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Full text of "History of Saratoga County, New York, with illustrations biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers"

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NathjSniel Bartlett Sylvester, 




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Entered according tu Act of Cougress, in the year 1878, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 


Around the name of Saratoga there clusters a wealth of liistoric lore. Since tliis name was first 
transferred from the oral language of the red man to the written page of the white man, in a word, 
from the favorite old iuinting-ground of tiie river hills, first, to the little hamlet of the wilderness, and 
then to the town and county, it has been associated, in peace as well as in war, with the most 
important events which have been chronicled in our country's history. It will, therefore, readily be 
seen that, upon taking up the task of writing the history of Saratoga County, an almost overwhelming 
mass of material presented itself for consideration. In one catalogue of books alone, entirely devoted 
to the subject, or in which important reference is made to Saratoga, there are more than one hundred 
volumes. To all this must be added the vast accumulation of public records in tlie State and 
county archives. Tlie important question then was, not what could be got, but what should be 
taken. A broad field lay before us, filled with mingled tares and wheat, and we must cull from it 
what best suited our purpose. 

Yet in all this vast field of literature, so rich in many things, there was little to be found 
relating to the early settlement of the towns and county. In search of this pioneer history, the public 
records must be searched, the wiiole ground must be gone over afresh. But a hundred years in 
passing had removed three generations of men, and what could once have been so accurately learned 
from living lips, now that those lips are sealed forever, must be gathered by the dim light of 
uncertain tradition. As this is the first history of the county which has been published, it seems to 
us tliat it should be, more tiian anytiiing else, a history of the pioneers. The pioneers of a country, 
those who brave the dangers and endure the toils of its early settlement, be their lives ever so humble, 
are worthy of notice, wiiile those who come after them, be tlieir social position ever so high, cannot 
expect to receive the historian's attention, unless they mingle much in affiiirs, or perform historic 
deeds. It is to the pioneers, therefore, that we have devoted a large part of the following pages. 

In making our selections from tlie public records and in gleaning from the literature of the 
subject we have doubtless often been unwise. Yet we have not attempted to put everything into the 
work that would interest everybody. In gathering material for the history of the early settlements, 
doubtless we have sometimes, owing to the imperfections of human memory, been misinformed as to 
names, dates, and circumstances. There ^^•ere doubtless, too, many pioneers in the "diiferent towns, 
whose names we have not been able to learn, and therefore we give no account of them in these 
pages. The reader should bear in mind that, at the time of the organization of the county, in 1791, 
there were upwards of seventeen thousand people living M'ithin its borders. Of how few of these, 
comparatively, is there now much known ? So our work, like all things human, notwithstanding our 
best endeavors, is doubtless to some extent scored with errors, marred by omissions, faults, and 
imperfections, and we beg the reader to pass them over with indulgent eye. 


In pursuing the subject we have selected such topics for insertion as we thought would best illus- 
trate the progress of the people of the county during the century of its growth and development, from 
their rude beginnings in the old wilderness to tlieir present state of enlightened culture and 

To those in different parts of the county wlio have kindly assisted us, — and we would like to 
mention all tiieir names liere, but want of space will not pern\it, and to name a part would seem 
invidious, — to all such we return our heartfelt acknowledgment. 

To the publishers of this volume it is due to say, that they have done everything in their power 
which they could do, to assist us in the endeavor to make it acceptable to their patrons. To do this 
they have spared neither pains nor expense. 

To the writer it has been mostly a labor of pleasure ratiier than of profit. If the reader can 
find anything in it to approve, we are sure his generous commendation will not be withheld. Wliat 
he sees in the execution of tiie work — in what it contains and in what it does not contain — to disap- 
prove, may his condemnation come rather in sorrow than in anger. And now, whether good or evil 

I'eport betide it, the task is done. 

X. B. S. 
Saratoga Springs, X. Y., .July 9, 1878. 









—Statistical Tables 131 


— Introduction ........ 



—Biographical Sketches 137 


— Extent — Original Counties — Civil Division 






— Topographical Features ...... 

— Geological Outlines 

— The Indian Occupancy ...... 

—Early Explorations— 1 535-1009 .... 




Village of Saratoga Springs 14S 


— Founding of Albanv, Schenectady, and Montreal — 

Town of 

It It 

. 213 



Village of Ballston Spa 

. 22S 


—Indian Wars — The Mission of Isaac Jogues — 1642- 


Town of 


. 246 
. 259 


— French and Indian Wars — The Northern Invasion of 



Stillwater . 

. 286 
. 313 


—French and Indian War of 1689-90 . . . . 


Waterford . 

. 324 


—The Northern Invasion of 1693— A Battle in Sara- 


Ilalf-Moou . 

. 343 
. 35S 


—French and Indian Wars— 1709-4S .... 


Edinburgh . 

. 369 


—Last French and Indian War — 1755-03 . 


Malta .... 

. 3Sn 


— The First Period of the Burgoyne Campaign t»f 1777 



. 39! 


— The Second Period of the Burgoyne Cam])aign 



. 401 


— The Third Period of the Burgoyne Campaign . 



. 414 


-The Northern Invasion of 17SU 



. 422 


—Early Land Grants— 1684-1713 . . . . 


Greenfield . 

. 435 


— Early Settlement — County Organization — Civil Gov- 
ernment and Civil List ...... 


Day .... 


. 454, 
. 462 


—Military Rolls 


Clifton Park 

. 472 


— County Societies ....... 



. 48.^ 


—The Press of Saratoga 



. 495 


—Saratoga County in the Great Rebellion of 1801 



^Centennial Celebrations 

—Internal Improvements — Canals, Railroads — 1795- 





Rkcoud and Diukctor 


. 503 



Clerk's Oflice and Court-House, Ballston (frontispiece) facing 



Map of Saratoga County, colored, by towns . . facing 


Residence of J. H. Farrington . 

facing 168 

Table of Geologic Time s ...... . 


Portrait of Captain J. P. Butler 



Plan of Encampment and Position of Burgoyno's Army at 

Views of the (icyser Spring Property 



Swords' House, Sept. 17 and 19, 1777 . . facing 


Vermont House 



Plan of Encampment and position of Burgoyne's Army at 

Portrait of Prof. H. A. Wilson . 



Bra;mus' Heights, Sept. 20, and Oct. 7 and 8, 1777 facing 


'' John V. Howard 



Portrait of Madame lliedesel (steel) .... between 64, 65 

" John Van Rensselaer 



" Ladv Harriet Ackland (steel) ..." 64, 65 

" Hon. Thos. .1. Marvin (steel) . 



Plan of the Position of Burgoyne's Army, Oct. 10, 1777 facing 


Residence of the late W. L. F. Warren (with 





Map of Saratoga County, 1840, showing patents, allotments, 

Portrait of Charles S. Lester (steel) . 



etc facing 


" James M. Marvin (steel) 



Fac-Simile of Order made by Board of Supervisors, 1791 " 


" Gideon M. Davison 


Portrait of Hon. Reuben H. Walworth (steel) . . " 


" E. F. Bullard (steel) 

facing 1Q9 

" John K. Porter (steel) .... " 


" T. B. Reynolds (steel) . 
" Hon. John W. Crane 




" Ransom Cook .... 


Views of Congress Sjiring Park .... facing 


B. F. Judson .... 


Residence of Dr. T. B. Reynolds .... " 


Samuel J. Pearsall, M.D. 


Portrait of Doanda Risley Putnam . . . between 152 


" Henry W. Merrill . 


" Rockwell Putnam .... " 152 


" Elias Lee Wakcman 


Adirondack Vill.a— Residence of Chas. S. Lester . facing 


" Thomas Noxou 


Residence of W. C. Bronsou . . , , , " 


" Anson M. Boyoc 



Towx or sabato«;a srsixtis. 



S;ha W. • 

A poctzaLfef' Enfts^ 


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- J 




Ra^&mes af T. S. I>«5-je Skcis «I I 

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■*■ 3fr«. J-rha Harrrs . i<l4 

ieiHiijBni-TB <it Aur. iiiT^ i..t« ' OtlCvwiL 11*^. 411 

H-m. r : ■^ 414.-01 

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Se^*&f?K^ '?f ?faii?iiiff J«ders { wish poctru.- - 


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ra-CLni r 








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: . . ; : - ''■i fh-" T -i piirtraifs 






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Elm P»rs- 
P'jrtrmic of DiuimLf 



POEOaik •£ S. T. K<nt&«ea 
Pactnics af Luke E;u&ta and. WJ', 
•* Enus XarpOT . 




H3^- - 


" Caavas Wlite 

Ftjrtrait -jf W. B^ Cuilaiiier 

. . . ^ 


" /ion Cnuii«r sIbbIj 

EesniEBtte af Jti&n J- Bitll c (faiL6Ii:-{>ss>i 

-'•-I'V^ :i tii 

. 4l>a 

P^cteut? •Claim But asdVae . 




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Ptosraftrf Coi- . . 




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ae». F. S. Parka . 

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Rasiiiisnce of til* Citte latntfr Bluuii , wicb. portraic, . 



Ktf^tience af T^omof Jfazrs (vitb. p«ctt«3t; 



•* Isaac yas&. wxtk p»irtraiK) - 



■* A. L. Scotte [ wft& portraits) 



■^ Isaac H. J'j&nsoa . 
pijrtrai of Hariuw Tan C^aaami 




Kesifesire af Sf^mce Stark wxth "Mrmir* 



L De - 


Portrait gt" - 



JaSvPar. ^ 






Kouben Jlydc, Walworth 

K«ek C.owvn 

Joliii Willanl . 

NicllMJai^ liall 

Sumufl Young . 

John \V. Taj'lor . 

Jdiriiianus Schu^-Ier 

John K. Porter . 

AVilliam Augustus licoch 

AuguHtuH Jioekcs 

(iidcon Putnam . 

Kockwull Putnuni 

Capt. J. P. liutlur 

Prof. II. A. Wilson 

John V. Howard 

John Van Rensselaer 

Hon. Thomas J. Marv 

William Hay 

Hon. W. L. F. Warren 

Charles S. Lester 

James E. McKean 

Henry Walton . 

Hon. James M. Marv 

(iidcon M. l»avif^on 

John C. Ilultjert 

(ien. Edward Fitch Bullard 

Francis Waylaud 

Miles Beach 

J)r. John H. Steel 

Tabor B. Reynolds, M 

John W. Eddy . 

Oliver L. Barbour 

John A. Corey . 

Joshua Porter 

Hon. .John W. Crane 

Ransom Cook 

Robert C. McEwen, M.D. 

Benjamin F. Judson 

Peter V. Wiggins 

Lewis Putnam . 

Samuel Searing . 

Joshua T. Blanchard 

Samuel .1. Pearsal], M.D. 

Henry W. Merrill 

Elias Lee Wakeman 

Thomas Koxon . 

Anson M. Boyce 

Lucretia and Margaret Dav 

George G. Scott . 

Leverctt Moore, M.D 

Hon. George West 

John W. Thompson 

James W. Ilorton 

Dr. .Samuel Davis 

Elisha Cnrtiss . 

James Mann 

tjeorge G. Ostrandcr 

Joseph Wilbur . 

Andrew Dorland 


between I 


2, 153 

152, l.i.5 
facing 158 
" 174 
" 180 
" 184 

between 268, 269 
" 280, 281 



Hosea Baker 
Daniel A. Bullard 
Samuel .Sheldon 
James H. Dillingham 
William II. Marshall 
William B. Marshall 
William P. Finch 
Hon. Geo. W. Ncilson 
Thomas C. Morgan 
Rev. Stephen Bush 
Joshua Bailey 
Hon. Hugh While 
Canvass White . 
John Cramer 
Samuel Cheevcr . 
Isaac C. Ormsby 
Chesscldcn Ellis . 
Lewis B. Smith . 
Col. E. E.Ellsworth 
Capt. Ephraim D. Ell 
Rev. F. S. Parke 
Judge Lewis Stone 
Augustus L. Stone 
Thomas Mairs . 
James Partridge 
Joseph Ilillman 
N. M. Houghton 
E. W. Town 
Abraham Marshall 
Daniel U. Deyoe 
Isaac Van Dewcrker 
Asa F. Thompson 
A. B. Baucus 
John Harris 
Stephen 0. Burt 
J. J. Wait . 
Austin L. Reynolds 
Hon. Howell Gardiner 
Simeon Schoutem 
Benjamin W. Dyer 
Thomas H. Tomj^kins 
William C. Darrow 
Benjamin S. Robinson 
I. G. Johnson, M.D. 
Nelson D. Morehouse 
Elihu Wing 
Enos Murphy 
John Ham . 
John J. Brill 
Warren B. Collamer 
Adam Mott 
Barney R. Caldwell 
Nicbclas J. Clutc 
Lewis R. Garnsey 
Peter Arnold 
Harlow Van Ostrand 
Isaiah Blood 
Stephen Rockwell 






280, 281 

between 344, 345 

between 442, 443 
" 442, 443 
facing 444 
facing 496 







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I'll Ir tit yi? A^rj/„ll .W«u/(^ 

f Viyt"'''''' 









Saratoga County, it may of a truth be said, owes its 
historical importance to the striking peculiarity of its geo- 
graphical position. 

From the Island of Montreal, in the River St. Lawrence, 
a narrow depression, or valley, in the earth's surface ex- 
tends due south, on a line aluiost as straight as the crow 
flies, for the distance of nearly four hundred miles, to the 
Island of Manhattan, at the mouth of the Hudson river, 
on tlie shore of the Atlantic ocean. 

This long and narrow valley, which seems to be a deep, 
downward fold in the mountain ranges, separates the high- 
lands of New England from the highlands of New York. 
The summit level of this long northern valley being less 
than one hundred and sixty feet above the level of the 
sea, and lakes and streams of navigable water stretching 
through it either way, it forms a natural highway and 
route of travel between the great valley of the St. Law- 
rence on the north and the Atlantic seaboard on the south. 

From the " sprouts" or mouths* of the Mohawk river, 
nearly in the centre of this great northern valley, another 
long and narrow valley, caused by a downward fold in 
the mountain ranges, extends nearly due west, and reach- 
ing to the basin of the great lakes, opens the way to the 
valley of the Missi.ssippi beyond. This great intersecting 
western valley separates the highlands of northern from 
the highlands of southern New York, and, like the great 
northern valley, i.s also a natural highway and thoroughfare, 
with low summit level, and teeming with the travel of a 

Between the nor:hern or Champlain valley, and the 
western or Moliawk valley, and the valley of the St. Law- 
rence to the southwestward, rises the rugged Laurentiaa 

* The Mohawk, just before it flows info the Hudson, separates 
into four .spreadiuf; branches, which the early Dutch settler signifi- 
cantly called Sp>iii/tca, which is from the Danish Spiuiten, or Sa.'con 
Spryttau, from which comes our English word Sproula. — Vide " An- 
nals of Albany," vol. ii. page 226, and " Saratoga and Kay-ad-ros- 
se-ra," by the author, page lU. 


mountain chain of the Adirondack wilderness. Forming 
the backbone of the Atlantic slope of the continent, the 
Apalachian mountain range extends from Nova Scotia on 
the north Uj Florida on the soutli. 

These vast mountain ranges thus present, through the 
whole distance from the northern to the .southern gulf, a 
most formidable barrier between the Atlantic seaboard and 
the great central valleys of the continent. And these two 
deep narrow valleys thus stretching around the Adirondacks, 
and one running north and south and the other trending 
east and west through the State of New York, are the only 
mountain passes that lejid through or over the Apalachian 
mountain range. Everywhere else, from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, except through these two 
narrow valleys, the traveler must pass over high mountain 
barriers in going to and fro between tlie Atlantic seaboard 
and the basin of the great lakes and the valleys of the 
Mississippi and the St. Lawrence. 

Over the great natural highways and routes of travel 
leading through these mountain passes ran the most im- 
portant of the old Lidian trails ; through them marched 
the armies of the long colonial period ; and through these 
valleys now passes the world's commerce in ce;iseless flow 
from the teeming west into the lap of our State's great 
metropolis, the city of New York, which sits by the sea at 
the foot of the great northern valley, still holding her proud 
position, rendered possible by her great natural advantages 
as the queen city of tlu; New World. 

In the angle formed by the junction of these two long 
deep valleys or passes through the mountain ranges, in 
the angle between the old Indian war-trails, in the angle 
between the pathways of armies, in the angle between 
the great modern routes of travel, in the angle formed by 
the junction of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, lies the 
territory now known and distinguished on the map of the 
State of New York as the county of Saratoga. 


It will thus easily be seen that its singular geographical 

position like that of the county of Albany, which lies in 

the opposite southern angle of the two rivers, gives to tlie 

county of Saratoga its important strategical position in 




time of war, places it al(jnfi tlie jircat centres of traffic and 
travel in times of jieace, and has already given it a long and 
eventful history. 

And it will i|uite as readily also be seen that, in order to 
give an intelligible history of the county of Saratoga, so 
often the theatre of stirring events during the long colonial 
period, some account must be given, more or less in detail, 
of all the numerous expeditions and excursions which, both 
in peace and in war, traversed the great northern and west- 
ern valleys. 

During the indefinite period of the Indian occupancy 
terminating with its discovery by white men, that part of 
the State now called Northern New York was disputed 
ground. The Ak/oiiquin races of the valley of the St. 
Lawrence contended for its possession with the fierce Iru- 
qiiois nations of the valley of the Mohawk and of central 
New York. After its discovery by white men, the French 
allies of the A/(/oiiqiiiiis and the English allies of the Iroquois 
took up and continued the long ijuarrel for its mastery. 
Thus for two hundred and seventy years, during which its 
authentic history runs back before the of the War of 
the Revolution, there was scarcely an hour of peaceful rest 
unbroken by the fear of the savage invader in these great 
war-w^orn valleys' in the angle of which lies tlie county of 

During this whole period it was the midnight war-whoop, 
the uplifted tomahawk, the cruel scalping-knife, the burn- 
ing dwelling, the ruined home, that made the whole country 
a wide scene of desolation and blood. At lenarth this lonsr 
wilderness warfare culminated in the surrender of General 
Burgoyne, on the 17th of October, 1777, at Saratoga. 

From that day, with Lexington and Bunker Hill, with 
Trenton, Monmouth, and Ticonderoga, with Germantown 
and Yorktown, Saralogd will remain one of our country's 
high historic names. 

In the following pages an attempt will be made to trace 
the history of Saratoga County, fi'om its rude beginnings in 
the old howling wilderness of more than two hundred years 
ago, up to times within the ready memory of many men 
and women now living. 

But this attempt is not without many and serious diffi- 
culties. A hundred years even in passing have taken one 
by one all the old .settlers from us, and much that could 
once have accurately been learned from living lips now that 
those lips are sealed forever must be sought in the all-too- 
nieagrc records left us, or we must grope our way for it 
among the conflicting stories of the fragmentary lore of 
uncertain tradition. 




The county of Saratoga is centrally distant thirty-one 
miles from the capitol at Albany. It is bounded on the 
north by Warren county ; on the east by the counties of 
Warren, Washington, and Rensselaer; on the south by the 
counties of Albany and Schenectady, and on the west by 

the counties of Schenectady, Montgomery, Fulton, and 

The county of Saratoga is situated between latitude 42° 
47' and 43° 22' north, and longitude 2° 47' and 3° 20' 
cast from Wasliington. Its extreme length from north to 
south is about 43 miles, and its greatest width from east to 
west is about 28 miles. It contains 862 si[uare miles or 
551,680 acres. 

Of this, according to the State cen.sus of 1875, 317,201 
acres are improved land, and 148,218 acres unimproved ; 
there being of the latter 89,192 acres of woodland. This 
enumeration by tie census-takers leaves a remainder of 
96,261 acres to be accounted for, doubtless mostly repre- 
sented by the waste, non-resident lands of the northern part 
of the county lying within the boundaries of the Adiron- 
dack wilderness. The total population of the county in 
1875 was .")5,137. 

In the '■• Revised Statutes of the State" this county is 
described and its boundary lines defined as follows, to wit : 

" The county of Saratoga* shall contain all that part of this State 
bounded, northerly, by the couuty of Warren; easterly, by the coun- 
ties of Rensselaer, Washington, and AVarrcn ; southerly, by a line 
beginning at a point in the middle of Hudson's river opposite to the 
middle of the most northerly branch of the Mohawk river, and run- 
ning thence through the middle of said northerly branch and of tlie 
Mohawk river, westerly to the east bounds of the county of Schenec- 
tady ; then along the easterly and northerly bounds of the said county 
of Schenectady to the northwest corner of said county; then north 
one degree and twenty-live minutes west along a line heretofore estab- 
lished, drawn from a point on the Mohawk river at the northeast 
corner of the tract, granted to George Ingolsby and others, to the 
southwest corner of the county of Warren." 

The line above described as " a line heretofore established, 
drawn from a point on the Mohawk river," and as running 
" north one degree and twenty-five minutes west,'' is inter- 
esting to the student of history as being what is known as 
the " old Tryon county line." 


From the time of the first division of the State into 
counties, under Charles II., on the 1st day of November, 
in the year 1683, until the 24t.h day of March, 1772, all 
the territory lying northerly and westerly of what was 
then the county of Ulster was included in the county of 
Albany. On the 24th day of March, 1772, the vast county 
of Albany was divided, and two new counties set off, namely, 
the counties of Tryon and Charlotte. 

The county of Tryon included all that part of the State 
lying westerly of the aforesaid " established line," which 
ran from the Mohawk, as above set forth, to the Canada 
line, at a point near the present Indian village of St. Regis. 
Tryon county was thus nearly two hundred miles wide on 
its eastern border, and stretched out westward two hundred 
and seventy miles to the shores of Lake Erie. The shire- 
town of Tryon county was Johnstown, near the Mohawk, 
the residence of Sir William Johnson, Bart. It was named 
in honor of William Tryon, the last colonial governor of 
the State. ' 

The county of Charlotte, scarcely less in size than Tryon 

» See Sec. 2, Title I., Chap. II., Part I., N. Y. Rev. Stat. 



county, included within its boundaries all the northern part; 
of the State that lay easterly of the " Tryon county line," 
and northerly of the present county of Saratoga and the 
Batterskill in Washington county. Charlotte county also 
included the westerly half of what is now the State of 
Vermont, and was then the disputed territory known as 
the New Hampshire grants. The easterly half of Ver- 
mont, lying west of the Connecticut river, also claimed by 
New York, and since forming part of Albany county, was 
set off into two counties, — Cumberland, in 17G6, and 
Gloucester, 1770. 

Charlotte county was so named in honor of the Princess 
Charlotte, daughter of George III., or, as some say, of the 
Queen Consort Charlotte, of Mecklenburg .Strelitz. 

The county-seat of Charlotte county was Fort Edward. 
The first court was held in that village on the 19th of 
October, 1773, by Judge William Duer. The first clerk 
of the court was Daniel MeCrea, a brother of Jeanie 
JlcCrea, whose tragic deatli soon after occurred near where 
the court sat. 

On the 2d day of April, 1784, the legislature of the then 
new State of New York passed an act by which it was 
ordained that : 

'* From and after the ])assing of this act, the county of TnvoM shall 
be called and known hy the name of Munigumcri/, and tlte county of 
Chahlotte by the name of Wdnliiiii/lnn." 

" Thus these two counties," says Judge Gibson, in his 
" Bench and Bar of Washington County," " organized origi- 
nally by one legislative act, and simultaneously named in 
compliment to royalty and its satellite by a subsequent legis- 
lative act, after passing through a sea of fire and famine and 
desolation and war, were simultancou.sly born again in a 
baptism of blood, and one of them named after the greatest 
of its slaughtered heroes on the battle-field, Montgomery, 
and the other after the most distinguished of its living 
survivors, the immortal Washingto.v." 

It will thus be seen that what is now the county of Saratoga 
was not set off in the division of the 24th of March, 1772, 
but constituted and remained a part of Albany county until 
the 7th day of February, 1701, when Albany county was 
again divided, being reduced to its present limits, and the 
counties of Rensselaer and Saratoga set oflf. 

Besides the county of Albany there are nine other origi- 
nal counties in what is now the State of New Yoi'k, namely, 
the counties of Duchess, King's, New York, Orange, 
Queen's. Richmond, Suffolk, Ulster, and Westchester. 

These ten original counties were all formed on the 1st 
day of November, 1683, by order of the Duke of York, 
then the sole proprietor of the provinces, and who ascended 
the throne of England on the Gth of February, 1G85, as 
James II., of unfortunate memory. These counties were 
all named after James and his near relatives. 

Thus, the counties of New York and Albany were so 
called in honor of his two titles of the Duke of York, in 
England, and Duke of Albany, in Scotland. 

The counties of Kind's and Queen s (now Kings and 
Queens without the possessive) were named in honor of the 
Duke's royal brother, then King Charles II., and his wife, 
Catharine of Braganza. 

DiicJicKK (now Dutchess), containing also what are now 
Columbia and Putnam counties, complimented James' wife, 
Mary Hyde, Duchess of York. 

Suffolk county was named after King Charles, in whom 
was then vested the title of Duke of Suffolk. This title 
was lost by Charles Grey, father of Lady Jane Grey, in 
consequence of her rebellion. 

Richmond county was named in honor of Charles Lenox, 
Duke of Richmond, a natural son of Charles II., by a 
French woman, Louise de Querouaille. The royal duke- 
dom of Richmond had descended from the brother of 
Henry Stuart, the father of James I., of Etigland, and had 
become extinct on the death of James Stuart, son of the 
first cousin of Charles I. It was then conferred by Charles 
II. upon the son of his favorite mistress above named, the 
ancestor of the present family of Richmond. 

Orange county, then including Rockland county and all 
of the present county of Orange lying south of a line run- 
ning west from the mouth of jMurderer's creek, was called 
in honor of William, Prince of Orange, and his wife, Mary 
of England, the daughter of James, wh(}, with her hu.sband, 
ascended the throne of England as William and JMary. 

In 1683 the younger brother of King Charles had the 
Irish title of tlie Duke of Ulster, and Ulster county was 
named in his honor. The county has since been divided, 
and from it taken the counties of Sullivan, Greene, and Del- 
aware, and the northern part of Orange. On the death of 
the last Earl of Chester, the most important of the peerages 
of the old Norman kings, the title became merged in the 
crown, but was always conferred upon the Prince of Wales. 
As Charles II. had no legitimate son, he himself retained 
the title, and it was also in his honor that the county of 
Westchester received its name . 

But at the time of the division of Nov. 1, 1863, there 
were two other counties made out of what was then con- 
sidered the duke's province of New York, viz., the counties 
of Duke's and Cornwall, and where are they ? The title 
of Duke of Cornwall also remains with the crown of Eng- 
land when there is no Prince of Wales to hold it, and the 
islands on the sea-coast of Maine being claimed by James, 
were erected into the county of Cornwall. Martha's Vine- 
yard and Nantucket islands, also claimed by him, were set 
oft' as Duke's county, tiut Massachusetts, having the pos- 
session of all these Islands, refused to give them up. 
James therefore yielded his claims, and Cornwall and 
Duke's became the lost counties of New York. 


At the time of the division of the county of Albany, 
and the formation of Tryon and Charlotte counties, on the 
24th day of March, 1772, the part still remaining in 
Albany county, now constituting the county of Saratoga, 
was divided into two districts, the " District of Saragh- 
toga" and the " District of Half-Moon." 

The district of Half- .Moon embraced the present towns 
of Waterford, Half-Moon, and Clifton Park. 

The district of Saraghtoga then contained all the remaining 
north part of the county, embracing the territory now 
divided into seventeen towns. 

On the 1st day of April, 1775, another district was 



carved out of the district" of Saraghtoga, and named the 
" District of Balls-Town." 

This new district of Balls-Town then included the present 
towns of Ballston, Milton, Charlton, Galway, Providence, 
Edinburgh, and part of Greenfield. 

What is now Saratoga County remained thus divided 
into three districts until after the War of the Revolution. 

On the 7th day of March, 1788, three years before 
Saratoga County was set off, the name " district" was 
dropped, and Balls-Town, Half-Moon, Saraghtoga, and 
Stillwater were organized as linvns of Albany county; 
and when Saratoga County was formed, on the 7th day of 
February, 1791, these towns, Balls-Town, Half-Moon, 
Saraghtoga, and Stillwater, still remained, forming 
the four mother towns of Saratoga County. The town 
of Stillwater was originally taken off from the Saraghtoga 
District, and when erected included the present town of 
Stillwater, a part of Easton, in Washington county, and 
all but the north part of the town of Malta. 

From these four " motlier towns" of Saratoga County 
other towns have been from time to time set off and subdi- 
vided, until the county contained its present number of 
twenty towns, as follows, viz. : 

Charlton, Milton, and Galwat were all formed 
from Balls- Town on the 17th of March, 1792, and the line 
of Charlton changed in 1795. 

Greenfield was taken from Saratoga and Milton, on the 
12th of March, 1793, having first been called Fcdrfield. 

Providence was taken from Galway on the 5th day of 
February, 1796. 

Northumberland was formed from Saratoga, on the 
16th of March, 1798. 

Edinburgh, as Northfiehl, was taken from Providence 
on the 13th of March, 1801, and its present name given 
April 6, 1808. 

Hadley was formed from Greenfield and Northumber- 
land, on the 27th of February, 1801. 

Malta was taken from Stillwater on the 3d day of 
March, 1802, and that part of Saratoga lying south of the 
Kayadrossera creek annexed March 28, 1805. 

Moreau was taken from Northumberland, on the 28th 
of March, 1805. 

Waterford was formed from Half-Moon, on the 17th of 
April, 1816. 

Half-Moon was changed to Orange on the 17th of 
April, 1816, but the original name was restored on the 
16th of January, 1820. 

V Wilton was taken from Northumberland, on the 20th of 
ApyjJ, ll818. 

CoktNTH was taken from Hadley, April 20, 1818. 

Saratoga Springs was set off from Saratoga on the 
9th of April, 1819. 

Day, as Concord, was formed from Edinburgh and 
Hadley, and its present name adopted, December 3, 1827. 

Clifton Park, as Cliftmi, was formed from Half-Moon, 
March 3, 1828, and its present name given March 31, 

In the following pages, after devoting several chapters to 
the general history of the county of Saratoga, from its 
earliest exploration by white men, in 1609, to the present 

time, each of the several towns will be taken up in their 
order, and, so far as it has been possible in the necessarily 
limited space allowed, a history of each will be given. 



The .surfiiee of Saratoga County is extremely diversified. 
Towards the north it rises into the rocky crags and towering 
mountain peaks of the Adirondack ranges of the mountain 
belt of the great wilderness. Towards the south it slopes 
into low rounded hills and gentle undulations, bordered by 
long river- valleys. Through the westerly part of the towns 
of Old Saratoga and Stillwater, and easterly of Saratoga 
lake, extends an isolated group of hills which rise to the 
height of some five hundred feet, with rounded summits 
and terraced declivities. 

Along the bank of the Hudson there stretches a broad 
intervale, bordered on the west by a range of clay bluffs 
rising from forty to two hundred feet in height. From the 
summits of this range of clay bluffs an extensive sand plain 
reaches westerly to the foot of the mountain chains, and 
extends southwesterly from the Hudson, near Glen's Falls, 
across the county, a distance of thirty-five miles, to the 
Mohawk, at Clifton Park. This belt of " Saratoga Sands" 
covers the greater part of six townships, of land, viz., Mo- 
reau, Wilton, Northumberland, Saratoga Springs, Malta, and 

Clifton Park. 


The great wilderness of northern New York, now oftener 
called the Adirondack wilderness, is an upland region of a 
mean height of about two thousand feet above the level 
of the sea, and comprises greater or lesser parts of eleven 
counties of the State, viz., Saratoga, Warren, Clinton, Essex, 
Franklin, St. Lawrence, Lewis, Hamilton, Herkimer, Oneida, 
and Fulton. A line beginning at Saratoga Springs and 
running westerly across the country to Trenton Falls, near 
Utica, on the Mohawk ; thence northerly to Potsdam, near 
Ogdensburg, on the St. Lawrence ; thence easterly to Dan- 
nemora, near Plattsburg, on Lake Champlaiu ; and thence 
southerly to the place of beginning, will nearly coincide 
with the outlines of the great wilderness. 

A few small settlements, confined mostly to the fertile 
valleys of the streams, lie within the boundaries above de- 
scribed. But in many places the ancient woods stretch down 
beyond these lines to the very shores of the water-courses, 
and cast their shadows over the great routes of travel that 
surround northern New York. 

The Adirondack wilderness is quite the size of the whole 
State of New Jersey, or of Vermont, or of New Hampshire. 
To compare it with European countries, it is three-fourths 
as large as the kingdom of Holland, or Belgium, or of the 
republic of Switzerland, whose Alpine character it so much 
resembles. Within the borders of this wilderness are more 
than fifteen hundred lakes and lakelets, and from its moun- 
tain heights run numberless rivers and streams of water in 
every direction. Over it all is spread a primeval forest, — 



"covering the land as the grass covers a garden lawn, 
sweeping over hill and hollow in endless undulations, 
burying mountains in verdure, and mantling brook and 
river from the light of day." 

The southeastern part of this great wilderness, into 
wliose sombre shades the northern half of Saratoga County 
stretches, is traversed by no less than five distinct ranges of 
mountains. These ranges cover what is known as the 
Mountain Belt of the Wilderness. They run about eight 
miles apart and parallel with each other. The chains are 
not always quite distinct, but often their lateral spurs inter- 
lock, and sometimes single mountains are so vast in size 
that they occupy the whole space between the ranges and 
choke up the intervening valleys. These mountains are not 
regularly serrated, but consist of groups of peaks joined 
together by immense lidges. From the south these moun- 
tains rise continually higher and higher, until at length 
they culminate in the highest summits of the Adirondack 
range proper, the old giants of the wilderness. On every 
hand this mountain belt of the great wilderness presents 
the most striking features of an Alpine landscape. In 
every part are seen towering mountain peaks, deep, yawn- 
ing abysses, gloomy gorges, rough granite blocks, sweeping 
torrents, fresh fountains, and green mountain meadows. 

The five mountain ranges of the wilderness are called, 
beginning with the most easterly one, the Palmertown 
range, the Kayadrossera range, the Scarron range, the 
BoQUET range, and the Adirondack range. Of these 
five mountain ranges two of them, viz., the Palmertoivn 
and the Kayadrossera ranges, stretch a great part of their 
length far down into the county of Saratoga, almost com- 
pletely filling all the northern part of the county with their 
rugged mountain masses. 

palmertown mountains. 

The Palmertown mountain range is the most easterly of 
the five ranges of the mountain belt of the Adirondack 
wilderness. It begins in Sugarloaf mountain, near Ticonde- 
roga, on Lake Champlain, runs down on both sides of Lake 
George, and stretching southward across the Upper Hudson, 
which breaks through it, it extends through Corinth, 
Moreau, Wilton, and Greenfield, and terminates in the 
rocky, forest-covered hills over which North Broadway 
runs in the village of Saratoga Springs. 

At Lake George this range forms the beautiful highlands 
which add so much to its wild and picturesque beauty. 
French mountain, overlooking the old battle-ground at 
the head of Lake George, so rich in historic memories, is 
more than two thousand feet above tide-water. In Saratoga 
County one of the highest peaks is JMount MauGregor, 
while Glen Mitchell lies at the foot of a mountain gap or 
gorge of this range. 

Long before the northern part of Saratoga County was 
settled by white men, tradition says a band of Indians, flee- 
ing from the east after King Philip's war, settled at the 
foot of this mountain range, in what is now the town of 
Wilton, calling themselves Palmertown Indians. From 
them the region round about was called by the earlier 
settlers, soon after the French war, Palmertown. From 
this comes the name Palmertown mountains. 


The range of mountains next easterly of the Palmer- 
town range is the Kay-ad-ros-se-ra range. This range be- 
gins on Lake Champlain, near Crown Point, and runs down 
through Warren county into Saratoga County. The 
range enters this county in the town of Hadley, and runs 
through that town and the towns of Day, Edinburgh, 
Corinth, Greenfield, Providence, and terminates in the 
highlands of Milton, Galway, and Charlton. From Sara- 
toga Springs this range is plainly to be seen, filling up the 
southwestern horizon with its dark-green forest-crowned 
mountain masses. This range derives its name from the 
old Indian hunting-ground of which it forms so conspic- 
uous a natural feature. The Hudson winds along for many 
miles in a deep valley lying between the mountain ipasses 
before it turns eastward and breaks through the Palmer- 
town range. The Sacondaga breaks through the Kayadros- 
sera range from the west, and enters the Hudson in this 
valley. The highest peak in this range is Mount Pharaoh, 
whose Indian name is On-de-wa. This mountain is on the 
border of Essex county, and its summit is four thousand 
feet above the sea. 


Across the extreme northwest corner of Saratoga County, 
in the towns of Day and Edinburgh, extends a part of the 
third great mountain range of the Adirondack wilderness. 

This range begins in the promontory of Split Rock, in 
Essex county, on Lake Champlain. Thence it runs down 
through Warren into the southeast corner of Hamilton 
and across the northwest corner of Saratoga, and ends in 
the rounded, drift-covered hills that rise from the valley of 
the Mohawk, in Fulton county. Scarron (Schroon) lake 
lies at the foot of this range in Warren and Essex coun- 
ties, and Schroon river there winds through its deep valleys. 

From this lake and river this great mountain chain de- 
rives its name. The name is now commonly written 
Schroon, but on all the older maps it is written Scarron. 
It is a tradition, which seems well grounded, that this name 
Scarron was given to this lake and river by the early 
French settlers at Crown Point, on Lake Champlain, in 
honor of Madame Scarron, the widow of the celebrated 
French dramatist and novelist, Paul Scarron, who was 
styled in his day " the emperor of the burlesque." 

After her poet husband, who was a paralytic and a 
cripple, died, being still a most beautiful and fascinating 
woman, she captivated even royalty itself by her wondrous 
charms. By some means the young widow became the 
secret governess of the natural children of Louis XIV. by 
Madame de Montespan, and soon became the rival of the 
latter in the afi'ections of the voluptuous and dissolute 
king. After the queen, Maria Theresa, of Austria, died, 
the king made the charming widow Scarron his wife by a 
secret marriage. Louis then settled upon her a large es- 
tate, named Maintenon, and made her Marquise de Main- 
tenon. As Madame de Maintenon, for thirty years she 
controlled the destinies of France. 

But this mountain chain, the lake, and the river bear 
her more humble name, — the name of her poor, brilliant 
poet-husband, Scarron. 



The next two mountain ranges of the wilderness, the 
Boquet range and the Adirondack range proper, neitlier 
of them lie within the bounds of Saratoga County. 

The mountains of the great Adirondack wilderness be- 
long to the old Laurentian system of Canada, and not to 
the Apalachian system of the Atlantic slope, as is by some 
writers erroneously stated. 

A spur of the vast Canadian Laurentian chain crosses 
the river St. Lawrence at the Thousand Islands into 
northern New Y'ork. After, by its rugged, broken char- 
acter, forming the Thousand Islands in crossing the St. 
Lawrence, this spur of the Laurontides spreads easterly to 
Lake Champlain, southerly to the valley of the Mohawk, 
and westerly to the Black river, forming the whole rocky 
groundwork of the upland region of the great wilderness. 
In the interior these mountains rise into a thousand lofty 
peaks, towering above thousands of crystal lakes and " 
emerald mountain meadow,s. 

Prom the high, rounded hills on the east side of Saratoga 
lake, the well-defined ridges of the two great ranges that 
fill up all the northern part of the county with their wild 
grandeur can be distinctly traced. First, the Palniertown, 
ending at Saratoga Springs, and beyond them the Kay-ad- 
ros-se-ra, in bold relief against the western sky, extending 
still farther southward into Galway and Charlton. 

III.— r, I VERS. 

The Hudson river for more than seventy miles of its 
course sweeps along and washes the eastern border of Sara- 
toga County. The Hudson is fed by a system of forest 
branches that spread over the whole mountain belt of the 
Adirondack wilderness, but only one of these main branches 
— the Sacondaga — enters the borders of Saratoga County. 

The Mohnwhs called the Hudson Skd-Hch-la-de, mean- 
ing "the river beyond the open jiiiies." To the Mohaioks, 
when going across the carrying-place from the Mohawk 
river at Schenectady to the Hudson at Albany, the latter 
river was literally " the river beyond the pines," and thus 
they so called it in their language. Its Algonquin name, 
however, was Ca-Jw-tii-ie-a, meaning " the river that comes 
from the mountains lying beyond the Cohoes flills." Henry 
Hud.son, its first white discoverer, translating its Algonquin 
name, called it the " River of Mouutain.s." 

The early Dutch settlers on its banks sometimes called 
it " Tiie Nassau,'' after the reigning family of Holland, and 
sometimes " J'/ic Mauritius" in honor of the Stadtholder, 
Prince Maurice. But it was not called The Hudson until 
the English wrested it from the Dutch, in 1664, when they 
so named it in honor of their countryman, its immortal dis- 
coverer and first explorer. 

The Hud.son is literally a " river of the mountains." It is 
born among the clouds on the shaggy side of Mount Mcln- 
tyre, and in the mountain meadows and lakelets near the 
top of Mount Marcy, almost five thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. The infant Hudson is cradled in the 
awful chasms of the Panther Gorge, the Gorge of the Dial, 
and in the Indian Pass, called by the Indians Da-yali-Je- 
ga-go, '■ the place where the storm-clouds meet in battle 
with the great serpent." 

Near the centre of this wondrous chasm of the Indian 

Pass, high up on the rugged side of Mount Mclntyre, two 
little springs issue from the rocks so near to each other that 
their limpid waters almost mingle. From each spring flows 
a tiny stream. The streams at first interlock, but soon sepa- 
rate and run down the mountain side into the chasm, which 
is here two thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven feet 
above tide. After reaching the bottom, one runs southerly 
as the head-waters of the Hudson, the other northerly into 
the St. Lawrence. 

Upon the south side of Mount Marcy is a little lake 
called " Summit Water" by the old guides, and by Ver- 
planck Calvin, in his Adirondack survey, " Tear of the 
Clouds." This little lakelet is four thousand three hun- 
dred and twenty-six feet above tide-water. It is the highest 
lake-source of the Hudson. 

After thus rising upon its highest mountain peaks, the 
Hudson in its wild course down the southern slope of the 
wilderness crosses four of the mountain chains, which all 
seem to give way at its approach, as if it were some way- 
ward child of their own. 

After bursting through the Palniertown range, its last 
wilderness mountain barrier, it encounters in its more placid 
course to the sea the great Apalachian system of mountains, 
and seems to rend them from top to bottom. Or. rather, 
from the natural head of tide-water, some two miles above 
Waterford, in Saratoga County, the Hudson virtually 
ceases to be a river and becomes an estuary, or arm of the 
sea, in which the tide throbs back and forth, and on whose 
peaceful bosom now float the navies and the commerce of 
th.e world. 

The JMoH.iWK ritek, before it mingles its waters with 
the Hud.son, washes almost the whole southern side of the 
county of Saratoga. The Indian name of the Mohawk was 
Te-uge-ga. It rises on the highlands of the Lesser Wil- 
derness of Northern New York, northerly of Oneida lake, 
near the head-waters of the Salmon river, which runs into 
Lake Ontario. The Salmon river was the ancient River 
de la Famine of the old French explorers. The Cohoes 
falls, in the iMohawk, on the border of this county, were 
called by the Indians Ga-lia-oose, meaning "the falls of the 
shipwrecked canoe." 

The Sacondaga river enters the county of Saratoga 
on its western border, and breaking through the mountain 
barriers crosses the whole width of the county, and enters 
the Hudson on its eastern border. For twenty miles of its 
course before it enters the Hudson there is a reach of .still 
water which is navigable by small steamers. Sacondaga is 
an Indian name, signifying " The river of the sunken or 
drowned lands," in allusion to the large Ylaie, or moun- 
tain meadow, through which it runs just before it reaches 
the border of the county. This great vlaie was the favorite 
hunting-ground of Sir William Johnson, and near it he 
built his two huntinsr-lodtres. called the Fish House and the 
Cottage, on Summer House Point.* 

The Kay-ad-ros-se-ra river is the largest stream 
whose whole course lies within the borders of the county 
of Saratoga. It rises on the southern slopes of the Kayad- 
rossera mountains in Greenfield and Corinth, and running 

*Sce "Trappers of New York," by Jeptha R. Simms. 



tlienec southerly between the nuHiiitaiii ranges, through 
I\IiltoQ to Biillston Spa, it then tui'ns easterly into Saratoga 
lake. From the lake to the Hudson it is known as Fish 

The other numerous smaller streams of the county are 
mentioned in the history of the several towns through 
whic-h they run. 


The prineipal lakes of the county of Saratoga are now 
called Saratoga lake, Round lake, Ballston lake, and Lake 

As the old Indian name for Lake Champlain was Cmiind- 
cvi.-gu(tr}iiite, " The door of the country'," and that of Lake 
George was Cuiiidd-eri-dit, '-The tail of the lake," so 
the Indian name for Saratoga lake was Caniad-eri-os-se-ra, 
" The lake of the crooked stream." The name was after- 
wards written Cai-ad-cr-ros-se-fa, and since, Kojj-ad-ros- 
se-ra, its present f<irm. 

The name ' Sharhtlnga. now Saratoga, was never app'ied 
by the Indians to this lake, nor to the great hunting-ground 
in which it lies. Saratoga was the name of the hunting- 
ground along the river hill-sides. 

On some old Dutch and French maps, the Hudson river 
is represented as taking its rise in, and running from, Sara- 
toga lake. Hence it is called on those maps Capi-aqua. 
The Indian name of Round lake is Ta-nen-da-ho-ra, 
and for Ballston LAKE is Sha-neii-da-ho-ra. The sig- 
nification of both of these names seems to be lost. 

Lake Desolation, as its name indicates, is a wild, 
weird body of water, situate on the top of the Kayadrossera 
mountain range, on the border of Greenfield and Provi- 
dence, its waters running, first westerly and then northerly, 
a long circuit into the Sacondaga, within sis miles of their 
source in the lake. The stream was called by the Indians 

The other smaller lakes in the county, like the smaller 
streams, will be described in the history of the several towns 
in which they lie. 

Having thus given some account of the most striking 
topographical features of the county, in the following chapter 
will be found a brief statement of the geological outlines of 
its rocky groundwork and surface soils. 




The rocky groundwork which underlies the county of 
Saratoga presents, to the student of geology, many features 
of surpassing interest. Yet all that properly seems to come 
within the scope of this work is a mere (jutlino of the 
subject, so far as it necessarily bears upon the economic 
interests and historical associations of the county and its 
surroundings. And this outline will be confined princi- 
pally to the more striking geologic features of the county ; 
in a word, to the departments oi ithyx!ogr(n>liic and hislovi- 

cnl geology, leaving to the interested stu<lent the no less in- 
viting fields of lilhrj/ogicol and (/y/('/»((V'r/? geology, of which 
the county is so rich in natural illustrations, to be studied 
in the field itself here spread out before him, or in the 
numerous special works devoted to the science. 

The science of geology unfolds to us to some extent the 
mysteries of the world's creation. The earth itself, like tlie 
plant or aninud it sustains on its surface, is a thing of growth, 
of development. The difl^erent periods of this growth and 
development are more or less distinctly marked upon the 
rocky structure of the earth by the various fossil forms of 
animal and vegetable life found therein, and these successive 
periods so marked are termed geologic epochs, times, or 

The geologic epochs or ages of the world are distinguished 
by the progressive development of the various forms of 
animal and vegetable life, from the lowest to the highest 
forms of existence. 

The extremely interesting geologic features of Saratoga 
County can be best explained by referring somewhat in de- 
tail to the geologic ages of the world based upon the pro- 
gress of life and living things, and the diflferent periods of 
geologic time marked by these successive ages. 

The subdivisions of geological time are eras, ages, and 

The eras are five in number, marked in all by seven ages 
of development in organic life. 

I. — Ancn.EA.v on Eozoic Era. — {The Daicn nf Animal Life.) 
1st. Laurentian Age. 
II. — PALyEOzoic Era. — (Old Life.) 

2d. The Silurian, or Age of Mollusks. 
3d. The Devonian, or Age of Fishes. 
4th. The Carboniferous, or Age of Coal-Plants. 
III. — Mesozoic Era. — [Middle Life.) 

5th. The Reptilian Age. 
IV. — Cenozoic Era. — {liecent Life.) 

6th. The Age of Mammals. 
V. — PsvcHOZOic Era. — {Era nf Mind.) 
7th. The Age of Man. 

These five several eras of geological time and the seven 
successive ages of life development on the earth are well 
represented in the accompanying table (page 1(5), which is 
copied in great part from the one piepared by Prof. James 
D. Dana for his " Manual of Geology." Beginning with the 
oldest, at the bottom of the table, the Laurentian, Silurian, 
Devonian, and Carboniferous periods are represented by 
series of American rocks in the natural order of their for- 
mations. The rest of the series is taken from European 
geology, in which the later ages of the earth's rocky growth 
are far more distinctly represented than in America. 

As no deposited rocky beds are to be found within the 
borders of Saratoga County higher in the series than the 
Hudson river group of slates and shales, the fossils of which 
rise in fact no higher in the scale of being than the Lower 
Silurian age, it will be seen that, geologically speaking, 
Saratoga County is vcri/ old. 


The great Canadian Laurentian mountain system, which 
is so finely developed in nortliern New York and stretches 
its rugged, towering masses far down into Saratoga County, 




Epochs and Sub-Ejiocha. 

rifistucetie, or Post-tertiary. 




("Upper or White > 
( Lower or Gray. 

Upper Cretaceou; 

Mi'ldle Cretaceous (Upper Green-Sand). 
Liiwer Cretaceous (Lower Green-Saiid). 


Upper Oolite. 1^";^'^'=' p«r*'^",;'' ^"<I 

( Kmimeridge Clay. 

Middle Oolite, j !\" ^'TJm' 

( Oxford Cliiy. 

Lnwer Oolite. I J'7^.'^'^*'!"^-,.* . 

(Inferior Oolite. • 

Upper Lias. 
Lower Lias. 





= He Upper Coal Measures. 

14b Lower Coal Measures. 

14a Millstone Grit. 
i:}b Upper. 
V^a. Lower. 

lib Chemung. 
11a Portage. 
H'c Genesee. 
10b Hamilton. 
lOa Marcellus, 

itc Upper Helderberg. 
■9b Schoharie. 
9a Cauda-Galli. 

! Oriskany. 
7 I Lower Helderberg. 
6 Saliferous, 
5d Niagara. 
5c Clinton. 

5b Mfdina. 
5a Oneid;.. 

4b Hudson River. 
4a Ulica. 

3b; -l Black Kiver. 

3a Chazy. 
2b; Calcit'erous. 
2a Potsdam. 


r Line of lat&st r«ck 
--J formationn in Saratoga 
(_ County. 



bei;iii.s on the coast of Labrador near the mouth of the 
river St. Lawrence and extends up along the northern bank 
of the river to a point near the city of Quebec. From this 
point it recedes from the river inland for some thirty miles 
or more until it the Ottawa river above Montreal. 
After crossing the Ottawa the chain again bends southerly 
towards the St. Lawrence, and a spur of it crosses the great 
river at Thou-sand Islands into northern New York, and, 
spreading out eastward and southerly, forms the rugged 
mountain system of the Adirondack wilderness. 

The Laurentian system of rocks constitutes the oldest 
known strata of the earth's crust. In the Laurentian rock- 
beds are to be found the remains of life-forms of life's early 

Until within a few years the Laurentian system has been 
termed by geologists Azoic, or without life, but the more 
recent discoveries show evidences of both animal and vege- 
table life in great abundance, but life in its earliest forms. 
It is the prehistoric, mythical era of geologic time now 
called the Archtean, or Eozoic, time,— the time of dawning 

The Laurentian rocks are mostly of the metamorphlc 
series, related to granite, gneiss, syenite, and the like. But 
they embrace only the most ancient of these rocks, for the 
New England granites and schists belong to later ages. 

Besides true granite and gneiss, there are divrite, a rock 
formed of feldspar and hornblende without quartz, and also 
very extensive ranges of coarse granite-like rocks of grayish 
and reddish-brown colors, composed mainly of crystallized 
Labradorite, or a related feldspar, or this feldspar joined 
with the brownish-black and bronzy, foliated hyperstene. 
These rocks also contain green, brown, and reddish-colored 
porphyry, serpentine, limestone (statuary marble), granular 
quartz, magnetic and specular iron ore, a hard conglomerate 
ophiolites, or verd-antique marbles of different varieties, 
garnets, tourmaline, scapolite, Wollastonite, sphone, rutile, 

graphite, phlogopite, apatite, chondrodltc, spinel, zircon, and 


The rocks next above the Laurentian series belong to the 
Lower Silurian age and to the Potsdam or Primordial 
period. First in order comes the Potsdam sandstone, and 
next above and resting on that is the calciferous sandrock. 
The calciferous sandrock is the grayish rock which underlies 
all the northwestern part of the village of Saratoga Springs, 
and may often be seen cropping out near North Broadway 
in all the upper part of the village. 

A narrow belt of calciferous sandstone, covering Potsdam 
sandstone, extends across the county, lapping over on to the 
lower edge of the old Laurentian rocks. 

In this Primordial period the remains of life appear in 
its lower marine, but not fresh-water forms, in great abun- 

These rocks were deposited in the shallow beds of the 
Primordial ocean, when its waves beat along the old Lauren- 
tian shore. 

Alffx, or sea-ioecch, are the only plant forms found in the 
Potsdam sandstone and Calciferous sandstone epochs. 

The animal remains of this period are all marine. 

1. Among Protozoans are found sponges and rhizopods. 

2. Among Rail/'ales are found crinoids, graptolites, and, 
it may be, coral-making polyps. 

3. Among MoHusks are found bryozoans, brachiopods, 
conchifers, pteroyods, gasterpods, and cephalodes, thus 
representing all the grand divisions of moUusk life. 

4. Among Articulates may be found marine worms, 
crustaceans of the trilobite tribes, and ostracoids. 

The most abundant fossils found in the Potsdam beds 
are the brachiopod, genus lingula, and trilobites. The 
trilobites were the largest animals of the seas and highest 
in rank. Of them there were numerous kinds, varying in 
size from the sixth of an inch to two feet. 


Next above the Potsdam and calciferous sandrocks there 
appears stretching the county a narrow belt of the 
Trenton period. 

First iu order, overlapping the calciferous sandrock or 
abutting against it, come the Birdseye, Black River, and 
Trenton limestones. The Chazy limestone seems to run 
into the others of the group before it reaches the Hudson 
river, on the borders of the county. 

In this period sea-weeds are the only fossil plants. Two 
species are found, the Buthotriphis gracilis and B. succu- 

The seas of the Trenton period were densely populated 
with animal life. With the Trenton period first appear 
species of undoubted polyps, the true coral animals of the 

The different species of the lower forms of animal life 
shown in the fossils of the limestone period are too numer- 
ous to name in this article. 


Covering all the southeastern part of the county of Sar- 
atoga, as the Laurentian rocks cover the northwestern, lie 
the strata of the slates and shales of the Hudson river 
group. Between these wide beds of slate and shale, and 
the equally wide beds of the Laurentian formation, run 
the narrow strips of the Potsdam calciferous sandstones 
and Trenton limestones. Such, in a word, is the interesting 
geologic situation of Saratoga County. 

The life, both animal and vegetable, of the Hudson 
river period, is quite identical with the life of the Trenton 
period, none of which, the reader will bear in mind, rises 
higher in the scale of being than the sub-kingdom of 


The next period that attracts our attention in studying 
the geology of Saratoga is the Post-tertiary period, which 
ushers in the present state of things on the earth's surface. 

After the highest strata of the Hudson group of rocks 
had been deposited in the primordial ocean's bed, there 
must have been an upheaval of the land above the waters 
in the region of the Hudson valley, leaving these rocks 
high and dry. But countless centuries of time intervened 
before the age of man upon the earth. 



The Post-tertiary period in America includes two epochs: 

1. The Glacial, or that of drift. 

2. The Champlain. 

"Next follows (3) the Terrace epoch, a transition epoch, 
in the course of which the peculiar Post-tertiary life ends, 
and the a<!;e of man opens upon the world. 

The Drifl period is well represented in all the central 
and western parts of Saratoga County. 

The term Drift includes the gravel, sand, stones, and 
boulders, forming low hills, and covering even the moun- 
tain tops in many places. 

The Drift is derived from the rocks to the north of where 
its beds occur, and is supposed to have been transported by 
the ice fields of the glacial period. In many places the sur- 
face rocks of the limestones are worn smooth, and marked 
by the scratches and grooves caused doubtless by the pas- 
sage over them of heavy beds of ice, filled with stones, sand, 
and gravel. 

The Champlain and Terrace epochs are well represented 
in Saratoga County by the extensive beds of what are 
called " Saratoga Sands," and the clay hills of the river- 
valley, which it would seem were deposited along the re- 
ceding shore of a later ocean that had again covered the 
laud during the Post-tertiary period. It is quite evident 
that the long, narrow bed of Saratoga sands, which runs 
across the county from northeast to southwest, was once 
but the shifting sands of the ocean's beach, when its waters 
washed the foot-hills of the Adirondacks, in the Post-ter- 
tiary world. 

. A volume could be written upon the interesting geology 
of the county of Saratoga, of which but a mere outline is 
above given. 

In a succeeding chapter something will be said upon the 
origin of the numerous and wonderful mineral springs of 
Saratoga County, a subject properly belonging to geological 
science, yet so closely identified with the industrial and social 
interests of the people of the county as to make it to them 
a matter of absorbinir interest. 



Within the territory now comprised in the county of 
Saratoga once lay the favorite hunting-grounds of the 
Mohawh branch of the Iroquois or Five Nations, of central 
New York. 

One of the most famous of these hunting-grounds was 
called by them Sa-ragh-to-ga, from which the county 
derives its name. 

Among the earliest dates in which the name Saratoga 
appears in history is the year 1684. It was not then the 
name of a town, nor of a county, neither was it the name 
of a great watering-place ; but it was the name of an old 
Indian hunting-ground located along both sides of the 
Hudson river. The Hudson, after it breaks through its 
last mountain barrier above Glen's Falls, for many miles of 

its course runs through a wider valley. After winding 
for a while through this wider valley, it roaches the first 
series of its bordering hills at a point in the stream nearly 
opposite Saratoga lake. This old hunting-ground was 
situated where the outlying hills begin to crowd down to 
the river-banks, and was called, in the significant Indian 
tongue, Se-rach-ta-giie, or the " hill-side country of the 
great river."* 

It has also been said that Saratoga, in the Indian lan- 
guage, means the "place of the swift water," in allusion 
to the rapids and falls that break the stillness of the stream 
where the hill-side country begins on the river."}" 

Then, again, an Indian whose name was O-rou-hia-teJc-ha, 
of the Caugh-na-wa-ga on the St. Lawrence, who was well 
acquainted with the Moliuick dialect, informed Dr. Hough, 
the historian, that Saratoga was from the Indian Sa-ra- 
ta-ke, meaning " a place where the track of the heel may 
be seen," in allusion to a spot near by, "where depressions 
like foot-prints may be seen in the rocks. J; 

But whether its meaning be this, that, or the other, I 
am sure it is gratifying to us all that this famous resort, 
situated as it is on American soil, bears an American name. 

As early as 1684, this hill-side country of the Hudson, 
the ancient Indian Se-rach-ta-gue, was sold by the chiefs 
of the Mohaicks to Peter Philip Schuyler and six other 
eminent citizens of Albany, and the Indian grant con- 
firmed by the English government. This old hunting- 
ground then became known in history as the Saratoga 
patent. This was the Saratoga of the olden time. It is 
called on some old maps So-roe-to-gos laud. 

In the year 1687, three years after the Mohawks had 
sold this hunting-ground, and the patent had been granted, 
Governor Dongan, of New York, attempted to induce a 
band of Christian Iroquois that the French missionaries 
had led to Cach-na-ona-ga to return and settle in ancient 
Se-rach-ta-gue.^ This was done to form a barrier between 
the then frontier town of Albany and the hostile French 
and Indians on the north. Some of their descendants 
still make an annual pilgrimage to the springs, and, encamp- 
ing in the groves near by, form an interesting part of the 
great concourse of visitors. 

But it will be seen that the ground on which the village 
of Saratoga Springs is built, and the region in which the 
famous mineral springs are found, formed no part of the 
old hunting-ground and patent of Saratoga. The So-roe- 
to-gos land of the olden time lay along the Hudson, and 
extended no farther west than Saratoga lake. 


The Indian name for the territory in which the famous 
mineral springs wore found was Kiij/-ad-ros-se-ra.\\ 

It was one of the favorite hunting-grounds of the Iroquois, 

■•» Steele's Analysis, p. 13, N. Y. His. Col. 

f 17i/e Judge Scott's historical address at Biillston Siin, July 4, 
1876 ; also, Reminiscences of Saratoga, by Wm. L. Stone, p. 5. 

J Hough's History of St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, p. 189. 
But Morgan, in his League of the Iroquois, says the signification of 
Saratoga is lost. 

J Doc. His. of N. Y., vol. ii. p. 156. 

II So written in Claude Joseph Sauthicr's map of 1779. Tiile Doc. 
His. of N. Y., vol. i. p. 774. 



and lay in the angle between the two great rivers, to the 
south of a line drawn from Glen's Falls on the Hudson 
westerly to near Amsterdam on the Jlohawk. 

The forests of ancient Kayadrossera were full of game, 
and its lakes and streams swarmed with fish. The her- 
ring* ran up the west side of the Hudson, and through 
Fish creek, giving rise to its name, into Lake Saratoga in 
immense numbers. The shad ran up on the east side of the 
river, and lay in vast schools in the falls and rapids above 
and- below Fort Edward. The sturgeon frequented the 
sprouts of the Mohawk, and sunned themselves in the basin 
below Cohoesf Falls. 

Even whales sometimes came up the Hudson river in the 
early colonial times as far as this old hunting-ground. 

" I cannot forbear," says Vanderdonck, " to mention 
that in the year 1647, in the month of March, when, by 
a great freshet the water was fresh almost to the great bay, 
there were two whales of tolerable size up the river ; the 
one turned back, but the other stranded and stuck not far 
from the great fall of the Cohoes."| 

The wild animals of Kayadrossera were attracted in im- 
mense numbers by the saline properties of the mineral 
springs that then bubbled up in its deepest shades, all un- 
known save to them and its Indian owners. In this " para- 
dise of sportsmen" the Mohntvks and their nearer sister 
tribes of the Jroqiiois, the Oneidus and Onoiuhif/iis, and 
sometimes the farther off Cayugas and Seneeas, built their 
hunting-lodges every summer around its springs and on the 
banks of its lakes and rivers. It will be seen that wild 
ancient Kayadrossera was as famous in the old time to the 
red man as modern Saratoga is to-day to the white man. 

But Samuel Sholton Broughton, attorney-general of the 
province, obtained a license from the governor, in behalf of 
himself and company, to purchase from the Indians a tract 
of land known by the Indian name of Kayadrossera. This 
license is dated April 22, 1703. In pursuance of this license 
a purchase was effected of Kayadrossera, and an Indian deed 
given the 6th of October, 1704, signed by the sachems of 
the tribe. 

On the 2d day of November, 1708, a patent was granted 
by Queen Anne to " her loving subjects Nanning Her- 
mance, Johannes Beekman, Rip Von Dam," and ten others, 
of the whole of Kayadrossera. But it was not until the 
year 1768 that the deed given by the Indians in 1704 was 
confirmed by the tribe, and then only through the powerful 
influence of Sir William Johnson. 

On the 24th day of March, 1772, three years before the 
War of the Revolution bi-oke out, and about the time the 
first white settler was building his rude cabin at the springs, 
these two patents of Kayadrossera and Saratoga were united 
by the colonial government into a district. The name Kay- 
adrossera was dropped, and the district named after the 
smaller patent, and called the district of Saratoga. Since 
then the grand old Intlian name Kayadrossera, so far as ter- 
ritory is concerned, has fallen out of human speech, and is 
only heard in connection with the principal stream and 

* Vide Annals of .\lbany, vol. ii. p. 280. 

f The Indian name for Cohoes Falls was Oa-hn-oose, mranin;^ the 
"shipwrecked canoe." Vide Morgan's League of the Iroquois. 
J Judge Benson, in MansclPs Annals of Albany, vol. ii. p. 226. 

mountain chain of the great hunting-ground so famous in 
Indian story. 

The old hunting-ground, the beautiful lake, and the 
famous springs have all, since tlie act of the 24th of 
March, 1772, borne the name of Saratoga. 


Besides these two famous hunting-grounds, the Five Na- 
tions had in common four great beaver-hunting countries. 

1st. One of these was called by them Couch-sach-ro-ge, 
" the dismal wilderness." 

On Governor Pownal's map of the northern British col- 
onies of 1776, across the region that comprises the wilder- 
ness, is written the following inscription : 

This vast 

Tract of i.axd, 

whicn is the antient 

couch-sacii-ra-ge, ose of the focr 

Bkavkr-Ui'ntinc Countriks 

OF THE Si.\ Nations, 

is not yet 


So this great wilderness was the old Indian hunting- 
ground — Couch-sach-ra-ge — of the Iroquois, which, like 
the ocean and the desert, refuses to be subdued by man. 

2d. Another was called by them 0-hee-o, " the beautiful 
country," and lay to the south and east of Lake Erie, now 
part of the State of Ohio. 

3d. 'i'he third was called by them Tirxck-souck-rond-ite, 
and lay between Lake Erie and the Illinois. 

4th. The last was called by them Scaniad-eri-ada, mean- 
ing " beyond the lake." It lay to the northwest of Lake 

In 1684 the Mohawks and Oiietdas, by a treaty held in 
Albany, sold to the English king their right of sovereignty 
to these hunting-grounds. 

On Nov. 14, 1726, the Seneeas, Cayiigas, and Oiionda- 
gas, by deed, also conveyed their interest in the sovereignty 
of these grounds to the British king, which was the founda- 
tion of England's claim to the country against France. 


It has been seen that at the time of its first exploration 
by Europeans, in the early years of the seventeenth century, 
the county of Saratoga formed a part of the .territory and 
hunting-grounds of the groat Indian league or confederacy, 
called by the English the Five Nations, by the French the 
Iroquois, and by themselves the Uo-dc-no-sau-nee, or the 
" people of the long house. ' 

Their country, called by them Ilo-dc-no-sau-nec-gn,^ and 
extending from the Hudson to Lake Erie, from the St. Law- 
rence to the valleys of the Delaware, the Susquehanna, and 
the Alleghany, embraced the whole of central, of northern, 
and large parts of southern and western New York. It was 
divided between the several nations by well-defined bound- 
ary-lines, running north and south, which they called " lines 
of property." 

The territory of northern New York belonged princi- 

g See Morgan's League of the Iroquois. 



pally to the Mohaiclcs and the Oneidas, the Onondagas 
owning a narrow strip of land along the easterh shore of 
Lake Ontario. 

The line of property between the 3Iohawl{s and the 
Oneidas began on the St. Lawrence river at the present 
town of Waddington, and running south nearly coincident 
with the line between Lewis and Herkimer counties, struck 
the Mohawk river at Utica. 

The country lying to the east of this line of property, 
embracing what is now the greater part of Saratoga County, 
formed a part of Ga-ne-a-ga-o-no-ga, the land of the Mo- 
haiclcs. The territory lying westerly of this line, including 
the fertile valley of the Black river and the highlands of 
the Lesser Wilderness, which lies between the upper valley 
of the Black river and Lake Ontario, belonged to 0->ia- 
yote-hn-o-no-ga, the country of the Oneidas. 

It was the custom of the Indians, whenever the hunting- 
grounds of a nation bordered on a lake, to include the whole 
of it, if possible ; so the line of property between the Onei- 
das and the Onondagas bent westerly around the Oneida 
lake, giving the whole of that to the Oneidas, and deflected 
easterly again around Lake Ontario in favor of the Onon- 

These three nations claimed the whole of the territory 
of northern New York. But the northern part of the 
great wilderness was also claimed by the Adirondacks, a 
Canadian nation of Algonquin lineage, and, being disputed 
territory, was the " dark and bloody ground" of the old 
Indian traditions, as it afterwards became in the French and 
English colonial history. 


The Indians who inhabited the Atlantic slope and the 
basin of the great lakes were divided into two great families 
of nations. These two great families were known as the 
Iroquois and the Algonquin families.* They differed radi- 
cally in both language and lineage, as well as in many of 
their manners and customs. 

The principal nations of the Iroquois family were grouped 
around the lower lakes. The Five Nations of central New 
York — the Iroquois proper — were the leading people of this 
family. To the south of the Five Nations, on the banks of 
the Susquehanna, were the Andastes, and to the westward, 
along the .southern shore of Lake Erie, were the Fries. To 
the north of'Lake Erie lay the Neutral Nation and the 
Tobacco Nation, while the Hurons dwelt along the eastern 
shore of the lake that still bears their name. There was 
also a branch of the Iroquois family in the Carolinas, — the 
Tuscaroras, — who united with the Five Nations in 1715, 
after which the confederacy was known as the Six Na- 

Surrounding these few bands of Iroquois were the much 
more numerous tribes of the great Algonquin family. To 
the people of Algonquin speech and lineage belonged the 
Iloricons and the Mohicans and other tribes of river In- 
dians who dwelt along the Hudson, and the Pequots, Wam- 

® See Morgan's League of the Iroquois, and Parkman's Pioneers 
of France in the New World, 
f See Colden's Five Nations. 

panoags, Narragansetfs, and all the other New England 
tribes. I 

Northward of the Iroquois were the Nipissings, La Pe- 
tite Nation, and La Nation de I'lsle, and the other tribes of 
the Ottawa. Along the valley of the St; Lawrence were 
the Algonquins proper, — called Adirondacks by the Iro- 
quois, — the Abenaquis, the Montagnais, and other roving 
bands around and beyond the Saguenay. 

Thus were the Indian nations situated with respect to 
each other when Samuel de Champlain, in the early sum- 
mer of 1609, entered the territory of northern New York 
from the north, and Henry Hudson, in the beginning of 
the coming autumn, approached it from the south. 


Among all the Indians of the New World, there were 
none so politic and intelligent, none so fierce and brave, 
none with so many germs of heroic virtues mingled with 
their savage vices, as the true Iroquois, — the people of the 
Five Nations. They were a terror to all the surrounding 
tribes, whether of their own or of Algonquin speech. In 
l(j50 they overran the country of the Hurons; in 1651 
they destroyed the Neutral Nation; in 1652 they extermi- 
nated the Fries ; in 1672 they conquered the Andastes and 
reduced them to the most abject submission. They fol- 
lowed the war-path, and their war-cry was heard westward 
to the Mississippi and southward to the great gulf. The 
New England nations, as well as the river tribes along the 
Hudson, warriors trembled at the name of Mohawlc, 
all paid them tribute. The poor Montagnais on the far-off 
Saguenay would start from their midnight sleep and run 
terror-stricken from their wigwams into the forest when 
dreaming of the dreadful Iroquois. They were truly the 
conquerors of the New World, and were justly styled the 
"Romans of the West." "My pen," wrote the Jesuit 
Father Ragueneau, in 1650, in his Relations des Hurons, — 
" My pen has no ink black enough to describe the fury of 
the Iroquois." 

They dwelt in palisaded villages upon the fertile banks 
of the lakes and streams that watered their country. Their 
villages were surrounded with rudely-cultivated fields, in 
which they raised an abundance of corn, beans, squashes, 
and tobacco. Their houses were built within the protect- 
ing circle of palisades, and, like all the tribes of the Iroquois 
family, were made long and narrow. They were not more 
than twelve or fifteen feet in width, but often exceeded a 
hundred and fifty feet in length. They were made of two 
parallel rows of poles stuck upright in the ground, suffi- 
ciently wide apart at the bottom to form the floor, and bent 
together at the top to form the roof, the whole being nicely 
covered with strips of peeled bark. At each end of the 
wigwam was a strip of bark, or a bear-skin, hung loosely 
for a door. Within they built their fires at intervals along 
the centre of the floor, the smoke passing out through 
openings in the top, which served as well to let in the 

I After the defeat of King Philip, of Pocanokett, in 1675-76, a 
part of the Wamjyinnags and Narragannetts Bed from their ancient 
hunting-grounds and settled at Schaghtlcokc, on the Hudson, and 
were afterwards known as the Schaghticuke Indians. See paper by 
John Fitch, in " Historical Magazine" for June, 1870. 



light. In every house were many fires and many families, 
every family having its own fire within the space allotted 
to it. 

From this custom of having many fires and many fimi- 
ilies strung through a long and narrow house comes the 
signification of their name for the league, "the people of 
the long house." They likened their confederacy of Five 
Nations, stretched along a narrow valley for more than two 
hundred miles through central New York, to one of their 
long wigwams. The Mohawks guarded the eastern door of 
this long house, while the Senecas kept watch at the western 
door. Between these doors of their country dwelt the 
Oneidas, Onondngas, and Cayiigas, each nation around its 
own fire, while the great central council fire was always 
kept brightly burning in the country of the Onondngax. 
Thus they were in fact, as well as in name, the people of 
the long house. 

Below are given, in the order of their rank therein, the 
Indian names of the several nations of the league ;* 

Mohawks — Ga-ne-a-ga-o-no. " People possessors of the 

Onondngns — 0-nun-do-ga-o-no. " People on the hills." 
Senecas — Nun-da-wa-o-no. " Great hill people." 
Oneidas — O-na-yote-ka-o-no. "Granite people." 
Cagiigas — Gwe-u-giceli-o-no. "People at the mucky 

Tiiscaroras — Diis-ga-o-wch-o-no. " Shirt-wearing peo- 


It may of a truth be said that this wild Indian league of 
the old savage wilderness, if it did not suggest, in many 
respects it formed the mode after which was fashioned our 
more perfect union of many States in one republic. The 
government of this "league of the Iroquois" was vested 
in a general council composed of fifty hereditary sachems, 
but the order of succession was always in the female and 
never in the male line ; that is to say, when a .sachem died, 
his successor was chosen from his mother's descendants, and 
never from his own children. The new sachem must be 
cither the brother of the old one, or a son of his sister; so 
in all cases the status of the children followed the mother, 
and never the father. Each nation was divided into eight 
clans or tribes, which bore the following names: Wolf, Deer, 
Bear, Snipe, Beaver, Heron, Turtle, and Hawk. The spirit 
of the animal or bird after which the clan was named, called 
its totem, was the guardian spirit of the clan, and every 
member used its figure in his signature as his device. 

It was the rule among them that no two of the same clan 
could intermarry. If the husband belonged to the clan of 
the Wolf, the wife must belong to the clan of the Bear, the 
Deer, and so on, while the children belonged to the clan of 
the mother, and never to the father's clan. In this manner 
their relationship always interlocked, and the people of the 
whole league were forever joined in the closest ties of con- 

The name of each sachem was permanent. It was the 
name of the office, and descended with it to each successor. 
When a sachem died, the people of the league selected the 

* Sec Morgan's League of the Iroquois. 

most competent brave from among those of his family, who 
by right inherited the title, and the one so chosen was raised 
in solemn council to the high honor, and, dropping his own, 
received the name of the sachcmship. There were two 
sachemships, however, that, after the death of the first 
sachems of the name, forever remained vacant. 

These sachemships were Da-ga-no-we-da of the Oiion- 
d'lgas and Ha-yo-went-ha (Hi-a-wat-ha) of the Mohawks. 
Da-ga-no-we-da was the founder of the league. His head 
was represented as covered wii;h tangled serpents, and Hi-a- 
wat-ha, meaning " he who combs," straightened them out, 
and assisted in forming the league. In honor of their great 
services their sachemships were afterwards held vacant. 

There was another class of chiefs, of inferior rank to 
the sachems, among whom were the war chiefs, whose title 
was not hereditary, but who were chosen on account of their 
bravery or personal prowess, their achievements on the war- 
path, or their eloquence in council. Among this latter were 
found the most renowned warriors and orators of the league, 
such as King Hendrick and Red Jacket, but they could 
never rise to the rank of sachem. 

The whole body of sachems formed the council league. 
Their authority was entirely civil, and confined to the afi'airs 
of peace. But, after all, the power of the sachems and 
chiefs was advisory rather than mandatory. Every savage, 
to a great extent, followed the dictates of his own wild will, 
controlled only by the customs of his people, and a public 
sentiment that ran through their whole system of affairs, 
which was as inflexible as iron. 


The Indian was a believer in spirits. Every object in 
nature was spiritualized by him, while over all things, in 
dim and shadowy majesty, ruled the one great spirit, the 
supreme object of his fear and adoration, whom he called 
Ha-wen-neya. There was likewise an evil spirit, bom at 
the same time as the great spirit, which he called Ha-ue- 
go-ate-ga, "the evil minded." There was also He-no, "the 
thunderer," and Ga-oh, " the spirit of the winds." Every 
mountain, lake, stream, tree, shrub, flower, stone, and foun- 
tain had its own spirit. 

Among his objects of worship were the three sister 
spirits, — the spirit of corn, the spirit of beans, and the 
spirit of squashes. This triad was called De-oha-ko,f mean- 
ing " our life," " our supporters." Upon the festal'days sacred 
to the three sisters they were represented by three beautiful 
maidens, each one gayly dressed in the leaves of the plant 
whose spirit she represented. 

The Ho-de-no-sau-nee observed six great feasts every 
year. There was the new year's festival, or the " sacrifice 
of the white dog," which was celebrated with great pomp 
for seven days early in February. Then, as soon as the 
snow began to melt, and the sap to flow from the maple- 
trees, and the sugar-boiling began in earnest, came the 

The next great festival was the A-yent-wa-ta, or " plant- 
ing festival," which came on as soon as the leaves on the 
butternut-trees were as big as squirrels' ears, indicating the 

' •[■ See Morgan's League of the Iroquois. 



time for planting corn. The fourth feast was Ha-nan-da-yo, 
the " feast of strawberries," which came in the moon of 
roses. The fifth was Ah-dake-wa-o, the " feast of the 
green corn moon," and the hist was the " harvest festival," 
observed at the gathering of the crops in autumn. 

Dwelling forever among the wildest scenes of nature, — 
himself nature's own wildest child, — believing in an unseen 
world of spirits in perpetual play around him on every 
hand, his soul was filled with unutterable awe. The flight 
or cry of a bird, the humming of a bee, the crawling of 
an insect, the turning of a leaf, the whi.sper of a breeze, 
were to him mystic signals of good or evil import, by which 
he was guided in the most important afiairs of life. 

Tiie mysterious about him he did not attempt to unravel, 
but bowed submi.ssively belbre it with what crude ideas he 
had of religion and worship. To his mind everything, 
whether animate or inanimate, in the whole domain of 
nature is immortal. In the happy hunting-grounds of the 
dead the shades of hunters will follow the shades of ani- 
mals with the shades of bows and arrows, among the shades 
of trees and rocks, in the shades of immortal forests, or 
glde in the shades of bark canoes over shadowy lakes and 
streams, and carry them around the shades of dashing 

In dreams he placed the most implicit confidence. They 
were to him revelations from the spirit world, guiding him 
to the places where his game lurked and to the haunts of 
his enemies. He invoked their aid upon all occasions. 
They taught him how to cure the sick, and revealed to him 
his guardian spirit, as well as all the secrets of his good or 
evil destiny. 


The Iroquois were extremely social in their daily inter- 
course. When not engaged in their almost continual public 
feasting and dancing, they spent the most of their time in 
their neighbors' wigwams, playing games of chance, of which 
they were extremely fond, or in chatting, joking, and rudely 
bantering each other. On .such occasions their witticisms 
and jokes were often more .sharp than delicate, as they were 
" echoed by the shrill laugh of young squaws untaught to 

In times of distress and danger they were always prompt 
to aid each other. Were a family without shelter, the men 
of the village at once built them a wigwam. When a 
young squaw was married, the older ones, each gathering a 
load of sticks in the forest, carried her wood enough for a 
year. In their intercourse with each other, as well as with 
strangers, their code of courtesy was exact and rigid to the 
last degree. 

But the Indian is still the untamed child of nature. 
" He will not," says Parkman, " learn the arts of civilization, 
and he and his forest must perish together. The stern, 
unchanging features of his mind excite our admiration from 
their very immutability, and we look with deep interest on 
the fate of this irreclaimable son of the wilderness, the 
child who will not be weaned from the breast of his rugged 
mother. . . . The imprisoned lion in the showman's cage 

^ See Charlevoix's Voyage to North America, 
f Francis Parkman. 

differs not more widely from the lord of the desert than 
the beggarly frequenter of frontier garrisons and dram- 
shops differs from the proud denizen of the woods. It is 
in his native wilds alone that the Indian must be seen and 




The long series of hostile invasions from the north 
which, during the two hundred and seventy years of the 
colonial period, so often wore bloody pathways over the rugged 
surface of the county of Saratoga, all came from the valley 
of the St. Lawrence. The history of the river St. Law- 
rence is, therefore, so intimately connected with the history 
of Saratoga, that some account of its early discovery and 
explorations by Europeans seems necessary to an intelligible 
understanding of the subject. 

The great river St. Lawrence, whose old Indian name 
was Ilo-che-la-ya, and which serves to drain the larger part 
of the waters of northern New York into the ocean, was 
discovered and first explored by Jacques Cartier, who was 
an eminent mariner of St. Malo. 

St. Malo is a quaint mediasval seaport town of the ancient 
province of Brittany, on the northern coast of France. 
The city is built on a huge rock that seems to rise like a 
wall out of the sea, it being separated from the mainland 
by a salt marsh, which is covered by the waters at high 
tide. In 1709 an earthquake turned it into an island. 
Many a superstition still flourishes among its simple people. 
Its quaint mediaeval customs were carried into the New World 
by the old mariners, and once started found an echo among 
the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, and along the 
mountain shores of Lake Champlain. Thus, too, in the 
wilds of the New World were introduced by these mariners 
the stories of the dwarfs and giants of the fairy mythology, 
which the Northmen of the tenth century brought from 
their ancient home when they invaded Brittany. 

In the year 1535, Cartier was sent on a voyage to the 
New World by Francis I., King of France, at the instigation 
of Philippe de Chabot, his grand admiral, in quest of gold 
and empire. The little fleet with which Cartier sailed con- 
sisted of three ships only, ranging from forty to one hundred 
and twenty tons burden. This fleet was under the command 
of Cartier, who was styled the " Captain and Pilot of the 
King." In his .ship's company were several of the young 
nobility of France, among whom were Claudius de Pontc 
Briand, cup-bearer to the Lord Dauphin, Charles de Pome- 
rasces, John Powlet, and other gentlemen. 

The dai-ing but devout navigators of those days, before 
venturing upon their long and perilous voyages to the 
dreary, cheerless solitudes of an almost unknown and unex- 

% Parliraan's Conspiracy of Pontiao, vol. i. p. 44. Consult, also, 
Schoolcraft's worlis, Clark's History of Onondaga, Heckewclder's 
History of Indian Nations, The Iroquois, by Anna C. Johnson, 
Documentary Hi.story of New York, Cusick's History of the Five 
Nations, Charlcvoi.v's Letters to the Duchess de Lesdiguifcres, and 
Jesuit RL-lations of 1656-57 and 1659-60. 



plored ocean, were accustomed to attend upon the solemn 
offices of religion, as if they were departing to 

" The unriiscovered country, from whose bourne 
No traveler returns." 

Therefore, just before setting sail on Whitsunday, this 
company of adventurers went in solemn procession to the 
cathedral church of the town, where each was absolved and 
received the sacrament. Then, all entering the choir of the 
church in a body, they were presented to the lord bishop 
and received his blessing. 

They embarked from St. Malo on the 19th of May, and, 
after a stormy passage, arrived off the coast of Newfound- 
land on the 7th of July. On the 10th day of August, in 
that year, which day was the festival of Saint Lawrence, 
they discovered and entered the broad bay which forms the 
mouth of the great river, and named it in honor of the 

Proceeding on their voyage up the wild stream, they soon 
reached the dark gorge of the Saguenay, and arrived at the 
island of Orleans, which lies a short distance below the city 
of Quebec. On account of the abundance of wild grapes 
found upon this island, which hung in clusters from all the 
trees along its shores, Cartier named it the Isle of Bacchus. 
Continuing their voyage, they soon reached the narrows in 
the river opposite the rocky cliffs of Quebec. This strong- 
hold, on which is now situated the city of Quebec, was then 
occupied by a little cluster of Indian wigwams, and was 
called by the savages Sta-da-go-ne. The chief of this little 
Indian town, whose name was Don-na-co-na, met these 
strange mariners at the landing, and made a speech to them, 
and gave them bread and some wine pressed from the wild 
grapes that grew so abundantly upon the shores of the island 
and on the banks of the stream. 

These Indians told Cartier that many days' journey up 
the river there was another Indian town, that gave its name 
to the river and to the country around it. Taking on board 
some Indian guides, the mariners proceeded up the river in 
quest of this wonderful city of the Great Forest State. 
In a few days the Indians led Cartier to the spot where 
now stands the beautiful city of Montreal, on the island 
now known as the Island of Montreal, and which, as hits 
been stated in a previous chapter, lies at the head of the 
great northern valley on whose borders the county of Sara- 
toga is situated. Cartier found an old palisaded Indian 
town, containing many wigwams, built long and narrow 
after the fashion of the Iroquois. In this village at that 
time were more than a thousand savage inhabitants of 
Algonqtiin or Iroquois lineage. Cartier had discovered the 
famous Indian Ilo-che-la-ga, which was the capital of the 
great forest State of the same name, that lay along on botli 
sides of the St. Lawrence above the mouth of the Ottawa. 
Like Sta-da-co-ne, at rocky Quebec, this Indian town on 
the Island of Montreal was one of the centres of Indian 
population on the great river, Ho-che-la-ga. 

On the second day of October, Cartier landed at Ho-chc- 
la-ga, amid the crim.son and golden hues of the lovely 
Canadian autumn. So glorious, so fair, so wild, so savage 
a scene these wondering mariners of the old world had 
never seen before. 

When bearded white men, clad in glittering armor 
and gorgeous attire, landed at the Indian village Ho-che- 
la-ga, on the wild Lsland of Jlontreal, the half-nude savages 
crowded around them in speechless wonder, regarding them 
more as gods than men. They even brought their chief, 
whose name was Ag-ou-han-na, who '-was full of palsy," 
says an old narrative, " and his members shrunk together," 
and who was clad in rich furs, and wore upon his head a 
wreath or crown of red feathers, and laid him upon a mat 
before the captain that he might give the limbs a healing 
touch, — such was their simple faith in the powers of the 
pale-faces, who for the first time stood before them. 
" Then did Ag-ou-han-na," continues the old chronicler, 
" take the wreath or crown he had about his head and 
gave it unto our captain. That done, they brought be- 
fore divers diseased men, some blind, some crippled, some 
lame, and impotent, and some so old that the hair of their 
eyelids came down and covered their cheeks, and laid them 
all along before our captain, to the end that they might of 
him be touched, for it seemed unto them that God was 
descended and come down to heal them."* 

Then the Indians led Cartier and his followers to the top 
of the mountain at whose foot their villages nestled. Car- 
tier planted a large cross of cedar wood upon the summit 
of the mountain, and solemnly took possession of the great 
forest state of Ho-che-la-ga in the name of the French 
king, and then named the mountain on which he stood 
Mount Royal, from which comes the modern Montreal. 

On the 5 th of October, Cartier left the Ho-che-la-ga, and 
regaining his ships pas.sed a long and gloomy winter in that 
part of the river St. Lawrence since called Lake St. Peters. 

In the spring, Cartier returned to France. In 1541 he 
made another voyage to Ho-che-la-ga. After his return to 
his native city of St. Malo, from this last voyage to the new 
world, the name of Cartier passes out of history. It is 
supposed that he lived in retirement and died at a good old 

When Champlain, upon his first voyage to New France in 
1603, sixty-eight years after Cartier's visit, landed upon 
the still wild and savage Island of Montreal, scarcely a 
vestage of Ho-che-la-ga, the ancient Indian metropolis on 
the great river, remained to be seen. All its savage glory 
had departed forever. Its race of Iroquois house-builders 
had been driven to their new hunting-grounds in the rich 
valleys of central New York. Champlain found the site of 
the village occupied only by a few families of a roving tribe 
of Algonquin lineage, who lived in some temporary huts 
built of the decaying remnants of the ancient village. Such 
was the fate of the old forest state of Ho-che-la-ga. 


Samuel de Champlain, the discoverer of the beautiful 
lake of northern New York that bears his name, was the 
founder of New France and its first governor-general. No 
name in Canadian annals is more illustrious than his. He 
was born in Brouage Saintonge, about the year 1570, of a 
noble family. In his youth he served in the French navy, and 
was pensioned and attached to the person of King Henry 
IV., of France. 

* Pinkerton's Voyages, vol. xii. p. 653. 



In 1603, M. de Chastes, governor of Dieppe, obtained 
permission from the king to found a new settlement in 
Nortli America. De Chastes appointed Champlain as his 
substitute, and the king gave him the title of general-lieu- 
tenant of Canada. On the 15th of March, Champlain set 
sail for America in a ship commanded by Pont-Grave, an 
enterprising mariner of St. Malo, like Cartier. 

They sailed up the St. Lawrence and up the river as far 
as Jacques Cartier had proceeded with his ships in 1535, 
and, after carefully examining its banks, returned to France, 
having effected nothing by way of settlement. Upon his 
return, Champlain published his first book, entitled " Des 
Sauvages." In the mean time, De Chastes had died, and 
his concessions had been transferred to Sieur de Monts. 
De Monts was made vice-admiral and lieutenant-general of 
his majesty in that part of Acadia called Norumbega. Armed 
with these plenary powers, De Monts and Champlain sailed 
for Acadia, and attempted a settlement at Port Royal, but 
returned to France in 1 607. 

Champlain's third voyage to America was undertaken at 
the solicitation of De Monts in tiie year 1608. In this 
year he founded his colony of Quebec, in the heart of the 
old savage wilderness, upon the site of the old Indian ham- 
let Sta-da-co-ne, found by Jacques Cartier seventy years 
before. In the beginning of the summer of the year 1609, 
months before Henry Hudson sailed up the North river, 
and eleven years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth 
Rock, Champlain discovered the lake which still bears his 
name, and planted on its shores the cross and the lilies of 

While at Quebec, during his hunting excursions with 
the Indians, they told him marvelous stories of a great 
inland sea, filled with wonderful islands, lying far to the 
southward of the St. Lawrence, in the land of the terrible 
Iroquois. His curiosity was excited, and as soon as the 
melting snows of the next spring would permit, he set out 
upon a voyage for its discovery. 

He was accompanied by two companions only, besides 
his savage allies, who numbered sixty wan-iors, with twenty- 
four canoes. They were Jlurons, Algonquias, and 3Ion- 
layaais. The Montagnais were a roving tribe of the At- 
gonqniii family who inhabited the country of the Saguenay, 
called by the French the paupers of the wilderness. 

After a toilsome passage up the rapids of the Richelieu, 
Champlain entered the lake, — the far-famed "wilderness of 
the Iroquois." It was studded with islands that were 
clothed in the rich verdure of the early summer, its tran- 
quil waters spreading southward beyond the horizon. From 
the thickly-wooded shores on either side rose ranges of 
mountains, the highest peaks still white with patches of 
snow. Over all was flung the soft blue haze, sometimes 
called mountain-smoke, that seemed to temper the sunlight 
and shade off the landscape into spectral-like forms of 
shadowy-like beauty. Who does not envy the stern old 
forest ranger his first view of the lake that was destined to 
bear his name to the latest posterity ? 

Champlain and his allies proceeded cautiously up the 
lake, traveling only by night and resting on the shore by 
day, for they were in the land of the much-dreaded Iroqnois, 
the hereditary enemies of the Alyonquiii, nations. 

On the morning of the 29th of July, after paddling, as 
usual, all night, they retired to the western shore of the 
lake to take their daily rest. The savages were soon stretched 
along the ground in their slumbers, and Champlain, after a 
short walk iu the woods, laid himself down to sleep upon 
his bed of fragrant hemlock boughs. He dreamed that he 
saw a band of Iroquois warriors drowning in the lake. 
Upon attempting to save them, his Algonquin friends told 
him that " they were good for nothing, and had better be 
left to die like dogs." Upon awakening, the Indians, as 
usual, beset him for his dreams. This was the first dream 
he had remembered since setting out upon the voyage, and 
it was considered by his superstitious allies as an auspicious 
vision. Its relation filled them with joy, and at early night- 
fall they re-embarked flushed with the hope of an easy vic- 
tory. Their anticipations were soon to be realized. About 
ten o'clock in the evening, near what is now Crown Point, 
they saw dark moving objects upon the lake before them. 
It was a flotilla of Iroquois canoes. In a moment more 
each party of savages saw the other, and their hideous war- 
cries, mingling, pealed along the lonely shores. 

The Iroquois landed at once and barricaded themselves 
upon the shore with fallen trees and brushwood. The Al- 
gonquins lashed their canoes together with long poles within 
a bow-shot of the Iroquois barricade, and danced in them 
all night their hideous war-dances. It was mutually agreed 
between the hostile bands that the battle should not 'come 
off till morning. At dawn of day the Algonquins landed, 
and the Iroquois marched in single file from their barricade 
to meet them, full two hundred strong. They were the 
boldest, fiercest warriors of the New World, and their tall, 
lithe forms and noble bearing elicited the warmest approba- 
tion of Champlain and his white companions. The chiefs 
were made conspicuous by their tall plumes. Champlain, 
who in the mean time had been concealed, now advanced 
to the front, with arquebuse in hand, clad in the metallic 
armor of the times. The Iroquois warriors, seeing for the 
first time such a warlike apparition in their path, halted 
and stood gazing upon Champlain in mute astonishment. 

" The moment we landed," says Champlain, in his nar- 
rative, " they (the Algonquins and Hurons) began to run 
about two hundred paces towards their enemies, who stood 
firm, and had not yet perceived my companions, who went 
into the bush with some savages. Our Indians commenced 
calling me in a loud voice, and, opening their ranks, placed 
me about twenty paces in advance, in which order we 
marched until I was about in thirty paces of the enemy. 
The moment they saw me they halted, gazing at me and I 
at them. When I saw them preparing to shoot at us, I 
raised my arquebuse, and, aiming directly at one of the 
three chiefs, two of them fell to the ground by this shot, 
and one of their companions received a wound of which he 
afterwards died. I had put four balls in my arquebuse. 
Our party, on witnessing a shot so favorable for them, set 
up such tremendous shouts that thunder could not have 
been heard ; and yet there was no lack of arrows on one 
side or the other. The Iroquois were greatly astonished at 
seeing two men killed so instantaneously, notwithstanding 
they were provided with arrow-proof armor woven of cotton- 
thread and wool. This frightened them very much. Whilst 



I was reloading, one of my companions in the bush fired a 
shot, which so astonished them anew, seeing their chiefs 
shiin, that they lost courage, took to fliglrt, and abandoned 
the field and their fort, hiding themselves in the depths of 
the forests, whither pursuing them I killed some others. 
Our savages also killed several of them and took ten or 
twelve prisoners. The rest carried oflF the wounded. Fifteen 
or sixteen of our party were wounded by arrows. They 
were promptly cured." 

The Tmqnoix afterwards became the friends and allies of 
the English, and this first forest encounter was the forerun- 
ner of a long and bloody warfare between the French and 
the English and their respective Indian allies, of which the 
soil of Saratoga County often formed the battle-ground. 

Four years afterwards Chaniplain made a long journey up 
the Ottawa river to the country of the Huroiis. On his 
return he discovered Lake Ontario, the name meaning, in 
the Indian tongue, the '' beautiful lake." He fought an- 
other battle with the Iroquois, to the south of the lake in 
western New York. He explored its shores along the 
western border of northern New York, in the vicinity of 
what was afterward known to the French as La Famine. 
On his return he passed near the head of the St. Lawrence, 
thus becoming the first explorer of the lake of the Thousand 

In 1620, Champlain was made governor-general of Can- 
ada, and died at Quebec, in ItioS. In 1620 his wife ac- 
companied him to Quebec. Madame Champlain was Flelen 
Boute, daughter of Nicholas Route, secretary of the royal 
household at Paris. She remained four years in America, 
returned to France, founded a convent of Ursulines at Jleaux, 
entered it as Sister Helen, of St. Augustine, and died there 
in 1654. Madame Champlain, as she was married to him 
when she was only twelve years of age, was still very young. 
The Indians, struck with her frail and gentle beauty, paid 
homage to her as a goddess. " Champlain," says Park- 
man, " was enamored of the New World, whose rugged 
charms had seized his fancy and his heart, and as explorers 
of the Arctic seas have pined in their repose for polar ice 
and snow, so did he, with restless longing, revert to the fog- 
wrapped coast, the piny odors of forests, the noise of waters, 
the sharp, piercing sunlight, so dear to his remembrance. 
Fain would he uuveil the mystery of that boundless wilder- 
ness, and plant the Catholic fliith and the power of France 
amid its ancient barbarism."* 


At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the little 
republic of Holland had already become one of the first 
commercial and maritime powers of the world. In those 
days hardy navigators and bold explorers were flocking from 
every nation in Europe to sail under the Dutch .standard 
in search of fame and fortune. 

Among the most noted of these was Heury Hudson, a 
mariner of England, who was the discoverer and first ex- 
plorer of the river that now bears his name. Henry Hud- 
son was born about the middle of the sixteenth century. 

• See Parkman'a Pioneers of France, Palmer's History of Lake 
Champlain, Champlain's Voyages de la Nouvullo France, and Docu- 
mentary History of New York. 

but of his early life little is known. His first voyage was 
in 1607, in the employ of a company of London merchants, 
to the cast coast of Greenland, in the search of a northwest 
passage to India. 

On April 6, 1609, he began a voyage, in the service of 
the Dutch East India Company, to the northern coast of 
Asia. For some reason or other he turned his ships toward 
North America, and on the 12th day of September, in that 
year, discovered and entered the mouth of the beautiful 
river, now called by his name, that serves to drain the 
waters of the mountain belt of the great wilderness of 
northern New York. 

It is believed that Hudson explored the stream as far up 
as the old Indian hunting-ground, called Nach-tc-nak, which 
lies around and upon the islands that cluster among the 
" .sprouts" or mouths of the Mohawk. 

In his voyage up the stream he had numerous adven- 
tures, and had two or three battles with the Indians, who 
were jealous of the strange intruders. The stanch little 
ship in which he sailed up the river was named the Half- 
Moon. The following i.s taken from his own narrative of 
the voyage, in the quaint language of the time : 

" The thirteenth, faire weather, the wind northerly. At 
seucn of the clocke in the morning, as the floud came, we 
weighed, and turned fourc miles into the riuer. The tide 
being done wee anchored. Then there came foure canoes 
aboard : but we suffered none of them to come into our 
ship. They brought great store of very good oysters aboord, 
which wee bought for trifles. In the night I set the varia- 
tion of the compasse, and found it to be thirteen degrees. 
In the afternoone we weighed and turned in with the flood 
two leagues and a halfe further, and anchore all night, 
and had fine fathoms of .soft ozie around, and had a hi"h 
point of land, which showed out to us bearing north by 
east fine leagues of us. 

" The fovrteenth, in the morning being very faire weather, 
the wind southeast, we sayled vp the riuer twelue leagues, 
and had fiue fathoms and fiue fathoms and a quarter lesse; 
and came to a streight between two points, and had eight, 
nine, and ten fathoms ; and it trended northeast by north 
one league, and we had twelue, thirteene, and fourteene 
fathoms. The riuer is a mile broad ; there is very high 
land on both sides. Then wee went vp northwest a league 
and a halfe deepe water ; then northeast by north fiue 
miles, then northwest by north two leagues, and anchored. 
The land grew very high and mountainous. The riuer is 
full of fish. 

" The fifteenth, in the morning, was misty vntil the sunne 
arose; then it cleered. So wee weighed with the wind 
at South, and ran vp the riuer twentie leagues, passing by 
high mountains. Wee had a very good depth, as six, seuen, 
eight, nine, twelue, and thirteen fathoms, and great store of 
salmons in the riuer. This morniutr our two sauaires cot 
out of a port and swam away. After we were under 
sayle they called to us in scorne. At night we came to 
other mountains, which lie from the riuer's side. There 
wee fovnd very louing people and very old men ; where we 
were well vsed. Our boat went to fish, and caught gi-eat 
store of very good fish. 

"The sixteenth, faire and very hot weather. In the 



morning ovr boat went againc to fishing, but could catch 
but few, by reason their canoes had beene there all night. 
This morning the people came aboord and brovght vs eares 
of Indian come and pompions and tobacco, which wee bought 
for trifles. Wee rode still all day, and filled fresh water ; 
at night wee weighed and went two leagues higher, and had 
shoaled water ; so we anchored till day. 

"The seuenteenth, faire, sun-shining weather, and very 
hot. In the morning as soon as the sun was vp, we set 
sayle, and run vp six leagues higher and found shoales in 
the middle of the channel, and small Hands but seuen fathoms 
water on both sides. Toward night we borrowed so neere 
the shoare that wc grounded ; so we layed out our small 
anchor, and heaued off againo. Then we borrowed on the 
banke in the channell and came agrounde againe. While 
the floud ran, we houed off againe, and anchored all night. 

" The eighteenth, in the morning, was faire weather, and 
we rode still. In the afternoone our master's mate went on 
land with an old sauage, a gouernoer of the countrey, who 
carried him to his house and made him goode cheere. 

" The nineteenth was faire and hot weather. At the 
floode, being neere eleuen of the clocke, wee weighed and 
ran higher vp two leagues aboue the shoalds, and had no 
lesse water than fine fathoms. We anchored, and rode in 
eight fiithoms. The people of the countrie came flocking 
aboord, and brought vs grapes and pompions, which wee 
bought for trifles. And many brought vs beuers' skinnes 
and otters' skinnes, which wee bought for beades, kniues, 
and hatchets So we rode there all night. 

" The twentieth, in the morning, was faire weather. Our 
master's mate, with four men more, went vp with our boat 
to sound the riuer, and found, two leagues aboue vs, but 
two fathoms water and the channell very narrow, and aboue 
that place between seuen or eight fathoms. Toward night 
they returned, and we rode still all night. 

" The one and twentieth was faire weather, and the wind 
all southerly. We determined yet once more to goe far- 
ther vp into the riuer, to trie what depth and breadth it 
did beare ; but much people resorted aboord, so we went not 
this day. Our carpenter went on land and made a fore- 
yard, and our master and his mate determined to trie some 
of the chiefe men of the countrie, whether they had any 
treacherie in them. So they took them down into the cab- 
bin and gave them as much wine and aqua vitic that they 
were all merrie ; and one of them had his wife with him, 
who sat as modestly as any of our countrie-women would 
do in a strange place. In the end one of them was drunke 
which had been aboord of our ship all the time we had 
been there ; and that was strange to them, for they could 
not tell how to take it. The canoes and folke went all on 
shore, but some of them caime againe and brought stropes 
of beades — some had six, seven, eight, nine, ten — and gaue 
him. So he slept all night quietly. 

" The two and twentieth was faire weather. In the 
morning our master's mate and foure more of the companie 
went vp with our boat to sound the river higher vp. The 
people of the country came not aboord till noone ; but when 
they came, and saw the sauages well, they were glad. So 
at three of the clocke in the afternoone they came aboord 
and brouirht tobacco and more beades, and iraue them to 

our master, and made an oration, and shewed him the coun- 
trey all around about. Then they sent one of their companie 
on land, who presently returned and brought a great platter 
full of venison, dressed by themselves, and they caused hira 
to eat with them. Then they made him reverence and de- 
parted, — all saue the old man that lay aboord. This night, 
at ten of the clocke, our boate returned in a shower of raine 
from sounding of the riuer, and found it to be at an end for 
shipping to goe in. For they had beene vp eight or nine 
leagues, and found but seuen foot water and unconstant 

"The three and twentieth, fliire weather. At twelue of 
the clocke wee weighed and went downe two leagues to a 
shoald that had two channells, one on the one side, and an- 
other on the other, and had little wind, whereby the tide 
layed vs upon it. So there wee sate on the ground the 
space of an houre till the floud came. Then we had a little 
gale of wind at the west. So wee got our ship into deepe 
water and rode all night very well." 

It is quite apparent from the above narrative that Hud- 
son ascended the river to the shallow water near where the 
village of Waterford now is, and thus, in his explorations, 
probably reached the southern border of Saratoga County. 

Hudson then named the stream the River of the Moun- 
tains, which is a literal translation of the Algonquin name 
of it, — Cd-ho-ta-te-a. It was reserved for his countrymen, 
who took the province from the Dutch in 1G04, first to call 
it in honor of its immortal discoverer. 

Hudson, a year or two afterwards, discovered the great 
northern bay, which was also named in his honor. His 
ship's crew then mutinied. He was sent adrift with eight 
men in a boat upon the wild northern ocean, and was never 
heard of more. 

From these explorations and discoveries by navigators 
sailing in the interests of rival powers there sprang up con- 
flicting claims to the territory of northern New York. Out 
of these claims arose a long series of bloody conflicts be- 
tween the French and the English and their respective In- 
dian allies, of which the soil of Saratoga County so often 
formed the battle-ground, until the brave Montcalm yielded 
to the chivalrous Wolfe, one hundred and fifty years after- 
wards, on the plains of Abraham. 

Since these discoveries and explorations two centuries 
and a half have passed away, and how manifold and vast 
are now the human interests that lie stretched along the 
lakes and rivers which are still linked with the names of 
those kindred spirits of the olden time, — " romance-loving 
explorers," — each immortalized by his discoveries, — Jacques 
Cartier, Henry Hudson, and Samuel de Champlain. 


AND MONTREAL, 1614-62. 

It has been seen that the county of Albany, of which 
the county of Saratoga formed a part for more than a hun- 
dred years, was erected by order of the Duke of York, 



the proprietor of the province, as early as the year 1683; 
but the city ot Albanj' was founded by the Dutch niueli 
earlier. Of a truth it may be said that Albany is one of 
the oldest cities of the New World. In the year IC14, five 
years after the discovery of the Hudson river, and six years 
beTore the pilitrim lathers landed at PlyuKuith Rock, the 
city of Albany was founded. 

After Henry Hud.son had discovered and explored the 
river that still bears his name, as far up as what is now 
Waterford, in the month of September, 1609, and taken 
posses.sion of the country in the name of Holland, in whose 
interest he had sailed, a number of Dutch adventurers soon 
followed in his track. These navigators, however, at first 
made no attempt at settlement, but occupied themselves 
with making further di.scoveries along the coast and up the 
river, and pursuing a small trade with the Indians. The 
most noted of these early Dutch navigators wore Adrian 
Block, Hendrick Corstiarnsen, and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey. 

Early in the autumn of 1614 news of their discoveries 
was received in Holland, and the United Company, by which 
they were employed, lost no time in taking the necessary 
steps to secure to themselves the exclusive trade and settle- 
ment of the country thus explored. They sent deputies to 
the Hague, who laid bc;fore the States General a map of 
the new country, which was then for the first time called 
Nsw Nktuerland, with a report of their discoveries. In 
this report, notwithstanding their knowledge of the prior 
discovery of Henry Hudson, in 1609, only five years before, 
they claimed to be the first explorers of the country. 

On the 11th day of October, 1614, their High Mighti- 
ness the States General of Holland made a special grant 
in their favor. This grant conferred upon Girrit Jacob 
Witsen, former burgomaster of the city of Amsterdam, and 
his twelve associates, ship-owners and merchants of Am- 
sterdam, the exclusive right to " visit and navigate all the 
lands situate in America, between New France and Vir- 
ginia, the sea-coasts of which lie between the fortieth and 
forty-fifth degrees of latitude, which are now named New 
Netherland ; and to navigate, or cause to be navigated, the 
same for four voyages within the period of three years, to 
commence from the first day of January, 1615, or sooner." 
Having thus obtained the exclusive right to trade in the 
new country, they assumed the name and title of ''The 
United New Netherland Company." Thus having the 
exclusive right to the country, this company took possession 
of the Hudson river, then called by them " De Riviere van 
den Vorst Mauritius," and built two forts thereon. One 
was built on a little island immediately below the present 
city of Albany, called Castle island, which island has long 
since become a part of the main land. The other was 
erected at the mouth of the stream, on what is now the 
Battery, in the city of New York. 

The fort at Alban was begun early in the year 1615. 
It consisted of a trading house thirty-six feet long and 
twenty-six feet wide. Around this was raised a strong 
stockade, fifty feet sipiare, which was encircled by a moat 
eighteen feet wide. It was defended by two pieces of 
cannon and eleven stone guns mounted on swivels. This 
post was garrisoned by ten or twelve men, under the com- 
mand of Jacob Jacoby Elkeus, who continued here four 

years in the employ of the company, being well liked by 
the Indians, whose language he soon learned. 

But the right of this company expired by limitation in 
the year 1618. In the .spring of that year the fort on 
Castle island was so injured by a freshet on the river that 
the company abandoned it and built another on the main- 
land farther down on a hill at the mouth of the Norman's 
kill. The Indian name for the Norman's kill was Ta-wa- 
sfnt-ha, " the place of the many dead." It was here on 
this hill, called by the Indians Troasgau-shee, that the 
Dutch, in the year 1G18, concluded their first formal treaty 
of peace and alliance with the Five Nations, by which they 
obtained such lasting ascendency over the fierce Indian 

In 1623 the rights of this company were transferred to 
the West India Company, and New Netherlands was erected 
into a province. In that year Fort Orange Wius built by 
Adriaen Ivers, near what is now the steamboat dock of the 
People's line, and eighteen Dutch families built their log 
huts under its protecting guns and .spent there the ensuing 
winter. From these few log huts built in the old forest of 
1623 has grown the modern city of Albany. 

On the 1st day of October, 1630, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, 
a rich diamond merchant of Amsterdam, formed the com- 
pany which resulted in the settlement of the " Colonic of 
Rensselaerwych," of which he became the ^rat patroon. 


The great flat upon the Mohawk river, lying seventeen 
miles west of ^^ Fort Orange" as Albany was then called, 
was bought of the Indians by Arendt van Curler in the 
month of July, 1661. The deed was signed in behalf of 
the Mohawks by three chiefs, named Kan-tu-quo, Son-a- 
rul-sic, and A-ia-Ja-ne. In 1662 this grant was confirmed, 
and Van Curler and his associates " went west" from Fort 
Orange and settled the rich Mohawk flats, near which is 
now the modern city of Schenectady. Arendt van Curler 
was a cousin of the Van Rensselaers, and played a promi- 
nent part in the settlement of their manor. He owned a 
farm on the flats just above Fort Orange, and was a brewer in 
Beverwyck,as Albany was then called, in 1661. Hisinfluence 
among the Indians was unbounded. In honor of his mem- 
ory the Iroijiiois addressed all succeeding governors of New 
York by his name, which they translated Corlear. He was 
also a great favorite of the French. On the 30th of April, 
1667, the Marquis de Tracy, viceroy of New France, ad- 
dressed Van Curler a letter, of which we give an extract: 

" If you find it a;5rcGabIe to come hither this sumuicr, as you have 
caused me to hope, yuu will be most welcome, and entertained to the 
utmost of my ability, as I have a great esteem for you, though I have 
never seen you. Believe this truth, and that I am, sir, your afiec- 
tiunate and assured servant, 


Van Curler accepted this invitation and prepared for his 
journey. Governor Nicoll gave him a letter to the viceroy 
bearing date May 20, 1667, and saying, — 

" Mons'r Curler hath been importuned by divers of his friends at 
Quebec to give them a visit, and being aml)itious to kiss your h.Tnd.*, 
he hath entreated my pass and liberty to conduct a young gentlemiin, 
M. Fontaine, who unfortun.Ttely fell into the barbarous hands of hi^ 
enemies, and by means of Mons'r Cuiler obtained his liberty." 



On the 4th of July of the same year, Jeremias Van 
Rensselaer wrote to Holland : " Our cousin, Arendt Van 
Curler, proceeds overland to Canada, having obtained leave 
from our general, and been invited thither by the viceroy, 
M. de Tracy." 

Thus provided, he set out. In an evil hour, while on 
this journey. Van Curler attempted to cross Lake Cham- 
plain in a light bark canoe. A storm coming up, he was 
drowned, it is believed, near Split rock. Thus died the 
founder of Schenectady. Lake Champlain was often called 
afterwards by the French, Lake Corlear, in bis honor. 

It has been said that JSka-iick-ta-du was the Indian 
name for Albany. When the Dutch authorities formed 
the settlers at Fort Orange into a separate jurisdiction, it 
ran back from Albany .seventeen miles, and included what 
is now the city of Schenectady, on the Mohawk. To this 
jurisdiction, thus reaching from the Hudson to the IMohawk, 
the Dutch gave the old Indian name for Albany, and called 
it Slcn-nek-ta-ila. 

After the English conquest of the New Netherlands, in 
1664, the jurisdiction of Schenectady was divided, and the 
part next the Hudson was changed to Albany. But Albany 
ran back from the Hud.son only sixteen miles. Thus the 
old jurisdiction of Schenectady was left to that part lying 
on the Mohawk river only, and it has ever since retained the 
name first applied to the whole. The true Indian name 
for what is now Schenectady was 0-no-a-la-go-ua, " pained 
in the head." 


The story of the founding of the city of Montreal is 
more like a religious romance of the middle ages than verit- 
able history. The reader will not forget that the island of 
Montreal was the site of the ancient Jroqnois village, Hoche- 
laga, the capital of the old Forest State of that name, dis- 
covered by Jac(|ues Cartier in the year 1535, and that when 
Champlain first visited the island, in 1603, the old State 
and its capital had alike disappeared, and its site was occu- 
pied only by a few Algonqimi fishing huts. 

But a newer and more brilliant destiny awaited the site 
of the ancient Ilochelaga, the then wild island of Montreal. 
About the year 1636, there dwelt at La Fleche, in Anjou, 
a religious enthusiast deeply imbued with the mysticism of 
the times, whose name was Jerome Le Royer de la Dau- 
versiere. It is related of Dauversiere by the pious histori- 
ans of the period that one day while at his devotions he 
heard an inward voice, which he deemed a voice from 
heaven, commanding him to become the founder of a new 
order of hospital nuns, and to establish for such nuns, to be 
conducted by them, a hospital, or hotel dieu, on the then 
wild Lsland of Montreal. It is further related that while 
Dauversiere was beholding his ecstatic visions at La Fleche, 
a young priest of similar mystical tendencies, whose name 
was Jean Jacques Olicr, while praying in the ancient church 
of St. Germain des Pres at Paris, also heard a voice from 
heaven, commanding him to form a society of priests, and 
establish them on an island called Montreal in Canada, for 
the propagation of the true faith. Full of his new idea, 
Dauversiere set out for Paris to find some means of accom- 
plishing his object. While at Paris he visited the chateau 

of Meudon near by, and, on entering the gallery of the old 
castle, saw a young priest approaching him. It was Olier. 
" Neither of these two men," says an old chronicler, " had 
ever seen or heard of tlie other ; yet, impelled by a kind of 
inspiration, they knew each other at once, even to the depths 
of their hearts ; saluted each other by name as we read of 
St. Paul, the hermit, and St. Anthony, of St. Dominic, and 
St. Francis, and ran to embrace each other like two friends 
who had met after a long separation." After performing 
their devotions in the chapel, the two devotees walked for 
three hours in the park, discussing and forming their plans. 
Before they parted, they had resolved to found at Montreal 
three religious communities — one of secular priests, one of 
nuns to nurse the sick, and one of nuns to teach the white 
and red children. 

By the united efforts of Olier and Dauversiere, an asso- 
ciation was formed, called the Society of Notre Dame de 
Blontreal, and a colony projected. The island was purchased 
of its owners, the successors of the hundred associates of 
Quebec, and erected into a seigneurie by the king, henceforth 
to be called Villemarie de Montreal, and consecrated to the 
Holy Family. But it was necessary to have a soldier gov- 
ernor to place in charge of the colony, and for this purpose 
the iissociates of Montreal selected Paul de Chomeday, Sieur 
de Maisonneuve, a devout and valiant gentleman, who had 
already seen much military service. It was thought neces- 
sary that some di.screel woman should embark with them 
as their nurse and housekeeper. For this purpose they 
selected Mademoiselle Jeanne Mance, a religious devotee, 
who was born of a noble family of Nogent-Le-Roi. She 
was filled with zeal for the new mission. In it she thought 
she had found her destiny. The ocean, the solitude, the 
wilderness, the Iroquois, did not deter her from her high 
purpose, and this delicate and refined woman at once, with 
enthusiastic devotion, cast her frail life upon the rock of 
desolation to christianize a strange land, and to soothe with 
her srentle influence the wildness of barbarous men. 

At length in the summer of 1641 the ships set sail, with 
Maisonneuve and his forty men and Mademoiselle Mance 
and three other women on board. But they reached Que- 
bec too late in the autumn to think of ascending to Montreal 
that season. While passing the long tedious winter at Que- 
bec, the members of the new company were treated with 
much coldness by Governor Montmaguy, who saw a rival 
governor in Maisonneuve. Early iu May, 1642, they em- 
barked for their new home, having gained an unexpected 
recruit in the person of Madame de Peltrie, another pious 
lady, who had also her fortunes in the wilderness, but 
it was not until 1653 that the gentle Marguerite of Bour- 
geoys came to bless the young colony with her presence. 
All was seeming peace as they paddled their canoes along 
near the banks of the stream, decked in the budding beauties 
of the opening springtide, — but behind every leafy thicket 
and rocky island lurked a danger and a terror, the fierce 
Iroquois on the war-path. 

On the 18lh of May they arrived at the wild island of 
Montreal, and landed on the very site chosen for a city by 
Champlain thirty-one years before. Montmagny was with 
them to deliver the island in behalf of the company of the 
hundred associates to Maisonneuve, the agent of the asso- 



ciates of Montreal, and Father Vimunt, tlie superior of the 
Jesuit missions in Canada, was there in spiritual charge of 
the young colony. 5Iaisonneuve and his followers sprang 
ashore, and falling on their knees, all devoutly joined their 
voices in the songs of thanksgiving. 

Near hy where they landed was a rivulet bordered by a 
meadow, beyond which rose the ancient forest like a band 
of iron. The early flowers of spring were blooming in the 
young grass of the meadow, and the woods were filled with 
singing birds. A simple altar was raised on a pleasant 
spot not for from the shore. The ladies decorated it with 
flowers. Then the whole band gathered before the shrine. 
Father Vimont stood before the altar, clad in the rich vest- 
ments of his office. The Host was raised aloft, while they 
all kneeled in reverent silence. When the solemn rile was 
over, the priest turned to the little band and said, " You are 
a grain of mustard-seed that will rise and grow till its 
branches overshadow the earth. You are few, but your 
work is the work of God. His smile is on you, and your 
children shall fill the land." 

As the day waned and the twilight came on, the darkened 
meadow, bereft of its flowers, became radiant with twink- 
ling fire-flies. Mademoiselle JIanoe, I\Iadame de la Peltrie, 
aided by her servant, Charlotte Barre, caught the fire-flies, 
and, tying them with threads into .shining festoons, hung 
them before the altar where the Host remained exposed. 
Then the men lighted their camp-fires, posted their sentries, 
and pitched their tents, and all lay down to rest. " It was 
the birth-night of Montreal."* 

Old Indian Ho-che-la-ga was no more. A new race had 
come to people the wilderness, and unfurl the banner of the on the great river of the Thousand Isles. 


JOGUES, 1642-46. 


Among the earliest of the many French captives who 
were dragged by the cruel Iroquois from time to time along 
the old war-trails which crossed Saratoga, with maimed 
hands and bleeding feet, was the celebrated Jesuit father, 
Isaac Jogues, the discoverer of Lake George, and the 
founder of the Mission of the Martyrs, St. Mary of the 

In the olden time, when the whole north continent was a 
vast howling wilderness from the frozen ocean to the flowery 
gulf land, many bright, fair lakes lay sleeping in its awful 
solitudes, their waters flashing in the sunshine like gleam- 
ing mirrors, and lighting up the sombre desolation like 
jewels in an iron crown ; but the fairest and the brightest of 
them all was I^ake George. It was the gem of the old 
wilderness. Of the thousand lakes that adorn the surface 
of northern New York there is none among them all to-day 
so fair, none among them all so like "a diadem of beauty," 
as Lake George — its deepest water as bright and as pure as 

■■■ Parkman's Jesuits in North America, p. 208, and Cliarlevoi 
History of New France, translated by John G. Shea. 

the dewdrops on the lilies. Its authentic history runs back 
for two hundred and forty years. Its forest traditions ex- 
tend into the dim, mythical, mysterious, and unknown 
romance of the New World. But its waters have not 
always been so pure as they are to-day, and we shall all 
grow weary of its story, for it is a story of blood. 


The first white men who saw Lake George were the 
Jesuit father, Isaac Jogues, and his companions, I{,en6 
Goupil and Guillame Couture. They were taken over its 
waters as prisoners — tortured, maimed, and bleeding — by 
the Mohawks, in the month of August, l()-t2. 

Isaac Jogues, the discoverer of Lake George, was born 
at Orleans, in France, on the Iflth of January, 1G07, and 
received there the rudiments of his education. In October, 
1624, he entered the Jesuit society at Rouen, and removed 
to the College of La Fleche in 1627. He completed his 
divinity at Clermont College, Paris, and was ordained priest 
in February, 1636. In the spring of that year he em- 
barked as a missionary for Canada, arriving at Quebec early 
in July. 

At the time of his first visit to Lake George, Jogues 
was but thirty-five years of age. " His oval face and the 
delicate mould of his features," says Parkman, "indicated 
a modest, thoughtful, and refined nature. He was consti- 
tutionally timid, with a sensitive conscience and great re- 
ligious susceptibilities. He was a finished scholar, and 
might have gained a literary reputation; but he had chosen 
another career, and one for which he seemed but ill fitted." 
His companions were young laymen, who froiu religious 
motives had attached thcm.selves without pay to the service 
of the Jesuit missions. 


Thirty-three years before, Samuel de Champlain on his 
voyage of discovery had first attacked the Iroquois on the 
shore of the lake that bears his name, and they had fled in 
terror from the murderous firearms of the first white men 
they had ever seen to their homes on the Mohawk. Since 
then they had ceased to make war upon their hereditary 
enemies, the Canadian Algotigidiis or the French colonists. 
But they had by no means forgotten their humiliating de- 
feat. In the mean time they had themselves been supplied 
with firearms by the Dutch traders at Fort Orange, on the 
Hudson, in exchange for beaver-.skins and wampum, and 
now their hour of sweet revenge had come. 

The war with the Eries, the Iluroiis, and the other 
western tribes had been undertaken by the Senccas, the 
Cayiigas, and Onniidagas. It was left to the Mohawlcs 
and the Oiwidas to attempt the extermination of the Cana- 
dian AJgoiiqiiins and their French allies. They caiue near 
accomplishing their bloody purpose. But for the timely 
arrival of a few troops from France, the banks of the St. 
Lawrence would soon have become as desolate as the coun- 
try of the lost Erics or that of the Hnrons. The savages 
hung the war-kettle upon the fire in all the Mohawk castles 
and danced the war-dance. In bands of tens and hundreds 
they took the war-path, and passing through Lakes George 
and Champlain, and down the river llichelicu, went prowl- 



ing about the French settlements at Montreal, Three Rivers, 
and Quebec, and the Indian villages on the Ottawa. The 
Iroquois were everywhere. From the Huron country to 
the Saguenay they infested the forests like so many raven- 
ous wolves. They hung about the French forts, killing 
stragglers and luring armed parties into fatal ambuscades. 
They followed like hounds upon the trail of travelers and 
hunters through the forests, and lay in wait along the banks 
of streams to attack the passing canoes. It was one of 
these prowling hostile bands of MohawJcs that attacked and 
captured Isaac Jogues and his companions. 


Father Jogues had come down the savage Ottawa river 
a thousand miles in his bark canoes the spring before from 
his far-off Huron mission to Quebec for much-needed sup- 
plies. He was now on his return voyage to the Huron 
country. In the dewy freshness of the early morning of 
the 2d day of August, with his party of four Frenchmen 
and thirty-six Hurons, in twelve heavily-laden canoes, 
Jugues had reached the westerly end of the expansion 
called Lake St. Peters. It is there filled with islands that 
lie opposite the mouth of the river Richelieu. It was not 
long before they heard the terrible war-whoop upon the 
Canadian shore. In a moment more Jogues and his white 
companions and a part of his Haroiis were captives in the 
hands of the yelling, exulting Moliawlts, and the remainder 
of the Hurons killed or dispersed. Goupil was seized at 
once. Jogues might have escaped ; but seeing Goupil and 
his Huron neophytes in the hands of their savage captors, 
he had no heart to desert them, and so gave himself up. 
Couture at first eluded his pur-suers, but, like Jogues, re- 
lented, and returned to his captured companions. Five 
Iroquois ran to meet Couture as he approached, one of 
whom .snapped his gun at his breast. It missed fire, but 
Contour in turn fired his own gun at the savage, and laid 
him dead at his feet. Tiie others sprang upon him like 
panthers, stripped him naked, tore out his finger-nails with 
their teeth, gnawed his fingers like hungry dogs, and thrust 
a sword through one of his hands. Jogues, touched by 
the suflerings of his friends, broke from his guards and 
threw his arms around Couture's neck. The savages 
dragged him away, and knocked him senseless. When he 
revived they gnawed his fingers with their teeth, and tore 
out his nails as they had done those of Couture. Turning 
fiercely upon Goupil, they treated him in the same way. 
With their captives they then crossed to the mouth of the 
Richelieu, and encamped where the town of Sorel now 

The savages returned to the Mohawk with their suffering 
captives by the way which they came, — across the old hunt- 
ing-ground, Kay-ad-ros-se-ra, now Saratoga. On the eighth 
day, upon an island near the south end of Lake Champlain, 
they arrived at the camp of two hundred Iroquois, who 
were on their way to the St. Lawrence. At the sight of 
the captives these fierce warriors, armed with clubs and 
thorny sticks, quickly ranged themselves in two lines, be- 
tween which the captives were each in turn made to run 

'^ Parkmau's .Jesuits in North America, p. 217. 

the gauntlet up a rocky hillside. On their way they were 
beaten with such fury that Jogues fell senseless, half dead, 
and covered with blood. After passing this ordeal again, 
the captives were mangled as before, and this time were 
tortured with fire. At night, when thoy tried to rest, 
the young warriors tore open their wounds, and pulled out 
their hair and beard. 


In the morning they resumed their journey, and soon 
reached a rocky promontory, near which ran a forest-covered 
mountain, beyond which the lake narrowed into a river. 
It was more than a hundred years before that promontory 
became the famous Ticonderoga of later times. Between 
the promontory and the mountain a stream issued from the 
woods and fell into the lake. They landed at the mouth 
of the stream, and, taking their canoes upon their shoulders, 
followed it up around the waters of the falls. It 
was the Indian Chenon-de-ro-ga, " the chiming waters." 
They soon reached the shores of a beautiful lake, that there 
lay sleeping in the depths of the limitless forest, all undis- 
covered and unseen by white men until then. It was the 
forest gem of the old wilderness, now called Lake George. 
But it then bore only its old Indian name, Caniad-eri-oit, 
"the tail of the lake." 

Champlain, thirty-three years before, had come no far- 
ther than its outlet. He heard the "chiming waters" of 
the falls, and was told that a great lake lay beyond them. 
But he turned back without seeing it, and so our bruised 
and bleeding prisoners, Isaac Jogues and his companions, 
Goupil and Couture, were the first of white men to gaze 
upon its waters. " Like a fair Naiad of the wilderness," 
says Parkman, " it slumbered between the guardian moun- 
tains that breathe between crag and forest the stern poetry 
of war."f 

Again they launched their frail canoes, and, amid the 
dreamy splendors of an August day, glided on their noise- 
less course over the charming waters. On they passed, 
under the dusky mountain shadows, now over some wide 
expanse, now through the narrow channels and among the 
woody islands, redolent with balsamy odors. At last they 
reached the landing-place at the head of the lake, afterward 
the site of Fort William Henry, now Caldwell, so fiimous 
as a sunmier resort. Here they left their boats and took 
the old Indian trail that led across old Indian Kny-nd-ros- 
se-ra from Lake George, a distance of forty miles, to the 
lower castles on the Mohawk. It was the same trail after- 
wards followed by the Marquis de Tracy, in October, 1666, 
on his way to the Molunok castles with his army and train 
of French noblemen, to avenge the death of the youthful 

This old Indian trail, so often the war-path, led from the 
south end of Lake George, on a southerly course, to the 
great bend of the Hudson, about ten miles westerly of 
Glen's Falls. From the bend it led southerly, through the 
towns of Wilton and Greenfield, along in plain sight of 
and but four or five miles distant from Saratoga Springs, 
and through Galway to the lower castles on the Mohawk, 

t Jesuils of North Aoitrica, p. 2111. 



four 111- five miles westerly from what is now Amsterdam, 
oil the New York Ccutral railroad. 


After tlieir arrival at the Mohawk eastlcs, Father Jogues 
and his companions were again subjected to tlie most inhu- 
man tortures, with the horrid details of which the reader 
need not be wearied. Among the Mohtiwhn Jogues re- 
mained for nearly a year, a captive slave, performing for 
his savage masters the most menial duties. Soon after 
his nirival more poor Hurons were brought in and put to 
death with cruel tortures. But, in the midst of his own 
sufferings, Jogues lost no opportunity to convert the In- 
dians to Christianity, sometimes even baptizing them with 
a few rain-drops which he found clinging to the husks of 
corn that were thrown him for food. 

Couture had won their admiration by his bravery, and, 
after inflicting upon him the most savage torture, they 
adopted him into one of their fiimilies in the place of a 
dead relation. But in October they murdered poor Goupil, 
and after dragging his body through the village, threw it 
into a deep ravine. Jogues sought it and gave it partial 
burial. He sought it again and it was gone. Had the 
torrent washed it away, or had it been taken off by the 
savases? He searched the forest and the waters in vain. 
" Then, crouched by the pitiless stream, he mingled his 
tears with its waters, and, in a voice broken with groans, 
chanted the service for the dead."* 

In the spring, while the snows were melting, some chil- 
dren told him where the body of poor Goupil was lying 
farther down the stream. The Indians and not the torrent 
had taken it away. He found the bones scattered around 
and stripped by the foxes and birds. He tenderly gathered 
them and hid them in a hollow tree, in the hope that he 
might some day be able to lay them in consecrated ground. 
Late in the autumn after his arrival he was ordered to 
go with a party of braves on their annual deer-hunt. All 
the game they took they offered to their god Ar-esk-oui, and 
ate it in his honor. Jogues came near starving in the midst 
of plenty, for he would not taste the food offered to what 
he believed to be a demon. In a lonely spot in the forest 
he cut the bark, in the form of a cross, from the trunk of 
a large tree. There, half-clad in shaggy furs, in the chill 
wintry air he knelt upon the fi'ozen ground in prayer. He 
was a living martyr to the faith before whose emblem he 
bowed in adoration — a faith in which was now his only 
hope and consolation. 


At length, in the month of July, 1643, he went with a 
fi.shing-party to a place on the Hudson about twenty miles 
below Fort Orange. Some of the Iroquois soon returned, 
bringing Jogues with them. On their way they stopped 
at Fort Orange and he made his escape from the savages. 

Jogues was secreted by the Dutch, and the savages made 
diligent search for him. Fearing his discovery and re- 
capture by the Indians, the kind-hearted Dutch paid a 
large ransom for the captive, and gave him a free passage 

* Jesuits of North America, p. 225. 

to his home in France. He arrived in Brittany on 
Christmas-day and was received by his friends, who had 
heard of his captivity, as one risen from the dead. He 
was treated everywhere with mingled curiosity and reverence, 
and was summoned to Paris. The ladies of the court 
thronged around to do him homage. When he was pre- 
sented to the queen, Anne of Austria, she kissed his 
mutilated hands, the hands of the poor slave of the 
Mohawk squaws. 

In the spring of 1G44, Jogues returned to Canada, soon 
to become a martyr to his faith in the valley of the 

For still another year the Iroquois war raged with 
unabated violence. 

Early in the spring of 1645, a famous Algonquin chief 
named Fiskaret, with a band of braves, went out upon the 
war-path toward the country of the Mohaivks. Upon an 
island in Lake Champlain they met a war-party of thirteen 
Iroquois. They killed eleven of the number, made prisoners 
of the other two, and returned in triumph to the St. Law- 

At Sillery, a small settlement on the St. Lawrence, near 
Quebec, Piskaret, in a speech, delivered his captives to 
Montmagny, the governor-general, who replied with com- 
pliments and gifts. The wondering captives, when they 
fairly comprehended that they were saved from cruel torture 
and death, were surprised and delighted beyond measure. 
Then one of the captive Mohaivks, of great size and of 
matchless symmetry of form, who was evidently a war-chief, 
arose and said to the governor, Montmagny, — 

" Onnontio, I am saved from the fire. IMy body is de- 
livered from death. 

" Onnontio, you have given me my life. I thank you 
for it. I will never forget it. All my country will be 
grateful to you. The earth will be bright, the river calm 
and smooth ; there will be peace and friendship between us. 
The shadow is before my eyes no longer. The spirits of 
my ancestors slain by the Alyonquius have disappeared. 

" Onnontio, you are good ; we are bad. But our anger is 
gone. I have no heart but for peace and rejoicing." 

As he said this he began to dance, holding his hands up- 
raised as if apostrophizing the sun. Suddenly he snatched 
a hatchet, brandished it for a moment like a madman, then 
flung it into the fire, saying as he did so, " Thus I throw 
down my anger ; thus I cast away the weapons of blood. 
Farewell war. Now, Onnontio, I am your friend forever." 
Onnontio means in the Indian tongue " great mountain." 
It is a literal translation of Montmagny's name. It was 
forever after the Iroquois name for the governors of Canada, 
as Corlear was for the governors of New York, so called 
from Arent van Curler, first superintendent of the colonies 
of Rensselaerswiek, who was a great favorite with the 

The captive Iroquois were well treated by the French, 
and one of them sent home to their country on the Mohawk, 
under a promise of making negotiations for peace with his 
people, and the other kept as a hostage. 

The efforts of the captive chief who returned to the Mo- 



hawk were successful. In a short time he reappeared at 
Three Rivers, witli ambassadors of peace from the Moliawh 
cantons. To the great joy of the French, lie brought with 
him Couture, who had become a savage in dress and appear- 

After a great deal of feasting, speech-making, and belt- 
giving, peace was concluded, and order and quiet once more 
reigned for a brief period in the old wilderness. 

But ambassadors from the French and Algonqidns must 
be sent from Canada to the Mohawk towns, with gifts and 
presents to ratify the treaty. No one among the French 
was so well suited for this office as Isaac Jogues. His, too, 
was a double errand, for he had already been ordered by his 
superior to found a new mission among the Mohawks. It 
was named, prophetically, in advance, " the mission nf the 

At the first thought of returning to the Mohawks, Jogues 
recoiled with horror. But it was only a momentary pang. 
The path of duty seemed clear to him, and, thankful that 
he was found worthy to sufi'er for the saving of souls, he 
prepared to depart. 

On the 16th of May, 1646, he set out from Three Rivers, 
with Sieur Bourdon, engineer to the governor, two Algon- 
qiiia ambas.sadors, and four Muhnwks as guides. 

On his way ho passed over the well-remembered scenes 
of his former sufferings upon the river Richelieu and Lake 

He reached the foot of Lake George on the eve of Corpus 
Christi, which is the feast of the Blessed Body of Jesus. 
He named the lake, in honor of the day, "Me Lake of the 
Blessed Saa-amcnt." When he visited the lake before, as 
a poor bleeding prisoner, it was clad in the dreamy robes of 
the early autumn. Now its banks were clothed in the wild 
exuberance of leafy June. For more than a hundred years 
afterwards this lake bore no other name. 

When Sir William Johnson began his military operations 
at the head of the lake, in the summer of 1755, ho changed 
its name to Lake George, in honor of England s king. 

From Lake St. Sacrament, Jogues proceeded on his way 
to the Mohawk country, and, having accomplished his po- 
litical mission, returned to Canada. 


His work was only half done. Again, in the month of 
September, he set out for the Mohawlc country. On his 
way he again passed over the shining waters of Lake St. 
Sacrament. Now it was adorned with the gorgeous gold 
and crimson glories of the mid-autumn forests. 

This time he went in his true character — a missionary of 
the gospel. But he had a strong presentiment that his life 
was near its end. He wrote to a friend, " I shall go and 
shall not return." His forebodings were verified. While 
there in July he had left a small box containing a few neces- 
sary articles, in anticipation of an early return. The 
superstitious savages were confident that famine, pestilence, 
or some evil spirit or other was shut up in the box, that 
would in time come forth and devastate their country. To 
confirm their suspicions, that very sunmier there was much 
sickness in their castles, and when the harvest came in the 
autumn they found that the caterpillars had eaten their 

corn. The Christian missionary was held responsible for 
all this, and was therefore doomed to die. 

He arrived at their village near Cach-na-ua-ga, on the 
bank of the Mohawk, on the 17th of October, and was saluted 
with blows. On the evening of the 18th he was invited to 
sup in the cabin of a chief He accepted the invitation, and 
on entering the hut he was struck on the head with a toma- 
hawk by a savage who was concealed within the door. They 
cut oif his head, and in the morning it was displayed upon 
one of the palisades that surrounded the village. His body 
they threw into the Mohawk. 

Thus died Isaac Jogues, the discoverer of Lake George, at 
his Mission of the Martyrs, St. Mary of the Mohawks, in 
the fortieth year of his age. He was but an humble, self- 
sacrificing missionary of the, yet his was 

"One of the few, the immortal names 
That were not born to die." 

The old trail followed by Jogues through Saratoga County 
ran from the Hudson at Glen's Falls along the foot of 
Blount MacGregor, and turning northerly at the Stiles 
tavern, cro.ssed the whole length of Greenfield, and passed 
near Lake Desolation, over the Kayadrosseras range, into 
the Mohawk valley. 



After the weary feet of Isaac Jogues had ceased to 
tread the war-trails of old Saratoga and Kay-ad-ros-se-ra, 
the next expedition of importance which passed from the 
St. Lawrence to the Mohawk over these old trails was the 
famous expedition of Governor Daniel de Remi, Sieur de 
Courcelle, and the Marquis de Tracy, lieutenant-general of 
Canada, to the Mohawk country in 1666. This expedition 
was also intimately connected with the naming of the 
Chazy river, of Clinton county, on Lake Champlain. 

The Chazy river flows from the beautiful lake of the same 
name northerly and easterly, and falls into the northerly 
end of Lake Champlain, nearly opposite the Isle la Motte, 
of historic fame. The Chazy lake sleeps at the foot of 
Mount Lyon, one of the central peaks of a mountain group 
of the Lake Bell of the Wilderness, on the rugged eastern 
border of Clinton county. 

This beautiful stream was named in memory of Sieur 
Chazy, a young French nobleman, who was murdered on 
its banks near its mouth, by the Indians, in the year 1666. 

M. Chazy was a nephew of the Marquis de Tracy, and 
was a captain in the famous French regiment, Carignan- 

This regiment was the first body of regular troops that 
was sent to Canada by the French king. 

It was raised by Prince Carignan in Savoy during the 
year 1544-. Eight years after it was conspicuous in the 
service of the French king in the battles with Prince Conde 
in the revolt of the Fronde. But the Prince of Carignan 
was unable to support the regiment, and gave it to the king, 
who attached it to the armies of France. 



lu 1664 it took a distinguished part with the allied forces 
of France in the Austrian war with the Turks. The next 
year it went with Tracy to Canada. Among its captains, 
besides Chazy, were Sorel, Chambly, La Motte, and others 
whose names are so familiar in Canadian aunals. The regi- 
ment was commanded by Colonel de Sali^res. Hence its 
double name.* 

In 1GG5, Tracy landed at Quebec in great pomp and 
splendor.f The Chevalier de Chaumont was at his side, 
and a long line of young nolt!esse, gorgeous in lace, ribbons, 
and majestic leonine wigs, followed in his train. As this 
splendid array of noblemen marched through the narrow 
streets of the young city at the tap of tlie drum, escorted 
by the regiment Carignan-Salieres, " the bronzed veterans 
of the Turkish wars," each soldier with slouched hat, 
nodding plume, bandolier, and shouldjred firelock, they 
formed a glittering pageant, such as the New World had 
never seen before. 

In the same year the captain Sieur La Motte built Fort 
St. Anne upon the Isle La Motte, at the south end of Lake 
Champlain, opposite the mouth of the Chazy river. Young 
Chazy was stationed at this fort in the spring of 1666, and 
while hunting in the woods, near the mouth of the river, 
with a party of officers, was surprised and attacked by a 
roving band of Jroqnois. Chazy, with two or three others, 
was killed upon the spot, and the survivors captured and car- 
ried off prisoners to the valley of the Mohawk. For months 
the war thus begun raged with unabated violence, and the 
old wilderness was again drenched in blood, as it had been 
in the time of Father Jogues, twenty years before. 

But in the August following a grand council of peace 
was held with the Iroquois at Quebec. During the council 
Tracy invited some Mohaxck chiefs to dine with him. At 
the table some allusion was made to the murder of Chazy. 
A chief, named Ag-ari-ata, at once held out his arm and 
boastingly said, — 

" This is the hand that sjjlit the head of that young 
man !" 

" You shall never kill anybody else," exclaimed the 
horror-stricken Tracy, and ordered the insolent savage to 
be taken out and hanged upon the spot, in sight of his 

Of course peace was uo longer thought of. Tracy made 
haste to march against the MuImwIcs with all the forces at 
his command. 

During the month of September, Quebec on the St. Law- 
rence, and Fort St. Anne on the Isle La Motte in Lake 
Champlain, were scenes of busy preparation. At length 
Tracy and the governor, Courcelle, set out from Quebec on 
the day of the exaltation of the Cross, " for whose glory,'' 
says the Relation, " this expedition is undertaken." They 
had with them a force of thirteen hundred men and two 
pieces of cannon. It was the beginning of October, and 
the forests were putting on the gorgeous hues of an Amer- 
ican autumn. They went up T^ake Champlain and into 
Lake St. Sacrament, now Lake George. As their flotilla 

« Park.iHin's Old Rtgime, p. 181. 
t Ibid., p. 178. 
X Ibid., p. 192. 

swept gracefully- over the crystal waters of this gem of the 
old wilderness, it formed the first of the military pageants 
that in after-years made that fair scene famous in history. 

Leaving their canoes where Fort William Henry was 
afterwards built, they plunged boldly on foot into the 
southern wilderness that lay before them towards the Mo- 
hawk country. They took the old Indian trail, so often 
trodden by Father Jogues and by war-parties of savages, 
which led across the Hudson at the main bend above 
Glen's Falls, and passed across the old Indian hunting- 
ground, K'ii/-ad-ros-se-r(i, through what are now the towns 
of Wilton, Greenfield, and Galway, in Saratoga County, to 
the lower castles on the Mohawk near the mouth of the 
Schoharie creek. It was more than forty miles of forests, 
filled with swamps, rivers, and mountains, that lay before 
them. Their path was a narrow, rugged trail, filled with 
rocks and gullies, pitfalls and streams. Their forces con- 
sisted of six hundred regulars of the regiment Carignan- 
Salic'res, six hundred Canadian militia, and a hundred 
Christian Indians from the missions. 

" It seems to them," writes Mother Marie de I'lncarna- 
tion, in her letter of the IGth of October, IfiOG, " that they 
are going to lay siege to Paradise and win it and enter in, 
because they are fighting for religion and the faith." 

Ou they went through the tangled woods, officers as well 
as men carrying heavy loads upon their backs, and dragging 
their cannon " over slippery logs, tangled roots, and oozy 
masses." Before long, in the vicinity of what is now known 
as Lake Desolation, their provisions gave out, and they were 
almost starved. But soon the trail led through a thick 
wood of chestnut-trees full of nuts, which they eagerly 
devoured and thus .stayed their hunger. 

At length, after many weary days, they reached the lower 
Mohawk cantons. The names of the two lower Mohawk 
castles were then Te-hon-da-lo-ga, which was at Fort Hun- 
ter, at the mouth of the Schoharie creek, and Ga-no wa-ga, 
now Cach-na-wa-ga , which was near Tribes hill. Tlie 
upper castles, which were farther up the Mohawk, were the 
Ca-na-Jo-lia e, near Fort Plain, and Ga-iie-ga-ho-ga, oppo- 
site the mouth of East Canada creek. 

They marched through the fertile valley of the Mohawk, 
the Indians fleeing into the forest at their approach. Thus 
the brilliant pageant of the summer that had glittered across 
the sombre rock of Quebec, was twice repeated by this war- 
like band of noblemen and soldiers amid the crimson glories 
of the autumn woods in the wild valley of the jMohawk. 
They did not need the cannon which they had brought 
with so much toil across the country from Lake St. Sacra- 
ment. The savages were frightened almost out of their 
wits by the noise of their twenty drums. '' Let us save 
ourselves, brothers," said one of the Mohawh chiefs, as he 
ran away, " the whole world is coming against us." 

After destroying all the corn-fields in the valley, and burn- 
ing the last palisaded Mohawk village, they planted a cross 
on its ashes, and by the side of the cross the royal arms of 
France. Then an officer, by order of Tracy, advanced to 
the front, and, with sword in hand, proclaimed in a loud 
voice that he took possession, in the name of the king of 
France, of all the country of the Mohawks. 

Having thus happily accomplished their object without 



the loss of a man, they returned unmolested to Canada 
over the route by which they came. 

The death of younj; Chazy was avenged. The insolent 
Iroquois were for the first time chastised and humbled in 
their own country. For twenty years afterwards there was 
peace in the old wilderness, — peace bought by the blood of 
young Chazy. 

Surely was the beautiful river, on whose banks his bones 
still rest, christened with his name amid a baptism of fire 
at an altar upon which the villages, the wigwams, the corn- 
fields of his murderera were the sacrificial offerings. 

And so ended the second French and Indian war, known 
in colonial annals as the War of lOGG. 



After the return of Tracy's expedition of 16G6, there 
was comparative peace in the old wilderness for a period of 
more than twenty years. But at length, owing to the mis- 
taken policy of Governor Denonville, the war broke out 
afresh, and the old northern valley again became the scene 
of untold horrors. 

All colonies are sometimes unfortunate in their governors, 
and the dominion of New France was not an exception to 
the rule. In the manner in which some of the early Cana- 
dian giivernors treated the Iroquois of central New York, 
can easily be traced the persistent enmity of these savages 
to the French, and their unshaken friendship for the Eng- 
lish colonists of the Atlantic slope. 

Previous to 1689 Governor Denonville had for a long 
time been on unfriendly terms with the Iroquois. In that 
year he committed warlike depredations upon their hunting- 
parties near the upper lakes. In the n)ean time, Governor 
Dongan, of New York, was the warm friend and ally of 
the Iroquois. 

Governor Dongan's wrath was kindled anew when he 
heard that the French had invaded the country of the 
Senecas, seized English traders on the lakes, and built a 
fort at Niagara. He at once summoned the Five Nations to 
meet him at Albany. He told the assembled chiefs that 
their late troubles had fallen upon them because they had 
held councils with the French without asking his leave ; 
and he forbade them to do so again, and told them that, as 
subjects of King James, they must make no further treaty 
with the French except with his consent. He enjoined 
them to receive no more French Jesuits into their towns, 
and to call home their countrymen whom these fathers had 
converted and enticed to Cachnawaga. " Obey my com- 
mands," said the governor, " for that is the only way to eat 
well and sleep well, without fear or disturbance." The Iro- 
quois seemed to assent to all this; their orators said, " We 
will fight the French as long as a man is left." 

Then arose a long controversy between Governor Dongan 
and Governor Denonville in reference to the Iroquois. 
Governor Dongan took the responsibility of protecting the 

Iroqvois upon his own shoulders. At length James II. 
consented to own the Iroquois as his subjects, and ordered 
Dongan to protect them. 

This declaration of royalty was a great relief to Dongan. 
He now pursued more vigorous measures against the French. 
So the controversy ran on year after year between the two 
governors until the fall of lUSO, when the Iroquois struck 
a blow which came upon the French like the crash of a 

During the latter part of July they assembled their war- 
riors and started on the war-path. Taking their bark ca- 
noes, they paddled down the Mohawk, passed the old city 
of Schenectady, and landed at the mouth of Eel-Place creek, 
on the right bank of the river. Here they found a large 
corn-field planted by William Apple and his associates, who 
were inhabitants of Schenectady. Halting for a few days, 
they feasted upon the green corn in the ear, destroying the 
whole field. In after-years what is now known as " Apple 
patent" grew out of this circumstance. Leaving the Mo- 
hawk, they then followed up the creek to the carrying-place 
which leads across into Ballston lake. At the lake they 
again took to their canoes, and sped across its water. It 
was a splendid warlike pageant for these now quietly- 
sleeping waters. The Iroquois were fully fifteen hundred 
strong, the fiercest warriors of the New World, painted and 
plumed for the war-path. They reached the outlet of the 
lake near what is now known as East Line. 

Again taking their canoes from the water, they carried 
them over the land into the " Mourning Kill." From the 
" Mourning Kill" they descended into the valley of the 
Kay -ad-ros-se-ra river; down the Kay-ad-ros-se-ra they sped 
into the Kay-ad-ros-se-ra, now Saratoga, lake. Across its 
trannjuil waters they passed in savage array, presenting a 
striking contrast with our modern regattas, and, entering the 
Fishkill, were soon upon the waters of the Hudson. Pro- 
ceeding up to the great carrying-place, at what is now Fort 
Edward, they passed over it into Wood creek, and thence 
down into Lake Champlain. 

On the 5th of August, 1G89, a violent hail-storm burst 
over Lake St. Louis, an expansion of the St. Lawrence a 
little above Montreal. Concealed by the tempest and the 
■ darkness, these fifteen hundred warriors landed at La Chine, 
and posted themselves in silence about the houses of the 
sleeping settlers, then screeched the war-whoop, and began 
the most frightful massacre in Canadian history. Men, 
women, and children were butchered indiscriminately, and 
the houses reduced to ashes. In the neighborhood were 
three stockaded forts, and an encampment of two hundred 
regulars were at the distance of three miles. At four o'clock 
in the morning, the troops in this encampment heard a can- 
non-shot from one of the forts. Soon after they were under 
arms they saw a man running towards them, just escaped 
from the Indian butchery. He told his story, and passed 
on with the news to Montreal, about six miles distant. 
Within a short time thereafter, there came in several fugi- 
tives one after another, each telling his tale of the frightl'ul 
massacre. The commander of the troops at once ordered 
them to march. When they had advanced toward La Chine 
they found the houses still burning, and the bodies of the 
inmates strewn among them, or hanging from the stakes 



where they had been tortured. The Iroquois, they learned, 
had been encamped a mile and a half farther on, behind a 
tract of forest. Advancing towards the Jroqxois sword in 
hand at the liead of his men, the daring commander entered 
the forest ; but, at that moment, a voice from the rear 
commanded a halt. It was that of the Chevalier De 
Vaudreuil, just come fiom Montreal, with positive orders 
from Denonville to run no risks and stand solely on the 
defensive. On the next day eighty men from some of the 
forts attempted to join them ; but the Iroquois intercepted 
the unfortunate detachment and cut them to pieces in full 
sight of the forts. All were killed except Le Moyne, De 
Longeuil, and a few otliers, who escaped within the gates of 
the two forts. 

Montreal was stricken to the earth with terror. But no 
attack was made either on the town or aii}' of the forts, 
and the inhabitants, such as could reach them, were safe; 
while the Iroquois held undisputed possession of the open 
country, burned all the houses and barns over an extent of 
nine miles, and roamed in small parties, pillaging and sculp- 
ing, over more than twenty miles more. They encountered 
no opposition nor met with any loss. Charlevoix says that 
the invaders remained in the neighborhood of Montreal till 
the middle of October; whether this bo so or not. their stay 
was strangely long. At length, when ready to return, they 
re-crossed Lake St. Louis in a body, giving ninety yells, 
showing thereby that they had ninety prisoners of war. 
As they piissed the forts they shouted, " Onontio, you have 
deceived us, and now we have deceived you !" Towards 
evening they encamped on the farther side of the river, 
and began to torture and devour their prisoners. On that 
miserable night groups of persons, stupefied and speechless, 
stood gazing from the Canadian shore at the lights that 
gleamed along the shore of Chateaugay, where their friends, 
wives, parents, or children were agonizing in the fires of 
the Iroquois, and where scenes were enacted of indescrib- 
able and nameless horror. 

Under this terrible calamity Canada lay benumbed and 
bewildered ; but this was nut all. James II., of England, 
the friend and ally of France, had been driven from Eng- 
land, and William of Orange had seized his vacant throne. 
There was now war between England and France. The 
French not only had to contend against the Iroquois, but 
now the British colonies, strong and populous, were about to 
attack them. But Denonville was recalled, and in October 
sailed for France. His successor was Count de Frontenac. 


No event in the long and bloody warfare of the old 
wilderness possesses a more tragic interest than the sacking 
and burning of Schenectady in the dead of winter, in the 
year 1090. Instead of opposing the Iroquois, his former 
allies, Frontenac at empted to reclaim them. He resolved, 
therefore, to take the offensive, not only against the Iro- 
quois, but also against the English, and to strike a few 
rapid, sharp blows that he might teach both his friends and 
foes that Onontio was still alive. He formed three war- 
parties of picked men, — one at Montreal, one at Three 
Rivers, and one at Quebec; the first to strike at Albany, 
the second New Hampshire, and the third Maine. That 

of Montreal against Albany was first ready. It consisted 
of two hundred men, of whom ninety-six were converted 
Indians, from the missions near Montreal. 

D'Aillebout de Mantet and Le Moyne de Sainte-Helene, 
the brave son of Charles Le Moyne, had the chief command ; 
they were supported by the brothers Le Moyne D'Iberville 
and Le Moyne De Bienville, with llepentigny de Mont- 
tesson, Le Bor Du Chesne, and other of the Canadian 

They began their march in the depth of winter, on snow- 
shoes, each soldier with the hood of his blanket drawn over 
his head, a gun in his mittened hand, a knife, a hatchet, a 
tobacco-pouch at his belt, and a pack on his shoulders. 
They dragged their blankets and provisions over the snow 
on Indian sledges. Thus they went on across the St. Law- 
rence up the Richelieu and the frozen Lake Champlain, 
and then stopped to hold a council. Frontenac had left 
the precise point of attack discretionary with the leaders, 
and the men had thus far been ignorant of their destina- 
tion. The Indians demanded to know it. Mantet and 
Sainte-Helene replied that ihey were going to Albany. 
The Indians objected, — " How long is it," asked one of 
them, " since the French grew so bold?" The commanders 
answered that, to regain the honor of which their late mis- 
fortunes had robbed them, the French would take Albany 
or die in the attempt. After eight days they reached the 
Hudson, and found the place, at what is now Schuyler- 
ville, where two paths diverged, the one for Albany and 
the other for Schenectady ; they all without further words 
took the latter trail. There was a partial thaw, and they 
waded knee-deep through the half-melted snow, and the 
mingled ice, mud, and water of the gloomy swamps. So 
painful and slow was their progress that it was nine days 
more before they reached a point two leagues from Schenec- 
tady. By this time the weather had changed again, and a 
cold, gusty snow-storm pelted them. At four o'clock in 
the afternoon of the 8th of February the scouts found an 
Indian hut, and in it were four Iroquois squaws, whom 
they captured. There was a fire in the wigwam, and the 
shivering Canadians crowded about it and warmed them- 
selves over its blaze. The chief Indian, called by the 
Dutch •' Kryn," harangued his followers, and exhorted them 
to wash out their wrongs in blood. They then advanced 
again, and about dark reached the river Mohawk, a little 
above the village. Their purpose had been to postpone the 
attack until two o'clock in the morning ; but such was the 
inclemency of the weather that they were forced to move 
on or perish. Guided by the frightened squaws, they crossed 
the Jlohawk on the ice. About eleven o'clock they saw 
through the storm the snow-covered palisades of the devoted 
village. iSueh was their distress that some of them after- 
wards said that they would all have surrendered if an enemy 
had appeared. 

The village was oblong in form and inclosed by a palisade, 
which had two gates, one towards Albany and the other 
towards the Mohawks. There was a block-Iiouse near the 
eastern gate, occupied by eight or nine Connecticut militia- 
men, under Lieutenant Talmadge. There were also about 
twenty or thirty Mohau-lcs in the place, on a visit, llie 
Dutch inhabitants were in a state of discord. The revolution 



in England had produced a revolution in New York. The 
demagogue, Jacob Leisler, had got possession of Fort Wil- 
liam, and was endeavoring to master the whole colony. 
Albany was in the hands of the anti-Leisler, or Conserv- 
ative party, represented in convention, of which Peter 
Schuyler was the chief. The Dutch of Schenectady for the 
most part fiwored Leisler, but their magistrate, John San- 
der Glen, stood fast for the Albany convention ; for this the 
villagers had threatened to kill him. Talmadge and his 
militia were under orders from Albany, and, therefore, like 
Glen, they were under the popular ban. In vain had the 
magistrate and Talmadge entreated the people to stand on' 
their guard. They turned the advice to ridicule, and left 
their gates open, and placed there, it is said, a snow image 
as mock sentinel. There had been some festivity during 
the evening; but it was now over, and the primitive vil- 
lagers, fathers, mothers, children, and infants, lay buried in 
unbroken sleep. Before the open western gate, with its 
mock sentinel of snow, its blind and dumb warder, stood 
the French and Indians. 

The assailants were now formed into two bands, Sainte- 
Hclene leading the one and Mantet the other. They 
passed through the gate together in dead silence. One 
turned to the right and the other to the left, and they filed 
around the village between the palisades and the houses, 
till the two leaders met at the farther end. Tiius the place 
was completely suri'ounded. The signal was then given ; 
they all screeched the war-whoop together, burst in the 
doors with hatchets, and fell to their work. The villagers, 
roused by the infernal din, leaped from their beds. For 
some it was but a nightmare of fright and horror, ended 
by the blow of the tomahawk. Others were less fortunate. 
Neither children nor women were spared. " No pen can 
write, and no tongue express," wrote Schuyler, " the cruel- 
ties that were committed." At the block-house, Talmadge 
and his men made a stubborn fight, but the doors were at 
length forced in, the defenders killed or taken, and the 
building set on fire. Adam Vrooman, one of the villagers, 
saw his wife shot and his child brained against the door- 
posts, but he fought so desperately that the assailants prom- 
ised him his life. Orders had been given to spare Peter 
Tassemaker, the minister. He was hacked to pieces and his 
house burned. A few fortunate ones fled towards Albany 
in the storm to seek shelter. Sixty persons were killed 
outright, of whom thirty-eight were men and boys, ten 
were women, and twelve were children. The number cap- 
tured, it appears, was between eighty and ninety. The thirty 
Mohawks in the town were treated with great kindness by 
the victors, who declared that they had no quarrel with 
them, but only with the Dutch and p]nglish. For two 
hours this terrible massacre and pillage continued ; then 
the prisoners were secured, sentinels posted, and the men 
told to rest and refresh themselves. In the morning a small 
party crossed the river to the house of Glen, which stood on 
a rising ground, at what is now called Scotia. Glen had 
prepared to defend himself; but the French told him not to 
fear, for they had orders not to hurt a chicken of his. After 
requiring them to lay down their arms, he allowed them to 
enter. Glen had on several occasions saved the lives of the 
French, and owing him therefore a debt of gratitude, they 

took this moans of repaying it. Ho was now led before 
the crowd of prisoners and told that not only were his own 
life and property safe, but that all of his kindred should be 
spared. So many claimed relationship with Glen that the 
Indians observed " that everybody seemed to be his rela- 
tion." Fire was now set to all the buildings except one in 
which a French officer lay wounded, another belonging to 
Glen, and three or four more which he begged the victors 
to spare. At noon Schenectady was in ashes. The French 
and Indians then withdrew, laden with booty. Dragging 
their sledges with thirty or forty horses, which were cap- 
tured, twenty-seven men and boys were driven prisoners 
into the forest. About sixty old men, women, and children 
were left behind, without injury by the victors. Only two 
of the invaders had been killed. 

The French and Indians returned across the territory of 
Saratoga County, in the order in which they came, pursued 
by the English troops. They were overtaken near Lake 
Champl.iin, and a few prisoners taken. Before reaching 
Montreal, they came near starving, such was the inclemency 
of the season and the difficulties of the journey. 


The first American Congress was held on the 1st of May, 
1090, in the fort at New York. It was agreed that while 
the fleet should attack Quebec the army should proceed by 
way of Lake Champlain to Montreal and thus effect the 
con(|ue,st of Canada. 

The command of this expedition was given to Fitz John 
Winthrop, of Connecticut. He was commissioned a major- 
general in the service, being already a member of the coun- 
cil of Governor Andros. On the 14th of July of this 
year General Winthrop set out from Hartford with some 
troops, and was seven days marching through the almost 
impassable wilderness before he reached Albany, on the 
Hud.son. Ho had been preceded by two comp.inies under 
Captains john.son and Fitch. " At Albany," says Win- 
throp, " I found the design against Canada poorly contrived 
and prcseeuted, all things confused and in no readiness to 
march, and everybody full of idle projects about it." 

The expedition consisted of four hundred troops from 
New York, one hundred and thirty-five men, being three 
companies, from Connecticut, thirty Hiver Indians, and 
one hundred and fifty Mohawks. A sorry array compared 
to the thousands who, sixty-eight years after,^ swept up the 
Hudson through Lake George, under Abercrombie and 
Lord Howe, to find "glory and a grave" at Ticonderoga. 
On the 30th of July the New England troops and the In- 
dians moved up four miles and encamped on the flats of 
Watervliet. On the 1st of August Winthrop's expedition 
reached Stillwater, where they encamped for the night. 
The next morning Winthrop took up the line of march for 
Saratoga, now Schuylerville, where there was a 
and some Dutch soldiers. At this place he found the re- 
corder of Albany, Mr. Wessells, and a company of princi- 
pal gentlemen, volunteers from that city. Here he got 
letters from Major Peter Schuyler, the mayor of Albany, 
who had already gone up the river before him with the 
Dutch troops, to the efi"ect that he. Major Schuyler, who 
was situated at the second carrying-place, now Fort Miller, 



was making canoes for the army. " Thus far," Winthrop 
says, " the way was good ; only four great wading rivers, 
only one of them dangerous for horse and man." 

On the 4th of August the provisions were divided ; to 
each soldier was given thirly-five cakes of bread, besides 
pork, and Winthrop moved up eight miks to Fort IMiller; 
the Dulch soldiers carrying up their supplies in their bark 
canoes, and the Connecticut troops carrying them on horses. 
" Here," says Winthrop, " the water passeth so violently, by 
reason of the great falls and rocks, that canoes cannot pass ; 
so they were forced to carry their provisions and canoes 
on their backs a pretty ways to a passable part of the river." 
This point was then known as "the Little Carrying-Place." 
On the 5th of August the soldiers marched about eight 
miles to " The Great Carrying-Place," taking their pro- 
visions on their horses, the Dutch having already gone up 
the river in their canoes. On the Cith of August the little 
army marched over the "Great Carrying-Place" twelve miles, 
to the forks on Wood creek, since called Fort Ann. The 
way was through a continuous swamp covered with tall 
white-pine trees. On the 7th of August, General Win- 
throp sent back thirty horses to Saratoga, under command 
of Ensign Thoniilson, for provisions. On the same day 
the general passed down Wood creek with two files of 
musketeers, flanked by the Indians under Captain Stanton, 
to the Hautkill, now Whitehall, where he encamped with 
Major Schuyler and the Mohawk captains, on the north 
side of Wood creek. On the 9th of August the general 
received information through Captain Johnson, who had 
been sent to Albany some days previous for provisions, that 
the western Indians whom he expected to meet at the Isle 
La Motte, near the north end of Lake Champlain, had not 
left their country on account of the smallpox breaking out 
among them. The expression the Indians used was " that 
the great God had stopped their way." The smallpox had 
also broken out in the army under Winthroj), and seriously 
reduced the available force. The French claimed that of 
this expedition four hundred Indians and two hundred 
English died of the smallpox. 

While at Hautkill, Major Schuyler sent forward Captain 
Sanders Glen, — the same who had been spared at the Sche- 
nectady massacre, — with a company of twenty-eight men and 
five Indians. At Ticonderoga Glen erected on the 5th of 
August some stone breastworks, and waited for the expedi- 
tion to come up ; but it was found that the time was so 
far spent that bark would not peel, and therefore no more 
canoes could be built that season. It was further ascer- 
tained that the commissaries at Albany could forward no 
further supplies of piovisions. On the 15th of August a 
council of war was held, and it was resolved to return with 
the army to Albany. Thus ended the first expedition 
against Canada undertaken by the English colonists. Cap- 
tain John Schuyler, however, proceeded on down Lake 
Champlain, on his first expedition against the French at 
La Prairie. When the troops, on their return, reached 
Wood creek. Lieutenant Hubbell died of the smallpox ; 
he was buried there with much ceremony. All the forts 
above Saratoga, with the stores and boats, were burned. 
Winthrop's army reached Greenbush, opposite Albany, on 
the 20th of August, having been absent just three weeks. 



In the month of January, 1693, Count de Frontenac, 
governor of Canada, dispatched a force from Montreal with 
orders to invest and destroy the Muhatvk ca.stles, and com- 
mit as great ravages as possible around Fort Orange. 

This expedition was under the command of De Manteth 
Courtemanche and La Nuoe. All the Canadian mission 
Indians were invited to join it, — the Iroquois of the Saut 
and mountain ; Ahenakis, from the Chaudiere ; ILirons, 
from Lorette; and Alc/oiiqiuiis, from Three Rivers. A 
hundred regular soldiers were added, and a large band of 
Canadian voyageurs. The whole force mustered six hun- 
dred and twenty-five men. They left Chanibly at the end 
of January, and pushed southward on snow-shoes. Their 
way was over the ice of Lake Champlain, and so on to the 
Mohawk country. At night, in squads of twelve or more, 
they bivouacked in the forest ; they dug away the snow in 
a circle and covered the bare earth with hemlock boughs, 
built a fire in the middle, and sat around it. It was six- 
teen days before they reached the two lower Mohawk towns, 
which were a quarter of a league apart. They surrounded 
one town on the night of the 16th of February, and waited 
in silence till the voices within were hushed, when they 
attacked the place, capturing all the inhabitants without 
resistance. They then marched to the next town, reached 
it at evening, and hid in the neighboring woods. Through 
all the early evening they heard the whoops and songs of 
the warriors within who were dancing the war-dance. The 
Mohaivks had posted no sentinels ; and one of the French 
Indians, scaling the palisade, opened the gate to his com- 
rades. The fight was short but bloody. Twenty or thirty 
Mohaicks were killed, and nearly three hundred captured, 
chiefly women and children. After burning the last Mo- 
hawk town the French and their Indian allies began their 
retreat, encumbered with a long train of prisoners. It was 
the intent of the French to push on to Schenectady and 
Albany, but they were overruled by the Indian chiefs, who 
represented that the number of the prisoners was so great 
they would prevent them from making any farther advances. 
In the mean time the whole country had become alarmed. 
Lieut. John Schuyler and fifty-five horse marched from 
Albany to Schenectady. These were quickly followed by 
Major Schuyler, who .sent out scouts to watch the enemy's 
movements. The English crossed the Mohawk, started in 
pursuit of the enemy with two hundred and seventy-three 
men, marched twelve miles, and encamped. At one o'clock 
the next morning they broke camp and marched till six 
o'clock A.M., when they were advised that the Canadians 
were eight miles distant. At four o'clock p.m. the Eng- 
lish forces marched to a place near Tribes hill, where the 
invaders had remained the night before. On Tuesday, the 
15th, they received a reinforcement of Mohawks, who had 
come down from the upper country, and they marched about 
ten miles to a place near Galway, where they halted and 
sent spies to discover the enemy. On Thursday, the 17lh, 
they marched in the morning to the place where the French 
had previnuslv encamped, near Greenfield Centre. Two miles 



fiirtlier on they learned, through a Christian Indian boy, 
that the French were then within three miles. They then 
marched and encamped within a mile of the enemy, where 
the French had built a fort, Indian fashion, near what is 
now known as the Stiles' tavern, in Wilton, on the eastern 
border of the Palmerton mountains. The English soon 
appeared before the fortified camp of the French. Tlie forest 
at once rang with the war-whoops of the savages, and the 
English Indians set at work to intrench them.selves with 
felled trees. The French and the Indian allies sallied to dis- 
lodge them. The attack was fierce and the resistance equally 
so. With the French, a priest of the Mission of the Moun- 
tain, named Gay, was in the thick of the fight ; and, when 
he saw his neophytes run, he threw himself before them, 
crying, " What are you afraid of? We are fighting with 
infidels, who have nothing human but the shape. Have you 
forgotten that the Holy Virgin is our leader and our pro- 
tector, and that you are subjects of the King of France, 
whose name makes all Europe tremble?' Three times the 
French renewed the attack in vain. They then gave over 
the attempt and lay quietly behind their barricade of trees. 
So did their English opponents also. The morning was 
dark and dreary ; a drifting snow-storm filled the air. The 
English were out of provisions and in a starving condition. 
The Indians, however, did not want for food, having re- 
sources unknown to their white friends. Schuyler was 
invited to taste some broth which they had prepared, but 
his appetite was spoiled when he saw them ladle a man's 
hand out of the kettle. The Indians were making their 
breakfast on the bodies of the dead Frenchmen. 

All through the next night the hostile bands watched 
each other behind their sylvan ramparts. In the morning 
an Indian deserter told the English commander that the 
French were packing their baggage. They had retreated 
under cover of the snow-storm. Schuyler ordered his men 
to follow, but they had fasted three days and refused to go. 
The next morning some provisions arrived from Albany. 
Five biscuits were served out to each man, and the pursuit 
began. By great efforts they nearly overtook the fugitives, 
who now sent word back that if the English made an attack 
all the prisoners should bo put to death. On hearing this 
the Indians under Schuyler refused to continue the 

When the French reached the Hudson, they found to their 
dismay that the ice was breaking up and drifting down the 
stream. Happily for them, a large sheet of it had become 
wedged at the bend of the river, that formed a tempoiaiy 
bridge, over which they crossed and pushed up to Lake 
George. Before the English arrived at the river the ice- 
bridge had again floated away, and the pursuit was ended. 
Thus was fought on the soil of Saratoga County, within 
six miles of Saratoga Springs, one of the sanguinary con- 
tests of the old wilderness warfare. 

The battle is said to have been on the plain which lies to 
the northwest of Stiles' tavern. This region of the country 
was afterwards occu{)ied by the Pitlmerlon Indians. The 
peace of Ryswyck was declared two years after, in 1 695, and 
for fourteen years thereafter, and until what is known as 
Queen Anne's war broke out, there was peace in the old 



In the year 1709, what is known as Queen Anne's war 
broke out in Europe and speedily extended to the American 
colonies, each of which soon became bent on the extermi- 
nation of the other. Peter Schuyler was now of the 
executive council, a commissioner of Indian affairs, and a 
colonel in the service. He was called by the Indians 
Gtiider, because they could not pronounce his name. His 
brother John had been advanced to the grade of lieutenant- 

Richard Ingoldsby, who had come over with the rank of 
major, as commamler of Her Majesty's four companies of 
regulars, w;is now lieuteuant-governor of the province. 
Again a joint expedition was planned by the colonists for 
the cuncjuest of Canada. Five regiments of regulars were 
to be joined with twelve hundred provincial troops, who 
were to proceed by sea to Quebec. 

Another body of troops was to rendezvous at Albany- 
for the attack on Montreal. The forces for this latter ex- 
pedition were placed under the command of Colonel Vetch, 
a nephew of Peter Schuyler, and General Nicholson. 
Nicholson was tendered the command by Governor In- 
goldsby on the 21st of May, 1709. 

On the 19th of May, the council had given orders that 
there should be sent forthwith to Albany a sufficient quan- 
tity of stores and provisions, and all other things necessary 
for building storehouses and boats and make canoes. About 
the 1st of June the vanguard of the expedition, consisting 
of three hundred men, with the pioneers and artificers, 
moved out of Albany, under the command of Colonel 
Schuyler. Proceeding to Stillwater, they built a stockaded 
fort for provisions, which they named Fort Ingoldsby. 
They also built stockaded forts at Saratoga, situated on the 
east side of the river, below the Battenkill, and another at 
Fort JMiller falls. From Saratoga they built a road up the 
east side of the river to the Great Carrying-Place. At the 
bank of the Hudson they built, at the Great Carrying- Place, 
another fort, whicli they called Fort Nicholson. This has 
since become Fort Edward. From Fort Edward they went 
across the (ireat Carrying-Place to the Wood creek, where 
they built another fort, which they called Fort Schuyler. 
This name was shortly afterwards changed to Fort Ann. 
At Fort Ann they built a hundred bark canoes, one hun- 
dred and ten boats, which would hold from six to ten men 
each. Lieutenant-Colonel John Schuyler was in command 
of this place. 

The number of men was finally increased to eleven hun- 
dred and fifty. Fort Nicholson was garrisoned by four 
hundred and fifty men, including seven companies of reg- 
ulars, in scarlet uniform, from Old England. At the Fort 
Miller falls there were forty men, and at Stillwater seventy 
men. In the mean time, Governor Vaudreuil had moved 
up from Montioal to Chambly, to watch the motions of 
the invaders. But this expedition overland was simply 
auxiliary to the fleet by sea from Boston. As this latter 
failed nothing further came of the invasion, and the summer 



passed away in idleness. While at Fort Ann a fatal sickness 
broke out in the English camp, and a great number died 
as if poisoned. In October, Colonel Nicholson returned 
with his crippled forces to Albany. Charlevoix states that 
this sickness was produced by the treachery of the Indians, 
who threw the skins of their game into the swamp above 
the camp. It is probable, however, that it was a malignant 
dysentery, cau.sed by the extreme heat and the malaria of 
the swamps. Two years later, in 1711, a second army was 
fitted out in a similar manner to the last and for the 
same purpose. It was composed of three regiments, as fol- 
lows: first, Colonel Ingoldsby's regulars; secondly, Colonel 
Schuyler's New York troops ; thirdly. Colonel Woodin's 
troops, from Connecticut. The whole force consisted of 
about three thousand men, under command of General 
Nicholson, and left Albany on the 2'lth of August. By 
the 28th the troops were all on their njarch beyond Albany. 
They proceeded as far as Fort Ann, which had been de- 
stroyed two years before. Shortly after arriving at Fort 
Ann, intelligence was received that Her Majesty's fleet had 
been shattered by storms in the St. Lawrence, with the loss 
of one thousand troops, and the expedition was abandoned. 
Thus the third attempt to conquer Canada proved abortive ; 
and in 1713 the peace of Utrecht, between England and 
France, again put a stop to the warfare of the old wilderness. 


In 1744 war was again declared between England and 
France. In the midst of the profound peace of the pre- 
ceeding thirty-one years, the French had advanced up Lake 
Champlain as far as Crown Point, where they built Fort 
St. Frederick, in the year 1731. In the month of Novem- 
ber, 1745, an expedition against the English settlement was 
fitted out at Montreal ; it was composed of three hundred 
Frenchmen and as many Indians. Their object was to 
attack and capture the settlements on the Connecticut river; 
but, on their arrival at Fort St. Frederick, they changed 
this purpose and proceeded down to Saratoga. On the 
night of the IGth of November they attacked the little 
settlement of Saratoga, plundered and burned about twenty 
houses, together with the fort. They killed and scalped 
about thirty persons, and carried oft' sixty prisoners ; only 
one family escaped by flight, who, as they looked back, saw 
the fort in flames. Among the killed was John Philip 
Schuyler, an uncle of General Philip Schuyler of Revolu- 
tionary memory. Schuyler had made his will a few years 
before, by which he divided his property between two 
nephews, one of whom was General Philip Schuyler. 

In the spring of 1746 the English rebuilt the fort at 
Saratoga, changing its location, however, to accommodate 
some wheat-fields which were there growing, giving it the 
name of Fort Clinton. 

On the 29th of August, 1746, a band of French and 
Indians, under command of M. De Repentigny, who were 
scouting near by, made an attack upon a party of twenty 
soldiers near the gates of the fort, killing four men, who 
were scalped by the Indians, and took four prisoners. 

In June, 1747, an expedition started from Fort St. 
Frederick to attack and destroy Fort Clinton, at Saratoga. 
It was under the command of La Corne St. Luc, and con- 

sisted of twenty Frenchmen and two hundred Indians. On 
the night of the 11th of June they arrived before the fort. 
While the main body of the French were lying in conceal- 
ment near by. La Corne sent forward six scouts with orders 
to lie in ambush within eight paces of the fort, to fire upon 
tliose who should come out of the fort the next morning, 
and if attacked to retire pretending to be wounded. At 
daybreak in the morning two Englishmen came out of the 
fort, and they were at once fired upon by the French scouts, 
who thereupon fled. Soon after the firing began, a hun- 
dred and twenty Englishmen came out of the fort, headed 
by their ofiicers, and started in hot pursuit of the French 
scouts. The English soon fell in with the main body of 
the French, who rising from their ambuscade, poured a 
galling fire into the English ranks. The English at first 
bravely stood their ground and sharply returned the fire. 
The guns of the fort also opened upon the French with 
grape and cannon shot. But the Indians soon rushed upon 
the English with terrible yells, and with tomahawk in hand 
drove them into the fort, giving them scarcely time to shut 
the gates behind them. Many of the English soldiers, 
being unable to reach the fort, ran down the hill into the 
river, and were drowned or killed with the tomahawk. The 
Indians killed and scalped twenty-eight of the English, and 
took forty-five prisoners, besides those drowned in the river. 

In the autumn following this disaster. Fort Clinton, of 
Saratoga, was dismantled and burned by the English, and 
Albany once more became the extreme northern outpost of 
the English colonies, with nothing but her palisaded walls 
between her and the uplifted tomahawks of the ever-frown- 
ing north. In May, 1748, peace was again proclaimed, 
which lasted for the brief period of seven years, until the 
beginning of the last French and Indian war of 1755, 
which ended in the conquest of Canada. 

During this short peace of seven years, the settler's axe 
was heard upon many a hillside, as he widened his little 
clearing, and the smoke went curling gracefully upward 
from his lonely cabin in many a valley along the upper 

It was in the summer of 1749, during this short peace, 
that Peter Kalm,* the Swedish, traveled, in the 
interests of science, through this great northern war-path. 
He gives, in his account of the journey, a graphic descrip- 
tion of the ruins of the old forts at Saratoga, at Fort Nich- 
olson, and Fort Ann, which were then still remaining in 
the centres of small deserted clearings in the great wilder- 
ness through which he pa.ssed. He made many discoveries 
of rare and beautiful plants before unknown to Europeans, 
and in our swamps and lowlands a modest flower, the ktdmia 
fflauca, swamp laurel, blooms in perpetual remembrance of 
his visit. But there were no mineral springs in the Sara- ' 
toga visited by Peter Kalm. 



We have now come, in passing through the history of 
the long colonial wars of the old wilderness, to the last 

* Viile Kalm's Travels, in Pinkcrton, vol. xiii. 



French and Indian war, whicli raged for a period of eight 
years, ending in the peace of 17G3. 

In this period was enacted a great drama of five acts : 

1. The expedition of Sir William Johnson to Lake 
George, in 1755. 

2. The expedition of General Winslow, of 1756. 

3. Montcalm's campaign against Lake George, in 1757. 

4. Abercrombie's march and defeat, of 1758. 

5. The victory of Amherst on Lake Champlain, and of 
Wolfe at Quebec, of the year 1759. 

During this war great armies marched through Saratoga 
along the old northern war-worn valley, dyeing its streams 
with blood, and filling its wild meadows with thousands of 
nameless new-made graves. 


In the beginning of the year 1755, a plan of military 
operations, on a more extensive scale than had ever before 
been piojected, was adopted by the British ministry for dis- 
possessing the French upon the English territory. Three 
expeditions were fitted out : that of Braddock against Fort 
Du Quesne, another under Shirley against Niagara, and a 
third under Johnson against Crown Point. To carry out 
this latter expedition five thousand provincial troops were 
raised, of which number eight hundred were fuinished by 
New York. This army assembled at Albany on the last of 
June, where it was joined by King Hendrick, with a large 
body of Mohawk warriors. Early in July, about six hun- 
dred men were sent up the Hudson river to erect a fort at 
the Great Carrying-Place, on the site of old Fort Nicholson. 
This fort was first called Fort Lyman, in honor of the 
officer commanding the advanced corps. In a few years it 
was changed to Fort Edward, in honor of Edward, Duke 
of York, grandson of the reigning sovereign, George the 
Second. It stood upon the bank of the Hud,son, on the 
north side of Fort Edward creek. Other detachments of 
the army soon followed, one of which, under command of 
Colonel Miller, built a fort at the rapids above Saratoga. It 
was named Fort Miller. Colonel Miller also cut a military 
road upon the west side of the Hudson to Fort Edward, 
and thence through the forest to the head of Lake George. 

On the 8th of August, Major-Geaeral William Johnson 
left Albany with the artillery, and took command of the 
army in person. The latter part of August he advanced 
with the main body of his forces to the head of Lake 
George, with the design of passing to the outlet of the 
lake at Ticonderoga, and erecting a fort there to aid in the 
operations against Crown Point, but the French reached 
Ticonderoga in advance of him, and strongly fortified them- 
selves there. Aware of Johnson's enterprise against Crown 
Point, Baron Dieskau, the commander of the French forces 
on Lake Champlain, had collected about three thousand 
men for its defense. Expecting an immediate attack, he 
selected a force of two hundred grenadiers, eight hundred 
Canadian militia, and seven hundred Indians, proceeded up 
the lake, and landed at the head of South bay, to embar- 
rass Johnson, who was then lying with his army at the 
head of Lake George. He resolved to capture Fort Ed- 
ward, thence drop down the river, and menace Albany. 
Accordingly, on the 7th day of September, he marched 

south into the edge of Kingsbury, where he halted about 
seven miles north of Fort Edward. The French and In- 
dians opposed the idea of assaulting Fort Edward, dreading 
the cannon, but were willing to attack Johnson at Lake 
George. Dieskau therefore changed his course, marching 
toward Lake George, and encamped over night near the 
southern extremity of French mountain. 

John.son, learning of the approach of Dieskau on the 
morning of the eighth, sent out Colonel Ephraim Williams 
with a thousand troops, and Hendrick with two hundred 
Indians, with orders to oppose the progress of the French. 
They had gone but four miles when they encountered the 
enemy. Diaskau, informed of their approach, had halted 
and prepared for their reception, forming lii.s forces in a 
semicircle, the ends of which were far in advance of the 
centre, and concealed from view by the forest. Into this 
ambuscade the detachment under Colonel Williams marched 
wholly unconscious of their danger. Suddenly the war- 
whoop resounded all around them, and a galling fire was 
opened all along the front and left side of the column. 
Colonel Williams hastily changed his position and ordered 
his men to ascend the rising ground on their right, but this 
brought them on the other wing of the French forces. 
Williams and Hendrick, with numbers of their followers, 
fell, and the detachment retreated in great confusion. A 
large part of these troops were from western Massachu- 
setts, and few families there were but mourned the of 
relatives or friends cut off in " the bloody morning scout at 
Lake George." When this advance was proposed, it was 
oppo.sed by King Hendrick. He remarked, in the laconic 
language of his race, " If they're to fight, they're too few ; 
if they're to be killed, they're too many." And when it 
was suggested that the detachment should be divided into 
three bodies, he gathered three stick.s from the ground. 
"Put these together," he said, "and you cannot break 
them ; then take them one by one, and you can break them 

Just before Williams began his march Hendrick mounted 
a stump and harangued his people. With his strong, mascu- 
line voice he might have been heard at least half a mile. 
One who heard him but did not understand his language, 
afterwards said, '• The animation of Hendrick, the fire of 
his eye, the force of his gestures, his emphasis, the inflec- 
tions of his voice, and his whole manner, affected him more 
than any speech he had ever heard." 

Williams, who gallantly took his position upon a rock 
which is now the base of his own monument, fell early in 
action. Hendrick fell nearly at the same moment. The 
English forces, reaching Dieskau, doubled up and fled pell- 
mell to their intrenchments. They were soon relieved by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Whitting, however, and fought with 
more valor under cover of a party of about three hundred 
men, commanded by Colonel Cole, who had made their 
appearance. The detachment then retreated in good order 
to their camp. As soon as the stragglers began to come 
in, showing that the enemy was at hand, a barricade of 
logs was hastily thrown up in front of the English en- 
campment. In a .short time, Dieskau's troops made their 
appearance ; they advanced with great regularity, their 
burnished muskets glittering in the sun. We can readily 



imagine that no small trepidation was caused among the 
English at the advancing platoons. A short pause was 
made by the Preueli before commeiioing the attack ; this 
enabled Johnson's men to recover from their panic, and 
when uMcc fairly engaged they fought with the calmness 
and resolution of veterans. Johnson's camp was assailed by 
the grenadiers in front, and by the French and Indians 
upon both flanks. A few discharges of artillery against 
the Indians caused them to fall back and secure them- 
selves behind logs and trees, from which they afterwards 
maintained an irregular fire. Genenfl Johnson being 
wounded early in the engagement, the command devolved 
upon General Lyman, who stationed himself in front of the 
breastworks and directed their movements. 

For nearly four hours the battle lasted, the assailed 
still standing firm at every point. Dieskau at length or- 
dered a retreat. So hastily did his men withdraw that 
their leader, having been wounded in the foot, was unable 
to keep pace with them. Reclining against a stump to 
obtain temporary relief from his pain, he was discovered by 
a soldier. Dieskau sought to propitiate the soldier by 
offering him his watch. As he searched for it, the soldier, 
mistaking his action for an attempt to reach his pistol, dis- 
charged his musket and gave him a wound in the left hip 
from which he died twelve years afterwards. The French 
retreated to the ground where the forenoon engagement 
had occurred, and there paused for the night. In the mean 
time, Colonel Blanchard, the commanding ofiicer at Fort 
Edward, had sent out two hundred men to range the 
woods. Hearing the discharge of cannon in the direction 
of Johnson's camp, they knew that a battle was there in 
progress, and they hastened on to the scene of action. 
Reaching the French encampment after nightfall, they dis- 
tributed themselves in positions from which they could fire 
with the most security and effect. A body of the French 
were washing and refreshing themselves from their packs 
upon a margin of a marshy pool in a hollow. At the first 
fire such numbers of these fell dead into and along the pool, 
and it became so discolored with blood, that it has since 
borne the name of '■ Bloody Pond." The surprise was so 
sudden that the French fled at all points, but soon rallied 
and returned to the charge. They maintained for a time a 
sharp conflict, but soon gave way and fled through the woods 
towards South bay, leaving their [lacks, baggage, and a 
number of prisoners in the hands of the victors, who con- 
veyed them in triumph to Johnson's camp. With this final 
rout of the French army, the memorable engagement of 
the 8th of September, 1755, at Lake George closed. Seven 
hundred French were killed, and two hundred and thirty 

This engagement takes rank as one of the most import- 
ant in our nation's history. It exerted a great influence on 
our country's destiny. It showed that raw troops, fresh 
from the plow and wo... I op, who before had never been in 
the service, if properly officered and led, could compete with 
Veterans of European history. The confidence in their own 
abilities which the battle nf Lake George gave the pro- 
vincials had no small influence upon the issue of this war, 
and in substantially leading our country into and through 
our Revolutionary contest. General Johnson now erected 

a fort at Lake George, which was named in honor of Wil- 
liam Henry, Duke of Cumberland, brother of George the 


In the summer of 175G si.K thousand troops were collected, 
under Colonel Seth Winslow, who had commanded the ex- 
jiedition which the previous year had reduced Acadia. 
Advancing up the Hudson, he halted at Stillwater, and 
built a fort on the site of old Fort Ingold.sby, which he 
called Fort Winslow. Proceeding to Lake (jcorge, he re- 
mained during the summer, effecting little. The operations 
of this campaign were chiefly confined to Captain Rcjgers' 
Rangers along the shores of Lake George and Lake Cham- 
plain. The army of General Winslow returned in the fall, 
having accomplished nothing. 

IN 17f-r,. 

On the 10th of August, 1756, Montcalm invested Os- 
wego. He leveled the to the ground, and Oswego 
was left once more a solitude. Returning triumphantly, 
he lost no time in arranging his expedition against Fort 
William Henry, on Lake George. At Montreal he held a 
council of the Indian tribes gathered there from Nova 
Scotia and Lake Superior. On the 12th of July he pro- 
ceeded up Lake Champlain to Fort Carillon, at Ticonderoga, 
accompanied by eighteen hundred and six warriors. In 
addition to the Indians the French army was composed 
of three thousand and eighty-one regulars, two thousand 
nine hundred and forty-six Canadian militia, and one hun- 
dred and eight artillery, in all six thousand two hundred 
and fifteen men. General Webb, who was in command of 
the English forces, upon the 2d day of August dispatched 
Colonel Monroe from Fort Edward, with his regiment, to 
rendezvous at and take command of the Fort William 
Henry garrison, which then numbered two thousand two 
hundred men, four hundred and fifty of whom occupied 
the fort, and the remainder were posted in the fortified 
camp on the ground near the forts. General Webb re- 
mained at Fort Edward with the main army, amounting to 
four or five thousand men, which in a few days began to 
be augmented by the arrival of militia. Upon the 3d of 
August, Montcalm arrived with his force before old Fort 
William Henry, which he soon invested. Colonel Monroe 
sent from time to time to General Webb for assistance, but 
the pusillanimous Webb la^ inactive, and paid no attention 
to his recjuests. Thus the garrison at Lake George held 
out day after day, expecting relief and reinforcements, but 
none came. 

On the Sth of June, General Johnson obtained permis- 
sion of Webb to march to the relief of the garrison, and 
Putnam and his Rangers volunteered ; but this force had 
scarcely begun their march when Webb ordered them to 
return to their po.sts. Giving over all hopes of relief, his 
ammunition now nearly exhausted, Colonel Monroe, on the 
!Jtli of August, signed articles of capitulation. The garri- 
son was to march out with the honors of war, retaining their 
arms and their baggage, and one cannon. Covered wagons 
were to be furnislied for their baggage, and an escort of 
five hundred men to guard the garri.son on their way to 



Fort Edward. A scene now ensued wliicli beggars descrip- 
tion, and fixes a stain upon Montcalm which dims the 
lustre of his triumplis. The Indians fell upon the musket- 
eers, and butchered tliem in tlie most ferocious manner. 
It is but just to the French, liowever, to say that they did 
everything in their power to prevent the fiendish massacre ; 
as savages, when once they have tasted blood, were not to be 
appeased or controlled. The miserable remnants of this ill- 
starred garrison, after struggling through the woods, reached 
Fort Edward in small parties, after sleeping in the open 

The number that was massacred on this occasion was 
never definitely ascertained. IMtmtcalm soon burned the 
fort and retired with his forces to Ticonderoga. 


The famous but disastrous e.xpeditii)n of Abercrombie, 
in the year 175S, has been so often and fully related in our 
histories that it .seems to need but a passing notice here. 

As his expedition proceeded up Lake George, on the 5th 
day of July of that year, the old northern wilderness had 
never witnessed a nxire imposing and brilliant .spectacle. 
With banners flying and bands of music sending forth their 
inspiriting strains, more than a thousand boats moved over 
the broad waters of the lake, in which were sixteen thousand 
men, their officers richly dressed in scarlet uniforms, and 
all joyous in the anticipation of the glory they were about 
to win. Four days afterwards, when this army came back 
shattered, dismayed, and sorrow-stricken, it presented a 
sad contra,st. The boats were now filled with their dead 
and dyins. In one of them was Lord Howe, a young noble- 
man of the highest promise, the idol of the English army. 
Of the different corps of thi.s unfortunate army, a Highland 
regiment, commanded by Lord Murray, suffered the most. 
Of this regiment one-half the privates and twenty-five 
officers were killed or severely wounded. After reaching 
the head of Lake George, load after load of these miserable 
sufferers were brought to Fort Edward, there to breathe out 
their dying groans, and to mingle their dust with that of 
the surrounding plains. Dying, they were placed to rest in 
unmarked and unremembered graves. Of all that stricken 
multitude buried at Fort Edward, the name and place of only 
one grave is preserved to the present day. It is the grave 
of Duncan Campbell, of Invershaw, major of the old High- 
land regiment. Abercrombie remained for some time at 
Lake George, and finally returned to Albany, his expedition, 
like .so many others, having proved a failure. 


In 1759, Major Amherst succeeded Abercrombie as com- 
mander-in-chief of the British army in America. In the 
month of June, at the head of an army of twelve thousand 
men, he advanced to Lake George. While here he com- 
menced building Fort George, one of the most substantial 
fortifications ever reared in this direction. When passing 
down the lake to Ticonderoga, General Amherst, with his 
staff, landed on a Sunday upon the beautiful headland which 
is now so much admired by every one who crosses these 
waters. Since that day it has borne the name of Sabbath- 
day point. The French had scarcely two thousand men 

garrisoned in the fortresses on Lakes George and Cham- 
plain. On the 22d of July, Amherst invested Ticonderoga 
without opposition, and the advanced lines, which had been 
the scene of so much slaughter two years before under 
Abercombie, were immediately abandoned by the French. 
On the 26th of July the French blew up Fort Carillon 
at Ticonderoga, and retired down the lake to Crown Point, 
leaving the heavy artillery and twenty men in possession. 
Amherst soon advanced against Crown Point. On the 1st 
of Crown Point was abandoned by the French, 
and they withdrew down Lake Champlain to its northern 

Three days afterwards Amherst moved forward with his 
forces, and occupied the fort at Crown Point. ^Vmhcrst 
spent the remainder of the season in rebuilding and enlarg- 
ing the stupendous fortifications at Crown Point, Ticon- 
deroga, and Lake George. The ruins of these forts at the 
present day are objects of great interest to the tourist. 
The works alone at Crown Point, it is said, cost the 
treasury two millions of pounds sterling. It was during 
the autumn of this year that Quebec was wrested from 
Montcalm by the victorious Wolfe, and the sceptre of 
France over her long-fought-for and much-prized Canadian 
possessions fell from her grasp forever. 


It was during the next to the last campaign of the 
French and Indian wars that this famous national air had 
its birth. In the summer of 1758, before advancing north- 
ward, the British army lay encamped on the eastern bank 
of the Hudson, a little south of the city of Albany, on the 
ground once belonging to Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. Ves- 
tiges of their encampment remained for a long time ; and 
after a lapse of sixty years, when a great proportion of the 
actors of those days had passed away from the earth, the 
inquisitive traveler could observe the remains of the ashes, 
the places where they boiled their camp-kettles. It was 
this army that, under the command of Abercrombie, was 
foiled with a severe loss in the attack on Ticonderoga, 
where the distinguished Howe fell at the head of his 
troops, in an hour that history has consecrated to fame. 
In the early part of June the eastern troops began to pour 
in, company after company ; and such a motley assemblage 
of men never before thronged together on such an occasion, 
unless an example may be found in the ragged regiment of 
Sir John Falstafl^, of right merry and facetious memory. 
It would have relaxed the gravity of an anchorite to have 
seen the descrndants of the Puritans marching through the 
streets of our ancient city, to take their station on the left 
of the British army ; some with long coats, some with short 
coats, and others with no coats at all, in colors as varied as 
the rainbow ; some with their hair cropped like the army 
of Cromwell, and others with wigs, whose curls flowed 
around their shoulders. Their march, their accoutrements, 
and the whole arrangement of the troops furnished matter 
of amusement to the wits of the British army. The music 
played the airs of two centuries ago, and the lovt ensmnhle 
exhibited a sight to the wondering strangers that they had 
been unaccustomed to in their own land. 

Among the club of wits that belonged to tlu! British 



army, there was a physician, attached to the staff, by the 
name of Dr. Shackburg, wlio combined with the science of 
a surgeon the skill and talents of a musician. To tease 
Brother Jonathan he composed a tuue, and with much 
gravity recommended it to the officers as one of the most cele- 
brated airs of martial music. The joke took, to the no 
small amusement of the British corps. Brother Jonathan 
exclaimed it was nature fine ; and in a few days nothing was 
heard in the provincial camp but the name of Yankee 
Doodle. Little did the author or his coadjutors then sup- 
pose that an air made for tiie purpose of levity and ridicule 
should ever be marked for such high destinies. In twenty 
years from that time our national march inspired the hearts 
of the heroes of Bunker Hill. It was the tune played 
by the American baud as the con<|uered British took up 
their march from the " field of the grounded arms" at Old 
Saratoga, on the 17th day of October, 1777, and in less 
than thirty years Lord Coruwallis and his army marched 
into the American Hues to the tune of Yankee Doodle. 


CAMPAIGN or 1777. 


TriE long warfare of the great northern valley at length 
culminated in the memorable campaign of 1777, the most 
important events of which took place within the bounda- 
ries of Saratoga County, making her name of high historic 
import. In his own narrative of the campaign Gen. Bur- 
goyne says, " It is my intention, for the more ready com- 
prehension of the whole subject, to divide it into three 
periods. The first from my appointment to the command 
to the end of ray pursuit of the enemy from Ticunderoga ; 
the second from that time to the passage of the Hudson 
river; the third to the signing of the convention." 

In the following pages Gen. Burgoyne's division of the 
narrative will be observed. 


The delegates from Albany couuty to the provincial Con- 
gress that met at the Exchange, in the city of New York, 
April 20, 1775, were Col. Philip Schuyler, Abram Ten 
Broeck, and Abrani Yates, Jr. They presented credentials 
signed by John N. Bleeker, chairman of Albany committee 
of correspondence. 

At a meeting of committees of the several districts, held 
in the city of Albany on the 10th day of May, 1775, to 
choose delegates to the provincial Congress to meet May 22, 
1775, Saratoga district was represented by its committee: 
Har Schuyler, Cornelius Van Veghten, Cornelius I. Van- 
denburgh, and Half-Moon by Guert Van Schoouhoven, 
Isaac Fonda, Wilhelmus Van Antwerp, Ezekiel Taylor. 
Dirck Swart was one of the delegates chosen at this meeting. 

In the convention. May 24, 1775, the Albany delegates 
recommended the appointment of John N. Bleeker, Henry 
I. Bogert, George Palmer, Dirck Swart, and Peter Lansing 
to superintend the removal of cannon to the south end of 

Lake George, and they were given a letter containing 
minute instructions.* 


But in order properly to comprehend a description of 
the battles of this campaign, and rightly to understand how 
they came to be fought at the times and places they were, it 
is necessary briefly to recapitulate the more important events 
of the war, as well as the stirring incidents of the campaign 
wliich immediately preceded those battles. 

The campaign of 1775 was highly advantageous to the 
American cause. Towards the end of the year the 
army was successfully resisted, and the imperial authority 
defied everywhere, from Canada to Virginia. The early 
April uprising at Lexington and Concord had been followed 
by the vigorous siege of Gen. Howe's army in Boston. 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, tlie key to the Canadian 
provinces, had been held, the king's troops had been expelled 
from Charlestown, Lord DnnuKn'e driven from Norfolk, and 
even Quebec was closely invested by land and water. The 
campaign of 177G changed matters for the worse. At the 
opening of the year Sir Guy Carleton drove the Americans 
from Quebec, yet his I'aid up Lake Champlaiu duiing the 
summer resulted in no material success to the British arms. 
In the south the British general. Sir William Howe, carried 
everything before him, and the Americans were only saved 
from almost total defeat by the consummate generalship of 
Washington at Trenton, near the close of the year. Thus 
the fortunes of war could hardly be said to favor the Ameri- 
cans at the end of the year 177G, and the ensuing summer 
of 1777 was looked forward to with great anxiety and many 
forebodings by the striving colonists. 

In the mean time the British cabinet was almost exclu- 
sively engaged in concerting means for the re-establishment 
of the royal authority, and for that purpose had resolved 
upon the employment of the whole force of the realm. 
Gen. Burgoyne, who had been engaged in active service 
in America, near Boston, and on Lake Champlain in 1776, 
was, during the. winter, called into the councils of the cabi- 
net, and invited to submit his views as to the military 
operations of the ensuing summer. These views he sub- 
mitted in a paper entitled, " Reflections upon the War in 
America," and his favorite project, then set forth, — ■" that 
of an expedition from Canada into the heart of the disaf- 
fected districts," — was, with some modification made by the 
king, finally adopted, and himself appointed to command 
the northern army of invasion. 


The plan of the British campaign in America, for the 
year 1777, included as its most prominent feature the ad- 
vance of an army from Canada, by the way of the lakes, 
under Lieut.-Gen. John Burgoyne, which being increased, 
as it was hoped would be by the loyalist population of the 
country through which the army might pass, should force 
its way down the Hudson as far if po.ssible as Albany, while 
at the same time the array of Sir Henry Clinton, then block- 
aded in New York, should break through the lines, advance 

* Sec .Jiiurnatof Provincial Congress, vol. i. ji. 12. 



up the Hudson, and join, at Albany or at any other point 
deemed practicable, the force from Canada under Burgoyne. 
By this means it was hoped that, while a free communica- 
tion would thus be opened between New York and Canada, 
all communication would be cut oiT between the northern 
and southern colonies, and that each of them, being left to 
its own means of defense, without the possibility of co-oper- 
ation, and attacked by superior numbers, would be reduced 
to submission. In order to make this desired junction 
more easy, and for the purpose of distracting the attention 
of the Americans, Lieut.-Col. St. Leger, with about two 
hundred British, a regiment of New York loyalists, raised 
and commanded by Sir John Johnson, and a large body of 
Indians, was to ascend the St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario, 
and from that quarter was to penetrate towards Albany, by 
the way of the Mohawk river. 

The campaign thus planned had been determined upon 
after long-considered and mature deliberation, and the ulti- 
mate failure of the campaign so carefully designed was more 
significant of the power of the Americans and the weakness 
of the British than any event that had preceded it. The 
battle summer of 1777 has ever .since been regarded as the 
season during which the destiny of the United States as a 
jurisdiction independent of Great Britain was definitely 
settled, — as the season when the power of England in this 
country received the shock from which recovery was im- 


It has been seen that, at the close of the year 1775, the 
star of the colonists was in the ascendant, and that the ex- 
pectations of the people rode high on the glittering crest 
of hope's wave. ' The next change was, of course, a plunge 
towards the trough of the billow. This trough of the bil- 
low, this slough of despond, was reached by the people of 
the colonies when the war-cloud swept down the northern 
valley, in the early summer of 1777, carrying everything 
before it. On the 27tb day of March, Burgoyne sailed for 
America, and arrived at Quebec in the beginning of May, 
1777. On the 20th of May he took command of the 
northern aimy of invasion, and set out on his ill-fated ex- 
pedition with the flower of the British army and some of 
the best blood of England in his train. Up the river 
Richelieu, up Like Chaniplain, his army swept in gorgeous 
pageantry, like the armies of the old French war of the long 
colonial period. It was the trail followed by the Marquis 
de Tracy and Governor Courcelle on their way to the Mo- 
hawk towns in the autumn of 1G66. It was the pathway 
of Dieskau to his defeat at Lake George in 1755, and of 
Montcalm to his victory over Abercrombie at Fort Carillon 
(now Ticonderoga) of the year 1757. And like those old 
armies of the French and Indian wars, there was a mixed 
multitude in this army of Burgoyne. There were in it the 
bronzed veterans of many an European battle-field, joined 
with the undisciplined provincial and the savage warrior 
from the Canadian forests. Burgoyne's army, which thus 
took the field in July, 1777, consisted of seven battalions 
of British infantry, viz., the Ninth, Twentieth, Twenty-first, 
Twenty-fourth, Forty-seventh, Fifty-third, and Sixty-second 

* See B. H. Hall's account of the battle of Bennington. 

Regiments. Of these the flank companies were detailed to 
form a corps of grenadiers, under Major Ackland, and of 
light infantry, under Major the Earl of Balcarras. The 
Germans were Hes.sian Rifles, dismounted dragoons, and a 
mixed force of Brunswickers. 

The artillery was composed of five hundred and eleven 
ratik and file, including one hundred Germans. There 
were a large number of guns, the most of which were left 
on the lake. 

The whole original train furnished by Sir Guy Carle- 
ton consisted of sixteen heavy twenty-four-pnunders ; ten 
heavy twelve-pounders ; eight medium twelve-pounders ; 
two light twenty-four-pounders ; one light twelve-pounder ; 
twenty-six light six-pounders ; seventeen light three-pound- 
ers ; six eight-inch howitzers ; six five-and-a-half-inch 
howitzers ; two thirteen-inch mortars ; two ten-inch mor- 
tars ; six eight-inch mortars ; twelve five-and-a-half-inch 
mortars ; and twenty-four four-and-two-fifth-inch mortars. 
Of these, two heavy twenty-four-pounders were sent on 
board a ship for the defense of Lake Champlain, and the 
other fourteen were sent back to St. John's. Of the heavy 
twelve-pounders six were left at Ticonderoga, and four in 
the " Royal George ;" four medium twelve-pounders at Fort 
George ; one light twelve-pounder at Ticonderoga ; two 
light six-pounders at Fort George; four light six-poundcrs 
at St. John's; four light three-pounders at Ticonderoga; 
five light three-pounders at St. John's ; two eight-inch 
howitzers at Fort George, and two at St. John's ; two 
fivc-and-a-half-inch howitzers at Fort George ; two thirteen- 
inch mortars, two ten-inch mortars, and four eight-inch 
mortars in the "Royal George;" four five-and-a-luilf-inch 
mortars at Ticonderoga ; four royal mortars in the " Royal 
George;" twelve cobornsat Ticonderoga; and eight cohorns 
in the " Royal George.' 

The field-train, therefore, that proceeded with the army, 
consisted of four medium tweh'e-pounders, two light twenty- 
four pounders, eighteen light six-pounders, six light three- 
pounders, two eight-inch howitzers, four five-and-a-half-inch 
howitzers, two eight-inch mortars, and four royals. 

The army was divided into three brigades under Major. 
Gen. Phillips and Brig.-Gens. Eraser and Hamilton. Col. 
Kingston and Capt. Money acted as adjutant and quarter- 
master-generals. Sir James Clarke and Lord Petersham 
were aides-de-camp to Gen. Burgoyne. The total force 
was: Rank and file, British, 4135; Germans, 3116; 
Canadians, 148 ; Indians, 503 ; total, 7902. It was an 
army composed of thoroughly disciplined troops under able 
and trustworthy officers. John Burgoyne, the general, 
statesman, dramatist, and poet, was the pet soldier of the 
British aristocracy. Maj.-Gen. Phillips was a distinguished 
artillery oflicer of exceptional strategical skill. Maj.-Gen. 
Riedesel, who commanded the Hessians, had been especially 
selected for his military experience, acquired during a long 
service under Prince Ferdinand in the Seven Years' war. 
Brigadiers Fraser and Hamilton had been appointed solely 
on the ground of rare professional merit. Col. Kingston 
had served honorably in Portugal, and Majors Lord Bal- 
carras and Ackland " were each in bis own way considered 
officers of high attainments and brilliant courage." Thus 
officered, equipped, and manned, this army in its flotilla 



swept gracefully across the waters of the beautiful Lake 
Ciianiplain, long before made historic by such hostile 
pageantry, until every bristling crag and rocky promontory 
breathed forth " the stern poetry of war." 


But fully to understand the import of the events of this 
battle of the summer of 1777, an examination of the an- 
tecedent circumstances which had aided in bringing to- 
gether a certain portion of the army of Great Britain in 
America must not be omitted. For the last century the 
word " Hessian" has been used in this country : first, to 
signify a mean-spirited man, who, for money, hires himself 
to do the dirty work of another, and generally as an epithet 
of opprobrium. The word with these meanings was never 
recognized until after the defeat of Burgoyno at Saratoga; 
and the peculiar infamy which since then has attached to 
it is derived from the supposed voluntary employment of 
the Hessian soldiery by Great Britain against the Ameri- 
cans. That there was no such voluntary emplo3-ment is 
liistorically true, and the reproach which has so long been 
connected with the word Hessian in this country is as un- 
deserved as it is unfounded. The Hessian soldiery had no 
more option in their employment to fight against Americans 
than had the negroes of the South, who were brought in 
slave-ships to this country, in working as slaves for their 
masters in the cotton-fields of South Carolina. As men 
the Hessians were honest, industrious, and peculiarly do- 
mtstic in their tastes and lives, and many, if not all. of 
them would gladly have given half they were worth or 
years of labor could they have been peimitted to remain in 
their fatherland and follow their humble avocations in ob- 
scurity, or serve their country in their own armies.* 


To England belongs the disgrace and infamy of enticing 
the rulers of these men by large subsidies to compel their 
subjects to fight the wars of Great Britain. That this 
statement is correct, an examination of the facts will make 
apparent. On the 16th day of February, 177(5, Lord 
Weymouth laid before the House of Lords, first, a treaty 
with the hereditary prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, dated Jan. 
5, 1776; second, a treaty between his majesty George III. 
of England and the Duke of Brunswick, dated Jan. 9, 
1776 ; and third, a treaty with the Landgrave of Hesse- 
Cassel, dated Jan. 15, 1770, for the hire of troops for the 
American service to the number of seventeen thousand 
three hundred men. The same treaties were laid before 
the House of Commons on the 29th of February of the 
same year. Lord North moved to refer them to the com- 
mittee of supply. The motion instantly led to a most 
vehement debate. The chief arguments u.sed by ministers 
to excuse or justify this hiring of foreign mercenaries were, 
that there was no possibility of raising in time a sufficient 
Dumber of men at home ; that, even if native forces could 
have been raised, it was not to be expected that raw and 
undisciplined troops could answer the purpose so well as 
tried, experienced veterans ; that it would be a terrible loss 

*' B. n. Hall, (111 the battle of Bonningtn 

to withdraw so many hands from the manufactures and hus- 
bandry of the country ; that the expense with native troops 
would not end with the war, but would leave the nation 
saddled with the lasting incumbrance of half-pay for nearly 
thirty battalions ; that foreign troops would cost much less 
for their maintenance than English troops ; and that there 
was no novelty in such hiring, as the king had at all times 
been under the necessity of employing foreigners in the 
wars of the realm. 


To these statements the opposition replied that England 
was degrading her.self by applying to the petty princes of 
Germany for succor ciffninst her own sulijects, and repro- 
bated in the strongest terms the practice of letting out to 
hire men who had nothing to do with the (juarrel in ques- 
tion. Lord Irnham, in opposing the measures, quoted " Don 
Quixote" with some humor and efiect, and ended with a 
compliment to the American people. " I shall say little," 
observed his lordship, " as to the feelings of these princes 
who can sell their subjects for such purposes. We have 
read of the humorist Sancho's wish that, if he were a 
prince, all his subjects should be blackamoors, as he could, 
by the sale of them, easily turn them into ready money; 
but that wish, however it may appear ridiculous and un- 
becoming a sovereign, is much more innocent than a prince's 
availing himself of his vassals for the purpose of sacrificing 
them in such destructive war, where he has the additional 
criiue of making them destroy much better and nobler 
beings than themselves." 

It was also urged by the opposition that these German 
.soldiers, as soon as they should find themselves in a land 
of liberty, would join the banner of independence and fight 
against England, and that they would be specially inclined 
to such a couise from the fact that already more than one 
hundred and fifty thousand of their countrymen had emi- 
grated to the New World, and were making common cause 
with the Anglo-Americans. It was maintained that these 
German veterans, " who considered the camp their home 
and country," would be less inclined to desert than raw 
English levies. Lord North, who reverenced too highly 
Gorman tactics and discipline, declared that a numerous 
body of the very best soldiery in Europe, inspired only 
with military maxims and ideas, too well disciplined to be 
disorderly and cruel, and too martial to be kept back by 
any false limits, could not fail of bringing matters to a 
speedy conclusion. Others, more .sanguine even than he, 
were of opinion that these Brunswickers and Hes.sians 
would have little more to do than to show themselves on 
the American continent when instantly the rebellion would 
cease and quiet be restored to the land, as Virgil tells us 
the tempest cea.sed to beat and the storms subsided when 
Neptune, rising from the waves, bade the winds retire to 
their recesses. In closing the debate. Aid. Bull, who sub- 
sequently became con.spicuous as the friend of Lord George 
Gordon, in the " No Popery" riots, spoke as Ibllows : " The 
war you are now waging is an unjust one ; it is founded in 
oppression, and its end will be distress and di.sgrace. Let 
not the historian be obliged to say that the Ru.ssian and 
the German slave were hired to subdue the sons of English- 



men and of freedom ; and that in the reign of a prince of 
the house of Brunswick every infamous attempt was made 
to extinguish that spirit which brought his ancestors to the 
throne, and, in spite of treachery and rebellion, seated them 
firmly upon it." In this debate not much stress was laid 
upon that " laudable national feeling" which in former 
times and since led f]nglishmen to " prize British valor 
above that of other nations," and to exalt the deeds of 
British infantry in all ages. The treaties were, by a large 
nuijority, referred to the committee of supply, who, on the 
4th of March following, reported favorably upon them. 

Discussion then arose afresh, and in the House of Lords 
the whole strength of the opposition was arrayed against 
the treaties and against the principle of hiring mercenaries 
to fight the battles of the realm. The Duke of Richmond 
moved an address to countermand the march of the foreign 
troops and to suspend hostilities altogether. In a speech, 
in which he criticised with the utmost severity evei-y para- 
graph of the treaties, he stated that ever since the year 
1702 the German princes had been rising in their demands, 
until now the present bargain far outstripped all other bar- 
gains, and would cost the nation not less than a million 
and a half of pounds sterling a year for the services of 
these seventeen thousand three hundred mercenaries. As 
to the influence, whether for good or for evil, that pervaded 
the councils of the realm in respect to these treaties, he de- 
clared that it proceeded from the determined character of 
the king himself. 


But of all the opposition, — among whom were Chatham 
and Burke, earnest advocates of the most conciliatory mea- 
sures, — one noble lord, the Earl of Coventry, alone took 
the right philosophical view of the whole question, in 
maintaining that "an immediate recognition of the inde- 
pendence of the United Provinces was preferable to war." 
In advocating this theorem, his sagacious language was as 
follows : " Look on the map of the globe, view Great Brit- 
ain and North America, compare their extent, consider the 
foil, riches, climate, and increasing population of the latter. 
Nothing but the most obstinate blindness and partiality 
can engender a serious opinion that such a country will 
long continue under subjection to this. The question is 
not, therefore, how shall we be able to realize a vain delu- 
sive scheme of dominion, but how we shall make it the in- 
terest of the Americans to continue faithful allies and warm 
friends. Surely that can never be effected by fleets and 
armies. Instead of meditating conquest, and exhausting 
our own strength in an ineffectual struggle, we should — 
wisely abandoning wild schemes of coercion — avail ourselves 
of this only substantial benefit we can ever expect, — the 
profits of an extensive commerce and the strong support of 
a firm and friendly alliance and compact for mutual defense 
and assistance." 

But in vain were philosophy, eloquence, national pride, 
an appeal to kingly honor, mercy, or peace. Tlio report of 
the committee on the treaties was approved (as were all 
measures whose object was to coerce the Americans), by 
what Burke called " that vast and invincible majority ;" and 
Great Britain was compelled by necessity to accept the very 

terms which the German princes had themselves prescribed 
in drafting these treaties, the only change produced being 
embodied in an address to his majesty made by Col. Barre, 
desiring him to use his interest that the German troops in 
British pay, then and thereafter, might be clothed with the 
manufactures of Great Britain. By the conditions of the 
treaties, nearly £7 10s. levy money was paid for every man, 
and the princes who hired out the limbs, blood, and lives 
of their subjects, in a fouler manner than men farm out 
their slaves, and with none of the humanity that charac- 
terizes the dealings of those who keep beasts of draught or 
of burden for hire, took especial care, while driving a very 
hard bargain with Great Britain, to reap the greater part of 
the profits thereof in their own subsidies. To the Duke of 
Brunswick, who supplied four thousand and eighty-four 
men, was secured an annual subsidy of £15,519 so long as 
the troops continued to serve, and double that sum, or 
£31,038, for each of the two years following their dismissal. 
To the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, who furnished twelve 
thousand men, was secured £10,281 per annum, during the 
service of the soldiers, which payment was also to be con- 
tinued until the end of a twelve months' notice of the dis- 
continuance of such payment, which notice was not to be 
served until after his troops should all be returned to his 
dominions. To the hereditary prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
who furnished six hundred and eighty-eight men, was 
secured an annual subsidy of £0000, and besides all this 
the king of England guaranteed the dominions of these 
princes against foreign attack. A little later the Prince of 
Waldeck, who agreed to furnish six hundred and seventy 
men, made a bargain for himself equally as good as the 
bargains made by any of the other princes already named. 


The effect of this employment of foreign troops continued 
to be felt not only in parliament during the continuance of the 
war, but exerted an influence on both sides of the Atlantic. 
In a letter to the sheriffs of Bristol on the affairs of America, 
published in April, 1777, Edmund Burke, referring to those 
who were in the habit of petitioning the king to prosecute 
the war against America with vigor, made use of this lan- 
guage : " There are many circumstances in the zeal shown 
for civil war, which seem to discover but little of real magna- 
nimity. The addressers offer their own persons, and they are 
satisfied with luring Germans. They promise their private 
fortunes, and they mortgage their country. They have all 
the merit of volunteers, without risk of person or charge of 
contribution ; and when the unfeeling arm of a foreign 
soldiery pours out their kindred blood like water they 
exult and triumph, as if they themselves had performed 
some notable exploit." In the same letter he also observed 
as follows : " It is not instantly that I can be brought to 
rejoice, when I hear of the slaughter and captivity of long 
lists of those names which have been familiar to my cars 
from my infancy, and to rejoice tliat they have fallen under 
the sword of strangers, whose barbarous appellations I 
scarcely know how to pronounce. The glory acquired at 
the White Plains by Col. Rahl has no charms for me, and I 
fairly acknowledge that I have not yet learned to delight in 
finding Kniphausen in the heart of the British dominions." 



Oil the 30th of May, 1777, Lord Chatham entered tlie 
House of Lords wrapped in flannel, and bearing a crutch 
in each hand. Sitting in his place, with hi.s liead covered, 
he delivered a powerful .speech in support of hi.s motion for 
an address to his majesty requesting him to put an end to 
hostilities in America. In the course of his remarks he 
said : " What has been the system pursued by administra- 
tion, and what have been the means taken for carrying it 
into execution ? Your system has been a government 
erected on the ruins of the constitution and founded in 
conquest, and you liave swept all Germany of its refuse as 
its moans. Tlicrc is not a petty, insignificant prince whom 
you have Tiot .solicited for aid. You are become t1ie .suitors 
at every (Jornian court, and you have your ministers en- 
rolleil in the German chancery, as the contracting parties, 
in bcliair of tills once great and glorious country. The 
laurels of Britain are faded, her arms ai'o disgraced, her 
negotiations are spurned at, and her councils fallen into 
contempt. Jly lords, you have vainly tried to conquer 
America by the aid of German mercenaries, by the arms 
of twenty thousand undisciplined German boors, gleaned 
and collected from every obscure corner of that country. 
You have subsidized their master.^. You have lavished 
the public treasures on them. And what have you effected ? 
Nothing, my lords, but forcing the colonies to declare 
themselves independent states." 

Among the charges brought against George III. in the 
Declaration of Independence was the following: " He is at 
this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries 
to complete the work of death, desolation, and tyranny 
already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy 
scarcely paralled in the most barbarous ages, and totally 
unworthy the head of a civilized nation." 


On the 17th of June, Burgoyne encamped at the mouth 
of the Bouquet river, where for several days his army 
foraged on the deserted fields of Gilliland's manor of Wills- 
boro'. On the twenty-first he made his speech to the In- 
dians, couched in their own flowery style, as follows: 

" Chiefs and Warriors. — The great king, our com- 
mon father, and the patron of all who seek and deserve his 
protection, has considered with satisfaction the general con- 
duct of the Indian tribes from the beginning of the trou- 
bles in America. Too sagacious and too faithful to be 
deluded or corrupted, ttiey have observed the violated rights 
of the parental power they love, and burned to vindicate 
them. A few individuals alone, the refuse of a small tribe, 
at the first were led a,stray ; and the misrepresentations, the 
precious allurements, the insidious promises and diversified 
plots in which the rebels are exercised, and all of which 
they employed for that effect, have served only in the end 
to enhance the honor of the tribes in general, by demon- 
strating to the world how few and how contemptible are the 
apostates. It is a truth known to you all that, these piti- 
ful examples excepted (and they probably have before this 
day hid their faces in sliaini'), the colli'ctivo voices and 

hands of the Indian tribes over this vast continent are on 
the side of justice, of law, and of the king. 

" The restraint you have put upon your resentment in 
waiting the king, your father's, call to arms, — tlie hardest 
proof, I am persuaded, to which your afl'ection could have 
been put, — is anotlii'r manifest and affecting mark of your 
adherence to that principle of connection to which you were 
always fond to allude, and which it is mutually the joy and 
the duty of the parent to cherish. 

" The clemency of your father has been abused, the 
offers of his mercy have been desjiised, and his further 
patience would, in his eyes, become culpable, inasmuch as 
it would withhold redress from the most grievous oppres- 
sions in the province that ever disgraced the history of 
mankind. It therefore remains for me, the general of one 
of His Majesty's armies, and in this council his represen- 
tative, to release you from those bonds which your obedi- 
ence imposed. Warriors, you are free ! Go forth in might 
of your valor and your cause I Strike at the common ene- 
mies of Great Britain and America, — disturbers of public 
order, peace, and happiness ; destroyers of commerce ; par- 
ricides of the state. 

" The circle round you, the chiefs of His Majesty's 
European forces, and of the prince, his allies, esteem you 
as brothers in the war. Emulous in glory and in friendship, 
v?e will endeavor reciprocally to give and to receive exam- 
ples. We know how to value, and we will strive to imitate, 
your per.severancc in enterprise and your constancy to resist 
hunger, weariness, and pain. Be it our task, from the dic- 
tates of our religion, the laws of our welfare, and the prin- 
cipal and interest of our policy, to regulate your passions 
when they overbear, to point out where it is nobler to spare 
than to revenge, to discriminate degrees of guilt, to suspend 
the uplifted stroke, to chastise and not to destroy. 

" This war to yon, my friends, is new. Ujion former oc- 
casions, in taking the field, you held your.selves authorized to 
destroy wherever you came, because everywhere you found 
an enemy. The case is now very different 

" The king has many faithful subjects dispersed in the 
provinces; consequently you have many brothers there ; and 
these people arc the more to be pitied, that they arc perse- 
cuted or imprisoned wherever they are discovered or sus- 
pected ; and to dissemble is, to a generous mind, a yet more 
grievous punishment. 

" Persuaded that your magnanimity of character, joined 
to your principles of aflFeetion to the king, will give me 
fuller control over your minds than the military rank with 
which I am invested, I enjoin your most .serious attention 
to the rules which I hereby proclaim for your invariable 
observation during the campaign. 

" I positively forbid bloodshed, when you an^ not opposed 
in arms. 

" Aged men, women, children, and prisoners must be 
held sacred from the knife or hatchet, even in the time 
of actual conflict. 

" You shall receive compensation for the prisoners you 
take, but you shall be called to account for scalps. 

" In conformity and indulgence of your customs, which 
have affixed an idea of honor to such badges of victory, 
you shall b.' allowed to take scalps of the dead when killed 



by your fire, and in fair opposition ; but, on no account, or 
pretense, or sublety, or prevarication, are tliey to be taken 
from the wounded, or even dying ; and still less pardonable, 
if possible, will it be held to kill men in that condition on 
purpose, and upon a supposition that this protection of the 
wounded would be thereby evaded. 

" Base lurkint;; assassins, incendiaries, ravagers, and plun- 
derers of the country, to whatever army they may belong, 
shall be treated with jess reserve ; but the latitude must be 
given you by order, and I must be the judge of the occasion. 

" Should the enemy on tlieir part dare to countenance 
acts of barbarity towards who may fall into their 
hands, it shall be yours also to retaliate ; but till severity be 
thus compelled, bear immovable in your hearts this solid 
maxim (it cannot bo too deeply impressedj that the great 
essential reward, worthy service of your alliance, the sin- 
cerity of your zeal to the king, your father and never-failing 
protector, will be examined and judged upon the test only of 
yuur steady and uniform adherence to the orders and coun- 
sels of those to whom His Majesty has intrusted the direc- 
tion and the honor of his arms." 


" I stand up in the name of all the nations present to 
assure our father that we have attentively listened to his 
discourse. We have received you as our father ; because, 
when you speak, we hear the voice of our great father 
beyond the great lake. 

" We rejoice in the approbation you have expressed of 
our behavior. 

"We have been tried and tempted by the Bostonians; 
but we have loved our father, and our hatchets have been 
sharpened upon our affections. 

" In proof of professions, our whole villages, able to go to 
war, came forth. The old and infirm, our infants and wives, 
alone remained at home. 

" With one common assent we promise a constant obedi- 
ence to all you have ordered, and all you shall order ; and 
may the Father of days give you many and success." 

From June 21 to June 25, Burgoyne's camp was at the 
mouth of the river Bou(|uet, where he threw up iiitrencii- 
ments. While there he took occasion to compliment some 
of his corps on having learned the art " of making flour-cakes 
without ovens, which," he adds, " are equally wholesome and 
relishing with the best bread." On the evening of the 25th 
his army left their camp at the mouth of the river Bouquet, 
under command of Maj.-Gcn. Riedcsel, and on the day fol- 
lowing were quartered at Crown Point, on both sides of 
Putnam creek, where general orders appropriate to the 
change in position were issued. The few Americans in 
garrison there abandoned the fort and retreated to Ticon- 
deroga. The British quietly took possession, and after es- 
tablishing magazines and a hospital, and having succeeded 
in bringing up the rear of the army, and obtaining intelli- 
gence of the movements of the Americans, moved forward 
on the 1st of July. 


But before leaving Putnam creek, Gen. Burgnyiie issued 
his famous and high-sounding proclamation. In his zeal 

for sustaining the cause of his royal master, he made u-sc 
of this extraordinary language : '' To the eyes and ears of 
the temperate part of the puljlio, and to the bresists of suf- 
fering thousands in the provinces, be the melancholy appeal, 
whether the present unnatural rebellion has not been made 
a foundation for the completest system of tyranny that ever 
God in his displeasure suffered for a time to be exercised 
over a fioward and stubborn generation. Arbitrary im- 
prisonment, confiscation of property, persecution and tor- 
ture unprecedented in the inquisitions of the Romish church, 
are among the palpable enormities which verity the affirma- 
tive. These are inflicted by assemblies and committees 
who dare to profess themselves friends to liberty, upon the 
most quiet subjects, without distinction of age or sex, for 
the sole crime, often for the sole suspicion, of having ad- 
hered in principle to the government under which they 
were born, and to which, by every tie, divine and human, 
they owe allegiance. To consummate these shocking pro- 
ceedings, the profanation of religion is added to the most 
profligate prostitution of common reason ; the consciences 
of men are set at naught, and multitudes are compelled not 
only to bear arms, but also to swear subjection to an 
usurpation they abhor." 

After exhorting all through whose territory he should 
pass to remain loyal, and offering to them employment .should 
they j(jin him, and solid coin " for every species of pro- 
vision at an e(juitable rate," he concluded as follows: "I 
have but to give stretch to the Indian forces under my 
direction, and they amount to thousands, to overtake the 
hardened enemies of Great Britain and America. I con- 
sider them the same, whei'ever they may lurk. 

" If, notwithstanding these endeavors and sincere inclina- 
tion to effect them, the frenzy of hostility should remaiu, 
I trust I shall stand acquitted, in the eyes of God and man, 
in denouncing and executing the vengeance of the state 
against the willful outcasts. 

" The messengers of justice and wrath await them in the 
field ; and devastation, famine, and every concomitant horror 
that a reluctant but indispensable prosecution of military 
duty must occasion, will bar the way to their retreat." 


On the 30th of June, Burgoyne prepared to attack Ti- 
conderoga. Before advancing, in a general order promul- 
gated to his troops, he used the following language, which 
was the key-note of the campaign : 

"The army embarks to-morrow to approach the enemy. 
We are to contend for the king and the constitution of 
Great Britain, to vindicate the law and to relieve the op- 
pressed, — a cause in which His Majesty's troops and those 
of the princes, his allies, will feel equal excitement. 

" The services required of this particular expedition are 
critical and cons]3icuous. During our progress occasions 
may occur in which no diflSculty, nor labor, nor life, are to 
be regarded. Tins army must not retreat." 

The effect produced by the proclamatiou was, in some 
quarteis, directly contrary to that intended by its author. 
In many minds its statements gave rise to sentiments of 
indignation and contempt. Gov. Livingston, of New Jersey, 
made it an object of general derision by paraphrasing it in 



Hudibrastic verse. John Holt, of New York, an old and 
respectable printer, publi.sbed it in his now.spaper at Pous^h- 
keepsie with this motto : " Pride sroctli before destruction, 
and a haui;hty spirit before a fall." In his " State of the 
Expedition," ]]iiblished several years later. Gen. Rurgoyne 
fails to record this illjudued docunicnt. "It is remarkable," 
observes Dr. Timothy Dwii;bt, " that the four most hauj^hty 
proclamations issued by military commanders in modein 
times have prefaced their ruin: this of (xen. Ruriioyne ; 
that of the iJuke of Rrunswick, when he was entering 
France; that of Bcinaparte in Egypt; and that of Gen. Le 
Clerc at his arrival in St. Domingo. ' 


On the 1st of July the whole of Burgoyne's army moved 
forward and took positions near Ticonderoga. Brig. -Gen. 
Eraser's corps occupied a strong post at Three-Mile creek, 
on the west or New York shore of Lake Champlain ; the 
German Reserve, under Riedesel, took a position on the east 
or Vermont shore, opposite Putnam creek, while the main 
army encamped in two lines, the right wing at a place called 
Four-Mile Point, on the west shore, and the left wing nearly 
opposite, on the east shore. Tlie frigates the " Royal George" 
and "Inflexible," with the gunboats, were anchored just 
without the reach of the batteries of the Americans, and 
covered the lake from the west to the east shore. Mean- 
time, St. Clair, to whom the command of Ticonderoga, on 
the New York shore, and Mount Independence, in the 
town of Orwell, on the Vermont shore, had been intrusted 
by Schuyler on the 5th of June, 1777, had reached his post 
'on the 12th of that month. Upon the table-land summit of 
Mount Independence was a star fort, strongly picketed, in the 
centre of which was a convenient square of barracks. The 
fort was well supplied with artillery, and its approaches 
guarded with batteries. The foot of the hill, towards Lake 
Champlain, was protected by a breastwork, which had been 
strengthened by an abatis and by a strong battery standing 
on the shore of the lake, near the month of East creek. A 
floating bridge connected the works of Mount Independence 
with those of Ticonderoga, on the other side of the lake, 
and served as an obstruction to the passage of vessels up 
the lake. The battery at the foot of Mount Independence 
covered and protected the east end of the bridge. The 
bridge itself was supported on twenty-two sunken piers, 
formed of very large timber, the spaces between the piers 
being filled with floats, each about fifty feet long and twelve 
feet wide, strongly fastened together with iron chains and 
rivets. A boom, made of large pieces of timber, well se- 
cured together by riveted bolts, was placed on the north 
side of the bridge, and by the side of this was a double 
iron chain, the links of which were one inch and a half of 
an inch s(|uare. The other end of the bridge was covered 
by the " Grenadier's Battery,'' a strong redoubt built of 
earth and stone, which was originally constructed b}' the 
French and subse(|uently enlarged by the English. 

On the New York side, at the time of Burgoyne's ap- 
proach, a small detachment of Americans occupied the old 
French lines on the height to the north of Fort Ticonde- 
roga. These lines were in good repair, and had .several in- 
trenchments behind them, chiefly calculated to guard the 

northwest flank, and were also sustained by a block-house. 
Farther to the left of the Americans was an outpost at the 
saw-mills, now the village of Ticonderoga. There was also a 
block-house upon an eminence above the mills, and a block- 
house and hospital at the entrance of Lake George. Upon 
the right of the American linos, and between tiiem and the 
old fort, there were two new block-houses, and the Grena- 
dier's battery, close to the water's edge, w;is manned. 


On the west side of the outlet of Lake George, near the 
lower falls, rises Mount Hope, an abrupt and rocky eleva- 
tion, and especially rugged and precipitous on the north- 
east side. On the south side of the mouth of the outlet 
of Lake George, and separated from Fort Ticonderoga 
(which is situated north of the outlet), and opposite Mount 
Independence, is the lofty eminence of Mount Defiance, 
then known as Sugar Loaf mountain, which rises abruptly 
from the water to the height of about seven hundred and 
fifty feet. Through the vigilance of his scouts, Burgoyne 
soon learned that St. Clair had neglected to fortify these 
two important and commanding elevations, and in.stead of 
making a direct assault upon the fortress of Ticonderoga, 
he determined to take possession first of these valuable 


The American works formed an extensive crescent of 
which Mount Independence was the centre. The entire 
lino required at least ten thou.sand men and one hundred 
pieces of artillery for its deteMise. Rut now when such a 
force was necessary, St. Clair's whole army consisted of 
only two thousand five hundred and forty-six Continental 
troops and nine hundred militia. Of the latter, not one- 
tenth had bayonets. Besides the lack of men, the food, 
clothing, arms, and ammunition were insufficient. Congress 
had been led to believe that Burgoyne was preparing an 
expedition against the coast towns, and influenced by this 
belief had turned its exertions in other directions and had 
left the posts on Lake Cliamplain almost undefended. The 
army of Burgoyne, on the contrary, amounted on the 1st of 
July to .six thousand seven hundred and forty men, of 
whom three thousand seven hundred and twenty-four were 
British and three thousand and sixteen German troops. In 
addition to this there were five hundred and eleven men in 
the artillery service, besides Canadians, Tories, and Indians. 


On tlie morning of the second the British observed a 
smoke in the direction of Lake George, and .soon after the 
Indians reported that the Americans had .set fire to the 
farther block-house and bad abandoned the saw-mills, and 
that a considerable body was advancing from the lines 
towards a bridge upon the road which led from the .saw- 
mills towards the right of the British camp. A detach- 
ment of the advanced corps under Brig.-Gen. Eraser, with 
other troops and some light artillery under Maj.-Gen. Phil- 
lips, were immediately sent out, with orders to proceed to 
Mount Hope, not only to reconnoitre, but to seize any post 
the Americans might abandon. The Indians, under Capt. 
Eraser, with his company of marksmen, were directed to 



make a circuit to the left of Biig.-Gen. Eraser's line of 
march, and strive to lieep the Americans from reaching 
their lines ; but this undertaking failed by reason of the 
impetuosity of the Indians, who made the attack too soon 
and in front, thus giving the Americans an opportunity to 
return ; they having lost, however, one officer and a few 
men killed and one officer wounded. 

ST. clair's letter. 

St. Clair was an officer of acknowledged bravery, yet he 
was far from being an expert and skillful military leader. 
His self-reliance and his confidence in the courage of his 
men led him often to be less vigilant than necessity de- 
manded. Even with the knowledge of the great disparity 
in numbers between his force and that of the British, and 
in spite of the events of the 2d of July which had already 
occurred in his immediate vicinity, he was enabled to write 
the following cheerful yet urgent letter to Col. John AVil- 
liams, of Salem, then White Creek, Washington county, 
to Col. Moses Robinson, of Bennington, and to Col. Seth 
Warner. This letter is now published for the first time : 

" TicoNDEROGA, July 2, 1777. 

"Gkntlemen, — About two hours ngo I recciverl your letter of this 
day, ami am very Uajipy to hear that the people turn out so well, 
though it is not more than I cxpecteil from them. The enemy have 
been lying looking at us for a day or two, and we have had a liltlo 
firing, not a great deal. But I believe they will in earnest try what 
we can do, perhaps this night. I rather think it is their intention, 
though I may, perhaps, be mistaken ; but be thnt as it will, at all 
events push on your people with the utmost expedition, and let the 
cattle remain where they are. Order Col. Lynians and Col. Billany 
to follow with all e.xpedition. Everything depends upon a spirited 
push, and I can assure you that the men here are as determined as 
you can possibly wish them. We took a prisoner and have had 
Hessian deserters to-day, but I have not yet time to examine them. 
If you and Col. Warner can bring on six hundred men, or even less, 
I would wish you to march, part by the new road and part by the 
old road, to a certain distance. Of that distance you and he can 
judge much better than me. The party that m.arch on the old road 
will then turn to the left and fall in upon the new road. These 
motions will distract the enemy, and induce them to believe that 
your numbers are treble what they really are, and if you are attacked 
on either road by an even number, make directly for Mount Inde- 
pendence and you will find a party out to support you, and fall upon 
the enemy's flanks or front, as they may happen to present them- 
selves. If I had only your people here I would laugh at all the 
enemy could do. But do not forget to have a proper guard for the 
cattle, and then we can bring in as we want in spite of them. We 
will want all the men that we can get for all this. I am, gentlemen, 
your very humble servant, A. St. Clair. 

" Col. Williams, Col. Robi.nso.v, and Col. Wah.ver." 

This letter, doubtless, had the effect of hastening forward 
the promised aid. Cols. Warner and Robinson reached 
Ticonderoga in time to take part in its evacuation, and the 
former did gallant service in the battle of Hubbardton on 
the 7th of July. It is also believed that Col. Williams 
reached the fort, but whether with or without a command, 
is not positively known. 


On the night of the 2d, Maj.-Gen. Phillips took posses- 
sion of Mount Hope, and by this movement the Americans 
were entirely cut off from all communication with Lake 
George. On the following day, Mount Hope was occupied 
in force by Eraser's corps. Maj. Gen. I'liillips now held 

the ground west of Mount Hope, and Eraser's camp at 
Three-Mile creek was occupied by a body of men drawn 
from the opposite side of the lake. Riedesel's column was 
pushed forward as far as East creek on the Vermont side, 
from which it could easily stretch behind Mount Independ- 

" During all these movements the American troops kept 
up a warm fire Mount Hope and against Riedesel's 
column, but without effect. On the 4th the British were 
employed in bringing up their artillery, tents, baggage, and 
provisions, while the Americans, at intervals, continued the 
cannonade. The same evening the radeau or raft ' Thun- 
derer' arrived from Crown Point with the battering train. 

" The British line now encircled the American works 
on the north, east, and west. The possession of Mount 
Defiance would complete the investment, and effectually 
control the water communication in the direction of Skenes- 
borough. Burgoyne's attention had, from the first, been 
attracted towards this eminence, and he had directed Lieut. 
Twiss, his chief engineer, to ascertain whether its summit 
was accessible. On the 4th, Lieut. reported that 
Mount Defiance held the entire command of Ticonderoga 
and Mount Independence, at the distance of about fourteen 
hundred yards from the former, and fifteen hundred yards 
from the latter, and that a practicable road could lie made 
to the summit in twenty-four hours. On receiving this 
report Burgoyno ordered the road opened and a battery 
constructed for light twenty-four-pounders, medium twelves, 
and eight-inch howitzers. This arduous task was pushed 
with such activity, that during the succeeding night the 
road was completed, and eight pieces of cannon were 
dragged to the top of the hill. 

'■ On the morning of the 5th the summit of Mount Defi- 
ance glowed with scarlet uniforms, and the guns of its 
batteries stood threateningly over the American forts. ' It 
is with astonishment,' says Dr. Thacher, in his Military 
Journal, ' that we find the enemy have taken possession of 
an eminence called Sugar Loaf hill, or Mount Defiance, 
which, from its height and proximity, completely overlooks 
and commands all our works. The situation of our garri- 
son is viewed as critical and alarming; a few days will 
decide our fate. We have reason to apprehend the most 
fatal effects from their battery on Sugar Loaf hill.' Gen. 
St. Clair immediately called a council of war, by whom it 
was decided to evacuate the works before Riedesel should 
block up the narrow passage south of East creek, which, 
with the lake to Skenesborough, presented the only possible 
way of escape." 

As every movement of the Americans could be seen 
through the day from Mount Defiance, no visible prepara- 
tions for leaving the fort were made until after dark on the 
evening of the 5th, and the purpose of the council was 
concealed from the troops until the evening order was given. 
About midnight directions were issued to place the sick 
and wounded, and the women, the baggage, and such am- 
munition and stores as might be expedient, on board two 
hundred bateaux, to be dispatched at three o'clock in the 
morning under a convoy of five armed galleys and a guard 
of six hundred men, under the command of Col. Long, of 
the New Hampshire troops, up the lake to Skenesborough, 



wliilt' tlie main body was to proceed by land to tbe same 
destination, by way of Castleton. The cannons that could 
not be moved were to be spiked ; previous to striking the 
tents every light was to be extinguished ; each soldier was 
to provide himself with several days' provisions ; and to 
allay any suspicion on the part of the enemy of such a 
movement, a continued cannonade was to be kept up from 
one of the batteries in the direction of Mount Hope, until 
the moment of departure. These directions as to the mode 
of leaving were strictly obeyed except in one instance. 


" The boats reached Skenesborough about three o'clock 
on the afternoon of the same day, where the fugitives landed 
to enjoy, as they fancied, a temporary ; but in less 
than two hours they were startled by the reports of the 
cannon of the British gunboats, which were firing at the 
galleys lying at the wharf By uncommon effort and in- 
dustry, Burgoyne had broken through the chain, boom, and 
bridge at Ticonderoga, and had followed in pursuit with the 
' Royal George' and ' Inflexible,' and a detachment of the 
gunboats under Gapt. Carter. The pursuit had been pressed 
with such vigor that, at the very moment when the Ameri- 
cans were landing at Skene.sborough, three regiments dis- 
embarked at the head of South bay, with the intention of 
occupying the road to Fort Edward. Had Burgoyne de- 
layed the attack upon the galleys until these regiments had 
reached the Fort Edward road, the whole party at Skenes- 
borough would have been taken prisoners. Alarmed, how- 
ever, by the approach of the gunboats, tiie latter blew up 
three of the galleys, set fire to the fort, mill, and storehouse, 
and retired in great confusion towards Fort Ann. Occa- 
sionally the overburdened party would falter on their re- 
treat, when the startling cry of March on, the Indians are 
at our heels,' would revive their drooping energies and give 
new strength to their weakened limbs. At five o'clock in 
the morning they reached Fort Ann, where they were joined 
by many of the invalids who had been carried up Wood 
creek in boats. A number of the sick, with the cannon, 
provisions, and most of the baggage, were left behind at 

" On the 7th a small reinforcement, sent from Fort Ed- 
ward by Schuyler, arrived at Fort Ann. About the same 
time a detachment of British troops approached within sight 
of the fort. This detachment was attacked from tlie fort, 
and repulsed with some loss; a surgeon, a wounded captain, 
and twelve privates were taken prisoners by the Americans. 
The next day Fort Ann was burned, and the garrison re- 
treated to Fort Edward, which was then occupied by Gen. 

The fate of the remainder of those who left Ticonderoga 
now demands our attention. Although every precaution 
po.ssible wa.s taken, yet so sudden was the departure and so 
short the notice, that much confusion ensued. The garri- 
son of Ticonderoga crossed the bridge to IMount Indepen- 
dence at about three o'clock in the morning, the enemy all 
the while unconscious of the escape of their prey. " The 
moon was shining brightly, yet her pale light was insuffi- 
cient to betray the toiling Americans in their preparations 
and flight, and they felt certain that, before daylight should 

discover their withdrawal, they would be too far advanced 
to invite pursuit." But Gen. De Fermoy, who commanded 
on Mount Independence, regardless of express orders, set 
fire to the house he had occupied, as his troops left to join 
in the retreat with those who had passed over from Ticon- 
deroga. The light of the conflagration revealed the whole 
scene to the astonished forces of the British, and through- 
out their extended camp sounded the notes of preparation 
for hot and determined pursuit. 


Thus on Sunday morning, July 6, 1777, the unfortunate 
Americans commenced their overland flight. St. Clair, 
with the main army, directed his course through the Ver- 
mont towns of Orwell, Sudbury, and Hubbardton, and 
encamped at evening at Castleton, about twenty-six miles 
from Ticonderoga. The rear-guard, under the command of 
Col. Ebenezer Francis, of the Eleventh Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, left Mount Independence at about four o'clock in 
the morning, taking the same route as had been taken by 
St. Clair, and passing onward in irregular order, after a 
most fatiguing march, rested at Hubbardton, about twenty- 
two miles from Ticonderoga, and encamped in the woods. 
These, together with stragglers from the main army, picked 
up by the way, were left in the command of Cols. Warner 
and Francis, and there remained duiing the night, not only 
for rest but also to be joined by some who had been left 
behind on the march. Tlie jilace of encampment was in 
the northeast part of Hubbardton, near the Pittsford line, 
upon the farm then owned by John Sellcck, not fir from 
the place where the Baptist meeting-house now stands. 

As soon as the British pereitived the movements of the 
Americans, Brig. -Gen. Simon Eraser took possession of 
Ticonderoga, unfurled the British flag over that fortress at 
daylight, and before sunrise had passed the bridge and 
Mount Independence, and was in close pursuit of the flying 
Americans, at the head of a little more than half the ad- 
vanced corps, and without artillery, which, with the utmosD 
endeavors, it was impossible to get up. Ticonderoga was 
placed in charge of the regiment of Prince Frederick, 
under Lieut.-Col. Priltorious, and the Sixty-second British 
Regiment were ordered to Mount Independence, both regi- 
ments being under the command of Brig.-Gen. Hamilton, 
who was directed to place guards for the preservation of all 
buildings from fire, and to collect all the powder and other 
stores and secure them. 

Without intermission Brig.-Gen. Fraser continued the 
pursuit of the flying Americans till one o'clock in the after- 
noon, having marched in a very hot day since four o'clock 
in the morning. From some stragglers from the American 
force whom he picked up, he learned that their rcar-gJard 
was composed of chosen men and commanded by Col. 
Francis, "one of their best officers." From some Tory 
scouts he also learned that the Americans were not far in 
advance. While his men were refreshing themselves, Maj.- 
Gen. Riedesel came up with his Brunswickers, and arrange- 
ments for continuing the pursuit having been concerted, 
Brig.-Gen. Preiser moved forward again, leaving Riedesel 
and his corps behind, and during the night of Sunday, the 
Gth, lay upon his arms in an advantageous situation, three 



miles in advance of Riedesel and three miles nearer the rear- 
guard of the Americans. 


An account of the battle of Hubbardton, which battle 
took place on the morning of the 7th of July, is given by 
Gen. Burgoyne in these words: " At throe in the morning 
Brig-Gen. Fraser renewed his march, and about five his 
advanced scouts discovered the enemy's sentries, who fired 
their pieces and joined the main body [of the rear-guard]. 
The brigadier, observing a commanding ground to the left 
of his light infantry, immediately ordered it to be possessed 
by that corps ; and a considerable body of the enemy at- 
tempting the same, they met. The enemy were driven 
back to their original post. The advanced guard, under 
Major Grant, was by this time engaged, and the grenadiers 
were advanced to sustain them, and to prevent the right 
flank from being turned. The brigadier remained on the 
left, whore the enemy long defended themselves by the aid 
of logs and trees ; and, after being repulsed and prevented 
getting to the Castleton road by the grenadiers, they ral- 
lied and renewed the action, and, upon a second repulse, 
attempted their retreat to the Pittsford mountain. The 
grenadiers scrambled up a part of that ascent, appearing 
almost inaccessible, and gained the summit before them, 
which threw them into confusion. They were still greatly 
superior in numbers, and consequently in extent ; and the 
brigadier, in momentary expectation of the Brunswickers, 
had laterally drawn from his left to support his right. At 
this critical moment Gen. Riedesel, who had pressed on 
upon hearing the firing, arrived with the foremost of his 
columns, viz., the chasseurs company and eighty grenadiers 
and light infantry. His judgment immediately pointed to 
him the course to take. He extended upon Brigadier 
Fraser's left flank. The chasseurs got into action with 
great gallantry under Major Barney. They [the Ameri- 
cans] fled on all sides, leaving dead upon the field Col. 
Francis and many other officers, with upward of two hun- 
dred men. Above six hundred were wounded, of 
whom perished in the woods attempting to get ofi', and one 
colonel, seven captains, ten subalterns, and two hundred and 
ten men were made prisoners. Above two hundred stands 
of arms were also taken. 

" The number of the enemy before the engagement 
amounted to two thousand men. The British detachment 
under Brig.-Gen. Fraser (the parties left the day before at 
Ticonderoga not having been able to join) consisted only of 
eight hundred and fifty fighting men." 


The fort at Ticonderoga was built by the French in 1756, 
and taken from them by Gen. Audierst in 1759. Early in 
1775 it was taken from the British by Col. Ethan Allen, 
and upon the approach of Burgoyne was garrisoned by an 
army of three thousand Ameiican troops under command 
of Gen. St. Clair. It was looked upon as one of the strongest 
posts in North America, and the colonists confidently hoped 
and expected that it was a perfect bar to Burgoyne's further 
progress. But there was a fatal error in its situation, which 

had been entirely overlooked or ignored by both the French 
and American engineers. A little to the south of it was a 
high rounded eminence — now known as Mount Defiance, 
then called Sugar Hill — which commanded every corner of 
the fort. The Americans had supposed it to be impossible to 
occupy this point with cannon, but the keen military eye of 
Gen. Fraser, long trained in the artillery practice of Europe, 
saw at a glance the overshadowing importance of the posi- 
tion. On the 5th of July, Gen. Fraser, at the head of his 
light infantry, to the utter astonishment of Gen. St. Clair, 
appeared in force on the top of Sugar Hill, clearing the 
ground on the top for the purpose of planting his cannon. 
The Americans saw at once their fatal error, and compre- 
hending the full danger of the situation, evacuated the fort 
in the night time, and at the break of day on the Gth of 
July the English colors again waved over Ticonderoga. 

Bitter was the disappointment of the colonists at the fall 
of this fort. The order to evacuate was received in the 
fort with curses and with tears, but there was no alternative. 
Mount Defiance was already covered with red-coats, planting 
the batteries that would soon sweep every corner of their 
works. "Such a retreat," wrote one of the garrison, " was 
never heard of since the creation of the world." " We 
never shall hold a post," said John Adams, " until we shoot 
a general." Burgoyne wrote home : " They seem to have 
expended great treasure and the unwearied labor of more 
than a year to fortify, upon the supposition that we .should 
only attack them upon the point where they were best pre- 
pared to resist." Upon the receipt of the news in England', 
the king rushed into the queen's apartment, crying, " I 
have beat them — I have beat all the Americans;" and Lord 
George Germain announced the event in parliament as if it 
had already decided the fate of the colonies. After the 
fall of Ticonderoga, slowly and sullenly the Americans, 
under command of Gen. Philip Schuyler, retreated towards 
Fort Edward on the Hudson, fighting the bloody battles of 
Hubbardstown and Fort Ann on the way. On the 28th 
of July, Burgoyne arrived at the Hudson river, near Fort 
Edward, and the Americans evacuated that fort as well as 
Fort George, at the head of Lake George, and retreating 
down the river to Stillwater left the whole upper valley of 
the Hudson above Saratoga in the indisputable possession 
of the victorious British general. The darkest day of the 
campaign to the Americans had now eome, but it proved to 
be the darkness which always precedes the early dawn. 

Great blame fell upon St. Clair, and greater still upon 
Gen. Schuyler, and it was not until the fiict became apparent 
that Congress had neglected to garrison and provision Mount 
Independence and Port Ticonderoga, that the public clamor 
against these brave and magnanimous officers subsided. 
Tieondei'oga had been evacuated by the unanimous vote of 
a full council of war ; yet there were some who boasted that 
they could tell when that fortress was sold and for how 
much, while others asserted that Schuyler and St. Clair had 
both been bribed by Burgoyne, who, it was said, had fired 
silver bullets into the fort, which were gathered by order of 
St. Clair and divided between him and Schuyler. One 
hundred and twenty-eight cannon were lost on that occasion, 
yet that number, like Falstaft's men, who grew from two to 
eleven, was examerated to three hundred. There were no 



artillerymen either slain or captured at that time, but the 
report was current tliat not one of them had escaped. 

Schuyler's proclamation. 

Soon after Burgoyne had issued his grandiloquent pro- 
clamation, he on the 10th of July issued anotlier, addressed 
particularly to the inhabitants of Castleton, Hubbardton, 
Rutland, Inmouth, Pawlet, Wells, Granville, and of the 
neighboring districts, also to the people living in the dis- 
tricts bordering on White Creek, Camdden, Cambridge, 
etc., calling on them to send from each town a deputation 
of ten men to meet Col. Skene five days thence at Castle- 
ton, in order to secure from him further encouragement, if 
they had acknowledged allegiance to Great Britain, or, if 
they had not, to hear the conditions " upon which the per- 
sons and properties of the disobedient" might yet be spared. 
In answer to this, Gen. Schuyler, on the 13th of July, ad- 
dressed a counter-proclamation to the same people, in 
which, after referring to the scenes which had not long be- 
fore been witnessed in New Jersey, when the deluded in- 
habitants, who had confided in British promises, had been 
treated with the most wanton barbarity, he announced to 
them that those who should "join with or in any manner 
or way assist or give comfort or hold correspondence with, 
or take protection from the enemy," would be considered 
and dealt with as traitors to the United States. 

Many not only refused to notice the warning of Schuyler, 
but voluntarily remained " within the power of the enemy," 
and were obliged " to wear a signal in their hats, and put 
signals before their doors, and also upon their catties' horns, 
that they were friends to the king and had stayed on their 
farms agreeable to Gen. Burgoyne's proclamation." These 
were known as " protectioners," and in subsequent years 
suffered many indignities from their neighbors by reason of 
their Toryism on this occasion. 


Although terribly grieved on account of the faihire at 
Ticonderoga, Gen. Schuyler was indefatigable in his en- 
deavors to restore confidence to the country which was 
being foraged and ravaged by Burgoyne's forces, and to 
learn from prisoners and deserters the condition of Bur- 
goyne's army. As an instance of the care exercised by 
this brave soldier, even when surrounded by trials of the 
severest nature, the following letter, never before published, 
will serve as a specimen. It was written to Col. John 
Williams, of White Creek, in answer to a letter of Williams 
sent by a lieutenant who had in charge a suspicious person 
named Baker, who had been captured by Williams, and is 
in these words : 

"Fort Eow.iRD, .July 14, 1777. 
"Sir, — Your note of this day has been delivered nie by Lieutenant 
Young. I have e.xamined Mr. Baker and found hiui trii)piug in so 
many things that I am clearly convinced he is an agent of the enemy, 
and sent not only to give intelligence, but to intimidate the inhabitants 
and intluce them to join the enemy. I have closely contincd him, 
and shall send him down the country. lie informs me that one John 
Foster is also gone to the enemy and, as he supposes he will be back 
in a day or two, I beg he may be made prisoner and sent to me under 
a good guard. You must furnish your militia with provisions in tiie 
best manner you can, and the allowance will be made for it. I have 
scouts out in every quarter, and a large body at Fort Ann, and, until 

they come away, I am not apprehensive that an attack will be made 
on White Creek. It would bo the height of imprudence to disperse 
my army into difterent quarters, unless tlicre is the most evident 
necessity. * I am, sir, your most humble servant, 

" Ph. Sciihyler. 
"Colonel Williams." 


Slowly and cautiously did Burgoyne proceed in his ad- 
vance. On the 7th of July his head(|uarters were at 
Skenesborough, at the residence of Gen. Philip Skene, 
where they remained until the 25th of that month, when 
they were moved forward to Fort Ann. On the 29th they 
were advanced to the camp at Pitch Pine Plains, near 
Fort Edward, and the following day Burgoyne watered his 
horses in the Hudson at Fort Edward, and the best period 
of his campaign was over. 




The second period of the Burgoyne campaign opens in 
the darkest hour of the American cause. The progress of 
the British army down along the old war-trail of the great 
northern valley had thus far been a series of triumphs. The 
Americans had been dislodged from their stronghold at Ti- 
conderoga, where they had fondly liojied that the tide of in- 
vasion could be stayed, and, defeated in every action, and 
driven from post to post, had virtually abandoned the field 
of the upper Hudson. Not a single ray of light had yet 
illumined the gloom that had settled over every American 
home in the land. 

It was in this dark hour of the deepest despondency that 
an event occurred on the banks of the Hudson, at Fort Ed- 
ward, of itself of seeming insignificance, — simply the death 
of a single maiden caused by savage hands, — yet really one 
of those important events which, in the hands of a wise, 
overruling Providence, are destined to mark a turning- 
point, — the beginning of a new era, as it were, — in the 
world's destiny. 

The defeat of Burgoyne in this campaign resulted in the 
final success of the American arms and in the independence 
of the colonies. Burgoyne could date the beginning of his 
disasters with the murder of the maiden, Jeanie McCrea, 
near Fort Edward, by his savage allies, at noon on Sunday, 
July 27, 1777. It was but ten days after, on the tith of 
August following, that Gen. Herkimer, on the bloody field 
of Oriskany, turned back St. Leger in his raid down the 
Mohawk valley, and it was only ten days after the last 
event, on August IG, that Gen. Stark captured, near Ben- 
nington, an important detachment sent from the left wing 
of the British army on a foraging expedition under Major 

About the year 17G8 two Scotch families — -the McCreas 
and the Joneses — came from New Jersey and settled in the 
woods on the wild western bank of the Hudson, near and 
I below Fort Edward. 



The Widow Jones came with a family of six grown-up 
sons, whose names were Jonathan, Jolin, Dunliam, Daniel, 
David, and Solomon. The Joneses took up the fiirm now 
known as the Roger place, in Jloreau, nearly opposite Fort 
Edward, being but a mile and a half or so below, and kept 
a ferry there, then called, and after the war long known, 
as the Jones' ferry. 

The McCreas settled three or four miles farther down the 
river, not far from the line of Northumberland. Jeanie 
McCrea was the daughter of a Scotch Presbyterian minis- 
ter, and her mother having died and her father married 
again, she came to reside with her brother, John McCrea, 
on the bank of the Hudson, and thus became a pioneer in 
the settlement of the old north wilderness. The McCrea 
brothers were strong adherents of the American cause, and 
men of standing and influence in the neighborhood. In 
1773 lier brother, Daniel McCrea, was the first clerk of the 
first court held in Charlotte county, by Judge Duer, at Fort 
Edward, and when the first two regiments — the Twelfth and 
Thirteenth of Albany county militia-men — were commis- 
sioned by the committee of safety, in 1775, her brother, 
John IMcCrca, was given the important post of colonel com- 
manding in the Thirteenth or Saratoga Regiment. 

But the Joneses adhered to the royal cause. One of 
them — John — was married, and when the war broke out was 
settled three miles north of Sandy Hill, at what is now 
called Moss street, near whose house General Fraser was 
encamped at the time of the tragedy. 

In the fall of 1770, Jonathan and David Jones raised a 
company of fifty men under pretext of roiiilorcing the 
American garrison at Ticonderoga, but on their march they, 
passed by the American ford and joined the British at Crown 
Point, fifteen miles farther down the lake. 

In the winter following Jonathan and David Jones both 
went to Canada, and were commissioned in the British ser- 
vice, — Jonathan as captain and David as lieutenant in the 
same company, — and, at the time of the inva.sion, they ac- 
companied the army of Burgoyne as pilots and guides 
against their own countrymen. 

In the summer of 1777, Jeanie McCrea was about twenty- 
three years of age, of middling stature, finely formed, dis- 
tinguished for the profuseness of her dark and shining 
hair, and celebrated for her more than common beauty. 
Tradition says that between her and young David Jones a 
tender intimacy had sprung up before they left New Jersey, 
which was continued after they settled on the Hudson, and 
rudely interrupted by the stern events of partisan warfare. 

The reader will bear in mind that Burgoyne had broken 
up his headquarters at Whitehall on the 25th of July, and 
on the 2Gth his advanced corps was encamped on the 
" Pitch Pine Plains," four miles north of Fort Edward. 

It should also be borne in mind that at that time all the 
inhabitants in the vicinity of Fort Edward had either 
moved down the river for a place of safety, or, if remaining, 
had sought protection of Burgoyne, and that there then 
was only a small garrison of American troops left at Fort 
Edward, who also moved down the river the morning after 
Joanie's death. 

But Jeanie, although admonished by her bruther. Col. 
John, to go down the river, still remained near Fort Edward. 

Womanlike, her heart was with the young lieutenant in 
the ranks of the rapidly-advancing invaders, and woman- 
like she lingered to await his coming. 

On the day before her death she proceeded up the river, 
and crossed over at Jones' ferry. The old ferryman, after 
the war, often spoke of how well she looked, dressed, as he 
expressed it, in her wedding clothes. 

After crossing the river, Jeanie went to the house of 
Peter Freel (the old " Baldwin house"), which stood close 
under the walls of the fort, where she stayed overnight. 
After breakfast the next morning she went to the house 
of Mrs. McNiel, which stood about eighty rods north of 
the fort on the main road leading to Sandy Hill. 

Mrs. McNiel had been a warm fi'iend of Jeanie's father 
in New Jer.sey, and was a cousin of Gen. Fraser, of the 
British army, and was doubtless then about to seek his 
protection, otherwise she would have many days before 
gone down the river. 

On the fatal morning — Sunday, the 27th day of July — 
our people at the fort had sent out a scouting-party of 
fifty men, under command of Lieut. Palmer, to ascertain 
the position and watch the motions of the enemy. This 
party had followed the plain to a deep ravine about a mile 
north of the fort, where they fell into an ambuscade, or 
met a party of about two hundred Indians, who were on a 
maurauding excursion. The Americans at once turned 
and fled for their lives towards the fort. The Indians pur- 
sued, and shot down and scalped eighteen of their number, 
including the commander. Lieutenant Palmer. The Amer- 
icans rushed off from the plain, down the hill, and across 
the mtirsh near the river, and such as escaped returned to 
the jirotecting walls of the fort. Tlie Indians shot Lieut. 
Palmer near the brow of the hill, and killed the last private 
still nearer the fort. 

At the foot of the hill the main body of the Indians 
halted, and six of them rushed forward across the low 
ground to the house of Mrs. McNiel. There the Indians 
found Mrs. McNiel and Jeanie, and seizing them both 
hurried tliem as captives across the low ground over which 
they had come to the foot of the hill, where they joined 
the main body of the savages. At the foot of the hill 
they placed Jeanie on a horse, and began their march with 
the two captive women and the scalps of the eighteen 
soldiers towards Eraser's camp. All their motions were 
intently watched by the people at the fort, and the Indians 
had scarcely reached the hill when the report of some guns 
was heard and Jeanie was seen to fall from her horse. It 
was but the work of a moment for the scalping-knife, and 
the dark flowing locks of poor Jeanie were dangling all 
blood-stained at the belt of an Indian chief Her body 
was stripped and dragged out of sight of the fort, and the 
Indians, with Mrs. McNiel, proceeded on their way to the 
British camp. 

That day no one dared to leave the fort. The next 
morning the Americans evacuated Fort Edward and passed 
down the river. Before going, however, they sent a file of 
men in search of the body of Jeanie, and found it near the 
body of Lieut. Palmer, about twenty rods from where 
she had fallen the day before. The bodies were both taken 
to the fort, and then sent with a small detachment of men 



in advance of the main body of retreating Americans to the 
ni:;lit bunk of a small creek, about three miles below Fort 
Edward, where they were buried in rude and hasty graves. 

It is but just to say that another version of the actual 
manner of Jeanie's death has come down to us, which 
finds advocates at the present day. 

It should be remembered that at the time of Jeanie's 
death party spirit ran wild, and both parties did not scruple 
to exaggerate facts in their own favor. While Gen. Gates 
seized upon the incident of this tragedy to inflame the pas- 
sions of the Whigs, the Loyalists endeavored to make as 
light as possible of the matter. The other version of the 
matter above alluded to seems to have originated with those 
who, at th(> time, sympathized with the royal cause, and of 
course wished to extenuate the matter as much as possible. 
The other account is that the Indians were in turn, after 
they had taken the two women from the house, pursued by 
the American troops from the fort, and fired on ; that 
Jeanic was struck by two or three balls from the American 
guns, and not shot by the Indians at all. That after she 
fell, pierced by American bullets, she was scalped by the 
Indian and left dead, as above related. But this account 
seems to lack the confirmation of eye-witnesses, especially 
eye-witnesses among the retreating party of savages them- 
selves. Mrs. McNeil did not know that Jeanie w;is killed 
till after she had reached Eraser's camp. On their way to 
Eraser's camp the Indians stopped at William (jrifSn's, and, 
showing their scalps, said they had killed Jeanie. 

But what .seems the strongest evidence of the truth of 
the version first given above is the manner in which Gen. 
Burgoyne treated the subject. Upon hearing of the affair 
Burgoyne was very angry. He called a council of the 
Indians, and demanded that the Indian who had killed 
Jeanie should be given up, that he might be punished as 
his crime deserved. Now, if the Indians had not killed 
Jeanie, and she had been accidentally shot by the pursuing 
Americans, they, the Indians, would have said so. In 
truth there would have been no culprit among them to 
punish. They themselves were the only ones Burgoyne 
could learn the facts of the case from, and after hearing 
their version of the case, Burgoyne demanded a culprit to 
hang. But Burgoyne's officers, fearing the defection of 
the Indians, persuaded him to change his mind and let the 
culprit go. 

In confirmation of what Gen. Burgoyne did on the occa- 
sion is the following extract from the testimony of the Earl 
of Harrington, who was a witness before the committee of 
the British House of Commons during its inquiry into the 
failure of the Burgoyne campaign, at London, in the year 

"Queslion. Does your lordship remember Gen, Bur- 
goyne's receiving at Fort Anne the news of the murder of 
MLss McCrea ?" 

"■Answer. I do." 

"Q. Did Gen. Burgoyne repair immediately to the In- 
dian camp and call them to council, assisted by Brig.-Gen. 

"A. He did." 

* See Burgoyne's State of the E.\pedititni, pa^e fifi. 

" Q. What passed at that council ?" 

"A. Gen. Burgoyne threatened the culprit with death, 
insisted that he should be delivered up, and there were 
many gentlemen of the army, and I own I was one of the 
number, who feared that he would put that threat in execu- 
tion. Motives of policy, I believe, alone prevented hitn 
from it; and if he had not pardoned the man, which he did, 
I believe the total desertion of the Indians would have 
ensued, aiid the consequences, on their return through 
Canada, might have been dreadful, not to speak of the 
weight they would have thrown into the opposite scale had 
they gone over to the enemy, which I rather imagine would 
have been the case." 

"Q. Do you remember Gen. Burgoyne's restraining tlio 
Indian parties from going out without a British officer 
or proper conductor, who were to be responsible for their 
behavior ?" 

"A. I do." 

"Q. Do you remember Mr. St. Luc's reporting discontent 
among the Indians soon after our arrival at Fort Edward ?" 

"A. I do." 

" Q. How long was that after enforcing the restraints 
above mentioned ?" 

"^4. I can't exactly say ; I should imagine about three 
weeks or a month." 

" Q. Does your lordship recollect Gen. Burgoyne's telling 
Mr. St. Luc that he had rather lose every Indian than 
connive at their enormities, or using language to that 

",1. I do." 

"Q. Does your lordship remember what pa.ssed in council 
with the Indians at Fort Edward?" 

"^4. To the best of my recollection much the same ex- 
hortation to act with humanity, and much the same rewards 
were offered for saving their j)risoners." 

"Q. Do you recollect the circumstance of the Indians 
desiring to return home at that time? " 

"A. I do, perfectly well." 

" Q. Do you remember that many quitted the army 
without leave ?" 

"^4. I do, immediately after the council and the next 

" Q. Was it not the general opinion that the desertion of 
the Indians, then and afterwards, were caused by the restraint 
upon their cruelties and habits of plunder?" 

"A. It was." 

This testimony was given, it should be remembered, by 
the earl only two years after the affair occurred, and the 
matter could not have been otherwise than fresh in his 

Burgoyne's statement of the affair was that after Jeanie 
had been taken by one band of Indians, another band 
coming up claimed her, and to settle the dispute one of the 
Indians killed her on the spot. If this be true, of couive 
there was a culprit in the This also was the belief of 
the family relatives of Jeanie ever after her death.* 

* See Silliman's Jour., second edition, and Charles Neilson's Bur- 
goyne's Campaign. As to the contlicting versions, see appendix to 
\Vm. L. Stone's Burgoyne Campaign, published in 1877, and author- 
ities there cited. 



To-day the modern village of Fort Edward stands on 
this classic ground, made famous by more than a century 
of forest warfare, and more than a hundred years of smiling 
peace have passed over the old "great carrying-place" of 
the wilderness. 

The old fort at tlie mouth of the crook, the barracks on 
the island in mid-river, the royal block-house upon the south 
bank of the river, have crumbled into ruins, aTid for a hun- 
dred and one summers the sweet wild-flowers have bloomed 
over the grave of Jeanie McCrea, the one maiden martyr 
of the American cause, wliose innocent blood, crying from 
the ground, aroused her almost despairing countrymen to 
renewed eifort to vengeance, and to final victory over the 
invader at hands her young life was ended. 


The affair at Oriskany, which took place in the upper 
Mohawk valley, while it exerted groat influence upon the 
fortunes of the campaign, was yet so fir away from Sara- 
toga, the subject of this work, that merely a passing notice 
seems appropriate to these pages. 

It was at Oriskany, on the 6th day of August, that the 
gallant Herkimer, the Palatine general, while on his march 
to the relief of Fort Stanwix, which was alre;idy invested 
by the British forces under Col. St. Leger, fell into the am- 
buscade prepared for him by Brant and his Mohawks, and 
Butler with his Tory rangers, and where his men met their 
old neighbors with whom they had been reared together on 
the banks of the Mohawk in a hand-to-hand conflict, each 
dying in the other's arms in the terrible rage of battle. But 
the aft'air at Bennington, occurring as it did in an adjoining 
county, needs something more at our hands. 

In the concerted instructions prepared for Baum for what 
was known as " a secret expedition to the Connecticut river," 
the name Bennington was not mentioned, yet there is no 
doubt that Bennington was the first objective point of the 
expedition. It was known to Burgoyne that the Americans 
had formed there " a considerable depot of cattle, cows, 
horses, and wheel carriages, most of which were drawn 
across the Connecticut river from the provinces of New 
England; and as it was understood to be guarded by a party 
of militia only, an attempt to surprise it seemed by no 
means unjustifiable." Some time after the battle, and after 
his return to England, Burgoyne w;is blamed because he 
had sent out Baum with instructions which did not apply 
to Bennington, and that the destination of the expedition 
had then been changed. To this charge Burgoyne replied 
as follows: 

'• But it still may be said the expedition was not orig- 
inally designed against Bennington. I really do not .see to 
what it would tend against me, if that supposition were in 
a great degree admitted. That some part of the force was 
designed to act there, will not be dL-^puted by any who read 
Col. Baum's instructions and consult the map. The blame 
or merit of the design altogether must rest upon the motives 
of expediency ; and it is of little conseijuenoo whether the 
first and principal direction was Bennington or Ar- 
lington, or any other district, as my intelligence might have 
varied respecting the deposits of corn and cattle of the 
enemy. At the same time I must observe it is begging the 

question to argue that Bennington was not the real, orig- 
inal object, because Bennington was not mentioned in the 
draft of instructions. A man must indeed be void of mili- 
tary and political address to put upon a paper a critical 
design, where surprise was in question, and everything de- 
pended upon secrecy. Thciugh it were true that I meant 
only Benniugton, and thought of nothing less than the 
progress of the expedition in the extent of the order, I 
certainly would not now aflirm it, because I could not prove 
it, and because it would seem that I searched for remote 
and obscure justification, not relying upon that which was 
manifest ; but surely there is nothing new or improbable in 
the idea that a general should disguise his real intentions 
at the outset of an expedition, even from the oflicer whom 
he appointed to execute them, provided a communication 
with that oflScer was certain and not remote." 


The instructions to Baum commenced by stating that 
the object of the expedition was "to try the aflections of 
the country ; to disconcert the councils of the enemy ; to 
mount the lliedesol's dragoons ; to complete Peters' corps, 
and to obtain large supplies of cattle, horses, and carriages." 
He was ordered to proceed from Batten Kill to Arlington, 
and take post there till the detachment of the Provincials 
under Capt. Sherwood should join him. Then lie was to 
go to Manchester and secure the pass of the mountains on 
the road from Manchester to Rockingham, on the Connecti- 
cut river, and send the Indians of the party and the light 
troops towards Otter creek. On their return, in case he 
.should hear that there was no enemy in force on Connecti- 
cut river, he was to go by the road over the mountains to 
Rockingham, and there, at the most distant part of the 
expedition, take post. If prudent, the Indians and light 
troops were to be sent up the Connecticut, and on their re- 
turn, the force was to descend the river to Brattleborough, 
and thence proceed by the quickest march " by the great 
road to Albany." They were to bring in all hor,ses fit to 
mount the dragoons or to serve as bat-horses ; also saddles, 
bridles, " wagons and other convenient carriages," draught 
oxen, all cattle fit for slaughter except milch cows, which 
were to be left for the use of the inhabitants. Receipts for 
articles taken for the use of the troops were to be given to 
such persons as had remained in their habitations and other- 
wise complied with the terms of Burgoyne's manifesto, but 
not to rebels. 

Particular directions were also given as to the disposition 
of the force, and people were to bo led to believe that the 
force was the advanced corps of the army on the road to 
Boston, and that the main army from Albany was to be 
joined at Springfield by a corps of troops from Rhode 
Island. A wholesome dread of Col. Warner doubtless 
led to the introduction of this passage in the instruc- 
tions : " It is highly probable that the corps under Mr. 
Warner, now supposed to be at Manchester, will retreat 
before you ; but should they, contrary to expectation, be 
able to collect in great force and post themselves advan- 
tageously, it is left to your discretion to attack them or not ; 
always bearing in mind that your corps is too valuable to 
let any considonible loss be hazarded on this occasion." 



Preparations having been thus completed, at five o'clock 
on the morning of August 12, Col. Baum set out from 
Saratoga with lii.s command, which consisted of his two 
hundred dragoons, the Canadian rangers, a detachment of 
provincials, about one hundred Indians, and Capt. Eraser's 
marksmen, with two pieces of small cannon, numbering in 
all about five hundred men. He was a!.so accompanied by 
Col. Philip Skene, who joined the expedition by the 
special request of Burgoyne, in order that he might give 
advice to Banin " upon all matters of intelligence." Having 
marched a mile, Bauni received a dispatch from Burgoyne 
to post his force advantageously on the Batteukill till he 
.should receive fresh in.'itructions. Continuing his march, 
he reached the Battenkill at about four o'clock in the 
afternoon and encamped there. At about eleven o'clock 
the same night he was reinforced by a company of fifty 
clia.sseurs, sent forward by Gen. Burg03'ne. By four 
o'clock the next morning the whole body were again in 
motion, and, after a march of sixteen miles, reached Cam- 
bridge at four o'clock in the evening, having had a few 
skirmishes with the Americans, and having taken some 
cattle, carts, wagons and horses, and having also received 
the disagreeable intelligence that the Americans were about 
eighteen hundred strong at Bennington. On the morning 
of the 14th the little army were on the march long before 
sunrise. As they approached the northern branch of the 
Hoosick river, a party of Americans were discovered in 
front of the farm of " Saiikoick," who, on the approach of 
the, took to the underwood, whence they fired on 
the British until they were dislodged. On their retreat 
they abandoned a mill which they previously fortified, and 
broke down the •' bridge of Sankoick." 


A considerable quantity of provisions was left in the 
mill, and after the bridge had been repaired, Baum sta- 
tioned a proper force to guard them both, and that night 
"bivouacked at the farm of Walmscott, about four miles 
from Sankoick and three from Bennington." This farm 
lay upon both banks of the Walloomsac, and was occupied 
at this time by six or eight log huts, scattered here and there 
over its narrow expanse of cultivated ground. 

Heavy rains fell on the morning of the 15th, accompa- 
nied with a " perfect hurricane of wind." which rendered 
the shelter of the farm-buildings very grateful to the forces 
of Baum. Soon, however, shooting was heard at the ad- 
vanced sentry posts, whereupon Baum sent forth the pro- 
vincials, supported by Fraser's marksmen, to assist the 
pickets. It was then discovered that the Indians were 
threatened by a body of American militia. On the ap- 
proach of the British, the Indian allies uttered a yell, 
which seemed to hue an effect upon the Americans, who 
soon after retired. The Americans advanced a number of 
times during the day, but the weather was so stormy, and 
the rain fell so incessantly, that no effective service could 
be performed by either party of an offen.sive nature. 

During the remainder of the day Baum was engaged in 
strengthening the position he had taken. To the left of 
the '■ farm of Walmscott" was a height which he hastened 

to occupy. " He posted here the dragoons, with a portion 
of the marksmen on their right, in rear of a little zigzag 
breastwork composed of logs and loose earth. Such of the 
detached houses as came within the compass of his posi- 
tion he filled with Canadians, supporting them with 
detachments of chasseurs and grenadiers, likewise in- 
trenched behind breastworks ; and he kept the whole, with 
the exception of about a hundred men, on the north side 
of the stream, holding the woods upon his flanks in his 
front and rear by the Indians." Such was the situation 
of affairs when the night of the 15lh of August closed 
around Baum and his faithful dragoons. 


We cannot give a better description of the battle of 
Bennington than is to be found in the following extract from 
the narrative of Glieh, one of Lieut. -Col. Baum's ofiicers. 
Among other things it pays a decided compliment to the 
bravery and dash of Gen. Stark, who so distinguished him- 
self on the occasion : 

" The morning of the IGth rose beautifully serene. The 
storm of the preceding day having expended itself, not a 
cloud was left to darken the face of the heavens ; whilst 
the very leaves hung motionless, and the long grass waved 
not, under the influence of a perfect calm. Ever3' object 
around, too, appeared to peculiar advantage ; for the fields 
looked green and refreshed, the river was swollen and 
tumultuous, and the branches were all loaded with dew- 
drops, which glittered in the sun's early rays like so many 
diamonds. Nor would it be to imagine any scene 
more rife with peaceful and even pastoral beauty. Looking 
down from the summit of the rising ground, I beheld im- 
mediately beneath me a wide sweep of stately forest, inter- 
rupted at remote intervals by green meadows or yellow 
corn-fields, whilst here and there a cottage, a shed, or some 
other primitive edifice reared its head as if for the 
purpose of reminding the spectator that man bad bsgun 
his inroads upon nature, without, as yet, taking away from 
her simplicity and grandeur. I hardly recollect a scene 
which struck me at the moment more forcibly, or which 
has left a deeper or more lasting impression on my memory. 

"I have said that the morning of the IGth rose beauti- 
fully serene, and it is not to the operations of the elements 
alone that my expression applies. All was perfectly quiet 
at the outposts, not an enemy h.aving been seen, nor an 
alarming sound heard for several hours previous to sunrise. 
So peaceable, indeed, was the aspect which matters bore, 
that our leaders felt warmly disposed to resume the offen.sive, 
without waiting the arrival of the additional corps for which 
they had applied, and orders were already issued for the 
men to eat their breakfasts, preparatory to more active oper- 
ations. But the arms were scarcely piled, and the haver- 
sacks unslung, when .symptoms of a state of affairs different 
from that which had been anticipated began to show them- 
selves, and our people were recalled to their ranks in all 
haste, almost as soon as they had (piitted them. From 
more than one quarter scouts came in to report that col- 
umns of armed men were approaching; though whether 
with a friendly or hostile intention, neither their appearance 
nor actions enabled our informants to ascertain. 



" It lias been stated tliat during the last day's march 
our little corps was joined by many of the country people, 
most of whom demanded and obtained arms, as persons 
friendly to the royal cause. How Col. Baum became so 
completely duped as to place reliance on these men I know 
not ; but having listened with complacency to their previous 
assurances that in Bennington a large majority of the popu- 
lace were our friends, he was, somehow or other, persuaded 
to believe that the armed bands, of whose approach he was 
warned, were loyalists, on their way to make a tender of 
their services to the leader of the king's troop. Filled 
with this idea, he dispatched positive orders to the outposts 
that no molestation should be offered to the advancing col- 
umns ; but that the pickets retiring before them should 
join the main body, where every disposition was made to 
receive either friend or foe. Unfortunately for us, these 
orders were but too faithfully obeyed. About half-past nine 
o'clock, I, who was not in the secret, beheld, to my utter 
amazement, our advanced parties withdraw without firing a 
shot from thickets which- might have been maintained for 
hours against any superiority of numbers ; and the same 
thickets quickly occupied by men whose whole demeanor, 
as well as their dress and style of equipment, plainly and in- 
contestably pointed them out as Americans. 

" I cannot pretend to describe the state of excitation 
and alarm into which our little band was now thrown. 
With the solitary exception of our leader, there was not a 
man amongst us who appeared otherwise than satisfied that 
those to whom he had listened were traitors; and, that 
unless some prompt and vigorous measures were adopted, 
their treachery would be crowned with its full reward. 
Capt. Fraser, in particular, seemed strongly imbued with 
the conviction that we were willfully deceived. He pointed 
out, in plain language, the extreme improbability of the 
story which these desertere had told, and warmly urged our 
chief to withdraw his confidence from them ; but all his 
arguments proved fruitless. Col. Baum remained con- 
vinced of their fidelity. He saw no reason to doubt that 
the people, whose approach excited so much apprehension, 
were the same of whose arrival he had been forewarned ; 
and he was prevented from placing himself entirely in their 
power only by the positive refusal of his followers to obey 
orders given to that effect, and the rash impetuosity of the 

" We might have stood about half an hour under arms, 
watching the proceedings of a column of four or five hun- 
dred men, who, after dislodging the pickets, had halted just 
at the edge of the open country, when a sudden trampling 
of feet in the forest on our right, followed by the report of 
several muskets, attracted our attention. A patrol was in- 
stantly sent in the direction of the sound, but before the 
party composing it had proceeded many yards from the lines, 
a loud shout, followed by a rapid though straggling fire of 
musketry, warned us to prepare for a meeting the reverse 
of friendly. Instantly the Indians came pouring in, carry- 
ing dismay and confusion in their countenances and gestures. 
We were surrounded on all sides; columns were advancing 
everywhere against us, and those whom we had hitherto 
treated as friends had only waited till the arrival of their 
support might justify them in advancing. There was no 

falsehood in these reports, though made by men who spoke 
rather from their fears than their knowledge. The column 
in our front no sooner heard the shout than they replied 
cordially and loudly to it; then, firing a volley with de- 
liberate and murderous aim, rushed furiou.sly toward us. 
Now then at length our leader's dreams of security were 
dispelled. He found himself attacked in front and flank by 
thrice his numbers, who pressed forward with the confidence 
which our late proceedings were calculated to produce; 
whilst the very persons in whom he had trusted, and to 
whom he had given arms, lost no time in turning them 
against him. These fellows no sooner heard their comrades 
cry, than they deliberately discharged their muskets amongst 
Eiedesel's dragoons, and dispersing before any steps could 
be taken to seize them, escaped, with the exception of one 
or two, to their friends. 

" If Col. Baum had permitted himself to be duped into a 
great error, it is no more than justice to confess that he ex- 
erted himself manfully to remedy the evil and avert its con- 
sequences. Our little band, which had hitherto remained 
in column, was instantly ordered to extend, and the troops 
lining the breastworks replied to the fire of the Americans 
with extreme celerity and considerable effect. So close and 
destructive, indeed, was our first volley, that the assailants 
recoiled before it, and would have retreated, in all proba- 
bility, within the woods ; but ere we could take advantage 
of the confusion produced, fresh attacks developed them- 
selves, and we were warmly engaged on every side, and from 
all quarters. It became evident that each of our detached 
posts was about to be assailed at the same instant. Not 
one of our dispositions had been concealed from the enemy, 
who, on the contrary, seemed to be aware of the exact number 
of men stationed at each point, and they were one and all 
threatened by a force perfectly adequate to bear down opposi- 
tion, and yet by no means disproportionately large or such as 
to render the main body ineflttcient. All, moreover, was done 
with the sagacity and coolness of veterans, who perfectly 
understood the nature of the resistance to be expected 
and the difficulties to be overcome, and who having well 
considered and matured their plans, were resolved to carry 
them into execution at all hazards and at every expense of 

" It was at this moment, when the heads of columns began 
to show themselves in rear of our right and left, that the 
Indians, who had hitherto acted with spirit and something 
like order, lost all confidence and fled. Alarmed at the 
prospect of having their retreat cut off, they stole away 
after their own fashion, in single files, in .spite of the 
strenuous remonstrances of Baum and of their own officers, 
leaving us more than ever exposed by the abandonment of 
that angle of the intienchment which they had been ap- 
pointed to maintain. But even this spectacle, distressing 
as it doubtless was, failed in affecting our people with a 
feeling at all akin to despair. The vacancy which the 
retreat of the savages occasioned was promptly filled up by 
one of our two field-pieces, whilst the other poured de- 
struction among the enemy in front as often as they showed 
themselves in the open country or threatened to advance. 

" In this state things continued upwards of threo-quai*- 
ters of an hour. Though repeatedly assailed in front. 



faaks, ami rear, «e maiataaed oaiseh-es whk 90 
•jkoBacy as to ia^iie a ha|ie tkc tk ew^J- w^t erea 
j>«t k k£(!C as baj t3 ife aniTil «f Vt^^mamm's esapa, aov 
-wimiiflr f-Tji»rtpd. vk^aa Mt i k at rnxmuvi vki^ at 

Afi»H>l i g to o« fete. TW 3cBt«T flwfl wfciA ttm- 

aadView ap viA a vieleaee «UA sfcook ifeiayvroaad 

botk oaoaradeaaddntof ^^KMT. Bm^csbMhw 

Ae east of oar eafaairr. ckeexed tbeir m^ oa io fie^ 
TVt Tasked mf (be seeat viik redoalikd 
- ia ^ite e£ tke hearr rofln- aUeii «« poaied ia to 
Aetk tb^B. aad, iaJi a g oar saas aleat. Aey ^nms^ff'er 
At fanfeK aad JrWJ aakia oar wotfcs. For a Sew 
zammAj tW seeae aiaA e^aed defie aEpoaeref faagai^ 
CO desmbe. Tke injaaeC, the bait of tke riSe, tke sib^ 
the pike, acre m £dl pb;^, aad bkb feO, s tk^jatdy&a 
the &eet Uoas of thdr 

he aimeed 9 
dea hdt«d fiir half I 

afioaooa, GoL SkeK, «b had bea 
•• BR^aHMa ai& aragfaes 

Bat each a ati^^ eodd aet, ia the aatare of dia^ be 
of loa^ -"■ "■■ ■■ ■ Oacaaadiaed, bnkea. aai 

ahat A-h >!ite tJ bj fasecxacs, amr |wn|>b' w a r a ed aad 
ftfl back, or Sm^ amdtj aad aaeoaaeeGnST. iffl t^ 
aaeatha- eatdoaa M theb- poBts, ohetiaMelj «b'6 a i liag 
theHselves, or f>pw|rfffnl to saneader. Of BiedeaeFs &- 
ma ma tf i iu e otms . tew smrtivei to tefl hov aoblr th^- 
had bcharaL CoL Bna, due thni^ the bod|^ br a 
lile^aL M Mrtsd;^ aaaaded, »d al Older aad £s|iCae 
biMg ket ta^ or ™l— i»i«- a^ aloae ihia^bi oL For 
Toiaap«t.aheAerthefeeBigargeeftoMde?ffritioa or 
aetidat I naaot tefl, bat I i^olred aot to be takea. As 
T«i I had «9aped afaaoet aahan, a d^ht MiA aoaad ia 
the kft ana havi^ ihar filV'a ta sj dnre, aad. gathfriag 
Jioaad Be aboaK thiitj of ^f rnradr-' a« Made a la^ 
whuL the eaoaj's ndks af pe aied aeakea, aad baiat 
This doae, eaA mam Hade haste to ^ifi far 
ithaat pa^ai^ to colder tdke naeof hisa^^ 
bar: aad, ka^ oae-tldid of oar aawlwr tnam At ea- 
(■■j^'s ire. &e leHaiader took r^Ke ia gmmfoe of two or 
tkee wiihia the Sxest." 

SBCOSD dat's BAmX- 

Smtk aas Ae eoafitka of tUac- 
Ttfleiicd tamets ao^ G^sa. Bans)*^ 
Aagaat la, at S o'clock, to start at 
of jageE, a bntfriBn a of chaMMij> 1 
eiaaoa to leufuiee de eoipB of Sa.- 
lied with Uh ^t^ 
after leeetnag ovdaE. I 

letcaam^ the BbcteakiL — 
to aade thro^^ the aatec — 
he aw ob&asd^to ens, ''tL 


zJ^ of 


ammg the way thro^^ the %aacaaee of 
able to proceed that day oalj to a poiat 
aeatoiy fioa Caabci^e, vheie he ea- 
im the a^t. ^j ca the wa^ of the 16A 
I aet oat, his hocees a^ed, aad onr nn& aboet 
proc tfc de d Terj sioalj oa hk aar. bat ob- 

tao o''dkMk ia the 
tlaaB,3eBt taa 
6m imm to detach aa 
ofieer aad taeatr Mea. aad aead dcai fiiraard to oeewpj 

, the -mdl as St. Coj^~ s the Afrirja- were ^oaiag 
s^^ of a dtjwfiag cm. it. Ia^tead of the face ad^ fir, 
B tqMJaa aeat &mtd CqK. Gkbeaka^ aid the adraaee 

' gaaid, «m i 4^iiw; cf axtr •teaafias aad chaseeais aad 
tasaty y^ets. Biermaaa bJMrlf aish the rest of hk 

' Mea. reached the wH ac hsifpas Star, aad fiiaad there 

I the adTaaes-gaard ia aa&taibed ptwypioa aad si3I aa- 

I atta^ed by the eaeay. 

i GoLSkeae,aho«Kat the ain ahoaBfejMa^ anirsd, 
iaSmaed hia thas Biam was oaly ta» latlr- ^■''■'■* bat 
ifhekaevof the&etthatBaaa^ abeady defealad £d 

' aot mwaaaii a< it to Br^Hiaa Had B iqiMjaa fcaoaa 

I the real state of the cks, he atadd aot hav« ikked the ea- 
fiJkiaed. BieyHaaa, dff iag k best to 
ftrand to ^eet Baaoa's eorps, aad Skeae beiag of 
the saMe opiaioa ,, both narked orrer the brid^ ia order to 
rea^ Bmb's oBp k suoa k p<iR=iMp TWy had goae 
amuJj 9x haadred paces tmm the bridge, ahea thro^^ 
theawds - a cna'iAiahle aairiia-af ai»ed Mca, mil of 
vhoH wore bkases aad soae jaeke^'' a«re aeea hasRui^ 
towaids aa twa i f i' oa Bii-jwiaa's I^ Saak. Bi^^aaa 
i—iillMilj cdled Skeae s Mteadoa to the mraMnhiarr. 
aad reeeived fiiaa hn the reply that these ^ea a\ere rey- 
afisis. Bat ahea Ski^ rode ^ tovsd th^ ^id cJIed BO 
Aeaa the Batter a^ aooa esplaiaed, far, ia^rad of recaia- 
i^ aa aasacr, th^ fred oa BteiBiaa's snldipis Theie- 
apoa Bieyaaaa ordored Buaer's hattalina to Bovetowarfe 
thehe^^t, ahSe the jaaeB aad ^eaafios adraaeed oa the 
risbt. Thea it a^ that the seeoad btcde b^aa, ahich 
lasted aatil aaily eeht o'clock ia the en^^^ The eaa- 
aoa posted oa a read aoetniaedoa ak^hoase oeeapaed 
by 90^ A^iaiea^ aheaee th^ were Saeed to ledie, aad 
as they ease oat they were r^iaked oa aD ades, abho^^ 
airiTed to aa|ipoct thoa. After Bi> jaiiaa's 
aD espeaded,aad hisaitiDay had ceased 
firi^ he, B aatiryitioa of the leaeaal of the attack, at- 
tcaipfeed to take aaay the caaaoa. By tte Boreaeat Bost 
of hisBea«ere9e!Tiaeiya«aaded. The hoiss aere either 
<kad or B a cowditkia which pmrtated th^ fioB BOfii^ 
&a^ the s|i«c. X-x daii^ to take aay faither li^, aad 
bei^ aaaUe to retara the eaesy's fire, he retreated oa the 
a|i|awth of daikaesB, d^trojed the bti^ at - St. Coyk,^ 
l au a ^ dither as Baay of the woaaded as poyWc that 
th^Mght aot be ea|itared, aad afio- the lapse of half aa 
hoar, ia eoaipaay with CoL Skeae, paisaed hk Btrch to 
Cnabrid^ whieh pfaee he nsai^ed a &tle before auda^t. 
After the battfe of B e aa ii^ toaaodiag of great iBpoittace 
o e cMiied to Bai^oyae till bis fiaal cnisii^ of the Hadsoa 
nnx, oa the 13th aad l-hh days of A^ast, dosed the 
seeoad poiod of hk e iBpii^.a- 

Dait^ aO thk tiae he bad beea cag^pd ia the teuoas 
iMiapaiiM of diaaiag hk j^iipfrg fioB I^ke Geoi^ K> 
the Ha&oa at Fort Edaard. 





As early as the 13th of Au;j;ust, the British army com- 
menced active operations witii the view of soon crossing the 
Hudson river. An advance was made down the east bank 
of the Hudson to the mouth of the Battenkill, and the 
army encamped nearly opposite what is now Schuylerville, 
— then called Saratoga. 

After the heavy detachment under Lieut. -Col. Baum was 
sent off through the woods to Bennington, of which a full 
account is given in the last chapter, a bridge of rafts was 
flung across the Hudson, over which, on the 14th of 
August, Gen. Fraser crossed with the advance corps of the 
army and encamped on the heights of Saratoga to await 
the return of Baum. But neither Baum nor his soldiers 
ever came back : and after the defeat of Baum at Bennina- 
ton, on the ICth of August, Gen. Fraser led his troops back 
again to the cast side of the Hudson, where the whole 
British army remained encamped till the final advance 
made in September. Meanwhile the Americans under 
Schuyler had left Stillwater and taken their stand on the 
islands at the mouth of the Mohawk, where, throwing up 
intrenchments, they awaited the appioach of the enemy. 

On the 19th of August Gen. Schuyler, New York's 
favorite general, was superseded in the command of the 
ContinenUil forces by Gen. Horatio Gates. Gen. Schuyler 
was removed iji consequence of the clamor raised over the 
surrender of Ticonderoga, for which it has been seen Gen. 
Schuyler was in nowise to blame. But nothing short of 
his removal from the head of the army would satisfy the 
disaffected, and the victory he had organized was snatched 
from his grasp and thrown to the hands of another just as 
he was on the point of receiving it. 

The fortunes of war were now turning decidedly in favor 
of the Americans. The defeat of Baum and the retreat of 
St. Leger had aroused the sinking hopes of the colonists, 
and, already flushed with victory, they flocked in crowds to 
the American camp. On the 23d of August, Col. Mor- 
gan's regiment of riflemen arrived in the American camp 
from Virginia. On the 8th of September, Gen. Gates left 
his encampment at the mouth of the Mohawk, and once 
more the Continental forces, now consisting of about six 
thousand men, marched up the Hudson to meet the invad- 
ing foe. Gen. Gates stopped in the first place near the 
present village of Stillwater — where old Fort Ingoldsby had 
been built by Col. Schuyler in 1709, and Fort Winslow in 
the place of it by Gen. Winslow in 1756 — and began to 
throw up intrenchments. But not satisfied with the ground 
at Stillwater, Gen. Gates abandoned it in a day or two, and, 
marching two miles up the Hudson, took possession of the 
much stronger position of Bemus Heights. 

At Bemus Heights the river-hills crowd down quite ab- 
ruptly to the west bank of the Hudson, leaving there only 
a narrow defile between them and the river-bank, through 
■which what was then the King's highway ran up and down 
the river from Albany to Saratoga. By the side of the 

highway at the foot of the hills and near the bank of the 
Hudson, at the period of the Revolution, was a somewhat 
famous tavern-stand owned and kept by one J. Bemus. 
This tavern had for some time been celebrated as one of the 
best stopping-places on the river-road. Bemus then owned 
the land in the rear of the tavern, and his farm extended 
up over the hills, and the hills were consequently known as 
Bemus Heights. 

Gen. Gates took possession of the narrow defile at the 
tavern-stand of Bemus, and extending his line westerly for 
a mile from the river, over the heights, began to throw up 
intrenchments, and there awaited the approach of Bur- 
goyne. He did not wait long. 


On the 13th and 14th of September, Burgoyne cro.<:sed 
to the west side of the Hudson with his whole army and 
encamped on the heights of Saratoga. On the 15th he 
marched his army slowly down five miles to Dovegat, now 
called Coveville. The British army, in full dress, with 
drums beating and colors flying, .set off on this march on a 
lovely autumn day, " reminding one," says an eye-witness, 
'' of a grand parade in the midst of peace." At Dovegat 
Burgoyne halted two days for the purpose of repairing the 
roads and bridges in his advance, and of sending out scouts 
to reconnoitre the enemy. But, strange to say, no enemy 
was discovered. Burgoyne at this time seemed to know 
nothing about the position or the numbers of the Continental 
forces, but went on marching blindly through the woods in 
seaich of an enemy supposed to be somewhere in the forest 
before him. On the morning of the 17th, Burgoyne him- 
self headed a scouting-party, and proceeded as far as 
" Sword's house," which was within four miles of the 
American lines, encamped his whole army there during the 
18th, and until the morning of the 19th, the day of the 
first great battle. 

In the mean time the Americans had been busy strength- 
ening their position at Bemus Heights. Under the direction 
of Kosciusko their line of intrenchments ran from the river 
half a mile westwardly over the hills to what is now called 
the " Neilson house." The right wing occupied the hill- 
side near the river, protected in front by a marshy ravine, 
and in the rear by an abatis. The left wing, in command 
of Gen. Arnold, occupied the heights to the west. Gen. 
Gates' headquarters were near the centre, a little south of 
the "Neilson fiirni.' Thus were the two armies situated 
about four milts apart on the morning of the battle. 


Between the two hostile armies thus sleeping on that 
pleasant autumn morning, one hundred years ago, stretched 
four miles of the primeval forest, in which there were four 
or five little clearings of a dozen acres in extent, in the 
centre of which was to be seen the deserted log cabin of the 
settler. Down the slope of the hills ran several small 
brooks into the river, each having worn a deep ravine 
through the woods in its passage. Such were the difliculties 
in the way of the passage of Burgoyne's army. On the 
opposite side of the river, a few miles to the eastward of 
the armies, rose a mountain peak since known as Willard's 



mountain. From the top of this mountain the American 
scouts had full view of both armies. On the morning of 
the 19th of September there was unusual commotion in the camp. Gen. Burgoyne was preparing to make 
another "reconnaissance in force," and attack the Ameri- 
cans in their intrenchments. About ten o'clock the whole 
British army moved out of its camp at '' Sword's house," 
in three division.s. The left wing, under Gens. Phillips and 
Riedesel, took the river-road down the flats. The centre, 
under Burgoyne in person, took the middle route across the 
ravines, going in a zig-zag course about a mile from the 
river, while the right wing, under Gen. Fra.ser, took a cir- 
cuitous route a half-mile farther back from the river than 
Burgoyne's, towards the extreme American left. It was 
agreed that upon the junction of the two divisions under 
Burgoyne and Fraser, about a mile from the enemy, three 
minute-guns should be fired to notify the left wing on the 
river-road, and that then the three divisions should in con- 
cert make their combined attacks upon the American camp. 
About a mile north of the centre of the American camp 
was a little clearing which had been made by one Freeman, 
containing some fourteen acres of land, near the centre of 
which stood a log house on a slight elevation. This little 
clearing, then and since called " Freeman's farm," lay 
directly in the route of the centre division of the army 
advancing under Burgoyne, and in and around this clearing 
was fought the famous battle of the 19th of September as 
well as that in part of the 7th of October following. 

On the morning of the 19th the American scouts on 
Willard mountain had seen the forward movement of the 
British, and had lost no time in informing Gen. Gates of 
the intentions of the enemy. It was the intention of Gen. 
Gates to remain quietly in his intrenched camp and await 
the attack of the British, but Arnold was impatient to 
meet the enemy in the woods half-way. He said if they 
were defeated in that encounter they would still have their 
works to fall back on, and thus stand a double chance of 
victory. The importunity of Arnold prevailed, and a part 
of the infantry and Morgan's rifle corps were sent oif, 
headed by Arnold, to meet the advancing British. A de- 
tachment of Morgan's riflemen was stationed in the log 
house and behind the fences of " Freeman's farm." About 
one o'clock in the afternoon the advanced party of Gen. 
Burgoyne's division, consisting of the pickets of the centre 
column under command of Major Forbes, fell in with Mor- 
gan's men at the log house, and after considerable firing 
were driven back by them. Upon reaching the main body 
of the British division, Morgan's men were driven back in 
terror, and sought shelter in the surrounding forest, await- 
ing reinforcements. About this time Gen. Fraser, with his 
grenadiers and light infantry, reached an elevated position 
about three hundred yards westerly of " Freeman's farm," 
and was met there by Arnold at the head of a heavy body 
of troops, each trying to cut the other ofiF from reinforcing 
the troops at " Freeman's farm." There, in the open woods, 
a most sanguinary engagement took place between the troops 
under Arnold and Fraser, which lasted for an hour with 
great fury. At some places on the field, it is stated, the 
blood was ankle-deep, such was the carnage. At length 
Fraser was reinforced, and Arnold retired from the field. 

In the mean time the British troops of Burgoyne's divi- 
sion were formed in order of battle on the field of " Free- 
man's farm," and a large body of Americans advanced to 
the attack. At three o'clock the action became general, 
close, and bloody. The struggle of the combatants was for 
the possession of the clearing. The Twentieth, Twenty- 
first, and Sixty-second Regiments of British, under Brig.- 
Gen. Hamilton, were headed by Burgoyne in person, and 
drawn up in regular order of battle across the field. For 
six times in succession that bloody afternoon were detach- 
ments of the Continental troops hurled against the British 
columns, and as many times driven back by them into the 
protection of the surrounding forest. The Continentals 
would rally in the edge of the forest (m their side and 
drive the British in disoider back into and the clear- 
ing. The British would then rally in the clearing, and, 
reforming in line, in turn diive the Continentals back again 
into the woods. Thus the battle swayed back and forth 
across the bloody field, like the waves of a stormy sea, until 
darkness put an end tu the contest. In the early part of 
the action. Gen. Phillips, hearing the firing, made his way 
with much difliculty through the woods, accompanied by 
Maj. Williams, with four pieces of artillery, and throwing 
himself at the head of the Twentieth Regiment, charged 
the Continentals in time to save Burgoyne from certain 
defeat. At this juncture, Gen. Arnold, seeing the British 
reinforcements, rode his gray horse back to Gen. Gates, 
and addressed him : " General, the British are reinforced ; 
we must have more men." " You shall have them, sir," 
replied Gen. Gates, and at once ordered out Gen. Learned's 
brigade. Arnold, in full gallop, hurried back to the battle, 
and the men followed after in double-quick time. Again 
the battle raged until sunset, when the British, who were 
about being driven from the field, were further reinforced 
by the Germans, under Gen. Riedesel. The timely arrival 
of Riedesel and his men saved the army of Burgoyne from 
utter rout. The British cannon were already silenced, 
there being no more ammunition for them, and out of 
forty-eight artillerymen thirty-six, including the captain, 
were lying dead or wounded on the field. The three 
British regiments had lost half their men, and now formed 
a small band in one corner of the clearing, surrounded with 
heaps of dead and dying. The Americans were already 
rushing on once more, when they were met by Riedesel 
and his fresh German troops, and again turned back. The , 
advantage thus gained by Gen. Riedesel was about being 
followed up by Gen. Fraser, when Burgoyne counter- 
manded his movement. But the swift-falling darkness of 
our American autumn evenings soon covered the bloody 
field like a shadowy pall, and put an end to the con- 

Never on a thousand battle-fields had British valor been 
put to a more severe test. Said the Earl of Balcarras, 
" The Americans behaved with great obstinacy and courage." 
The British forces of Burgoyne's central division were 
eleven hundred strong when they went into the battle. At 
its close more than five hundred of these were among the 
dead, the wounded, and the dying. The American loss was 
between three hundred and four hundred, including Cols. 
Adams and Coburn. 



As the darkness set in the Americans withdrew within 
their lines. The British bivouacked on the field. 

Both parties claimed the victory. But it is easily seen 
that the advantage was decidedly with the Americans. It 
was the intention of the British not to hold their ground, 
but to advance. This intention to advance was completely 
frustrated by this battle. It was the desire of tlie Americans 
not to advance, but to Iiold their ground. They held it 
tlien, and have held it ever since. The victory was ours. 

On the morning of the 20th the Americans expected 
another attack. Had it been made, Burgoyne would have 
doubtless achieved an easy victory. The left wing of the 
Americans under Arnold had expended all their ammuni- 
tion in the battle of the 19th. The terrible secret was, it 
seems, known only to Gen. Gates. A supply from Albany 
was at once sent for, which arrived the next day, and the 
anxiety of Gen. Gates was relieved. 

But the British army was too much .shattered by the 
action of the 19th to make another attempt so soon to turn 
the American intrenchments on Bemus Heights, and so 
Burgoyne determined simply to hold his position at " Free- 
man's farm," and await some future day before he made 
another advance. This was Burgoyne's fatal error. During 
his long delay of eighteen days, until the 7th of October, 
when he made his last abortive struggle, the American 
army was reinforced by thousands, and was then altogether 
too formidable a body of troops to be resisted by any force 
under Burgoyne's command. 

So Burgoyne remained on the field and threw up a line 
of intrenchments about three-fourths of a mile in length, 
extending from the river at what is now called Wilbur's 
Basin westerly to and surrounding the field of " Freeman's 
farm," and the small knolls near it, and the large one 
about three hundred yards to the northwest of it. These 
intrenchments of the British corresponded in shape and 
position to the American intrenchments ; the two armies 
thus lying not quite a mile apart and within easy cannon- 
shot of each other. But a dense forest, broken by two 
deep impassable ravines, lay stretched between them, hiding 
each from the other's view. Thus the two armies lay at 
bay, continually hara.ssing each other and both in con- 
tinual alarm, for a period of eighteen days, until the morn- 
ing of the 7th of October. The situation of the army of 
Burgoyne each day grew more critical. On the 3d of 
October it was placed on short rations. Around them on 
every hand stretched the interminable forests of the old 
wilderness, broken here and there by little settlements and 
small scattered clearings. They could go neither to the 
right hand nor the left. To retreat was quite impossible. 
To advance was to meet a formidable army, whose pulse 
they had already felt to their sorrow in the action of the 
19th of September. But to advance was the only alterna- 
tive. The order of Burgoyne was still imperative, " This 
army must not retreat." 


Gen. Burgoyne, with the centre division of his army, 
consisting mainly of the regiments engaged in the action of 
the 19th of September, was encamped on the plain about 
half-way between '• Freeman's farm" and Wilbur's Basin, 

on the river. The right wing, under Gen. Frascr, consist- 
ing of grenadiers under Major Ackland and light infantry 
in command of Earl Balcarras, was encamped on " Free- 
man's farm." Breymann's corps, also of Fraser's com- 
mand, was located on the elevation about three hundred 
yards north of " Freeman's cottage." The left wing, 
under Phillips and Riedesel, was encamped on the river at 
Wilbur's Basin, to protect the hospital located there and to 
guard the bateaux of provisions on the river. 

The Americans had not changed the order of their en- 
campment since the last battle. A disagreement, how- 
ever, had sprung up between Gates, Wilkinson, and Arnold, 
and Arnold was suspended from his command for the time 

On the evening of the 5th of October, Gen. Burgoyne 
had called a council of war. His army had rations only 
for sixteen days longer. He had heard nothing from Gen. 
Clinton, whom he expected to meet at Albany. As the 
British officers sat around the council-board, the gloom of 
the occasion was heightened by the frequent firing of the 
American pickets harassing the British lines, and by the 
dismal howling of the large packs of wolves that had come 
out of the wilderness to feast on the flesh of the dead. 
Riedesel and Fraser advised an immediate falling back to 
the old position on the east side of the Hudson, above the 
Battenkill. Phillips declined giving an opinion. Burgoyne 
thus had the casting vote, and he reserved his decision, he 
said, " until he could make a reconnaissance in force, to 
gather forage and ascertain definitely the position of the 
enemy, and whether it would be advisable to attack him." 
Should an attack be proper he would then advance the next 
day with his whole army ; but if not he would retreat to 
the Battenhill. 

On the 7th of October, 1777, the morning dawned cheery 
and bright in the old wilderness of the upper Hudson, but 
the autumn was swiftly advancing, and already the forests 
had put on their golden and crimson glories. At ten o'clock 
on this bright morning Burgoyne left his camp on his "re- 
connaissance in force." He took with him fifteen hundred 
men, eight cannon, and two howitzers. He was accom- 
panied by Gens. Phillips, Reidesel, and Fraser. Burgoyne 
marched his troops in a southwesterly direction about half 
a mile from " Freeman's farm," and deployed in line on 
the slope of the rise of ground just north of the middle 
ravine. The highway now running northerly from the 
" Neilson house" crosses the centre of this possession. 
After the British troops formed in line of battle they sat 
down, and Burgoyne's foragers began to cut a field of grain 
in their rear. Burgoyne then sent forward towards the 
American camp on the heights Capt. Fraser's rangers, with 
a body of Canadian Indians. This scouting-party under 
Capt. Fraser reached the front of the American intrench- 
ments near the Neilson house, and after a smart engagement 
of a quarter of an hour retired from the field. This was 
the only fighting done near the American lines at Bemus 
Heights in either action. 

In Burgoyne's line of battle the grenadiers under Maj. 
Ackland occupied the left, nearest the '• Freeman farm," the 
artillery under Maj. Williams the centre, and the extreme 
right was covered by Lord Balcarras' light infantry under 

«W POSITION or tl,f AFMYundri 

ms ESfELLmaRNFJiJL }m(mNE\ 


^fK:j>y^ OH Hudson's HivcR , HiAB Stillwatcr 
' "^h^i on.the:;o'''Sep>wUht!u-FosUwn 

^(^ ^ of theJktaduncni ii'ui Ike Action of 
"^ ,^^ \t}u-:'^ofOcl.gc Ou,rosiiwn of iJieAraiy 

fe*** *'^:J '^ham.lvVarilkinson.MSMAstiirf 



Fraser. The Americans soon discovered the movement of 
the BritiHh, and again, as on the 19th of September, 
marelied out to meet them. At half-past two o'clock in 
the afternoon the New York and the New Ilarapshirc 
troops, under Gen. Poor, marched across the middle ravine 
and up the slope towards tlie British grenadiers under Ack- 
land. The 15ritish artillery and grenadiers opened fire 
upon them ; the Americans rushed forward with great fury, 
and were soon at a liand-to-hand conflict with the British 
grenadiers. Thus the Vjattle la.stod for thirty minutes, when, 
Maj. Ackland being badly wounded, the grenadiers broke 
and fled, leaving their dead upon the ground as thick as 
sheaves upon the harvest field. In the mean time Morgan 
had fallen upon and driven in the British extreme right, 
and Fraser fell back in tiic rear, and soon came to the as- 
sistance of the retreating grenadiers. Under Fraser the 
attack of the Americans wan repelled, and the British again 
advanced with a loud cheer. " It was at this moment," says 
De Fonblanque, " that Arnold appeared on the field. He 
had remained in the camp after beirjg deprived of his com- 
mand and stripped of all authority ; and when the Ameri- 
cans prepared for battle he asked permission to serve as a 
volunt<'er in the ranks. Gates refused his rc((uest, and 
now his restless spirit chafed as he saw others advancing 
upon the enemy at the head of those troops which he had 
formed and led. Eagerly gazing to the front, he listened 
to the din of battle until, unable to curb his instincts longer, 
he sprang upon his charger and rushed into the field. In 
vain did Gates dispatch messengers to recall him. The ad- 
jutant-general, who attenijited in person to check his pro- 
gress, was warned ;t.sidc by a decisive wave of his sword, 
and, calling upon the soldiers, by whom he was known and 
trusted, to follow him, he tlien himself fell upon the ad- 
vancing line of British with the reckless fury of a man 
maddened with thirst for blood and carnage. Gen. Eraser's 
quick eye saw the danger. Conspicuous wherever tlie fight 
was thickest, his commanding figure had already become 
the mark of the American riflemen, and, as he rode forward 
to sustain the staggering column, Col. Morgan, their com- 
mander, called one of his best marksmen, and, jioititing to 
the English general, said, ' That is a gallant oflBccr, but he 
must die. Take post in that clump of bushes and do your 
duty.' The order was but too well obeyed. Fraser fell 
mortally wounded." 

Meanwhile the American forces were pouring in ever 
increa.sing ma-sses upon tlie British line, and the contest 
became a liand-tohand struggle ; bayonets were crossed 
again and again ; guns were taken and retaken ; but our 
men were falling fast under the withering fire of the rifle- 
men, atid there were no reserves to fill the big gaps in their 
ranks. A desperate struggle ensued in the attempt to 
recover one of our guns, — finally it was turned against us. 
Again Arnold, at the liead of a fresh column of troops, 
charged upon the centre, carrying all before him. Thrown 
into inextricable di-sorder, Burgoyne's column regained their 
camp, leaving ten guns and hundreds of their dead and 
wounded on the field. 

But the warlike rage of Arnold was not yet appeased, 
and before the English had completely regained their lines 
he Was again upon them. Repelled in the centre by a 

desperate fire of grape-shot, he flung himself upon the 
German re.«erves on the right with irresistible fury, and 
crashing through their intrenchments, although himself 
severely wounded, gained an opening upon the rear of the 
British camp. Col. Breyniann gallantly resisted the charge, 
but fell, shot through the heart ; when the Germans, who 
had hitherto borne themselves well, broke and fled, or 

The abrupt darkness of an American autumn evening 
now fell upon the blood-stained field, and mercifully inter- 
posed its shadows between the combatants. 

There was nothing now left for Burgoyne but to retreat. 
During the night of the 7th he changed his position, and 
huddled his whole army down on the bank of the river, at 
and above Wilbur's Ba.sin. The Americans also advanced, 
and posted a large force on the plain below the British 
camp to watch their motions. Burgoyne remained at Wil- 
bur's Basin all day of the 8th, and at sunset buried Gen. 
Fraser in the great redoubt on one of the river hills, and 
at nine o'clock on the evening of the 8th took his line of 
march up the river to the heights of Saratoga, where, on 
the 17th of October, he surrendered his whole army pris- 
oners of war to the victorious Gates. 


Now that a century has passed since these battles were 
fought, and all feelings of resentment are buried with the 
buried dead, the prominent persons who took part in them 
begin to appear to us not unlike the figures of some grand 
historical drama as they flit across the stage. 

But the strong men who figured on either side were not 
the only interesting persons who took part in the campaign, 
and braved its hardships and dangers. Among the women 
of Burgoyne'.s eonipaign were two, alike 'conspicuous for 
their noble birth, their beauty, and modest worth. AVe 
refer to the Baroness lliedosel, wife of Gen. Iliede.sel, and 
the lady Harriet Ackland, wife, of Maj. Ackland, com- 
mander of the British grenadiers. 

The Baroness Riedesel upon her return pul)lished an 
account of life in America, and her account of the incidents 
of the battles near Bemus Heights is so interesting that 
we cannot refrain from copying a part of it for the reader. 

" But severe trials awaited us, and on the 7th of October 
our misfortunes began. I was at breakfast with my 
hu.sband, and heard that something was intended. On the 
same day I expected Gens. Burgoyne, Phillips, and Fraser 
to dine with me. I saw a great movemcnit among the 
troops, and inquired the cause. My husband told me it 
was merely a reconnaissance, which gave me no concern, as 
it often happened. I walked out of the house and met 
several Indians in their war-dre.sses, with guns in their 
hands. When I asked them where they were going, they 
cried out 'War! War!' (meaning they were going to 
battle). This filled me with apprehension, and I scarcely 
got home before I heard reports of cannon and musketry, 
which grew louder by degrees till at the noise became 
exce.s'iive. About four o'clock in the afternoon, instead of 
the guests whom I had expected. Gen. Fraser was brought 
on a litter mortally wounded. The table, which was already 
set, was instantly removed and a bed placed in its stead for 



the wounded general. I sat trembling in a corner ; the 
noise grew louder and the alarm increased ; the thought 
that my husband might perhaps be brought in wounded in 
the same way was terrible to me, and distressed me exceed- 
ingly. Gen. Fraser said to the surgeon, ' Tell me if my 
wound is mortal ; do not flatter me.' The ball had passed 
through his body, and unhappily for the general, he had 
eaten a very hearty breakfast by which the stomach was 
distended, and the ball, as the surgeon said, had passed 
through it. I heard him often exclaim with a sigh, ' Oh, 
fatal ambition ! Poor Gen. Burgoyne. Oh, my wife !' 
He was asked if ho had any request to make ; to which he 
replied that, if Gen. Burgoyne would permit it, he should 
like to be buried at six o'clock in the evening on the top 
of a hill on a redoubt which iiad been built there. I did 
not know which way to turn, all the other rooms were full 
of the sick. Toward evening I saw my husband coming; 
then I forgot all my sorrows, and thanked God that he was 
spared to me. He ate in great haste with me and his aid- 
de-camp behind the house. I had been told that they had 
the advantage of the enemy, but the sorrowful faces I 
beheld told a different tale, and before my husband went 
away he took me one side and said everything was going 
bad ; that I must keep myself in readiness to leave the 
place, but not to mention it to any one. I made the pre- 
tense that I would move the next morning into my new 
house, and had everything packed up ready. Lady Harriet 
Ackland had a tent not far from my house; in this I slept, 
and the rest of the day 1 was in camp. 

" All of a sudden a man came to tell her that her husband 
was mortally wounded and taken prisoner. On hearing 
this she became very miserable. I comforted her by telling 
her that the wound was only slight, and at the same time 
advi.sed her to go over to her husband, to do which I cer- 
tainly could obtain permission, and then she could attend 
to him herself She was a charming woman, and very fond 
of him. I spent much of the nigiit in comforting her, and 
then went again to her children, whom I had put to bed. 
I could not go to sleep as I had Gen. Fraser and all the 
other wounded gentlemen in my room, and I was sadly 
afraid ray children would awake, and by their crying dis- 
turb the dying man in his last moments, who often addressed 
me, and apologized for the trouble he gave me. About 
three o'clock in the morning I was told he could not hold 
out much longer ; I had desired to be informed of the near 
approach of this sad crisis, and I wrapped up my children 
in their clothes and went with them into the room below. 
About eight o'clock in the morning he died. After he was 
laid out, and his corpse wrapped up in a sheet, I came again 
into the room, and had this sorrowful sight before me the 
whole day, and, to add to this melancholy scene, almost 
every moment some officer of my acquaintance was brought 
in wounded. The cannonade commenced again ; a retreat 
was spoken of, but not the smallest motion was made towards 
it. About four o'clock in the afternoon I saw the house 
which had just been built for me in flames, and the enemy 
was not fur oft'. They knew that Gen. Burgoyne would 
not refuse the last request of Gen. Fraser, though by his 
acceding an unnecessary delay was occasioned, by which 
the inconvenience of the army was much increa.sed. At 

about six o'clock the corpse was brought out, and I saw all 
the generals attend it to the hill; the chaplain, Mr. Brude- 
nell, performed the funeral services, rendered unusually 
solemn and awful from its being accompanied by constant 
peals from the American artillery. Many cannon-balls flew 
close by me, where my husband was standing amid the fire 
of the Americans, and, of course, I could not think of my 
own danger. Gen. Gates afterward.s said that if he had 
known it had been a funeral he would not have permitted 
it to be fired on." 

Of equal interest was the experience of Lady Harriet 
Ackland, who was a niece of the first Lord Holland. In 
his statement Gen. Burgoyne, in his graceful style, says this 
of the Lady Harriet : 

" From the date of that action [the 19th September] to 
the 7th of October, Lady Harriet, with her usual serenity, 
stood prepared for new trials ; and it was her lot that their 
severity increa.sed with their numbei's. She was again ex- 
posed to the hearing of the whole action, and at last 
received the shock of her individual misfortune, mixed 
with the intelligence of the general calamity ; the troops 
were defeated and Major Ackland, desperately wounded, 
was a prisoner. 

" The day of the Sth was passed by Lady Harriet and her 
companions in common anxiety ; not a tent nor a shed 
being standing, except what belonged to the hospital, their 
refuge was among the wounded and the dying. 

" When the army was upon the point of moving, I received 
a message from Lady Harriet, submitting to my decision 
a proposal (and expressing an earnest solicitude to execute 
it, if not interfering with my designs) of passing to the 
camp of the enemy, and requesting Gen. Gates' permission 
to attend her husband. 

'■ The assistance I was enabled to give was small indeed ; 
I had not even a cup of wine to offer her ; but I was told 
she had found, from some kind and fortunate hand, a little 
rum and dirty water. All I could furnish to her was an 
open boat and a few lines, written upon dirty and wet 
paper, to Gen. Gates, recommending her to his protection. 

" Mr. Brudenell, the chaplain to the artillery (the same 
gentleman who had oflRciated so signally at Gen. Fraser's 
funeral), readily undertook to accompany her, and with one 
female servant, and the major's valet-de-chambre (who had 
a ball, which he had received in the late action, then in 
his shoulder), she rowed down the river to meet the enemy. 
But her distresses were not yet to end. The night was 
advanced before the boat reached the enemy's outposts, 
and the sentinel would not let it pass, nor even come to 
shore. In vain Mr. Brudenell offered the flag of truce 
and represented the state of the extraordinary passenger. 
The guard, apprehensive of treachery, and punctilious to 
their orders, threatened to fire into the boat if it stirred 
before daylight. Her anxiety and suffering was thus pro- 
tracted through seven or eight dark and cold hours, and 
her reflections upon that first reception could not give her 
very encouraging ideas of the treatment she was afterwards 
to expect. But it is due at the of this adventure to 
say, that she was received and accommodated by Gen. Gates 
with all the humanity and respect that her rank, her merits, 
and her fortunes deserved. 

ku S C . I^r^j,, 



' //'■• c>(f 




" Let sueli as are affected by these circumstances of alarm , 
hardship, and danj;er recollect, that the subject of them was 
a woman, of the most tender and delicate frame, of the 
gentlest manners, habituated to all the soft elegancies and 
refined enjoyments that attend hijj;h birth and fortune, and 
far advanced in a state in which the tender cares always 
due to the sex become indispensably necessary. Her mind 
alone was formed for such trials." 

Sueli ai'e a few of the interesting episodes of the Saratoga 
battle-fields, in the language of the very persons who par- 
ticipated in the stirring scenes of the campaign. 


The reader will remember that Gen. Fraser was mortally 
wounded in the battle of the 7th of October, and carried 
from the field to the Smith house, near the British hospi- 
tal on the bank of the river, where he lingered in great 
agony until eight o'clock on the morning of the 8th, when 
he died. Before his death Gen. Fraser sent, with the 
" kindest expression of his affection fur Gen. Burgoyne, a 
request that he might be carried without parade by the 
soldiers of his corps at sunset to the great redoubt and 
buried there." This last dying rec[U3st of his favorite 
general Burgoyne would not refuse, so all through the 
desolate day of the 8th the British army waited for the 
burial, amid continual alarms, exposed to the fire of the 
Americans, and in momentary expectation that another 
general engagement would be brought on. 

At length the weary hours passed away, and in the dark- 
ening gloom of the autumnal evening, which was intensified 
by the lowering clouds of the coming tempest, the funeral 
cortege marched to the burial place. In his statement made 
afterwards, Burgoyne gives this eloquent delineation of the 
scene : 

" The incessant cannonade during the solemnity ; the 
steady attitude and unaltered voice with which the clergy- 
man ofliciated, though frequently covered with dust which 
tlie shot threw up on all sides of him ; the mute but ex- 
pressive mixture of sensibility and indignation upon every 
countenance ; these objects will remain to the last of life 
upon the mind of every man who was present. The grow- 
ing duskiness added to the scenery, and the whole marked 
a characteristic of that juncture that would make one of 
the finest subjects for the pencil of a master that the field 
ever exhibited. To the canvas, and to the page of a more 
important historian, gallant friend, I consign thy memory. 
There may thy talents, thy manly virtues, their progress 
and their period, find due distinction ; and long may they 
survive — long after the frail record of my pen shall be 

The Americans, seeing a collection of people, without 
knowing the occasion, at first cannonaded the procession, 
and their shot covered it with dust, but as soon as tliey saw 
it was a funeral train they ceased throwing shot at it, and 
began firing minute-guns in honor of the distinguished 
dead. The soldier who shot Gen. Fraser was Timothy 
Murphy, a native of Virginia, and a member of Morgan's 
rifle corps. After the surrender of Burgoyne, tlie company 
to which Murphy belonged was sent to Schoharie and 
Cherry Valley, where Murphy became distiuguished in the 

border warfare of the period. A romantic incident in his 
life at Schoharie was his marriage to the girl of his choice, 
who ran away from her father's house, and braved the 
dangers of the Indian war-trail, on foot and alone, in her 
journey from one fort to another to meet her lover. 

After the burial of Fraser, at nine o'clock in the evening, 
the retreat of the British army began, Maj.-Gen. Riedesel 
commanding the van-guard, and Maj.-Gen. Phillips the rear. 
The wounded and dying who fell in the previous battles 
were abandoned by the British and left in their hospitals, 
with a recommendation to the mercy and kind treatment 
of the Americans couched in touching language by Gen. 
Burgoyne. On the morning of the 9th the British army 
arrived at Dovegat, now Coveville, where the rear-guard 
was attacked by the Americans, but a. pouring rain pre- 
vented much damage from the encounter. 

On the evening of the 9th the British army reached 
the Fishkill, and, crossing the ford, took possession of the 
heights of Saratoga. They had been twenty-four hours in 
marching a distjince of eight miles in a pitiless rain-storm, 
and, scarcely able to stand from cold and exposure, bi- 
vouacked in the darkness on the sodden ground, without 
food and without camp-fires, till the morning of the 10th. 
The Fishkill was swollen by the abundant rains, and 
poured a turbid torrent down the declivity of the hills 
through its narrow channel. The artillery was not taken 
across the dangerous ford till daylight on the morning of 
the 10th. When the van-guard of the British reached 
Saratoga, Gen. Fellows was encamped on the west .side of 
the Hudson, with a small body of Americans, his main 
force being posted on the hills on the east side of the Hud- 
son, upon the site of old Fort Clinton of the colonial 
period. Upon the approach of Burgoyne, Gen. Fellows 
retired with his detachment to this strong position on the 
hills on the east side of the river, to cut off the retreat of 
the British in that direction. A strong detachment of 
American troops had also been sent by Gen. Gates to take 
possession of the roads and bridges above Saratoga, in the 
direction of Fort Edward, and the British army was already 
most effectually hemmed in and surrounded on every side 
by the victorious Americans. 

On account of the pouring rain and the almost impa.ssa- 
ble condition of the roads, Gen. Gates did not reach the 
south bank of the Fishkill, with the main body of his 
army, until four o'clock in the afternoon of the 10th. 
Upon his arrival there he encamped his army along the 
heights bordering Fish creek on the south, and supposing 
that Gen. Burgoyne would continue his retreat, ordered an 
advance across the creek at daybreak in the morning. On 
the morning of the lltlr, in pursuance of this order. Col. 
Morgan crossed the Fishkill, and, to his surprise, found 
the enemy's pickets in position, indicating that the main 
body was close at hand. Gen. Nixon, with his brigade, 
also crossed the Fishkill, and surprised the British pickets 
at Fort Hardy. Gen. Learned, at the head of two more 
brigades, crossed the creek and advanced to the support of 
Col. Morgan. 

During all this time a thick fog prevailed, through which 
nothing could be seen at the distance of twenty yards. 
Gen. Learned advanced, and had arrived within two hun- 



died yavds of Buigoyne's strongest post, when the fog 
suddenly cleared up and revealed to the astonished Ameri- 
cans the whole British army in their camp under arms. 
The Americans beat a hasty retreat in considerable disorder 
across the Fishkill, under a heavy fire from the British 
artillery and small arms, and soon regained their camp on 
the heights along the south bank of the stream. 

The British army was now in a most critical position. 
The main body of the line under Gen. Burgoyne was en- 
camped on the heights north of the Fishkill. The Hessians 
under Riedesel were located on the ridge extending north- 
erly towards the Marshall House, and the artillery was on 
the elevated plain extending between the Hessians and the 
river flats. In this exposed position the British army was 
completely surrounded by the American forces. There was 
not a spot anywhere throughout the whole British encamp- 
ment which was not exposed to the fire of the American 
batteries posted on the hoiglits around. 


On the 12th of October, Gen. Burgoyne called a council 
of war, whicli a.ssembled on the lieights of Saratoga. There 
were present Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne, 51aj.-Gen. Phillips, 
Maj.-Gen. Riedesel, and Brig.-Gen. Hamilton. To this 
council Gen. Burgoyne stated the situation of afiiiirs to be 
as follows : 

'' The enemy in force, according to the best intelligence he 
can obtain, to the amount of upwards of fourteen thousand 
men and a considerable quantity of artillery, are on this 
side the Fishkill, and threaten an attack. On the other 
side of the Hudson's river, between this army and Fort 
Edward, is another army of the enemy, the number un- 
known, but one corps, which there has been an opportunity 
of observing, is reported to be fifteen hundred men. They 
have likewise cannon on the other side the Hudson's river, 
and they have a bridge below Saratoga church, by which 
the two armies can communicate. The bateaux of .the 
army have been destroyed and no means appear of making 
a bridge over the Hudson's river, were it even practicable, 
from the position of the enemy. The only means of retreat, 
therefore, are by the ford at Fort Edward, or taking the 
mountains in order to pass the river higher up by rafts or 
by any other ford, which is reported to be practicable with 
difficulty, or by keeping the mountains to pass the head of 
Hudson's river, and continue to the westward of Lake 
George all the way to Ticonderoga. It is true this last 
passage was never made but by the Indians or very small 
bodies of men. In order to pass cannon or any wheel 
carriages from hence to Fort Edward, some bridges must be 
repaired under fire of the enemy from the opposite side of 
the river, and the principal bridge will be a work of four- 
teen or fifteen hours; there is no good position for the 
army to take to sustain that work, and if there were, the 
time stated as neces.sary would give the enemy on the 
other side of the Hud.son's river an opportunity to take 
post on the strong ground above Fort Edward, or to 
dispute the ford while Gen. Gates' army followed in the 

" The intelligence from the lower part of Hudson's river 
IS founded upon the concurrent reports of prisoners and de- 

serters, who say it was the news in the enemy's camp tliat 
Fort Montgomery was taken ; and one man, a friend to the 
government, who arrived yesterday, mentions some particu- 
lars of the manner in which it was taken. 

" The provisions of the army may hold out to the 20th ; 
there is neither rum nor spruce beer. 

" Having committed this state of facts to the consideration 
of the council, the general requests their sentiments on the 
following propositions : 

" First — To wait in the present position an attack from 
the enemy, or the chance of favorable events. 

" Second — To attack the enemy. 

"T/iiid — To retreat, repairing the bridges as the army 
moves ibr the artillery, in order to force the passage of the 

" Fuiirih — To retreat by night, leaving the artillery and 
the baggage ; and should it be found impracticable to force 
the passage with musketry, to attempt the upper ford, or 
the passage round Lake George. 

" Fifth — In case the enemy, by extending to their left, 
leave their rear open, to march rapidly for Albany. 

" Upon the first proposition, resolved that the provision 
now in store is not more than sufficient for the retreat 
.should impediments intervene, or a circuit of the country 
become necessary ; and, as the enemy did not attack when 
the ground was unfortified, it is not probable they will do 
it now, as they have & better game to play. 

" The second unadvisable and desperate, there being no 
possibility of reconnoitering the enemy's position, and his 
great superiority of numbers known. 

" The third impracticable. 

" The fifth thought worthy of consideration by the lieu- 
tenant-general, Maj.-Gen. Phillips, and Brig.-Gen. Hamil- 
ton, but the position of the enemy yet gives no opening 
for it. 

" Jitsohed, That the fourth proposition is tlie only re- 
source ; and that, to effect it, the utmost secrecy and silence 
is to be observed ; and the troops are to be put in motion 
from the right, in the still part of the night, without any 
change in the situation." 

It was soon ascertained by Gen. Burgoyne, who sent out 
a scouting-party for the purpose, that owing to the strength 
of the American detachment along the Hudson above Sara- 
toga the last proposition was also utterly impracticable, and 
it was therefore likewise abandoned. 

On the 13th Gen. Burgoyne called another council of 
war. It was composed of general officers, field officers, and 
captains commanding corps. As this body of officers was 
deliberating on the heights at the headquarters of the com- 
mander, cannon-balls from the American guns crossed the 
table around which they sat. The following is copied from 
the minutes : 

" The lieutenant-general having explained the situation 
of affiiirs as in the preceding council, with the additional 
intelligence that the enemy was intrenched at the fords of 
Fort Edward, and likewise occupied the strong position on 
the pine plains between Fort George and Fort Edward, 
expressed his readiness to undertake, at their head, any 
enterprise of difficulty or hazard that should appear to them 
within the compass of their strength or spirit. He added 



that he had reason to believe a capitulation had been in the 
conteiii]ilati<)n of some, perhaps of" all who knew the real 
situation of things ; that upon a circumstance of such con- 
sequence to national and personal honor, he thought it a 
duty to his country and to himself to extend his council 
beyond the usual limits, that the assembly present might 
justly be esteemed a full representation of the army, and 
that he should think himself unjustifiable in taking any 
step in so serious a matter without such a concurrence of 
sentiment as should make a treaty the act of the army as 
well as that of the general. 

"The first question, therefore, he desired them to decide 
was, whether an army of 35U0 fighting men and well pro- 
vided with artillery were justifiable upon the principles of 
national dignity and military honor in capitulating in any 
possible situation ? 

" Resolved, Neni. con., in the affirmative. 

"Question second. — Is the present situation of that 
nature ? 

^'Resolved, Nera. con., that the present situation jus- 
tifies a capitulation upon honorable terms." 

Gen. Burgoyne then drew up a message to Gen. Gates, 
and laid it before the council. It was unanimously ap- 
proved, and upon that foundation the treaty opened. 

On the morning of the 14tli of October, Maj. Kingston 
delivered the message to Gen. Gates, at the American camp, 
which was in the words following : 

"■To Major-Gen. Gates: After having fought you 
twice, Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne has waited some days, in his 
present position, determined to try a third conflict against 
any force you could bring to attack him. 

" He is apprised of the superiority of your ntirabers and 
the disposition of your troops to impede his supplies and 
render his retreat a scene of carnage on both .sidc^s. In 
this situation he is impelled by humanity, and thinks him- 
self justifiable by established principles and precedents of 
state and of war, to spare the lives of brave men upon hun- 
orable terms. Should Major-Gen. Gates be inclined to 
treat upon that idea. Gen. Burgcjyne would propose a ces- 
sation of arms during the time necessary to communicate 
the preliminary terms by which, in any extremity, he and 
his army mean to abide." 

In the afternoon of the 14th, Major Kingston returned 
to the British camp with the following propositions from 
Gen. Gates, which are given below, with the answer to each 
made by Gen. Burgoyne, and approved by his council of 


*' I. Gon. Burgojne's jirray Licut.-Gen. Btirgoyne's armj, 
being reduced by repeated dc- however reduced, will never ad- 
feat^, by desertion, sicknes.«, eic., mit thiit their retreat is cut otf 
their i>rovisions exhausted, their while they have anus iu their 
military horses, tent-i and bands, 
gage taken or destroyed, h ir re- 
treat cut off, and their camp in- 
vested, they can only be allowed 
to surrender as prisoners of war. 

" I[. The officers and soldiers Noted. 
may keep the l^agg.^ge belonging 
to them. The generals oT the 
Ignited .States never permitted in- 
dividuals to be pillaged. 


There being no officer in this 
army under, or capable of being 
under, the description of break- 
ing parole, this article needs no 

All public stores may be deliv- 
ered, arms excepted. 

This article is inadmissible in 
any extremity. Sooner than this 
army will consent to ground their 
arms in their encampment, they 
will rush on the enemy deter- 
mined to take no quarter. 

(.Signed) J. BiiuuovsE. 

" III. The troops under his ex- 
cellency, Gen. Burgoyne, will be 
conducted by the most convenient 
route to New England, marching 
by easy marches, tmd sufficiently 
provided for by the way. 

"IV. The officers will be ad- 
mitted on parole and treated with 
the liberality customary in such 
cases, so long as they by proper 
behavior continue to deserve it; 
but those who are apprehended 
having broke their parole, as sonic 
British officers have done, must 
expect to be closely confined. 

" V. All i)uldic stores, artillery, 
arms, ammunition, carriages, 
liorses, etc., etc., must be deliv- 
ered to commissioners appointed 
to receive them. 

" VI. These terms being agreed 
to and signed, the troo]js under 
his excellency, Gen. Burgoyne's 
command, may be drawn up in 
their encampment, when they 
will be ordered to ground their 
arms, and may thereupon bo 
marclied to the river-side on their 
way to Bennington. 

" VII. A cessation of arms to 
continue till sunset to receive 
Gen. Burgoyne's answer. 

(Signed) " IIoitATio Gates. 

" Camp at Saratoga, Oct. 14." 

At sunset the same evening Maj. Kingston met the ad- 
jutant-general of the American army, Gen. Wilkinson, in 
the American camp, and delivered the foregoing answers to 
Gen. Gates' proposals, and also the following additional 
message from Gen. Burgoyne : 

" If Gen. Gates does not mean to recede from the sixth 
article the treaty ends at once. The army will to a man 
proceed to any act of desperation rather than submit to that 
article. The cessation of arms ends this evening." 

Gen. Gates was at first disposed to iiusist upon the ob- 
jectionable article, but after some further negotiation he 
substituted the following article : 

" The troops under Gen. Burgoyne to march out of their 
camp with the honors of war, and the artillery of the in- 
trenchments to the verge of the river, where their arms 
and their artillery must be left. The arms to be piled by 
word of command from their own officers." 

" A free passage to be granted to the army under Gen. Bur- 
goyne to Great Britain, upon condition of not serving again 
in North America during the present contest; and the port 
of Boston to be assigned for entry of transports to receive 
the troops whenever Gen. Howe shall order." 

On the 15tli the above amended proposals of Gen. Gates 
were presented to the British council of war, and being 
satisfactory, Gen. Buigoyne was authorized to sign a defini- 
tive treaty. 

During the night of the 15th a messenger from Gen. 
Clinton arrived in the Bl■i^i^h camp with the news that he 
had moved up the Hudson as far as Ksopus, taking Fort 
Montgomery from the Americans on the way. This infor- 
mation seemed to revive Burgoyne's hopes of .safety. He 
called together the officers of his council and requested them 



to declare whether they were of opinion that in case of ex- 
tremity the soldiers were in a situation to fight, and whether 
they considered the public fiiith as already pledged to a sur- 
render, no convention being then signed. A great number 
of the officers answered that the soldiers, weakened by hun- 
ger and fatigue, were unable to fight, and all were decidedly 
of the opinion that the public f;ulh was engaged. But 
Burgoyne was of a contrary opinion, and hesitated to sign 
the treaty. Gen. Gates, on the morning of the 16th, hear- 
ing of Burgoyne's delay, and being aware of the cause, 
formed his army in the order of battle and sent word to 
the British general that the time having arrived he must 
either sign the articles or prepare himself for battle. Bur- 
goyne hesitated no longer, but signed the paper, which has 
ever since been known in history as the " convention" of 


" I. The troops under Lieut-Gen. Burgoyne to march 
out of their camp with the honors of war, and the artillery 
of intrenchments to the verge of the river where the old fort 
stood, where the arms and artillery are to be left ; the arms 
to be piled by word of command from their own officers. 

" II. A free passage to be granted to the army under 
Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne to Great Britain, on condition of not 
serving again in North America during the present contest ; 
and the port of Boston is assigned for the entiy of trans- 
ports to receive the troops whenever Gen. Howe shall so order. 

" III. Should any cartel take place by which the army 
under Gen. Burgoyne, or any part of it, may be exchanged, 
the foregoing articles to be void as far as such exchange 
should be made. 

" IV. The army under Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne to march 
to Massachusetts Bay by the easiest, most expeditious, and 
convenient route, and be quartered in, near, or as conve- 
nient as possible to Boston, that the departure of the 
troops may not be delayed when the transports shall arrive 
to receive them. 

" V. The troops to be .supplied on their march, and 
during their being in quarters, with provisions by Gen. 
Gates' orders, at the same rate of rations as the troops of 
his own army : and, if possible, the officers' horses and 
cattle are to be supplied with forage at the usual rates. 

" VI. All officers to retain their carriages, battle-horses, 
and other cattle, and no baggage to be molested or searched, 
Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne giving his honor that there are no 
public stores secreted therein. Maj.-Gen. Gates will of 
course take the necessary measures for the due performance 
of this article. Should any carriages be wanted during the 
transpoi'tation of officers' baggages, they are, if possible, to 
be supplied. 

"VII. Upon the march, and during the time the army 
shall remain in quarters in Massachu.setts Bay, the officers 
are not, as far as circumstances will admit, to be separated 
from their men. The officers are to be quartered according 
to rank, and are not to be hindered from assembling their 
men for roll call and the necessary purposes of regularity. 

" VIII. All corps whatever of Gen. Burgoyne's army, 
whether composed of sailors, bateaux men, artificers, 

drivers, independent companies, and followers of the army, 
of whatever country, shall be included in every respect as 
British subjects. 

" IX. All Canadians and persons belonging to the Cana- 
dian establishment, consisting of sailors, bateaux men, 
artificers, drivers, independent companies, and many other 
followers of the army who come under the head of no par- 
ticular description, are to be permitted to return there; 
they are to be conducted immediately by the shortest route 
to the first British post on Lake George, are to be sup- 
plied with provisions in the same manner as other troops, 
are to be bound by the same conditions of not serving dur- 
ing the present contest in North America. 

" X. Passports to be immediately granted for three 
officers, not exceeding the rank of captain, who shall be 
appointed by Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne, to carry dispatches to 
Sir William Howe, Sir Guy Carleton,and to Great Britain, 
by way of New York, and Maj.-Gen. Gates engages the 
public faith that these dispatches shall not be opened. 
These officers are to set out immediately after receiving 
their dispatches, and to travel the shortest route, and in 
the most expeditious manner. 

" XL During the stay of the troops in Massachusetts 
Bay, the officers are to be admitted on parole, and are to 
be allowed to wear their side-arms. 

" XII. Should the army under Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne 
find it necessary to send for their clothing and other bag- 
gage to Canada, they are to be permitted to do so in the 
most convenient manner, and the necessary pa.s.sports 
granted for that purpose. 

" XIII. These articles are to be mutually signed and 
exchanged to-morrow morning at nine o'clock, and the 
troops under Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne are to march out of 
their intrenchments at three o'clock in the afternoon. 

(Signed) "Horatio Gates, Mij.- Gen. 

(Signed) "J. Burgoyne, Lieut.-Gen. 

"S.\ii.iTOGA, Oct. 16, 1777." 

THE 17TI1 OF OCTOBER, 1777. 

The morning of the 17th of October, 1777, dawned in 
the old wilderness of the upper Hudson amid full but 
fading forest splendors. To the British soldiers at Saratoga, 
lying on their beds of already fallen leaves, the emblems of 
their withered bop§s, it was the. saddest morning of the j'ear. 
To the Americans it was full of the brightness of their 
country's opening glory, typified by the crimson and purple 
tints which were still blazing over all the forest tops. 

At nine o'clock Gen. Wilkinson rode over to the British 
camp and accompanied Gen. Burgoyne to the green in front 
of old Fort Hardy, where his army was to lay down their 
arms. From thence they rode to the margin of the river, 
which Burgoyne surveyed with attention, and asked whether 
it was fordable. "Certainly, sir," said Wilkinson, "but do 
you observe the people on the opposite .shore?" "Yes," 
replied Burgoyne, " I have seen them too long." " Bur- 
goyne then proposed, " continues Gen. Wilkinson, " to be 
introduced to Gen. Gates, and we crossed the Fishkill and 
proceeded to headquarters, Gen. Burgoyne in front with his 
adjutant-general, Kingston, and his aides-de-camp, Capt. 



Lord Petersham and Lieut. Wilfoid, behind him. Then 
followed Mil). -Gen. Pliillip.s, the Baron Riedesel, and the 
other preneral officers and their suites according to rank. 
Gen. Gates, advised of Burgoyne's approach, met him at 
the head of his camp, — Burgoyne in a rich royal uniform, 
and Gates in a plain blue frock. When they had ap- 
proached nearly within sword's length they reined up and 
halted. I then," continues Wilkinson, " named the gentle- 
men, and Gen. Burgoyne, raising his hat most gracefully, 
said, ' The fortune of war, Gen. Gates, has made me your 
prisoner;' to which the conqueror, returning a courtly 
salute, promptly replied, ' I shall always be ready to bear 
testimony that it has not been through any fault of your 
excellency.' Maj.-Gen. Phillips then advanced, and he and 
Gen. Gates saluted and shook hands with the familiarity of 
old acquaintances. The Baron Riedesel and the other 
officers were introduced in their turn." 

The general officers then proceeded to the marquee of 
Gen. Gates, where dinner was served. The dinner consisted 
of only three or four simple dishes of the plain fare common 
in those days, and was laid upon a table of rough boards 
stretched across some empty barrels. The marquee of Gen. 
Gates was situated near the road leading to xVlbany, about 
three-fourths of a mile south of the Fishkill. While the 
officers were at dinner the whole American army were 
marched out of their camp, with drums beating, and sta- 
tioned along this road for miles, to view the passage of the 
now disarmed British troops on their way to Boston. 

Before this conquering army on the field of old Saratoga 
our country's flag, the stars and stripes, ?c(/.s Jirst Jlung to the 
breeze. The glorious old flag has never waved over a prouder 
scene than that. 

While the American army was forming its victorious 
lines along the Albany road, another and a different scene 
was about to be enacted on tlie green at the verge of the 
river-side near the ruins of old Fort Hardy. 

After dinner was over in the marquee of Gen. Gates, the 
two commanding generals walked out of it together. " The 
American commander faced front," says Gen. Wilkinson, 
" and Burgoyne did the same, standing on his left. Not a 
word was spoken, and for .some minutes they stood silently 
gazing on the scene before them, — the one no doubt in all 
the pride of honest success, the other the victim of regret 
and sensibility. Burgoyne was a large and stoutly-formed 
man ; his countenance was rough and har.sli, but he had a 
hand.some figure and a noble air. Gates was a smaller man, 
with much less of manner and none of the air which dis- 
tinguished Burgoyne. Presently, as by a previous under- 
standing. Gen. Burgoyne stepped back, drew his sword, and, 
in the face of the two armies, as it were, presented it to 
Gen. Gates, who received it and instantly returned it in the 
most courteous manner." 

By this time three o'clock in the afternoon had come, 
and what was left of the British army was marched to the 
green on the verge of the river, where, out of view of the 
American lines, at the command of their own officers, they 
piled tlieir arms. " Many a voice," says De Fonblanque, 
" that had rung in tones of authority and encouragement 
above the din of battle now faltered ; many an eye that had 
unflinchingly met the hostile ranks now filled with tears. 

Young soldiers who had borne privation and suffering with- 
out a murmur stood abashed and overcome with sorrow 
and shame ; bearded veterans for whom danger and death 
had no terrors sobbed like children as for the last time they 
gra.sped the weapons they had borne with honor on many a 

But this was but a remnant of the once proud army 
which so full of hope in the early summer had crossed the 
Canadian frontier. In killed and wounded they had lost 
eleven hundred and sixty, of whom seventy-three were offi- 
cers. The numbers who now laid down their arms did not 
exceed three thousand five hundred officers and men, of 
whom sixteen hundred were Germans. 

In this procession of conquered men the poor Hessians 
cut a sorry figure. They were extremely dirty in their 
persons, their ponderous caps being heavier than the whole 
accoutrement of a British soldier. They had with them a 
lars;e number of women, who to the Americans appeared 
oddly dressed and gypsy featured. They had with them a 
large collection of wild animals which they had caught on 
their way through the wilderness. Young foxes peered 
slyly out from the top of a baggage-wagon, and young rac- 
coons from the arms of riflemen. A grenadier was here 
seen leading a lightly-tripping deer, and a stout artilleryman 
playing with a black bear. 

After the army of Burgoyne had piled their arms, they 
were again formed into line, the light infantry in front, and 
escorted by a company of American light dragoons, headed 
by two mounted officers bearing the .stars and stripes, they 
marched across the Fi.shkill, and through the long lines of 
American soldiers posted along the road to Albany, the 
band playing " Yankee Doodle." 

The lon<i agony was over ; the British soldiers were on 
their way to Boston prisoners of war, bivouacking the first 
night of their captivity on their old camping-ground at 
Wilbur's Basin, near the grave of Gen. Fraser. 


Of the result of the battles of Freeman's Farm, at Be- 
mus Heights, and the surrender of Burgoyne and his army 
at Old Saratoga, enough has already been written, and they 
are sufficiently familiar to the American reader. The last 
was the closing scene of the last act of one of the world's 
'Toat dramas which change forever the destinies of nations. 

The defeat of Burgoyne and the .surrender of his army 
assured the independence of the American colonics and 
changed the destinies of the world. Henry Hallam, author 
of the celebrated work entitled, " View of the State of 
Europe during the Jliddle Ages," defines decisive battles 
as " those battles of which a contrary event would have 
essentially varied the drama of the world in all its subse- 
quent .scenes." Following this idea, E. S. Creasy, professor 
of history in the University College of London, has selected 
fifteen battles, beginning with Marathon and ending with 
Waterloo, as the only ones coming within the definition of 
Mr. Hallam. Among the fifteen he names Saratoga. 

The scenes of this great encounter remained until the 
hundredth anniversary of the surrender without a slab or 
stone to mark the spot. On that day, the IVth of October, 



1877, the corner-stone of a monument was laid amid a vast 
concourse of people, of which some account is given else- 
where in this volume. 


After the surrender of Gen. Burgoyne and his army on 
the heights of Saratoga on the 17th day of October, 1777, 
the tide of war swept over other and distant fields, and no 
event of much importance occurred in the county of Sara- 
toga until what is known in history as the Northern In- 
vasion of 1780. 

This invasion was intended by the British authorities to 
be one of considerable import. It was hoped that, with 
some aid from Canadian militia, assisted by the Indians, the 
many disaffected persons still left; in the valleys of the Hud- 
son and Mohawk would join the royal cause, and, in the 
absence of so many fighting men in other fields remote 
from their homes, much might be done towards bringing 
back the country to its allegiance. Early in the summer 
of 1780 the American authorities at Albany had intima- 
tions of this invasion. But nothing definite could be 
learned, and the summer passing away without any warlike 
demonstrations except a raid or two in the valley of the 
Mohawk, it was thought that when the frosts of autumn 
had come no further danger might be looked for from that 

But the blow at length came when least expected, and 
spent its force in the raid on the young settlement of 

In the early part of October of 1780 an expedition was 
sent from Canada, by way of Lake Champlain, under com- 
mand of Major Carleton. Arriving at Bulwagga bay, 
which forms the west shore of Crown Point, they landed 
the two hundred men there which formed the Ballston 
party. This detachment was made up in part of Sir John 
Johnson's corps, partly of some rangers, among whom were 
some refugees from the Ballston settlement, and partly of 
some Mohiiiok Indians, lieaded by their war-chief, " Capt. 
John." This motley company was under the command of 
Capt. Munrcj, who had, before the war, been a trader at 
Schenectady, and had had much to do with the early settle- 
ment of Saratoga County. 

The object of this part of the expedition was to attack 
Schenectady, but if that experiment, upon reconnoitring, 
should be deemed hazardous, then to make a descent upon 
the Ballston settlement. The orders to Munro were to 
plunder, destroy property, and take prisoners, but not to 
kill unless attacked or resisted, or to prevent escapes. 


After leaving the detachment of two hundred men, under 
Capt. Munro, at Bul-Wagga bay, the main body, under 

® We are indebted to Judge George G. Scoit, of Ballston Spa, 
whose ancestors were among the suBferers in this raid, for much of 
this chapter. See his historical address of July 4, 1876. See also 
Hough's Northern Invasion of 1780. 

Maj. Carleton, consisting of about eight hundred men, pro- 
ceeded up Lake Champlain, and landing at South bay, 
moved forward rapidly to Fort Anne, where they arrived 
on the 10th of October. On demand the fort was surren- 
dered to Carleton, then burned, and the garrison made pris- 
oners. They then, with their prisoners, marched across to 
Fort George, where they arrived on the 11th of October. 
After a short skirmish outside of the fort, between Gage's 
hill and Bloody pond, in which the enemy were successful, 
and a brief investment of the fort, our troops surrendered 
them.selves as prisoners of war, and the fort was destroyed. 
Maj. Carleton, with his forces and prisoners, thereupon 
returned to his vessels on Lake Chami)lain. 

It will thus be seen that the main part of the expedition 
effected little. While the British forces were in the vicinity 
of Fort Anne and Lake George, Maj. Carleton sent out 
numerous scouting and marauding parlies into the neigh- 
boring villages of Sandy Hill, Fort Edward, and others 
lying along the Hudson. These lawless parties committed 
so many depredations on the inhabitants, and 
burned so many dwellings, that that year is called to this 
day among their descendants " the year of the great 


After landing at Bulwagga bay, the party under Munro 
took the old Indian trail which led down through the eastern 
part of the old Adirondack wilderness, in the valley of the 
Schroon river, past the foot of Crane's mountain, and cross- 
ing the Sacondaga, passed through Greenfield into the 
northwest corner of what is now the town of Milton, where 
they encamped and remained several days. While here 
they remained concealed in the forest, no one in the neigh- 
borhood dreaming of their presence except some Tories, to 
whom they had made themselves known, and who supplied 
them with provisions. Having learned through their scouts 
that it would be to make an attempt on Schenectady, 
and that the " fort" in Ballston had just been garrisoned 
by about two hundred militiamen, chiefly from the former 
place, they concluded to advance no farther than Col. 

The '■ fort," as it was called, stood on the southwest cor- 
ner of the square, at the red meeting-house, which was 
then nearly completed. The fort was constructed of oak 
logs, with loop-holes for musketry, and surrounded with 

The massacre at Cherry Valley,f and the more recent 
Indian barbarities in the Mohawk valley, had excited the 
worst apprehensions of the Ballston inhabitants, who had 
for two or three months previous been expecting an invasion 
of the enemy. Some of them had f'rei|uently abandoned 
their dwellings at night, taking with them their most valu- 
able effects, and lodged in the woods ; but as no danger 
appeared, their vigilance relaxed, and they slept in their 

Col. James Gordon, then the commanding officer of 
a regiment of militia, arrived home October 13 from 
Poughkeepsie, where he had attended, as a member of the 
Legislature, at an extra session convened by Gov. Clinton, 

f See Judge Scott's address. 



which adjourned October 10. His residence was on the 
Middle Line road, upon the farm now owned by Henry 
Wiswall, Jr., and his capture was deemed of considerable 
importance. Some of the escaped Tories, who had been 
brought back by him three years previous, had not forgiven 
him, and one of them, in communication with Munro, in- 
formed him of Gordon's arrivah In the evening of Oc- 
tober IG tlie enemy came to a lialt at tlie dwelling of one 
James McDonald, a Tory living at the first four corners 
west of what has since been known as tlie Courthouse hill. 
McDonald piloted the party through the woods to the rear 
of Gordon's house. Gordon was awakened by the break- 
ing of the windows of his sleeping-room by bayonets 
thrust through them. He sprang from his bed, in which 
were his wife and little daughter, and partly dressing him- 
self went into the hall, which was by this time filled with 
the enemy. As he opened the door a gigantic savage 
raised his tomahawk, and as the blow was descending upon 
Gordon's head the arm of the savage was caught by an 
ofificer. At this moment the brass clock, which stood in the 
corner of the hall, struck twelve, whereupon an Indian shat- 
tered it into pieces with his tomahawk, exclaiming, " You 
never speak again !" A scene of indiscriminate plunder then 
ensued, which was chiefly carried on by the squaws who 
accompanied the party, and were the most heavily laden 
with the spoils. The Indians attempted to fire the house 
and barn, but were prevented. Besides Gordon, Jack Cal- 
braith and John Parlow, servants, and Nero, Jacob, and 
Ann, three negro slaves, were carried oft' as prisoners. 

As they proceeded towards the main road, where Gor- 
don's miller — Isaac Stow — lived, he came running towards 
them, exclaiming " Col. Gordon, save yourself! the In- 
dians !" He turned and ran a short distance, when he was 
intercepted by an Indian, who pierced him in the side with 
his spontoon, and Stow fell. The Indian then dispatched 
him with his tomahawk and took off' his scalp. 

In the mean time, a party had proceeded to the liouse of 
Capt. Collins, across the Mourning Kill. They broke open 
his door and captured him and his female slave. His son 
— Mannasseh — escaped through an upper window and ran 
to the fort, a mile and a lialf di.staut, and gave the alarm. 
The enemy then proceeded up the Middle Line road and 
made prisoners of Thomas Barnum, John Davis, Elisha 
Benedict and his three sons, — Caleb, Elias, and Felix, — 
and Dublin, his slave, — Edward A. Watrous, Paul i'ierson 
and his son John, a boy, John Higby and his son Lewis, 
George Kennedy, Jabez Patchin, Josiah Hollister, Ebene- 
zer Sprague and his sons John and Elijah, Thomas Ken- 
nedy, Enoch Wood, and one Palmatier, living near what 
is now known as Milton Centre, and who was the last one 
taken. But one man lived north of Palmatier. Being a 
Tory, he was unmolested. Several houses and barns were 

Between Higby s and George Kennedy's, about fifty 
under tlie command of Lieut. Frazcr, a refugee from the 
vicinity of Burnt Hills, left the main body and advanced 
to the dwelling of George Scott. Aroused from sleep by 
the violent barking of his watch-dog, he, with his musket 
in his hand, opened the door and saw the column advancing 
in the moonlight. He heard some one exclaim, " Scott, 

throw down your gun, or you arc a dead man !" Not 
hastening to obey, he was felled to the floor by three tom- 
ahawks simultaneously thrown at him by Indians of the 
party, who rushed up to take his scalp. They were pre- 
vented by Frazer anil Sergeant Springstecd, another refugee 
and formerly Scott's hired man, who, with their swords, 
kept the savages at bay. The party pillaged the house 
and left Scott, as they believed, in a dying condition, — so 
they informed Colonel Gordon, his brother-in-law, but he 

The enemy cros.sed the Kayadrossera, at what is now 
Milton Centre, about daylight, and soon came to a halt. 
Each prisoner was placed between two of the enemy in 
Indian file. Their hands were tied, some of them were 
barefooted, and most of them but partly dressed. George 
Kennedy was lame from a cut in his foot, and had no 
clothing but a sheet. Munro thereupon addressed his men. 
He said he expected they would be pursued, and that on 
discovering the first sign of a pursuit, even the firing of a 
gun, each man must kill his prisoner. In this order the 
march was resumed ; the prisoners expecting that the 
troops from the fort wsuld overtake them, and that each 
moment would be their last. Another source of appre- 
hension was that some Indian would fall back and fire his 
gun for the purpose of having the order carried into ex- 
ecution, — a reward for scalps having been ofl"ered. For 
this inhuman order, Munro was afterwards dismissed from 
the service. 

The first man in front of Gordon was a British regular, 
a German, who was next behind Capt. Collins and had 
charge of him. Gordon was tlie prisoner of a ferocious 
savage immediately in his rear. He heard the soldier say 
to Capt. Collins, " I have been through the late war in 
Europe, and in many battles, but I never before have heard 
such a bloody order as this. I can kill in the heat of battle, 
but not in cold blood. You need not fear me, for I will 
not obey the order. But the Indian in charge of Gordon 
is thirsting for his blood, and the moment a guu is fired 
Gordon is a dead man." 

On arriving at the foot of the Kayadrcssera mountain, 
they halted for breakfast, and slaughtered the sheep and 
cattle which they had driven along on their retreat. In the 
afternoon they struck the trail up the mountain by which 
they had descended, and halted for the night about two 
miles beyond Lake Desolation. Munro here discharged 
Ebenezer Sprague and Paul Pierson, both old men, together 
with John Pierson and George Kennedy. Gordon had 
privately, by some means, sent back a message, advising 
that all attempts at a rescue should be abandoned. The 
mes.senger met Capt. Stephen Ball with a detachment of 
militia from the fort, at what has since been known as Mil- 
ton meeting-house, and they returned. The enemy, with 
their prisoners, on the 24th day of October, arrived at Bul- 
wagga bay, and there, joining Carleton's party, they all pro- 
ceeded down the lake to St. John's and thence to iMontreal. 
The prisoners were at first lodged in the Jiecolltt convent, 
and afterwards confined in a jail. Gordon was bailed in 
the sum of £3000 by James Ellice, with whom he had 
formerly been connected in business in Schenectady. After 
a few months, for what reason he never knew, he, alone of 



all the prisoners, was removed to Quebec and kept there in 
prison for about two years, when he was transferred to the 
Isle of Orleans. 


In May, 1781, the notorious Joe Bettys,* with the aid 
of about thirty refugees under his command, made a raid 
into the Ballston district and captured Consider Chard, Uri 
Tracy, P]phraim Tracy, Samuel Nash, and Samuel Patchin. 
They were all taken to Canada excepting Nash, who escaped 
near Lake Desolation. At the same time Epenetus White, 
Captain Rumsey, two brothers named Banta, and some 
others on the east side of Long lake, were taken by a Tory 
officer named Waltermeyer, and marched off to Canada. 

When Gordon was removed to the Isle of Orleans he 
there found White, Higby, Enoch Wood, the two Bantas, 
and other Ballston prisoners. They contrived to escape 
from the island by means of a fi.shenuan's boat, and landing 
on the right bank of the river, they made their way into 
the wilderness. Their provisions soon gave out, and for 
several days they subsisted upon nothing but berries and a 
species of mussel found in the streams. Arriving at the 
head-waters of the St. John, they, with their hatchets, 
constructed a rude craft, upon which they floated down the 
river for a considerable distance, and then struck across to 
Passamaquoddy bay. This was in 1783, and there they 
learned for the first time that hostilities had ceased. They 
proceeded to Halifax, and were brought from thence to 
Boston by a cartel. 

Nero, one of Munro's prisoners, after his capture, had 
attempted to escape. A few rods south of the north line 
of the " Five-mile square," where James Allison now lives, 
he suddenly broke from the ranks, and sprang headlong 
down a ravine. His head coming in contact with a sap- 
ling, he was retaken. At Montreal he was sold to Capt. 
Laws, a British officer. The other slaves captured by 
Munro were also sold. In a short time, Nero and Capt. 
Benedict's " boy" Dublin contrived to e.scape. They came 
by the shore of Lake Champlain to Ticonderoga, and 
there swam across the lake, and found their way to Rich- 
mond, Mass. There they reujained until the close of the 
war, when they returned to Ballston, and voluntarily sur- 
rendered themselves respectively to their former owners. 

Joe Bettys, to whom allusion has been made, was the 
son of respectable parents residing in the Ballston district. 
His father, Joseph Bettys, during and subsequent to the 
war, kept a tavern below what is known as the Delavan 
farm, upon the farm now occupied by Mr. Lewis Trites. 
The old man's gravestone may be seen in the cemetery at 
Burnt Hills. The career of Joseph Bettys, Jr., is an 
important item in the early history of Ballston. His name, 
for several years towards tiie close of the war, was a terror to 
its inhabitants. The following account of Bettys is mostly 
compiled from Simms' " Border Wars," and a statement of 
Col. John Ball : 

Col. Ball, a son of Rev. Eliphalet Ball, as early as 1776, 
held a lieutenant's commission in a regiment of New York 
forces commanded by Col. Wynkoop. Being acquainted 
with Bettys, and knowing him to be bold, athletic, and 

* See Judge Scott's address. 

intelligent in an uncommon degree, he succeeded in enlist- 
ing him as a sergeant. Bettys was soon reduced to the 
ranks by reason of some insolence to an officer, who, as he 
alleged, had wantonly abused him. To save him to the 
cause, Ball procured him a sergeantcy in the fleet com- 
manded by Gen. Arnold on Lake Champlain, in 1776. 
Bettys was in the desperate fight between the British and 
American fleets on the lakes, and being a skillful seaman, 
was of signal service during the contest. He fought until 
every commissioned officer on board of his vessel was killed 
or wounded, and then himself assumed command, and con- 
tinued to fight with such reckless courage that Gen. Water- 
bury, who was second in command under Arnold, perceiving 
that the vessel was likely to sink, was obliged to order 
Bettys and the remnant of the crew on board of his own 

He stationed him on the quarter-deck by his side, and 
gave orders through him, until the vessel having become 
disabled, and the crew nearly all killed, Gen. Waterbury 
wounded, and only two officers left, the colors were struck, 
and the remnant made prisoners. They were soon dis- 
charged on their parole. Gen. Waterbury afterwards in- 
formed the Rev. Mr. Ball that he never saw a man behave 
with such deliberate desperation as did Bettys on that occa- 
sion, and that the shrewdness of his management was equal 
to his courage. 

For some reason his gallant services were not recognized 
to his satisfaction, and this neglect his proud spirit and un- 
governable temper could not brook. He afterwards went to 
Canada, joined the loyalists, and receiving an ensigns com- 
mission in the British army, became a spy, and proved him- 
self a most dangerous and subtle enemy. He was at length 
captured and sentenced to be hung at West Point, but the 
entreaties of his aged parents, and the solicitations of in- 
fluential Whigs, induced Gen. Washington to pardon him. 
But it was ill-directed clemency. He was more vindictive 
than ever, and the Whigs in this part of the State, and 
especially in Ballston, soon had occasion to regret the lenity 
they had unfortunately caused to be extended to him. He 
recruited soldiers for the king in our very midst, planned 
and guided many of the raids from tlie north, and was at the 
same time in the employment of the king's officers as a 
most faithful and successful messenger and cunning and in- 
telligent spy. Tliere had been many attempts to apprehend 
him, but he eluded them all. 

In the early spring of 1782, in the present town of 
Clifton Park, about a mile west of Jonesville, one Jacob 
Fulmer was engaged in making maple-sugar in the woods, 
and after remaining there as usual overnight, was relieved 
in the morning by his daughter while he went to his break- 
fast. The morning was very foggy, and she, without being 
observed, saw a man upon snow-shoes, bearing a pack and 
a gun, pass near by and proceed toward the house of a 
widow named Hawkins. This house was upon the farm 
now belonging to L. W. Crosby. The girl immediately 
informed her father, who at once suspected the stranger 
might be Bettys. Calling upon two of his neighbors, 
Perkins and Corey, and all being well armed, they stealthily 
approached the house, and suddenly burst open the door. 
They discovered Bettys, with his back towards them, eating 

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his breakfiist, with his rifle by his side. He seized it, but 
not haviiij; takeu the precaution to undo the deer-skin 
cover that protected the lock, was unable to discharge it. 
They seized liiin and tied him seeurely. He a.skod leave to 
smoke, and was partially unbound to afford him the oppor- 
tunity. He went to the fireplace to light his pipe, and 
took soniothing out of his tobacco-box and threw it into 
the fire. Corey noticed this and immediately snatched it 
out with a handful of coals. It was a small leaden box 
about the eighth of an inch in thickness, and contained a 
paper in cipher, which afterwards proved to be a dispatch 
to the British commander in New York, and also contained 
an order on the mayor of New York for £30 .sterliiijr, in 
case the dispatch should be safely delivered. Bettys begged 
for leave to burn the papers, and offered one hundred 
guineas for the privilege, but his captors refused. He then 
despairingly said, " I am a dead man." He was taken to 
Albany, tried by a court-martial, and convicted and hung 
as a spy, to the great relief of the Whigs in this section of 
the State. 

EARLY LAN D-GKANTS— 1684-1713. 


The readers of this history, if haply any there shall be, 
are doubtless by this time weary of the long, long story of 
the old wilderness warfare that so often empurpled the soil 
of Saratoga County with the blood of the slain, and will 
turn with a ■sense of relief to the story of her social and in- 
dustrial progress, which will form the burden of the re- 
maining chapters. 

And if Old Saratoga has become a high historic name in 
consequence of the heroic deeds of her warfare, she has won 
scarcely less of world-wide fame by reason of her material 
development in her time of peace. Of her it may be truly 
said, in Milton's immortal language. 

" Peace hath her victories 
No less renowned than war." 

Sonnet xvi. 

In the following pages the principal early land-grants of 
Saratoga County will be briefly described, and in most cases 
will be given a copy of the warrant issued to the patentees 
containing the original description of the patent. These 
papers have been transcribed from the original land papers 
on file in the office of the Secretary of State at Albany ex- 
pressly for this work. 


In the earlier years of the colonial period the old Indian 
hunting-grounds lying within the boundaries of the county 
of Saratoga were pure' ased one after another from their 
aboriginal owners, and thereafter became known in history 
as land-grants or patents. The most famous of these old 
patents still retain their old Indian names, — the patents of 
Saratoga and Kay-ad-ros-se-ra. 

The patent of Old Saratoga, which grew out of the old 
hunting-ground of the river hills from which the county 

and the springs derive their name, was among the earliest made of the Indians in Saratoga County. It was 
purchased of the Mohawks as early as the year 168-t, but 
the Indian deed was not confirmed by the colonial govern- 
ment and the warrant for the patent issued till the year 
170S, as will appear by the following copy thereof. The 
Saratoga patent is shown on the map facing this chapter. 


" Bi/ hiti ExcclUtU'ij, Edward^ Vinatunt Citnibiiri/, Cttptain-Genentl aud 
(rovenior-hi-Chie/ of the Prrtvincea ti/ New York and New Jersei/y 
and tei'i'itories depending on them in Aniei-ictty and Vice-Admiral 
of the same, etc., in council this 2oth d-iy of October, 1708. 
" To Mojor llicldctj, Esq., Attornei/-Gcneral of the Province of New 
York : 
" You arc hereby required and directed to prepare a draft of a 
pateut of confirmation for Colonel Peter Schuyler, Robert Livings- 
ton, Esq., Dirck Wessels, Esq., Jan .Jan Bleecker, Esq., Johannes 
Schuyler, Esq., arul to Cornelius Van Dyck, the grandchild and heir- 
at-law of Cornelius Van Dyck, deceased, for a certain tract of land 
situate and being to the northward of the city of Albany, on both 
sides of the Hudson river, formerly granted unto some of them and 
others, under and from whom the rest do at present hold and enjoy 
by patent from Cohmel Tomas Dongan, sometime (iovernor-in-Chief of 
the province of New York, the limits and boundaries of which land 
are to bo ascertained in the manner, that is to say : Beginning at the 
south side of the mouth of a certain creek on the west side of Hud- 
son's river, commonly called by the Indians Tionoondehows, and by 
the Christians Anthony's Kill, which is the up[)crmost bounds of the 
land formerly purchased by Goosie Gerritson and Pliilip Peterson 
Schuyler, and from thence descending westerly into the woods by the 
said creek, on the south side thereof, as it runs six English miles; 
and if the said creek do not stretch so far into the wood, then from 
the end thereof east by a straight line until it shall be six miles dis- 
tant from Hudson's river, upon a measured straight line; and from 
thence northerly by a line parallel to the course of Hudson's river, 
until it come opposite to and bear east from the soulh side from 
another creek's mouth on the east side of Hudson's river, called 
Tionoondehows, which upon Hudson's river is computed to be dis- 
tant from the mouth of Tionoondehows aforesaid about twenty two 
English miles, be it more or less, and from the left termination by a 
straight line to be drawn east to the north side of the mouth of the 
said creek, Tionoondehows ; and from thence continued east six 
miles into the woods on the east side of Hudson's river, and from 
thence by a line southerly parallel to the course of the said Hudson's 
river, and six miles distant from the same, so far southerly until it 
come opposite to and bear east six miles distant from the north .'-ide 
of the mouth of Schardhook Kill, which is the boundary of Schard- 
hook patent, late belonging to Henry Van Rensselaer, to hold it 
thence, in manner following: that is to say, for so much thereof as 
by the former patents had been divided for arable land to Peter 
Schuyler, lot No. 1, and one half the lot No. 6, to and for the use of 
the said Peter Schuyler, and of his heirs and assigns forever, to 
Robert Livingston ; his lot, No. 5, and one half the lot No. 5, to and 
for the sole use to Dirck Wessels ; his lot. No. 3, to and for the solo 
use to Jan Jans Bleecker; his lot, No. 2, to and tor the solo use to 
Joh,innes ; his lot, No. 4, to and for the sole use also to Caroline 
Van Dyck, the grandchild and heir-at-law of the said Caroline Van 
Dyck, deceased; the lot No. 7 in trust, nevertheless, to and for the 
use or uses for which the farm is devised by the last will and testa- 
ment of his said gratidfather, deceased; failing which use or uses, to 
the use of hituself, and his heirs aud assigns forever, and for so 
much as reniaius undivided according to the heir's use of, positively, 
that is to say : to Peter Schuyler and Robert Livingston, to each of 
them three-fourteenth parts ; and to each of the others two fourteenth 
parts of the whole undivided land contained in the said patent, the 
farm being divided in fourteen equal parts, at and under the yearly 
quitrent of twenty bushels of winter wheat; and for your so doing 
this shall be your sufficient warrant. Corndirv." 

Dated as above.*" 

Land Paper, v. 4, p. 165. 




Bj far the largest iiiid most important land-grant made 
in colonial times, any part of wliicli lay within the bounds 
of Saratoga County, was the patent founded on the old 
Indian hunting-ground of Ka^-ad-ros-se-ra. This large 
tract includes the greater part of Saratoga County, and 
runs also on the north into Warren county, and on the west 
into Montgomery and Fulton. 

Kaf/-ad-rf>S'Se-ra^ '* the country of the lake of the 
crooked stream," as 'has already been seen in these pages, 
was the favorite hunting-ground of the Mohawk branch 
of the Iroquois or Five Nations of central New York. 
The Indian deed was obtained of the Molufwk chief in the 
year 1703, but the jiatent was not granted till tlie year 
1708, and the Indians did not ratify the purchase till the 
year 1768. This patent was, therefore, disputed ground 
for more than sixty years. 

The first attempt made to obtain a grant of any part of 
Kay-ad-ros-se-ra was made in the j^ear 1698. On the 1st day 
of April, 1698, Robert Livingston, Jr., and David Schuy- 
ler petitioned for a part of Kuy-tid-ros-se-rd lying north of 
the Saratoga patent up as far as the Little Carrying-Place, 
and running as far back into the wood as the Indian prop- 
erty goes. Ill the year 1702, on the 26th of August, the 
Indians granted this tract to Livingston and Schuyler, de- 
scribed as aforesaid. This was the first Indian deed of any 
part of Kay-ad'Tos-se-ra . When the proprietors of the 
whole patent acfpiired their title, they obtained a release 
from Livingston and Schuyler of their interest. 

The first paper on file in the office of the Secretary of 
State, at Albany, in relation to the patent of Kny-ad-ros- 
se-ra, is the following petition : 

*' Tohii Excellenr}/, Eilicard, Vinconiit Citnihury, Cnptain- General rind 
Govenior~iii~ Chief in and over the Province of Nriv Ynrk and Ter- 
ritoriea depeudlny thereon in AmericUj and Vice- Admiral of the 
ftarne, etc., in council. 
*' The hnmble pe^V/oJi of Sampson Shehnn Brontjhtim, Esq., Altonicij- 
Geiieral of the said Province, in Ijfjho/f of h ininelf and Conip. Most 
humbly sheircth : 
"That your petitioner being informed of a certain tract of vacant 
and unappropriated land in the County of Albany, called or known 
by the Indian name of Kayarossos, adjoining to the north bounds of 
Schenectady, on the east side thereof, to the west bounds of Saratoga, 
on the north side thereof, and to Albany river on the west side (hereof. 
*' Your said petitioner most humbly prays your Excellency that he 
may have a license to treat with the native Indinns, present posses- 
Bors and owners of the said tract of land, for the jiurchase thereof, 
and to purchase the same 

"And your petitioner humbly, as in duty bound, shall ever pray, 

*' Sa. Sh. Broughton." 

The prayer of this petitioner was not at first granted, 
and Sampson Shelton Broughton, the petitioner, dying, his 
widow, Mary Broughton, presented the following petition : 


" To kis Excellency, Edward, Viscount Cornhnvy, Captain- G eneral and 
Oovernor-in- Ch iff in and over Her Majesty's Province of New York 
and Territories adjoiniiu/ thereon in America, and Vicc-Admiral 
of the same, etc., in council. 

" The humble petitinv of Mary lirovghion, widow and relict of Sampson 
Shelton Urouyhton, deceased, late Attorney-General of the said 
Province, in behalf of herself and company. Most humbly sheweth : 

^ Land Papers, p. 122, v. 3. 

"That your Excellency's petitioner's late husband in bis lifetime 

obtained of your Excellency in council, for the benefit of himself and 
company, a license to purchase of the native Indian proprietors a 
certain traet of vacant and unappropriated land in the county of Al- 
bany, called or known by the Intlian name of Kayaderosses, adjoin- 
ing to the north bounds of Schenectady patent, together with the 
vacancies that lie between the Ael place down along the river about 
one mile more or less, on the east side thereof to the west hounds of 
Saratoga patent, on the north side thereof to Albany river, and on 
the west side thereof to the native Indians and proprietors thereof, 
for their improvement, the north bounds running along the said river 
of Albany thereof; said tract of land your said petitioner's late hus- 
band in his lifetime did purchase from the native Indians, proprietors, 
on the 6th of October, 170-i, in pursuance of your Excellency's license 
for that purpose, obtained on the 2d day of November, 1704, for the 
use and benefit of your said petitioner's late husband and company, 
lis by the said receipted license and Indian deed of purchase now 
ready to be produced to your Excellency, will more at large appear ; 
and whereas your said petitioner's late husband in his lifetime did 
petition your Excellency for a grant of the said land for himself and 
company, David Schuyler and Robert Livingston, Jr., then in this 
city, did oppose the granting thereof, and entered a caveat against 
the same; your Excellency upon a full hearing of the parties on both 
sides, on the 6th day of November, 1 704, being the day appointed for 
that purpose, was pleased to declare then in council that the pretence 
of the said David Schuyler and Robert Livingston were groundless 
and frivohms, chiefly since the purchase was they provided to have 
made of formed parts of the said tract of land was made {if made it 
was) without any license from your Excellency for thnt purpose, and 
ordered therefore, that your caveat then so entered should be dis- 
missed and also referred the said petitioner to further consideration. 

" Your Excellency's petitioner therefore most humbly pniys your 
Excellency will be pleased that the said reference which has been so 
long depending before your Excellency, may be determined : and your 
said petitioner's husband being unhappily dead since the said trans- 
action, to the inexpressible loss of your petitioner and family, your 
petitioner most humbly prays that her name may be inserted in the 
said grant in place of that of her said late husband, for the benefit of 
your said ])etiti(fner's family and company. 

'•'And your Excellency's said petitioner, as in duty bound, shall 
ever pray, etc.j" 

*' Mary Bkoughton." 

On the 17th of April, 1807, Samuel Broughton, son of 
Sampson Shelton Broughton, filed a petition in behalf of his 
mother praying that she might take her husband's interest 
in the grant. 

In the mean time Mary Broughton had gone back to 
England and taken the Indian deed of Kayadrossera with 
her among her husband's papers. 

In the year 1808, the other proprietors filed a petition 
setting forth the ftict of their not having possession of the 
Indian deed, and accounting for its absence as above stated. 

A long controversy ensued between the Broughtons and 
the other patentees, which was finally compromised by mak- 
ing Siimuel Broughton, the son of Sampson Shelton Brough- 
ton, one of the jxitentees. 

The following is the warrant for this patent, which was 
finally granted to thirteen owners in common. This war- 
rant contains a description of the patent by which all sur- 
veys were governed ; 

*• Dyhin Excellency. Edward, Vincount Cornbury, Captain-General and 
Governor-in- Chief of the Provinces of New York, New Jersey, and 
Territories dependimj thereon in America, and Vice-Admiral of 
the same, etc, in council, this 22d day of October, 1701. 
^' To Major Bickley, Esq., Attorney-General of the Province of New 
York : 
"You are hereby required to prepare a draft of letters-patent for 
Naning Harmanse, Johannes Eeekman, Rip Van Dam, Ann Bridges, 

f Land Papers, p. 42. 



Major Bickley, Peter Fauconnier, Adrian Hoghland, Johannes Fisher, 
Jubn Tuder, Ixris Hoghland, John Stevens, and John Gatham, for all 
that traet of land situate, lying, and being in the county of Albany, 
called Kayadarossera, nllan Queen's Horough, beginning at a place on 
Schenectady river, about three miles distant from the southwesterly 
corner of the bounds of Nest igiou's, the said place being the southwest- 
erly corner of the patent lately granted to Naning Ha-manse, Peter 
Fauconnier, and others ; thence along the said Schenectady river west- 
erly to the southeastly corner of a patent lately granteil to William Ap- 
ple : thence along the easterly, northerly, and westerly lines of said 
William Apple's patent down to the above said river; thence to the 
Schenectady bounds, or the southeasterly corner of said patent on said 
river, so along the easterly, northerly, and westerly bounds thereof 
down to the sai(i river again; thence along the said river up westerly 
to the southeasterly bounds of a tract of laud lately granted to Eben- 
ezer Willson and John Aboot, and so along the said patent round to 
the southwesterly corner thereof on said SchenCL'tady river ; thence 
continuing to run westerly up along said Schenectady river to a place 
or hill calletl Iweelowando, being live miles distant, or thereabouts, 
from the said southwesterly corner of said Willson's and Aboot's 
patent; thence northerly to the northwestmost head of a creek called 
Kayaderossera, about fourteen miles, — more or less ; thence eight miles 
more northerly ; thence easterly or northeasterly to the third falls on 
Albany river, about twenty miles, — more or less ; thence along the said 
river down southerly to the northeasterly bounds of Saratoga ; thence 
along said Saratoga's northerly, westerly, and southerly bounds on said 
river; thence to the northeasterly corner of Anthony Van Sch.aiek's 
land, <m said river, so northerly and westerly along said Van Schaick's 
patent to the northeast corner of the above said patent grantetl to 
Naning, Fauconnier, and others : thence along the northerly and west- 
erly bounds thereof, down to the above said river of Schenectady, 
being the place where it first begun. To hold to the said Naning llar- 
niense, Johannes Beekman, Rip Van Dam, Ann Bridges, Major 
Bickley, Peter Fauconnier, Adrian Hoghland, Johannes Fisher, John 
Tuder, .Juris Hoghland, Johu Stauen, and John Gatham, their heirs 
and assigns forever, at and under the yearly quitrent of four pounds 
. . . and for so doing this shall be your suiBjient warrant. Dated 
as above. 

" By order of his Excellency in council .■:•' 

" CoRNBiinv." 

After the patent of K;iyadros.?ei'a was granted, in the 
year 1708, the patentee.? slumbered on their rights. It was 
a condition of the grant that a settlement ishould be made 
within seven years after its date and discovery. It does 
not appe;rv that any attempt at settlement was made, but 
one petition after anotiier was filed by the patentees, pray- 
ing an extension of the time for settlement. 

In 1732 the patentees filed a petition, asking that the 
patent might be surveyed and its boundaries determined, 
on account of various depredations that were being com- 
mitted on it by adjoining owners who disputed the line. 

But nothing was done towards a survey; and again, for 
more than thirty years, the owners of this magnificent 
domain slumbered upon their rights. 

At length, in 1703, the French and Indian war being 
over, the patentees of Kayadrossera began to look, with 
longing eyes, after their lands. In the year 1764, some 
one of them began to issue permits to settlers to enter 
upon and occupy portions of the patent. 

In pursuance of these permits, several families moved 
upon the patent in the vicinity of Saratoga lake, at the 
mouth of the Kayadrossera river. 

In the fall of that year the Mohawks, upon their hunting 
excursion, fell \ipon these settlers and drove them away. 

Learning from the settlers that they claimed it by pur- 
chase, the Mohawks became alarmed, as they said they had 
never heard of such purchase. 

* Land Papers, v. 4, p. 165. 

The Mohawks at once appealed to Sir William Johnson, 
and were surprised to learn that the whole of their favorite 
hunting-ground had been deeded away by their fathers 
more than two generations before. 

'• Abraham," the brother of King Hendrik, in an elo- 
quent harangue, presented the case to Sir William, claim- 
ing that, after the most diligent inquiry among the oldest 
people of his tribe, it could not be ascertained that any 
such grant had ever been uiade. 

In conclusion, " Abraham" demanded in the name of 
the tribe that the patent be relin(|uishcd. 

Sir William took up the matter warmly in favor of the 
Mohawks, and made every effort in his power to have the 
patent set aside. 

In the first place, Sir William wrote to Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Colders, stating the case as he understood it, and 
urging relief. 

That very autumn. Sir William introduced a bill into 
the Colonial A.ssembly to vacate the patent on the ground 
of fraud. 

These measures failing, in the year 1765 Sir William 
appealed to the council in person in behalf of his dusky 
brethren, but the members of the council put him off with, 
among other things, tiie plea that to vacate the patent in 
council would be disrespectful to the council who granted 
it. By this time the controversy had been taken up 
warmly by all the tribes of tiie confederacy of the Six 
Nations, and Sir William in their behalf petitioned to have 
the patent vacated on the ground of fraud by act of P;ir- 

At length the proprietors themselves became alarmed for 
the safety of their patent, and offered to compromise with 
the Indians by paying them a certain sum of money to 
satisfy their claim. The Mohawks thought the sum 
offered too .small, and the effort failed. 

Thus the matter went on till the year 1768, when the 
proprietors of Kayadrossera gave to the governor. Sir 
Henry Moore, full power to settle with the Indians. In 
pursuance of this authority, Sir Henry proceeded to the 
Moh<iwk country in the early summer of 1768, and called a 
council of the Indians to deliberate upon the matter. But 
it was found that the proprietors had no copy of the Indian 
deed to produce in evidence on the occasion, and that, as 
no survey had ever been made, no proper understanding of 
the subject could be arrived at, and the council was dis- 
solved. Upon his return to New York, the governor or- 
dered a survey of the patent to be made. The outlines of 
this great patent were accordingly given by the surveyor- 
general, and, the boundaries being ascertained, a compro- 
mise was arrived at. The proprietors relinquished a large 
tract on the northwestern quarter of what they had claimed 
to be their land, and fixed the northern and western bound- 
aries as they now run. They likewise paid the Indians 
the sum of five thousand dollars in full of all their claims 
and the Mohawks thereupon ratified the patent and forever 
relinquished their claims to their old favorite hunting- 

f See Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, by Colonel Wm. 
L. Stone, vol. ii. 



The Indian title being thus quieted, the proprietors pro- 
ceeded at once to survey their lands. 

Such proceedings were had that commissioners were ap- 
pointed to partition the patent among its owners. The 
commissioners completed their survey in the year 1771. 
They divided the patent into twenty-five allotments, and 
each allotment into thirteen equal lots, that being the num- 
ber of the original proprietors. 

The proprietors, or their heirs or assigns, as the 
might be, cast lots as to location, each having a single lot 
in each allotment. It would doubtless be interesting to 
trace more in detail the incidents attending the granting 
and settlement of this important patent, but our space will 
not permit. Its situation is clearly shown by the map 
accompanying this chapter. 


On the 13th day of April, 1708, William Apple peti- 
tioned Governor lidward, Lord Viscount Cornbury, setting 
forth that twenty years before, he and his partner, Harmanus 
Hagadorn, had planted a field of corn on the north bank 
of the Mohawk, in the county of Albany, and when it was 
all ready for the harvest, the Mohaioks, who were on the 
war-path against Canada, encamped in the field and destroyed 
it, to their loss of $400. That, in consideration therefor, 
the Mv/iawks thereafter gave them a deed of the land, 
signed by four sachems of the tribe. The land was do- 
scribed in the Indian deed as follows, to wit : 

" A certain piece of land lying at the north side of the 
river Schenectady (Mohawk) nigh the bounds of the said 
town, beginning at a creek called Eel-Place, along the said 
river, under the high rocky hills, and from the said river- 
side into the woods unto the Long lake, being in 
breadth alongst the said river one mile or thereabouts." 

The j)etition further set forth that thereafter the peti- 
tioner was wounded in the attack on Schenectady, on the 
8th February, 1 690, and that he had a large family of small 
children dependent upon him for support. 

Out of this petition grew the Apple patent, indicated on 
the map which faces this chapter. 


This patent includes the present town of Watorford and 
part of Half-Moon. A copy of the survey of the patent 
is herewith appended. 


The boundaries of a certain parcel of land in the county 
of Albany, confirmed unto Anthony Van Schaick, by Gov- 
ernor Thomas Dongan, 31st May, 1687. 

A certain parcel of tract of land, and being to the north 
and above the town of Albany, and is commonly called and 
known by the name of the Half-Moon, which .stretches up 
alongst the North river, from a certain place where are 
several streams of water, to a creek or kill, where there is 
a fall of waters, which, running into the land, hath its 
course into the North river ; the said creek, or kill, and fall 
being by the Indians called Tieuwenendahow ; and from 
thence runs up the Maquas kill westward, to a place called 
Dowailsoiaex, and so strikes presently eastward up along 

by the said stream, and then to the North river aforemen- 

A true copy, taken from the original by Philip Livingston. 


Among the earlier patents granted was the Ska-nen-da- 
ho-wa, or Clifton Park patent. Its situation is sufficiently 
indicated on the accompanying map, and it is sufficiently 
described in the following paper relating thereto, which is 
on file in the office of the Secretary of State at Albany. 


" By hi« Excellency, Edward Viscount Cornburtf, Captain-General 
and Governor-in-Chief of the Provincea of New York, New Jer- 
sey, etc., in council this Xlth of September, 1703. 
" To Major Birkley, Esq., Attorney-General of this Province: 

" You are hereby requireii to prepare a draft of letters patent for 
Naning Harmansen. Peter Faucoiiuier, Henry IlolIanJ, Henry Swift, 
and Wra. Morripon, for a certain tract or piece of land in the county 
of Albany, called Shenondehowah. also Clifton Park, ranging in a 
northern line from the Mohawks, Cohoes or Schenectady river, along 
the western bounds of Anthony Van Schoyck's patent, about si.x 
miles northerly up into the woods, together with a small island a 
little to the eastward of the southwest corner of said Van Schoyck's 
land; then along the said river westward to the eastmost bounds of 
Nestigion's patent, so all along the east bounds of Nestigion's as 
far as the same run northward, and then all along the northern 
bounds of said Nestigion's patent as far as the same runneth west- 
ward ; then down to the river-side along the westward bounds of 
said patent to the river again, and three English miles, or there- 
abouts, uj)wards to the west along the said river-side; then six miles 
or thereabouts from said river side up into the woods northward, 
and then to meet from thence on an eastern line with the line first 
run along the above said Anthony Van Schoyck's western bounds, 
said small island included, with a line jtarellel to the bounds of the 
afore-mentionod river, to hold to them the said Nanning Harmansen, 
Peter Fauconnier, Henry Holland, Henry Swift, and Wm. Morrison, 
in manner and for the fidlowing: that is to say, two-ninth jiart 
thereof to said Naning Harmansen, his heirs, and two other ninth 
part thereof to said Peter Fauconnier, his heirs, and two other ninth 
part thereof to Henry Holland, and two other ninth part thereof to 
Henry Swift, his heirs, and the other one last ninth part thereof to 
William Morris, at and under the yearly quitrent of forty shillings, 
on condition of settling the same within three years after a peace 
between Her Majesty and the French king shall be publicly declared 
in this province, and for so doing this shall be your warrant. 

" By order, Corneuiiv." 


The following is a survey of this patent. It is indicated 
on the map accompanying this chapter. 


" Pursuant to a warrant from his late excellency. Sir Henry Moore, 
Baronet, then captain-general and governor-in-ehicf in and over the 
province of New York and the territories depending thereon in 
America, chancellor and vice-admiral of the same, bearing date the 
ninth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and si.\ty-nine. 

" Surveyed by Manning ^^ischer for John Glen, Junior, Simon 
Schermerhorn, and their associates. All that certain tract or parcel 
of land situate, lying, and being in the county of Albany and within 
the province of New York, — 

"Beginning at the distance of one hundred and five chains, meas- 
ured on a course soutll si.vty-one degrees west from a black ash-tree 
standing near the head of one of the branches of a brook called and 
known by the name of Kayaderosseras, which said black ash-tree 
was marked by the commissioners appointed to make division of a 
tract of land called and known by the name of the patent of Kaya- 
derosseras, and runs thence south sixty-one degrees west one thou- 

* Land Papers, vol. vi. p. 17. 



sand two hundred and nineteen chains; thin north fifteen degrees 
and thirty minutes east two hundred and sixty-eight chains; then 
south twenty-nine degrees and thirty minutes east eighty-one chains 
and three rods ; then north sixty degrees and forty-live minutes east 
three hundred and seventy-six chains; then north eleven degrees 
west one hundred and forty-one chains; then north sixty-seven de- 
grees and forty minutes cast forty-five chains; then north forty de- 
grees and forty minutes east three hundred and seventy-seven chains ; 
then north fifty-two and thirty minutes west five chains; then noith 
twenty-nine degrees and thirty minutes east two iiundrcd and sixty- 
two chains; then north tifty-two degrtes and thirty minutes west 
seventy-eight cliains, to the Sacandaga or west hranch of Hudson's 

" Then down the soutlieru banl< of the said brnnch, as it winds and 
turns, to a hemlock-tree marlicd with the letter B ; then north eighty- 
four degrees and eight minutes west five hundred and sixty-nine 
chains, to a hemlock-tree marked eight miles: then south one hun- 
dred and ten chains ; tlien west ninety chains ; then south five hundred 
aud eighty chains, to the place where this tract began, — 

" Containing forty-five thousand acres of land, and the usual 
allowance for highways. ■•* 

" Given under my hand this second day of July, one thousand 
seven hundred and seventy. 

" Alex. Coldr.v, 

" Snri-ei/or-GtHeraL" 


Palmer's Purchase. — This large patent lies partly in 
three counties, Saratoga, Warren, and Ilaiuilton ; the part 
in this county is indicated on the map. 

The Niskayuna Patent was granted April 13, 1703. 
It is a small patent lying near the Mohawk river, in the 
south part of the town of Clifton Park, as indicated on 
the map. 

The Dartmouth Patent lie.? partly in the eastern 
part of the town of Hadly, and extends northerly up the 
Hudson into Warren county. 

The Northampton Patent lies partly in this county, 
along both sides of the Sacondaga river, in the town of 

The Livingston Patents lie in the valley of the 
Sacondaga, in the town of Edinburgh, northeasterly of the 
Northampton patent. 

The John Glen Patent is a small gore of land, lying 
between the Hudson and the north line of the Kay-ad-ros- 
se-ra patent, at South Glen Falls, in the town of Moreau. 
The fourteen patents above named are all the whole or any 
part of which lies in Saratoga^ County. Only such docu- 
ments as best show the extent and boundaries of the larger 
patents have been given here. The voluminous records 
relating to these fourteen patents can all be easily found in 
the archives of the State department, at Albany, by con- 
sulting the Calendar of Land Papers. 




Upon the land-grants described in the foregoing chapter 
the early settlement of Saratoga County began. To write 
the history of the settlement and development of Saratoga 

* Land Papers, vol. xxvii. p. 64. 

County is to trace that history through the greater part of 
three centuries. Its history began early in the seventeenth, 
and now we are nearing the close of the nineteenth. But 
the history of the early settlement of the county is so fully 
given in the histories of the several towns which follow this 
general history, that it would be but needless repetition to 
attempt it here. And in following the annals of the early 
settlements of the towns it will be seen what a matter of 
hardship and toil, of difficulty and danger, it was to be the 
pioneers of a new and savage country. 

The fate of Ballston, like that of Wyoming and Cherry 
Valley, suggests the various risks of the pioneer settlers, 
who in those early days laid siege to the grim old wilder- 

At the mention of those early settlements there rises at 
once in our mind's eye the log hut in the centre of the 
little clearing, the scanty crop of corn among the charred 
logs and blackened stumps of the felled trees. Around all 
stands the shadowy forest, which the fears of the anxious 
housewife and the little children people with lurking 
Indians and wild beasts of prey ; while the father guides 
the plow, with his trusty rifle hidden in a corner of the 
field. The whole is a scene of faith, courage, and endur- 
rance, which will never be equaled again. 

The first settlers confined themselves to the banks of the 
Mohawk, and to the protection of the forts and military 
works erected during the long and bloody French and 
Indian wars. It was not till after the war of the Revolu- 
tion was over that the full tide of immigration set in for 
Saratoga County. 

At the time of its separate county organization, in 1791, 
Saratoga had within its borders more than seventeen 
thousand inhabitants. 

II.— COUNTY organization. 

On the 17th day of February, in the year 1791, an act 
was passed by the Legislature of the State of New York, 
entitled, "An act for apportioning the representation in 
the Legislature, according to the rules prescribed in the 
Constitution, and for other purposes." By section one of 
that act the towns of Easton and Cambridge were annexed 
to Washington county, the county of Rensselaer created, and 
it was further provided, " That all that part of the county 
of Albany, which is bounded easterly by the Hudson river 
and counties of Wasliington and Rensselaer, southerly by 
the most northerly sprout of said river and the town of 
SchenecUidy, westerly by the county of Montgomery, and 
northerly by the county of Washington, shall be one sep- 
arate and distinct county, and be called and known by the 
name of Saratoga.' 

By otiier sections of the same statute, provision was 
made for holding the several courts of the State therein, 
and local courts were provided for as well as representation 
in both Houses of the Legislature, and it was directed that 
all prisoners should be kept in the Albany county jail until 
a new jail should be built in the county of Saratoga. 

The courts of the State at the time of the formation of 
this county were — 

1. Tlie Court of Errorst, consisting of the lieutenant- 
governor, the senators, the chancellor, and the judges of the 



Supreme Court. This court had sqle power to try im- 
peachments, and a general appellate jurisdiction over the 
courts below. 

2. The Coui-t of Cliancery, with exclusive jurisdiction 
in equity causes. 

3. The Siq^reme Court of Jiulicatare, consisting of a 
chief justice and three puisne judges. This court sat in 
banc, and heard appeals from the courts below. 

4. Tlie Circuit Court, which was held in each county 
at least once in every year by one of the judges of the 
Supreme Court. It had jurisdiction over all issues of 

5. ^4 Court of Common Pleas in each county. — This 
court consisted of a first judge and at least three judges, 
and had jurisdiction over all actions at law arising within 
the count}^ 

6. The Court of Oyer and 2'erminer. — This was a crim- 
inal branch of the circuit court, presided over by a circuit 
judge and at least three commissioned justices of the peace 
of the county, of whom one might be a county judge. 

7. The Court of General Sessions. — This was a criminal 
court, held by any three of the justices of the peace of the 
county, and of which a judge of common pleas must always 
be a member. 

Governor Clinton appointed John Thompson, of Still- 
water, first judge ; James Gordon and Beriah Palmer, of 
Baiiston, Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, of Half-Moon, and 
Sidney Berry, of Saratoga, as judges. Sidney Berry was 
appointed surrogate, Jacob Fort, Jr., of Half-Moon, sheriff, 
and Dirck Swart, of Stillwater, county clerk. 

The first session of the common pleas met at the resi- 
dence of Samuel Clark, in what is now the town of Malta, 
then Stillwater, on the 10th day of May, 1791. It was 
held by Judge Tliom]ison and the four judges above named, 
with John Varnan, Eliphalet Kellogg, and Efjenetus White, 
associate justices of sessions. 

The first session of the court of general sessions was 
held at the same place, on the 10th of May, 17'J1, presided 
over by James Gordon, judge, and John Varnam, Epenetus 
White, Eliphalet Kellogg, Richard Davis, Jr., Douw J. 
Fonda, Elias Palmer, Nathaniel Douglas, John Ball, and 
John Bradstreet, justices of the peace. A grand jury 
was sworn in, consisting of Richard Davis, Jr., Joshua 
Taylor, John Donald, Henry Davis, Hezekiah Ketchum, 
Seth C. Baldwin, Ezra Hallibort, John Wood, Samuel 
Wood, Edy Baker, Elisha Andrews, Gideon Moore, Abra- 
ham Livingston, and John Bleekor. 

The first term of the circuit court and court of oyer 
and terminer was held at the house of Jedediah Rogers, 
in Clifton Park, then Half-Moon, Chief Justice Robert 
Yates presiding, on Tuesday, the 7th day of July, 1791. 
The next term was held in the church at Stillwater, June 
4, 1792, and the third term in the Presbyterian church at 
Baiiston, July 9, 1793. 

On the 2Gth day of March, 1794, an act was passed by 
the Legislature appointing John Bradstreet Schuyler, Rich- 
ard Davis, Jr., James Emmott, John Ball, and John 
McClelland commissioners for locating the couuty-seat and 

building the court-house and jail. In those early days 
Baiiston Spa and Saratoga Springs were scarcely considered 
settlements, there being but a single log house or two in 
each. But Baiiston Centre and Jlilton were thriving vil- 
lages, and the principal contest for the county-seat lay be- 
tween these two places. The contest lasted some time, 
when Edward A. Watrous, of Baiiston, offered to give the 
county a site on his farm for a court-house and jail so long 
a.s the same should be used for such purposes. The offer 
was accepted by the commission, and Baiiston was declared 
to be the shire town. 

A contract was made with Luther Leet to build the 
court-house. It was built of wood, two stories in height, 
and fifty feet square, with a onestory wing in the rear, 
twenty by thirty feet. It cost the sum of S6750. The first 
court held therein was the May term of the common pleas 
and court of general sessions for 179G. The first circuit 
court and court of oyer and terminer, held in the court- 
house on Baiiston hill, was presided over by Judge John 
Lansing, in 1799. Courts were afterwards held there by 
Judges Kent, Radoliff, Morgan Lewis, Smith Thompson, 
Ambrose Spencer, William W. Van Ness, and Jonas Piatt, 
who held the last term there in May, 1815. 

A little thriving village had grown up around the court- 
house on Baiiston hill, and it had grown into quite a busi- 
ness centre; but on the 25th day of March, 1816, the 
court-house took fire, and was burned to the ground. 

Since the old court-house had been built, the villages of 
Saratoga Springs and Baiiston Spa had grown into important 
watering-places, and no sooner was it burned than a .sharp 
rivalry sprang up between the two places for the county- 


On the 14th of March, 1817, an act was passed by the 
Legislature appointing Elisha Powell and James Merrill, of 
Milton, Isaac Geer, of Galway, John Gibson, of Baiiston, 
and Gilbert Waring, of Saratoga, commissioners to relocate 
the county-seat and build a court-house and jail, at an ex- 
pense of $10,000. 

Court-house hill, the site of the old, Saratoga 
Springs, Dunning street, Waterford, and Baiiston Spa were 
each warm competitors for the honor. But Baiiston Spa 
had the majority in the commission. That village, situate 
in the town of Milton, was selected for the site of the 
county buildings, and the town of Milton made the shire 
town of the county, which it has ever since remained. 

The new court-house, which is the present structure 
without the wing, was built nearly after the model of the 
old one. Its dimensions were sixty-six by fifty feet, the 
wing having been added some years later It was com- 
pleted in time for the spring circuit of 1819, and the courts 
of the county have been regularly held in it to the present 


The first board of supervisors of Saratoga County con- 
sisted of only four members, as there were only four towns 
in the county, viz., Saratoga, Baiiston, Half-Moon, and 
Stillwater. It met in Stillwater on the 2d day of June, 
1791, the following being the members of the board: Be- 


^^^^ £,fr^/.^^ ^^fe^.^-Q ^/^^^^/>r 02.^JB 

^J^ /y^^p€€>n^ t?^4 



riah Palmer, Elias Palmer, John B. Schuyler, Benjamin 

On the opposite page is presented a /(ic-sitm'/e of one of 
the first orders made by the board. 


When King Charles II., in the years 1GG3-64 and 
1074, granted to his brother James, Duke of York and 
Albany, the vast province of the New Netherlands, and 
forcibly seizing it from the Dutch, its rightful owners, 
named it New York, in honor of the duke, he also granted 
with it to the duke plenary powers of government over the 

The duke accordingly exercised his power as sole pro- 
prietor of this province by governors of his own appoint- 
ment. The first governor appointed by the duke as 
proprietor was Governor Richard Nicoll.s, Sept. 8, 1664, 
and the last was Governor Thomas Dongan, Aug. 27, 
1083. It was under the Duke of York as proprietor that, 
on the 1st day of November, 1683, Governor Dongan 
divided the province into ten counties, and named them 
after the duke and the king and family, as described in 
Chapter 11. 

But on the 6th day of February, 168,5, the Duke of 
York ascended the throne of England as James TI.,and his 
title as proprietor to the province merged in his crown, and 
it henceforth ceased to be a charter government. 

From that time, for a period of ninety years, up to the 
War of the Revolution, the colony of New York was a 
royal government, with a constitution resembling that of 
Great Britain. 

Executive Power. — The executive power of the 
colony was vested in a governor appointed by the king, 
and holding oflSce during the royal will, and po.ssessing 
ample powers. In imitation of the king's Privy Council, 
the governor had a council consisting of twelve members, 
also appointed by the king, and holding their office during 
the royal will and pleasure. With the governor, any three 
of them made a quorum. 

Legislative Power. — The legislative body of the 
province consisted of the governor, representing the king; 
of the council, who stood in the place of the House of 
Lords ; and the representatives of the people, corresponding 
to the House of Commons in England. 

Of these representatives each of the ten counties sent 
two ; the township of Schenectady, the borough of West- 
chester, and the three manors of Rensselaerwych, Living- 
ston, and Cortlandt, each sent one, — ^making in all a body 
of twenty-five representatives. After the erection of the 
four new counties of Cumberland, Gloucester, Tryon, and 
Charlotte, it made a body of thirty-three representatives. 

The legislative body so constituted was called the General 
Assembly. With the advice of his council, the governor 
had full power to convene, adjourn, prorogue, or dissolve 
the General Assembly, as he should judge necessary. 

Laws. — The common law of England was considered as 
the fundamental law of the province. 

l/ie Judicial Poicer. — First, there was a court of chancery 
in which the governor sat as chancellor. The ofiicers of 
this court were a master of the rolls, two masters, two 

clerks in court, a register and examiner, and a sergeant-at- 
arms. Second, the supreme court. Third, the court of 
common pleas. Fourth, justices' courts. These courts 
were the models after which the early courts of the State 
were formed, and their powers were similar to the early 
State courts of the same name previously described in this 


The fables of justices of the peace, from 1770 to 1830, 
of coroners, from 1701 to the present time, of assistant 
justices of the court of common pleas, 1791 to 1815, 
have never before been published in consecutive order. 
They have required much labor in searching the records 
in the county clerk's office, and also those in the office of 
the Secretary of State at Albany. In a work involving so 
many names and dates it is not jirobabie that a perfect 
list has been secured. Public records are very uncertain 
upon some initial letters. They are frequently indefinite 
when father and son have the same first names, and the 
affix Jr., is incorrectly added or incorrectly omitted. 

The names of the towns are usually given as they were 
at the time of the appointment or election. 


1792. — S.amuel Clark. Stillwater; voted for Washington. 

ISOO. — Robert Ellis, Saratoga; voted for .lefferson. 

IS04. — Adam Comslock, lladley, and John Cramer, Half-Moon (in 

place of Adam Comstock); voted for Jefierson. 
1S12. — George Palmer, Jr., Stillwater; voted for De Witt Clinton. 
ISlfi. — Samuel Lewis, Nortliumberland ; voted for Monroe. 
1S20. — Howell Gardner, Greenfield; voted for Monroe. 
1821. — Nathan Thompson, Galway; vr)ted for Henry Clay. 
1828.— Salmon Child, Greenfield; voted for J. Q. Adams. 
lS;i6. — Harmon Gansevoort, Northumberland ; voterl for Van Burcn. 
1840. — Earl Stimson, Galway ; voted for Harrison. 
1848. — Samuel Freeman, Saratoga Springs; voted for Taylor. 
1856. — John C. Ilulbert, Saratoga Springs; voted for Fremont. 


1T91-95. — James Gordon, Ballston. 
1799-1801. — lohn Thompson, Stillwater. 
ISO.-i-S.— Bcriah Palmer, Ballston. 
1807-11. — ^John Thompson, Stillwater. 
181.3-3.3.- John W. Taylor, BalLston. 
1833-37.— John Cramer, Waterford. 
1839-40. — Anson Brown, Milton. 
1840-41.— Nicholas B. Doe, Waterford. 
1843-45.— Chescldeu Ellis. Waterford. 
1845-51.— Hugh White, Waterford. 
1851-63. — James B. McKean, Saratoga Springs. 
18G.3-69. — James M. Marvin, Saratoga Springs. 
1871-75. — Henry H. Hathorn, Saratoga Springs. 

John W. Taylor was chosen speaker to fill out Henry Clay's terra, 
1821. Also for a full term. Nineteenth Congress. 


Reuben H. Walworth, chancellor, 1828-47. 

Esek Cowen, justice of the Supreme Court, 1836-44. 

John Willard, justice of the Supreme Court, 1847—53. 

Augustus Bockes, justice of the Supreme Court, 1855; and again 

from 1860 to the present time. 
Samuel Young, secretary of state, 1842-45. 
James M. Cook, comptroller, 1854-56. 
James M. Cook, treasurer, 1852. 
Samuel Young, canal commissioner, 1816-42. 
George W. Chapman, canal commissioner, 1870-72. 



James M. Cook, superintendent of the blinking department, 1856-62. 
Samuel Young, ex-officio superintendent of common schools, 1842-45. 
Neil Gilmour, superintendent of public institutions, 1874, and now 
in office. 


Ciinvciitioii of 1788, to deliberate upon the adoption of the Federal Con- 
stitution. — Direk Swart, Stillwater, then a part of Albany county. 

C"nveiilion of 1801. — Adam Coinstock, Greenfield; Samuel Lewis, 
Northumberland; Beriah Palmer, Ballston ; John Thompson, 
Stillwater ; Daniel L. Van Antwerp, Stillwater. 

Coiireiiliiiii of 1821. — Salmon Child. Greenfield; John Ciamer, 
AVaterforJ : Samuel Young. Ballston ; Jeremy Eockwell, Hadley. 

Convmlinn r;/' 1846. — James M. Cook, Milton; John K. Porter, 

Ciiiwenliuii vf 1867. — Alembort Pond, Saratoga Springs. 

1794-1805. — Jacobus Van Sehoonhoven, Half-Moon. 
1796-1804. -James Gordon, Ballston. 
1806 -9.— Adam Comstock, Hadley. 
lSlO-13.— John Stearns, Half-Moon. 
1814-17.— Samuel Stewart, Half-Moon. 
1815. — Guert Van Sehoonhoven, Half-Moon. 
1818-21— Samuel Young. Ballston. 
1822.— John L. Viele, Waterford. 
182^-25. — John Cramer, Waterford. 
1826-29.— John L. Vielc, Waterford. 
18.30-33.— Isaac Gere, Galway. 
1835-40. — Samuel Young, Ballston. 
1841-42.— John W. Taylor, Ballston. 
1846-47.— Samuel Young, Ballston. 
1848-51. — James M. Cook, Milton. 
1858-59. — George G. Scott, Milton. 
1860-61.— Isaiah Blood, Milton. 
1862. — John Willard, Sariitoga Springs. 
1864-65. — James M. Cook, Saratoga Springs. 
1870. — Isaiah Blood, Milton.* 


Front Afbtnii/ coutiti/, residiiifj hi that pftrt whtvh man a/tcricards set 
off to form S'lratofja Coaiitif. 

1777-78. — James Gordon, Balls Town. 

1778-79. — James Gordon, Balls Town. 

1779-80.— James Gordon, B.alls Town. 

1780-81. — James Gordon, Balls Town ; Direk, Stillwater. 

1781-82. — George Palmer, Stillwater; Direk Swart, Stillwater. 

1782-83.— Direk Swart, Stillwater. 

1784. — James Gordon, Balls Town ; Direk Swart, Stillwater. 

1784-85.— Direk Swart, Stillwater. 

1786. — James Gordon, Balls Town ; Jacobus Von Sehoonhoven, Half- 

1787. — James Gordon, Balls Town. 

1788. — James Gordon, Balls Town. 

1788-89. — John Thompson, Stillwater. 

1789-90.— James Gordon, Balls Town. 

1791. — Jacobus Von Sehoonhoven, Half-Moon; Sidney Berry, Sara- 

Members of Aieem hit/ from Saratoga County. 

1792. — Sidney Berry, Saratoga; Elias Palmer, Stillwater; Andrew 
Mitchell, Ballston ; Benjamin Roseorans, Half-Moon. 

1793. — Adam Comstock, Milton ; John Ball, Milton; Beriah Palmer, 
Ballston ; Sidney Berry. Saratoga. 

1794. — Adam Comstock, Greenfield; Beriah Palmer, Ballston ; John 
Ball, Milton; John McClelland, Galw:iy. 

1795. — Adam Comstock, Greenfield; John B. Schuyler, Saratoga; 
Beriah Palmer. Ballston ; Jabcz Davis, Ballston. 

1796. — Adam Comstock, Greenfield; John McClelland, Galway; Elias 
Palmer, Stillwater ; John Bleecker, Stillwater. 

1797. — Adam Comstock, Greenfield; Samuel Clark, Stillwater; John 
Taylor, Charlton; Selh C. Baldwin, Ballston; John Mc- 
Clelland, Galway. 

* Died in office November, 1870. 

1798. — Adam Comstock, Greenfield; Seth C. Baldwin, Bal's'on ; 

Samuel Clark, Stillwater; Aaron Gregory, Milton; Douw 

J. Fonda, Stillwater. 
1799. — .Adam Comstock, Greenfield; Seth C. Baldwin, B.allston ; 

Samuel Clark, Stillwater; Henry Corl, Jr., Charlton ; .James 

Warren, Galway. 
1800. — Adam Comstock, Greenfield; Samuel Clark, Stillwater ; Daniel 

Bull, Saratoga; James Warren, Galway; Edward A. Wat- 

rous, Ballston. 
1801. — .\dam Comstock, Greenfield ; Daniel Bull, Saratoga; Henry 

Corl. Jr., Charlton ; J;imes Warren, Galwjiy ; James Merrill, 

1802. — Adam Comstock, Hadley ; Henry Corl, Jr., Charlton ; James 

Warren, Galw.ay ; Edward A. Watrous, Ballston. 
1803. — Adam Comstock, Hadley; Samuel Clark, Malta; Gideon 

Goodrich, Milton ; Othniel Looker. 
1804. — Adam Coinstock, Hadley; John Hunter, Stillwater : Samuel 

Lewis, Northumberland; Othniel Looker. 
1805. — Samuel Clark, Malta; Asahel Porter, Greenfield; William 

Carpenter, Providence; David Rogers, Ballston. 
1806. — Jesse Mott, Saratoga; Asahel Porter, Greenfield; John Cra- 
mer, Half-Moon; John McClelland. Galway. 
1807. — .Jesse Mott, Saratoga; Gideon Goodrich. Milton ; Cb.aunccy 

Belding, Charlton ; David Rogers, Ballston. 
1808. — John McClelland, Galw.ay; Chaunecy Belding, Charlton; 

Salmon Child, (Jreenfield ; Jesse Mott, Saratoga. 
1809. — .Salmon Child, Greenfield ; Nehemiah Cande, G;ilway ; David 

Rogers, Ballston ; Daniel L. Van Antwerp, .Stillwater. 
1810. — Saml. Lewis, Northumberland; Calvin Wheeler, Providence,* 

Joel Lee, Milton; Daniel L. Van Antwerp, Stillwater. 
1811. — John Cramer, Half-Moon; Jesse Mott, Saratoga; Jeremy 

Rockwell, H.adley ; David Rogers, Ballston. 
1S12.— John W. Taylor, Hadley : Joel Keeler, Milton ; Zebulon Mott, 

Half-Moon ; Avery Starkweather, Galway. 
1813.— John W. Taylor, Hadley; John Prior, Greenfield; Caleb 

Holmes, Charlton ; Calvin Wheeler, Providence. 
1814. — Samuel Young, Ballston; Nicholas W. Angle, Moreau; Avery 

Starkweather, Galway ; John Dunning, Malta. 
1815. — Samuel Y'^oung, Ballston; Richard Ketcham, Stillwater; 

Howell Gardiner, Greenfield; Benjamin Cowles, Hadley. 
1816. — .\sa C. Barney, Greenfield ; George Cr.amer. Saratoga ; Isaac 

Gere, Galway ; William Hamilton, Half-Moon. 
1817. — Herman Gansevoort, Northumberland; John Hamilton, 

Edinburgh ; Zebulon Mott, Half- Moon ; John Petit, Green- 
1818. — Elisha Powell, Milton; John Gibson, Ballston; Earl Stimson, 

Galway; Slaats Morris, Stillwater. 
1819. — Joel Keeler, Milton; John Rogers, Jr., Charlton; William 

Hamilton, Orange; Abner Carpenter, Malta. 
1820. — Billy J. Clark, Moreau; Elisha Powell, Milton; Abraham 

Moe, Half-Moon; Jonathan Delano, Jr., Providence. 
1821.— Zebulon Mott, Half-Moon; John Rogers, Jr., Charlton ; Her- 
man Gansevoort, Northumberland; John House, Waterford. 
1822. — John Prior, Grernlield; John Gilchrist, Charlton; Conrad 

Cramer, Northumberland; Thomas Collamer, Malta. 
1823. — Valentine Campbell, Stillwater; Samuel Belding, Charlton ; 

John Petit, Greenfield. 
1824. — Isaac Gere, Galway; Jeremy Rockwell, Hadley; James 

McCrea, Ballston. 
1825. — Alpheus Goodrich, Milton ; Philip Schuyler, Saratoga ; 

Nicholas B. Doc, Waterford. 
1826. — Samuel Young, Ballston ; Thomas Dibble, Corinth ; David 

Benedict, Stillwater. 
1827. — Howell Gardiner, Greenfield; John Gilchrist, Charlton; 

Nicholas Emigh, Jr., Half-Moon. 
1828. — Alpheus Goodrich, Milton; Thomas Hyland, Northumber- 
land; Eli M. Todd, Waterford. 
1829.— Gilbert Waring, Saratoga Springs; Joshua Mandeville, 

Waterford : Calvin Wheeler, Providence. 
1830.— AV'illiam Shepherd, Clifton Park ; Seth Perry, Wilton ; Samuel 

Stewart, Waterford. 
1831. — Howell Gardiner, Greenfield; John Gilchrist, Charlton; Oran 

G. Otis, Milion. 
1832.— Oran G. Otis, Milton ; James Brisbin, Jr., Saratoga; Ebcnezer 

Couch, Galway. 



1S33. — George Reynolils, Morcau ; Ephraim Stevens, Clifton Park; 

Ebenezer Couch, Gahvay. 
1S34.— Eli M. Todd, Watcrroi-d ; Tliomas J. Marvin, Saratoga 

S|)rings ; Solomon Ellitborp, Edinbnrgh. 
JS35. — Asahel Philo, Ilalf-Moon : William B. Van Benthuyscn, Sara- 
toga; Ely Becchcr, Edinburgh. 
1S36.— Joel Lee, Milton ; David Benedict, Stillwater ; Samuel Stim- 

son, Day. 
1837. — Seabnry .Allen, Providence: Ilalsey Rogers, Morcau. 
1838, — Calvin Wheeler, Provitlence; Walter Van Veghten, Sara- 
1839.— Calvin Wheeler, Providence; John Stewart, Watcrford. 
1840.— John Stewiirt, Waterford ; Daniel Stewart, Iladley. 
1841.— Abijah Pejk, Jr., Clifton Park : Jesse H. Mead, Oalw;iy. 
1842. — John Cramer, Waterford ; Halsey Rogers, Moreau. 
lS43.^Azariah E. Stimson, (rahvay ; Lyndes Emerson, Wilton. 
1844. — James Groom. Clifton Park; Ezra Wilson. Greenfield. 
1845. — William AVilcox, Saratogiv : Eihvard Edwards, Corinth. 
184G. — James M.Marvin, Saratoga Springs; Chauncey Boughton, 

1847. — -Thomas C. Morgan, Waterford; Joseph Daniels, Greenficltl. 
1848.— 1st District: Cady Holister, Ballston. 

2d District: George Payne, Moreau. 
1849. — 1st District: Roscius R. Kennedy, Clifton Park. 

2d District: William W. Rockwell, Hadlcy. 
1850. — 1st District: James Noxon, Half-Moon. 

2d District: Frederick J. Wing, Greenfield. 
1851. — 1st District: Abraham Leggott, Stillwater. 

2d District: John L. Perry, Saratoga Springs. 
1852. — 1st District: Isaiah Blood, Milton. 

2d District: Alexander II. Palmer, Hadley. 
1853.— 1st District: William Gary, Half-Moon. 

2d District : Henry Holmes, Saratoga. 
1854. — 1st District: George W. Neilson, Stillwater. 

2d District: Joseph Baucus, Northumberland. 
1855. — 1st District: Cornelius Schuyler, Ballston. 

2d District: John Terhune, Northumberland. 
1856.— 1st District: George G. Scott, Milton. 

2d District: Joseph Baucus, Northumberland. 
1857.— 1st District; George G. Scott, Milton. 

2d District: Samuel .J. Mott, Saratoga. 
1858. — 1st District: Chauncey Boughton. Ilalf-Moon. 

2d District: Tabor B. Reynolds, Wilton. 
1859. — 1st District: Chauncy Boughton, Il.alf-Moon. 

2d District: George S. Batoheller, Edinburgh. 
1800.— 1st District: John Fulton, Waterford. 

2d District: Judiah Ellsworth, Saratoga Springs. 
1861.— 1st District: John Fulton, Waterford. 

2d District: James Sumner, Jr., Providence. 
1862.— 1st District: John Fulton, Waterford. 

^ 2d District: Nathaniel M. Houghton, Corinth. 
1863.— 1st District: Ira Brockett, Galway. 

2d District; Nathaniel M. Houghton, Corinth. 
1864. — 1st District; Ira Brockett, Galway. 

2d District; Edward Edwards, Corinth. 
1865. — Ist District : George W. Chapman, Milton. 

2d District; Edward Edwards, Corinth. 
186B.— 1st District: Truman G. Younglove, Half-Moon. 

2d District : Austin L. Reynolds, Moreau. 
18B7. — 1st District: Truman G. Younglove, Half-Moon. 

2d District: Austin L. Reynolds, Moreau. 
1868.- 1st District: Truman G. Younglove, Half-Moon. 

2d District; Alembert Pond, Saratoga Springs. 
1869. — 1st District: Truman G. Younglove, Half-Moon. 

2d District; De Witt C. Hoyt. Greenfield. 
1870.— 1st District: Isaiah Fuller, Galway. 

2d District: Seymour Ainsworth, Saratoga Springs. 
1871. — 1st District ; Isaiah Fuller, Galway. 

2d District : Joseph W. Hill, Saratoga Springs. 
1872. — 1st District: George West, Milton. 

2d District : N. M. Houghton, Corinth. 
1873.— 1st District; George West, Milton. 

2d District: George S. Batcheller, Saratoga Springs. 
1874. — 1st District: George West, Milton. 

2d District; George S. Batcheller, Saratoga Springs. 


1875.— 1st District: George West, Milton. 

2(1 District: N. M. Ilougliton, Corinth. 
187G. — 1st District: George West, Milton. ' 

2d District: Isaac Noycs, Jr., EJinburgh. 
1877.— 1st District: George W. Neilson, Stillwater. 

2d District: Isaac Noyes, Jr., Edinburgh. 
187S.— 1st District: George W. Neilson, Stillwater. 

2d District: Daniel II. Deyoe, Northumberland. 



17iH. — Jolin Thompson, Stillwater. 

1809.— Salmon Child, Greenfield. 

1818. — James Thompson, Milton. 

1833. — Samuel Young, Ballston. 

1838. — Thomas J. Marvin, Saratoga Springs. 







James Gordon, Ballston: Jaiobus Van Schoonhover., Half- 
Moon ; Beriah Palmer, IJallston ; Sidney Snyder, Saratoga. 

■Adam Comstock, Greenfield. 

■Epcnetus White, Ballston. 

■Samuel Clark, Malta. 

Jithn Taylor, Charlton ; .lohn McCltilhind, Galway. 

John Stearns, Ilalf-Moon; Nathaniel Ketchain. Stillwater. 

Wm. Stillwell, Ballston; Samuel Drake, Ualf-Moon. 

■Benjamin Cowles, Hadlcy. 

■Ashbel Andrews, Malta; Wm. Patrick, Jr., Stillwater; Elisha 
Powell, Miltun : Ziba Taylor, Saratoga; Johu M. Berry, 
Moreau ; Abner Carpenter, Ballston ; Abraham Moe, Hulf- 

Thomas Laing, Northumberland ; Avery Starkweather, Gal- 

.lercmy Rockwell, Hadlcy. 

Thomas Dibble, Milton ; Herman Gansevoort, Northumber- 

Until 1818 there was no limit to the number of the 
judges. By an act of the legislature of tliat year the 
number was limited to five, including the first judge. 

1818. — Salmon Child, Greenfield; Abraham Moe, Half-Moon ; James 
McCrea, Ballston : John Prior, Greenfield. 

1820. — Samuel Cook, Milton; James Van Schoonhoven, Waterford. 

1S21. — Harvey Granger, Saratoga. 

1823. — Gucrt Van Schoonhoven, Waterford ; John 11. Steel. Saratoga 

1826.— Nicholas B. Doe, Waterford. 

1829.— George Palmer. Stillwater. 

1836. — Thomas J. Marvin, Saratoga Springs. 

1838.— George G. Scott, Milton; John Gilehrist, Charlton. 

18-41. — Seymour St. John, Providence. 

18-13. — Lewi.': Stone, Galway. 

1845. — Wm. L. F. Warren, Saratoga Spring?. 

1846. — Joshua Mandeville, Waterford. 




Feb. 19, 1791. 

Andrew Mitchell, Ballston. 
John Vernam. 
Samuel Clark, Stillwater. 
Adrian Hcgcman, Half-Moon. 
Archibald McNeal. 
Epenetus White, Ballston. 
Eliphalet Kellogg, Ballston. 

March 9, 1793. 

Adam Comstock, Greenfield. 

Feb. 14, 1794. 
Samuel Clark, Stillwater. 
Eliphalet Kellogg, Ballston. 

Samuel Bacon, Stillwater. 
Benj. Rosekrans, Half-Moon. 
Richard Davis, Jr., Half-Muon. 
John Ball, Milton. 
Elias Palmer, Stillwater. 

Nov. 24, 1795. 

Cornelius Vanden burgh, 


Feh. 2, 1797. 

Samuel Clark, Stillwater. 
Eliphalet Kellogg. Ballston. 
Benj. Rosekrans, Half-Moon. 



Richard Davis, Jr., Half-Moon. 
John Bull, Milton. 
Elias Palmer, Stillwater. 

March 13, 1797. 
Henry Walton, Ballston. 

April 2, 1798. 

Guert Van Schoonhoven, Half- 

April 2, 1800. 

Samuel Clark, Stillwater. 
Benj. Kosekrans. Half-Moon. 
Richard Davis, Jr., Half-Moon. 
Elias Palmer, Stillwater. 
Henry Walton, Ballston. 


Samuel Clark, Malta. 
Henry Walton, Ballston. 
Elias Palmer, Stillwater. 
John McClelliind, Galway. 
James Warren, Galway. 
John Taylor, Charlton. 
Daniel Bull, Saratoga. 

Aj^ril 9, 1805. 
Thomas Roger?, Moreau. 

March 15, 1806. 

Samuel Clark, Malta. 
John Taylor, Charltnn. 
John McClelland, Galway. 
Henry AValton, Ballston. 
Elias Palmer, Stillwater. 
James Warren, Galway. 

Thomas Rogers, Moreau. 
John Neilson, Stillwater. 

March 2Q, 1809. 

John Neilson, Stillwater. 
John McClelland, Galway. 
George Palmer, Jr., Stillwater. 
Joel Lee, Milton. 

March 28, 1812. 

John Neilson. Stillwater. 
George Palmer, Jr.. Stillwater. 
Samuel Young, Ball.«ton. 
Thomas Palmer, Milton. 
James Brisbin, Jr., Saratoga. 
Calvin Wheeler, Providence. 
Thomas Laing, Wilton. 
Nicholas W. Angle, Moreau. 

April 2, 1813. 
Josejih Blftckleaeh, Greenfield. 
John Metcalf, Northumberland. 
Samuel G. Huntington, Half- 
Samuel De Forest, Ballston. 
Wm. W. Morris, Ballston. 
John Neilson, Stillwater. 

^pr.7 16, 1814. 

Isaac Garney, Half-Moon. 

March 22, ISlo. 

George Palmer, Stillwater. 
Esek Cowen, Saratoga. 
Thomas Palmer. Milton. 
Nicholas W. Angle, Moreau. 
Perez Otis, Galway. 
Timothy Brown, Hadley. 
Harvey Granger, Saratoga. 
Caleb Holmes, Charlton. 


1847. — Augustus Bockos, Saratoga Springs. 

1854.— John A. Corey, " ** 

1855. — James B. McKcan, " '* 

1859.— John W. Crane, " " 

]8fi.S.— John C. Hulbert, " " 

1870.— Charles S. Lester, " " 

1876.— John W. Crane, " " 


Until 1791 the names are taken from the list for Albany 
county. Those for 1770 and 1772 were appointed by 
royal authority. The State government having been 
formed in 1777, after that date they were appointed by the 
old Council of Appointment down to 1821. Under the 
constitution of that year a law was passed authorizing the 
appointment of justices of the peace by the joint action of 
the supervisors and judges of the county. Another change 
in the law authorized their choice by the people at the gen- 
eral election in the fall. They were so chosen in 1827 and 
1828. In 1830 the election of justices at the town-meet- 
ings commenced, and after that date their names are given 
in connection with the town histories. 

Appointed April 18, 1770. 
Philip Schuyler, Saratoga. 
Dirck Swarts, Stillwater: re-appointed 1772. 

Thomas Peebles, Half-Moon ; re-appointed 1772. 
John A^ischer, Half-Moon. 

Appointed Jntie 18, 1772. 
James Gordon, Ballston ; re-appointed 17S0, 1786. 
George Palmer, Stillwater. 

Cornelius Van Veghten, Saratoga; re-appointcd 1786. 
Guert Von Schoouhovm, Ilalf-Moon ; re-appointed 1795, 1797, 1800, 

Nanning Vischer, Half-Moon: re-appointed 1780. 

Appointed September 29, 1780. 
Cornelius Vandcnburgh, Stillwater; re-appointed 1793, 1794, 1797. 
Nicholas Vaudenburgh, Half-j\Ioon. 
John Taylor, Ballston J re-appointod 1786, 1795, 1797. 

Appointed April 26, 1786. 
Thomas Sickles. 

John Thompson, Stillwater; re-appointed 1808. 
Jacobus Von Schoonhoven, Half-Moon. 
Benjamin Rosekrans, Half-Moon; re-appointcd 1791. 
Adrian Hegeman, Half-Moon. 

Appointed February 17, 1791. 
Samuel Bacon, Stillwater; re-appointed 1797. 
Richard Davis, Jr., Half-Moon. 
Jacobus Pearse, Half-Moon. 
Douw I. Fonda, Stillwater. 
Elias Palmer, Stillwater. 
John Graham. 

Wm. Scott, Half-Moon; rc-nppointed 1794. 1797, 1800. 
John B. Schuyler, Saratdga; re-appointed 1794. 
Daniel Morgan, Saratoga. 
Henry Brevoort. 
John Ball, Ballston. 
Joshua Swan, Ballston. 
Lewis Rodgers : rc-nppointed 180.3. 
Joseph Rue. Ballston ; re-appointed 1794, 1797. 1800. 
Jesse Toll, Saratoga; re-appointed 1794, 1797. 
Nathaniel Douglass. 

Isaac Youngs, Ballston : re-apj.nintcd 1704, 1797, 1800, 1803, 1806. 
Asa Kellogg, Ballston; re-appointed 1794, 1797, 1800, 1803,1806, 

Appctinted March 15, 1791. 

Robert Eldred, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1794. 

Appointed Sfpfemher 30, 1791. 
Adam Edson, Half-Moon; -re-appointed 1794, 1797, 1800. 

Ajipointed March 3, 1792. 
Reuben Wright, Stillwater; re-appointed 1794. 
Benjamin Phillips, Saratoga. 
Jonathan Lawrence, Saratoga: re-appointed 1794, 1797. 

Appnintid March 3, 1793. 

Adam Comstock, Greenfield. 

Seth C. Baldwin, Ballston; re-appointed 1794, 1797, ISOO. 

Giles Fitch, Greenfield; re-appointed 1795, 1809. 

Samuel Lewis, Saratoga; re-appointed 1794, 1797. 

Edward A. Watrous, Ballston ; re-appointed 1794. 

Benajah Douglass, Milton. 

James Warren, Galway; re-appointed 1797, 1800. 

Hachaliah Foster, Galway. 

Robert Ellis, Saratoga. 

William Bradshaw, Half-Moon. 

Samuel Scovil, Jr., Northumberland; re-appointed 1803, 1806, 1808. 

Appointed February 14, 1794. 

Jabez Davis, Ballston. 

Stephen Wood, Milton ; re-appointcd 1797, 1800. 

Abel Whalen, Milton; re-appointed 1797. 

Henry Davis, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1797. 

William Clark; re-appointed 1797. 

Alexander Gilchrist, Charlton; re-appointed 1797, 1803, 1806, 1810, 

John McClelland, Galway; re-appointed 1797, 1800. 
Hezekiah Ketchum. Half-Moon; re-appointed 1797, 1800. 
John Petit, Greenfield; re-appointed 1809, 1812, 1815, 1818,1821. 



Abraham Moe, Ilalf-Moon ; re-appointed 1797, 1800, 1803, 1806, 

ISOll, 1812. 
Amos Hawley ; re-appointeJ 1707, 1800, 
Solomon Wheeler. 
Benjatnin Risley, Saratoga. 
Lewis (Iravcs; re-appointed 1707, 1800. 
Henry Walton, Ballston ; re-appointed 1707, 1818. 
Jacob liegeman. Half-Moon. 

George Hunter, Half-I^Ioon : reappointed 1797, 1800. 
Henry Von Hyning, Half-Moon. 
Walter Patchin, Milton; re-appointed 1797, 1800. 

Appointed March 15, 1705. 
Henry Corl, Jr., Charlton ; re-appointed 1797, 1800, 1803. 
David Brown. 

John Bleecker, Stillwater; re-appointed 1797, 1800. 
William Force, Saratoga; re-appointed 1797. 

Appointed April 5, 1795. 
John Boyd, Charlton. 

Appointed March 12, 1796. 
Aaron Gregory, Milton; re-appointed 1797, 1800, 1803. 

Appointed November 4, 1796. 
Henry Brewerton ; re-appointed 1797. 
George Shoves; re-appointcd 1797. 
Daniel Boardman, Greenfield. 
Stephen Wait, Providence; re-appointed 1797, 1803, 1806, 1809, 

James Goodwin ; re-appointed 1707, 1800, 1803, 1806, 1809, 1812. 
David Boyd, Ch.arlton. 
William Bettys, Charlton. 

Appointed February 2, 1797. 
Jabez Davis, Ballston. 
Edward A. Watrous, Ballston. 

Appointed February 2, 1797. 
Adrian Hegeman, Half-Moon ; re-appointed 1800. 
Hugh Peebles, Half-Moon ; re-appointed 1797, 1800. 

Appointed February 6, 1798. 
Wni. Dudley. 

Appointed April 2, 1798. 
John Neilson, Stillwater ; re-appoiuted 1800, 1803. 
Lettice Weston ; re-appointed 1800. 
Jesse Mott, Saratoga; re-appointed 1803, 1806. 
Broadstreet Emerson, Jr., Northumberland: re-appointed 1800. 
Daniel Couch, Jr., Milton; re-appointed 1800, 1803, 1804, 1806, 1809, 

1812, 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Nehemiah Cande, Galway ; re-appointed 180.3, 1806, 1809, 1812, 1815, 

Nicholas Bosevelt; re-appointed 1800. 

Appointed August 15, 1798. 
Thomas Laing, Northumberland; re-appointed 1800, 1803, 1806, 
1809, 1818. 

Appointed March 14, 1799. 
Ellas Willard, Stillwater; re-appointed 1800. 
Ezekiel Hawley. 

John A. Viele, Saratoga; re-appointed 1800. 
Peter Thallheimer, Northumberland. 
Nathan Bennett, Malta; re-appointed 1800, 1803, 1806, 1809, 1811. 

Appointed April 2, 1800. 

Ashbcl Andrews, Jr., S: i water; re-appointed 1803, 1806, 1809, 1812. 

Robert Mitchell, Milton. 

Adam Swan, Galway; re-appointed 1803, 1814, 1815. 

Samuel De Forest, Ballston ; re-appointed 1803, 1806, 1809, 1813. 

Robert Leonard, Ballston. 

Uriah Gregory, Ballston; re-appoin-cd 1803, 1806, 1809, 1813, 1818. 

Thomas Jeffers, Saratoga. 

Ichabod Hawley, Northumberland ; reappointed 1808, 1809, 1812. 

Elisba Miles, Northumberland; re-appointcd 1803. 

Stephen Brayton, Greenfield. 

Joseph Brown, Charlton; re-appointed 1803, 1806, 1810, 1813, 1818, 

Samuel Cook, Charlton; re-appointcd 1803, 1806, 1809, 1812, 1815. 
John Stearns, Half-Moon : re-appointed 1803, 1806. 

Appointed October 30, 1800. 
Francis Drake, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1806, 1809. 

Appointed January 27, 1801. 
Hugh Alexander, Galway. 
Wm, Carpenter, Providence; re-appointed 1803, 1806. 

Appointed 1803. 
Joseph Peek, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1806, 1807, 1811. 
John Darby, Half-Moon ; re-appointed 1800, 1809, 1811, 1815, 1818. 
Justus Harris, Half Moon. 
Adam Vi.n Vranken, Half-Moon; re-appointcd 1806, 1809, 1812, 

1815, 1818, 1821. 
Daniel Van Alstyne, Jr., Half Moon. 
Moses Scott, Half-.Moon; re-appointed 1806, 1809, 1812. 
Samuel Perry, Northumberland. 
Herman Gansevoort, Northumberland; re-appointed 1800, 1809. 1812, 

Thomas Rogers, Moreau ; re-appointed 1305, 1809, 1812. 
Wui. Huxford, Moreau. 

Benjauiin Cowles, Hadley ; re-appointed 1806, 1809, 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Joseph Blaekleach, Greenfield; re-appointed 1806, 1809, 1813. 
Salmon Child, Greenfield; re-appointed 1806. 

Joel Keeler, Milton: re-appointed 1800, 1809, 1812, 1815, 1818, 1821. 
James Merrill, Milton; re-appoiuted 1806. 

Elisha Andrews, Stillwater; re-appointcd 1806, 1809, 1812, 1815. 
Richard Ketchuui, Stillwater; re-appointed 1805, 1809, 1812. 
Robert Summer, Northlield. 

Jordan Sprague, Northfield; re-appointed 1806. 
Caleb Ellis, Saratoga; re-appointed 1806, 1809. 
Thomas Ostrander, Saratoga : re-appointed 1807,1809. 
George Cramer, Saratcjga; re-appointed 1806, 1809. 
Francis Drake, Ballston. 
John Nash, Ballston ; re-appointed 1806. 
John McCrea, Ballston ; re-appointed 1806, ISOO, 1814. 
Jared Patcbin, Ballstc!n. 

Caleb Holmes, Charlton; re-appointcd 1806, 1809, 1812, 1815, 1818. 
Isaac Gere, Galway; re-appoiuted 1806, 1809, 1812, 1815. 
Samuel L. Barker, Providence; re-appoiuted 1806, 1809, 1815, 1817, 

1818, 1821. 
Levi Hay ward, Providence; re-appointed 1806, 1809, 1812, 

Appointed July 3, 1804. 
S<ilomon Cook, Hadley ; re-appointed 1806, 1809. 
Thomas Lee, Jr., Hadley; re-appoiuted 1806. 
Wm. Stillwell, Ballston; re-appointcd 1806, 1809, 1811, 
Elisha Reynolds, Northumberland ; re-appointed 1806. 
Enos Gregory, Malta; re-appointed 1806, 1809. 
Gideon Goodrich, Milton; re-appointed 1806. 
Ezra Nash. Milton; re-appointed 1806, 1809, 1812, 1815. 
Timothy Hatch, Ballston. 
Perez Otis, Providence; re-appointcd 1806, 1809, 1812, 1818, 1821. 

Appointed April 9, 1805. 
Othnicl Allen, Jr., Providence; re-appointcd 1807, 1809, 1813. 
Samuel Swcatland, Half-Moou ; rc-appointed 1806, 1809. 
John Hunter, Stillwater; re-appointed 1815. 
Timothy Brown, Hadley; re-appointed 1806, 1809, 1812. 
Eliakim Corey, Milton; re-appointed 1806, 1809. 

Appointed March 15, 1806. 
Amos Larkin, Ballston; re-appointcd 1809, 1812, 1815, 1818. 
Nathan Raymond, Ballston. 

Francis Reger, Northumberland; re-appointed 1809. 
Scth Perry, Jr., Northumberland ; re-appoiuted 1809, 1812, 1815, 

James Cramer, Northumberland. 

Henry Martin, Moreau; re-appointed 1809, 1812, 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Ebenezer Couch, Galway. 
Job Wells, Providence ; re-appointed 1809. 
Henry Bailey, Half-Moon. 
Peter Morse, Jr., Half-Moon; re-appointeJ 1309. 



Thomas Grimes, NortbGeKl; rc-appointed 1809. 

Willard Trowbridge, Northfiuld; re-appointed 1809, 1812. 

George Palmer, Jr., Stillwater,- re-appointed 1818, 1821. 

Oliver C. Comstoek, Hadlcy. 

James Green, Saratoga; re-appointed 1833, ISIo, 1S20, 1S21. 

Apj^ninted March 15, 1806. 
John Prior, Greenfield; re-appointed 1809, 1812, 1815, 1821. 
Samuel Frink, Greenfield; rc-uppointcd 1809. 
John B. Le Proict-de-Bussy. 

Appointed April 3, 1807. 
Joel Lee, Milton. 

Elisha Powell. Milton; re-appointed 1809, 1812. 
Abuer Carpenter, Ballston ; re-appointed 1813. 
Gilbert Swan, Galway ; re-appointed 1809, 1812, 1815, 1818. 
Robert Sumner, Northfield: re-appointed 1809, 1812. 
James Brisbin, Jr., Saratoga; re appointed 1809. 
David Morehouse, Malta; re-appoiuted 1810. 
Mans C. Vandenburgh, Half-Moon. 

Appointed March 18, 1808. 
Samuel Young, Ballston; re-appointed 1809. 
John W. Taylor, Ballston; re appointed 1809. 

Avery Starkweather, Galway; re-uppointed 1809, 1812, ISIS, 1821. 
Harvey Granger, Saratoga; re-appointed 1809, 1811, 1812, 1818. 
Nicholas W. Angle, Moreau ; re-appointed 1S09, 1818. 
John King. Moreau; re-appoiuted 1809, 1813. 

Appointed April 6, 1808. 
Artemus Chase, Providence; re-appointed 1809. 
Jeremy Roekwell, Hadlcy; rc-appointed 1809, 1812, 1818, 1821. 
Reuben Sprague, Charlton; re-appoiuted 1809, 1812, 1815. 

Appointed Mnrvh 20, 1809. 

John Anderson, Charltou. 

Jesse Seeley, Charlton. 

Ilezekiab Middlebrook, Jr., Milton. 

Barry Fcnton, Hadley ; re-appointed 1811, 1812, 1815, ISIS, 1821. 

Cornelius I. Fonda, Northumberland; re-appointed 1S12. 

Jacob Esmond, Saratoga; re-appointed 1812. 

Asa C, Barney, Greenfield. 

Daniel Gorsline, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1811. 

Elijah W. Abbott, Stillwater; re-appoiuted 1812. 

John Dunning, Malta: re-appointed 1812. 

Barker Collamcr, Malta. 

Appointed March 22, 1810. 
Thomas Morey, Stillwater. 
Luther Hulburt, Malta. 

Luther Landon, Malta; re-appointed 1814. 
Peter Fort, Malta. 
John H. Steel, Saratoga. 

Samuel Bailey, Greenfield; re-appointed 1813, 1815, 1818. 
Alfred Bosworth, Greenfield; re-ai>pointed 1814. 
Abner Carpenter, Ballston, • 

Isaac AVebb, Milton. 
Isaac B. Payne, Northumberland. 

Dudley Emerson, Northumberland; re-appointed 1813. 
Benjamin Chamberlain. Ilalf-Moon. 
John Bradshaw, Hall-Moon. 
Jeremiah Coon, Half-Moon. 

Elijah Porter, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1813, 1815. 
Joseph Lamb, Half- Moon. 

Nathan Comstoek, Galway; re-appointed 1S13, 1815. 
Thaddeus Jewett, Galway. 
TVilliam Metcalf, Northumberland. 

Apjiointed March 9, 1811. 
Calvin AVheeler, Providence; re-appointed 1815, 1818. 
Bushiiiel Benedict, Ballston; rc-appointed 1812, 1815, ISIS, 1821. 
Joseph B. Lothrop, Ballston; re-appointcd 1812, 
Wm. Wait, Saratoga. 

Nicholas Emigb, Jr.. Half-Moon: re-appointed 1812, 1815. 
Nichohis B. Doe, Half-Moon; rc-appointed 1S12. 1815, ISIS. 
John Kinnicut, Edinburgh; re-apj>ointod 1S12, 1S15, 1S21. 

Jonathan Shipman, Providence; re-appointed 1812. 

John Montgomery, Stillwater; re-appointed 1812. 

Elijah Durham, Moreau. 

Samuel Grippin, Moreau; re-appointed 1812. 

James Clark, Malta. 

Solomon Rathbun, Galway. 

Appointed Mnrch 2,3, 1811. 
Ezra Talmadge, Malta; re-appointed 1814, 1815. 
Samuel Richards, Charlton; re-appointed 1812, 1815, 1821. 
Walter Hewitt, Greenfield; reappointed 1812. 

Appointed April 8, 1811. 
Samuel Drake, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1818. 
Charles Deake, Greenfield; re-appointed 1812, 1815. 

Appointed June 7, 1811. 
Cornelius Van Santford, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1812. 
Luther Hulbert, Malta: re appointed 1813. 

Appointed March 28, 1S12. 
Wm. Ta.vlor, Charlton. 

Stafford Carr, Northumberland: re-appointed 1S15. 
Richard Learing, Saratoga. 

Howell Gardner, Greenfield; rc-appointed 1S15, 1818, 1821. 
Thomas Collamer, Malta; re-appointed 1815, 1821. 
Eliphaz Fish, Malta. 
David Garnsey, Half-Moon; re-appointed 1S15. 

Appointed June 18, 1812. 
Jonathan Delano, .Jr., Providence; re-appointed 1815, 1818. 

Appointed March 30, 1813. 
Philip Schuyler, Saratoga, 

Daniel Morgan, Jr., Saratoga; re-appointed 1820. 
Solomon Slate, Edinburgh. 
Eli Beecher, Edinburgh. 
Adam Blake, Saratoga. 
Wm. Hamilton. Half-Moon. 
AVillard II. Smith, Half-Moon. 
Reed Lewis, Northumberland. 
Nathan Hinman, Charlton. 
Philip Brotherson, Charlton. 

Nicholas D. Conde, Charlton ; re-appointed 1817, 1818. 
William Seymour, Stillwater. 
Daniel Rogers, Stillwater. 
Henry Metcalf, Stillwater. 
John L. Viels, Stillwater. 
John Payne, Moreau. 
Lazeile Bancroft, Moreau. 
Enoch Sill, Moreau. 
George W. Fish, Malta. 
Robert Hunter, Malta. 
Alexander S. Piatt, Galway. 
Uriah Cornell, Providence. 
Michael Dunning, Malta. 
John Armitage, Providence. 

Isaac Youngs, Jr., Greenfield; re-appointed 1814. 
Samuel Boardman, Hadley. 
Stephen Ambler, Hadley. 
Nathan J. WeUs, Hadley. 
George H. Beuham, Milton. 

Appointed April 16, 1814. 

Isaac Garnsey, Stillwater. 
Philander Rathboue, Stillwater. 
Valentine Rathliun, Milton. 
John Gibson, Ballston. 
William Allen, Galway. 
Noah Vibbard, Galway. 
Robert Kenyon, Malta. 
Jared Palmer, Northumberland. 
Daniel G. Garnsey, Half-Moon. 

Appointed March 22, 1815. 

Asahel Philo, Half-Moon; re-appointed ISIS, 1821. 
David Benedict, Stillwater; rc-appuintcd ISIS^ 1821. 



Charles Neilson, Stillwater: re-appointed 1818, 1821. 

Oliver Barrett, Stillwater. 

Joseph Wrif^ht, Saratoga. 

John R. Mott, Saratoga; re-appointed 1818. 

George Peck, Saratoga. 

Benjamin Dimraick, Northumberland; re-appointed 1818. 

Conrad Cramer, Northumberland. 

James Vauderwerker, Nortluimbcrland ; rc-appointcd 1818, 1821. 

William ComstocU, Northumberland; re-appointed 1818, 1821. 

James Mott, Moreau ; re-appointed 1820, 1821. 

Solomon Parks, Moreau. 

David Tilfotson, JMoreau. 

Samuel Snowden, Hadley ; re-appointed 1818. 

Philander Hewitt, Edinburgh; re-appointed 1S18, 1821. 

Azariah Ellithorp, Edinburgh; re-appointed 1SI8, 1S21. 

John Hamilton, Edinburgh; re-appointed ISIS. 

Peter H. Bostwick, Providence. 

William Taylor, Charlton; re-appointed 1818. 

Philo T. Beebe, Malta; re-appointed 1818. 

Thomas Hall, Malta. 

Abncr Bivins, Malta. 

Edey Baker, Malta. 

Jesse Robertson, Ballston ; re-appointed 1818, 1821. 

David Rogers, Ballston; re-appointed 1819. 

Elihu Wing, Greenfield; re-appointed 1818, 1821. 

Solomon Rathbun, Milton. 

Appointed April 7, 1815. 
Isaac Tallman ; re-appointed 1821. 
Alpheus Goodrich, Milton; re-appointed 1818, 1821. 
Enos Gregory, Milton. 

Appointed April 2, 1816. 
Washington Chapman, Hadley; re-appointed 1821. 
Josiah Fasset, Hadley. 

Dennis Marvin, Malta; re-appointed 1818, 1821. 
Edward D. Berry, Moreau; re-appointed 1818, 1819. 
Richard M. Livingstun, Saratoga. 
Henry Edson, Watcrford ; re-appointed 1818. 

Appointed April 10, 1817. 
Godfrey Shew, Providence. 
John Bryan, Saratoga; re-appointed 1818. 
William Wait, Saratoga. 

Alvaro Hawley, Moreau; re-appointed 1819. 
Stephen W. Palmer. 
EInathan Smith. 
Michael Moc, Half-Moon. 
William Tearse, Moreau. 
Abner Carpenter, Malta. 
AVilHam Given, Waterford ; re-appointed 1818, 1821. 

Appointed June 10, 1818. 
Oliver Salisbury, Stillwater. 
David Morehouse, Malta. 
Roswell Day, Malta; re-appointed 1821. 
Esek Cowen, Saratoga; re-appointed 1821. 
Thomas Palmer, Milton; re-appointed 1821. 
Alvan Isbell, Charlton. 
Peter S. Van Rensselaer, Hadley. 

Appointed March 13, 1819. 
Jason Adams, Wilton ; re-appointed 1823. 
Jonas Olmstead, Northumberland; re-appointed 1821. 
John Metcalf, Northumberland. 
Alexander M. G. Comstock, Corinth. 
Harry T. Carpenter, Hadley; re-appointed 1821. 
Eliphaz Day lladle^' ; re-appointed 1821. 
Joshua Mandevillc, Waterford; re-appointed 1821. 
William H. Sattcrlcc, Ballston ; re-npj)ointed 1821. 
Sidney Thompson, Northumberland. 
Gilbert C. Bedell, Saratoga, 

Aj^pointcd March 9, 1820. 
■ Piatt B. Smith, Galway ; re-appointcd 1821. 

App'nnted March Vo, 1821. 
Henry Edson, Waterford. 
Reuben Wright, Saratoga. 

Oliver Brisbin, Saratoga. 

Thomas Howland, Northumberland ; re-appointcd 1822, 

Russell Burt, Northumberland; re-appointed 1822. 

Joseph A. Sweet, Moreau. 

James Burnham, Moreau. 

Anson Thompson, Moreau ; re-appointed March 29, 1821. 

Cornelius I. Swartwout. Wilton. 

John Fitzgerald, Wilton. 

John U. Steel, Saratoga Springs. 

Samuel Hunter, Malta. 

Peter Morse, Jr., Half-Moon. 

William Shepherd, Half-Moon. 

Welcome Capron, Edinburgh. 

Samuel Stimson, Concord. 

Appointed March 21, 1821. 
George Hunt, Concord. 

Appointed March 24, 1821. 
William Fellows, Stillwater. 
Isaac Hutton, Stillwater. 
Peter Sprague, Providence. 
Jonathan Delano, Jr., Providence. 
Benedict A. Clark, Providence. 
Jonathan Conde, Charlton. 
Peter Folger, Charlton. 

The following list for 1824 and 1826, appointed by the 
supervisors and judges, is given in full, though it repeats 
previous names to some extent : 


William L. F. Warren, Saratoga Springs ; George Palmer, Stillwater; 
Thomas Dibble, Corinth. 

January 15, 1826. 
Thomas Dibble, Samuel Snowden, Corinth. Daniel Stewart, Joel 
Dayton, Stephen Gray, Half-Moon. William JI. Satterlec, 
Jesse Robertson, Bushnell Benedict, James McCrea, Ballston. 
Joseph Brown, Alvin Isbell, Samuel Richards, Charlton. 
Benjamin Cowles, Washington Chapman, Thomas Dibble, 
Samuel Snowden, Corinth. Azariah Ellithorp, Juhn Hamil- 
ton, Philander Hewitt, Amos Cook, Edinburgh. Perez Otis, 
Piatt B. Smith, Gilbert Swan, Coddington W. Swan, Galway. 
Howell Gardiner, John Prior, John Petit, Elihu Wing. Green- 
field. Jeremy Rockwell, David Stewart, Joel Dayton, Stephen 
Gray, Hadley. Wm. Shepherd, Asahel Philo, Wm. Fowler, 
Abraham Moe, Half-Moon. Thomas Collamer, Dennis Marvin, 
Samuel Hunter, Roswell Day, Malta. Thomas Palmer, Alpheus 
Goodrich, Daniel Couch, Joel Keeler, Milton. Joseph A. Sweet, 
Anson Thompson, Henry Martin, Moreau. Thomas Howland, 
James Vanderwerker, Samuel Lewis, Russel Burt, Northumber- 
land. Samuel S. Barker, Benedict A. Clark, Peter Sprague, 
Latham Coffin, Providence. John H. Steel, James Green, John 
Eddy, Wm. L. F. Warren, Saratoga Springs. David Benedict, 
George Palmer, Charles Neilson, Isaac Hutton, Stillwater. 
Joshua Mandeville, Henry Edson, Moses Scott, W^aterford. 
Seth Perry, Jason Adams, Wm. Comstock, Wilton. 

The following were chosen at the general elections, 1827- 


Jesse Robertson, 




James McCrea, 




William H. Satterlee, 




Bushnell Benedict, 




William II. Salterlee, 




Jesse Roliertson, 




Juhn A. Gilchrist, 




Alvin Isbell, 




Josiah C. Grant, 




Walter K. Maxwell, 




Jt)siah C. Grant, 




John A. Gilchrist, 




Samuel Siimson, 



Coacor4 (l>-'y)- 



George Hunt, 
Amos Lawton, 
Stephen Lawson, 
Anthony Allen, 
George Hunt, 
James D. Long, 
William Jones, 
Jeduthan Lindsey, 
Asahel Deuel, 
Samuel Lowden, 
Benjamin Cowles, 
Winsor Brown, 
Ely Beecher, 
Philander Hewitt, 
Samuel Noyes, 
Solomon Ellithorp, 
Solomon Ellithorp, 
Amos Cook, 
Samuel Noyes, 
Perez Otis, 

Coddington W. Swan, 
Gilbert Swan, 
Piatt B. Smith, 
Coddington W. Swan, 
Perez Otis, 
Howell Gardner, 
John Petit, 
Elihu Wing, 
Adam Boekes, Jr., 
Stafford Lopham, 
Adam Boekes, 
Jeremy Rockwell, 
Stephen Gray, 
Harmon Rockwell, 
Joel Dayton, 
Harmon Rockwell, 
Daniel Stewart, 
William Fowler, 
Asahel Philo, 
Silas Swetland, 
William Shepherd, 
Chauncey Cowles, 
Powell Howlaud, 
Stephen Vernam, 
Samuel Hunter, 
Philo T. Beebe, 
David Newton, 
Gould Morehouse, 
Benjamin Armington, 
Obadiah S. Haight, 
Thomas Palmer, 
Alpheus Goodrich, 
Daniel Couch, 
AVm. J. Angle, 
Thomas Palmer, 
Daniel Couch, 
Joseph A. Sweet, 
Enoch Sill, 
Anson Thompson, 
Truman Hamlin, 
James Newton, 
John Reynolds, 
Thomas Howland, 
James Vandevverker, 
Jesse Billings. Jr., 
Nathaniel McClellan, 
John W. Angle, 
Thomas Howland, 
Calvin Wheeler, 
Jesse Briggs, 
John Barker, 
Uriah Cornell, 
Calvin Wheeler, 
John Barker, 
Harvey Granger, 

November, 1S27, Concord (Day). 


1827, Corinth. 

1828, " 


1827, Edinburgh. 


1820, " 
1829, •' 
1827, Galway. 

1828, " 

1829, " 
1827, Greenfield. 

1828, " 

1829, « 
1827, Hadley, 

1828, " 

1829, " 
1827, Half-Moon. 

1828, " 

>( it 

1S29, " 

1S27, Malta. 

1S28, " 
1829, " 
1827, Milton. 

182S, " 
1829, " 
1827, Moreau. 

1823, " 


1827, Northumberland. 

1S28, " 


1827, Providence. 

1828, " 


1827, Saratoga. 

Daniel Morgan, Jr., November, 
Wm. B. Caldwell, 

James Mott. " 
Stephen H. Dillingham, " 

Francis K. Winne, " 

Wm. h. F. Warren, " 

Judiiih Ellsworth, " 

Aaron Blake, " 

John B. Oilbert, " 

Ransom Cook, " 

John B. Gilbert, " 

George Palmer, " 

David Benedict, " 
Philip H. McOmber, " 

Charles Neilsou, '* 

David Benedict, " 

Richard Ketcham, ** 

Wm. A. Scott, " 

Manley Arasden, " 

Henry Edson, " 

Joshua Miindeville, " 

Wm. H. Seott, " 

Joshua Mandeville, *' 

Jason Adams. " 

John I. Swartwout, " 

AVui. C. Brisbin, " 

Coles Golden, ** 

Jason Adams, " 

John I. Swartwout, " 

Joseph Reed, " 
Stephen H. Wakeman, " 

Cornelius Hegeman, " 

Isaac E. Garnsey. " 

1827, Saratoga. 

1828, " 

1829, " 

1827, Saratoga .Springs. 

1828, " 


1827, StiUw.ater. 

1828, " 

1829, " 
1827, Walcrford. 


1829, " 

1827, Wilton. 

1828, " 

1828, Clifton Park. 

1829, " 






-Sidney Berry, .Saratoga. 
-Henry Walton, Ballslon. 
-Beriah Palmer, Ballston. 
-Thomas Palmer, Milton. 
-George Palmer, Stillw.ater. 
-John W. Thompson, .Milton. 
-John C. Hulbert, Saratoga Springs. 
-Cornelius A. Waldron, Waterford. 
-Elias H. Peters, Saratoga Springs. 


-Samuel Cook, Ballst^n. 

-John Ci-amer, Half-Moon. 

-Wm. Carpenter, Providence; Thomas Lee, Jr., Hadley. 

-Daniel G. Garnsey, Half-Moon. 

-George Palmer, Jr., Stillwater; Thomas Laing. Northumber- 
land; Eli Smith, Galway ; Herman Gansevoort, Northum- 
berland ; Thojnas Palmer, Milton. 

-Ely Beecher, Edinburgh. 

-Elijah W. Abbott, Saratoga. 

-Nathan S. Hollistcr, Charlton; Aaron Blake, Saratoga; Ep- 
euetus White, Jr., Ballston ; Joshua Mandeville, Half-Moon ; 
John Gibson, Ballston ; Othniel Allen, Providence ; Thad- 
deus Jewett, Galway. 

-Henry Metcalf, Stillwater; John Metcalf, Northumberland; 
James Scott, Ballston ; Luther Hulbert, Malta. 

-Esek Cowen, Saratoga; Samuel S. Barker, Providence; Sam- 
uel Belding, Charlton ; Solomon D. Hollister, Ballston ; John 
Petit, Greenfield; Benj.amin Cowles, Hadley. 

-William Laing, Northumberland ; Nicholas W. Angle, Moreau. 

-William B. Van Benthuysen, Saratoga; Bushnell Benedict, 
Ballston; Robert Sumner, Edinburgh; M'iiliam Comstock, 

By an act passed March 24, 1818, masters in chancery 
were confined to their powers and duties as officers of that 
court, and their authority to take acknowledgments, etc., 
was conferred upon commissioners. 

1823.— William Given, Waterford; Thomas Palmer, Milton. 
1824.— W. L. F. Warren, Saratoga Springs. 



ISP.l.— George W. Kirtland, Waterford. 

1832. — Judiah Ellsworth, Saratoga Springs. 

1S34.— Oran G. Otis, Milton. 

1836. — John A. Corey, Saratoga Springs. 

1840. — John K. Porter, Walerford; Archibald Smith, Charlton; 

James M. Andrews, Saratoga Springs. 
1841. — Perry G. Ellsworth, Saratoga Springs. 
1843.— Calleuder Beecher, Milton. 
1844.— Edward F. Bullard, Waterford ; Daniel Shepherd, Saratoga 

1846. — William L. Avery, Saratoga Springs.-^' 

1821. — Harvey F. Leavitt, Saratoga Springs. 
1823.— Samuel Cook, Milton. 
1824.— Alpheus Goodrich, Milton. 
1828.— Judiah Ellsworth. .Saratoga Springs. 
1834.' — Nicholas Hill, Jr., Saratoga Springs. 
1830.- Oran G. Otis, Milton. 
1837. — Sidney J. Cowen, Saratoga Springs. 
1840. — James M. Andrews, Saratoga Springs; Nicholas B. Doe, 

Waterford; Archihald Smith, Charlton. 
1841. — John K. Porter, Waterford; Perry G. Ellsworth, Saratoga 

1843.— Thomas G. Young, Ballslon. 
1844. — Daniel Shepherd, Saratoga Springs : Edward F. Bullard, 

1846. — William L. Avery, Saratoga Springs. 

The offices of master in clianeer}' and examiner in chan. 
eery were abolished by the constitution of 1846. Their 
powers and duties have devolved upon referees. 


1847. — Abel A. Kellogg, Saratoga Springs; Wm. T. Seymour, 

1850.— David W. Wait, Half-Moon; David Ma.Kwell, Milton. 

1851.— David W. Wait, Half-Moon; Thomas G. Young, Ballston.' 

1852.— David W. Wait, Half-Moon; John Gilford, Greenfield. 

18,')3.— William Wilson, Milton ; Samuel B. Edwards, Ballston. 

1854.— Abram Sickler, Half-Moon: David Ma.Nwell, Milton. 

1855. — David I-yon, Corinth ; Cornelius A. Waldron, Waterford. 

1856. — Augustus E. Brown, Milton ; Alexander Haunay, Stillwater. 

1857. — Augustus E. Brown, Milton ; Obadiah Green, AVilton. 

1858.— Tilly Houghton, Corinth; Abraham V. Fowler, Clifton Park. 

1859.— Tilly Houghton, Corinth ; David Ma.xwell, Milton. 

1860. — Seneca Duel, Providence ; Geo. D. Angle, Wilton. 

1861. — David Maxwell, Milton; Seneca Duel, Providence. 

1862.— Jacob Boyce, Wilton ; Reuben H. Barber, Stillwater. 

1863.— David Maxwell. Milton ; Adam Mott, Clifton Park. 

1864. — Malcolm McNaughton, Saratoga; Tilly Houghton, Corinth. 

1865.— William D. Marvin. Malta: Adam Mott, Clifton Park. 

1SG6. — Abraham Marshall, Northumberland ; Malcom McNaughton, 

1867. — Abraham Marshall, Northumberland ; William Warner, Balls- 

1868.— David Maxwell, Milton ; Adam Mott, Clifton Park. 

1869. — Samuel Wells, Saratoga; George Washburne, Northumberland. 

1870. — George Washburne, Northumberland; Charles E. Gorseline, 

1871. — George AVashburne, Northumberland ; Charles E. Gorseline, 

1872.— H. Ransom Colburn, Edinburgh ; John F. Pruyn, Waterford. 

1873. — John F. Pruyn, AVaterford ; Sanil. Lewis, Northumberland. 

1874. — Melbourne A^an Voorhees, Half-Moon ; Samuel Lewis, North- 

1875. — Melbourne A' an A'oorhees, Half-Moon ; Phineas F. Allen, Sara- 
toga Springs. 

1876.- John Brown, Ballston : John Peck, Clifion Park. 

1877. — AVm. C. Tallmadge, Half-Moon; JerreC. Bogert, Providence. 

1791.— Jacob Fort, Jr., Half-Moon. 
1794.— Douw I. Fonda, Stillwater. 

* Office abolished. 

1799.— Henry Davis, Half-Moon. 

1801.— Seth C. Baldwin, Ballston. 

1804. — Daniel Bull, Saratoga. 

1807. — Asahel Porter, Greenfield. 

1S08.— Daniel Bull, Saratoga. 

1810.— Asahel Porter, Greenfield. 

1811. — Nathaniel Ketcham, Stillwater. 

1813.- Hezekiah Ketcham, Half-Moon. 

1815. — James Brisbin, .Jr., Saratoga. 

1819. — John Dunning, Malta. 

1821. — John R. Mott, Saratoga. 

1823.- John R. Dunning, Milton. 

1826. — Lyman B. Langworthy, Milton. 

1829.— John Dunning, Milton. 

1832.— John A'ernam, AA'aterford. 

1835. — Joseph Jennings, Milton. 

1838. — Samuel Freeman, Ballston. 

1841.— Robert Speir, Milton. 

1844. — Is.aac Frink, Milton. 

1847.— Thomas Low, Charlton. 

1850.— Theodore AV. Sanders, Corinth. 

1852. — AVm. T. Seymour, AVaterford, vice Sanders, resigned. 

1853. — Henry H. Hathorn, Saratoga Springs. 

1856. — Philip H. McOmbor, Milton. 

1859.— George B. Powell, Milton. 

1862. — Henry H. Hathorn, Saratoga Springs. 

1865. — Joseph Baucus, Northumberland. 

1868.— Tabor B. Reynolds, AVilton. 

1871. — Thomas Noxon, Half-Moon. 

1874. — Friinklin Carpenter, Corinth. 

1876. — Douw F. AVinne, Saratoga. 

1818. — Richard M. Livingston, Saratoga. 
1S21. — AVilliam L. F. AA'arren, Sarjitoga Springs. 
1836. — Nicholas Hill, Jr., Saratoga Springs. 
1837.- Cheselden Ellis, Waterford. 
1843. — Wm. A. Beach, Saratoga Springs 
1847. — John Lawrence, AA^aterford. 
1851.- AVm. T. Odell, Milton. 
1S57.— John 0. Mott, Half-Moon. 
1860. — Charles S. Lester, Saratoga Springs. 
1863.- Isaac C. Ormsby, AVaterford. 
1869. — AVinsor B. French, Saratoga Springs. 
1872.— Isaac C. Ormsby, AVaterford. 

The prisoners, eight in number, who had been kept at 
the expense of the county in the Albany jail, were brought 
to the jail in the new court-house, March 23, 1796. 

1796. — Enos Gregory. 
1798. — Joseph Palmer. 
1802.— Samuel HoUister. 
1811. — Jonathan Kellogg. 
1812.— Samuel HoUister. 
1813.- Raymond Taylor. 
1819. — John Dunning. 
1835.— Chester Stebben--. 

1841.— Thomas Low. 
1844.— Rowlaud A. AVright. 
1847.— Philip H. MoOmber. 
1859.- George B. Powell. 
1862.— Frederick T. Powell. 
-874. — Manlius JeflTers. 
.;T5. — Franklin Carpenter. 
1877.— Nicholas T. Howland. 

1791.— Ezra Buel, Stillwater. 
1833.— Nathaniel Stuart, Milton. 
1836. — Hiram Boss, Milton. 
1848.— Nathaniel J. Seeley. Milton. 
1859. — Freeman Thomas, Milton. 
1863.— David F. AVhite, Milton. 
1873. — Norman S. May, Saratoga Springs. 
1877. — Erastus H. Sohureman, Milton. 




1791 Beri.ah Palmer. 

1792 John McClelland. 

1793 Richard Davis, Jr. 

1794 John Taylor. 

Cornelius Vandenburgh. 



1705 John B. Scliuyler. Cornelius Vandenburgh. 

17*J(i Benjamin Rosekrans. •* " 

1797 " " " " 

179S Henry Walton. Elislia Powell. 

1799 Benjamin Rosekrans. Jacob Fort^ Jr. 

1800 Selh C. Baldwin. " •• " 

1801 .\sahel Porter. " " " 

1802 John Hunter. Jonathan Kellogg. 

180.3 " " " " 

1804 Ashbel Andrews, Jr. " " 

1805 " " " " " 

1806 Elisba Powell. " 

1807 " " " " 

1808 " " " " 

1809 Ashbel Andrews. " " 

1810 Benjamin Cowles. " *' 

ISU " " " 

1812 Joel Keeler. Alpheus Goodrieli. 

181;i Samuel Young. •' " 

1814 Zebulon Mutt. 

1815 John Low. " " 

181(1 Joel Keeler. " " 

1817 James MeCrea. " " 

1818 Joel Keeler. " " 

1819 Calvin Wheeler. " " 

1820 '• " " " 

1821 Thomas Dibble. " 

1822 John Low. 

1823 Calvin Wheeler. " " 

1824 \Vm. Given. " " 

1825 John Low. " " 

1826 Calvin Wheeler. " " 

1827 Perez Otis. " " 


1828 Calvin Wheeler. " " 

1829 John II. Steel. " 

I8:iO Calvin Wheeler. " 

1831 Thomas Dibble. " " 

1832 " " " 

1833 Eli M. Todd. 

1834 Richard Keteham. ." " 

1835 Dudley Smith. " " 

1836 Richard Keteham. " " 

1837 " " '•• " 

1838 Conrad Cramer. " " 

1839 Daniel Morgan. " " 

1840 Harmon Roekwell. 

1841 L_\ ndes Emerson. Horace Goodrich. 

1842 Samuel Cha[iman. Callender Beeeher. 

1843 Harmon Rockwell. " ** 

1844 James M. Cor>k. J. Oakley Nodyne. 

1845 " " Callender Beeciler. 

1846 Theodore W. Sanders. Reuben Westeott. 

1847 Zopher I. Delong. Harmon Rockwell. 

1848 Harmon Rockwell. Zo]>her I. Delong. 

1849 Henry Holmes. Reuben ^Vesteott. 

1850 David T. Lamb. John A. Corey. 

1851 Steiiben H. Dillingham. .Joseph L. Snow. 

1852 AVm. Shepherd. John A. Corey. 

1853 ■* *' Seymour Chase. 

1854 Cruger Walton. E.'j. Huling. 

1855 Franklin Iloag. Abraham Marshall. 

1856 Daniel W. Culver. 

1857 James M. Marvin. Abel Meeker. 

1858 William T. Odell. David Ma.\well. 

1859 William Gary. " " 

1860 Alexander II. Palmer. Jerome B. Buekbee. 

1861 Joseph Baucus. Abraham Marshall. 

1862 " ** Alexander H. Palmer. 

1863 George G. Scott. David Maxwell. 

1864 Horatio S. Brown. John A. Corey. 

1865 Taber B. Reynolds. *' " 

1866 " " " " " 

1867 Hiro Jones. " " 

1868 Wm. V. Clark. David Ma.xwell. 

1869 Williiim V. Clark. 

1870 " ■• 

1871 .\ustin L. Reynolds. Benjamin S. Robinson. 

1872 ^'icholas J. Clute. " ' 

1873 David T. Lamb. David Maxwell. 

1874 James M. Marvin. .David S. Baker. 

1875 Wra. V. Clark. Benjamin S. Robinson. 

1876 George G. Scott. Henry H. Baker. 

1877 Thomas Noxon. Ira L. Moore. 

1878 Henry C. Vandenburgh. Silas H. Torrej. 

1791.— Dirok Swart, Stillwater. 
1804.— Seth C. Baldwin, Ballston. 
1813.— Levi H. Palmer, Milton. 
1815.— William Stillwell, Ballston. 
1818.— Thomas Palmer, Milton. 
1833. — Alpheus Goodrich, Milton. 

1840.— Archibald Smith, Charlton. 

1843. — Horace Goodrich, Milton. 

1846.— James W. Horton, Milton (still in office). 

1791. — Guert. Van Schoouhoven, Half-Moon. 
1792.— Samuel Clark, Stillwater. 
1794.— Caleb Benedict, Ballston. 
1796.— Elisha Powell, Milton. 
1798. — Robert Leonard, Ballston. 
1800.— Jonathan Kellogg, Ballston. 
1805.— Edward Watrous, Ballston. 
1810. — Arehy Kasson, Milton. 
1815.— Azari.ah W. Odell. .Alilton. 
1822.- Edward Watrou.s, Milton. 
1831. — George Thompson, Milton. 
1844. — Arnold Harris, Ballston. 
1847.— Edward W. Lee, Milton. 
1849. — Arnold Harris, Ballston. 
1855. — Oryille D. Vaugban, Milton. 
1861. — Henry A. Mann, Milton. 
1876. — James H. Wright, Saratoga Springs. 

(Appointed by the Board of Supervisors.) 
1827. — .\aron Morehouse, Alpheus Goodrich, Jesse Robertson. Hugh 
Hawkins, Roekwell Putnam, Earl Stimson, David Benedict, 
David Garnsey, Jonathan Lapham, Hugh Hawkins, Elisha 
Powell, Earl vStimson, Dayid Garnsey, Christopher Earl. 
1828.— Elisha Powell, Hugh Hawkins, Christopher Earl, Moses Wil- 
liams, Alpheus Goodrich. 
1831. — Elisha Powell, Hugh Hawkins, Aaron Morehouse, Christopher 
(Appointed by the .Supervisors and Judges jointly.) 
1832. — Elisha Powell, Hugh Hawkins, Aaron Morehouse. 
1833-34. — Elisha Powell, Aaron Morehouse, Samuel .Smith. 
1835-42.— Elisha Powell, Lebbeus Booth, William Hawkins. 

(Appointed by the Board of Supervisors.) 
1842-43.— William Hawkins, John Wait, Edward W. Lee. 
1844-46. — Lebbeus Booth, Abraham Middlebrook, James H. .Speir. 
1847.— John Kelly, John Wait, William W. Arnold.* 
Jaitnurtf 1, 1848. — William A-. Mundell, Calvin Wheeler, Abraham 

Junuarii 1, 1849. — Robert Gardner. 
January 1, 1850. — Calvin Wheeler. 
Janitart/ 1, 1851. — Abraham Middlebrook. 
Jannary 1, 1852. — Robert Gardner. 
January 1, 1853. — Samuel Rue. 
January 1, 1854. — Abraham Middlebrook. 
January 1, 1855. — Robert Gardner. 
January 1, 1856. — Samuel Rue. 
January 1, 1857. — Harmon G. Sweeney. 
January 1, 1858. — Robert Gardner, 
January 1, 1859. — Henry Wright. 
January I, 1800. — David Rowley. 
January 1, 1861. — Richard Hewitt. 
January 1, 1862.— Heury Wright. 
January 1, 1863. — Henry Holmes. 
January 1, 1864. — David Rowley. 
January 1, 1865. — Alexander Davidson. 
January 1, 1866. — James Tripp, Henry Holmes. 
January 1, 1867. — James Tripp. 
January 1, 1868. — Alexander Davidson. 
January 1, 1869. — Thomas Sweet. 
January 1, 1870. — Ziniri Lawrence. 
January 1, 1871. — Alexander Davidson. 
January 1, 1872. — James Tripp. 
January 1, 1873. — Zimri Lawrence. 
January 1, 1874. — George W. King. 
January 1, 1875. — James Tripp. 
January 1, 1876. — Gilbert P. Rowley. 
January 1, 1877.^George W. King. 

* After 1847 elected at the general election. 




Benjamin Cowlc8, Daniel A. Collainer, Sylvester Blood, Increase 
Hoyt, Henry Wright, Charles R. Lewis, William W. Hunt, John 
J. Gilbert. 


Febnirtri/ 19, 1791. — James Rogers, Saratoga; Ezekiel Ensign, 
Siillwater; Aaron Comstock, llalf-Moon. 

Ft-brunry 21, 1792. — Thomas Rogers, Saratoga; Aaron Comstock, 
II alt'- Moon. 

February 18, 1793. — James Rogers, Saratoga. 

September 29, 1795. — Isaac Keeler, Half- Moon. 

Ftbnutry 16, 1796. — Isaac Keeler, Halt-Moon; Nathan Raymond, 
Ballston ; John Neilson, Stillwater; Zerah Beach, Bail^ton ; 
Stephen Ball, Ballston. 

J/rtn-A 4, 1797.— Stephen Ball, Ballston; Zerah Be.ich, Ballston; 
John Neilson, Stillwater; Isaac Keeler, Half-Moon; Nathan 
Raymond, Ballston. 

Febrnnnj 24, 1798. — John Neilson, Stillwater; Isaac Keeler, Milton; 
Nathan Raymond, Ballston ; Ebenezer Couch, Galway. 

FKbruar)/ 16, 1799. — Thomas Laing, Northumberland; Joseph New- 
land, Galway; Moses Scott, Half-Moon; Robert Leonard, 

April 2, 1800. — Joseph Newland, Galway; Moses Scott, Half-Moon ; 
Robert Leonard, Ballston; Thomas Laing, Northumberland. 

Jannarij 22, 1801.— Robert Mitchell. 

March 2, 1804. — Chauncey Belding, Charlton ; James I. Brisbin, 
Saratoga; Luther Landon, Malta. 

March 8, 1805. — James Brisbin, Jr., Saratoga; Luther Landon, 
Malta; Chauncey Belding, Charlton. 

March 13, 1806. — James Brisbin, Jr., Saratoga; Hezekiah Middle- 
brook, Jr., Milton. 

March 25, 1807. — John Knickerbocker, Jr., Stillwater. 

March 18, 1808. — Conrad Cramer, Northumberland; Nehemiah Cande, 

April 6, 1808.— Hezekiah Middlebrook, Jr., Milton. 

March 20, 1809. — Nehemiah Cande, Galway; Elisha Howland, Half- 
JMoon ; Conrad Cramer, Northumberland; Wm. S. McRea, Ball- 

March 9, 1811. — Elisha Howland, Half-Moon; George H. Benham, 

March 20, 1813. — George H. Benhaui, Milton; Henry Philmore, 
Providence ; Abner Medberry, Greenfield; Isaac B. Payne, 
Northumberland; John Bra<lshaw, Half-Moon; Royal Knights. 

March 20, 1814.— George H. Bonham, Milton; Henry Philmore, 
Providence ; Abner Medberry, Greentield ; Isaac B. Payne, 
Northumberland; Royal Knights; Adam Edson, Half-Moon. 

March 29, 1815.— Henry Q. Wright; Stephen Jackson, Milton. 

March 16, 1816. — Henry Q. Wright; Stephen Jackson, Milton. 

April 2, 1816, — Nicholas Carpenter; Daniel Hicks, Northumberland; 
Wm. Davis; Daniel Rogers, Stillwater; Gilbert C. Bedell, Sara- 

March 9, 1817. — James Mott, Saratoga. 

March 11, 1817. — Darius Johnson, Greenfield; Lyman B. Lang- 
worthy, Milton; Jonathan Delano, Jr., Providence; Daniel 
Hicks, Northumberianil. 

June 16, 1818. — Lyman B. Langworthy, Milton ; Daniel Hicks, 
Northumberland; Wm. H. Satterlee, Ballston; Daniel Rogers, 
Stillwater; Wm. Tearse, Moreau ; Truman B. Hicks, Hadley ; 
John Cook; Latham Coffin, Providence. 

March 13, 1819. — Lyman B. Langworthy, Milton; Daniel Hicks, 
Northumberland ; Wm. H. Satterlee, Ballston ; Daniel Rogers, 
Stillwater; Wm. Tenrse ; Truman B. Hicks, Hadley; John 
Cook; Latham Coffi i. Providence; Solomon Parks, Moreau. 

Feb. 5, 1820. — Lyman B. Langworthy, Milton ; Daniel Hicks, North- 
umberland ; David RogLTS, Corinth; Wm. H. Satterlee, Balls- 
ton; Wm. Tearse; Trmuan B. Hicks, Hadley; John Cook; 
Latham Coffin, Providence. 
March 13, 1821. — Isaac Scars, Stillwater; Peter L. Mawney, Moreau; 
John H. Steele, Saratoga Springs; Wm. Davis; Chester Clapp, 
Ballston; Timothy Crane; J.ihn W. Crcal, Corinth; John Bal- 
lard, Northumberland i Daniel Rogers, Stillwater. 


March fi, 1822. — Isaac Sears, Stillwater; Peter L. Mawney, Moreau; 
John H. Steele, Saratoga Springs; AVilliam Davis ; Chester Clapp, 
Ballston;, Timothy Crane; John W. Creal, Corinth; John liaU 
lard, Northuml)erland ; Daniel Rogers, Stillwater; John Pettit, 

(Elected by the people). 
7(111. 1, 1S23. — Reuben Wcsteot, Milton; Win. Vcrnam, Half-Moon; 

Benjamin Cowlcs, Corinth; Gilbert Swan, Galway. 
Jan. 1, 1826. — Orcn Sage, Milton : Dirck L. Palmer, Saratoga Springs ; 

Amos Cook, Edinburgh ; William Fellows, Stillwater. 
Jan. 1, 1829. — Harmon Rockwell, Hadley ; Hugh Alexander, Gal- 
way ; Dirck I>. Palmer, Saratoga Springs ; Nathan D. Sherwood, 
Jan. 1, 1832.— Nathan D. Sherwood, Waterford; Joseph B. V. Fair- 
banks, Moreau; Chauncey G. Dibble, Corinth; Dirck L. Palmer, 
Saratoga Springs. 
Jan. 1, 1835.— George Hunt, Day; Peter Shute, Clifton Park; Eli 

Holbrook, S;iratoga Springs; Israel Baker, Stillwater. 
Jan. 1, 1838, — Rockwell Putnam, Saratoga Springs ; Abraham K. 
Underbill, Charlton; William Brown, Corinth; Nathan D. Sher- 
wood, Waterford. 
Jan. 1, 1840. — Leonard Hodgman, Stillwater. 
Jan. 1, 1841. — Chauncey Boughton, Half-Moon; Abraham Marshall, 

Northumberland : Lemuel D. Sabin, Day. 
Jan. 1, 1843. — John A. Waterbury, Saratoga Springs. 
Jan. 1, 1844.— Nathan A. Philo, Half-Moon; Henry White, Milton; 

Thomas S. Carpenter, Corinth. 
Jan. 1, 1846.— Calvin W. Dakc, Greenfield. 
Jan. 1, 1847. — William A. Mundcli, Saratoga Springs: Harvey H. 

Rogers, Clifton Park; James H. Lockwood, Miltou. 
Jan. 1, 1849.— Gilbert Purdy, Saratoga. 
Jan. 1, ISoO. — Wynant G. Vandenburgh, Waterford; William A. 

Mundell, Saratoga Springs ; James H. Lockwood, Milton. 
Jan. 1, 1851. — David Rhodes, Day. 
Jan. 1, 1853. — James Viall, Half-Moon; Archibald Gow, Saratoga ; 

Nathaniel J. Seeley, Milton. 
Jan. 1, 1854. — Benjamin F. Chadsey, Clifton Park. 
Jan. 1, 1856. — Peter E. Esmond, Saratoga; Emmor K. Uuested, 

Stillwater; Nathaniel J. Seeley, Milton. 
Jan. 1, 1857. — Gideon Comstock, Corinth. 
Jan. 1, 1859. — Nathaniel J. Seeley, Miltou ; Nanning V. Fort, Clifton 

Park ; Archibald Gow, Saratoga. 
Mareh 31, 1859.— James F. Doolittle, Milton. 
Jan. 1, 1860.— Charles H. Andrus, Milton. 
Jan. 1, I860.— Philip T. Heartt (2d), Waterford. 
Jan. 1, 1862.— Cyrus F. Rich, Saratoga. 
Jan. 1, 1862.— Nanning V. Fort, Clifton Park. 
Jan. 1, 1863. — John Barrett, Milton; Nathan W. Buckmaster, 

Jan. 1, 18G5. — Nanning V. Fort, Clifton Park; John L. Perry, Jr., 

Saratoga Springs. 
Jan. 1, 1866. — Nanning V. Fort, Clifton Park; David F. White, 

Milton ; Alfred Angcll, Corinth. 
Jan. 1, 1868.— Philip Heartt (2d), Waterford. 
Jan. I, 1869— Alfred Angell, Corinth; John J. Clutc, Clifton Park; 

Jacob Boycc, Ballston. 
Ja,u 1, 1871.— Philip Heartt (2d), Waterford. 
Jan. 1, 1872.— David F. White, Milton : Edmund J. Huling, Saratoga ■ 

Spring.^; Ambrttse C. Iliekok, Corinth. 
Jan. 1, 1874.— Philip Heartt (2d), Waterford. 
Jan. 1, 1875, — Benjamin W. No.\on, Milton; Alfred Angell, Corinth; 

Frank Gow, Saratoga. 
.Jan. 1, 1877.— Philip Heartt (2.1), Waterford. 

7.1)1.1,1878. — Frank Gow, Saratoga; Walton W. French, Milton; 
Frank M. Boyce, Saratoga Springs. 

SCHOOLS. (ACT OF 1841.) 

(Appointed by the supervisors.) 
1841. — Alanson Smith, Saratoga Springs. 
1843. — Seabury Allen, Providence. 
1845.— Scabury Allen, Providence.® 

* Office abolished in 1847. 



(Appointed by the Board of Supervisors.) 
1856. — 1st District : Samuel Tompkins, Stillwater. 
2d District: Anson M. Boyce, AVilton. 

1858.— Ist District : Charles D. Seeley, Milton. 

2d District: Ansom M. Boyce, Wilton. 
1861. — Ist District: Seymour Chase, Milton. 

2d District : Walton AV. French, Wilton. 
1864. — 1st District: Thomas McKindley, Charlton. 

2d District: Henry Wilcox, Jr., Saratoga Springs. 
1867. — 1st District: Neil Gilmour, Milton. 

2d District: Henry Wilcox, Jr., Saratoga Springs. 
1870.— 1st District: Seth Whalen, Milton. 

2d District : Oscar F. Stiles, Saratoga Springs. 
1873. — 1st District : Hon. Neil Gilmour (succeeded on his resignation 
by Henry L. Grose). 

2d District: Oscar F. Stiles. 
1876. — 1st District: Nelson L. Roe, Ballston. 

2d District: John AV. Shurter, Moreau. 

Commimiotipra for bnildinf) the Jirft C'ntit- HouKe, appointed in 1794. — 

John Bradstrcet Schuyler, Richard Davis, Jr., James Emott, 

John Ball, John McClelland. 
CuiniiiiHsinuera fnr bnUdiuy the present Conrt-Huuse, appointed in 

1817. — Elisha Powell, James Merrill, Isaac Gere, John Gibson, 

Gilbert Waring. 
Comminsioners for biiildintj the Jirst Clerk's O^Vf, appointed in 1824. — 

Edward Watrous, Eli Barnum, Moses Williams. 
Commlnsitiiiera for bnildiyty the present Clerl'a OJ}ive, appointed in 

1S65. — Arnold Harris, Joseph Baucus, David T. Lamb, James 

W. Horton, Edwin H. Chapman, Charles S. Lester, William V. 


Coinmiaaionera of Ta,refi. 

1799. — James Gordon, Ballston; Henry Walton, Ballston; Hugh 
Peebles, Half-Moon. 

1792. — Guert Van Schoonhoven, Half-Moon ; Cornelius Vandenburgh, 

1798. — Elisha Powell, of Milton, rite Vandenburgh.* 


1S08.— John AV. Taylor, Ballston ; John Cramer, Half-Moon. 

1829. — Gideon M. Davison, Saratoga Springs; Joshua Bioore, AVater- 

1S32. — George AA^. Kirtland, AVaterford, vice Bioore. 
1840. — Daniel Morgan, Saratoga; De AA'itt C. Austin, Moreau. 
1843.— Cyrus Perry, AVilton ; George G. Scott, Milton.+ 

1837. — Isaac Frink, Milton; Joshua Bioore, Waterford. 
1840. — John House, AVaterford; Lebbeus Booth, Ballston. 
1843. — John Cramer (2d), AVaterford; Alvah Dakc, Greenfield. 
1845. — AVm. I. Gilchrist, Charlton ; James V. Bradshaw, Half-Moon. 
1848.— Calvin AV. Dake, Greenfteld; George B. Powell, Milton. 
1855. — Andrew AVatrous, Saratoga Springs; Albert A. Moor, Milton. 
1861. — Seymour Gilbert, Saratoga Springs ; Nathaniel Mann, Milton. 
1865. — Joshua Swan, Milton; Calvin W. Dake, Greenfield. 
1869. — Isaac Grinnell, Milton ; Daniel C. Coy, Greenfield. 
1873. — AVarren Dakc, Greenfield ; Alonzo Russell, Saratoga. 
(Appointed by the County Judge under act of 1857.) 
1857. — John Stewart, AVaterford ; Samuel Lewis, Northumberland; 
Truman Safford, Saratoga Springs. 

'^ Office abolished in 1832, and books and papers transferred to the 
commissioners of loans. 

f Office abolished in 1850, and books and papers of loans of 1792 
and 1808 transferred to the commissioners of the United States 
deposit fund. 

1S58. — Ransom Cook, Saratoga Springs, rice SafiTord. 

1861. — AValter Doty, Northumberland, rice Lewis. 

1863.— John W. Eddy, Saratoga Springs, i-iVc Cook. 

1864. — Austin L.Reynolds Moreau, vice Doty; Morgan L. Finch, 

Clifton Park, vice Stewart, 
1867. — Alfred Angell, Corinth, vice Reynolds. 

1857.— AVilliam B. Harris, Stillwater. 
1859. — Jerome B. Buckbee, Saratoga Springs. 
1863. — John A. Corey, Saratoga Springs. 



The following lists of the officers of the militia of Sara- 
toga County, from the first enrolment in 1775 up to the 
beginning of the War of 1812-15, are all we have been 
able to gather from the records in the office of the adjutant- 
general at Albany. From the year 1812 to the year 1830 
there are no records in this office of the military rolls. Pre- 
vious to 1803 there seem to have been but few records of 
rolls kept. 



CommiBsiona itsued Oct. 20, 1775. 


Jacolius Van Schoonhoven, colonel. 

Jamus Goniun, liputeiiaiit-culouel. 

Ezekiel Taylor. Ist major. 

Andrew Mitchell, 2il major. 

David Ilumaey, adjutant. 

Simeon Fort, qnarteruiaster. 

Company Officrrn. 

1st Company. — Guardus Cluet, c;ipt. ; Albert Van De Werk^r, 1st licut. ; Ruliert 
Rowland, 2d lieut. ; John Van De Weiker, enf^ign. 

2d Company. — NanningN. ViHscher, capt.; Juhn \i\n Vranken, 1st lieut.; Nich- 
olas Van Vranken, 2d lieut. ; Maaa Van Vranken, enfiiga. 

3d Company. — Jeremiah Vincent, capt.; Jost^ph Pinkney, Ist lieut. ; Peter Fer- 
guson, 2d lieut.; Elias Van Steenburgh, ensign. 

4th Company. — Joshua Losee, capt.; Thumas Hicks, 1st lieut.; Cornelius Vil- 
linp, 2d lieut. ; Oliver W'ait, ensign. 

5th Company. — Tyrannuu Collins, capt.; Wm. McCrea, 1st lieut.; Benjamin 
Wood, 2<i lieut.; David Claik, ensign. 

Gth Company. — Stephen White, capt.; Thomas Brown, Ist lieut.; Epcnctus 
White, 2d lieut.; Nathan Raymond, ensign. 



Commissions issued Oct. 20, 1775. 


John McCrea, colonel. 

Cornelius Van Veghten, lieutenant-colonel. 

Daniel Dickinson, 1st major. 

Jacob Van Schaick, 2d m:ijor. 

Archibald McNiel, adjutant. 

John Vernor, quartermaster. 

Comjianii Officers. 

iBt Company. — Peter Van Woert, capt.; James Stoma, 1st lieut.; Jonathan 
Dunham, 2d lieut. ; Gerrit Van Buren, ensign. 

2d Company. — Jolm Tlioiti8on,capt.; Josiah Benjamin, 1st lieut. ; John Hunter, 
2d lieut.; Joseph Row, ensign. 

3d Company.— Henry O'Hani, capt.; Benjamin Giles, Ist lieut.; JonatUao Pet- 
tit, 2d lieut.; James Pcttit, ensign. 

4th Company.— Ephraim Woodward, capt. ; Tliomas Ballard, 1st lieut. ; Holturu 
Dunham, 2d lisut.; .\be Belknap, ensign. 

olh Company, — Epbraim Lake, capt.; Samuel Sheldon, 1st lieut.; Jabez Gage, 
2d lieut.; Benajah Sheldon, ensign. 

Gth Company.— J osqih Palnur, capt.; Juhn Davis, 1st lieut.; llezekiah Dun- 
ham, 2d lieut.; Alpheus Davis, ensign. 

7th Company.— David Junes, capt.; Samuel Perry, 1st lit-ut.; Peter Winne, 2d 
lieut.; Elifcha Beutley, ensign. 





'* A return of tlio officers of the miniite-iiK>n for tlio ilistrict of Saratoga, in t!io 
County of .\Iliaiiy, In-itis iluly electcij by tlieir company in presence of tliis com- 
niittcf, viz., Alexander Ilahlwin, capt.,SauiUL'I Bacon, 1st lietit., Walter Hewitt, 
2>l lieiit., Elifts Palmer, ensign. That the above persons may with greater 
aixl facility c;irry into execution the late resolutions of the Continental Con- 
grt'ss witli their company, we beg the favor of their being properly commis- 
Biunetl for that purpose. 

" By order of the committee, 




"Saratoga, February 12, 1776." 



Jan. 27, 1S03, Asalie! Porter, brigatle inspector. 

July 3, 1801, Samuel Clark, brigadier-general. 

Feb. 8, 1808, David Rogers, brigade major. 

Jan. C, 1809, Daniel L. Van Antwerp, brigade quartermaster. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Daniel G. Garnsey, brigade major. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Dudley Smith, brigade major. 

Fob. 11, 1811, Leonard II. Gansevoort, brigade quartermaster. 


WiTch 23, 1803, Daniel Rathbun. 

Firttt Lieutfttantx. 
March 23, 1803, James Garnsey. 

March 22, 1804, Joseph Hanchet. 

Second Lieutenunf". 
March 2:i, 1803, Joseph Stanchet, Jr. 
March 22, 1804, Ebenezer Couch. 

This brigade compri-ted six regiments, as showa by an order of the adjutant- 
general, subsequently given. 

The commissioned officers of these regiments from 180:i to 1812 were as fol- 
lows : 



June 30,1804, Restcomf Potter, lieutenant-colonel. 

June 30, 1804, Ezra Kellogg, 1st major. 

June 30, 1804, Isaac Gere, 2d major. 

June 30, 1804, Willard Trowbridge, aijutiint. 

June 30, 1804, Pilgrim Durkee, 2d major. 

June yO, 1804, Stephen Sherman, Ist major. 

June 30, 18i4, Stephen Potter, surgeon. 

April 3, 1806, Isaac Gere, lieutenant-colonel. 

April 3, 1806, Jolin Rhodes, 1st major. 

April 3, 180G, Gershom Proctoi", 2d major. 

April G, 1807, Nathan Thompson, surgeon. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Amos Cook, adjutant. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Eail Stimson, paym^ister. 

Feb. 29, 1812. Iisajic Gere, lieutenant-colonel. 

Feb. 23, 1812, Charles Rhodes, 2d major. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Thaddeus Jewett, paymaster. 

May 21, 1812, John Rhoades, lieutenant-colonel. 

May 23, 1812, Eli Smith, 1st major. 

May 23, 1812, Jonathan Delano, 2d major. 


June 30, 1804, Eli Smith, Daniel D. Wolf, Amasa Sumner, Edward Shipman, 
Eleazar Smith, Amos Smith, Anson Fowler. 

April 8, 180.% Elihu B. Smith. 

April 3, 180G, Oliver Edwards, Peter Boss, Jonathan Smith, Othniel Alien. 

April 6, 1807, Job Weils. 

April 4, 1808, Charles Rhodes. 

March 12, 1810, Phinead Warren, Jonathan Delano. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Samuel Hawley, Eli Beechei-, James Carpenter, James N. Smith. 

June 5, 1811, Benjamin Wright, Noah Sweet. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Andrew Comstock, Michael Dunning, Earl Stimson, James N. 

May 23, 1812, Paul Edwards. 


June 30, 1804, Barnet Stillwell, Joseph Brewster, Jonathan Smith, Oliver Ed- 
monds, Othniel Allen, Jr., Job Wells, Elihu B. Smith, David Fortes, 
Nathaniel Adams. 

April 8, 180:>, Elihu Dean. 

April 3, 1800, Charles Rhodes, Samuel Hollister, Abraham B. Walker, Miles 
Ely, Thomas Grimes. 

April 0, 1807, Mi.hael Dunning, John Blair, James Smith, John Salisbury, Wm. 

April 4, 1808, John Uambler, James Carpenter, Uenry Skinuer. 

May 31, 1809, Jonathan Delano, John Hamilton, James Perry, Samuel Hawley. 

March 12, 1810, James Perry, Aanm Wheeler, Aaron Grinwold. 

Feb. 11, lail, John Derrick, Noah Sweet, Wm. Tripp, Paul Edwards, Andrew 

Comstock, Josei)h Brewster. 
June 5, 1811, Pliilo Dauchy, Edmond Hewitt, Jr. 
Feb. 29, 1812, John Brown, Wm. Richardson, Jr., Henry Warren. 
May 23, 1812, John Herringtun, Jo.shua Finch. 

Juno 30, 1804, James Northrup, Arnold Earl, George Bradford, Charles Rhodes, 

Michael Dunning, Joseph Pinney, Montgomery Evans, Jacob Culver. 
April 8, 180.3, Lewis Stone. 
April 3, 1806, Charles Hamilton, James Smith, Jame'i Perry, John Blair, John 

Salisbury, Nathaniel Adams, Wm. Rjindall, John Munm. 
April 6, 1807, Samuel Halstead, Henry Skinner, Wm. Tripp, Henry Anderson, 

H<-zckiah Runney. 
April 4, 1808, Amos Cook, Marcus Goodwin, Elisha Carpenter, Aaron Wheeler, 

John Pettit. 
May 31, 1809, Thomas Perry, Joseph Brewster, Franklin Oliver. 
March 12, 1810, Thomas Perry, Daniel Smith, Paul Edwards. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Sampson Woolsey, Edmund Hewitt, Edward Wood, Reuben 

Buck, Wm. Richards, Jr., Benjamin Wright, John Brown, Ezekiel O. 

June 5, 1811, Ira T. Freeman, John De Golyer. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Calvin Palmer, Joshua Finch, Andrew Thatcher, John Herring- 
ton, Urial Cornell. 
May 23, 1812, Seth Benson, Seth C. Burch, James A. Smith. 



Uriah Gregory, lieutenant-colonel. 
March 23, 180 J, John N.tsli, 1st major. 
March 23, 1803, Walter Palchin, 2d ninjor. 
March 24, 18ii3, Jonathan Kellogg, quartermaster. 
April 8, 1805, Matthew McKinney, 1st major. 
April 8, 1805, Ebenezer S. Coon, 2d major. 
April 8, 1805, William Kingsley, adjuUmt. 
April 8, 1805, Jason Bannister, surgeon's mate. 
April 3, 18116, Ebenezer S. <l!oon, lieutenant-colonel. 
April 3, 1800, Eliud Davis, 1st major. 
April 3, 1806, Chauncey Belding, 2d major. 
April 6, 1807, Jason Bannister, surgeon. 
April G, 1807, Eliud Davis, lieutenant-colonel. 
April 6, 1807, Chauncey Belding, l^t major. 
April 6, 1807, David Rogers, 2d major. 
April 4, 1808, Dudley Smith, 2d major. 
April 4, 1808, Edwanl Satterlee, a<ijutant. 
April 4, 1808, William Taylor, quartermaster. 
April 4, 1808, Eliud Davis, lieutenant-colonel. 
April 4, 1808, Chauncey Belding, l^t nirtjor. 
June 8, 1808, Edward R. Satterlee, adjutant. 
March 22, ISitO, William Hawkins, Jr., adjutant. 
March 12, 1810, David Rogers, lieutenant-colonel. 
March 12, 1810, Dudley Smith, Ist major. 
March 12, I8t0, Jacob L. Sherwood, 2d major. 
March 12, 1810, Amos Smith, paymaster. 
Feb. 11, 1811,.Tacob L. Sherwood, let major. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Zerah Beach, Jr., 2d major. 
Feb. 11, 1811, William H. Bridges, adjutant. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Zerah Beach, Jr., 1st major. 
Feb. 29, 1812, John Holmes, Jr., 2d niMJor. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Samnel Pitkin, surgeon. 

March 23, 1803, Onesimus Hubbel, Jonathan Hunting, Chauncey Belding. 
March 24, 1803, David Rogers. 
April 8, 18U5, Dudley Smith, Zerah Beach, Jacob L. Sherwood, Alexander 

April 3, 180G, Levi Benedict, Samuel Belding. 
April G, 1&07, Ezekiel Horton. 

April 4, 1808, Ezekiel Horton, Silas Foster, Daniel Ostrom, Nathaniel Jennings. 
March 12, 1812, Sherwood Leavitt, Philo Hurd, Sylvester Harmon, John 

Feb. 11, 1811, Jonathan Minor, Richard Freeman, James Wilkins, Jr., John 

Holmes, Jr., Isaac Smith, Jr. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Wm. Ely, Alexander Dunlap, Andrew Rich, David Gordon. 
May 23, 1812, Stephen R. Warren, James Smyth, Isaac Curtis. 

March 23, 180:1, Solomon Rowland, Lemuel Wilcox, Asa Beach, Samuel Belding. 
March 24, 1803, Ezekiel Horton. 

April 8, 1805, Joseph Meach, Miles Beach, Aaron Angle, David Hubble. 
April 3, 1800, Reuben Hollister, John Holmes. 

April G, 1807, Silas Foster, Nathaniel Gunning, Daniel Ostrom, John Holmes, Jr_ 
April G, 1808, James Wilkins, Jr., David Fowler, Isaac Smith, Jr., Philo Hurd, 
Sylvester Harmon. 



March 22, 1809, Jonatlian Minor. 

March 12, 1810, David Gordon, James Smith, Wm. Ely, Andrew Kitchie, Richard 

Feb. 11, 1811, Stephen R. Warren, Alexander Dunlap, Benjamin H. Burnet, 
Juhn Bell. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Mansfield Barlow, Samn el Richards, Juhn Ferguson , Joel Sher- 

May 23, 1812, Isaac Curtis, John J. Luther, Seth Kirby, Jr., Henry Miller. 

March 23, 1803, Job Torry, Zerah Beach, Joseph Meach, Daniel Ostrom, John 

Holmes, Jr., Donistus Hollister. 
March 24, 18(i4, William Kiiigsley, Nathaniel Cook, 
April 8, 1805, Jonas Havens, William Hawkins, Jr., John Jones, Joseph Mc- 

Knight, Silvester Harmon. 
April 3, 1806, Jonathan Smith, William Ely. 
April G, 1807, David Fuwler, Pbilo Hurd, I.taac Smith, Jr., James Wilkins, Jr., 

Amos Wamsley. 
April 4, 1808, John Haiman, Richard Taylor, James Smith, Amos Wamsley, 

Bf-njamin H. Burn' t. 
March 22, 1809, Wm. H. Bridges, Richard Freeman. 

March 12, 1810, Juel Sherwood, Seth Kirby, Jr., Mansfield Barlow, John Fer- 
guson, Alexander Diinlnp. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Benjamin Marvin, Jr., Samuel Richards, Isaac Curti<<s, Thom.'ia 

Feb. '29,1812, Daniel Holmes.Rodney Smith, Philip Hn-tbei-sun, Alvin S. French. 
May 23, 1812, Henry Miller, Reuben Weatcott, Nathiiniel I. Seely, Robert W. 




Samuel Clark, lieutenant-colonel. 

July 3, 18(>4, Deliverance Andrewa, lientenant-colonel. 

July 3, 1804, John Dunning, Ist major. 

July 3, 18U4, Ui>bert Hunter, 2d miijor. 

April 3, 1800, Pontns Hooper, adjutant. 

April 6, 18(J7, Kenben Smith, quartermaster. 

April G, 1807, John Tiittle, imymaster. 

April 4, 18<l8, George Palmer, Jr., adjutant. 

March 22, 1809, Elijah W. Abbott, adjutant. 

March 21, 1809, William Fellows, quartermaster. 

Feb. 9, 1810, J<.hn Dnniting, lieutenant-colonel. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Robert Hunter, 1st major. 

Fob. 9, 1810, RculM-n Woodwoilh, 2(1 m;ijor. 

Feb. 9, 181i», John W. Patriek, adjutant. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Ephraini Child, snrgeon. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Dinforlh Siiuuiway, surgeon's mate. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Peter Andrews, paymaster. 

Feb. 11, ISll, Reuben Woodworih, Ist major. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Lawrence Ho<)per,2d major. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Lawrence Hooper, 1st major. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Coleman G;ites,2d major. 

March 23, 1803, Eiisebius Matthews, Felix Fitzsinimona. 
March 2, 1804, Samuel Cooper, Amos Hodgman, Noah Gates. 
July 3, 1801, Lawrence Hooper. 
April 3, 180*>, Richard Dunning, Dean t.'hase. 
April G, 1807, Samuel Clai k, Jr., Selah Horst'ord, Joseph Wilbur. 
April 4, 1808, Cdenian Gates. 

Feb. 9, 1810, David G. Keeler, John Montgomery, Daniel Weeks. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Patrick Parks, Stephen Valentine, Peter Fort, Edward Colwell, 

John Wilcox, David Benedict. 
Feb. 29, 1812, William Dunning, John Weeks. 
May 3, 1812, No;idiah Moody. 

LieuO mints. 
March 23, 1803, George Peck, John Barber, Af-hbel Hoffoid, Lawrence Hooper. 
March 2, 1804, Daniel Cole, John Montgomery, Abraham Latbrop. 
July 3, 1804, Pontus Hooper. 
April 8, 1S05, Joseph Wilbur. 

April 3, 1S06, Coleman Gates, John Gilbert, Robert Montgomery. 
April G, 18(t7, Daniel WeekH, Gordridge Keeler, John Wilcox, Jr., Henry Curtis. 
April 4, 18it8, Wm. Dunning. 

Feb. 9, 181(1, Wm. Strang, Jr., Noadiah Moody, Stephen Valentine, Zera Wilbur. 
Feb. 11,1811, Reuben Bidwell, Lewis Smith, Robert Crawford, Jonas Olmsted, 

Wm. Cooper, Machivel Andrews. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Mose^ Landon, David Acidmore, Ira Belts. 
May 23, 1812, Gradna Downey. 


March 23, 1803, Wni. Waterbury, Joseph Wilbur, Abraham Lathrop, Edw. Col- 
well, George Dunn. 

March 2, 1804, Selah SatTord, Noadiah Moody, Coleman Gates. 

July 3, 1S04, John Gilbert. 

April 8, 1805, Selah Hosford, Henry Curtis, Bushnell Benedict. 

April 3, 18UG, Wm. Dunning, Patrick Parka, Wm. Fuller. 

April 6, 1807, Stephen Valentine, Wm. Strang, Jr., Wm Cooper, Jr., Zerah Wil- 
bur, Wm. Dunning, Jr., Wm. Fellows. 

April 4, 1808, Moses Landon. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Reuben Wright, Gardus Downing, Lewis Smith, Peter Fort, Will 

Feb. n, 1811, John Valentine, Jolm Wicks, James Bibbins, David Scidmore, 

Isaac Myers, John Nelson, Jr. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Thomas CuUamer, Earl Whitford, Josiah Johnson, Silas Smith. 
May 23, 1812, Garraer Conklin. 

VI.— 631) REGIMENT. 


Thomas Rogers, lieutenant-colonel. 
March 2G, 1804, Abel Colwell, adjutant. 
Nov. 2, 1804, Abel Colwell, adjutant. 
April 8, 1805, Nicholas Angle, adjutant. 
April 8, 1805, Tbonias Littleton, surgeon. 
April 8, 1805, Billy J. Clark, surgeon's mate. 
March 15, 180G, Nicholas W. Angle, adjutant. 
April 4, 1808, Jeoee Billings, quartermaster. 
April 4, 1808, Ziali Barnes, paymaster. 
Feb. 9, 1810, John M. Berry, 1st major. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Mahom Cn.foot, 2d major. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Daniel Hicks, surgeon's mate. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Billy J. Clark, surgeon. 
Feb, 29, 1812, James Burnbam, 2d major. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Henry Reynolds, surgeon's mate. 
April 1, 1812, Jeremiah Terhnne, adjutant. 

March 14, 1803, Jonah Mead, John Thompson, Asa Welsh, James Milligan' 

Walter Hewitt. 
Mai'ch 2G, 1804, James Burnham. Harmnnus Van Veghtcn. 
Nov. 2, 1804, Philip Delano. 
April 8, 1805, David Tillotson, John Pettit. 
April 3, 180G, Harmon Gansevoort, John S. Taylor, Luke Fenton, Ebenezer 

April 4, 1808, Jacob Detinis, Thomas Lang, Thomas Reed, Wm. Bumham. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Seth Perry. 
Feb. 11, 1811. Wm. Ross. 
Feb. 29, Selah Bishop, Daniel Finch, Daniel Lindsay, James Mott. 

March 14, 1803, John Petlit, James Vandewerker, Tlionias Breed, Seth Peiry, 

Jr., Josiah St. John. John J. Taylor. 
March 2G, 1804, Selah Bishop, Walter Van Veghten, Solomon Dunham, Eben- 

ez«r Brown. 
April 8, 1805, Abel Calilwell, Eldad Garnsey. 

April 3, 1806, Wm. Harris, Jr., Peter Butler, Samuel Ludliins, Joseph Rockwell. 
April 4, 18i»9,Wm. Wilcox, Wm.Cbub, Daniel French, John Payne, Wm. Smith, 

Daniel Finch. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Dudley Emerf^on, Samuel Cripton. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Wu). Ross, Samuel Crippen, Wm. Wilcox, Daniel Lindsay. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Elijah Dunham, Wm. Kings, David Patterson, John McDowell, 

Abraham Bennett, Josiah Perry, Jr. 


March 14,1803, David Walker, Ehlad Garnsey, Wm. Harris, Daniel Finch, Dud- 
ley Emerson, Lewis Scott, Solomon Dunham, Aaron Hale. 

March 26, 1804, Paulinns Potter, Jacob S. Viele, John McDowell, Peter Butler. 

April 8, 1805, Samuel Crippen, Richard McHess. 

Ajiril 3, 18(»6, Albert Terhnne, Joseph Wyiiian, James W. Berry, Luke Johnson. 

April 4, 1808, Richard E>mund, Win. Ross, David Pattison, Sylvester Lewis. 

Feb. 9, 181(1, Rozell Perry, Will King. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Daniel Lindsay, Wm. King, Henry Stafford. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Jeremiah Terhnne, Thomas Dunham, Wm. Clark, Jr., John Pat- 
terson, Benjamin Meriill, Henry Chai>man, Thomas B. Thompson, Curtis 



Rnfus Price, lientenant-colonel. 

March 29, 1803, Isaac Young, 2d major. 

April 2, 1804, Asa C. Barney, surgeon. 

April 8, 1805, Gideon Goodiich, lieutenant-colonel. 

April 8, 1805, John Prior, Ist major, 

April 8, 1805, Samuel Bailey, 2d major. 

April 8, 18H5, Daniel Hicks, surgeon's mate. 

April 3, 18UG, Joshua Swan, pajmaster. 

April 4, 1808, Howell Gardner, adjutant. 

April 4, 1808, Abel Baldwin, surgeon's mate. 

May 31, 1809, Isaac Young, quartermaster. 

March 12, 1810, John Prior, licutenant-colonel. 

March 12, 1810, Saniml Bailey, 1st major. 

March 12, 1810, John Bockes, 2d major. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Walter Hewitt, ^,1 nuijur. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Darius Johnson, surgeon's mate. 




Miirch 29. 180:i, Abel Deuel. 

April -J, 181H, Kli Couch. 

Apiil S, 181)5, C'uleb Biiiley, George Pock, Ezra Sturr, Wm. G. Boss, Wm. M'uter- 

April G, 1807, Samuel Annuble. 

May 31, 18ii9, Lewis Scott, Asher Tftylor, Giles Fitch. 

Feb. 11, 1811, George H. Beiibum, Jacob KeUogg, John Smith, Jr. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Anron liale. Jr., Wni. Scofield, Joseph Morehouse, Jr., Alsop 


March 29, 1803, Amos Smitli, Steplion Seam.ins. 

April 8, 1805, Lewis Scott, Isaac Darrow, Aaron Hale, Jr., William Wateibiirj'. 

April 3, 1800, Perez Billings, Isaac Van Atiatiri, William Scofield, Joseph More- 
house, Samuel Annable. 

April G, 1807, John Ladu, John Billings, Barzillai Richmond. 

April 4, 1808, George Eightnee. 

May 31, 1809, Lotus Watson, John King, Zachariah Curtis, Isaac Van Ostrand, 
David Bockes. 

March 12, 1810, George H. Benham, John Smith, Jr., Dariua Wright, Abner 
Med berry. 

Feb. n, 1811, Edward Giliuan, Alsop Weed, Burr Hendrick. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Potter Johnson, Nathanitd Ingerson, William W. Deake, Jon- 
athan Kellogg, Niclioliis Carpenter. 

March 29, 1803, Joseph Morehouse, Jr., David Foster, Hezekiah Lippet. 
April 2, 1804, William S. Cliai>in. 
Apiil 8, 1805, Jonathan Rogers, John King, Archibald Wheeler, Lemuel Hale, 

Samuel Annable. 
April 3, 180G, Elias Manning, William Clark, Nathaniel Ingerson, Gershorn 

Morehouse, Bezaleel Richmond. 
Apiil 0, 1S07, George Eighmee, Giles Fitch, Jr., Asa Taylor. 
April 4, 1808, Jacob Richards, Lotui Watson. 
May 31, 1809, Charles Hoyt, Nicholas Carpenter, Aimer Medberry, Darius 

Wright. Abel Whalen, John Smith. 
March 12, 1810, Edward Gilnian, Burr Hendrick, Caleb Strong, Justin Day. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Alexauddi' C. Kellogg. Jonathan Keltogg, Jr., Nathan Daniels, 

Jtistin Day, Abel Whalen. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Bunzon B. Wiggins, Henry Bump, Asahel Fancher, John Ambler, 

Stephen Medberry, Jeremiah Eddy, Nathaniel Leavens. 

Vlir.— 144TII REGIMENT. 


Hezekiah Ketchum, lieutenant-colonel. 

March 29, 1 803, Gradus Clute, 2d major. 

March 2!l, 1803, Joscpli Ketchum, adjutant. 

April 8, 180.^, John Stearns, surgetin. 

April 8, 1805, Elijah Porter, surgeon's mate. 

March 22, 1806, John Ilaswell, adjutant. 

March 22, 180G, Henry Ten Broeck, 2d major. 

March 22, 180G, Henry Fantiing, paymaster. 

April 4, 1808, Henry Fanning, quartermaster. 

April 4, 1808, Joshua Mandeville, paymaster. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Henry Bailey, 2d major. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Samuel Stewart, 2d major. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Nathan Bailey, adjutant. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Gettrge W. Ten Broeck, quartermaster, 

Feb. 11, 1811, Samuel D. Lockwood, jijiymaster. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Elijah Porter, surg<'on. 

Feb. 11, 1811, John Haight, surgeon's mate. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Samuel G. Huntington, 2d major. 

Feb. 29, 1812, William McDonald, paynuister. 

March 29, 1803, Sam u( 1 Stewart, Benjamin Mix, Jacobus Rosecrans, John Mow, 

Christian Sackrider. 
April 8, 18(i5, Joseph Peck, Nathan Garnsey. 
March 22, 18(»6, Jo8*-ph Ketchum, William Comstock, Adam I. Van Vranken, 

Samuel Weldon. 
March 31, 1809, Cornelius C. Van Santford. 
March 12, 1810. Andrew Emigh. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Nathan Bailey, Joshua ULinndoville, Samuel Demarest, William 

Neff, Jr., JoUittlian Irisli, Ephraim Knuwlton. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Anthony S. Badgely. 
May 23, 1812, Andrew Erasier. 

March 29, 18i3, James Welden, Jo-ieph Peek, Peter Davis, Jason Gillespie. 
April 8, 1805, Samuel Demarest, Andrew Emigh, John Cramer, Gideon G. De- 

grafr, John Barnes. 
March 22, 180G, Benjamin Hicks, Wm. Nefl, David Garnsey, Ephmim Kaowlton, 

Jonathan Irish. 
April 4, 18(t8, Francis Dr.ike. 
June 13, 180H, Corneliuij C. Van Saniford. 
May 31, 1^09, Jacob Pudney. 
March 12, 1810, Anthony S. Badgely. 

Feb. n. 1811, Felix Tracy, Asahcl Philo, Tertullus Frost, John Ne-stle, Garret 

J. Van Vmnkeii, Smith Irish, Frederick Clements. 
Feb. 29, 1812, John Stewart, Silas Sweetlaud, David Ash, Wm. Gates. 
May 23,1812, Laurence Travers, Benjamin t'hamberlaiu. 

March 29, 1803, Selah Blatehley, Gideon Degraff, Benjamin Hicks, John 

April 8, 18115, Daniel G Garnsey, Jonathan Irish, .\nthony Badgely, George W. 

Ten Broeck, Alfred White, William Neff, Jr., David Garnsey. 
March 22, 18(IG, Tertullus Frost, Frederick Clements, Daniel Lane, Smith|Irish, 

John Hnbbs. 
Ajiril 4,1808, Tcjtullus Frost, Garret Van Vninken, Cornelius Van Santford, 

John Ilubbs. 
June 13, 1808, Jacob Pudney. 
May 31, 1809, Nathan Bailey. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Felix Tracy. 
March 12, 1810, Wm. Gates. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Silas Cogswell, John Stewart, Samuel G. Huntington, Andrew 

Fraiser, Granrtus Levisee, David Ash, Silas Sweetland, Isaac B. Wix. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Charles H. Wetnuire, Benjamin Chamberlain, Robert Powers, 

Michael Weldiui, Henry Clow, Luther Brown. 
May 23, 1812, Ira Moe, David Spencer. 

The first squadron of the Seventh Regiment was com- 
posed of the cavah-y in the county of Saratoga. 


Feb. 29, 1812, Henry Edson, adjutant. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Daniel Dickinson, quartermaster. 

Feb. 2!i, 1812, William Rohards, niaj..r. 

May 20, 1812, Isaac Q. Carpenter, adjutant. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Daniel Montgomery, John Linnendoll, Daniel Starr. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Sidney Berry, Jr., Curtis Burton, Noah Vibbert, Nathan Rogers. 
May 20, 1812, John Sayles. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Daniel Dickinson, Issiac Q. Carpenter, Sidney Berry, Jr., George 

Reynolds, Jr., Curtis Burton, Paiker Manning, Henry Duel, Charles 

Feb. 29, 1812, Henry Duel, James Meeker, Isaac Q. Carpenter, John Sayles, 

George Reynolds, Seth Pope, Parker Manning, Samuel Bacon, Stephen 

Swan, Elijah E. Smith. 
May 20, 1812, Hezekiah Reynolds, Jeremiah Rutidle. 

Feb. 11, 1811, John Sayles, Scth Pope, Samuel Bacon, James Meeker, St*'phen 

Feb. 29, 1812, Samuel Swetland, Hezekiah Reynolds, Lyon Emerson, James 

Hawkins, Jr., Charles Tripp. 
May 20, 1812, Lodowick Viele. 




March 27, 1805, Amos Potter, 2d major. 
March 30, 1809, Kiah Harnden, paymast'-r. 

April 4, 1805, Solomon Day, Cornelius Wbitrn-y, James Hawley. 
April 3, 180G, Joseph I. Green. 
April G, 1807, Lott Wood, James Garnsey. 
March 30, 1809, David Richardson. 

(This appeal's to be entered in the military records as a part of tlie 5th Regi- 
ment about 1810, and composed of the artillery in Samtoga, Montgomery, and 

Feb. 9, 1810, Joseph Ketchum. 
Feb. 11, 1811, David Waterman, Simeon Simmons. 
June 5, 1811, Samuel Drake. 
May 23, 1812, Thomas Mackin, Jr. 

First tientcnants. 
April 4, 1805, Israel Hand, Butler Bcckwith, John Savage. 
April 3, 1806, John M. Thompson. 

April G, 1807, Wm. Van Kark, Lemon Foot, Walter Reed. 
March 30, 1809, Absalom Daley. 

Second Lieutenants. 
April 4, 1805, John Baker, Isaac Phelps, Jr., Abner Stone. 
April 8, 1805, George W. McCracken. 

April 3, 1800, Aaron Waters, Ebenezer Rice, Robert Areliibiild. 
April G, 1807, Solomon Warner, Thomas Talmage, Peter Roe. 
March 30, 1809, Henry Harris, Abel Foster. 



(Cliang:o(l apparently to the 5tli Regiment.) 
First LitutenanU. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Francis Driike. 

Feb. 11, 1811, Cliaiincey Guernsey, Hiram Musber. 
June 5, 1811, Jacob Snyder, John B. Miller. 
Fell. 29, 1812, Wm. H. Satteilee. 
May 23, 1812, John Yatinan, John G. Murray, Nathaniel Stewart. 

SeeoHti LinUcnants, 
Fell. 9, 1810, Jesse Tracey. 
Feb. 11, 1811, Wm. H. Satterlee, Ely Foster. 
June 5, 1811, Peter Sternl»erg, Wm. Powler. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Jessup Raymond. 
May 2:!, 1812, John Eddy, Silas Wood. 



April 3, 1806, George Taylor, major. 
March -2, 18U9, Jobn Cornwall, adjutant. 
Feb. 9, 1810. William Leavens, 2d major. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Ira Woodworth, paymaster. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Levi Scovill, maj .r. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Avery Benedict, surgeon. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Willard Leavens, quartermaster. 
Feb, 29, 1812, Isaac Woodwolth, paymaster. 

Aprils, 1806, Daniel Hunt. 
April 6, 1807, Daniel Church, John Lindsay. 
March 22, 1809, David Walker. 
Feb. 9, I-^IO, Joseph Rockwell, Ira Heath. 
Feb. 29, 1812, Peter Butler. 


April 3, 1806, David Walker. 

April 6, 1807, Gideon Orton. 

March 22, 1809, Wm. Johnson, Ira Heath, John Taylor. 

Feb. 9, 1810, Luke Johnson, Lawrence Barber. 

Feb. 29, 1812, Artemus Aldrich, David Hemstreet. 

April 6, 1807, Wdliam Johoson, Joel Sprague. Ira Heatli. 
March 22. 1809, Artemus .\ldricli, David Hemstreet, Elijah Buttolpf, John Scho- 

field, Lawrence Barlier. 
Feb. 9, 1810, Laban Keatcli, Levy Heath. 
Feb, 29, 181i, Isaiah Palmater, Jonatlian Flanders. 


"City of New York, April 13, 1812. 
"Sir, — In pursuaTice of the authority vested in me liy law, I have determined 
by lot tlie numliers of the several biigades and regiments of iufautry and cav- 
alry in this State, and have now the Iionor of comniuiiiuatiug to you the result. 
"Wm. Paulding, Jr., Adjntant-Gttienil.'^ 

So fitr as this oriier applied to Saiatoga County, it as- 
signed to the command of " the 9th Brigade," Brig.-Gen. 
Samuel Claik, and this brigade is to be formed of six regi- 
ments, — tlie 2-lfli, commaded by Isaac Gere; lite 32rf, com- 
manded hy David Rogers ; the 41s?, commanded hy John 
Dmitiing ; the 59th, commanded by John Prior; the Q3d, 
commanded by Thomas Rogers; tlie 144</i, by Hezekiah 
Ketch Kin. 

The order further provided that the militia of Saratoga, 
Montgomery, and Schoharie should constitute " the 4th 
division," jind Abram Veeder was appointed major-general 
ill the place of Gen. Gansevoort, resigned. 


Oct. 30, 1830, Egbert C. Noxon, Half-Moon, 1st lieut., 1st Ait., 3d Brig., 2d Uiv. 
Oct. 30, 1830, Joel Gould, Clifton Park, capt., 1st Art., 3d Brig., 2d Div. 
Nov. 20, 1830, Gilbert Purdy, Saratoga, capt., 03d Inf., .Olst Brig., 15th Div. 
Nov. 20, 1830, Leonard Adams, Wilton, lieut., 03d Inf., 61st Brig., ISth Div. 
Nov. 20, 1830, James McCi-eedy, Saratoga, ensign, 63d Inf.. 61st Brig., l.^th Div. 
Aug. 7, 1830, Leman A. Grippen, Corinth, ensign, IGGth Inf., .list Brig., 15th Div. 
Aug 7, 1830, Alfred M.allory, surgeon's mate, 160th Inf., 51st Brig., 15tU Div. 
Aug. 14, 18 0, Francis Milliman, lieut., 24th Inf., 5l8t Brig., I5tb Div. 
Aug. 14, 1830, Ira Swan, ensign, 24 h Inf , 51st Brig., 1.5th Div. 
Aug. 4, 1830, John S. Andrews, Milton, major, 7th Cav., 3d Brig., 1st Div. 
Feb. 3, 1831, VVilli:im Fuller, Ballston, capt., 32d Cav., 9th Brig., l.ith Div. 
Feb. 3, 18.31, Isaiah Blood, Ballston, lieut., 32d Cav., 9th Bri^-., 15th Div. 
Feb. 3, IStl, Sanuiel Jrish, Saratoga Springs, ensign, 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 15th 

Feb. 19, 1831, Joseph W. Wood, Ballston, capt., 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 15th Div. 

Feb. 19, 1831, Samuel Rue, Ballston, lieut., 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 161h Div. 

Feb 19, 1831, William D. F. Jennings, Ballston, ensign, 32d Cav., 9tU Brig., 

15th Div. 
April 30, 1831, Aaron R. Pattison, Ballston Spa, col., 32J Cav., 9th Brig., 15th 

April 30, 1831, Archibald Spiers, Jr., B.illston, lieut.-col., 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 

15th Div. 
April 30, 1831, Jas. A. Brinkerhoff, Ballston, maj., 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 15th Div. 
April 30, 1831, Samuel Irish, Milton, lieut., 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 15th Div. 
April 30, 1831, Ira Howell, Ballstxm Spa, ensign, 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 15th Div. 
Aprii 30, 1831, Isaiah Blood, Milton, capt., 32d Cav., 9th Brig., 15tli Div.. 
May 7, 1831, John Penfield, Ballston, capt., 7th Cav., 3d Brig., 2d Div. 
April 30, 1861, Dauiel P. Wakeman, Ballston Spa, adjt., 32d C.iv., 9tli Brig., 

15th Div. 
May 7, 1831, Elijah W. Weed, Saratoga Springs, Ist lieut., 7th Cav., 3d Brig., 

2d Div. 
May 7, 1831, Clement Patchiu, Milton, 2d lieut., 7th Cav., 3d Brig., 2d Div. 
Blay 7, 1831, Hiram Loomis, Milton, cornet, 7tb Cav., 3d Brig.. 2d Div. 
June 1, 1821, Thomas M. Burtis, Saratoga Springs, paymaster, 7th Cav. 
April 23, 1831, Thomas L. Hewitt, Gal way, ensign, 24th Regt., 51st Brig., loth 

Sept. 2, 1830, Thomas C. Hale, Greenfield, ensign, 59th Regt., 51st Brig., 15th 

June 4, 1831, George Hanford, Galway, major, separate battalion Riflemen. 
July 4. 1831, John Shutter, Malta, capt., 41st Regt., 0th Brig., lotli Div. 
July 4, 1831, Elisha D. Miller, Ballston, lieut., 41st Regt., 9th Brig., 15th Div. 
July 4, 1831, Hiram Hutchinson, Malta, ensign, 41st Regt., 9th Brig., 16th Div. 
July 2, 1831, Henry Van Duz-n. Clifton Park, capt., 144tli Regt., 9th Brig., 16th 

July 2, 1831, George Peck, Clifton Park, lieut., 141th Regt., 9th Brig., 15th Div. 
July 2, 1831, Lewis E.Sheldon, Clifton Park, ensign, 144th Regt., 9th Brig., 15th 

Sept. 30, 1831, Lemuel Spiers, Ballston, suig., 32d Regt., 9th Brig., 15th Div. 
Sept. 10, 1831, Jesse Morey, Ballston, capt., 32d Regt., 9tli Brig., 16th Div. 
Dec. 10, 1830, Henry C. Rice, Stillwater, capt., 41st Regt. 
Nov. 11, 1830, Gilbert Piirdy, Saratoga, capt. 
Nov. 11, 1830, Leonard Adams, Wilton, lieut. 
Nov. 11, 1830, James McCreedy, Sar.itoga, ensign. 
Sept. 3, 1831, Ephr.iim Hill, S.iratoga, ensign. 
Sept. 28, 1831, Chauncy D. Bull, Saratoga, surgeon's mate. 
Nov. 12. 1831, Henry D. Chapman, Saratoga, col. 
Sept. 14. 1831, Clark Taber, Providence, capt. 
Sept. 14, 1831, Pardon Soule, Providence, lieut. 
Sept. 14,, Huesfin McMiiUin, Providence, ensign. 
Sept. 24, 1831, Philip James, Galway, capt. 
Sept. 24, 1831, Richard M. Livingston, Jr., Galway, lieut. 
Sept. 24, 1831, John H. Dingman, Galway, ensign. 
Nov. 12, 1831, Siimuel Lewis, Northumberland, lieut.-col. 
Nov. 12, 1831, Henry Holmes, Saratoga, maj. 
Oct. 29, 1831, Rensselaer Thompson, Moreau, capt. 
Oct. 29, 1831, Charles A. Sill, Moreau, lieut. 
Oct. 29, 1831, Richard Davenport, Rtoreaii, ensign. 
Aug. 27, 1831, Benjamin F. Prior, Greenfield, capt. 
March 10, 1832, Lodewick P. Shaw, Providence, col. 
March 10, 1832, John S. Green, Galway, ensign. 
March 10, 1832, Jonathan Bristol, Edinburgh, capt. 
March 31, 1832, George W. Downing, Edinburgh, lieut. 
Slarch 31, 1832, George B. .Robinson, Edinburgh, ensign. 
Oct. 5, 1831, James A. Swartwout, Wilton, ensign. 
April 16, 1832, Henry L. Swartwout, Wilton, q.-m. 
March Itl, 1832, Jonathan Edgecomb, Galway, maj. 
lilarch 31, 1832, .Seth Warren, Galway, capt. 
March 31, 1832, Thomas L. Hewitt, Galway, lieut. 
March 31, 1832, Solomon Ellilhorp, Edinburgh, lieut.-col. 
May 12, 1832, .\ichibnld Spier, Ballston Spa, col. 
May 1'2, 1832, Wm. Fuller, Ballston, lieut.-col. 
May 12, 1832, Isaiah Blood, Milton, maj. 

May 10, 1832, Joshua T. Blaiicliard, Saiatoga Springs, q.-m. cav. 
April 28, 1832, Andrew Taylor, Half-Moon, 1st lieut. cav. 
April 28. 1832, Christopher Snyder, H.ilf-Moon, 2d lieut. cav. 
April 28, 1832, Mina Morse, Half-Moon, cornet, cav. 
April 28, 1832, Duncan McMasters, Charlton, capt. 
April 28, 1832, Wm. Fowler, Charlton, lieut. 
April 28, 1832, Robert Gilchrist, Charlton, ensign. 
Aug. 18, 1832, Wright I. Esmond, Half-Moon, capt. 
Aug. 18, 1832, Wm. Gates, Jr., Half-Moon, lieut. 
•\ug. 18, 18.32, .\braham James. Half-Moon, ensign. 
Aug. 20, 1832. Sliatlracli Burlison, Waterfonl, capt. 
Aug. 20. 1832, Harry B. Scott, Waterford, lieut. 
Aug. 20, 1832, M.ason K. Eastman, Waterford, ensign. 
Ang. 27, 1831, Rensselaer Ballon. Greenfield, lieut. 
Aug. 27, 1831, Alvin Day, Greenfield, ensign. 
Oct. 7, 1831, Isaac Ambler, Greenfield, q.-m. 
Sept. 3, 1831, Uriah B. Couch, Milt .n, lieut. 
Sept. 3, 1831, Charles M. L. Andrus, Milton, ensign. 
Sept. 3, 1831, John Potter, Milton, capt. 



Sept. 3, 1831, Isaac K. Friiik, Milton, lieiit. 

Sept. 3, 18:il, Poller W. Earl, MiltDii, ensign. 

Oct. 8, 18;il, Daiiii'l I). \ llroen. Milt. in, lieut.-col. 

0.-t. 29, 18-il, Uiiiih D. Couch, Milt.m, capt. 

Oct. 29, 1831, Cliai lea M. L. Andnis, Milton, liout. 

Oct. 29, 1831, Benjamin N. Looinis, Milt in, eiiHign. 

Dec. 31, 1S:!1, Gordon Jenkins, Haillej-, capt. 

Dec. 31, 1831, Cornelius Dul.ois, lladley, lieut. 

Dec. 31, l.S;ll, Jcff.-rsoii .Teffers, Hadley, enmgn. 

Nov. 20, 1831, Ephraini Hill, Saratoga, ciipt. 

Nov. 26, ISn, Oili-a B. Sli-cnni, Saratoga, liout. 

Nov. 26, 18.31, .Tames A. Granger, Saratoga, ensign. 

Dec. 10, 1831, Stephen Welch (2d), Schnylerville, capt. 

Dec. 10, 1-831, Orra Warner, Morean, 1st lieiit. 

Dec. 10, 18;il, John W. Vandenbnrgli, Sftratoga, 2d lieut 

Sept. 10, 1831, Isjuic E. Garnsey, Clifton Park, capt. 

Sept. 10, 1*11, William Golden, Biillslon, 1st liiut. 

Sept. 10, 18:11, .John Cole, Stillwater, 2d lienl. 

Aug. 27, 1831, David T. Zimmerman, Stillwater, capt. 

Aug. 27. 18^11, John A. J, Country man. Stillwater, 1st lieut. 

Aug. 27, 1831, Cornelius Cmnkliite. Stillwater, 2d lieut. 

Sept. 10, 1S.U, Wm. McGregor, Jr., Wilton, q.-m. 

Sept. 10, 18:^1, Wm. U. Walton, Greenfield, iiaymaster. 

April 13, 1832, John R. McGregor, Wilton, aid-de-caaip. 

July 7, 1832, Samuel Rice, B:illston,capl. 

July 7, 1832, A.K. Be.lfield, Ballston, licnt. 

Jnly 7, 18:i2, James Wakeniiin, Ballston, ensign, 

June 30, 1832, Hiram Barra-^, Greenfield, ensign. 

June 30, 18.32, Rosweli Finch, Saratoga, capt. 

June 30, 1832, Henry W, Peck, Sivratoga, Ist lieut. 

June 30, 1832, Robert Burdee, Saratoga, 2d lieut. 

June .'io, 1832, Henry W. De nis, Saratoga, ensign. 

June 9, 1832, Alvah Dake, Greenfield, 2d lieut. 

June 9, 1832, Levi B. Alcott, Greenfield, ensign. 

March 9, 1832, Wm. Stewart, Edinliurgh, capt. 

March 9, 1832, Orson Wi iglit, Edinlmrgli, lieut. 

Aug. 31, 1832, A-/ariali E, Stinison, Galway, adjt. 

Aug. 31, 1832, John O. Ellitliorp, Edinburgh, q.-m. 

Sept. 14, 1832, Clark Tabor, Piovidence, capt. 

Sept. 14, 1832, Pardon Soule, Providence, lieut. 



The act of the Legislature to provide for the formation 
of county agricultural societies was |)a.ssed May 15, 1811. 
The friends of the movement were prompt iu Saratoga 
County to commeuce action iu accordance with its provi- 
sions. The county clerk, Archibald Smith, issued a call, 
and the first meeting was held at the court-house June 24, 
1841, but little more than a month after the act had re- 
ceived the executive approval. Howell Gardiner, of Green- 
field, was appointed chairman, and Archibald Smith, of 
Ballston Spa, secretary. The following resolution was 
adopted, after ample consideration had been given to it: 

" Resolved, That an agricultural society be formed in this 
county, pursuant to the provisions of said statute." 

A committee of five, consisting of Calvin Wheeler, A. 
J. Chadsey, Judiah p]ll.sworth, Increase Huyt, and J. A. 
Corey, was appointed to draft the constitution and by-laws. 
The first oiBccrs chosen were — 

Piesulent.— KovieW Gardiner, Greenfield. 

First Vice-Piesideut. — Calvin Wheeler, Providence. 

Si'coitd Vice- President. — Jacob Denton, Saratoga Springs. 

Treasurer. — Hiram E. Howard, Jliiton. 

Corresponding Secretary. — Archibald Smith, Ballston 

Recording Secretary. — John A. Corey, Saratoga Springs. 

An executive committee was also constituted, consisting 
of two members from each town in the county : 

Ballston. — Isaac Curtis, Stephen Merchant. 

Charlton. — John Low, Henry Ostrom. 

Clifton I'ark. — Abijah Peck, Jr., Henry Palmer. 

Corinth. — Baviil Rogers, Edward Edwards. 

Day. — E. M. Day, Amos Hunt. 

Edinburgh. — Samuel Batcheller, Ira Beecher. 

Galway. — Jesse H. Mead, Jeremiah Whitlock. 

Greenfield. — Joseph Daniels, Henry Lincoln. 

lladley. — Charles Stewart, Harman Rockwell. 

Half-Moon.—^. G. Philo, Stephen R. Smith. 

Malta. — John Tallraadge, Seneca Hall. 

Milton. — Seth Whalen, George B. Powell. 

Moreuu. — Thomas S. Mott, G. P. Reynolds. 

Northumherlaud. — Walter Doty, Coles Golden. 

Providence. — William V. Clark, Seymour St. John. 

Saratoga. — Henry D. Chapman, William Wilcox. 

Saratoga S/rrings. — P. H. Cowen, John H. Beach. 

Stillwater. — Lewis Smith, Yates Lansing. 

Water/ord. — John Knickerbocker, John Cramer (2d). 

Wilton. — John Morris, Duncan McGregor. 

The successive presidents of the society have been How- 
ell Gardiner, 1842 ; Elisha Curtis, 1843 ; Joseph Daniels, 
1844; David Rogers, 1845; Henry D. Chapman, 1846; 
Samuel Cheever, 1847 : Samuel Young, 1848 ; Jesse H. 
Mead, 1849 ; Seth Whalen, 1850 ; Lewis E. Smith, 1851 ; 
William Wilcox, 1854; Seneca Daniels, 1855 ; Chauncey 
Boughton, 1856; Nathaniel Mann, 1857 ; Oscar Granger, 
1858 ; Isaac Frink, 1859 ; William Wilcox, 1860 ; Joseph 
Baucus, 1861 ; Sherman Batcheller, 1862 ; James Thomp- 
son (to fill vacancy), 1862 ; Samuel J. Mott, 1863 ; Edward 
Edwards, 1864 ; Chauncey Boughton, 1865 ; Isaiah Ful- 
ler, 1866 and 1867; Frank D. Curtis, 1868; Do Witt C. 
Hoyt, 1869 ; John Titcomb, 1870 ; John P. Conklin, 1871 
and 1872 ; William Lape, 1873 ; Henry C. Holmes, 1874 ; 
Joseph B. Enos, 1875; A. B. Baucus, 1876; Charles Le- 
land, 1877 ; B. F. Judson, 1878. 

The recording secretaries have been John A. Corey, 1841 
to 1854; Edmund J. Huling, 1855 to 1859 ; Frederick S. 
Root, 1860; John A. Corey, 1861; John H. White, 
1862; John A. Corey, 1863 to 1869; Jonathan S. How- 
laud, 1870 to 1871, died in office, and B. S. Robinson 
appointed to fill vacancy; B. S. Robinson, 1872 to 1877 ; 
John W. Shurter, 1878. 

The annual fairs were held for two or three years at 
Ballston Spa, and then for ten years consecutively at Me- 
chanicsville. At the expiration of this period the society 
located permanently at Saratoga Springs, purchasing grounds 
and erecting the necessary fixtures. These were sold about 
1870, and in 1871 the society secured a lease for twenty 
years of the beautiful grounds at Glen Mitchell. No fair 
was held in 1866, on account of the fact that the State 
Society held its annual fair at Saratoga Springs. 

Among those delivering tinnual addresses before the 
society have been Col. Samuel Young, 1842 ; Daniel Shep- 
herd, 1844; Win. I. Gilchrist, 1845 ; Gen. E. F. BuUard, 
1847; John W. Fowler, 1851: John A. Corey, 1853; 
lion. James H. Titus, 1855 ; lion. James B. McKean, 
18.')7 ; E. L. Fursmaii, 18611 ; ilou. Wm. A. Sackctt, 



1861 ; Hon. Augustus Bockes, 1862 ; Hon. Reverdy John- 
son and A. B. Conger, 1863; Gen. B. F. Bruce, 1865; 
Hon. Horace Greeley, 1867 ; Hon. Horatio Seymour, 
1868; Hon. Charles S. Lester, 1869; X. A. Willard, 
1870; Hon. Fernando AVood, 1871; Hon. Martin I. 
Townsend, 1875 ; Hon. L. Bradford Prince, 1876. 


The formation of the American Bible Society will ever 
be regarded as a most remarkable era in the history of 
Bible Societies in this country. But before that was formed 
nearly sixty local societies already existed, thirty-five of 
which united iu forming the American Bible Society, on 
the 8th of May, 1816. 

The Saratoga Bible Society was organized on the 24th 
of August, 1815, nearly one year before the formation of 
the American Bible Society, and only seven years later 
than the formation of the Philadelphia Bible Society, which 
was the first society formed in the United States. 

To give anything like a detailed history of the county 
society, for these sixty years and upwards of its existence, 
its steady progress and wide, extended usefulness, however 
pleasant it might be, would be wholly inconsistent with the 
designs and limits prescribed to this volume. 

The following is an exact copy of the minutes of the 
first meeting, at which the society was organized, and of 
the constitution as presented and adopted at that meeting : 

"Ballsto.v, August 21, 1815. 

" Agreeably to previous notice, a large and respectable number of 
the inhabitants of the county of Saratoga assembled at the court- 
house, for the purpose of forming a Bible Society in said county. 

*' The Rev. Samuel Blatchford, D.D., was chosen chairman, and 
the Rev. Gilbert McMaster clerk. 

*' The occasion of the meeting was briefly and appropriately stated 
by the chairman, who then opened it by prayer. 

" It was moved and seconded that a Bible Society bo formed in 
this county; which motion, after an interesting discussion of the 
subject, was unanimously agreed to. 

"A draft of a constitution was read, and the several articles 
thereof, after various amendments, were adopted, with the following 
preamble : 

" Impressed with a deep sense of the value of the Holy Scriptures, 
and their salutary influence upon society, not only in correcting the 
morals of men, and restraining their vicious propensities, but also in 
ftjrming their characters for eternity, and convinced that many indi- 
viduals and families in this county and its vicinity are destitute of 
those heavenly means of instruction, we, the subscribers, have agreed 
to form ourselves into a society for the gratuitous distribution of the 
Holy Bible." 

Sixty-eight names were subscribed to the constitution 
then adopted, in the order below given. 


Samuel Blatchford. 
Parker Adams. 
Reuben Sears. 
Samuel G. Huntington. 
Richard Davis. 
Elisha Powell. 
George Palmer. 
John Thompson. 
William Gilchrist. 
Philo Hurd. 
Salmon Cliild. 
H. Ketcham. 

Guert Van Schoonlioven. 
Ezra Nash. 
William Bangor. 
Abijah Blanchard. 
Isaac B. Payne. 
James Thompson. 
John W. Taylor. 
Ezra Buell. 
Daniel Montgomery. 
Loyd Wakcman. 
Moses Hunter. 
William Foster. 

William Fellows. 
Alpheus Goodrich. 
Elisha Andrews. 
John McCrea. 
R. Schuyler. 
Oncsiraus Hubble. 
John Dunning. 
S. Hawling. 
James Grassie, 
.John Taylor. 
John Lowe. 
William Blain. 
James XLiirs. 
J. L. Viele. 
Raymond Taylor. 
Lewis Waterbury. 
David Morris. 
Daniel Noble. 
William Garrett. 
William Cooper. 
John K. Davis. 
John Kelly. 

Gilbert McMasters. 
Jeremy Rockwell. 
Abijah Peck. 
Terence P. Donnell. 
Amos Hodgman. 
Alex. Gilchrist. 
John House. 
James Comstock. 
Joseph Taylor. 
Jonathan Wood. 
Joseph Wood. 
James Olmsted. 
Thomas Palmer. 
Peter Andrews. 
Jesse Seymour. 
Thomas Fellows. 
Jeremiah Bundle. 
Dennisim Andrews. 
Amos Hawley. 
Dirck C. Lansing. 
.James Brisbin, Jr. 
n. Metcalf. 

At that meeting the following officers were chosen : 

President. — Rev. Samuel Blatchford, D.D. 

Vice-FrcsiJenls. — Rev. Dirck C. Lansing; Rev. James 

Corresponding Secretary. — -Rev. Gilbert McJIasters. 

Recording Secretary. — Rev. Reuben Sears. 

Treasurer. — Elisha Powell, E.sq. 

Managers. — Samuel Child, Greenfield ; Parker Adams, 
Waterford ; Isaac B. Payne, Northumberland; John 
Taylor, Charlton ; Ezra Nash, Milton ; George Palmer, 
Stillwater; John W. Taylor, Ballston ; John Dunning, 
Malta; Amos Hawley, Moreau; Jeremy Rockwell, Hadley; 
William Foster, Galway ; Rev. Abijah Peck, Half-Moon ; 
James Brisbin, Jr., Saratoga ; Guert Van Schoonhoven, 

Elisha Powell, Reuben Sears and James Thompson were 
appointed a committee to publish the constitution of the 
society, with an address to the inhabitants of the county. 

The forejioinn; constitution was revised and amended in 
1827, and again in 1844, but it is substantially the basis 
upon which the society has operated through all the event- 
ful years of its successful career. 

The first president of this society. Rev. Samuel Blatch- 
ford, D.D., was one of the honorable .si.Kty members of the 
convention which formed the American Bible Society, nearly 
a year after the Saratoga County Bible Society was or- 

The following were the first presidents of the society in 
order, and their respective terms of service : 

Rev. Samuel Blatchford, D.D., two years in succession. 

Rev. James Mairs, nineteen years in succession. 

Rev. Francis Wayland, one year. 

Rev. Darius 0. Griswold, three years in succession. 

Rev. John Clancy, four years in succession. 

John House, Esq., one year, 1846. 

Thomas Lowe, Esq , one year, 1847. 

R. R. Kennedy, E.sq., one year, 1848. 

Jesse H. Mead, Esq., one year, 1849. 

Lebbeus Booth, E.sq., one year, 1850. 

Abraham Marshall, Esq., one year, 1851. 

Jiihn Lowe, Esq., one year, 1852. 

Howell Gardiner, Esq , one year, ISJo. 



From tlii; above stLitement it will be seen tluit for tlio 
first thirty years and upwards clergymen were uniformly 
chosen to preside over this society, since which time, lay- 
men, with two exceptions, have been the presiding officers. 

The following is a list of presidents of the Saratoga 
County Bible Society since 1853: 

llcv. Iteubeu Smith. 
John Wood, Esq. 
Wm. T. llainilton, Esq. 
Hon. John House. 
Giirnscy Kennedy, Esq. 
Hon. R. H. Walworth. 
Henry D. Chapman. Esq. 
Hon. Jas. li. McKeuu. 
P. H. McOmber, Esq. 
Samuel H. Cook, Esq. 
John Lowe, Esq. 
Hon. John C. House. 
Jesse H. Mead, Esq. 

Prof. H. A. Wilson. 
Thomas Mairs, Esq. 
i George Harvey, Esq. 
Hon, John C. House. 
Samuel IJ. Howland, Esq. 
George F. Watson, Esq. 
B. S. Kobinson, Esq. 
Hon. C. S. Lester. 
Wm. Shepherd, Esq. 
Rev. Ale.xander Proudfit. 
Henry Ostrom, Esq. 
Joseph Kingsley, Esq. 
Hon, Abnihani Marshall. 

Henry Doolittle was secretary from 1S4J: to 1808, since 
which time H. A. Wilson has been the continued secretary, 
and is so at present. 

The organization of two of the town au.xiliaries is men- 
tioned in the society's centennial memorial, 1876. 

That of Ballston was very early, as shown by the follow- 
ing notice and record : 


" The members of the Bible Society of Saratoga County, 
residing in the town of Ballston, are requested to meet at 
the Presbyterian meeting-house in said town, on Monday, 
the 2d day of October next, at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
for the purpose of organizing a Department Society for 
said town. Dated September the 2.")th, 1815. 

''John W. Taylor, Manager." 

At a meeting of the members of the Bible Society of 
Saratoga County, residing in Ballston, held on the second 
day of October, in the year 1815, pursuant to public 
notice, for the purpose of organizing a Department So- 
ciety for said town, the following members were present: 
John W. Taylor, Lloyd Wakeman, 0. Hubbell, John K. 
Davis, Joseph Taylor, Samuel Young, James McCrea, 
Nathaniel Booth, David Bacon, D. L. Palmer, Samuel De 
Forest, Edmond Lacy. Sarah Garnsey, Johii Gibson, J. 
Peter Dibble. 

Samuel Young was then chosen chtiirman, James Mc- 
Crea, assistant chairman, Joseph Taylor, clerk, and John 
K. Davis, treasurer, who, together with Onesimus Hubbell, 
Lloyd Wakeman, and Peter Dibble, compose the committee 
of charity. 

The Northumberland Bible Society was organized De- 
cember 18, 1821, four years after the formation of the 
American Bible Society. A constitution and by-laws were 
presented and adopted, to which twenty inhabitants of the 
town affixed their signatures, not one of whom is now 
living. With but few exceptions, yearly meetings have 
been regularly held, and the organization has been, from 
the first, kept in a healthy woiking condition. 

As far as can be ascertained, this society has raised and 
paid to the Saratoga County Bible Society, and to the 
parent society, one thousand five hundred and seventy dol- 

lars, averaging thirty dollars a year. The town has. been 
thoroughly canva.ssed several times, the last time in 1869, 
when twenty-one families were found destitute and su]iplied. 

The society has had eleven different presidents. John 
Craig, its first president, served fourteen years. It has 
liad only three secretaries. Hon. Abraham Marshall is 
the present incumbent, and has held this office almost forty 
years, being now upwards of seventy years of age. This 
noble veteran in the Bible cause, with the exception of 
only two or three times, has been present at all the anni- 
versary meetings of the county society. In the various 
capacities of president, secretary, and collector, he has 
served the Northumberland Bible Society for nearly forty- 
five years, and has been president of the county society 
several times. 

The American Bible Society during the past few years 

has received the following liberal legacies from individuals 

deceased, late of this county, viz. : 

Phobo Jones, la'e of Pallston Spa, in November, 1870 $10.00 

Hon. .Austin Fuller, late of Saratoga Springs, in February, 

1871 .".. S-ID.OO 

Mrs. L. Stnitton, late of Jiinesvillc', in August, 1S72 1000.00 

Mr, II. Boggs, lateof West Galway. in May, 1873 500.00 

Catharine S. Bailey, late of Waterfurd, in May. 187:! 25.00 

Margaret Wilco.x, late of Saratoga County, in April, 1875.. 250.00 

.Making a total of .•ft2(!25.00 

The sixty-second anniversary, held in the Presbyterian 
church, Ballston Spa, Jan. 20, 18TG, was a meeting of un- 
usual interest, occurring as it did in the centennial year 
of the republic. 

The meeting was called to order by the president, Rev. 
A. Proudfit, of Saratoga. The ses.sion was opened with 
the reading of a part of Psalm CXIX. by the president, 
and prayer by Rev. J. B. Ford, of Bacon Hill. 

Minutes of last meeting read and approved. 

The chairman of the executive committee presented the 
following annual report, which was adopted : 

" Upon the return, this day, of another anniver.sary of 
our county Bible Society, our friends no doubt are looking 
for the annual report of the executive committee. In lay- 
ing this before them, we would be glad if we po.ssessed 
some specially interesting matter for their gratification and 
encouragement ; but so few of our auxiliary associations 
have presented their annual reports, that we have but little 
to lay before you ; and as our plan continues to work as 
favorably as any other that has been suggested, wo htive 
nothing new in this respect, in the way of change, to pro- 
pose for your consideration. 

" We are satisfied that this plan, if we are only seconded 
by the persistent and active support of the friends of the 
Bible cause throughout our county, and especially by the 
faithful supervision of our vice-presidents in their various 
localities, would prove more and more successful in advanc- 
ing the noble work in which we are engaged. 

" We congratulate our friends in meeting them once 
more on this occasion, and under circumstances so favor- 
able. While, from the peculiarity of the times, all our 
benevolent operations have been carried on amidst much 
difficulty and embarrassment, the Bible cause, we trust, 
still maintains its strong hold upon the affection and suji- 
port of its friends, its grand mi.ssion recognized by the 
community at large, and its claims liberally responded to." 



The following is a list of the officers of the Saratoga 
County Bible Society at the present time : 

President. — Hon. Abraham Marshall. 

Vice-Presidents. — Henry Clark, Elisha Curtiss, John 
Skinner, Mathew Owens, Wm. H. Van Vranken, Lucius 
M. Smith, Jas. H. Clark, Jas. H. Paine, I. J. Flansburg, 
Winslow E. Snow, G. R. Crouch, Charles D. Gardiner, 
John J. Best, R. H. Barber, Frederick Dodd, S. B. How- 
land, Wm. H. Coon, Geo. H. Thomjison, C. S. Skinner, B. 
F. Edwards, J. H. De Ridder, Alfred W. Gray, John C. 
House, Henry Kieler, and Geo. H. Traver. 

Treasurer. — E. W. Lee. 

Correspond 111 (f and Recording Secretar)/. — H. A. Wil- 

Executive Committee. — Rev. A. Proudfit. Paolia Durkee, 
Rev. W. R. Terrett, Rev. Giles P. Hawley, and Rev. 
Abram Viole. 

Chairman of Executive Coviviiftee. — Rev. A. Proudfit. 

Secretary of Committee. — H. A. Wilson. 


Wo add the following valuable tabular statements : 


Donations to Puient Society, first fifty-five years S19,970.S.') 

" " in 1871.! '. 8li;i.72 

" " " 1872 841.21) 

" " " 1873 1,270.110 

" " " 1874 90(1.110 

" " " 1875 99l).)M) 

Amount of Donations §24,874.77 

Paiil to Parent Society on Book Account, first fifty-five years $14,475.42 

in 1871 870.85 

" 1872 909.16 

1873 42ij.();i 

" " " " " 1874 .172.55 

" " " " " 1875 IIO.BC 

Anumnt paitl for Books J17,.1(14.20 

It is estimated tliat the incidental expenses of the Society since 

its organization have been in the aggregate ahoilt $-3,000.0(1 

Paid Donations 24,874.77 

Paid for Books 17,364.26 

Making a grand tot.ll of. ¥45,239.03 



Ballston Spa E. W. Lee.. 

Ballston Centre Elisha Cnrliss.. 

Bacon Hill 


West Cliarlton, 


Clifton Park ! Francis N. Vischer. 

C Pack &. Newton 

T. M. Mitchell.. 
lEIisba Curtiss... 


Henry Ostrom John H. Skinner.. 

|M. Owens 

W. H. Van Vranken. 



GaUva.v Bev. J. H. Coh-nian. 

Greeniield 'Rev. E. N. Howe 


Jimesville Joseph Kingsley 

Ketch iim's Corners.' 

Quaker Sprii:^^ 

Meclianicville Rev. M. A. Wicker, 


K<.cli I'ii.v K.ilU . 
Saritti.;;a S|'lillgs 





N. F. Philo 

I. J. FliiTishurg 

Winslow E. Snow.. 

G. K. Kroueh 

C. D. Gardiner 

Alex. B. Baucus.. 

Geo. Harvey 

Samuel Wells 

Jared W. Haiglit.. 

Joseph Kingsley 

R. H. Barber 

Frederic Dodd 

S. B. Howland 

W. H. Coon 

Abraham Marshall.. 

P. S. Kilmer 

Geo. F. Blackmer.... 

J. H. DeRiflder 

Alfred W Gray 

.lolin C. House 

Geo. H. Traver 

H. Orapo 


Stephen 0. Burt.. 

N. W. Buckmaster . 


N.F. Philo 

1. J. Flansburg 

Dr. C Preston 

M. Spanhling & Bros.. 

Harlow Lawrence 

James Edwards 

R. Riclianis 

Harlow Lawrence 



Jl 20.00 


E. B. Stevens 

Isaac Whitman . 
0. T. Bostwick... 
John C. House... 






11, ((0 








Book AccoCSt, 1873-75. 














60 96 
87 57 







Paid to 







$501 .3fi 

Books on 


6 60 








The Saratoga County Medical Society was organized at 
the court-house in Ballston Spa, the finst Tuesday of July, 

Wm. Patrick was chosen chainuan of the meeting, and 
John Stearns secretary. 

In attendance were Drs. Daniel Bull, William Patrick, 
John Stearns, Asa C. Barney, Elisha Miles, Samuel Pitkin, 
Wm. C. Lawrence, Billy J. Clark, Thomas S. Littlefield, 
Daniel Hicks, Elijah Porter, Alpheus Adams, Ephraim 
Childs, Jesse Seymour, Grant Powells, Samuel Davis, Isaac 
Finch, Francis Pigsley. 

The meeting being in order for business, the following 
officers were elected for the ensuing year ; 

President. — Dr. Daniel Bull. 

Vice-President. — William Patrick. 

Secretary. — John Stearns. 

Treasurer. — Samuel Davis. 

Censors — Elijah Porter, Asa C. Barney, Samuel Pitkin, 
Billy J. Clark, Ephraim Childs. 

Delegate to the Neiv York State 3Iedical Society. — John 

Elijah Porter, John Stearns, and Asa C. Barney were 
appointed a committee to draft by-laws for the future regu- 
lation of the society. 

In addition to those before mentioned the following are 
among the earlier and active members of the society, and 
were distinguished for their zeal and energy in the advance- 
ment of not only every interest connected with the success- 
ful pursuit of the profession of their choice, but the ad- 
vancement of every philanthropic enterprise. They were 
of the strong men of the age in which they lived, viz. : 
Daniel Hicks, Northumberland, now Wilton ; Beroth Bul- 
iard, Saratoga Springs, now Greenfield ; John H. Steel, 
Saratoga Springs ; Josiah Pulling, Galway ; Nathan Thomp- 
son, Galway ; Oliver Brisbin, Schuylerville ; Samuel Free- 



man, Ballston Spa, afterwards Saratoga Springs ; John D. 
Bull, Stillwater; Henry Reynolds, Northumberland, after- 
wards Wilton ; William Tibbitta, Mechanicville ; Silas 
Wood, Abel Baldwin; Darius Johnson, Greenfield; Fran- 
cis Pixley, George Burrouglis, Gideon Thompson, Isaac 

FOR 1877-1878. 

President. — B. W. No.ton, M.D. 

Vice-Prenident. — I. G. Johnson, M.D. 

S'ecretari/ uiid Treasitrer. — C. C. Bedell, M.D. 

Deleijalen to State Medicnl Socieli/. — No vacancy. 

Dekifates to Ameriran Medicttl Association. — W. H. Hall, M.D., 
F. M. Boyce, M.D., S. N. Rowcll, M.D. 

Cennors.—R. C. McEwcu, M.D., F. M. Boyce, M.D., J. G. Bacon, 
M.D., C. C. Bedell, M.D., T. G. Paikman, M.D. 

Committee of lieeiaion. — J. G. Bacon, M.D., F. M. Boyco, M.D., W. 
H. Hall, M.D., C. C. Bedell, M.D. 

Committee of I'liblication. — J. 6. Bacon, M.D., F. M. Boyce, M.D., 
T. B. Reynolds, M.D., C. C. Bedell, M.D. 


Pfeneiit Members and their Post-0 ffice Address. 
Austin. J. M., New York. 
Babcock, M. N., Canstatt, Ger- 
Bacon, J". G., Saratoga Springs. 
Ballou, N. H., Mechanicville. 
Bedell, C. C, Saratoga Springs. 
Bcckwith, G. S., Charleston, S. C. 
Boughton, C, Waterford. 
Boyce, F. M., Saratoga Springs. 
Bull, C. D., Stillwater. 
Burger, A. B., Gansevoort. 
Burrus, D. R., Burnt Hill. 
Colby, M. H., Saratoga Springs. 
Cooper, H. C, Clifton Park. 
Creal, C. E., Saratoga Springs. 
Crothers, T. D., Binghamton. 
Ensign, C. W., Mechanicville. 
Freeman, S. H., Albany. 
Garbut, Frank, Mechanicville. 
Gow, Frank, Schuylerville. 
Graut, C. S., Saratoga Springs. 
Hall, W. H., Saratoga Springs. 

Hammond, H. L., Killingly, Ct. 
Heartt, P. T., Waterford. 
Hodgman, W. H., Sar. Springs. 
Houghton, N. M., Corinth. 
Johnson, I. G., Greenfield Centre. 
Lewis, Morgan, Ballston Spa. 
McEwen, R. C, Sar. Springs. 
Moore, Leverett, Ballston Spa. 
Murry, B. J., Wilton. 
Noxon, B. W., Ballston Spa. 
Parkman, T. E., Rock City Falls. 
Preston, J. R., Schuylerville. 
Preston, Calvin, Galway. 
Putnam, L. B., Sar. Springs. 
Reynolds, T. B., Sar. Springs. 
Rowcll, S. N., Dunning St., N. Y. 
Sherman, F. A., Ballston S]ia. 
Steenburgh, H.W., Green Island. 
Van Vranken, G. D., Saratoga 

Van Woert, Abram, Amity. 
Young, T. A., West Charlton. 

Adams, Alpheus. 
Allen, J. H. 
Allen, R. L. 
Andrus, C. H. 
Atwell, P. P. 
Baldwin, Abel. 
Bannister, Jason. 
Barney, A. C. 
Baruum, T. 
Barrus, J. J. 
Baxter, Hiram. 
Benham, G. H. 
Benedict, Avery. 
Bent, Stephen. 
Bennett, John. 
Berry, Abram. 
Billings, S. 
Boyd, David. 
Brisbin, Oliver. 
Brown, C. B. 
Bruce, N. F. 
Bullard. Beroth. 
Bull, Daniel. 
Bull, J. D. 
Burroughs, Geo. 

Deceased Members. 

Bryan, M. L. 
Carey, William. 
Carpenter, Cyrel. 
Carpenter, Abner. 
Chadsey, A. J. 
Childs, Ephraim. 
Childs, J. W. 
Childs, A. F. 
Chambers, W. 
Clark, B. J. 
Colby, J. B. 
Cole, John. 
Crandell, E. G. 
Crandell, E. F. 
Culver, D. W. 
Davidson, Oliver. 
Davis, Samuel. 
Davis, R. R. 
Day, Roswell. 
Dean, Josiah. 
Derbyshire, R. 
Defreest, J. C. 
Dickinson, E. 
Dimmick, Ira. 
Drake, Samuel. 

Everett, Jesse. 
Finch, Isaac. 
Finch, M. L. 
Fiske, J. M. 
Filch, Asa. 
Fletcher, P. 
Freeman, S. 
Gaylord, S. 
Gow, Archib.ald. 
Green, N. J. 
Griswold, H. 
Goodrich, 0. 
Hamilton, Silas. 
Haight, John. 
Hart, R. H. 
Hatch, Ira. 
Hewitt, D. J. 
Hicks, Daniel. 
Hicks, F. B. 
Hicks, M. D. 
Higgins, John. 
Howard, J. 
Johnson, Darius. 
Johnson, G. F. 
Johnson, T. E. 
Keeney, B. M. 
King, John. 
Kinley, John. 
Landon. H. J. 
Langworthy, James. 
Lathrop, M. D. 
Lee, James. 
Losee, H. D. 
Low, David. 
Miles, Elisha. 
.Alillard, W. M. 
Martin, F. M. 
McLean, W. H. 
McLeary, Samuel. 
Mott, Walter. 
Mulford, E. 
North, M. L. 
Northrop, Booth. 
Patrick, William. 
Pearce, Wm. 
Pedrom, J. W. 
Perry, J. L. 
Perry, J. C. 
Peters, Samuel. 
Pitkin, L. 
Potter, Stephen. 
Porter, James. 
Porter, Elijah. 
Porter, E. H. 
Porter, D. L. 
Porter, S. 
Portery, W. P. 


This society was organized in 18(53. Its annual meet- 
ings are held on the second Tuesday in July. 


B. F. Cornell, Fort Edward ; Zina Clement, Saratoga 
Springs; S. J. Pearsall, Saratoga Springs; Tliomas E. 
Allen, Saratoga Springs; J. F. Doolittle, Ballston Spa 
William E. Rogers, Rcxford Flats ; A. G. Peckham, Water- 


FresideiU. — B. F. Cornell. 
Vice-President.— J. F. Doolittle. 


Powell, Grant. 
Fowling, Josiah. 
Pulling, J. 
Raymond, 0. P. 
Rathbun, John. 
Reynolds, Henry. 
Reynolds, J. H. 
Richards, R. R. 
Rixby, Francis. 
Rigsley, F. 
Sabin, L. D. 
Saile, John. 
.Savage, Win. 
Sauntlers, Henry. 
Scott, W. K. 
.Sears, Isaac. 
Simpson, S. M. 
Sherman. D. 
Shaw, Wm. 
Shelton, D. S. 
Smith, J. W. 
Shumway, D. 
Safford. -loseph. 
Spraguc, L. 
Sprague, Peter. 
Sprague, L. U. 
Spencer, James. 
Spencer, A. J. 
Stearns, John. 
Steel, John H. 
Straing. Ira. 
St. John, E. 
Seymour, Jesse. 
Taylor, Aiilcs. 
Tibbitts, Win. 
Tinker, Martin. 
Tippet, Wm. 
Thomas. James. 
Thompson. C. N. 
Thompson, Gideon. 
Thompson, G. 
Tourtelot, F. 
Torry, Cave. 
Tracy, S. M. 
Underhill, A. K. 
Uphom, Timothy. 
Van Woert, A. W. 
Walls, J. W. 
Webber, A. B. 
Weed, Isaac W. 
Wells, David. 
Wetmore, C. H. 
Wood, Silas. 
Williams, J. W. 
Wright, Ir.a. 
Wright, NcwcU. 
\*oungs, Isaac. 
Youngs, Israel. 



Secretary and Treasurer. — A. G. Peckham. 
Censijrs.—3. F. Doolittle, S. J. Pearsall, A. G. Peckham. 
Delegates to State Society. — Thomas E. Allen, J. F. 



CouRT-HOUi5E HiLL, ill tile town of Ballston, one mile 
and a half southwesterly from the village of Ballston Spa, was 
the first place in the county of Saratoga in whicli a news- 
paper was established. In Frencii's " Gazetteer of the State 
of New York," published in 18U0, it is stated that " the 
Waterford Gazette, established at Waterford about 1801, 
was the first paper published in the county;" but this is an 
error, — the first of several, occurriTig in the notiees of the 
county press, which have been detected by the investiga" 
tions entered into by tlie autlior of this sketch. 

Seventy-nine years liave elapsed since the first Ballston 
printing-office was opened, and during this period ten dif- 
ferent weeklies have made their bow to the public ; only 
two of which continue to be publi-shcd at the county-seat, 
— one of them being the BaUstoii Democrat, first issued in 
1845 ; the other the Ballston Journal, the first in chrono- 
logical order, and now in its eightieth year. Its lineage is 
as follows : 

1. The Saratoga Register or Farmer s Journal, issued 
June 14, 1798; size of page eleven inches by eighteen; 
four columns to a page ; sheet about one-half the present 
size of the Bidhlon Journal. Under the title, and ex- 
tending across the page, were these words : " Ballston, 
Saratoga County : printed every Wednesday morning, 
by Increase and William Child, over the Store of 
Messrs. Robert Leojiard k Co., nearly opposite the Court 
House. — Where subscriptions for this paper, articles of 
intelligence, miscellaneous pieces, advertisements, &c., are 
thankfully received, and printing in general executed with 
neatness and dispatch, and on moderate terms."' 

The Journal supported the administration of President 
John Adams, then the head of the political party which 
bore the name of Federal, and which was opposed by the 
party called Republican, whose acknowledged leader was 

These party divisions had grown out of discussions in 
Congress during the first administration of Washington, 
whose second election was a triumph of the Federal party, 
as was also the election of Adams, under whose presidency 
the " alien and sedition laws" were passed, with features so 
obnoxious as to defeat him at his next candidacy. 

The Journal favored those laws, as is shown by the fol- 
lowing articles copied from the issue of August 22, 1798 : 

" There is at the present so strong an opposition to the 
measures of the general government prevailing through the 
counties of Ulster and Orange, that it is dangerous for a 
man to applaud the administration, and he is fortunate to 
escape personal injury. In many parts of those counties 

the friend of the government is viewed as an enemy to the 
general cause, and is treated with marked contempt and 
disrespect. Almost every town exhibits a Liberty Pole, as 
they falsely term it, which these sons of Belial have erected 
to their idol faction. Our informants saw these poles at 
Newburg, New Windsor, Montgomery, Wardsbridge, Go- 
shen, Florida, Warwick, etc., etc., but they could give us 
no information concerning the intention of this combina- 
tion of knaves and fools to oppose the execution of the laws 
by force. We believe, however, they know too well their 
own insignificance and weakness to be the deliberate au- 
thors of their own destruction. The sedition and stamp 
acts, added to their long-invited enmity to the constitution, 
are the chief cause of this display of democratic fervor. 
The former of these laws will never give a moment's unea- 
siness to any good citizen ; and the latter imposes a tax 
which promises to be highly productive, and not felt by the 
agriculturist, as it will fall almost exclusively on the mer- 
cantile jiart of the community." 

From the same issue is copied the following : 

"Married.— On Sunday evening liisl, Mr. D.WID M.\KER, of Stillwiiter, 
to the amialjle Miss ELIZ.\ SWEET, of Milton." 


"Greenfield, Avg. 14, 1798. 
"In the field of Elisha Carpenter, Esq., of thi.s town, were pulled this djiy a 
nuiiiher of eiU'S of Coin, completely filled out and fit foi' roasting, which were 
planted on the 14th of .lone, on a piece of hiud which was never plowed, and 
the said corn was never hoed." 


Soon after the press of the Cliilds was set up, they got 
out the first book ever printed in the county, with this 
title-page : " A Plain Account of the Ordinance of Bap- 
tism ; in which all the texts in the New Testament relating 
to it are proved, and the whole Doctrine concerning it drawn 
from them alone. In a Course of Letters to the Right 
Rev. Dr. Benjamin Hoadley, late Lord BLshop of Win- 
chester; author of the ' Plain Account of the Lord's Sup- 
per;' ye shall not add unto the word which I have com- 
manded you, neither shall you diminish from it. First 
Ballston Edition. London. Printed: Ballston. Re-printed 
by I. & W. Child. Sold at their Printing-Office, nearly 
opposite the Court-House. 1798." 

In April. 1800, the firm of Increase & William Child 
dissolved, the former retiring and the latter taking sole 


In that year William Child printed a book of two hun- 
dred and twenty-two pages, entitled "A Plea for the Non- 
conformists," by Thomas Delaune, with a preface by Rev. 
Elias Lee, pastor of the Baptist church at Ballston Spa. 
It was published by subscription, and the names of the 
subscribers, numbering over one thousand, are printed at 
the end of the volume. 

Mr. Child continued the pajicr under its original name 
until September 27, 1808, on which day it was issued 
under the name of The ludepemlent American. Its poli- 
tics were unchanged. 

James Madi.son was elected President in 1809 by the 
Republican party, after an unusually excited campaign. 
Party spirit ran high, and was kept up long after the inau- 



guration in 1809. From the issue of June 6 of that year 
are taken the following extracts, to .show that political 
writing was as harsh and severe as in these modern times : 

" It is whispered in private Democratic circles at Wash- 
ington that Madison has turned a damned Federalist. The 
next President is to be pledged beforehand to a certain line 
of policy. General Snyder has been mentioned as a can- 
didate, but it is generally thought that though he has by 
no moans too much sense, he has too little nerve, as he did 
not carry on the war against the Ihiited States with suffi- 
cient energy. 

" The gentlemen who now appear to be most peculiarly 
possessed of what are now settled to be the true Demo- 
cratic qualifications for the presidency, are Mr. Smilie, 
Mr. Alston, and Mr. Alexander Wilson; the last a repre- 
sentative of Virginia, as different a man in point of mind 
from his namesake, the author of the ' American Orni- 
thology,' as a Satyr is different from a Hyperion. 

" Some of the Democrats now begin to cast the blame 
of the recent settlement with Great Britain upon the Pres- 
ident's wife. They say she is a Federalist, and has too 
much influence over her spouse. What a happy circum- 
stance it would have been for this country had Thomas 
Jefferson been governed by such a woman !" 

From the same old paper we obtain something of the 
same miscellany as at present. 

" Married. — On Saturday evening, the 27tli ull., Mr. John Viindenlierg, Jr., 
of Hiilf-Muon, to Miss Betsey Putlieli, daugliter of Cii plain Kol.ert W. Tntricli, 
of Ballstun." 

" Died.— At Stillwater, on the 26tli nit., of typhoid fever, Miss Pliebe W'ood- 
woi-th, aged fifteen years, daughter of Epliraim Woodwortli, Jr., of that place." 

" Money is said to he the root of all evil ; nevertheless, the Post-riders are 
willing to run the risk of receiving their dues from the subscribers for the ptist 
two quarters." 

Margaret Cornell, who seems to have been advertised by 
her husband, indignantly retorts : 

" He should have showed that he had a bed, for this is 
the first time I ever knew that he was the owner of one. 
Indeed, I am now inclined to believe that he alludes to one 
of mine. He .says I have left his board. Now he never 
provided any board, except now and then a .scanty meal of 
potatoes. As iijr running him in debt he need have no 
apprehension, as no one will trust him where he is so un- 
ibrtunate as to be known." 

Politicians in those days were up to " tricks that were 
vain and ways that were dark," equally with those of the 
the present time. Joshua Burnham .seems to have written 
a private letter, which the opposite party obtained possession 
of, and published it broadcast as follows in a hand-bill : 

" Lansingbl'rg, April 2a, 1800. 

"Sir. — Mr. T has been up from Albany, and says the county ticket 

nominated at Troy must not be elected. .\t all events, he says keep F out 

if possible. You must therefore turn out at the election every day. It won't 
cost much. Eat your breakfast late and you can stand it tilt the poll adjourns. 

Do all yon ran against F , He is our mark. Tell the people that he makes 

cards out of old liibles and then carries tliem to ClaveracU, and gets folks 
drunk, ami then cheats them. Tell tlietn it is he that makes those awful lights 
in the north. The ignorant Dntchnieu will believe it. Tell them everything 

published in the hand-bills about F is true — stop — no, that won't do. There 

are some of them that recommend him that are really true. These you must 
say are all lies. Lest you should be confounded, mind this rule. Everything 
in his favor say it is a lie, eveiything against him say it is true, and you can 

prove it by D L . D is good at that you may depend. In short 

tell them F ■ h-xs done everything except shoot his daildy. 

" Vours, in haste, 

" Mr. J V . " J B ." 

After seventeen years of service, Mr. Child sold to James 
Comstock in 1815, and the name was changed to The People s 
Wntch TMOf-.r. 

In 1820, Horatio Gates Spafford, LL.D., became proprie- 
tor, and changed the name to The Stiratoga Farmer. In 
1821 he made the title. The Balhton Spa Gazette and 
Sariitdr/d Farmer. Mr. Spafford was a learned, intelligent, 
well-informed man, and an indefatigable worker. He com- 
piled and published the first complete Gazetteer of the State 
in 1813, and in 1824 republished it, with large additions, 
making it more accurate and complete, embodying a vast 
amount of useful information from which others have 
drawn in later years. 

He removed to Albany in 1822, disposing of his paper 
to its former proprietor, Mr Comstock, who abbreviated 
its name to The Balkloii. S/ia Gazette, under which it was 
continued until 1847. For thirty years Mr. Comstock had 
charge of the paper, conducting it ably »nd successfully. 


In 1822 ho i.ssued from his press the third book printed 
in Ballston, entitled "The Friend of Peace," a volume of 
three hundred and eight pages, designed to show the evils 
of war and the blessings of peace. 

In April, 1847, the establishment was bought by J. 0. 
Nodyne, who changed the name to the Ballston Democratic 
Whiff Journal, the date of his first issue being the 20th. 

January 18, 1848, Albert A. Moor, Esq., became joint 
proprietor with Mr. Nodyne, the latter continuing to occupy 
the chair editorial, and the name being shortened to The 
Balhton Journal. January 25, Mr. Moor first appears as 
one of the editors, and on December 5 he became sole 
editor, occupying that po.sition about twelve years. He 
was a good writer, a member of the bar, and for several 
years one of the loan commissioners for the county. 

In April, 18G0, the journal passed into the hands of H. 
L. Grose, who enlarged its size, and otherwise improved its 

In 1804 it was again enlarged, increasing its dimensions 
beyond that of most country papers. It has remained 
under his control from that day to this, and during the 
period of seventeen years its patronage and circulation have 
steadily increased. During mo,st of this time Mr. Grose's 
four sons have been associated with him in office work, 
business management, and editorial charge. Three of them 
are now in the establishment. The fourth is the New York 
correspondent of the Cliicago Dally Trihnne. 

The political relations of the paper whose career is now 
sketched will readily be known by the character of the 
presidential administrations which it has supported or op- 
posed, and for that character any general history of our 
country may be consulted. The administrations opposed 
were those of Jefferson, Madi.son, Jackson, Van Buren, 
Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, and Jolinsou, extending over a 
period of forty-four years. It supported the administra- 
tions of John Adams, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, 
Harrison and Tyler, Taylor and Fillmore, Linciiln, Grant, 
and Hayes, extending over a period of thirty-seven years. 

2. In 1804, David C. Miller began at Court-house Hill 
the publication of the Saratoga Advertiser, size of page, 



thirteen by eigliteen, or one-fuurth that of the present 
Ballston JuuriKil ; terms of subscription not stated ; politics 
iinti-Federal. In the issue of Sept. 23, 18U6, appeared the 
following advertisement : 

"FOR SALE. — .\ healthy middle-aged negro wench and child. For piirticu- 
lars, inquire of tlie printer." 

In that year a man named Riggs was taken into partner- 
ship. He was bought out in 1807 by Samuel R. Brown, 
and the name was coolly changed to The Aurora Borealls 
and Saratoga Advertiser. In 1808, Mr. Brown retired 
from the establishment, and Mr. Miller restored the origi- 
nal name. It was discontinued in 1811, and the office 
merged into that of The Independent American. Mr. 
Miller moved to Batavia, Genesee Co., and there, in con- 
nection with Benjamin Blodgett, started the Rrpabliain 
Advocate, which is still published. Mr. iNIiller continued 
to issue the Advocate until near the end of the year 1828. 
He printed the Morgan pamphlet, which professed to dis- 
close the secrets of the first three degrees of Freemasonry ; 
and a weekly paper, called Tlie Morgan Investigator, was 
issued from his office in 1827, continuing about a year. 
At that day he was a conspicuous and famous man. Mr. 
Brown went to Saratoga Springs in 1809, and in that year 
began the publication of the Saratoga Patriot. He moved 
his establishment to Albany in April, 1812, and gave his 
paper the name of the Albany liepahlican. He sold out 
in the latter part of the year 1813, and went to Auburn, 
Cayuga Co., where in 1814 he started the Cayuga Patriot, 
which he conducted for several years. 

3. Tlie Saratoga Journal, first number was published 
in the village of Ballston Spa, by Isaiah Bunce, in the first 
week of January, 1813; terms, two dollars, payable quar- 
terly ; size of page, fourteen by eighteen. In politics 
it was Republican, the name of the party then oppo.sed to 
the Federal party. The Federals in Saratoga County were 
few — the Republicans many ; and having everything their 
own way, in 181G there was a split in their ranks, one part 
being called " Old Liners," embracing such prominent men 
as John W. Taylor, David Rogers, George Palmer, Thomas 
Palmer, Seth C. Baldwin, L. B. Langworthy, A. W. Odell, 
Esek Cowen, and others. The " New Liners," so called, 
embraced such men as Judge James Thompson, Colonel 
Samuel Young, Joel Lee, Judge Salmon Child, William 
Stillwell, Colonel Isaac Gere, and others. (These names 
will be found in the official list given in another part of 
this work.) The Journal was very violent in its opposition 
to the " New Liners," and consequently they established an 
organ of their own, whose history follows. 

4. The Saratoga Courier was issued at Ballston Spa, in 
1816, with Ulysses F. Doubleday as editor. This reduced 
the patronage of the Journal, without securing sufficient 
for its own maintenance, and, after about three years of 
Kilkenny fighting, both papers suspended indcfiuitel}'. Mr. 
Doubleday went to Auburn and bought an interest in the 
Cayuga Patriot, of which he became the editor. He was 
elected a member of Congress in 1831 and 1835, and made 
himself conspicuous among the public men of the time. 

In collecting the facts respecting the papers thus far 
noticed, material aid has been rendered by Hon. G. G. 

Scott, of Ballston Spa, who has preserved a rare collection 
of old papers and documents. 

5. The Saratoga Recorder and Anti- Masonic Democrat 
was started in 1831 by Thomas Jefferson Sutherland. 
The purpose of its publication is indicated by the title. At 
the end of a year it was discontinued. 

(i. The New York Palladium was begun in 1831 by 
Ansel Warren. It supported the administration of General 
Jackson. In 1832 it was bought by Israel Sackett, and 
the name was changed to Tlie Schenectady and Saratoga 
Standard. Elias G. Palmer became proprietor in 1833, 
and gave it the name of The Ballston Spa RepuLlican. 
It supported the administrations of Jackson and Van 
Buren until the latter part of the year 1839, when it was 

7. The Ballston Democrat was started in 1845 by 
Newell Hine. The name indicates its politics, and it gave 
its best support to James K. Polk for President. In 1848, 
Thomas G. Young, Esq., son of Hon. Samuel Young, of 
Ballston, became proprietor and editor, and so continued 
until 1853, when he sold to Seymour Chase, Esq., who 
consolidated it with 

8. The Northern Mirror, which he established in 1850, 
■ — and first named it the Gem of the N'orth. After 
the union the title was The Ballston Democrat and 

9. In November, 1856, Mr. Chase purchased The 
Ballston Spa American, an organ of the " Know Noth- 
ings," which was first issued in the early part of the year 
1855, by Joseph S. Brown. 

Upon this consolidation the name chosen was The 
Ballston Atlas, in politics following the Albany Atlas, 
which supported the Free-Soil wing of the Democratic 
party under the lead of Martin Van Buren. In 1860 it 
supported the nomination of Stephen A. Douglas for the 
pre.sidency, and subsequently ranked itself among the 
organs of the Democratic party. 

Abraham A. Keyser became proprietor January 1, 1861, 
and in April following sold to Ephraim W. Reynolds, now 
one of the publishers of the Auburn Daily News. In 
1864, Mr. Reynolds sold to Daniel Shepherd, who moved 
the office to Saratoga Springs, and continued the weekly 
issues under the name of the Saratoga County Democrat 
for a few months, when he suspended the publication. 

In December, 1865, it was revived by Sanford H. 
Curtis and Enos R. Mann, of Ballston Spa, at which place 
it was issued under the original name. The Ballston 
Democrat. Mr. Curtis was a good practical printer ; Mr. 
Mann an easy, clever writer, now connected with the 
Albany Argns as reporter and correspondent. John M. 
Waterbury became proprietor in 1866, and changed the 
name to The Ballston Register. He sold iu 1868 to his 
brother, William S. Waterbury, who restored the original 
name under which he still continues its publication. The 
Ballston Democrat, which was enlarged in 1877 to an 
eight-column page. It has supported the administrations 
of Polk, Pierce, and Buchanan, and opposed those of 
Taylor, Lincoln, Grant, and Hayes. For this historical 
chain, I am mainly indebted to E. R. Mann, Esq. 

10. In January, 1853, The Temperance Helper was 



established by the Carson League, a county temperance or- 
sranization, and issued by a committee of publication, with 
Prof. J. McCoy, of the Ballston Law School, as e<litor. It 
was printed at the Jotcnial office about one year, after 
which time the publishing committee opened a new print- 
ing-office, ill which was sot up the first cylinder press ever 
used in the county. In 1855 the establishment was sold 
to Potter & Judson, and removed to Saratoga Springs. In 
1856 they made it a political paper, and gave it the name 
of 77(6 Siiriitdfffdii, which it still bears. 


Tlie publishers of this work are under obligation to Rev. 
H. L. Grose for the above full and accurate history of the 
press of Ballston. His own active career as a journalist 
and pastor may properly be added to this sketch. 

Mr. Grose's connection with journalism began in his 
native town in Montgomery county in 1832. His first 
paper was The Fort Plain Gazette, neutral in politics. 
In 1834 the name was changed to Fort Plain Republican. 
Politically, it favored the nomination of Martin Van Buren 
for the presidency. In 1835 the paper was .sold to C. W. 
Gill, the politics remaining the same. In 183G, Mr. Grose 
was connected with the Owego Advertimr, of which tlie 
present Oicego Times is the regular successor. Some years 
before this Mr. Grose had completed a course of study in 
medicine, but never gave himself wholly to that profession. 
From 1837 to 1810 he studied for tlie ministry, and in 
December, 18'10, was ordained to that work in the Baptist 
denomination. He then served as a pastor for twenty 
years, during a portion of which time he also practiced 

In 1860 he bought the Ballston Journal. In 1SG3, 
though still retaining the Journal, he bought a half-interest 
in the Schenectady Daily Star. This he sold to W. D. 
Davis in 1864. From 1868 to 1874 he served again as a 
pastor in Vermont ; keeping, however, his interest in the 
Journal. In 1874 he was appointed school commissioner 
in place of Hon. Neil Gilmour, resigned. In November 
following he was elected to the same office. This long and 
varied service has left him still a vigorous and successful 
worker in whatever field of labor he may engage. 


The establishing of newspapers was not so early by sev- 
eral years at Saratoga Springs as at Ballston. It is stated 
that an effort was made in 1802, and a weekly paper pub- 
lished for a short time by Mathew Lyon. Inquiries among 
old residents, however, develop nothing but the tradition, 
as there seems to be no record of the enterprise, nor any 
copies of the paper preserved. 

It is stated in the " New York Gazetteer" that the Sara- 
toga. Gazette was published here in 1810; but no account 
seems to be obtainable of either the paper or the pub- 

In 1809, as shown in the account of the Ballston Press, 
Samuel R. Brown came from Ballston to Saratoga Springs 
and established the Saratoga Patriot. Two years later 
he removed the paper to Albany. There was then an in- 
terval of seven years, during which there seems to have 
been no paper published here. 

The Saratoga Whig, alluded to in the account of the 
Sentinel, was started in 1839 by Iluling & Watts. In 
1840 it pa.ased into the hands of G. W. Spooner, and after- 
wards to E. G. Huling. In 1851 it was changed to the 
Saratoga C'ovnfy Press. A daily edition, started in 1844, 
was published in 1855 as the Saratoga Daily News. 
Huling & Morehouse were the publishers. 

A few other publishing enterprises of brief duration 
may be noticed. 

The Old Letter was issued at Saratoga Springs in 1849, 
by A. H. Allen. 

The Advent Jievievi and Sahhath Helper was published 
semi-monthly in 1850, by James White. 

The Temperance Helper, started at Ballston Spa in Jan- 
uary, 1850, was soon after removed to Saratoga Springs. 


TIte Saratoga. Sentinel, the only pioneer paper that has 
survived the changes in this now world-renowned watering- 
place of Saratoga Springs, was i.ssued in 1819, by Gid- 
eon Mason Davison, a practical printer, a native of Ver- 
mont. He continued the publication, assisted in later 
years by his sons, until 1842, when he transferred the 
subscription-list and good-will to Wilbur & Palmer, contin- 
uing his book-printing office himself Wilbur & Palmer, 
after a few years, sold the paper to Castle k Paul, and they 
sold the same to Cowen & Butler. It was finally merged 
in the Saratoga Repuhlican (established in 1844 by John 
A. Corey). In 1853 Thomas G. Young purcha.sed the 
Saratoga Repuhlican, and Allen Corey continued the pub- 
lication of the Sentinel. In 1859 the Republican and 
Sentinel were again united, the paper taking the joint title 
of Republican and Sentinel for a time, but the old title of 
The Saratoga Sentinel was soon adopted again as the sole 
name, and so continued by Mr. Young. In February, 1872, 
the firm of Huling & Co. became the proprietors; Ed- 
mund J. Huling. who commenced his news}ia{)er career in 
the office of the newly-established Saratoga Whig in March, 
1839, becoming the editor and business manager, bringing 
his experience of over thirty-two years in connection with 
the press of Saratoga Springs to the conduct of the paper. 
The Sentinel was Bucktail and Democratic in politics when 
under the control of Mr. Davison, supporting Andrew Jack- 
son and Martin Van Buren as candidates for President in 
1824, 1828, 1832, 1836, and 1840. It was continued as 
a straight Democratic paper until 1848, when it supported 
Mr. Van Buren as the Free-Soil candidate for President. 
In after-years it became again Democratic, supporting 
Franklin Pierce in 1852, Mr. Buchanan in 1856, John C. 
Breckinridge in 1860. and the regular Democratic candi- 
dates following up to 1872. It took liberal ground in 1872, 
supporting Mr. Greeley for President before and after his 
adoption by the Democratic national convention. Its dis- 
tinctive features since 1872 have been great care in the 
collection of local news relating to the county and vicinity, 
and independent criticisms of passing events. 


Edmund James Huling, one of the proprietors and the 
manager of ?V(e Saratoga Sentinel, was born in the town 



of Milton, Saratoga Co., Dec. 18, 1820. He was the only 
son of Beekman Hiding and hiis wife, Jlaiia Smith. He 
is a direct descendant from Captain Alexander Haling, who 
was a prominent citizen of North Kingstown, R. I., who 
died there in 1725, after having filled various prominent 
positions in his town. His grandson (John), a son of his 
younger son, born in 1731, emigrated to Dutchess Co., 
N. Y., with a younger brother, Walton, and there a son, 
Jolin, was born in 17G2, who married Charity Eighmy for 
a second wife. Beekman Huling, father of E. J. Huling, 
was the fifth child and second son of the aforesaid John 
Huling and Charity Eighmy, and was born in the town of 
Beekman, Dutchess Co., Nov. 20, 1794. John Huling 
moved to Saratoga County with his family about the year 
1800, settling first in the town of Malta, and a few years 
afterwanis he removed to the north part of the town of 
Jlilton, about half a mile north of where the present stone 
church stands, on the farm on which E. J. Huling was 
born and resided until JIarch 29, 1831. On that day 
Beekman Huling and family removed to Saratoga Springs, 
and there E. J. Huling has resided ever since. He attended 
the common schools there, also select schools taught by E. 
H. Jenny (afterwards an editorial writer on the Aeiv York 
Tn'/iiine) until Feb. 1, 1835, when he became a clerk in 
the store of Rockwell Putnam, remaining in that place for 
three years. In February and Marci), 1838, after leaving 
the store of Mr. Putnam, he attended a select school kept 
by Alanson Smith. In the season following he was a clerk 
in the Union Hall, then kept by \Va.shington Putnam and 
Asher S. Taylor. In the winter following he taught a dis- 
trict school for two months in the town of Milton. In 
February, 1839, James C. Watts, a.ssisted by Rockwell 
Putnam, Beekman Huling, Peter V. Wiggins, James R. 
Wescott, and other prominent citizens, established The 
Sariitogd Whig newspaper, the second paper established 
in Saratoga Springs. 

In the following month, March, on the closing of his 
school, E. J. Huling entered the office of The Whig, his 
father having become a partner with Mr. Watts therein. 
He learned the business as a practical printer, and began 
writing for the paper, so that he took the charge of its 
columns the following winter, which Mr. Watts spent in 
New York in the editorial charge of Horace Greeley's New 
Yorker, while Mr. Greeley acted as legislative reporter of 
The Albany Evening Journiil, and coirespondent of the 
S'iratoga Whig. In the spring following the Whig was 
sold to George W. Spooner, of Brooklyn, E. J. Huling occa- 
sionally acting as assistant thereafter, and also Saratoga cor- 
respondent of the New York Tribune and A'ew York Ex- 
press, while assisting his father in his book-store. In Feb- 
ruary, 1842, E. J. Huling purchased the drug-store of 
Henry Y. Allen, and in the following month of March he 
married Anna R. Spooner, sister of George W. Spooner, of 
TIte Whig, and third daughter of Alden Spooner, of Brook- 
lyn, who established The Long Ishind Star, and was a 
prominent editor for many years. Mr. Huling's inclinations 
for the newspaper business, which led him to keep up his 
connections with The Whig and other papers, finally led to 
his selling out his drug-store in February, 1851, and he at 
once started a job-printing ofiiee. In September he started 

a weekly paper, which, in the November following, was 
merged in Tiie S'lni.loya Whig, of which he became sole 
proprietor. He continued T/te HVu'y (changing the name, 
in 1855, to The Snnitogn Cmmty Press) until January, 
1863, when he sold it to Potter & Judson, and it was 
merged in T/ie Suratoginn, upon which paper he took a 
position during the summer following. In September, 
18G3, he edited the Newark, New Jersey, Diiilg Mercury 
for a few weeks, spending the winter following, however, 
in Saratoga Springs. In June, 1864, he was appointed 
acting assistant paymaster in the United States Navy, and 
ordered to service in the Mississippi squadron, under Ad- 
miral Porter. He .served until the close of the war on the 
steamer " Huntress," cruising from the mouth of the Ohio 
river to Memphis. Returning home in August, 1865, he 
made up his accounts, and was honorably discharged in 
November following. In June, 1866, he took the local 
editorship of Tiie Sardtogiun, which he held until Oct. 1, 
1870. In 1871 he was elected a coroner of the county, and 
the following February, 1872, became one of the proprietors 
and m.mager of The Snratoga Sentinel, a position which he 
has held ever since. 


The Weekly Snrcitogian is the parent of the Daily S(ir((- 
togion, the former having attained the respectable age of 
twenty-seven years in January, 1878, the Daily Snratogian 
completing its ninth year in June, 1878. The Weekly 
Soratogiiai was the product of The Temperance Helper, a 
weekly paper about the size of the present Daily Saratu- 
gian, advocating as a specialty the temperance cause, and 
published for one dollar per year by B. F. Judson & Co. 
7Vie Helper was started in February, 1855, with B. F. 
Judson & Co. as proprietors. On the 3d of January, 
1858, the change of name was announced, and the name of 
M. E. Willing appears as the editor. At that time the 
prohibitory law was the uppermost theme in State piolitics, 
both The Helper and The Saralogian sustaining it, and 
energetically opposing its repeal. The leading article in the 
first number of The Saratogian concludes with these words, 
referring to the possible repeal of this law : " Let no rude 
hand tear from the statute-book this great charter of pro- 
tection to a bruised and bleeding community." The same 
number contains a report of a debate before the Young 
Men's Association on the all-engrossing topic, Shall the pro- 
hibitory law be repealed? Hon. James B. McKean, then 
county judge, .since chief justice of the Supreme Court of 
Utah, opposed the repeal, Mr. C. S. Lester, since county 
judge, taking the affirmative. The Saratogian records 
the triumph of the temperance people by stating that only 
five votes were cast in favor of the affirmative. The name 
of Mr. Willing appears connected with the paper but a few 
months, Waldo M. Potter, who had been interested in the 
paper, contributing most of the editorials, and doing most 
of the editorial work. Mr. Potter was at this time study- 
ing law, which pursuit he subsequently relinquished to be- 
come a business partner with Mr. Judson, and the editor 
of the paper for a long term of years. 

On the 24th of April, 1856, the name of George W. 
Demers, then about eighteen years of age, appears as the 



editor of tlie paper, altliougli tlie forcible pen of Waldo M. 
Potter contributed many of the political articles duriiij; tbe 
eventful political campaign of that year, tlic Suriitoijlua 
ardently and ably sustaining the Republican ticket, with 
John C. Fremont at its head as candidate for President. 
During the fall of 1856 its columns were filled with power- 
ful arguments in defense of the then infant party, the 
words of BVemont, declaring his equal opposition to either 
the extension of or the interference with slavery, standing 
at the head of its editorial columns through the period of 
the campaign. It was also an industrious and zealous 
exponent of prohibition principles. Mr. Potter's name first 
appears as the responsible editor in the issue of Mnj' 14, 
1857, in which number is a vigorous reply, two columns in 
length, to the assaults of Mr. Bennett, of the New York 
Herald, on the hotels of Saratoga Springs, and on the 
village generally. 

The first number of the Summer Daily, with the title 
of the Dtiili/ Saratogion, was issued on the 23d of June, 
1855, George W. Demers editor. The paper was twenty 
by twenty-eight inches square, and contained a full list of 
the arrivals till the close of the saason, together with brief 
abstracts of general news, local items, personal gossip, etc. 
The Daily was discontinued on the 23d of August, and in 
the following year it was again published during July and 
August, Waldo M. Potter being its editor, and B. Frank Jud- 
son publisher. From that time to the present a daily pajier 
was issued every summer only, till June, 18G9, when the 
publication of a permanent daily was begun, and has con- 
tinued uninterruptedly to the jiresent date. 

On the 11th of February, 1858, Mr. Potter having then 
fairly entered upon the practice of the law, formed a co- 
partnership with B. F. Judson, under the firm-name of 
Potter & Jud.son. This continued till Sept. 22, 1870, 
when Mr. Potter disposed of his interest to B. F. Judson, 
Mr. Potter being succeeded as editor by David F. Ritchie, 
who had, since June, 1869, been the assistant editor of the 
paper. Mr. Judson remained the sole proprietor of the 
paper till July 1, 1873, when Mr. Ritchie purchased a half- 
interest in the ofiice, retaining the jiosition of editor of the 
daily and weekly editions. 

From 1868 to June, 1869, the date of the first issue of 
the daily, a semi-weekly was jiublished. This ceased with 
the publication of the daily. 

On the 23d of December, 1876, Charles F. Paul pur- 
chased Mr. Judson's interest in the establishment, the style 
of the new firm being Paul & Ritchie, Mr. Ritchie remain- 
ing still the editor. 

This sketches the proprietary and editorial conduct of 
the jiaper during the period of its existence uj) to the 
present time. To narrate the history of its life, embodying 
its treatment of political and social topics, would require 
space far exceeding that allowed in these pages. Coming 
into existence as a special champion of temperance princi- 
ples, as indicated by its original name, the Temperance 
Helper, it was for about three years a sturdy and formid- 
able advocate of the theory of prohibition, when it es- 
poused with vigor and power the rising fortunes of the 
Republican party. Mr. Potter, its editor, was a born con- 
troversialist, and both with voice and pen did much to build 

up the political party the jirinoiples of which he ardently 

The Snrafofjiaii has from the beginning been a Repub- 
lican journal, and is regarded as the leading exponent of 
its party in the political district in which it is published. 
It has always had a wide circulation, especially in the 
summer season, when it reflects, day after day, the mar- 
velous picture of life in America's great watering-place. 
Both politically and socially. The Saratogian wields an 
extended and potent influence, its peculiar location render- 
ing it more cosmopolitan in character than most newspapers 
of the interior. 


editor of the Daily and Weekly Saratogian, was born in 
Rochester, N. Y., in 1840. He was the son of George 
Gavin Ritchie, a Baptist preacher. Mr. Ritchie was edu- 
cated by his father, in various select and public schools, 
and at the Utica Academy. In 1860 he became the city 
editor of the Utica Herald, having previously done some 
writing for various journals. Immediately after the assault 
on Fort Sumter, April 13, he enlisted as a private in 
the Utica Citizens' Corps, which, as " A" Company of the 
Fourteenth New York Volunteers, was sent to Washington 
in June. In the fall of 1861 he was promoted to be 
second lieutenant of " A" Company, New York Light 
Artillery, rising to the grade of captain, and serving through 
the entire war. He was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, 
and colonel for faithful services in the field. In July, 
1865, he became one of the assistant editors of the Utica 
Herald; in January, 1866, assumed the management of 
the Utica Evening Telegraph; and in 1869 came to Sara- 
toga as assistant editor of the Daily Saratogian. In 1870 
he became the editor of The Saratogian, Waldo M. Potter 
having retired, which position he still holds. 

The Saratoga Sun was started in September, 1870, by 

A. S. Pease. It is the leading Democratic journal of the 


Mr. Pease was born at Poughkeepsie, Dutchess Co., 
N. Y., and in his youth served a full apprenticeship at the 
printing business in the oflSce of the Poughkeepsie Tele- 
graph. On becoming of age he became partner with E. 

B. Rilley in the publication of that paper, and upon Mr. 
Rilley's death, sole editor and manager for five years. 

He was postmaster of the city of Poughkeepsie during 
the whole term of President Pierce. 

He afterwards sold the Telegraph and entered the State 
and National Law School of John W. Fowler. He first 
graduated an attorney, and was also admitted to practice 
as attorney and counselor-at-law, after e.N;amination, by the 
general term of Supreme Court in Brooklyn. 

He bought the Poughkeepsie Daily Press in 1858, and 
published it until 1863, when he moved the material to 
Troy, and in July of 1863 issued the first nuiuber of the 
Troy Daily Press. In 1861 he entered the Union army 
as first lieutenant of Twentieth Regiment N. Y. S. M. 
(subsequently Eightieth Volunteers), Col. George W. 
Pratt, commanding. He sold the Troy Daily Press in 
1867, and the Troy Weekly Press in 1868. 



The material of tlio Troy Weehly Press came back into 
his hands, and he moved it to Saratoga Springs, and in 
August of 1870 issued the first number of The Saratoga 
Sun, which is still published, — weekly throughout the year, 
a daily edition being added during the summer season. 


The Waterford Gazette was established about 1801, by 
Horace L. Wadsworth, and was continued until after the 
close of the War of 1812. 

The Waterford Reporter was published in 1822, by 
Wm. L. 

The Anti-Masonic Recorder was issued at Waterford in 
1830, by J. C. Johnson. 

The Waterford Atlas was started December 1, 1832, by 
Wm. Holland & Co. In 1834 it became the Waterford 
Atlas, Mechanics' and Manufacturers' Journal. It was 
soon after discontinued, perhaps unable to bear so long a 

The Democratic Champion was published in 1840, by 
H. Wilbur. 

The Waterford Sentinel was started May 18, 1850, by 
Dr. Andrew Hoifman, now of Albany. In 1858 it was 
sold to J. H. Hasten. He sold it to Wm. T. Baker. 
Baker continued it two or three years until 1870, when it 
was sold to Haywood & Palmateer. This partnership 
ended in 1871 by the death of Mr. Haywood. The office 
was then purchased by S. A. Hathaway. In April, 1872, 
the Waterford Advertiser was started by R. D. Palmateer, 
who purchased the interest of the Sentinel in July, 1873, 
since which time there has been but one paper, the Adoer- 
tiser, published by R. D. Palmateer. 

Dr. Hoflman enlarged the Sentinel twice, and continued 
it eight years. J. H. Masten, who bought of him, was the 
publisher of the Cohoes Cataract, and he issued the Sentinel 
from the same office. Mr. Haywood, spoken of above, had 
been an early publisher of one of the Waterford papers. 
Dr. Hoffman went from Waterford to Vermont, and pub- 
lished lor a time the Northfield Herald, a Democratic paper, 
also the Veimonl Christian Messenger, a Methodist journal. 
Then ho published the Coxsackie Union for three years, 
and finally settled in Albany, in the practice of his profes- 
sion of dentistry. 


The Schnylerville Herald was published at Schuylcr- 
ville, in 1844, by J. L. Cramer. This was the first attempt 
to establish a newspaper in the town. It w:ts finally dis- 
continued. In 1848 the Old Saratoga was established by 
Allen Corey. This was discontinued in 1852. The Battle 
Ground Herald was published by R. N. Atwell & Co. 
from Aug. 1, 1853, to July 31, 1857, and discontinued. 
In December of the same year The Saratoga American 
was started by J. R. Rockwell. He published this to the 
fall of ISGl, when he enlisted, and became captain of Com- 
pany K, Seventy-seventh Regiment, and the paper was dis- 
continued. R. N. Atwell continued a job-printing office 
for several years. Finally other parties established the 
Schuylerville Neios, about the year 1807. 

In the spring of 1870 this was succeeded by the present 

Saratoga County Standard, a large and handsome sheet, 
issued weekly by the Standard Publishing Co. 


The Stillwater Gazette was started at Stillwater village, 
in 1845, by Isaac A. Pitman, and was published three 

The Coldioater Battery was also published in 1845, by 
Isaac A. Pitman. It had only a brief existence. 


The Hudson River Chronicle was published at Mechan- 
icville from October, 1856, to March, 1868, by Samuel 

The Morning Star was published at Mechanicville, in 
1854-55, by C. Smith & Co. It was an experiment con- 
tinued for only a short time. 

The Crescent Eagle was published in 1852, by C. Acker- 



The citizens of the county of Saratoga are justly proud 
of her brilliant record in the great southern Rebellion. In 
the following pages we give two separate accounts of the 
doings of the 77th Regiment of New York Volunteers, 
and one account of the 30th Regiment of New York 
Volunteers. The first account of the 77tli has been kindly 
written for this work by General French, and the reader 
will find it a highly interesting and exhaustive article. The 
second account of the 77th Regiment has been kindly fur- 
nished by a prominent officer connected with the regiment, 
and although it duplicates some matters touched in the 
first account, it is so interesting that it is given entire. 
The account of the 30th has been written by Col. Searing, 
and will be perused with equal interest. 


The 77th Regiment New York State Volunteers, also 
called " The Bemus Heights Battalion," was organized in 
and largely recnuted from Saratoga County. Three of 
its companies bad their .skeleton organizations outside 
of the county, — one in Westport, and one in Keeseville, 
in Essex county, and one in Gloversville, Fulton county. 
On the 2Lst day of August, 1861, Hon. James B. McKean, 
of Saratoga Springs, then being in Congress as a represen- 
tative from the Fifteenth (now Twentieth) district, issued 
the following circular letter to his constituents : 

"Fellow-Oitizkns of the Fifteenth Congressional Disthict, — 
Traitors in arms seek to overthrow our constitution and to seize our 
Capitol. Let us go and help to defend thein. Who wiil despond be- 
cause we lost the battle of Bull Run? Our fathers lost the battle at 
Bunker Hill, but it taught them how to gain the victory at Bemus 

*' Let us learn wisdom from disaster, and send overwhelming num- 
bers into the field. Let farmers, mechanics, merchants, and all classes 
— for the liberties of all are at stake — aid in organizing companies. 



'• I win cheerfully assist in procuring the neijessary papers. Do 
not luisuiiderstanil ine. I ara not askin;^ for an office at your hands. 
If you who have most at stake will go, I will willingly go with you 
as a private soItUer. 

" Let us organize a Bemus Heights Battalion, antl vie with each 
other in serving our country, thus showing wc are inspired by the 
holy memories of the Revolutionary hattle-fleUis upon and near 
which we are living. 

".I vs. B. McKk.vs. 

"Saratoga ,Sritixr.s. .Aug. 21, ISOl." 

This call met with a pfoin[)t and patriotic rosponso from 
every town in the county, and tVoni otlier parts of the con- 
gres.sioiial district. Company or^anizitions and recruiting 
stations were established in variou.s localities. Everywhere, 
indeed, the fife and drum could be heard calling to arms, 
and enthusiastic young men went from place to place bear- 
ing the stars and stripes, and urging their fellows to enlist 
for the icar. 

Orders were at once issued from the adjutant-general's 
office at Albany, establishing a branch depot and recruiting- 
station at Saratoga Springs, and directing all companies 
organizing for the regiment to assemble there preparatory 
to being mustered into the United States service. 

The county fair-grounds lying a little east of the village 
of Saratoga Springs were chosen and very soon put in 
readiness for the reception of the recruits. This rendez- 
vous was called " Camp Schuyler," and before the 1st of 
October seven companies, containing over six hundred men, 
had enlisted, marched into its inclosure, and chosen their 
company officers, as follows : 

Saratoga Compaiiy. — Captain, B. F. Judson ; first lieu- 
tenant, L. M. Wheeler. 

BnUston Cumpany. — Captain, C. C. Hill ; first lieuten- 
ant, N. P. Hammond. 

Wilfuit Company. — Captain, W. B. French ; first lieu- 
tenant. John Carr. 

Northumberland Company. — Captain, Calvin Rice; first 
lieutenant, James Terhune. 

Greenfield Company. — Captain, Lewis W^ood ; first lieu- 
tenant, William R. Carpenter. 

Charlton Company. — Captain, A. F. Beach ; first lieu- 
tenant, N. H. Brown. 

Vieslport C'r'm/Joty.^Captain, R. W. Arnold ; first lieu- 
tenant, William Douglas. 

Then came the Waterford company, Jesse White com- 
manding ; the Stillwater and Half-Moon company, J. C. 
Green commanding ; the Clifton Park company, J. B. An- 
drews commanding ; and the Edinburgh and Providence 
company, J. J. Cameron commanding ; all of which organ- 
izations wore soon after consolidated into one company, with 
J. B. Andrews as captain, Jesse White as first lieutenant, 
and John J. Cameron as second lieutenant, Mr. Green 
retiring on account of ill health. 

The Keeseville company soon after arrived, Wendell 
Lansing commandiii ; also a company from Greenwich, 
Washington county, Henry R. Stone commanding; both 
of which were subsequently consolidated, and chose Wen- 
dell Lansing captain, and Jacob F. Haywood first lieuten- 
ant. Gloversville sent a full company, commanded by N. 
S. Babcock, which was the hist, and completed the ten 
company organizations of the regiment. 

Hero at " Camp Schuyler'' the soldiers had their first 

experience of army life. They were fed by R. H. 
MoJIichael, one of the proprietors of Congress Hall, and 
soon became accustomed to the tin-plate and pint cup, roll- 
call, reveille, and tattoo. They were instructed in the 
school of the soldier and guard and camp duty. 

The officers, for a while, shared the quarters of their 
comrades, but afterwards procured accommodations at Con- 
gress Hall, and there remained, studying military tactics, 
and receiving instruction in the manual of arms, sword 
practice, and army regulations, until the regiment moved 
to the front. Recruits were added daily, and the company 
officers directed all their energies in obtaining sufficient 
men to enable them to choose second lieutenants and non- 
commissioned officers, and thus complete the company or- 

Some changes were made in company officers already 
chosen. Winsor B. French, who had been elected captain 
of the Wilton company, and held the rank of fourth cap- 
tain, at the request of the colonel, resigned and accepted 
the appointment of adjutant with the rank of first lieu- 
tenant. Wendell Lansing resigned the captaincy of the 
Keeseville company on account of age and ill health, and 
Franklin Norton, of Greenwich, was elected in his place. 
James Terhune also resigned the first lieutenancy of the 
Northumberland company, George S. Orr being chosen in 
his place. At length all the companies, having obtained 
the requisite number of enlisted men, elected their second 
lieutenants and completed their organization. The captains 
then drew by lot their places and rank in the line, as fol- 
lows: A being first; B, second, etc. 

Company A. — Read W. Arnold, captain ; William 
Douglas, first lieutenant; James H. Farusworth, second 
lieutenant, — Westport, Essex Co. 

Company B. — Clement C. Hill, captain ; Noble P. 
Hammond, first lieutenant ; Stephen S. Horton, second 
lieutenant, — Ballston Spa, Saratoga Co. 

Company C. — Benjamin F. Judson, captain ; Luther 
M. Wheeler, first lieutenant; John Patterson, .second lieu- 
tenant, — Saratoga Springs, Saratoga Co. 

Company D. — John Carr, captain ; Winsor B. French, 
adjutant and first lieutenant; Chester H. Fodow, second 
lieutenant, — Wilton, Saratoga Co. 

Company E. — Lewis Wood, captain, Greenfield, Sara- 
toga Co. ; William B. Carpenter, first lieutenant, Provi- 
dence, Saratoga Co. ; Halsey Bowe, second lieutenant, 
Saratoga, Saratoga Co. 

Company F. — Judson B. Andrews, captain, Mechanic- 
ville, Saratoga Co. ; Jesse White, first lieutenant. Water- 
ford, Saratoga Co. ; John J. Cameron, .second lieutenant, 
Saratoga, Saratoga Co. 

Company G. — Calvin Rice, captain ; George S. Orr, 
first lieutenant, — Gansevoort, Saratoga Co. Lucius E. 
Shurtleft", second lieutenant and quartermaster, Galway, 
Saratoga Co. 

Company H. — Albert F. Beach, captain ; N. Hollister 
Brown, first lieutenant, Charlton, Saratoga Co. George 
D. Story, second lieutenant, Malta, Saratoga Co. 

Company I. — Franklin Norton, captain, Greenwich, 
Wasliington Co.; Jacob F. Haywood, first lieutenant; 
Martin Lennon, second lieutenant, — Keeseville, Essex Co. , 



, Compniiy K. — Nathan S. Babcock, captain ; John W. 
McGregor, first lieutenant ; Philander A. Cobb, second 
lieutenant, — Gloversville, Fulton Co. 

Field and staff officers were then appointed as follows: 

Cuhmvl. — James B. McKean, Saratoga Springs. 

Lieutenant -OjI< 111 el. — Joseph C. Henderson, Albany. 

Major. — Selden Hetzel, Albany. 

Surgeon. — John L. Perry, BI.D., Saratoga Springs. 

Assistant Surgeon. — George T. Stevens, M.D., Westport. 

Chaplain. — David Tally, Ballston Spa. 

Adjutant. — Winsor B. French, Wilton. 

Quiirtermaatcr. — Lucius E. Shurtleff, Galway. 

All of which officers were duly commissioned by the 
governor of the State of New York, and on the 23d day 
of November, 18G1, with the enlisted men, mustered and 
sworn into the United States service " for the terra of the 
war unless sooner discharged," and on the 28th day of 
November marched out of camp and started for Washing- 
ton, D. C. They numbered as follows : 

Oflicera. Men. Total. 

Field and staff. 8 

CompaDV .\ 3 S4 87 

" ■ B 3 ill 94 

C 3 78 81 

" D 3 SO ' 83 

" E 3 80 83 

" F 3 82 85 

" G 3 83 88 

H 3 80 83 

1 3 79 82 

" K 3 87 90 

In all 864 

A few men of each company were left behind on account 
of ab.sence and sicknes.s, and joined the regiment after- 
wards. First Lieutenant N. P. Hammond being left in com- 
mand of the depot. 

During the fall about fifty recruits were enlisted by hira 
and sent on to the regiment ; and in the summer of 1862, 
the regiment liaving become greatly depleted by losses sus- 
tained in the peninsular campaign, disease, and resigna- 
tions, effiDrts were made to fill it up, and Capt. John R. 
Rockwell, 1st Lieut. William H. Fursman, and 2d Lieut. 
Cyrus F. Rich, with a company of eighty-nine men raised 
at Schuylerville, were added to it. At the same time 
Lieuts. S. S. Hastings, Joseph H. Loveland, and John W. 
Belding organized a company of sixty men and joined the 
regiment. Lawrence Van Demark, of Stillwater, and Alonzo 
Howland,of Mechanicville, recruited about sixty-four men, 
were commissioned first and second lieutenants respectively, 
and with their men were also assigned places. Maj. W. B. 
French and Lieut. David J. Caw, and others, while the 
regiment was lying at Harri.son's Landing, were sent home 
on recruiting service, recruited two hundred and thirty 
men, and thereafter about fifty men were added to the 
regiment and six officers appointed from civil life, making 
in all fifty-two officers and fourteen hundred and sixty- 
nine men who, from first to last, joined the regiment. 
Of these a large number re-enlisted in ISGi for three years 

The regiment thus organized proceeded by rail to Albany, 
thence by boat to New Y'ork city, where the resident sons of 
Saratoga gave them a splendid collation, and a beautiful 
regimental banner and guidons. " The banner was an ex- 

quisite piece of work, of the richest fabric, — a blue ground, 
with elegant designs in oil. On one side was represented 
an engagement, in which the American soldiers, led by 
Washington, were fighting under the old flag, — tliirteen 
stripes and the union jack. On the reverse was pictured 
the surrender of Burgoyne, at Saratoga, under the new 
flag, — the stars and stripes, — first unfurled in the goodly 
city of Albany, and first baptized in blood at the decisive 
battle of Bemus Heights, which resulted in the suiTender 
of Burgoyne and the virtual success of the Revolution. 

" We had already a beautiful national flag, the gift of 
the patriotic young ladies of Mr. Beecher's seminary at 

, The regiment arrived at Washington on the 1st day of 
December, and were at once ordered into camp at Meridian 
Hill, about two miles north of the city. On the 15th day 
of February, 1862, the regiment crossed the Potomac and 
joined the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division, at Camp Griffin, 
with which organization it remained through the war. It 
will be interesting to know that, at this first advance of the 
enemy, it took one hundred and thirty mule teams to move 
the camp equipage, and that after Chancellorsville but one 
team was allowed to each regiment for that purpose. The 
brigade comprised, besides our own regiment, the 33d and 
49th New York, and the 7th Jlaine, and was commanded 
by Gen. Davidson. Gen. W. F. Smith ('^ Old Baldy") 
commanded the division. 

Soon after arriving in camp the regiment had its first ex- 
perience in night marching, having been ordered out on a 
reconnaissance about six miles towards Vienna and return. 
The New York papers called it a general advance of the 
army. The army moved on the 8th day of March to 
Mana.ssas. but finding no enemy it was decided to proceed 
against Richmond by way of Fortress Monroe and the Pe- 
ninsula. Accordingly, the army was embarked and sent 
down the Potomac to the mouth of the James river, and 
debarked at Portress Monroe, the 77th at Hampton, a little 
deserted village near by. On March 26 a grand advance, 
or reconnaissance in force, was ordered. 

Here began a weeding-out process, graphically described 
by Dr. Geo. T. Stevens as follows : 

" In this advance or recoiniaissance of the whole army 
the qualities of the individual soldiers composing it were 
brought out in bold relief. The efifect on our own division 
was marked. During the months we had been in winter 
quarters many officers and men had established marvelous 
reputations for bravery and hardihood, merely by constantly 
heralding their own heroism. But from this time these 
doughty heroes went back. Officers suddenly found cau.5e 
for resigning, and enlisted men managed to get sent to the 
rear, and never showed their faces at the front again. On 
the contrary, some who were really invalids insisted on 
dragging them.selves along with the column, fearful that an 
engagement might take place in which they would not par- 
ticipate. A sifting process was thus commenced through- 
out the whole division, and, to its honor, the poltroons were 
very soon sifted out ; and from that time forth Smith's 
division never affijrdod a comfortable resting-place for men 
of doubtful courage. ' They went out from us, because 
they were not of us.' " 




On April 4 the regiment received its first baptism of fire 
at a small place on Warwick creek called Lee's Mills. Here 
the enemy were intrenched, waiting to receive the attack. 
Their line of earthworks extended across the Peninsula 
about seven miles, Yorktown being about three miles to 
the east of Lee's Mills ; and here began a "sifting process" 
that came near destroying the whole army. 

Frank Jeflbrds, Company C, was the first of our regi- 
ment killed. Comparatively few were killed outright in 
battle, but the more deadly scourge of camp fever held higli 
carnival and swept our ranks as with the besom of destruc- 
tion. Nearly one-fifth of the regiment was put hors-de- 
com/nit at this place. On the 3d and 4th of May the 
enemy retreated to William.'^burg, where they were attacked 
and defeated after a long and severe engagement. 

The 77th, with Smith's Division, stood in reserve all day 
ready to be called into action if needed, but was not 
actually engaged. On the 15th day of May, the army ad- 
vanced to White House on the Pamunky, where the 6th 
Corps was organized and the 2d Division made a part of it; 
and thereafter during the period of its service the 77lh 
formed a part of the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, and 6th 
Corps of the Army of the Potomac. 

On May 23 the regiment first came in sight of the 
rebel capital, and from a small eminence received the fire of 
a battery and the 7th and 8th Georgia Regiments, who stood 
guard in front of the little village of Mechanicsville. Dr. 
Stevens describes the affair as follows : " Wheeler's battery 
responded nobly to the rebel artillery, and presently Gen. 
Davidson ordered Col. McKean to charge the village with 
his regiment. The men rose to their feet and started fur- 
ward with a yell. Down the hill they rushed impetuously, 
cheering and yelling; but the two rebel regiments, the 7th 
and 8th Georgia, startled by the shouts, seized their mus- 
kets and ran, firing but one parting salute. Their battery 
also limbered up and beat a hasty retreat." 

From this delightful village the regiment was recalled, 
and on June 5 transferred to Golden's Farm, on the south 
bank of the Chickahominy, and their advance on the city 
of Richmond, towards which they had .so long toiled and 
struggled, forever postponed. The regiment lay here about 
three weeks, and .so near the enemy that rifle-bullets from 
their picket lines frequently came whistling into camp. 

At this time Col. ^IcKean was compelled on account of 
sickness to abandon the front and leave the regiment. The 
terrible hardships of the march, the bivouac, the camp, and 
the Chiekahoniiny swamp fevers had fearfully scathed the 
regiment, and many of its bravest ofiicers and men were 
compelled to yield to the ravages of disease. Many died 
and many were dischai-ged, the absent and sick often out- 
numbering those present and fit for duty. On June 26 
Gen. Lee began the first of the series of battles that drove 
McClellau's once magnificent army from in front of the 
rebel capital to Harri-son's Lauding on the James river. 
The result of the first day's fight was announced as a great 
victory for the Union army. The joy of the army at this 
announcement knew no bounds. Bands of music played 
which had not sounded a note fur nearly two months (not 

even a roll-call or drum-beat had been allowed, lest the 
enemy should learn our exact position); but now the air 
was filled with music, the camps were ablaze with patriotic 
fervor. All expected to march into Richmond at daylight. 
All night the regiment was under arms awaiting the hoped- 
for order to advance. Alas I alas ! the order was passed 
in whispers from camp to camp, " Leave your tents stand- 
ing ; save a few of your most valuable eflfects ; destroy the 
balance; the army must retreat. Be ready to meet any 
attack on your front and to march instantly on receiving 
the order." On the next day came the great battle of 
Gaines' Hill, just across the Chickahominy, in plain view 
of the regiment, which was all day under arms, and on 
June 28 the battle of Gaines' Farm. 

At three o'clock on Sunday morning, June 20, the 2d Di- 
vision, as the rear-guard of the army, quietly withdrew and 
marched to Savage's Station. Then came the battle of 
Savage's Station, and another repulse of the enemy ; after 
that a long and terrible night march to White Oak swamp, 
which was reached about daylight ; then a short rest, when 
a terrible artillery fire was opened upon the division by the 
rebels, described by Dr. Stevens as follows : 

'• Suddenly, like a thunderbolt, seventy-five pieces of 
artillery belched forth their sheets of flame and howling 
shells, and in an instant our whole division was thrown 
into the most perfect confusion by the deadly missiles which 
flew among us in every direction. Such cannonading had 
never before been heard by our army, and before our bat- 
teries could reply with any effect the horses were killed, 
the gunners dispersed, and the pieces disabled. It was a 
most perfect surprise ; no one was prepared ; men ran 
hither and thither seeking shelter behind any object which 
seemed sufficient even to conceal them from the view of 
the enemy." 

Then the retreat was continued. The 77th led ; Gen. 
Davidson directing that Adj. French ride at the head of 
the regiment and at his side, ready to receive any orders 
to be given to his " di-ar 77th," as he always afterwards 
called it. On the next day occurred the great battle of 
Malvern Hill. The 6th Corps held the right of the line, 
and was not actually engaged ; then the further retreat to 
Harrison's Landing. Dr. Stevens thus speaks of the part 
the 77th took in this campaign : 

" Since the arrival of the army on the Peninsula the 
experiences of the regiment have been varied. With the 
other regiments of Smith's Division it has spent a month 
at Yorktown, within musket-shot of the enemy. At Wil- 
liamsburg it, with other regiments of its brigade, supported 
batteries in front of Fort Magruder, and when, in the 
afternoon, it received the order to go with the 49th to the 
a.ssistance of Hancock, it started forward with cheers; the 
men going through the mud at double-quick. But when 
the two regiments arrived on the field their gallant brothers 
of Hancock's and of their own brigade had nobly accom- 
plished the work in which they would gladly have assisted. 

" We have seen how gallantly the regiment routed the 
rebels at Mechanicsville, capturing a flag and other trophies ; 
and when on the Chickahominy Smith's Division held the 
line closest upon the enemy, it bravely assumed its part of 
the labor and danger. A portion of the regiment on picket 



on tho 28th of June exhibited sterling; heroism ; and we 
need hardly refer to tho noble sacrifice of that brave young 
soldier, John Ham. Disease and exhaustion had made 
terrible inroads upon the 77th. Instead of nearly a thou- 
sand men, with whom wo came to the Peninsula, inspection 
in the middle of June siiowed only about two hundred and 
fifty men present for duty. Although this reninieiit had, 
from the very beginning, occupied an exposed position in 
the very front line ; although it composed a part of Smith's 
Division, which had already become famous, both in the 
Union and rebel armies, for being always in closest prox- 
imity to tlie enemy, yet it had thus far lost very few men 
in battle. All the rest of those now absent had been 
stricken down by fevers, or worn out by the exhausting 
labors and exposures of the camp:iign. Among those 
attacked by typhoid fever was Col. McKean. After suifer- 
iug a few days in the vain hope of soon being able to place 
himself again at the head of his regiment, he was removed 
from the poisonous atmosphere of the swamps to Washington, 
and thence to his home in Saratoga. The men looked upon 
his departure with sincere regret, for they not only respected 
him as an able commander, but loved him for his never- 
failing interest in their welfare. He had been to the regi- 
ment in the capacity of commander and father. His leave 
of the regiment was destined to be final ; for, except as an 
occasional visitor, he never returned to it. 

" Lieut. Bowe, a young man of fine abilities and greatly 
beloved by his regiment, after several weeks of absence, 
returned to camp on the 18th of July restored to health. 
On the very next day, while standing with several officers 
in a tent, he was fatally wounded by an accidental shot 
from a pistol, and died soon after. 

" Changes occurred among the officers. The lieutenant- 
colonel and major left the service, — the first by resignation ; 
the other by dismissal. Adj. French was made major, and 
afterwards lieutenant-colonel, which office he held during 
the remainder of the term of the regiment." 


On the 16th of August came the order to " pack up 
and be ready to move," and at midday the regiment left 
with delight its camp at Harrison's Landing. Two days' 
march brought it to Williamsburg, a third to Yorktown, 
another to Big Bethel, and a fifth to Hampton, where boats 
were waiting to transport the army to Alexandria. What 
a change ! Five months before it had debarked on those 
very wharves, and stepped proudly out, the most splendid 
army in the world ; now it was broken, dispirited, beaten, 
and humiliated. Look at the 77th. Then the ranks were 
full, officers and men healthy, proud, full of esprit de 
corps, firmly believing that nothing could oppose their 
onward march. Now, how changed ! Not a field-ofiicer 
present to command it, many of its bravest and best lying 
scattered from Hampton to Richmond in unmarked graves, 
many dying in rebel hospitals and prison pens, and many 
languishing on beds of sickness ; the remainder bronzed 
and brown, hardened by war, saddened by defeat, drilled 
into veterans, ready for victory or for defeat. 

The regiment arrived at Alexandria, with the fith Corps, 
on the 2iid of August. It was not engaged in the second 

Bull Run battle, but acted as part of the rear-guard of 
Pope's retreating army from Centreville to Washington. 
It participated in the Maryland campaign, and took part 
in the battles of Crampton Pass and Antietam. 

Its share in the latter battle is thus described by Dr. 
Stevens : 

" It was at this critical moment, when Sumner's troops, 
weary and almost out of ammunition, were for the third 
time repulsed, . . . that the Sixth Corps, our second di- 
vision in advance, arrived upon the field. The scene before 
us was awful. On the left, as far as the eye could reach, 
the lines of the contending forces, stretching over hills and 
through valleys, stood face to face, in some places not more 
than thirty yards apart. The roar of the musketry rolled 
along the whole extent of the battle-field. The field upon 
which we had now entered, thrice hotly contested, was 
strewed with the bodies of friend and foe. Without waiting 
to take breath, each regiment, as soon as it arrives on the 
field, is ordered to charge independently of the others. . . . 
On the right of the 7th Maine come the glorious 49th and 
our own 77th, Capt. Babcock in command. On the right 
of all is the old 33d, within supporting distance. The men 
of the 77th )ush forward and receive the fire nobly, and 
although far ahead of all the other regiments, it stands its 
ground and returns the fire with spirit, although it is but 
death to remidn thus in the advance. The brave color-bearer, 
Joseph Murer, falls shot through the head ; but the colors 
scarcely touch the ground when they are seized and again 
flaunted in the face of the enemy. Volley after volley 
Clashes through our ranks ; our comrades fall on every side ; 
yet the little band stands firm as a rock, refusing to yield 
an inch. At this juncture Gen. Smith, riding along the 
line and discovering the advanced and unprotected position 
of the regiment, exclaims, ' There's a regiment gone,' and 
sends an aid to order it to retire. ... It did so, and re- 
formed again with a loss of thirty-three killed and wounded. 

" The advent of the 6th Corps upon the field had decided 
the contest upon the right of the line, and after the first 
charge of the 3d Brigade the battle lulled. Of all the 
brilliant charges made in the army on that memorable day, 
none was more gallant or more important in its lesults than 
this noble charge of the 3d Brigade of Smith's Division." 

Before the army left Harrison's Landing, Maj. French, 
Lieut. Caw, and others had been ordered to Saratoga 
Springs on recruiting duty, and through their exertions, 
aided by the patriotic efforts of the people of Saratoga 
County, large accessions were made to the regiment. Dr. 
Stevens thus describes some of the methods used and the 
prevailing excitement : 

" In Saratoga a large concourse of people . . . gathered 
for a war-meeting. Stirring speeches were made. Ladies 
offered their diamond rings, their watch-chains, their 
watches, and other valuables to those who should come 
forward and enter the service. Under the influence of 
such enthusiasm many came forward and enrolled their 
names, and received the jewels from the fair hand.s of the 
patriotic donors." 

In October, 1862, Col. French, with Lieut. Caw and a 
large number of recruits, joined the regiment, took com- 
mand, and thoroughly reorganized it, Co.'s F and K being 



consolidated, and Co. K being replaced by the new com- 
pany from Schuylerville, and other recruits were assigned 
to Co.'s D. and I. The regiment was held in reserve at 
the first battle of Fredericksburg, and met with no loss. 
It went into winter quarters at White Oak Church, shared 
in " Burnside's mud march," and all the festivities of the 
camp so pleasantly described by Dr. Stevens. 

" We had our share of disease and desertions. We had 
our ball-players and our violinists, our singers and our story- 
tellers, as every regiment had, and at regimental lieadquar- 
ters matters went on gayly." 


On May 1, 18G3, the Army of the Potomac crossed the 
Rappahannock a second time, and the 6th Corps was or- 
dered to carry by assault the " Heights of Fredericksburg." 
Storming columns were formed ; the 3d Brigade of the 2d 
Division preceded by the 77th, under command of Col. 
French, as skirmishers, led the advance. Stevens writes : 

" It was a moment of contending emotions of pride, hope, 
and sadness, as our gallant boys stood face to face with those 
heights, ready to charge upon them. At double-quick and 
in splendid style they crossed the plain. Our lino was per- 
fect. The men could not have made a more orderly ap- 
pearance had they been on drill. Proud of their commands, 
Gens. Howe and Neill, and Col. Grant, cheered the men 
onward, while Lieut.-Col. French, in charge of the skirmish 
line, inspired by his own intrepid behavior the utmost con- 
fidence and bravery in liis men. They took the matter as 
coolly as though on parade. ... A more grand spectacle 
cannot be imagined. There were the hills, enough to fatigue 
any man to climb them without a load and with no one to At the foot of the hills were thousands of the 
enemy, pouring into them volleys of musketry, and on the 
heights were their lines of earthworks with their artillery, 
from which poured grape and canister in a frightful storm. 
But the boys pushed nobly, steadily on, the rebels steadily 
retreating, the division coming up in splendid style, Gens. 
Howe and Neill and Col. Grant directing the movements 
and cheering on the men as they pressed undauntedly against 
the murderous storm of iron and lead that met them from 
above. Our men were falling in every direqtion, but the 
lines were immediately closed and on they passed. With 
shouts and cheers that drowned the roar of artillery, the 
noble division with bayonets fixed mounted the heights, the 
rebels retreating in confusion. Of that noble column, the 
skirmishers of the 77th first reached the heights of Marye's 
Hill, the 33d New York in line of battle following, and then 
the Gth Vermont. . . . 

" The 77th New York captured a stand of colors belong- 
ing to the 18th Mississippi regiment, two heavy guns, a 
large number of prisoners, among whom was Col. Luce, of 
the 18th Mi.ssi.ssippi, and great numbers of .small arms. 
As the regiment reached the heights and took possession 
of the guns. Gen. Howe rode up and, taking off his hat, 
exclaimed, ' Noble 77th ! you have covered yourselves 
with glory !' The general's' words were greeted with 
tumultuous cheers. . . . Thus the heights were won. It 
was a glorious day for the 6th Corps. Never was a charge 

more gallantly made. But it was a sad day, for many 
scores of our brave comrades lay stretched in death along 
the glacis and on the steep ascent, in the ravines and along 
the road. . . . The 77th New York was among the 
greatest losers. . . . 

" Captain Luther M. Wheeler, of the 77th, was shot 
while we halted at the foot of Marye's Hill. It was a sad 
loss to this regiment and to the corps. Few more gifted 
young men could be found in the army. He was one of 
our bravest and most efficient officers. Gentle in his re- 
lations with his fellows, cool and daring in battle, his 
youthful fiice, beaming with fortitude, was a continual joy 
to his men in time of danger. He died as he had lived, a 

In the next day's fight, when the 6th Corps was pressed 
by Lee's whole army, the 77th held the left front of the 
line and bore the shock with the same intrepidity as before. 

After the army had been withdrawn I'rom this disastrous 
campaign it remained encamped near White Oak Church 
until called to follow Lee into Pennsylvania. 

The march from that encampment to Manchester, Penn- 
sylvania, will ever be remembered by the regiment. It 
tested the strength and endurance of the men to the ut- 
most. In four days they had marched* over one hundred 
miles, and at midnight of the fourth the stern command, 
" Fall in !" rang out, and the wearied men roused them- 
selves at once and started to relieve Reynolds at Gettys- 
burg. All night and all day the men pressed on, on, on, 
only halting ten minutes for breakfast. The roads being 
occupied by the artillery and wagon-trains, the infantry 
picked their way through the fields. In fourteen hours 
the regiment marched thirtj'-six miles, with only such food 
and drink as the men could snatch during occasional five- 
minute halts. The field of battle was reached, however, in 
time, and the knowledge that the " fighting 0th Corps"' 
was in reserve nerved the arms of their comrades in that 
most terrible of modern combats. It was not actually en- 
gaged, but stood a sure support at the post of greatest 
honor, — in reserve. 

After Gettysburg the 3d Brigade followed Lee's army 
over the mountains to Waynesboro', and among the pleas- 
antest incidents of army life were the encampment and 
picket duty on Antietam creek, the march again across the 
Potomac, along the Blue Riugo among the blackberries to 
Warrenton, the delightful camp at Hart's Mills, outpost 
duty on the banks of the Rapidan, with no enemy visible 
in front, and the three weeks at Stone House Mountain. 
It was at the latter place that occurred the pleasant inci- 
dent of the presentation to Col. French of an elegant sword 
by the line-officers of the regiment, the festivities incident 
thereto, the torchlight procession of the 7th Jlaine Regi- 
ment, marching into camp to oft'er congratulations to the 
officers and men ou the pleasant relations existing between 

At length, on December 1, came the short and fruitless 
campaign of Mine Run, — those bitter cold nights of suffi;r- 
ing, — and the return to camp at Brandy Station The 
regiment had the extreme right-front in the expected at- 
tack, and was rear-guard to the whole army on its with- 
drawal across the Rapidan. 



After the winter's cantonment of 1863-64 at Brandy 
Station, came 


On the 4th of May, 18G4, the regiment broke camp and 
marched beyond the Eapidan, and on the next day tooii an 
active part in tlie of that terrible series of engage- 
ments known as the battles of the Wilderness, in all of 
which it actively participated. 


On the 8th of May the 6th Corps arrived at Spottsyl- 
vania, and on the 10th was called upon to make one of the 
most leniarkable charges on record, which is described by 
Dr. Stevens as follows : 

At five o'clock the men of the corps were ordered to un- 
sling knapsacks and divest themselves of every incum- 
brance, preparatory to a charge. Col. Upton, commanding 
the 2d Brigade of the 1st Division, was directed to take 
twelve picked regiments from the corps and lead them in a 
charge against the right centre of the rebel line. The 77th 
was chosen one of the twelve. " It was indeed an honor to 
be selected for this duty, but it was an honor to be paid fur 
at the cost of fearful peril. . . . 

" At six o'clock all things were ready, and the artillery, 
from the eminences in our rear, opened a terrific fire, send- 
ing the shells howling and shrieking over the heads of the 
charging column and plunging into the works of the enemy. 
This was the signal for the attack, and Col. Upton's clear 
voice rang out : ' Attention, battalidiis ! Forward, Jouhle 
quick ' Charge !' And in an instant every man was on 
his feet, and with tremendous cheers, which were answered 
by the wild yells of the rebels, the column rushed from 
the cover of the woods. Quick as lightning a sheet of 
flame burst from the rebel line, and the leaden hail swept 
the ground over which the column was advancing, while 
the canister from the artillery came crashing through our 
ranks at every step, and scores and hundreds of our brave 
fellows fell, literally covering the ground. But, nothing 
daunted, the noble fellows rushed upon the defenses, leap- 
ing over the ditch in front and mounting the breastworks. 
The rebels made a determined resistance, and a hand-to- 
hand tight ensued, until, with their bayonets, our men had 
filled the rifle-pits with bleeding rebels. About two thou- 
sand of the survivors of the struggle surrendered, and were 
immediately marched to the rear under' guard. Without 
halting for breath, the impetuous column rushed towards 
the second line of works, which was equally as strong as 
the first. The resistance here was less strong than at the 
first line, yet the gray occupants of the rifle-pits refused to 
fly until forced back at the point of the bayonet. Our 
ranks were now fearfully thinned, yet the brave fellows 
passed on to the third line of the defenses, which was also 
captured. . . . 

" Capt. Carpenter, of the 77th, one of its first and best 
ofiicers, and Lieut. Lyon, a young officer of great bravery, 
were killed in the interior line of works, and many other 
noble fellows of that regiment were left on that fatal field." 

On the next day occurred the struggle for the " Angle," 
when the regiment fought hand to hand with the enemy ; 

after that a long night march, and on the 17th of May a 
charge, under a galling fire, across a field covered with 
abatis to the second line of the enemy's works, and a re- 
pulse therefrom with heavy loss. Then the marches by 
night and fights by day until Cold Harbor was reached, 
where the useless sacrifice of life was terrible ; the 77th 
Regiment holding the front and most advanced line most of 
the time, and being constantly exposed to the enemy's fire, 
it not ceasing even during the night. On the 10th of June 
the army was moved to Petersburg, where the regiment 
again received the shock of battle. Here it was that the 
three James', — James Barnes, James Lawrence, and James 
Allen, — all belonging to Company A, each lost a leg and 
two others wounded by the explosion of a single shell fired 
from the enemy's guns in the midst of the regiment. On 
the 9th of July the 1st and 2d Divisions of the 6th Corps 
left the front at nine o'clock in the evening, and, marching 
all night, arrived at City Point on the James river at day- 
light, whence it was immediately transported to Wa.shing- 
ton, to defend the capital against the threatened attack by 
the rebels under Jubal Early. 

Thus the regiment left the Army of the Potomac, with 
which it had fought so long and so well, and to which as a 
regiment it was never destined to return. The two divi- 
sions arrived at Washington on July IH, and marched 
through its crowded streets amid the shouts of the people, 
who came out to meet them, crying, " This is the old 6th 
Corps," " These are the men who took Marye's Heights,"' 
" We are safe now." The city, which a few hours before 
had been wild with fright, was now calm with the assurance 
that their homes were safe, and that the invaders would 
soon be driven from their soil by the boys who wore the 
Greek cross. 

The President and large numbers of the city oflScials 
had gathered in Fort Stevens, before which Early was sta- 
tioned, to witness the fight. Soon Col. French was ordered 
to take his own, the 7th Maine, and the 49th New 
York Regiments, and drive the enemy from its position in 
front of the fort ; and to that end, to move his command 
under the brow of a hill to a point designated, and, when 
ready to advance, to signal the corps commander. The new 
flag of the 77th, not yet baptized in blood, waved the 
signal of readiness. The guns of the fort sent a few 
rounds of shell towards the enemy, doing no apparent 
damage, however, and Gen. Wright gave the signal for the 
charge, which is thus described by Dr. Stevens ; 

" In magnificent order and with light steps they ran 
forward up the ascent, through the orchard, through the 
little grove on the right, over the rail-fence, up to the road, 
making straight for the first objective point, — the frame in front. The rebels at first stood their ground, then 
gave way before the impetuous charge. The President, the 
members of his cabinet, and the ladies, as well as the mili- 
tary officers in the fort, and the crowd of soldiers and 
citizens who had gathered about it to witness the fight, 
watched with breathless interest the gallant advance as our 
boys pushed forward, keeping their line of battle perfect, 
except when now and then some regiment, having the ad- 
vantage of ground in its favor, in its eagerness got a little 
in advance of others, until they saw the rebels take to 



flight. Then the crowd at the fort rent the air with 
exultant cheers, and, as the boys reached the liouse, the 
people were wild with excitement, shoutiiij; and clapping 
their hands, leaping and dancing with joy. But the 
rebels did not yield without resistance. They met our 
men bravely, and, though forced to seek safety in flight, 
turned and poured their volleys into the ranks of their pur- 
suers, which told fearfully on them, and many were killed 
and wounded. 

..." Col. French, of the 77th, was injured, but not 
severely. The commanding oflicer of every regiment in 
the brigade was either killed or wounded." 


After the battle of Fort Stevens the 6th Corps' joined 
tlie Army of the Shenandoah, to the command of which, 
after a long series of marches and countermarches, and 
much time spent in dancing attendance on Early, Gen. 
Philip II. Sheridan was assigned, aud very soon attacked 
and routed the enemy at Winchester, in which battle the 
77th participated, losing heavily. There it was that Sheri- 
dan, riding up to Gen. Bidwell, in the very front, shouted, 
in the presence of the 77th, " Press them, general, they'll 
run ! G — d d — n them, I know they'll run ! Press them." 
The result justified his spirited prophecy. After Winches- 
ter, Early retreated to Strasburg, where he occupied a po- 
sition seemingly impregnable. Our leader, however, was 
not a man to be daunted, and at once made his arrange- 
ments to drive the rebels from their strong position. Here 
Col. French, who had charge of the corps picket line, was 
slightly wounded in a preliminary skirmish. The attack 
was soon made, and the rebels utterly discomfited. 

On October 19 occurred the battle of Cedar Creek, that 
glorio«s struggle, where a reinforcement of one man— Sheri- 
dan, who was at the time absent at Winchester — changed 
defeat into victory. Early attacked at two o'clock in the 
morning, and completely surprised the 8th Corps, which 
became utterly demoralized and panic-stricken. The 19th 
Corps was vigorously attacked, and forced to retreat in 
confusion, and, to quote from Dr. Stevens, — 

'• It was at this critical moment that the warning was 
given to the 6th Corps. Gen. Wright being in command 
of the army, the corps was in. charge of Gen. Ricketts. 
He at once faced the corps to the rear, and moved it over 
the plain in the face of the advancing hosts of the enemy. 
. . . The 2d Division held the left of the new line, the 
1st the centre, and the 3d the right. . . . 

" We now waited the onset of the victorious columns 
which were driving the shattered and disorganized frag- 
ments of the 8th and 19th Corps, beaten and discouraged, 
wildly through our well-formed ranks to the rear. The hope 
of the nation now rested with those heroes of many bloody 
fields. Now that peerless band of veterans, the wearers of 
the Greek cross, whose fame was already among the choicest 
treasures of American history, was to show to the country 
and the world an exhibition of valor which should tower 
above all the grand achievements of the war. The corps, 
numbering less than twelve thousand men, now confronted 
Early's whole army of more than thirty thousand men, 
who, flushed with victory, already bringing to bear against 

us the twenty-one guns wliich they had just captured from 
the two broken corps, rushed upon our lines with those 
wild, exultant yells, the terror of which can never be con- 
ceived by those who have not heard them on the field. 
With fearless impetuosity the rebel army moved up the 
gentle rise of ground in front of the 6th Corps, and the 
attack from one end of the line to the other was simul- 
taneous. It was like the clash of steel to steel. The as- 
tonished columns were checked. They had found an 
immovable obstacle to their march of victory. 

" The 2d Division, on the left nearest the pike, had re- 
ceived the most severe shock of the attack. Bidwell's 
Brigade held the extreme left, the key to the pike, and sus- 
tained the attack of the whole of Kershaw's rebel division, 
which came up in compact order to within very close range. 
The gallant brigade received the onset with full volleys, 
which caused the right of the rebel line to stagger back, and 
the whole line was, almost at the same moment, repulsed 
by the corps. The cavalry on our flank — and never braver 
men than the cavalry of our little army mounted saddles — ■ 
were doing their best to protect the pike leading to Win- 
chester, and it was the great aim of both the cavalry and 
the single organized corps of infantry to hold this pike ; for 
on this depended the .safety of the whole army and, more, 
of our cause. Gen. Bidwell ordered his brigade to charge. 
Rising from their places in the little grave-yard and the 
grove, the brigade rushed forward, the rebels breaking and 
running in confusion down the declivity which they had 
but just ascended with such confidence, and across the little 
stream. But the rebel artillery sent our men back to their 
places, to the shelter of the roll of ground. The charge 
cost us dearly. . . . Capt. Lennon of the 77th was mor- 
tally wounded, Lieut. Tabor was killed, . . . and many 
other valuable lives were lost ; but the most severe blow to 
the brigade and the corps was the loss of our gallant Gen. 
Bidwell. He fell, while bravely directing the charge, with 
a frightful shell wound. 

..." The fall of Gen. Bidwell left Col. French of the 
77th in command of the brigade. The line was quickly 
reformed in tlie position from which the charge was made, 
and again the rebels came on with cheers and yells. They 
were as bravely met as before, and a second countercharge 
sent them again iu disorder across the creek, leaving the 
ground covered with their dead and wounded. The great- 
est shock of the second charge of the rebels had fallen upon 
our 3d Brigade, and nobly had it been met. ... At length 
a new line was formed just north of Middletown, which was 
about two miles in the rear of the position held by the 2d 
Division of our corps early in the morning. . . . 

" The grand old 6th Corps, directed by our own loved 
Gen. Getty, had turned the fortune of the day. It was 
now ten o'clock ; far away in the rear was heard cheer after 
cheer. What was the cause ? Were reinforcements coming ? 
Yes ; Phil. Sheridan was coming, and he was a host. He 
had ridden from Winchester at amazing speed, and now, as 
he passed the long trains of ambulances in which were the 
hundreds of bleeding victims of the morning's work, the 
wounded men, whose shattered limbs or mangled bodies 
attested that they had not run away, raised themselves and 
cheered with wild enthusiasm the hero of the valley. . . . 



" Dashing along the pike, he came upon the line of 
battle. ' What troops are those?' shouted Sheridan. ' The 
6th Corps,' was the response from a hundred voices. ' We 
are all right!' said Sheridan, as he swung his old hat, and 
dashed along the line towards the right. ' Never ruind, 
boys, we'll whip them yet! We shall sleep in our old 
quarters to-night I' . . . 

" At three o'clock, Sheridan gave the order to move, 
wheeling from right to left, as a gate swings upon its 
hinges. The 3d Division, on the right of our corps, be- 
came for a moment embarrassed in passing through a strip 
of woods; the 1st Division moved slowly but firmly, gain- 
ing a strong position. The 2d Division also advanced, but 
were ordered to go very slowly, and this was iar more 
difficult than to rush quickly over the ground. Yet the 
division obeyed the order, and forced the rebels to fall 
back. In front of the 1st and 2d Brigades was a stone 
wall. This they seized and were at once partially .sheltered ; 
but there was no such protection for the 3d Brigade. In 
its front was a meadow and a gradually inclined plane, and 
behind a wall, which skirted the crest, was the rebel line. 
Between that line and ours, in a hollow, .stood a brick mill, 
from the windows of which the enemy's sharpshooters* 
picked off our men. The galling fire from the line of 
battle, and the fatal shots of the sharpshooters in the mill, 
made it impossible to advance slowly, and the line fell back. 
Our best men were falling fast. 

" The color-sergeant of the 77th fell dead ; another ser- 
geant seized the flag and fell. Adj. Gilbert Thomas, a 
youth of rare beauty and surpassing bravery, seized the 
fallen flag. Ho cried, ' Forward, men !' and fell dead with 
the staff grasped in his hands. ' I cannot take my brigade 
over that field slowly,' said Col. French. ' Then go quickly,' 
responded Gen. Getty. The word was given, and with a 
bound and a shout the noble brigade went across the field, 
(juickly driving the Confederates from their strong position. 

" By this time the right of the army had started the 
rebels, and their whole line was giving way. The three 
divisions of the 6th Corps bounded forward and commenced 
the wildest race that had ever been witnessed, even in that 
valley, so fiimous for the flight of beaten armies. The 
rebel lines were completely broken, and now in utmost con- 
fusion every man was going in greatest haste towards Cedar 
creek. Our men, with wild enthusiasm, with shouts and 
cheers, regardless of order or formation, joined in the hot 
pursuit. There was our mortal enemy, who had but a few 
hours since driven us unceremoniously from our camps, now 
beaten, routed, broken, bent on nothing but the most rapid 

"... From the point where we broke the rebel ranks 
to the crossing of Cedar creek was three miles, an open 
plain. Over this plain and down the pike the panic- 
stricken army was flying, while our soldiers, without ever 
stopping to load their pieces, were charging tardy batteries 
with empty muskets, seizing prisoners by scores and hun- 
dreds. ..." 

So the battle ended, and the 6th Corps was ordered to 
occupy the same spot from which it so suddenly decamped 
to meet the enemy iu the eai-ly morning. 

With this grand and wonderful battle the fighting ex- 

perience of the 77th Regiment closed, and, its term of 
service having expired, it was ordered to Saratoga Springs 
to be mustered out, where it arrived on the 23d of Novem- 
ber, 1864. just three years after the day of its mustering 
in. The regiment was received with all the love and 
honor a patriotic people could bestow. A committee of 
the most prominent citizens had been appointed to make 
arrangements for its reception, and an crowd 
assembled at the depot to welcome the little (only fourteen 
officers and one hundred and five men) band of icar-wurn 
soldiers, — a mere remnant of the thirteen hundred and 
sixty-nine noble men who had gone from there three years 
before. They were escorted to the public hall, where they 
were welcomed by the president of the village on behalf of 
the people of Saratoga, and, after a prayer by D. E. TuUy, 
the first chaplain, Col. James B. WcKean delivered an ad- 
dress, which was responded to by Col. French, after which 
Dr. Luther F. Beecher read a poem of welcome, written by 
Mrs. M. C. Beecher. In the evening a splendid banquet 
was tendered them by the citizens of Saratoga Springs, at 
the American Hotel. Speeches were made by Hon. C. S. 
Lester, William A. Sackett, Hon. James M. Marvin, Hon. 
A. Pond, Dr. Beecher, Hon. James M. Cook, W. M. Potter, 
and others, and by many officers and soldiers of the regi- 

On the 13th day of December, 1S64, the 77th Regi- 
ment was duly paid and mustered out of the service, hav- 
ing served feithfully for three years, the whole term of its 
enlistment. As has been previously stated, many of the men 
who enlisted during the winter of 1863-64 re-enlisted, 
and, together with the recruits added to the regiment in 
1862 and later, were formed into a battalion, under the 
command of Capt. D. J. Caw, and as.signed to the place 
vacated by the regiment, and remained in the service until 
the close of the war. The battalion, with the 6th Corps, 
on Dec. 9, 1864, returned to the vicinity of Petersburg. 

On the 26th of March the 3d Brigade was ordered to 
take and hold the rebel jiicket line to the left of our army, 
which it did with some loss, Capt. Oakey, Lieut. Pierce, 
and many others being killed. In the charge of the 6th 
Corps, April 2, which broke the rebel lines, the 77th and 
4I)th New York had the advance, the corps being formed 
en echelon, like a wedge. .Dr. Stevens thus describes the 
charge : 

" Axemen were ready to be sent forward to remove aba- 
tis, and Capt. Adams had twenty cannoneers ready to man 
captured guns. Every commanding officer of battalions was 
informed what he was expected to do, and thus all was in 
readiness. At half-past four in the morning of April 2 
the signal-gun from Fort Fisher sounded the advance. 
Without wavering, through the darkness, the wedge which 
was to split the Confederacy was driven home. The abatis 
was passed, the breastworks mounted, the works were our 
own. Thousands of prisoners, many stands of colors, and 
many guns were our trophies, while many of our friends, 
dead or wounded, was the price of our glory." 

This was the crowning act of the war. Lee's army was 
broken and put to rout ; then came the fight at Sailor's 
creek, and then the surrender of the Army of Virginia, 
which for three years had stood before the Army of the 



Potomac like a wall of fire. The war over, the battalion 
returned to Albany, where it was mustered out June 27, 

This is the history, in brief, of Saratoira County's pet 
regiment, the 77th, a record of noble deeds without a 
single blot. It never by any act on the field or in the camp, 
on the march or in the fight, disgraced the county from 
which it was sent. It never flinched or wavered from any 
duty, however perilous, which was assigned to it, nor, until 
properly ordered, did it ever turn its back upon the foe. 
From the beginning to the end of its service the regiment 
bore its colors untouched by the hands of the enemy. They 
were often shattered and torn by shot and shell, often lev- 
eled to the dust by the death or wounds of their bearers, 
but they were always kept sacred, and on the muster-out of 
the regiment were deposited in the Bureau of Militar}' Sta- 
tistics at Albany. 

A beautiful Quincy granite monument, surmounted by a 
bronze statue of a soldier, erected to the memory of the 
dead of the regiment, stands in a public square in the vil- 
lage of Saratoga Springs. The plain Greek cross and the 
words " 77th Regiment New York State Volunteers," cut 
upon Its face, indicate that the soldiers whose deeds it com- 
memorates belonged to the 77th Regiment New York State 
Volunt-eers, of the 2d Division of the Gth Corps, Army of 
the Potomac. 

The following is a list of the officers of the Seventy- 
seventh Regiment, N. Y. Vols., with promotions, discharges, 
resignations, and deaths, from Nov. 23, 1861, to close of 
war : 


Jiiiiies B. McICcan, col., resigned July 27, ISGii. 

Jusi-pli C. Hcndorsiin, lieiU.-col., resigned June 19, 1862. 

Seidell Hetzel, niaj., <lisiiiissed by ortler of secretary of war, May 1 j, 1SG2. 

Lucius Sliin tliffc, tj. in., resigned June 21, ISGi. 

John L. Perry, 8urg., resigned Feb. 1, 1802. 

Augustus Campbell, surg., resigned Feb. 7, 18G3. 

Jiilin M. Fny, asst. surg , dismissed Marcti 2, IS&J. 

David Tully, chap., resigned July S, 18r.>. 

Winiiijr IJ. Frencli, adj., promoted niaj. Juno 1, 1S02 ; licut.-col. July 18, 1802 ; 
fol. Aug. 2"), I86;i (ruit mustered out as cul., regt. being reduced below 
minimum number of men ; breveted brig.-gen. U. S. Vols., for gallant 
and meritorious conduct on the field ; mustered out witli regt. 

Nathnn S. Babcock, capt., promoted nrij. Aug. 31, 1862; mustered out with 

William H. Fursinan, 1st lient., Cd. K, promoteil adj. Ulay 3, ]86;{; resigned 
Feb. 12, lS6-t. 

Lawreiiee Van Dcuiark, 2d lieut., Cm. (', promoted 1st lieut. Feb. l^!, ISiU ; adj. 
Feb. 2;'., 1864 ; resigned Sept. :jn, lS(i4. 

William W. Wordeu, seigt., Co. C, promoted 2d lieut. Nov. 23, 1803; adjt. Oct. 
24, 1801; mustered out with regt. 

Thomas M. White, private, Co. C, promoted Feb. 27, 1803; com. sergt. Feb. 1(1, 
18GJ, 2d lient ; March, 18G5, 1st lieut. and adjt. ; mustered (Uit with bat- 
talion ; breveted major for services rendered in battle, .\pril 2, 1865. 

Jacob F. Hay ward, 1st lieut., Co. I, promoted quar.-nias. June 21, 18G2; mus- 
tered out with regt. 

George T. Stevens, asst. surg., promoted Feb. 27, 18G3, surg.; mustered out 
with rogt. 

Jn&tin G. Thompson, asst. surg., Nov. 17, 18G2 ; transferred and mustered out 
with battitlioti. 

Nornnin Fox, Jr., chaplain, appointed from civil life Dec. 10, 1862; mustered 
out with regt. 

Job S. Safford, promoted from sergt., Co. F, to sergt.-major. 

Seymour Bunch, sergt.-major; discharged Feb. 1, 1862. 

Wemiell Lansing, com.serg.; discliarged. 

Aaron B. Quivey, private, Co. C, promoted June 5, 1862, com. sergt.; dis- 
charged March 1, 1861; re-enlisted, and Uilk-d on picket May 18, 1804. 

Luther F. Irish, prin. musician ; discharged. 

Isaac D. Clapp, Corp., Co. C, promoted May 15, 1802, sergt.-major; June 1, 1S62, 
adjt.; Juno G, 1803, capl.; June 13, 1864, major (but not mustered); mus- 
tered out with regt. 

Wra. A. De Long, asst. surg., appointed from civil life JIarch 2,1863; mustered 
out with regf. 

Chas. D. Thurber, private, Co. D, promoted q-m. sergt.; afterwards 2il lieut., 

Co. E; thenq.-m,; mustered out with battalion. 
Andrew Van Wie, private, Co. C, juomoted July 1, 1804, prin. mus. 
Alex. V. Wiildrnn, private, Co. D, promoted Sept. 8, 1802, hosp. Ptew. 
Sidney O. Ci'omach, sergt. Co. B, ju-omoted May 3, 1863, sergt.-maj.; June 5, 

1863, 1st lieut.; discharged March 11, 1805. 
George H. Gillis, sergt. Co. C, promoted N..v. 17, 1862, sergt.-maj.; Fob.2n, 18G3, 

2d lieut. ; mustered out with regiment. 
Edwards. Armstrong, corporal Co. C, promoted Jan. 1. 1862, q.-m, sergt.; May 

19, 1S62, 1st lieut. Co. B; discharged Jan. 14, 1863. 
Thomas S. Fowler, private, Co. D, promoted Aiiril 3, 1862, q.-m. sergt.; Oct. 2, 

18GJ, 2d lieut.; discharged ou account of wounds, Aug. 12, 1801. 
Gilbert F. Thomas, corporal Co. C, promoted Jan. 6, 1803; 2d lieut., May 1, 

1803; killed in action Oct. 19, 1864, Cedar Creek. 
Chas. H. Davis, sergt. Co. D, Feb. IS, 1865, promoted a Ij. of baltaliou ; April 22, 

1865, captain ; mustered out with battalion. 
Obed M. Coleman, private Co. C, promoted q.-m. sergt. 
Eilward II. Tliorn, private Co. C, promoted com. sergt. 
Duvid J. Caw, promoted to 2d lieut., Co. H, »lay 21, 1802; Ist lient. Sept. 23, 

1862; capt. Deo. 10, 1862; maj. Dec. 20, 1804; lieut.-col. Dec. 24, 18G4 ; 

col. July 6, 1865 (not mustered as colonel); mustered out with battalion. 

Cmnpany A. 
Capt. Ruel W. Arnold, resigned April 3, 1S62. 
Ifit Lieut. William Douglas, resigned April 21, 1802. 
1st Lieut. Stephen S. Ua-stings, resigned Dec. 23, 1802. 
2d Lieut. James H. Farnsworth, resigned Feb. 8, 18G2. 
Capt. George S. Orr, promoted from lieut. April 3, 1862 ; lost right arm at Cedar 

Creek; mustered out with regt. 
Capt. Charles E. Stevens, promoted March 21, 1862, 2d lieut.; Jan. 23, 18G:J, 1st 

lieut.; Sept, 10, 1864, captain ; commissioned but not mustered colonel; 

mustered out with battalion. 
2d Lient. Lewis T. Vanderwerker, promoted Jan. 27, 1803, 2a lieut. ; Nov. 10, 1803, 

1st lieut. ; mustered out with regt. 
2d Lieut. Sorell Fountain, promoted April 22, 1865, 2d lieut.; mustered out 

with regt. 
1st Lieut. Adam Fhuisburgh, promoted 1st lieut, iti battalion. 

Compan'j B. 

Capt. C. C. Hill, resigned July 1, 1802. 

Capt. Stephen S. Horton, promoted from 2d lient. to capt., July 25, 180J; dis- 
charged May 31, 1863, on account uf wounds received at Autietam. 

Capt. Fred. Smith, dismissed. 

1st Lieut. Noble P. Hammond, resigned July 24, 1802. 

2d Lieut. G. U. McGunnigle, dL-^mitised. 

2d Lieut. Sidney O. Cromack. (See Staff.) 

2d Lieut. Wm. II. Quackenbnsh, promoted Feb. 16,1865; mustered out with 

Company C. 

Capt. Benjamin F. Judson, resigned March 29, 18G2. 

Capt. Luther M. Wheeler, 1st lieut., pronu)tcd March 29, 1862 ; killed in action 
at Fredericksburg, Va., fliay 3, ISG-i. 

Ist Lieut. John Patterson, resigned Sept. 8, 1862. 

Capt. E. W. Winne, 1st sergt., promoted March 29, 1862, 2d lieut.; Sept. 8, 
1862, 1st lioiit.; captain Co. F, May 0, 186 J; discharged Sept. 9, 1864. 

2d Lieut. Gilbert F. Thomas. (See tilaff.) 

2d Lieut. Stephen H. Pierce, transferred to battalion; promoted March 15, 
1864, 1st lient.; kiUed in action, March 25, 1805. 

2d Lieut. David Pangburn, promoted from sergt. 

Coinpawj I). 
Capt. .Tnhn Caw, resigned. May IS, 1802, at White Ilou^e, Va., ou account of 

disability, and died before reaching home. 
Capt. Soth W. Deyoe, promoted from 1st sergt. to 1st lieut., Nov. 23, 1S61 ; Sept. 

3, 1802, capt.; discharged July 26, 1804, ou account of wounds received 

in action. 
2d Lieut. Chester H. Fodow, resigned May 31, 1862. 
2d Lieut. Robert H. Skinner, promoted June 4, 1862, 2d lieut. ; discharged on 

account of wounds received in action, March 12, D5G3. 
1st Lieut. Joseph H. Loveland, promoted Nov. 2, 1803, capt.; mustered out 

with regt. 
Capt. Sumner Oakley, sergt., promoted Sept. 16, 18G4, 1st lieut. ; transferred to 

battalion 77th, Jan. 20, 1865 ; killed in action March 25, 1865. 
2d Lieut. Robert E. Nelson, sergt., promoted May 25, 1S64, 2d lieut. ; Aug. 20, 

1S64, 1st lieut.; transferred to and mustered out with battilion. 
Capt. Lewis Wood, discharged on account of disability, Oct. 4, 1802. 
Capt. William B. Carpenter, Ist lieut.; promoted apt. Dec. 25, 1862 ; killed in 

action May 10, 1804. 
2d Lieut. ILilsey Bowe, accidentally shot in camp at Harrison's Landing, Va., 

and died of the wound at Philadelphia, Aug. 16, 1802. 
1st Lieut. Henry C. Rowland, promoted from sergt. Jan. 23, 1803 ; mustered out 

with regt. 
2d Lieut. William F. Lyon, promoted March 17,1803; missing; supposed to 

have been killed in action May 10. 1864. 
2d Lieut. Chas. D. Thurber. (See Stuff.) 



2(1 Lieut. Thomas M. White. (See Staff.) 

1st Lieut. James A.Monroe, promoted Irom Istsergt. Nov. 15, 18C4; mustered 
out with battalion. 

Company F. 

Capt. Judson B. Andrews, resigned July 16, 1862. 

Capt. Jes-e White, promoted from 1st lieut. Sept. 2:i, 18G2 ; discharged Feb., 1863, 

for disaliilit.v. 
2d Lieut. Euimett J. Patterson, resigned Dec. 18, 1862. 
2d Lieut. Thomas S. Fowler. (Sec Staff.) 
2d Lieut. John J. Cameron, died May 6, 18G2, on Peninsula, Va. 

Company G 
Capt. Calvin A. Rice, dismissed Oct. 4, ]8(i2, by order of secretary of war. 
1st Lieut. Eilward S. Armstrong. (See S(>/i/'.) 
2d Lieut. AVni. K. Young, res'gned April l.'j, 1862. 
Capt. George Ross, sergt., promoted 2d lieut., Jan. 23, 1863 ; to 1st lieut., March 

17, 1863 ; to capt., Dec. 28, ISC'"), and mustered out with battalion. 
2d Lieut. George H. Gillis. (Sec Ulaff.) 
Capt. Orin P. Eugg, promoted from sergt,, April 28, 1862, 2d lieut. ; Dec. 10, 

1862, capt.; killed in action May 12,1864. 

Company H. 

Ciipt. Alfred H. B-ach, resigned Jan. 28, 1862, on account of physical disability. 

Capt. N. HoUister Bi own, promoted from 1st lieut., Jan. 30, 1862 ; resigned Dec. 
26, 1862. 

Iftt Lieut. George D. Storey, promoted from 2d lieut., Jan. 30, 18G2; resigned 
May 31, 1862. 

1st Lieut. Frank Thomas, promoted from 1st sergt , Co. C, Jan. 23, 1863, 2d 
lieut.; Maixh 13, 1863, 1st lieut. ; discharged Aug. 10, 1864, on account 
of wounds received in action May 10, 1864. 

Capt. David J. Caw. (See Field.) 

Ist Lieut. Alonzo Howland, appointed 2d lieut., from civil life, Aug. 10, 1862; 
promoted, Nov. 1.5, 1864, 1st lieut.; mustered out with haltaiion. 

2d Lieut. Wni. Caw, promoted from sergt., Jan. 20, 186.!> ; mustered out with 

Cvmpauy I. 

Capt. Franklin Norton, resigned Aug., 1802 ; appointed lieut.-col. 123d N.Y.Vols. 

2d Lieut. Cailos Rowe, prunioled June 1, 1862, from sergt.; May 1, 1863, mus- 
tered out with regt. 

1st Lieut. Jacob F. Hayward. (See l<taff.) 

1st Lieut. William E. Merrill, promoted Nov. 15, 1864, 2d lieut. ; April 22, 1865, 
1st lieut. ; mustered out with battalion. 

Capt. Martin Lenuon, promoted from 2d lieut. Dec. 10, 1862; died Nov. 1, 1864, 
of wounds received at Cedar Creek, Oct. 10, 1864. 

1st Lieut. John W. Belding, promoted M.irch 19, 1863, 1st lienl.; killed at 
Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 18C4. 

Company K. 

Capt. N. S. Babcock. (See Field.) 

Ist Lieut. Ansil Dennison, promoted from sergt., Feb. 6, 1S62, to 2d lieut.; 
MaroJi 11,1862, Ist lieut. ; died Feb. 28, 1861, of Wuuuds received in ac- 
tion at Antietam, Md. 

1st Lieut. William Fursman. (See Staff.) 

Capt. John R. Rockwell, discharged for disability, Oct. 2, 1803. 

1st Lieut. John W. McGregor, discharged Ftb. 10, 1862. 

Ist Lieut. Philander A. Cobb, discharged May 11, 1862. 

2d Lieut. Cyrus F. Rich, resigned on account of physical disability, Nov. 30, '62. 

2d Lieut. Stephen Redshaw, dismissed Oct. 31, 1863. 

1st Lieut. J. Taber, promoted from sergt., May 3. 1863; killed in ac- 
tion, Oct. 19, 1804. 

2d Lieut. Jeremiah Stebbins, promoted from sergt., May 9, 1863j mustered out 
with battalion. 

The thirteen liundred and sixty-nine enlisted men who 
joined the regiment, as before stated, were accounted for 
as follows on the 13th day of December, 1SG4, when the 
regiment was mustered out : 

Blustered out with regiment 105 

Transferred to battalion and left in the field — veterans 151 

" " " " " recruits 364 

Killed in action S3 

Died of wounds received in action 40 

" disease 140 

Missing in action, most of whom are stipposed to be dead 25 

Died in rebel prisons 20 

Deserted 61 

Discharged on account of disability 300 

" " " " wouTids received in action 56 

Promoted to commissioned officers 24 

Total 1360 



At last the long controversy growing out of slavery had 
culminated. Lincoln had been elected President. State 

after State, following the lead of South Carolina, had 
seceded from the Union. The southern senators and rep- 
resentatives had withdrawn from Washington. The Con- 
federate government had been organized. Fort Sumter 
had fallen. The Federal army had been beaten at Bull 
Run. The nation was stunned, bewildered, and, for the 
moment, paralyzed. Gen. Marcy, chief of staff to Gen. 
McClellan, had written to that commander, advising that 
he call upon the government to order a draft of troops, 
saying, " Volunteering is at an. end." In this supreme 
crisis of our history as a nation, T/ie Daily Saratogian 
contained, and from it was copied into other newspapers far 
and wide, a call to arms.* 

More than fourteen years afterwards, the Saratogian 
contained an interesting account of the unveiling, at that 
place, of a monument erected to the memory of the dead 
of the 77th Regiment, New York Volunteers, otherwise 
called " The Bemus Heights Battalion." The principal 
speech on the occasion was made by Gen. W. B. French, 
who commenced as follows : 

"Comrades and Fellow- Citizens, — On the 21st 
day of August, 1861, Hon. James B. McKean, then our 
representative in Congress, issued a circular letter to the 
citizens of the then Fifteenth Congressional district appeal- 
ing to the patriots of his constituency to rally in defense of 
their country. It was published in the Daily Saratogian 
of the 22d of August, and immediately thereafter by all 
the papers of this Congressional district." 

Gen. French here read the circular, and then added : 

" This call to arms rang out ' from northern lake to 
southern strand,' like the ' thunder stroke' of the Bell 
Roland that hung in the city tower at Ghent. 

' It was tlie warning caII 
That freedom stood in i)cri] of a foe,' 

" The whole north was smarting under the disaster and 
defeat at Bull Run, the severing of all connection with the 
national capital, and the arrogance and treachery of the 
rebels. The patriotic pride of the loyal people had been 
greatly humbled by our country's misfortunes, and the 
young men along the shores of that historic lake, Cham- 
plain, about Fort Ticonderoga, at Johnstown, Saratoga, Still- 
water, and Bemus Heights, were impatiently waiting for a 
leader whom they could follow to the front. This was the 
opportunity, and the response to the call was instantaneous 
and beyond the expectation of the most sanguine. " 

The author of this " call" at once took the field in a 
campaign of war-meetings ; and along the Pludson, the 
Mohawk, the Sacandaga, on the shores of Lakes George 
and Champlain, at Ticonderoga, Fort Miller, Fort Anne, 
Fort Edward, Saratoga, everywhere, farmers' sons, me- 
chanics, clerks, pupils, teachers, students of law, of medi- 
cine, of divinity, came to hear him. They said to hini, 
" Judge SIcKean, are you going to the war ?" His 
answer invariably was, " Yes, I will not ask you to do what 
I will not do myself." They said, " Then we will go with 
you;" and enlisted. He sent them at once into camp on 
the fair-ground, at Saratoga Springs. Thus in a short 

* For this call see previous account at page 106 of this work. 



time w;is raised a regiment composed, not of " city rouglis" 
or "bounty-jumpers," but of the best blood, morals, and 
intellects of the rural regions and beautiful villages of the 
most classical and historic portions of the State. 

When, after the fall of Sumter, the Baltimore bridges 
were burned, and Washington was cut off from communi- 
cation with the north, although Congress was not in 
session, several senators and representatives were in the 
city. Not a few of them hired private conveyances, left 
tlie supposed-to-be-doomed capital, traversed the State of 
Maryland, and escaped into Pennsylvania. McKean re- 
mained.* Detectives discovered that secret Confederate 
military organizations existed there, and were drilling in 
halls in the night-time, with closed doors and windows. 
The President and cabinet were in imminent peril of being 
kidnapped and cairied off to Richmond. The government 
had not a single company of troops in or near the city. The 
permanent residents of the city were almost wholly disloyal. 
History has not yet given sufficient prominence to the 
awful peril of that moment. A movement was set on foot 
to organize, if possible, the non-resident friends of the gov- 
ernment then hemmed in there into an armed force. 
McKean threw himself zealously into this movement ; and 
afler inviting and urging everybody he knew to co-operate, 
he enlisted as a private soldier in Cassius M. Clay's bat- 
talion. Another battalion was organized under Gen. J. H. 
Lane, of Kansas. 

These two battalions, consisting of several hundred men, 
were regularly enrolled in the War Department, and armed 
by the government. Clay's battalion headquarters were in 
Willard's Hotel assembly-room, opening on " F" street. 
There, by day and by night, a reserve of the force was on 
duty ; while the rest were patroling the city and guarding 
the departments and the executive mansion. Armed with 
a breech-loading carbine, with fixed ammunition in his 
pockets. Judge McKean frequently paced to and fro as a 
sentinel before the front door of the " White House " in 
the night-time, while President Lincoln slept. Soon after 
these demonstrations were commenced, the most active 
leaders of the secret Confederate organizations slipped over 
the Potomac into Virginia and disappeared. At the end 
of about two weeks troops arrived from Massachusetts and 
New York. They were hailed as deliverers by the few 
beleagured loyalists in Washington. 

That peculiar phase of " the times that tried men's 
souls" having passed^away. Clay's and Lane's battalions 
now petitioned to be mustered out of the service. The 
jietition was granted, and they were honorably discharged, 
with the written thanks of Secretary Cameron and Presi- 
dent Lincoln. Some day some competent historian will 
write the history of those two battalions. It will make an 
interesting chapter in our national annals. 

Events crowded fast upon each other in those days. 
Soon the Federal and Confederate armies were to meet. 
Obtaining a pass from Gen McDowell, Judge McKean was 
present at the battle of Bull Run. A month thereafter he 
issued his call for troops, and soon had a regiment. 

The battle of Bemus Heights was fought in the year 1777, 

"* For a bios^raphical sketch of Judge McKean, sec history of 
Saratoga Springs. 

and in the numbering of the regiments raised in this State 
during the war the number 77 fell to the Bemus Heights 
Battalion. It is known in the records as the '■ 77th 
Regiment New York State Volunteers." The officers and 
men of the regiment unanimously elected Judge McKean 
to be colonel. He was commissioned by Gov. Morgan, and 
accepted the position. 

The ladies of Dr. Luther Beecher's Female Seminary at 
Saratoga Springs presented the regiment with a beautiful 
silk stand of national colors; and a new organization, called 
" Sons of Saratoga Resident in New York City,'' wrote to 
Colonel McKean, apprising him that it was their intention 
to present to him, for his regiment, a State regimental flag, 
and askitig him to suggest some device to be painted upon 
the flag by a competent artist. Col. McKean answered, 
calling their attention to the historic facts that the first flag 
ordered by the Continental Congress was a flag of union, 
but not a flag of iaJependence, consisting of thirteen 
stripes, alternate red and white, but retaining the field of 
the British flag, indicating the union of the colonies, but 
loyalty to the home government ; while the second flag, 
ordered about the time of the '• Declaration," was indica- 
tive both of union and independence, and consisted of the 
thirteen stripes, red and white, and thirteen argent stars 
arranged in a circle on a blue field. He called attention to 
the further fact that the battle at Bemus Heights was fought 
under the first of these flags, while, when Burgoyne's army 
marched out to surrender, the second was thrown to the 
breeze. He therefore suggested that two devices be painted 
on the regimental flag, one representing American troops, 
in Continental uniform, in action under the first flag, and 
the other representing a commander and troops in British 
uniform surrendering to the Americans under the second 
flag. About this time, Samuel B. Eddy, Esq., of Still- 
water, presented to Col. McKean a pike-head or halberd, 
which had been captured from the British at Bemus 

On Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 29, 1861, amid the huzzas 
and adieux of thousands of people of the village and sur- 
rounding country. Col. McKean and his regiment marched 
from their barracks to the railroad depot, and embarked for 
the seat of war. In New York city the " Sons of Sara- 
toga" entertained the regiment with refreshments, and pre- 
sented the gorgeous banner bearing the devices suggested 
by the colonel, with the pike-head presented by Mr. Eddy 
crowning the tip of the staff. 

(The battered and tattered remains of this beautiful 
banner are now — 1878 — preserved among the archives of 
the State at Albany, while the pike-head is retained by the 
first colonel of the regiment as one of his mementos.) 

The " Old Cooper Shop" of Philadelphia, where men 
made barrels by day, and the ladies fed the marching troops 
by night, has become famous. While many chivalrous and 
knightly soldiers were entertained there, some were very 
coarse and rude. One night a regiment, largely composed 
of New York city " roughs," had behaved very badly there, 
and the lights had to be turned down before the profane 
and boisterous boors could be got rid of. The next regi- 
ment marched in in perfect order, filed round the tables, 
came to an " order arms," " rest," and stood as if on dress 



parade. Witli the utmost civility they partook of what 
was offered them, and the " Old Cooper Shop" was as 
quiet as the dining-room of a first-class hotel. The ladies 
and their few male companions could be overheard saying, 
"Did }'()U over see such a contrast? What gentlemanly 
fellows they are !" An officer of the regiment was asked 
a question by a lady, and, saluting in true military style, 
he answered, '' The 77th New York, Col. McKean com- 
manding." The lunch ended, the colonel called " At- 
tention !" and then proposed the sentiment; "The loyal 
ladies of the City of Brotherly Love !" The men gave 
three rousing hurrahs, passed quietly out, and resumed 
their march. 

At W;i.shington, the regiment was put into the provi- 
sional division of Gen. Silas Casey, and went into camp on 
the grounds of the Porter mansion, on Fourteenth Street, 
near the north suburbs of the city. The daily sessions of 
Congress commenced at. noon. Col. MoKean slept in camp 
every night, drilled his men, and attended to regimental 
duties during the forenoon of each day, and at half-past 
eleven o'clock rode to the capitol, gave his horse into the 
care of a livery-man near by, took his seat in the House, 
sat through the session, and in the evening rode back to 
camp. This busy routine lasted several months. In the 
spring following the regiment crossed the Potomac into 
Virginia, and the colonel was excused from attending upon 
the sessions of the House. When the army was organized 
into corps the 77th became a part of the 4th Coips, Gen. 
Keyes commanding. Gen. William F. Smith (" Baldy 
Smith") was division and Gen. John W. Davidson brigade 
commander. Col. McKean was present in command of 
Ills regiment in the second advance upon Manassas, in the 
descent of the Potomac, in the Peninsular campaign, at the 
battle of Lee's Mills, in the siege of Yorktown and opera- 
tions in that vicinity, and at the battle of Williamsburg. 
While the army was lying on the Pamunky river the 6th 
Army Corps was organized, and Gen. Smith's division, to 
which the 77th belonged, became the second division of 
this new corps, — a corps destined never to be routed, almost 
always to be victorious, and when compelled to retreat to 
do so in order and in obedience to command ; a corps whose 
achievements alone would make glorious the military annals 
of the nation. 

A few days befoi'e the battle of Hanover Court-House 
a Confederate force was thrown into Mechanicsville, a ham- 
let five miles from Richmond, and on the most direct road 
by which reinforcements could be sent from that city to 
Hanover. A Federal force was sent forward to take that 
key to the position, and, after a sharp artillery duel. Col. 
McKean and the 77tli, in double-quick, charged into, took, 
and held Mechanicsville, the Confederate artillery galloping 
away, their inftuitry throwing off their knapsacks and flyhig 
across the fields. Before this charge was made several 
men of the 77th had been .struck by the enemy's shot, but 
during the charge not a man was hit. This singular result 
was probably owing to the fact that when they started on 
the double-quick the Bern us Heights men uttered as terri- 
ble a shout as was ever heard on any field. The Coiifed- 
erates, no doubt thinking a whole corpst d'armee was coming, 
turned and fled. 

In honoi'of this event, the well-known musical composer, 
Mr. J. W. Alfred Cluett, of Troy, wrote a spirited 
march, entitled " CoL. ]\IcKean's Quickstep," several 
editions of which have been sold. The colonel preserves 
among his mementos a rebel flag, the " Stars ami Bars," 
captured in this charge. 

The battle of Fair Oaks was fought under the following 
circumstances : Gen. Casey's Division had been thrown over 
to the right, the Richmond side, of the Chickahominy 
river. All the rest of the Federal army was for some rea- 
son, or without reason, still lying on the left bank. A great 
storm came on, the little river rose rapidly, overflowed its 
banks, and spread over the valley. There were no bridges 
for many miles. And now a Confederate force, greatly 
superior in numbers, was hurled upon Casey. For hours 
and hours Casey and his men fought like Spartans, while 
the rest of the Federal army, almost within speaking dis- 
tance, were powerless to aid them. But many of the troops 
on the left bank made herculean efforts to get over the river. 
Col. McKean and the 77th, and thousands of others, 
arming themselves with all the axes that could be obtained, 
went down into the submerged flats, some of them wading 
waist-deep, and commenced felling the forest-trees, to make, 
if possible, some sort of bridge by which to go to Casey's 
relief For n.iany hours this work went on, and several 
rods of a rude bridge were made; but when the work ap- 
proached the centre of the stream the rushing waters were 
too powerful, and the timbers were swept away. But the 
tireless workers would not give up, and still tried again 
and again until night put a stop to their efforts. The next 
day, the battle being over, the getieral commanding the 
army ordered the 6th Corps, and other troops, to join Casey 
by making a long march down the river, crossing a bridge, 
and marching up on the other side. Who can tell why 
this was not done before the battle '? 

On the slow march up the Virginia Peninsula more of 
our men died of than were killed in battle. " Josh 
Billings" thus defines : " Militai-y strategy — that means 
tryin' to reduce a swamp by ketchin' the billious fever out 
of it." 

Col. McKean was now prostrated with typhoid fever. 
He remained in camp, however, until the surgeons decided 
that, situated ;is they were, they could do no more for liim, 
and that he must go to the rear or die. He was then taken 
back to the Hygeia hospital at Hampton. On arriving 
there Dr. Cuyler, medical director, and Mr. Tucker, Assist- 
ant Secretary of War, who happened to be present, decided 
that he must be sent to his home, and he was accordingly 
taken back to Saratoga Springs. About two months after- 
wards, against the advice and repeated protests of his family 
physician, he returned to the front. Going up the James 
river to Harrison's Landing, he found that the army had 
started on its march down the Peninsula. Returning to 
Hampton Roads, he there rejoined his command and with 
the army came up the Potomac, and with the 6th Corps 
went into camp in rear of Alexandria. Gen. Smith said 
to him, " Col. McKean, your health is not sufficiently re- 
stored to justify you in remaining in camp. We shall 
probably lie here some time. Go up to \Vashington and 
take care of your health.'' The colonel went to Wa,shing- 



ton, and was there joined by Surgeon Stearns of his regi- 
ment, who had also been down with typhoid fever. In a 
short time the Confederate forces again made their appear- 
ance in the vicinity of Bull Run, and another battle was 

One day, about sunset, McKean and Stearns learned that 
during the day the Gth Corps had moved on towards Bull 
Run. As the transport bringing their horses up the Poto- 
mac had not yet arrived, the colonel and surgeon went at 
once to a livery establishment and got horses to take them 
to the front, but the government seized the horses for other 
purposes. They then secured other and .still other livery 
horfses, which, however, were in every instance seized by the 
government. They then reported at the headquarters of 
Gen. Wadsworth, military governor of the city. A staif- 
officer gave them seats in a vehicle loaded with bread ; they 
traveled thus all night, and on the morrow overtook their 
command near Bull Run. But it was all in vain. The 
second battle of Bull Run was lost. Not a single regi- 
ment of the 6th Corps was ordered into the fight. The 
army retreated upon Washington. Col. McKean has always 
said that retreat was the gloomiest experience of his life. 
For the Gth Corps to retreat without being beaten, or to be 
beaten by not being permitted to strike a blow, was well- 
nigh unbearable. 

Soon after these events. Col. McKean was attacked with 
ulceration of the bowels, and was admonished by physicians 
that his life was in imminent peril, and that he must leave 
the army. He thereupon tendered his resignation of his 
commission, but Secretary Stanton, instead of accepting it, 
sent him a long leave of absence, and advised that he go 
to his home in Saratoga, and try to regain his health. He 
went home, but health did not soon return. Indeed, for 
six years he was not able to practice his profession, much 
less to serve in the field. In July, 18G3, while confined to 
his bed, he again tendered his resignation, and it was 


Three companies of the 30th Regiment New York Vol- 
unteers were raised in the towns of Saratoga Springs and 

Company D was organized Sy the election of Miles T. 
Bliven captain, Mervin G. Putnam first lieutenant, and 
John II. Mar.ston second lieutenant. 

Company F, Albert J. Perry captain, Andrew M. Frank- 
lin first, and James M. Andrews, Jr., second lieutenant. 

Company G, Morgan II. Chrysler captain, William T. 
Conkling first, and Asa L. Gurney second lieutenant. 

The 3Uth Regiment was organized by the election of 
Edward Fri.sby, of Albany, colonel, Charles E. Brinttiall, of 
Troy, licutenantr-colouel, and William M. Searing, of Sara- 
toga Springs, major, and was mustered into the service of 
the United States on the 1st day of June, 18G3. After 
some two weeks' delay, the regiment was armed with old 
flint-lock muskets altered to cap-lock, and was sent to 
Wa.shington, and was sent to the front, making its first 
camp at Bright Wood, near where Fort Stephens was built. 
From thence it was marched to Arlington, and there bri- 
gaded with the 22d and 24th New York and the Brooklyn 

14th, afterwards the S4th New Y'ork Volunteers, making 
the 1st Brigade in the Lst Division and 1st Corps in the 
organizaticm of tlie army. This brigade formed camps near 
Upton's Hill, and passed the balance of the year 18G1, up to 
Ajiril, 1862, in building forts, and picketing on the front. In 
April, 1862, Gen. McClellan, after nine months of prepara- 
tion, prepared to obey the call of " On to Richmond !" that 
had been ringing in our ears from the north all winter, 
moved forward with bauds playing, drums beating, and 
colors flying, following our brave leader, " Little Mac," who 
announced that hereafter his headquarters would be in the 
saddle, — all joyful that active service had come at last, and 
confident that the Rebellion would bo squelched in about 
sis months, late in the afternoon of that or the next day 
were drawn up in battle aray in front of these impregnable 
rebel works at Centre Hill and Manassas. The 
line was moved forward, and, being anxious to cover them- 
selves with glory, charged on the works and tarried them 
without giving the rest of the army a chance to participate 
in the glorious work, captured seven colored persons, eight 
wooden cannon, and a lot of old shanties, vacated five days 
before by the rebels. The order was given to bivouac for 
the night. The next day was spent in inspecting the 
woi'ks and adjacent country, and the next day after this 
grand army retreated back to our old camp, through a reg- 
ular Virginia rain-storm, caused, probably, by the dust of 
battle ! This brigade went in to make up the Army of 
Virginia, under the command of McDowell, and the 1st 
Division, 1st Brigade ahead, moved for Fredericksburg, 
Va., by the way of Catlett and Bristoe Station, on the 
Orange and Alexandria railroad, and arrived there some 
three or four days before the balance of the division. In 
this march the brigade earned the name by which it was 
afterwards known, — " The Iron Brigade." 

Gen. Augur commanded the brigade and Gen. King the 
division. This regiment served at Fredericksburg, engaged 
in picket duty and making reconnaissance until in August, 
1862, when the division joined Gen. Pope's army, and while 
under him were engaged in battles as follows : Cedar Moun- 
tain, Rajipahannock Station, three days. White Sulphur 
Spring, Gaines' Corners, Grafton, and Bull Run (2dj. Then, 
under McClellan, were engaged in the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam. In the battle of 2d Bull Run, 
out of four hundred and sixty-three men, there were killed, 
wounded, and missing, two hundred and fourteen, and from 
twenty-three oflicers, seventeen were killed and disabled. 
Col. Frisby, the brave and noble commander, was killed, 
and Lieut.-Col. Searing was promoted on the field to its 
command. At the battle of South Blountain the regiment 
could muster only one hundred and ten men fit for service. 
At the battle of Antietam the brigade was put on the 
skirmish line, and withdrawn as soon as the battle was 
fairly commenced. The army, then under the command of 
Gen. Jleado, followed the enemy up by the way of Warren- 
ton to Fredericksburg, and on the 12th and 13th of De- 
cember were engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg, and 
on the 20th of .fanuary, 1863, the army, under the com- 
mand of Burnside, participated in what was generally called 
Burnside's mud march. The army then went into winter- 
quarters, the 1st Brigade and 1st Division, commanded by 



that brave and good man, Gen. Wadsworth, encamped at Belle 
Plain near Aquia Creek, Va. The regiment remained there, 
performing the ordinar}' camp and piclvet duty, until the 
hitter days in April or first in May, wlien the 1st Corps 
moved to the Rappahannock river, crossed over, and took 
position in front of the enemy. Gen. Hooker, in command, 
remained there for two days, when the corps was withdrawn 
and sent to take the place of the ] 1 th Corps in the battle 
of Chanceliorsville, under Gen. Hooker's immediate com- 
mand ; arrived there and took part in the battle for two 
days. The regiment then encamped before Fredericksburg, 
and soon after were ordered home, and mustered out and 
discharged at Albany, N. Y., June 18, 1863. A large por- 
tion of the officers and men of the 30th Regiment, under 
Lieut. -Col. Chrysler, organized the 2d Veteran Cavalry 
Regiment, N. Y. Vols., and re-entered the service in October, 
1863, and served until November, 1865, the close of the 



There were two semi-centennial celebrations in Saratosa 
County in the year 1826 that were of especial interest. 

The one held at Ballston Spa, July 4, 1826, surpassed 
in interest and pageantry all Fourth of July observances in 
this county that have preceded or have followed it. The 
most prominent feature of the procession was a car forty- 
two feet long and fourteen feet wide, named the Temple of 

It was drawn by thirteen yoke of oxen, each yoke in 
charge of a driver clad in a tow frock, and all under the 
command of Jacob Near, of Malta. Upon the car were 
thirteen representatives of so many branches of the me- 
chanic arts plying their vocations. Among them were the 
printer striking off semi-centennial odes, the blacksmith 
with his anvil keeping time with the music, the cooper 
making more noise than all the others, and Mr. Wm. Van 
Ness, who, while the procession was moving, made a oair of 
shoes for the president of the day, to whom they were 
presented with an appropriate address and response. 

Another interesting feature of the procession was a band 
of thirty-seven Revolutionary veterans, who kept step to 
the music in a way that indicated they had not forgotten 
their military discipline. Lemuel Wilcox, a soldier of the 
Revolution, bore a standard inscribed " Declaration of In- 
deijendence." John Whitehead, another Revolutionary 
veteran, bore a standard inscribed " Constitution of the 
United States ;" and another veteran, Jeremiah Pierson, 
carried the national standard. Another attractive feature 
was the corps of Union Cadets, composed of two fine- 
looking and admirably-drilled uniformed companies from 
Union College, one commanded by Captain Knox and the 
other by Captain Jackson, now the senior professor in that 
institution. The corps was under the command of Major 

Holland, the register of the college and a veteran of the War 
of 1812. The procession moved through the principal 
streets, amid the salvos from a brass six-pounder, captured 
from Burgoyue, to the Baptist church, which stood upon 
the lot now occupied by the railroad water-tank. Samuel 
Young, then Speaker of the Assembly, presided. Prayer 
was offered by Rev. Eliphalet Nott, president of Union 
College. The Declaration of Independence was read by 
Anson Brown, a young lawyer of this village, who died 
while representative in the Twenty-sixth Congress. The 
oration was delivered by John W. Taylor, then Speaker of 
the House of Representatives. His closing remarks were 
addressed to the Revolutionary soldiers, who arose in a 
body, and the scene was quite dramatic. The Union 
cadets dined at the Sans Souci Hotel, and toasts were at 
the Vilkga. Hotel. Among the regular toasts were the 
following : " John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, the surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. As the measure of their days, so is 
that of their fame, — overflowing." 

When this sentiment was uttered it was not known that 
since the sun had risen on the morning of that day two of 
those illustrious patriots had been numbered with the dead, 
leaving Charles Carroll the sole survivor. By previous ar- 
rangement the cadets marched into the room, when the 
president of the day addressed them in highly appropriate 
and complimentary terms. Maj. Holland responded, reading 
from a manuscript in the familiar handwriting of Dr. Nott: 

" Gentlemen, — In behalf of the corps I have the honor 
to command, permit me to tender their acknowledgments 
for your polite attentions. If our humble exertion to aid 
in the duties of the day have met the approbation of the 
patriotic assemblage it is the highest gratification we can 
receive. In retiring, permit me to propose as a toast : The 
county of Saratoga, — its hills, monuments of valor ; its 
springs, resorts of fashion ; its hamlets, signalized liy patriots 
and statesmen." 

Union College and its distinguished president were com- 
plimented by two of the alumni as follows : By Thomas 
Palmer, Esq. : " Union College : Crevit, Crescit, CrescatT 
By Anson Brown, Esq. : " The president of Union College : 
Diffiium laude virum musa vetat mori." 

If these sentiments were not duly appreciated by all 
present, the following was expressed in such plain, unmis- 
takable English, that there was no doubt as to its meaning. 
By Edward Watrous, Esq. : '• The Legitimates of Europe: 
May they be yoked, poked, and hopped, cross-fettered, tied 
head and foot, and turned out to browse on the pine plains 
of Old Saratoga." 

In regard to the remaining festivities at the table and 
the exuberance of patriotic feeling manifested, the truth of 
history perhaps reijuires the statement that temperance 
societies were not then in active operation. 

The committee of arrangements consisted of James Bler- 
rill, David Corey, William Clark, John Dix, Jerry Penfield, 
Charles Field, Alexander Russell, Robert Bennett, Ros- 
well Herrick, David F. White, George W. Fish, Hiram 
Middlebrook, Joseph Barker, David Herrick, Sylvester 
Blood, Samuel R. Garrett, and Abraham Middlebrook. 
The general manager of this superb celebration was Ly- 



man B. Langwortlij', then the sheriff of the county, now 
living at Rocliester, and ahuost a nonagenarian. 

The only survivors of those who offieiated on that occa- 
sion, beside Sheriff Langworthy and Prof. Jackson, are 
Joseph Barker, Hiram Middlebrook, and Samuel R. Gar- 

The celebration of the semi-centennial at Schuylerville 
was also an imposing affair. It is alluded to in the chapter 
upon the town of Saratoga, in connection with reminiscences 
of Schuylerville. Of this affair, Giles B. Slocum, of New- 
ton, Wayne Co., Mich., writes: 

•' The leading actor of the occasion was Philip Schuyler, a 
grandson of the general. The extensive tables were set 
on the grounds of old Fort Hardy, with a canopy of ever- 
greens to protect the guests from the sun, although the 
oration was delivered in a shady grove on the eastern slope 
of the heights, near where the Dutch Reformed churcli 
now stands, by the eloquent but unfortunate Rev. Hooper 
Cummings, of Albany, at that time a brilliant light in 
the American pulpit, but destined like a glowing meteor 
to go suddenly down in darkness and gloom. I well re- 
member also that there were about a dozen old Revolu- 
tionary soldiers seated in a row on a bench close under the 
voice and eye of the orator (so that they could the better 
see and hear), and that when the speaker in the course of 
his remarks addre.s.sed them personally, it was in such glow- 
ing terms of thankfulness and honor for their invaluable 
services few dry eyes could have been found within hearing 
of his voice. John Ward, one of the body-guard of Gen- 
eral Schuyler, and who was carried off by the Tory Walter- 
meyer to Canada, when the latter attempted the abduction 
of the general from Albany, was among those seated on 
this bench. 

" The gathering was a very large one, the people of the 
whole county being nearly all there. Brigadier-General 
De Ridder, from across the river, a substantial property- 
holder and a general in the War of 1812, was mounted 
on a fine horse at the head of a large troop of light horse 
(as they were then called), and other military companies. 
The soul-stirring drum and the ear-piercing fife were the 
materials in that day in the way of music. I recall the fact 
also that the breastworks surrounding the fort were then 
nearly perfect, as General De Ridder, at the head of the mili- 
tary, marched around on the top of the intrenchments." 


The preparation of historical material and the delivering 
of public addresses recommended by Congress for the great 
centennial year, 1876, was partially responded to in Sara- 
toga County. 

At Saratoga Springs a preliminary meeting was held 
June 5, 1876, called to order by General E. F. Bullard, 
Captain J. P. Butler called to the chair, and Frank H. 
Hathorn chosen secretary. A resolution was adopted invit- 
ing N. B. Sylvester to prepare and deliver an historical 

This invitation was accepted, and the address delivered 
in the town hall on the evening of July 4, Judge Augustus 
Bockes occupying the chair. 

In accordance with the arrangements of Congress and 

the invitation of the citizens of Saratoga, the was 
published and copies deposited in the archives of the county 
and also at Washington. 

At Ballston Spa similar an-angements were made. 
Hon. George G. Scott delivered the historical address, and 
I. S. L'Amoreaux pronounced a centennial oration. These 
valuable documents were published in pamphlet form and 
copies deposited as requested. 

At Schuylerville the address was delivered by General 

E. F. Bullard. As in other places, the address was pub- 
lished and filed, as requested by the proclamation of the 


Tlie first of these was at BE.\iirs Height.*, on the 19th 
of September, the centennial anniversary of the first of the 
two battles. For this celebration extensive preparations 
were made, numerous committees appointed, and the result 
was a splendid commemoration of the great event. Neigh- 
boring towns and counties joined in the patriotic effort. 

At Saratoga Springs a meeting w;is held on the evening 
of the 12th to make the necessary arrangements, and Gen- 
eral French issued the following order of the day : 

One hundred guns will be fired at sunrise on the old 
battle-field by Battery B, Tenth Brigade, Captain A. H. 

The procession will be formed on the square at Bern us 
Heights Hotel, near the river at nine a.m., and march to 
the battle-field, about half a mile distant, in the following 
order : 

Platoon of Police. 
General W. B. French, chief marshal. 

Assistants to chief marshal : Colonel Hiram Rodgers, 
Saratoga Springs; Captain I. S. Scott, Troy; Captain B. 

F. Judson, Saratoga Springs ; Lieutenant Vandermark, Still- 
water ; Colonel George T. Steenburgh, Troy; J. Wiliaid 
Lester, Saratoga Springs ; Charles L. Pond, Saratoga 

Major-General J. B. Carr and staff. 
Brigadier-General xVlonzo Alden and staff. 


Doring's band, of Troy. 
Tenth Brigade, Third Division, N. Y. S. N. 

lowing order : 
Lin(?. Separate Ciinipauy. 

1st Third P. 

2d Sixth J. 

3d Fourth J. 

4th Seventh J. 

5th First F. 

6th Fifth F. 

7th Second G. 

Battery B, Tenth Brigade, Captain A. H. 
'^ N. Y. 
His Excellency Lucius Robinson, governor 

der-in-chief, and staff. 
Brigadier-General J. S. Dickerman, Ninth 

G., in the fol- 


R. Sbadwiek. 
W. Cusack. 
H. Patten. 
S. Atwell. 
T. Hall. 
Green, Troy, 

and comman- 

BriMde, and 



President of the day, Hon. George G. Scott, of Ballston, 

N. Y. 
Orator of the day, Hon. Martin I. Townsend, of Troy, 

N. Y. 

Poet of the day, Robert S. Lowell, Union College, N. Y. 

Reader of the Historical Address, John Austin Stevens, 

Secretary of the Historical Society of New York. 

Eminent speakers from abroad. Lieutenant-Governor 

William Dorsheimer, Senator Francis Kernan, 

es-Goveruor Horatio Seymour. 


Seventy-seventh Regiment band, Saratoga Springs. 

Saratoga Veteran Cavalry, in Centennial uniforms. 

Veterans of Bemiis Heights Battalion, under command of 

Captain Frank Thomas. 

Soldiers of the War of 1861. 

Soldiers of the War of 1861. 

Ballston Spa band. 

Grand Army of the Republic associations. 

Civic associations. 

Fire Department of Stillwater, Mechanieville, Schuyler- 

ville, Saratoga Springs, Ballston Spa, and 



Veterans. of the War of 1S12, veterans of the War of 
Mexico, crippled veterans of the War of 1861, eminent 
citizens, and invited guests in carriages. 


1. Opening address by the president of the day, Hon. 
George G. Scott, of Ballston Spa. 

2. Oration by Hon. Martin I. Townsend, of Troy, N. Y. 

3. Poem by Robert S. Lowell, of Union College. 

4. Address by Lieutenant-Governor William Doi-sheimer. 

5. CoUatiou, at which short speeches will be made by 
Senator Francis Kernan, ex-Governor Horatio Seymour, 
Judge A. Bockes, Hon. C. S. Lester, of Saratoga Springs, 
and others. 

6. Review of the Tenth Brigade by his excellency, Gov- 
ernor Lucius Robinson. 

7. Manoeuvring of General Alden's Brig-ade in evolu- 
tion of the line, illustrating the engagement on the same 
ground between the armies of Generals Gates and Burgoyne, 
one hundred years ago, in which evolution the artillery, 
cavalry, and inftintry present at the celebration will be en- 
gaged, thus affording the people assembled an opportunity 
to form some idea of the battle that won for them their 
independence, and at the same time giving them a '• smell 
of gunpowder.'' 

By order of the committee of arrangements. 

W. B. French, Marshal. 
The following had been issued : 


" Veterans, — The one hundredth anniversary of the battle of Beiuus 
Heights will be celebrated on the 19th day of September, on the old 
battle-field in Stillwater. You should not fail to take part in the 
interesting exercises then to take place. 

That battle was decisive of the American Revolution, and may 
be said to have achieved the independence which your valor and 
patriotism has maintained, and secured to yourselves and your pos- 

You are, therefore, earnestly invited to be present on that occasion. 

Assemble without uniforms in citizens' dress at the Bemus Heights 
Hotel, near the battle-ground, at 9 a.m., on the 19th, and report your 
name, company, regiment, brigade, division, and corps to Captain 
Frank Thomas, who will give the designation badge and assign you 
a place of honor in the procession, where the electric touch of the 
elbow will again inspire you as of yore it did the patriots of 1777. 

" By order of the committee. 

" W. B. Fbexcb, Miirslinl ()/ Ihe Day." 

Dated Sei)tember 11, 1S77. 

The centennial celebration of the battle of Bemus Heights 
could not have fallen on a lovelier daj". It was one of those 
beautiful autumn days which are so well known in northern 
New York. The occasion was improved by the people of 
the surrounding country, who flocked to the grounds in all 
sorts of conveyances, on foot, and on horeebatk, and even 
on canal-boats. The programme of the celebration was 
successfully carried out, the affair ending in a fierce sham 
battle between an imaginary British foe concealed in a 
clump of woods and General Alden's Brigade. Battery B 
was on both sides, and did some pretty sharp firing. The 
troops were manauvred by Generals Carr and Alden, the 
former suggesting the movements on both sides, and General 
Alden carrying thcni out, handling the troops with ease 
and swiftness. 

The people began to come in before daylight, and con- 
tinued to arrive in crowds until the sun indicated high 
noon. Comparatively few came from the cities. It was the 
country people's holiday, and they ob.served it faithfully. 
The road from Mechanieville to the ground was sprinkled, 
and was in firet-ciass condition early in the morning. Be- 
fore eight o'clock the dust was nearly a foot deep. This 
statement may give a faint idea of the numbers of vehicles 
which passed over it. Saratoga County turned out almost 
en masse. The greatest interest was taken in the sunrise 
salute to be fired by Battery B. After the salute the 
final preparations for the celebration were pushed with 

One of the most interesting places in the vicinitj' of the 
celebration-grounds was the old Neilson house. This ven- 
erable structure was decorated with flags and turned into a 
refreshment saloon. The chief article on the bill of fare 
was pumpkin-pie, baked in the room where General Poor 
had his headquarters, and where the wounded British Gen- 
eral Acklaiid was joined by his wife the day after the second 
battle. At this house was exhibited a large collection of 
battle-field relics. Twelve-pound cannon-balls, rifle-bullets 
covered with the rust of a century, were wonderingly in- 
spected by the crowd who entered the ancient building. 
There were also a number of ludiau weapons and tools, 
such as stone hatchets, flint arrow-heads, and pestles. 

The Troy companies reached the Bemus Heights Hotel 
at about ten o'clock, where they were joined by the Port 
Henry, Whitehall, and Glen's Falls companies. At length 
all the arrangements for the grand procession were com- 
pleted. At about eleven o'clock the order to march was 

The following was the arrangement : 





Grand marelial — -W. B. French, nf Saratoga. 

Aids to the grand marsluil. 

Major-General J. B. Carr and staff. 

Brigadicr-Orcncral .Mdc^n and staff. 

Doring'.s band. 

Cliadwick Guard.s, of (Julioes, Captain 1'. II. Chadwick 


Troy Citizens' Corps, Ca|)tain J. W. Cusack com- 


Troy Til)bits Corps, Captain J. Egolf commanding. 

Troy Tibbits Cadets, Captain J. H. I'attcn commanding. 

Sherman (iuards, of Port Henry, Captaiii F. G. Atwell 


Hughes' Light Guard, of Suutii Glen's Falls, Captain F. 

Glccscttlc commanding. 
Burleigh Corps, of Whitehall, Captaiii G. T. Hall com- 
Battery B. of Troy, Captain A. H. Green eonimaiiding. 
Generals Hughes and Tracy, and Colonel Lodowick, of the 
governor's staff. 
Brigadier-Gcnoral Dickerman, of Albany, and staff. 
Hon. George G. Scott, president of the day. 
Orators, poet, and clergy. 


Colonel D. J. Caw, assistant marshal, marshal's aids. 
Seventy-seventh Regiment band, of Saratoga. 
Saratoga veterans, carrying the old Bemus Heights regi- 
mental flag, commanded by Captain Frank Thomas. 
Saratoga Continentals, mounted. 
Citizens of Saratoga. 


Captain B. F. Judson, assistant marshal, commanding. 

Marshal's aids. 

Huliiig's band, of Ballston. 

J]agle engine company, of Ballston. 

Hovey fire company, of Ballston. 

Ballston veterans. 

Citizens of Ballston. 

Schuylerville baud. 

Schnylerville fire-company. 

Mounted yeomanry. 

Schnylerville citizens. 

The procession was very imposing. The Tenth Brigade 
was the centre of public admiration and the theme of pub- 
lic praise. The Saratoga Continentals were hastily organ- 
ized, but made a fine appearance. 

The piocession moved over historic ground and by noted 
landmarks. Flags and bunting were displayed from every 
building in the hani'et of Bemus Heights. North of the 
hotel the site of General Gates' liead([uarters was visible. 
The soldier boys could see, over the river, Willard's moun- 
tain, from the summit of which, in early September, 1777, 
Willard, the scout, watched the niovcinents within the 
British camp, communicating his discoveries by signal or 
messenger to General Gates. Near the celebration ground 

a placard indicated that there stood on the spot, one hun- 
dred years ago, a barn which was used for hospital pur- 
poses. Passing up a not too steep acclivity, the procession 
entered the twenty-two acre field in which the exercises 
were held. The various bodies marched around the grand 
stand, and also passed over that portion of the ground in 
which the American and British dead of the battle were 
interred. Tiiis ground w;us indicated by a small sign-board ; 
there is not, and has not been for many years, a trace of 
the graves ; the soldiers killed in the battle of one hundred 
years ago have no memorial or inomiineiit to this day. 
After the procession hail been dispi:rsed the people gathered 
about the grand stand. The field was a fine place for a 
crowd. Although thirty thousand peoph; stood there, there 
was no crowding. Among the conspicuous persons there 
were Lieutenant-Governor Dorsheimer, General Hughes, 
Colonel Lodowick, of the governor's staff, Hons. G. G. 
Scott, George West, John M. Franci.s, Martin I. Town- 
send, G. Robertson, James S. Smart, Henry G. Burleigh, 
Charity Commissioner Brennan, of New York, T. B. Car- 
roll, C. S. Lester, George W. Chapman, George W. Neil- 
son, Edward Edwards, and Judges Ingalls, Yates, and 
Crane. Besides gentlemen. Generals Carr, Alden, 
and Dickerman, with their staffs, and the general commit- 
tee occupied .seats on the stand. Shortly after noon the 
vast multitude was called to order, and Doring's band 
opened the exercises with music. Rev. Dr. Peter Stryker, 
D.D., of Saratoga, offered prayer. 

Hon. George G. Scott, president of the day, delivered a 
brief address. Afterwards he introduced Hon. Martin I. 
Townsend, who delivered the oration. Mr. Townsend very 
properly rendered honor to whom honor is due, and gave 
the credit of the victories of Sept. 19 and Oct. 7, 1777, 
to Benedict Arnold. Speaking of the of Arnold's 
traitoiisni, he a.scribed it to that soldier's infatuation for a 
Tory lady of Philadelphia. 

The poem, by Robert Lowell, of Union College, was read 
by Judge Yates in an impressive manner. 

The historical narrative, by John Austin Stevens, of 
New York, was a production of great merit. Mr. Stevens 
gave a history in detail of the campaign, and, departing 
from the general custom, instead of depreciating Gates' gen- 
eralship and personal bravery, eulogized that officer. It 
will be treasured in after-years as one of the most valuable 
of all the accounts of this decisive campaign. When Mr. 
Stevens finished, the invited guests proceeded to the spot 
where, on the 19th of September, 1777, Gates ate his break- 
fast, and enjoyed a collation. 

At four o'clock the troops were formed in lino. The 
ground was not as even as it might be desired, but the 
movements were all executed in a most praisinvortliy manner. 
After the parade the soldiers pa.ssed in review before Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Dorsheimer and General Can- and staff. 

The sham battle took place immediately afterward. 'J'liis 
was in the eyes of a great number of people the chief at- 
tractiiiii iif the day. In the woods to the north of the 
grand stand a gun was placed, under Lieutenant Myer, of 
the Eleveiilh Infantry, United States army. A detachment 
of the Tibbits Corps was also lodged in the woods. 

The Continimtal cavalry, of Saratoga, under the command 



of General Goldwin, together with Lieutenant Myer and 
the Tilibits veterans, represented the British force. It was 
a small representation, but as the Britii^h were supposed to 
be concealed in the woods it answered all purposes. The 
Americans were on open ground. The other troops of the 
Tenth Brigade were constituted the colonial forces. The 
Chadwick Guards, of Cohoes, were held as reserve. Gen- 
eral Carr was supposed to personate General Gates, and 
Colonel Chamberlain represented Benedict Arnold. Lieu- 
tenant Goldman, of the Fifth United States Cavalry, was 
one of the aids of General Alden, who directed the move- 
ments. The British cannon first opened fire, which was 
returned on the right and left of the American lines. The 
British cannon from its ambuscade kept up the dialogue. 
Part of the American corps advanced, and dropping on the 
ground fired a volley into the woods. Charges, retreats, 
and advances were repeatedly made. The Americans at 
times rushed into the woods with wild cheers and retreated 
in disorder. The line being reformed, another charge was 
made, supported by movements in every direction. All 
the while the artillery duel continued. One thing notice- 
able was the precision with which the volleys of musketry 
were fired. Finally, the whole American force made a 
grand charge, the enemy's cannon was silenced and cap- 
tured, the cavalry retreated in disorder, and victory belonged 
to the Americans. 

The battle was one of the best of the sort ever seen ; 
the movements and the general plan on which it was fought 
brought to the minds of many the real battles of which 
more than a decade ago they were component parts. 

The addresses were appropriate. Judge Scott's brief 
opening remarks closed with the following beautiful pas- 
sage: " This is classic ground. It will be to our country 
what the plain of Marathon was to Greece. Unlike that 
memorable battle-field, however, upon which at dilTerent 
points monuments of victory were raised, no column rises 
from this to perjietuate the memory of this great event, to 
honor the valor that achieved it, and to distinguish the 
place of its occurrence. But the scene which surrounds 
us, these fields marked by the redoubts and intrenchments 
of the confronting armies, the historic river below, and 
yonder mountain overlooking the whole, from whose sum- 
mit Willard, the American scout, with spy-glass in hand, 
watched the movements of Burgoyne and reported by sig- 
nals to Gates, all these will constitute one and imper- 
ishable monument sacred to the memory of those heroes 
and patriots who fought and conquered here one hundred 
years ago." 

The lengthy and exceedingly valuable historical address 
of John Austin Stevens closed with the following words: 
" The last days of a century are closing upon these memor- 
able scenes. How long will it be ere the government of 
the Empire State shall erect a monument to the gallant 
men who fought and fell upon their fields, and here secured 
her liberty and renown ?" 

Hon. Martin I. Townsend said, in the opening of his 
address, " We stand to-day upon one of the most illustri- 
ous battle-fields of the American revolution. A hundred 
years ago upon these fields thousands of hearts throbbed in 
patriot bosoms. They were here to suflFer and, if need be, 

to die in the cause of liberty and in the cause of their 
infant country." 


The celebration of the surrender of Burgoyne at Schuyler- 
ville called forth equal with that of Beiuus 
Heights. As the two great historic events were counterparts 
to each other, so were the centennial anniversaries of those 

The Schuylerville people entered with all their might 
into the project for celebrating the one hundredth anniver- 
sary of the surrender of Burgoyne and his army. Every 
house in the village was decorated, and arches were raised 
across the principal streets. The most conspicuous decora- 
tion was an excellent representation of the surrender stretched 
across the main street. 

The old Burgoyne cannon, which General De Peyster 
has presented to the monument a.s.sociation, arrived on 
Monday. That night it .spoke within a short distance of 
the field where, a century ago, it carried death to the pa- 
triots. At noon it wa.s fired again, and was used for that 
duty at intervals during the day. Battery B's four guns 
were brought up by the members of the battery, and fired 
the sunrise salute. 

The decorations were all tasteful, while some were elabo- 
rate. The arches which were erected at many street cross- 
ings were all beautiful. The decorative spirit extended to 
Victory Mills, Galesville, and even to Greenwich. In fact, 
the national colors were in sight for miles. 

The ISth was devoted to preparation. The road leading 
to the square, upon which the monument will stand, was 
being worked all day, and was put in excellent condition. 

An old tree on the main street of the village had this 
inscription : " Near this spot, Oct. 16, 1777, American and 
British officers met and consummated the articles of capitu- 
lation of General Burgoyne to General Gates; and on this 
ground the British army laid down their arms, thus seeurirjg 
American independence." 

It is evident that the citizens did not underrate the im- 
portance of the event which they celebrate. The enthu- 
siasm of the people was boundless. 

The sky was overcast, but there was no rain. The or- 
ganizations which participated in the procession began to 
arrive at early morning. Apollo Commandery, of Troy, 
reached here at ten o'clock. Everybody from the surrounding 
country flocked in. They came in stylish barouches, hack- 
loads, stages, and on foot. At noon, fully fifteen thousand 
strangers were in the village and vicinity. Governor Sey- 
mour and George William Curtis came over from Saratoga 
early in the morning, and waited patiently, as did the great 
multitude, for the moving of the procession. It was half- 
past twelve before everything was in readiness. Finally 
the procession formed in the following order : 


Platoon of police. 

General W. B. French, chief marshal. 

Chief marshal's staff. 

Veteran color-guard. 

Boring's band of Troy. 



Co. F, Tenth Regiment, Captain George Weidman com- 
manding, of Albany. 
Co. I, Twenty-fifth Regiment, Captain Walker commmand- 

ing, of Albany. 

First Company Governor's Foot Guards, of Hartford, Conn., 

in old English uniform worn in George III.'s reign. 

W. A. Takott, Major, commanding battalion. 

Colt's band, Hartford, Conn., Thomas G. Adkins, leader. 

Captain A. H. Wiley, commander first company. 

Lieutenant R. D. Burdick, commander second company. 

Lieutenant S. E. Hascall, commander third company. 

Lieutenant W. E. Eaton, commander fourth company. 

Park Guards of Bennington, Vt., Captain O. N. Wilcox, 

commander, with band. 

Hughes Light Guards, of Glen's Falls, Captain Gleesettle 


Burleigh Corps, Captain Thomas Hall. 

^^'hitehall band. 


Sir Townscnd Fondey, R. E. Grand Commander. 
Sir Chas. H. Hoklen, V. D. Grand Com- 
mander, Sir Knight B. F. Judson. 
Ballston Spa cornet-band. 
Washington Coinmandery, Saratoga Springs. 
Apullo Conmiandery, Troy. 
Temple No. 2 Commandery, Albany. 
St. George's Commandery, No. 37, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Holy Cross Commandery, Gloversville. 
Lafayette Commandery, Hudson, N. Y. 
Little Falls Commandery, Little Falls, N. Y. 
De Soto, No. 49, Commandery, Plattsburgh, N. Y. 
Kellington Commandery, Rutland, Vt. 
Tefft Commandery, Bennington, Vt. 
Grand Master of Master Masons, J. J. Couch. 
Deputy Grand Master, Jesse B. Anthony. 
Master Masons. 

Captain W. W. Worden, assistant marshal, commanding 

New York State officials. 
President of the day, Hon. C. S. Lester, of Saratoga, ora- 
tors, poets, speakers, clergy, and chaplain in carriages. 
Bemus Heights Centennial Committee. 
Saratoga Monument Association and invited guests in car- 
Schuylerville cornet-band. 
Veterans of the late war. 
Grand Army of the Republic associations. 
Veterans of the War of Mexico. 
Veterans of the War of 1812. 
Descendants of Revolutionary soldiers. 
Seventy-seventh Regiment band, Saratoga Springs. 
Cavalry in Continental uniform. Major Fassett, Comman- 
der, Saratoga Springs. 
Fort Ann Martial band. 
Civic associations. 
Municipal authorities of Schuylerville. 
Gates avenue to Grove street ; Grove to Pearl ; Pearl to 

Burgoyne ; Burgoyne to Broad ; Broad to Spring ; Spring 
to Church; Church to Burgoyne; Burgoyne to Pearl; 
Pearl to Saratoga ; Saratoga to Green ; Green to Burgoyne ; 
Burgoyne to Monument grounds, where a hollow square 
was formed by the military outside the Knights Templar, 
and the corner-stone of the monument laid by M. W., J. J. 
Couch, Grand Master, and 11. W., Edmund L. Judson, 
Deputy Grand Master Masons of the State of New York. 
After which ceremony the procession marched down Bur- 
goyne to Pearl ; Pearl to Grove ; thence to Schuyler's 

The monument, when completed, will be.a most imposing 
affair. It will be constructed entirely of granite. One- 
quarter of the base has been constructed, and the corner- 
stone is a finely-cut piece of granite about three feet square. 

The ceremony of laying the stone was performed by J. 
J. Couch, Grand Master of Masons of the State, assisted by 
several of the officers of the Grand Lodge. The ceremony 
was as follows : 

The Grand Master called up the lodge, saying, "The first 
duty of Masons in any undertaking is to invoke the blessing 
of the Great Architect upon their work. Let us pray." 


" Thou vSupreme Architect. Thou master builder of the 
universe. Thou who hast made all things by the word of 
Thy power. Thou who hast formed the earth and the world 
from everlasting to everlasting. Thou art God, Thou art He 
whom we worship and adore, and in whom we are taught 
to put our trust, and whose blessing we seek in every un- 
dertaking in life and in all the work of our hands. Thou, 
God, hast blessed the fraternity before thee, and pros- 
pered them in numbers, in strength, and in influence, so 
that we are here assembled as Thy servants and as mem- 
bers of the ancient and honorable craft to begin the erec- 
tion of a monument, which we devoutly trust shall stand 
as a monument for future generations to the praise and 
glory of Thy name. Grant Thy blessing, Lord God, 
upon this enterprise, that it may be carried to successful 
completion, and may answer the end for which it was de- 
signed. Grant that each of us may so adorn our minds 
and hearts with grace that we may be fitted as living stones 
for that spiritual building, that house not made with hands, 
eternal in the heavens ; and unto Thy holy and ever-blessed 
name will we ascribe honor and praise, through Jesus 
Christ, our Redeemer. Amen " 

The Grand Master then said, " The Grand Treasurer 
will place in the corner-stone articles prepared for the pur- 
pose." Which was done. 

The Grand blaster then said, " The Grand Secretary 
will read a list of the articles so deposited." 

The list of articles deposited in the corner-stone was then 
read as follows : 

1. "History of the Saratoga Monument Association," 
by the society. 

2. "The Campaign of General Burgoyne," by Wm. L. 

3. " The Saratoga Battle-Gun," by Ellen Hardin Wal- 

4. The centennial addresses of George G. Scott, J. 



S. L'Amoreaux, Greneral E. F. Bullard, and N. B. Syl- 

5. " Major-General Philip Schuyler," by General T. W. 
De Peyster. 

6. J. Austin Stevens' historical address at the celebra- 
tion of Bemus Heights. 

7. Copies of the Troy Daily Press, Troy Daily Times, 
Troy Daily Whig, Troy Northern Budget, Troy Observer, 
Sunday Trojan, Schuylerville Slmidard (daily), Daily Sura-. 
togian, Saratoga Sun, Albany Argus, Press, Express, Jour- 
nal, Times, and Post, Now York Herald, Times, Tribune, 
Sun, World, and E.rjjress. 

8. Relics of Burgoyne's campaign. 

The Grand Master then spread the cement upon the 

Music b}' the band, and the stone was lowered to its 

The (iraiid Master then seating the lodge, proceeded as 
follows : 

G. M. — " Brother D. G. M., what is the jewel of your 
office ?' 

D. G. M.— " The square." 

G. M.— " What does it teach ?" 

D. G. M. — " To square our action by the square of virtue, 
and by it we prove our work." 

G. M. — " Apply your jewel to this corner-stone and 
make report." 


D. G. M. — " The stone is square, the craftsmen have 
done their duty." 

G. M. — " Brother S. G. W., what is the jewel of your 

S. G. W.— " The level." 

G. M.— " What does it teach ?" 

S. G. W. — ■" The equality of all men, and by it we 
prove our work." 

G. M. — •" Apply your jewel to this corner-stone and 
make report." 


S. G. W. — " The stone is level, the craftsmen have done 
their duty." 

G. M. — -" Brother J. G. W., what is the jewel of your 
office ?" 

J. G. W.— " The plumb." 

G. M.— " What does it teach ?" 

J. G. W. — " To walk upright before God and man, and 
by it we ]irove our work." 

G. M. — " Apply your jewel to this corner-stone and make 


J. G. W. — " The stone is plumb, the craftsmen have 
done their duty." 

The Senior and Junior Grand Deacons advanced to the 
stone, bearing trowel and gavel. The Grand Master, pre- 
ceded by the Grand Marshal, advanced to the stone, took 
the trowel, and spread cement, then took the gavel and struck 
three blows on the stone, retired to his station and said, '• I, 
John P. Couch, Grand blaster of the Masons of the State 
of New York, declare this stone to be plumb, level, and 
square, to be well formed, true and trusty, and duly laid." 

The Grand Stewards proceeded to the stone, followed by 
D. G. M., S. G. W., and J. G. W., bearing the corn, wine, 
and oil. 

The D. G. M., scattering the corn, said, " May the 
blessing of the Great Architect of the universe rest upon 
the people of this State and the corn of nourishment 
abound in our land." 

The S. G. W., pouring the wine, said, " May the Great 
Architect of the universe watch over and protect the work- 
men upon this monument, and bless them and our land with 
the heavenly wine of refreshment and peace." 

The J. G. W., pouring the oil, said, " May the Great 
Architect of the universe bless our land with union, har- 
mony, and love, the oil which niaketh man be of joyful 

The Grand Marshal presented the architect, saying, 
" I present the architect of this monument. He is ready 
with craftsmen for the work, and asks the tools for his 

The Grand Master handed him the plumb, level, and 
square, and directed him to proceed with his work. 

The Grand Jlaster then said, " j\Ien and brethren, we 
have assembled here to-day as regular Masons, bound by 
solemn engagements to be good citizens, faitliful to the 
brethren, and to fear God. We have commenced the erec- 
tion of a monument which, we pray, may be a memorial 
for ages to come. May wisdom, strength, and beauty 
abound, and the fame and usefulness of our ancient and 
honorable institution be greatly promoted." 


The Grand Marshal then made the following proclama- 
tion : " In the name of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge 
of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of New York, 
I proclaim that the corner-stone of this monument has 
this day been found square, level and plumb, true and 
trusty, and laid according to the old custom by the Grand 
Master of Masons." 

After the laying of the corner-stone the procession 
marched to Schuyler square, the field in which the exer- 
cises had been held. 

Sunrise salutes were fired by the battery from different 
points in the village, while away on historic Mount Willard 
the people of Easton sent back answering thunder. The 
road leading from Saratoga was black with vehicles. The 
Greenwich road was in the same condition. 

The various organizations began to arrive at ten o'clock, 
but it was twelve before the last one arrived. The Al- 
bany soldiers left their homes before breakfast, and were 
served in the large dining-teut at eleven o'clock. At half- 
past twelve o'clock everything was in readiness and the 
pageant moved. 

The line of march was gone over in an hour, and then 
the corner-stone of the monument was laid. The opening 
prayer was made by Rev. Mr. Webster, R. W. Grand Chap- 
lain of the Grand Lodge of Masons. One very remarkable 
circumstance was the presence of Edwin Gates, of Brooklyn, 
who is a descendant of General Gates (who was the " grand 
sword-bearer" of the American army in the North in 1777) 
and who is the grand sword-bearer of the Masonic grand 
lodge. Grand Master Couch used a gavel made from a 



piece of the Hartford charter oak. The stone is Cape Ann 
granite. Besides the articles mentioned elsewhere, the box 
contains a Bible, a copy of Mrs. Willard's History of the 
United States, an American flag, report of the canal com- 
missioners, architect's statement of the progress of the work, 
an appeal to tlie people of the United States to erect the 
monument, by J. C. Markham ; silver half-dollar coined in 
the reign of George III., dated 1777, and a half-dollar coined 
in 1877. 

After the stone had been lowered, and after Masonic procla- 
mation had been made, Grand Master Couch made a brief 
address. He said it ivas fitting that a single word be spoken 
by him on this occasion. We are conscious that we are 
standing on historic ground. As citizens we commemorate 
the birth of the nation one hundred years ago. As Masons 
we represent an antii|uity far more remote. The speaker 
referred to the relations which Masons held to the events 
which occurred a century ago. He held this to be a truth, 
that the civilization of a people is proved by its architecture. 
Look back into the history of Egypt. We find in the pyra- 
mids this great truth exemplified and crystallized in a single 
word — mystery. In Grecian arcliitecture, represented in 
the Acropolis, the same story is told and crystallized in a 
word — classic art. Rome's story of architecture is symbol- 
ized by the Parthenon and crystallized, too, in a word — em- 
pire. All over Europe is a class of architectural ruins, in 
which we read the story of feudalism. Crossing the channel 
the same story of crystallization is told by the same monu- 
ments. Out of this combination of Egyptian, Greek, 
Roman, and Gothic, the art of architecture has crystallized. 
This monument, the corner-stone of which we have just 
now laid, is but the crystallization of the thoughts of the 
])eople. We shall pass away, but behind us let us leave a 
monument which shall tell the story of this people's civiliza- 
tion in one word — patriotism. 

Alter the address had been concluded, the procession 
marched to the field, where the following exercises were held : 


Music, Boring's band. 

Prayer, Rev. Rufus W. Clark, D.D., of Albany. 


Introductory Address by president of the day, 

Hon. C. S. Lester. 


Oration by ex-Governor Horatio Seymour. 

Oration by Hon. George William Curtis. 


Reading of poems. 

Address by Hon. L. S. Foster, of Connecticut. 


Colt's Armory band, Hartford, Conn. 

Prayer by the chaplain of the day. 


Addre.ssby Hon. B. W. Throckmorton, Subject: "Arnold." 

Fitz Greene Halleck's " Field of the Grounded Arms," read 

by Gen. James Grant Wilson. 


Historical Address, by William L. Stone, of New York city. 

Short Addresses, by Hon. A. A. Yates and H. L. Gladding. 

The addresses upon this memorable occasion are given 
at length in the memorial volume which has been issued. 
They are replete witli historic value and patriotic elo- 

Judge Lester said, " It was in defense of their homes, 
in defense of their liberties, in defense of their families 
from the savage allies of Burgoyne and the still more cruel 
arts of domestic traitors, in defense of those noble prin- 
ciples of human rights and human liberty that animated 
the signers of the immortal Declaration, not then two years 
old, that the Americans from every settlement, from every 
hillside, from every valley, from the log hut of the pioneer, 
and from beautiful mansions like Schuyler's, flocked to the 
standard of Gates to aid in repelling the invader." 

Hon. Horatio Seymour said, " One hundred years ago 
on this spot American independence was made a great fact 
in the history of nations. Until the surrender of the 
British army under Burgoyne the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was but a declaration. It was a patriotic 
asserted in bold words by brave men, who pledged for its 
maintenance their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred 
honor. But here it was made a fact by virtue of armed 
force. It had been regarded by the world merely as an 
act of defiance ; but it was now seen that it contained the 
srerms of a government which the event we celebrate made 
one of the powers of the earth. Here rebellion was made 
revolution. Upon this ground that which had in the eye 
of the law been treason became triumphant patriotism." 

George William Curtis closed as follows : " We who 
stand here proudly remembering, — we who have seen Vir- 
ginia and New York, the north and the south, more bitterly 
hostile than the armies whose battles shook this ground, — 
we who mutually proved in deadliest conflict the constancy 
and the courage of all the States, which, proud to be peers, 
yet own no master but our united selves, — we renew our 
hearts' imperishable devotion to the common American 
faith, the common American pride, and the common Ameri- 
can glory. Here Americans stood and triumphed. Here 
Americans stand and bless their memory. And here for a 
thousand years may grateful generations of Americans come 
to rehearse the glorious story, and to rejoice in a supreme 
and benignant American nationality." 

Hon. Gf'orge W. Schuyler said, "The memory of General 
Philip Schuyler needs no eulogy from one who bears his 
name, and in whose veins is only a trace of collateral blood. 
History will yet do him justice. Posterity will crown him 
the hero of Saratoga. The nation will recognize him as the 
general who prepared the battle which won our freedom." 

Wm. L. Stone read a long and valuable historical 

B. W. Throckmorton, of New Jersey, spoke upon " Ar- 

H. L. Gladding closed his remarks with a plea for the 

A. A. Yates also devoted a brilliant passage to the monu- 
ment: " Let, then, this monument rise till it meets the sun 
in its coming, whose first rays, lingering on Mount Willard 
to gild the spot where the faithful sentry stood, shall glitter 
and play upon its summit. Grand and everlasting, its solid 
firmness shall commemorate the faith of those who stood 



so proudly here one hundred years ago, and perpetuate the 
memory of those whose dust has been traceless for a cen- 
tury within sight of its sphere. Let the last rays of the 
evening fasten its shade on the pathway our fathers walked 
amid the ringing praises of their grateful countrymen. Let 
us all come close together beneath its base. We, too, have 
had our sorrows. We have had our killed in battle. We 
have the mourners who go about the streets ; we have 
the widow and the fatherless ; we have the poor in heart. 
The evening of our first century has been red as theirs 
with the scarlet tinge of blood.' 

To this account of the celebration at Schuylerville, and 
the laying of the corner-stone of the monument, we add 
the names of the ofiiccrs of the monument association : 

President. — Horatio Seymour, Utica. 

Vice-President. — James H. Marvin, Saratoga Springs. 

Secretary. — William L. Stone, New York city. 

Corresponding Secretary. — Ed. W. B. Canning, Stock- 
bridge, Massachusetts. 

Treasurer. — Daniel A. Bullard, Schuylerville. 

Standing Committees. — Committee on Design : William 
L. Stone, Charles H. Payn, K. W. B. Canning, James M. 
Marvin, Leroy Mowray. 

Committee on Location : Asa C. Teift, Benson J. Loss- 
ing, E. F. Bullard. 

Building Committee: Charles H. Payn, Asa C. Teift, 
William L. Stone. 

Executive Committee: Leroy Mowray, James M. ]Mar- 
vin, Daniel A. Bullard, D. F. Ritchie. 

Advisory Committee : E. F. Bullard, P. C. Ford, B. W. 
Throckmorton, Oscar Frisbie. 

Trustees. — Horatio Seymour, William J. Bacon, Utica; 
James M. Marvin, Charles H. Payn, E. F. Bullard, David 
F. Ritchie, Saratoga Springs; William L. Stone, Gen. J. 
Watts De Peyster, Algernon S. Sullivan, B. W. Throck- 
morton, New York city ; Daniel A. Bullard, P. C. Ford, 
H. Clay Homes, Schuylerville ; Leroy Mowray, Greenwich ; 
Asa C. Tefft, Fort Miller ; Charles W. Mayhew, Victory 
Mills; E. R. Mudgc, Boston, Massachasetts ; E. W. B. 
Canning, Stockbridge, Massachusetts ; Webster Wagner, 
Palatine Bridge; Frank Pruyn, Mechanicville ; James H. 
Kelly, Rochester; Giles B. Slocum, Trenton, Michigan; 
Benson J. Lossing, Dover Plains ; Gen. John BL Read, 
Lemon Thompson, Albany. 


BAIL ROADl? -1795— 1838. 


That part of the State of New York which has now 
universally come to be known as, and called, Northern New 
York, and of which the county of Saratoga forms so im- 
portant a part, is a region almost, if not quite, surrounded 
by natural water-courses, making of it virtually an island.* 

* See Historieal Sketches of Northern New York ami the Adiron- 
dack Wilderness, by the author, page 17. 

Northern New York, as it has been seen in the opening 
chapter of this work, is an elevated plateau, rising into 
lofty mountain peaks in the interior, and gradually sloping 
on every side into the deep surrounding valleys. On the 
north of it flows the great river St. Lawrence, di'aining 
the great lakes. To the east of it, in the great " northern 
valley," is the Hudson river, running southerly into the 
Atlantic ocean, and the waters of Lake Champlain and its 
tributaries, flowing northerly into the St. Lawrence. On 
the south of it the Mohawk river runs easterly into the 
Hudson, while the waters of the Oneida lake run westerly 
through the Oswego river into Lake Ontario. On the 
west is Lake Ontario, from which runs the St. Lawrence, 
completing the encircling chain of almost one thousand 
miles of living navigable waters. 

Around this region the Indian could paddle his canoe, 
and the white, in the colonial period, could row his bateau, 
finding, save the portages around the somewhat numerous 
falls and rapids, only two carrying-places. One was from 
the Hudson, at Fort Edward, to Fort Nun, on the Wood 
creek, that runs into Lake Champlain at Whitehall. The 
other was from the iMohawk, at Port Stanwix, to Fort 
Williams, on the other Wood creek, which runs into the 
Oneida lake. 

But these natural obstacles to navigation were long since 
overcome by artificial means, and Northern New York is 
now entirely surrounded by navigable routes. The arti- 
ficial means mentioned above are the Erie and the Cham- 
plain canals, the first running through and skirting the 
whole southern border of Saratoga County, and the latter 
running through almost the whole extent of its eastern 

To these great artificial water-courses, thus supplement- 
ing her natural water-courses and overcoming their ob- 
stacles, the State and city of New Y'ork are mainly indebted 
for their wonderful material and industrial prosperity. 

If to their distinguished governor, De Witt Clinton, 
much gratitude is due from the people of the State for the 
building and completion of these important works, some 
slight acknowledgment they also owe to their last colonial 
governor, William Tryon, for the conception of the scheme 
and its first official recommendation to their favorable 

In his report on the state of the province, bearing date 
11th June, 1774, Governor Tryon, in speaking of the 
navigation of Hudson and Mohawk rivers, recommends 
that the obstacles to their navigation be overcome by a 
system of locks and canals. 


The first projector of inland navigation in America was 
Christopher Colles. He was born in Ireland in the year 
1738. He first appears in this country as delivering pub- 
lic lectures in Philadelphia, in 1772, upon pneumatics, 
illustrated by experiments in an air-pump of his own in- 
vention. He is said to have been the first in this country 
to undertake the building of a steam-engine for a distillery 
in that city, but failed for want of means, although his 
plan secured the approval of David Rittenhouse and the 
Philosophical Society. 



In 1773 lie lectured at the Exchange in New I'^ork on 
the advantages of loch ndvlgation. The benefits of this 
mode of transportation had recently been demonstrated by 
the opening by the Duke of Bridgewater, in 1761, of the 
first navigable canal constructed in Great Britain. 

On the Gth day of November, 1784, he addressed a 
memorial to the two Houses of the New York Legislature, 
proposing a plan for inland navigation on the Mohawk river. 
It was referred to a committee, of which Mr. Adgate, of Al- 
bany, was chairman, who, on the 6th of the same month, 
reported that while these laudable proposals merited en- 
couragement, " it would be inexpedient for the Legislature 
to cause that business to be undertaken at public," 
and added that if Mr. Colles, with a number of adventurers, 
would undertake it, they ought to be encouraged in the 

The next time the canal policy was suggested to the 
Legislature was in a speech made in that body by Governor 
George Clinton, in 1791. 

Again on the 5th day of January, 1795, Governor Clin- 
ton, in his speech to the Legislature, warmly recommended 
inland navigation, saying " that he trusted that a measure 
so interesting to the community would continue to command 
the attention due to its importance." On the 7th of Feb- 
ruary, 1792, General Williams, of Salem, Washington 
county, brought a bill into the Legislature entitled " An act 
for constructing and opening a canal and lock navigation in 
northern and western parts of the State." 

These efforts resulted in the formation of two companies 
in the year 1795, one for the northern and one for the 
western improvement. The northern company was incor- 
porated by the name of the " Northern Inland Lock Navi- 
gation Company." The object of the company was to build 
a canal and locks from the sprouts of the Mohawk up along 
the west bank of the Hudson around the rapids. For this 
purpose surveys were commenced in the summer of 1795, 
and a considerable part of the work was begun and com- 
pleted before the year 1800. One of the surveyors em- 
ployed on this northern canal in 1795 was Mark Isambard 
Brunei, who afterwards filled the world with his fame as 
the engineer of the Thames tunnel. Brunei had been in 
the French navy, and was exiled from France on account of 
his socialistic proclivities. 

General Schuyler was at the head of this company, and 
the remains of this undertaking were long called locally 
" Schuyler ditch." The enterprise failed bpcause private 
means were inadequate to its completion. But these efforts 
finally resulted in the building of the Erie and Champlain 
canals, those stupendous improvements to which our State 
owes so much of its prosperity. 

The early but abortive efforts in this direction having 
been mostly made in Saratoga County, so far as the northern 
company was concerned, are of peculiar interest to the 
people of the county. 


This company was incorporated Feb. 16, 1831 ;, Henry 
Walton, John Clarke, William A. Langworthy, John H. 
Steele, Miles Beach, Gideon W. Davison, aijd Rockwell 

Putnam, " with such other persons as shall associate with 
them for that purpose," being constituted a body politic 
and corporate, with power to construct a single or double 
railroad or way betwixt the village of Saratoga Springs and 
the city of Schenectady, passing through the village • of 
Ballston as near the centre thereof as is practicable, and 
were vested with the sole and exclusive right and privilege 
of constructing and using a single or double railroad or 
ways for the purpose of transporting and carrying persons 
and property over the same, and were to have succession 
for fifty years. 

Churchill C. Camberleng, Walter Bowne, Henry Walton, 
John Clarke, Samuel Young, Thomas Palmer, Daniel J. 
Toll, John J. De Graff, William James, James Stevenson, 
and John Townsend were the commissioners for receiving 
subscriptions to the capital stock, which was to be $150,000. 
Terminating at Saratoga Springs, and having but little 
business except during the summer months, the road wa.s 
not a financial success until the opening of the Rensselaer 
and Saratoga railroad, and the Saratoga and Washington 
railroad, made it a part of the continuous line between the 
head of navigation on the Hudson river and Lake Cham- 
plain. It was afterwards durably leased to the Rensselaer 
and Saratoga railroad company, and has since been operated 
by that company. So limited was the business of the road 
that prior to its being leased, and on some occasions after 
that, it was not uncommon to cease operations in the winter 
season, particularly after a heavy fall of snow, carrying the 
mails and such stray passengers as might offer by the less 
expensive horse and cutter. Since the opening of the 
northern and eastern connections, however, it has been the 
highway of a large and prosperous traffic between the great 
west and Boston and northern New England. 


was incorporated April 14, 1832, the act providing that 
" Stephen Warren (of Troy), and such other persons as 
shall hereafter become stockholders," should constitute a 
body corporate under that name. The capital stock was to 
be $300,000. The road was to be constructed "from 
some proper point in the city of Troy, in the county of 
Rensselaer, passing through the village of Waterford, in 
the county of Saratoga, to the village of Ballston Spa, in 
said county of Saratoga :" with privilege " to take, trans- 
port, carry, and convey property and persons upon the 
same, by the power and force of steam, of animals, or any 
mechanical power, or of any construction of them, for the 
term of fifty years from the passage of this act. John 
Knickerbocker, of Waterford, John House, Stephen War- 
ren, William Pierce, William Haight, James Cook, and 
Joel Lee were appointed commissioners to open books of 

The road was constructed, and operated with varying 
success, but finally went into the hands of its creditors. It 
was purchased by a new organization, who raised the capi- 
tal stock to $600,000, and afterwards, the vigor and energy 
of the new management, the rapid growth of the village 
of Saratoga Springs, and the opening of new rail con- 
nections to the north and east, requiring funher outlay to 
meet the wants of its business, to $800,000. In 1868 it con- 



solidntcd wiili the Saratoga and Whiteliall railroad and the 
Troy, Sakni and Rutland railroad, from Rutland to Eagle 
Bridge, -nhen its capital stock was raised to §2,500,000, 
and in 1870 it was further increased to $6,000,000, when 
the whole property was durably leased to the Delaware 
and Hudson canal company. 

It will be seen that the original charter of the road was 
from Troy to Ballston Spa. The Saratoga and Sclienec- 
tady railroad was already in operation from Ballston Spa 
to Saratoga, so that the Rensselaer railroad was but twenty- 
five miles in length, and made a connection at Ballston Spa 
with the Saratoga and Schenectady railroad for its Saratoga 

In 1860 the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad company 
took a lease — since made a perpetual one — of the property 
of the Saratoga and Schenectady railroad, and has continued 
to operate it as a part of its line since that time. It also, 
in 1860, took a perpetual lease of the Albany and Vermont 
railroad company's property from Albany to the Junction 
above Waterford, and in 1867 leased the Glen's Falls rail- 
road from Fort Edward to Glen's Falls. So that, from its 
small beginning of twenty-five miles, it has, by gradual de- 
velopment of its business and the energy and thrift of its 
management, grown to the control and direction of one 
hundred and eighty-one miles of track, running through 
and giving facilities of transportation to a populous and 
important section of the State. 

The village of Saratoga may well consider itself under 
the highest obligation to the railroad companies, which 
have given her her proud title of " the queen of the water- 
ing-places." Without their aid, while doubtless the heal- 
ing waters which bubble from her springs would have 
attracted numerous visitors, as they did in the days of 
four-horse coaches and the Boston chaise, the throngs of 
thousands who now seek amusement and relaxation there 
would have found transportation an impassibility. 

It is difficult now, in the days of powerful locomotives, 
steel rails, and drawing-room cars, to realize the humble 
beginnings of the railway enterprises of the country. The 
Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad was the third road built 
in the State, — the Albany and Schenectady and the Sara- 
toga and Schenectady being constructed but a brief time 
before. The coaches of that day would now be a curiosity. 
For many years a single car drawn by a horse was used for 
the local business between Troy and the village of Water- 
ford, and " old Fisk's liearse " will still be remembered 
by the older citizens of the two places. The writer well 
remembers how the competent and genial superintendent 
of those days, the late Leonard R. Sargeaut, promised Mr. 
risk that if he overtook him again on the route he would 
" pitch his old hearse down the bank," and how he literally 
performed his promise. Few persons are aware that it was 
supposed when railroads were first being constructed in 
this country that the tolls for the running of private cars 
for freight or passengers on the track would constitute a 
part of the income of the company, and that any respon- 
sible party would be allowed to run his own cars, operated 
by his own horse or steam-power, on payment of the regu- 
lar toll, very much as the practice runs on McAdamized or 
turnpike roads or the public canals. That this was at once 

found impracticable was matter of course, as time-tables 
and responsibility to one head by those operating the road 
were absolutely necessary for safety to life and property. 
But it will be found that in several of the early charters 
of the country the board of directors were authorized, 
among other rights, to fix the rate of tolls. 


The following list of railroads and of railroad projects 
formerly authorized, including those abandoned and those 
merged in others, is derived from oflScial sources, and is 
nearly complete from the first, in 1826, to November, 1877. 
Those now in existence, so far as can be ascertained, and 
either done or in actual and advanced stages of construction, 
have their titles printed in small capitals. Such historical 
and statistical data and dates as our restricted limits allowed 
have been given in connection with the more important. 
The constant changes going on have, however, rendered this 
list necessarily somewhat imperfect, even at the time of 
going to the press, and it must become more so every day. 
It will, however, afford useful and, for the most part, relia- 
ble facts, so far as it goes, concerning the railroad interests 
of the county. 

Adirondack Company. — Articles filed Oct. 24, 1863, 
and formed under chapter 236. laws of 1863, succeeded 
the "Adirondack Estate and Railroad Company." Allowed 
by act of March 31, 1865, to extend its road to Lake 
Ontario or the St. Lawrence, as to increase its capital to 
$5,000,000 ; finished sixty-two miles, from Saratoga 
Springs to North Creek, in Warren county. It is proposed 
to extend a branch of this road to Ogdensburg. 

The articles were amended July 10, 1870, and the capi- 
tal increased with the design of this extension ; and an 
appropriation was granted by the Legislature in 1871, but 
fiiiled to receive the governor's sanction. Distances — Sara- 
toga to Greenfield, six miles; Kings, four; South Corinth, 
three ; Jessup's Landing, four ; Hadley's, five ; Quarry, 
five; Stoney Creek, three ; Thurman, six ; and The Glen, 
eight. Besides the railroad, this company is engaged in 
mining and other business enterprises. 

Adirondack Estate and Railroad. — Articles filed 
Aug. 11, 1860; merged in the "Adirondack Company'' 
under chapter 236, laws of 1863. 

Adirondack Railroad Company. — Incorporated 
April, 1839 ; did not attempt construction of road. 

Albany and Vermont R.\ilro.\d. — Articles filed 
Oct. 6, 1859; formerly the Albany, Vermont and Canada 
Railroad. Leased June 12, 1860, to the Rensselaer and Sara- 
toga railroad, and has since (until recently) been operated by 
them. Length, twelve miles. A " Y" branch to near the 
ferry, in West Troy, was constructed, but was discontinued 
several years since. This branch is now under the control 
of the "Delaware and Hudson Canal Company." 

Delaware and Hudson C.^nal\ny. — This 
company, on the 9th of May, 1871, became the lessee of 
the Albany and Susquehanna railroad for the term of its 
charter. It is also lessee of the Rensselaer and Saratoga rail- 
road (May 18, 1871), and of the Utica, Clinton and Bing- 
hamton railroad, and is building a road from Nineveh to 
Lauesboro', Pa. See Albany and Susquehanna railroad, etc. 



Sacket's Harbor and Saratoga Railroad. — In- 
corporated April 10, 1848, and organized Jan. 10, 1852. 
Lenjcth about one hundred and sixty miles. The woric has 
begun and a large amount of money expended, but nothing 
furnished under thi.s name. Changed to Luke Ontario and 
Hudson River railroad. 

Saratoga and Fort Edward Railroad. — Incor- 
porated April 17, 1833; seventeen miles. Not completed. 
Its survey, maps, etc., were allowed by act of May 2, 1834, 
to be sold to the Saratoga and Washington lailroad company. 

S.VRATOGA and Hudson River Kailroad. — Articles 
filed April 1(J, 18(J1. Not built. 

Saratoga and Montgomery Railroad. — Incorpo- 
rated May G, 1836. Not constructed. 

Saratoga and Schuylerville Railroad. — Incor- 
porated April 20, 1833 ; nine miles. Not built. 

Saratoga and Washington Railro.4D. — Chartered 
May 2, 1834. Capital $600,000. Company organized 
April 20, 1835, and work begun, but stopped in 1836. 
Finally opened to Whitehall, from Saratoga Springs, Dec. 
10, 1848, and to Lake station, April 9, 1851. Sold Feb. 
27, 1855, on foreclosure of a mortgage, and the Saratoga 
and Whitehall railroad took its place. 

Saratoga and Whitehall Railroad. — Organized 
June 8, 1855, as successor of the Saratoga and Washing- 
ton railroad. Capital $500,000. Leased and run the 

Rutland and Whitehall railroad to Castleton, Vt., many 
years. Leased in perpetuity, and transferred under chap. 
254, laws of 1867, to the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad 
company, and the articles filed Oct. 22, 1868. Now oper- 
ated under the Delaware and Hud.son canal company. 

Saratoga, Schdylerville and Hoosaic Tunnel 
Railroad. — Article filed April 4, 1870. From Saratoga 
Springs to Schuylerville, about eighteen miles. Capital 
$300,000. Not built. 

Saratoga Springs and Schuylerville Railroad. 
— Incorporated April 26, 1832. Not constructed. 



The tables given below are mostly compiled from the 
records in the oftice of the Secretary of State, and from 
those in the ofiice of the State superintendent of public in- 
struction, at Albany. The statistics here given present 
a most comprehensive view of the chief industrial interests 
of the county of Saratoga, as well as of its progressive 
development in population and wealth since its early set- 
tlement more than a hundred years ago. 


Saratoga County. 

Ballston 7,833 

Cliarlton .... 

Clifton Park 

Coiiulh I 


Eiliiiburgh I 




Half-Moon ' 3,002 


Milton I 


N">rtliunilterland I 

Providence ' 

Saratoga 3,U7l 

Saratoga Springs I 

Still wjiier 3,071 


Wilton ,;.-.. ... ; 














Total il7,U7Y 








31,139 36,052 36,295 38,079 




















1,36 i 








1,413 i 




2,386 [ 
































































49,892 51,529 55,233 


Sauatog^ Covxty, 

Afiican Methodist Episcopal... 


Christian Cotinection 


Frce-Will Baptist 


Methoiiist Ejiiscopal 

Methodist Protestant 


Protestant EpiscojHll 

Reformed Cliureh in America.. 

Knman Cathidic 


United Methodist Free Clinrch 

United Prcsbyteiian 


































































with Lots. 












Other Real 



1 .500 










Amount paid for 

Salaries of 









7. .525 





Saratoov County. 



Clifton Piirk....:.. 














Saratoga Springa. 





or all ' Under .1 
Sizes Acres. 















under 10. 








10 and 
under 20. 







20 and 




50 and 
under 100. 




100 and 500 and 
under 500. | under 1000. 

















Saratoga County. 



Clifton Park 














Saratoga Springs.. 




Area of Land in Farms. 










A errs. 










Present Cash Valuf. 

Of Farms. 






















Of Farm 

Buildings „f „ , 
other than I "> »">'=''■ 






















317,201 89,192 69,026 20,834,667 3,153,881 2,229,452 820,492 15,758 1,708,738 























Of Tools 























00 s 

o a 
o 3 oo 








No. 5.— CENSUS OF 1875— STATISTICS OF FARMS.— Confiuiierf. 

Saratoga County. 



Cliltou Park 














Saratoga Springs. 





Area Plowed. 


In 1874. 



7 222 

Grass Lands. 

Acres in Pasture. 

In 1874. 






Acres mown. 

In 1874. 


In 1875. 



in 1874. 



Grass Seed 
in 1874. 







In 1874. In 1875 









in 1874. 







No. 6.— CENSUS OF 1875— STATISTICS OF FARMS.— C«»(V»nerf. 

Sakatooa Cou.vty. 



Clilton I'nik 














Saratoga Spriug».. 

Stillwater , 






in 1874. 









Indian Cons. 















































In 1874. 


















.A cres. 





















in 1874. 


















































in 1874. 





















No. 7. 

— CEN 


OF 1875 




SABAToa.\. County. 

SpRtNO Wheat. 

WiNTEB Wheat. 

C011?f SOWN 

FOR Fodder. 




in 1874. 











in 1874. 


in 1874. 


in 1874. 
















































































































































































Clitton Park 






Total „ 














No. 8.— CENSUS OF 1875— STATISTICS OF TAnUS.—Coutiimefl. 

Sar.^toga County. 

B«ll«ton , 


Clifton Park 









Milton , 



Providence , 


Saratoga Springs. 








Apple Orchards 




in 1874. 

in 1874. 

in 1874. 















A cres. 































240 2670 





























































































































. 1,125,455 








No. 9.— CENSUS OF 1875— STATISTICS OF FARMS.— C-in/inwerf. 

Saratooa CovNxr. 



Clifton Park 







Half Moon 




Nortliulnbei'land . 



Saratoga Springs . 





Fruit pro- 
duced in 























made il 












made in 














mitde in 


















IN 1874. 















Horses on Farms, 
June 1, 1875. 

Colts of 

Colts of 








old and 






June 1, 





in 1875. 





Value sold 

in 1874. I 






Value of 

Eg'^8 sold 

in 1874. 






No. 10.— CENSUS OF 1S75— STATISTICS OF FARMS.— CV,«(,n»crf. 

Saratoga CotJNTV. 



Clifton Park 














Saratoga Springs. 





Neat Cattle on Fakms, June 1, 1875. 





















of all 









































2237 2639 3056 1409 2070 14,969 14,979 1684 

Milch Cows, 
Average Num- 
ber KEPT. 












































Dairy Products. 

Cows whose Milk 
was sent to Fac- 







made in 








made in 










182 1,403,779 41,694 288,236 

sold in 






21 Kl 









No. 11.— CENSUS OF 1875— STATISTICS OF FARMS.— Coiilwued. 

Saratoga County. 



Cliflon Park 






Hiidley , 








Saratoga Springs 





Number Sliorn. , Weight of Clip. Lambs rai.scd. 





1 ,040 



























25,879 21,902 






































































On Farms, 
June 1, 1876. 

Pigs of 


















Pigs of 



































10,383 2,266,524 




Saratog.k Coustt. 



Valoe of 


NuMBEB OP Dwellings vaiued at 


























5 5 
































" "3 












































































" "o 





















































Chill Itoti 

Clifton Park 










































Saratoga County. 

County proper 

Cltftou l*urk 


Gill way 



Saratoga Springs 



Ballston Spa ( Villase) 

Saratoga Springs (Village), 

Total debt 



















Aid of 


Purposes for which created. 

War and 



and Water- 


91, OIK) 

Jails, PnOIir 
Oflic IP, and 


Other Pur- 
poses and 



The census of 1875 has no report from Hie town of Milton. The other towns and villages not named in the above table were free from debt in 1875: Ballston, 
Cliailt.m, Corinth, Day, Greenfield, Hadlt-y, Half-Moon, Malta, Northumberland, Providence, Wilton, and the incorporated villages, Galway, Schuylerville, 
Meclianicville, Stillwater, Victory, Mills, and Waterford. 


Saratoga County, Fikst District. 



Clifton Park 

Galway , 











— -o 


S » 










































Number of Children 
attending school 
during the year, 



= H 












































o - 

"5 ** 
























Northiimberlanil .. 


Saratoga Springs.. 




&■ 2 



THE Year. 










9122 12 290 , 6737 150 6893 5289 $2801 107 14 2 123 $41,143 $96,185 $6,780,970 
I I ■ 






26,750 1,080, 

36,300 2,645, 

2,900 302, 




Saratoga Countt. 



Clifton Park 














Saratoga Springs. 






Born in the United States. 

Born in the State. 


1,143 1 
1,448 j 
949 1 




























Born in 







9! lO'i 

8| 4.' 

£ s 










34 i 28 

Hi 7 



55,137 46,670 43,289 31,200 8523 3566 87 17711027 675 101 351 173 143 653 8461 1020,1149 663 6196 260 183 
























































































Born in Foreign Countries. 



33 i 










183 1441 
16 412 
40 608 
10 28 











































Clifton Park 














Saratoga Springs. 






Native Foreign 
native. 3|,j,,| 











14,181113,481) 1218 



Native Fn^eign 
native. j^jj,_^ 

2911 297 
476: 473 
156' 161 
486' 510 
208 1 209 
731 739 
319 325 
289) 297 
222) 225 
684 600 
1430 1607 
471 490 
458 477 

1139,8158 8402 276712552 


0,13' 693' 109 
ISO' 170 i 27 
3781 367 j 39 
25 22 20 

«""-■ ""^r 

Native *'<"''='8n 
native. jjg,.^ 

Married, whose husbands 
or wires do not appear in 
the returns in the srtnie 
families with thuinselveB. 

How Intermarried. 





Native Foreign 
Husband Husband. 






























B t; Frif, Tw. TT VI 

f i=: "ir Ifl , 




Among tlic many distinguished jurists who graced the 
bench of the State of New York, during the pahuy days 
of its rapidly increasing jiiris]irudence, no name became 
more lii^e a honseliuld word on the lips of every lawyer in 
the land than that of Chancellor Walworth. 

Reuben Hyde Walworth was born on the 2Gth day of 
October, 1788, in Bozrah, Conn. He was the third son of 
Benjamin Walworth, the American branch of the Wal- 
worth family tracing its origin to the historic Walworth, 
the Lord Mayor of London, who slew the rebel Watt Tyler 
in the reign of Richard II. In ItiTl, William Walwortli, 
tlie ancestor of Benjamin Walworth, came from the city 
of London and settled on Fisher's island, afterwards re- 
moving to Now London. 

In the early part of the Revolutionary war, Benjamin 
Walworth, the chancellor's father, was ((iiartermaster of 
Colonel NichoU's New York Regiment in the service of the 
United States, and was acting adjutant-general of his regi- 
ment at the battle of White Plains. 

When the chancellor was four years of age his parents 
removed to Iloosick, N. Y., where he was occupied with 
the labors of the farm, receiving such education as was 
then afforded hj the excellent common schools of the period, 
together with much private instruction in his father's family. 
At the age of seventeen he commeneed the study of law, 
and at twenty was admitted to practice in the county court, 
and two years later in the Supreme Court of the State. 
He settled at Plattsburg, Clinton Co., in January, 1810, 
and in 1811 was appointed master in chancery and one of 
the county judges. In the War of 1812 he was an officer 
of volunteers, and at the siege of Plattsburg in 1814, was 
acting adjutant-general of the United States forces, on the 
staff of Major-General Mooers, taking an important part in 
the battle. He was a member of Congress from 1821 to 
182o, being appointed in the latter year one of the circuit 
judges of the State, by Governor Joseph C. Yates. Tiiis 
office he held for five years, in which he was noted for his 
prompt and fearless administration of the law both in the 
civil and criminal branches of his court. 

In 1828, Judge Walworth wa.s appointed chancellor of 
the State of New York. This office he held for twenty 
years, and until the new constitution of 1848 abolished the 
court of chancery. In the office of chancellor he greatly 
distinguished himself His decisions as chancellor are con- 
tained in eleven volumes of Paige's Reports and three of 
Barbour's Reports. The most of his opinions delivered in 
the court for the correction of errors, of which, as chancellor, 
he was the princip a- executive officer, were published iu 
Wendell's Reports, twenty-six volumes; Hill's Reports, 
seven volumes, and in the five volumes of Dino's Reports. 

The year he was appointed circuit judge, 1823, he re- 
moved, in October, to Saratoga Springs. He purchased at 
that time of Judge Walton, its first occupant and builder, 
what has since bt^en known as llie Walworth place of Pine 
Grove. In these early days it was much more secluded a 

place than it now is, and was exceedingly beautiful. The 
railroad had not then marred its proportions, and a de- 
lightful wood, which bounded it on the rear, extended up 
westward beyond Matilda street, and to the Waterbury 
orchard and farm. Almost the entire block opposite was 
then used as a public park, and was the favorite resort for 
both the villagers and summer guest.s, which was known as 
Pine Grove, and was traversed by fine walks. It inclosed 
a ten-pin alley, which was much resorted to. Swings hung 
down between the tall ])ines in almost constant motion. In 
this grove the Indians sometimes encamped, offering for 
sale their manufactured wares, and shooting with bows and 
arrows to show their matchless .skill in archery. And here, 
too, the militia sometimes met on training days. 

In 1828 he removed to Albany. In that city he first 
occu]>ied a house in Park Place, near the academy, and af- 
terwards one on Wa.'^hington avenue, tiie present residence 
of Judge Amasa J. Parker. In 18:>i>, tiring of his city 
residence, he returned to his former home in Pine Gnjve, 
in Saratoga Springs, where he continued to reside until his 
death, which occurred on the 28th day of November, 18G6. 

Cliancellor Walworth, bef ire his death, had long been 
identified with the leading religious benevolent movements 
of the day. He was for many years president of the 
American Temperance Union, vice-president of the Tract 
Society and of the American Bible Society, and one of the 
corporate members of the American board of missionaries 
for foreign missions. 

Chancellor Walworth may justly be regarded as the great 
artisan of our equity laws. In some sense he was the 
Beiitham of America, without the bold speculations and 
fantastical theory which, to a certain extent, characterized 
the great English jurist. What Benlham did in removing 
the defects in English jnrisjirndence, Walworth did, in reno- 
vating and simplifying the equity laws of the United States. 
Before his dav the court of chancery in this State was a tri- 
bunal of very illy defined powers and uncertain jurisdiction, 
in a measure subservient to the English court of chancery 
in its procedure. 

Chancellor Walworth aboli.shed much of that stolidity, 
many of those prolix and bewildering formalities which 
had their origin in the rising Medijeval Ages, and reduced 
the practice of his court to certain standing rules, which 
he prepared with great industry. These rules greatly im- 
proved the old state of equity, and though he has been 
charged with thus blocking the court of chancery with 
expensive machinery, it cannot be gainsaid that with 
Chancellor Walworth equity was the sole spirit of law, 
creating positive and defining rational law, flexible in its 
nature and .suited to the fortunes, cares, and reciprocal 
complications of men.* 

While residing at Plattsburg, he married his first wife, 
whose maiden name was Maria Ketchum Avery. She 
was a lady of singular sweetness and benevolence of char- 
acter. With her husband at the time of their marriage 
she united herself to the comnjunion of the Presby- 
terian church, to which she always remained devotedly 
attached. She was gentle and pliable except where con- 

* See Reminiscences of Saratoga, by William L. Stone. 



science was concerned, when she was as iuiinovablc as a 
rock. With unbounded love for little children, she de- 
lighted to minister to their wants. Among the poor and 
sick she was a constant daily visitor. Not an urchin in 
the village, however ragged, whetlier wliite or black, but 
knew her like a book, and felt truly at home with her. 
By all classes, whether old or young, she was greatly be- 
loved. She died at Pine Grove on the 24tli day of April, 
1847. As a Christian, wife, mother, friend, and neighbor, 
she was a model in every relation of life. In the locality 
whore she so long lived, loved, and was beloved in turn, 
her memory is still tenderly cherished. 

By his first wife Chancellor Walworth had six children, 
of whom the four eldest are still living. His daughters 
were Sarah, now Mrs. DavLson ; Mary, now Mrs. Jenkins; 
iiliza, now Mrs. Bark\is; and one deceased. His sons 
were Rev. Clarence Walworth and Jlansfield Tracy Wal- 

On the Ifith of April, 1841, Chancellor Walworth again 
married. His second wife was Sarah Ellen, daughter of 
Hoiace Sniith, of Locust Giove, and widow of Colonel 
Jdhn J. Hardin. She brought with her to Saratoga three 
young cliildren of her first marriage, two boys and a 
daughter, who is the present Mis. Ellen Hardin Walworth, 
who, with her i'amily of children, two sons and three 
daugliters, still occu]iies the family niansi(jn. The eldest 
daughter. Miss Nellie Hardin Walworth, at sixteen became 
the author of a work of much merit, entitled "An Old 
World as Seen through Young Eyes." The chancellor's 
second marriage, like his first, was eminently a happy one. 
The new wife was sweet and loving in her temper, and a 
woman of high refinement and culture. She brought with 
her to Pine Grove a style of southern hosjiitality which 
accorded well with her husband's disposition and .station in 
life. It was her pleasure to keep open house, and many 
more fiimiliar faces passed in and out than ever thought to 
ring the bell or wait in the parlors. She survived her hus- 
band only ten years, dying in the month of April, 1874. 

Few men have been more extensively known throughout 
the country than Chancellor Walworth. Perhaps no man 
indeed ever so well remembered his friends. He seemed 
never to forget fiices or names. After retiring from office, 
the study of genealogy became his peculiar hobby, and his 
chief relaxation and enjoyment. The result was the pub- 
lication of a volume entitled the " Hyde Genealogy," being 
that of his mother's family. It contains fourteen hundred 
and forty-six pages, in two large octavo volumes, and it is 
said to bo the largest account of a single family ever pub- 
lished. His body was interred in his family plot in Green- 
wich cemetery. This plot bad long been an object of his 
special care and interest. It was his custom for many 
years to go there on every Sunday morning before service, 
and when flowers were in bloom, to carry thither bouquets 
which he had gathered in his garden. His body now lies 
beside that of the wife of his youth, among the graves 
that he had so well cherished, and beneath the soil upon 
which he had so often scattered the roses of spring-time. 
The family mansion is still standing in the old grove, very 
little altered in external appearance since the day when 
the chancellor first came to the Springs. And now neither 

stranger nor villager ever sees him at work in his garden, 
or romping with his grandchildien under the pines. The 
magnet that drew thither so many feet is no longer there. 
The last of the chancellors of the State of New York is 
gathered to his rest. 


Upon the pages of the ten thousand volumes of legal 
lore which crowd the book-shelves of the law^-ers of the 
New World and the Old, the name of Esek Cowen has 
long been the synonym for patient research and the most 
profound erudition. 

Esek Cowen's father, Joseph Cowen, was the son of 
John Cowen, a Scotch emigrant, who settled in Scituate, 
Mass., in 1G56. Esek was born in Rhode Island, Feb. 24, 
1784. His father removed, with his family, to Greenfield, 
this county, about 1793. A few years later he removed to 
Hartford, Washington county, where, during his early years, 
E.sek labored ujion his father's farm. The only educational 
advantages he ever enjoyed was six months' attendance in 
a neighborhood school. While pursuing his labors upon 
his father's farm he always had a book by his side, and 
while tending the lime-kiln would often read all night by 
its lurid fires. Thus, by persevering industry, he mastered 
classical and Eimiish literature. 

At an early age he turned his attention to the law. 
When but sixteen he entered the office of Roger Skinner, 
at Sandy Hill, continuing his studies later with Zebulon 
Shepherd. In 1810 he was admitted to the bar of the 
Supreme Court, and began the practice of his chosen pro- 
fession with Gardner Stowe, in Northumberland, in this 
county. Subsequently he formed a law copartnership with 
Wis.sell Gansevoort.* In 1812 he removed to Saratoga 
Springs. He rose rapidly in the legal ranks. In May, 
1824, he was appointed '• reporter in the Supreme Court 
and court of errors," holding the position until 1828, when 
he was appointed circuit judge by Governor Pitcher. His 
reports, embracing nine volumes, are justly prized by the 
profession. In 1835 he was appointed to the bench of the 
Supreme Court to fill the vacancy occasioned by the with- 
drawal of Judge Savage. Mr. Cowen continued in that 
office until his decease. In his early life he held the office 
of justice of the peace, and in 1821-1822 served as super- 
visor of Saratoga Springs. 

Previous to his elevation to the bench (1817) he formed 
a law copartnership with Judge William L. F. Warren, 
who had formerly been a student in his office. This part- 
nership continued until 1824. Subsequently he was asso- 
ciated for some years with Judiah Ellsworth. 

Besides his " Reports," the other works of his pen, which 
remain as a monument of his industry and genius, were a 
" Treatise on the Practice in Justices' Courts" and " Cowen 
and Hills' Notes on Phillips' Evidence," the latter of which 
represents eleven years' labor, and was published in 1839 
in four volumes. In the writing and compilation of the 
" Notes" he was assisted by Nicholas Hill, one of the most 
able lawyers the State ever produced. In these works 
were written those learned opinions which have since ren- 
dered Judge Cowen's name illustrious. 

■^ Beoch and Bar of Saratoga County, p. 26S. 



After removing to Saratoga Springs he built the " stone 
house" on Congress street, which was for many years his 

In 1811 he married a daughter of Sidney Berry. Their 
children were Susan Berry, Sidney Joseph, and Patrick 
Henry. Colonel Berry was the first surrogate of Saratoga 
County, and served as a colonel in the Continental army 
during the Revolution. " It was he who was detailed to 
receive, on the 30th of September, 1776, the messenger 
sent by Lord Howe to invite Dr. Franklin, John Adams, 
and Sir. Luttrage to a conference on Staten Island." * 

Judge Cowen was emphatically a self-made man. With 
an extremely limited common-school education, by his own 
efforts, stimulated by his energy and ambition, he rose to 
eminence. As a writer he was plain but accurate ; as a 
judge, "prompt, acute, learned, and upright." But it was 
as a jurist that he was best known. Of his opinions, which 
so eminently distinguished him as a jurist, it has been said 
that " in their depth and breadth of research, and their 
strength and rea.son of bearing, they are not excelled by 
those of any judge iu England or America." " His opu- 
lent mind, his love of research, caused him to trace every 
legal opinion to its fountain-head, to discover every varia- 
tion between apparently analogous precedents. . . . Like 
Lord Mansfield, to whom he has frequently been compared, 
he was accustomed, in the preparation of his opinions, to 
a liberal expenditure of mental capital, — an excess of in- 
tellectual labor which I'enders them the triumph of a great 
genius, impelled by an unprecedented industry." 

Judge Coweu's most maiked traits of character were those 
naturally resultant from his indomitable energy and remark- 
able powers of endurance. Possessed of a splendid consti- 
tution, " his athletic frame and fine muscular development" 
were often remarked. His phy.sical powers were enhanced 
by his abstemious habits, the rule of his life from a youth. 
He was one of the founders of the first temperance society 
in the United States, — that established at Northumberland 
in 1812. He was noted for his quickness of penetration, 
his force and oi'iginality of thought. Socially he was cheer- 
ful, often jocose. Intensely practical, he was not lacking in 
fine sensibility, or noble and generous actions. Material 
aid and kindly advice were never refused when needed, as 
many whom he started on the road to fame and fortune bear 
witness. The late Gideon M. Davison, on the occasion of 
his death, says, " He was my early friend and benefactor, — 
the one who, when I needed aid, kindly took me by the 
hand and led me through various trials, the one, in fact, 
who laid the foundation of all I have of earlhly posses- 
sions." He stood ever ready to aid all meritorious enter- 
prises; he gave the money (Dr. Clarke giving the land, 
and Judge Walton the timber) for the erection of Bethesda 
Episcopal chapel. His house, too, was the abode of kindly 
hospitality, where his genial manners, love of music, and 
rare poetic taste made him a delightful companion. He 
greatly delighted to hear and to sing certain plaintive 
Scotch ballads, among which " Bonny Doon" and " High- 
land Mary" were favorites. 

Judge Cowen is described as having been tall, — over six 

* Reminiscences of -Sarntoga, p. 360. 

feet high, — commanding of presence and bearing, but withal 
simple and unassuming in manner. His death occurred in 
the city of Albany, Feb. 11, 184-1, at the age of sixty. 
His funeral was attended in the hall of the capitol by the 
clergy of the city, tiie governor, State officials, both houses 
of the Legislature, judges, members of the bar, and a vast 
concourse of citizens. The procession accompanied the 
remains as far as the Patroon's on the route to Saratoga 
Springs, where, on the loth, the last obsequies were per- 
formed. f 


The village of Saratoga Springs seems to have been for 
many years the headquarters of legal learning, from the fact 
that so many eminent jurists made it their iiome. Promi- 
nent among was the Hon. John Willard, who, as a 
circuit judge and vice-chancellor of the Supreme Court 
under the old constitution, and justice of the Supreme 
Court under the now constitution, adorned the offices which 
he filled, and was a shining example of candor and integiity, 
joined with great learning and ability. 

Judge Willard was born at Guilford, Connecticut, on the 
20th day of May, 1792, and descended directly from two 
of the noble band of Puritans who in 1639 planted that 
town. He graduated from Middlebury College in 1813, 
and while there was associated with the late Silas Wright 
and Samuel Nelson, and evinced at that time the same 
l)atriotic solicitude for the welfare of his country while en- 
gaged in a foreign war that he afterwards exhibited when 
it was rent with the civil strife caused by the Rebellion. 
He was a nephew, by marriage, of the late Mrs. Emma 
Willard, the pioneer of female education in this country, 
and during his college life he was an inmate of her family. 
She always entertained a high regard for him, and in her 
later years was glad to renew the intimacy of earlier days. 
He was admitted to practice as an attorney of the Supreme 
Court in 1817, under the chief-justiceship of Smith Thomp- 
son, and entered upon the practice of the law in Salem, 
Washington county. Bringing to the profession of his 
choice a well-stored and disciplined mind, he soon attained, 
by his untiring industry, and without any adventitious aid, 
an enviable eminence in his profession. He was for many 
years first judge of the common pleas, and surrogate of 
Washington county, until, in 1836, on the elevation of 
Esek Cowen to the bench of the Supreme Court, he was 
appointed circuit judge and vice-chancellor of the Fourth 
Judicial district, filling that office until the new organiza- 
tion of the judiciary under the constitution of 1846, when 
he was elect9d one of the justices of the Supreme Court. 
The latter office he held until 1854; and, under the regu- 
lations of our judicial system, was a member of the court 
of appeals during the last year of his term of service. The 
rapidity and ability with which he discharged his judicial 
duties ; his uniform courtesy and kindness to the profes- 
sion, and, above all, the purencss and integrity of his 
character as a judge and as a man, commanded universal 
respect and esteem, and won for him many flattering 
testimonials of regard from the bar in the different coun- 
ties of the district. 

f Stone's Remiscences of Saratoga and Ballston. 



After his retirement from the bench he was engaged for 
some years in the preparation of several legal treatises, 
which are valuable contributions to onr jurisprudence, and 
not less distinguished for felicity and perspicuity of style 
than accurate and profound legal research and learning. 

As a politician he was attached to the Democratic party, 
and strong and decided in his political opinions ; but upon 
the breaking out of the Rebellion be sunk the partisan in 
the patriot, and took early and strong grounds in favor of 
a united support to our government in its struggle with 

In 18G1 he was the candidate of the Union convention 
for senator, and subsequently endorsed by all other parties, 
he was elected without opposition. While in the Senate 
he uniformly acted with the Union Democrats and Repub- 
licans, and his opinion on all questions before that body 
was received with great respect. By his efforts the confu- 
sion in the laws respecting murder and the rights of mar- 
ried women was removed, and simple and sensible .statutes 
passed in relation thereto. 

He was wont to tell an anecdote which dates back to the 
violent days of the Maine liquor-law, — how, he met the ex- 
treme conscientiousness of a grand jury with respect to an 
innkeeper who had sold a quart of brandy to be carried, 
contrary to his license, oft' his premises; although it was 
ordered by a surgeon, to bathe the bruises of a wayfaring 
man who had been thrown from a wagon. " I told them," 
said the judge, " why j-ou would have indicted the Good 
Samaritan for taking care of the man who went down from 
Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves." 

The only child of Judge Willard was his daughter Sarah 
Elizabeth Willard, who was a young lady of rare beauty and 
culture. She was married to the Rev. Henry Fowler, of 
Auburn, but died in 1853, at the early age of twenty-three 
years. This great bereavement was a great shock to Mrs. 
Willard, and ha.stened her death, which occurred in 1859. 

Judge Willard survived his family but a few years, and 
died at his residence in Saratoga Springs on Sept. 4, 1862, 
universally beloved and re.spected. 

As an advocate, a judge, a legislator, he was alike emi- 
nent and accomplished ; and in his private life irreproach- 
able and blameless. It has fallen to the lot of few men to 
acquire and leave behind them such an honorable and 
unsullied name. 


Prominently identified with the history of Saratoga, and 
one of the most eminent members of the bar of the State 
of New York and the nation, was Nicholas Hill, Jr. He 
was born in Florida, Montgomery Co , N. Y., in the year 
1805. He was of Irish descent, his grandfather, John 
Hill, having emigrated from county Derry, Ireland, to 
Florida, N. Y., as one of its earliest settlers. His father 
served in the Revolution, and was with Washington at 
York town. 

Nicholas was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court 
in 1829. About the same time he formed a partnership 
with Deodatus Wright, and opened a law-ofiice in Amster- 
dam. He soon after removed to Saratoga Springs. While 
there he assisted Judge Cowen in his elaborate " Notes on 

Phillips' Evidence," of which work a special mention may 
be found in the life-sketch of Esek Cowen. Mr. Hill re- 
moved to Albany in 1840, and the succeeding year was 
appointed to succeed John L. Wendell as reporter of the 
Supreme Court. This position he held until 1844. He 
published the .seven volumes of " Reports " which bear his 
name. In Albany he was associated in legal partnership 
with Deodatus Wright and Stephen P. Nash, and 
quently with Peter Cagger and Hon. John K. Porter, as 
the head of the legal firm of Hill, Cagger & Porter, a firm 
occupying high rank, not only in the " capital city," but 
throughout the State. Mr. Hill died May 1, 1859. 


To write a comprehensive life of Colonel Young would 
be in a great measure to write the history of the State of 
New York during the long period of his political life, or a 
history at least of the Democratic party of the State ; for, 
periiaps above most men, was he identified with that party 
organization, its progress, and its triumphs. Yet in no 
sense was Colonel Young a mere party man. His integrity 
was never questioned, and above most men it was his delight 
to war against and expose both political and official corrup- 
tion in whichever paity it existed. In this he was no 
respecter of persons or political friends. 

Samuel Young was born in the town of Lenox, Berk- 
.shire Co., Mass., in the year 1779. About the closing 
years of the Revolutionary war he came with his parents 
to what is now Clifton Park, in Saratoga County. Here 
he alternated his labors upon the farm with an attendance 
upon the common school, thereby acquiring a competent 
education in the elementary branches. He commenced the 
study of the law with Levi H. Palmer, then a lawyer in the 
town of Ballston. In due time he was admitted to the bar 
of the Supreme Court, when he opened an office at Academy 
Hill, in Ballston, and by his busmess energy and perse- 
verance soon acquired a large and lucrative practice. He 
was early commissioned a justice of the peace, and was 
afterwards repeatedly chosen supervisor of his town. In 
the spring of 1813 he was nominated by the Democrats as 
a candidate for member of Assembly, to which office he was 
elected. Upon taking his .seat, in the winter of 1814, 
Colonel Young took a prominent stand among the Demo- 
cratic members of that body. A speech of his, made in 
favor of the war, was circulated extensively throughout the 
State, exertmg a powerful influence upon the public mind. 
He was appointed by Governor Tompkins to the office mili- 
tary aide, whence his title of colonel. 

In the session of 1815, to which he was returned in that 
year, he was elected Speaker of the House. This was a 
fitting compliment to the talents he had displayed during 
the previous session, and to his services in support of the 
State administration at a period of great perplexity and 
financial trouble, against a most vindictive opposition. In 
this important position he fully sustained himself. In 1815 
he was again nominated by the Democrats for the Assembly, 
but was defeated in consequence of a defection in the Demo- 
cratic ranks. The late Judge Cowen being supported by a 
portion of the Democrats in opposition to him, abstracted 
from Colonel Young sufficient votes to insure his defeat. 



This controversy was the origin of what was then called 
the old-line and the new-line parties in the politics of the 
county for many years. 

In 181G he was appointed one of the canal commissioners 
of the State, in which capacity he served about twenty 

In 1819 he was elected senator fioni the eastern district, 
one of the four great districts in which the State was then 
divided. In 1821, with John Cramer, Salmon Child, and 
Jeremy Rockwell, he was elected a delegate to represent 
Saratoga County in the State convention about to assemble 
fur the revision of the constitution. This body was com- 
posed of the best talent of the State, — the equal of which 
has not since been seen, and will probably not be seen again. 
In this body of able men. Colonel Young stood among the 
foremost. In April, 1824, Colonel Young was nominated 
by the Democratic legislative caucus for the office of gov- 
ernor. At this time De Witt Clinton was removed from 
the office of canal commissioner. This created so much 
feeling that an opposition ticket was nominated by what was 
called the People's party, the ticket being headed by Gov- 
ernor Clinton, who was elected by a decisive vote, — thus 
defeating Colonel Young, the regular candidate. The next 
year Colonel Young was elected to the Assembly from Sara- 
toga County, and on the assembling of the Legislature, in 
182G, he was again chosen Speaker. In 1830 he was the 
candidate of the Democratic party for member of Congress 
for the district then composed of Saratoga County. He was 
defeated by his competitor, J. W. Taylor, by a small major- 
ity. In 1833 he was appointed first judge of the county 
courts of Saratoga County, which office he held until the 
expiration of his term, in 1838, declining re-appointment. 
In 1834 he was elected senator, resigning at the close of 
the session of 1836; and at the next election was again 
chosen senator, in which capacity he served until the close 
of the session of 1840. In 1842 the Legislature elected 
him to the office of Secretary of State, in which he con- 
tinued until 1845. During this term of office, in which 
he was the acting superintendent of common schools, he 
laid the foundation of that masterly system of public in- 
struction of which the people of New York are now enjoy- 
ing the blessings, and for which to him they will be under 
everlasting obligations. Again, in 1845, he was cho.sen to 
the State Senate, remaining in that body until the close of 
the session of 1847, when his term expired by force of the 
new constitution. In 1846 he was nominated by the Dem- 
ocrats of Chemung county, without his knowledge, to rep- 
resent them in the constitutional convention of 1846, but 
was defeated by a combination of Whigs and Conservatives, 
stimulated by influences from abroad. 

Colonel Young was always a great favorite with the peo- 
ple, who would not allow him to remain for any length of 
time in private life. He was a student from his boyhood. 
He was an intense lover of knowledge, and the ardor in its 
pursuit which characterized his youth, continued unabated 
to the day of his death. Thus his mind became stored 
with a vast amount of scientific and literary knowledge. 
His address upon the subject of political economy, delivered 
at Schenectady before the Phi Beta Kappa of Union Col- 
lege, was celebrated for its literary merit, as well as for its 

comprehensive statesmanship, and the accurate and profound 
knowledge of the principles of that science which it ex- 

After the close of his official career, in 1847, he retired 
to his residence iu Ballston, where he died on the third day 
of November, 1850, in the seventy-third year of his age. 
His death was sudden and unexpected. On the day pre- 
vious he was engaged in his ordinary pursuits, and in the 
evening he was unusually vivacious and sociable. He was 
found the next morning dead in his bed, having to all ap- 
pearances died without a struggle. The cause of his death, 
it is supposed, was a disease of the heart, symptoms of 
which had been apparent for the last six or eight years. 

Colonel Young married Miss Mary Gibson, whom he 
left a widow. Their children were John H., Samuel 
Thomas Gibson, Catharine, aiul Mary, now Mrs. Wayland. 
He was indeed cast in the larger mould of the Republicans 
of Grecian and Roman history. When exposing corrup- 
tion in the Senate of the United States, he was styled by 
General Jackson " the Cato of the New York Senate." 
But the '' impracticable," as politicians styled it, was not to 
be seen in his private life. He was gentle, affable, loving, 
fond of some amusements, society of the young, the culti- 
vation of his garden, the beauties of the natural scenery 
around it. He was so free from political jealousies, and so 
unmindful of the contests in which he had been defeated, 
as often not to recollect the names of his successful oppo- 
nents, and retained the vigor and serenity of his mind to 
the last, and after passing the age of sixty commenced the 
study of several of the modern languages. 

Since the above was written the author has received a 
communication from Colonel Young's daughter, which does 
such credit to her head and heart, and is so excellent a 
tribute of filial affection, that with her permission it is 
inserted here to illustrate the biography of her father. 

"Saratoga Spri.vgs, June 15, 1878. 

" Dear Sir, — I have already informed you that when 
my father was in public life I was not of an age to take 
the same interest in State affairs that I now do. I cannot, 
therefore, give you a detailed account of his political 
career, such as I had supposed was required of me. But, 
in compliance with your request, I will relate what I can 
recall of his peculiar characteristics and opinions. His 
uncompromising independence, fearlessness, and detestation 
of falsehood were evident to all about him. 

" Believing it to be his duty to expose corruption wher- 
ever found, he was not popular with the demagogues of his 
own party, who could neither manage, intimidate, or use 
him. When a majority of the Democratic senators voted 
themselves a present of the then new State geological work, 
my father opposed and condemned their course as uncon- 
1 stitutional and dishonest. The following year, when he 
had become Secretary of State, these books were jilaeed in 
his office to be delivered to the senators who might call for 
them. My father would not allow them to be taken away 
when he was there, and the owners were obliged to improve 
the hours of his absence to secure the present they had 
taxed the people to make them. 

" It was, if I am not mistaken, soon after this, and if so, 



probably in consequence of it, that he lost by one vote a 
seat in the United States Senate. Defeat never seemed to 
disturb him ; perhaps because he would assail corruption, 
and his doing so kept him engaged in a sort of warfare, 
that must, at times, have become exceedingly wearisome 
and disagi-eeable. How emphatically his occupation in that 
direction would not ' be gone' were he but living now ! 
His love of the knowledge to be obtained from books was 
a source of delight of which the possession of a public 
office temporarily deprived him. And this may have 
been an additional reason for his evident indifference to 

" His views on many subjects were far in advance of his 
time. I have hoard him condemn the law that gave a 
wife's property to her husband, and the wages of a poor 
laboring woman to the man who owned her, years before 
the subject of woman's rights was discussed in the news- 
papers. He was opposed to slavery in all forms and under 
all disguises. He thought that, at the south, it should be 
gradually abolished, with the consent of the south, then 
protected by the constitution. That they should be in- 
duced to sell their slaves to the United States, and employ 
them again when free. He labored in the Senate for the 
passage of a law that became one soon after his death, 
allowing married women to hold their own property, and 
dispose of it by will ; and giving to poor working women 
the avails of their own labor. 

" 3Iaiiy years ago he delivered a lecture before the 
Young Men's Association of Albany, in which he alluded 
to the legal bondage of women, and criticised the laws re- 
garding them. He argued against taxation without repre- 
sentation, and insisted that women were intellectually, and 
should be legally, the equals of men. This lecture excited 
much comment and surprise, and was published by request 
of the association. I recollect the letters received by my 
father from Miss Sedgwick and Mrs. Sigourney approving 
his opinions, and expressing their thanks for his defense of 
their much-abused sex. 

" His interest in education, particularly in that of girls, 
was very great. As Secretary of State, he had the super- 
vision of the normal schools, and it was thought that they 
were greatly benefited and improved while in his charge. 

" A man with strong feeling, with an inborn hatred of 
tyranny and oppression, he had the ability so to defend 
himself that the repetition of an insult was not to be 
feared. I remember being in the Senate chamber, with 
some other school-girls, when my father made a speech. 
His opponent, a man of profligate character, who was argu- 
ing in favor of the enlargement of some canal, attacked my 
father in coarse and ungentlemanly language. 

" He had much to say about diving-bells and the im- 
portant discoveries made by their use. I can never forget 
my father's towering form and indignant looks when he 
arose and said, 'It is a pity the senator has not a moral 
diving-bell with which he could go down into his own 
bosom and view the rottenness and corruption fermenting 
there. It would be a feat compared to which the descent 
of .3^1neas into hell was a holiday.' 

" There are certain vices which he seemed to abhor more 
than others. Lying, which he always classed with stealing, 

and a husband's ill-treatment of his wife. These were 
crimes, in his opinion, too contemptible and base to be tol- 
erated. A man of ability, residing in this county, aban- 
doned a good wife, and my father, from that time, refused 
to recognize him. Afterwards a brief repentance and re- 
turn to his wife was followed by a letter to my father, 
announcing his intention to lead a new life, and asking to 
be restored to his former friendly relations with him. My 
father replied that it would be, if ever, after years of correct 
conduct that he could be reinstated in his good opinion. 
It has often been said of my father that, were he a judge 
on the bench when one of his sons was convicted of mur- 
der, he would sentence him to death, believing it to be a 
duty he ought not to evade. I prefer to think that he would 
resign his office under such circumstances. And yet I 
must admit that there was a great deal of the old Roman 
in him. He was a member of the Baltimore convention at 
the same time with Calhoun, when Mr. Van Burcn was 
nominated for President. Calhoun made some insulting 
allusions to the northern delegates, and my father retorted. 
Mr. Calhoun then intimated a challenge ; my father ac- 
cepted, but the interference of friends on both sides pre- 
vented a catastrophe. 

" I have often heard my father say that there would be 
war between the north and south, although it would, proba- 
bly, not take place in his life-time. He believed, too, that 
a railroad would eventually unite the two oceans, and that 
the submarine telegraph would, some time or other, be 
laid, while others were equally positive that neither of these 
projects could ever be accomplished. 

" Having told all that I can now recall relating to my 

" I am, very respectfully, yours, 

" M,\RY S. 'W.VYL.A.ND. 

" Mr. N. B. Sylvester." 


Hon. John W. Taylor, a son of Saratoga, and a talented 
member of her early bar, was born in Charlton (then Ball- 
ston) March 2G, 1784. He was the son of Judge John 
Taylor. He was graduated from Union College in 1803, 
and studied law with Samuel Cook. About the year 180G 
he opened an office at Court-House Hill in connection 
with that gentleman. Subsequently they resolved to try 
their fortunes in another field of enterprise, and embarked 
in the lumber business, in order to superintend which Jlr. 
Taylor removed to Jessup's Landing, in Corinth. But he 
was destined for other and higher duties. In 1811 he 
was elected to the State Assembly, and re-elected in 1812. 
In the fall of the same year he was chosen to represent 
Saratoga County (the Eleventh district) in the Thirteenth 
Congress. Soon after he removed back to his former resi- 
dence, and in 1819 to the house now occupied by Justice 
John Brown, in Ballston Spa. For ten consecutive terms, 
ending in the year 1832, Mr. Taylor was elected to Con- 
gress, and twice during this time was chosen Speaker of 
the House of Representatives ; namely, in 1S21, as Henry 
Clay's successor, and in 1825, of the Nineteenth Congress, 
for the full term. He was elected to the State Senate in 
1840, but resigned in the summer of 1842. He soon after 



/ (riUAyK- CPcrKti(y)<' 



removed to the city of Clevelund, Oliio. where he died, 
Sept. 18, 1854, in the year of liis age. His 
remains were brought to his native town, and interred in 
the cemetery at Ballston Spa ; " and a plain slab, modestly 
inscribed with his name and date of birth and death, marks 
the last resting-place of the venerable statesman, who was 
the only citizen of Now York who ever held the third 
place in our government."* 


settled in Stillwater, Saratoga County, about the year 1770, 
and engaged in the milling business. His mill W'as on the 
river, a short distance below the present village, and con- 
sisted of a flour or grist-mill, a saw-mill, and a carding- and 
fulling-mill. Not a vestige now remains, except traces of 
the dug way leading from the bank above to the water. 
He had a family of five sons and two daughters, of whose 
descendants no one is left in the county, except, perhaps, 
some children of the daughter of hi-i youngest son, Philip 

Previous to his settlement in Stillwater, Harmanus 
Schuyler had been actively engaged in business in Albany 
for many years. When quite a young man lie held the 
ofiSee of assistant alderman about the same time that his 
relative, Philip Schuyler, held a like position. Neither of 
them, however, reached the dignity of alderman. He was 
also high-sheriff of the county of Albany from Juno, 17t!l, 
to October, 1770. 

When the War of the Revolution comiuenecd, Philip 
Schuyler was appointed major-general in command of the 
Northern Department, and Harmanus Schuyler was aji- 
pointed assistant deputy-quarterniastcr-general. The latter 
had charge of the workmen who were engaged in building 
boats at the fort on Lake George, and at Skeenesborough, 
now Whitehall. Over forty of his letters, written during 
this period, are preserved among the papers of General 

The saying that the times of the Revolution were tlie 
days " that tried men's souls," receives a peculiar emphasis 
in these letters. They are all addressed to General Schuyler, 
as though he was the only one to whom the deputy-quarter- 
master could apply for supplies necessary to prosecute his 
work. In a letter dated Fort George, Feb. 8, 1770, he 
asks for a keg of nails with which to erect a shop for the 
boat-builders. Four days after he asks for oakum and 
pitch, adding, " We arc prosecuting the work with zeal. 
The workmen take their breakfast by candle-light." Oti 
the 10th he writes, " We need some goo(J axes, — those we 
have are worthless ; there is no steel in them." Again, " Do 
please send me one stick of sealing-wax." Then follow others, 
all begging for nails, oakum, tar, pitch, and finally for more 
men and teams to jirocure timber and lumber. March 27 
he exclaims, " The men plague my heart out for their pay. 
Do .send mc ten pounds." 

At Skeenesborough, from June 12 to Sept. 2, he was 
superintending the building of a larger class of boats. His 
embarrassments for the want of supplies are simply amazing. 
The general was required to raise an army, and make prep- 

* Bench aud Car, pp. 142-43. 

arations for the invasion of Canada by the way of Lake 
Champlain ; and yet Congress failed to furnish him money 
or men. He must build boats, raise men, provide arms and 
e(|uipments, I'uriiish rations, the best way he could. Had 
he not po.ssessed a large private fortune and unlimited credit , 
he must have failed utterly. By energy and perseverance, 
seconded by men who knew him, he succeeded in raising 
and equipping a force sufiicient for the invasion of Canada, 
but Tiot ibr its conquest as was hoped. 

There is no record when Harmanus Schuyler left the 
army, but probably about the time that his general was 
superseded by Gates. He returned to his farm and mills 
at Stillwater, where he died Sept. 1, 1790. 

When Wa.shington visited the battle-fields of Saratoga 
he called at the residence of Harmanus Schuyler and took 
brciikl'ast. There was no one of the family at home except 
the 'eldest daughter. On taking his leave the general with 
stately courtesy raised her hand to his lips. Nearly sixty 
years after she was lying on her dying bed, and when her 
youngest nephew, who had called to see her for the first and 
last time, was taking his leave, she put out her hand, .say- 
ing, " Not my lips, George,f but kiss the hand which long- 
ago was consecrated by the kiss of Washington." 

Of Harmanus Schuyler's five sons only one was blessed 
with sons; but then his blessing was large and overflowing, 
— he had eleven. They and their descendants now (1878) 
number quite two hundred, and are a part of the popula- 
tion of eleven States and Territories of the Union. 


Judge Porter was born at Waterford, in the county of 
Saratoga, Jan. 12, 1819. He was a son of Dr. Elijah 
Porter, and grandson of Moses Porter, a Revolutionary 
officer, who gained high distinction by his gallantry and 
efficiency in the battle at Bemus Heights. Dr. Porter came 
from Vermont to reside in Waterford early in this century, 
and continued to be respected as a citizen aud a physician 
during a long and useful life. 

John K. Porter commenced his course of studies in the 
higher branches, under the tuition of David McNeice, an 
accoxuplished Irish professor, one of the exiles who accom- 
panied Thomas Addis Emmet to this country, after the 
unfortunate issue of the rebellion of 1798, and who opened 
a classical school at Waterford, where William E. Cramer, 
Samuel R. House, and John K. Porter received an early 
training which proved invaluable to them all in after-life. 
His studies were afterwards prosecuted at Lansingburgh 
Academy, but his preparation for college was under the 
personal tuition of the celebrated Taylor Lewis, then prin- 
cipal of the Waterford Academy. After his favorite pupil 
had entered Union College, it was his good fortune to bring 
the extraordinary gifts and attainments of his instructor to 
the notice of the public, by securing to him the place of 
alternate orator at the annual commencement; and the 
inability of John C. Calhoun to deliver the princijial 
address gave Taylor Lewis the opportunity to deliver a 
discourse on that occasion, which placed him at once in the 

f Hon. (jcorge W. Sclinylcr, nuditor of the canal tiepartnicnt, 
falhcr of Hun. Eugene Schujlcr, L'nitcJ States consul-general. 



foremost rank of American scholars, and brought to him 
within three months invitations to professorships in differ- 
ent colleges. He accepted such a position for tlie time 
being in tiie New York University ; and at a later period a 
professorship in Union College, which he graced to the 
time of his death. He died full of years and honors, and 
it is a matter of pride to the citizens of Saratoga that this 
county was the birth and burial-place of one who had few 
peers, here or abroad, among the foremost scholars and 
writers of the nineteenth century. 

Under such tuition it is not singular that young Porter 
was favorably received by Dr. Nott and Professor Alonzo 
Potter when he entered Union College at the age of si.'i- 
teen, in September, 183.5. His collegiate course of two 
years was one of active pre])aration for the duties of after- 
life. He received his degree in 1837, and loft college with 
all the honors which any student could win, and with the 
warmest eoninioiidatioii of (Jovcrnor Marcy, whom he had 
never known, but who was one of the trustees, and wi'ote 
for the AUmiii/ Argus a description of the comnienceuient 
exercLses. He had also the cordial regard of Dr. Nott and 
Professor Potter, which he retained as long as they lived, 
and which he was at times enabled, not only to aeknowledge, 
but also to reciprocate. 

Immediately after his graduation he entered upon his 
professional studies as a .student in the office of Hon. 
Nicholas B. Doe and Richard B. Kimball, the author of 
"St. Leger." 

He succeeded the latter as a member of the firm, having 
been in the mean time admitted in tlie court of common 
pleas, and being allowed by Judge Willard to practice in 
the court of oyer and terminer, though not yet admitted 
as an attorney in the Supreme Court. 

The Waterford bar was one of marked brilliancy. He 
was brought into immediate eonipetition in the lower courts 
with men like Chesseldcn Ellis, afterwards a distinguished 
member of Congress, and the strongest pillar of the Tyler 
administration ; Joshua Bloore, one of the most graceful and 
accomplished orators this State has produced ; George W. 
Kirtland, an equity lawyer, to whom Chancellor Walworth 
turned a more willing ear than to any other lawyer in the 
State save only Julius Rhodes ; John Cramer and Nicho- 
las B. Doe, old lawyers, practically retired from the profes- 
sion, but whose weight was felt in counsel, and each of 
whom, more especially j\Ir. Cramer, often carried doubtful 
causes by the weight, in the council-chamber, of unerring 
sense, and an unfailing knowledge of the considerations 
which would control the views of the presiding judge. 

When 3Ir. Porter came to the bar he was encountered 
by an array of ability which would have discouraged most 
young men. He had to encounter Nicholas Hill, second, 
even then, to no member of the American bar; William A. 
Beach, a man of singular prestige, power, and eloquence ; 
Edward F. Bullard, who, in the power of presenting a dif- 
ficult and complicated cause, and in pressing it through to 
a favorable issue, was almost, if not quite, unrivaled ; Wil- 
liam Hay, one of the most brilliant and eloquent lawyers 
this country has produced ; Judiah Ellsworth, who had in 
his professional capacity the power of a steam-engine, which 
no obstructiou could resist; and George G. Scott, who, with 

no pretensions to oratory, was one of the clearest-headed 
and ablest men the county of Saratoga has produced, wise 
in coun.sel, clear-headed and upright in judgment, and in 
literary accomplishments and general ability unmcasurably 
above most of those whose names have come down to us in 
the legends and traditions of the bar. 

On his admission to the bar of the Supreme Court, in 
May, 1840, Mr. Porter at once took rank among the men 
who assumed the lead in the courts. From that time until 
1848, when he removed to Albany, he was in collision from 
court to court with men like Wm. A. Beach, William Hay, 
Judiah Ellsworth, Geo. L. Scott, Augustus Bockes, Deodatus 
Wright, Nicholas Hill, Samuel Stevens, Marcus T. Reynolds, 
2\mbrose L. Jordan, Henry G. Wlieaton, and Daniel Cady. 
There is not one of the nundjer who have already passed 
away who was not his life-long friend, and of those who 
survive it is pleasant to know that, on both .sides, the rela- 
tions of these early c(mipetitors for the honors of the bar 
arc those of friends whose bonds of mutual attachment will 
be unbroken by death ; and each of whom will, as from time 
to time the occasion arises, render to the others the tribute 
justly due to them in every public and professional relation. 

All the antagonisms of professional life and political hos- 
tility have never even touched the personal attachment of 
those whose lives hav^e been interwoven with those of their 
competitors at the bar. 

We cannot forego, in view of what has already been 
said, an expression of gratification and pride over the 
record of the county of Saratoga in the single department 
of jurisprudence. Has the country furnished, for any 
single county, greater names than of John W. Taylor, 
Samuel Young, James Tlionqwoii, Michael Hoffman, Deo- 
datus Wright, Alvah Worder, Judiah Ellsworth, William 
Hay, Augustus Bockes, Edward F. Bullard, George G. 
Scott, John Willard, Reuben H. Walworth, Nicholas Hill, 
Esek Cowen, John K. Porter, Orau G. Otis, John L. 
Viele, Chesselden Ellis, Joshua Bloore, and a host of others 
whom we would be glad to name ? 

During the period of his residence in the county of 
Saratoga there were few causes of great public interest in 
which Mr. Porter was not engaged, in conjunction with 
some of those whose names are mentioned above. There 
are many firesides now, in the county of Saratoga, where 
the remembrance of those old trials is associated with the 
legends and traditions of the bar. 

The last of the great trials in which he was engaged, 
bi^fbre his removal to Albany, was that of the People vs. 
Wilcox, for the nuirder of McKin.stry. He was associated 
with Judge Ikickcs for the defense, and the post-mortem 
examination of the prisoner at Demarara proved that the 
defense of insanity which they interposed was well 

In 1847 Mr. Porter married the daughter of Hon. Eli 
M. Todd, of Waterford, and soon after he removed to 
Albany. She died in 1858, and a son by that marriage 
now survives, who has taken the profession of his father. 

Mr. Porter, on his change of residence, entered into 
partnership with his old and honored friend, Deodatus 
Wright, then recorder of Albany, and afterwards judge of 
the Supreme Court. Judge Wright was one of the ablest 



jury lawyers in the State, a brother-in-law of Marcus T. 
Reynolds, and as a judge second, in the estimate of Daniel 
Cady and Nicholas Hill, to none of his predecessors on 
the bench since the days of James Kent and Ambrose 

Soon afterwards Mr. Porter entered into partnership 
with Nicholas Hill, Jr., and Peter Cagger, and this rela- 
tion continued until the death of Mr. Hill, on the 1st of 
May, 1859. The new firm owned the splendid law library 
of the late Judge Cowen, which had cost him over $25,000, 
and they added to it nearly as much more. 

From that time until the death of Mr. Hill they were 
employed in more of public importance than any 
other firm in the State, and their relative success was 
greater than that of any other firm at the American bar. 

On the death of Mr. Hill, Mr. Porter took charge of 
the cases in tiie court of appeals, and from that time it 
was his good fortune to be (Mjually successful. 

In December, 1864, a vacancy occurred in the court of 
appeals through the resignation of Henry R. Selden, one 
of the accomplished judges who ever presided in that 
tribunal. At the earnest solicitation of Governor Fenton, 
and of Judges Noah Davis and Richard P. Marvin, Mr. 
Porter was induced to accept the position of judge of the 
court of appeals, and his nomination was unanimously 
confirmed by the Senate. 

In the succeeding autumn he was re-elected to the posi- 
tion by an immense majority, far exceeding the party vote, 
over Martin Grover, his competitor tor the position. 

He left on the record of that tribunal a series of judicial 
opinions, extending from the 31st to the 37th of New York, 
by whicii his friends are content to have his reputation as 
a jurist judged in after-times by the bench and the bar. 

He was not forgotten by his nhmi Dialer, and in 18G7 
the degree of doctor of laws was conferred upon Judge 
Porter by Union College. 

In January, 1868, he resigned his position as judge of- 
the court of appeals, and removed to the city of New York, 
where he became the head of the firm of Porter, Lowrey, 
Soren & Stone, and he has continued to this day the head 
of that firm. 

In the intermediate period between his removal from the 
county of Saratoga and this time, he has been engaged in 
some of the most important litigations in the country. 

He won more than oidinary distinction in his argument 
before the Senate committee in the Trinity church case. 

He won high professional honors in the successful de- 
fense of Horace -Greeley, vs. De Witt C. Littiejolin, lor 
libel. He succeeded in the great case of the Metropolitan 
bank on the constitutionality of the legal tender act. 

He succeeded also in the Parish will case, where the 
adverse arguments were made by Messrs. Kvarts and Ed- 
monds, and the arguments of Charles O'Conor and John 
K. Porter prevailed against all odds. 

He was at once engaged in a variety of important C(m- 
troversies, including the Rock Island and Erie and the 
Western Union and Atlantic and Pacific litigations, and 
others of a kindred character. 

Before a jury he has been one of the ablest advocates this 
State has produced. In the case of Speaker Littlcjohn 

against Horace Greeley, a libel suit tried at the Oswego 
circuit before Judge Bacon, about fifteen years since, he was 
called in for the defense. Although his address was made 
first, and it was followed by able adversaries for the plaintiff, 
with a strong charge from the court against the defendant, 
yet the jury stood eleven for the defendant. 

In the case of Tilton vs. Beecher, he was associated with 
Wm. M. Evarts for the defense. He was also called to St. 
Louis, and made a succe.ssful defense of (jeneral Babcock, 
the private secretary of General Grant. 

His reputation as an advocate and a jurist is .so well es- 
tablished that no more need be said hero on that subject. 

He always made politics subordinate to the profession he 
has so adorned. As early as 1838 he took an active part 
in making political .speeches in his native county. In 1844 
he attended the Whig convention at Baltimore, when Henry 
Clay was nominated the last time for the presidency. 

At an immense mass-meeting, in which some of the most 
eminent orators of the nation participated, although not a 
delegate, and a stranger to the crowd, a few friends present 
called him out for a speech. It is enough to say that he 
astonished his friends as well as the mass, and the eloquence 
he displayed on that occasion at once placed him in the 
front rank of American orators. 

In 1846 he was elected to the State convention to form 
a new constitution, from Saratoga County, upon the same 
ticket with James M. Cook. So great was his personal 
popularity in this county that he received a very large per- 
centage of the votes of his political opponents. Since that 
occasion he has held no office merely political, and retired 
from the highest judicial position in this State to join in 
the more active duties of his cho.sen profei^sion. 

Although no longer a resident of this county, he has 
many friends here, who remember him with kindness and 


It has come to be said by the people of this nation that 
among such a list of its most able and distinguished lawyers 
as one could count upon his finger ends, must already be 
placed the name of William Augustus Beach. 

He was born at Ballston Spa, to which place his father. 
Miles Beach, had removed from Connecticut, in the year 
1786. On the maternal side, his father was related to 
Judge Smith Thompson, of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. In 1807 his father married Cynthia, a 
si.ster of Judge William L. F. Warren, and a relative of Dr. 
Warren, of Bunker Hill memory. His father served during 
the Revolution in a Massacliusetts militia con)pany, holding 
a commission bearing the bold signature of John Hancock. 
Zerah Beach, his grandfather, was one of the commissioners 
of the treaty of Wyoming, and was also in the Continental 
army, having passed the winter at Valley Forge. Miles 
Beach removed with his family to Saratdga Springs Iti the 
year 1809. His wife — the accomplished and venerable 
mother of the subject of this sketch — yet survives, being 
nearly ninety years of age, and enjoys in an eminent de- 
gree the possession of all her faculties, aud looks as young 
as most people at sixty. 

William A., during his boyhood, attended school at the 



Saratoga Springs Academy, and later Captain Partridge's 
military school, at Middletown, Vt. He first studied law 
in Saratoga, with his uncle, Judge Warren. He was 
admitted to the bar in August, 1833. His first legal part- 
nership was with Nicholas Hill, Jr. Subsequently he 
formed partnerships successively with Sidney J. Cowen, 
Daniel Shepherd, and Augustus Bockes, his connection 
with the latter continuing until his removal to Troy. He 
received the appointment of district attorney in 1843, hold- 
ing the same until 1847. 

In April, 1851, he removed to the city of Troy, where 
he formed a copartnership with Job Pierson and Levi 
Smith, under the firm-name of Pierson, Beach & Smith. 
Mr. Pierson withdrew from the firm in 1853, and it was 
continued under the firm-name of Beach & Smith until 
December, 1870. During all this long interval Mr. Beach 
was actively engaged in his profession. In addition to the 
largo office business of his firm he had an extensive crim- 
inal business, and was engaged in most of the important 
litigations of the day, and was constantly brought in eon- 
tact with the most able New York lawyers, and always 
proved himself the equal of any of them, whenever an im- 
portant controversy arose. The first thing said by the 
friends of either side, by way of advice, was, " Employ 
Beach." He was employed in the noted Albany bridge 
case, where the question involved was the right to bridge 
navigable streams emptying into the sea, where the tide 
ebbed and flowed, under State authority. Mr. Beach had 
opposed to him in this controversy William H. Seward, 
then a senator from the State of New York, Nicholas Hill, 
and John H. Reynolds, of the city of New York, all since 
dead, and he proved himself equal in argument and learning 
with these great men. The history of this case is worthy 
of a remark here. It was heard in the United States cir- 
cuit court for the northern district of New York, before 
Hon. Samuel Nelson, then a justice of the United States 
Supreme Court, and Hon. Nathan K. Hull, district judge of 
New York, of the northern district of New York. These 
eminent judges were unable to agree, and made a certificate 
of disagreement to the United States Supreme Court, where 
the ease was argued, — that court then consisted of but six 
members, — and the court there was also equally divided. 
The practice of the court in such case being that the case 
would be sent back to the circuit court, with directions that 
it be dismissed. This was done, leaving as the result, 
after years of earnest and expensive litigation, no actual 
decision either of fact or of law. 

Mr. Beach was employed by Horatio Seymour, then 
governor of New York, to defend Colonel North and his 
officials, who were appointed commissioners to superintend 
the taking of the votes of soldiers in the field. The United 
States authorities claimed that their commissioners had 
been guilty of malfeasance in office, and ordered a military 
court to try them. This court sat in the city of Washing- 
ton, D. C., and it was here that Mr. Beach made one of 
his most able and brilliant eft'orts. At the close of his argu- 
ment a rule of the court taken, and it was unanimous 
for acquittal, and the prisoners were discharged. The 
president of the court, a perfect stranger to Mr. Beach, 
after the ac(juittal came to Mr. Beach, gave him his hand. 

and congratulated him upon his masterly efibrt, and thanked 
him for the powerful aid he had rendered the court in arriv- 
ing at its conclusion. 

RaTisom H. Gillett, then a resident of Washington, and 
himself a lawyer of distinguished ability, who was present 
at this argument, writing to the Albany Ajyiis shortly 
afterwards, said in substance that he had been for many 
years a resident in Washington ; that he had known all 
these great men, — Webster, Clay, Calhoun, etc., — heard 
them both at the bar and in the halls of Congress, and that 
none of them had excelled Mr. Beach in brilliancy or power. 

His defense of General Cole, charged with the murder of 
Senator Hiscock, at Albany, is another noted professional 
triumph of Mr. Beach. General Cole met Senator Hiscock 
at the Stanwix Hall, in Albany, and at sight shot him dead. 
It was claimed on the part of the defense, and some evi- 
dence was given in the trial tending in that direction, that 
Senator Hiscock had trifled with the aft'ectious of the gen- 
eral's wife while he, the general, was at the front fighting 
for the cause of his country, and that the general on his 
return, hearing the facts, meeting the senator by accident, 
shot him on the spot. IMr. Beach in his argument charac- 
terized the case as one of " emotional insanity," that 
although sane a moment before and sane a moment after 
the shot was fired, yet that when the fatal shot was fired, 
Cole was insane and wholly irresponsible for the act. The 
court and jury took this view of the case, and the jury 
promptly rendered a verdict of acquittal. 

These are but a fevi of the important in which he 
was engaged while living in Troy. In all of his cases 
he brought a careful preparation, and was always great in 
his presentation both to court and jury. 

The county of Rensselaer looked with pride upon him 
as one so long its resident and humble advocate. His suc- 
cess in the great metropolis has been equally marked. His 
time is wholly taken up with the most important cases 
known to our courts of justice in the State and nation. 


Augustus Bockes was born in the town of Greenfield, 
Saratoga Co., N. Y., Oct. 1, 1817, where his parents re- 
sided, and where they had resided for many years. His 
father's name was Adam Bockes, Jr., his grandfather's 
name being also Adam Bockes. His father was a farmer, 
and held various town offices, among others that of justice 
of the peace and supervisor. He was a man of sterling worth, 
and died in Greenfield, Sept. 8, 1846, aged seventy-four 

Judge Bockes' opportunities for education were confined 
to the excellent common schools of the town in which he 
lived, except two terms at Burr Seminary, Manchester, Vt. 
He taught school for three terms, two terms in Malta, Sara- 
toga Co., and one in his native town. He commenced the 
study of the law in the office of that able lawyer Judiah 
Ellsworth, at Saratoga Springs, in 1838. After a time, he 
continued his studies in the office of Beach & Cowen, at 
the same place, and was admitted to practice from their 
office in 1843. He commenced the practice of law imme- 
diately after his admission, in partnership with Ste])hen P. 
Nash, now of New Y'^ork city. He soon after formed a part- 



nership with W. A. Beach, now of New York city, and 
continued such partnership at Saratoga Springs until 

In the practice of the law, Judge Bockes was eminently 
successful. But he was destined to be called to higher 
fields of labor. He was elected county judge of Saratoga 
County under the new constitution in June, 1847, and 
entered upon his official duties July 1, 1847. He was re- 
elected for a second term at the November election of 1851, 
and resigned this office in 1854. On the 1st of January, 
1855, he was appointed by Governor Clarke a justice of 
the Supreme Court, for the Fourth Judicial district of the 
State, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
Judge Daniel Cady. At the November election in 1859 
he was elected justice of the Supreme Court for the Fourth 
Judicial district, was re-elected at the November election, 
18(57, and was again re-elected to the same office at the 
November election, 1875. At the last two elections he 
was elected without opposition ; and at the election in 1875 
was nominated and supported by both the political parties, 
an honor conferred upon few judges of the State. He was 
appointed by Governor Dix to the general term of the 
Supreme Court, for the Third Judicial department, for the 
years 1874 and 1875, and was again designated by Gov- 
ernor Tilden to the same office for the ensuing five years, 

and consequently is now associate justice for the general 
term of the Supreme Court for the Third department, 
comprising the Third, Fourth, and Sixth Judicial districts 
of the State. 

He married Mary P. Hay, second daughter of the Hon. 
William Hay, September 3, 1844. The children of this 
marriage are William Hay and Mary. 

Around the thousand quiet homesteads of Greenfield, 
cluster a host of tender memories. For a hundred years 
her sons and daughters, nursed into sturdy manhood and 
kindly womanhood within the gentle influences of her 
Christian homes, have been going forth into all lands to 
fight life's battles bravely, but forever looking tearfully, 
longingly, back to their old Greenfield homes, where the 
father and the mother lie buried, and where the happy days 
of childhood flew all too rapidly away. 

But no one among them all has more honored the place of 
his birth, no one among them all has lived less for himself 
nor more for others, than the subject of this sketch. And 
among the many eminent living judges whose presence 
now graces the bench of the Supreme Court of the State 
of New York, no one is better qualified to discharge the 
important duties of his office, and upon no one does the 
judicial ermine rest in more spotless purity, than upon the 
shoulders of Judge Bockes. 


or THE 




On the low foot-hills of the sunny southern slope of the 
most easterly of the five great mountain ranges of the Adi- 
rondack wilderne-ss, in the pride of her gorgeous palatial 
beauty, sits the village of Saratoga Springs, — of the vporld's 
most famous watering-places the peerless queen. 

A spur of the old Canadian Laurentian mountains crosses 
the St. Lawrence river, as the reader will remember, at the 
Thousand islands, and spreading easterly and southerly over 
the whole of the great wilderness, rises into lofty mountain- 
peaks in the interior and slopes gradually down to the great 
water-courses on every side. In the depth of the wilderness 
this spur of the Laurentides separates into five great chains, 
all of .which run down its southei'n slope. The most east- 
erly of the chains is the Palmertown range. This range 
begins on Lake Champlain near Ticonderoga, and run- 
ning along both sides of Lake (leorge, crosses the Hudson 
river above Glen's falls. After crossing the Hudson, this 
chain of mountains runs down along the border of the 
towns of Corinth and Moreau, through Wilton and Green- 
field, and ends under North Broadway in Saratoga Springs. 
Beyond the Hudson the highest peak of the Palmertown 
range is old French Mountain, which overlooks the head of 
Lake George, so full of historic memories. On this side 
the Hudson the highest peak is Mount MacGreggor, which 
overlooks the site of the old legendary Indian village called 
Palmertown, from which the great mountain chain derives 
its name. 

Thus this village of Saratoga Springs, while she sips her 
mineral waters in the full blaze of fashion's highest splendor, 
sits at the very foot of the old Laurentian Adirondacks and 
breathes to fullness the purest and most invigorating air of 
the mountains. 

Along in the valley which runs through the village the 
hard Laurentian rocks terminate and the softer rocks of 
the Trenton Umestones and Hudson river slates begin. In 
the geologic fault or fissure which here occurs between 
these two systems of rocks, the mineral springs of Saratoga 
bubble from the earth's bosom elaborated by the cunning 
hand of nature. 


There may have been and it is highly probable there 
were some white men who saw the mineral springs of Sara- 
toga before Sir William Johnson went there in the summer 
of 1 767. Sir William himself, in a letter quoted in " Moese's 
Gazetteer," intimates that an Indian chief discovered these 
springs to a sick French officer in their early wars with the 
English. Again, it is more than probable that some of the 
early settlers of Wilton, who were there about 1765, and 
those near the lake about 1764, being only half a dozen 
miles away from these springs, often went to these even 
before Sir William's visit ; but whether they did or not we 
have no account. It may therefore of a truth be said that of 
the long line of distinguished men and women and of the 
vast concourse of summer visitors that for a hundred years 
have been pr&ssing with eager feet toward these springs to 
taste their healing waters, Sir William Johnson led the 

Sir William at the time of his celebrated visit with the 
Indians to the High Rock spring, of Saratoga, in the 
month of August, 1767, was living in the height of his 
baronial power with the Indian princess, Molly Brandt, as 
his wife and their eight dusky children in his manor house 
at Mount Johnson, near the Mohawk country. He was 
then His Britannic Majesty's superintendent-general of In- 
dian affairs in North America, colonel of the Sis Nations, 
and a major-general in the British service. 

Thirty-five years before this, he had come over from 
Ireland a poor young man, and settled in the Mohawk 
valley, then a wilderness, to take care of a large tract of 
land that was located there and owned by his uncle. Sir 
Peter Warren. Sir Peter Warren was an admiral of the 
British navy, who, while a commodore, distinguished him- 
self by the capture of Louisburgh from the French in 
1745. Sir Peter married a daughter of Etienue De Lancey, 
of New York, and with her received as a dowry this large 
tract of land in the Mohawk valley. It was situated in 
the eastern angle between the Mohawk river and the 
Schoharie creek. 

Sir William Johnson upon his first taking up his resi- 



dence in the Mohawk valley became a fiir-tiader with the 
Indians, and kept for many years a country store for the 
accommodation of the scattered settlers of the region. 
Rising by degrees, through dint of industry and fair dealing, 
and by the faithful performance of the public trusts im- 
posed upon him, he had become the proprietor of immense 
landed estates, the acknowledged lord of a princely manor, 
and high in the confidence of liis sovereign. His victory 
over the French and Indians, under Baron Dieskau, at 
Lake George, in 1755, had won for him his title of nobility. 
His wonderful influence, the most remarkable on record, 
over the Indian tribes, had given him an importance in the 
affairs of state second to no American then living. He 
was .surrounded by a numerous tenantry and by followers 
that were loyal to him and his family even unto death. 

Sir William married in the more humble days of his 
early life a poor, modest, gentle-hearted German girl, whom 
he found living with her parents in the Mohawk valley, 
whose maiden name was Catherine Weisenberg. She died 
young, leaving three children, — a son, Sir John Johnson, 
and two daughters, who married respectively Colonel Claus 
and Colonel Guy Johnson. 

Sir William's Indian wife was Molly Brandt, a si.ster of 
the celebrated Mohawk war-cliief Ta-en-dane-ga, or Joseph 
Brandt, who was afterwards so long the terror of the border. 
After the death of his first wife he became enamored of 
IMolly at a general muster of the Mohawk Valley militia 
held at or near Johnstown. Among the spectators at the 
training was a beautiful Indian maiden. One of the 
mounted ofiScers, in sport, dared the maiden to ride on the 
bare back of his horse behind his saddle, three times around 
the parade-ground, little thinking she would accept the 
challenge. Bounding from the ground, like a deer, upon 
his horse behind him, she encircled his waist with her arms, 
and over the ground they flew like the wind, her red mantle 
and luxuriant raven tresses streaming behind her, her beau- 
tiful face lighted up with the pleasurable excitement of the 
novel adventure. 

Sir William was an admiring witness of the scene, and 
was smitten with the charms of the dusky forest maiden. 
He inquired her name, and was told that she was the In- 
dian princess, Molly Brandt. He sought her at once, and 
made her his Indian bride. He married her after the true 
Indian style, by them considered binding, but never ac- 
knowledged her as his lawful wife. In his will he remem- 
bered her, calling her his " housekeeper, Molly Brandt," 
and left a large tract of land to his children by her, which 
lay in Herkimer county, between the East and West Canada 
creeks, and was long known to the early settlers as the 
Royal Grants. 

In the height of his power Sir William Johnson, at his 
seat near the Mohawk, on the border of a howling wilder- 
ness that stretched away to the Pacific, dispensed a right 
royal hospitality. Many a scion of the English nobility 
sat at his generous board, or, like the Lady Susan Brien, 
wandered through the woods with Sir William's accomp- 
lished Indian wife, in search of the strange wild flowers of 
the New World. The Lady Susan passed considerable time 
at Johnson Hall. She was a niece of the first Lord Hol- 
land, and the sister of Lady Harriet Ackland, who, as well as 

the Baroness Riedesel, the wife of the Hessian general, ac- 
companied her husband, under General Burgoyne, to the 
battle-field of Saratoga. 

In the summer Sir William spent much of his time at 
the Fish house, his hunting lodge, on the Sacondaga river, 
and at the cottage on Summer-House Point, on the great 
Vlaie, which is one of the mountain meadows of the wil- 

Once every year the sachems of the Six Nations renewed 
their council-fire at the Manor house, to talk with Sir Wil- 
liam, the agent of their white father who lived across the 
big water. On such occasions Sir William was himself 
painted and plumed and dressed like an Intlian chief 

Such was Sir William Johnson at the time of his first 
visit to the High Rock spring in the mouth of August, 1767, 
such was he at the formation of Tryon county, in 1772, 
and such was he two years later at the time of his death, 
in 1774. He seems to have been mercifully taken away 
just before the slumbering fires of the Revolution were to 
burst forth, which were so soon destined to stain the fair 
valley of his home with blood, — to send his family and fol- 
lowers fugitives across the Canadian border. 

At the time of his visit to the springs, Sir William was 
escorted by his Mohawk braves. His old wound received 
at the battle of Luke George had never quite healed, and 
besides this he was afflicted with the gout, so he could 
scarcely walk. The Indians told him of their famous 
" medicine spring" in the depths of their old hunting- 
ground, Kiiy-ad-ros-se-ra, and he determined to go. Em- 
barking at at Mount Johnson, on the bank 
of the Mohawk, he proceeded down the river in canoes to 
Schenectady, and lauding, took a new road lately cut to the 
McDonalds, who had settled near what is now kuown as 
Ballston lake, but then called by the Indians Sha-nen-da- 
Jio-ivii, in 17G3. At the McDonalds, Sir William tarried 
through the night, and the next day was carried over a 
rough road cut for the purpose to the High Rock spring. 
There in the deepest solitude of nature bubbled up the won- 
derful " medicine waters," then almost if not quite un- 
known to all, save the wild beasts and the red men of the 

Sir William remained at the spring several days, and 
during his stay was so much benefited by the waters that 
he was quite able to walk over the rugged trail that led to 
his home on his return. The fame of this cure performed 
upon so distinguished a person as Sir William Johnson, at 
once brought these springs into notice. 


The next man of distinction of whose early visit to the 
High Rock spring we have any account was General Philip 
Schuyler. In the year 17S3 General Schuyler cut a road 
from his country-seat, at the moutli of Fish creek, in old 
Saratoga, now Schuylerville, to the High Rock spring. 
This old road ran much of the way to the north of the 
present one, thereby avoiding the low ground of Bear 
swamp. The first summer General Schuyler brought his 
tent and encamped near the High Rock spring for sev- 
eral weeks. The next year he came with his family, and 
put up a small frame house of rough boards on the bluff. 



a little to the south of the High Eotk, on what is now 
Front street. This house consisted of two rooms, and was 
occujiied by the general, liis family and friends, as a sum- at tlie springs every season up to the time of the 
general's death. 

In the year 1783, while General Washington was wait- 
ing at Newburgh for the definitive treaty of peace, he con- 
cluded to while away a part of the time by a trip to the 
northern part of the State. Accordingly, accompanied by 
Governor Clinton, General Hamilton, and others, he pro- 
ceeded by water to Albany. From thence the party on 
horseback went up the river, and visited the scene of the 
late battle at Bemus Heights, and the spot of Burgoyne's 
surrender, on the heights of old Saratoga. They continued 
on to Lake George, pa.ssed down the lake in boats, which 
had been provided for them, and examined the fortifications 
of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. On their return they 
came by the way of the High Rock spring, escorted by 
General Schuyler, who had cut his road to the High Rock 
and pitched his tent there the same season. 

General Washington returned by way of the trail which 
led to the springs at Ballston Spa. At the springs of Balls- 
ton Spa, when General Washington was there in 1783, 
there was no human habitation, although Ballston township 
had been settled thirteen years before, a mile or two away. 
It was not till the year 1787 that Benajah Douglas, the 
pioneer of Ballston Spa, built the first rude log tavern there, 
and opened it for guests, sixteen years after Dirck 
SchoiUen built the first log cabin near the High Rock in 
Saratoga. Yet, by the year 1794, Douglas and Low had built 
their large frame hotels at Ballston Spa, .six years in ad- 
vance of Gideon Putnam's enterprise of founding the Grand 
Union, at Saratoga. Those six years the start came near 
costing Saratoga its now proud position as the world's 
greatest watering-place. 

General Washington was so struck with the value of the 
mineral .springs of Saratoga, that soon after peace was de- 
clared he made the attempt to purchase the land near them. 
In his published correspondence there is a letter relating to 
this subject. 

But the Waltons and the Livingstons had already per- 
fected their title to the land at Saratoga, and Washington's 
scheme failed. 

A similar scheme was entered into by Joseph Bonaparte, 
brother of the great Napoleon, and ex-king of Naples and 
of Spain, about the year 1824. Joseph was then an exile, 
and was desirous of founding a country-seat in America. 
He first chose for its site Saratoga Springs, but being 
unable to purchase such lands as he wanted there, he went 
to Point Breeze, near Bordentown, New Jersey. Joseph, 
however, often visited Saratoga Springs, accompanied by a 
numerous retinue of the friends of his better days. On 
such occasions he always traveled in great state, and his 
journeyings in his coach and six from Bordentown to Sara- 
toga were not unlike the journeys from Foutainebleau to 
Blois by the French kings of the old regime. 


The first white man who built a habitation at Saratoga 

Springs and attempted a settlement there was Dirck Schou- 
ten. He had been living on the bank of the Hudson a 
little above Waterford, and his object in becoming a tem- 
porary resident at the wilderness was to open a trade with 
the Indians who congregated there every summer in great 
numbers. So in the year 1771 this pioneer settler, Dirck 
Schouten, came to the springs to chop his small clearing, to 
plant a few potatoes, and build his humble cabin on the 
bluff a little west of the High Rock spring. 

Schouten's route to the springs was from the Hudson to 
the east side of Saratoga lake, thence across the lake in a 
bark canoe to the mouth of the Kny-ad-ros-se-ra river ; 
thence up the river two miles to an Indian trail that led to 
the Springs. The way to the springs is much plainer now- 
adays than it was a hundred and seven years ago. 

The only white person whose name we know who visited 
the High Rock spring while Schouten was there was Wil- 
liam Bousman. Bousman was then a boy twelve years old, 
whose father the same year had settled near the south end 
of Saratoga lake. This lad came with Schouten to help 
him build his cabin, to make a little clearing, and to plant 
a small patch of potatoes. 

Schouten remained there a part of the time, till the 
summer of 1773, when he quarreled with the Indians, and 
they drove him away.* 

In the next .summer, that of 1774, John Arnold, from 
Rhode Island, with his young family, tried his fortunes at 
Saratoga Springs.f He provided himself with a few articles 
suitable for the Indian trade, mostly spirituous liquors, and 
with these and a few household goods, took the route fol- 
lowed by Schouten three years before to High Rock spring. 

Upon his arrival Arnold took posse.ssion of Schouten's 
deserted cabin, and, making some improvements, opened a 
kind of rude tavern for the visitors of the springs. 

This pioneer hotel had but a single room or two on the 
ground floor, with a chamber overhead. In sight of it were 
sixteen Indian cabins filled with their savage occupants. In 
the rocky ledges near by were numerous dens of rattlesnakes. 
There were so many of these reptiles then at the springs, 
that the early visitors often had to hang their beds from the 
limbs of the trees to avoid them. Nightly, the wolves 
howled, and the panther screamed ; daily, the black bears 
picked berries in the little clearings, and the wild deer and 
the moose drank from the brook, while the eagle yearly 
built her nest on the tops of the towering pines. Such was 
the style and such were the surroundings of the first rough 
hotels of the wilderness springs of a hundred years ago, that 
led the way in the long line of magnificent structures that 
have since graced the modern village. 


Arnold kept his little forest tavern for two summers, and 
was succeeded by Samuel Norton. Both Schouten and 
Arnold had remained only during the summers at the 
springs. Upon the approach of winter they had shut up 
their house and gone over to the settlement on the east side 
of the lake. But Samuel Norton came to stay through the 

■*See '• Mineral AVaters," by Reuben Sears, page 89. 
I See " Steele's Analysis," 2d edition, p. 28. 




year, and he therefore was the first permxaeiit settler of 
Saratoga Springs. Norton, before he came, liad permission 
in writing from Lsaac Low to occupy and improve a farm 
in the vicinity of the " salt spring" at Saratoga. Norton 
took possession of the Schouten House in the fall of 1776, 
the same season Arnold left it, and continued to make im- 
provements during the next season of 1777. But at the 
approach of Burgoyne'sarniy from the north Arnold became 
alarmed for the safety of his family, and he removed them 
to a place of less danger from the aggressions of the con- 
tending parties, and for six years the springs were left 
without a single white inhabitant. 

Before the close of the war Samuel Norton died, and in 
the spring of 1783 one of his sons resumed the occupancy 
of his father's former possessions at the springs. 

Samuel Norton and his brother Asa came originally from 
Wales, where they belonged to a good family, some mem- 
bers of which had held high official positions. They first 
settled at New Bedford, where Samuel married Sarah 
Deems. Their children were Samuel, Asa, Isaiah, Rhoda, 
Sarah, Polly, Louise, and Cora. One of Samuel Norton's 
granddaughters, Mrs. Howland, is still living on the east 
side of Saratoga lake. She says her grandfather at one 
time was eleven months in succession without seeing a 
white visitor at the springs. 

In the fall of 1787, Gideon Morgan bought the Norton 
place, and the same year sold it to Alexander Bryan. 

Bryan became a permanent settler and remained many 

Bryan in 1787 took possession of the Schouten House, 
which was situate on the northwest corner of Front and 
Bock streets, near the site of what is now called the Em- 
pire House. On the opposite corner, on the ground now 
occupied by the stone house still known as the Bryan 
House, Bryan built another log house, which he opened for 
the accommodation of summer visitors. 

These two rude log houses, thus situate on opposite sides 
of' Rock street at its junction with Front street, near the 
High Rock spring, were the only "hotels" at Saratoga 
Springs, with the exception of the " Yellow"' house built 
by Benjamin Risley just before the year 1800, until Gideon 
Putnam laid the foundations of the Grand Union in the 
year 1801. 

As has been seen above, Alexander Bryan came to the 
springs in 1787. His parents were fugitives from Acadia, 
in Nova Scotia, at the time of the dispersion of its inhab- 
itants by the English, celebrated in Longfellow's poetic 
story of " Evangeline." 

After being driven from Acadia, Bryan's parents settled 
in Dutchess Co., N. Y. Bryan there married a sister 
of Senator Talmadge, and before the War of the Revo- 
lution removed to a place two miles above Waterford. where 
he opened a tavern, which he kept for many years. 

" Bryan," says Dr. Juhn H. Steele in his '' Analysis," '' was 
a shrewd and somewhat eccentric character, and the events 
of his life, if generally known, would undoubtedly place 
his name among the patriots of his time, and furnish a 
deserved monument to his memory. 

" He was, I believe, a native of the State of Connecticut, 
but emigrated to that of New York early in life, and fixed 

his residence in the county of Dutchess. Here he connected 
himself by marriage with a highly-respeetable family, and 
some years after removed to the town of Half- Jloon, in the 
county of Saratoga, where he commenced the business of 
tavern-keeping, at a place situated about two miles above 
Waterford, on what was then the great road, which fur- 
nished the principal means of communication between the 
northern and southern frontiers. On this spot he con- 
tinued to reside during the War of the Revolution, and his 
house, of course, became frequently the resort of the par- 
tisans of the contending parties ; and such was the adroit- 
ness of his management, that he became the unreserved 
confidant of both parties, without even being once suspected 
of treachery by either. Of his patriotism, however, and 
his sincere attachment to the interests of his country, there 
cannot exist a doubt. 

'• The important secrets which he frequently obtained from 
his confiding friends, the Tories, were .soon disclosed to the 
committee of safety, with whom he managed to keep con- 
stant although a secret communication. Tlie numerous 
and essential services which ho thus rendered to his country 
continued for a long time to excite the admiration and 
gratitude of his few surviving associates, to whom alone 
they were known, and by whom their importance could 
only be properly estimated; and it is to be regretted that 
to the day of his death they remained unacknowledged and 
unrewarded by any token or profession of gratitude from 
his country. 

" When General Gates took the command of the northern 
army, he applied to the committee of safety of Stillwater, 
to provide a suitable person to go into Burgoyne's camp, 
with a view to obtain a knowledge of the movements of the 
enemy. Bryan was immediately .selected as a person well 
qualified to undertake the hazardous enterprise, and he 
readily agreed to accomplish it. About the same time he 
was applied to by a friend of the enemy to convey some 
intelligence which he deemed of importance to Burgoyne ; 
this he likewise undertook, having secretly obtiined the 
consent of General Gates for that purpose. 

" By pursuing a circuitous route, he arrived unmolested 
at the camp of the enemy, which was then situated in the 
vicinity of Fort Edward. Having had several interviews 
with General Burgoyne, by whom he was closely examined, 
he was finally employed by that offiuer to superintend some 
concerns in the ordnance department. He tarried suf- 
ficiently long to obtain the required information, when he 
privately left the camp in the gray of the morning of the 
15th of September; but he had not proceeded many miles 
before he discovered that he was pursued by two horsemen ; 
these, however, he contrived to avoid, and arrived safely at 
Gates' headquarters late on the following night, and com- 
mutiicated the first intelligence of the enemy's having 
crossed the Hudson and being on the advance to Stillwater. 
This intelligence was of great importance, as it led to the 
immediate preparation for the sanguinary engagement which 
ensued on the 19th of the same month. 

" Bryan continued to reside at the springs for more than 
thirty years, and until age had rendered him incompetent 
for active life. 

" He then retired to the county of Seoharie, where he 



died at an advanced age. He possessed a strong constitu- 
tion, a sound and vigorous mind, and a benevolent and 
kind disposition. The poor, the miserable, and the unfor- 
tunate were always the objects of his care, his kindness, 
and his charity. But his eccentricities often involved him 
in difficulties with his moi'e opulent neighbors, and, at 
times, disturbed the tranquillity of his most intimate 


In the year 1790 a new era dawned upon Saratoga 
Springs. In that year, about the tiu)e Benajah Douglas, 
from Lebanon, and Nicholas Low, from New York, were 
making their first purchases at Ballston Spa, Benjamin 
Risky and his two sons-in-law, Gideon Pntitam and Dr. Cle- 
ment Bhihesley, came to settle at Saratoga Springs. Risloy's 
first above-named son-in-law, Gideon Putnam, was destined 
to become the founder of modern Saratoga, which rises 
to-day (1878) in all its fairy-like magnificence and beauty 
above the more humble scene of Putnam's early labors. 

Benjamin Risley was a prominent citizen of Hartford, 
Conn., and a man of considerable wealth for thoii-e days. 
When he came to Saratoga in 1790, the capital he brought 
with him was the foundation of the wealth of Saratoga 
Springs, aside from the landed interests of the Waltons and 
the Livingstons. 

Upon coming to the springs, Mr. Risley bought of Catha- 
rine Van Dam and others several lots of land situate on the 
north side of Rock street, between Catharine and Front 
streets, upon which he built a tavern, afterwards kept by 
Thaddeus Smith Risley's descendants in the village still 
hold some of the land. 

The children of Benjamin Risley were six daughters, — 
Theodosia, who married Dr Clement Blakesley, the first 
physician at the springs, who after he came lived for some 
time in the Schouten House. Phila, who married IMatthew 
Lyon, who established the first newspaper at the Springs 
upon capital furnished by Mr. Risley. PJven the name of 
this pioneer paper is forgotten. Lyon afterwards removed 
to Washington. Doanda, who married Gideon Putnam. 
Mary, who married Ashcr Taylor. Laura, who married 
Judge Pease, of Ohio. Nancy, who married a Mr. Law- 
rence, who was a member of Congress from Louisiana. 

The daughter of Nancy was the Mrs. Donnelson who 
presided at the White House during General Jackson's 

Gideon Putnam belongs to the same family-tree on a 
branch of which Jiangs the name of Israel Putnam, of Rev- 
olutionary memory. He was undoubtedly a man of indom- 
itable energy and perseverance above his fellows. 

In the year 1800 there were two rival competitors for the 
proud position of the " world's greatest watering-place," — 
Saratoga Springs and Ballston Spa. But Ballston Spa had 
then already nearly ten years the start. Large hotels or 
boarding-houses had been erected there by Messrs. Douglas 
and Low shortly after 1790, while the only accommodations 
at Saratoga up to and before 1800 were the two log huts 
near High Rock spring. 

Gideon Putnam was the man at Saratoga to comprehend 
the situation. lu the year 1800 Congress spring was still 

surrounded by the primeval wilderness. In the year 1800 
Gideon Putnam bought a lot of land contiguous to Con- 
gress spring, upon which now stand the Grand Union and 
Congress Hall, and, cutting down and clearing oiF the heavy 
pine timber, began the erection of Union Hall. 

Union Hall was the first large and commodious hotel 
erected for visitors at Saratoga Springs. The timber for 
this building was hewn from the tall pines that grew on its 
site. It was the first large frame building erected at Sara- 
toga Springs, and the day it was raised people from all the 
towns near by gathered there to see what they called " Put- 
nam's folly." The idea of building a three-story house 
near Saratoga Springs for boarders was then deemed pre- 
posterous in the highest degree. But, in spite of their 
sneers, Putnam pushed his enterprise to its completion, and 
the brilliant result has more than answered his fondest an- 

After building the Grand Union, Gideon Putnam laid 
out the new village which sprang up around Congress 
spring. In laying out this village he displayed great lib- 
erality. The streets, especially, were laid out very wide, 
and everything else was projected upon a scale commen- 
surate with the importance of the future watering-place, 
which Gideon Putnam seemed to see with almost prophetic 
vision rising in grandeur and beauty unsurpassed around 
what was then but little removed from being but the springs 
of the wilderness. 

On his map, which is now extant, Broad street is laid 
out in front of Union Hall, one hundred and twenty feet in 
width. This is the origin of the beautiful street, called 
Broadway, of the modern village. At the time he made 
his map there were three springs discovered near Union 
Hall. The Congress, Columbian, and the Hamilton. Put- 
nam so laid out his village that each of these springs was 
left in a public street, and must therefore forever remain 
open and free to the people. Broadway extended south far 
enough to bring within it the Columbian spring. Congress 
street he laid out sixty-six feet wide, and tliis left the Con- 
gress spring near the centre of the street, and therefore 
public property. The Hamilton spring was also left by 
Gideon Putnam far in the street. After Putnam's death 
all the streets but Broadway, north of Congress street, were 
narrowed down to their present limits, thus bringing the 
springs outside the street limits, and making them private 
property. Gideon Putnam also contemplated laying out a 
large public park, to be forever free to the public. The 
map named above is now in possession of his granddaughter, 
Mrs. Shackelford, at Saratoga Springs. 

Of Gideon Putnam a biographical sketch is elsewhere 
given in these pages. 

The children of Gideon Putnam and his wife, Doanda 
Risley, were five sons and four daughters. The .sons were 
Benjamin, Lewis, Rockwell, Washington, and Lorin ; the 
daughters were Betsey, Nancy, Aurelia, and Phila. 

Of the sons, Benjamin's children were Amelia, Gideon, 
Laura G., Charles E., Mary E., and John II. The children 
of Lewis were Mervin G., Lorin B., and William L. The 
children of Rockwell were Elizabeth and George R. The 
children of Washington were George W., Walter, Florence, 
and Aune. The child of Lorin was Caroline. 

The Putnam tamily traces' its 
descent from John Putnam, who 
came from England in 1634, 
and located at Danvers, Massa- 
chusetts. He had three sons, 
Thomas, Nathan, and John, and 
these three form the branches 
from which have sprung the 
numerous and influential family 
of Putnam. 

From Thomas descended a 
long line of prominent persons, 
including General Israel Put- 
nam, of Revolutionary fame, and 
Gideon Putnam, the man of 
strong nerve, comprehensive 
powers of invention, and in- 
domitable will, who was the 
virtual creator or originator of 
the beautiful village of Saratoga 

Gideon Putnam was the son 
of Rufus and Mary Putnam, and 
was born in the town of Sutton, 
Massachusetts, in the year 1764. 
He started forth at an early age 
to encounter the vicissitudes and 
changes of life. He married 
Miss Doanda Kisley, daughter of 
Squire Benjamin Risley, a gen- 
tleman of influence and means, at Hartford, Connecticut. His 
wife accompanied him in his pursuit after fortune, and worthily 
and faithfully shared in his trials, difliculties, and successes. 

He first took his way to Middlebury, Vermont, where he erected 
a cabin on the very site now occupied by the Middlebury college 
buildings, and where his first child was born. After remaining 
there for a time he removed to Rutland, Vermont, and it was 
there that Benjamin Putnam was born. From Rutland they 
removed to the " Five Nations," or " Bemus Flats." Here they 
were joined by Dr. Clement Blakesley, who married Theodosia, a 
sister of Mrs. Putnam, and who was a physician of acknowledged 
skill and prominence in his profession. But Putnam was still dis- 
satisfied with his choice of location, and pushed on still farther, 
until, In the year 1789, they arrived at the Springs, which were 
then scarcely known. On reaching that point he determined to 
establish himself there. He selected a piece of ground near a 
fresh-water spring, and built a cabin on Prospect Hill, on land 
afterwards owned by his son Benjamin. Here he entered actively 
into farming operations, engaging also in the manufacture of staves 
and shingles. These he carried to the Hudson river, at the mouth 
of Fish creek, and subsequently sold to advantage in New York 
city, it proving the beginning of a large lumber trade, which he 
successfully carried on for years. He now began to accumulate 
means, and purchased, in 1791, his first land at Saratoga Springs, 
consisting of three hundred acres, of Dirck Lefl'erts, who was one of 
the original purchasers of the Kayadrossera patent. 

In 1802 he purchased some land of Henry Walton, and began 
the erection of Union Hall, which bis descendants owned until pur- 
chased by Mr. Leland. In 1805 he purchased more land of Walton, 
consisting of one hundred and thirty acres, and on a part of it 
lie laid out a village, and set apart a portion of it for a burial- 
ground. This he afterwards gave to the village, and in it are 
buried many of the old pioneers of the county, and most all of 
Putnam's descendants who have died. 

In 1806 he excavated and tubed the Washington spring, and soon 
after the Columbian spring. The springs were now annually be- 
coming more popular, and the number of strangers constantly 

Putnam next tubed the Hamilton spring, and about 1809 discov- 
ered and tubed the celebrated Congress spring. A manuscript hand- 
bill, issued by Putnam.bearingdate June 11, 1811, is still extant, in 
which he forbids, under pain of legal penalties, any person from 
washing in the spring, putting dirt or other material into it, or 


»T1 tKjsT 




bottling the waters for 
portation and sale. 

In 1811, Putnam began the' 
erection of Congress Hall, and 
while the masons were plastering 
at the north end of the piazza, he 
fell froni the scaflTolding which 
they were using, and suffered 
severe injuries. In the following 
November he was attacked by 
disease, and died December 1, 
1812, at the early age of forty- 
nine years, his being the first 
body laid in the ground he had so 
generously donated to the public 

Gideon Putnam was in every 
sense a remarkable man. Pos- 
sessed of indomitable persever- 
ance, stern resolution, and in- 
vincible energy, he early encoun- 
tered the trials and privations 
incident to a pioneer life, and 
carved out from the primitive 
forest one of the most beautiful 
villages in the country, and 
which has proved one of the 
most popular places of summer 
resort. Its broad streets, free 
fountains, and abundant relig- 
ious and educational advantages bear testimony alike to his com- 
prehensive ingenuity, his liberality, and his respect for truth. He 
not only gave the burial-ground to the village, but also the ground 
for the village academy, and to the Baptist church the ground on 
which it stands. He made such an impression on the place of his 
choice that his name must ever stand first among those whose early 
self-denials and energetic lives have conferred so much upon the 

Gideon Putnam's biography would not be complete without 
special mention of his estimable wife, whose portrait, so full of 
character, may be seen on this page. She was a woman of rare 
personal excellence, of a deeply religious nature, a faithful, true, 
and patient wife, a careful and affectionate mother, of pleasant 
manners, and loved and respected by all who knew her. She was 
one of the first members of the Presbyterian church of Saratoga 
Springs, and closely identified with its various religious and char- 
itable enterprises. It was she who bore the first white child born 
in the village, who was Lewis Putnam. She died Feb. 10, 

Benjamin Risley, the father of Mrs. Putnam, came to Saratoga 
Springs about the time that Gideon Putnam died, bringing with 
him considerable means. He built a large house near High Rock 
spring, which was afterwards occupied by Thaddeus Smith. This 
house stood upon land which Risley purchased of Catherine M. 
Von Dam. He had a number of daughters, of whom Theodosia 
married Dr. Clement Blakesley, as has been stated, and who was 
the first physician who practiced in the village. Another daughter, 
Phila, married Matthew Lyon, who edited the first newspaper 
started in Saratoga Springs, and afterwards removed to and edited 
a paper at Washington, D. C. There Laura married Judge Pease, 
of Ohio, a gentleman of prominence ; and Nancy married a Mr. 
Lawrence, a member of congress from Louisiana. Lawrence's 
daughter married a Mr. Donaldson, and presided at the White 
House during the administration of General Jackson as president. 
The children of Gideon and Doanda Putnam were Benjamin, 
Lewis, Rockwell, Washington, and Loren, — most of whom inher- 
ited and manifested the energy and special characteristics of their 
parents, — and Mrs. Betsey Taylor, Mrs. Amelia Clement, Mrs. 
Nancy Andrews, and Mrs. Phila Kellogg. Of these all are now 
dead save Mrs. Kellogg, who resides in southern Illinois. 

It is the children of these sons and daughters who cause this 
brief memoir of the many excellencies of their grandparents to be 
inserted in this work. 



Rockwell Putnam was the third son and fourth child 
of Gideon Putnam, whose life work is set forth on an- 
other page of this book. He was bom on November 3, 
1792, and passed his entire life in the village of Saratoga 

He was possessed of strong natural common sense, was 
a man of positive opinions, and public spirited. He never 
sought after notoriety of any kind, but was rather retiring 
in his nature ; yet his fellow-citizens, at various times, com- 
pelled him to accept the ofi&ces of town clerk, assessor, and 
supervisor. He was water commissioner under the law of 
1847. Was a careful business man, and several times pro- 
prietor of Union Hall, Saratoga Springs ; at first, immedi- 
ately after the death of his father, in 1812, and in connec- 
tion with his brother Washington, from 1839 to 1849. 
After leaving Union Hall, in 1849, he followed no special 
business except as agent of several insurance companies, 
as director and president of the Commercial National Bank, 
and engaged in the management and improvement of his 
real estate. 

He was one of the founders of the Episcopal church of 
Saratoga Springs, and in 1830, in connection with Edward 
Davis, the acting rector, and Henry Walton, he signed the 
certificate of incorporation of said body. He was proud of 
his church connections, and to his last moment his love for, 
and devotion to, the church was fervent and untiring. He 

filled official station in it for over forty years, first as a 
vestryman, and afterwards as senior warden. 

Rockwell Putnam died on November 4, 1869. At his 
decease resolutions, expressive of his many excellencies and 
of sincere condolence with his family at their loss, were 
passed by the officers of Bethesda church, by the Saratoga 
board of underwriters, and by the officers of the Commer- 
cial National Bank. A large meeting of citizens of the 
village of Saratoga Springs was likewise held at the Ameri- 
can Hotel. At this meeting similar resolutions, testifying 
to his integrity, uprightness, spotless morals, suavity of 
manners, domestic and social virtues, and consistent Chris- 
tian life, were feelingly passed. 

Mr. Putnam married, in 1823, Elizabeth H. Peck, daugh- 
ter of George Peck, and granddaughter of Robert Ellis, 
one of the earliest pioneers of the county, and who owned 
a thousand acres of land, which included the Ellis spring. 
This spring he tubed himself He also owned the land on 
which the Geyser spring was afterwards discovered. 

Rockwell Putnam left two children,— George Rockwell, 
one of the proprietors of Union Hall, and who died in 1862, 
and Elizabeth, who married Rev. J. W. Shackleford, of 
New York city. Mr. Putman's widow is still living, at the 
age of seventy years, active in mind and body, and has just 
returned from an extensive tour abroad, including a visit to 
the Holy Land. 



Of (rideon Putnam's daughters, Betsey married Isaac 
Taylor; their children were Putnam, Washington, and 
Eliza. Nancy marrried Frederick Andrews ; their daugh- 
ter was Caroline. Anrdia married Joel Clement; their 
children were William H., John, Mary, Caroline C, and 
Frances. I'hihi. married Abel A. Kellogg, and their 
children were Laura and Sarah. Phlla street was named 
in her honor. 

About the year 1794 two brothers, John and Ziba 
Taylor, settled at Saratoga. They seem to have been the 
pioneer merchants of the place. The first opened a small 
store in the old Schouten house, then owned and occupied 
by Mr. Risley. He afterwards built a small log house on 
the high ground about fifty rods north of the high rock, 
in which they also placed a stock of goods. They after- 
wards became extensive land-owners in the neighborhood, 
cleared up the country, built mills, and became prominent 
in affairs. John Taylor owned and first developed the 
Ten springs, and resided there for many years. Ziba 
continued in business in the upper village. The two 
brothers married sisters. John married Polly and Ziba 
married Sally, daughters of Richard Searing, an early 
settler of Greenfield. Ziba's children by this marriage 
were Julius, Miles, Harry, Laura, and Mary, wife of Dr. 
John H. Steele. The children of John were Calvin, John, 
Miles, Betsey, and Laura. We have now traced the history 
of the most of the pioneers of the village of Saratoga 
Springs, from its rude beginnings in the year 1771 up to 
the year 1800. 

Of those who moved into the village after the year 1800 
our space will not permit such particular mention. Their 
history will be to some extent found in the records of their 
acts in connection with the social, industrial, and political 
life presented in the following pages. The pioneers of a 
country, the founders of its destiny, those who brave the 
hardships and dangers of its first settlement, are entitled to 
notice. Of a truth, to be a pioneer of itself makes one's 
name historic ; but those who come afterward cannot ex- 
pect their names to become historic only so far as they take 
active part in affairs, and thus to a gieater or less extent 
do historic deeds. 

It has been seen that up to the year 1800 all there was 
of the village was what was afterwards known as the upper 
village. It was what grew up around the High Rock 
spring. The lower village, which grew up around Con- 
gress springs, was, up to the year 1800, covered with the 
primeval forest. Up to the year 1810 there were but few 
houses in the lower village, and only twenty or thirty in 
the upper. Between the two was nearly a mile of forest, 
filled with towering pines. When Gideon Putnam made 
his will, he described his land in the neighborhood of 
Phila street, and to the west of it, " the pine plains." 

Up to 1820, and even to 1830, there was a long stretch 
of pine-woods between ihe upper and lower villages. When 
Judge Walton commenced building the old Pavilion Hotel, 
on the site of the present town-hall, in 181!), he cut down 
the timber for the frame-work on the site of the building. 
About the only remnant of this noble old forest still remain- 
ing is Pine Grove, at the Walworth mansion. In early days 
a deep gully or ravine extended across Broadway a little to 

the north of the Holden House. This ravine was so deep that 
to persons standing on the piazza of the United States Hotel, 
just built in 1824, stage-coaches coming down Broadway 
would go out of sight in crossing it. 

The following are the recollections of some of the older 
inhabitants in regard to the village prior to its incorpora- 
tion, in 1826. 


Ransom Cook came to Saratoga Spring.?, as a journeyman 
in the manufacture of furniture, in 1813. He says the 
village was then mostly a pine grove. Union Hall was on 
the site of the Grand Union, and the frame of the Congress 
Hotel was up. On the north corner, opposite the Congress 
House, same side of Broadway, was the store of Miles 
Beach. There were not more than three or four other 
buildings on Broadway. The upper village was then quite 
flourishing. There was no meeting-house at the Spnngs. 
Boys and men played ball on Sunday, and then went fish- 
ing. There were no lawsuits, particularly for assault and 
battery. If A struck B, B '' licked" A, or hired somebody 
to do it. 


Gardner Bullard came with his father from Westford, 
Vt., in 1812. Of two sisters of Gardner, one became 
Mrs. Philo Waterbury, and the other Mrs. Benjamin Hall. 
Gardner was eleven years old when his father moved here. 
Their house was at the upper village, located on the ground 
now occupied by the brick house of Charles M. White. 
The Bullard house was afterwards moved to the lake bj 
Esquire Green. Mr. Bullard supposes there were thirty 
or forty houses in Saratoga Springs in 1812. Congress 
Hotel was raised that year. The store of John and Ziba 
Taylor he regards as the only one in 1812. Mr. Glcason 
then had a blacksmith's shop in the upper village. 

In or before 1820, Robert McDonald had opened a 
grocery-store on the place of James Chapman's present 
dwelling. Soon after 1812 a bakery was established by 
Palmer & Waterbury. McDonald's store was early 
changed to a hardware trade. Langworthy was in the 
same line. There was a cabinet-making shop at the High 
Rock village. The old " red store" wa.s an early affair ; 
stood about on the site of the present residence of widow 
Brockett. In 1812 the Columbian Hotel, kept by Jotham 
Holmes, stood where the Ainsworth building is now. Mr. 
Bullard thinks Calvin Munger opened a store about 1820. 

Walter J. Hendriek states the early stores in Saratoga 
Springs, 1812 to 1814, as Taylor's, and the store of Beach 
& Farlin ; Hendriek & Knuwlton, 1815; Joseph Westcot, 
1820; 1818, Ashbel Andrews and Ferdinand Andrews ; 
Nathan Lewis, 1816. 

The recollections of Mr. Nathaniel Waterbury, who is 
another of our oldest inhabitants, are inserted in the history 
of the town of Saratoga Springs, on subsequent pages. 

For a further account of some of those who have been 
prominent actors in the growth and development of the 
village, the reader is referred to the biographical pages of 
this work. 

In sharp contrast with the meagre sight exhibited by 
this village to those early beholders, even fifty years ago, 



we now see, and they still live to see, miles of beautiful 
streets adorned with elegant residences, many of which are 
models of architectural beauty, afiFording in their construc- 
tion rare specimens of modern decorative art. 

Among the more prominent of such residences, which 
are surrounded by beautiful grounds, may be named the fol- 

North Broadnoy. — Judge Charles S. Lester, Charles C. 
Lester, Edward R. Stevens, Dr. B. W. King, James H. 
Wright, William C. Bronson, William A. Shepard, Mrs. 
Mary S. Wayland, Joseph Baucus, Samuel A. Willoughby, 
Mr. Ehninger. 

South Broddicay. — John A. Lee, George S. Rice, Mrs. 
John H. White. 

Circular Street. — Hon. George S. Batcheller, Mrs. 
George R. Putnam, Hon. A. Bockes, Mr. Sherman, Cor- 
nelius Sheeban, A. W. Shepherd, Mrs. Robert Milligan, 
John Newland, Arthur D. Seavey. 

Franklin Square. — Hon. James M. Marvin, George 
Harvey, residence of the late Judge Marvin. 

Washington Street. — Mrs. Catharine S. Stevens. 

Phila Street. — David F. Ritchie. 

Union Avenvc. — Charles Reed. 

Matilda Street. — Seymour Ainsworth. 

Spring Street. — James I. Wakefield. 

There are many other residences the names of whose 
owners do not now occur to the writer which are of equal 
elegance and architectural beauty. 

The village of Saratoga Springs was first incorporated 
by act of the Legislature of the State, passed April 17, 
1826. In that act the village limits were defined as follow.", 
to wit : 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the St.ate of New York, 
represented in Senate and Assembly, That all that district of country 
lying in the town of Saratoga Springs, county of Saratoga, and State 
of New York, situated belween two lines parallel to, and each half of 
a mile distant from the following described line, to wit: beginning 
on the line between the Livingston and Ostrander lots, in the centre 
of the highway, near the house of Jesse Ostrander: running northerly 
as the highway runs, till it strikes Broad street, as laid out on a map 
of lots at Saratoga Springs, belonging to Gideon Putnam; thence 
northerly along the centre of Broad street till the said line intersects 
the highw.iy leading from the upper village to Greenfield, near the 
Methodist meeting-house; thence north to Greenfield line, shall con- 
tinue to be called and known by the name of the village of Saratoga 

The present village limits are described as below by an 
act of the Legislature, passed March 26, 1866. 


*' Section 1. All that tract of land in the town of Saratoga Springs 
lying and included within two parallel lines, one commencing at a 
point in the north line of said town three-quarters of a mile east of 
the centre of Broadway, at its intersection with the south line of the 
town of Greenfield, and running from such point, on a direct line, to 
a point as far south as the south line of lands belonging to the heirs 
of Augustus McKinncy, and three-fourths of a mile east of the centre 
of the highway at said McKinney's lands; and the other of such 
parallel lines commencing at a point in the north line of the town of 
Saratoga Springs, three-quarters of a mile west of the centre of Broad- 
way, aforesaid, and running from thence, on a direct line, to a point 
as far south as the south line of lands belonging to the heirs of Au- 
gustus McKinney, and to a point three-fourths of a mile west from 
the centre of the highway at said McKinney's lands, shall be known 
by the corporate name of the ' Village of Saratoga Springs.' " 


1826.— John H. Steel, Wm. L. F. Warren, presiding 
justices; Joshua Porter, president; John Bryan, Rock- 
well Putnam, Robert McDoniial, David Cobb, trustees ; 
Peter V. Wiggins, clerk ; John A. Waterbury, trea-surer ; 
Joshua Blum, Joseph White, constables ; Samuel Mathews, 

1827. — John H. Steel, president; John Boardman, Ran- 
som Cook, Christopher B. Brown, Samuel Chapman, trus- 
tees ; Wm. C. Waterbury, clerk ; Gideon Conant, treasurer ; 
Joshua Blum, Joseph White, constables. 

1828. — John H. Steel, president ; Samuel Chapman, 
Daniel Mathews, John Boardman, Daniel T. Reed, trus- 
tees ; William C. Waterbury, clerk ; Gideon Conant, treas- 

An act to amend, passed April 23, 1829. 

1830. — John H. Steel, president; John Clark, William 
A. Langworthy, Runion Martin, Isaac Taylor, trustees ; 
Rockwell Putnam, treasurer; Miles Taylor, clerk. 

1831. — John H. Steel, president; William A. Lang- 
worthy, Runion Martin, Isaac Taylor, Abel Hendrick, 
trustees; Daniel D. Benedict, clerk; Rockwell Putnam, 

1832. — John H. Steel, president; Samuel Chapman, 
Ransom Cook, Judiah Ellsworth, Scth Covill, Jr., trus- 
tees ; James H. Westcott, treasurer ; Daniel D. Benedict, 

1833. — John H. Steel, president; Ransom Cook, Sam- 
uel Chapman, Lewis Putnam, Seth Covill, Jr., trustees ; 
James H. Robinson, clerk ; Rockwell Putnam, treasurer. 

1834. — John H. Steel, president ; John Clark, Samuel 
Putnam, Daniel T. Reed, Seth Covill, Jr., trustees ; Rock- 
well Putnam, treasurer ; Henry P. Hyde, clerk. 

1835. — John H. Steel, president; John Clark, Daniel T. 
Reed, Samuel Chapman, Seth Covill, Jr., trustees ; Rock- 
well Putnam, treasurer ; Henry P. Hyde, clerk. 

1836. — John H. Steel, president; Samuel Chapman, 
John Clark, Seth Covill, Jr , Daniel T. Reed, trustees ; 
Rockwell Putnam, treasurer ; Henry P. Hyde, clerk. 

An act to amend, passed April 16, 1836. 

1837. — Samuel Chapman, president; William A. Beach, 
George W. Wilcox, John Clark, Benjamin Hull, trustees; 
Rockwell Putnam, treasurer ; Henry P. Hyde, clerk. 

1838. — Thomas G. Marvin, president; Seth Covill, Run- 
ion Martin, Robert Gardner, Washington Putnam, trustees; 
John C. Hulbert, clerk ; Joel Clement, treasurer. 

1839. — Thomas G. Marvin, president; John L. Perry, 
Washington Putnam, James W. Chesney, Jesse Morgan, 
trustees ; Carey B. Moon, clerk ; Joel Clemeut, treasurer. 

1840. — R. Gardner, president; John L. Perry, Run- 
ion Martin, Lucius D. Langley, Robert Gardner, James 
W. Chesney, trustees ; Carey B. Moon, clerk ; Joel Clement, 

1841. — Thoma.s J. Marvin, president; John Clarke, 
Seth Covill, Robert Gardner, W. Putnam, trustees ; Samuel 
Pitkins, clerk ; Joel Clements, treasurer. 

1842. — Robert McDonnell, president ; Thomas J. Mar- 
vin, Washington Putnam, Abel A. Kellogg, John L. Perry, 
trustees ; W. H. Andrews, clerk ; Joel Clement, treasurer. 




















1843.— /Vbel A. Kellogg, president ; S. R. 0.strander, 
Runion Martin, Lewis Putnam, Isaac Hoag, trustees ; 
Wm. H. Andrevrs, clerk ; Joel Clements, treasurer. 

1844. — Thomas J. Marvin, president ; W. Putnam, John 
Morris, S. C. West, James R. Smith, trustees ; James H. 
Westcott, clerk ; Joel Clem3ut, treasurer. 

Amendment passed April 23, 1844. 

1845. — Daniel D. Benedict, president ; Augustus Bookes, 
Isaac L. Smith, John L. Perry, Thaddous Smith, trustees; 
William II. Andrews, clerk ; Horace Dowday, treasurer. 

1S4G. — Washington Putnam, president; P. H. Cowen, 
H. H. JIartin, W. II. Walton, J. A. Corey, trustees ; Sam- 
uel Pitkin, clerk. 

1847. — Washington Putnam, president ; P. H. Cowen, 
H. H. Martin, W. H. Walton, J. A. Corey, trustees ; Geo. 
W. Spooner, clerk. 

1848. — W. Putnam, president; J. A. Corey, W. S. 
Alger, Samuel Chapman, William Cook, trustees ; J. W. 
Crane, clerk. 

1849. — -Washington Putnam, president; John L. Perry, 
Joseph D. Briggs, Henry P. Hyde, Robert Gardner, trus- 
tees ; John W. Crane, clerk ; Thomas McDonnell, treas- 

1850. — John A. Corey, president; Robert Gardner, 
Dennis O'Neil, Wilks S. Alger, Joseph White, trustees ; 
John W. Crane, clerk; Thomas McDonnell, treasurer. 

1851. — John A. Corey, president; Robert Gardner, 
Walter J. Hendrick, Hiram A. Dedrick, John Clow, trus- 
tees ; John W. Crane, clerk; W. H. Andrews, treasurer. 

1852. — John A. Corey, president; Robert Gardner, 
Hiram A. Dedrick, John Clow, Walter J. Hendrick, trus- 
tees ; Jesse L. Fraser, clerk ; Gideon Putnam, treasurer. 

1853. — John A. Corey, president ; W. J. Hendrick, 
Hiram A. Dedrick, John Clow, Wm. S. Balch, trustees ; 
Gideon Putnam, treasurer ; J. R. Rockwell, clerk. 

1854. — John A. Corey, president ; Walter J. Hendrick, 
Hiram A. Dedrick, Wm. S. Balch, Runion Martin, trus- 
tees; Joseph D. Briggs, treasurer; Chas. H. Hulbert, clerk. 

1855.— J. A. Corey, president; W. S. Balch, R. Mar- 
tin, AV. J. Hendrick, R. Wariner, trustees ; C. C. More- 
house, clerk. 

1856. — -John A. Corey, president; Wm. S. Balch, Wal- 
ter J. Hendrick, Amos S. Maxwell, E. R. Stevens, P. H. 
Greene, trustees ; C. C. Morehouse, clerk. 

1857. — John H. White, president; Robert Gardner, 
Amos S. Maxwell, W. J. Hendrick, P. H. Greene, H. H. 
Martin, trustees ; James H. Huling, clerk. 

1858.— J. H. White, president ; R. Gardner, H. H. Mar- 
tin, A. S. Maxwell, S. Ainsworth, G. F. White, trustees ; 
W. L. Putnam, clerk. 

1859. — Peckham H. Greene, president ; Owen T. Sparks, 
Charles S. Lester, Amos H. Maxwell, George F. White, 
Seymour Ainsworth, trustees ; Wm. L. Putnam, clerk. 

1860. — P. H. Greene, president ; C. S. Lester, John H. 
White, Geo. T. White, Wm. B. Gage, Seymour Ainsworth, 
trustees ; Wm. F. Putnam, clerk. 

1861.— J. H. White, president; G. F. White, W. B. 
Gage, J. D. Briggs, C. S. Lester, Amasa Keith, trustees ; 
J. Gunning, Jr., clerk. 

1862. — Charles S. Lester, president; Charles S. Lester, 

George F. White, Joseph D. Briggs, Araasa Keith, Wil- 
liam B. Gage, Alexander A. Patterson, trustees ; John 
Gunning, Jr., clerk. 

1863. — John H. White, president; George F. White, 
William B. Gage, Alexander A. Patterson, John H. White, Keith, William Slocum, trustees; Ferdinand Height, 

1864. — John S. Leake, president; John R. Putnam, 
Franklin T. Hill, Silas P. Briggs, Alexander A. Patterson, 
John W. GaflFney, John H. Wager, trustees ; Lorin B. 
Putnam, clerk. 

1865. — John S. Leake, president; John R. Putnam, 
Alexander A. Patterson, John H. Wager, Hiram H. Martin, 
Abner D. Wait, Seymour Hartwell, trustees ; Ljrin B. 
Putnam, clerk. 

1866. — John H. White, president ; Hiram H. Martin, 
Abner D. Wait, Seymour Hartwell, William Bennett, James 
H. Wright, Daniel 0. Gorman, trustees; Ferdinand Height, 

1867. — -John H. White, president; William Bennett, 
James H. Wright, Daniel 0. Gorman, James P. Butler, 
Charles H. Holden, Hiram C. TefFt, trustees ; Ferdinand 
Height, clerk. 

1868. — John H. White, president; James P. Butler, 
Charles H. Holden, Hiram C. Tefft, Ferdinand W. Fonda, 
William H. Walton, Bernard McGovern, trustees; Ferdi- 
nand Height, clerk. 

1869.— John H. White,* president; Ferdinand W. 
Fonda, William H. Walton, Bernard McGovern, James P. 
Butler, Nathan D. Morey, Michael Walsh, trustees ; Ferdi- 
nand Height, clerk. 

1870. — James H. Wright, president; James P. Butler, 
Nathan D. Morey, Michael Walsh, John P. Alger, Elias 
H. Peters, Rhody Delaney, trustees ; William L. Graham, 

1871. — James H. Wright, president; John P. Alger, 
Elias H. Peters, Rhody Delaney, Lorenzo L. Brintnall, 
Daniel M. Mains, Jerome Pitney, trustees; Charles H. 
Tefft, Jr., clerk. 

1872. — Caleb W. Mitchell, president; Lorenzo L. Brint- 
nall, Daniel M. Mains, Jerome Pitney, Lewis Ellsworth, 
George Mingay, William Heaslip, trustees ; Patrick Mc- 
Donald, clerk. 

1873. — Caleb W. Mitchell, president; Lewis Ellsworth, 
George Mingay, William Heaslip, Lorenzo Brintnall, Daniel 
M. Mains, John C. Dennin, trustees; Patrick McDonald, 

1874. — Charles A. Allen, president ; Lorenzo L. Brint- 
nall, Daniel M. Mains, John C. Dennin, John P. Alger, 
Gradus D. Smith, Arthur Swaniek, trustees; Patrick 
McDonald, clerk. 

1875. — Charles A. Allen, president; John P. Alger, 
Gradus D. Smith, Arthur Swanick, George B. Hinckley, 
Dewitt C. Hoyt, Michael Walsh, trustees ; Patrick McDon- 
ald, clerk. 

1876. — Stephen II. Richards, president; George B. 
Hinckley, Dewitt C. Hoyt, Michael Walsh, Lorenzo L. 

* John II. White resigned as president Deceraher 24, 1869, and 
Jomes II. Wright was appointed to fill the vacaney, January 7, 1870. 



Brintnall, Frank D. Wheeler, Jr., Patrick Brennan, trus- 
tees ; William L. Graliame, clerk. 

1877. — Stephen H. Richards, president; Lorenzo L. 
Brintnall, George B. Hinckley, Frank D. Wheeler, Jr., 
Reuben Merchant, Patrick Brennan, Hiram W. Hays, 
trustees; William L. Grahame, clerk. 

1878. — Thomas Noxon, president ; Lorenzo L. Brintnall, 
George B. Hinckley, Reuben Merchant, David, 
Hiram W. Hays, Daniel Leary, trustees ; William L. Gra- 
hame, clerk. 


The mineral springs of Saratoga have long been world- 
renowned. They occur in the narrow valley of a little 
stream that takes its rise in the southwestern part of the 
village, one branch of which runs from a spring of fresh 
water situate in the rear of the Clarendon Hotel, and the 
other from springs in the valley which extends through 
Congress park. In making improvements the two little 
branches have long since been diverted from their natural 
channels, and mostly covered up and lost to view. In 
their natural state, however, they were both beautiful 
streams of pure water, the westerly branch running over a 
rocky bed Broadway, and after dashing over a little 
cascade near which Congress spring was discovered, it joined 
its sister stream in Congress street. After the junction of 
its two branches, the stream continued through the wind- 
ing valley, first northerly for a mile or more, then easterly 
to the valley of the Ten springs, and then southerly to the 
lake. Along in the valley of this stream, within a dis- 
tance of two miles, are situate nearly all the famous natural 
mineral springs of Saratoga. Around these springs, stretch- 
ing along and across this valley, has sprung up the modern 
village of Saratoga Springs, — a city in fact, but not in 
name and organization, peerles.s in its palatial grandeur and 
fairy like beauty 

The origin of thase mineral waters is one of nature's 
secrets. In the valley in which they occur, two geologic 
systems of rocks meet and abut against each other. Here 
the old Laurentian rocks, covered by the rocks of the Pots- 
dam and calciferous sandstones, end, and the Trenton sys- 
tem of limestones, covered by the Hudson river slates and 
shales, begins. In the geologic fault or fissure which runs 
along the valley between these two systems of rocks, the 
mineral springs rise to the surface. The springs seem to 
take their rise in the bird's-eye limestone strata which un- 
derlies the slate. In sinking wells at the Geyser springs at 
Ballston Spa and at Round lake, the mineral waters, like 
those of Saratoga, were, without exception, reached after 
the drill had passed through the slate and struck the lime- 
stone. At the Geyser the wells are sunk to the depth of 
from one hundred and thirty-two to three hundred feet. At 
Ballston Spa they reach the depth of several hundred feet 
more, while at Round lake the well was sunk through the 
slate to the depth of fourteen hundred feet before the lime- 
stone was reached in which the mineral water was found. 

It seems that the valley of the Hudson, at this part of 
its course, is a deep-sunken basin, in which lies a fossil 
ocean in whose ancient bed the limestones and slates were 
deposited in its briny waters. Out of this siinlcen hasiii of 
still briny waters, out of this fossil ocean-bed filed with 

rocky strata, rise the mineral springs of Saratoga. The 
mineral waters course along between the limestone strata at 
different depths, and therefore possessing different qualities, 
until they reach the hard barrier of Laurentian rocks in the 
fissure that extends through the little valley in the village 
where they" occur, and then they rise to the surface, forced 
upward by the gaseous constituents. 

And now the village of Saratoga Springs owes not only 
its wondrous growth, but its very existence, to the rich 
mineral fountains that within its boundaries bubble up 
from the earth's bosom burdened with their sweet mission 
of healing. 

The mineral springs of Saratoga were first brought to 
the notice of scientific men and ])hysicians by Dr. Consta- 
ble, of Schenectady, who examined the mineral waters at 
Saratoga and Ballston in the year 1770, and pronounced 
them highly medicinal. 

In 1783, Dr. Samuel Tenny, a regimental surgeon sta- 
tioned at Old Saratoga, called the attention of the medical 
faculty to these waters. He addressed a letter upon the 
subject to Dr. Joshua Fisher, of Boston, which was pub- 
lished in the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, vol. ii. part i., 1798. 

Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, LL.D., of New York, said it was 
one of the remarkable incidents of his life " that in the 
year 1787 he visited the springs at Saratoga while sur- 
rounded by the forest and ascertained, experimentally, that 
the gas extracted from the water was fixed air, with the 
power to extinguish flame and destroy the life of breathing 

But the first scientific examination of these waters was 
made by Dr. Valentine Seaman, of New York, an eminent 
physician, and one of the surgeons of the New York Hos- 
pital. In 1793 he published a work entitled " A Disserta- 
tion on the Mineral Waters of Saratoga." To him very 
justly belongs the honor of first developing the true charac- 
ter of these waters by chemical experiment. 

In the year 1795, Dr. Vandervoort published the result 
of his expeiiment on the Ballston waters. 

In the summer of 1817, Dr. John H. Steel published 
" Some Observations on the Mineral Waters of Saratoga 
and Ballston,' and in 1831 his larger work, entitled "Atf 
Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Saratoga and Ballston." 

In 1844, Dr. R. L. Allen published the first edition of 
his work, entitled " A Historical, Chemical, and Therapeu- 
tical Analysis of the principal Mineral Waters of Saratoga 
Springs." publications have been followed by many others, 
too numerous to mention here.* 


The longest known, if not the most famous, of the min- 
eral springs of Saratoga is the High Rock spring. This 
spring, as has already been seen, was the famous " medi- 
cine spring" of the Mohawks long before it was visited by 
white men. This, with the Flat Rock spring, since called 
the Pavilion, and the Red spring, were for many years the 

* See a list of bnoks relating to Saratoga Springs, in Reminiscences 
of Saratoga and Ballston, page 441. 



only springs known to exist at Saratoga. It takes its name 
from tlie peculiar rocky concretion throuf;h which it rises 
to the open air. This rocky concretion seems to have been 
gradually formed by the sprins^ itself in the course of many 
centuries. " The material of which this rock is composed," 
says Henry McGuier, in his concise history of the High 
Rock spring, " is principally impure lime, and is chiefly 
derived by the water from the loose earthy materials lying 
upon the rock out of whicli it issues. This material is 
quite different from anything originally found in the water, 
and is retained in it by a mechanical instead of a chemical 
force, and, conse(|uently, upon its coming into contact with 
the atmosphere, and losing much of its activity, it deposits 
all those materials which have combined with it in its pass- 
age from the rocky orifice to the surface, in the form of a 
stony mass, denominated tvfa. Tiiis is the origin, and 
such the substance forming that singular phenomenon 
known as the ' High Rock.' 

" In all the operations of nature everywhere, she has 
left the evidences of .some method by which to determine 
the successive stages of progressive development and per- 
fection, in all her varied creations. The geologist finds, in 
the rocks, unquestionable evidences of the stately steppings 
of the creative energy, and by their organic reliquse or im- 
bedded petrifactions is enabled to determine the comparative 
remoteness or nearness of the system he is studying. So, 
too, the botanist finds in the towering giant of the forest 
the annular rings of its growth, and he is thereby enabled 
to trace its history far backward, and perhaps prior to the 
commencement of his own brief existence. And the paliBon- 
tologist, by comparing one specimen with another, is en- 
abled to determine the mature from those which are 
immature ; and so throughout. 

" The application of this law, then, to any subject of 
natural history to which our attention may be called, will 
enable us to arrive, approximately at least, at the truth, 
whenever we endeavor to trace backward to the commence- 
ment of their operations, those causes which have been in- 
strumental in producing it. 

" Taking this law for our guide, then, let us determine, 
if possible, the age of the High Rock. 

" In descending from the surface at this point, seven feet 
of commingled muck and tufa (rocky matter formed by the 
water) was passed through, then a stratum or layer of tufa 
two feet thick, a stratum of muck, and then a stratum of 
tufa three feet thick. 

" In determining the time requisite to deposit the five feet 
of tufa, I cau.sed a specimen of the tufa to be ground down 
smooth, and at right angles to the lines of deposit, so as to 
be enabled to count the lines with accuracy, of annual de- 
posit, — as the vicissitudes of our climate determine those 
lines, for when frozen, as in our winter, the water makes 
no deposit. I found twenty-five such lines embraced within 
a single inch, and as there are sixty inches in the aggregate, 
a very simple computation shows that one thousand five hun- 
dred years were consumed in depositing these layers of tufa 
alone ; and this tufa, it must be remembered, was deposited 
from standing water, or with but very little motion, as the 
tufa occupies a horizontal positi<in. 

" Lying upon the stratum of tufa three feet thick, and 

in the stratum of muck superimposed upon it, was found a 
pine-tree, the annular rings of which I counted to the num- 
ber of one hundred and thirty ; this .sum added to the above, 
and we have the further sum of one thousand six hundred 
and thirty years. And from the foregoing data I deem it 
a moderate approximation to claim fimr hundred years as 
the requisite time in which to deposit the seven feet of su- 
perincumbent muck and tufa, which gives the still further 
sum of two thousand and thirty years. 

" The facts which add strength to the foregoing conclu- 
sions, and lend thrilling interest to this subject, are the evi- 
dences which are found at this depth of the surface, that 
this level was once occupied by human beings. Here the 
extinguished fire marks unmistakably the gathering-place 
of the family group many centuries ago. And here, too, 
linger the ' foot-prints' of a long-gone race, as if loth to 
leave a spot once so cherished, and around which clustered 
so many pleasing recollections. 

" The reader will observe that the above estimate does 
not include the rock or cone of the spring, but simply the 
intermediate strata between the cone and the deposits below. 
To determine the length of time requisite to form the cone 
or rock of the .spring, it became nece.ssary to visit a locality 
where the water, which is now depositing tufa, has a veloc- 
ity similar to that which the water must have had from 
which the rock of the High Rock spring was deposited. 
Accordingly, resort was had to such a locality, and it was 
found that five of the annual strata thus deposited occupied 
the space of one-sixteenth of an inch, — thus requiring eighty 
years to perfect one inch ; and as the cone of the High 
Rock is four feet in height, it must have required three 
thousand eight hundred and forty years to have formed the 
cone ; and, in the aggregate, five thousand eight hundred 
and seventy years (some eminent scientists, who have had 
their attention drawn to this subject, estimate its age at 
even more than this) must have been consumed in the for- 
mation of the High Rock spring." 

Ownership of High Rock spring. — On Friday, Feb. 22, 
1771, the patent of Kayaderosseras was partitioned by 
ballot, and lot No. 12 of the sixteenth general allotment — 
on which lot the High Rock spring is situated — by such 
balloting came into po.ssession of the heirs of Rip Van 
Dam, who had died in 1745, pending the controversy with 
the Indians in regard to the patent. They were the first 
individuals who ever exercised any po.ssessory jurisdiction 
over this spring. Soon after. Rip Van Dam's executors 
sold the same to Isaac Low, Jacob Walton, and Anthony 
Van Dam. Low was attainted for treason by the Legisla- 
ture of New York, Oct. 1, 1779, and Henry Livingston, 
upon the sale of Low's portion of the lot, purchased the 
same for himself and several of his brothers. The prop- 
erty was again divided in 1793. At this time it was held 
by Henry Walton, Henry Livingston, and Anthony Van 
Dam. Walton then purchased Van Dam's portion of the 
property, and of the part of lot twelve lying to the north 
of Congress spring Judge Walton became the sole owner. 

The High Rock remained the property of the Walton 
heirs until the year 1826, when Mr. John H. White, a step- 
son of Dr. Clarke, on behalf of Mrs. Clarke and the heirs, 
purchased of the executors of Henry Walton the remain- 



ing portion of the High Rock, and tliey thus became pos- 
sessed of the entire property. 

In 1864, William B. White, who succeeded Dr. Clarke 
in the control and management of the Congress spring, 
died, and soon after it passed into other hands, and the 
necessili/ for the longer retention of this, to them entirely 
unproductive property, ceased to exist. In 18G5, Messrs. 
Ainsworth and JIcCafFrey became the owners of this 
prodigy of nature, and soon after commenced a series of im- 
provements. After removing the building which sheltered 
the spring they set about removing the rook or cone whole, 
upon accomplishing which, contrary to general expectation, 
they discovered that the cone had no direct or immediate 
connection with the rock below, but that the water was 
supplied by percolation through the intervening soil. They 
at once determined upon removing the soil quite down to 
the permanent orifice in the rock below, and by supplying 
an artificial channel between that point and the surface, to 
reproduce that much-desired spectacle of the water once 
again bubbling up and running over the crest of the cone. 
After passing through about seven feet of commingled 
muck and tufa, they came upon a layer of tufa about two 
feet thick, then a stratum of muck, then another stratum 
of tufa three feet thick ; through the muck were dissemi- 
nated the trunks of large trees and pine and other forest 
leaves in profuse abundance — the concentric rings of the 
trunk of one of those trees was counted and there were 
found one hundred and thirty. Those trees must have lain 
there for a long period of time before they became covered 
by the increasing peaty deposit, for their upper surfaces 
were worn smooth by the moccasins of the Indians, as they 
formed a convenient passage-way for them to the spring ; 
and thus proceeding through alternating strata of muck 
and tufa down to the desired point, where an opening was 
reached which furnished a volume of water vastly superior 
to anything ever before witnessed at this place, and .so 
great, even, as to affect materially for the time the level of 
the springs in the neighborhood, some of them to the 
extent of quite two feet; thus exhibiting the fact that this 
is the main opening of all our mineral waters at this point. 
A tube was then furnished, placed in position, and properly 
secured, in which the mineral water rose several feet above 
the original surface of the rock or cone. Preparations were 
immediately made for replacing the rock back upon the 
vein of water, and after considerable labor and trial that 
purpose was accomplished, and water welled up through the 
orifice and overflowed the rock, as now seen by the visitors 
at this spring. After the improvements were finished, on 
the 23d day of August, a celebration was had at the rock. 
A large meeting assembled over which the venerable Chan- 
cellor Walworth presided, which was addressed by the chan- 
cellor and William L. Stone. 

In the course of his remarks the chancellor said : 
" In the fall of 1777, after the surrender of General Bur- 
goyne, and while our troops lay at Palmertown, about sis 
miles north of here, several of our officers visited this spring, 
which had then attained some celebrity, as one of those offi- 
cers has since told me. And it had for a long time before 
that been known to the Indians as ' The Great Medicine 

" When the mineral waters of this ancient spring, which 
are this day (by artificial means) made again to flow over 
the top of this rook, ceased to flow over, is not known to 
any one now living. But I will give you the information I 
have on that subject. I first visited Saratoga in the summer 
of 1812, fifty-four years since. The water in this rock was 
then about as much below the top of tlie rock as it was when 
I came here to reside, eleven years afterwards, I think eigh- 
teen or twenty inches, or perhaps a little more. The late 
Major-General Mooers, of Plattsburg, who was an officer 
of Colonel Hazen's regiment at the taking of General Bur- 
goyne's army, was at my house, and visited this spring with 
me, a few years previous to his death. He then told me 
that he, with other officers, came from Palmertown to this 
spring, in October, 1777. And he said the height of water 
in the rock was then about the same as it was when we 
visited it, sixty years thereafter. 

" About forty-one years since, while holding a circuit court 
on the northern frontier of this State, I stayed over the 
Sabbath with a friend who resided a few miles from the 
Indian settlement at St. Regis ; and we attended the relig- 
ious services at the Indian church iu their village. Between 
the morning and afternoon services at the church, we went 
to the house of one of their chiefs, named Loran Tarbel, 
with whom I had become acquainted during my residence 
at Plattsburg. He was then between eighty and ninety 
years of age, but was in health and in perfect mental 
vigor. Knowing that some of the St. Regis Indians had 
once resided on the banks of the Mohawk river, I was 
anxious to learn what this aged chief knew in relation to 
this spring. But as he had a very imperfect knowledge of 
the English language, I spoke to his son. Captain Tarbel, 
who had an English education. I described the High 
Rock spring, and asked him if he knew anything about it. 
He said he had never been there, and had never heard of 
it. I then requested him to describe it to his father, and 
to ask liim if he had ever heard of it. The moment he 
did so, the early recollections of the venerable chief were 
aroused ; and indicating by the motions of his hand the 
shape of the top of the rock, he said, ' Yes, Great Medi- 
cine Spring.' 

" He then told me, through his son as interpreter, that he 
was born at Caughnawaga, on the Mohawk ; and that he em- 
igrated with his father to Canada several years before the 
Revolutionary war. That when he was a boy, the Indians 
living on the Mohawk were in the habit of visiting this spring 
and using its waters as a medicine. That when he was 
about fifteen years old, and shortly before he emigrated to 
Canada, he came here with his father to see the great 
Medicine spring. I then asked him if the water flowed 
over the top of the rock at that time. He said it did not; 
that they had to get the medicine water by dipping it out 
of the rock with a cup or gourd shell. That there was 
then a tradition among the Indians that the medicine water 
had formerly flowed out of the rock at its top, but that it had 
ceased to do so for a long time before he came here with his 
father. He then gave me the Indian tradition as to the cause 
of the cessation of the overflowing of the water. The par- 
ticulars of this tradition I cannot repeat, in his words, 
in the presence of this audience ; but the substance of it 

James Prentice Butler was born at Moriah, 
Essex Co., N. Y.^Sept. 20, 1816. His pater- 
nal ancestors were Scotch-Irish, and setticil 
originally at Martha's Vineyard, whence rlicy 
removed to Woodbury, Conn. His i;rcat- 
groat grandfather, Jonathan Butler, was a 
sea captain. His great grandfather, Malachi 
Butler, sicttled at Woodbury, Conn., earl}' in 
the rievonteenth oentury, whence the various 
branches oi' the family emigrated. He had 
sons, Zephaniah, Benjamin, Silas, and Solo- 
mon, the latter being the grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch. 

Captain Zephaniah Butler was the grand- 
father of Major-Generai Benjamin F. Butler, 
of Massachusetts, and was a soldier under 
General Wolfe at the taking of Quebec. He 
settled at Nottingham, N. H., in 1759. Solo- 
mon Butler, grandfather of Captain James 
P. Butler, settled at Addison, Vt., soon after 
the termination of the Revolutionary war, 
in which he served as lieutenant, and fought 
at the battle of White Plains. He received 
his pay in Continental money so depreciated 
that, on his way home, he paid sixty dollars 
for a single meal. Captain Butler has now 
several bills, a remnant of the currency, 
which he values above par as a souvenir of 
the gallant services of his ancestor in the 
War of the Revolution. 

Captain Butler has in his possession a volume of Homer's Odyssey, of date 
1772, with the family name bearing date at Woodbury, Conn., 1782; so that 
his branch of the family left about that period for the valley of Lake 

Captain Butler inherited from his ancestors great vigor of constituti^on 
and strong mental endowments. Although at an early age his opportuni- 
ties for education were limited, he possessed an ardent thirst for knowledge 
and was an incessant reader of books. He studied law in the office of the 
late Zebulon R. Shepherd, formerly an eminent criminal lawyer of Washing- 
ton county, and was admitted to practice in the old common pleas court in 
1840, in the supreme court in 1843, as solicitor in the court of chancery in 
1846, and as counselor in the supreme court in 1847. 

At an early age he took an active interest in political affairs, being first 
identified with the Whig party, and subsequently a Republican. He 
represented his native town in the board of supervisors of Essex county 
for several years in succession. At the age of sixteen ho enlisted in an 


independent company of artillery, and was 
promoted through all i.he various grades till 
he attained the rank of major in the Scven- 
tcench Regiment of Artillery, when in 1846 
the militia system was abolished, leaving 
him with supernumerary rank. He was ap- 
pointed district attorney of Essex county by 
<jovcrnor Hunt, in 1852, to fill a vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Edward S. 
Shumway. He was nominated by the 
Whig party to the same office in the fall of 
1853, and was elected by a very large 
majority. At the end of his term, in 1857, 
he removed to Saratoga County, and o 'ened 
a law-office, where he has remained ic prac- 
^ tice ever since. 

j^ At the commencement of the late civil war 

' he took an active part in the defense of the 

Union. In April, 1862, he went through 
Baltimore the day after the riotous assault 
upon the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment. 
On reaching Washington he was enlisted 
in Cassius M. Clay's battalion, and served 
fourteen days, being stationed at the AVhite 

In April, 1863, he was appointed by the 
President of the United States, under the 
enrolment act, provost marshal of the 
Eighteenth District of New York, and 
established his headquarters in the city of 
Schenectady. He executed and enforced the first, draft ordered in the State 
during the riots of that year, and enlisted the first squad of colored men for 
the army which entered the service. He served as provost marshal, with 
the rank of captain, from April, 1S63, to October, 1865, when he was 
honorably discharged. In all the offices of responsibility and trust which 
he has filled. Captain Butler hn? attained a high reputation for efficiency 
and integrity, and in his professional and private life has well earned 
the confidence and esteem so universally accorded him. 

His devotion to the government in the time of its need is evinced by 
the fact that in 1864 he put into the service a representative recruit 
for his infant son, Walter P. Butler, for whom he paid the sum of nine 
hundred dollars. He has a certificate of the enlistment from the records 
at Washington, and a photograph of the soldier, who was killed in the 

He has been a trustee of the village of Saratoga Springs for four years, 
and was a member of the board of supervisors in 1870 and 1371. 

Res of J. H. TARRINGTON, ^orjh 5/?oadway Saratoga Spr-inos^N V 



was that the Great Spirit, who had made this wonder- 
ful rock, and had caused the healing waters to flow from 
it spontaneously, for the benefit of his red children, was 
angry on account of the desecration of its medicine waters 
in making so improper use of them by some of their squaws, 
who liad visited the spring, that the water never flowed over 
the rock afterwards. 

" Such was the tradition of the untutored Indians, who 
knew little of geology or of hydraulics. But the true 
reason why the mineral waters ceased to flow out at the 
top of this rock, which had been gradually formed from 
their deposits, was probably this: these waters, in process 
of time, had found another outlet, perhaps at some con- 
siderable distance from here, and which outlet must have 
been something like twenty inches lower than the level of 
the top of this rock. For we now see that by tubing the 
mineral fountain so that it cannot escape from beneath, or 
in any other way than through this natural orifice at the 
top of the rock, the present proprietors of the spring now 
cause its healing waters to flow out again, where they had 
ceased to flow for more than a century at the least." 

The following analysis of the High Rock spring water 
was made by Prof C. F. Chandler, Ph.D., of Columbia 
College School of Mines, who visited the spring and per- 
sonally collected the water for analysis. Analysis of one 
United States gallon : 


Chloride of sodium 390.127 

Chloride of potassium 8.497 

Bromide of sodium 0.7:Jl 

Iodide of sodium ll.OSfi 

Fluoride of calcium trace. 

Sulphate of potassa 1.608 

Bicarbonate of baryta trace. 

Bicarbonate of strontia trace. 

Bicarbonate of lime 131.739 

Bicarbonate of magnesia 54.924 

Bicarbonate of soda 34.888 

Bicarbonate of iron 1.478 

Phosphate of lime trace. 

Alumina 1.223 

Silica 2.260 

Total 628.039 

Carbonic acid gas 409.458 cub. in. 

It is thus shown that the water is highly charged with 
valuable mineral and gaseous properties. 


The Congress spring has long been the most famous of 
all the mineral springs of Saratoga. It may, of a truth, 
be said that to the early development of this spring the 
village of Saratoga Springs owes much of its present pros- 

As has been already seen, Congress spring was not dis- 
covered till the year 1702. 

As to who the actual discoverer was there seems to be 
considerable doubt. The discovery of this spring has been 
generally attributed to .John Taylor Gilman, of New Hamp- 
shire. Gilman and his brother, it is said, were both staying 
with Benjamin Risley, at the Schouten House. That John 
Taylor Gilman was there at all has lately been denied by 
the minister of the church in New Hampshire which he 

attended. Dr. John H. Steel also seems to think it may 
have been Gilman's brother, who had been a member of 
Congress. The di.scovery, tradition says, was in the follow- 
ing manner : 

Upon a pleasant afternoon in August, he took his gun 
and strolled up the little creek that runs past the High Rock 
spring, in search of game. Saratoga was then all a wilder- 
ness, excepting the little clearing around the tavern, and 
two or three others in the vicinity. He followed up the 
little brook, as it ran through the tangled swamp, until he 
came to a branch that entered it from the west. This 
branch then took its rise in a clear spring that ran out of 
the sand-bank, near where the Clarendon Hotel now stands. 
Running across Broadway, then an Indian trail, a little 
northerly of the Washington spring, it emptied into a main 
brook in what is now Congress street, just below the Con- 
gress spring. A few yards above the mouth of the branch 
was a little cascade. Below the cascade, the rock rose ab- 
ruptly two or three feet above the level of its bed. Out of 
this rocky bank, at the foot of the cascade, a little jet of 
sparkling water, not larger than a pipe-stem, spirted and 
fell into the water of the stream. Struck by its singular 
appearance, Gilman stopped to examine it. It tasted not 
unlike the water of the High Rock spring that was already 
so famou.s. The truth flashed upon his mind in an instant. 
He had found a new mineral spring. 

Hastening back to his boarding-place, Gilman made 
known his discovery. Every person in the settlement was 
soon at the foot of that little cascade in the deep wild woods, 
wondering at the curious spectacle. There was Risley and 
his family, of the Schouten House. There was Alexander 
Bryan, the patriot scout of the Revolution, who kept the 
only rival tavern — a log one — near Risley 's. There was 
General Schuyler, who had, ten years before, cut a road 
through the woods from his mills near the mouth of Fish 
creek to the Springs; and Gideon Putnam, the founder of 
the lower village; and Gilman's brother, and a few more 
guests who were at the little log tavern. And there, too, 
was Indian Joe, from his clearing on the hill, near where 
the Clarendon now is, and some of his swarthy brethren, 
from their huts near the High Rock, wondering at the 
strange commotion among the pale-faces at the little water- 
fill in the brook. And they all, gathering around it, each 
in turn tasted the water of the newly-found fountain, and, 
pronouncing it of superior quality, they named it then and 
there the Congress spring, out of compliment to its distin- 
guished discoverer, and in honor of the old Continental 
Congress, of which he had been a member. 

Governor Gilman had long been connected with public 
afi'airs, and was the popular leader of the Federal party in 
his native State. He had served with honor in the Pro- 
vincial forces in the War of the Revolution, had been a del- 
egate in the Continental Congress for two years, and was at 
this time State treasurer, and from 1794 was for eleven 
years governor of the State. 

Judging from all the evidence it is probable that the real 
discoverer was Nicholas Gilman, a younger brother of the 
governor, a member of the First Congress at Philadelphia. 
He had been assistant tidjutant-general of General Horatio 
Gates, and as such had become ftimiliar with the country 



in the vicinity of Saratoga. It is stated, not very definitely 
as to dates, however, that " once, on his way from Phila- 
delphia, he came to New York to visit in the family of his 
friend, George Clinton, and to see the place of Burgoyne's 
surrender, and in going a gunning found that spring." 

Like the High Rock, the title of Congress spring runs 
back to the old Indian deed of Kayadrossera and the pat- 
ent of the same name ; falling, in the division of the pat- 
ent in 1771 between the thirteen proprietary interests, to 
the heirs of Rip Van Dam. Lot 12 was sold by said heirs 
to Jacob Walton, Isaac Low, and Anthony Van Dam. 
Isaac Low at first adhered to the American cause, but 
afterwards went to England, and his estates were confiscated. 
His interest in lot 12 was bought by the Livingstons, who, 
on its division, became the owners of the part on which 
Congress spring is situated. Soon after its discovery, Con- 
gress spring was leased to Gideon Putnam, and he began 
its improvement. After his death his heirs gave up the 
claim, and tlie spring, in 1823, was purchased by Dr. John 
Clarke with con.siderable land adjoining. Dr. Clarke was 
a native of Yo