and honest, straightforward dealings. 

The marriage of Mr. Sinkinson united him with Miss Sarah 
Lynam, a native of England. They are the parents of the 
following-named children: John W., who was born in New- 
ark, N. J. ; Thirza A., now Mrs. Webb, who was born in San 
Francisco; Edward J., born in Sequel, Santa Cruz county; 
Eva, now Mrs. L. Rittenhouse, born in San Francisco ; Fred- 
erick A. and Ernest J., natives of Santa Cruz. The family 
are prominent in social circles of Santa Cruz and maintain a 
warm interest in the work of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
in which, as previously stated, Mr. Sinkinson has been a lead- 
ing worker for a long period of years. 



The thirty-five years covering the period of Mr. Silliman's 
residence in California represented an era of great activity 
on his part, resulting in the accumulation of property inter- 
ests, as well as in the attainment of an honored position as 
an upright man, generous friend, accommodating neighbor and 
sagacious citizen. The welfare and progress of his adopted 
home were ever near to his heart, and the climate of the coast 
country he always held to be unrivalled. 

A native of Ohio, Charles 0. Silliman was born in Zanes- 
ville on the last day of the year 1818, and his boyhood rec- 
ollections were replete with experiences common to a lo- 
cality as yet on the frontier of civilization. Needless to say 
the time and place were not propitious for gaining an educa- 
tion, but nevertheless he applied himself diligently to self in- 
struction at home, and in this way and by observation and con- 
tact with others of more experience and knowledge he became 
a well-informed and useful citizen. During young manhood he 
left the home of his youth and sought an opening further 
west, going to Missouri, where he made his home for many 
years. His first experience was in Rocheport, that state, but 
later he located in Warrensburg, where he built up a success- 
ful legal practice. The attractions of larger prospects in the 
west brought him to California in 1865, when he came to the 
Pajaro valley, in Santa Cruz county, and purchased the prop- 
erty on which the remainder of his life was passed. This 
consisted- of two hundred and fifty acres of land formerly 
owned by Thomas Hildreth and since the death of the father 
has been under the management of his sons. When Mr. Silli- 
man first located on the land it was without improvements of 
any kind, so all that the property now is, is due to the united 
efforts of father and sons in years past and since the death of 


the father the reputation of the place as one of the high-class 
ranches of the county has been maintained through the efforts 
of the sons. A specialty is made of the raising of apples, fifty 
acres being devoted to orchard (which is now owned by 
Charles 0.), while the remainder of the land is given over to 
general farming. 

While living in Rocheport, Mo., Mr. Silliman formed domes- 
tic ties by his marriage in 1849, with Miss Phoebe A. Trafton, 
a native of Canada. After a happy married life of over fifty 
years the unity of the family was broken by the death of 
Mr. Silliman May 5, 1900, and two years later, August 20, 
1902, occurred the death of his wife. Seven children were 
left to mourn their loss, all of whom with one exception still 
live on the old family homestead. Named in the order of 
their birth they are as follows: Wyllys A., a resident of 
Pacific Grove ; Charles 0., Jr. ; Deborah I. ; Mary E., the wife 
of Z. M. Edrington; Jessie L.; George Francis; and Walter 

A. E. JOY. 

As a member of the Watsonville Globe Real Estate Com- 
pany A. E. Joy is exercising a strong and marked influence 
on the business affairs of this city, where he has made his 
home since 1893. A native son of the state, he was born in 
Yuba county April 19, 1864, the son of parents who came to 
the state during its early history. Alfred Joy was a native 
of Waterville, Me., while his wife, in maidenhood Mary A. 
Wood, was born and reared in Palmyra, N. Y. Both left the 
east and located in California in the same year, 1853, Mr. 
Joy making the journey alone, wliile Miss Wood came across 
the plains with her brother. The mining opportunities in 
Placer county had been the object of Mr. Joy's journey to the 


west, and from the fact that he continued operations tliere 
for fifteen years it is safe to conclude that his efforts were 
at least fairly successful. Removing from there to Ventura 
county, he began raising flax, an undertaking which was well 
chosen, for it proved a success from the start, and in connec- 
tion he also raised cattle extensively, both industries proving 
successful above the average and ranking him among the most 
flourishing ranchers in that section of country. In the town 
of Ventura, where he had lived retired for fifteen years, he 
passed away March 21, 1908, at the age of seventy-four years. 
Politically he was a stanch supporter of Republican princi- 
ples, although he never sought nor cared to occupy public 
office. The wife and mother passed away July 31, 1910, at the 
home of her son, E. J. Beekman, at Sespe, Ventura county, 
when she was seventy-nine years of age. 

The parental family originally included nine children, but 
of this number only three are now living, as follows: A. E.-, 
Arthur W., of San Jose ; and Jesse, of Laurel, Mont. Soon 
after the birth of A. E. Joy his parents removed to Ventura 
county, and it is with that locality that his boyhood experi- 
ences are associated. Up to the age of seventeen years he 
was a pupil in the schools of Ventura, after which he entered 
upon an apprenticeship to learn the carriage-maker's trade, 
completing it three years later, and thereafter he followed 
the business for five years. Giving up the business at the 
end of that time, he became interested in the insurance and 
real-estate business at Ventura, an undertaking which was 
more in keeping with his taste and one which he followed 
with increasing success until 1893. His identification with 
Watsonville dates from the latter year, and it was during the 
same year that he inaugurated his present business, carrying 
it on alone until 1900, wlien, on October 31, he formed a part- 
nership with David F. Maher, and the association then formed 


lias continued to the present time. In October, 1908, however, 
the business was incorporated under the name of the Watson- 
ville Globe Real Estate Company, with a paid-up capital stock 
of $25,000, Mr. Maher acting as attorney for the company.- 
The business transacted by the company is not limited to 
Watsonville or even to the county, but extends to all parts of 
the state, including transactions in real estate, and the plac- 
ing of insurance and loans. As an indication of the discrim- 
inating care which has always been a prominent feature of 
the company it may be said that during the seventeen years 
of its experience as money lenders not one cent has been lost. 
A rule of the office made years ago has never been deviated 
from throughout its history, in that, during business hours,' 
the doors of the office have never been closed, this in itself 
proving the officers to be men of alert business acumen. 

In Ventura, Cal., October 20, 1885, Mr. Joy was united in 
marriage with Miss Maggie E. Grainger, a native of War- 
rensburg, Mo., and five children have come to brighten their 
fireside, Florence A., Myrtle E., Richard A., Elmer R. and 
Clifford. Fraternally Mr. Joy is identified with the Odd 
Fellows, and politically he is a believer in Republican prin- 
ciples. It has been Mr. Joy's privilege to travel extensively 
throughout the United States and Canada, but he has found 
no place more congenial than his home in the west, to which 
he has alwavs returned, contented with his lot. 



For many years closely identified with business enterprises 
in Watsonville, Mr. Ingham made his home in this city from 
his arrival in 1871 until his death in 1895. Born in England 
in August of 1829, a son of James Ingham, he traced his 
lineage to a long line of Anglo-Saxon ancestry and belonged 
to a family honorably associated with the material develop- 
ment of Great Britain. When less than a year old he was 
taken by his parents from the old English home across the 
Atlantic to the new world. It was while the family were on 
board ship that he learned to walk. In the prosperous city 
of Rochester, N. Y., the family found a home and work and 
friends, and there he received fair advantages in the public 
schools, later taking up the trade of a wagon-maker and 
wood-worker, in which he acquired remarkable proficiency. 
From Rochester he came to California during 1851 and set- 
tled in Sacramento, securing employment at his trade. Later 
he was similarly occupied in Marysville. His next place of 
employment was in San Jose, where he remained for ten 
years. From that city he came to Watsonville in 1871 and 
here he secured work as a blacksmith and wagon-maker. A 
few years later he embarked in business on his own account. 

The manufacture of spring wagons was a specialty of Mr. 
Ingham. The line that he made was particularly suited to 
the requirements of ranchers of this section and proved far 
more satisfactory than wagons of eastern manufacture, made 
for eastern roads. A large business was done in the repair 
of wagons and agricultural implements. From four to six 
skilled mechanics were employed, two of these being farriers, 
competent to sustain the reputation of the shop for satis- 
factory horse-shoeing. Two j^ears after starting his wagon 
shop Mr. Ingham added a warehouse for agricultural im- 


plements, selecting for this purpose a building, 28x100 feet, 
on Main street, directly opposite his blacksmithing and wagon 
shop. In the warehouse he kept wagons, buggies and agri- 
cultural implements, suited to the needs of the locality. He 
had the exclusive agency for the Oliver plows, the Studebaker 
wagons and the harvesting machinery of the D. M. Osborne 
Manufacturing Company, of Auburn, N. Y., at that time one 
of the principal concerns in the country. 

As the Democratic nominee in the election of 1883 Mr. 
Ingham was chosen for the office of town councilman. The 
following term he was again elected. The next election found 
him again chosen for the office and at the time of his death 
he was serving as president of the village. Movements for 
the benefit of town and county received his active co-opera- 
tion and substantial assistance. A progressive spirit charac- 
terized his citizenship. Though genial, friendly and accom- 
modating, he was nevertheless so modest in the recognition 
of his own abilities that lie failed to give due credit to his 
own personal labors in the upbuilding of the community. It 
was his disposition to minimize the results of his activities 
and emphasize the patriotic labors of other citizens. Fra- 
ternally he was from youth an ardent disciple of Masonry 
and its teachings of philanthropy won his loyal support. 
While still living in Eochester he rose to the degree of Knight 
Templar. After coming west he was a charter member of 
San Jose Commandery No. 10, K. T., also of Watsonville 
Commandery No. 22, K. T., and at the time of his demise he 
was identified with the organization last-named as eminent 

During young manhood Mr. Ingham was married, but 
shortly afterward he lost his wife. His second marriage oc- 
curred four years later. March 2, 1872, in Watsonville, he 
was united with Miss Inez Snow, a lady of excellent educa- 


tion and noble character, and a member of one of the honored 
pioneer families of our state. She was born in Franklin, 
Mass., being a daughter of Cyrus and Victoria M. (Scott) 
Snow, who came to California in 1860. The father died in 
Santa Cruz in 1884 and the mother is now making her home 
with Mrs. Ingham in Watsonville, occupying a beautiful resi- 
dence at No. 517 Main street, and surrounded by every com- 
fort that enhances the pleasure of existence. It is worthy of 
note that Mrs. Ingham's homestead has been in the family 
for more than fifty years and was purchased direct from the 
old Spanish owners. Mrs. Ingham has only one child, a 
daughter, Elsie, who married Howard Smith of Watsonville 
and has one son, Lowell Ingham Smith. Hiram Scott, a 
brother of Mrs. Snow, came to California at the time of the 
gold excitement in 1849. Two of his sisters joined him here 
the following year. One of them, Caroline, became the wife 
of Lucius Sanborn, for years one of the leading citizens and 
successful merchants of Watsonville. The other, Sarah, be- 
came the wife of Thomas Cooper, who also conducted a store 
in this city. Somewhat later the elder Scott joined his chil- 
dren in California and continued to reside here until his 


The life of Mr. Alexander has been filled with successful 
undertakings, and his practical retirement from active 
participation in business is the sequel to duties well per- 
formed, meriting the reward of a peaceful and harmonious 
existence such as can be found at its best in central California. 
He was born in Washington county. Mo., April 2, 1827, the 
son of John P. Alexander. The records show that the Alex- 
ander family is of Scotch origin and became identified with 


this country during the early years of its history. For many 
years members of the family had contributed to the citizen- 
ship of the south, and from Raleigh, N. C, where he had 
been reared and educated, John P. Alexander removed to 
St. Louis, Mo., in 1805, when it was a small village of about 
six hundred souls. He was then a young man of twenty 
years, full of life and enthusiasm, and the history of the 
young town in which he settled is in part the record of his 
own life and accomplishments. He lived to see many of his 
hopes realized for the upbuilding of his home town, and as 
was fitting, he passed away in the midst of scenes familiar to 
him during the most useful years of his long life. 

No less energetic and useful to the upbuilding of Watson- 
ville, CaL, is T. D. Alexander, who though now retired from 
active participation in business affairs, is still as keenly alive 
to the interests of his home town as in the early days of his 
residence here. He clearly recalls the organization of the first 
fire company in Watsonville, which was then a bucket brig- 
ade, and as a member of the company he as readily recalls 
the difficulties under which he and his comrades labored 
and notes a marked contrast between those days and methods 
now used in fire-fighting. Mr. Alexander was a young man 
of about twenty-five years when he settled in California in 
1853, having been variously engaged in Missouri prior to 
that time. An elder brother, W. T. Alexander, had made two 
trips to California previous to this for the purpose of bring- 
ing cattle to the west, and on his journey to the west T. D. 
also brought a band of cattle across the plains. The party 
with which he came consisted of fifteen men, who left St. 
Joseph, Mo., in the latter part of March, 1853, and reached 
Volcano, Amador county, August 24. In that locality he en- 
gaged in the cattle and butchering business until the fall 
■of 1854, when, though still retaining his interest in the ranch 


and cattle business, he tried his luck as a miner. It is safe 
to presume that liis mining experiences were not of the most 
alluring order, for it is known that in the following year^ 
1855, he took a renewed interest in the cattle business. It 
was in that year that he went to Los Angeles, making that his. 
headquarters while purchasing cattle throughout Southern 
California, which he later drove north and fattened for the 
market. Altogether he followed this business for about three 
years, during which time he brought north about six hundred 
head of cattle. Though he found the life of the cattleman an 
interesting one it was at the same time a strenuous one, and 
on one of his trips he stopped for a much needed rest at 
Watsonville, where two of his sisters were living. The im- 
mediate effect of this visit was renewed strength, and so 
pleased was he with the locality that it later became his per- 
manent home. 

Upon taking up his residence in Watsonville Mr. Alexander 
readily saw a business opportunity in the erection of a hotel 
in the thriving town and the Pacific Exchange was the prac- 
tical development of this idea. This famous hostelry was 
erected on the present site of the Mansion house, and many 
old settlers are still living who can recall the hospitality 
and good cheer dispensed at this wayside inn, which was 
no less famous than was its genial host, T. D. Alexander. 
Besides the management of his hotel, Mr. Alexander also 
engaged in mining to some extent, and still later became in- 
terested in the real-estate business. As a development of 
the latter business he was entrusted with the handling of 
a number of large estates, among which may be mentioned in 
particular the Atherton and Spring estates. A keen fore- 
sight and accurate knowledge of real-estate values made his. 


undertakings a success, and it is conservatively estimated 
that lie bought and sold more property in the valley than 
any other man in his line of business. 

Mr. Alexander's marriage in 1857 united him with Cather- 
ine Curley, who at her death September 21, 1906, left two 
children, W. P., a resident of Seattle, Wash., and Josephine, 
the latter residing with her father in Watsonville. Since 
taking up his residence in Watsonville many years ago no 
measure for the upbuilding of the town has failed to receive 
the hearty support of Mr. Alexander, who is generally recog- 
nized as one of the town's most active and interested citizens. 
Fraternally he is identified with but one order, the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. 


The talents possessed by Dr. Beechler are signally diverse, 
yet happily and harmoniously blended to form a character 
well rounded in those attributes that bring material success. 
The startling contrasts of his native endowments are in- 
dicated by the statement that he is a poet, the author of many 
beautiful verses; further, that in youth he was a noted local 
wrestler and fighter, and after he entered the Civil war he 
came to be known as "Fighting Jim" Beechler. With the 
dreamy nature of tlie poet and the sturdy robustness of the 
fighter, he combined the qualities that have brought him 
prominence and success in the practice of medicine. So 
great has been his success in the treatment of asthma that 
during the past four years he has treated more than one 
thousand persons at the institution he has founded, Beechler 's 
White Cross Sanitarium. 

The native place of Dr. Beechler is Bryan, Williams county, 


Oliio, and 1840 the year of liis birth. From early boyhood 
his studies were directed with tlie medical profession as the 
end in view. For a time he attended Bennett Medical Col- 
lege at Chicago, 111., and the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor, and in 1871 he was graduated from the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania. Thereafter 
he practiced his profession in Chicago and later in New York 
City, also for a year held the chair of anatomy in Bennett 
Medical College and for a short time was an instructor in 
the University of Pennsylvania. Meanwhile he had achieved 
prominence through his service in the Civil war, having en- 
listed in 1862 as first lieutenant of Company H, in the Ninth 
Ohio Cavalry. At first he made a specialty of recruiting 
soldiers for the volunteer service. Later he was ordered to 
report to General Boyle at Louisville, Ky., and afterward he 
gallantly served his country on the Mississippi and Cumber- 
land rivers. To him was given the command of gunboat 
Liberty No. 1, which took all of the forts on the river and was 
the only boat out of seven to get through the lines without 
capture. While serving as adjutant-general on the staff of 
General Walker he was wounded so seriously that he was 
taken to the hospital to die, but a strong constitution and 
careful nursing enabled him to recover. 

After a brave participation in the famous seven-days ' fight 
from Nashville to Murfreesboro, Dr. Beechler received an ova- 
tion from Generals Thomas and Walker for his gallant 
service. He was the only commanding officer who survived 
the battle with the gunboats on the river, where he had 
thirty-six transports under his charge. Among the famous 
battles in which he took part were Forts Henry and Donel- 
son (2d). Later he saw service in the west with the Indians 
and under General Miles he held the rank of surgeon in the 
United States army. During his service in the army he gave 


bis time and energy to his country, free of charge. Prior 
to his first army service he was married in 1860 to Miss 
Jeanie Fairfield, a native of Ohio, who was reared and edu- 
cated in the city of Bryan. 

Coming to California in 1895, Dr. Beechler entered upon 
professional practice. During 1901 he came to Santa Cruz 
county and settled at Soquel, where he opened a sanitarium 
on the hill overlooking the village. Later he added to and 
improved the property and now owns one of the best-ap- 
pointed places of the kind in the state. Modern appliances 
have been introduced. The equipment includes electric lights 
on the ground, the roof and the piazza, as well as in all 
the rooms. A beautiful white cross of lights appears on the 
front of the house and can be seen at night for miles in every 
direction. This gives to the sanitarium the name by which it 
is knoT^Ti throughout the state. Sun verandas are provided 
for patients. Fine baths have been installed with a modern 
system of plumbing. The operating room also is thoroughly 
equipped with modern appliances. Mrs. Georgia Henderson, 
the head nurse, who has filled the position since 1905, is a 
graduate trained nurse and much of the success of the insti- 
tution is due to her intelligent oversight. 

"While many diseases have been treated successfully by Dr. 
Beechler (rheumatism, appendicitis, gangrene, male and fe- 
male diseases and cancer) he makes a specialty of asthma. 
For years he suffered with the latter disease and vainly tried 
all known remedies. Finally he discovered a remedy which 
cured himself and has cured many others. For the secret of 
this cure he has been offered $100,000. Out of one hundred 
patients treated, he has cured ninety-five, and once cured, the 
disease never returns. 

Asthma he discovered to be a yeast plant of fungus growth 
in the stomach and this is cut loose by medicines, being 


thrown out entirely by an emetic. Some patients recover at 
once, but others, in more serious state, recover more slowly. 
As previously stated, almost all that are treated recover, and 
tliese form the most enthusiastic advertisers of the sanitar- 
ium, their unsolicited testimonials being the cause of the com- 
ing of other sufferers, until at times the rooms are filled and 
the treatment of additional patients necessarily must be post- 
poned. By the alleviating of disease and the curing of chronic 
sufferers, the doctor is proving himself to be a true phil- 
anthropist, while at the same time he is reaping the financial 
reward merited by his arduous application to the work. 

The following poem from the pen of Dr. Beechler has re- 
ceived favorable notice from many critics, among them John 
Uri Lloyd, president of Lloyd's library and museum at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Our Mysteries. 

We know not what it is, dear, this sleep so deep and still ; 
The folded hands, the awful calm, the cheeks so pale and chill; 
The lids that will not lift again, though we may call and call; 
The strange white solitude of peace that settles over all. 

We know not what it means, dear, this desolate heart pain, 
This dread to take our daily way and walk in it again. 
We know not to what other sphere the loved who leave us go, 
Nor why we're left to wonder still, nor why we do not know. 

But this we know: our loved and dead, if they should come 

this day — 
Should come and ask us what of life — not one of us could say. 
Life is a mystery, as deep as ever death can be ; 
Yet, oh, how dear it is to know — this life we live and see. 


Then might they say, these vanquished, and blessed is the 

So death is sweet to us, beloved, though we may show you 

naught ; 
"We may not to the quick reveal the mj^stery of death; 
Ye cannot tell us if ye would the mystery of death. 

The child who enters life comes not with knowledge or intent ; 
So those who enter death must go as little children sent. 
Nothing is known; but I believe that God is overhead. 
And is life to the living, so death is to the dead. 


Experiences giving him an insight into conditions in var- 
ious parts of the world were culminated by the arrival of Mr. 
Helmer in California, where he has made his home since 1867 
and where for years he was interested in a ranching enter- 
prise. Born in Schleswig, Germany, in 1843, he was ap- 
prenticed to the trade of blacksmith at the time of leaving 
school and at the close of his term he worked as a journey- 
man in Schleswig. The daily round of duties thus imposed 
upon him did not prove congenial to the youth of stirring im- 
pulses and at the age of twenty-two he set sail for the United 
States and landed at the harbor of New York. He did not 
remain long in the east, but soon located in Chicago, and was 
interested there and in the middle west for about one year. 
The far west, however, appealed to him more strongly, and 
hither he came at the end of this time, coming directly to 
Watsonville, Cal., in 1867. 

Mr. Helmer 's knowledge of the blacksmith's trade stood him 
in good stead and as soon as he came to Watsonville he sought 


out a suitable location in which to establish himself in busi- 
ness. This he found in 1870, on the spot where the town hall 
is now located, and there he continued in business uninter- 
ruptedly until forced out by a disastrous fire. Following this 
he went to Freedom and established himself in the same busi- 
ness, but gave it up after a few years and turned his atten- 
tion to agriculture. Directly north of town he bought a ranch 
of ninety acres in the Alvarado tract, well adapted to general 
farming, which he conducted with success for many years 
or until 1901, when he subdivided the ranch and sold it off in 
small parcels. Since then he has lived retired from active 
business, making his home in Watsonville, where he owns 
valuable real estate. Besides the present beautiful residence 
occupied by the family Mr. Helmer has erected and occupied- 
six different houses on his property from time to time, one 
giving place to another until in his present home may be found 
all that is modern and up-to-date both in architecture and 

A marriage ceremony performed in Watsonville in 1871 
united the lives of L. P. Helmer and Anna Jensen, the latter 
a resident of this city at the time of her marriage. Four 
children, equally divided as to sons and daughters, have 
been born into their household, and all have grown to maturity 
and are taking their place in the world's activities. Named 
in the order of their birth they are as follows : Peter ; George ; 
Anna, the wife of L. Cleveland, of Watsonville; and Elita, the 
wife of Charles Thume, of Pleasanton, Cal. In whatever lo- 
cality circumstance has placed him Mr. Helmer has taken an 
interesting part in its activities. Fraternally he is a member 
of the Odd Fellows order, holding membership in Pajaro Lodge 
No. 90, in which he has acted in the capacity of trustee for 
twenty-two years. 




Though not a native of California, Mr. Aston has been a 
resident of the state ever since he was six years old and is 
thoroughly in touch with the progressive element of Wat- 
sonville and the Pajaro valley. He was born in New York 
City July 6, 1858, the son of Franklin and Maria (Mannion) 
Aston, natives respectively of Baltimore, Md., and Ireland. 
They had made their home in the east for some time when, 
in 1864, they decided to come to the west and grow up with 
the new country. The voyage was made by way of Panama, 
landing them at San Francisco, where they settled and made 
their home for a number of years, or until April, 1872, when 
they came to the Pajaro valley and located in Watsonville. 
Here Mr. Aston opened a furniture establishment to which he 
later added undertaking, a combined business which he car- 
ried on very successfully for a number of years. His popu- 
larity among his fellow-citizens and his fitness for office led 
to his election as county assessor in the early '80s, a position 
which he filled acceptably for one term. His death occurred 
in August, 1894, at the age of sixty-two, while his wife sur- 
vived until 1899, her death occurring in April of that year. 
Seven children were included in the parental family, all of 
whom, five daughters and two sons, are living. 

As has been stated, Joseph F. Aston was a lad of six years 
when removal was made to the west, and in the public schools 
of San Francisco and Watsonville he received his education. 
Even before his school days were over he began to make 
himself useful in his father's store, and at the time the latter 
was occupied with his public duties as county assessor the 
management of the business fell almost exclusively upon the 
shoulders of the son. At the time he was only twenty-three 
years of age, but he proved his capability and the experience 


which lie then gained he has been able to put to good account 
in later years. In 1884, after his fatlier resumed charge of 
the business, he went to San Francisco, from there to Tulare 
and Los Angeles, remaining altogether about four years, when 
he returned to Watsonville and opened an office as architect 
and builder. During the eleven years in which he followed 
this business he erected a number of substantial buildings in 
Watsonville and vicinity. It was in April, 1899, that Mr. 
Aston purchased a half interest in the business with which 
his name has since been associated with Mr. Wycoff, under 
the name of Wycoif iS: Aston, the leading undertakers of Wat- 

Mr. Aston 's marriage, December 18, 1882, united him with 
Miss Marj^ Ellen Welch, a native of Watsonville, and the 
daughter of Richard R. Welch, an old-time resident and 
pioneer of Santa Cruz county. Fraternally Mr. Aston is a 
member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 
Knights of Columbus, Eagles, and Foresters of America, and 
though interested in political atfairs, has no ambition to till 
public office, preferring to conserve his energies for his busi- 
ness efforts. 


So pronounced has been the success attendant upon the 
persistent, arduous and long-continued labors of Mr. Horst- 
man in the occupation of a vineyardist and fruit-rancher, that 
his name has become well known far beyond the confines of his 
home county of Santa Cruz and the reputation of his product 
extends into other states of the Union. The Table Mountain 
ranch on Two-Bar creek (formerly known as the John L. Rose 
tract) has been developed from a raw area of wild, moun- 
tainous country, into a rich, productive and attractive fruit 


farm, whose ricli soil, witli the aid of the warm sun and the 
genial breezes, responds to cultivation with an ardor and 
promptness amazing to men familiar with locations less for- 
tunately situated. The contrast between the original appear- 
ance of the tract and its i)resent cultivated condition proves 
the iDersistence with which the owner has labored through 
all the years of his residence here, and the productiveness of 
the land may be attributed to his wise judgment in selecting 
for cultivation only such fruits and such varieties of grapes 
as are especially adapted to the soil and climate. 

William F. Horstman was born in St. Louis, Mo., May 30, 
1863, and at an early age accompanied other members of the 
family to Kansas, settling in Manhattan, whose excellent 
schools furnished him with desirable educational advantages. 
Upon coming to California he settled in Santa Cruz county, 
where ever since he has made his home. In those days moun- 
tain land was deemed undesirable and could be obtained at 
low prices, large tracts being still subject to the homestead 
laws. Going to the mountains near Boulder Creek, he took 
up two hundred and eighty acres of wild land and started to 
transform the property into a productive acreage. As a re- 
sult of his unceasing labors he now has a vineyard of forty 
acres, which yields annually twenty thousand gallons of fine 
wine, representing an output of eighty tons of grapes. The 
vines originally were imported by Mr. Horstman, who will 
plant none but the very choicest qualities. While he has a va- 
riety of mixed fruits on the ranch, he makes a specialty of 
grapes and expects soon to increase the acreage in the vine- 
yard, having found by experience that this part of the country 
is particularly fitted to raise wine grapes of choice quality, 
due to the sun exposure on the hillside and also to the fine 
soil. The California Wine Association of San Francisco pur- 
chases the entire output of the vineyard. 


A man of prominence in Santa Cruz county, Mr. Horstman 
possesses a large circle of friends, whose confidence he has 
won through recognized business qualifications and through 
sturdy, virile qualities of mind and heart. As secretary and 
treasurer he is identified with the Santa Cruz Grape Grow- 
ers' Association, in which from the time of organization he 
has been a leading member. He is identified with the Saw 
Mill and Wood Workers' Lumbermen's Union as vice-presi- 
dent and an influential worker. Upon the erection of the 
Union high school at Boulder Creek he was chosen a trustee 
and for three years gave faithful, energetic service in that 
position, in addition to which he filled a similar position with 
the Bear Creek school for a period of eleven years. Politically 
he has been a local leader of the Republican party and as its 
candidate made a strong race for county sheriff against How- 
ard V. Trafton in the election of 1906. His marriage in 1883 
united him with Miss Kate Frost, a native of San Francisco 
and a daughter of a gallant captain, who served with distinc- 
tion as an ofiicer in the Civil war. There are four children 
in the family of Mr. Horstman, namely: Lorene, Stanley, 
Willis and Hazel. A number of fraternal organizations in the 
county have the benefit of his membership, among these being 
the Druids and the Ancient Order of United Workmen, but 
perhaps he has been most active in the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, for in addition to the lodge work he has been 
influential also in Canton No. 33, Military Camp of Santa 
Cruz. It is to such men as he, energetic in action, determined 
in purpose, patient in the discharge of daily duties and un- 
daunted by hardships, that the county owes its high stand- 
ing and its assured prestige throughout the state. 



Throughout the country about Watsonville the name of 
"Weisenburger is by no means unfamiliar and carries with 
it the true western perseverance and determination. In the 
store on ]\Iain street The Weisenburger Company carry a 
complete and up-to-date line of house-furnishing goods, in- 
cluding furniture, glassware, stoves, notions, tinware and 
crockery, besides which they are equipped to do upholstering 
and repairing of furniture, cleaning and laying carpets, as 
well as picture framing. From this it will be seen that there 
is little in the way of household demands which they are un- 
able to supply, this one fact alone being sufficient to make 
their place popular, but when to this is added the pleasing 
personality of the manager the reason for their success is 

A native son of the state, Mr. Weisenburger was born in 
Downieville, Sierra county, February 2, 1864, the sou of 
Conrad and Catherine (Heitz) Weisenburger, both of the 
latter natives of Bavaria, Germany, but early immigrants to 
the United States. Their first location here, in the early 
'40s, was in Peru, LaSalle county. 111., whence the father 
came to California by wagon train in 1852 and became in- 
terested in mining in the vicinity of Downieville and Nevada 
City. Five years later, in 1857, he returned to his family in 
Illinois, and the following year went back to Downieville and 
again took up his mining interests. The accumulations of 
five years enabled him to send for his wife and children, and 
thereafter he continued mining for a number of years, al- 
though during the latter years of his life he followed farm- 
mg. He passed away in Nevada City in 1902, at the age of 
eighty-two years, leaving behind him a record of a life well 
and worthily spent, in a moral as well as a material sense. 


The mother also died in the same city at the age of seventy- 
two years. Eight children blessed the marriage of this 
worthy conple, four of whom were born before the family 
settled in the west. The children are as follows: C. C, a 
resident of Nevada City; J. J., deceased; Louisa, the wife 
of L. W. Nicholson, of Nevada City; one daughter who died 
m infancy in Illinois ; H. C, the subject of this article ; E. A., 
a resident of San Francisco; Mary E., the wife of D. D. 
Calkins, of Watsonville; and one child who died in infancy. 
The three children first mentioned came to California with 
their mother from Illinois in 1863 via Panama. 

H. C. Weisenburger received his education in the public 
schools of Nevada City, and subsequently prepared himself 
for a business career by learning the carpenter's trade, and 
later he and his elder brother followed contracting in Nevada 
City for a number of years. In the meantime, when he was 
about twenty years of age, he went to Bellingham, Wash., 
where for one year he was interested in the butchering busi- 
ness. Returning to Nevada City at the end of the time he 
and his brother again became associated in business, this 
time making a specialty of handling mining machinery and 
equipment. In the year 1890 they embarked in the grocery 
and feed- business and were on the high road to success when 
their entire establishment was destroyed by fire and there- 
after for a time they again took up contracting. H. C. 
Weisenburger later bought out a planing mill which he con- 
ducted for three years, but sold it out in 1898 and the same 
year came to Watsonville, which has since been the scene of 
his activities. For a time after locating here he carried on 
contracting and building, the last house which he built be- 
mg the residence of Dr. Watters. Later he accepted a posi- 
tion with the Charles Ford Company, in the furniture de- 
partment, and at the end of one year, in 1901, bought the 


nucleus of his present flourishing business which he con- 
ducted individually for six months when it was incorporated 
as the Weisenburger Company, of which he has been secre- 
tary and manager ever since. A small beginning was added 
to from time to time, until they now have one of the lead- 
mg furniture and house-furnishing enterprises in Santa Cruz 
county. The company has built up a large and extensive 
trade and occupies the entire first floor of the Weeks block 
on Main street, besides which they have a well-equipped shop 
and warehouse in the rear. Mr. Weisenburger, as secretary 
and manager, is conceded to be one of the most successful 
merchants in Watsonville, an honor which he worthily merits, 
for he has worked indefatigably to build up the patronage 
which the company enjoys today. 

Mr. Weisenburger 's marriage, April 6, 1889, united him 
with Miss Mary E. Shurtleff, at the time of her marriage a 
resident of Nevada City, although she is a native of Ken- 
tucky, her birth having occurred near Paris. The greater 
part of her life has been passed in the west, however, her 
parents having located in California during the early days. 
One child, Alice M., has been born of this marriage. No 
citizen of Watsonville has her welfare more keenly at heart 
than has Mr. Weisenburger, who for four years was a mem- 
ber of the city council, and previous to locating here he served 
as assessor of Nevada City for one term. Politically he be- 
lieves in prohibition and with his voice and vote does his part 
to overcome the traffic in liquor. In his religious afiiliations 
he is a member of the Christian church, and fraternally he 
is identified with the Masons, Odd Fellows, Woodmen of the 
World and Native Sons. 



The well-conducted drug store in Watsonville owned and 
managed by Mr, Kroiigh is one of the popular as well as one 
of the substantial places in town, the two causes contributing 
to this success being the complete line of needed commodities 
and the personality of the proprietor, who dispenses his wares 
with so much geniality and good-will. 

Mr. Krough is a native son of the state and of the town 
as well, his birth having occurred in Watsonville November 
10, 1872. His parents, Peter and Botella (Sandberg) Krough, 
were both natives of the province of Sleswick, at the time 
when it was under the Danish flag. By trade the father was a 
sea-captain and in this capacity had sailed from Denmark 
to many of the world's largest ports. On a number of occa- 
sions he was sent out on expeditions by the Danish govern- 
ment. He had visited the port of San Francisco in the capac- 
ity of sea captain several years before taking up his resi- 
dence in California, which he did in 1870. Locating at that 
time in Watsonville, he found employment with the well- 
known firm of Charles Ford Company, as representative of 
their lumber department, and the lumber interests of the 
town today are directly traceable to his efforts in early days. 
He passed away at the early age of forty-seven years, in 1881, 
while his wife survived until October 4, 1909. 

One of a family of five children born to his parents, Fred 
P. Krough received his education in the public schools of 
Watsonville and Salinas, the greater part of this being accom- 
plished prior to the age of twelve years, for after that he 
combined work in a drug store with his studies, and finally 
gave up the latter altogether after he had saved up the means 
with which to perfect himself for the druggist's profession. 
Going to Chicago, 111., in 1893 he entered Northwestern Uni- 


versity, from which institution he graduated with honors the 
following year, taking all of the three prizes offered, besides 
receiving honorable mention on account of the high average 
attained in all branches of studies. After his graduation he 
remained in Chicago for a time and upon coming to the west 
located in Sacramento, where for a time he tilled the position 
of prescription clerk in a drug store. From there he came to 
Watsonville and took up similar work, and in the spring of 
1897 established the business of which he has since been the 
proprietor, located in the Cooper block on Main street. Here 
may be found a complete line of pure drugs and medicines, 
also a fine line of fancy goods and supplies usual to a well- 
equipped drug store. 

Mr. Krough's marriage was celebrated in 1895 and united 
him with Eleanor Fonts, of Watsonville, and two children, 
Lucile and Thelma, have been born to them. Though the 
duties of his business absorb a great deal of his time Mr. 
Krough is not neglectful of his duties as a good citizen and 
is always ready to aid any measure that has the well-being 
of the community at heart. He served on the board that 
drafted the charter of Watsonville. Politically he is a Re- 
publican, and fraternally he holds membership with the Elks, 
Odd Fellows and with the Native Sons. 



Numerous pliilanthropie and religious movements have con- 
tributed tbeir aid to the moral upbuilding of Watsonville and 
among these none has been more successful in its efforts or 
more permanent in its influence than the Young Men 's Chris- 
tian Association, of which since 1902 Mr. McGowan has offi- 
ciated as president. For the year previous to his election as 
chief executive he served as a director. The history of this 
organization proves that it has met a long- felt want, offering 
to the young men of the community an excellent opportunity 
for the broadening of their lives along lines of the greatest 
helpfulness. A membership of forty-five constituted the 
nucleus of the present body. With that number as a start 
others were drawn into the movement and each year wit- 
nesses a substantial increase. The Association maintains 
a just pride in its building, a substantial structure with a 
frontage of fifty-nine feet and a depth of three hundred feet, 
erected at a cost of $22,000, on a lot valued at $5,000 occupy- 
ing a central location in the town. The building is equipped 
with the appurtenances necessary to a modern and model 
structure having for its object the development of the bodies 
and the training of the minds of the young. 

The McGowan family is of remote Scotch lineage, but at 
the time of the religious persecutions in Scotland some of the 
race crossed into Ireland and established homes there. John 
McGowan, who was born in Ireland, lost his father by death 
when he was a small child. In his youth he brought the 
widowed mother and the younger children to the United 
States and settled in New Jersey, near Trenton, where he 
made a successful but desperate struggle to support the fam- 
ily out of his small wages. In time other members of tlie 
family were able to work and his own wages were increased, 


so that the necessities of existence were never lacking from 
the home. After he had lived in New Jersey about seventeen 
years he came to California in 1864 and embarked in farming 
on the Hughes ranch. From that time until his death, in 
March of 1901, at the age of about seventy-eight, he devoted 
his energies wholly to ranch pursuits. 

The marriage of John McGowan united him with Eliza 
Jarvis, who was born in Ireland and died in California about 
the year 1872. Six children were born of the union. All 
attained mature years and all are still living except James, 
who in 1905 was killed by a falling tree. It is a noteworthy 
fact that the five survivors reside within three miles of one 
another and all have comfortable homes of their own. They 
are as follows : W. J., Sadie, R. H., Matt J. and H. T. At 
the family home in the Pajaro valley, Monterey county, near 
the line of Santa Cruz county. Matt J. McGowan was born 
October 30, 1866. The schools of the valley afforded him a 
fair education. During early manhood he devoted his atten- 
tion to general farming, but eventually he turned his atten- 
tion to fruit-growing. His ranch of one hundred and fifty 
acres lies three miles in a direct line from Watsonville and 
contains twenty-two acres of orchard, besides a large bed of 

While superintending the place personally, Mr. McGowan 
resides in Watsonville, where he has a pleasant abode at 
No. 551 Main street. During 1892 he married Miss Louisa 
Thompson, of Watsonville, who died October 7, 1902, leaving 
four children, namely: Alice, John and Cecil (twins) and 
Jarvis. His present wife was formerly Miss Jessie Ryason, 
of Watsonville, a lady well known in this city and universally 
admired for attractive qualities of mind and heart. Both 
Mr. and Mrs. McGowan are earnest communicants of the 
Presbyterian church and since about 1900 Mr. McGowan has 


officiated as a member of the board of trustees of the congre- 
gation. Fraternally he has been prominent in the local par- 
lor, Native Sons of the Golden AVest, and is now past presi- 
dent of the order. In addition he has been warmly interested 
in the Woodmen of the World, while his wife has been equally 
active in the Woman's Circle of AVoodcraft, and at the pres- 
ent time (1911) she is serving as president of El Pajaro Par- 
lor No. 35, Native Daughters. 


Personal qualifications of a superior order combined with 
thorough training for his profession have made the name of 
David F. Maher well known in legal circles in Watsonville, 
where for ten years he served efficiently as city attorney, and 
since retiring to private practice has gathered about him a 
clientele which speaks eloquently of his knowledge of the 
law and of his ability to cope successfully with intricate legal 
questions. A native of the city in which his name and abil- 
ities are so well known, he was born in Watsonville November 
10, 1866, the son of Thomas and Hannah (Mackey) Maher, 
both of whom were born and reared in Ireland. By trade the 
father was a machinist and blacksmith, his thorough knowl- 
edge of which he found of inestimable value, when, as a young 
man, in 1856, he came to this country and located in Wat- 
sonville, Cal. On Main street he established a machine and 
blacksmitli shop, where now is located the city hall, and main- 
tained a thriving business until 1874, when he met with an 
accident in his work that affected his eyesight so seriously 
that he was compelled to retire from active duties. In 1877 
he went to Minnesota, but two years later returned to Cali- 
fornia and located in Sacramento, in 1882 came to Santa 


Cruz, and in 1884 located once more in Watsonville, where 
he was making his home at the time of his death in 1898, at 
the age of sixty-seven years. Five children comprised the 
family of Thomas and Hannah (Mackey) Maher, but one of 
the number is deceased. 

David F, Maher received his preparatory education in the 
public schools of Sacramento, Santa Cruz and Watsonville, 
and thus laid the substantial foundation upon which in later 
years he builded so wisely and well. Ambition rather than 
necessity led him, while still a boy, to begin his independent 
career, and for a time he filled the position of roller boy in 
the office of the Fajaronian, a newspaper in Watsonville, and 
subsequently he entered the office of the Watsonville Tran- 
script for the purpose of learning the printer's trade. Being 
an apt pupil he readily acquired a knowledge of the printing 
business in all of its details and finally was made foreman 
of the Transcript office. It was while filling this position that 
he began reading law, the greater part of this being done 
after his day's work at the office was over. Finally, in 1891, 
he resigned his position in Watsonville, and going to San 
Francisco secured a similar position and at the same time 
continued his legal studies. Having in the meantime com- 
pleted his studies he finally returned to Watsonville and was 
admitted to the bar before Judge McCann in 1893. It was 
about this time also that he received his appointment as city 
attorney, a position which he filled acceptably for ten years 
altogether. In order to perfect himself in his profession he 
took a course in the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, 
graduating from that institution with the degree of LL. B. 
Mr. Maher 's entire legal career has been passed in Watson- 
ville, where from the first he had received the patronage of 
the best class of citizens, who recognize and appreciate his 
ability and in giving liim their accounts, do so with the knowl- 


edge that their interests will be protected. At first Mr. 
Maher had a partner in L. D. Holbrook, business being car- 
ried on under the name of Holbrook & Malier, but after about 
six years the partnership was dissolved and since then Mr. 
Maher has continued in practice alone. In addition to his 
private practice he acts as attorney for a number of corpora- 

In Ann Arbor, Mich., June 23, 1897, Mr. Maher was united 
in marriage with Marie E. Bruegel, a native of that city, and 
three children, Waldo, Oscar and Rolland, have been born to 
them. Since 1893 Mr. Maher has been qualified to act in the 
capacity of notary public. Fraternally he belongs to the 
Masonic order. Odd Fellows, Woodmen of the World, Elks, 
Knights of Pythias and also to the Native Sons of the Golden 
West. In his political leanings he is and always has been a 
staunch Republican. 


The owner and proprietor of the Watsonville bottling 
works has been a resident of California ever since a youth 
of seventeen years, at which time, in 1884, he secured employ- 
ment in the sugar factory owned by Claus Spreckels and lo- 
cated in San Francisco. Being entirely inexperienced, at first 
he received only meagre wages, but his salary was increased 
as his usefulness was demonstrated and in a very few years 
after he had started with the company he had risen to a posi- 
tion of considerable trust. During the year 1888 the com- 
pany sent him to Honolulu to fill an important position in 
their plant on the Hawaiian islands, where he continued for 
three years, being sent back to San Francisco in 1891 to re- 
sume work in the plant at that point. In the interests of the 


same company he was requested to come to Watsonville in 
1893 and it was in this way that he became a resident of the 
city with whose commercial enterprises he has been person- 
ally connected ever since his arrival. 

After having filled the position of sugar-boiler for the com- 
pany for a considerable period, Mr. Petersen began to find 
a salaried position unsatisfactory and he decided to embark 
in business for himself. It was during 1895 that he em- 
barked in his present business as proprietor of a bottling 
plant and since then he has built up the largest business of 
its kind in Santa Cruz county. The satisfactory result at- 
tained may be attributed to his determination and energy. 
When he started he had nothing, yet in a comparatively brief 
period he has developed an industry profitable to himself and 
capable of further development. To the already extensive 
business in 1904 he added a plant for the manufacture of 
soda and since then he has kept on hand practically every 
kind of soft drink to be found on the market. In addition he 
acts as agent for the sale of a variety of mineral waters. The 
plant is situated on Kearney street, Watsonville, and contains 
the equipment necessary for the successful prosecution of the 
business. In October, 1910, he erected a comfortable home, 
modern in appointments, on Lake avenue, and here he makes 
his home with his family. 

Keenly interested in political issues and firm in his ad- 
vocacy of independent principles, Mr. Petersen has been 
active in civic affairs ever since he became a citizen of Wat- 
sonville. During 1907 he was elected a member of the board 
of aldermen for a term of two years and at the expiration of 
the time in 1909 he was again chosen alderman, this time 
for a term of four years. In the council he favors progressive 
enterprises and is ever on the alert to further movements for 
the general welfare, believing that the growth of a town is 


commensurate with the public spirit and ambition of its peo- 
ple. In fraternal relations he is connected with the Knights 
of Pythias, Order of Eagles, Foresters of America and 
Knights of the Royal Arch. With a number of these organ- 
izations he became identified as a charter member upon their 
establishment in AVatsonville. The work of the fire depart- 
ment has enlisted his support and as a volunteer in the same 
he has been of use in promoting a civic enterprise of accepted 
importance. The marriage of Mr. Petersen was solemnized 
in 1897 and united him with Miss Minnie Nohrden, by whom 
he has one child, Violet, born in 1899. The entire life of Mrs. 
Petersen has been passed within the limits of California and 
she has many friends among those who have enjoyed her 
acquaintance. Born in San Francisco and reared in Watson- 
ville, she is a daughter of the late Henry Nohrden, who for 
years before his demise occupied a high position among the 
influential citizens of Watsonville. 


Now retired from the active business cares which have en- 
grossed his attention for so many years, William W. Rey- 
nolds is rounding out the years of a well-spent manhood in 
his comfortable and substantial residence at No. 196 Water 
street, Santa Cruz, having been a resident of this city for 
over half a century. Mr. Reynolds is a native of the south, 
his birth having occurred in Eastern Tennessee April 1, 1833. 
He is a son of Nehemiah and Phebe (Woolsey) Reynolds, 
both of whom were descendants of old southern families. The 
history of the Woolsey family can be traced as far back as 
1793, and included among its members are the Rev. W. B. 
Woolsey, who founded Woolsey College, in Greene county, 


Tenn. Nehemiah RejTiolds was born in 1811 and passed away 
in 1874. Between these dates was enacted a career that par- 
took largely of the sterner side of life, not the least of his 
trying experiences being his expedition across the plains in 
1850. With him came his son William W., who was then 
about seventeen years old, and who made the entire distance 
on foot, with the exception of three days, when he was obliged 
to ride on account of sickness. The wife and mother died in 
Missouri in 1850, one month after the father and son started 
for California. The lives of the travelers were in constant 
jeopardy on account of attacks from Indians, and Mr. Rey- 
nolds still has a scar on his leg where he was shot by one of 
them. After reaching their destination father and son went 
to the mines, first in Amador county, later in Placer county, 
and still later in Calaveras county, following mining alto- 
gether for about five years. Being a carpenter by trade 
William Reynolds was frequently called upon to build flumes 
and sluice-ways for the miners, work which was not only con- 
genial, but furnished him with a dependable income. 

Giving up work in the mines in 1856, William W. R-eynolds 
came to Santa Cruz county the same year and locating in the 
town of the same name, began to work at his trade of car- 
penter and builder in earnest. The fact that he was one of 
the first builders to locate here necessarily enlarged his op- 
portunities, and so conscientiously did he carry out the con- 
tracts entrusted to him that those who employed him once 
were sure to seek his services on their next contract. Many 
of the buildings erected by Mr. Reynolds during the early 
days are still standing, in an excellent state of preservation, 
and bear silent testimony to his splendid workmanship. He 
assisted in building the Odd Fellows block, which has three 
times been partially destroyed by fire, and he also assisted 
in building the old clock which adorns the tower. Ever since 


locating iu Santa Cruz in 1856 Mr. Reynolds has made his 
home here continuously, with the exception of two years spent 
in Mexico following his trade, during which time he erected 
the old custom house at Ensenada. He enlisted for service in 
the state militia and was mustered in the Union army as a 
member of Company G, Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, 
just before the beginning of the Civil war in 1861, becoming 
first lieutenant of his company. He was kept in California, 
however, so was prevented from taking part in active service. 

The marriage of Mr. Reynolds, which was solemnized Janu- 
ary 4, 1865, united him with Mary Simpson, a native of Scot- 
land. She passed away October 4, 1909, mourned by a large 
circle of friends who had been endeared to her by her many 
kindly traits of character. 

George W. Reynolds, a brother of the subject of this sketch, 
was captain under Gen. Joseph Lane in the Indian wars on 
the Pacific coast for the United States government. By pro- 
fession he was a physician and surgeon and subsequently 
served in that capacity for the government. 


The first member of this branch of the Kelly family to 
locate in the United States was Eugene Kelly, one of four 
brothers, and a grand-uncle of Edward J. Kelly, who came 
to this country from Ireland in the early part of the nine- 
teenth century, and ultimately became one of the first land- 
owners in the Pajaro valley, Santa Cruz county, Cal. A man 
of penetration and possessing a keen business understanding, 
he grasped opportunities as they presented themselves and 
in time became a prominent factor in the upbuilding of his 
<;ommunitv. His abilities however were not confined to this 


locality, but extended to San Francisco, where he was the 
founder of the wholesale dry goods establishment of Murphy 
& Grant and one of the founders of the Donohoe-Kelly Bank, 
also the founder of the Eugene Kelly Co. Bank, of New York 

The father of the gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch, Edward Kelly, was also a native of the Emerald 
Isle. In young manhood he immigrated to the United States, 
and for a time made his home in Illinois, but finally came 
to California. Returning to New York City from Illinois, 
he embarked on a vessel bound for the west, and after a 
voyage attended with the usual experiences and hardships 
he finally reached the Pajaro valley in 1850. He at once 
entered upon a farming and stock-raising enterprise which 
he continued for over thirty years, or until his death in 
1884. His wife, who in maidenhood was Ellen McAleer, was 
like himself a native of Ireland, but has been a resident of 
California since 1873. Two children were born of the mar- 
riage of Edward and Ellen (McAleer) Kelly, Mary E. and 
Edward J. 

Born near Watsonville in 1876, Edward J. Kelly was reared 
and educated in the vicinity of his birth. After graduating 
with credit from the grammar school of Watsonville he took 
a course of instruction in Santa Clara College, graduating 
therefrom in 1897. A predilection for the legal profession 
determined him to take a course in Columbia University in 
New York City, from which he graduated in 1902 with the 
degree of LL. B. The same year in which he graduated he 
was admitted to the bar in New York City and practiced his 
profession there for one year. Returning to California at 
the end of that time, he located in Watsonville but instead of 
following his profession at that time, he engaged in raising 
apples on one hundred and fifty acres of land in this vicinity, 


on tlie border of Kelly lake. He continued this business ex- 
clusively for six years, wlien, having in the meantime (1908) 
been admitted to the California bar. he opened an office for 
the practice of his profession in Watsonville and has since 
built up a satisfactory practice. He still maintains his or- 
chard, which increases in value and productiveness from year 
to year. Fraternally Mr. Kelly is identified with but one 
order, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks of Santa 
Cruz, holding membership in Lodge No. 824. 


Old Father Time has brought many changes to Watsonville 
since first Mr. Wood established his home in this then vil- 
lage, almost forty years ago. An unattractive hamlet, crude 
in architecture and barren of adornment, met the eyes of the 
few visitors whom the search for homes or the demands of 
business brought hither. In the transformation wrought dur- 
ing the passing years Mr. Wood has borne his part. The 
contribution that lie has made to material advancement is 
of especial value, by reason of the fact that as a contractor 
and builder he has introduced needed changes in architecture 
whereby the style of building has been brought into harmon- 
ious relationship with the climate. While utility has not 
been made secondary, greater prominence has been given to 
the artistic element in building. As a result the architecture 
of Watsonville and the surrounding valley elicits the warm- 
est encomiums from those whose delightful privilege it is 
to visit the city. 

New York City is the native home of Mr. Wood and June 
21, 1847, the date of his birth. The family comprised but 
two children, the elder being John W., who died in 1868, at 


the age of twenty-five years. The father, Abraham Chase 
Wood, a native of Orange eoiiuty, N. Y., and for some years 
an employe of an ice company in New York City, came to 
California in 1853 and engaged in mining for some years. In 
3858 he became interested in ranching in Monterey county. 
Next he engaged in tlie teaming business in Watsonville and 
also did a large business in breaking colts, for which work he 
had a special aptitude. While living in Monterey county in 
1861 he became a Mason, while before he left New York he 
had identified himself with the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. His death occurred in Watsonville in August of 
1900, at the age of seventy-six years and six months. A 
year before he died he had lost his wife, Charlotte A. (Robin- 
son) Wood, who passed away at the age of seventy-two years 
and six months. 

It was on the 31st of December, 1856, that Hiram Jacob 
Wood, with his mother and brother, arrived in San Fran- 
cisco, where they for a time made their home and where he 
attended the public schools, later learning the trade of a 
carpenter. From 1868 to 1872 he worked at his trade in 
San Juan, and during November of 1872 he removed to Wat- 
sonville, where he worked as a carpenter under James 
Waters. At the expiration of four years he began to take 
contracts for building. The first house that he erected stood 
on the east side of the plaza and is now owned by S. H. 
Fletcher, but was built for Jerome Porter. The fine work- 
manship noticeable in the Moreland Notre Dame Academj" 
is due to his conscientious labors during the filling of the 
contract. The Spreckels residence in the town of the same 
name was erected by him, also the John T. Porter building, 
as well as banks in Watsonville and Gilroy, and residences 
m these two cities, also at Salinas and other places. At 
various times he erected liouses for himself, but these were 


sold to other parties, and he had now completed for his 
family a commodious house on Jefferson street. Many car- 
penters have been furnished employment by him during the 
busy times and he has taken pride in the prompt filling of 
all contracts. 

While devoting his attention closely to the building busi- 
ness, Mr. Wood has neglected no duty falling upon a pro- 
gressive citizen. Helpful to local enterprises, he has been 
quick to respond to appeals for aid in cases where the ob- 
ject to be attained was without question one of value to the 
growth of the place. Under the new city charter he was 
elected a member of the board of aldermen and has given 
faithful service in that position for a number of years. His 
marriage united him with Annie, daughter of Asa Ross, of 
Santa Rosa, a native of Missouri. They are the parents of 
five children, namely: Jesse C, a plumber by occupation 
and married to Carrie B. Judd, of Watsonville; Lottie B., a 
teacher by profession who died January 17, 1907; Annie May, 
wife of H. L. Towle of San Francisco ; Estella H. ; and Leona 
Gertrude, at home. 


The district attorney of Santa Cruz county has been a life- 
long resident of the city of Santa Cruz, where he was born 
August 28, 1874, and where since attaining manhood he has 
been an influential citizen and successful lawyer. His father, 
Benjamin Knight, M. D., came here from Rhode Island in 
1869 and continued in professional labors from that time un- 
til his death during December of 1905, meanwhile attaining 
high rank for skill and success in the treatment of disease. 
For some time before his demise he had the distinction of be- 


ing, in point of years of active practice, the oldest physician 
in the entire county. AVhile especially prominent through his 
professional associations, he was also a leader in civic move- 
ments and bore an active connection with many projects of un- 
doubted value in the permanent welfare of the community, 
so that his death was a loss not alone to the medical frater- 
nity, but also to the entire citizenship. 

The early education of Benjamin K. Knight was secured in 
the schools of Santa Cruz, and after he had completed the 
course of study connected therewith he secured employment 
in the ofifice of District Attorney Lindsey, where he remained 
for one year. In 1891 he matriculated in the Hastings Law 
School at San Francisco, and there pursued his studies with 
steadfast devotion. In order that he might enjoy special ad- 
vantages for professional work, during the fall of 1893 he 
entered the law department of the University of Michigan 
and there took the regular course of study, graduating in 
1895 with an excellent class standing. On his return to Santa 
Cruz he entered the office of the district attorney as an assis- 
tant during September, 1895, and continued to fill the same 
position until the fall of 1898, when Mr. Lindsey retired from 
the office and Mr. Knight was elected. Since then he has 
filled the position with credit to himself and to the satisfac- 
tion of the people. During January of 1897 he was married, 
in San Jose, to Miss Helen Bliss, a native of Nova Scotia. By 
the union he is the father of three children, Benjamin B., 
Marion and Edith. The Native Sons of the Golden West 
number him among the leading members of the local parlor, 
and he also is very prominent among the Elks, ha^dng been 
honored with the office of exalted ruler of the Santa Cruz 
Lodge on the occasion of the second election held in the his- 
tory of the organization. Like his father, he is progTessive 
and pubhc-spirited, warmly interested in measures for the 


common welfare, eager to advance local prosperity, enthus- 
iastic in his faith in the possibilities of his native city and a 
generous contributor to the advancement of projects for the 
benefit of town and county. 


The suns of many summers have ripened the rich harvests 
of grain and have tinged with red and golden hues the luscious 
fruits grown on California's fertile soil, since M. V. Bennett 
passed out of active identification with the development of 
Santa Cruz county and from this life entered into the life 
eternal. Notwithstanding the long period that has elapsed 
since his death, his memory lingers green and fresh in the 
hearts of the older citizens of Santa Cruz. Among the pio- 
neers his name is often mentioned and his personality is un- 
f orgotten. To the generation that has grown to maturity since 
his demise he is known principally through their profound 
admiration for his widow, who interests the young people by 
narrating many stories connected with pioneer days in Santa 
Cruz, dei3icting before their vision the many changes wrought 
through the arduous eiforts of the early settlers. In her com- 
fortable home, an attractive bungalow on Mission street, she 
entertains friends by vivid accounts of pioneer experiences, 
concerning which she retains a minute recollection. In the old 
Roman Catholic church of this city she was an active worker 
and she and Mrs. E. A, Culverwell sang there as members 
of its first American choir. Not only religious activities, but 
also the most cultured social functions, received the benefit 
of her refined tastes and enthusiastic leadership. 

Born in Arkansas October 18, 1836, M. V. Bennett was only 
six years of age when the family came to the west. In those 


days little attempt had been made to settle the regions west 
of the Missouri river. The wild mountain fastnesses and 
dreary plains were given over to the buffalo, to other wild 
animals and to the savages. To attempt to cross the plains 
was to face an almost certain death, yet the emigrant family, 
with courage unsurpassed, joined the first emigrant party 
that ever crossed the plains. The year 1842 witnessed the 
removal of the caravan from the regions of civilization 
through the deserts and over the plains to the unbroken and 
untitled lands of the northwest. Oregon was the destination 
of the party and through manifold dangers they traveled 
thither. No friendly hands had blazed a path for them to 
follow. Their task it was to find a fording place across the 
streams and to open a highway through the dense forests. 

The expiration of eight months of travel found the party 
in Oregon, but the Bennett family very shortly proceeded 
southward to California, where as yet few Americans had pre- 
ceded them. The father became the owner of land in Santa 
Clara county and property in San Francisco that afterward 
acquired great value. When he came to Santa Cruz he built 
the first saw-mill in the county, locating it on Love creek 
near the village of Felton. The boyhood days of M. V. Ben- 
nett were spent principally in Santa Clara county and he was 
educated in the Methodist College at San Jose, where he was 
a schoolmate of C. B. Younger and other men afterward 
prominent in the history of California. After leaving college 
he was sent east to Rhode Island and took a course of study 
in civil engineering at Providence. On his return to Cali- 
fornia he associated himself with his father in the lumber 
business near Felton. Later he removed to Santa Cruz. For 
eight years he served as county assessor and for a long period 
he also officiated as county surveyor. While filling the lat- 
ter position he had charge of the re-survey and subdivision 


of the famous Lompoc rancbo of forty-seven thousand acres, 
also the San Julian rancho in Santa Barbara county, both 
of these extensive properties being owned by Colonel Hol- 
lister, who was one of the leading men in the early history 
of this part of the state. 

The high standing of Mr. Bennett as a civil engineer led to 
his appointment in 1881 to fill a position as mineral surveyor 
in Mexico, and he remained there in the employ of a large 
mining company until his death, M)arch 28, 1884. The passing 
of this prominent citizen was mourned in Santa Cruz county, 
where he had been a leachng man of affairs and the owner 
of valuable property interests. Fraternally he was connected 
with the Knights of Honor and the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows. His marriage had been solemnized in Santa 
Cruz May 6, 1861, and united him with Miss Mary J. Boyle, 
a native of Massachusetts, and a member of a pioneer fam- 
ily of the western coast. Six children were born of their union, 
but the sole survivor is Mrs. C. E. Towne, of Santa Cruz. 


To a period antedating the American occupancy of Cali- 
fornia the identification of the ancestors of Mr. Canfield with 
the history of the coast country may be traced and he him- 
self has been a lifelong resident of the state, his birth hav- 
ing occurred in the city of Monterey October 31, 1865. His 
maternal grandfather, James Watson, was an honored and 
distinguished pioneer of Monterey, where he opened and con- 
ducted a general store, one of the first to be established in 
that place. Among his friends none was more prominent than 
Gen. John C. Fremont and it was his privilege to assist that 
great ''pathfinder" in his early explorations under the aus- 


pices of the United States government. The two men formed 
a warm friendship which neither time nor absence served to 
lessen. They were alike in their fearless temperaments and 
in their desire to promote the settlement of the west. 

The father of C. E. Canfield was no less prominent than 
the grandfather. Colbert A. Canfield, M. D., the first physi 
cian resident at the Presidio and for years an official of the 
old custom house at Monterey, contributed greatly to the de- 
velopment of Monterey county along lines of permanent 
value. His knowledge of the west brought him recognition 
throughout the entire country. The possessor of varied tal- 
ents, which found their outlet in many fields of usefulness, he 
became most widely known through his articles published in 
magazines and through his profound ability as a writer and 
thinker. During a long period he acted as Pacific coast agent 
for the Smithsonian Institute. Conchology was one of his 
leading hobbies and it was possible for him to gratify his de- 
sire for study in that specialty. A splendid collection of 
shells rewarded his assiduous labor. Articles on the subject 
from his pen frequently appeared in leading periodicals and 
he was recognized as an authority concerning the shells on 
the Pacific coast. 

The public schools of Monterey and Santa Cruz afforded 
C. E. Canfield an opportunity to acquire a fair education. 
Upon leaving school he secured employment as a clerk in a 
grocery in Santa Cruz, and later in 1892 he started in the 
grocery business on his own account with F. H. Stikeman. 
After two years he bought out Mr. Stikeman and continued 
the business alone until 1898, when he sold out, after which 
he became a commercial traveler for a wholesale house. Two 
years were spent on the road. Later he engaged in promot- 
ing the oil business in Bakersfield and at Santa Maria, but 
more recently he has been interested in the real-estate and 


insurance business, transacting a brokerage business in real 
estate throughout the entire state. As agent for fire, life and 
accident insurance companies, he has established a business of 
considerable importance, the work of which demands much 
of his time. The only fraternal organization with which he 
is identified is the Native Sons of the Golden West and in 
the work of this order he has been interested and active. His 
attractive residence in Santa Cruz is presided over by his 
accomplished wife, whom he married April 19, 1893, and who 
was formerly Miss Cora B. Picknell, member of a pioneer 
family and herself a native of the state. They are the par- 
ents of two sons, Carlton E. and Laurence P., who are now 
students in the local schools. 


Perhaps no profession has proved more alluring to ambi- 
tious and educated young men than that of the law and among 
the many who have chosen its practice with every reasonable 
hope of success, mention belongs to Charles M. Cassin of 
Santa Cruz. It is his good fortune to possess the natural 
endowments of mind without which professional prominence 
is impossible. Supplementary to these splendid native en- 
dowments is the education which has enabled him to utilize 
these gifts and enlarge their field of usefulness. In the past 
he has laid the foundation of broad knowledge of the law 
without which success cannot be reached. For the future there 
are not wanting friends to predict an increasing prominence 
and professional influence. His popularity among the mem- 
bers of the bar led to his election as president of the Santa 
Cruz County Bar Association and in that honored post he is 
now officiating. 


The Cassin family belongs to sturdy pioneer stock. During 
the year 1859 Michael Cassin migrated to California and set- 
tled in San Francisco, where his son, Charles M., was born 
January 10, 1868. During the infancy of the son, in 1868, 
the father became an early settler of Monterey county. For 
many years he engaged in ranching in the Pajaro valley and 
from there he came to the city of Santa Cruz during the early 
'80s. Establishing a home in a comfortable cottage, he con- 
tinued to reside here until his death in 1907. Possessing the 
fearless courage and hardy constitution necesary to frontier 
labors, he was well qualified for the tasks confronting the 
pioneer, and during the long period of his residence in Cali- 
fornia he aided in the material upbuilding of the state. 

It was the privilege of Charles M. Cassin to receive excel- 
lent educational advantages. Upon completing the studies of 
the "Watson\411e public schools he entered Santa Clara College 
and there prosecuted the regular course, graduating in 1888 
with a high standing. From early youth he had planned his 
life with a view to entering the profession of law and he 
took up the study of the same in Notre Dame University in 
Indiana, but later took the regular course in the University 
of Michigan, besides which he had the advantage of study in 
the office of Judge Maguire in San Francisco. In the spring 
of 1891 he was graduated from the law department of the 
University of Michigan, where he had made a study of the 
general laws of our country, while his studies in San Fran- 
cisco were along the line of our state laws. January 1, 1893, 
he opened an office in Santa Cruz, where for two years he 
served as city attorney and where eventually he formed a 
partnership with H. C. Lucas under the firm name of Cassin 
& Lucas. At this writing he holds the presidency of the Santa 
Clara Alumni Association. The Native Sons of the Golden 
West number him among their active members. In addition 


lie has been very prominent in the Benevolent Protective Or- 
der of Elks, having been honored with the office of exalted 
ruler as well as numerous less conspicuous positions. During; 
1896 he was united in marriage with Miss Josephine Murphy, 
who was born and educated in Watsonville. They are the 
parents of six children, Katherine, Charles M., Jr., Marion, 
Gerald, Anna and Robert. 


Many of those who have become important factors in the 
making of this western commonwealth have been men of 
eastern birth and breeding, who with their quick perceptive 
faculties, practical judgment and energetic activity entered 
heartily into the upbuilding of the cities and towns in which 
they settled. As one of this number may be mentioned Louis 
M. Cox, of Santa Cruz, who at the time of his death in 1898 
had been a resident of this city for ten years. Accomplish- 
ments, however, rather than length of years mark one's value 
to a community, and in justice to Mr. Cox it may be said that 
wherever he chanced to make his home he supported heartily 
all uplifting measures and was one of the most enterprising 
and progressive citizens in his community. 

Born in New York City in 1828, Louis M'. Cox was the son 
of Joseph and Clara (Mjajastre) Cox, of English and French 
nativity respectively, who rounded out lives of useful activity. 
The father was a wholesale and retail silver merchant of 
England, and young Louis made frequent trips with him to 
the old country, acting in the capacity of interpreter, for 
from his earliest childhood he began to learn the French lan- 
guage and finally became a fluent French scholar. Upon 
reaching his majority he entered the employ of the New York 


Central Railroad at Batavia, N. Y., first in the capacity of 
assistant ticket agent and later as freight agent of the line. 
Altogether he continued with the company for many years, 
during this time advancing steadily in the esteem of his su- 
periors, and it has been said that he was one of the best book- 
keepers ever in the employ of the company. Too close devo- 
tion to his duties, however, made inroads upon his health to 
such an extent that he decided to give up his position with 
the railroad company and come to California. The voyage 
was made by way of Panama, and January 9, 1869, witnessed 
his arrival in San Francisco. In order to recuperate his health 
he wisely selected an occupation that would necessitate his 
being in the open air and in undertaking sheep raising he 
readily benefited in health. He was associated in the enter- 
prise with Joseph Guibal, and together they carried on an 
extensive sheep ranch on the Los Uvas creek, in Santa Clara 
county, eleven miles from Grilroy. The business was continued 
with great success for fifteen years, when Mr. Cox sold out 
Ms interest and removed to Watsonville, later was in San 
Bernardino for a time, and finally, in 1888, located in Santa 
Cruz. While in Watsonville he found frequent opportunity 
to make use of his knowledge of French, receiving for his 
services as interpreter $10 per day. After his removal to 
Santa Cruz he did not enter into active business affairs, but 
nevertheless he took a keen interest in the activities of the 
business world and was alert to foster and advance progres- 
sive measures. 

In New York City, October 2, 1851, Mr. Cox was united in 
marriage to Miss Frances A. Fryer, who was also a native of 
that metropolis and was a friend of his school days. Five 
children were born of this marriage, as follows : Louis M., a 
resident of Los Altos ; Victoria I., the wife of W. H. Farthing, 
of San Jose; Mary, the wife of M. K. MacDonald, of San 


Francisco; Albert, of Santa Cruz; and Joseph, who is head 
engineer of the Santa Clara Valley mill, in the city of that 
name. The mother of these children makes her home in Santa 
Cruz, in a pleasant residence on Ocean street, and is highly 
esteemed by her large circle of friends and acquaintances. She 
is a communicant of the Episcopal Church. The death of 
Mr. Cox, November 15, 1898, was not only a deep bereave- 
ment to his family, but also to his many friends, to whom 
he had become endeared through the possession of refinement 
of manner and other personal qualities. During his younger 
years he was a personal friend of Grover Cleveland, and was 
a frequent visitor at the home of the latter in Albany, N. Y. 

A. W. COX. 

The general manager of the Charles Ford Company is 
a native of New Zealand and was bom in 1865. His par- 
ents, both of whom are now deceased, spent many years 
in New Zealand, but during the year 1876 came to Califor- 
nia and settled in San Francisco. Eventually the father, 
E. J. Cox, organized the Bank of Santa Cruz county and 
became its cashier, filling that responsible position for four- 
teen years. At the completion of a common-school educa- 
tion and his graduation with the class of 1883, A. W. Cox 
became a student in the Chestnutwood Business College, 
where he completed the course and received a diploma. For 
about two years he held a position as bookkeeper, but resigned 
in order to enter the employ of the Loma Prieta Lumber Com- 
pany. June 8, 1887, he came to Watsonville in the capacity 
of bookkeeper for the Charles Ford Company and upon the 
incorporation of the company in 1890 he was chosen secre- 
tary, but later became general manager. In fraternal rela- 


tions he is identified with the Masons and Elks, but the re- 
sponsibilities of his business associations have been such as 
to preclude activity in the fraternities or in political affairs. 
His pleasant home in Watsonville is presided over by his 
accomplished wife, formerly Miss Mabel Goodwin, a resident 
of Santa Cruz. 

Ever since the establishment of Ford's store, its name 
has been a synonym for square dealing with all. As early as 
1853 Dr. Charles Ford "kept store" after the primitive 
fashion of the period, occupying a frame building of limited 
capacity. The proprietor had as a partner Lucius Sanborn and 
their commercial connection lasted during the lifetime of- 
the principals, who meanwhile became important factors in 
the business affairs of Santa Cruz county. They laid the 
foundations of the business broad and deep and strong. To- 
day those who conduct the business are reaping the benefit of 
their wise management years ago, and the store is especially 
a monument to the energy, enterprise and public spirit of 
the man whose name it bears. All of these qualities entered 
into the enterprise and contributed to its success. 

The business in time assumed large proportions and in 
1880 Mr. Sanborn retired, after an active connection with the 
company covering not much less than thirty years. A. A. 
Morey and .James S. Menasco, capable men who for years 
had been in the employ of Ford & Sanborn, were admitted 
into partnership and the title was changed to Charles Ford 
& Co. Later the Charles Ford Company was incorporated, 
February 28, 1890, with the following officers : Charles Ford, 
president; J. S. Menasco, vice-president; A. W. Cox, secre- 
tary; and F. A. Kilburn, treasurer. After the death of Dr. 
Ford, which occurred November 16, 1890, Lucius Sanborn 
was elected president and for five years remained in that posi- 


tion, after wliich F. A. Kilburn was chosen for the office. The 
death of Mr. Menasco July 5, 1909, removed another veteran 
official of the company, a man who for years had been in- 
timately associated with the development of the business and 
had labored unweariedly for its success. At this writing 
Judge Hiram D. Tuttle is president, A. W. Cox general man- 
ager, F. A. Kilburn first vice-president and treasurer, and 
Eugene Kelly, secretary. - 

Tlie largest block in the city is occupied by the company 
for the display and sale of goods. The store has a frontage 
of two hundred and thirty-eight feet on Main street and one 
hundred and fifty-five feet on East Third street. The front- 
age of the various departments is as follows : dry-goods, six- 
ty-five feet; groceries, twenty-eight; men's clothing, forty- 
five ; crockery, twenty ; hardware, twenty-five ; furniture, thir- 
ty-five ; and feed and produce, twenty. Three immense ware- 
houses and a yard covering three acres give the company the 
largest storage facilities of any concern in the central coast 
counties. An adequate corps of salespeople courteously fills 
the needs of customers, whose comfort is further enhanced 
by the perfect system of ventilation adopted throughout the 
block, the excellent method of lighting, and the orderly as 
well as artistic arrangement of the goods in every department. 


^AHiile the average Californian is usually an experienced 
traveler, few residents of the state have traveled as exten- 
sively by wagon as has Mr. Bardmess of Watsonville, who by 
the use of the "prairie schooner" has covered altogether 
almost twelve thousand miles. By this means he has gained 
a much more thorough knowledge of the country than can 


be gained by the tourist gazing from the car window. As the 
afternoon of his busy life draws toward its evening, he is 
content to abandon his travels and in his pleasant home at 
No. 129 Main street he frequently recounts tales of the past, 
with the stirring adventures that came to him in his trips 
from place to place. 

The colonial era witnessed the arrival of the Bardmess 
family in America from Germany. The first settlers chose 
homes in Pennsylvania. About one hundred and eight years 
ago some of the name proceeded west as far as Illinois, where 
Peter Bardmess, a native of Pennsylvania, spent the greater 
part of his life. However, eventually he removed to Missouri 
and at the age of sixty-five he died at Greenfield, that state. 
His wife, who bore the maiden name of Dorcas Keith, was 
born in Kentucky of German lineage and died in Douglas 
county, Mo., at about eighty-three years of age. Fifteen chil- 
dren comprised their family, nine sons and six daughters, 
and all but one of these attained to mature years. Only four 
are now living, Abram being one of the survivors. Born near 
Pinckneyville, Perry county, 111., August 23, 1836, he passed 
the years of early youth in industrious application to farm 
labors. In 1864 he enlisted in Company F, Thirteenth Illi- 
nois Cavalry, assigned to the Thirteenth Army Corps, under 
General Steele, and he remained in the service of the Union 
imtil after the close of the war, being mustered out at Pine 
Bluff, Ark., August 1, 1865. On his return to Illinois he aided 
on the home farm for a year and then spent a year on a 
farm near Neosho, Newton county, Mo., after which he so- 
journed at Batesville, Ark., for about five months. 

Going back once more to Illinois, Mr. Bardmess remained 
in that state for eighteen months and then returned to his 
former location in Missouri. Next he settled on a farm in 
Dade county, Mo., and from there went to a farm near Green- 


field. Meanwhile he had read much concerning the west and 
his love of travel and desire to see the western country led 
him to dispose of his Missouri possessions in 1881, when he 
came across the country to Nevada, settling on a farm near 
AVinnemucca, Humholdt county. Agriculture he found to be 
conducted along different lines there than in his previous 
locations and a study of the changes in soil, climate, and 
crops proved interesting to him. At the expiration of three 
years he returned to Douglas county. Mo., but in 1890 he 
again went to Humboldt county, Nev., this time remaining 
for five years. His next removal took him to Mendocino 
county, Cal., where he sojourned for a year. During the 
year 1894 he arrived in Watsonville. Two years later he 
went to Pomona, where he remained only seven months. His 
next removal took him through the Mojave valley to Eureka, 
Nev., where he remained for eighteen months, returning 
thence to Watsonville by wagon. Since then he has remained 
in this city, where he has a large circle of warm friends. 

The first wife of Mr. Bardmess, who bore the maiden name 
of Sophronia Lipe, died in Arkansas two years after their 
marriage.. The only child of that union is a son, Sherman, 
now residing in Watsonville. Later Mr. Bardmess married 
Katie Witter, a native of Germany, but she was taken from 
him by death only two and one-half months after marriage. 
His present wife, a lady of estimable character and energetic 
disposition, was Nancy R. Gardner, a native of Missouri. 
Seven children were born of this union, namely: Ira M., of 
Watsonville; John, who makes his home at Eureka, Nev.; 
Albert, living in San Francisco ; Mrs. Maggie Morgan, whose 
husband was accidentally killed in the lime quarry in 1906 
and who makes her home in Watsonville ; Garfield, of Eureka, 
Nev. ; Cyrus, of Watsonville ; and Lyda, wife of Bert Stacey, 
and a resident of Mayfield, Santa Clara county. Promi- 


nently identified with the Grand Army of the Republic, Mr. 
Bardmess has filled almost all of tlie chairs in the post and in 
1909 he represented his post in the Salt Lake encampment. 
In politics he gives stanch support to Republican principles, 
but never sought nor held office. 


A native of the east, G. B. V. DeLamater was born in New 
York City October 23, 1828. He was a boy of ten years when 
the family removed to Indiana and settled in the small vil- 
lage of Mishawaka, where he attended the schools and ob- 
tained a common-school education. The discovery of gold in 
California turned his thoughts toward the undeveloped riches 
of the far-distant land beside the sunset sea. Undaunted by 
the long distance to be traversed through dangers seen and 
unseen, he resolved to seek his fortune in the region whither 
Argonauts were wending from all parts of the world. Dur- 
ing the spring of 1850 he began the arduous journey in com- 
pany with a large expedition, among whom were Charles 
Crocker and his two brothers, H. S. and Clarke Crocker, of 
whom the first mentioned became prominent in California af- 
fairs. The caravan moved slowly but in safety across the 
plains and arrived at its destination, Sacramento, in the au- 
tumn. There Mr. DeLamater made his home for a number 
of years, being interested in mining in that vicinity, and ex- 
periencing the miner's luck of hope and discouragement, good 
' and ill fortune. During 1868 he abandoned further efforts at 
mining and with the means he had accumulated he embarked in 
general merchandising at Santa Cruz, where he erected the 
first brick building on Pacific avenue. In a short time he had 
established a satisfactory trade and had formed a large ac- 


quaintance among the people of the community, many of whom 
were among his warmest friends throughout the remainder 
of his life. Eventually he closed out the mercantile busi- 
ness and secured a position in the purchasing department of 
the Pacific Improvement Company at San Francisco, where 
he continued as a trusted employe until his death in 1896. 
Meanwhile, however, he had retained his home at the old loca- 
tion. No. 77 Ocean View avenue, and here his family still re- 
tain their abode, occupying the residence that commands a 
charming view and forms one of the many comfortable homes 
for which Santa Cruz is famous. Fraternally Mr. DeLamater 
took a warm interest in Masonry and politically he favored 
the principles of the Republican party, but did not maintain 
an active connection with politics. Surviving him are his 
widow, formerly Miss Eliza Cope, whom he married in 1864 
and who was a native of Missouri, and the following children : 
Schuyler C, of Santa Cruz; May, who married J. B. T. Tut- 
hill and resides in San Jose ; Jessie, the widow of J. Enright ; 
and Grace, who married W. Williamson and is living in Santa 


The chief of police of Watsonville has spent his entire life 
in the city whose police department for some years has been 
under his capable charge. The excellent schools of the town 
afforded bim a fair education in preparation for the responsi- 
bilities of business affairs. Now in the prime of manhood 
(his birth having occurred August 2, 1876) he is well qualified 
to advance the material prosperity of his native city by his 
efficient labors as a private citizen; while in addition he has 
restrained vice and minimized crime through his fearless, 
energetic administration as head of the police department. 


Many of his leisure hours have been devoted to base ball, a 
game of which he is enthusiastically fond, and during the 
seasons of 1909 and 1910 he acted as manager of the Watson- 
ville team, which won the pennant both seasons largely as a 
result of his skilled supervision. 

Tlie Albright family was founded in the Pajaro valley dur- 
ing the year 1865, when Joseph Albright crossed the plains 
from Iowa, his native commonwealth. After coming here he 
made tlie acquaintance of Jane Bonton, a native of Oregon, 
and they were married in the valley, beginning to keep house 
in the city of Watsonville, where he died July 26, 1908. Since 
his death she has remained a resident of this city. All of 
their six children are stiU living. William resides in Wat- 
sonville; May married Frank Tuttle; Josephine married 
George H. Leland, of Los Angeles ; Myrtle is the wife of Ed- 
ward J. Kelly; Thomas J. and Etta live in Watsonville. 
Thomas J., who was next to the youngest among the six 
children, passed the years of boyhood and youth in the pa- 
rental home and after leaving school began to learn the trade 
of a blacksmith, in which he became unusually proficient. 
Ever since learning the trade he has been interested in black- 
smithing and among the people he has a reputation as one of 
the most skilled farriers in the entire valley. 

Political questions have always interested Mr. Albright. 
AVlien a mere boy he spent considerable time in puzzling over 
problems as to the tariff and other matters of national im- 
portance. The result is that he possesses broader informa- 
tion than most citizens upon issues confronting our nation. 
Yet no partisanship spirit is discernible in his work; on the 
contrary, he is said to be liberal in views and willing to 
concede to others the freedom of thought he demands for 
himself. Some years ago he was selected as possessing the 
qualities necessary in the office of chief of police and at this 


writing he is serving Ids second term in the position. As 
an official he has been conscientious and resourceful, and his 
re-election furnishes abundant testimony as to the satisfac- 
tory nature of his labors. In fraternal relations he is con- 
nected with the Elks. His pleasant home is presided over by 
his wife, formerly Miss Eva Aston, whom he married August 
26, 1900, and who is a member of a family of this city. They 
are the parents of two children, Melva and Doris. 


An inspiring impetus has been given to the development 
of America by the immigration hither of sturdy, healthful 
and energetic families from the older countries of the world. 
Especially are we indebted to Germany for a desirable acces- 
sion to our citizenship. The Teutonic race has mingled with 
the Anglo-Saxon in peace and harmony, the two laboring side 
by side in the building up of homes in the new world. The 
Freiermuth patronymic indicates the Teutonic origin of the 
family, but several generations have resided in the United 
States and the present representatives are ardently loyal to 
the institutions of our country, public-spirited in civic affairs 
and well-informed regarding governmental problems. It was 
during the year 1853 that the name became established in 
America, the original emigrants settling in Minnesota, where 
P. J. Freiermuth, then a child of three years, received a fair 
English education. At the age of eighteen years, during the 
year 1868, he left Minnesota to seek a livelihood on the Pacific 
coast, being induced to come to Watsonville by reason of the 
residence here of an uncle, George H. Freiermuth, a pioneer 
of the Pajaro valley and for years the proprietor of a plumb- 
ing and tinner's shop. 


Thorough instruction given by the uncle in every detail of 
the trade enabled the young man to gain a knowledge of the 
plumber's business that has since proved of the utmost assist- 
ance to him. In addition he learned the tinner's trade so that 
he became competent to do such work with promptness and 
skill. With the exception of a year spent in the plumbing 
business in San Francisco he remained with his uncle until 
1882, when he began to operate a hardware store of his own, 
combining with the same a tinning and plumbing shop. The 
remainder of his life was devoted to business pursuits and 
he continued at the head' of his store until his death, which 
occurred March 29, 1904. About two years before his demise 
he had been bereaved by the loss of his wife, Permelia 
(Chapin) Freiermuth. Throughout the entire period of his 
residence in Watsonville he maintained a warm interest in 
civic affairs and on one occasion he was elected town trustee, 
which office he filled faithfully for one term. 

There were five children in the parental family. The older 
daughter is the wife of Philip Sheehy, an attorney of Wat- 
sonville. The three youngest children are George, Vincent 
and Theresa. The eldest son, H. D., has been a lifelong resi- 
dent of Watsonville, where he was born October 17, 1879, 
and where he received a common-school education, later hav- 
ing the advantage of study in St. Mary's College at Oakland. 
Upon the completion of the course of study in that institu- 
tion in ] 898 he became identified with his father 's store. Pre- 
vious to this, during school vacations, he had acquired a 
knowledge of plumbing and tinning. The business is still 
conducted under the name of its former owner, P. J. Freier- 
muth, the son, H. D., acting as manager in the interests of 
the estate. A complete assortment of hardware and all of 
the equipment necessary for plumbing and tinning may be 
found in the store, which occupies an excellent location in the 


Freiermuth block, at Nos. 247-249 Main street. Many of the 
present customers are citizens who began to trade with the 
fonner proprietor twenty-five or more years ago, while in 
addition there is an excellent patronage from among the 
people more recently identified with onr citizenship. 

In common with many other native Calif ornians Mr. Freier- 
muth finds enjoyment and interest in his association with the 
Native Sons, his membership being in the parlor of Watson- 
ville, his native city. Other fraternal relations include con- 
nection with the Knights of Columbus, the Benevolent Pro- 
tective Order of Elks and the American Order of Foresters, 
in each of which he maintains a warm interest, contributing 
to their charities as his means permit. Like his father, he 
is warmly interested in public affairs and believes it to be the 
duty of every public-spirited citizen to keep posted concern- 
ing the issues before state and nation. For three years he 
has been a member of the city council and during that time 
he has been a stalwart champion of progressive enterprises 
looking toward civic growth. He has a pleasant home in 
Watsonville, presided over by his accomplished wife, whom 
he married January 25, 1903, and wlio was formerly Miss Lou 
Webb, of Oakland. They are the parents of two sons and 
two daughters, Peter, Arthur, Ruth and Elizabeth. 



Comparatively few remain among iis of that noble band 
of pioneers known as the Forty-niners. By far the greater 
mnnber of them have crossed the shadowy river of death and 
have anchored their frail life-crafts at the harbor of eternity. 
The Golden Gate that has opened unto their vision immeasur- 
ably surpasses the one that burst upon their welcome sight at 
the end of the long cruise toward the land of the Argonaut. 
To such of the pioneers as are spared to the twentieth cen- 
tury, comes the inestimable privilege of witnessing the pros- 
perity of the rich commonwealth whose resources they first 
exploited abroad. Not theirs alone to toil and strive far 
from civilization's uplifting influence, but theirs also to reap 
the rich harvest of the seed sown many long years gone by. 

It has been the privilege of Robert Burland, an honored 
pioneer of 1849, to witness the remarkable development of 
California, and as he studies the history of its past he might 
appropriately exclaim, '^AU of which I saw and part of which 
I was." No occasion for regret has ever come to him, but on 
the other hand he rejoices that Destiny turned his steps from 
the bleak land of Canada, where he was born, January 1, 
1827, and from the rigorous climate of Massachusetts, where 
he was reared, from the age of nine years, to the fair land 
of California, where the twilight of his useful existence is 
being happily passed in the enjoyment of comforts rendered 
possible by years of activity. A son of Benjamin Burland, he 
was only nineteen years of age when he came to California 
via the Isthmus of Panama, and landed at San Francisco, 
thence removing to Sacramento. Like the majority of the 
early-comers he engaged in mining for a time, going from 
Sacramento to Downieville and thence to Michigan Bluff, 
Placer county, where also he conducted a livery and a stage 


business. In conjunction with the California Stage Com- 
pany, he operated a stage from Yankee Jim's to Michigan 
Bluff. While engaged in the stage business he met many of 
the most enthusiastic miners of that period and also became 
acquainted with a number of men afterward associated with 
the history of the state. 

Coming to the Pajaro valley September 15, 1859, Mr. Bur- 
land at once decided to settle in a region whose soil he found 
to be rich and whose climate was exceptionally attractive. 
Soon he was able to secure land suitable for ranching and 
stock-raising and he continued extensively engaged in the 
stock business until the severe drought of 1864 entailed upon 
him a very heavy loss. Later he became interested in horti- 
culture. The raising of fruit proved to be a profitable ven- 
ture and enabled him to wipe out the losses caused by the 
memorable season of 1864. His fruit interests are still large 
and important, ])ut he gives less attention to them than in 
younger years. For some time he has been practically re- 
tired from active cares and is making his home in Watson- 
ville, where he has a large circle of warm personal friends. 
A life of more than eighty years has given him a broad ex- 
perience and a wide knowledge. Age has not impaired his 
memory nor lessened his interest in public affairs, but he 
remains now, as in the past, a progressive, patriotic citizen. 
As early as 1852 he was made a Mason in Michigan Bluff 
Lodge No. 47, F. & A. M., in Placer county, and ever since 
then he has been a warm champion and defender of the 
principles of Masonry. He is a member of the Society of 
Pioneers of Santa Cruz county. 

A few years after coming to the west Mr. Burland formed 
the acquaintance of Jemima Hudson, a native of Jefferson 
county, Iowa, who had crossed the plains in 1852 with her 
parents and settled at Bidwells Bar, in the central part of 


tins state. Their marriage was solemnized in San Francisco, 
in May, and three children came to bless the union, namely: 
AVilliam Henry, who is a resident of Los Angeles ; Benjamin, 
who has charge of the home ranch; and Jennie Victoria, 
Mrs. Linscott, who resides at home. The family enjoys the 
high regard, not only of the pioneers acquainted with Mr. and 
Mrs. Burland for many years, but also of the younger genera- 
tion now prominent in civic and agricultural affairs. 


Although of comparatively recent inception the Pajaro 
Valley Mercantile Company is the offspring of enterprises 
long and honorably associated with the commercial develop- 
ment of "Watsonville. The incorporation of the business en- 
terprises headed by Otto Stoesser and W. A. Speckens with 
the J. A. Baxter Company was effected during May of 1905, 
at which time John W. Baxter, as the active representative 
of the company last-named, was elected vice-president of the 
new organization, the steady growth of which he has promoted 
by his keen commercial sagacity and capable discrimination. 
The central location of the store, at Nos. 337-339 Main street 
and 13-17-19 West Third street, affords admirable facilities 
for the handling of a large trade, in which the securing of 
satisfied customers is made the chief object of the proprie- 
tors. As a result of their sagacious judgment in the whole- 
sale purchase of goods as well as their devotion to the in- 
terests of their customers, the business has shown a gratify- 
ing profit ever since its inauguration and now the prospects 
for continued success are the brightest. 

The vice-president of the company is a native Californian 
and enjoys also the distinction of being a son of a Forty- 


niner. The father, Jolin A. Baxter, started for the west hu- 
mediately after the discovery of gold and sailed on a vessel 
that rounded the Horn and slowly proceeded northward until 
San Francisco was reached. The young emigrant was fired 
with an ambition to engage in mining and for ten years after 
his arrival he led an existence of hardship and self-sacrifice 
in his eiforts to discover gold in paying quantities. The 
occupation presented a radical change from the life with 
which he had been familiar prior to the westward migration, 
for he was a member of a prosperous and cultured family 
of Quincy, Mass. (his native city), and had received ex- 
cellent educational advantages in the east. Upon relinquish- 
ing his mining interests about 1860 he embarked in mer- 
chandising and was thus engaged at Crescent City and Gilroy, 
making the latter town his home from about 1869 to 1884, 
when he removed to Watsonville, attracted hither by the 
promise of a prosperous future for the beautiful valley of the 
Pajaro. Tlie store which he started at Watsonville carried 
a stock of paints, oils, wall paper and similar articles, as 
well as wagons, hardware and agricultural machinery. From 
the beginning of his business career he made it his undeviat- 
ing rule to buy for cash. In this way he was able to secure 
lower prices than those who bought on credit and his cus- 
tomers reaped the benefit of these discounts. It was his 
claim that the secret of his success lay in his purchases for 
cash and that this one thing formed his sole advertisement 
with the public during a long career. 

The marriage of John A. Baxter united him with Miss 
Leonora Wendell, who was born in Maine and came to Cal- 
ifornia with her father as early as 1854. Since the death of 
Mr. Baxter, which occurred in 1907, his widow and son have 
continued to make their home in Watsonville. 

John W. Baxter was born at Gilroy and received his edu- 


cation largely in the schools of that town. From an early 
age he aided his father in the store and his broad knowledge 
of mercantile pursuits was acquired during the receptive 
period of youth, when impressions formed upon the plastic 
mind are most lasting. Like his fatlier, he has always pos- 
sessed a genuine liking for the valley and a profound faith in 
its ultimate Jiigh standing as one of the most fertile regions of 
the west. Movements for the commercial development of 
Watsonville receive his stanch co-operation. 


Through an intimate association with the commercial and 
agricultural enterprises of the Pajaro valley, Mr. Morehead 
has gained a thorough knowledge of the possibilities of this 
portion of California and has contributed his quota to the 
development of local resources. Since coming to the valley 
in 1875 he has studied the locality from the standpoint of a 
business man as well as a land-owner. Observations extend- 
ing over this long period have convinced him that few places 
excel this valley in the opportunities it affords those desiring 
a healthful location with abundant facilities for the earning 
of a livelihood. His comfortable home in Watsonville oc- 
cupies an attractive location at No. 613 Main street, and 
here his leisure hours are happily spent in the society of fam- 
ily and friends. During the busy season of recent years he 
has often spent considerable time in the country, packing and 
shipping apples, in the raising of which he has been extensive- 
ly interested. 

With one of the band of settlers that crossed the ocean to 
the colony of Virginia the Morehead family became estab- 
lished in America. Several successive generations lived and 


labored in the Old Dominion. From there George W. More- 
head with his wife, both Virginians by birtli and education, 
crossed the mountains into Kentucky and from there pro- 
ceeded westward to Missouri, where they took up a tract of 
raw land near the then small village of Mexico. During the 
remainder of their lives they were busily engaged in trans- 
forming their property into a comfortable and profitable 
homestead, and they both died at the old place. On that farm 
occurred the birth of their son, George A., in 1843, and there 
he was trained to habits of industry, self-reliance and intel- 
ligent labor. At the age of nineteen years he came to Cal- 
ifornia and settled in the Sacramento valley, where he re- 
mained for twelve years, meanwhile attending for a short 
time the Atkins' Business College in Sacramento and later 
devoting his attention wholly to farming. 

Upon coming to Watsonville in 1875 Mr. Morehead secured 
a position as bookkeeper with the Corralitos Lumber Com- 
pany, in whose employ he continued during the five follow- 
ing years. At the expiration of that time he purchased the 
Watsonville drug store and for sixteen years he continued in 
business as a druggist. Upon selling out in 1896 he turned 
his attention to the fruit business and since then he has 
owned and sold several ranches. Shortly before he came to 
the Pajaro valley he established domestic ties, being united 
in marriage, April 11, 1875, with Miss Abbie Woodworth, who 
was born in Iowa, but at an early age in 1863 accompanied 
her father to California, settling in the Sacramento valley. 
The schools of that locality offered her fair advantages and 
enabled her to acquire an excellent education. Three children 
were born of her marriage, namely: Frank A., a druggist 
in Watsonville; Ada, who married C. F. Reynolds, of Chico, 
this state; and Elmer, who died aged twenty-two years. In 
fraternal associations Mr. Morehead has been identified with 


the Foresters of America ever since the founding of their 
camp at Watsonville. Political problems command his at- 
tention to an unusual degree. It has been his aim to keep 
himself posted concerning the issues of the age, but as a rule 
he has declined nominations for public office, the sole excep- 
tion to this having been his service of one term as city trus- 
tee. The volunteer fire department was one of the early en- 
terprises of the town that enlisted his active help and at the 
expiration of his time as a fireman his name was transferred 
to the exempt list. 


Several generations of the Jordan family lived and labored 
in the east, and one of its leading members, Capt. Peter 
Jordan, a shipbuilder by trade and a manufacturer of lime, 
served with distingTiished gallantry as a captain during the 
war of 1812. Albion P., a son of the brave captain, grew to 
manhood at the old eastern home and there learned the lime 
business, also the trade of an engineer. Coming to Califor- 
nia in 1849, at the age of twenty, he secured employment 
as engineer on a steamboat plying from Sacramento to San 
Francisco. While thus engaged he worked with another en- 
gineer, I. E. Davis. By accident they learned of a place 
where lime stone could be found. This Mr. Jordan's partner 
tested by burning it in the furnace of the steamboat engine 
and it proved to be of fine quality. The importance of the 
discovery was great. Previous to this no lime had been 
found in the vicinity of San Francisco and to ship it from 
the east was too expensive, so that the two young men realized 
that their discovery would bring them a fortune, if rightly 
managed. Resigning their positions, they started to walk to 


the lime deposits. The journey was exhausting and the 
weather very cold, but hardships could not daunt them. Im- 
mediately after their arrival they built a kiln at the foot- 
hills near Redwood City and there manufactured the first 
lime used in the state. San Francisco furnished a conven- 
ient market and the extensive business brought wealth to the 
two partners. Removing to Santa Cruz in 1853 they en- 
gaged in the same business until 1864, when the failure of 
Mr. Jordan's health caused him to sell his interest to H. 
Crowell. Thereafter Mr. Jordan lived retired from busi- 
ness cares until his death, which occurred November 14, 1866. 
His partner, I. E. Davis, died September 25, 1888, having 
been spared to enjoy the fruits of his energy and wise judg- 

The marriage of Albion P. Jordan took place March 4, 
1859, and united him with Miss Mary E. Perry, a native of 
Falmouth, Mass., but after 1853 a resident of Santa Cruz. 
Her father, John B. Perry, came to the west in 1850 and em- 
barked in mining, but the failure of his health caused him to 
remove to Santa Cruz. Building a house, he sent back east 
for his family, who joined him in 1853. For many years ho 
followed the carpenter's trade in the village and surrounding 
country, and many of the buildings which he erected in Santa 
Cruz and vicinity are standing at the present time. He also 
drew his own plans to work from. His family comprised 
his wife, Elizabeth (Green) Perry, and three children, Mary 
E., Charles C. and Alphonso B. When the daughter was 
fifteen years of age she taught a private school in the front 
room of her father's house and had about twenty-five pupils. 
Later she was engaged as assistant to Mrs. Eliza Farnham 
in teaching the first public school in Santa Cruz. By her 
marriage to Mr. Jordan three children were born. The 
•eldest, Mary E., died at the age of two and one-half years. 


Tlie younger daughter, Marian A., Mrs. Herbert E. Cox, 
passed from earth at the age of thirty-eight years, leaving 
an only daughter, Gertrude J., who died August 12, 1902, at 
the age of sixteen years and ten months. The only son, 
Peter A. Jordan, now vice president of Dodge, Sweeney & 
Co., wholesale commission merchants, also importers and ex- 
porters of San Francisco married Blanche Hartwell, and has 
the following children, Loraine, Albion P., Marian E., and 
Hartwell, who are receiving the best advantages their home 
citv aifords. 


When it is remembered how many men have come from every 
part of our country, and even from other parts of the world, 
and have achieved signal success in California, it is not sur- 
prising that our state has risen to a position foremost among 
the commonwealths comprising the nation. The mineral 
wealth that first attracted emigrants proved to be of less value 
to permanent development than the wealth of soil, of timber 
and of commercial opportunities. These resources have called, 
with silent but intense force, to the young men of the world 
and the response has been quick, the result being that many 
have come to develop the vast resources of the region. The 
growth of the country has brought prosperity to the men 
connected therewith, while for the future the promise is even 
greater than for the past. 

It was the good fortune of Isaiah Hartman to be brought 
to California in childhood and to acquire an early knowledge 
of the resources of the state, as well as the opportunities af- 
forded to young men of determination and energj^ He was 
born in Canada October 12, 1870, and spent the days of in- 
fancy in the parental home in that country. His father, John 


Hartman, liad immigrated to America from his native Ger- 
many, settling in Canada at the age of about twenty-five years. 
Before leaving the old home he had served an apprenticeship 
to the weaver's trade and had worked as a journeyman. The 
same occupation engaged his attention after he had settled in 
Canada. There he met and married Miss Barbara Kaufmann, 
a native of Germany. They became the parents of seven chil- 
dren, namely : Jacob, who came to Boulder Creek at an early 
age and is now engaged in mercantile pursuits; John, a resi- 
dent of the state of Washington; Daniel, a member of the 
Hartman Mercantile Company at Boulder Creek; Menno, a 
resident of Santa Cruz; George, who is engaged in the lum- 
ber business at Boulder Creek ; Charles, living in Santa Cruz 
county ; and Isaiah, the youngest of the seven sons, and a resi- 
dent of Santa Cruz county since he was a child of six years. 

Primarily educated in local schools. Isaiah Hartman later 
was sent to a business college in the city of Santa Cruz, where 
he prepared for commercial activities. During 1890 he came to 
Boulder Creek, where he has since engaged in the real-estate 
and insurance business, also to a considerable extent has been 
interested in the buying and selling of lumber. Not only has 
he handled for others many properties in town and country, 
but in addition he has purchased land for himself from time 
to time. At this writing he owns more than three thousand 
acres of valuable land in the vicinity of Boulder Creek and is 
said to be among the largest property owners in Santa Cruz 
county. The acquisition of so large an area of territory rep- 
resents the results of arduous labors. A firm believer in the 
value of our lands, he has invested in real estate from time 
to time as a favorable opportunity was offered, and all of his 
investments have been made in land. 

Politically firm in his allegiance to Republican principles, 
Mr. Hartman has had local prominence in the party. During 


1892 he was chosen constable. In August of 1896 he was ap- 
pointed justice of the peace. To the same office he was regu- 
larly elected in 1898. This position he filled with impartiality 
and justice, displaying a knowledge of the law surprising in 
one not an accredited student of Blackstone. Upon establish- 
ing a home of his own he married Miss Maude Young, by whom 
he has four children, Barbara, Henry, Doris and Jean. Mrs. 
Hartman was born in the state of New York and came to Cali- 
fornia with her brothers and sister, who settled in Santa 
Cruz county in 1889. 


The history of the Hodgdon family in the United States 
dates from Revolutionary days, and was well and favorably 
known throughout the New England states for many genera- 
tions. The first to depart from ancestral surroundings and 
establish the name on the western coast was George R. Hodg- 
don, who was born in Pittston, Kennebec county, Me., October 
4, 1834, the son of Asa H. and Elizabeth (Parcher) Hodgdon, 
who were also natives of that same state. 

The prospects of finding wealth in the mines of California 
was the thought uppermost in the minds of the seventy-five 
passengers who on October 13, 1852, set sail from Boston, 
Mass., on the ship George Raynes, under the guidance of 
Captain Penhallow. Among those on board besides George 
R. Hodgdon were the following members of the Scott family, 
whose achievements in Santa Cruz county have meant so 
much to the upbuilding of that part of the state: Capt. 
Daniel Scott, Joseph Scott, Caroline Scott (now Mrs. San- 
born, of San Francisco), Edwin Scott and wife, and John 
Scott. The voyage was made by way of Cape Horn, and 


contrary to the general rule the weather proved unusually 
favorable, fair winds and favorable weather prevailing 
throughout the entire voyage of one hundred and twenty- 
seven days. During the passage they ran short of water but 
were able to take on a fresh supply at the island made famous 
by Daniel Defoe in his story of the experiences of "Robin- 
son Crusoe." Only a few of the seventy-five original pas- 
sengers who made the voyage in 1852 are now living. 

Mr. Hodgdon came to Santa Cruz on a small schooner in 
1853, hiring out on a farm owned by Hiram Scott in Scott's 
valley. For his services he received the munificent wage of 
$75 per month and board, which was a large advance over 
the remuneration which he received in Maine, $8 per month 
and board. Aiter he had worked for Mr. Scott for twenty- 
one months and saved $1,000 he decided to undertake a ranch 
of his own, on land which he rented from Mr. Scott. The 
venture did not prove as satisfactory as he had anticipated, 
however, and after giving it up he undertook mining at 
Shaw's Flat, Tuolumne county. One winter's experience 
sufficed to prove that he was not fitted for the life of the 
miner, and thereafter he returned to Santa Cruz and clerked 
in a store for a time. A longing to see his family and friends 
in Maine took him back there on a visit about this time, but 
the intense cold weather prevailing there at the time was 
the means of bringing him back to California sooner than 
he had originally planned. The return voyage was made by 
way of the Isthmus, and not by Cape Horn, as formerly. 

Going to Redwood City in 1861, Mr. Hodgdon took charge 
of a ranch owned by a Mr. Hawes, managing it for about six 
months. The breaking out of the war between the north and 
south led to his enlistment in the service of the Union Oc- 
tober 4, 1862, at San Francisco, in the Third United States 
Artillery. After the expiration of the term for which he en- 


listed, during which time he was employed in garrison duty 
in the various forts in San Francisco bay, he re-enlisted in 
the United States Artillery and was stationed at Fort Riley, 
Kans. It was while there that he had a few skirmishes with 
the Indians on the plains. After the close of hostilities and 
his discharge from the service Mr. Hodgdon made a second 
visit to Maine, but as before he was willing to leave that 
locality and take up his life work in a climate less rigorous 
than prevails on the north Atlantic coast. Going to the 
middle west, he became interested in farming in Michigan and 
later in Iowa, remaining there altogether for fifteen years, 
when, in 1890, he went to Olympia, Wash. An experience 
there of a year and a half found him willing to return to 
California, which he did in 1890, and since then he has been 
a continuous resident of Santa Cruz. From 1895 until 1901 
he served as superintendent of the county hospital in Santa 
Cruz, but since retiring from that position he has not been 
actively engaged in any business, finding all that he cares to 
do in looking after property which he owns in this city, be- 
sides which he owns a ranch in Soquel. 

In Morley, Mecosta county, Mich., a marriage ceremony 
was performed in 1872 that united the lives of George R. 
Hodgdon and Miss Mary Vredensburg, a native of Barton, 
Steuben county, N. Y., and one daughter has been born to 
them, Marian T. 



Altlioiigli not establishing a permanent home in Santa Cruz 
mitil 1883, Mr. McCornick had enjoyed a previous acquaint- 
ance with the town and had made a sojourn here as early as 
the year of 1870. Long identification with the citizenship as 
well as prominence in the building business gives to him a 
wide circle of acquaintances. Nor are his friends limited to 
the city of his residence. On the contrary, he is well known 
throughout the county, into every part of which his interests 
as a contractor have called him. Not only is he the pioneer 
builder of the town, but in addition it is said that he has 
erected more structures here than have been built by any 
other carpenter. Altogether, some one hundred or more build- 
ings in and near Santa Cruz have been put up under his 
supervision and a number of these are public buildings and 
residences equal to any to be found in the large cities of the 

Born in Western Canada April 8, 1844, L. B. McCornick 
had no special educational advantages, but he possessed the 
advantage of a thorough training as a carpenter. Canadians 
follow the old English custom of giving an apprentice the 
most rigorous training in his trade. Incompetency is not 
permissible among them. Intelligent industry is. insisted up- 
on in the smallest task, and" the young carpenter therefore 
was thoroughly prepared for future responsibilities. Upon 
leaving home to earn his own way he went to Chicago and 
secured employment as a carpenter, but soon returned to his 
old Canadian home, whence in 1866 he came to California by 
way of the Isthmus of Panama. For two years he followed 
his trade in San Francisco, for one year worked at San 
Rafael, Marin county, and for a year also found employ- 
ment near what is now Dixon, Solano county. During the 


AVliite Pine mining boom lie went to Nevada in 1869, spend- 
ing a year at those mines and in Virginia City. On his re- 
turn to California he followed contracting in Santa Cruz. 
Next he went to the southern part of the state and took charge 
of a large flock of sheep, which he drove across the country 
through Nevada, Idaho and Utah, later disposing of them in 

As early as 1876 Mr, McCornick had the contract for build- 
ing the Pope house on Mission street, Santa Cruz. Later he 
built the Gatt school, an addition to the Brancefort school, 
and a livery barn on the corner of Vine and Mission streets. 
Other buildings he here erected are the Hageman hotel, Neary 
block, Staeffler block, and an addition to the St. George hotel, 
all on Pacific avenue. Several fine residences were built bj 
him on Beach hill, as well as many beautiful homes on Ocean 
View avenue, also the Unitarian church and church house on 
Center street, the residence of Rev. Dr. Stone on High street 
and the Fagan house on Mission street. The old Mansion 
house at Watsonville was partly built by him, also the high 
school and a livery stable in the same town. In politics he 
votes with the Republican party, but he has been so busily 
engaged with business affairs that he has had no leisure for 
participation in politics and for office-holding. For thirty 
years he has been a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows and during all of that long period he has con- 
tributed of means and influence to aid the philanthropic ac- 
tivities of the organization. His marriage, solemnized in 
1877, united him with Miss Margaret Ketchum, by whom he 
has two daughters. The elder, Mary Vance, is the wife of 
Thomas Marquis, of San Francisco. The younger, Lucile, 
married S. W. Coleman, who holds a position as manager of 
the Union Traction, Gas and Electric Light Company, of 
Santa Cruz. 



The influences surrounding the early years of Mr. Morgan 
were so varied and diverse that he developed a personality 
as unique as it was interesting. Under any circumstances 
and in any environment he would have been fearless and 
self-reliant, but these qualities became especially prominent 
through the associations that called them forth. Thrown up- 
on his own resources at an age when most boys are pupils 
m school, he learned to depend upon himself and not to per- 
mit temporary failures or discouragements to lessen his de- 
termination to attain success. Whatever of prosperity came 
to him (and that was considerable) it may be attributed to 
his own indomitable energy, his courage in overcoming ob- 
stacles, his quiet persistence in any task attempted and his 
wise judgment gained in the great school of experience. His 
life was spared for many years after he made his first memor- 
able journey across the plains in 1849 and it was his privilege 
to witness the remarkable rise of the state of his adoption, 
whose admission to the Union he learned of, when with a 
companion, John Baxter, he rowed out from shore to the 
American ship that brought papers announcing the glad tid- 

John William Morgan was born in Scioto county, Ohio, 
December 13, 1829, and in 1837 was orphaned by the death of 
his father, John Sanders Morgan. Afterward his mother, 
whose maiden name was Margaret Collier, became the wife of 
a Mr. Bergen and removed with him to Amhurstburg, Canada, 
but a year later left that place for Detroit, Mich. The son 
left home and returned to Canada, where he secured employ- 
ment in a sawTDill. While visiting his mother, during the 
spring of 1844, he was persuaded by his brother-in-law, David 
Gharkey, to accompany him on a trip to St. Louis, Mo. The 


two traveled by steamboat to Chicago, from there by stage 
coach to Peru, 111., and thence down the river to St. Louis, 
later going to Jefferson county, Mo. October 17, 1848, he 
there married Jane C. Pitzer, a native of St. Louis, and a 
daughter of Duiguid and Sarah (Myers) Pitzer. In infancy 
she lost her mother by death and afterward remained with 
her maternal grandparents for a time, but at the second mar- 
riage of her father she returned home and continued there 
until her marriage. 

During March of 1849 Mr. Morgan joined an expedition 
bound for California, starting from St. Joseph, Mo., with 
a train of twenty wagons, commanded by Dr. Bassett as 
captain. The journey was pursued without event of im- 
portance until dissatisfactions arose, whereupon Mr. Morgan 
and two companions left the others. When they reached the 
Platte river they disposed of one of their three wagons. 
AVhen finally they arrived in California they had little ex- 
cept the clothing they wore. Mr. Morgan's first occupa- 
tion was the driving of an ox-team. Soon, however, he be- 
gan to try his luck in the mines and met with some success. 
His accumulation of the gold-dust he kept concealed in an 
old boat in his cabin, but one night when he returned from 
work he found his precious savings had been stolen. To this 
discouragement was added the trouble caused by heavy rains, 
which rendered continued search for gold almost out of the 
question. Thereupon he abandoned the mine and went to 
Sacramento. Later he went to Negroes Bar, one mile below 
Norman's island, on the American river, where he entered 
into an agreement to manage a hotel for Francis Fowler on 
the Auburn road near Sacramento for $300 per month. At 
the expiration of three months of hard work he had received 
only $30, so he sought otlier openings. Later he mined at 
Ecker's bar until February of 1851, when lie gave up the 


work, took passage on a ship for the Isthmus of Panama, 
thence proceeded to liis home in Missouri. 

After having engaged in the manufacture of flour and 
lumber on the Big river in Jefferson county, Mo., until the 
spring of 1854, Mr. Morgan then started across the plains, 
accompanied by his wife. During August of the same year 
they reached Santa Cruz, the home of Mr. Morgan's sister 
and her husband. For two years he had charge of the wharf 
at this point and afterward he followed other occupations. 
Sixty acres of raw land near Santa Cruz became his property 
by purchase in 1864 and are now owned by his widow. Re- 
moving to Bear valley the next year, he entered the employ of 
Gen. John C. Fremont and continued in the same position 
until he took charge of the Hamlin mills on the Merced river. 
After returning to the farm near Santa Cruz he bought an 
adjacent tract of one hundred and twenty acres. Through 
general farming and stock-raising on this land he accumulated 
a competence. A man of great capability, he achieved a fair 
degree of success in spite of hardships and obstacles, and it 
was his pride to give each of his large family of children an 
excellent education, thus preparing them for the responsibil- 
ities of life. Not only did he take great pride in his children, 
but he also was proud of his adopted state and a believer 
m its possibilities. Devoted to the welfare of our country 
and a true patriot at heart, he cheerfully offered his services 
to the Union at the time of the Civil war and was prominent 
m a cavalry company organized at Santa Cruz, but to the 
disappointment of its members this company was not called 
into active service. 

The death of John William Morgan occurred November 
8, 1896, and removed from the county one of its most hon- 
ored pioneers and public-spirited citizens, a man in every 
respect worthy of the high honor accorded him. The well- 


unproved farm was left to the widow, who remained on the 
homestead for a considerable period and gave personal man- 
agement to the estate. Eventually, however, she removed to 
Santa Cruz, where now she owns and occupies a comfortable 
residence at No. 36 Washington street. Her family comprised 
the following-named children: John Sanders, a resident of 
San Francisco, who married Cornelia Moger, by whom he 
has one son, Harry; Samuel David, a resident of Oakland, 
who married Miss Tennessee Beal, and has a daughter, Mrs. 
Ethel McCabee; George D., who married Julia Walker and 
has six children, George, John, Harold, Frank, Walter and 
Donald; Sarah, who is manager of the Woman's Exchange 
of Santa Cruz; Martha, who is at home; Charles, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Trevethan and has six children, Mabel, Earl, 
Lucile, Everett, Lottie and Madaline; AVilliam, who married 
Eva Trevethen and has two children, Genevieve and Alex- 
ander ; Bertha, the wife of Alexander Marquess, of San Fran- 
cisco and the mother of one son, Pierre; and Jeannette, who 
died March 7, 1910. 


The early years in the life of Wesley P. Young were un- 
eventfully passed on a farm in New Hampshire, where he 
was born in May of 1838, the descendant of an honored pi- 
oneer family of New England. The old homestead, around 
which his earliest recollections are centered, occupied a loca- 
tion where the rocky soil and rigorous winters offered only a 
scanty livelihood in return for the most exhausting labors, 
and in his boyhood lie determined to seek a location where 
Nature smiled more readily upon the efforts of man. As 
soon as he had attained maturity he started out to earn his 


own way and was attracted to the Pacific coast by its recog- 
nized opportunities and enjoyable climate. During 1858 he 
came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama. Hav- 
ing gained a thorough knowledge of dairying in the east he 
sought employment at the occupation with which he was 
familiar, and followed this for a short time. Subsequently he 
conducted a dairy ranch on his own account in Marin county 
for five years, having a herd of three hundred cows and em- 
ploying fourteen persons. Subsequently he established him- 
self on a dairy ranch near Pescadero, San Mateo county, re- 
maining there eight years, after which he started a dairy 
near Salinas on a ranch owned by David Jack. 

In 1867 Mr. Young was induced to come to Santa Cruz, the 
change of location appealing favorably to him as it was con- 
venient to bis two ranches, and also on account of the genial 
climate. Here he engaged in butchering and also in the 
grocery business. At this writing, and since about 1900, he 
has been proprietor of a large dyeing and cleaning establish- 
ment located at No, 20 Locust street, Santa Cruz. In this 
line of work he has been a pioneer and the success of the 
venture shows that it met an appreciated want. Since com- 
ing to this city he has bought real estate and identified him- 
self closely with the interests of the community. Particularly 
has he been active in local political ai¥airs. From youth he 
has been steadfast in his devotion to Republican principles 
and he feels a pride in the fact that it was his privilege to 
cast his first presidential ballot for Abraham Lincoln. Twice 
he was elected to the council of Santa Cruz and during both 
of these terms he contributed his quota to the movements for 
local betterment. For a number of years he served as a 
member of the city school board. In fraternal relations he 
has been connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows for a long period and meanwhile has been honored with 


election to all the chairs in the local lodge. Twice married, 
his first union took place in 1862, his wife being Miss Linora 
A. Walker. Five children were born of their marriage, 
namely : Elrey E. ; Etta, who is the wife of H. B. Arnold and 
resides in San Francisco; Percy, who makes Santa Cruz his 
home; Josephine, the wife of Normal Martin of San Fran- 
cisco, where he is employed in the office of the Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad, and Foster, who during youth studied for the 
law, received admission to practice before the supreme 
court of California and is now an attorney in San Francisco. 
After the death of his first wife, which occurred in 1887, Mr. 
Young was united in marriage with May Rose McKay, a 
native of France. Among the substantial citizens of Santa 
Cruz he occupies a place. Public spirited in act, generous 
in disposition, loyal in patriotic devotion to the community, 
he represents that type of citizens so indispensable to the 
permanent progress of the state. 


Numerous villages, scattered throughout the central coast 
counties, owe their prosperity and commercial standing to 
the progressive spirit displayed by a few men who readily 
are accounted as the most prominent citizens of their respec- 
tive towns. Such a man is J. B. Perkins, who for a long 
period has been identified intimately with the business affairs 
and civic interests of Boulder Creek and has contributed 
largely to the upbuilding of enterprises calculated to ad- 
vance the general welfare. Life has brought to him experi- 
ences in various parts of the country. In early years he 
resided in the east, but in mature manhood he became identi- 
fied with the central states and eventually he came to the 


western coast. Of these various regions, he gives the pref- 
erence to the west, and he lias never regretted the decision 
that he made to cast in his lot with the people of this favored 

The first representative of the Perkins family in Califor- 
nia was Abel Perkins, a pioneer of the historic year of 1849, 
but not a permanent resident of the west. From his home in 
New Hampshire he started across the plains with a large ex- 
pedition of gold-seekers and after a tedious journey with ox- 
teams he arrived at his destination during the autumn of the 
year that brought thousands of Argonauts to the western 
shores. Until 1852 he engaged in mining in Amador and 
Placer counties. A fair degree of success rewarded his efforts 
and with the accumulations of those months of l^bor and 
self-denial he returned to his old eastern home, content there 
to spend his remaining years. He had married some time 
before going west and his son, J. B., had been born in 1843, 
in Unity, N. H. During his boyhood the parents moved to 
Claremont, N. H., and there he was educated, and there also 
he learned lessons of industry on the home farm. It was 
not his desire to remain in the east and as soon as he was 
permitted to start out in the world for himself he went to 
Missouri, where he took up land and engaged in farming for 
about ten years. Coming to California during 1878 he set- 
tled at Boulder and since then he has made this village his 

Various enterprises have occupied the attention of eT. B. 
Perkins since he came to Santa Cruz county. The lumber 
business afforded him a means of livelihood in early days. 
Ranching also engaged his time with a fair degree of suc- 
cess. Principally, hoAvever, he has been interested in mer- 
cantile pursuits, having been identified with the same since 
about 1894, and since the year 1901 he has acted as manager 


of the Boulder Creek Mercantile Company, a flourishing cor- 
poration transacting a large business in its special line. Be- 
sides filling the duties of manager, he has been prominent in 
civic affairs and at this writing efficiently fills the office of 
treasurer of the town, Y/hile living in Missouri he married 
Miss Nellie Robinson in 1868 and they are the parents of a 
daughter, Edee, wife of C. S. Perkins, of Boulder Creek. The 
family has a high social standing and enjoys the friendship 
of their wide circle of acquaintances. 


This prominent pioneer of 1849 was born at Sandy Lake, 
Mercer county. Pa., April 25, 1822, and was a son of John 
and Mary (Fowler) Lynch, natives respectively of Ireland 
and Scotland. Upon completing a grammar-school educa- 
tion he was apprenticed, at the age of fifteen, to James D. 
Moore, a carpenter of Mercer, with whom he remained until 
the expiration of his time, and later he worked as a journey- 
man. During the spring of 1845 he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
as foreman for a contracting firm, in whose employ he later 
went to Nashville, Tenn., for the purpose of building a flour- 
ing mill and a distillery. Other work in his line kept him at 
Nashville until the discovery of gold in California, when he 
went to New Orleans and took passage on a vessel bound for 
Panama. Arriving at the isthmus he found about six thou- 
sand Americans anxiously awaiting a steamer to take them up 
the Pacific ocean to San Francisco. It was four weeks before 
he was able to secure passage for himself and he then em- 
barked on the ship Senator, which cast anchor at San Fran- 
cisco October 5, 1849. Later this ship ran on the Sacramento 
river and Mr. Lynch was employed as repair man on the 


vessel for some time. Meanwhile he also carried all letters 
and mail packages from San Francisco to Sacramento, re- 
ceiving from forty cents to $1 each. For a time he worked 
for Frank Ward at $20 per day and assisted in the erection 
of several buildings on Montgomery street, Sacramento. 

Anxious to try his luck in mining, Mr. Lynch sailed by 
ship as far as possible on the river and then traveled with 
pack-mules for a considerable distance, afterward walking 
through snow six feet deep. Scarcely had he and his com- 
panions arrived at Downieville when a snow storm began 
and for fourteen days they suffered the inclemencies of the 
weather with scant shelter and scarcely any food. Their 
starving condition forced them to seek another camp, al- 
though they were obliged for a time to walk through snow 
eight feet deep and not sufficiently hardened to bear their 
weiglit. When finally they reached the mines it was some 
time before they had recuperated sufficiently to begin work. 
As a miner Mr. Lynch met with some luck, his first venture 
bringing two and one-half pounds of gold per day. Return- 
ing to San Francisco in June of 1850 he engaged in the 
building business and also served as a member of the vigil- 
ance committee. During 1851 he came to Santa Cruz and 
opened a carpenter's shop in the building subsequently oc- 
cupied by Henry Crowell. After a time he disposed of the 
business to Jordan & Davis and then erected the first plan- 
ing mill in Oakland. As a member of a surveying expedi- 
tion he assisted in surveying from the base of Mount Diablo 
through the state to the Colorado desert, where two of the 
party were killed by the Mojave Indians. On his return to 
Santa Cruz in 1854 he built for Jordan & Davis the first 
wharf erected on the open coast of California. On the 
completion of the wharf he took other contracts for buildings 
of all kinds and formed a partnership with George Gregg, 


of Santa Cruz, the two building a planing mill and store 
and opening lumber yards at Los Angeles, Wilmington and 

The partnership was dissolved in 1870 and afterward Mr. 
Lynch became interested with J. M. Griffith, of Los Angeles, 
in a factory for the making of sash, doors, blinds and gen- 
eral mill work. Success continued to reward the eiforts of 
the partners until the retirement of Mr. Lynch in 1876 and 
his return to Santa Cruz, where he erected an elegant, at- 
tractive residence, in the midst of spacious grounds, adorned 
with flowering plants and ornamental trees. From that time 
he lived in retirement, enjoying the fruits of years of intel- 
ligent activity, and holding a position among the most 
prominent men of his home town. At the organization of the 
first bank here he had purchased stock and in many other 
ways he had been a promoter of early financial and commer- 
cial enterprises. Fraternally he held membership with tlie 
Masons and when he died May 30, 1881, he was buried with 
the solemn rites of that order. Although it has been long 
since he engaged in the building business many of his struc- 
tures remain, to bear testimony to his skill in carpentering. 
Among these buildings are wharfs and bridges, mills and 
stores, as well as a large number of the most substantial 
residences of those days. 

The marriage of Mr. Lynch was solemnized February 16, 
1858, and united him with Miss Jane Donohue daughter of 
Thomas and Jane (McKee) Donohue. The father of Mrs. 
Lynch died while yet a young man and later his widow was 
married to Frank Shields. After the death of her second 
husband she came to California and made her home with her 
daughter in Santa Cruz, where she died in 1891, at the age 
of seventy-nine years. The death of Mr. LjTich was a deep 
bereavement to his wife and children, as well as a distinct loss 


to the citizenship of Santa Cruz. After his demise Mrs. 
LjTich made her home at No. 118 Riggs street until her death, 
October 21, 1910, surrounded by the comforts of existence, 
ministered to by her surviving children and respected by a 
host of old-time friends. Two of her sons, both of whom 
were named in honor of their father, Sedgwick J., Jr., and 
Sedgwick J., died in early life. One of her daughters, Eliza- 
beth, died at the age of fourteen years, and another daughter, 
Alice, Mrs. Elmer E. Simpson, died in young womanhood. 
Of the family there now remain four children, namely : Mary 
J., who is the wife of Charles E. Withee; Fannie, Mrs. Will- 
iam E. Craig; Almira, the wife of L. Hunt; and William J., 
of Santa Cruz. 


A modern enterprise, successfully conducted in Watson- 
vUle, is the Watsonville Garage Company, on Fourth and 
Main streets. The present manager and half owner acquired 
the old Watsonville garage October 20, 1908, at which time 
there were only about four cars maintained in the valley, 
where now there are one hundred and twenty-five. January 
], 1911, Mr. Covell sold a half interest in his business to W. H. 
Weeks and the firm has since been known as the Watsonville 
Garage Company, of which he is manager, and ten men are 
now employed. Keeping pace with the demand, the pro- 
prietors have increased their stock untrl they now carry a 
line of about twenty machines, ample facilities for their care 
being afforded by the large room, with a frontage of seventy 
feet and a depth of one hundred and fifty feet. The neces- 
sary equipment has been provided for the repairing of auto- 
mobiles and a general machine shop and vulcanizing plant is 
conducted in connection with the renting of cars. Mr. Covell 


is an excellent judge of machines, recognizes their superior 
points at a glance and with equal promptness discerns their 
defects, if such they possess. In addition he is a skilled 

Of Californian birth and eastern parentage, John H. Covell 
was born at Albitos, Santa Cruz county. Sept-ember 29, 1875^ 
being a son of W. H. and Maggie (Horen) Covell, natives 
respectively of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. At a very 
early day the father came to California by way of Cape Horn 
and afterward followed the occupation of lumbering, being 
employed for years as a head-sawyer in lumber camps. The 
prosecution of this work took him successively into Yuba and 
Monterey counties, then to the redwood region and finally to 
San Benito county. After years of activity in his chosen oc- 
cupation he passed from earth in 1906. His wife survived him, 
dying in September of 1908. All of their five children still sur- 
vive. The education of J. H. Covell was acquired in the schools 
of Santa Cruz and San Benito counties. The family had only 
enough for their daily needs and each child, as soon as old 
enough, was obliged to take up the burden of self-support, 
his early tasks being such as fall to a day laborer. For a 
considerable period he was employed on a hay ranch and 
while working in that occupation he gained a thorough knowl- 
edge of the industry. 

Coming to Watsonville in 1900 Mr. Covell embarked in 
the hay business on a very small scale, his original capital 
being limited to $25. Within two years he had greatly ex- 
panded and enlarged the business and was considered among 
the leading hay merchants of the county. This result had 
not come to him accidentally, but was achieved by tireless 
energy and a careful study of the occupation to which he was 
devoting his attention. Until he acquired the garage he con- 
tinued to buy and ship hay, meanwhile having many large 


and prominent customers. For a considerable period he rep- 
resented the Wells-Fargo Company and Summers & Co., of 
San Francisco, shipping to their city addresses all of the hay, 
straw and feed that they needed in their large plants. 

In politics Mr. Covell always has been stanch in his alle- 
giance to the Republican party and on that ticket in May of 
1906 he was elected an alderman, serving for one term as a 
member of the board. In religion he is of the Catholic faith 
and his parents lie buried in the cemetery of that denomina- 
tion at Watsonville. The church has received his generous 
support and he has been stanch and loyal to its doctrines. 
Fraternally he holds membership with the Foresters of Amer- 
ica, the Eagles, the Improved Order of Red Men and the 
Native Sons of the Golden West, and on three different occa- 
sions he has been honored by being chosen a delegate to the 
state camp of the Foresters. Many of his warmest friends 
are members of the fraternal orders to which he belongs, but 
m addition he has a large circle of other friends, for he 
possesses the genial disposition, energetic temperament, com- 
panionable manner and warm heart that always bring their 
possessor many firm friends in every circle of society. Jan- 
uary 1, 1911, Mr. Covell sold a half interest in his business 
to W. H. Weeks and the firm has since been known as the 
Watsonville Garage Company, of which he is manager and 
ten men are now employed. 



Experiences giving him an insight into various parts of the 
old world and the new were culminated by the arrival of Mr. 
Thurwachter in California, where he has made his home since 
the year 1854, and where for years he has been engaged in 
ranching. Born in Rheinpfalz, Germany, May 26, 1833, he 
grew up under native skies until he attained his seventeenth 
year, at which time the family home was transferred to the 
United States. This was the period of the great gold excite- 
ment in California, when many thousands of emigrants found 
a home on our hospitable shores, many of whom came hither 
for the purpose of founding a home for their growing fam- 
ilies where advantages were more promising, than with the 
expectation of delving in the mines. From New York City, 
where the family landed in 1850, they went to Syracuse, N. 
Y., the same year, and there they continued united and con- 
tented for four years, when the ties were broken by the de- 
parture of Frederick for the Pacific coast country. 

Returning to New York City, Frederick Thurwachter there 
boarded a vessel bound for the Isthmus of Panama, and after 
reaching the western coast of the isthmus, took passage on a 
vessel which landed him in San Francisco October 13, 1854. 
A short time was there passed in visiting points of interest, 
after which he came to Santa Cruz county and located at 
Soquel. During the year passed there he became interested 
in mining, and going to Calaveras county, engaged in this 
business successfully for three years. With the proceeds of 
his labor he then returned to Santa Cruz county, reaching 
Watsonville July 16, 1858, and since that time he has been 
interested in ranching pursuits continuously. His first en- 
deavor was on rented land in this vicinity, an undertaking 
which fully met his expectations, and at the end of eight 


years, in 1866, he became proprietor of a ranch of his own, 
on the Beach road. This consists of one hundred and thirteen 
and a-half acres which at the time of purchase was barren 
of all imj^rovements, and all that it has since become has 
been the work of his own hands. The improvements include 
a fine family residence and commodious barns suited to the 
needs of his ranch. Fifteen acres of the ranch is in Bell- 
flower apples, which yield abundantly and add a neat sum to 
the annual income. 

The marriage of Mr. Thurwachter, October 13, 1862, united 
him with Miss Catherine Sweeney, a native of Ireland, but a 
resident of San Francisco at the time of her marriage. Of the 
children born to them three are living, Margaret Caroline and 
Ella Teresa at home, and Frances Louise, wife of Henry 
Schroder, also a resident of Watsonville, and the mother of 
one child, Catherine. Politically Mr. Thurwachter is a Re- 

R. S. TAIT. 

The chief of the fire department of Santa Cruz, who also 
holds the responsible position as manager of the Santa Cruz 
City Water Company, was born in San Andreas, Calaveras 
county, this state, in November of 1863, being tlie son of pi- 
oneer parents identified with the west from an early period 
of its occupancy by Americans. From the age of four years 
he has lived in Santa Cruz, where he received a grammar- 
school education and afterward learned the trade of plumber. 
Throughout all of his active life he has been identified with 
movements for furnishing water to the city. By efficiency 
and perseverance he worked his way upward until he was 
appointed manager of the Hihn Water Company and for ten 
years he filled that responsible position, eventually resigning 


in April of 1905 in order to take the position of City Electri- 
cian and which he held for four years, and during the year 
1909 was appointed by Mayor Drullard to the position of 
Superintendent of the water works. This municipal move- 
ment has proved satisfactory to customers. From its reser- 
voir is suj^plied the most of the water used in the city. 
Worthy of note is the fact that the company supplies water 
free to all of the churches, the public schools and the public 
library, by which act the interests of the tax-payers are con- 

In early life Mr, Tait acquired a thorough knowledge of 
electricity and for four years he filled the position of city 
electrician with the greatest efficiency. However, he is doubt- 
less most widely known through his long and intimate iden- 
tification with the volunteer fire department of Santa Cruz, 
which he joined in 1884 at the age of twenty-one years. When 
the department was still in its infancy he ran with the old 
hand-cart to answer alarms of fire. It was while he was 
serving as foreman (to which position he was appointed in 
1894) that Chief Ely reorganized the entire system and con- 
verted it into a pay department. The present complete or- 
ganization and excellent equipment may be attributed to his 
persevering efforts. Realizing the need of adequate protec- 
tion in case of destructive fires, he has spared no pains to 
secure the latest improved equipment. The present equip- 
ment, although a great advance upon that of other years, is 
not satisfactory to him, and he is urging the advisability of 
providing an automobile fire equipment. That now in use 
consists of a combined chemical and hose firewagon, one hose 
cart with horse, and three hand hose carts. The water pres- 
sure of eighty-five pounds can be increased to two hundred 
pounds, if needed. The water reservoir covers seventeen 
acres and has a capacity of sixty million gallons. After he 



had filled all the other positions in the fire department, Mr. 
Tait was elected chief in 1899 and ever since then he has re- 
mained at its head, diligently advancing its interests, en- 
hancing its usefulness and developing its equipment as the 
means at hand will permit. The system of alarms consists 
of twelve boxes and is operated by electricity, being thor- 
oughly modern in construction. Indeed, the entire plant is 
modern and complete, to such degree as the available funds 
will allow, and there is little doubt that future years will 
witness an increasing interest in the needs of the depart- 
ment and an increasing desire to institute an equipment sec- 
ond to none among cities of this size throughout the state. 

It has not been possible for Mr. Tait to take an active part 
in politics, by reason of the multitude of private duties. 
However, he is a stanch Democrat and never fails to cast a 
ballot for the party ticket. Fraternally he holds member- 
ship with the Maccabees, the Foresters of America and the 
Knights of Columbus. His comfortable home in Santa Cruz 
is presided over by Mrs. Tait, formerly Miss Margaret Pet- 
erson, a native of the state. Tlieir family comprises five 
children, May, Harry, Margaret, Robert and Josephine, to 
whom have been and are being given the best educational ad- 
vantages the city of Santa Cruz affords. 


The county assessor of Santa Cruz county is one of the 
young officials whose life presents an instance of a gradual 
rise from humble circumstances to a position of trust and 
responsibility. Not to his humble roof did fate bring the 
opportunities showered upon many unappreciative lads. It 
was not even possible for him to attend school regularly, 


for the necessity of self-support was laid upon him at an 
early age. Notwithstanding this handicap he won his way 
forward. Self-reliance was developed through force of cir- 
cumstances. Habits of observation and of careful reading 
brought to him a fund of knowledge superior to that boasted 
by many a graduate. Thus a stern and uninviting environ- 
ment became the foundation by which he rose to honor and 
trust. A kindly interest in others, the result of his own 
early struggles, and a genial, companionable temperament, 
have brought him popularity among acquaintances and 
prominence in the city of his adoption. 

Illinois is the native state of Mr. Horton. He was bom in 
Bureau county, October 3, 1870, and from boyhood earned 
his own livelihood. At the age of fifteen years he came to 
California with other members of the family and settled in 
Stanislaus county, but a year later removed to the city of 
Santa Cruz. Chance led him into the plumbing business in 
boyhood and he served an apprenticeship to the trade, but the 
work was not congenial and he never engaged in it as an 
occupation. During 1888 he entered the employ of William- 
son & Garnett, a large grocery company in Santa Cruz, 
and in their store he remained for fourteen years, mean- 
while rising from a lowlj^ clerkship to a position of trust as 
salesman. During 1902 he resigned his position in order to 
become under-sheriff of the county with Sheriff Trafton and 
he continued thus for four years. The year 1906 found 
him a candidate for the office of county assessor. To that 
important office he was elected on the Democratic ticket by 
a majority of nine hundred and eleven. In the city of Santa 
Cruz, where he is popular with all parties and classes, he 
polled a very heavy vote. November 8, 1910, he was re- 
elected under the new primary act, being a candidate on 
both party tickets. Republicans and Democrats endorsing him. 


The marriage of Mr. Horton took place in 1891 and united 
him with Miss Susie C. Trimble, a native of California and 
daughter of a pioneer of the Pajaro valley. Of this union 
he has two sons, Allen and Stanley. It has been a source 
of pleasure to him to identify himself with various organiza- 
tions and in some of these orders he has had the further 
advantage of insurance protection. Included among the so- 
cieties of which he is a member may be mentioned the Wood- 
men and Foresters, the Knights of Columbus and the Mac- 
cabees. Since his election to office he has devoted his time 
closely to discharging every duty incumbent upon him. 
Painstaking care is one of his characteristics as an officer, 
and combined with that quality he has exhibited the traits 
of accuracy, promptness and courtesy indispensable to suc- 
cessful service of the public. 


The former superintendent of the county hospital of Santa 
Cruz county was born on one of the islands in the St. Law- 
rence river, April 5, 1859, and the recollections of his early 
childhood center around the picturesque environment of that 
region. Although isolated from the world of commercial and 
educational activity, he was not deprived of education, but by 
the study of the text-books of that day he gained the informa- 
tion necessary for practical contact with business affairs. As 
a means of livelihood he took up the occupation most in- 
timately associated with his boyhood, that of steamboating, 
and for five years he was employed on the river boats, mean- 
while making many trips to ]\Tontreal and other important 
ports along the St. Lawrence. On discontinuing work on 
steamboats he settled across the river in New York, where 


for two years he was engaged in a butter and cheese factory 
at Massena and later he held a clerkship in the Hartford 
house at Massena Springs. 

Coming to California during the year 1883, Mr. Miller set- 
tled in Santa Cruz, where he secured emploj^ment with the 
Grover Lumber Company. In a short time he became con- 
nected with Swan's bakery, after which for three years he 
managed a dairy for Messrs. Baldwin and Wilder. On 
leaving the dairy he returned to work in the bakery. Later 
he was employed by the Southern Pacific Company at Tulare. 
His next venture was as a grocer and for three years he 
operated a business of his own, after which he engaged in 
ranching in the mountains. The outdoor labor and mountain 
air proved effective in restoring his health, which had been 
injured by the confinement incident to indoor pursuits. When 
he left the ranch he entered the meat business with Walti & 
Schillings and for five years he continued in that connection, 
resigning in 1901 in order to accept the position of super- 
intendent of the county hospital. After filling this position 
acceptably for many years he resigned February 1, 1911, and 
has since been retired from active business, finding all that he 
cares to do in looking after his investments and real estate. 
Fraternally he holds membership with the Maccabees, For- 
esters and Independent Order of Odd Fellows. In 1886 he 
married Miss Anna Harris, a native of Santa Cruz, and by 
the union there is a daughter, Loraine A. Miller. 

The Santa Cruz county hospital is one of the best-equipped 
institutions of its kind in the state, and many of its improve- 
ments were made under the supervision of Mr. Miller, who 
gave satisfaction to all in the position of superintendent. A 
great transformation was wrought in all parts of the insti- 
tution during his eight or more years of service, and for this 
work he is deserving of due credit. New buildings and im- 


provements were added to the equipment during the latter 
part of his incumbency at a cost of $16,000. Noticeable among 
the improvements is the commodious modern kitchen, where 
crude oil has replaced wood at a saving of $35 per month. 
For use in the kitchen ]\Ir. Miller invented an oil burner that 
proved very successful. The latest invention to be installed 
in the kitchen, was a Fearless dishwasher. The hospital has 
its own laundry with a complete equipment for such work. 
A new woodhouse was built, 40x20 feet in dimensions, and a 
dining-room was added, seating one hundred persons. A 
modern operating room was installed in the hospital under the 
direction of Dr. AY. R. Congdon, the county physician. New 
hospital wards and modern plumbing, with well-equipped 
bathrooms, were added, making of the hospital one of the 
most complete and modern in the whole state. The grounds 
around the hospital are adorned with flowering plants and 
shrubs that lend a touch of beauty to the scene, while utility 
also was considered in the large vegetable and fruit garden 
that furnished ample supplies of their kind to the well-kept 
table, and the hospital dairy furnished butter and milk in 
abundance. Altogether, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Miller the hospital was conducted along utilitarian lines sat- 
isfactory to the people, helpful to the patients and creditable 
to the energy and sagacity of the superintendent. 



The vice-president and manager of the Watsonville Can- 
ning Company has been a lifelong resident of the west and 
traces his lineage to a long line of honored and industrious 
American ancestors. Many generations remained in the east. 
The ties that bound them to friends and kindred along the 
Atlantic coast were too strong to be broken by the lure of the 
west, and it was not until near the middle of the nineteenth 
century that the name was transplanted on the Pacific shores. 
During the year 1847 David D. Prettyman, a stalwart lad of 
fifteen years, accompanied his parents from his native Dela- 
ware across the plains to Oregon, where he grew to manhood, 
took up the active duties of life, and remained for many years, 
honored by all who knew him. Four years prior to his de- 
cease he came to California and settled in Oakland, where he 
spent his remaining days. His widow, who is now seventy- 
nine years of age and a resident of Los Angeles, was born in 
Iowa and bore the maiden name of Sarah Ann Riggs. They 
were the parents of only two children, F. D. and L. C, the lat- 
ter living in Los Angeles. The former was born in Portland, 
Ore., April 24, 1857, and received his primary education in 
the Salem grammar school, after which he studied in the 
Willamette University. 

Various occupations have afforded Mr. Prettyman a live- 
lihood at different times in his life and various localities, 
both in Oregon and in California, have benefited by his pro- 
gressive citizenship. For a time after leaving scliool he was 
employed as a clerk in Salem, but at the expiration of three 
years he resigned the clerkship and turned his attention to 
the nursery business in Salem. Two years later he gave up 
that occupation in order to engage in general farming. Next 
we find him in Idaho, where he followed ranching from 1886 


until 1888, and this brief period represents his sole experi- 
ence with affairs elsewhere than in Oregon and California. 
Coming to this state in 1888 he settled in the lower part of 
Monterey county and for three years engaged in ranching. 
Later he was connected with the Southern Pacific Railroad as 
a baggageman. Meanwhile he made his home at Pajaro. 
Upon resigning the position in 1892 he came to Watsonville, 
where he since has made his home. A careful investigation of 
horticultural interests in this locality convinced Mr. Pretty- 
man tliat an opening existed for a business in the packing and 
shipping of fruit. Accordingly in 1892 he began to buy from 
the orchardists of the valley and this fruit he shipped to 
various markets. The quality of the output was so satis- 
factory that his original customers continued to send orders 
and others learned of the fruit, so that new customers were 
constantly being added to the list of patrons. After a few 
years the proprietor found that cider could be profitably 
manufactured from apples not sufficiently perfect to ship. 
The making of cider led him also into the vinegar business in 
1900. Five years later the plant was enlarged so that fruit 
could be canned during seasons when it was not profitable 
to make shipments of the fresh article. It is worthy of note 
that the firm canned the first fruit ever preserved on a large 
scale in Santa Cruz county. From that small beginning a 
large industry has expanded. During 1907 the cider and vine- 
gar business was sold to a gentleman from Louisville, Ky., 
and the principal products are now canned apples and ber- 
ries. From 1892 until 1902 the business was conducted under 
the title of Prettyman & Wolf. During the year last named 
the Prettyman- Wolf Co. was incorporated with Mr. Pretty- 
man as president, and in 1906 the Watsonville Canning Com- 
pany was incorporated, with the following officers: George 
H. Hooke, San Francisco, president; F. D. Prettyman, vice- 


president and manager; and William Hooke, of San Fran- 
cisco, secretary. 

During the entire period of liis residence in Watsonville 
Mr. PrettjTuan has been warmly interested in movements for 
the advancement of the city. Since 1902 he has acted as a 
member of the Republican county central committee and at 
this writing he is also a member of the city council, having 
been elected to the position in 1907 for a term of four years. 
In fraternal relations he is associated with the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows and the Woodmen of the World. Dur- 
ing 1886 he was united in marriage with Miss Etta Smitli, of 
Salem, Ore., whose father was one of the Illinois pioneers of 
Oregon. In religious connections Mr. and Mrs. Prettyman 
hold membership in the Episcopal and Christian churches 


In the pioneer days of the state of California J. D. Chace 
came to the Pacific coast to take up life under new and untried 
conditions. That his efforts for the welfare of his adopted 
state were prolific of results is evidenced by the place given 
him in the annals of Santa Cruz county, where he was known 
for years as one of the prominent factors in the development 
of natural resources. He was born in Hamden, Delaware 
county, N. Y., March 29, 1830, and was reared in the east, re- 
maining there until he was twenty years of age. Gold had 
been discovered in California in the m^eantime and a com- 
mendable ambition to participate in the benefits to be de- 
rived therefrom brought him to the west in the year 1850. 
The voyage to the Isthmus was made on the steamer Ohio, 
and on the Pacific side on the steamer Republic, from which 


he debarked at San Francisco August 25, 1850. His first 
mining experience was near Auburn, and from there he went 
to the mines of Calaveras county, and altogether he followed 
this with varjdng success for three years. 

Following his mining experiences, from 1853 until the 
early '60s, Kr. Chace was variously occupied in San Fran- 
cisco, after which he came to Santa Cruz county and became 
associated in the lumber business with George Liddell, the 
pioneer in this industry in the county, and after Mr. Lid- 
dell's retirement from business Mr. Chace continued the busi- 
ness alone for a number of years. Finally he too withdrew 
from the business and locating in Santa Cruz engaged in the 
butcher business, becoming one of the pioneer market men of 
the town. Besides the Washington market in Santa Cruz, he 
also maintained branch stores in Felton and Soquel. All of 
the meat handled in his markets was supiDlied from his own 
large cattle ranch of four hundred and eighty-five acres near 
Santa Cruz. His success in business was truly enviable, but 
was the natural outcome of the combination of qualities that 
make for success, indomitable perseverance, care of detail and 
the application of high moral and business principles in all 
of his transactions. Popular as he was in business circles, 
he was even more so in the public life of his community, and 
the two terms in which he served as mayor of Santa Cruz, 
from 1881 to 1884, mark a period of the city's greatest prog- 
ress and usefulness. 

Mr. Chace 's marriage in 1859 united him with Miss Eliza- 
beth Liddell, who was born in England, the daughter of one 
of the state's early pioneers, George Liddell. Born of this 
marriage are the following children: John R., who is a 
prominent business man in San Jose; Elliott G., a resident 
of San Juan; Harriet E., Mrs. Cotton; Minnie L., the wife 
of Fred Hihn, of Santa Cruz; Jennie, the wife of J. W. Lewis, 


of San Francisco ; Charles H., a resident of San Jose ; George, 
deceased ; Herbert, of San J ose ; and Mabel, the wife of S. F. 
Groves. Fraternally Mr. Chace was identified with a num- 
ber of orders, among them the Masons, Odd Fellows and 
Knights of Pythias, and such was his interest in them that 
he frequently attended meetings pertaining to their progress 
and welfare held in the east. Personally he was a man of 
large sjTupathy and great tenderness, and possessed in large 
measure the happy faculty of making and retaining friends in 
whatever position he was placed. This was nowhere more 
noticeable than during his incumbency as mayor, perfect har- 
mony being the rule rather than the exception in the council 
during the two terms that he filled that position. One of the 
most important accomplishments of his administration was 
the opening of the Cliff road, which has been of incalculable 
benefit to the country round about. 


No name has been more intimately identified with the de- 
velopment of Santa Cruz as a seashore resort than that of 
Leibbrandt. Due credit should be given to the members of 
the family for their activity in promoting the material pros- 
perity of the city along a line of permanent value. By in- 
augurating improvements on the water-front they gave an 
impetus to a movement which resulted in the city attaining 
a position among the favorite and beautiful coast resorts of 
the state. Their civic labors extended into other lines and a 
number of movements indispensable to local progress owe 
much to their sustaining aid. Side by side with the names 
of many other patriotic pioneers stand the names of the 
members of this stalwart family of pioneers, and in the an- 


nals of local history they are worthy of conspicuous mention. 

The founder of the name in California was John Leib- 
brandt, Sr., who came to California in 1857 by way of the 
Isthmus of Panama and who for years prior to his death in 
1895 held a prominent position in the citizenship of Santa 
Cruz. During young manhood he had married Miss Christina 
Custer, who was born in the south, descended from ancestors 
identified from colonial days with the history of America. It 
is a matter of history that her progenitors were among the 
first settlers in our country from the old world, and she was 
one of the original heirs of the spoliation claim. Her father 
and George Washington were own cousins. Many other rela- 
tives were prominent in securing independence for the land 
during the Revolutionary struggle. 

When the family came to California in 1857 the father, 
John, Sr., settled in Trinity county and became interested in 
mining, meeting with fair success in these ventures. The 
year 1859 found him a pioneer of Santa Cruz. Shortly after 
his arrival he bought thirty acres of water-front property, on 
the site of which now stand the beautiful Casino and bath- 
house. To him belongs the honor of conceiving the idea of 
making Santa Cruz a seaside resort. The initial step in that 
direction was taken in 1868, when be built a swimming tank, 
bath-house and entertainment hall on his property. From 
time to time the buildings were enlarged as needed and he 
continued to manage them until his death. John, Jr., who 
was born in Fort Wayne, lud., November 20, 1849, was as- 
sociated with his father and later with his brother, David, 
in the management of the seashore resort. The property 
was sold to the Casino Company in 1905 and since then he 
has lived practically retired from business responsibilities. 
When the father died the estate was equally divided among 
the children, and John, Jr., and David thus acquired large 


mining interests in Trinity county. Trinity street in Santa 
Cruz was named after tlieir gold mine and Leibbrandt street 
was named in honor of the family. In 1889 John, Jr., was 
united in marriage with Miss Clara Horthorn, a native of 
Ohio, and by this union he has one son, Clyde. In fraternal 
relations he is identified with the Knights of Pvthias. 


It has never been conceded even by the most prejudiced 
that the greater part of the credit for the pioneer develop- 
ment of California is due to men alone. Indeed, women have 
ever been the abiding inspiration of the men who came as 
pioneers to the west and the credit due them for their help- 
fulness must ever overshadow anything that man has accom- 
plished. Among the noble and self-sacrificing women who 
have witnessed the development of California from the days 
of the mining excitement until the present is Mrs. Nancy 
Myrick, who came to the west when a child of ten years and 
has literally grown up with the country. 

Near Galena, Jo Daviess county, 111., Mrs. Myrick was 
born in 1842 into the home of her parents, Henry and Lucy 
Minerva (Imus) Ryse, and until she was ten years of age 
her life was associated with her birthplace. Her father, who 
was a native of North Carolina, had followed farming for 
many years after his removal to Illinois, apparently con- 
tented with his lot until the finding of gold in California 
created an interest in the far west that made him wish to 
participate in its advantages. With the household goods and 
sufficient supplies for the long journey across the plains the 
family set out from Illinois in the spring of 1852 behind ox- 
teams and finally, after a long and tiresome trip, landed at 


Santa Cruz. Accommodations for caring for the newcomers 
to the west at this time were limited indeed as compared 
witli the demands, a fact which Mr. Ryse readily recognized 
upon locating in Santa Cruz and his decision to open a hotel 
in the town proved a wise one. In addition to conducting his 
hostelry for many years he also served as judge for four 
years and for one term represented his county in the state 
legislature. Subsequently he purchased and located upon one 
hundred and ninety-two acres of land four miles from Santa 
Cruz, which he ran successfully for twenty-eight years or 
up to the time of his death, September 29, 1889. 

Wlien she was only fourteen years old, in 1856, Miss Nancy 
Ryse was united in marriage in Santa Cruz with Samuel 
Myrick, who died two years later in Mazatlan, Mexico, where 
he was interested in mining and milling. After the death of 
her father Mrs. Myrick took up the responsibilities of main- 
taining the ranch, and continued his policy in making a 
specialty of raising live-stock and hay. Later, however, she 
gave her efforts more particularly to raising fine blooded 
stock, and was one of the few women who have made a 
success of the business. Notwithstanding her success Mrs. 
Myrick sold out her ranch about 1905 and has since lived in 
quiet retirement in Santa Cruz, in a neat little cottage on 
Branciforte street. Having made her home in this locality 
for over fifty years Mrs. Myrick has a fund of reminiscences 
of pioneer days from which to draw which seems inexhaust- 
ible, and the fact that they are her personal experiences 
gives an added charm. 



The president of the Santa Cruz Brewery and Ice Com- 
pany was born March 27, 1861, in the canton of Basel, Switz- 
erland, near the banks of the historic river Rhine, on whose 
opposite shores stood the province of Alsace, now a part of 
Germany. Amid such scenes he passed the years of child- 
hood. At the age of sixteen he came to the United States 
and secured employment in a brewery in New York City, but 
two years later he made his way to the plains of Nevada 
and took up the life of a cowboy. Coming to California in 
1 881 he secured employment in a brewery in San Jose. After 
two years he resigned the position and went to Hollister, 
where he conducted a brewery for one year. 

Immediately after his removal to Santa Cruz in 1884 Mr. 
Walti bought the old Vienna brewery on Soquel avenue and, 
in partnership with a Mr. Peters, conducted the business 
for eight years, when he sold out to the Bausch Brewing 
Company. The next enterprise that engaged his attention was 
the management of a meat business on Pacific avenue, he be- 
ing owner and proprietor of the Eldorado and Central mar- 
kets. During 1906 he organized the Santa Cruz Brewery 
and Ice Company, of which he now officiates as president. 
The establishment of the business was in response to his 
opinion that a demand existed for a first-class brewery. The 
plant is modern and well equipped, surpassed by none in the 
entire state. There are those who believe that its equal 
cannot be found in all the west. The original cost was great, 
approximating $125,000, but the money proved to be well in- 
vested. By means of modern machinery imported from Ger- 
many beer can be manufactured and bottled at an annual 
saving, over the old process, of $15,000, the benefit of which 
saving is reaped by the retailers. Twenty-five men are fur- 


nislied employment in the brewery and the capacity of the 
plant is fifteen thousand barrels per year. By the use of the 
new machinery five men can bottle beer from forty barrels 
in the same time that it formerly required to bottle only 
fifteen barrels. The product, beer and porter, is sold ex- 
tensively throughout the county and the company plans to 
branch out into every part of the state. Recently they es- 
tablished an agency at San Jose, where there is a steady de- 
mand for the output of their plant. The company's ice plant 
has a capacity of twenty-five tons per day and is the only 
one in the city, which, before the building of the same, ship- 
ped into town all the ice needed for local consumption. 

Interested in the progress of Santa Cruz, foremost in its 
activities, and for four years a member of the city council, 
Mr. Walti has used his influence to prom^ote measures of local 
importance and easily holds a foremost position in the citi- 
zensliip. No one is more loyal than he to his adopted city 
and his progressive spirit has evidenced itself in the support 
of worthy projects. Fraternally he is identified with the 
Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. In early manhood he 
lost his first wife, who left one child, a son, F. W., now a stu- 
dent in the Berkeley University. After her death he was 
again married, his marriage in 1892 uniting him with Miss 
F. Shillings, a native of San Francisco and a lady of educa- 
tion and culture. Of the second marriage there is a daugh- 
ter, C. M., who is attending school in Santa Cruz. 



At the time of the gold excitement in California George 
Liddell left his home in England, where for a number of 
years he had followed his trade of civil engineer and con- 
tractor, and with a ship load of iron houses set sail for Cal- 
ifornia, where, in San Francisco, he hoped to find his houses 
m great demand. The venture did not prove a success, how- 
ever, so the following year, 1851, he abandoned the idea and 
turned his efforts in another direction. 

Coming to the Santa Cruz mountains at this time Mr. 
Liddell built a steam saw mill and also constructed a water 
mill and began taking out redwood lumber. The venture 
proved a complete success, prospering far beyond his ex- 
pectations, and the creek on which his mills were located 
finally became known as Liddell's creek. This was the pio- 
neer effort in lumbering in the redwoods of Santa Cruz 
county, an enterprise which finally developed into a thriving 
mdustry. Receiving an injury in the mill which incapacitated 
him for active service Mr. Liddell retired from business and 
thereafter made his home in Santa Cruz, where his death oc- 

Mr. Liddell had come alone to the United States in 1850. 
but as soon as his milling enterprise was established on a 
firm basis he sent to England for his family, consisting of 
his wife, formerly Elizabeth Elliott, and eight children. They 
made the entire journey from England to California, around 
Cape Horn, in a sailing vessel which encountered many peril- 
ous storms, but finally landed its passengers safely in the 
harbor of San Francisco. Mr. Liddell was a man of true 
pioneer mold and the work which he accomplished in the 
lumber interests of this locality as well as along other lines 
of activity have been of inestimable value. 




As an example of what may be done by persistent energj'' 
in the face of serious obstacles, the life of J. M. Grimmer 
presents lessons of encouragement to young men starting out 
for themselves, without the aid of means, influential friends 
or those other accidents of environment that ofttimes de- 
termine our destiny. When he came to America he found 
himself in a land of strangers, with whose language he was 
unfamiliar, and whose opportunities he was unable to grasp 
because of lack of means. Born in Germany September 23, 
1832, he had been favored by a fair education in the German 
schools, and also had been apprenticed to a trade while still 
quite young. Thoroughness is a Teutonic characteristic and 
he had been thoroughly taught all the details of the black- 
smith's trade, so that he was well qualified to earn his liveli- 
hood by following the occupation. After having landed at 
New York City in 1853 he worked on a New Jersey farm for 
five months and then proceeded to Michigan, where he found 
similar employment. During 1860 he came to California by 
way of the Isthmus of Panama, and on the sixth day of 
November he first saw Watsonville, the home of his future 
eiforts. That day is memorable in the annals of our country 
as the date of the first election of Abraham Lincoln to the 

It was not long after his arrival that Mr. Grimmer was 
earning a fair livelihood as a blacksmith and he was profitably 
engaged in that occupation until 1864, when the heaviest 
misfortune of his life came to him in the loss of his right arm 
through the accidental discharge of a gun. The catastrophe 
precluded further efforts at the blacksmith's trade. It there- 
upon became necessary to seek a means of livelihood pos- 
sible to one so afflicted as he, and the growing of fruit was 


selected as offering a favorable opening. A pioneer in horti- 
culture, he became an authority concerning the occupation 
and his thorough understanding of the soil has been of ad- 
vantage to himself as well as to others. For many years he 
made a specialty of the berry business, but eventually he 
concentrated his attention upon the raising of apples and at 
this writing he owns an orchard of one hundred and twenty- 
live acres, the greater part of which is in bearing, the apples 
being of those varieties ascertained to be best adapted to 
this soil and climate. In the twilight of his busy life, the 
owner no longer devotes his entire time to the orchard, but 
is living practically retired, in his comfortable cottage at 
No. 222 East Lake Street, Watsonville, where he is surrounded 
by the comforts rendered possible by years of patient indus- 
try and unremitting toil. 

Very shortly before his migration to the western coast Mr. 
Grimmer was married in Michigan to Miss Catherine Clirist- 
ner, who was of German birth and ancestry. Five children 
were born to their union, but death removed three of their 
number from the family circle. The two survivors are 
Carrie and Mabel. The former is the wife of Frank Thomp- 
son and resides in San Francisco. The younger daughter 
married Frank Rodgers, who is connected with the drug store 
in Watsonville. Throughout his long identification with the 
commercial and horticultural development of Santa Cruz 
County, there has never been a time when Mr. Grimmer has 
wavered in his steadfast faith in the country's prosperous 
future and by his own energetic efforts he has hastened the 
consummation of the prosperity to be attained by the intelli- 
gent cultivation of the soil of this region. For four years he 
served as a member of the board of town trustees. Tlie only 
order to which he belongs is the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows and for more tlian twenty-five years he has acted 


as trustee of the local lodge. During the period of his trus- 
teeship, in 1893, lie was closely identified with the building of 
the order's substantial office structure on East Third Street, 
where on a lot valued at $2,250 the lodge erected a building 
that cost $19,000. Somewhat later the lodge acquired, at a 
cost of $1,200, the lot adjoining their first purchase, so that 
their holdings now represent a large outlay of capital. The 
wisdom of the undertaking has been justified by the returns 
received from the investment, while in addition the lodge has 
had the pleasure of owning their own society hall, equipped 
in modern style, and offering abundant facilities for the en- 
tertainments of members and friends. 


Difficult if not impossible would it be to name any citizen 
who is more closely connected with the modern development 
of Santa Cruz than Mr. Swanton, whose reputation for ag- 
gressive energy and success in promoting enterprises is not 
limited to his home city, but extends throughout all of the 
central coast counties. A list of the movements he has 
fostered would be practically a list of all the enterprises con- 
tributing to civic progress, for no measure has been presented 
of present or future value to the city that has lacked his co- 
operation. His support has been withheld from no project 
necessary to local development. Whatever of prominence 
Santa Cruz has gained throughout the west as a popular 
resort and attractive city, the credit for such result belongs 
to him in no small degree. 

Illustrative of the identification of Mr. Swanton with local 
measures, we mention the following: In 1881 he enthu- 
siastically fostered the movement that resulted in the installa- 


tion of the first telephone system in Santa Cruz. In 1883 he 
built the hotel Swanton and in 1886, the first athletic park. 
During 1888-89 he promoted the first electric light plant, and 
in 1890-91, the first electric railroad. During 1893-94 he built 
the plant of the Big Creek Power Company. In 1895-96 he 
aided in securing the consolidation of the concerns forming 
the Santa Cruz Electric Light & Gas Company. In 1900 the 
consolidation of the Santa Cruz street railroads was effected 
and the following year the Monterey & Pacific Grove elec- 
tric railroad was erected, similar work being done in 1902-03 
for the Santa Cruz & Capitola electric railroad. During 1903 
he was one of the progressive men who enthusiastically began 
to "boom" Santa Cruz, calling the attention of people else- 
where to the natural advantages possessed by the city. In 
1904 he promoted the Co-operative electric light plant and 
built the first Casino and bathing pavilion, also the Tent City 
and electric pier. For 1906 the special works were new beach 
improvements, promoting the Casino, Natatorium cottage city 
and the famous board walk on Santa Cruz beach. The com- 
pletion of the Casino, Natatorium and beach improvements 
marked the year 1907, while the next year was marked by the 
opening up of the Swanton beach park along the Cliff drive 
and the Swanton beach. This forms a residence district un- 
excelled for beauty. The year 1909 was characterized by the 
drawing of plans for a new hotel, to cost $500,000, which 
Mr. Swanton proposes to erect in 1910 on the property ad- 
joining the Casino. 

Born in Brooklyn, X. Y., April 11, 1862, Fred W. Swanton 
was four years of age when he came to California with his 
mother, the father, Albion Paris Swanton, having preceded 
them. In 1867 he came with the family to Santa Cruz and 
soon afterward became a pupil in the public school. During 
1881 he was graduated from Heald's Business CoUege, after 


wliich for a year lie was employed by the Maderra Flume & 
Trading Company, of Fresno, and for a year was with the 
Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company. About this 
time he made a trip to the east and secured the state right 
for a telephone patent. Later he devoted considerable at- 
tention to the construction of telephone systems. In 1883, with 
his father, he erected the Swanton hotel, and this the two 
men conducted until it was destroyed by fire in June of 1888. 
At the same time he acted as manager of the Santa Cruz 
opera house. After the dissolution of the partnership he 
established the Palace pharmacy, but sold in fifteen months, 
and immediateh^ became interested in the project to light 
Santa Cruz with incandescent electricity. Associated with 
Dr. H. H. Clark, in October of 1889, he put in a machine 
of three hundred lights. At once the price of gas dropped 
from. $3.50 to $2.50 per thousand feet. The demand for the 
lights was so great that it was necessary to add a machine 
of six hundred and fifty lights. Within two years they were 
supplying five thousand incandescent lights. The success of 
the work rendered a new organization necessary and the 
Santa Cruz Electric Light Company was founded with the 
following officers: H. H. Clark, president; A. P. Swanton, 
vice-president; F. W. Swanton, secretary and manager, as 
well as the largest stockholder. In the fall of 1895 the 
plant was sold to James McNeil. 

The Big Creek Power Company was established in 1896 
with the following officers : Henry Willey, president ; William 
Rennie, vice-president; F. W. Swanton, secretary and man- 
ager; and C. E. Lilly, treasurer. Eighteen miles were built 
along the mountains and the entire line was finished in sixty 
days from the time it was started. In 1900 Mr. Swanton 
sold his interest to J. Q. Packard and F. W. Billings. It is 
worthy of note that Mr. Swanton introduced into Santa Cruz 


the very first incandescent lights used in California and that 
his was the first long-distance electric power plant in the 
state. Its capacity was increased from twenty-five hundred 
to ten thousand lights, and light then was provided for Wat- 
sonville and Capitola as well as Santa Cruz. After having 
disposed of his interest in the power plant Mr. Swanton 
visited the Alaskan gold fields. On his return he organized 
the Santa Cruz Oil Company to operate in the Bakersfield 
oil fields, with Henry Willey as president and J. J. C. Leonard 
as vice-president. During 1901 he began the organization 
of a new electric street car company to run from Santa 
Cruz to Watsonville by way of Capitola, and this work oc- 
cupied his attention in the next two years. Later he be- 
came extensively interested in building up the beach and 
his name is associated with numerous buildings along the 
coast, his chief association, however, being with the Swanton 
beach and the park of the same name. Here he plans to 
erect a magnificent hotel, equipped with modern conveniences 
and provided with all the comforts necessary to the success- 
ful management of a hotel catering to cultured and refined 

The marriage of Mr. Swanton was solemnized December 
25, 1884, and united him with Miss Stanley Hall, daughter of 
Richard Hall, of Santa Cruz. Mr. and Mrs. Swanton, with 
their daughter. Miss Pearl Hall, occupy a modern residence 
in the midst of beautiful grounds and affording a charm- 
ing view of the city, ocean and the mountains. In fraternal 
relations Mr. Swanton holds membership with the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, Knights of Pythias and Benevolent Protective 
Order of Elks. 



The marvelous changes wrought during the latter half of 
the nineteenth century were witnessed by Dr. Fagen and in a 
number of them he bore an interested part. Fate had reserved 
for him an active participation in pioneer tasks and for such 
arduous labors had qualified him by bestowing upon him an 
infinite degree of patience, an intense love of his country, a 
constitution adapted to the endurance of hardships and a 
sagacity of judgment as keen as it was of formulative im- 
portance in frontier history. The profession which he chose 
for his life-work was one for which he was adapted by natural 
endowment and acquired education. The science of materia 
medica had in him a thoughtful student. To study and to 
conquer disease seemed to him a task unsurpassed in magni- 
tude by any other object appealing to the higher ambitions of 
mankind. Hence we find him concentrating his intelligent, 
earnest attention upon therapeutics, with such gratifying re- 
sults that he gained a reputation for skill in diagnosis and 
promptness in applying the correct remedial agencies. 

The life which is herein depicted began at New Lisbon, 
Columbiana county, Ohio, November 22, 1818, and closed at 
Santa Cruz, Cal., in February, 1901, thus spanning a con- 
siderable portion of the nineteenth century, but brought to a 
close at the beginning of the twentieth century. The family 
represented by Dr. Fagen was one of colonial importance and 
considerable means, hence it was possible for him to secure 
desired educational advantages. The best institutions of 
the east qualified him for the responsibilities of life and his 
degree of M. D. was tendered to him by the medical depart- 
ment of Kemper College, St. Louis, Mo. To him belonged the 
honor of being the first physician at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, 
and he had the further honor of assisting in laying out and 


platting the city of Des Moines. On tlie west side of that city 
he bought eighty acres and laid the land out in lots. With the 
early history of the capital city of Iowa his name was indis- 
solubly associated and his talents were utilized in pioneer 
work of importance to future local development. 

Not until the discovery of gold in California was the atten- 
tion of Dr. Fagen called closely to the resources of the vast 
west. A study of the country Jed him to desire participation 
in its activities, and we find him the leader of a caravan of 
Argonauts that crossed the plains with horses and wagons in 
1850. For a time he engaged in mining at Nevada City and 
later in Placer countj^ where he became prominent among the 
pioneers, being a leader in all movements for the benefit of 
the people and the development of local resources, and in both 
places he also practiced medicine. It was about 1869 that he 
came to Santa Cruz and in a short time he had acquired high 
professional standing, building up a practice that was limited 
only by his time and strength. In spite of professional de- 
mands he did not forget the duties devolving upon him as a 
citizen, but bore a part in local enterprises, served as trustee 
of the public schools, filled the office of county coroner, be- 
came a large real-estate owner, and served as president and 
vice-president of both banks, besides being a member of their 
boards of directors. Fraternally he was connected with the 
Masons and Odd Fellows. 

Shortly before he came to California Dr. Fagen had mar- 
ried in 1849 Miss Melissa Hoxie, who died in Placer county, 
Cal., leaving two sons, Clarence E. and Herbert D., now resi- 
dents of Santa Cruz county. The second marriage of Dr. 
Fagen was solemnized February 27, 1873, and united him 
with the widow of Albion P. Jordan. This estimable lady sur- 
vives him, making her home at No. 172 Mission street, Santa 
Cruz, where she owns one of the most elegant residences in 


the city. For years she has been a leading worker in the 
Congregational church and one of the principal members of its 
Ladies' Aid Society. The missionary and philanthropic en- 
terprises of the church receive her earnest co-operation and 
many a large gift, the fruit of her generous helpfulness, has 
proved a blessing to the cause for which it was donated. She 
has also been a large contributor of both time and means to 
all the charities and civic improvements of her city. 


For a period covering very little less than one-half century 
Mr. Stoesser was intimately associated with the commercial 
development and civic progress of AVatsonville and his name 
is inseparably connected with the local annals. Death alone 
had power to terminate his activities. Many of the qualities 
that distinguished his career came to him by inheritance from 
a long line of thrifty Teutonic ancestors, but these attributes 
were supplemented by characteristics notably American and 
more especially typical of the pioneer Californian. To a man 
thus endowed a complete failure is impossible. For a time 
success may hold aloof its laurel wreath, but eventually de- 
termination and industry win the goal. Such proved to be 
the case in the career of this German-American, whose ac- 
tivities aided in the material upbuilding of the Pajaro valley 
and whose personality was a virile force in every important 
undertaking for the general welfare. 

The childhood home of Otto Stoesser was situated in Gag- 
gennau, near Baden-Baden, in the grand duchy of Baden, 
Germany, and there he was born November 18, 1825, being a 
son of Dominick Stoesser. The excellent schools of his native 
land afforded him fair opportunities and of these he ava^iled 


himself until the time came when the necessity of self-support 
precluded further educational advantages. While yet a mere 
lad he heard much concerning America as a home for the 
poor young man. As soon as he attained his majority he bade 
farewell to relatives and friends and set sail for the new 
world, landing in New York City June 25, 1846. From there 
he went to Norfolk, Va., where he was employed for eighteen 
months, and next he worked for a short time successively at 
Wilmington, N. C, Columbia and Danville, Pa., after which 
he worked for John Hagan, at No. 308 Market street, Phil- 
adelphia. Resigning that position February 22, 1850, he 
prepared for a voyage to California and five days later he em- 
barked on the Zenobia for San Francisco. Slowly the vessel 
proceeded southward to the Horn and thence up the Pacific. 
Only a very few stops were made, one of these being at Val- 
paraiso, Chile, where the vessel anchored for four days. 

After having landed at San Francisco on the 13th of Au- 
gust after a voyage of almost six months, Mr. Stoesser secured 
employment with M. L. Wynn, manufacturer of Wynn's 
golden syrup. Wliile there he witnessed the celebration at- 
tendant upon California's admission as a state. Like all 
new-comers, he was ambitious to try his luck in the mines and 
with this purpose in view he traveled to a mine near Agua 
Fria, but he was so unfortunate that when he returned to 
San Francisco on Christmas day he had only $4.85 in his pos- 
session. The first employment he was able to secure was that 
of cabin-boy on board the Colijmbia, bound for Panama, and 
he returned on the same ship in March of 1851. Hoping to 
meet with better success in the mines, he went to the Feather 
river and Rich Bar mines, but the same bad luck befell him and 
he was discouraged from all further efforts in mining. Re- 
turning to San Francisco he was about to ship as a cabin-boy, 
but happening to see a sign ''Wanted: a Dishwasher," he en- 


tered the restaurant and secured the job. Ten days later he 
secured work as a pastry-baker on Kearney street, but twenty- 
four days after he went there the restaurant was burned. 
However, he soon found similar emplojTnent and in time re- 
ceived large pay. 

Having been induced by Dr. Vandeburgh to go to Santa 
Cruz and engage in mercantile pursuits, Mr. Stoesser brought 
a stock of goods via the steamer Major Tompkins, March 10, 
1853, and opened a store on Front street, near the old Santa 
Cruz house. At the end of a month he packed his goods in 
three wagons and started for Watsonville, where he arrived 
on the 10th of April. Three months later he bought the in- 
terest of his partner, Dr. Vandeburgh. After a time he built 
a residence next his store, but this he eventually removed to 
Rodriguez street. In 1873 he erected a double store building, 
two stories in height, and there he carried on a large business 
until his death. The profits of his business were wisely in- 
vested. In time he became the owner of stock in the Pajaro 
Valley Bank, also a valuable farm near town and valuable 
city property, including his modern residence on the corner 
of Third and Rodriguez streets. For years he was said to 
be the largest tax-payer in Watsonville and his extensive 
holdings were the result of his unaided exertions in a land 
far distant from the home of his birth. 

Any office within the gift of the people of Watsonville would 
have been tendered to Mr. Stoesser had he been willing to 
accept, but with one exception he declined all official positions, 
the exception being the position of city treasurer, which he 
held for thirty years by successive re-elections, until finally 
he declined to serve longer in that capacity. The first fire de- 
partment in Watsonville was organized largely through his 
energetic efforts and he never ceased to be interested in the 
success of the department. For some years he served as 


vice-president of the Santa Cruz County Pioneers and al- 
ways he was warmly interested in that organization, but he 
never allowed his name to be presented for membership in 
any other society or fraternity. While still actively manag- 
ing his large enterprises he was taken ill and after an ill- 
ness of two weeks he passed away, May 18, 1902, leaving to 
mourn his loss his widow and their two children, Julia M. and 
Otto D, Mrs. Stoesser, prior to her marriage in 1861, had 
borne the name of Elizabeth J. Doran and was a daughter of 
Edward and Julia (O'Farrell) Doran. 

Predominant among the characteristics of Mr. Stoesser was 
his warm interest in workingmen. This was in part due to 
his thoughtful disposition and in part to his own early strug- 
gles for a livelihood. His employes found him considerate 
and kind and a situation in his employ was said to mean ''for 
life or during good behavior." As his means became larger 
his ability to aid the distressed and needy became corres- 
pondingly greater, and many a struggling soul owed to him 
practical help as well as words of encouragement. The busi- 
ness that owed its remarkable success to his capable over- 
sight continued unchanged for some time after his demise, 
but in May of 1905 it was incorporated with the firm of W. A. 
Speckens and the J. A. Baxter Company, under the title of 
the Pajaro Valley Mercantile Company, thus forming an 
organization of great financial strength. A general mercantile 
business is transacted at Nos. 327-329 Main street and Nos. 
13-17-19 West Third street, Watsonville, and the modern 
merging of various interests will increase the usefulness of 
concerns planted by honored pioneers of our city. 



If there is one characteristic noticeable in the native-born 
sons of California more than another it is their devotion to 
their commonwealtli. Comparatively few seek homes in other 
parts of the world and the great majority remain in the midst 
of scenes familiar to their earliest recollections. This is no 
less applicable to Mr. Miller than it is to other Californians 
who have spent their entire lives within the limits of the 
state. Devotion to the commonwealth has been evidenced in 
his actions and he has exhibited the greatest faith in the fu- 
ture growth and prosperity of the state. 

Mr. Miller was born in San Francisco in 1859, the son of 
parents who appreciated the value of good educational ad- 
vantages and the fact that they lived in the metropolis made 
it possible for them to give their son exceptional opportun- 
ities in this respect. His earlier training was in the Lincoln 
school of San Francisco, and later he took up a course in the 
University of California at Berkeley, graduating therefrom in 
1878. When the time came for him to decide upon his busi- 
ness future he came to Boulder Creek, Santa Cruz county, 
and in Kings Creek valley he bought two hundred and ninety- 
three acres of mountain and valley land, four miles from 
town. This has been his home and the scene of his activities 
ever since, and it is needless to say that the passing years 
have witnessed many wonderful changes in this part of the 
country, due to the unremitting efforts of such enterprising 
ranchers as Mr. Miller. Here he has seventy acres in or- 
chard, planted to a fine variety of pears and apples, and he 
also has a vineyard of forty-live acres. The grapes are of 
the finest quality and produce a grade of wine which is un- 

A marriage ceremony performed in Boulder Creek in 1882 


united the destinies of Fred W. Miller and Carrie B. Morrill, 
the latter also a native of the state. Three children, two 
sons and one daughter, have been born of this marriage, as 
follows: Casper B.; Adelia, a student in the University of 
California ; and Robert. Mr. Miller finds pleasure and recre- 
ation in the gatherings of the two fraternal organizations of 
which he is a member, his name being on tlie membership roll 
of the local lodge of the Masons and Odd Fellows. One of 
Mr. Miller's strongest characteristics is faithfulness in what- 
ever he undertakes to do, and this is nowhere better exem- 
plified than in his vineyard and orchard, both of which are 
in a high state of cultivation and rank among the best in the 


There are very few of the residents of Santa Cruz county 
whose identification with its ranching interests antedates that 
of William Oliver. In these days of change, when a restless 
spirit influences many to seek new locations or new avenues 
of commercial activity, it is sigTiificant of the quiet, home- 
loving disposition possessed by Mr. Oliver, that he has been 
content to remain at the same homestead for a period of 
fifty years. During this long period he has witnessed a re- 
markable transformation in the surrounding country. Towns 
have been founded, farms have been improved, large crops of 
fruit and grain have been raised, and the railroad has come 
with its splendid facilities for the shipment of the products 
of this favored locality. In all of this progress lie has wrought 
with quiet, yet forceful industry, and his labors as a ranclier 
have combined with the efforts of other resourceful men in 
tlie development of the locality, proving to tlie worhl its 
large capacity for production. 


If the mature years of Mr. Oliver have been characterized 
by quiet devotion to duty without change of location, his 
earlier days presented a marked contrast, for in that era of 
his life he traveled far and wide as a sailor on the high seas. 
The home of his childhood was in the southern border of 
Sweden, near the shores of the Baltic sea, and there he was 
born in 1829, the son of parents in humble circumstances. 
AN'liile still a mere lad he began to take up the burden of 
self-support and at the age of eighteen he went to sea as a 
sailor, which occupation he followed for seven years, mean- 
while visiting the principal ports of the world. When he 
heard of the discovery of gold in California he determined to 
come hither, but it was not until 1852 that he landed at San 
Francisco, having sailed from London by way of Australia. 
After an experience of one year in the mines of Tuolumne 
county, in 1853 he went to San Francisco and secured em- 
ployment along the water-front. Wages in those days were 
high. He was paid $6 per day, with $1 per hour for over- 
time. For two years he worked in the New Orleans ware- 
house, but at the expiration of that time he became eager to 
return to tlie mines. 

After having engaged in mining for one year in the north- 
ern part of California around the Klamath river and for 
two years in the southern part of Oregon, Mr, Oliver re- 
turned to San Francisco, the richer for $5,000 in gold-dust. 
Desiring to wisely invest this amount, he came to Soquel, 
Santa Cruz county, in 1859, and bought the land out of which 
he has developed his present well-improved homestead, con- 
sisting of one hundred and fifty acres, mainly in hay and 
grain, with a bearing orchard of nine acres. His first mar- 
riage occurred in 1865, and after the death of his first wife 
he married the present Mrs. Oliver, in 1874. In his family 
there were only two children and both of these have estab- 


lislied homes of their own. The daughter, Caroline E., is the 
wife of Horatio Angell and resides at Soquel. The son, Will- 
iam Henry, is a civil engineer by occupation. While Mr. 
Oliver has devoted his attention very closel}^ to rancliing and 
has had little leisure for participation in public affairs, he 
has ever been ready to give his enthusiastic co-operation to 
movements of undoubted value to the general welfare and he 
has likewise been interested in fraternal work as a member of 
the Masonic Order and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.