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Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette 


A full and accurate account of the development of the 
Catholic Church in Upper Michigan. 


Portraits of Bishops, Priests and Illustrations of Churches Old and New 





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407-429 Dearborn Street 







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The scheme of this volume is mapped out in the Preface of its forerunner. It 
proved to be much more difficult to carry out than was anticipated, because of the 
sameness of the subject, and of sources of information and one would also natur 
ally think because there were many more to be pleased but, be it confessed, not a 
single stroke of the pen was made with that intention. Simple facts, as far as 
known, were stated and no more. This is not a critical history, therefore no criti 
cisms were passed upon anything nor anyone, though often the pen was inclined to 
run in that direction. Xor was any one unduly lauded for his work or accomplish 
ment. Lass das Werk den Meister loben has been the invariable rule. Space- 
was the only hindrance in carrying out of the full details. A thousand and one 
humorous incidents were left out because the more stern facts demanded first con 
sideration. For the same reason over forty illustrations have been culled out, and 
we especially regret to have been obliged to leave out the views of our modern 

Houghton, on the Feast of St. Bede, A. D. 1907. 



Rt. Rev. F. Eis, I). D. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Languor. 

Rev. Joseph G. Pinten. 

Mr. E. Ashford, Manistiquc, Michigan. 

Mr. A. O. Bowen, Manistique-. Michigan. 

Mrs. Marie Cook, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. 

"\Vahrheitsfreund," Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Mr. Frank Seidl, Menomince, Michigan. 

The Burrows Bros. Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Rev. L. J. Devine, S. J., Montreal. 

Rt. Rev. J. F. Bull, Ely, Minn. 

Hon. J. H. Steere, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

Rev. Blase Krake, O. F. M., Shawano, \Vis. 

Rev. Joseph Wuest, C. SS. R. Ilchester, Md. 

Rev. J. A. Selbach, Oconto, \Vis. 

Mr. F. Bourion, Bellefontaine. Ohio. 

Rev. M. Mainville, Chatauguay, P. Q. 

Rev. Philip Rothman, O. F. M.. Cincinnati, 

Rev. Martin F. Foley, Geneseo. 111. 

Dr. John R. Bailey, Mackinac Island, Mich. 

Hon. Peter White, Marqiutte, Mich. 

11. H. Reeves, Cleveland. Ohio. 

Rev. O. Xeault, S. J., Sault Ste. Marie, 

Mr. A. E. Young, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

Mr. John G. Stradley, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

Rev. S. B. Hedges, Arlington, X. J. 

Hon. Bononi Lachance, Mackinac Island, 

Rev. C. Verwyst, O. F. M., Ashland, Wis. 
Rev. Otocar Ales, O. V. M., Rudolfswert, Aus 


M. H. Wilt/.ius Co, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. David E. Murray, St. Ignace, Mich. 

The University of Xotre Dame, Notre Dame, 

The Gateway, Detroit, Mich. 

The Very Rev. J. F. Schoenhoeft, D. D.. Cin 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Very Rev. B. J. Wermers, Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. John J. Broun. Akron, Ohio. 

Rev. Bernardinus Abbink, Avilla, Ind. 

Hon. Thomas Brecn, Menominec. Mich. 

St. Louis L T nivcrsitv, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. A. E. Jones, S. J., Montreal. 

Sisters of St. Joseph, St. Louis, Mo. 

The Franciscan Fathers, Fiume, Hungary. 

Rev. Charles Jancigar, Dobrnicc, Carniolia, 

Mr. James Corgan, Ontonagon, Mich. 

Rev. Stanko Peharc, Tschernembl, Carniolia, 

Mr. James Doud, Mackinac Island, Mich. 

Mr. F. (hitekimst, Phila. 

Miss Clotilda Brielmaier, Milwaukee, Wis. 

The Veiurable Sisters of the teaching com 
munities and all the Reverend pastors in the 


The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, 
Burrow s Edition. 

La Hontan s Voyages to North America. 

History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, 


Catholic Quarterly Review, I. 1876. 

Life of Bishop Baraga. Verwyst. 

Relations Des Jesuites, Quebec, 1858. 

History of the Catholic Church in the U. S. 

The Catholic Church in Colonial days. Shea. 

Acta et Decreta Sacrorum Conciliorum Recen- 
tiorum Collectio Lacensis, 1875. 

The Catholic Church in Wisconsin. 

Annals of Fort Mackinac by D. H. Kelton, 
L. L. D. 

Missionary Labors by Chrysostom Verwyst, 
O. F. M. 

Erzbischof Johann Martin Henni, D . D . by the 
Rt. Rev. Martin Marty, Bishop of St. Cloud. 

Early Mackinac. M. C. Williams. 

Father Marquette by Rev. S. Hedges, M. A. 

Friderik Baraga by Dr. Leon Voncina, 1869. 

Mackinac, J. B. Baily, M. D. 

Eduard Dominik Fenwick, der Apostel von 
Ohio. P. B. Hammer. 

Discovery of the North West in 1634. C. W. 

Katolik Anamie-Masinaigan, Detroit, 1846. 

Cvetje Vertov Sv. Franciska. Gorica 

Two Missionary Priests at Mackinac and the 
Parish Register at Michilimackinac, by Hon. 
Edward Osgood Brown, Chicago, 1889. 

Annalen der Verbreitung des Glaubens, Ein- 
siedeln u. Muenchen 1832-1849. 

Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung im Kaiser- 
thume Oesterreich 1832-1865. 

Fondazione Leopoldina, Vienna 1829. 

The Copper Book. Stevens, 1900. 

The Catholic Directory, 1834-1907. 

Report to the Secretary of War of the United 
States and Indian Affairs. New Haven, 1822. 
By the Rev. Jedidiah Morse, D. D. 

Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes by Thomas L. 
McKenney, Baltimore, Md. 1827. 

Les Canadiens de L Ouest, Par Joseph Tasse, 
Montreal, 1878. 

Three Years Travels through the Interior 
parts of North America, by Jonathan Carver of 
the Provincial Troops in America, Philadelphia, 
1796, by Key M. Simpson. 

Travels and Adventure s in Canada of Alex 
ander Henoy, Esq., New York, 1809, by I. Riley. 

The National History and Characteristic 
Sketches of the Ojibway Nation by G. Capway. 
Kah-ge-Gab-Bowh, Chief of the Ojibway Nation, 
Boston 1851. 

Annals of Sault Ste. Marie by Edward H. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Canada, 1904. 

Narrative Journal of Travels from Detroit 
Northwest through the Great Chain of American 
Lakes to the source of the Mississippi River in 
1820, by Henry R. Schoolcraft, Albany, 1821. 

Otawa Anamie-Misinaigan, Paris, 1837. 

Catholic World, Vol. 73. 

American Catholic Historical Researches from 

Bishop Baraga s Diary, three volumes. 

Records of every parish in the Diocese. 



Sault Ste. Marie and Detour. ... .29 


St. Ignace 73 


Mackinac Island, Newberry and Grand Ma- 

rais 154 


Marquette, Negaunee, Ishpeming, Republic, 
Champion, Michigamme, and Ewen....i93 


Assinins, L Anse and Baraga . . 234 


Houghton, Chassell, Atlantic, Hancock, Dol 
lar Bay, Ilubbcll and Lake Linden 249 

Calumet, Red Jacket and Eagle Harbor 276 


Ontonagon, Rockland, Greenland and Mass 
City 302 


Menominec, Birch Creek, Stephenson, Cedar 
River, Nad can, Spalding, Hermansville, 
Vulcan, Norway, Ouinnesec, Iron Moun 
tain, Crystal Falls and Iron River 315 

Wakcficld, Bessemer and Iromvood 353 



Father Isaac Jogues, S. J. . 

Sault Ste. Marie in 1821 3 1 

Rev. Theodore Stephan Badin . . 3 2 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich -33 

Bishop Baraga s first Pontifical chair. . 34 

View upon the Locks, Sault Ste. Marie. .35 

St. Mary s Church and presbytery, Sault 

Ste. Marie 3 6 

The parish school, Sault Ste. Marie. . 37 

The Loretto Academy, Sault Ste Marie. . .38 
Rev. Alphonsus Baudin, S. J . . . 39 

Rev. Thomas Ouellet, S. J .40 

Rev. Martin Ferard, S. J .41 

Rev. R. Chartier, S. J .42 

Rev. John F. Chambon, S. J -43 

Rev. Owen Bernard Devlin, S. J .44 

Rev. Joseph Ilebert, S. J -45 

Rev. John A. MacDonald, S. J 46 

Rev. J. J. Connolly, S. J . -. -47 

Rev. Edmund Rottot, S. J 4 

Rev. Alexander A. Gagnieur, S. J . . 49 

Indian Mission Churches on Sugar Island 
Holy Family Church at Payment. Church 
of St. Theresa, Hay Lake. St. Joseph s 

Church, Menisheing, Lake George 

Rev. William F. Gagnieur, S. J . 5 1 

Chief Michael Mendoshkang and wife, Gem 

Island S 2 

Brimley, St. Francis Xavier s Church. . . 53 

On the St. Mary s River 54 

The first church of Goetzville 

The second church of Goetzville 56 

Detour, church and rectory -57 

Rev. Then. Bateski 

Hessel, Les Cheneaux Island 59 

The site of Old Michilimackinac 60 

Michilimackinac in 1820 .60 

Lallontan s Map of the St. Ignace mission 

in 1686 6 1 

Father Ilcnnipen s Map of the Upper Lakes, 

1697 62 

Old Mackinac .63 

Modern Mackinac Island 64 

Birds-eye view of Mackinac Island 65 

Mackinac, St. Ann s church in 1848 66 

Mackinac, tearing down St. Ann s Church... . 

Rev. Moise Mainville 

Present St. Ann s Church, Mackinac 

The original interior of the present St. Ann s 


Mackinac Island, priest s residence 

The present interior of St. Ann s church 

Rev. Martin Sommers 

Sample pages of the historical church records 

of the St. Ann s parish, Mackinac Island. 

No. i 

Sample pages of the historical church records 

of the St. Ann s parish, Mackinac Island. 

No. 2 

Rev. Gabriel Richard 

View of S:. Ignace 

Church of St. Ignatius, St. Ignace 

St. Ignace, Church of St. Ignatius. Rear end 

view showing the old rectory 

The famous ancient painting of St. Ignatius 

now in St. Ignace, Mich 

"Tibishkogijik" commonly called "Misatig" . 

Mr. David Murray 

Manmette s monument, St. Ignace 

Rev. Isidore Ilandtmann, O. M. Cap. . 

The new St. Ignatius Church, St. Ignace, 


Rev. John Mockler 

Ursuline Academy, St. Ignace 

Xewberry, church and rectory 

Moran church 

Xcwberry, interior of the church 

Rev. A. W. Geers 

Grand Marais, church and rectory. . . 

Rev. P. Girard 

Marquette, St. Peter s Cathedral .... 

Baraga School, Marquette 

St. Joseph s Convent, Marquette. . . 

The Boys school, Marquette 

The Bishop s residence, Marquette. . . . 

Rev. Joseph G. Pinten 

Rev. Jeremiah Moriarty 

The old Court House, Marquette . 

The girl s orphanage, Marquette 

Mother De Pazzi 



8 1 















A group of orphan girls in Marquette 105 

St. Mary s Hospital, Marquette 106 

Rev. Joseph A. Sauriol 107 

Father Marquette s monument 108 

The old (French) church at Marquette 109 

The new St. John de Baptist church, Mar 
quette no 

Rev. Mathias Jodocy in 

Marquette in 1852 112 

The laying of the corner stone to the St. 

Paul s church, at Negaunee 113 

St. Paul s church and rectory, Negaunee ... .114 
St. Paul s school and convent of St. Joseph s 

sisters at Negaunee 115 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Charles Langner 116 

The investiture of Msgr. Langner 117 

Rev. Joseph Lamotte 3 18 

The city of Ishpeming 119 

The St. John s church, Ishpeming 120 

Rev. A. J. Keul 121 

St. John s parochial school, Ishpeming 122 

St. Joseph s (French) church, Ishpeming . . .123 

Rev. E. P. Bordas 124 

The old mission church at Clarksburg 125 

Sacred Heart church, Champion, Mich 126 

Champion, Mich 127 

Parochial residence, Champion 128 

Rev. Alexander Ilasenberg 129 

The Church of the Nativity, Michigamme . . .130 

View of Republic, Mich 131 

The old St. Augustine s church, Republic. ... 132 

The old Preist s residence, Republic 133 

The St. Augustine church, Republic 134 

The graves of Father Vitali and Father Fox. .135 

Rev. Owen J. Bennett 136 

St. Joseph s church, L Anse, Mich 137 

St. Joseph s church, Pequaming 138 

Rev. John Henn 139 

St. Ann s church, Baraga 140 

The Holy Name church, Assinins 141 

The Sister s convent, Assinins 142 

A group of girl orphans, Assinins 143 

A bunch of orphan boys 144 

Indian girls at the orphanage 145 

Father Terhorst s residence, Assinins 146 

Julian Nodin, called Jackson 147 

Modern Indians in ancient trappings 148 

Rev. Melchior Faust 149 

Mission church at Keweenaw Bay 150 

St. Ann s church and rectory, Chassell 151 

Rev. A. Vermare 152 

The original subscription list for the St. Igna 
tius church, Houghton 155 

Letter of Bishop Baraga to Michael Finnegan.. 1 56 

Mr. Michael Finnegan 157 

Mrs. Margaret Finnegan 158 

View of the old St. Ignatius church and 

rectory 159 

Interior of old St. Ignatius church, Houghton . 1 6c 

When Houghton was young 161 

Excavations being made for the new St. Igna 
tius church. Houghton 162 

The old Priest s house, Houghton 163 

The St. Ignatius church and rectory, 

Houghton 164 

Sisters residence, Houghton 165 

Mary, Star of the Sea church, Atlantic 166 

Sacred Heart church, Painsdale 167 

Rev. Frederick Richter 168 

Birds-eye view of Hancock in 1872 169 

St. Patrick s church and rectory, Hancock. . . 170 

View upon Portage Lake 171 

St. Patrick s school, Hancock 172 

Rev. Thomas J. Atfield 173 

St. Joseph s church, house and school, Han 
cock 174 

Rev. Francis Solanus, O. F. M 175 

Rev. Anthony C. Keller 176 

Rev. Anthony Waechter 177 

St. Joseph s hospital, Hancock 178 

Rev. Martin Kehoe 179 

Dollar Bay, Mich 180 

St. Francis d Assisi church and rectory, Dol 
lar Bay 1 8 1 

Rev. James A. Miller 182 

St. Cecilia s church and rectory, Ilubbell. ... 183 

Interior of St. Cecilia s church 184 

St. Cecilia s school 185 

Rev. Hubert Zimmerman 186 

Lake Linden, Mich 187 

Rev. Francis Hiliard 188 

Teh old St. Joseph s church, Lake Linden. ... 189 

Rev. Fabian Marceau 190 

St. Joseph s convent school, Lake Linden . . .191 
View of the prospective new St. Joseph s 

church, Lake Linden 194 

Rev. Napoleon J. Raymond 195 

The old Holy Rosary church and house. ... 196 
The new Holy Rosary church, Lake Linden. 197 

Rev. Henry Reis 198 

Birds-eye view of Calumet and Red Jacket.. . 199 

Calumet and Hecla location 200 

Calumet and Hecla location 2 201 

Calumet and Hecla location 3 202 

The new Sacred Heart church, Calumet. . . . 203 
Interior of the Sacred Heart church, Calumet . 204 

Rev. J. Ignatius Otis 203 

Rev. Ignatius Wakens, O. F. M 209 



Rev. Pacific Winterheld, O. F. M. . . . 

Rev. Angelus Hafertepi, O. F. M. 

Rev. Paul Lot/., O. F. M . 

Rev. Peter Alcantara Welling, (). F. M. . 

Rev. Otto Ziegler, O. F. M 

Rev. Sigismund Pirron, O. F. M 

Rev. Alban Schneider, O. F. M 

Rev. Simon Griesam, O. V. M 

Sacred Heart school, first building 

Sacred Heart High school 

Red Jacket in 1880 

St. Anne, French church, Red jacket. . 

Interior of St. Anne s French church, Red 

Rev. J. R. Boissonnault 

St. Anthony s Polish church. Red Jacket. . . 

Rev. August Krogulski 

Rev. Francis Maciarcx, 

The old St. Joseph s Austrian church, Red 
Jacket. . . 

Rev. Joseph Zalokar 

Rev. Mark I akix 

The new St. Joseph s Austrian church, Red 

Rev. Luke Klopcic 

St. Mary s Italian church, Red Jacket 

Rev. Anthony Petillo. 

Rev. Anthony Molinari 

St. John the Baptist s Croatian church, Red 
Jacket. . . 

Rev. Joseph Polic 

Rev. Alexander Wollny 

At the Cliff Mine with the village in the dis 

Site of the Cliff Mine church and the adioining 
burial ground 

Assumption church, Phoenix 

Rev. Alexander Smietana 

Eagle Harbor 

Holy Redeemer church, Eagle Harbor 

Interior Holy Redeemer church, Fagle Har 

Church and house, Eagle Harbor 

St. Joseph s church, Delaware inine 

Collapsed chapel at the Central Mine 

Mr. Peter Schuler 

Mass City 

The chapel, Mass City 

Church and house, Greenland 

Rockland, Mich 

St. Mary s church in Irish Hollow 

St. Mary s church before repairs, Rockland . . 

Interior of St. Mary s with the old altars, 
Rockland . . 

207 A temporary belfry ....................... 255 

208 The present church and rectory, Rockland. 256 

209 The old priest s house, Rockland ........... 257 

2 i o Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Vogtlin ............... 258 

2 1 1 Public school, Victoria Mine ............... 259 

2 i 2 Rev. Peter F. Manderfield ................. 260 

2 i 3 St. Patrick s church. First church of Onton- 

2 1 4 agi >n .................................. 261 

21^ Church of the Holy Family. Second church 

216 ofOotnagon .......................... 262 

217 The present church and house, Ontonagon, 

218 Mich .................................. 263 

Rev. Joseph Ilollinger .................... 264 

2 1 9 Ewen, Mich .............................. 265 

220 Church and house, Ewen .................. 266 

221 Rev. Bernard Filing ...................... 267 

222 St. John s church, Menominee ............ 268 

223 St. John s school, Menominee .............. 269 

Rev. Dennis Cleary ....................... 270 

224 St. Ann s French church, Menominee ....... 271 

225 St. Ann s rectory, Menominee ............. 272 

226 The old French school in Menominee ....... 273 

The Sisters house (French), Menominee ..... 274 

Rev Achilles Potilin ....................... 275 

The Epiphany (German) church, Menominee 277 
The Epiphany school, Sisters house and 

church. Menominee ..................... 278 

251 Interior Epiphany church Menominee ..... 279 

Rev. Joseph E. Xeumair ................. 280 

2^2 St Adelbert s (Polish) church, Menominee.. .281 
233 Rev. Julius V Papon ..................... 282 

23^ Holy Trinity church, Birch Creek ........... 283 

Priest s residence, Birch Creek ............. 284 

2 56 The old church, Stephenson ................. 285 

The old rectory, Stephenson .............. 286 

2^7 The present church and rectory, Stephenson . . 287 
238 Rev. F. X. Barth ......................... 288 

2 39 C edar River ............................. 289 

240 Sacred Heart church, C edar River .......... 290 

241 Church and house, Xadeau .............. 291 

Rev. Frederick Sperlein .................. 292 

242 Priest s residence, Spalding and the site of the 

243 old church ............................. 293 

244 The present church of Spalding ........... 294 

24; Rev. Frederick Glaser ..................... 295 

246 Church of the Immaculate Conception, Her 

247 mansville .............................. 296 

248 Rev. Joseph F. Dittmann .................. 297 

250 Church and house, Vulcan ................. 298 

251 Rev. Raphael Cavicchi .................... 299 

252 Rev. John Stenglein ...................... 300 

253 View of Norway, Mich .................... 301 

View of the church and house before repairs, 

254 Xorway ................................ 303 




Present chinch Norway 3 4 

Rev. William II. Joisten 3S 

Quinnesec church and house 36 

First church of St. Joseph, Iron Mountain. . .307 
Interior of the first church, Iron Mountain . . . 308 
The present St. Joseph s (French) church, Iron 

Mountain -39 

Rev. Raymond Jacques 3 10 

St. Mary s Church Iron Mountain 311 

Rev. N. II. Nobisch 3 12 

Italian church, Iron Mountain 3 r 3 

Rev. Peter Sinopoli 3*4 

Rev. Aloysius Lango 3 1 7 

Crystal Falls, Mich . .3*8 

Gaurdian Angel church. Crystal Falls 319 

Interior of Gaurdian Angel church, Crystal 

Falls 320 

Rev. Joseph P. Kunes 3 21 

Senator M. II. Moriarty -3 22 

Rev. F. X. Becker 3 2 3 

Iron River, Mich 3 2 4 

St. Agnes church, Iron River . . 325 

Rev. James Lenhart, Ph. D . . 3 26 

Watersmeet, Mich 3 2 7 

St. Joseph s church, Wakefield. . . . . 3 28 

Rev. Theophile Eisele, D. D . -3 2 9 

Sacred Heart church, Mikado, Mch 330 

Bessemer, Mich 33 r 

View of the old St. Sebastian s church, Besse 
mer 33 2 

The present St. Sebastian s church, Bessemer . 333 
Rev. Charles J. Swoboda. ... . -334 

View of the old St. Ambrose church and house, 

Ironwood 335 

Present view of the St. Ambrose church and 

house, Ironwood 33^ 

Interior of St. Ambrose church, Ironwood. . .337 

St. Ambrose school, Ironwood 338 

Rev. Henry A. Buchholtz 339 

St. Michael s Polish church and house, Iron- 
wood -340 

Interior of St. Michael s church, Ironwood. . .341 

Rev. Fabian S. Pawler . . 34 2 

St. Lawrence s church, Metropolitan 343 

Bark River church and house. . . 344 

Rev. William B. Stahl . . 345 

The basement church, Schaefer . . 346 

St. Joseph s (German) church, Escanaba. . . .347 
St. Joseph s school, Escanaba 348 

St. Joseph s convent, Notre Dame Sisters, 

Escanaba . . 349 

Rev. Eugene Butterman, O. F. M 350 

Rev. Lawrence Long, O. F. M 331 

Rev. William Gausepohl, O. F. M 352 

Rev. Bede Oldegeering, O. F. M 354 

Rev. Eusebius Wagner, O. F. M . . 355 

Rev. Flavian Larbes, O. F. M 356 

Rev. Justin Welk, O. F. M . .357 

Rev. Gaudentius Schuster, O. F. M 358 

Rev. Julius Henze, O. F. M 359 

Rev. Ethelbert Morgan, O. F. M 360 

St. Ann s (French) church, Escanaba 362 

Interior St. Ann s (French) church, Escanaba 363 
French school, church and house, Escanaba. . 364 

Rev. Peter Menard .... 365 

St. Patrick s church and house, Escanaba . . .366 

Interior St. Patrick s church, Escanaba 367 

Rev. Joseph M. Langan . . 368 

Rev. J. M. G. Manning . . 369 

Rev. Adrian Deschamps .-37 

St. Joseph s church, Perkins, Mich 371 

Rev. Paul Pillion 37 2 

St. Fidelis (first) church and house, Glad 
stone 3 7 3 

All Saints church and house, Gladstone 374 

Rev. Adam J. Doser 375 

St. Charles Borromeo church, Rapid River. . .376 

Priest s residence, Rapid River -377 

Indian Point Settlement . 378 

Indian Point church of St. Lawrence 379 

Nahma church of St. Andrew . . 380 

Church of St. Mary Magdalien, Cook s Mill.. .381 

Rev. Joseph Duford 384 

Feyette, church of St. Peter .... . .385 

Church of St. John the Baptist, Garden 386 

The old house, Garden 387 

Rev. Paul Le Golvan 3 88 

Manistique, St. Francis de Sales church, 389 

school and house 

Rev. James Corcoran . .390 

Rev. George La Forest -39 1 

Munising 39 2 

Munising, Sacred Heart church and house. . .393 

Rev. John Kraker - -394 

Rev. C. L. Lemagie - -395 

Orphan boys at Assinins 396 

Orphan girls at Assinins 397 

Sisters of St. Agnes at Assin : ns 398 


Page 204, line 13 from bottom, read 1889 in 
stead of 1897. 

Page 324 the list of ordinations should be: 

Rev. Dennis Geary, A. J. Rezek, Joseph Hoe- 
ber and Ludolf Richen (for New Orleans,) July 
12, 1890. 

Anthony C. Keller and Joseph G. Pinten were 
ordained for the diocese in Rome, November i, 

Rev. Adam J. Doser, December 27, 1890. 

Rev. James Miller, Joseph E. Neumair, Nicho 
las H. Nosbisch, Julius V. Papon, Achilles Pou- 
lin, Joseph Wallace, and Henry McCabe, (for 
Detroit) on the second of July 1891. 

Rev. Anzelm Mlgnarczyk, 1891. 

Rev. William H. Joisten, December 17, 1891. 

Rev. Frederick Sperlein, July 2, 1892. 

Revs. Hubert Zimmermann and Francis Ma- 
ciarcz, June 24, 1893. 

Rev. Joseph Dupasquier, ordained in 1893. 

Rev. James Lenhart, Ph. D., July 5, 1894. 

Rev. Francis X. Barth, ordained at Louvain, 
Belgium, by Bishop Durier of Natchitoches, La., 
June 29, 1895. 

Re v. Anthony Hodnik, June 1895. 

Rev. Anthony Zagar, July 1895. 

Rev. Joseph Hollinger, July 19, 1895. 

Rev. Mathias Jodocy ordained for the diocese 
at Louvain, by Bishop Meerschaert of Oklahoma, 
June 29, 1897. 

Rev. Alexander Hasenberg, ordained in his 
native place by Bishop Vertin, on June 29, 1896. 

Rev. Frederick Glaser, August 12, 1896. 

Rev. John Kraker, October 25, 1897. 

Rev. Henry Buchholtz at Escanaba, Mich., on 

May 15, 










i, 1902. 









onto by 










James Corcoran, August 28, 1898, in Es- 
John Mockler, Marquette, August 31, 

335 the list of ordinations should be : 
Peter F. Manderfield, August 24, 1900. 
Adolph F. Schneider, June i, 1901. 
Frederick Richter, June 13, 1901. 
Raymond Jacques, July 7, 1901. 
Charles J. Swoboda, June* 21, 1902. 
William B. Stahl, August 10, 1902. . 
J. Harrington for LaCrosse, September 

Paul Le Golvan, September 20, 1902. 
Martin C. Sommers, September 20, 1902. 
Adrien Deschamps, March 7, 1903. 
Henry J. Reis, June 11, 1903 by Bishop 
in Columbus, Ohio. 

Bernard Eiling, June n, 1903 by Bishop 
in Columbus, Ohio. 

Napoleon J. Raymond, July 26, 1903. 
Joseph Dittman, March 20, 1904 in Tor- 
Bishop O Connor. 
Luke Klopcic, April 4, 1904. 
Theo. Bateski, June 19, 1904. 
Paul Fillion, June 19, 1904. 
John Stenglein, December 17, 1904, Prop- 

Owen J. Bennett, June 17, 1905. 
Jeremiah Moriarity, June 17, 1905. 
Joseph Lamott, June 17, 1905. 
Joseph Duford, Escanaba June 10, 1906. 
George Laforest, Calumet, June 24, 1906. 



Chapter XV. 

San It Stc. Marie 
The Church of the Holy Name of Mary 

The first missionaries to visit the site 
of the present Sault Ste. Marie were 
Fathers Raymbault and Jogues. After 
the Feast of the Dead, celebrated by the 
Hurons and friendly tribes, in 1641, in 
the Huron country, 1 they accompanied 
the Chippewas to the outlet of Lake Su 
perior. This trip was made purely for 
reconnoitering purposes, because the 
number of their priests was yet insuf 
ficient to allow the assuming of another 
mission. "We must first endeavor to 
gain the nations nearer to us" was the 
inflexible rule of the superior, but mis 
sionaries never failed to improve the op 
portunity for future possibilities of con 
version. Being invited by the envoys of 
that nation to visit them, indeed, more 
for trade sake than anything else, the two 
Fathers set sail, in June, 1641, from St. 
Mary s mission, on the Georgian Bay. 
They found two thousand savages assem 
bled at the Rapids and soon learned that 
"fewer than two hundred were residents 

1 Amid solemn rites and games, the bones 
of those buried temporarily during the last ten 
years were committed to a common grave, richly 
lined with furs, and with them articles regarded 
as of richest value. Shea. The C. Church in 
Colonial Days. pp. 227 and 228. 

of the place," 2 while the rest of them 
dwelt there only as transient guests. The 
two priests reciprocated native hospital 
ity by what possible teaching could be 
imparted to them, erected a large cross 
on the bank of St. Marys River, and re 
turned to their mission house before the 
winter. Hardships and exposures had 
shattered the health of Father Charles 
Raymbault. In the summer of 1642 he 
and Father Jogues, accompanied by a 
number of their Indians, embarked for 
Quebec, where he died, October 22nd. 
Jogues returning with supplies to the 
mission, was captured by the Mohawks 
and ended his saintly career as a martyr 
by the hands of his captors, at Osser- 
menon, near Auriesville, X. Y., October 
1 8, 1646. 

The second missionary, to touch upon 
the Sault, was Pere Rene Menard, on his 
voyage accompanying a flotilla of sixty 
Ottawa canoes to the northern shores of 
Wisconsin in the early part of October, 
1660. He perished, the year after, in the 
wilds at the headwaters of the Black 


" Jackcr, Quarterly Review, July 1876, p. 406. 



River. More will be said about this voy 
age when treating about the L Anse mis 

Four years later, on the ist of Septem 
ber, 1665, Rev. Claude Allouez passed 
the Sault on his way to the land of the 
Ottawas. This long journey from Three 
Rivers to La Pointe du St. Esprit, 
fraught with so many dangers, hard 
ships, and privations, attests to the bu HI- 




ing zeal for the salvation of souls. A 
vain-glorious heart would have been 
daunted at the very start. Xot so 
Allouez ! On being plainly told, by his 
savage companions, that he was not 
wanted, nor his religion, he insisted on 
going with them; being threatened with 
abandonment in some desolate country 

or island, he persists in his endeavor, and 
on being actually abandoned by the mer 
ciless savages he despairs not. He car 
ries packs far above his own weight, pad 
dles the canoe in excess of ordinary en 
durance, hungers and is taunted, but he 
suffers all for the one purpose to bring 
these misguided savages into the fold of 
Christ. Xot for a moment even in face 
of the treatment meted out to him, did 
he doubt his final success. True, it was 
not given him to christianize the tribe 
whose railleries and contempt he had 
borne in silence, but he sowed the seed 
of Christian Faith which bore fruit not 
only among them but gradually reached 
the greater number of the red race. At 
Fond du Lac the visiting Dakotas im 
bibed his teaching and carried it to the 
far AYest. The Pottawattamies took it to 
Green Bay, the Illinois to their prairie 
homes, and the Crees to the Hudson Bay 
regions. If the savage pledges amounted 
to nothing more than to help welcome the 
first missionary in their native haunts, 
Father Allouez accomplished by his sac 
rifices a great deal a thousand times 
more than was spread before him. :! His 
efforts among the Ottawas, in whose 
midst he lived and moved, were naturally 
more effective. Little by little his 
neophyte community increased, and to 
his great delight, after two years of in 
cessant labor, he noticed that the Indian 
had become more susceptible to Christian 
faith, and more tractable by its salutary 
morals. He could not any longer satisfy 
all demands for instruction, and so re- 

3 For a full description of Father Allouez voy 
age? from his own pen see the Relations, or a 
handy work by Father Verwyst entitled : Mis 
sionary Labors. 



solved to ask for a companion, and to do 
it in person. Accordingly, he embarked 
with twenty canoes of Indians for Que 
bec; he arrived there on the 3rd of Au 
gust, 1667. His zeal is again so faith 
fully portrayed in the fact that after a 
stay of only two days, he returned with 
Father Louis Nicholas and one donne 
a Brother and three donnes :5a being re 
fused passage by the Savages. 

Father Allouez animation for the con 
version of Indians easily communicated 
itself to the inflammable spirits of his 

sustenance. One of the youngest mis 
sionaries was selected for this post. 
Father Jacques Marquette left Montreal 
on April 21, 1668. \Yith the help of 
some French, who had established them 
selves there for trade purposes, and not 
less with the willing hands of the Indian, 
a stockaded house and chapel were erect 
ed. Centuries have obliterated the spot 
but as nearly as can be ascertained, the 
first Jesuit Mission stood in the present 
park. 4 

"While Marquette was finding, appar- 


brethren. He pointed out the stringent 
necessity of establishing an outpost to 
his missions, directing the attention of 
the superior to Sault Ste. Marie, where 
bands of many tribes were in the habit 
of gathering there, either flying from 
their enemies or because the place of 
fered them an abundance of fish for their 

ently, enough good will among his hear 
ers at the Sault, the Kishkakons of 
Allouez mission, who so contemptuously 
treated Rene Menard at Ke\veena\v, 
"unanimously declared themselves for 
God and prayer. It happened by one of 
those sudden changes characteristic of 
the race, that, when the turning point 

3;i Mcn who gave themselves to the service of 
the missions without pecuniary remuneration. 

4 Edward H. Capp has it "at the point where 
Brigham avenue and Water street cross." An 
nals of Sault Ste. Marie. 



was once reached, stubborn resistance or 
seemingly unconquerable indifference 
gave way to an enthusiasm almost im 
patient of the missionary s wise delay 
in granting them the boon of the Sacra 
ment." 5 Seeing that the harvest was 
great and laborers few, Allouez under 
took a second voyage to Quebec, in 1669, 
as much to ask permission for the estab 
lishment of a third station at Green Bay. 
as to ask assistance for his missions and 
to hand over to Monsieur de Courcelles 


the three Iroquois captives, whom he 
had ransomed and who he hoped would 
greatly serve to patch up peace between 
their nation and the western tribes. In 
this he was not mistaken, nor was he dis 
appointed in two other calculations. It 
being his desire to go to Green Bay, 
Father Claude Dablon, a veteran mis 
sionary, well versed in the Huron and 

1 Jacker. Am. Quarterly Review 1876, p. 418. 

Algonquin dialects, was sent with him 
as superior to the western missions. Ar 
riving at the Sault, plans for future oper 
ations were devised. Father Marquette 
was sent to replace Allouez at La Pointe 
du Saint Esprit, Allouez, himself, left, 
November 3rd, for Bay des Puants, and 
Dablon remained in the Sault. Father 
Dablon, in an account to his Superior 
General, the Reverend Francois Le Mer- 
cier, describes the place, the mission and 
the tribes belonging to it in the following 
words: "What is commonly called the 
Sault is not properly a Sault, or a very 
high waterfall, but a very violent current 
of waters from Lake Superior, which, 
finding themselves checked by a great 
number of rocks that dispute their pas 
sage, form a dangerous cascade of half 
a league in width, all these waters de 
scending and plunging headlong to 
gether, as if a flight of stairs, over the 
rocks which bar the whole river. 

"It is three leagues below Lake Su 
perior, and twelve leagues above the 
Lake of the Ilurons, this entire extent 
making a beautiful river, cut up by many 
Islands, which divide it and increase its 
width in some places so that the eye can 
not reach across. It Hows very gently 
through almost its entire course, being 
difficult of passage only at the Sault. 

"It is at the foot of these rapids, and 
even amid these boiling waters, that ex 
tensive fishing is carried on, from Spring 
until Winter, of a kind of fish found 
usually only in Lake Superior and Lake 
Huron. It is called in the native lan 
guage Atticameg, and in ours white- 
fish, because in truth it is very white; 
and it is most excellent, so that it fur- 





nishes food, almost by itself, to the 
greater part of all these peoples. 

"This convenience of having fish in 
such quantities that one has only to go 
and draw them out of the water, at 
tracts the surrounding Nations to the 
spot during the Summer. These people, 
being wanderers, without fields and 
without corn, and living for the most 
part only by fishing, find here the means 
to satisfy their wants ; and at the same 
time we embrace the opportunity to in 
struct them and train them in Christian 
ity during their sojourn in this place. 

"Therefore we have been obliged to 
establish here a permanent Mission, 
which is the center for the others, as we 
are here surrounded by different Na- 
tions, of which the following are those 
who sustain relations to the place, repair 
ing hither to live on its fish. 

"The principal and native inhabitants 
of this district are those who call them 
selves Pahouitingwach Irini, and whom 
the French call Saulteurs, because it is 
they who live at the Sault as in their own 
Country, the others being there only as 
borrowers. They comprise only a hun 
dred and fifty souls, but have united 
themselves with three other Nations 
which number more than five hundred 
and fifty persons, to whom they have, as 
it were, made a cession of the rights of 
their native Country: and so these live 
here permanently, except the time when 
they are out hunting. Next come those 
who are called the Nouquet, who extend 
toward the South of Lake Superior, 
whence they take their origin; and the 
Outchibous, together with the Marameg, 
toward the North of the same Lake, 



which region they regard as their own 
proper Country. 

"Ik-sides these four Xations there are 
seven others dependent on this Mission. 
The people called Achiligouiane. the 
Amicoures, and the Mississague iish 
here, and hunt on the Islands and in the 
regions round ahotit Lake Huron; they 
number more than four hundred souls. 

"Two other Xations. to the nuniher of 
five hundred souls. entirely nomadic, 
and with no fixed ahode. go toward the 






lands of the Xorth to hunt during the 
Winter, and return hither to iish during 
the Summer. 

"There remain six other Xations, who 
are either people from the Xorth Sea, 
as the Kilistinons and the Ovenihigonc, 
or wanderers in the regions around that 
same Xorth Sea, the greater part of 

them having been driven out of their 
Country by famine, and repairing hith 
er from time to time to enjoy the abund 
ance of iish here." " 

"The nomadic life led by the greater 
part of the Savages of these Countries 
lengthens the process of their conversion, 
and leaves them only a very little time 
for receiving the instruction that we give 

"To render them more stationary, we 
have fixed our abode here, where we 
cause the soil to be tilled, in order to in 
duce them by our example to do the 
same: and in this several have already 
begun to imitate us. 

"Moreover, we have had a Chapel 
erected, and have taken care to adorn it, 
going farther in this than one would dare 
promise himself in a Country so destitute 
of all things. We there administer Bap 
tism to children as well as Adults, with 
all the ceremonies of the Church; and 
admonish the new Christians during the 
holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Tlie old men 
attend on certain days to hear the word 
of Cod, and the children gather there 
every day to learn the Prayers and the 
Catechism." 7 

It was evident from the start to Fath 
er Dablon that neither he nor any other, 
ever so willing, missionary, could do jus 
tice to so many tribes, even though, in an 
aggregate, they were not so numerous. 
His requisition for help was promptly 
met. Early in 1070, Fathers Gabriel 
Drouillette and Louis Andre were sent 
to the Sank. It does not appear that they 
arrived together and it would be difficult 
to sav which of them came first. Andre 

c Relation, Vol. 54, pp. 129-135. 
7 Ibidem p. 139. 



was at once detailed to the Algonquins, 
and spent most of his time out of two 
years sojourn there, among" that nation. 
Father Drouillette was initiated in the 
work by a severe plague which had just 
broken out among the greater part of the 
savages to whom he ministered in the 
hour of their dreadful visitation. 

In the spring of 1670. May - 5th, the 
Sulpitian priests, Franqois Dollier de 
Casson and Rene de Brehant de Gali- 

Allouez voyaged to the Sault, arriving 
there in June, 1670. With little delay 
he prepared for a return trip on which 
Father Dablon was his companion. They 
reached Green Bay on the 6th of Septem 
ber, 1670. Together they visited the 
Fire Xation, whereupon Father Dablon 
made his way to Michilimackinac to 
make preparations for the opening of a 
new mission. During this absence a seri 
ous calamity overtook his mission at the 


nee came to the Sault. They had started 
out with La Salle s expedition, which 
broke up on the way, and the two priests 
came alone as far as the Jesuit mission 
at the Rapids. Their reception, while 
cordial, was such as to leave no mistake 
in their mind that they were not wanted. 
Both returned to Montreal. 

To advise his superior about his ex 
ploration at the Bay de Fuants. Father 

Sault. On the _>7th of January fire re 
duced to ashes the chapel "as well as the 
house of the missionaries, who were able 
to save from- this conflagration nothing 
but the Blessed Sacrament. But if God 
allowed the demons this sort of ven- 
genance, their malice did not greatly 
profit them; for soon another chapel was 
erected, much superior to the former one; 
and in it there were baptixed in a single 



clay as many as twenty-six children, as 
if to consecrate it by such holy ceremon 
ies." 8 

Some writers of that day have de 
scribed this second Jesuit chapel in sup 
erlative terms, as being magnificent and 
endowed with the richest vestments. 
That it was superior to the one just de 
stroyed by tire, is admitted by Dablon 


himself. But, that it was anything like 
what those terms would imply in the 
language of this day, or even anything 
out of the ordinary for those mission 
clays, is a mere exaggeration. 

The Sault, however, witnessed a bit 

of splendor unusual for her infant days, 
and it must have been close to the time 
of the rebuilding of the church. Upon 
returning to Canada, Monsieur Talon, 
the intendant of Xew France, had re 
ceived orders from the King. Louis XIV. 
"to exert himself strenuously for the es 
tablishment of Christianity here, by aid 
ing the missions and to cause the name 
and the sovereignty of the mon 
arch to be acknowledged by even 
the least known and by the most 
remote nations. "" To carry out 
this command he chose Sieur de 
Saint Lusson to take possession, in 
the King s name, "of the terri 
tories lying between the East and 
the West from Montreal as far as 
the South sea, covering the utmost 
extent and range possible." 10 The 
scene was enacted in Sault Ste. 
Marie. Xicolas IVrrot, a most dar 
ing voyageur, was sent to drum up 
the tribes for the important occa- 
tion. lie delivered himself credit 
ably of the task. Hnjoying the con 
fidence and the goodwill of the 
savage-, he easily persuaded them, 
who by nature love festivities, to 
come to the Sault. De Saint Lusson 
arrived early in May, 1671, and 
found, to his gratification, four 
teen tribes, who had followed the 
invitation. On the 4th of June he 
assembled them in a great public council 
on the heights overlooking the village. 
For obvious reasons a political-religious 
character was given to the occasion. 
The black robe commingled with the 

8 Relations Vol. 5,5, p. 131. 

Relations, Vol. 55, p. 165. 
Ibidem p. 107. 



splendidly uniformed soldiery; flashing 
weapons and the cross stood side by side. 
The Jesuits present were Claude Dablon, 
Gabriel Druillette, Claude Allouez and 
Louis Andre. 

First a large wooden cross was blessed 
by Dablon and while it was being raised 
to the solemn intonation of "Vexilla 
regis," all French joined in the time hon 
ored hymn of St. Bernard: 

The Royal banners forward go ; 
The Cross shines forth in mystic glow ; 
Where He in flesh, our flesh who made , 
Our sentence bore, our ransom 

Where deep for us the spear 

was dyed, 
Life s torrent rushing from His 

To wash us in that precious 

Where mingled Water flowed, 

and Blood. 

Fulfilled is all that David told 
In true prophetic song of old; 
Amidst the nations, God, saith 

Hath reigned and triumphed 

from the Tree. 

O Tree of beauty, Tree of light! 
O tree with royal purple 

Elect on whose triumphal 

Those holy limbs should find 

Their rest : 

On whose dear arms, so widely 

flung, : 

The weight of this world s ran 
som hung: 

The price of humankind to pay, 

And spoil the spoiler of his prey: 

O Cross, our one reliance, hail ! 
This holy Passiontide avail 
To give fresh merit to the saint, 
And pardon to the penitent. 

To Thee, Eternal Three in One, 
Let homage meet by all be done; 
Whom by the Cross Thou dost restore, 
Preserve and govern evermore! 

took possession of those regions, while 
the air resounded with repeated shouts 
of Long live the King! and with the 
discharge of the musketry, to the de 
light and astonishment of all those peo 
ple, who had never seen anything of the 
kind." 11 

After the confused uproar of voices 
had ceased. Father Allouez being most 
conversant in the Ottawa dialect ad 
dressed the savages. He said : 

"Here is an excellent matter brought 

Then, next to the cross, to a cedar post 
was affixed the French escutcheon. The 
prayer was offered for the king, upon 
which "de Saint Lusson, observing all 
the forms customary on such occasion 


to your attention, my brothers, a great 
and important matter, which is the cause 
of this council. Cast your eyes upon the 
Cross raised so high above your heads : 
there it was that Jesus Christ, the Son of 
God, making himself man for the love 
of men, was pleased to be fastened and 
to die, in atonement to his Eternal Fath 
er for our sins. He is the master of our 
lives, of Heaven, of Earth, and of HelL 

Ibidem p. 109. 



Of Him 1 have always spoken to you, and 
His name and word 1 have borne into all 
these countries. Hut look likewise at 
that other post, to which are affixed the 
armorial bearings of the great Captain 
of France whom we call King. He 
lives beyond the sea; he is the Captain 
of the greatest Captains, and has not his 
equal in the world. All the Captains 
you have ever seen, or of whom von have 
ever heard, are mere children compared 
with him. lie is like a great tree, and 
they, only like little plants that we tread 


under foot in walking. You know about 
Onnontio, that famous Captain of Que 
bec. You know and feel that he is the 
terror of the Iroquois, and that his very 
name makes them tremble, now that he 
has laid waste their country and set fire 
to their villages. l>eyoml the sea there 
are ten thousand Onnontios like him, 
who are only the Soldiers of that Great 
Captain, our Great King, of whom I am 
speaking. "When he says, I am going 

to war, all obey him; and those ten 
thousand Captains raise Companies of a 
hundred soldiers each, both on sea and on 
land. Some embark in ships, one or two 
hundred in number, like those that you 
have seen at Ouebec. ^ our Canoes hold 
onlv lour or live men or, at the very 
most, ten or twelve. Our ships in France 
hold four or five hundred, and even as 
man\ as a thousand. Other men make 
war by land, but in such vast numbers 
that, if drawn up in a double file, they 
would extend farther than from here to 
Mississaquenk, although the 
distance exceeds t w e n t y 
leagues. When he attacks, 
he is more terrible than the 
thunder: the earth trembles, 
the air and the sea are set on 
fire by the discharges of Ins 
Canon; while he has been 
seen mid his squadrons, all 
covered with the blood of his 
foes, of whom he has slain 
so many with his sword that 
he does not count their 
scalps. but the rivers of blood 
which he sets flowing. So 
many prisoners of war does 
he lead away that he makes 
no acount of them, letting 
them go about whither they will, to show 
that he does not fear them. Xo one now 
dares make war upon him, all nations be 
yond the sea having most submissively sued 
for peace. From all parts of the world, 
people go to listen to his words and to ad 
mire him, and he alone decides all the 
affairs of the world. What shall I say 
of his wealth? You count yourselves 
rich when you have ten or twelve sacks 
of corn, some hatchets, glass beads, ket- 



ties or other things of that sort. He has 
towns of his own, more in number than 
you have people in all these countries five 
hundred leagues around; while in each 
town there are warehouses containing 
enough hatchets to cut down all your 
forests, kettles to cook all your moose, 
and glass beads to fill all your cabins. 
His house is longer than from here to 
the head of the Sault, that is, more than 
half a league, and higher than the tall 
est of your trees ; and it contains more 
families than the largest of your Villages 
can hold." 12 

The solemnity closed in the evening 
with Tc Dennis chanted around the bon 
fires which lit up the neighborhood of the 

The savages had thoroughly enjoyed 
the splendid feast of the whites. They 
took gratefully the much valued presents 
and departed for their homes thinking 
their own little thoughts, reviewing the 
events of the clay. 

The missionaries likewise dispersed, 
each to his own field of labor. Pere 
Druillette alone remained. Profiting by 
the good disposition of at least some of 
his savage charges he permitted no occa 
sion to go by without inoculating those 
with whom he came in contact with the 
Christian doctrines. His assiduous lab 
ors Heaven favored by extraordinary 
signs, especially by miraculous cures of 
the sick. The Relations for 1671 nar 
rates a number of them. 13 

These greatly facilitated the dissemi 
nation of Christian truths, and the mis 
sionaries had good reason to believe 
"that Christianity had finally become es 

tablished here, despite all obstacles." 14 
The fears for the Sioux were not com 
pletely allayed by the immigration of 
Father Marquette and his band of Otta- 
was from Point du Saint Esprit. The 
inhabitants at the Sault still lived in 
dread that they might descend upon 
them and wreak vengeance. Their only 
hopes hinged on the promises Luson had 
loudly proclaimed. The Fathers also as 
sured them of the French protection. An 
incident, however, in the spring of 1674, 
shattered all hopes of peace with the 

2 Ibidem p. 109. 

3 Vol. 56. 


Sioux and almost entirely depopulated 
the flourishing mission. This fatal event 
has been narrated by different writers in 
various colors. For its truthfulness we 
must rely on the Relations, for no one 
was able to give a more nearly correct 
account, than those who were eye-wit 
nesses. The story, as the Relations give 
it, was undoubtedly written up by Father 
Druillette who most likely was present in 

14 Ibidem p. 113. 


the room where the terrible carnage took 
place. The report is, verbatim: 

"The Xadouessi, a nation exceedingly 
numerous and warlike, were the common 
enemies of all the savages included under 
the name of Ontaonac. or upper Algon- 
(juines. They even pushed forward their 
arms vigorously toward the north; and, 
making war on the Kilistinons who dwell 
there, rendered themselves everywhere 
terrible by their daring, their numbers, 
and their skill in P.attle in which they 
use, among other weapons, knives of 


stones. Of these, they always carry two, 
one attached to the girdle, the other sus 
pended by the hair. However, a band of 
warriors from Ste. Marie du sault, hav- 
ino- surprised them in their own country 
and taken eighty of them prisoners, com 
pelled them to sue for peace. For this 
purpose, they sent to the sault ten of the 
most daring among them, to negotiate 
it. They were received with joy, as soon 
as the object of their coming was under 
stood. It was the Kilistinons alone, who 
have lately arrived. save some other 

named Missisaquis. who not only ex 
pressed their dissatisfaction in the mat 
ter, but resolved moreover to prevent the 
peace from being concluded. They even 
determined to massacre the ten ambassa- 
( l ors a proceeding which made it neces 
sary that the latter, in order to ensure 
their safety, should be placed in the 
French house, which had been erected 
for the convenience of the missionaries. 
Father Gabriel Dronilletes took advan 
tage of that opportunity to instruct them 
in our mysteries. They listened with so 
much docility that, when the instruction 
was over, they all knelt down, and. join 
ing their hands, invoked Jesus, the Lord 
of life, of whom we had just been speak- 
in"- to them. Meanwhile, the savages as- 


sembled at the French house part of 
them to conclude the peace with the Xado- 
essi. others to obstruct its conclusion. 
Fverything imaginable was done to pre 
vent those who went in from carrying 
arms; but. as the crowd was very great, 
live or six slipped in without having their 
knives taken from them. It was one of 
these latter, a Kilistinon by nation, who 
bewail all the disturbance that ensued. 


Approaching a Xadoessi, knife in hand, 
he said to him. Thou art afraid, - 
threatening at the same time to strike 
him. The Xadoessi, undismayed, replied 
to him in a haughty tone, and with a con 
fident air, Tf thou Thinkest that I trem 
ble, strike straight at the Heart. Then, 
feeling himself struck, he cried out to 
those of his nation, They are killing us, 
my brothers. At these words, the men, 
stirred up to vengeance, and, moreover, 
very powerful and of commanding stat 
ure. arose, and struck with their knives 



at all the assembled savages, without 
making any distinction between Kilisti- 
nons and Sautenrs, believing that they 
had all equally conspired in the design to 
assassinate them. It was not very diffi 
cult for them to accomplish a great car 
nage in a short time, when we consider 
that they found that multitude unarmed, 
and expecting anything but an attack of 
that kind. The Kilistinon who had be 
gun the quarrel was among the first to be 
stabbed; and, he, with several others, 
fell dead on the spot. Afterward, the 
Nadoessi posted themselves at the door 
of the house, to guard it, and to stab those 
who would have taken to flight ; but, see 
ing that many had already escaped and 
gone in search of arms, they closed the 
door against these, resolved to defend 
themselves to the last breath. In fact. 
they stationed themselves at the win 
dows; and as, by chance, they had found 
some guns, with powder and ball, they 
used these to disperse their enemies, 
whose desire it was to burn them by set 
ting fire to the place where they were 
confined. They killed, in this way, some 
of those who ventured too close; but in 
spite of their efforts, some others came 
close to the house. These men, having 
piled up against it some straw and some 
birch-bark Canoes, set fire to them, which 
at once placed them in danger of being 
consumed in the flames. It was this that 
drove them to give a last proof of their 
courage. All ten sallied forth, their arms 
in their hands, and with an incredible 
quickness threw themselves into a cabin 
made of stakes, which was hard by; in 
this they defended themselves, and 
ceased not to slay while pow r der and ball 

lasted them. When at last these failed 
them, they were laid low by the great 
number of savages who were firing upon 
them; and they, with two women who 
had accompanied them, were all slain on 
the spot. A third woman was spared, be 
cause they perceived that she was only 
their slave, and was an Algonquin by na 
tion. All the time while this tumult and 
massacre were going on, the fire which 
the savages had kindled at the mission 
aries house was steadily increasing; and, 
in spite of all that could be done, it soon 


consumed the whole edifice, which was 
only wooden, and placed the new Chapel, 
not far away, in great jeopardy of being 
also burned. Our people did so well, 
however, that they saved it. It was a 
horrible spectacle to see so many dead, 
and so much blood shed, in so small a 
space; and horrible to hear the cries of 
those who \varmed to the Battle, and the 
groans of the wounded, amid the tumult 
of an exasperated rabble that scarcely 


knew what it did. Our savages bewailed 
forty of their number, dead or wounded, 
among" whom were some of the leading 
and most notable men." 1 1 

The episode had dire consequences for 
the missionaries. "All hope of going to 
preach the gospel to the Sioux which the 
peace, about to be concluded with them, 
hail inspired was gone. Besides the 
savages, who in fear that the Xadoes- 


sis, seeing the delay of their people, would 
suspect what had happened to them and 
be prompted to take vengeance for their 
death all withdrew and left them ex 
posed to the fury of the enemy." 10 

That the expected revenge did not real 
ize cannot be ascribed to anything but to 
the protecting Providence. Chegoime- 

gon Hay had become the seat of a more 
powerful nation than the Ottawas and 
I iunnis who had deserted it under simi 
lar circumstances as their kinsman left 
the Sault. Xatural advantages had at 
tracted the Otchipewas who soon made it 
their home. They thus became a wedge 
bet wen the Xadotiessi and the slayers of 
their peace envoys. 

Facilities for obtaining food, such as 
the bountiful fisheries at the rapids af 
forded, together with the half cultivated 
fields of corn, and not less the past dan 
gers from dreaded enemies soon induced 
the deserted sa\-ages to return to their 
peaceful abodes. 

In i(>73. Rev. Henry X^otivel had be 
come superior at the Sault in place of 
Father Dablon xvho had been promoted to 
the office of Superior (leneral of the mis 
sions in Xexv France. Leaving the xvork 
to the insatiable zeal of Father Druillette, 
he went to the St. Ignace mission xvhere 
his labors xvere of great service. The 
venerable I ere Druillette toiled in the 
Sault until his strength commenced to fail 
him and he xvas obliged to retire in H>/9. 
lie died at (Juebec, on April S, in<Xi. 
Father Bailloquet xvho xvas also attached 
to the St. Mary s mission but lived most 
ot the time among the Algonquins on the 
Lakes Huron and Xipissing, became 
Druillette s immediate successor. In 
1083, he xvent. to St. Ignace, and xvas 
replaced by Rev. Charles Albanel who 
was the last priest at least for a time to 
minister to the nations gathered around 
the Sault du Ste. Marie. He saw his fer 
vent hopes blighted, and his and his com 
panions labors of almost five and twenty 
years, ruthlesslv destroyed by war and 



brandy. He died at the Sault Ste. Marie, 
on January 11, 1696. 

No attempts have been made to re-es 
tablish the mission from the time of the 
general withdrawal of the Jesuits from 
the Straits, in 1706, to 1834. During this 
long- interval. Jesuit and other mission 
aries have passed the Sault going and 
coming, from Canada, but not one of 
them considered it necessary to settle 
there, because it became practically de 
serted. There were always some wig 
wams to be found on the shore near the 
Rapids, but never enough to warrant oc 
cupation for a missionary. As late as 
1820, we find there only twenty houses 
with five or six French and English fami 
lies. 17 

The earliest traces of missionaries 
since the withdrawal of the Jesuits, we 
find in the early part of the last century. 
The records of St. Mary s parish show 
that on the I5th of October, 1815, Rev. 
Father Dumoulin baptized one Elizabeth, 
twenty-one years of age, wife of Francis 

This entry was evidently not made by 
Father Dumoulin himself, as the writing: 


is the same as that of Father Haetscher, 
who seems to have started and kept up 
the register. It credits Pere Dumoulin 
with three baptisms, the last one being on 
November 19, 1821. That these are only 
stray baptisms coming accidentally to the 
notice of Father Haetscher there is no 
question, because if there was not a large 
French population there was a good set 
tlement of Indians, who from their fore 
fathers had preserved the custom of 
christening their offspring. What this 

17 Schoolcraft s Travels, p. 132. 

settlement was, about this time, we learn 
from Henry R. Schoolcraft who visited 
it in June, 1820. He says in part: 

"The village of the Sault de Ste. Marie 
is on the south or American shore, and 
consists of from fifteen to twenty build 
ings, occupied by five or six French and 
English families. The site of the village 
is elevated and pleasant, and a regular 


plan appears to have been observed in the 
buildings, though some of them are in a 
state of dilapidation, and altogether it 
has the marks of an ancient settlement 
fallen to decav. Such indeed it is, having 

- O 

been settled by the French shortly after 
the occupation of old Mackinac, and it 
continued for a long time the site of a 


HISTORY 01 : Till- DIOCESE Ol : 

French fort and Jesuit mission. Charle- 
voix, in i /- i, speaks of this mission as 
one of no recent date, and Henry, in 
1762, found here a stockaded fort, with 
a small garrison under the command of 
a French national officer, who was col 
loquially addressed by the title of Gover 
nor. There were then four houses, two 
of which had been occupied as barracks. 


and the fort is described as seated on a 
beautiful plain, of about two miles in cir 
cumference, and covered with luxuriant 
grass, and within half a mile of the Rap 
ids. Although no vestiges of the old fort 
remain, this description of the site is per 
fectly accurate, at the present moment. 
It has always been the residence of In 

dian tribes, who are drawn to this spot 
in great numbers, by the advantages of 
taking the white-fish, which are very 
abundant at the foot of the rapid. There 
are. at present, about forty lodges of 
Chippeway Indians, (called Saulteurs, by 
the French), containing a population of 
about two hundred souls, who subsist 
wholly upon the white-fish." 

The next priest, of whose passing visit 
we have a record, is Rev. Francis Vincent 
P.adin. brother of Rev. Stephen Theodor 
P.adin, who was the first priest ordained 
in the Cnited States. 10 He christened 
Angela Piquette on the - 3rd of Decem 
ber. 1.823. Piquettes appear to have been 
plentiful around the Sault. for on May 8. 
iS^o, P.ishop Fenwick is mentioned to 
have baptized an Angelica Piquette and 
two years later, the Dominican, Father 
Samuel Mazzuchelli, on the very day of 
St. Patrick, an Anton Piquette. This 
priest visited the Sault only occasionally 
from Mackinac Island, as is apparent from 
a diocesan report to the Feopoldine So 
ciety, dated at Cincinnati, February 11. 
i,X:p. "From Detroit, Father Reser" 
went to Sault Ste. Marie, where on 
iccount of a short stay of the boat, he 
was unable to gratify all the demands of 
the numerous faithful. He was urgently 
asked to send a priest who would perman 
ently reside with them. During his short 
stay, however, he well employed the time 
giving instruction to the whites as well 
as to the Indians and conferring the sacra 
ment of baptism and that of matrimony. 
The Protestants, too, expressed a desire 

18 Travels of Henry R. Schoolcraft, 1820, pp. 

"Ordained at Baltimore by Bishop Carroll, 
May 23, 1793. 

Vicar General, making a pastoral visit. 


for a stationary Catholic priest and con 
tributed twelve dollars towards his travel 
ing expenses." 21 

Vicar General Rese was at the Sault in 
the summer of ] 830, on his way to Macki- 
nac and thence to Green Bay and other 
Wisconsin missions, hut upon his return 
to Cincinnati, in January, 1831, with the 
best of his will, was unable to satisfy the 
demand of the Sault people. Hence Fa 
ther Mazzuchelli continued to visit the 
place twice a year until May (17), 1833, 
the date of his last baptism. 

Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli was a Domi- 
can from Milan. Italy. 

Up to this date there was no church at 
the Sault; Mass was celebrated in a pri 
vate house on Water street. In the sum 
mer of 1834 the Redemptorist, Father 
Francis Haetscher, became the first resi 
dent pastor. Encouraged by the more 
than friendly reception of the people in 
general, he immediately undertook the 
building of a small log chapel which un 
fortunately became the object of much 
disorder. The good will of the people. 
Catholic and non-Catholic, evidenced in 
the reception accorded to the priest, and 
their generous help in building the church, 
caused jealousy in the hearts of the two 
local preachers who considered the priest 
as an intruder upon the field which they 
claimed their own by pre-possession. 
Scarcely was the small chapel completed 
and dedicated when it was wrecked in 
the night by the two preachers. Bishop 
Rese writes, concerning this perpetration, 
to the Leopoldine Society : "And yet all 
this crying need of books for the Indians, 
etc., would be easier to contend with than 

" Leopoldin Bcrichtc. TT., 1831, p. 3. 

the base persecutions which we have to 
suffer in many places of my diocese, from 
people who call themselves Christians. I 
can only mention with tears the con 
temptible vandalism perpetrated on our 
little chapel at Sault Ste. Marie. The 
windows were smashed, the sacred vessels 
and vestments thrown out, crushed and 
destroyed, the missal torn into a thousand 
fragments, and, after the good Father 
Haetscher, without a word of complaint, 
on the eve of All Saints, repaired the dam 
age as best he could, the whole building 


was set on fire. The loss is for us in 
calculable inasmuch as it is very difficult 
to obtain here utensils which we so in- 
dispensibly need. The affair has unex 
pectedly turned out in our favor ; the 
Baptist and the Methodist preachers were 
compelled to seek safety in flight, to 
escape the vengeance of an angry people 
who now all sympathize with us. Thus 
a temporal loss and persecution has 
brought us much spiritual consolation." 2 
July 31, 1834, Bishop Rese confirmed 

22 Leopoldin Rerchte, TX. p. 42. 



upward of one hundred persons in the 
Sault and this was most likely the first 
confirmation ever given in the place. Mr. 
Seraphin Lalonde, now a nonagenarian- 
born in St. Boniface, Manitoba, in i8u 
is at this writing the onlv survivor of 
that class. The imposing reception given 
to the bishop not little contributed to 
rouse the jealousy of the preachers which 
led to the above disorders. 

On the 4th of July. 1X35. Father Bar- 
aga reached the Sault on his wav to La 


Pointe. He found Father Haetscher de 
parting for Ohio with the uncertainty in 
his mind whether or not he should ever 
return to his post, as his Order was open 
ing new missions in that state. But he 
did return in the fall of the same year and 
remained only till the following spring. 
April 15, 1836, is the last record of his 
baptisms. Rev. Jean Baptiste Proulx, 
from the Canadian shore, visited the mis 
sion during the summer, and had, July 
19, 1836, five baptisms. In the fall (of 

1836) Rev. Francis Pierz was transferred 
from La Croix to the Sault and by his 
indomitable zeal did a great deal for the 
uplifting of religion. He was royally 
welcomed by the people, like all his pre 
decessors, but soon found out that the 
most of his flock were only nominal 
Catholics. "Father Haetscher labored 
here, he writes, in 1835 as the first resi 
dent missionary, and notwithstanding his 
apostolic zeal, he could reach but few 
hearts; discouraged, he shook the dust 
off his feet. I would have done the same 
had not Providence forestalled my re 
treat by the incoming winter. Fully 
realizing my awkward position, T yet did 
not give it a forlorn hope but resolved, 
since I had to stay, to commence my op 
erations clean from the bottom, and so I 
started a school inviting all the little ones 
to me in order that I might sow the word 
of God in their innocent hearts. All 
winter long, from morning till night, 
every day, was my dwelling filled with 
children, big and small. The parents de 
lighted with the quick progress in the 
school work were soon put to shame also 
by the devout recital of prayers by their 
own children, so that they, too, learned to 
pray, to come to Mass, and to listen to 
my instruction. I often had the pleasure 
to receive the first confession of children, 
parents and grandparents at the same 
time, and was moved many a time unto 
tears by the first holy communion of adult 
Catholics or the solemn profession of 
faith of converted Protestants. Thus my 
first desolation has turned into solace." 23 
To Father Pierz, therefore, belongs the 

~ x Letter to the Leopoldine Society, dated Sault 
Ste Marie, December 15, 1837. Berichtc der Leo- 
poldin Stiftung, II. 



honor of having opened the first parochial 
school in the Sault. Of course it was not 
a regular school, as we may well imagine, 
but he attended to it whenever his mis 
sionary duties did not call him elsewhere, 
which, due to the times, occurred not in 

The year 1837 was exclusively devoted 
to the building of the church. It stood on 
the vacant lot between the sidewalk and 
the present church, facing north. It 
measured something like forty-five by sev 
enty-five feet. The construction was very 
unique. Financial resources being too 
limited to allow using sawed material, Fa 
ther Pierz conceived the happy idea of 
making a combination of board and log. 
Upon a firm foundation, heavy timbered 
uprights, four to five feet apart, were 
set up in fashion of studdings. These 
were grooved from top to bottom and 
filled in with dove-tailed square timbers 
of even size. The crevices were closed 
with mud, the outside clap-boarded and 
the inside plastered. The ceiling was 
vaulted. In the rear, a room of common 
logs was added for sacristy and residence 

On July i, 1838, obedience called Fa 
ther Pierz to La Pointe to receive in 
struction from Vicar General Baraga, for 
the establishment of a mission at Grand 
Portage. It happened that, while he was 
absent, Bishop Rese arrived unexpected 
ly in the Sault, August 3Oth, and found, 
to his unmeasured surprise, the scraggy 
village in possession of "one of the finest 
churches in the state," as he was pleased 
to remark in his comment on the work of 
the missionary and the substantial aid of 
his flock. 

Rev. Pierz did not return until the 
year after (1838), and then only for a 
few weeks. Following the order of the 
bishop, he again settled at La Croix, from 
where he visited, from time to time, at 
regular intervals, however, the Sault and 
other missions on the Lakes until 1845 
July ist being his last baptismal entry 
when he was superseded by the Jesuit 
Fathers. We may add that Father Proulx, 
mentioned above, baptized in October, 
1844, twelve persons. 

The first resident Jesuit was Father P. 
Point, S. J. \Ye take the time of service 

from the first and last baptism as recorded 
in the baptismal books ; our experience is 
that this is about the correct date of ar 
rival and departure and have, therefore, 
adopted it throughout this book. Accord 
ing to this. Father Point remained in the 
Sault from July 2, 1846, till the _>4th of 
the same month and baptized thirty-fom 
persons in that time. Rev. B. Pedelupe. 
S. J., \vas his successor but also remained 
only a short time, from September if>, 
1846. till December 13, 1846. Upon this. 


the mission was formally accepted by that 
Society and Rev. Jean Baptist Menet, S. 
|.. was appointed the first actual pastor. 
With him new order of thing s came to 
the Sanlt. Brother La Coste opened a 
school in the sacristy, a fair-sized room 
back of the church, receiving a liberal pat 
ronage. The population was less than 
four hundred and the following are names 
of Catholic families. Indian and whites: 
Peter Ashingwak. Jean P.. Abegiskoiwa, 
lean P.. Benoit. William Bel. doctcur en 
medicine, Biossanot. Widow Boye. Bel- 
cour. Brisbois, M. Byron, J. B. Baurdi. 

Widow Badoin, Mrs. Boisvert. Barry, 
Bellau. Isabelle Brun, Widow P>elanger. 
Pierre Bruilly, Angelique P>lay. Brunette, 
Louis Cadotte, Joseph Chawonat, Jerome 
Chawonat. J. B. Antoiue. Isais Cadotte, 
I. B. Crochiere, Daniel Cook, Steven 
Campbell. Alphons Comtois, Cebrevo, an 
Italian widower, J. B. Chawanigawowe, 
Archange Chisigo. Marianne Cornville, 
Madelein Chawastang, Pauletin Chippau- 
gon. Desnomme, Francois Desnoyers, 
Francois Dafour. Pierre Durocher. Jo- 


seph Duchin, Margarithe Desjardin, 
Emcrique Desjardin, Geoffroi Deziel 
Marquerite Eskwigouiba, Gabriel Frau- 
chere, Gadin, Louis dournot, Sophie Gin- 
amigokwe, Charlotte Girot, Giroux, J. B. 
Gauthier, Josette llaressi. Marguerite 
(eugras, Ftienne Jolinoh. Antoine Jarette, 
Pierre Jaboye, Charlotte Jibagijik, Marie 
Iskinuwine, Joseph Kedakiwigabe, Kal- 
lagar. |. B. Kapijisigo. Francois Lallond, 
Joseph Lallond, Paschal Lallond. Sera- 
phin Lallond. Isidore Lacaille. Francois 
Labrauche, Joseph Laroche, Michael La- 
batte. J. 1). Lesage, Lapray. Lemay. La- 
fond, J. B. Louiseau, Joseph F. Larose, 
L Allemand, Le Roy, J. P>. Latharite, 
Marqneritc Lapointe, Oliver Lelleur, 
\\ idow LeClerc. La Sarte, Pierre Mac- 
l ; arlean, MacLeod, J. B. Masastagona, 
(oseph Mimklier, J. P>. Maskiwiji. 
Julia Maskitikwa, J. P.. Mastigore, S. B. 
Masta. Marie Migonabe. Angeli(iue 
Misey. Samuel Mutton. Anne Minjelsky. 
Louis Xolin. Miclmt Xolin. Xamonikig- 
ago, Marguerite Xitamejishikokwe, The- 
rese Xibedewe. Genevieve Xamawanaga- 
bo. Therese Xibedawig. Therese Xibedi- 
\\ikwe, Oskiniweni. Jerome Oskinini, 
Anne Okinimizon, Joseph Piquette, Fran 
cois Piquette. J. P>. Picjnette, Louis Pi- 
(jiiette. \\ illiam Perot. Louis Piquette, 
Veuve Balladeau. Xavier Perot. Edouard 
Perot, Kosse, Marie Rouleau, Robassa, 
Alexander Sadlene ( Tete Blanche). Paul 
Souleere, Madeleine Sorette, Touraine, 
Alexis Taja. Pierre Terriot (Theriault), 
f oseph Tagipan, Tagikwe, Tardif. These 
names are taken from a catalogue com 
posed by Father Haetscher and hence 
there might have been many more who 
had come to the Sault during the ten 



years between Father Menet s and Hat- 
scher s time.- 1 

From this timber Father Menet pro 
ceeded to build up anorclcrly congregation. 
Fie took great pains to acquaint his 
parishioners with their religious duties. 
Having lived without regular services for 
years, and many of them from their child 
hood, it was difficult to make them 
understand the obligation of hearing 
Mass every Sunday, and of approach 
ing the sacraments at least once a 


year, but with his persistent zeal 
Father Menet was on his fair way to 
success, when in 1853 Upper Michi 
gan became a Vacariate Apostolic and 
Sault Ste. Marie the episcopal sec. 
The new bishop was consecrated on 
All Saints Day at Cincinnati, but did 
not come to the Sault until the fol 
lowing summer. 

Rev. Jean Baptiste Menet was born 
at X antes (or possibly Vigneux), 
Loire Inferieure, France, on March 6, 
1793 ; he entered the Jesuit Society at 
Paris, October 13, 1815. In personal 
appearance life was of medium stat 
ure, inclined to be stout, of dark 
complexion, smooth-shaven, black 
eyes, black hair, and an expression 
of determination. He was gift 
ed with extraordinary talents. He 
spoke different languages, among them 
Russian, fluently. He possessed a lovable 
disposition; sober, tolerant, congenial and 
of rare personal charm; as conversation 
alist, on all topics, he was unexcelled. 
When he arrived at the Sault his knowl 

edge of English was as meager as it was 

O O 

necessary, for almost everybody spoke 
French. At first he preached exclusively 
in French, and as pulpit orator he ranked 
high, inclined to be dramatic. From the 
start he recognized the importance of his 
position, as he forsaw and was not slow 
slo\v to foretell, the future of the Sault. 

24 Status Animarum by Father Hatschcn Lib. 
riaptizatorum Missionis Stac. Marie, Sault Sainte 
Marie, Vol. II. 


He commenced to shape her. future des 
tinies. The everlasting truth in the motto, 
"he who has the youth has the future," 
was plain to a mind such as that of Fere 
Menet. Besides the school for boys which 
Brother La Coste opened in the sacristy, 
Menet persuaded Airs. Sarah Cadotte, an 
English woman of high attainments and 
a convert to the faith, to devote herself 



to the care of the girls, at least for a 
time, until he could induce some religious 
community to take hold of it. I nsuccess- 
fnl in this attempt in America, he invited 
the Lrsulines of his native country, to 
come to his assistance. Favorable em nigh 
to his wishes the mother house of 
Faouette. Lrittany, sent, on March 3, 
i8Vv a courageous woman. Mother Mary 
Xavier, nee Yvonne de Lilian, to establish 

tries to obtain means and priests for his 
new and desolate diocese. Returning to 
the Lnited States in the summer of 1854, 
he went from Xew York to Washington 
to petition the Treasury Department for 
a free entry of church goods which he 
had brought along and to ask the Cen- 
eral Land Office for a grant of the strip 
of land on which the Catholic mission was 
located. His first request was not favor- 

the new parochial school at the Sault du ably acted upon, and as to the second, he 
Ste. Marie. She associated to herself a was told to make application through the 

Miss (iordon and took, in the fall of 1853, 
a class of twenty girls who had their 
class-room in the Tardif house, which 

Land Agent, at Sault Ste. Marie, in 
whose district the lands were situated. 

Hishop Haraga s claim was numbered 
as <)~. The proprietorship was based on 
the fact that it was known as a mission 
claim under former governments, and 
under this one long before the Indian 
titles of lands had passed unto it, that 
in 1834. there existed a church on the 
same claim, almost on the shore of St. 
Marys River, and that in 1837, a second 
church was erected on it. and still stands 
there. Haraga deposited with the Reg 
ister at Marqnette seventy dollars to cover 
the cost of survey assessed against the 
claim by the government. 

This mission property is a narrow strip 
of land of about seventy-nine feet, extend 
ing first south-easterly and then southerly 
stood on the north side of the road, oppo- tor a distance of two and three-quarter 
site the church. In the back part of this miles. All original claims were laid out 
house the sister and her companion took in this shape to afford their owners access 

their quarters. 

to the river, the onl highwa in those 

Mrs. Sarah Cadotte, nee Hyens, was days. Hut the church claim has lost its 

the first organist, and conducted a mixed water front, partly through the aggres- 

choir until her untimely demise in 1852. siveness of commanding officers, partly, 

With her arrival at the Sault came also and perhaps mainly so, through lack of 

the first piano to the Chippewa County, energy on the part of the owners. The 

Immediately after his consecration United States established the post known 
Bishop Baraga left for European conn- as Fort Brady in 1822, without any spe- 



cific reservation of lands in or surround 
ing the fort. In 1846 Lieut. Westcott, 
under instruction from General Brady, 
surveyed a plat for military purposes. 
Adjoining the east boundry line of the 
Fort was the mission claim. Several 
buildings, such as the carpenter and the 
blacksmith shops, the stables, ice-house 
and slaughter-house, were found to be 
just outside the boundary, on the mission 
land. It was easier to take so much of 
the church land by adding it to the mili 
tary reservation than to move the build 
ings. On July 9, 1847, Lucius Lyons, 
Surveyor-General at Detroit, wrote to 
the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office as follows: "At the request of 
Brig>General Hugh Brady, U. S. A., 
I transmit herewith a diagram of a part 
of fractional township Xo. 47 north, 
range Xo. I east, meridian Michigan, 
showing the connection of the public sur 
veys in said township with the military 
reservation embracing Fort Brady as sur 
veyed under the direction of the War De 

"As this reservation will, of course, be 
withheld from sale, I have found it neces 
sary since ascertaining its limits, to lay 
out the new fraction around it, and I have 
to request that you will be pleased to 
make the corresponding alterations on 
the plat in your office." 25 This was done 
while the watchmen in the towers of Sion 
watched ! 

Since then the Fort has been removed 
to the summit overlooking the city: the 
barracks together with the shops and 

25 Information taken from a Brief and Argu 
ment for the Applicant John Torrent versus Sault 
Ste. Marie and War Department. An appeal 
from the decision of the Register and Receiver m 
Marquette. Loaned to us by the Hon. John G. 

stables have been razed. The ground 
where they stood is idle and no steps have 
been made to recover that which rightful 
ly belongs to the church. 

Baraga s application was hung up in 
the \Var Department twenty-fir? years. 
Xot until 1879 was the matter adjusted. 

The following patent was received for 

Record July ujth. A. D. 1880, at n A. M. 


The U. S. A. 

To all to whom these presents shall 
come, greeting : Whereas, under the pro 
visions of the act of Con. approved this 
26th day of September, 1850, entitled 
An Act providing for the examination 
and settlement for land at S. S. M.. Mich., 



the claim of the R. R. B. F. Baraga in 
trust for the sole use and benefit of the 
Catholic Mission has been confirmed to 
a tract or parcel of land designated on 
the supplemental plat and survey ap 
proved under date of September 4th, 
1855 by the Stir, Gen l. at Detroit, made 
pursuant to the act aforesaid as lot Xo. 
97, containing twenty-six acres and 
21/100 of an acre after deducting and ex- 



eluding therefrom that portion of said 
claim included in the L . S. Mil. Res. in 
sections 5, 6, 7, 8 and 19, in township 
47, north of range one in the district of 
lands subject to sale at Marquette in the 
state of Michigan. And whereas there 
has been deposited in the Gen l Land of 
fice of the U. S. a certificate Xo. 126 of 
the Register and Receiver at Marquette, 
Michigan, whereby it appears that pay 

ment has been made in full according to 
law of the amount of assessment on said 
claim. Xow know ye, that the L . S. A. 
in consideration of the premises and in 
conformity of the provisions of the Act 
of Congress aforesaid and the Act of 
Congress June 2_>nd, 1860. entitled An 
Act in relation to Mission claims at S. S. 
M., Mich., have given and granted and 
by these presents do give and grant unto 
the said R. R. B. V. Raraga in trust for 
the sole use and benefit of the Catholic 
Mission and to his successors and assigns, 
the tract or parcel of land above described 
expressly, excepting and reserving from 
the transfer by these presents so much of 
the survey of said lot 97 as may be found 
to be embraced within the survey of the 
exterior lines of the said U. S. Mil. Res. 
To have and to hold the same, together 
with all the rights, privileges, immunities 
and appurtenances of whatsoever nature 
thereunto belonging unto the said R. R. 
I . F. Baraga in trust for the sole use and 
benefit of the Catholic Missions and to his 
successors and assigns forever, with the 
exception and reservation aforesaid. In 
testimony whereof, I, Rutherford B. 
Hays, Pres. of U. S. A., have caused 
these letters to be made Patent and the 
Seal of the Gen l Land Office to be here 
unto affixed. 

Given under my hand at the City 

of AYashington, the 9th day of 
( Seal.) October, in the year of. our Lord 

1879, and of the Ind. of the U. S. 


By the Pres. R. B. HAYS. 

By \YM. H. CROOK, Sec y. 


Rec. of the Gen l Land Office. 
Rec. Vol. 17 Pg. 44 and 45." 



The church is no longer in possession two lay brothers a subsistence. The 

of all this land. At different times as bishop not only did not take anything 

exigencies arose, parcels have been sold from this revenue, but more frequently 

or donated. Sales have been made to R. contributed from endowments for the 

X. Adams, St. Marys Falls Water Power propogation of faith, which he annually 

Co., Ben. Tyley Bailey, Edward Eldrege, received from Vienna, Munich, Paris, 

Andrew Blank, Waldemar, F. Grosse. Lyons and many other resources. He dc- 

the Academy of Ladies of Loretto, Ed- lighted in planning little churches for 

ward V. Douglass, trustee, and the City missions, and his genius insisted on hav- 

of Sault Ste. Marie for extension of ing some kind of a steeple on each one of 


The bishops of the di 
ocese also holds title to 
that part of Maple 
Ridge Cemetery lying 
south of the divison line 
as surveyed by Guy J. 
Carleton, county sur 

Bishop Baraga held 
his solemn entry into the 
episcopal city on the 2ist 
of August (1854), car 
rying his carpet-bag 
from the government 
dock at the Mass-hour 
of the early morning. 
Pie took up his quar 
ters with Father Menet. 
incessant activit 

them. He found on his own cathedral 



From here his only a shed-like shelter for the small bell, 

extended over ten He at once caused the removal of both 

years. Anxious to improve the condition to replace them by a more suitable article. 

of the diocese he was oftener absent than \Ye have before us a pen-sketch drawn by 

at home, but this did not prevent him himself for the cathedral belfry. Joseph 

looking, with as much anxious thought, Meniclier and Alexander Cadotte were 

after his Cathedral parish. Confiding to his usual assistants at this kind of work. 

Father Menet the spiritual part of it, he They carried out his designs, though he 

directed entirely its temporal affairs. The was not slow nor ignorant at handling a 

pew rent was the only revenue scarcely plane or saw. In 1856 the two com- 

large enough to give the rector and his 

menced building the altar for the cathed- 



ral. The year after he designed a bap 
tismal fount and a pulpit. The former has 
met its end by destruction while the latter 
has been wisely preserved by Father 
Chartier and is still used in the present 
church. To the Tardif house he made a 
small addition in the back to give the 
Sisters more living mom. 

In September (25), 1855, the teaching 
community increased by two novices, the 
Misses Alary Henry and Catharine Doyle, 
both Philadelphia girls, known in relig- 


ious life as Sisters Mary Joseph and Mary 
Angela, respectively. The last named is 
Mother Angela of the St. Ignace 
Academy. In February, 1856, Miss Emily 
Bedard from Sugar Island a native of 
Canada, joined the community. 

With these additions to the teaching 
forces the Tardif house became pretty 
crowded, and the good Bishop looked for 
a more spacious accommodation for 
teachers and pupils, as these had also 
more than doubled in their number. He 
purchased from Sargeant Galley a house. 

which stood a distance of half a block to 
the Fast across the field from the rectory. 
Meniclier and Cadotte were put to work 
to arrange two school rooms and the rest 
for living apartments for the Sisters. So 
particular was the 15 i. shop that everything 
should meet the requirements of modern 
izing times that Father Menet gently re 
minded him that moneys were needed else 
where just as badly if not worse. 2 " This 
house still stands, Xo. 404, on Portage 
Ave., and is owned by Mrs. B. F. Kelley, 

a daughter of 

Sargeant Galley. 

Another Jesuit 
Father, the Rev. 
August Kohler, 
made his home at 
the Sault in those 
days. His labors 
w ere mostly 
among the Indi 
ans on the Cana- 
d i a n side, the 
Michipicotten re 
gion. He was born 
at Colmar, Up 
per-Rhine, on Au 
gust 10, 1821, and was drowned on the 
Coburn in Lake Huron. 

1 rovidence placed Baraga and Menet, 
two men of so extraordinary talents and 
education, in the same sphere of activity, 
that one could not help but have at heart 
the interest of the other. Baraga was 
zealous and charitable to a fault. Where 
Menet gave a quarter, Baraga emptied his 
pockets, said one who knew them both. 
This was the difference between the two 
on all sides and the cause of misunder- 

~ e Baraga s Diary for 1856. 



standing which led to the withdrawal of 
.Father Menet from the Sault. 

Notwithstanding the unlimited sacri 
fices on the part of Bishop Baraga, the 
L rsuline Sisters found in the Sault only 
a struggling existence ; they \vere, there 
fore, glad of the opportunity offered to 
them by Father Jaffre, S. J., of Chatham, 
Ontario, to remove to that city in 1860. 
Baraga was greatly chagrined at their 
step as he could not understand why was 
not everybody like himself, willing to 
deny himself, not only comforts, but to a 
great extent, even necessaries of life. He 
blamed Father Menet greatly in this mat 
ter, who on the other hand arrived at the 
conclusion that human endurance had 
reached the limit of sacrifices and consid 
ered it best to withdraw. In 1861 he left, 
to the universal sorrow of the people. 

From the arrival in 1846 to the 24th of 
August, 1860, Pere Menet s last entry, the 
Jesuits baptized one thousand three hun 
dred and eighty-one persons. The record 
is invariably in French and in the writing 
of the priest who performed the function. 
The formula usually runs thus: Le huit 
mai mil huit cent quarante sept, nous 
soussigne pretre missionaire avons bap 
tise Leon, ne le quinze Avril meme annee, 
du legitime marriage de Joseph Bois- 
soneau et de Ninon Metous, de cette 
paroisse, rive Canadienne. Le parrain a 
ete, Magloire Boissoneau, et la marraine 
Marguerite Biron, qui ne signent. Later 
the appendix qui ne signent was left off. 
The hand-writing of all missionaries is 
remarkably clear and legible particularly 
that of Fathers Menet and Kohler, and 
more so where they used a bluish ink, 
similar to our copying fluid. Bishop 

Baraga closed the Jesuit record of bap 
tisms by the note : "Caetera Baptismata 
scripta reperiuntur in Volumine V." and 
ruled this "No. 5" record into rubies. 
The first entry made by himself is that of 
William Mulvaghor, born at Bruce Mine, 
October 4, 1859, legitimate son of Francis 
Mulvaghor and Mary his wife, born As- 
pel. Baptized September 15, 1860, by 
Fridericus Eppus. Mariano politanus in 
Michigan. Godfather was Gerhard Ter- 
horst, afterwards Father Terhorst, and no 
godmother is mentioned. 


During Father Menet s pastorate occa 
sional entries are made by the following 
missionaries, who either temporarily so 
journed at the Sault or on their way to 
and from their missions made it their 
stopping place : 

Rev. I. D. Chonne, S. J., 27 from July 
n, 1847, to August 26, 1860. 

Rev. August Kohler, S. J., from Au 
gust i, 1847, to November 30, 1858. 

" Born at Sccourt, Moselle, France. Aug. 4, 
1808; died at Wikwemikons?. Manitmilin Island, 
Dec. 14, 1878. 



Rev. M. S. V. Hanipaux, S. J.,- s from 
October 12, 1847, to September 26, 1853. 

Rev. Nicholas AI. J. Fremiot, S. ].~ (> 
from June 28. 1848, to July 10, 1848. 

Rev. Dominic Duranquet, S. J. ; :; " was 
occasional visitor at the Sault-rectory for 
over twenty years, during Menet s ad 
ministration and afterwards. 

The departure of the Jesuits and of the 
I rsulines. at almost the same time, left 
the bishop in a temporary embarrassment. 


There was the parish and the school to 
be provided for. but small prospects of 
satisfactorily mending the way. The 
school caused him more anxious thought 
than the parish, for of that he could take 

" "Horn at Donjcux, Haute Marne, France, 
May 3, 1805; died at Quebec, March 13. 1872. 

" 9 Born at Bcllefnnlaine, Voices. France. Oct 
ober 5. 1818, drowned somewhere near the mouth 
of the Missisaguc river in Manitoulin mission, 
July 4, 1854. 

""Born at Chalut Pay-dc-Dnme, France. Jan. 
20. 1813; died at \Yick\vemikonij. Manitoulin 
Island, Out., Dec. 19. 1900. 

care himself when he could not possibly 
denote himself to teaching. His enquiry 
for suitable teachers in Detroit and Cin 
cinnati brought no speedy relief, so he 
merged the rooms in the Academy build 
ing into one, accommodating the boys and 
girls, and gave them Mr. Terhorst, an ec- 
clesiastical student, as preceptor until a 
teacher could be had. This happened 
sooner than either of them expected. On 
the 27111 of October. Air. Seymour arrived 
from Detroit and four days later 
took his chair in the Academy. 

Airs. Tardiff, who had been trained 
as organist by Father Thiele, in his 
student days, took the well trained 
mixed choir left by the Crsulines. 
The l>ishop contented himself per 
forming parish work till Christmas 
when he ordained (ierhard Terhorst. 
Ilis elevation to priesthood would 
have pretty well established the old 
order of things, had not in the mean 
while the inefficiency of the teacher 
become so apparent that it threat 
ened to disband attendance at school. 
lie was, therefore, with much re 
gret of the tender hearted Bishop, 
promptly dismissed and Father 
Terhorst again made to take the school, 
but was relieved after two months by 
James Sweeney, who in turn taught only 
three days, when Mr. William Donovan, 
the newly engaged teacher, arrived. 

Hishop I>araga. in his unselfishness, did 
not intend to keep Father Terhorst at the 
Sault as long after his ordination as he 
did. He had ordained him for L Anse 
and was now. May 2ist (1861) sending 
him to that place. His successor was Rev. 
. \ngelus Van Paemel, from May T9th to 



November 2nd. Then came the newly or 
dained priest, Honoratus Bourion, on 
Sunday, December ist, 1801. 

The "new rector" became more exact 
ing in his demands than his predecessors. 
Particularly, was lie opposed to the small 
salary and the simple table so characteris 
tic of the Bishop s housekeeping. Xot to 
force his own ways of living upon the 
priest, the Bishop decided to remove into 
the small Tarclif home across the road. 
But just when the carpenters had com 
pleted the necessary repairs and the Bishop 
commenced moving his ef 
fects, Father Bourion asked 
to be sent to Xegaunee. then 
a rising mission. The Bishop 
consented and he departed 
on the 29th of May, 1862. 

During the next two years 
Bishop Baraga experienced 
much difficulty in finding a 
suitable priest for the cathe 
dral parish. He found him 
self particularly handicapped 
during the summer seasons 
when he was expected to 
make the visitation of par 
ishes. Right after Father 
Bourion s departure, Fa 
ther Kohler, S. J., from 
Garden River, volunteered to replace him. 
In his travels he learned to know, at Han 
cock, the Rev. Michael Mclaughlin whom 
he adopted and sent to the Sault. He 
staid, though, only from July ist to Octo 
ber 1 3th. In the summer of 1863 Rev. 
J. Blettner, S. J., 31 rendered him the same 
service as Father Kohler the season be 
fore. In the fall. Rev. J. D. Ryan, a secu- 

:n Born at Xeunkirchen. Moselle; died at Fort 
Wiliams. Out.. Jan. 30. 1882. 

lar, stayed one month. And in the sum 
mer of 1864 Rev. Henry L. Thiele was 
placed in charge of the parish. \Ye find 
likewise occasional entries during these 
two years, by Fathers Dominic Duranquet 
and Richard liaxter. Jesuits ( 1863), and 
by the neo-presbyters, J. J. Broun (Sept., 
63), and Aloysius Maria Kopleter (Au 
gust, 64). 

Weary of these continual, to the parish 
detrimental, changes the Bishop requested 
the Jesuits to return. Father Menet was 
again chosen for the post. When this fact 


became known there was a genuine re 
joicing among the residents, Protestants 
as well as Catholics, and when the boat, 
carrying the priest, passed Fort Brady, 
six guns were fired in his honor. Brother 
LaCoste also came back, this time in the 
capacity of sacristan and cook. 

Since then, to this day, the Jesuit Fath 
ers have had the charge of the parish and 
the following is their succession. The 
pastors are printed in italics. 



Rev. John B. Menet, S. J. } second term, 
from September 11, 1864, to August 19, 
1 368. 

Rev. Ferdinand Belanger. S. J., :! - from 
August Jjth to Xovember 12, 1865. 

Rev. Alp/ions Baudin, S. J., : : from Sep 
tember 2, 1 8(>8, to October 17. iS<><). 

Rev. Charles Vary, S. J., :!4 from Xo 
vember 7, 1869 to October 4. 1870. 

Rev. John Blcttncr, S. J., from August 
21, 1870, to October 22. 1871. 

JUNE 19, 1904. 

Rev. Cbas. Vary, S. J., second term, 
from September 24, 1871, to September 
26, 1874. 

3 - Born April 7, 1824. Became secular priest 
and died near Quebec. 

=:: Born in France, April 2, 1833 ; still living in 

34 Born at Longueuil, Que., May 15. 1825; 
died at Port Arthur s Landing, April 12, 1878. 

Rev. Christopher Kottinann, S. /., 35 
from Jan. i5tb to March 11, 1872, from 
the Canadian S<>o. 

Rev. Thomas Oullct, S. J., M from June 
16, 1872, to August 10, 1873. 

Rev. Martin /vnm/, .S. /., ::7 from Au 
gust 31, 1873, to August 23, 1878. With 
the first of the year 1876 he commenced 
the records in Knglish. He also erected 
the present rectory. 

Rev. Paul Xadeau, S. J., :!s from No 
vember 8, 1874, to January 27, 1876. 

Rev. R. Cliartier, S. /., :ilt from August 
IT, 1878, to August 4, 1890. 

Rev. John F. Chambon, S. J., 4 " from 
May. 1881, to September, 1895. 

Rev. F. X. Santerre, S. J., n from Au 
gust 23, 1885, to August 14, 1886. 

Rev. Joseph R. Richard, S. J.. - from 
September 16, 1886, to April 15. 1888. 

Rev. Owen Bernard Devlin. S. J., 4 5 
from August 14, 1888, to August 22, 

Rev. Joseph Grcnier, S. J., from Au 
gust 24, 1890, to June 21. 1891. 

Rev. L. T. fiarci-nu, S. J.. from August 
31, 1890, to Xovember i, 1891. 

" Born at Stromberg, Westphalia. September 
2, iSiS; died at Sault-au-Recollet, One., Decem 
ber 26, 1879. 

""Born December 21, 1819; died at L lmmac- 
nlee Conception, De Lorinier. near Montreal, 
Nov. 26, 1894. 

37 Born at Tours, France, Sept. 8, 1817; died 
at Montreal, Jan. 10, 1891. 

38 Born Aug. 10. 1833; died at Sault-au-Re 
collet, One., May 6, 1897. 

88 Born at Chelm^ford, Ont., Jan. 8, 1839; at 
this writing, rector of St. Ignatius church, Sault 
Ste. Marie, Canada. 

40 Born December 19, 1831; died at Sault-au- 
Recollet, Que., October 5, 1902. 

41 Born September 6, 1846; secularized; at 
present in Zurich, Kans. 

4 - Born Feb. 7, 1854; residing at Sacred Heart 
church Sault Ste. Marie. Ont. 

43 Born August 2, 1853; residing at St. Mary s 
College. Montreal. 



Rev. John II. Finnegan, S. J., 44 from 
July 1 2th to October 15, 1891. 

Rev. J. A. MacDonald, S. J., from No 
vember 19, 1891, to June 13, 1892. 

Rev. Peter Ilamcl, S. J., 45 from Febru 
ary 14, 1892, to July 22, 1894. 

Rev. Daniel Donovan, S. /.," . from 
June 20, 1892, to November 24, 1895. 

Rev. J. Keily, S. J., 47 from August 19, 
1894, to January 20, 1895. 


Rev. Philip Eugene Tourangeau, S. 
/., 4S arrived in February, 1895, and is still 

" Born in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 7, 1836; re 
siding at Fordham College, New York city. 

15 Born Feb. 22, 1832; died at L Immaculee 
Conception, De Lorinier, pres Montreal, June 6, 

40 Born at Montreal, November 16, 1856; re 
siding at Guelph, Ont. 

47 Born at Stratford, Ont., November 30, 
1851 ; died at the University of St. Louis, Mo., 
April 15, 1905. 

48 Born at Cap Saute, Que., ordained by Bp. 
Favre at Montreal. 

connected with the mission serving his 
second term. 

Rev. William F. Gagnieur. S. J., 4 came 
to the Sault on September 5, 1895, and is 
still there. 

Rev. /. /. Connolly, S. /., 5() from No 
vember 9, 1895, to November, 1900. 

Rev. J. P. McDonnell, S. J., in March, 
1896, while on a visit. 

Rev. Edmund Rottot, S. /., 51 from Au 
gust, 1896, to August, 1900. 

Rev. Alexander A. Gagnieur, S. 
J .;>- arrived in the Sault on the 2nd 
of August, 1904, and is still su 
perior and rector of the parish. 

Rev. J. Dulude, S. J. 53 

Rev. Eugene Carrie, S. J., had 
charge of the French from 1899-1900. 

Upon the arrival of Father Me- 
net, Bishop Baraga built a residence 
for himself making the Tardif 
house an addition thereto. Fie lived 
there until his removal to Marquette 
in May, 1866. It was commonly 
known as the "palais" the palace 
of the Bishop. It still stands, none 
the worse for its age, although 
somewhat weather-beaten, in the 
rear of the present school and 
occupied by the janitor. We 

49 Born in Guelph, Ont., May 10, 1857; entered 
the Society September 6, 18/3 ; ordained in Mon 
treal by Archbishop Favre, April 20, 1886. 

50 Born March 31, 1848; residing at L Im 
maculee Conception de Lorinier, near Montreal. 

01 Born at Montreal, March 2, 1850; residing 
at L Immaculee Conception, De Lorinier, near 

5 - Born in Toronto, Out., January 22, 1863 ; 
entered the Society on July 30, 1887 ; ordained 
in Montreal by Archbishop Bruchesi, June 30, 

53 Born at Chambly, Can., December 8, 1863. 
Came to the Sault in November 1900, and is 
still there in active service. 



insert a photograph of it and let the reader Hishop, whenever he could do otherwise. 

judge if it deserved that high sounding Through his efforts and sacrifices he in- 

title, hut if it did, it certainly could not duced the Sisters of St. Joseph from St. 

have been turned to a more appropriate Louis, Mo., to take charge of the school. 




use than it was. Secular teaching in the He sold the old Academy building to its 
school was never to the liking of the original owners, and in September, 1866, 


the Sisters, opened a graded school in his 
"palais." The first band of sisters, under 
Mother Alary de Chantal was composed 
of Sisters Alary Herman, Alary Isabel and 
Alary La Salette. Countless personal sac 
rifices of the Sisters were connected with 
the maintenance of this school, hut finally 
in 1873, they gave up the struggle. Its 
last superioress was Mother Alary Cecile 

of Alary, with Mother Flizabeth Miller, 
superior. Of the two buildings the house 
was in the worst condition. It was moved 
from its props to the rear of the lot and 
the present rectory took its place. The 
building of the church Father Ferard left 
to his successor. 

Father Chartier arrived in August. 
1878. \Yith precision of a master in his 
art, he laid out his work. Ascertaining 


c. */, f &,,, 

~D.t/, r /. f M<,ft/ ie s Mairt ,^_-- 


About this time Father Ferard came as 
superior to the Sault. With the school 
abandoned, church and house in sad need 
of repair, the situation was about as cheer 
less as it could be. II is first attention 
was naturally given to the school which 
he reopened with the help of lay teachers, 
and substituted them, in the fall of 1874 
by the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart 

the resources, which even among a willing 
people were limited, he ordered architect 
Joseph Connolly from Toronto to make 
plans for a church of Gothic design to be 
built of brick at a cost not exceeding twen 
ty-five thousand dollars. To raise this 
extraordinary sum he surrounded himself 
with the best workers of the parish of 
whom Airs. Alexander Cadotte and Airs. 



Maria Cook may be mentioned for their 
devotion to the cause. Men contributed 
manual labor when they could not give 
money. With the material on the ground 
and excavations made, actual building was 
begun in the month of June, 1881, and the 
building enclosed before the snow fell that 
winter. In the sacristy Mass was cele 
brated on the feast of the Presentation of 
the Blessed Virgin, November Jist. and 

the sidewalk and upon completion of the 
present edifice was torn down, \\ith it 
disappeared from the compass an histori 
cal building. It was the third church built 
within the territory of the diocese; it was 
the first cathedral where the first ordina 
tion to the priesthood in Upper Michigan 
was held. It is to be regretted that no 
photograph has come down to us. \\ e 
have only a crayon sketch in possession of 


although not quite completed inside, the Judge Steer, to whom we are indebted for 
first services were held in the church on the preservation of its likeness, and with 
Christmas clay and the occasion marked whose kind permission we publish it. 
by an eight day mission preached by the Encouraged by the generous and loyal 
Fathers Chartier and Ouellet. The fol- support of his parishioners and of the en- 
lowing September, Bishop Vertin dedi- tire community. Father Chartier com- 
cated it with great solemnity to the Holy mencecl in 1885 the erection of the much 
Name of Mary. needed school. The Bishop Baraga s 
The new St. Mary s church was built "palais" was moved to the north of the lot 
back of the old one which stood close to and on its former site rose the handsome, 


new, brick-veneered school. It was built 
for school accommodations only, the Sis 
ters continued to live in the time-honored 
"episcopal mansion." Last year 1904 
the school was rebuilt under the direction 
of the present pastor, the Rev. Alexander 
Gagnieur. While the school room was 
more than doubled, a much useful hall, 
named after the venerable Bishop Baraga, 
was located on the third floor. The en 
tire building was renovated inside and 
equipped to meet the requirements of the 

In 1898 another 
chapter was added to 
the parochial school 
history. The Sisters of 
the Institute of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, 
commonly called the 
Sisters of Loretto, 
built, at their own ex 
pense, an Academy 
for higher education 
of girls. Such an in 
stitution was needed 
and therefore wel 
comed by the citizens without distinc 
tion of creed. Bishop Vertin encouraged 
the good Sisters by giving them the neces 
sary building lots on which they erected 
an imposing structure at a cost of twenty 
thousand dollars. They came to the Sault 
to pursue the aim of their institution. 
They were founded in England at the time 
of James I. Persecution was not more 
sparing of them than of many other kin 
dred establishments. Perhaps all for the 

better ; they were forced to spread over the 
continent, whereas they might have con 
tinued to labor within the narrow con 
fines of the land that gave them birth. 
As it is, their beneficent influences have 
made themselves felt in many homes of 
many lands. In Germany they are known 
as the Eiiglisclic Fraenlcin and daughters 
from the most aristocratic circles are en 
trusted to them for education. They came 
to Canada in 1841, establishing them 
selves in the so called Loretto Abbev, Tor- 



onto, hence their name Loretto Sisters. 
Besides the eight graded parochial 
school, which they accepted, they conduct 
a full high school course for girls in their 
own convent. There the young ladies not 
only find suitable instruction but also a 
home. Eighteen Sisters divide the work 
between the parish school and the Acad 
emy. In the latter all common branches 
are taught, besides, at the option of the 
pupil. Physics, Chemistry, Music, Art, and 



different languages, ancient and modern. 
The present superioress is Mother Kuchu- 
ria, \vho has succeeded her three prede 
cessors. Mothers Christina, Gonzaga and 

The magnificent school and Academy 
are the crowning acts of Catholic educa 
tion so humhly begun in a block house. 
They are mostly due to the untiring ener 
gies of the Jesuit Fathers, whose labors, 
for almost a century, have not been con 
fined to the Sault only but just as much 
extended into the neighboring districts 
and in many instances carried into the re- 

si ve work. lie, hen in his fiftieth year, 
like missionaries of yore, went forth along 
the shores of St. Mary s River, Lakes 
I luron and Michigan, down as far as 
Menominee. in search of scattered In 
dians or whites to bring them to consola 
tion of religion. \Yeary, foot-sore, his 
frail figure bent under the pack of uten 
sils for the holy sacrifice of the Mass and 
his scanty apparel, he made his way in 
season and out of season, rain or shine, 
over a trail, on almost impassable roads, 
the lonely habitations of those who in 
their earthly career were deprived of 

motest corners of the diocese. They at 
tend at present, as they did ever since l>a- 
raga s days, all the missions, wdiite or 
Indian, on the Saint Marys River includ 
ing the Sugar Island missions. They visit 
all the little stations on the shore of Lake 
Superior and the inland settlements scat 
tered throughout the Chippewa county. 
But most to their credit are the Indian 
missions of which they had exclusive care 
in the eastern, and since the demise of 
Father Terhorst, in the western part of 
the diocese. In May, 1881, Father John 
F. Chambon was detailed to this exclu- 

earth s wealth, compelled to eke an ex 
istence such as the lowliest of God s nob 
lest creatures are afforded. To them this 
noble souled priest, clad in rags, most of 
the time, and looked upon with disdain by 
braggard fashion, was an angel whom the 
Omnipotent God used as a messenger to 
reach the hearts of liis lonely and lowly. 
Like to his Master, who became one of us 
to redeem us, he became one of them to 
bring them the fruits of Redemption. Fif 
teen long years he tramped through the 
woods and solitudes of this diocese. At 
the age of sixty-five he was recalled by his 


superiors to spend the evening of his life 894, dedicated by Father Gagnieur Oc- 

at their house at the Sault-au-Recollet, tober 15, 1896. 

One., where he died on October 5, 1902. Ishkonigan, Lake George. Sugar Is- 

T r ather Chambon has a worthy succes- land, St. Joseph s church built by Bishop 

Bor in the Rev. William F. Gagnieur. S. Baraga in 1862. Other missions on Sugar 

J., who, like his predecessor, since 1895, Island are Wassa Bay, Thibodeau. and 

monthly or periodically visits the follow- Brassar Point, 

ing places: Barbeau. near West Xeebish. Holy 



Payment, a church built by Bishop Ba 
raga in 1857 dedicated in honor of Our 
Savior, Friend of Children. This church. 
on the north shore of Sugar Island, is at 
tended from Garden River, Canada. 

Haylake, Sugar Island, church of St. 
Theresa, built by Father Chambon in 

Family church, built by Father Chambon. 
Attended by leather Dulude. 

Rudyard, Chippewa Co., twenty miles 
from the city, on the Soo line. 

Gladys ; no church ; eighteen families. 
Attended by Father Dulude. 

Alexander; no church; one family. At- 



tended by Father Duhule. 

Kinross ; no church ; six families. At 
tended by Father Duhule. 

Spur 359, three families; at Spur 355, 
one family. Attended by Father Duhule. 

Dollar Settlement: attended by Father 

Neebish Island: Sailors Fncampment. 

\Yest Neebish. 

Les Cheneaux : Uessel, St. Anaclete. 
built by Father Chambon, dedicated July 
13, 1891, by Bishop Yertin, assisted by 
Fathers Henn and Miller. Cedarville. 

r* IB* ",-- - ^*x r , j 


*< a fE -r 


Donaldson, near Pickford, church of 
St. Anthony of Padua, built by Father 
Chartier. Attended by leather Dulude. 

Pickford, twenty-four miles from the 
Soo, church of the Sacred Heart, built 
by Father Chartier. Attended by Father 

Pine River on Lake Huron Drum- 
mond Islands: a small church was com 
menced by Father Chambon at Settle 
ment, but afterwards the work given up. 

Halfway: Satago Settlement inland on 
the Carp River. 

Indians at St. Ignace. 
Pointe aux chrnes on Lake Michigan. 
Fpouffette, thirty miles from St. Ignace 
on Lake Michigan, Seul choix, eighteen 
miles from Manistique. 

Scott s Point near Manistique. 
Indian Point, on the Big Pay the 
Xoque; church of St. Lawrence, built by 
Father Bordas during his administration 
of Lafayette, in 18^3. 

Indian ( reek, Schoolcraft Co. 

Iroquois Mission (Bay 
Mills) L. S. 

Salt Point, L. S. 
Sheldrake, L. S. 
Fmersnn, L. S. 
Dead River. Man [net te 
Co. ( Indians) 

Assinins, Baraga Co. 
i Indians) 

Trout Lake, while set- 
iVment on the Soo I .inc. 
Rexti >n. 

Fckerman. on the I ). S. 
S. & A. Ry. 

One of the Jesuit Fa 
thers regularly attends to 
Brimley. a small town on the D. S. S. 
S. & A. Ry., twelve miles west of Sauit 
Ste. Marie. Father Chambon erected 
there a small church, dedicated to St. 
Francis Xavier. Last year Father Dulude 
built aside of it a new and more commodi 
ous one. 

Father Gagnieur also exerts himself to 
bring back to the church the fallen away 
Indians in \Yhite Rapids, \Yis., and Lac 
Vienx Desert, Michigan. And notwith- 



standing these extensive missions, Father 
Gagnieur finds time, and always has the 
good will, to lend a helping hand to parish 
priests who may stand in need of occa 
sional assistance. 

The parish of Sault Ste. Marie, proper, 
has about five hundred families. These, 
according to the nationality are English 
speaking (360), Canadian French (95); 
half-breed, French (100), Polish (15). 
Italian (20). and Indian (4). 



It would be hard to find 
in the whole state of Mich 
igan, a more romantic re 
gion than Detour in sum 
mer. That the Indians of 
many tribes assembled there 


in their golden era of liberty, 
is in itself admission of its 
scenic beauty, for those chil 
dren of nature had their 
taste for the beautiful, 
trained only by the work of 
the Great Master s hand. So, 
that inlet of Lake Huron, 
framed by numerous islands, 
has easily attracted the stud 
ious eye of the Red-man as 
it calls forth the admiration 
of the white traveler. 

Detour meant in its former significa 
tion to turn which the vessels coming from 
any direction had to make. Today the 
name is applied more to the village spread 
on the sloping shore of the mainland. The 
Indians were wont to assemble on Drum- 
mond Island, either for an annual catch 
of fish or to barter away their presents 
which the Canadian Government gave 
them. Thomas L. McKenney, one of the 

commissioners accompanying Governor 
Cass in his tour of the lakes, 1826, was 
witness to one of these occasions. He un 
wittingly gives a splendid testimony to 
Catholicity and its influences. On Sun 
day, July 2, 1826, the governor s boat 
dropped anchor at Detour. Not thirty 
yards from the stern "drunk, noisy and 
naked Indians," arrested their attention. 
Three thousand of them six hundred 
Ottawas had gathered there to receive 
their presents and disposing of them "to 
enjoy the luxury of being drunk." It was 
not the Christian Indian that was drunk. 


Rambling among the Indian lodges, Mr. 
McKenney heard some singing in a neigh 
boring building. He inquired what it 
meant. "The captain (Anderson) an 
swered, "the Indians are worshipping." 
"\Yho are they?" "Ottawas." "What is 
their religion?" "The Roman Catho 
lic." 54 

r>1 Tour to the Lakes by Thomas L. McKenny. 
Baltimore, 1827, p. 166. 



\Ye are grateful to Air. McKenncy for 
recording this incident, as it speaks elo 
quently of the influence which the teach 
ing" of the church had upon the morals of 
the Redman. One of the principal condi 
tions to conversion was a pledge against 
drink. This imposed total abstinence was 
a guarantv for a virtuous lite from which 
springs -qich character as Christianity ami 
civilization demand. And those Catholic 

GCAY, P. (j. 

Ottawas were not devoid of it, as Mr. 
McKenney witnesses: "The Indians that 
remained on the island, were, no doubt, 
the most improved in all respects. I be 
lieve they were from L Arbre Croche, 
about twenty miles west of Michillimacki- 
nac. The Ottawas of L Arbre Croche 
have been for many years the most im 

proved Indians in those regions, and up 
wards of fifty .years ago supplied Alichilli- 
mackinac with corn, and other articles of 
subsistence. They are the best dressed 
Indians 1 have met with; and are so su 
perior in cleanliness, and comforts, and 
conduct, to the Chippeways, as to be 
known from them by their gait and exter- 
i< >r. r r 

I he above writer also gives the hymn 
sung by the Indians at their evening- devo 
tion but duly remarks that having copied 
it "from an almost illegible" writing, the 
orthography may not be correct. So it is 
not. To correct the mistakes we give 
from Karaga s "Otawa Anamie-AIis- 

(Sur 1 air : Sur cct autel.) 

Jesus, nosse ! 
Omljita ki sagiin, 
llostiwining ki gwamvadjiin, 

JCMI-, nus>c ! 
Ki gadebweti *n ; 
Alojan ki gabamiton 

JeMis. nosse ! 

F.pitohi arhkcndama, 
Kagini a.m nichkiina, 

\Vabamichin ; 
N ni jingcnindis, 
Songan nind anwenindis, 

Ka ondjita 
Minawa nin gadissi, 
Jesus ka nin ganichkiassi ; 

Ka ondjita 
Matclii anining, 
Ka\vi nin gawidissi, 

Ka ondjita. 

Kcgo webinichike, 
Kego pagidenimichike; 


Nosse, jawenimichin, 
Nondawichin. 57 

65 Ibidem p. 167. 

68 Paris, 1837, p. 30. 

E7 We have before us three different editions, 
the above, The "Katolik Anamie-Masinaigan," 
Detroit, 1846, and the Benziger s Katolik An 
amie-Masinaigan. The last two are in Otchipwa, 
hence, the seeming difference. Translation: (To 
the air: "Sur cet autel"). 



Jesus Father I love you perfectly. I connecting railroad within sixty miles and 
reverence your communion, Jesus Father, the only access or exit is by sleigh, or 

snow-shoe. The Jesuit Fathers from the 
Soo were the only ones who visited the 
place from time to time, more often, of 
course, during the summer than winter. 
During July and August, 1884, Father 

I will trust in you. I will ever be mindful 
of you. Jesus Father preserve me. I am 
sorrowful. I have offended thee often. 
Preserve me, for I am wretched, and all 
evil. I am resolved to be so no more. 
Have mercy upon me. I will never more 
excite your displeasure. Bad men, or 
bad company, I will certainly resist. 
Have charity and do not cast me off. 
Do not abandon me. Out of charity 
save me. Father be charitable. Give 
me charity." 1 " 8 

Half-breeds and Canadian French 
were the first permanent settlers of De 
troit. Their chief occupation was fish 
ing. In this enterprise they were en 
couraged by the splendid facilities for 
shipping and finding a ready market 
for their product in Chicago, Milwau 
kee and St. Louis. To this industry 
which now-a-days is greatly de 
clining, a saw mill and coaling station 
have been added. During the summer 
a thousand vessels greet the shore, and 
their shrill whistles echo in the 
neighboring hills from dawn to dawn. 
Xot seldom scores of them are at an 
chor in the bay, being sheltered by the 

hilly island against the raging Storm THE PRESENT ST. ANN S CHURCH, MACKINAC ISLAND. 

outside. The scene forcibly reminds Chartier built at a cost of five hundred 
one of the greatest harbor of the world dollars> the present church _ The buildin? 
or a military blockade. But as soon as material was donated by the lumber man- 
these welcome visitors have bidden their u f ac turmg companies through the inter- 
season s last adieu and the region becomes ces sion of their foreman, Mr. Niles. For 
ice-bound, it is the most isolated place in the site a strip of land was giyen by Mr 
the^whole Upper Peninsula. There is no Lo uis P. Trump, but it being on the beach, 
68 McKenney, p. 167. and for that reason undesirable, it was 



exchanged with another party for one acre 
of land on the hill which gave the church 
an excellent view upon the river and the 
surrounding country. The church was ded 
icated on the ist of September, 1884, by 
Bishop Vertin to the greater honor of the 
Sacred Heart. During the long winter 
season the inhabitants remained without 
religious consolation and sometimes even 
in cases of extreme need. Moved by this 


adverse condition they petitioned Bishop 
Vertin to send them a priest. Although 
willing to make all sorts of sacrifices for 
his support, they were yet numerically too 
few to support a pastor. There was one, 
however, willing to cast his lot with them, 
the noble hearted missionary, Edward 
Jacker. With the break of the ice in the 
spring of 1886, he made his way to De 

tour. The first baptism April 4th, was 
that of Ida Alexia Clark. 

The church was small but the house 
consisted of only three rooms. Both 
buildings stood there twenty years mate 
rially unimproved until the present pastor 
bestowed upon them the much needed re 
pairs. Another site, farther up town, was 
donated by Mrs. Carrie A. Dawson, 
Father Jacker left in the winter of 1886. 
December iQth being his last baptismal 
entry. Father Chambon, S. ]., then 
added Detour to the list of his regularly 
attended missions until May i6th, 
1888. when Rev. Fidelis Sutter was ap 
pointed pastor. lie remained to the 
2^th of October and was succeeded by 
Rev. Anatole O. I ellisson from No 
vember 25, 1888, to May 12, 1889. 
After that occasional visits were made 
by Rev. O. B. Devlin, S. J. in July and 
August. 1889; Rev. R. Chartier, S. J. 
in September, 1889; Rev. A. Wm. 
Geers, from Mackinac, October, 1889; 
Rev. J. F. Chambon, S. J. during July 
and September, 1890, and January and 
February. 1891; Rev. A. J. Rezek, 
from Mackinac Island, in May, 1891. 
Thereafter the following regular pas 
tors were in charge : 

Rev. A. J. Doser from July 23, to 
September 5, 1891. 

Rev. Joseph Xeumair from November 
15, 1891, to May 14- l8 92. 

Rev. Joseph G. Pinten from July 19, 
1892, to May 19, 1893. 

Rev. E. P. Bordas, from June 18, 1893, 
to July 3, 1894. 

Rev. P. Girard from July 2nd to the 
end of September, 1894. 



Then the mission was again docketed 
on Father Chambon s list till the summer 
of 1895 when Father J. Wallace took 
care of it from the beginning of July to 
the end of October, when it was again 
listed with the Jesuits of the Soo. 

The longest pastorate was that of Rev. 
W. Anzelm Mlynarczyk, from July 5, 
1896 to September 10, 1898. They say 
that he was so enamored with the place 
that when the episcopal ukaze dissolving 
his relation with the mission reached him, 


he burst forth singing the one hundred 
thirteenth psalm : In exitu Israel de De 
tour ! 

Rev. J. S. Hawelka was stationed there 
during August and September, 1900, but 
after that Father William Gagnieur, S. J., 
visited it from time to time. 

Natural isolation has greatly retarded 
the growth of this mission, and the pas 
tors of necessity all made their share of 
sacrifice in order to maintain it. Many 
families, unwilling or unable, contributed 
but scantily to the support of their pas 

tor. Xo wonder then that changes were 
so frequent and that the place was left un 
filled so often. Detour has at present 
only thirty families, half-breeds, French, 
Irish and German. 

Attached to this mission is Gatesville, 
about seventeen miles distant. Early in the 
eighties the rich soil of that country had 
attracted about a half a dozen German 
farmers to settle there. In 1897 Father 
Mlynarczyk has been instrumental in 
bringing a colony of a dozen Poles, who 
vith their customary industry have trans 
formed the forests into fertile fields. 
Their number has increased annually and 
there are now altogether about seventy- 
five families, one-seventh of which are 
German, French or Irish, and the rest are 
all Polish. These new settlers gave rise 
to good hope but during the time while 
they were hewing their farms from prim 
eval forests not much could have been ex 
pected. As soon, however, as their fields, 
though small yet, commenced to bring 
returns they nobly seconded the efforts of 
their new pastor, the Rev. Theodor G. 
Bateski, who arrived on July 7, 1904. 
Possessed of his first zeal he diffused it 
over the dual mission to good advantage. 
In Gatesville he built a much larger 
church without incurring any indebted 
ness ; and in Detour, where he resides, he 
repaired the church and house, making to 
the latter a notable and much needed ad 

The first chapel at Gatesville. a log 
cabin, was erected by the Goetz family, a 
quarter of a century ago, on a quarter of 
an acre land donated by Philip Huss. 
Joseph Goetz, Sr., drew the sawed mate 
rial for roof and floors from Detour with 


a team consisting of a co\v and an ox. In 
absence of a road he made his way as best 
he could following a trail and it took him 
almost a week to make one trip. Father 
riiambou was the first priest to call there: 
he blessed the little church and said Mass 

in it for years. When a second church 
was to be built the old site \vas out of 
centre and it was decided to build the new 
one a quarter of a mile farther up the 

road. For this purpose Mr. Joseph 
(loetz, Sr.. now of Detour, donated one 
acre of land. The church was dedicated 
bv Hishop I : .is. on the twelfth of May. 
11)05. to St. Staninlaus Kostka. To the 
great misfortune of the congregation, 
w h o have strained 
themselves to build 
this house of wor 
ship, some malig 
nant hand, as it is 
firmly believed, and 
a 1 1 circumstances 
point to it. put fire to 
it, and it burned to 
the ground with all 
it contained, between 
the hours of four 
and five of the morn- 
i n g November 3, 

The building of 
another church, 4<3x 
<)() feet, will be com 
menced early in the 
spring. The ever in 
creasing population requires a building or 
so large dimensions. It may be only a mat 
ter of a few years when Gatesville will 
be able to support a priest of her own. 

Chapter XVI. 

We are satisfied that the first Jesuit 
mission on the Straits, was established in 
St. Ignace. Father Dablon (sometimes 
signed D Ablon) "to promote the execu 
tion of the plan announced by the savages 
to settle the country anew" went to St. 
Ignace in the fall of 1670. He found 
some savages with their families, and im 
mediately set to building a chapel. That 
it was not a fancy church we may imag 
ine, but yet substantial enough to endure 
three years, when in 1674, Father Henry 
Xouvel erected a new and more commodi 
ous one. To write up the improvements 
which Marquette made in order to make 
the mission more habitable, would only be 
drawing on one s imagination. Xo doubt 
Marquette coming to St. Ignace in the 
summer of 1671, made such repairs, prob 
ably additions to the chapel, built by Dab- 
Ion in the winter of 1669-70 as were ab 
solutely necessary. Uncertainties of In 
dian missions were vividly before his 
mind from the experience which he had 
gone through at the St. Esprit mission, he 
therefore satisfied himself \vith a most or 
dinary log-house and chapel. Not seek 
ing his own comforts, he devoted himself 
co the instruction of his charges. Of the 
religious success amongst them he reports 

in 1672 in the following letter to his supe 
rior, Father Dablon : 

"My Reverend Father: 

"The Hurons called Tionnontateron- 
nons, or The tobacco nation, who compose 
The mission of Saint Ignace at Michili- 
makinang, Began last summer a fort near 
The Chapel, in Which all Their cabins 
were enclosed. They have been more as 
siduous at prayer, have listened more will 
ingly to The instructions that I Gave 
them, and have acceded to my requests 
for preventing grave misconduct and 
Their abominable Customs. One must 
have patience with savage Minds who 
have no other Knowledge than the Devil, 
whose slaves they and all Their fore 
fathers have been; and they frequently 
relapse into those sins in Which they have 
been reared. God alone can give firmness 
to Their fickle minds, and place and main 
tain Them in grace, and touch Their 
Hearts while we stammer into Their ears. 

"This year, the Tionnontateronnons 
were here to the number of three hundred 
and eighty souls, and they were joined 
by over sixty souls of the Outaouasina- 
gaux. Some of the latter came from the 
mission of saint frangois Xavier, where 

1 \Ye give this letter in full as it ma} not be 
convenient for all the readers to look it up. (Re 
lation, Burrows Edition. Vol. 57, p. 249.) 




Reverend Father Andre spent last winter 
with them ; and they appeared to me to be 
very different from what they were when 
I saw them at The point of saint Fsprit. 
The Xeal and patience of that Father have 
won over to The faith hearts which 
seemed to us to be very adverse to it. 
They desire to be Christians, they bring 
Their children to the Chapel to be bap 

tized, and they are very assiduous in at 
tending prayers. 

"Last summer, when I was obliged to 
go to sainte Marie du sault with Rev 
erend Father Alloues, The hurons came to 
The Chapel during my absence, as as- 
siuously as if I had been there, and the 
girls Sang the hymns that they knew. 
They counted the days that passed after 

my departure, and continually asked 
when I was to return. 1 was absent only 
fourteen days; and, on my arrival, all 
proceeded to the Chapel, to which many 
came expressly from their Fields, al 
though these were very far away. 

"I cheerfully attended their feasts of 
Squashes, at which I instructed them and 
called upon Them to thank God, who gave 
them food in abundance while other 
tribes, who had not yet embraced Chris 
tianity, had great difficulty in preserving 
themselves from hunger. I cast ridicule 
on Their dreams, and encouraged those 
who had been baptized to acknowledge 
Him whose Adopted children they were. 
Those who gave feasts, although still 
Idolaters, spoke most honorably of Chris 
tianity, and the} were not ashamed to 
make The sign of The Cross before every 
one. Some young men, against whom 
jests had been directed to prevent Them 
from doing So, made It in The largest 
meetings, even when 1 was not present. 

"Some Christian Hurons who came up 
from Ouebecq and Montreal declared, at 
the outset, that they would not attend 
meetings wherein God was offended ; that 
if they were invited to feasts, they would 
follow The Custom of the Christians. 
They placed themselves on my side when 
I was able to be present, and maintained 
Their Freedom when I was absent. 

"A savage of note among the Hurons 
invited me to his feast, at which The 
Chiefs were present. After calling each 
of them by name, he told Them that he 
wished to state his intention to Them, so 
that All might know it, namely, that 
he was a Christian : that he renounced the 
God of dreams, and all Their Dances re- 



plete with lasciviousness; that the black, 
gown was the master of tlie Cabin ; and 
that he would not abandon that resolu 
tion, whatever might happen. I felt pleas 
ure in hearing Him, and at the same time 
1 spoke more strongly than I had hither 
to done, telling Them that I had no 
other design that to place Them on The 

others, who endeavor to render our in 
structions useless. 

"1 had given a present to one of the 
nephews of a Chief who died last year in 
The woods. Five other tribes were as 
sembled at the Council and I was given a 
present of a large Porcelain Collar in an 
swer to what I had said that I purposed 


Road to Paradise ; that that was The sole 
object that detained me with them, and 
compelled me to assist Them at the risk 
of my life. As soon as anything has been 
said at a meeting, It is at once spread 
among all The Cabins. This I soon rec 
ognized through The assiduity of some 
at prayers, and through The malice of 

to strengthen Christianity among the Hu- 
rons, which seemed as yet only Beginning. 
That man and all his kindred made a 
declaration, and said that I alone should 
govern their Cabin. As regards those 
with whom I am not Satisfied, 
if I manifest by a single word 
that I am not pleased with Them they at 



once come of their own accord and bring dance. A woman who became impatient 

the inmates of their Cabin to prayer. 1 in her illness in order to satisfy both her 

trust that what they do through respect (lod and her Imagination, caused twenty 

and through Fear will one day be done women to be invited. They were Covered 

through love, and with the desire of be- with bear-kins and wore fine porcelain 

ing saved. Collars; They growled like I ears; they 

"Over two Hundred s<>uls left last atl- ate and, pretended to Hide like Bears, 

tumn for The Chase; those who remained Meanwhile, The sick woman danced, and 

^,1. ** -A*-, >_ " - - >-~ V^ /A*""* 

y /i- / - " "* - - 



/ ^, ?_- ^^-- / : - - * - s *" -- - ~ 


here asked me what dances I prohibited. 
I replied in the first place that I would not 
permit those which God Forbids, such 
As indecent Ones; that, as regards The 
others, I would decide about them when 
I had seen Them. Every dance has its own 
name ; but I did not find any harm in any 
of them, except that called The bear 


from time to time told them to throw oil 
on the fire, with Certain superstitious 
observances. The men who acted as 
Singers had great difficulty in carrying 
out The sick woman s design, not having 
as yet heard similar airs, for That dance 
was not in vogue among The Tionnonta- 
teronnons. I availed myself of this fact 



to dissuade them from the dance. I did 
not forbid others which are of no impor 
tance; for I considered that my winter s 
sojourn among them had been profitable, 
inasmuch as, with God s grace, I had 
put a stop to The usual indecencies and 
exposure of the naked person. This all 
The Chiefs have resolved 
no longer to permit, and I 
have urged Them to it in 
The large assemblies. But 
we must always distrust 
the devil s ambushes, and 
Their great inconstancy. I 
tried to induce some huron 
women not to be present at 
any of those (lances, which 
generally lasted a good part 
of The day; but they told 
me that they had only that 
time in which to divert 
themselves, and that, More 
over, I did not forbid Them 
to Dance. Others did not 
go there at all, for fear of 
offending God. 

Although the winter 
was severe, it did not pre 
vent The savages from 
coming to The Chapel. 
Many came thither twice a 
clay, however windy and 
cold it might be. In The 
autumn, I began to give in 
structions for general con- 
tions for general confession of Their 
whole lives; and to prepare others who 
had not confessed since Their baptism, to 
do the same. I would not have believed 
that savages could render so exact an ac 
count of all Their lives. They begged me 

not to give them absolution until they had 
said all. Some savage women spent more 
than a fortnight in examining themselves; 
and when at last they asked me to give 
Them absolution, they said that they 
would come and tell me what they could 
remember not having confessed. From 


that time they, as well as many others, 
seemed greatly Changed, not attending 
the dances, or else coming first to ask me 
what they should do. Some who were 
importuned by the principal men of the 
village to go through The Cabins to ask 



\vhat they wished, would not do So with 
out speaking to me about it ; and although 
I had permitted Them, one of them would 
not do so. 

"As The savages have vivid imagina 
tions, they are often cured of Their sick 
ness When They are granted what they 
desire. Their medicine-men, who know 
nothing about Their diseases, propose a 
number of Things to Them for which 
they might have a desire. Sometimes 
The sick person mentions it, and they fail 
not to give it to him. Hut many during 
the winter. Fearing that it might be A sin, 

prayed to God that she might not die 
without grace and I admired her senti 
ments. Other aged women, to whom I 
spoke of hell, shuddered at it, and told 
me that they had no sense in Their for 
mer country, but that they had not com 
mitted so many sins since they had been 

"Since there was as yet no Bell for the 
chapel, I went to notify Them on The 
vigils of all the feasts. When time per 
mitted, 1 delivered a short discourse to 
Them, in which I always included what 
thcv were obliged to believe, and The 


always replied with constancy that they 
desired nothing, and that they would do 
whatever The black gown told Them. 

"I did not fail during The autumn to 
go and visit them in Their Fields where I 
instructed Them and made Them pray to 
God, and told Them what they had to do. 
I also made frequent and regular visits 
to them, especially those who, owing to 
their advanced age, could not come to 
The Chapel. A Blind woman, who had 
formerly been instructed by Reverend 
Father Brebeauf, had not during all those 
years forgotten her prayers ; she daily 

principal things from which they should 
abstain. I also seized The opportunity 
to speak to some of them in private, to in 
culcate what I considered most necessary 
to Them. 

"I baptized twenty-eight children. 
One of them, who left sainte Marie due 
sault without being baptized, as Rever 
end Father henry Nouvel had written to 
me, in order that I might attend to it.-- 
fell ill without my knowing it. But God 
permitted that, while I was instructing in 
my Cabin two savages of note and of in 
telligence, they asked me whether such 


and such a child who was very ill was 
baptized. I proceeded thither at once, 
baptized It and it died The following 
night. Others have also died, who have 
gone to Paradise. Such are the consola 
tions that God sends us, and that make us 
consider our life the more blessed, the 
more wretched it is. 

"I also baptized two Adults, one of 
whom, a woman, had come for over a 
year to be instructed. I had always put 
Her off until at last, when T saw that she 
was fully resolved to 
serve God, I baptized 
Her, on The day of 
The annunciation. 
She does not fail to 
come, as a rule, three 
times a day to the 
Chapel, w here she 
remains longer than 
the others to finish 
her prayers. 

"God has aided in 
a special manner The 
Hurons who went to 
Hunt; for he Led 
Them to place s 
where they killed a 

great number of bears. Stags, Beavers, 
and wildcats. Several bands failed not to 
observe the directions that I had given 
Them respecting prayers. Dreams, to 
which they formerly had recourse were 
looked upon as Illusions; and, if they hap 
pened to dream of bears, they did not 
Kill any on account of that ; on the con 
trary, after they had had recourse to 
prayer, God gave them what they desired. 
This my Reverend Father, is all that I can 
write to Your Reverence respecting this 

mission, where men s minds are more 
gentle, more tractable, and better disposed 
to receive The instructions that are given 
them than in any other Place. Mean 
while, I am preparing to Leave It in The 
hands of another missionary, to go by 
Your Reverence s order and Seek toward 
The south sea new nations that are un 
known to us, to teach Them to know our 
great God, of whom they have hitherto 
been Ignorant." 

All this time Marquette s soul contin- 


ued to burn with the desire to be able to 
explore other countries of which he had 
casually heard from Indians who had 
roamed and visited other nations. At 
the point of St. Esprit some Illinois ur 
gently entreated him "to carry the word 
of God to their nation. This never de 
parted from his mind. He prayed to the 
Immaculate Virgin Mary, to whom he al 
ways cherished a most filial devotion, to 
obtain the grace for him to be able to vis 
it the nations who dwell along the Missis- 



sippi River. To his great surprise on 
the Nth of December. 1072, the feast of 
the Immaculate Conception itself. Sieur 
Jolyet arrived in St. Ignacc with letters 
from the governor. Count de Frontenac, 
and those of consent from his superiors, 
requesting him to explore the Mississippi. 
jNIarquette was delighted at this news 
since he saw that hi^ long pent-up hopes 
were about to be reali/ed. The winter 
season compelled them to delay their dc- 

ST. ir.N.u E, cut urn or ST. iG.N.vnrs. REAR i-:\n VIEW 


parture, but good use was made of the 
time in making preparations and formu 
lating plans for the extraordinary under 
taking. At last, spring came also to these 
northern countries ; ice disappeared from 
the lakes and on the i/th of May, 1673, 
Father Marquette, with Jolyet and live 
other men, departed from St. Ignace, 
never to see it again. The story of the 
hazardous exploration has been told else 
where so many times by able writers, and 
since it does not exactly belong to our 
subject we refrain from repeating it. 

Rev. Father Philip Pierson became 
Marquette s immediate successor, Flis 
flock was considerably augmented by a 
large body of Ottawas and Algonquin.-. 
coming from Alanitoulin and adjacent 
.shores. The former joined their tribes 
man already there, and the latter built a 
fortified village of their own near Rab 
bit s Pack, north of the Huron and Otta 
wa forts. Father Pierson, not being ac 
quainted with the Algonquin dialect, re- 
c e i v e d assistance from 
Father Xouvel who took up 
his residence at the mission 
late in 1673. He found the 
old chapel wholly inade 
quate. Fverything tended 
towards the permanency of 
the mission, justifying the 
erection of a new, commo 
dious and stable chapel. 
\,\ ork on this chapel was 
commenced in 1674, and 
completed the same year. 
Concerning it Father Da- 
blon in his report for 1675 
says: "No sooner was the 
line chapel, that was fin 
ished a year ago, opened 
than it was consecrated, as it were, by 
sixty-six baptisms. There were fourteen 
adult Flurons. with thirteen children; and 
fifteen adult Algonquins, with thirty-four 
children of the same nation. On Good 
Friday, the Passion was preached in three 
different languages. The adoration of 
the Cross was performed with much piety 
by five or six different Savage nations; 
and on Easter Sunday sixteen Hurons, 
both men and women, made their first 
communion. The ceremonies that took 
place at Christmas, by which these good 



Savages honored the Infant Jesus in the 
cradle, are astonishing-; it is impossible to 
witness them without being touched with 
devotion at seeing Our Lord cause his in- 


fancy to triumph in the midst of infidel- 

uly." 2 

Of the success among the Hurons 
Father Pierson writes, under date of 25th 
of April, 1676: "God has hitherto grant 
ed, and still grants every day, so many 
blessings to my huron missions of Tion- 
ontate, that I have the satisfaction of see 
ing this little church gradually increase in 
number and grow strong in faith. It has 
been augmented this year by forty-five 
Children and some forty-seven adults, 
whom I have baptized. I pass over in si 
lence many noble actions which I might 
Relate, to state that, in general, the faith 
is becoming so well Established with the 
grace of Our Lord, that I have great rea 
son to Praise him and bless his name. 1 
beg Your Reverence to Thank him for 

"Ever since the medicine-men and jug 
glers gave me their word, more than two 
years ago, To abandon their customary 
juggleries and superstitions, they have no 
longer had recourse to them. There are 


still, it is true, among the infidels some er 
rors which we shall endeavor, with God s 
help, Completely To abolish and Exter 
minate. The Iroquois from Sonnontwan 
came here this winter on an Embassy, and 
gave valuable presents to our hurons, un 
der the pretext of wishing to join them 
that they might go Together to Fight the 
Nadoussiens, with whom they are at war, 
But we greatly Fear that under that 
precious semblance they Conceal another 

design, which is to lure all our savages to 
their country; and that would, without 
doubt, be the Ruin of this church. I 
pray Our Lord to Avert that calamity 
from us." 3 

During the winter of 1675-76, Father 
Pierson was alone in charge of the Mis 
sion. Father Nouvel having followed 
"Amicouets or ?>eaver Nation" to the 


shores of Lake Erie. He left St. Ignace 
on the 8th of November, 1675, and re 
turned the end of March following. 4 

Father Marquette, while detached from 
the St. Ignace mission, for exploratory 
purposes in 1673, was still considered as 

2 Relation, Vol. 59, p. 219. 

3 Relation, Vol. 60, p. 209, etc. 
4 An extensive description of this excursion 
given in the Relations, Vol. 60, pp. 215-229, 



belonging to that mission. For this rea 
son when realizing that death was upon 
him Alarquette hastened to reach St. Ig- 
nace. His heart s desires were not real 
ized. Death cut his course of life while 
trying to reach this mission, on Saturday 
May 1 8th, 1675, on the eastern shore of 
Lake Michigan, near the present city of 
Ludington. There he was buried ac- 


cording to his own instructions by his two 
companions who erected a large wooden 
cross to mark his grave. Two years 
later "The Savages, Kiskakons, who have 
been making public profession of Chris 
tianity for nearly ten years, and who were 
instructed by Father Alarquette when he 
lived at the point of St. Fsprit, at the ex 

tremity of lake superior, carried on their 
last winter s hunting in the vicinity of the 
lake of the Ilinois. As they were re 
turning in the spring, they were greatly 
pleased to pass near the grave of their 
good father, whom they tenderly loved ; 
and God also put it into their hearts to re 
move his bones and bring them to our 
Church at the mission of St. Ignace at 
missilimakinac, where those savages 
make their abode. 

"They repaired, then, to the spot, and 
received among themselves to act in re 
gard to the father as they are \Yont to do 
toward Those for whom they profess 
great respect. Accordingly, they opened 
the grave, and uncovered the I>ody; and, 
although the Flesh and Internal organs 
were all Dried up. they found it entire, 
so that not even the skin was in any way 
injured. This did not prevent them from 
proceeding to dissect it, as is their custom. 
They cleansed the bones and exposed 
them to the sun to dry; then, carefully 
laying them in a box of birch-bark, they 
set out to bring them to our mission of 
St. Ignace. 

"There were nearly thirty Canoes 
which formed, in excellent order, that fu 
neral procession. There were also a 
goodly number of iroquois, who United 
with our Algonquin savages to lend more 
honor to the ceremonial. When they 
drew near our house, father nouvel, who 
is its superior, with Father pierson, went 
out to meet them, accompanied by the 
frenchmen and savages who were there, 
and having halted the Procession, he put 
the usual questions to them, to make sure 
that It was really the father s body which 
they were bringing. Before conveying it 



to land, they Intoned the "de profundis" 
in the presence of the thirty Canoes, 
which were still on the water, and of the 
people who were on the shore. After 
that, the Body was carried to the church, 
care being taken to observe all that the 
ritual appoints in such ceremonies. It 
remained exposed under the pall, all that 
Day, which was whit-sun-monday, the 
8th of June ; and on the morrow, after 
having rendered to it all the funeral rites, 
it was lowered into a small Vault in the 
middle of the church, where it rests as 
the guardian angel of our outaouas mis 
sions. The savages often come to pray 
over his tomb." 5 

Where the gently flowing river merges with the 

stormy lake, 
Where upon the beach so barren ceaseless billows 

roll and break, 
There the barque so frail and gallant, known 

throughout the western world, 
Glides into the long-sought haven and its weary 

wings are furled. 
Here, says one, I end my voyage, and my sun 

goes down at noon ; 
Here I make the final traverse, and the part 

comes not too soon ; 
Let God have "the greater glory," care have I for 

naught beside, 
But to bear the blest evangel, Jesus Christ, the 

Slow and faint into the forest, straight he takes 

his quiet way. 
Kneels upon the virgin mosses, prays as he is wont 

to pray ; 
Nunc dimittis then they hear him sweetly sing as 

ne er before ; 
Then the angels join behind him, as is said his 

latest mass 
"One day bear me to my mission, at the Pointe of 

St. Ignace." 
Entered into rest from labor, where all toils and 

tempests cease, 
Every sail outspread and swelling, so he finds the 

port of peace. 
Once again that spot so sacred hears the sound 

of human feet, 
And the gently-flowing river sees a strajige 

funeral fleet ; 
Tis the plumed and painted warriors, of their 

different tribes the best, 
Who have met in solemn council to fulfill his 

last request. 

Do\vn their checks the tears arc flowing for the 

sainted man of God; 
Not the bones of dearest kindred dear as those 

beneath that sod. 
Reverently the grave they open, call the dear 

remains their own - 
Sink them in the running water, cleanse and 

whiten every bone. 
Place them gently in the mocock, wrought with 

woman s choicest skill. 
From the birth the very whitest and the deepest 

colored quill ; 
In the war canoe the largest, to his consecrated 

Like a chief who falls in battle, silently they 

bear him home. 

5 Relations Vol. 59. p. 201 et seq. 


Gathers still the sad procession, as the fleet 

comes slowly nigh, 
Where the cross above the chapel stands against 

the northern sky ; 
Every tribe and every hamlet, from the nooks 

along the shore, 
Swell the company of mourners, who shall see his 

face no more. 
Forth then thro the deepening twilight sounds the 

service high and clear. 
And the dark-stoled priests with tapers guide and 

guard the rustic bier; 
In the center of the chapel, close by little Huron s 




Near the tall and stately cedars, Pere Marquette 
has found his grave. 

Still 1 hear the Miserere sounding loud within 
my soul. 

Still 1 hear the l)e Profundis, with its solemn 
cadence roll 

"For the blond of the red brother, who shall an 
swer in that day." 

When before the throne of judgment earth and 
heaven shall pass away." 

Tn 1667 there were three distinct In 
dian settlements, besides a small colonv of 


French, at St. Ignace. The Hurons and 
the Ottawas east and west of the first mis 
sion church on Moran Bay, about five 
hundred souls, the Algonquins near the 
bluff called Rabbit s Back, numbering 
some one thousand three hundred souls, 

and the new village of Ottawas at Gros 
Cap. The Algonquin and the Huron vil 
lages were a little over a mile apart. For 
the accommodation of the new arrivals 
and his old charges, the Algonquins, 
leather Xouvel thought it best to erect a 
half way church. Accordingly, he built 
a "cabane," a lodging, three quarters of a 
league, in a northwesterly direction, from 
the St. Ignatius mission and took up his 
abode there "at the close of the month of 
November in the year 1677." Father 
Jean Enjalran, who had come to St. Ig- 
nace shortly before, followed him, "eight 
or ten days after, on the vigil of the feast 
of St. Francis Xavier." What comforts 
this dwelling afforded Fr. Enjalran sums 
up in the following terms : "It would per 
haps be thought that the little experience 
I have of this sort of habitation makes me 
exaggerate its discomfort, were I to tell 
all that we have suffered in it ; but that 
would not prevent its being quite true 
that the smoke alone, not to speak of oth 
er discomforts, has caused us more dis 
tress than can be imagined. We had 
erected a small bark church adjoining our 
( "abin, in which, when we wished to es 
cape the smoke, the cold would not per 
mit us to remain long. It was dedicat 
ed to st. francis de Borgia, who was the 
first of the superiors of the Society who 
sent gospel workers into America; and 
since that time our algonquin savages 
have Invoked him in their prayers, as the 
special patron of that mission." 7 

In the spring of 1678 the two mission 
aries gave up living at that "cabane" re 
turning to the Mission house at St. Ig- 

Unknown author in History of the Penin 
sula of Michigan pp. 64 and 65. 

Relations Vol. 61, p. 123, et seq. 



nrice but continued holding services in the 
chapel of St. Borgia. 

Rev. Father Bonneau visited St. Ig- 
nace in October, \(>~~. 

In 1683 sweeping changes were made 
at St. Ignace. Father Fnjalran became 
superior of the mission; Rev. Xicolas 
Fotier succeeded Father 1 ierson. who be 
came missionary "among the Xadoues- 
sious (a Sioux tribe in Minnesota) who 
dwelt a hundred leagues beyond Lake 
Superior," and Father Bailloquet from 
the Sault, replaced Father Xouvel, who 
was sent to "Bay des Puans. (Green- 

This mission was at this period of time, 
prosperous in every sense of the word. 
Christian teachings had commenced to 
make good impression on the lives and 
morals of the savages, who were slowly 
narrowing down to Christian ethics, when 
of a sudden this hopeful growth received 
a severe stunt from the dissoluteness of 
the whites, soldier and voyageur, and 
from the perils of war. Ever since the 
establishment of the fort, which by the 
way, was nothing more than a palisaded 
trading post, the corruption of the offi 
cials and the thievery of the traders made 
more impression on the mind of the In 
dian than the good teaching of the Black- 
gown. Add to this the potency of fire 
water, which made its way into the camp 
with the advent of the trader, and the in 
activity of the government to protect the 
settlement against savages of hostile 
tribes, and you have the baneful influenc 
es which caused the final dissolution of 
the mission. The Jesuits attacked the evil 
barehanded and fearlessly; but in their 
vain endeavor to eliminate it, only lost 

prestige with the men in power and 
gained nothing among their flocks. I low 
could they! It was upon their own com 
mendation that the French soldier was 
welcomed as the safeguard of their 
home, life, and liberty. Deceived by the 
policy of the rulers of X~e\v France, the 
Jesuits hailed the armed envoy of peace 


and order. \Yhen they realized that 
these forts were primarily intended for 
the furthering of trade and that whiskey 
largely became its expedient, they knew 
the remedy and how to write the recipe 
for it, but the grand apothecary the gov 
ernment was slow to fill the prescription. 
Hence their quarrels with local command- 



ers and the dissensions with the colonial 


In inS(> some twelve Dutch and Eng 
lish from Xew York found their way to 
Michilimackinac trading at good profit, 
yet at smaller prices, with the local In 

the Indians regretted the loss of opportu 
nity lor cheaper goods, the English were 
only more determined to instigate the Iro 
quois, their closest neighbors, to harass 
the French and the tribes under their pro 
tection; which placed them on a contin- 

dians. Another party of thirty followed ual defensive. The petty molestations 
their example. Just before they reached culminated in "the Lachine massacre" 
the ground of operations they were sur- during the night of August 5, 1689, when 

everything living, about four hun 
dred persons, were put to fire and 
sword by the one thousand five hun 
dred Iroquois who stealthily sur 
rounded the village. This episode 
and the complete routing of Onnon- 
tio s forces before Montreal struck 
terror to the hearts of all savages 
under French regime, Mackinac not 
excepted. Their perplexity is so well 
pictured by Father Carheil in a letter 
to Governor-General Frontenac writ 
ten in November, 1689, and de 
spatched to Quebec by Zacharie 
[oliet, a younger brother of the ex 
plorer. lie says: "I am very sorry 
to see myself compelled to write you 
this letter, to inform you that we are 
at last reduced to the condition to 
which I have always believed that the 
hope of peace would reduce us. I 
have never doubted that peace was 
impossible nor have all those who 
from the experience of a long resi- 
prised by fifty Frenchmen, under order clence among them, know the disposi- 
of La Durantaye, commander of the post, tions of the Iroquois, and especially of 
their goods confiscated and distributed the onnontague, the most treacherous of 
among their captors. A third expedition all. Notwithstanding the difficulty that 
suffered a similar fate notwithstanding we had up to the time designated for the 
that both expeditions "carried the English assembly, in sustaining the minds of our 
flag and had passports from Colonel Don- poor savages amid the continual displeas- 
o-an, the governor of New York." While tire caused them by the negotiations for 




a peace, which they knew to be only 
begged for, by dint of attentions, of hon 
ors, and of presents; and which, conse 
quently, were but so many public proofs 
of our weakness, we were, nevertheless, 
fortunate enough to maintain them in 
their duty that time. After that it was 
for those who Conducted those negotia 
tions to demonstrate by performance the 
truth of what they had promised ; and to 
let our tribes see the enemy who, as they 
supposed, had become docile and submis 
sive to their Will. But alas ! at the time 
that this should have been done, what had 
they obtained? Nothing but houses 
burned, French killed or captured, scalps 
taken, and bodies ripped open ; but a uni 
versal destruction of all lachine which 
should, nevertheless, have been the best 
guarded on all Sides; and, finally, but uni 
versal consternation throughout the whole 
of Montreal. This is not the success 
promised them by embassies and peace 
Conferences, but it is that which they 
Feared, and the dread whereof would 
constitute all their trouble. What do we 
wish them to think now; what do we wish 
them to do? When, as they say, they 
see Onnontio deceived and vanquished 
up to the present by the enemy, what 
hope can they still retain of his protection 
when they see naught but weakness and 
impotence? Can one suppose that, after 
their departure from Montreal, where 
they had just seen the Iroquois triumph 
throughout the whole Campaign, during 
which he was allowed to do as he pleased, 
they could take any other action than 
that which compelled us to carry on war 
to overawe him? They then undertook 
to make peace themselves, through their 

own negotiations with the enemy, who 
had taken away many of their people, 
whom they were holding as Captives. 
Our savages were prevented from doing 
so, and were induced to resolve upon car 
rying on war with us. But, instead of 
continuing it, as soon as the first decision 
was taken, it was Changed, I know not 
how, into negotiations for peace; that 


gave the enemy both time and means to 
vanquish not only them. As formerly, but 
also ourselves. They now see themselves 
by this Conduct of pure inaction, reduced 
once more to the necessity of again tak 
ing the same step, and of doing, without 
Onnotio s participation, what they would 
have desired him to do. 

"Therefore, in their Council held since 
their return from Montreal, they have re- 

solved by unanimous Consent to regain with us, he did not speak with so much 
the Friendship and alliance of our enemy, bitterness and arrogance as did the Outao- 
bv means of an Embassy which they are uas. He contented himself with saying 

it will separate them from us; because it he left his brothers to act. as they thought 
reatest strength from that they had more sense than he regard- 


us. to give it to the enemy; and because ing that matter ; that it was for them to be 
the ambassadors are their own prisoners, answerable for the result, and not tor 
whom La 1 etite Kacine. accompanied by him, who had much less penetration than 
some other outaonns, is to deliver into the they. I have no doubt that, in the execu- 

tii m of the project, he will 
do much more than he 
says; but it is, after all. 
the uncertainty of some 
change of fortune which 
may happen in our favor 
on learning of other reso 
lutions, that compels him 
still to employ this re 
serve, so that he may 
thereby have some hold 
upon us. 

"Such, Monseigneur. is 
the state of affairs in this 
quarter. that is to say. 
at the last e x t r e m i t y 
which thev can reach. 



hands of the Iroquois. Moreover, it is For the result of that embassy can only be 

no longer, a hidden design that they wish to bring at once both the Iroquois and the 

to conceal from our knowledge, and ileming the Iroquois as the master in 

which we have secretly learned from con- war: the fleming as the master in trade 

lidential sources; but it is a mater of and in commerce ; and both as sovereigns 

public notoriety, and one which they have of all these nations, to our exclusion, 

chosen to tell us by a solemn declaration in This is infallible, and will happen with 

full Council. such diligence and promptness that I 

"Although the huron be concerned in it know not whether you will have time to 

perhaps even more than is the Outoauais. fore-stall its execution. They have hast- 

nevertheless, as he is always more politic ened to conclude the embassy, through 

than the others in keeping on good terms fear that, after the defeat of the trench at 


Montreal, and in despair of ever obtain 
ing" a firm and lasting peace by means of 
negotiations, it might be decided once for 
all to make war; and that afterward an 
order might come from you to do so, 
This must no longer be though of, be 
cause it is too late. It should have been 
done while they were still at Montreal, 
immediately after the blow struck by the 
enemy. They then desired it and all 
would have been found ready for it ; but 
at present they must not be relied upon 
for the war, since the de 
parture of their ambassa 
dors, which compels them 
to remain quiet to await 
their return and the result 
of their negotiations. 

"All the Ceremonial 
honors paid to the prison 
ers on the eve of their dis 
missal, by the famous cal 
umet dance, which is a 
public Token of alliance, 
shows us but too clearly 
in what manner And how 
firmly they will be united 

nevertheless persisted in the agreement 
made between them; and to show us 
that they were not entering upon that 
undertaking without having considerable 
cause therefor, they wished to give us 
their reasons publicly. 

"These may all be reduced to one prime 
reason, which is, that onnontio s protec 
tion on which they had based all their 
hopes of being delivered from their ene 
mies was not what they had wrongly 
imagined it to be ; that hitherto thev had 

against us. But what 
makes this still more evi 
dent is that, at the very moment when 
they were giving these public proofs of 
esteem to the prisoners whom they were 
about to send away, they on the Other 
hand expressed the contempt they felt for 
our alliance and for your protection. 
When we strongly opposed their sending 
the prisoners away, and represented to 
them the order given us by Onnontio in 
his last commands, to make them keep 
their prisoners quiet on their mats, until 
he made known to them his last wishes 
with regard to their captives, they 


always thought that the frenchman was 
warlike through numbers, through Cour 
age, and through the number and diver 
sity of the implements of war that he 
could make. Experience had shown them, 
however, that he was much less so than 
the Iroquois; and they were no longer 
surprised that he had remained so long 
without doing anything for their defense, 
since it was the knowledge of his own 
weakness that hindered him. After 
seeing the cowardly manner in which he 



had allowed himself to be defeated on this 
last occasion at Montreal, it was evident 
to them that they could no longer expect 
anything from his protection; not only 
was it useless to them owing to his pow- 
erlessness, but it had even become inju 
rious to them because of the difficulties in 
which it had inopportunely placed them, 
through his seeking to save himself. In 
the first place, then. ( hinontio s powerless- 
ness had been manifest at the very first 
attack upon Sonnontouans, wherein the 


unexpected and vigorous resistance of the 
enemy surprised him and he did not af 
terward dare to pursue him, contenting 
himself with warring against the corn 
and the bark houses, that did not offer re 
sistance like the foe. Since then, he had 
never been able, nor had he ventured, to 
do anything beyond continual negotia 
tions to beg for peace, rendered necessary 
by his own powerlessness, and accompan 
ied by humiliations of all kinds, which but 
too clearly manifested his weakness. 

Moreover, very far from preparing to go 
to attack the enemy again in his own 
country, he did not even venture to de 
fend himself when he was attacked on all 
sides; but in spite of all appearances, and 
even of evidence and experience, to the 
contrary, he persisted in waiting for 
peace, for fear that he might be com 
pelled to fight, preferring to endure all 
rather than again to have recourse to 
Battle. Far from compelling the foe to 
surrender his prisoners, which was the 
object of the war, he had 
himself, on the Contrary, 
been compelled to surrend 
er those whom he had 
seized solely t h r o u g h 
treachery ; and even to 
bring back from franco 
those who had been sent 
thither, and this when the 
enemy was very far from 
thinking of sending back 
his own, but burned them 
publicly on the highways 
and in all the villages. In 
the last descent of the 
enemy upon Montreal, in 
stead of opposing army 
to army, and standing his ground, and 
giving battle, when he had heard of his 
approach before his arrival he shut him 
self up in his forts, leaving the coun 
try open to the foe to burn and ravage, 
which he did. He did not seem to know 
that he should go out to reconnoiter, 
or, at least, he did not dare to do so, 
lest he might expose himself to the dan 
ger of being the first discovered. From 
all these evident proofs, it was easy 
to see that the frenchman is so little in 
a position to protect them that he can- 



not even defend himself, so much so, 
that he had been compelled to have re 
course to the protection of the English, 
and to beg them, through an Ambassador 
sent expressly for the purpose to Orange, 
to check the continual incursions of the 

"But what most displeases them is, that 
the alliance of the frenchman, besides be 
ing useless to them through his powerless- 
ness, is also injurious to them both for 
commerce and for war. 
It is so in Commerce, be 
cause it takes away from 
them, against their will, 
the trade of the english, 
which was incomparably 
more advantageous to 
them in order to keep 
them bound to Onnon- 
tio s. This is contrary to 
all the laws of protection, 
which consist in maintain 
ing in the liberty of their 
trade Those whom one 
protects; for otherwise it 
is no longer a protection, 
but a veritable usurpation. 
The french alliance also injures them in 
war because from its commencement, 
the whole conduct of the frenchman to 
ward them has consisted in doing noth 
ing on his side against the enemy, and 
only in expecting them, on their side, 
to do everything. Thus, if they did 
not march against the enemy to stop 
him at Catarokouy, they should strike 
some telling blows, in order that he might 
give satisfaction by presents, and weep 
for the dead; that they should make pris 
oners, in order that he might free them 

from their bonds, and send them back to 
the foes of these tribes. Such had been 
his whole Conduct up to the present a 
Conduct full of duplicity, since evidently 
it tended solely to induce them to bear the 
whole brunt of the war, while he com 
pletely extricated himself by the peace 
that he tried to make with that object. 
They said that if, he had no other protec 
tion to give them than a peace of that na 
ture, they preferred to protect themselves, 


and to go to negotiate their peace by their 
own acts, rather than let themselves be 
abandoned by france to the certain ven 
geance of their enemy. They did not see 
why onnontio sent back his captives, and 
would not let them send back theirs, or 
what protection he gave them in doing 
this ; but, on examining closely, they 
found nothing that was not entirely op 
posed to protection, nothing but a wish 
to induce their, to be the victims of those 
to whom they themselves had not restored 



their Captives. In all the Attacks that he 
had compelled them to make upon the In>- 
quois, while he remained motionless and 
inactive, it was rather they who protected 
him than he who protected them. After 
all this, thev were surprised that, at their 
last interview in Montreal, he had threat 
ened to abandon them As if he had not 
lone done so; and. as if his whole conduct 




had not been a tacit and secret abandon 
ment of all their interest, which could in 
no wise agree with the negotiations for 
peace that he would continually carry on. 
"Such, Monseigneur, are all the rea 
sons that they gave us, to Convince us of 
the necessity in which they were placed 

of sending that Embassy to Sonnontou- 
ans. From this it will be seen that our 
savages are much more enlightened than 
one thinks; and that it is difficult to con 
ceal from their penetration anything in 
the course of aftairs that may injure or 
serve their interests. The respect that I 
owe to the rule of all persons to whom 
Cod has given the power of government 
over us would have made me scruple to 
communicate to you, as freely as I have 
done, sentiments so unfavorable as these, 
had 1 not believed that the public welfare 
demanded that you should know them 
just as they exist among the savages. I 
do so in order that you may thereby judge 
of the disposition of their minds, of what 
they are capable of doing against us in 
favor of our enemy, and of the remedy to 
be applied. It is certain that, if the Iro- 
(juois be not checked by the extent of the 
operations against him on your side down 
below, or of those against the tlemings, 
who originate his movements, he will not 
fail to come here to make himself master 
of everything. It is sufficient for us 
that you should know it, to reply there 
after upon the enlightenment of your 
wisdom; and, in spite of the danger in 
which we are placed, to live in entire con 
fidence, waiting to see in what manner di 
vine providence shall please to dispose of 

1 remain with true 

And profound respect, 

Your very humble and very 
Obedient Servant, 

Etienne Carheil, religious 
of the Society of Tesus." s 



Since we have already introduced Rev. 
Etienne de Carheil, we must explain his 
presence at the St. Ignace mission. The 
Relations give us meagre information 
about the succession of missionaries at 
Michilimackinac after this period, till the 
final abandonment of the mission. Fath 
er Carheil succeeded Father Nicholas 
Potier, who returned to Quebec, in 1686. 
The year after, Father Enjalran who ac 
companied the expedition against the Sen- 
ecas was wounded July 12; 
and did Hot return to the 
mission. To judge from 
the tenor of the above let 
ter, Carheil wrote it in the 
capacity of a superior. In 
1688 Rev. Joseph Jacques 
Marest arrived in Mack- 
mac. Father Bailloquet 
died in 1692 in an Ottawa 
mission, but it does not ap 
pear that he died in or in 
the neighborhood of St. 
Ignace. Presumably, hence 
forth, there remained only 
two missionaries at St. 
Ignace, Father Carheil and 

Evils so prevalent in the mission eman 
ating from greed and lust of the traders, 
garrison and their commanders, received 
a new impetus of growth by the appoint 
ment of Sieur Antoine De La Motte Cad 
illac. His animosity towards the Jesuits 
was simply boundless. As commander he 
would have loved to subject them to his 
own authority, which the Fathers strenu- 
uously resisted, claiming absolute inde 
pendence of him or any other commander, 
for the reason that the post was not es 

tablished to subjugate them, but to sup 
press lawlessness of every kind, and to 
help them carry on their sacred mission. 
To harass them, he permitted, fostered 
and even inspired acts of petty intrigues 
among the whites and the Indians. He 
publicly avowed ruin to their mission. To 
accomplish his design on his recall to Que 
bec, in 1697, ne laid before Governor 
Frontenac the necessity of a French post 
at Detroit. The matter was still under 


consideration, at the colonial office and 
with the home government, when, in 
1698, the death of Comte de Frontenac oc 
curred. He was succeeded by Louis Hec 
tor de Callieres. Pere Carheil did not 
lose time in sending to the new governor 
a memorial of thirteen articles, setting 
forth their grievances, with the humble 
request to have them forwarded to the 
Court. In 1701 Cadillac obtained per 
mission to establish the fort at Detroit; 
seemingly, he had won out over his Jesuit 
opponent at Michilimackinac. Learning 



from this fact, and a direct communica 
tion from the governor that his memorial 
had never been sent to France, Father 
Carheil proceeded to make his position 
clear in the following, scathing letter: 

"At Michilimakina, 
the 30th of august, 1702. 

Could I have Believed that my going 
down 1>elmv would have been of any great- 

DECEMBER 26, 1867. 

er use to you than have been all the let 
ters that I have Written to you continu 
ally, during fifteen Entire years, for the 
purpose of informing you exactly, as in 
God s sight, according to Truth, accord 
ing to my Conscience, of all That was ab 
solutely necessary for the advancement of 
our missions and for the welfare of the 
Colony, I would not have failed to go 

down; and I would have made it my duty 
to go to explain to you verbally what I 
might not have sufficiently made known 
in my letters. But. as I have omitted 
nothing that I Considered myself obliged 
to let you Know, and as I do not see what 
could have been added to so many letters, 
1 am fully Convinced that my going down 
could only have been useless to you, after 
all the Information that has been con 
veyed to you respecting the condition in 
which we have been upto the present, and 
in which we still are to-day. 

"But, even if I had Xever Written to 
you, It was only necessary to have seen 
all That is to be seen every day at Mon 
treal, and That you yourself have only too 
often seen, to enable you to carry back to 
france enough to give Information to his 
majesty, and to constrain him to succor 
our missions. These are reduced to such 
an extremity that we can no longer 
maintain them against an infinite multi 
tude of evil acts acts of brutality and vi 
olence; of injustice and impiety; of lewd 
and shameless conduct; of contempt and 
insults. To such acts the infamous and 
baleful trade in brandy gives rise every 
where, among all the nations up here, 
where it is carried on by going from vil 
lage to village, and by rowing over the 
lakes with a prodigious quantity of 
brandy in barrels, without any restraint. 
Had his majesty but once seen What 
passes, both here and at montreal, during 
the whole time This wretched traffic goes 
on, I am sure that he would not for a mo 
ment hesitate, at the very first sight of it, 
to forbid it forever under the severest pen 

"In our despair there is no other step to 



take than to leave our missions and aban 
don them to the brandy traders, so that 
they may establish therein the domain of 
their trade, of drunkenness, and of im 
morality. That is What we shall propose 
to our Superiors in Canada and in france, 
being Compelled thereto by the state of 
uselessness and inability to which we have 

grant if They upon whom he relies for as 
certaining the truth really made it 
Known to him As they themselves, and 
the whole of Canada with them Know it; 
a permission, in line, that is at once the cli 
max and the source of all the evils that are 
now occurring in the country. Especially 
does it cause the wrecks, of which we 


been reduced by the permission given to 
carry on That deplorable trade a per 
mission that has been obtained from his 
majesty only by means of a pretext ap 
parently Reasonable, but known to be 
false; a permission that he would not 

never heard before it was given, but which 
we now hear of as occurring almost every 
year while the Ships are either Coming 
from or returning to france. This re 
sults from a just punishment by God, who 
causes the destruction bv water of what 

brandy ; the second is the Commerce of the 
savage women with the french. Both are 


had been wickedly gained by brandy; and to the brink of destruction, and which will 
these wrecks should have prevented the not long delay in destroying these if they 
transportation of the liquor, in order to be not abolished as soon as possible by his 
avoid the evil use that would be made of orders, and be prevented from ever being- 
it. If That permission be not revoked by restored. The first is the Commerce in 
a prohibition to the Contrary, we no long 
er have occasion to remain in any of our 
missions up here, to waste the remainder carried on in an equally public manner, 
of our lives and all our efforts in purely without our being able to remedy the evil, 
useless labor, under the dominion of Con- because we are not supported by the Com- 
tinual drunkenness and of universal im- mandants. They far from attempting, 

when we undertake to re 
monstrate with them, to 
check these trades them 
selves carry them on with 
greater freedom than do 
their Subordinates; and 
so sanction them by their 
example that, on witness 
ing it, a general permis 
sion and an assurance of 
impunity are assumed, 
that cause them to become 
Common to all the french 
who come here to trade. 
So much is this the case 
that all the villages of our 
savages are now only 
Taverns, as regards 
morality which are no less permitted to drunkenness; and sodoms, as regards im- 
the traders in brandy than is the trade it- morality from which we must with- 
self of which they are both the accom- draw, and which we must abandon to 
paniment and the sequel. the just Anger and vengeance of God. 

"If his majesty desires to save our mis- "You see by this that, in whatever 
sions and to support the Establishment of manner the french Trade is 
Religion, as we have no Doubt he does, among our savages, it it be desired 
we beg him most humbly to Believe What still retain us among them, and to keep 
is most true, namely ; that there is no other and support us there in the capacity of 
means of doing so than to abolish com- missionaries, in the free Exercise of our 
pletely the two Infamous sorts of Com- functions, with the hope of obtaining some 
merce which have brought the missions result, we must be delivered from the 




Commandants and from their garrisons. 
These, far from being necessary, are, on 
the contrary, so pernicious that we can 
truly say that they are the greatest scourge 
of our missions; for they serve but to in 
jure both the ordinary trade of the voy- 
ageurs and the advancement of the faith. 
Since they have come up here we have ob 
served but one universal Corruption, 
which by their scandalous mode of living 
they have spread in the minds of all These 
nations, who are now infected by it. All 
the pretended service which it is sought 
to make people believe that they render to 
King is reduced to four chief occupations, 
of which we earnestly beg you to In 
form His majesty. 

"The first consists in keeping a pub 
lic Tavern for the sale of brandy, 
wherein they trade it Continually to 
the savages, who do not Cease to be 
come intoxicated, notwithstanding all 
our efforts to prevent it. In vain do 
we speak to them, to try to stop them ; 
we gain nothing but the accusation of 
opposing the King s service, by en 
deavoring to prevent a trade that he 
has permitted. 

"The second occupation of the soldiers 
consists in being sent from one post to an 
other by the Commandants in order to 
carry their wares and their brandy thither, 
after having made arrangements togeth-. 
er ; and none of them have any other ob 
ject than That of mutually assisting one 
another in their Traffic. And, in order 
that This may be more easily done on both 
Sides according to their wishes, the com 
mandants must close their eyes, that they 
mav be able to Connive at and not observe 

the Misconduct of their soldiers, how 
ever visible, public, and scandalous it may 
be; the soldiers must, in turn, besides 
trafficking in their own \vares, become 
traffickers in Those of their Command 
ants, who frequently compel the soldiers 
to buy merchandise from them, in order 
to gain permission to go where they 

"Their third occupation consists in 
making of their fort a place that I am 
ashamed to call by its proper name, where 
the women have found out that their bod 
ies might serve in lieu of merchandise and 
would be still better received than beaver- 

If Wit i - 

: *ff ,: -tk 

-w-uw***,!** -- 


skins; accordingly, that is now the most 
usual and most Continual Commerce, and 
that which is most extensively carried on. 
Whatever efforts the missionaries may 
make to denounce and abolish it, this traf 
fic increases, instead of diminishing, and 
grows daily more and more. All the sol 
diers keep open house in their dwellings 
for all the women of their acquaintance. 

"The 4th occupation of the soldiers is 
gambling, which at the times when the 
traders assemble sometimes proceeds to 
such excess that they are not satisfied with 
passing the whole day, but they also spend 



the whole night in this pursuit. And it 
happens but too frequently that, in the 
ardor of their game, they forget or, if 
they do remember, they scorn to observe 
the feast-days. But \Yhat makes their 
misconduct on this score still worse is, 
that so persistent an attachment to the 
game is hardly ever unaccompanied by 
the general Intoxication of all the players; 
and drunkenness is nearly always followed 
by quarrels that arise among them. When 
these occur publicly before the eyes of the 
savages, they Give rise to three grave 
scandals : the first at seeing them intoxi- 


cated; the second, at witnessing them 
fighting furiously with one another, 
sometimes to the extent of seizing their 
guns in order to kill each other ; the third, 
at observing that the missionaries cannot 
Remedy these evils. 

"Such, monseigneur, are the four sole 
occupations of the garrisons, which they 
have followed here during so many years. 
If occupations of This kind can be called 
the king s service, I admit that they have 
always actually rendered him one of those 
four services. But I have observed none 
other than those four and consequently, 

if such services be not considered neces 
sary to the King, there has never been 
Hitherto any necessity for keeping them 
here; and, after they are recalled, there is 
no necessity of sending any back. How 
ever, As This pretended need of garrisons 
is the sole pretext that is made use of to 
send commandants here, we beg you. 
Monseigneur, to be fully convinced of the 
falseness of That pretext, so that under 
those specious appearances of the King s 
service it may not be considered obligatory 
to Send us anv gfarrisons. For, in realitv, 

- o i 7 

the Commandants come here solely for 
the purpose of trading, in Concert with 
their soldiers, without troubling them 
selves about anything Else. They have no 
intercourse with the missionaries, except 
with regard to Matters wherein they Con 
sider the latter useful for the furtherance 
of their own temporal affairs; and beyond 
that they are hostile to the fathers as soon 
as these undertake to oppose the miscon 
duct, which, being in accord neither with 
the service of God nor with the service of 
the King, is nevertheless advantageous to 
the trade of the Commandants who sacri 
fice everything to it. That is the sole 
Cause of the disorder in our missions, 
which has so desolated them through the 
ascendancy that the Commandants have 


obtained over the missionaries, by assum 
ing all authority over both the french 
and the savages that we now have no 
other power than That of laboring in vain 
under their domination. This has Gone 
so far as to make Civil crimes, and 
grounds for pretended juridical accusa 
tions, but of the performance of the very 
functions of our Ministry and of our duty. 
This was always done by Monsieur de la 



Motte, who would not even allow 7 us to 
use the word "Misconduct," and who even 
brought a suit against the father prior for 
having used it ! 

"Before there were any Commandants 
here, the missionaries Were always Lis 
tened to by the traders because they were 
afraid to give them any grounds for mak 
ing complaints respecting their Conduct, 
which might compel the authorities to re 
call them, and to refuse to grant them any 
further Permission. But, since the com 
mandants have been Sent here, all the 
misconduct that is needed for carrying on 
the trade, as these men wish to carry it 
on, no longer passes for misconduct ; and 
no complaints can be made of it, because 
it is the best means toward the end that 
they have in view, and because they are 
all Equally in accord on That point. The 
Commandants do not complain of the 
traders, whatever they may do, because 
they engage nearly all of them to assist 
them in their trade ; and as the traders are 
sure, on account of Such Engagements, 
that no complaints will be made against 
them, and that, on the Contrary, the 
Commandants will make it their interest 
to Support them, they take every kind of 
Liberty, without having any Fear of the 
Missionaries. Far from Fearing them, it 
sometimes happens even that the Com 
mandants and all the traders conspire to 
gether, with a Common Accord, to com 
plain of the missionaries to the higher au 
thorities, and to denounce them as much 
as possible, so as to make them odious to 
all the people, hoping that thereby the 
charges that the missionaries might bring 
against their misconduct will not be Lis 
tened to. And in fact, they are not ; the 

missionaries are reduced to Silence, to in 
action, to impotence, and to general de 
privation of all authority. 

"And if, On Some occasions, the Com 
mandants are obliged to do something 
Contrary to the usual freedom of the voy- 
ageurs Trade, then other officers to di 
vert the hatred and estrangement of minds 
to which Such obligations might Give 
rise, and to remove the odium thereof 
from themselves to the missionaries dis 
play a certain cleverness, of which we 
would never have had the slightest sus 
picion had not some persons who are well 


aware of it informed us thereof. What 
they do on Such occasions is to affect to 
come to see us more frequently than 
usual ; to speak to us; to converse with us, 
and submit to us What they should do, As 
if they needed our advice on the Subject; 
and afterwards ; through Those appear 
ances of visits, conversations, and Con 
sultations, they make the traders believe 
that It is owing to our remonstrances and 
solicitations that they are Compelled to act 
in that manner, although they would pre 
fer not to do so. Is not this Strange con 
duct for Commandants toward persons of 



our Character, whom they should sustain 
in their duty and support with their au 

"It is also important that you should 
be informed of an abuse that the Com 
mandants have introduced with respect to 
the savages, which has produced among 
them only bad results. It is this, that 
not Content with the Constant profit 




which they derive from the trade They 
have found means to convince the Court 
that it is necessary to supply them with 
considerable funds for the purpose of 
making presents to the savages either to 
interest them in our concerns, our de 
signs, and our undertakings, or to reward 
them when thev render services that may 

be deemed worthy of recompense. This 
is truly a line pretext, which has some 
thing very plausible in appearance; but it 
is certain that never was anything less 
needed with regard to the savages than to 
have Recourse to presents to induce them 
to act. That is what they Xever thought 
of, and which no one should have thought 
of any more than they did. Formerly 
they acted of their own accord, from a 
purely voluntary impulse or, at most, on 
the invitation conveyed by means of a 
I. ranch of porcelain or of a collar that was 
presented to them, without their having 
any other idea than what was natural to 
them, and in accordance with their Cus 
toms. Nothing further was needed to 
make them do \Yhat we wished, than to 
follow their ways. But the desire of hav 
ing 1 a fund that could be disposed of As 
one wishes with the Savings of a great 
profit obtained, has led to an attempt be 
ing made to persuade the Court that it 
was necessary that the Commandants 
should have the wherewithal to give pres 
ents to the savages. The sole effect which 
This ha? produced upon the savages has 
been, to teach them to be exacting in re 
quiring that they be solicited ; to make it 
necessary that all their actions and all 
their emotions be purchased by dint of 
presents; and, finally, that they do noth 
ing that they should do voluntarily, ex 
cept in return for something which is 
given them and which they exact. 

"But the most vexatious part of such 
Conduct is that not only has it taught 
them to be hardly Ever willing to do any 
thing that is asked of them without a 
present to induce them, but it has also 
taught them to make use of an infinite 



number of ruses, of stratagems, and of 
intrigues among themselves; to imagine 
a thousand projects of pretended under 
takings, of warlike movements, of rup 
tures of peace, of embassies To the ene 
mies, and negotiations with them; of 
Commercial intercourse with the english, 
and similar Matters. They pretend to 
have resolved upon the performance of 
these, in order thereby to lead the Com 
mandants to Consider themselves obliged 
to buy them with gifts. Such are the ef 
fects that This new Custom has produced 
on the minds of the savages, so that at 
present their sole Business and occupa 
tion, as regards the Commandants, con 
sists in helping each other to deceive and 
cheat the latter, by making them give 
them presents under the false pretenses 
that I have just Mentioned. 

"But with all This, all the presents that 
are given them are almost nothing in 
Comparison with the fund supplied by 
the Court to the Commandants for that 
Purpose. The gifts are Reduced almost 
entirely to the single expenditure of tobac 
co which is the most usual present, be 
cause the savages are passionately fond of 
it, and cannot refrain from continually 
smoking, so greatly accustomed are they 
to it from their youth. However, what 
remains of the fund is much greater and 
more Considerable than the amount spent 
in giving them presents, successively and 
gradually, on the occasions when it is 
Deemed necessary; and It is greatly to 
be Feared that the Commandants turn it 
to their own benefit and that by careful 
Economy They keep the best part of it 
for their own Use. Still, this is a matter 
respecting which we have nothing to see 

or to say; It is for those who arc Estab 
lished here for that purpose to see to it, 
and to prevent by their vigilance all the 
frauds that might be committed in con 
nection therewith, and not to allow the 
King to be put to great and Needless ex 
pense under any false pretense of neces 

"To all that I have just said respecting 

JUNE 17, 1005. 

the Commandants, I must add that As 
there is no other necessity of sending any 
among the savages than that of keeping 
garrisons there, which must be com 
manded by some one it is perfectly use 
less to Send any; because the garrisons 
themselves are quite unnecessary, except 
for the trade of the Commandants and 



their own trade. They are necessary port; and are still more so outside the 

only for those two trades; as regards all 
the Rest, they are of no use either to the 
savages or to the voyageurs, to whom the 
trade belongs, or to the missionaries. In 

villages where the garrisons not only 
would not follow them, but cannot do so. 
For the soldiers are Unable to perform 
the movements that the savages perform 

the first place, they are of no use to the in the woods, and in all sorts of places 
savages as regards war, either in their that are impracticable to all but them- 

fe " l 

villages or outside them: in the villages selves and the animals; and the soldiers 
they are Useless, because the method are far from being .able to assist them. 
common to all these barbarous nations On the Contrary, the savages themselves 
of carrving on warfare does not consist, would have to help extricate them from 

the difficulties in which 
they would be placed on 
expeditions As difficult 
as Those through The 
Thick forests, which the 
practice of militarv art 
has never allowed them 
to learn. It is therefore 
Evident that the garri 
sons are of Xo use to 
the savages either with 
in or without their vil 
lages; they are entirely 
useless for their Preser 
vation or their defense. 
"Xow if they be useless 
to the savages, they are 
still more so to the voy- 
Like ours, in going to assault one anoth- ageurs who obtain Permission to come up 
er s Villages, because they will never ex- here to trade, and who alone are entitled 
pose themselves to the danger of losing to do so, to the exclusion of all the others 
men Which is unavoidable in Such as- who have no right to it, and who cannot 
saults. They carry on war only by sur- trade without doing the voyageurs an In- 
prises, by Ambushes, by Secret approach- justice. And yet such is the whole occu- 
es, and by sudden and unforseen dis- pation of all the garrisons; Such is their 
charges in the Fields, in the woods, while unique employment which is not only 
fishing and hunting, and everywhere else Unnecessary for the voyageurs, but is ex- 
when they can discover one another out- ceedingly hurtful to them, and does them 
side their Villages. So, for That Reason, damage to the extent of all the Beaver- 
the garrisons are Useless to them as sup- skins and other furs that the soldiers col- 

TITK 01. 1) Cm RT 

M ARC ) I KTT K, M IT 1 1 1C, AX. 



lect. Finally, the garrisons are no more 
Useful to the missionaries than to the 
savages and the voyageurs. It should be 
the duty of the Commandant to employ 
them in behalf of the missionaries on va 
rious occasions when the latter are fre 
quently obliged to go to beg the officials 
to be pleased to repress the misconduct 
and public acts of Insolence of the dealers 
in brandy, and of the fugitive voyageurs 
who go from one mission to another, 
making the savages 
drunk and seducing the 
women in all the Cab 
ins where they lodge. 
The only answer to 
these prayers that we 
get from the Comman 
dants is, that they have 
not enough men to al 
low of their doing so. 
either because the gar 
risons are not suffi 
ciently numerous ; or, 
even if they were larg 
er, they would not be 
of much more help to 
the Commandants, be 
cause the voyageurs and 
the garrisons have an understanding to 
gether, to support one another against the 
missionaries both in their Common mis 
conduct, and in Evading all the orders 
that the Commandants might give them, 
should the latter choose to take the Mis 
sionaries part. But they do not choose 
to do so; and they themselves think of 
nothing but accommodating One another 
with regard to the trade. Since his 
Majesty has ordered that the Voyageurs 
and the Coureurs cle bois be Recalled, and 

has granted them an amnesty to facili 
tate their return, That Recall has not 
pleased every one. Several persons in 
authority who maintained various trad 
ing Relations here, have not ceased to 
Continue the same by secretly sending 
every year to their fugitive Agents sup 
plies for carrying on a new trade. But 
what is more surprising is, that Those 
very persons who were sent here under 
pretense of Coming to bring the amnesty 


came, in reality, solely to trade during the 
whole of That time which, they de 
signedly prolonged as much as they could, 
the better to carry out their object by 
selling all their wares to those whom they 
came to recall ; and to whom, by a Con 
duct entirely opposed to their duty, they 
supplied the means of carrying on the 
trade once more for their own benefit. 
That is why for so many years new 
amnesties are ever being asked for. be 
cause the previous ones are always ren- 



dered Useless in the manner that I have 
just Described. 

"You see. Monseigneur, that I have 
I)\velt to a great extent on the subjeet of 
Commandants and Garrisons, to make 
you Understand that all the misfortunes 
of our mission are due to them. It is 
the Commandants. It is the Garrisons, 
who. unitino- with the brandv traders. 

GAN , APRIL 5, 1895. 

have completely desolated the missions by 
almost universal drunkenness and Lewd- 
ness which have been Established 
therein through the Continual impunity 
for both vices; the Civil authorities not 
only tolerate but permit these, inasmuch 
as, while able to Prevent them, they do 
not. I have therefore no Hesitation in 
telling you that if trading Commandants 

and garrisons of trading soldiers be again 
stationed in our missions up here, we have 
no doubt that we shall be Compelled to 
abandon them, because we shall be un 
able to do anything for the salvation of 
souls. It is for you to inform his Majes 
ty of the extremity to which we are re 
duced, and to ask him for our deliver 
ance, so that we may be able to labor for 
the establishment of religion without the 
Hindrances that have Hitherto impeded 

"And if, touched by the remonstrances 
that you will convey to him, he should de 
cide to send garrisons and Command 
ants up here no longer, and should after 
ward wish to Know what would be most 
advantageous for our missions and for 
the Colony, you ask that we state our 
opinions to you; that we tell you whether 
it would be better to restore the twenty- 
five Permits, or to Establish posts which 
the Company itself would maintain by 
means of as many persons as it might 
Deem necessary, whom it would Select 
and send here to carry on its Trade. I 
will tell you, in the first place, that your 
request takes for granted what would be 
very desirable not to suppose; it assumes 
that the Colony is to come up here to 
carry on its trade among our savages, as 
it has been accustomed to do for many 
years. But it would be very desirable 
that the Colony should not come to the 
savages; that, on the Contrary, the sav 
ages should go to the Colony, and go 
down to Montreal for their trade as 
they did at the Beginning, with a great 
profit to all the people who participated 
in it, whom their going down Saved 
from all the trouble that is taken at pres- 



ent, and from all the dangers to which the 
young men expose themselves in Coming 
to the various nations up here. 

"In whatever light we may consider 
the Commerce carried on, as regards 
either the Common interest of 
Canada, or the advancement of 
Christianity, It would be In 
finitely more advantageous for 
both if the savages themselves 
went down annually for that 
purpose to montreal, than it 
would be to send the french 
here to trade, in the way in 
which they come every Year. 
I do not Consider it necessary 
to give the Reasons so Man 
ifest are they. For it is evi 
dent that the latter method 
serves but to depopulate the 
country of all its young men ; 
to reduce the number of peo 
ple in the houses; to deprive 
wives of their husbands, fath 
ers and mothers of the aid of 
their children, and sisters of 
that of their brothers ; to ex 
pose Those who undertake such 
journeys to a thousand dangers 
for both their Bodies and their 
souls. It also causes them to 
incur very many expenses, part 
ly necessary, partly Useless, 
and partly Criminal ; it accus 
toms them not to work, but to 
lose all taste for work, and to 
live in Continual idleness ; it renders them 
incapable of learning any trade, and there 
by makes them Useless to themselves, to 
their families, and to the entire country, 
through having made themselves unfit 
for the occupations that are most Com 

mon and most useful to man. But It is 
not only for these Reasons, which effect 
this Life, it is still more on account of 
Those which concern the soul, that This 
sending of the french among the savages 


must appear Infinitely harmful to them. 
It Takes them away from all the holy 
places ; it separates them from all Eccles 
iastical and religious persons; It aban 
dons them to a total deprivation of all 
Instruction, both public and private, of 



order to retain for it the fruit and enjoy 
ment of their labor, because they would 
enrich it more by Constant and assiduous 
work than bv the difficult, uncertain, and 

all devotional Exercises, and. finally, of ing to do Any more work, What 
all the spiritual aids to Christianity. It would be most desirable, I say, would be 
sends them into savage countries and into to keep the young men in the country; to 
Impassable places, through a thousand settle them therein as much as possible, in 
danger^, both on land and on water, to 
carrv on in a low, servile, and shameful 
manner a Commerce that could be carried 
on much more advantageously at nion- 
treal, where the people would have a temporary acquisition of a few Beaver- 
much larger share in it I as in justice they skins. Accordingly, the surest and most 
should) than they have, and than they efficacious of all means to make the Col 
ony prosper would be to 
secure for it the settle 
ment within the country 
of all the young men. for 
the sake of their labor, 
and the descent to mon- 
treal for Trade of the na 
tions up here; because 
then the labor of one and 
the Trade of the other 
would contribute to en 
rich the Colony. 

"So long as all the 
young men devote them 
selves to no other occupa 
tion than That of Coming 
here for Beaver, There 
can be no hope that the 
Colonv will Ever be- 


will have so long as it is carried on here, come nourishing; it will always be 

poor, for it will always lose, thereby 
What would most enrich it, I mean the 

"Therefore, what would be most de 
sirable for delivering the Colony from all 

Those kinds of evil, both of body and labor of all the young men. Such, Mon- 

soul, that are inseparably connected with seigneur, is what I consider the most 

the trade up here. which, if viewed in important step for the Temporal and spir- 

the proper light. Causes more loss than itual welfare of the Colony, and what 

profit to the country, because at the same should, in Conscience, be most strongly 

time when it acquires some Beaver-skins represented to his majesty, by making 

for the Colony, it deprives it forever of him thoroughly Understand its necessity, 

the labor of all the young men, by ac- so that he may give orders to seek for 

customing them to be unable and unwill- and to find every possible means of re- 



-Storing the Trade with the savages, and 
of establishing it at montreal, so as to 
keep all the young men in the country and 
accustom them to work from early youth. 
To This end. The Iroquois must be com 
pletely tamed and reduced to subjection ; 
and we take possession of this country, 
which is much better than Those of all 
the nations up here. He is the only Ene 
my whom we have to Dread, or who dis 
putes with us the Trade of the savages, 
which he tries to attract to the english. 
What reason was there for not consent 
ing to destroy him in the war that we had 
undertaken to wage Against him? Why 
was he Spared ? What would we lose by 
destroying him, now that his nation is so 
small in numbers? His destruction and 
the possession of his country would se 
cure for us the Trade of all the savage 
nations up here. Nothing would remain 
to be done but to settle the boundaries of 
our Commerce and of That of the missis- 
sipy, so that one might not clash with the 
other. The Iroquois has been Spared in 
the present war solely on account of the 
trade of Catarakouy ; and the trade of 
Cataracouy was only for Those who Pre 
served That fort and That enemy. 
Whence comes the Iroquois s Beaver but 
from the country up here, which he 
usurps from our savages, to whom all 
The Beavers belong? Should we lose 
the Iroquois s Beavers by his destruction ? 
Would they not revert to our savages, 
and from them to the Colony? 

"But, after all, if it be impossible to es 
tablish the Trade of our savages at mon 
treal, and Consequently to retain the 
young frenchmen with their families, 
that they may Devote themselves to la 

bor ; if it be necessary, of absolute and in 
superable necessity, that They should 
come up here to Trade with our savages. 
you ask on That supposition, which I 
would wish to Be false, what would be 
best: to restore the twenty-five permits 
without any posts, or to Establish posts 
without the twenty-five permits. I 
frankly admit that I am very much em- 


barrassed to answer you because I Know 
not very well to what kind of posts you 
are pleased to refer. Are they posts sole 
ly of Traders, without garrisons and 
without Commandants; or posts that 
would be occupied at the same time by 
persons employed in Trading, and by 



Commandants with their garrisons, who 
would watch over their safety? You ex 
press your opinion on that point. A ou 
Consider tJiat it would be necessary to 
Restore the twenty-live Permits, for three 
men only to each Canoe: that private in 
dividuals should, previous to their de 
parture, make a declaration of What 
thev took with them, and he Cautioned to 


WHITE, A. D. 1897. 

return to the Colony within eighteen 
months; that no post should be Estab 
lished by officers and soldiers; that Each 
one should make use of His Canoe As he 
pleased ; that the missionaries, Each in 
his mission, should Report on the Con 
duct of the voyageurs who might go 
there; that Those who should give 

brandy, or be Known as profligates and 
debauchees, should Never return there; 
finally, that when the twenty-live Permits 
should be thus restored, _There should be 
no other Establishments either at de- 
troit, or among the scioux, or among the 
Illinois. Such is your opinion respect 
ing which, as you desire it. I must explain 
myself. I will therefore tell you that I 
Know too well the young men of Can 
ada to whom the Permits would he 
granted, to be able to Consent to their 

1 Tere Father Carheil goes on exposing 
the perverseness of the commanders and 
of the soldiers. He points out the im 
possibility of improving the conditions in 
the mission without correcting first the 
morals of those who would come to the 
locality be it as soldiers or traders. Con 
cluding his argument he says: 

"I ask you here Monseigneur, whether 
you Consider that all These evils, respect 
ing which I have just submitted our com 
plaints, can be abolished by restoring the 
twenty-live Permits. If they can be 
abolished, then restore the Permits; and 
assure us that the evils are abolished, by 
measures that will be Certain to produce 
their effect. But If, on the Contrary, 
you do not consider that they can be 
abolished, you should at the same time 
Consider that the twenty-five Permits 
must by no means be Restored, since 
their Restoration would Infallibly Cause 
That of lawlessness. 

"Xow suppose that, for the Reasons 
given Above, neither the garrisons with 
their Commandants nor the twenty-five 
Permits are Re-established in our mis 
sions; and that the Trade of the sav- 



ages cannot he Re-established or perma 
nently fixed with certainty at montreal. 
There would remain., then, no other meas 
ure for the Company to adopt than to 
send and maintain in our missions up here 
Selected persons, sober and virtuous, In 
telligent, and well versed in everything 
connected with That trade, and, final 
ly, such as would be fully disposed to live 
on terms of mutual Agreement with all 
the missionaries. These men should be 
sent, in whatever number the Company 
might Deem necessary and sufficient for 
carrying on its Trade, for attaching 
thereto the Savages, and for retaining 
them in it both by their presence and that 
of their wares; and by the sight, the 
transportation, and the Continual Sale of 
those wares among them. The French 
should be stationed in a good fort, always 
well provisioned, and well supplied with 
arms for its defense and for successfully 
combating the savages in Case of neces 
sity, where Those who would have 
charge of the Trade would on Such oc 
casions occupy the position of Command 
ants, while the others would take the 
place of the garrisons. 

"Such, monseigneur, is What we Con 
sider the best that can be done for our 
missions, and the best that can be done in 
the Interest of the Company which, by 
That means, would be sure to obtain ex 
clusive possession of all the Beaver-skins. 
For there would no longer be either Com 
mandants or garrisons who, in spite of 
all the precautions that may be taken, 
nevertheless succeed in obtaining a con 
siderable portion of the peltries, by an In 
finite number of hidden ways and by se 
cret intelligence with the savages. The 

C ompany would also be assured thereby 
that, as the twenty-five Permits would n<> 
longer be Available, the goods would not 
be wasted in a thousand unnecessary ex 
penses by all the Libertines among a Dis 
solute youth. It is your duty to consid 
er, after That, in the presence of God and 
in the very depths of your Conscience, 
What you should represent to the Court 
as the most expedient and the most nec- 


essary measures, I Mean not only for 
the Good of our Missions and of Reli 
gion, or only for the Good of the Trade, 
but for the welfare of both. I desire the 
good of both religion and the Trade, 
which you are obliged to keep in accord 
one with the other, without Ever separat 
ing one from the other. so that Trade 


may Xcver interfere with Religion, which 
must ever be the foremost and most es- 
sential of all our Interests. 

"As Regards the detroit Establishment, 
J have nothing to tell you about it of my 
own knowledge; for I have no Informa- 

nies and violence of Monsieur de la 
Molte, and to protect us Against his 
threats of ruining our missions, which he 
was then publicly uttering in the pres 
ence of the french, who listened to him 
with Astonishment. I foresaw very 

tit in concerning it. except through the re- well that he Was a man capable of carry- 
ports of the french and the savages who ing his evil designs before the Court, As 
talk with us here about it. Judging from he has already done by Calumnies, and 
their reports. It does not seem to them to As he has quite recently done Against 
be an advantageous Establishment, father Yaillant. I Thought that I would 
They are not Satisfied with it. for various forestall him. in order to prevent the ef 
fect of his threats; and 
I would certainly have 
prevented it, had our 
complaints which I had 
reduced to thirteen ar 
ticles, and which I had 
addressed to you been 
laid before his majesty, 
as I had begged you, in 
the name of all our fath 
ers, to dt>. But it was 
mv misfortune not to de 
serve That favor from 
you, however necessary 
it might have been for 
all of us Missionaries. 


lie thereby derived all the advantage 
that he desired, in order to be the 

very Important reasons which I have 
pointed out to the Reverend father su 
perior, in \Yhat I Write for my Justifica- first to accuse us before the Court. You 
tion against the charges brought by Mon- will have learned His recent charges 
sieur de la Motte, who Continues to per- against me, respecting my pretended op- 
secute me. position to his Establishment of detroit; 
"I would not now be in This trouble, and you may see it in my letter of justifi- 
had I deserved to obtain from you the cation written to the Reverend father 
favor that I had asked from you, that of Superior, who will not fail to Communi- 
sending to the Court the letter Contain- cate it to You. Although my innocense 
ing our complaints in thirteen articles, to prevents my dreading his false accusa- 
be presented to His majesty, begging tions, It is however necessary for my 
him to do us justice against the Calum- protection that you should do now what 



has not been done in the past. Although 
you have not sent my letter of complaint 
to the Court, I cannot persuade myself 
that you should have deemed it so little 
worthy of consideration As not to wish 
at least to Keep it, so that you might use 
it in future to do us Justice in Case of 
need. Therefore, having no doubt that 
you have kept it, I beg you to be good 
enough to place it in the hands of the 
Reverend Father superior, to whom I 
have written to ask you for it on my be 
half. It is the last favor and the only 
necessary request that I can ask from you 
before your departure from This country. 
I would myself have gone in person to 
ask you for it, on the kind invitation that 
you and Madame have been good enough 
to send me to Go down below, in order to 
give myself the Consolation of paying my 
respects to you, of seeing you, and of 
conversing with both of you previous to 
your Return to france whither his 
majesty recalls you, to occupy the posi 
tion of Intendant of Havre and of all its 
Coasts. But the actual condition of my 
divided mission, which I must Reunite, 
does not permit me to leave It while it is 
divided, in order to give myself such 
Consolation as That. 

"The assurance which you convey to 
me, in the most obliging manner in the 
world, that you will always Continue to 
grant me the honor of your friendship to 
the Extent of wishing me still to Write 
to you, in spite of the Distance that there 
will be between us, about all That shall 
occur in Our Missions, and to inform you 
of all the Need that we may have of your 
assistance, with the same Confidence as 
that with which I have informed you of 

them during the fifteen years while Can 
ada has enjoyed the happiness of your 
presence, such an assurance, I say, was 
needed by me to mitigate the sorrow that 
your departure was to Cause me, and to 
make it more endurable to me. There 
fore you will still bear with my letters, 
and, if the extent and multitude of your 
occupations allow you a few moments 
leisure to enable you to honor me with 
your answers, such an honor will surely 


Cause me more pleasure than I deserve. 
The whole of your family yourself, 
Madame, Messieurs your Children, and. 
above all, our little missionary will ever 
be Dear to me. I shall Xever forget 
What I owe to you; and, if I can render 
you no other service, I can at least assure 
you of That of my prayers, and of the 


sacrifices that I shall offer to (iod on the 
Altar for your Preservation, for your 
prosperity, and for the happy administra 
tion of your Intendance, with all the suc 
cess that yon can Desire. I remain with 
all the esteem and all the Respect that you 

A 1< Miseigneur, 

your very humble and 
verv ohedient servant, 

signed, Ktienne De Carheil, 
of the Society of lesus. 

own country; and by Restoring the fort 
of Cataracouy for his benefit, They haye 
completely Changed their minds, and no 
longer look upon Detroit in any other 
light than That of an Knemy s country, 
where they can have no Wish to dwell, 
and where there can be no security for 
them. And assuredly they cannot think 
or iudge otherwise; so that Those of the 
huron nation who remain Here, and who 
do not wish to go to detroit, mistrust 
Those who have gone to Settle there, and 


"In speaking of the detroit Establish 
ment, 1 forgot to tell you that, during the 
whole time while the war lasted, the say- 
ages desired That Establishment at de 
troit; because They always supposed that 
the destruction of the Iroquois was de 
sired and that by his Destruction They 
would peaceably enjoy all the lands in his 
Country. But since they have found 
that, far from wishing to destroy him, 
we thought only of sparing and Preserv 
ing him; of befriending him, by giving 
him land in what they considered As their 

1 N i S 5 . . 

Think that they intend to go there in or 
der to Surrender to the Iroquois, so as to 
join in the Trade with the English." 

We confess that we hesitated produc 
ing this spicy letter as a whole. 1 " 

Hut it portrays the evils which finally 
determined the Jesuits to give up the 
fight, in such distinct colors, that we deem 
it necessary to justify their act of aban 
doning the mission. Xor were the above 

" Relations, Vol. 65, pp. 189-253. 

10 Some of the most offensive parts were 




causes all. Father Carheil s wishes were 
in the main complied with, the garrison 
was withdrawn, but he had not counted 
upon other unforseen consequences. Ca 
dillac, once established at Ponchartrain 
fort, through his emissaries and by dint 
of presents and promises induced the best 
element to leave St. Ignace and settle at 
Detroit. Almost four years the Jesuits 
watched their mission being gradually de 
pleted until noth 
ing but the very 
worst Indians and 
French were left to 
them. To waste 
their zeal and en 
ergies on the m 
would have been 
useless. With the 
sanction of the su 
periors, C a r h e i 1 
and Marest, strip 
ped the venerable 
chapel of all its 
portable ornaments, 
and to save it from 
desecration made a 
grand bon fire of it. 
While the flames 
were still licking up 
the last vestige of what was once the mem 
orable Jesuit Mission of St. Ignace, the 
two good Fathers, with saddened hearts 
pushed off the shore their canoes. Fath 
er Carheil returned to Quebec, while 
Father Marest went to the Sioux. 

After the abandonment of the St. Ig 
nace mission by the Jesuits only some 
non-Christian Indians and lawless 
French remained. Soon, however, those 
who had moved to "Detroit at Caddilac s 
persuasion became dissatisfied, all his ma 

terial inducements were not able to hold 
them back, and they commenced to return 
in small and large parties, just as they 
had left. This unexpected turn of things 
greatly alarmed Governor de Yaudreuil 
who at once besought the Jesuits to re 
sume their mission. Father James 
Marest was the first to return. lie took 
up his residence at the old mission in St. 



For this we have the authority of 
Charlevoix 1 * who, on his observation 
trip through the French possessions, ar 
rived on the 2ist of June, 1721, in St. 
Ignace de Michilimackinac. Among his 
impressions of the place he says that, 

11 Pierre Francois Xavicr de Charlevoix. S. J., 
was commissioned by the French Government, 
in 1720, to make a tour of observation through 
the French possessions in America. This trip 
he describes in his Ilistoire et description gen- 
erale de la Nouvclle France, avec le journal his- 
torique d un voyage fait par ordre du roi dans 
l Amerique Septentrionale, Paris, 1/44. 



"the fort is preserved, also the house of 
the missionaries, who are not much em 
ployed at present." If he had meant 
"Xew Mackinac" he would not speak of 
it as being "preserved" because it was oc 
cupied (if already built at that time). 
He likewise clearly conveys the impres 
sion that the Jesuits were there, although 
"not much employed." It is hard to say 
whether or not they built up another 


chapel, but if they did it was only a tem 
porary affair a bark chapel at its best. 
Commonly it is accepted that the new 
fort was established under De Louvigny, 
in 1 71 2, but not at the old site on the 
northern point, but on the apex of the 
Lower Peninsula, known today as Mack 

inaw City. \Ye have our positive doubts 
as to that. The post might have been re 
established in 1712 but we doubt whether 
it was built at once on the northern point 
of the Lower Peninsula. The church was 
not, that is sure, and we have the follow 
ing reasons which militate against an ad 
verse assumption. 

A note made by Dn Jaunay in 1743, 
on page seven of the baptismal record 
first arrests our attention. One, Marie 
Constance, legitimate daughter of Joseph 
Hains, was baptized. May 20, 1742, by 
the same priest and he makes a memor 
andum that she died on August 10, 1743, 
and was the "first buried from the new 
church." Such obituary notes are fre 
quent by the same missionary, but in this 
instance he was most probably induced to 
make it because the church was built by 
her father who was maitrc-charpcntier 
master carpenter at the fort, as is, duly 
recorded in the baptismal entry of his 
daughter, and because of the fact that she 
was the first buried from it. 

This established, beyond doubt, the 
fact that the church, which was, later on, 
1781, moved to Mackinac Island, was 
built in 1741. Xor can the objection be 
made valid that possibly this was a sec 
ond and more substantial edifice, because 
this same missionary started the regis 
ter of which more will be said below, in 
scribing on the title page: "Register of 
Baptism administered to the French at 
the mission of St. Ignace at Michilimack- 
inac." The first six pages are abridge 
ments of baptisms from the 28th of Au 
gust, 1695, to August 27th, 1741, taken 
from another record and terminates with 
the remark : "Le Registre d ou cet abrege 



est tire subsiste dans les archives de cette 
mission. Suit Ic noiiz cau Registre. At 
the end of a similar abridgement of mar 
riages is an identical annotation only that 
the last sentence reads: "Suit le Registre 
des non-i cau Mackinac." If entries that 
follow are made at "new Mackinac" those 
that precede must have been made at "old 
Mackinac," that is St. Ignace. The first 
entry at "new Mackinac" is made upon 
the 24th of October, 1741, and the last at 
St. Ignace on the 27th of August, 1741. 
A difference of not quite two months. To 
this comes the note 
referring to Joseph 
II a i n s daughter s 
birth, and first burial 
from the new church 
and we have the fact 
established beyond 
reasonable dispute. 

A word about the 
record from which 
we have drawn much 
information, will not 
be here out of place. 
It is the oldest 
church register in 
the diocese and com- 

administrcs au.r Francois clans la mission 
dc St. Ignace dc Michilimackinac." Aux 
Francois (an obsolete form for Francais) 
May mean that baptisms of savages were 
not recorded at all or that a special regis 
ter was kept for them. We rather think 
that a full register was kept, but that 
Fere Du Jaunay copied the names of the 
French only, because one single baptism 
that of Antoine Menard, son of Maurice 
Meiiard, deceased, on the 28th of August, 
1695, appears prior to 1712, the year of 
the return of the Jesuits. Second entry, 

mences with an abridgement of entries 
from August 28, 1695. From the com 
parison of writings, it would appear that 
it was begun by Father Du Jaunay who 
made the abridgement from a former 
register said to be preserved in the ar 
chives of the parish, but now long ago 
lost track of. The pious missionary con 
secrated it to its use with a most befit 
ting: "In nomine Patris ct Filii ct Spiri- 
tus Sancti" inscribed on the very top. 
The title page is "Registre des Baptcmes 


September 27th, 1712, registers the bap 
tism of Daniel Villeneuve. This abridge 
ment gives only date of baptism, name of 
the baptized, and of the parents, but does 
not mention the priest who conferred the 
sacrament and for that reason it loses 
all historic value. The first entry, con 
temporaneous with the register, is the 
baptism of one Louis Joseph Chaboyer, 
on October 4, 1741, by Jean Baptiste La- 
morinie, a missionary of the Society of 



On the reverse side of the book are re 
corded marriages. Of these also an 
abridgement is made, the last being on 
August 30, 1741 ; it terminates with the 



remark: Suit Ic Rcgistrc dcs nonrcanx 

tiers, Indian and white, who made up the 
population of the mission. Chastity was 
not rated high, as Judge Brown re 
marks. "Xatural" child, by "savage 
mothers," or "of an 
unknown father" is 
a frequent descrip- 
t i v e qualification 
used by the record 
ing missionary. Dis 
heartening as this 
condition must have 
been to the mission 
aries, they labored 
hopefully combatting 
stead fasti v this dis 
soluteness of morals. 
And not without tell 
ing effect. This rec 
ord, from the first to 
the last page, marks 
the gradual improve 
ment something like 
a child s penmanship 
book. The people 
were so thoroughly 
instructed in the na 
ture of marriage and 
the necessity of the 
sacrament of bap 
tism, that even in the 
absence of a mission 
ary they privately 
christened their chil 
dren, and solemnized 
marriages be- 
witnesses and 
some local authority, 

even the commander of the fort. Both such 
events were carefully placed on church 

From these registers we glean interest- records, to be afterwards, at the first vis 
ing facts about the character of the set- it of the missionary, solemnized accord- 





ing to the rites of the Church. This is so 
well demonstrated, as we have observed 
in our relation of Mackinac Island, that 
in most of the baptisms the missionary 
"supplied the ceremony" or "baptized un 
der the condition." And of a civil mar 
riage contract we have the finest speci 
men, which, to quote Judge Brown, it 
could hardly have been better expressed 
had it been drawn bv a doctor of the Sor- 


6, l86(;, ORDAIN El) IX MARyriiTTIi BV MSGR, 

bonne. On page twenty-nine is the rec 
ord, of which Air. Brown makes the fol 
lowing excellent translation: "In the year 
1779, tne m st of January, before noon, 
we, the undersigned, on the part of 
Sieur Charles Gautier de Vierville, Lieut 
enant-Captain and interpreter of the 
King, son of Claude dermaine de Vier 
ville and of Therese Villeneuve, his fath 

er and mother, deceased, and of Magcle- 
leine Chevalier, daughter of the late 
Pascal Chevalier and of Madeline Darch 
Eveque, her mother; in order to confirm 
the alliance which a virtuous love mutu 
ally leads them to contract together, and 
to crown the fires that mutual tenderness 
has lighted in their hearts, before our 
Mother, the Holy Church, of which they 
are members, and in the bosom of which 
they wish to live and die, have gone to the 
house of Sieur Louis Chevalier, uncle of 
the future bride, to remove every ob 
stacle to their desires, and to assure them, 
so far as in us lies, of days full of sweet 
ness and of repose. There, in the pres 
ence of the future husband and wife, of 
their relations and of their friends, we 
have placed upon them the following con 
ditions, namely: The said future husband, 
in the dispositions required by the Holy 
Roman Church, and according to the or 
der which she has imposed upon her chil 
dren, promises to take for his wife and 
legitimate spouse Magdeline Chevalier, 
who. upon her part, receives him for her 
husband and legitimate consort, having 
the full and entire consent of all their re 
latives. In virtue of this, the husband 
(taking the wife with all her rights for 
the future in that part of her heritage 
which is due to her, and which must be 
delivered to her at the first requisition, to 
be held in common), in order to increase 
the property of his bride, and to show by 
it the extreme tenderness which he has 
for her, settles upon her the sum of a 
thousand crowns, taken from the goods 
which they shall acquire together in or 
der to provide for the necessities which 
the accidents of life may perhaps cause to 



arise. The future spouses, to assure for 
the alliance which they are contracting 
peace, repose and the sweets of well-being 
to the last moment of their lives will 
and consent, in order that they may taste 
without trouble the felicity that they look 
for, that their property should be pos 
sessed by a full and entire title by the sur 
vivor after the death of one or the other, 
to be given after the death of such sur 
vivor to their children, if Heaven, favor 
able to their desires, accords them these 
worthy fruits of their mutual love; but if 
the survivor wishes to contract a new al 
liance, in that case the contracting party 
must account to inheriting children, and 
divide with them. If Heaven, deaf to 
their voice, shall refuse them a legitimate 
heir, the last survivor may dispose of all 
the goods according to his or her will or 
pleasure, without being molested by the 
relatives either of one or of the other. 
This, they declare, is their will while 
waiting to approve and ratify it before a 
notary, and to supplement the ceremonies 
of marriage by a priest, wlien they shall 
have the power to do it." 

The Catholic Directory for 1835 sho\vs 
that Michigan had at that time, according 
to the latest census of five years previous, 
a population of thirty one thousand, in 
cluding seventeen slaves. This goes to 
show r that slavery was not on the increase 
in Michigan, while the Mackinac post 
had half as many or perhaps fully as 
many as early as 1742. Father Du Jau- 
nay baptized on the vigil of Pentecost, 
May 12, 1742, two belonging to Mon 
sieur de Blainville, commanding officer 
of the post. Being sufficiently instruct 
ed they were christened and given the 



names of Jean Baptiste Francois and Viremlreye, upon his safe return from the 

Joseph respectively, the former about extreme West, the said child being well 
twelve and the latter fifteen years old. instructed and asking baptism. His god- 
Slaves were quite common at the post. father was Sieur Ftienne Chenier and his 
To judge from the word "panis" or 
"panise" to signify the sex, they were 
mostly Indians of the Pawnee tribe, hence said 

mother Charlotte Parent. Done at 
Michilimackinac the day and year afore- 
iid. P. Du Jaunay, missionary of the 

Xor \\-ere Society of Jesus." 

they confined only to that race, 
page eight. Father Coquarz ceri 

baptizing, on January i<)th. 1743. 

pon Another entry of the same character 

s to occurs upon page fifty-nine: "Today. 

1 loly Saturday, the loth day of April, in 
daughter of Boncoeur, a negro, and of the year i/6_>, I liave solemnly baptized 

a young n e g r o 
about twenty years 
old, belonging up to 
the day before yes 
terday to this mis 
sion ; sufficiently in 
structed even to 
serve Holy Mass. 
After which he made 
his first Communion. 
In baptism the name 
of Pierre was given 
him. 1 1 is godfather 
was Jean Baptiste 
called J)es-Xoyers, 
voyageur, and his 

godmother Millie. Martha Cheboyer. 

1 )oiie at Machilimakinac the day and year 

aforesaid, P. Du Jaunay etc." It was a 


Margaret, a negress, belonging to Sieur 
I .oulin, obliged to winter at Mackinac on 
his way to Illinois. 

A most interesting fact is revealed by gracious and indeed a symbolic act, to 

these records that the mission was als 
in possession of slaves. On top of page 
twenty-nine is the following entry: "This 
6th day of April ( 1750) the beast of the 

give the poor negro his freedom just be 
fore his baptism. 

fhe Jesuits being induced to return to 
their mission, did not like the transfer of 

Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. I the post from the upper to the lower point 

have solemnly baptized in the church of and held out over twenty-five years at 

this mission Jean I Yancois Regis, a their old stand, until the government of- 

young slave of about seven years given fered them a substantial inducement in 

through gratitude to this mission last the shape of a log-church and dwelling 

summer by Monsieur le Chevalier He la for them within the palisade surrounding 



the fort. The removal must have taken 
place in September of 1/41. Here Du 
Jaunay and Lamorinie continued their la 
bors and from 174.2, in place of the latter, 
I ere Coqnarz was stationed there for one 
year. The winter of 1751 --2 Father La 
morinie again spent at Mackinac and was 
succeeded in October (175- ) by Pere M. 
L. Lefranc, who was left alone in charge 
of the mission from June 1754 to Au 
gust of the following year, when Du Jau 
nay returned. These two missionaries 
labored together until July 1761 when 
Pere Lefranc was withdrawn. 

In 1760 the fortunes of Mackinac be 
gan to change. On September 9th, 1760, 
French arms were defeated and all 
French-Canadian territory surrendered to 
the British together with all the posts on 
the Great Lakes including Mackinac. 
Langlade, who was in command of the 
post, received the following letter from 
Marquis de Vaudreuil : 
"Montreal, Ninth of September, 1760. 

"I inform you, sir, that I have to-day 
been obliged to capitulate to the army of 
General Amherst. This city is, as you 
know, without defenses. Our troops were 
considerably diminished, our means and 
resources exhausted. We were sur 
rounded by three armies amounting in all 
to twenty thousand men. General Am 
herst was, on the sixth of this month, in 
sight of the walls of this city. General 
Murray within reach of one of our su 
burbs and the army of Lake Champlain 
was at La Prairie Longueil. 

"Under these circumstances, with noth 
ing to hope from our efforts, nor even 
from the sacrifice of our troops, I have 
advisedly decided to capitulate to General 

Amherst upon conditions very advantag 
eous for the colonists, and particularly 
for the inhabitants of Michilimackinac. 
Indeed, they retain the free exercise of 
their religion; they are maintained in the 
possession of their goods, real and per 
sonal, and of their peltries. They have 
also free trade just the same as the proper 
subjects of the king of Great Britain. 
"The same conditions are accorded to 



the military. They can appoint persons 
to act for them in their absence. They, 
and all citizens in general, can sell to the 
English or French their goods, sending 
the proceeds thereof to France, or tak 
ing them with them if they choose to re 
turn to that country after the peace. 
They retain their negroes and Pawnee 
Indian slaves, but will be obliged to re- 



store those which have been taken from 
the English. ^ nc English General has 
declared that the Canadians have become 
the subjects of Mis Brittannic Majesty, 
and consequently the people will m >t con 
tinue to be governed as heretofore by the 
French code. 

"In regard to the troops, the condition 
has been imposed upon them not to serve 
during the present war and to lay down 
their arms before being sent back to 
France. You will therefore, sir, assem- 


ble all the officers and soldiers who are at 
your post. You will cause them to lay 
down their arms, and you will proceed 
with them to such seaport as you think 
best, to pass from thence to France. 
The citizens and inhabitants of Michih- 
niackinac will consequently be under the 
command of the officer whom General 
Amlicrst shall appoint to that post. 

"You will forward a copy of my letter 
to St. Joseph and to the neighboring 
posts, in order that if any soldiers remain 
there they and the inhabitants may con 
form thereto. 

"I count upon the pleasure of seeing 
you in France with all your officers. 

"I have the honor to be very sincerely, 
Monsieur, your very humble and very 
obedient servant, 

"Vaudreuil." a - 

The English did not arrive till 1761 ; 
on the 28th of September, the lleur-de-lis 
was hauled down and the union jack un 
furled for the first time over Michilimack- 
inac. Lieutenant Leslie, of the Royal 
American Regiment with one sergeant, 
one corporal, one 
drummer, and twen 
ty-five privates, all 
of the same regi 
ment, constituted the 
first garrison. 13 

Captain Ethering- 
ton superseded his 
fellow officer in 
command s h o r t 1 y 

\Yhat ever may 
h a v e bee n the 
causes, the Indians 
abominated the new 
regime. They were 

not dealt with by the new masters 
in as friendly manner as by the 
French who had given them food and 
clothing, guns and ammunition, and as 
sisted them in all their needs. The 
English simply disdained to cultivate the 
Red-men s friendship at such cost. This 
was enough to wake in their hearts 
thoughts of revenge which eventually 
ripened into plans and final execution. 
On the 2nd of June, 1763, they treacher 
ously surprised the garrison and only few 

-The Parish Record, by O. Brown. 

13 Kelton. Annals of Mackinac p. 37. 



escaped the tomahawk and the scalping 
knite. Among these was Commander 
Etherington himself. To communicate 
the disastrous affair and likewise to ob 
tain speedy help he requested Father Du 
Jaunay to be the bearer, with consent of 
the Indians, of the following message to 
Major Gladwin at Detroit : 

"Michilimackinac, 12 June, 1763. 
Sir : 

Notwithstanding that I wrote in my 
last, that all the savages were arrived, 
and that every thing seemed in perfect 
tranquility, yet on the 2d instant, the 
Chippewas, who live in a plain near this 
fort, assembled to play ball, as they had 
done almost every day since their arrival. 
They played from morning till noon ; 
then throwing their ball close to the gate, 
and observing Lieut. Lesley and me a 
few paces out of it, they came behind us, 
seized and carried us into the woods. 

"In the mean time the rest rushed into 
the Fort, where they found their squaws, 
whom they had previously planted there, 
with their hatchets hid under their 
blankets, which they took, and in an in 
stant killed Lieut. Janet and fifteen rank 
and file, and a trader named Tracy. They 
wounded two, and took the rest of the 
garrison prisoners, five (seven, Henry) 
of whom they have since killed. 

They made prisoners all the English 
Traders, and robbed them of everything 
they had, but they offered no violence to 
the persons or property of any of the 

"When that massacre was over, 
Messrs. Langlade and Farli, the Inter 
preter, came down to the place where 
Lieut. Lesley and I were prisoners; and 
on their giving themselves as security to 

return us when demanded, they obtained 
leave for us to go to the Fort, under a 
guard of savages, which gave time, by 
the assistance of the gentlemen above- 
mentioned, to send for the Cutaways, 
who came down on the first notice, and 
were very much displeased at what the 
Chippeways had done. 

"Since the arrival of the Cutaways 
they have done every thing in their power 


to serve us, and with what prisoners the 
Chippeways had given them, and what 
they have bought, I have now with me 
Lieut. Lesley and eleven privates; and 
the other four of the Garrison, who are 
yet living, remain in the hands of the 

"The Chippeways, who are superior in 
number to the Cttaways, have declared in 


Council to them that if they do not re 
move us out of the Fort, they will cut off 
all communication to this Post, hv which 
means all the Convoys of .Merchants 
from Montreal. La Have, St. Joseph, and 
the upper posts, would perish. I Jut i! 
the news of your posts being attacked 
( winch thcv sav was the reason whv 
the} took up the hatchet) lie false, and 
vou can send up a strong reinforcement, 
with provisions. c\v.. accompanied bv 




some of your savages, I believe the post 
might be re-established again. 

"Since this altair happened, two canoes 
arrived from Montreal, which put in my 
power to make a present to the Ottaway 
nation, who very well deserve any thing 
that can be done for them. 

"I have been very much obliged to 

Messrs. Langlade and Farli, the Inter 
preter, as likewise to the Jesuit, for the 
many good offices they have done us on 
this occasion. 1 he Priest seems inclin 
able to go down to your post for a day or 
two, which 1 am very glad of, as he is a 
very good man, and had a great deal to 
>ay with the savages, hereabout, who will 
believe every thing he tells them on his 
return, which I hope will be soon. The 
Cutaways say they will take Lieut. Les 
ley, me, and the Fleven men which 1 men 
tioned betore were in their hands, up to 
their village, and there keep us. till they 
hear what is doing at your Post. Thev 
have sent this canoe for that purpose. 

I refer you to the Priest for the partic 
ulars of this melancholy affair and am, 
Dear Sir, 

\ ours very sincerely, 
(Signed) Ceo. Ftherington. 
To Maji r Cladwvn. 

"P. S. The Indians that are to carry 
the Priest to Detroit will not undertake 
to land him at the Fort, but at some of the 
Indian villages near it; so you must not 
take it amiss that he does not pay you 
the first visit. And once more I beg 
that nothing may stop your sending of 
him back, the next day after his arrival. 
it possible, as we shall be at a great loss 
for the want of him, and I make no doubt 
that you will do all in your power to 
make peace, as you see the situation we 
are in. and send up provision as soon as 
possible, and Ammunition, as what we 
had was pillaged by the savages. 

Ceo. Etherington." 

14 Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac. Vol. 
II. pp. 366-368. For an inexpensive narrative 
of the massacre and the escape of Henry and oth 
ers, see Dr. John R. Bailey s "Mackinac." 



Father Jaunay s trip proved ineffective. 
AYlien he reached Detroit he found the 
fort besieged and he returned to Macki- 
nac without delivering his message. An 
other missive of the same nature to the 
commander at Green Bay was more suc 
cessful. Lieutenant J. Gorell arrived 
with regulars, traders and Indians, and 
effected the release of the prisoners, who 
eventually made their way to Montreal. 
The fort and the mission church were 
left unharmed. Father Du Jaunay con 
tinued in this mission until the 3rd of 
July, 1765; this 
being his last entry. 
Although the post 
was not abandoned, 
there seems to have 
been no stationary 
priest there after Fa 
ther Du Jaunay left. 
In 1768, Father Gi- 
bault, styling him 
self "Vicaire General 
de la Louisianne" 
and of Illinois, hold 
ing that title from 
the Bishop of Que 
bec, visited the mission on his way 
to Illinois. In 1775 he made an 
other brief visit. In 1776 and 1777, 
Father Payet was there for two months 
in the summer of each year. In May, 
1781 the Gross Isle of the French called 
by the English the Isle of Mackinac was 
purchased by them and the fort removed 
to the Island. The church was also 
transferred to the Island the same spring. 
Subsequent history of the mission is 
given under "Michilimackinac." 

We must return, in our narrative, to 

St. Jgnace. The old mission site re 
mained practically descried after the re 
moval of the mission to the Lower point 
in 1741. The prominence of the trad 
ing post at Mackinac attracted the atten 
tion of home-seekers. The untrustworthy 
character of the Indian was a powerful 
argument to them to settle where not only 
marketable provisions and dry goods 
could be had, but where in case of ex 
igency protection was afforded them. 
The Island was overrun by lazy half- 
breeds and these the industrious settler 


was inclined to shun. To dwell within 
sight of the nation s ilag unfurled over 
kort Holmes was sufficient guaranty of 
safety to the early homesteader. Ac 
cording to the best traditions the ubiqui 
tous Irishman. John Graham, a surviv 
or of the Hudson Bay massacre, broke in 
upon St. Ignace in 1818. Louis Grondin 
came from Canada in 1822 and two 
years later his brother Pierre Grondin 
followed. Other contemporary settlers 
were: Francois Perreault, Michel Jean- 
dreau, Michel Amnaut, Louis Charbon- 



neau, Jean Baptiste Lajeunesse, Isais 
Blanchette. Louis Martin, Franqois Tru- 
quette, Charles Cettandre, Frangois De 
Fevere and the Americans, Hobbs, Puf 
fer and Rousey, soldiers of the Revolu 
tion. The McNallys, Chambers and 
Murrays came in 1847-48-49. Their 
spiritual wants were attended to from 
Mackinac Island until 1836 when they 
considered their number strong enough 
to have a church of their own. Father 
Bondnel, the pastor, willingly acceded to 


their wishes and commenced the erection 
of a chapel. Squared timbers were in 
readiness in the spring of 1837 and with 
the closing of the year Mass was cele 
brated in the new edifice. The first child 
baptized in the new church was Agnes 
Labutte, January ist, 1838. After 
Father Bonduel, 1838, the priests from 
the Island, in their succession, Santelli, 
Skolla, Van Renterghem and Piret, at 
tended the mission. Father Pierz from 
Arbre Croche, resided in St. Ignace dur 

ing Father Piret s temporary absence 
from January I5th to June 0, 1852. 
The first resident pastor having charge 
only of St. Ignace, was Rev. S. Carie, 
a French priest, whom Bishop Baraga en 
gaged on his first trip as bishop to Europe 
in 1854, but who arrived a year later on 
account of not being able to obtain the re 
lease from his French Ordinary. He re 
mained in St. Ignace from December 5, 
1855, until March 22, 1856. The com 
plex of services to the mission., for almost 
twenty years is a varied one, 
viz: Rev. E. L. M. Jahan, 
from June 9. 1856, to July 
12, 1857, from Mackinac 

Rev. A. D. J. Piret, from 
December 6, 1857 to Sep 
tember 15, 1868, as resi 
dent pastor. 

Rev. Charles Magnee, a 
resident priest only a few 
weeks in September, 1868. 

Rev. Mathias Orth, resi 
dent pastor, from November 
5, [868, to November 28, 

Rev. Nicholas L. Siffrath, 
from Cross Village, residing 
at the mission from January 3Oth to 
April 9, 1870. 

Rev. C. Varry, S. J., from the Sault, 
residing, from September 4th to Septem 
ber 1 8, 1870. 

Rev. M. Orth, from February 6th, to 
May 6, 1871, residing. At this period 
trouble arose between the pastor and 
people, and Bishop Mrak, to restore or 
der, was obliged to take hold of the con 
gregation during June of 1871. On the 
29th of that month, he appointed Father 
L. Lebouc to the pastorate who remained 



until the 8th of April, 1872. An interreg 
num of nineteen months followed dur 
ing which Father Moise Mainville, from 
the Island, and in August, 1873, Bishop 
Mrak himself served the mission. On 
November 17, 1873, ^ ev - Father Edward 
Jacker became the regular pastor, but re 
sided on Mackinac Island until summer 
1876, when he removed to St. Ignace. 

Father Jacker, known through the dio 
cese as a saintly man and scholar, divided 
his time between ministrations and his 
torical researches 
which unwittingly 
suggested t h e m- 
selves. Most anx 
ious to locate the site 
of the first Jesuit 
Mission he studied 
and read anything 
bearing on the ques 
tion and queried 
among the oldest In 
dians about the frag 
mentary traditions 
which still existed 
among the descend 
ants of Father Mar- 
quette s flock. Not 
until 1877 did ne receive any encourage 
ment of realizing his hopes. From the in 
quiries among the Indians he first located 
the site of the ancient Indian village. This 
gave him more hope and courage as it en 
gaged the general interest of the people in 
his find. The trail once found was assidu 
ously followed to the very foundations of 
the historic chapel. The story of the dis 
covery is told. by Mr. David E. Murray 
in a letter to Rev. Samuel Hedges, author 
of a quaint little book on "Father Mar- 
quette and his place of burial at St. Ig 
nace, Michigan." By kind permission of 

the author we give the letter in full as 
quoted above. 

"The finding the site of the chapel and 
burial-place of the great missionary and 
explorer, Marquette, after having been 
lost sight of for nearly two hundred years 
came about in the following manner. In 
May, 1877, my father, Patrick Murray, 
since deceased was having cleared, for 
garden purposes, ground near his home. 
The ground was covered with closely 
growing balsam, spruce and juniper trees, 


such as cover the hills around the city to 
day. When work had been completed it 
exposed to view the foundation of a 36x- 
40 building with narrower part facing the 
lake. This foundation of flat limestone, 
such as would be used in lining up a log 
building, stood up so distinctly from the 
ground around that it could not but com 
mand attention. 

"Outside of the line of the foundations, 
near the northwest and southwest corners 
were two heaps of stone evidently the 
ruins of two stone fire-places and chim 
neys. There had been no building on 



this ground, within memory of any living 
person; and tree.-, that had stood there 
went to show that time had been long 
and the years many since any structure 
could have been there. My father, know 
ing from the history of this region that 
somewhere in St. Tgnace had stood the 
mission chapel of the Jesuits, and in 
which Marquette had been laid, when 
brought here from the east shore of Lake 
Michigan, by the Indians, in 1077, and 


further, the traditions among old French 
and Indians pointing to the head of the 
bay as the place (where, as they said, a 
great bishop was buried) decided not to 
disturb the ground until investigation 
could be made, believing that he had really 
struck the site of the old chapel. He 
immediately sent for Rev. K. Jacker, 
parish priest at this time, and an Indian 
Missionary as well. Father Jacker. con 
vinced in belief that the site of the old 
mission which he and others had looked 

ground be left as it was. until he could 
secure records relating to the mission, 
and if possible, a map of place showing 
1 cation. These he secured later in the 
Relations and La Honton s Travels, rec 
ords which went to show that it was the 
site of the old church even to the distance 
from the water and the two heaps of 
stone were the ruins of fire-places of liv 
ing departments on X. \Y. corner, and 
work-shop on S. \Y. corner from the 
chapel. In the meantime, 
we, living within a few 
feet of the site found cruci 
fixes of various designs, 
beads, rings, etc.. some of 
which we still have and 
some we gave away, at the 
time of the discovery. On 
what was the site of the 
work-shops in poking 
around in the ground we 
unearthed pieces of old 
iron, scraps of copper, etc., 
which went to still further 
show that it was the old 
mission. Also we found 
and still have the front 
face of a small lock and 
from the design of it and where it 
was found we conclude that it is part 
of the tabernacle lock. After all doubt 
had been removed as to its being the 
site of the mission from records, and 
the various finds around the next thing 
in order was to find out if Marquette s re 
mains still rested there, or were they 
moved when the Mission was abandoned 
in 1706 and that no account had been 
left of such removal. To determine this, 
in September, 1877, in the presence of a 

for had been found, requested that the good part of the population of the village 



and many strangers from other points, 
search was started by excavation, within 
lines of what had been the chapel, begin 
ning at a point in front of same, and 
where there was a slighter depression in 
ground, on the theory that a grave, in 
years, would become a depression. AYork 
was carried on there, and all around, un 
til the cellar in the west end was reached. 
There, when the debris had been re 
moved, the level earth-floor of a cellar 
was found. Digging down a few fee! 
below the level of the floor and in the 
west end of it, pieces of birch-bark were 
unearthed, and these pieces of bark were 
pulled from blackened sand. There came 
with them pieces of bones, which were 
what the crowd was looking for. A lit 
tle further digging and the almost intact 
birch-bark bottom of the box, of which 
the pieces had evidently formed top and 
sides, was found. This bottom piece 
rested on three pieces of decayed cedar. 
These pieces of cedar still held their full 
form and outline, but broke up into small 
pieces, when picked up. The bottom 
bark was cemented into place by mortar, 
which was still intact all this is in ac 
cordance with how Marquette had been 
buried, and Father Jacker, and those 
working with him. decided that they had 
found all that had not turned to dust of 
the Missionary. Darkness was coming 
on, work was concluded, Father Jacker 
taking charge of what had been found. 
The next day Joseph Marley, digging 
around in the west end of the cellar, 
where it had caved in on the previous 
evening, found more pieces of bones from 
a human frame, including pieces of skull- 
bone. These were taken to Father Jack 
er and kept with the rest. The bones 

found were disposed of by sending part 
of them to Marquette College, in Milwau 
kee, and placing the balance in a vault un 
der a monument erected by the people of 
the town, in 1882, on the spot where the 
bones were found. 

"There exists no doubt in the mind of 
anvone who lived here at the time of the 


discovering of the site, that the various 
proofs as they came to light demonstrated 
that here was the resting place of the 
great missionary and explorer. The old 
est Indian in the country, Joseph Xis- 
atayp, comes to pray at the grave, and I 
think, because of the knowledge that ex 
ists with his people that, as they put it, 



a great Bishop was buried on this spot, 
and not because of the finding of an un 
known grave. 

"The land on which the [Mission chapel 
stood is one of the old French claims and 
in the possession of the Murrays since 
1857, coming to them through purchase, 
from Talbot Dousman coming to Tal- 
bot Dousman from Michael Dousman in 

in an Indian family from the time the 
old mission was abandoned until 1834, 
when the present church was built. There 
is also a tradition or the statement of an 
old Indian woman, who died a few years 
ago, that in her childhood, a large cross 
had stood where the old mission site was 

"The old chalice, in the church, I know 

1855, to Michael Dousman from Francis nothing of, except that it is very old and 

La Pointe in i8_>8. Francis La Pointe 


had held it as squatter s claim prior to is 
sue of patent by the U. S. Government in 
1830. The chapel site was deeded to the 
Jesuit College in Detroit, in 1885 in or 
der that the grave of Marquette might be 
controlled by the Order of which he was 
a member. In 1889, the city of St. Ignace 
purchased two lots adjoining the site and 
turned it into Marquette Park, which is 
kept up by the city. The old painting 
which is in the present church, has the 
tradition back of it, of having been here 

has always, as far as anv person knows, 
been in the present church. 

I have tried to learn why the 
bays are called East Moran and 
\Vest Moran, and as far as T can 
learn, a man named Moran lived 
here at the time they were given 
their name. It was the same way 
that Graham Point and Shoal 
got their names; that is named 
after one of the early settlers, 
"Hudson P>ay men." tr> 

The discovery of the site was 
made early in May, 1877. To 
allay the scruples of Mr. Mur 
ray, digging was postponed until 
llishop Mrak could come down 
and give his authoritative deci 
sion. A correspondent of the 
Detroit Evening Xcws who was 
on the spot in July, gives the readers 
of that excellent paper, the following- 
impression of what he saw and 
heard at that time : "The recent discov 
eries at St. Ignace. Mackinac, July 12, 
1877. The readers of the Evening 
News w r ill recollect the recently reported 
discovery at St. Ignace of the site of the 

16 Father Marquette. His place of burial at 
St. Ignace, Michigan, pg. 98 et seq. This book 
is well worth reading as it gives a logical argu 
ment for the genuineness of Father Jacker s dis- 



mission chapel founded by Father Mar- 
quette in 1670, and under the pavement 
of which his bones were subsequently de 
posited. The account created consider 
able sensation among- antiquaries. Be 
ing in Mackinac, within four miles of St. 
Ignace, I improved the opportunity to 
cross over and see for myself what the 
discoveries amounted to. The little 
steamer Truscott crosses each afternoon ; 
fare, 50 cents. A few steps from the 
landing we turn into a po 
tato patch, just beyond 
which the boy who pilots us 
suddenly announces, "Here s 
the place." At first glance, 
nothing can be observed 
more than might be noticed 
on any vacant lot in Detroit. 
A closer examination, how 
ever, reveals a very slight 
trench about a foot and a 
half wide, forming a rect 
angle, 35x45 feet, and lo 
cated very nearly, if not ex 
actly, with the points of the 
compass, the longer meas 
urement being in the di 
rection of east and 
west. At places in this trench rough 
stones lay embedded in the earth. At 
the southern side of the space, about nine 
feet from the western side, is a hole say 
three feet deep and eight or ten square, 
and in the southeast corner another small 
er hole. Until the present spring, the 
site has been covered with a growth of 
young spruce, the clearing off of which 
led to the supposed discovery. The larg 
er hole is assumed to have been a cellar 
under the church in which the valuables 

are kept; the smaller hole is thought to 
mark the position of the baptismal font, 
though why an excavation should be 
made for it is more than I can conjecture. 
A few feet west of the rectangle des 
cribed above are two heaps of stone and 
earth, evidently the debris of two ruined 
chimneys. The outlines of the houses 
to which the chimneys belonged can also 
be faintly traced. 

"Mr Murray, the owner of the ground, 


is a well-to-do Catholic Irishman, own 
ing as he does six hundred acres of land 
on the Point. He has lived on the place 
for twenty years past, and before that 
lived on Mackinac Island. He is inclined 
to be superstitious and to magnify the 
mystery to which he believes he holds the 
key. As illustrative of this, he remarked 
in my presence, that when he was about 
to build a cow-house some time ago, his 
sons wished it located on what he now 
believes to be the site of the ancient 



church but the protecting intluences of 
that sacred spot strangely impelled him 
to adopt a different location. He is con 
fident that by digging belo\\- the surface 
at the center of the church, the "mocock" 
of bones would be discovered, but thus 
far, owing to a difference between him 
self and the parish priest, not a spadeful 
of earth has been turned. The priest be 
lieves the location to be the correct one, 
and is anxious to excavate, but Air. Mur- 


ray refuses to permit it, without a pledge, 
that whatever is found shall not be car 
ried away from the Point. He offers to 
give ground for the erection of a church 
or a monument on the spot, but insists 
that the sacred relics, if found, must be 
left where they have for two centuries 
rested. The Bishop is expected at St. 
Ignace shortly, when the question will be 
laid before him for adjustment. 

"Xow. as to the probability of the dis 
covery being confirmed by others yet to 
be made, I must confess to being less san 
guine than Mr. Murray and his neigh 
bors. It is certain that the two ruined 
chimneys alluded to indicate the location 
of d well ings at some period in 
the past. Bits of iron, copper and 
looking-glass found in the debris 
attest this; but whether the buildings 
stood fifty years ago or two hundred no 
one can positively assert. Mr. Murray 
has known the spot for a quarter of a 
century, and can vouch for no change 
having occurred in that time. I think it 
likely that they are of a much older date. 
In regard to the assumed church site, I 
think the probabilities favor the existence 
there at one time of a building of some 
sort. \Yhether it occupied the limits as 
sumed 45x35 feet is less certain, while 
the existence of the cellar would seem to 
indicate that it was a dwelling rather 
than a church. On the other hand, it is 
certain that the mission was founded in 
this immediate vicinity, and the Murray 
farm, as fronting on the most protected 
part of the bay. and affording the best 
landing for boats, is certainly as likely a 
spot for Marquette to have adopted as 
any. IUit nothing can be told with any 
certainty till thorough investigation is 

"The tradition is that the mission was 
founded in 1670, that Marquette subse 
quently visited \Yisconsin and Illinois, es 
tablishing mission stations as far up the 
lake as Chicago; that upon his return by 
way of the eastern shore of Lake Michi 
gan, he died at the mouth of the Pere 
Marquette River, where Ludington now 
stands, and was buried there. A few 



years later his bones were taken up, 
cleaned and packed in a mocock, or box 
made of birch bark, and were conveyed 
with due solemnity back to St. Ignace, 
where they were permanently deposited 
beneath the middle of the church. At a 
still later period, Indian wars broke up 
the mission, and, to protect the church 
from sacrilege, the missionaries burned it 
to the ground. 

"I also found in the possession of the 
present priest of St. Ignace, Father Jack- 
er, a pen and ink sketch, on which I 
looked with most intense interest. This 
invaluable drawing gives the 
original site of the French 
village, the home of the 
Jesuits/ the Indian village, 
the Indian fort on the bluff, 
and, most important of all, 
very accurately defines the 
contour of a little bay known 
as Xadowa - Wikweiamas- 
hong i.e., as Mr. Jacker 
gave it, Nadowa Huron. 
\Yik-weia here is a bav. 
Anglice Little Bay of 
the Hurons, or, according 
to the Otchipwa dictionary 
of Bishop Baraga. Bad Bay 
of the Iroquois squaw. Of 
the Indian village there is no trace. Their 
wigwams, built only of poles and bark, 
have not left a single vestige. Not so 
with the French village. You may still 
see the remains of their logs and plaster, 
and the ruins of their chimneys. On 
the supposed site of the house of the Jes 
uits, some 40x30 feet, are found distinct 
outlines of walls, a little well and a small 
cellar. Immediately in the rear of the 
larger building are the remains of a 

forge, where "the brothers" used to make 
spades or swords, as the occasion might 

"On further inquiry of the priest, who 
was equally remarkable for his candor 
and intelligence, and the length of his 
beard, I found that the sketch of the 
house of the Jesuits was taken by him 
from the travels of La Hontan, originally 
published in France, but translated and 
republished in English A. D. 1772. Only 
a few days after I saw a copy of this very 
same book in the hands of Judge C. I. 


Walker, of Detroit, and was thus en 
abled, to my very great satisfaction, to 
verify the sketch as shown to me by 
Father Jacker. 

"La Hontan says: The place which 
I am now in, is not above half a league 
distant from the Illinois Lake. Here the 
Hurons and Onatawas have each of em 
(sic) a village, the one being severed 
from the other by a single palisade. But 
the Ontawas are beginning to build a 



fort upon a hill that stands but one thou 
sand or one thousand two hundred paces 
off. In this place the Jesuits have a 
little house or college, adjoining to a 
sort of chapel and inclosed with pale, 
which separates it from the village of the 
Hurons. Reference is made to the lo 
cation in La Hontan. Vol. i, p. 88. 

"From that moment I entertained the 
most sanguine hope that the long-lost 


grave of the good Marquette would again 
be found. Greatly did I regret that I 
could not remain a few days longer, 
when the exploration would be made in 
the presence of the excellent Bishop 
Mrak, and learn what would be the re 
sult. I saw nothing whatever in the 
well-known character of the Bishop, or 
of the worthy pastor of St. Ignace, to 
justify even for a moment the least sus 

picion of anything like pious fraud. 
Monday, September 3, 1877, Bishop 
Mrak dug out the first spadeful of 
ground. For a time, however, the search 
was discouraging. Nothing was found 
that would indicate the former existence 
of a tomb, vaulted or otherwise, and the 
bishop went away. After awhile, a small 
piece of birch bark came to light, fol 
lowed by numerous other fragments 
scorched by fire. Finally, a larger 
and well-preserved piece appeared, 
which once evidently formed a part 
of the bottom of an Indian wig-wap 
makak, birch-bark box or mocock. 
Evidently the box had been doubled, 
such as the Indians sometimes use for 
greater durability in interments, and 
had been placed on three or four 
wooden sills. It was also evident that 
the box had not been placed on the 
floor, but sunk in the ground, and per 
haps covered with a layer of mortar. 
But it was equally evident that this 
humble tomb had been disturbed, and 
the box broken into, and parts of it 
torn out, after the material had been 
made brittle by the action of fire. 
This would explain the absence of its 
former contents, which, says Mr. 
Jacker, What else could we think 
were nothing less than Father Mar- 
quette s bones. But what had be 
come of them? Further search brought 
to light two fragments of bones then 
thirty-six more finally, a small frag 
ment, apparently of the skull then sim 
ilar fragments of the ribs, the hand and 
the thigh bone. From these circum 
stances, then, we deduce the following 



1. That of M. Pommier, the French lished in the Catholic World, November, 
surgeon, that these fragments of bones 1877. In connection with the article en- 
are undoubtedly human, and bear the titled Romance and Reality of the 
marks of fire. Death of Father James Marquette, and 

2. That everything goes to show, the recent discovery of his remains/ by 
the haste of profane robbery. John G. Shea, for which papers I am in- 

3. That this robbery was by Indian debted to the kind courtesy of Mr. Daniel 
medicine men, who coveted his bones, ac- E. Hudson, C. S. C., Notre Dame, In- 
cording to their belief, as a powerful diana, to whom I return most cordial 
medicine. thanks. While in some respects the re- 

4. That it must have taken place suits are not quite as satisfactory as might 
within a few years after the departure of have been desired, yet the determination 
the Jesuits, otherwise when 

the mission was renewed 
(about 1708), the remains 
would most certainly have 
been transferred to the new 
church in old Mackinac. 

5. That Charlevoix, at 
his sojourn there in 1721 
could hardly have failed to 
be taken to see the new tomb, 
and to mention the fact of 
its transfer in his journey or 

6. That if \ve have 
failed to find all the remains 
of the great explorer, we 

and ascertained the fact of (TO THE RIGHT), REPUBLIC, MICH. 

his having been interred on that par- of the site of the old homes of the Jesuits, 

ticular spot. the discovery of the tomb, the recovery 

7. That the records answer all the in part of the mocock coffin, and, above 
circumstances of the discovery, and that all, the finding of some of the bones of 
the finding of these few r fragments, if [Marquette, are all of intense interest to 
not as satisfactory to our wishes, is at every lover of early Michigan history, 
least as good evidence for the fact in "Marquette, the great explorer, the 
question as if we had found every bone oldest founder of Michigan, whose grave 
that is in the human body. was found within her borders, and to 

"Such are the leading- points in Father whom belongs immortal honor, being the 
Jacker s elaborate narrative, as pub- discoverer of the Upper Mississippi and 



first navigator of the great river. The 
scattering of his hones. I am well persuad 
ed, is only a symbol of the wider exten 
sion of his fame. Already his name is 
attached to a railroad, a river, a city, a 
diocese in Michigan; but that is not 
enough. Some forty years ago, it was 
foretold by Bancroft, that the people 
of the \Yest will build his monument, 
and now the time lias fully come when 

17, 1905. 

that prophecy will be fulfilled. Lest you 
might think that I say this merely out of 
State pride, or as a lover of antiquarian 
history, I will only add in conclusion that 
I say it out of a much higher motive, and 
with reference to a much higher object. 
In reading the life of Francis Xavier, 
when a boy, I learned that there were 
some lessons for Christian laborers from 

the lives of the early Jesuits, that neither 
I nor any other man could afford to over 
look. The spirit of union, which was to 
them so great a source of power, the 
cheerfulness with which they suffered for 
the cause that they had espoused ; the un- 
looked for combinations of character in 
the same individuals, and, above all, 
the magnetism of personal importance 
and power by having a definite aim- 
such, for example, as we find in the good 
Marquette, belong not to any one church 
or order of that church, but to man as 
man. and to the world at large. There 
is only one regret that T should have in 
the erecting of such a monument, and 
that is lest it should be built by our Cath 
olic friends alone. \Yill they not permit 
us all to join Michigan, "Wisconsin, 
Illinois, and the whole Xorthwest and 
do honor to the great explorer in a mon 
ument of natural rock (like Monumental 
Rock, Isle Royale). the materials for 
which in that immediate vicinity have 
been so long waiting, apparently, for just 
such a noble purpose." li: 

fhis article reaches somewhat ahead of 
our argument, as it summarizes towards 
the end Father Jacker s narrative, but we 
do not feel that we should abbreviate it, 
although we let the priest s own story 
follow in full because he describes with 
accuracy and in detail the actual digging 
in search of what might be left of Father 
Marquette s remains. At the instance of 
John Ciilmary Shea, Father Jacker wrote: 

"Mr. David Murray, the owner of the 
ground in question, had for some time re 
lented so far as to declare that if the chief 
pastor of the diocese upon his arrival 

10 Detroit Evening News, July 1877. Cf. His 
tory of the Peninsula of Michigan, pg. 66. et. seq. 



here, should \vish to have a search made, 
he would object no longer. Last Mon 
day, then (September 3, 1877), Bishop 
Mrak, upon our request, dug out the first 
spadeful of ground. On account of some 
apparent depression near the centre of 
the ancient building, and mindful of 
Father Dablon s words. Til fut mis dans 
tin petit caveau an milieu dc 1 eglise, we 
began our search ; but being soon con 
vinced that no digging had ever been 
done there before, we ad 
vanced towards the near 
est corner of the large cel 
lar-like hollow to the left, 
throwing out all along, 
two or three feet of 
ground. On that whole 
line no trace of any for 
mer excavation could be 
discovered, the alternate 
layers of sand and gravel 
which generally underlie 
the soil in this neighbor 
hood appearing undis 
turbed. Close to the an 
cient cellar-like excava 
tion a decayed piece of 
a post, planted deeply in 
the ground, came to light. The bot 
tom of that hollow itself furnish just the 
things that you would expect to meet 
with in the cellar of a building destroyed 
by fire, such as powdered charcoal mixed 
with the subsoil, spikes, nails, an iron 
hinge (perhaps a trap-door), pieces of 
timber apparently of hewed planks and 
joists partly burned and very much de 
cayed. Nothing, however, was found 
that would indicate the former existence 
of a tomb, vaulted or otherwise. Our 
hopes began to sink (the good Bishop 

had already stolen away), when, at the 
foot of the western slope of the ancient 
excavations fragments of mortar bear 
ing the impress of wood and partly 
blackened, and a small piece of birch- 
bark, came to light. This was followed 
by numerous others, similar or larger, 
fragments of the latter substance, most 
of them more or less scorched or crisped 
by the heat, not by the immediate action 
of the fire; a few only were just black- 



ened, and on one side superficially 
burned. A case or box of birch-bark, 
(une quaisse d escorce cle bouleau) accord 
ing to the Relations, once enclosed the re 
mains of the great missionary. No won 
der our hopes revived at the sight of that 
material. Next appeared a small leaf 
of white paper, which being quite moist, 
almost dissolved in my hands. \Ye con 
tinued the search, more with our hands 
than with the spade. The sand in which 
those objects were embedded was con 
siderably blackened more so in fact 

or- Tin;. DIOCESE OF 

than what should be expected, unless some 
digging was done here after the fire, and 
the hollow thus produced tilled up with 
the blackened ground from above. Here 
and there we found small particles, gen 
erally globular, of a moist, friable-sub 
stance, resembling pure lime or plaster- 
of-paris. Xone of the details of our 
search being unimportant, I should re 
mark that the first pieces of birch-bark 
were met with at a depth of about three 
and a half feet from the present surface, 
and nearly on a level, I should judge, 


with the floor of the ancient excavation. 
For about a foot deeper down more of it 
was found, the pieces being scattered at 
different heights over an area of about 
two feet square or more. Finally a 
larger and well-preserved piece appeared, 
which once evidently formed the bottom 
of an Indian mawkawk (wigwas ma- 
kak birch-bark box) and rested on clean 
white gravel and sand. Some of our 
people, who are experts in this matter, de 
clared that the bark was of unusual 
thickness, and that the box, or at least 
parts of it, had been double, such as the 

Indians sometimes, for the sake of great 
er durability, use for interments. A fur 
ther examination disclosed the fact that 
it had been placed on three or four 
wooden sills decayed parts of which were 
extracted. All around the place once oc 
cupied by the box the ground seemed to 
be little disturbed, and the bottom piece 
lay considerably deeper than the other 
objects (nails, fragments of timber, a 
piece of glass jar or large bottle, a chisel, 
screws, etc.) discovered on what I con 
ceived to have been the ancient bottom of 
the cellar. From these two circumstan 
ces it seemed evident that the birch-bark 
box had not (as would have been the 
case with an ordinary vessel containing 
corn, sugar, or the like) been placed on 
the floor, but sunk into the ground, and 
perhaps covered with a layer of mortar 
many blackened fragments of which were 
turned out all around the space once oc 
cupied by it. But it was equally evident 
that this humble tomb for such we took 
it to have been had been disturbed, and 
the box broken into and parts of it torn 
out, after the material had been made 
brittle by the action of the fire. This 
would explain the absence of its former 
contents, which what else could we 
think? were nothing less than Father 
Marquette s bones. \Ye, indeed, found 
between the pieces of bark two small frag 
ments, one black and hard, the other white 
and brittle, but of such a form that none 
of us could determine whether they were 
of the human frame. 

"The evening being far advanced, we 
concluded that day s search, pondering 
over what may have become of the pre 
cious remains, which, we fondly believe, 
were once deposited in that modest tomb, 



just in front of what, according to cus 
tom, should have been the 1 .lessee! Vir 
gin s altar. Had I been in Father Nou- 
vel s place, it is there I would have buried 
the devout champion of Mary Immacu 
late. It is the same part of the church 
we chose nine years ago for Bishop 
aga s interment in the cathedral of Mar- 
quette. The suggestion of one of our 
half-breeds that it would be a matter of 
wonder if some Pagan Indians had not, 
after the departure of the missionaries, 
opened the grave and carried off the re 
mains pour en fairc dc la medicine 
that is, to use the great black-gown s 
bones for superstitious purposes this 
suggestion appeared to me very probable. 
Hence, giving up the hope of finding any 
thing more valuable, and awaiting the 
examination by an expert of the two 
doubtful fragments of bone, I carried 
them home (together with numerous 
fragments of the bark box) with a mixed 
feeling of joy and sadness. Shall this, 
then, be all that is left us of the saintly 
missionary s mortal part ? 

"I must not forget to mention a touch 
ing little incident. It so happened that 
while we people at St. Ignace were at 
work, and just before the first piece of 
bark was brought to light, two young 
American travellers apparently Protes 
tants, and pilgrims, like hundred of oth 
ers all through the summer, to this mem 
orable spot came on shore, and having 
learned the object of the gathering with 
joyful surprise, congratulated themselves 
on having arrived at such a propitious 
moment. They took the liveliest inter 
est in the progress of the search, lend 
ing their help, and being in fact to out 
ward appearances, the most reverential 

of all present. Do you realize, would 
one address the other with air of reli 
gious awe, where we are standing? 
This is hallowed ground! Their bear 
ing struck us all and greatly edified our 
simple people. They begged for, and 
joyfully carried off, some little memori 
als. Isn t it a natural thing, tliat venera 
tion of relics we used to be so much 
blamed for? 




"Some hundred and fifty or two hun 
dred of our people witnessed the search, 
surrounding us in picturesque groups- 
many of them, though nearly white, be 
ing lineal descendants of the very Otta- 
was among whom Father Marquette la 
bored in La Pointe clu St. Esprit, and 



who witnessed his interment in this place 
two hundred years ago. The pure In 
dian element was represented only hy one 
individual of the Oiilnva tribe. 

"On Tuesday our children were con 
firmed, and in the afternoon T had to es 
cort the Bishop over to Mackinac Island. 
Tpon my return, yesterday evening, a 
young man of this place entered my room. 
with some little keepsake, taken out a few 
hand fuls of ground at a little distance 


from where the box had lain, in the di 
rection of what I presume to have been 
the Blessed Virgin s altar, and about the 
height of the ancient cellar floor. The 
result of his search was of such a char 
acter that he considered himself obliged 
to put me in possession of it. What was 
my astonishment when he displayed on 

my table a number of small fragments of 
bones, in size from an inch in length 
down to a mere scale, being in all thirty- 
six, and. to all appearances, human. Be 
ing alone, after nightfall, I washed the 
bones. The scene of two hundred years 
ago. when the Kiskakons. at the mouth 
of that distant river, were employed in 
the same work, rose up before my imag 
ination, and though the mists of doubt 
were not entirely dispelled, I felt very 
much humbled that no more worthy 
hands should have to perform this office. 
So long had I wished and, I candidly 
contess it. even prayed for the discov 
ery of Father Marquette s grave, and 
now that so many evidences concurred to 
establish the fact of its having been on 
the spot where we hoped to find it, I felt 
reluctant to believe it. The longer, how 
ever, I pondered over every circumstance 
connected with our search, the more I be 
came convinced that we have found what 
we were desirous to discover. Let me 
briefly resume the train of evidence. 

"The local tradition as to the site of 
the grave, near the head of the little bay; 
the size and the relative position of the 
ancient buildings, both in the French 
Village and the Jesuits establishments, 
plainly traceable by little elevated ridges, 
stone foundations, cellars, chimneys, and 
the traces of a stockade; all this exactly 
tallying with La IlOntan s plan and des 
cription of 1688 so many concurring cir 
cumstances could hardly leave any doubt 
as to the site of the chapel in which Mar 
queue s remains were deposited. 

"The unwillingness of the proprietor 
to have the grave of a saintly priest dis 
turbed proved very opportune, not to say 
providential. Within three or four 



months that elapsed since the first dis 
covery many hundreds of persons from 
all parts of the country had the oppor 
tunity to examine the grounds, as yet 
untouched by the spade. \Ve had time 
to weigh every argument pro and con. 
Among those visitors there were men of 
intelligence and historical learning. I 
will only mention Judge Walker, of De 
troit, who has made the earlv history of 

"We know, then, that Marquette s re 
mains were brought to the place in a 
birch-bark box and there is nothing to in 
dicate that, previously to being interred, 
they were transferred into any other 
kind of receptacle. In that box they re 
mained under the catafalco (sous sa rep 
resentation) from Monday, June 8, to 
Tuesday 9, ( 1677), and in it, undoubted 
ly, they were deposited in a vault or little 

our Northwest the subject of his partic- cellar, which may have previously been 
ular study, and who went over the ground dug out for other purposes. The box 
with the English edi 
tion of La Hontan 
in his hand. He, as 
well as every one else 
w h o s e judgment 
was w o r t h any 
thing, pronounced in 
favor of our opin 
ion. The balance 
stood so that the 
smallest additional 
weight of evidence 
would make it in 
cline on the side of 
certainty as absolute 
as can be expected TIIE HOLY XAMK mrm-n, ASSIMXS, MICH. 

in a case like this. was sunk into the ground on that side of 

"The text of the Relation, it is true, the excavation which was nearest to the 
would make us look for a vault, or small altar, or, at least, the statue of the Blessed 
cellar ( ut petit caveau) in the middle (an Virgin, the most appropriate spot for the 
milieu) of the church. But if anything interment of the champion of Mary Im- 
indicating the existence of a tomb in the maculate. An inscription, on paper, in- 
hollow towards the left side and the rear dicating whose bones were contained in 
part of the chapel were discovered, could the box, might have been placed within 
we not construe those words as meaning it; of this the piece of white paper we 
within the church? Besides, it must be found among the bark may be a fra-- 

remembered that Father Dablon, who left 
us the account, was not an eye-witness at 
the interment ; nor did he visit the mis 
sion after that event, at least up to the 
time of his writing. 

ment. The poor casket rested after the 
Indian fashion on wooden supports. It 
may have been covered with mortar and 
white lime or else a little vault construct 
ed of wood and mortar may have been 



erected over it. \Yhen the building was 
fired, twenty-nine years after the inter 
ment, the burning floor together with 
pieces of timber from above fell on the 
tomb, broke the frail vault or mortar 
cover of the box, burned its top. and- 
crisped its sides. Some of the pagan or 
apostate Indians remaining in that 
neighborhood after the transmigration 
of the lluroiis and Ottawas to Detroit, 
though filled with veneration for the de 
parted missionary (as their descendants 
remained through four or live genera- 


tions) or rather for the very reason of 
their high regard for his priestly char 
acter and personal virtues, and of his rep 
utation as a thaumaturgus. coveted his 
bones as a powerful medicine, and car 
ried them off. In taking them out of the 
tomb they tore the brittle bark and scat 
tered its fragments. The bones being first 
placed on the bottom of the cellar, behind 
the tomb, some small fragments became 
mixed up with the sand, mortar, and 
lime, and were left behind. 

"Such seems to me the most natural ex 

planation of the circumstances of the dis 
covery. Had the missionaries them 
selves, before setting fire to the church, 
removed the remains of their saintly 
brother, they would have been careful 
about the least fragment; none of them, 
at least, would have been found scattered 
outside the box. That robbing of the 
grave by the Indians must have taken 
place within a few years after the depar 
ture of the missionaries, for had those 
precious remains been there when the 
mission was renewed (about 1708?), 
they would most 
certainly have been 
transferred to the 
new church in Old 
Mackinac ; and had 
this been the case, 
Charlevoix, at his 
sojourn there, in 
I7JI, could hardly 
have failed to be 
taken to see the 
tomb and to mention 
the fact of the trans 
fer in his journal or 

"Our next object, if we were to be dis 
appointed in finding the entire remains 
of the great missionary traveller, was to 
ascertain the fact of his having been in 
terred on that particular spot, and in this I 
think, we have fully succeeded. Consider 
ing the high probability a priori, so to 
say of the Indian s taking possession 
of the bones, the finding of those few 
fragments under the circumstances de 
scribed, seems to me, if not as satisfac 
tory to our wishes, at least as good evi 
dence for the fact in question, as if we 



had found every bone that is in the hu 
man body. Somebody an adult person 
was buried under the church ; buried 
before the building; was destroyed by fire; 
and buried under exceptional circum 
stances the remains being" placed in a 
birch-bark box, of much smaller size than 
an ordinary coffin who else could it 
have been, but one whose burial, with all 
its details of time, place, manner, as re 
corded in most trustworthy records, an 
swers all the circumstances of our dis 
covery ? 

"September 7th. AYent 
again to the grave today, 
and, after searching a little 
while near the spot where the 
young man found the bones, 
I was rewarded with an 
other small fragment appar 
ently those of the skull, like 
two or three of those al 
ready found. Two Indian 
visitors, who have called in, 
since declared others to be 
the ribs of the hands, and of 
the thigh-bone. They also 
consider the robbing of the 
grave by their pagan an- 
cestors as extremely proba 
ble. To prevent profanation of the car 
rying off of the loose ground in the empty 
grave, we covered the excavation with a 
temporary floor, awaiting contributions 
from outside we are too poor ourselves 
for the purpose of erecting some kind of 
a tomb or mortuary chapel in which to 
preserve what remains of the perishable 
part of the Guardian Angel of the Ot 
tawa Missions. 

"I shall not send you this letter before 

having shown some of the bones to a 
physician, for which purpose I have to go 

"Sheboygan, Mich., Sept. n. M. 
Fommier, a good French surgeon, de 
clared the fragments of bones to be bones 
undoubtedly human, and bearing the 
marks of fire. 

"The result is consoling, though not 
unmixed with pain. It is sad to think 
that the remains of so saintly a priest, so 
devoted a missionary, so zealous an ex- 


plorer should have been so heathenishly 
profaned by Indian medicine-men; but 
the explanation has every appearance of 
probability. Had the Jesuit missionaries 
removed the remains, they would have 
taken up the birch-box carefully, enclos 
ing it, if necessary, in a case of wood. 
They would never have torn the birch- 
bark box rudely open, or taken the re 
mains so carelessly as to leave fragments. 
All the circumstances show the haste of 



profane robbery. The box \vas torn asun- Angel (iuardian of the Ottawa Mis- 
der in haste, part of its contents se- sions. 

the excavation hastily filled The Relations hold their singular place 

cured, am 

ill history; their truthfulness has never 
"The detailed account of the final in- been questioned. From their pages we 
terment of Father Marquette. the pecu- have followed Marquette from the shores 
liarity of the bones bein; 
evidently of small si/.e 
transportation, the tact 

in a bark box, of Fake Superior to the St. Ignace Mis 
sion, we traced his labors there, his ex 
plorations of the Mississippi, we gave the 
narrative of his holy death and the final 
interment at St. Ignace. These are in 
disputable facts. For modern times it 
only remained to find the site of the an 
cient Jesuit chapel in order to point to 
the world the grave of I ere Marquette 
which time will hardly ever efface from 
the mind of man. This was amply done 
by his not less saintly successor, Rev. Fd- 
\\ard [acker. Hence, no reasonable 
doubt can any longer be entertained but 
that St. Ignace is in possession of the last 
burving place of James Marquette. the 
lesuit, the missionary, the explorer of the 
Mississippi, and, what we confidently 
hope, the saint of Clod s holy Church. 

To the possible query why did not the 
lesuits, upon their return in i/r_ , remove 
the remains, the answer suggests itself, 
because they have found the grave dese 
crated by the superstitious hand of the 
pagan Indian, as has been so conclusively 

proven, and the few relics of bones that 

priest died at the mission who could have -1,1 i r 1 -r 1 1 

might have been found, if indeed ever 

been similarly interred, leads irresist- , . . , , 

looked for, were left to their natural de- 

iblv to the conclusion that Father Jack- 
er is justified in regarding the remains 

st ruction. 

. . , 7 This narrative was first published by Dr. 

tound as portion ot those committed to Shca in t i lc Catholic World, November, 1877. 

the earth two centuries ago. 

"It is now for the Catholics of the 

We quote it from Hedges Father Marquette. p. 
123. et seq. Rev. Jacker gave a similar descrip 
tion of the discovery nine years later, in a pri 
vate letter to Rev. Chrysostom Verwyst. O. S. F. 

United States to rear a monument there dated at Eagle Harbor, Michigan, May 4. i88f> 

We refer the reader to Father Verwyst "Mission- 
to enclose what time has spared us of the a ry Labors," pg. 136 et seq. 



Sensible of the honor so singularly im 
posed upon St. Ignace by Providence, the 
citizens hastened to show their sense of 
appreciation by erecting from public 
funds a suitable monument over the 
grave of him whose whole life will be 
extolled unto endless generations. On 
May 23, 1882, in public session of the 
Village council, Trustee Reagon, in a 
heart-felt talk addressed the councilmen 
and people assembled and in conclusion 
offered the following resolution: 

"AYhereas, Rev. Fa 
ther Kilian Haas has in 
vited the citizens of St. 
Ignace to contribute to 
the erection of a suitable 
memorial chapel over 
the grave of Marquette : 

"\Yhereas, This pio 
neer missionary, martyr 
and explorer planted 
here his mission, on the 
far frontier, more than 
two centuries ago, and 
here he lived and toiled, 
and, dying not far away, 
was returned here to a 
grave; and 

"Whereas, His name and fame are, in 
a measure, bequeathed by time to the 
people of St. Ignace, who, recognizing his 
foresight, see for themselves a grand fu 
ture for this the site of the mission he 
founded, and for the Upper Peninsula 
over which his watchful care extended ; 
and in order that they may assist in per 
petuating and preserving from desecra 
tion the grave of him whom it is sought 
to honor, therefore be it 

"Resolved, By the President of the 

Hoard of Trustees of the Yillagc 
Saint Ignace, that the sum of - 


be, and the same is hereby, appropriated 
from the general fund, to be expended in 
the erection of a suitable iron fence, with 
stone copings and corners, and a gate 
way bearing some suitable inscription, 
such, as Here for two centuries have 
rested the remains of Marquette. Erect 
ed by the people of Saint Ignace, 1882, 
and that the sidewalk be laid with flag 
ging, and that two iron street lamps be 

set at the curb and lighted every night, to 
point to the visitor and to remind the cit 
izen that the people of Saint Ignace honor 
the memory of the illustrious dead of t\vo 
centuries past; and it is further 

"Resolved, That, with the approval of 
Father Kilian Haas, a contract shall be 
let for the work, which shall be first ap 
proved by the Council, executed under 
the inspection of the Committee of Pub 
lic Improvements, and that D. Farrand 
Henry, Esq., civil engineer, be invited 



to assist in the plans and designs, and 
Father Kilian Haas be invited to co-oper 
ate with the committee in so far as his 
duties will permit." 1S 

Xor must the merits of Father Haas be 
overlooked in this case. As soon as the 
historical question was settled and every 
reasonable doubt as to the genuineness of 
the site allayed, he thought the duty de 
volved upon the citizens to honor the dis 
tinguished dead by a modest monument 
until such time when friends and country 
will recognize his worth by a substantial 


shaft which will tell the posterity in equal 
terms of the merits of their ancestors and 
of the intrepid explorer. The Village 
furnished the monument and Father Kil 
ian Haas, O. M. C. the following inscrip 
tion : 

In Memoriam 
Revdi. Patris J. Marquette, S. J. 

qui obi it 
Die 18. maii M D C L XXV 

XXXVIII annos nat. 

et Sepultus est in isto sepulchre 


R. I. P. 

Lapis iste erectus est ab incolis oppidi 
St. Ignatii. 

A. D. M D CCCLXXXH. 1!) 

Rev. Father Jacker severed his con 
nection with the mission in the fall of 
1878 to become administrator of the dio 
cese upon resignation of Bishop Mrak. 
The congregation had again to depend 
for services on Mackinac Island. In the 
meanwhile a change in the 
administration of the dio 
cese had taken place. Bishop 
Vertin appointed Rev. C. A. 
Richard in Xovember, 1880, 
to the vacant pastorate, but 
he remained only till Janu 
ary of the following year. 
By this time, on account of 
great scarcity of priests, the 
new ordinary, invited the 
Capuchin Fathers of Cal 
vary, Wisconsin, to establish 
themselves there. In May, 
1 88 1, the Very Rev. Bona- 
venture Frey, provincial 
of that order, after due reconnoiter- 
ing, concluded to accept the parish. Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Mrak attended the mission 
until June when the Capuchins formally 
took hold of it. The first and only 
Capuchins at St. Ignace were Revs. Kil 
ian Haas, and Isidor Handtmann. The 

18 History of the Upper Peninsula of Mich 
igan, pg. 368. 

19 In memory of Rev Father J. Marquette, 
S. J., who died on May 18, 1675, aged 38 years, 
and was buried here in the year 1677. May he 
rest in peace. This stone was raised by the 
inhabitants of St. Ignace in the year 1882. 



order gave up the mission October 23, 
1882. Father Haas secularized for the 
diocese whilst his colleague returned to 
the monastery. During a couple of 
months the orphaned congregation was 
successively taken care of by Father 
Chambon and Bishop Mrak until the ap 
pointment of Rev. John Cebul, December 
9, 1882, who served the place until June 
17, 1885. During this administration 
Father Cebul lengthened out the church 
in the front, thus adding considerable 
room to the old seating capacity. There 
after the successions were : Rev. F. X. 
Becker, from July 5, 1885, to October 10, 
1886. During fifty years the old rec 
tory had become well nigh uninhabitable. 
Recognizing the extreme need of a new 
house Father Becker exerted himself to 
erect a new home at a cost of three thou 
sand dollars. Rev. John A. Keul, from 
December 8, 1886 to October 15, 1887. 
Rev. A. Th. Schuettelhoefer, from Octo 
ber 31, 1887 to April 28, 1888. 

Rev. Edward Chapuis, from May 6th 
to October 3, 1888. 

Rev. J. H. Reynaert, from October 23, 
1888 to October 28, 1889. 

Rev. H. J. Rousseau, from November 
17, 1889, to August 17, 1890. 

He enlarged the size of the old sacristy 
by removing the partitions of the old res 
idence. The room served afterwards 
for the purpose of a winter chapel. 

Rev. John Henn, from August 30, 
1890, to August 28, 1891. 

In his time the church was repainted in 
side and outside. 

Rev. John Cebul, from September 24, 
1891 to January 10, 1893. During this 
second administration, Father Cebul pur 
chased a larger bell, and built an open 

shed directly in front of the old house. It 
remained there until Father Mockler s 
time when it was removed to the roof of 
the old residence with the old chimney for 
its rest. From there it tolled its varied 
sonsf until removed to the more honor- 


able place in the belfry of the new church. 


Rev. Joseph Haas, from January 15, 

1893, to October 14, 1894. 

Rev. John A. Keul, from October 27, 

1894, to September 13, 1897. 

Rev. Joseph P. Klines, from September 
20, 1897 to November 22, 1898. 

Rev. Adam J. Doser, from December 
1 8. 1898 to October 20, 1901. He lev 
eled the old cemetery. 



Rev. John J. Mockler, from October 
27. TOO i to the present day. 

In St. Ignace the diocese o\vned con 
siderable land, claims seven, eight and 
twelve of the Private Claims. This 
property dated from P>ishop Rese s time, 
and the following is its history: 

Claim number seven, is described to- 
xvit : All that certain piece of land, lying 
and being at Point St. Ignace, bounded 
North by land claimed by the heirs of 
Louis P>abeux, Fast bv the Straits be 

tween Point St. Ignace and the Island of 
Michilimackinac, South by the land 
claimed by Jean P>aptiste P>ertrand to 
contain two arpents in front and extend 
ing back to contain one hundred and six 
ty acres. It was patented by the U. S. 
to Pierre Molleur. He sold it, March 
2, 1825 to Xathan Puffer, for forty dol 
lars. Isaac Blanchard. bought it, August 

* ~ o 

15, 1825 for the same price. Then Jo 
nas A. Stone acquired it. August 23. 
1825, for the same consideration and 

sold it to Jonathan X. P>ailey. April 9, 
1826, for twenty dollars. It remained in 
his possession until August I, 1829, when 
he disposed of it to John Drew for one 
hundred dollars. \Yilliam Sylvester 
bought it. May 4, 1831 for fifty dollars. 
Then John Graham purchased it, Sep 
tember 1835 for eighty dollars, and again 
deeded it to l\t. Rev. Frederic Rese, Oc 
tober 21, 1835, for a consideration of one 
hundred and fifty dollars. 

Claim number eight: All that piece 
of land described as fol 
lows: Northwardly bv 
lot 9, Eastwardly by 
Lake Huron, South 
wardly bv Lot 7, and 
"\Yestwardly by the 
Public Lands and being 
designated on the con 
nected ma]) of Private 
Claims as lot eight at 
Point St. Ignace, con- 
t a i n i n g seventy-one 
acres and being the 
same lot that was con 
veyed to the said party 
of the first part by Pa 
tent of C. S. dated Oc 
tober 12, 1830. The 
Patent was issued to John B. Tesserrons. 
He conveyed it for a consideration of one 
hundred and fifty dollars to Frederic 
Rese. September 9, 1835. 

Claim number 12: All that piece of 
land bounded and described as follows : 
Eastwardly by Lake Huron, North 
wardly by Land owned and occupied bv 
Louis Martin, Southwardly, by lot i i 
and \Yestwardly by the Public Lands, 
containing two arpents in front and said 
lake and extending back as far as the sur- 



vey of the lot extends \Ycstwardly and 

being designated on the connected plat of 

private claims as lot twelve at Point St. 

Ignace. It contains 134.81 acres, and 

was patented to Jo 

seph Delvaire, who 

disposed of it to Isaac 

Blanchard and wife, 

who in turn sold it, 

September 21. 1835, 

to Rt. Rev. Frederic 

Rese, for five hun 

dred dollars. 

Claim thirteen: A 
piece of land at Point 
St. Ignace containing 
62.472 square feet. 
Conveyed for the pur 
pose of building a 
Catholic c h u r c h , 
school-house and par 
sonage, bounded on 
the East by Lake Hu 
ron, on the Xorth bv 
lot fourteen. West bv 
the Martin lot, and on 
the South bv the 
aforesaid lot thirteen. 
The said piece has 
two hundred and 
twenty-eight feet in 
front, measured from 
the South to the lot 
fourteen, on the 

the understanding that Louis Martin s 
family were to have a front pew in 
church, free of charge. This compact 
was always lived up to though the fam- 

West Side Of lot tlll r- REV - ^HLCMHOK FATS !-, BORX AT L RBACH, AKrilDIOCHSK 01- COLOGNE, 



11, . HOLLAND, ALT.UST 3, jSS2. 

drecl and seventy-six 

feet deep measured westwardly from ily contented themselves, in their modesty, 

Lake Huron. This land was conveved with a back seat. 

to Bishop Rese. September 10. 1837. with As the title of all these lands was 



vested in Bishop Rese, his heirs, misled 
by the nature of his illness which rend 
ered him incapable of making a will sold 
this property of Peter \Y. Ilombach for 
thirteen hundred dollars. To the great 
disappointment of both parties, a legal 
will was filed with the Probate Court giv 
ing the title to the diocese. In the 
meanwhile I pper Michigan, in which the 
lands were located, was erected into a 
proper diocese and the successor of Bish 
op Baraga made a claim upon the lands 
on behalf of his diocese. Bishop Bor- 
gess, having become the third bishop of 


Detroit, naturally opposed what seemed 
to him an unwarranted pretense and the 
case was referred to Rome foi decision. 
Pius IX. decided in favor of Bishop 
Alrak. Since then this possession of 
land has spun its jolly story for the on 
looker, but not for the owner. The 
latter was always more or less annoyed 
by these holdings. The handy hook-file 
at his desk was always burdened with due 
tax bills and plausible lease offers. The 
more regularly he paid the former the 

more irregularly the latter paid him. The 
tenure of the fishing rights was held un 
der the caudal stipulation to furnish the 
residing priest with as much fresh fish 
as he needed for his own use. The ten 
ant acquitted himself of this obligation in 
a real scriptural manner we have toilecl 
all night and taken nothing and per 
mitted the reverend pastor to deduct phil 
osophical conclusions from that and 
buy his fish. Leasing proved unprofit 
able and burdensome. Then some town 
lots were sold outright. The largest 
sale and the worst was that of the wa 
ter front of claim thirteen. In the hope 
that it might materially benefit the town, 
P.ishop Yertin sold it to the 1). S. S. and 
A. Ry. for the paltry sum of six hundred 
dollars. On what remained of claims, 
seven, eight and twelve, the bishops paid 
taxes until 1903, when Bishop Kis sold all 
holdings outside of claim thirteen to Pat 
rick Alulcrone for the sum of one thou 
sand two hundred and fifty dollars. 

1 he old church and house are located 
on claim thirteen and to the rear of them 
on the same claim to the north, was the 
old cemetery. In icXS/ Bishop Yertin 
apportioned a piece of land for burying 
purposes, on his own land and consecrat 
ed it. But as much as a new burying 
ground was necessary, for people will die 
despite themselves, the old church more 
loudly proclaimed the necessity of a new 
one. This, however, could not be had as 
readily as a cemetery particularly when 
it can be carved out of a whole section 
for the mere asking. The new church 
had been a subject of discussion for many 
years. Priest after priest came and went 
without having had more heart than to 



talk about it. Late in the fall of 1901 
Father Mockler came to town. He, like 
many of his predecessors, soon was ap 
prised of the dilapidated condition of his 
church. As if to set aright things in his 
mind, for a couple of months he said 
nothing. But when the snow com 
menced to melt the following spring 
everybody in town knew that he intend 
ed to build a new church. Discourage 
ments, which were more liberal than do 
nations, he heeded not, but, set to work 
collecting funds for this new enterprise. 
Twenty thousand seemed 
like so many millions 
among his few, not over- 
w e a 1 1 h y parishioners. 
With his pluck and per 
severance he made the 
most incredulous believe 
in a final success. But as 
trouble never comes 
singly, to the financial 
problem associated itself 
the question of the church 
site. The everlasting 
switching on the one- 
track railway y a r d , 
stretching along the front 
of the church property, 
had long ago become a nuisance during 
services particularly on Sundays. He 
could not move the tracks, so he resolved 
to move the church. Up on the hill, an 
elevation commanding a full view of the 
lake he selected two lots. He purchased 
them from Mr. Murray. Excavations 
were begun in the spring of 1904 and the 
corner stone laid in June by Father Con 
nolly, S. J., assisted by himself r.nd Rev. 
J. J. Keul of Mackinac Island in presence 
of a great concourse of people. His in 

domitable zeal encouraged the sacrifices 
of the people, and before the middle of the 
winter the new St. Ignace church stood 
ready for dedication. On February I9th, 
1905, it was solemnly dedicated by the Rt. 
Rev. Frederick Eis. 

The church is of Gothic design and 
forms a cross. It measures one hundred 
and ten feet in length and fifty feet 
through the transepts. It is built of red 
pressed brick with Bedford stone trim 
mings. The tower rises to a height of 
eighty five feet. In the basement is a 



winter chapel and rooms for various oth 
er purposes. Inside, although yet un- 
frescoed it makes a good impression to 
which the stained glass windows, donated 
by members of the congregation, contrib 
ute a splendid effect. The historic paint 
ing representing the patron of the church, 
hangs above the main altar. The whole 
is a fitting and lasting monument to Fath 
er Mockler s zeal and the sacrifices of his 

Moran, a small settlement on the D. 



S. S. & A. Ry., north of St. Ignace. has 
a church dedicated to the Sacred Heart of 
Mary. There are only five. German, 
families, the Beckers, the Soeltners, the 
Brauns, the Lipnit/ and Roggenbacks. 
Jo Mr. Otto Roggenback most of the 
credit is due for the building and the pay 
ing for of the neat little church. 

The congregation of St. Iiniace mini- 

LYOXS, KKAXfK, ( H T< ) H K K 

hers fewer than two hundred families 
According to nationality they are Irish, 
French and Indian. Considering the re 
sources of the town, it is nothing- short of 


marvelous that they have erected a church 
with little over three thousand dollars in 
debtedness, which, too, has been paid by 

the much to be regretted sale of the 
old church property. 

A parochial school this parish never 
possessed. In i8<>8 the rrsuline Sisters, 
from Chatham, Ontario, built an impos 
ing academy and opened a boarding and 
day school. Children of both sexes are 
accommodated. The usual monthly tui 
tion is charged to pupils who can afford 
to pay it, others are made welcome. At 
present there is an attendance of one 
hundred. Besides the customary eight 
grades, the Sisters conduct a high school 
course. In the community there are 
eleven Sisters, with Mother Angela as 
the superioress. 

For the sake of historical truthfulness 
we may add another word about the an 
cient painting of St. Ignatius and the 
chalice, both owned by St. Ignace church. 
It is certain that neither article enjoys 
the antiquity ascribed to it. The chalice 
is modern in design, cup silver and gilt, 
and is undoubtedly one of those brought 
over from Austria by Bishop Baraga in 


The painting is older. People of the 
Island remembered that it was kept for a 
while at the Mackinac church. \\ hence 
it came" Xo one seems to know. The 
only one who claims to know something 
about it is the old Indian Satogan, now. 
close to a hundred years old. lie says 
that Father Bonduell, when he was build 
ing the church in 1837 received it to 
gether with the bell, now in the Ursuline 
convent, from the Bishop of Detroit. 
This opinion is nearer the truth. 

To those who hold that the painting 
dates from Father Marquette s times we 
will submit the following argument. If 



this painting adorned the first Jesuit 
chapel at St. Ignace, how was it preserved 
to this day? Did it follow the chapel to 
the Lower Point and then to the Island? 
If it had, the chapel on the Island most 
likely would have been known as the 

church of St. Ignatius. But it was not. 
The earliest records show it to have been 
known as St. Anne s church. The Cath 
olic Directory for 1834, the earliest that 
came under our observation, also has St. 

Chapter XVII. 


Mackinac Island. 

Church of St. Anne. 

This island is situated in the Straits of 
Mackinac; it contains two thousand two 
hundred and twenty-one acres of which 
nine hundred and eleven are National 
Park, one hundred and three belong to the 
Military Reservation, and one thousand 
two hundred and seven are private 
claims. The Creator has lavished His 
Wisdom and Allpower on this hand-full 
of earth. Sloping from south to north 
it has the appearance of a giant turtle, 
whence the origin of its Indian name. 
Its wooded surface afforded shelter to 
the red races of yore as it towers today 
over the delightful walks which modern 
genius has laid out for the guests of the 
now famous summer resort. Its fantastic 
cliffs are shrouded by legendary lore now 
as they were then. The summer breezes 
which in gone-by days carried the echoes 
of war-whoop are now laden with sweet 
strains of music. Push off your boat in 
the twilight towards Round Island, and 
watch how amid the resplendent arc lights 
in the avenues light after light appears 
in the numerous cottages nestled along 
the brow of the island; listen to the dis 
tant hum of human voices intermingled 
with merry laughs and you have a fairy 
isle before yon. Or walk over the bluffs 
and up to old Fort Holmes in the morn 
ing sunshine and survey the whole fair 

country around about the silver straits, 
the wooded shores of mainland. One 
city with her houses scattered for miles 
along the shore to the west, another one 
girding the point of the Southern Pen 
insula, and you have before you spread 
the grandest panorama, once known as 
Michilimackinac. No wonder, if per 
chance an old warrior would pass this 
isle of beauty upon which progress has 
affixed its seal, he would thus pensively 
unburden his thoughts : "Me-she-ne- 
mock-e-nung-gonge ! thou Isle of the 
deep, clear watered lake, how pleasant to 
think of the transparent waters that sur 
round thee ! how soothing it is from 
amidst the curling smoke of my Opaw- 
gun (pipe) as seated on the deck of the 
lire vessel, to trace thy deep blue out-lines 
in the distance, and to call from memory s 
tablets the stories and traditions connect 
ed with thy sacred and mystic character ! 
How sacred the veneration with which 
thou hast been once clothed by our In 
dian seers of gone-by days! How pleas 
ant for the mind to contemplate, as if 
now present, the time when the Great 
Spirit allowed a peaceful stillness to hang 
around, when only light and balmy 
winds were permitted to pass over thee, 
hardly ruffling the mirror-like surface of 
thy deep waters ! Nothing then dis- 




<X < 




c C^n<V^ *.< 


f / sfj0 

/?a& * f ypr A"* <f<P Tisti*^^ 






turbed thy quiet and deep solitude but the 
chippering of birds, the quivering rust- 
Img ot the leaves of the silver barked 
birch, and the trembling whisperings of 
the leaves of the aspen. It was then, also, 
by evening twilight, the rustling sound 
of the Giant Fairies was heard, as they, 
^yith rapid step and giddy whirl danced to 
the strains of sweet, unearthly music, on 
thy lime-stone battlements. It was then 
that the untutored mind of the Indian was 



led by the mystery that surrounded thee r 
t" look with feelings of awe and venera 
tion to nature s (iod, and to feel thank 
ful for his many gifts then he knew not 
of the existence of lire-water to mar the 
harmony and blight the beauties of In 
dian life, which the Great Spirit had sur 
rounded them with." l 

The Jesuit Relations give the follow 
ing description of the Island: 
of U. Mich., pg. 349. 



"MISSILIMAKINAC is an Island of 
note in these regions. It is a league in 
diameter, and has such high, steep rocks 
in some places that it can be seen at a dis 
tance of more than twelve leagues. 

"It is situated exactly in the strait con 
necting the Lake of the llurons and that 
of the Illinois, and forms the key and the 
door, so to speak, for all the peoples of 
the South, as does the Sault for those of 
the North; for in these regions there are 
only those t\vo passages by water for 
very many Nations, who must seek one or 
the other of the two if they wish to visit 
the French settlements. 

"This circumstance makes it very easy 
both to instruct these poor people when 
they pass, and to gain ready access to 
their countries. 

"This post is the most noted in all these 
regions for its abundance of fish, since, in 
Savage parlance, this is its native country. 
No other place, however it may abound 
in fish, is properly its abode, which is only 
in the neighborhood of Missilimackinac. 

In fact, besides the fish common to all 
the other Nations, as the herring, carp, 
pike, golden fish, whitefish, and sturgeon, 
there are here found three kinds of trout; 
one, the common kind; the second, larger, 
being three feet in length and one in 
width ; and the third, monstrous, for no 
other word expresses it, being more 
over so fat that the Savages, who delight 
in grease, have difficulty in eating it. 
Now they are so abundant that one man 
will pierce with his javelin as many as 
40 or 50, under the ice, in three hours 

"These advantages, in time past, at 
tracted to so desirable a spot most of the 
Savages of this region, who were dis 

persed by the fear of the Iroquois. The 
three Nations now dwelling as strangers 
on the Bay des Ptians formerly lived on 
the mainland to the south of tin s Island, 
some on the shores of the Lake of the 
Illinois, others on those of the Lake of 
the Hurons. A part of the so-called 
people of the Sault possessed territories 
on the mainland, toward the West; and 
the rest also regard that region as their 


country for passing the winter, during 
which there are no fish at the Sault. The 
Hurons called Etiennontatehronnons, 
lived for some years on the Island itself, 
taking refuge from the Iroquois. I r otir 
Yillages of the Outaouacs had also their 
lands in these regions. 

"But, especially, those who bore the 
name of the Island and were called Mis- 
silimakinac, were so numerous that some 



of them still living declare that they con 
stituted thirty Villages; and that they all 
had intrenched themselves in a fort a 
league and a half in circumference, when 
the Iroquois elated at gaining a victory 
over three thousand men of that Xation, 
who had carried the war even into the 
very country of the Agniehronnons 
came and defeated them. 

"In short, the abundance of fish, and 


the excellence of the soil for raising In 
dian corn, have ever proved a very power 
ful attraction for the tribes of these reg 
ions, the greater number of whom live 
only on fish, and some of them on Indian 

"Hence it is that many of these same 
tribes, seeing the apparent stability of the 
peace with the Iroquois, are turning their 

eyes toward so advantageous a location 
as this, with the intention of returning 
hither, each to its own country, in imita 
tion of those who have already made 
such a beginning on the Islands of Lake 
Huron. The lake, by this means, will be 
peopled with nations almost from one 
end to the other which would be very 
desirable for facilitating the instruction 
of these tribes, as we would not be 
obliged, in that case, to go in quest of 
them two and three hundred leagues on 
these great Lakes, with inconceivable 
danger and fatigue on our part. 

" Fo promote the execution of the plan 
announced to us by a number of Savages, 
to settle this country anew, some of 
them having already passed the Winter 
here, hunting in the neighborhood, -we 
have also wintered here in order to form 
plans for the Mission of saint Ignace, 
whence it will be very easy to gain ac 
cess to all the Missions of Lake Huron 
when the Nations shall have returned 
each to its own district. 

"We do not mean to imply that, amid 
so many advantages, this place has 
not its inconveniences, especially for 
Frenchmen, who are not yet skilled, as- 
the Savages are, in the various kinds of 
fishing amid which the latter are born 
and reared. The winds and tides cer 
tainly furnish the fishermen enough to 
cope with. 

"First, the winds. This spot is midway 
between three great Lakes which sur 
round it and seem to be incessantly play 
ing ball with one another, the winds 
from the Lake of the Ilonois no sooner 
subsiding than the Lake of the Hurons 
send back those which it has received, 
whereupon Lake Superior adds others of 



its own. Thus they continue in endless 
succession; and, as these Lakes are large, 
it is inevitable that the winds arising 
from them should be violent, especially 
throughout the Autumn. 

"The second inconvenience arises from 
the tides, concerning which no fixed rules 
can be given. For, whether they are 
caused by the winds, which, blowing from 
one direction or another, drive the water 
before them, and make it run in a sort of 
flow and ebb; or whether they are true 
tides, and hence some other cause ex 
plains the rise and fall of the water, we 
have at times noted such irregularity in 
this action, and again such precision, that 
we cannot yet pronounce upon the prin 
ciple of these movements, so regular and 
again so irregular. We have indeed- 
noted that at full and at new Moon the 
tides change once each day, today high, 
tomorrow low, for eight or ten days ; 
while at other times hardly any change is 
perceptible, the water maintaining nearly 
an average altitude, neither high nor low, 
unless the winds cause some variation. 

"But in this sort of tide three things 
are somewhat surprising. The first is, 
that it almost always flows in one direc 
tion here, namely, toward the Lake of 
the Ilonois, and meanwhile it ceases not 
to rise and fall as usual. The second is, 
that it runs almost always against the 
wind, sometimes with as much strength 
as the tides before Quebec; and we have 
seen cakes of ice moving against the wind 
as rapidly as ships under sail. The third 
is that, amid these currents, we have dis 
covered a great discharge of water gush 
ing up from the bottom of the Lake, and 
causing constant whirlpools in the strait 
between the Lake of the Hurons and that 

of the Illinois. We believe this to be an 
underground outlet from Lake Superior 
into the two latter lakes; and, indeed, we 
do not otherwise see any answer to two 
queries, namely what becomes of all the 
water of Lake Superior, and whence 
comes that in the two Lakes of the Ilur- 
ons and of the Ilonois? For, as to Lake 
Superior, it has but one visible outlet, 
which is the river of the Sault ; and yet it 
is certain that it receives into its bosom 
more than forty-five rivers, of which 


fully twelve are wider and of greater 
volume than that of the Sault. Whither, 
then, does all that water go, unless it find 
an issue under ground and so passes 
through? Moreover, we see only a very 
few rivers entering the Lakes of the Hur 
ons and of the Ilonois, which, however, 
are of enormous size, and probably re 
ceive the greater part of their water by 
subterranean inlets, such as that one may 
be of which we are speaking. 

"But, whatever the cause of the cur 
rents, the fishermen feel their effects only 
too well, since these break their nets, or 
drive them upon the rocks at the bottom 
of the lake, where they easily catch, ow 
ing to the shape of rocks of this sort, 
which are of a truly remarkable nature. 
For they are not ordinary stones, but are 
all transpierced like sponges, in fornls so 
diversified by numerous cavities and 
sinuosities as to furnish a pleasing spec 
tacle to the curious. who would iind in 

and rejoiced with it, one telling it again 
and again that it would be Baptized at 
"Alissilimackinac as it really was. An 
other one, too, who was likewise born in 
the woods, was brought to us by its 
mother, because it did nothing but cry ; 
and she told us that the cause of its cry 
ing was simply its desire to be Baptized. 
We very gladly dried its tears. 

"We also began the exercise of our 
functions by teaching the Savages win 
tering near here to pray, and by giving 
them instruction. The 
future course of this 
Mission depends on 
the resolution adopted 
by the Savages to re 
turn thither. Indeed, 
we learn that the ITu- 
rons from Tionnontate 
have already sought 
refuge there, for rea 
sons which will be ex 
plained in the follow 
ing Chapters." 2 

The chapter is as fol 
lows: "These regions 


one of these stones a sort of illustration, Iroquois, as do those of the South. They 
in miniature, of what is attempted with are a certain people called the Xadouessi, 

such ingenuity in artificial grottoes. 

who, as they are naturally warlike, have 

"We consecrated this new Festival by made themselves feared by all their neigh- 

the Baptism of five children, conferring bors; and, although they use only bows 

it with all the Ceremonies of the Church and arrows, they yet handle them with 

in our Chapel. God makes use even of such skill and readiness as to fill the air 
children for the salvation of children. In 
the case of one of those whom we Bap- 

with shafts in an instant, especially 
when, like the Parthians, they face about 

tized, no sooner had it been born, in the in their flight; for then they discharge 
heart of the forests, than all the other 
children, although hardly able to speak, 
could find no end to their congratulations. 

2 The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. 
The Burrows Brothers Co. s Edition. Vol. 55, p, 
157 et seq. 



their arrows so rapidly as to render them 
selves not less formidable when ileeing 
than when attacking. 

They live near and on the banks of 
that great river called Mississippi, of 
which further mention will be made. 
They comprise no fewer than fifteen Vil 
lages of considerable size, and yet know 
not what it is to till the soil for the pur 
pose of sowing seed. They are content 
with a kind of marsh rye which we call 
wild oats, which the prairies furnish them 
naturally, they dividing the latter 
among them 
selves, and 
each gather 
ing his own 
harvest sepa 
rately, with 
out encroach 
ing on the 

"They are 
sixty leagues 
from the 
head of Lake 
Superior in 
a \Yesterly 
d i r e c tion, 
a n d w e 1 1- 
nigh in the center of the Nations of 
the West, with all of whom they are 
at war, in consequence of a general 
League formed against themselves as 
against a common foe. 

"They speak a Language peculiar to 
themselves, and entirely distinct from 
that of the Algonquins and Hurons, 
whom they far exceed in magnanimity, 
being often content with the glory of 
winning a victory, and sending back free 
and uninjured the prisoners taken by 
them in battle. 

"Our Outaouacs and Hurons of point 
saint Esprit had thus far maintained a 
sort of peace with them; but as their re 
lations became embroiled during the past 
winter, some murders even being com 
mitted on each side, our Savages had 
reason to fear the storm might burst over 
them and deemed it safer to leave their 
location. This they did in the Spring, 
when they withdrew to the Lake of the 
Hurons, the Outaouacs to the Island of 
Ekaentouton, to join the people of their 
own Nation who had preceded them 


thither, where we then planted the Mis 
sion of saint Simon; and the Hurons to 
that famous Island of Missilimackinac, 
where we last winter began the Mission 
of saint Ignace. 

"And as, in transmigrations of this 
sort, people s minds are in no very settled 
condition, so Father Marquette, who had 
charge of that Mission of saint Esprit, 
had more to suffer than to achieve for 
those people s Conversion; for what with 
Baptizing some children, comforting the 



sick, and continuing the instruction of 
those professing Christianity, he was un 
able to give much attention to converting 
the others. He was obliged to leave that 
post with the rest, and to follow his ilock, 
undergoing the same hardships and in 
curring the same dangers. 

"Their purpose was to repair to that 
land of Missilimakinac where thev had 
already dwelt in times past, and which 

nessed here the new birth of Spring." 3 

Still another quotation may be of im 
portance to the subject. "The Hurons of 
the Tobacco Nation known as the Tion- 
nontates, being expelled years ago from 
their country by the Iroquois, took refuge, 
in that Island so noted for its fisheries, 
named Missilimakinac. Mere, however, 
they were suffered to remain but a few 
years, that same few compelling them to 

leave so ad 
vantageous a 
p o s i t i o n. 
They there 
fore w i t h- 
drew farther 
to some Is 
lands, which 
still b e a r 
their name, 
situated a t 
the entrance 
to the bay 
d e s Puans ; 
but, not find 
ing the m- 
selves even 
there suffi- 
c i e n t ly se 
cure, they re- 

they have reason to prefer to many oth- tired far into the depths of the woods; 
ers because of its attractions, as described and thence finally sought out, as a last 
by us in the preceeding Chapter, and also abode, at the very end of Lake Superior, 
because its climate seems to be utterly dif- a s P ot that has receive(1 the name of P oint 


ferent from that of the surrounding: reef- 

o o 

ions. For the winter there is rather 

St. Esprit. There they were far enough 
from the Xadouessi, who are the Iro 
quois, so to speak, of those Northern re- 
beginning until long after RJonSj being the most powerful and war- 
Christmas, and ending toward the middle like People of that country, 
of March, at which season we have wit- 3 ibidem p. 169. 



"Still, everything had been quite peace- point Saint Fsprit and all their fields, 
ful for a number of years until last year, which they had long been cultivating. 
when, these Xadouessi being angered by "In this retreat the Ilurons, recalling 
the Ilurons and the Outaouacs, war broke the great advantages that they had form- 
out between the two sides, beginning with erly enjoyed at Missilimackinac, turned 
such warmth that some prisoners cap- their eyes thither, purposing to seek 
tured on each side were burned to death, refuge there, which they did a year ago. 
"The Xadouessi, however, would not "That spot has everything possible to 
begin hostilities until after they had sent commend it to Savages; fish are abund- 
hack to Father Marquette certain Pictures ant at all seasons, and the soil is very pro- 

el u c t i v e ; 
there is ex 
cellent hunt 
ing, bears, 
(lee r, and 
w i 1 d cats ; 
and, further 
more, it is 
the great re 
sort of all 
going to or 
coming from 
the North or 
the South. 

last y e a r, 
clearly fore 
seeing what 
has occur- 
r e d, w e 
erected a 
Chapel there, 

which he had given them, to convey to to receive the passers-by and to train the 

Hurons who have there taken up their 




them some idea of our Religion and teach 

them through their eyes ; he could not ac- 

comphsh this otherwise, on account of 

their language being entirely different 
from the Huron and the Algonquin. 

"Such redoubtable enemies soon struck 
terror to the hearts of our Ilurons and 
Outaouacs. who resolved to abandon 

. , , 

rather Jacques Marquette, who fol- 
, , ,, c , r? 

lowed them from point St. lisprit, con- 

lmucs m ^^ Qf them> As hc has nut 

furnished us any special account of the 
()CCllrre uces at that Mission, all that can 
j )C sa id about it is that, this Nation hav- 
ing been trained in Christianity vears 


ago, before the Hurons destruction, piety that can be expected from a Chris- 

those who have continued in the Faith tian body organized more than twenty 

now display great fervor. They fill the years ago, although it has been, most 

Chapel daily, visit it often during the of that time, without Church, without 

day. and sing God s praises there with a Pastor, and without other Teacher than 

devotion that has communicated itself in the IIolv Ghost." 4 

^^^SM^EKI ,?. ,:. * ;. - ; t Www^A?-. ri^r:i :: ~!ra*T^?T 1 irass 


no small measure to the French who have Above reports were written by Father 

witnessed it. There the grown people Dablon and give us ample information as 

have been baptized, and the old people to the beginning of the mission in Alichil- 

set the children an example in their as- limackinac. But, as the name of Michil- 

siduous attendance at prayers. In a limackinac was applied generally to the 

word, they observe all the exercises of Relations Vol. 56. p. 115 et seq. 



entire vicinity, it has always been an open 
question where the first mission was lo 
cated, on the Island or in St. Ignace. 
\Ye love the beautiful isle so well that we 
are loath to cast our favor with the latter. 
It is a singular fact that not one Jesuit 
writer has specified the place; all have 
left us to our conjectures. Historians 
have guessed at it, but none has spoken 
decisively. Even our well-merited John 
Gilmary Shea says, "I have never yet 
been able to identify the various positions 
which the Mission of St. Ignatius as 
sumed in Mackinac." 5 We do not 
doubt but Dablon surveyed the Island 
eager to locate his new mission there, but 
other advantages, over the natural at 
tractiveness of the Island, decided him 
for the mainland. Our opinion is 
grounded on the following facts. 

Father Dablon writes in his report. 
"To promote the execution of the plan 
announced to us by a number of Savages, 
to settle this country anew, some of 
them having already passed the Winter 
here, hunting in the neighborhood, we 
have also wintered Jicrc in order to form 
plans for the Mission of Saint Ignace, 
whence it will be very easy to gain access 
to all the Missions of Lake Huron when 
the Nations shall have returned to its 
own district." G This would lead us to 
believe, as he unquestionably speaks of 
the Island, that he wintered on the Is 
land and, because he says We consecrat 
ed this new Festival by the Baptism of 
five children, conferring it with all the 

G History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 
p. 368. 

6 Italics are ours. Cf. above or Relations p. 
161. Vol. 55, Burrows Edition, which we always 
quote unless otherwise stated. 

Ceremonies of the Church in our Chapel ~ 
that he also had erected a chapel but 
where? On the Island? One would 
naturally think so, and so much the read 
ier, because the same writer says in an 
other place that the Indians withdrawing 
from the Saint Fsprit Mission the 
Outaouas (went) to the Island of Eska- 

entouton , and the Hurons to the 

famous Island of Missilimakinac, where 
we last winter began the Mission of Saint 
Ignace. 8 Father Marquette followed his 
flock to the Saint Ignace mission in the 
summer of 1671. and the following sum- 


mer he writes to Father Dablon, who in 
the meanwhile had become superior of 
the missions of the Society of Jesus in 
new France that the Hurons called 
Tionnontateronnons, or The tobacco na 
tion, who compose The mission of Saint 
Ignace at Michilimakinang, began last 
summer a fort near The Chapel in which 
all Their Cabins were enclosed. 9 

It is plain from the description given 

7 Ibidem p. 167. 

8 Vol. 55. p. 171. 

9 Vol. 57. p. 249. 



above that the "Nations" \vh<> intended to 
return to Michilimakinac had formerly 

fore last year, clearly foreseeing- what has 
occurred, \ve erected a chapel there, to re 

lived on the island itself or on the neigh- ceive the passers-by and to train the Hu- 
boring shores. The vanguard of these rons who have there taken up their 
"Nations" were principally Ilurons. abode. 1 " Had Marquette moved the 
Even though they desired to settle on the chapel from the island, as some would 
island, where they had lived before, they suggest, he would have undoubtedly giv- 
likely considered it safer and more con- en acount to his superior for doing so. 
venient to locate on the shore north of the Besides the Jesuit Map of Lake Superior, 
island. They built the fort the first sum- and parts of Lakes Huron and Michigan, 
mer (1671) and built it near the chapel, accompanying the Relation of 1670-71, 
They did not wait to decide where the which we reproduce, gives the "Mission 

de St. Ignace" on the 
mainland north of the 
Island. This map, it 
must be borne in mind, 
was published the same 
year Marquette took 
charge of the St. Ignace 
Mission, 1671, and Dab- 
Ion, who had started the 
mission in the winter of 
1670-71, presenting this 
map to his Provincial, 
lean Pinette says : "at 
the beginning of the Re 
lations of the Ottowa 
missions a ma]) is to be 
found showing lakes and 
chapel will be built, because they found it rivers -inhere Missions arc established. It 
built already; they settled in its imme- has been prepared by two Fathers who 
diate neighborhood and in order to se- are sufficiently intelligent, very careful 
cure themselves against a possible attack, and exact, who would not place anything 
as the routing by the Iroquois on the Is- on it but what they have seen with their 


land was still fresh in their memory, they 
commenced a "fort." That this Huron 
fort was situated on the East Moran Bay 
there is no room for a reasonable dis 
pute. Marquette also speaks of the 
"chapel" as being well known to Dablon. 
It was built mainlv for them. "There- 

own eyes. 

An objection may be urged against this 
conclusion that Marquette s map shows 
the Mission on the Island. This map 

10 Vol. 56, p. 117- 

" Relations des Jesuites, publics sous les aus 
pices clu Gouvernemcnt Canadian, p. 2, for the 
year 1671. 



was not intended to show the northern 
missions but more his exploration trip 
and was made, most probably, during the 
winter (1673-74) at the St. Francis 
Xavier s Mission at Green Bay. More 
over it is a mere "pencilling" and not a 
finished map for publication. The mark 
ing of "St. Ignace" over the place where 
the Island of Michilimakinac ought to be 
is therefore more casual than intentional 
for how could Marquette mark the "St. 
Ignace" mission on the island when he 
wrote in 1672, a year after his arrival 
at and a year before his departure from 
St. Ignace, that the Hurons "began last 
summer a fort near the Chapel" when 
it is beyond the controversy established 
that the "Huron fort" was on the East 
Moran Bay. There were no two "Hu 
ron forts;" they built one palisade "in 
which all their cabins were enclosed" and 
this palisade was on the East Moran Bay. 
Eleven years after Marquette, under date 
of May 26, 1688, Lahontan finds the mis 
sion on the mainland north of the island 
"a sort of a church and inclosed with 
Pales that separate it from the Village of 
the Hurons." On the whole he says: 
"Missilimakinac, the place I am now in. 
is certainly a place of great Importance. 
It lies in the Latitude of forty-five De 
grees, and thirty Minutes; but as for its 
Longitude, I have nothing to say of it, 
for reasons mention d in my second Let 
ter. Tis not above half a League distant 
from the Illinese Lake, an account of 
which, and indeed of all the other Lakes, 
you may expect elsewhere. Here the 
Hurons and Outaouas have, each of em, 
a Village ; the one being sever d from the 
other by a single Palissadoe : But the 
Outaouas are beginning to build a Fort 

upon a Hill, that stands but one thousand 
or one thousand two hundred paces off. 
This Precaution they were prompted to 
by the murder of a certain Huron, call d 
Sandaouires, who was assassinated in the 
Saguinan River by four young Outaouas. 
In this place the Jesuits have a little 
House, or College adjoyning to a sort of 
a Church, and inclos d with Pales that 

separate it from the Village of the Hu 
rons." 12 

It is therefore safe to conclude that 
none of the early missions were located 
on the Island. The first church there 
was built in the spring of 1780. After 
the massacre of the garrison, under Cap- 

12 New voyages to North America by the 
Baron de Lahontan, edited by Reuben Gold 
Thwaites. McClurg edition 1905. p. 145. Vol. i. 



tain Etherington, at Old Mackinaw, 13 
June 2, 1703, the English considered the 
neighboring island more strategic than 
the site which their fort occupied on the 
Lower Point, and after a number of 
years succeeded in securing title to the 
Island, from the Chippewa Chief Kitchi- 

In the fall of 1779 Major De Peyster 
arrived from Detroit with a detachment 


of workmen and commenced the erection 
of the fort. In anticipation of the gen 
eral removal the mission church, which 
stood in Old Mackinaw, was taken down, 
hauled over the ice to the Island and re- 
erected on a lot known later as the old 
graveyard. This strip of land was pat 
ented by the United States, signed by 

The present Mackinaw City. 

Andrew Jackson, to the Parish of St. 
Anne, Mackinac, December 21, 1829; re 
corded August 9, 1830. Lib. B. p, 32. 
and is described as follows : "A tract of 
land containing 32/iooths of an acre sit 
uated in the village of Michilimackinac 
and bounded northwesterly by Lot Xo. 
297, southwardly by Lot Xo. 713 and 
678, southwestwardly by Church Street, 
and northwestwardly by Market Street, 
and being designated as Lot Xo. 15 on 
the connected Plat of private claims on 
the island of Michilimackinac." This lot 
was sold in the spring of 1891 to Michael 
McXally for a consideration of some 
eight hundred dollars. 

The removal of the chapel was under 
taken by the Catholic Frenchmen because 
there was no missionary at Michilimaki- 
nac for a period of almost ten years. The 
last entry in the church records before 
the removal is the baptism of "Archange, 
born of legitimate wedlock of Sieur Jean 
Askin Coiinnissaire pour Le Ro\> en ce 
Paste," October 3, 1775, by P. Gibault, 
prctrc uiissionairc, and that of a marriage 
on the same day, of Joseph Ainste and 
Theresa Rondy. The first record after 
the removal of the chapel is that of an 
election of trustees presided over by the 
missionary Payet, on the 23d day of July, 
1786. At this meeting Messrs. Jean Bap- 
tiste Barth and Louis Carrignan were 
elected marguilliers after having prom 
ised and firmly bound themselves to ad 
ministrate the affairs of the church as 
their own "upon their soul and con 
science." The year after, July 22, 
Charles Charboiller and Daniel Bourassa 
were chosen to the same office. Hence 
Pere Payet was the first missionary act 
ually stationed on Mackinac Island. Ac- 



cording" to the register of baptisms he re 
mained there from the i5th of July, 
1786, till the 2Oth of August, 1787, hav 
ing during this time administered the 
sacrament of Baptism to sixty-five per 
sons ; of these sixteen were baptized con 
ditionally and in great many more in 
stances only the ceremonies were sup 
plied. These neophytes were all chil- 

Pere 1 ayet officiated at four marriages 
and had but one burial. 

The register bears splendid testimony 
that the people were instructed in the 
nature of the two sacraments, baptism 
and matrimony. The record is inter 
spersed with lay baptisms using invari 
ably the verb ondoycr, to christen private 
ly ; and entries of marriages plainly at- 


dren ranging from eleven years down to 
a few months with the exception of five 
adults. The most important, if we may 
say so, was "un Chef Sanvagc dc la na 
tion dcs Courtcs Orcillcs, ou dcs 
Ontoois" who was christened to the name 
of Charles. Unfortunately the priest did 
not give his age nor his Indian name. 

test how well the instructed people of 
Mackinac understood the teaching of the 
Church regarding this Sacrament. Both 
Sacraments were perfectly valid for in 
absence of the priest, if necessity requires 
it, any one who has the use of reason and 
knows how, may baptize and in the sac 
rament of matrimony neither priest nor 



witness, strictly speaking- is necessary, 
because the essence of the sacrament is 
the consent of the parties. Such civil 
marriages were always made subject to a 
subsequent supplement of religious cere 
mony when the priest arrived, the same 
as the baptisms were supplied by the 
unctions and other prayers which ac 
company a solemn baptism, or even a 
case of a doubt where private baptism 


was conferred by less competent persons, 
it was given again conditionally. 

From August, 1787, until May, 1794, 
there was again no priest at Mackinac. 
Only eight private baptisms are entered, 
and we may indeed safely guess that 
there were many more, if not all, thus 
christened, but not done publicly or by 

persons who had access to the church 

On May 8, 1794, Pere Le Dru, mis 
sionary apostolic, as he signs himself, a 
Dominican, supplied the ceremony of 
baptism to Charlotte, a free negress, aged 
eight years. This is Le Dru s first offi 
cial act on record. His activity extended 
only until July (ninth) of the same year 
when the lay interregnum again stepped 
in. Two years later, Father Michael 
Levadoux, grand vicairc de Monseigneur 
I crcquc dc Baltimore, paid a visit to the 
Island but remained only until the first 
part of August, because his presence was 
so much needed in Detroit whither he 
was sent by Bishop Carroll in 1796, and 
invested with vicarial jurisdiction. He 
was a Sulpitian. 

By the treaty of peace between Great 
Britain and the United States, made and 
signed at Paris, September 3, 1783, the 
post of Michilimackinac fell within the 
boundary of the United States but the 
British, under all sorts of pretenses, re 
fused to withdraw their troops ; on No 
vember 19, 1794, a second treaty was con 
cluded at London, ratified October 28, 
1795, an( l proclaimed February 29, 1796, 
according to the stipulations of which all 
posts within the boundary lines assigned 
by a former treaty shall be evacuated by 
the British on or before June ist, 1796. 
This however was not carried out until 
October when two companies of United 
States troops, under command of Major 
Henry Burbeck, with Captain Abner 
Prior and Lieutenants Ebenezer Massay 
and John Michael, arrived and took pos 
session of the post of Michilimackinac. 14 

14 Cpt. Kelton s Annals of Fort Mackinac p. 41. 



With new sovereignty over the Island 
arrived a distinctly American priest. 
Father Gabriel Richard was not Ameri 
can-born but thoroughly imbued with 
American ideas and progress. He was a 
member of the Sulpitian community 
which had settled in 1791 in Baltimore 
with the intention of opening a seminary. 
As but few professors were required to 
fill the want, the young priests were as- 

courage in this western country a new 
growth of the Catholic Church from 
roots that should strike more deeply than 
the old French missions could into the 
newly-born American life and national 
character. In 1/98, after labors which 
had became more and more fruitful as the 
years went on, he was withdrawn from 
Kaskaskia 15 and given as helpmate to 
Father Levadoux at Detroit. In Sum- 




signed to the missions. Father Richard 
was selected, to use the language of Mr. 
Brown, to the settlements of Illinois for 
two purposes. First, that as being of the 
same race and language, he might give 
regular pastoral care to the French and 
Canadians and their half-breed descend 
ants, who had, since the English occupa 
tion, fallen into such sad need of it: and, 
secondly, that he might develop and en- 

mer of 1/99 ne undertook a trip to visit 
the missions located on the Lakes Huron 
and Michigan and arrived on Mackinac 
island June 29th. His impressions of 
the place and his labors he communicated 
in a letter to Bishop Carroll: "I left De 
troit on the 2Oth of June, in a vessel be- 
lonHne to the United States, and after 

ir> K. O. Brown, The Parish Register of the 
Mission of Michilimackinac, p. 58. 



a terrible squall in Saginaw bay on Lake seven hundred men, almost all Canadians. 
Huron, arrived at Mackinaw on the jQth Grand Portage, near the west end of 
of the same month. I met there a great Lake Superior, is on the American side, 
many people, near a thousand men visit and as I have been told is a trading post 
this place in the summer season, but most like Mackinaw, where nearly, one thou- 
of them remain only a few weeks. It is sand men assemble in the summer time 
a great rendezvous for traders from Lake and after a short stay disperse to their 
Michigan, the Mississippi. Lake Supe- hivernemens. 

rior and other points, and contains about "For two months after ^mv arrival I 
fifty houses. I found there large numbers taught the children the catechism every 
of children, more than thirty of whom morning, and in the evening [ recited 
I baptized. They were mostly illegiti- prayers in the church, after which I gave 

a tamiliar explanation of 
various points of Chris 
tian doctrine. On these 
occasions a good number 
of persons, particularly 
visitors from abroad, were 
present in the church, 
which is only forty-five 
ieet long by twenty-five 
feet wide. Being built of 
cedar it will last many 
years yet. though it is 
very old. It is well fur 
nished with vestments, 
altar linen and missal, but 
wants a chalice and pix. 
On September 3, I paid a 
visit to the Ottawas, who 
mate. It is very painful to see so many live on the east side of Lake Michigan, 
poor creatures left without instruction, forty-five miles from Mackinaw, 
several of them scarcely knowing how to "The late chief of the tribe, who died 
make the sign of the cross. two years ago, had been baptized, But 

"I am informed there are many others among the one thousand three hundred 
in the same condition in different places persons who are there, men, women and 
used as hivernemens on the St. Joseph, children, only one, so far as I could as- 
Wisconsin and St. Mary s Falls rivers; certain, has received baptism. I saw the 
at Prairie du Chien, at Green Bay; at place called La Mission, where Father Du 
several rivers along the coast of Lake Su- Jaunay, S. J., formerly lived (he was 
perior, where the great Northwest Com- there from 1/42 until 1765) There re- 
pany employs annually one thousand mains only a large cross on the shore 





which is near one hundred feet high. It 
is five miles north of the Ottawa village. 

"I inquired of the Indians in your 
name (Bishop Carroll s) whether they 
wished to have a priest among them, for 
their instruction, or at least that of their 
children, and they appeared to be very 
much gratified that you and Father Fe- 
vadoux should take an interest in their 
welfare; but, Indian like, they requested 
to be allowed a few days for consultation 
among themselves, after which they 
would send me an answer. 

"After having spent two days among 
them, I returned to Mackinac on Septem 
ber 6th and remained there until the 24th; 
but up to that time I received not word of 
reply from them, although many came to 
the island at different times. The truth 
of the matter is they are so addicted to 
the use of firewater, that they care very 
little about religion. I saw some of 
them drunk when I was at their village; 
and at the island, some were to be seen 
every day intoxicated in the streets or on 
the shore. 

"The trade here is principally in 
liquors and as long as this state of things 
exists, there can be no prospect of mak 
ing them (the Indians) Christians, 
though the traders acknowledge that it 
would be better for their own interest if 
no rum were sold to the natives ; but they 
persist in supplying them with it through 
fear of losing their trade. God only 
knows how many evils flow from this 
traffic ; it has been observed that English 
rum has destroyed more Indians than 
ever did the Spanish sword; several In 
dian chiefs have requested that the trade 
in liquors be abolished by law." 1C 

White s Memoirs p. 46, et seq. 

Lather Richard s first entry in the Par 
ish Record is the baptism of Jossette La- 
framboise, lie supplied the ceremony 
in twenty-four cases and conferred bap 
tism absolutely upon seven persons. On 
the 23rd of September is his last entry. 
Having succeeded Father Fevadoux, 
who returned to France, in the jurisdic 
tion at Detroit, he painfully recalled the 
sad need of a priest at Mackinac and sent 


his Sulpitian companion. Father J. Dil- 
het, to that post. The first record made 
by this priest was on the 9th of June, 
1804. He stayed however only a couple 
of months and according to all appear 
ances the parish was left to drift for itself 
for the incredibly long time of almost 
seventeen years, unless Father Dnmoulin. 



who was in the neighborhood in 1815, 
paid it a visit, but no record is made to 
that effect. 17 

April 8, 1808, the diocese of Bards- 
town, Ky., was established and its first 
bishop, the Rt. Rev. Benedict Joseph 
Flaget, consecrated November 4, 1810. 
Kentucky, Indiana, Michigan and the 
Northwest fell under his spiritual juris 
diction. The new bishop confirmed 
Father Richard in his pastorate in De 
troit. The trouble which arose in the St. 

ST. JOSEPH S curKcii, norsi-: AND SCHOOL, IIANC 

Anne s parish at Detroit through the op 
position of some trustees to a new church 
site, was greatly responsible for the long 

17 On the fly-leaf of the second volume of Bap 
tisms is pasted a slip, most likely by Father 
Richard, on which is recorded the baptism of 
Paul Tnsignan. It is dated at Michilimackinac, 
September 9, 1818 and is signed by Joseph Crcv- 
icr, Prctrc missionaire. The slip bears no fur 
ther information. The priest must have been 
passing the Island on his way to some other mis 
sions and performed the above act. Cpt. Keltpn, 
has him in his list as having served the parish 
from 1816-1818. If this were the case, there 
would be a trace of his services on the parish 

neglect of Mackinac. At last, "Father 
Richard undertook a journey through 
the vast district under his charge, in or 
der to ascertain the exact number of 
Catholics among the white and Indian 
population of the Northwest, that the 
bishops might know the different posts 
which required a resident priest. Hav 
ing left Detroit in July, 1821, he spent 
three weeks at Mackinaw in missionary 
duty, alter which he embarked upon Lake 
Michigan in a large batteau, encamping 
every night with his party 
on shore." 1S Of this so 
journ at Mackinac the first 
record is made in the bap 
tismal entry of Mary Mc- 
("lulpin on August 4th, 
1821, and the last on the 
sixteenth day of the same 
month and year. One can 
better, imagine than de 
scribe his activity for. after 
such an unusually long 
absence of a priest, his ar 
rival must have been as re 
freshing to the little com 
munity as a cool draught to 
OCR, MICH. the thirsty. To become all 

to all his activity must have been incessant 
for besides the daily instruction of young 
and old preparing them for confession 
and first holy communion, he conferred 
baptism, or supplied the same, on forty- 
seven persons and blessed three mar 
riages, which had been civilly entered 
upon, which fact he duly mentions in the 
text of the record, and in which we are 
informed that these facts were performed 

18 White s Memoirs. 



by the soussiguc cure dc Stc. Anne dii 

The Catholic white population of Mich 
igan at that time was about six thou 
sand; how much of this was on Mackinac 
is hard to guess, as we have no figures to 
guide us. This much is sure, that among 
the fire Catholic Churches, in the state, 
Mackinac Island was counted as one of 
them and notwithstanding the mixture of 
whites, negroes, halfbreeds and Indians, 
as its parishioners, Father Richard took 
as much interest and devoted as much 
time to it as circumstances would allow. 
The vast territory depended upon him 
for services with no other assistance but 
that of the newly ordained Francois Vin 
cent Badin. Xo wonder then that his 
visits to the Island were so short and so 
far apart. 

Still, in July, 1823, we see him back to 
Mackinac again. During the intervening 
two years his experience had been en 
riched by a seat in the Congress of the 
United States and in the County jail of 
Detroit. To the first he was elected by 
the third territorial district of Michigan, 
and to the latter he was accommodated 
for non-payment of one thousand one 
hundred and sixteen dollars to which he 
had been condemned on account of ex 
communicating a parishioner who ob 
tained a civil divorce and remarried, and 
who brought suit against him. This time 
he remained on the Island till the end of 
August, his last record being on the 2ist 
of August. This last entry is remarkable 
for being in English ; all entries to this 
date are in French. It reads : "Frederick 
Henry Contriman has this day, the twen 
ty-first (of) August, 1823, asked me to 
record in this book, the X T ame of Xantcy, 

his daughter by ancestry of the Ottawa 
X ation, bom along Illinois River, on the 
eighteenth of September in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and twentv-one." 
June 19, 1821, the diocese of Cincin 
nati was erected with the first bishop, the 
I\t, Rev. Edward Fenwick, O. P., conse 
crated January 13. 1822. Father Rich 
ard was not only confirmed in his posi- 


tion but made Vicar General for Michi 
gan. To his customary signature, there 
fore, is duly added, the V. G. 

Scarcely had Father Richard left the 
Island when an unexpected visitor ar 
rived. The long intervals between the 
priest s visits had not escaped trie obser 
vation of Protestant missionary societies. 

In the month of June, 1820, a Rev. Dr. 
Morse, father of the inventor of the tele- 



graph, had visited the Island and 
preached the first Protestant sermon. 
His report to L nited Foreign Mission 
ary Society of Xe\v York \vas so glowing 
of possibilities that, in 1822. the Society 
sent Rev. William Montague Ferry to 
explore the field. \Ye can surmise his re 
port for a year later, he and his wife ar 
rived on the Island with the intention of 
opening a school and establishing a mis- 





I, lS(;0; DIED AT II AN COCK , MU ! 

sion not only for the local natives but for 
all the Indians of the Xorthwest. Mr. 
I r erry arrived on Mackinac, October iQth, 
1823, and opened a school in the old 
Court house, November 2nd, with only a 
few children, but closed the year with an 
attendance of twelve day scholars. Two 
years later the building known as the 

"Mission House" was erected for school 
and missionary purposes, and it became 
the very furnace where Catholic children 
and adults were melted and cast into 
Presbyterians. Nor could the poor, igno 
rant people be blamed for it. Eager to 
learn something, they would have at 
tended any school regardless of what 
religion it infused with the daily lessons. 
What Catholic poverty could not give 
them Protestant abundance scattered 
before them unto nausea. The attend 
ance at school increased to one hundred 
eighty day and boarding scholars under 
the supervision of twenty- four instruc 
tor-;. With the bright prospect of per 
manency the "Mission Church" was built 
in 1825, and one year after, the whole 
institution passed into the hands of the 
American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions. The enterprise con 
tinued in its attained prosperity until 
1834 when Mr. l r erry was recalled and 
his withdrawal marked its downward 
path until the final disintegration in 1837, 
adding only another chapter to the pro 
verbial love s labors lost. 

For almost two years Presbyterianism 
had full sway on the Island with nothing 
to counteract it. Catholic ranks did not 
suffer materially from its iniluences 
among the grown population but many a 
child found his way to the Presbyterian 
day school. It was only another case of 
the Irishman, who in days of famine, at 
tended the preacher s meetings until the 
potatoes got big. They made good ef 
forts to perserve their faith, begging the 
bishop to send them a stationary priest, 
or at least one who could stay with them 
longer at a time and visit them at closer 
intervals. In September, 1825, Rev. 



Francis Vincent Badin, a brother of Rev. 
Theodore Stephen Badin, the first priest 
ordained in the United States, came to the 
Island from Detroit but stayed only till 
the first of November, when he departed 
for other Missions in Lower Michigan, 
wintering in all likelihood in Arbre 
Croche. He returned to the Island with 
the opening of navigation of 1826. His 
first entry is on May 2nd and the last on 
the 1 8th of October, during which time 
he baptized twenty-two children and the 
preceding year during even a shorter stay 
twenty-six of them, which all goes to 
show that the Catholics were not reced 
ing from their faith, even though some 
of them did avail themselves of the school 
opportunities. Lay baptisms were as fre 
quent then as they were in former years 
when the priest was the sole clergyman - 
visitor to the Island. In the spring of 
1827 we find some of them even placed 
on record and one in particular is prom 
inent having been conferred by Jean 
Baptiste Francois Fauvel, an ccclcsias 

In 1827 Father Badin came early to 
the Island. Nineteenth of April is the 
date of his first baptismal entry and the 
last on the 23rd of the same month. It 
seems this was also his last visit to the 
Island in the capacity of pastor, as he 
was succeeded in the Arbre Croche mis 
sion by Father Dejean, but he sojourned 
at the Island several times after, either 
going or coming from AYisconsin mis 

Into Father Badin s time, however, 
falls an important incident of Mackinac 
Island church history, namely the re 
moval of the church to its present loca 
tion. It cannot be stated with certainty 

when this was done. From the deed exe 
cuted by Magdalaine Laframboise and 
Joseph Laframboise, to Fdvvard Fen wick, 
dated October 26, 1827, it would appear 
that the church was already moved at 
that date, for it says "with the church 
thereon." And if we inquire into the 
reasons of removal we find that it could 
not have happened earlier than 1820. In 
that year, on November 24th, Mrs. 


Josephine Pierce, a daughter of Joseph 
and Magdalene Laframboise died and 
was interred in their own lot, where the 
present church stands. Aside of his 
mother was also buried Langdon Pierce, 
son and wife of Capt. Benjamin K. 
Pierce, L T . S. A. To preserve these 
graves intact, Magdalene Laframboise, 
the only survivor of her familv, offered 


the lot for a church site. The graves 
which have gradually filled the old church 
yard in course of almost a half-century 
made that location less suitahle for church 
purposes. Hence the proposition was ac 
cepted and the church removed. The de 
scription of the lot is given as "a tract 
of land situated in the village of Macki- 
nac containing twenty-two thousand, 
three hundred and twenty-eight square 
feet, with church thereon, bounded in 
front bv a street, on the rear bv another 


street, on one side by Gilloris and Bris- 
bois and on the other side by small cross- 
street, the said tract belonging to the 
heirs of Joseph Laframboise by Patent 
of United States, dated July 3, i8i2. 19 

We cannot imagine that Father Rich 
ard found time to superintend the re 
moval of the church, or that it was ac 
complished in his absence during his time, 
because he would have likely mentioned 
it in his letters. Hence we are impelled 

"Recorded Sept. i, 18.28, Lib. A. p. 244. Co. 
of Mackinac. Hon. Benoni Lachance s abstract. 

to accept the removal having taken place 
between the years 1825-27. 

The old church was taken down and 
again set up without any addition there 
to. Father Richard states in his letter 
that the old church measured twentv-five 
feet in width and forty-five feet in length. 
\Ye reproduce a view of the church and 
house, drawn in 1845 by Father Skolla. 
This picture was located in the Francis 
can monastery at Tersat, near Fiume, 
Hungary, where Father Skolla died, and 
doubtless we have be 
fore us the church as it 
stood in Lower Point, 
and as it was re-erected 
in 1781 on the old ceme 
tery site, with the pos 
sible addition of the 
steeple. The bell, still 
in use, has graced this 
little belfry but when 
and by whom it was pur 
chased is even beyond a 
probable guess. But 
we have all reasons to 
believe that the house, 
or at least the first sec- 
t i o n of it, enjoys 
the same honorable 
recollections as the church, because in Old 
Mackinaw the Jesuit-missionary was sta 
tionary, and we cannot imagine that the 
house was left behind and only the 
church removed to its new location. 
This second church, if we may call it 
thus, was built close the western line of 
the lot, so that there was no space left to 
wards the lane. The house was located 
on the upper end of the lot, its southwest 
corner and the northeast corner of the 
church forming a right-angle. In the 



yard, before the house, grew a profusion 
of flowers, which the missionaries culti 
vated for pastime. Also two plum trees 
we must mention it was amusing, when 
we were gathering information, that all 
the old hoys had such a vivid recollection 
of these two trees, and invariably men 
tioned them first. 

In 1827 Pere Jean Dejean, a French 
secular priest, became the first station 
ary missionary at Arbre Croche, to him 
was also transferred the spiritual care of 
the Island. On the 29th of September, 
1827, he baptized there the first child, 
and from this time on, for three years, 
he made his regular calls. On the 27tli 
of July, 1830, he closed his pastorate 
with the baptism of Johanna Duchene, an 
adult saui agesse. In all he had seventy- 
nine baptisms. One-third of these were 
grown up persons ranging in age from 
twenty to sixty years. On the sixth of 
July, 1830, he conferred baptism on three 
Gauthier brothers; Baptiste, Franqois 
and Joseph, all three over twenty years 
of age. The knowledge of the Ottawa 
and Chippewa languages served him well 
and was the means of reaching the most 
neglected of the natives and half-breeds. 
These baptismal entries unwittingly bear 
witness to the splendid services he ren 
dered to religion by keeping the poor and 
ignorant from straying from the true 
faith, and by bringing the stray ones 
back to the fold. Father Dejean s sac 
rifices and zeal are exemplary. His mis 
sionary career was cut short by private 
interests which demanded his immediate 
personal attention in his native country. 

On the 8th of June, 1829, is the first 
Latin entry made by Father J. J. Million, 
of Cincinnati, recording the baptism of 

Elizabeth Jane Wendell. Father Million 
was accompanying Bishop Fenwick on 
his tour through the northern missions. 
They arrived on the Island from Green 
Bay in the first w r eek of June, 1829, and 
after visiting Arbre Croche, remained in 
Mackinac three weeks giving instruction 
and preaching a mission during which 

LETTA, ROME, APRIL 2, 1882. 

nine Indians were baptized, and, on Pen 
tecost, sixty persons confirmed. Their 
visit was timely, indeed, as the little com 
munity was suffering a great deal from 
Presbyterian annoyances. Air. Ferry, 
their preacher, was therefore, ill at ease 
over the arrival of the Bishop and his 
companion, and took immediate steps to 


make their presence as little felt as possi 
ble. To attain this end he chose, how 
ever, wrong means. His undent advice to 
stay away from Catholic service had just 
the opposite effect among the Protestant 
population. They vied with their Catho 
lic neighbors for a seat in the little church 
in which on this occasion even standing 
room was at a premium. Chagrined at 
his failure, Mr. Ferry forbade all Catho 
lic children, who attended his school, to 

This was the first visit of the diocesan 
bishop to the Island and on June 7, iS_><;, 
the Sunday of Pentecost, was the first 
Confirmation ever given on Mackinac. 

The Dominican, Samuel Mazzuchelli 
became the immediate successor of Fath 
er Dejean. He arrived in Mackinac in 
Xovember, 1X30. and was practically the 
second resident priest of Mackinac Is 
land parish. His activity, according to 
the baptismal register, extended from 

go to church, even on Sundays, while the 
bishop stayed on the Island. lie abso 
lutely forbade the Son of Chief Makata- 
banis to go to see the Bishop. This in 
tolerance earned him the scorn of Pro 
testant and Catholic alike and the red 
skin chief manifested his disapproval of 
such impertinent bigotry by withdraw 
ing his boy from Mr. I r errv s school.- 

" P. B. Hammer, in Edward Dominik Fen- 
wick, dcr Apostel von Ohio. P. 78. 

November 19, 1830, to July 23, 1833. 
During this period of time two hundred 
and twelve persons were baptized, and all 
but four by himself. Fathers Jeanjean 
and Baraga, neighboring missionaries, 
each had two christenings. And we be 
lieve that James Dassen (probably Daw- 
son), baptized on October 23, 1831, was 
the first child christened by Baraga within 
the limits of his future diocese. 

In the summer of 1831 Bishop Fen- 



wick undertook his second episcopal visit 
to the northern missions of his extensive 
diocese. Father Baraga, who was as 
signed to the Arbre Croche mission, 
joined him at Dayton, Ohio, and the two 
traveled together by way of Detroit to 
Mackinac, where the Bishop landed, 
while leather Baraga continued his jour 
ney to the field of his future activity to 
domicile himself and to prepare his new 
charges for the Bishop s visit. After 
making arrangements with Father Maz- 



zuchelli, who was pastor on the Island, 
for a trip to Green Bay, the Bishop took a 
boat to St. Josephs, where Father Badin, 
Sr., was stationed and on his way back 
stopped off at Father Baraga s mission 
at Arbre Croche. The visit of these two 
Indian missions took up seven days. 
"\Yriting to his Vicar General Rese, 
Bishop Fen wick, gives the following im 
pression of the last named mission: "Dur 
ing my stay in this mission (Arbre 
Croche) thirty Indians, three being 

adults, were baptized. Ten more will be 
received into the Church as soon as they 
are fully instructed. I confirmed thirty 
persons, and on Corpus Christi day twen 
ty-eight received first holy Communion. 
On that day we held, after my Mass, the 
procession with the Blessed Sacrament 
at which such order and devotion pre 
vailed as can seldom be seen in civilized 
countries. I believe there was more real 
piety, manifestation of real faith and de 
votion, than I have seen on similar occa 
sions among our Catholic 
Americans ! Trulv, my 
friend, this was a happy 
day for me, I have never 
before felt happier and 
more contented than I 
have on that day. The 
poor savages covered the 
way we passed with mats 
and shawls and scattered 
grass and wild flowers 
over it. Truly, I would 
gladly exchange my place 
and my honors in Cincin 
nati for the hut and hap 
piness of the missionary 
here among these good 
savages." - 1 
In the evening of May 3ist Bishop 
Fenwick returned to the Island and be 
came the guest of Colonel Boid, where, 
as he says, he was honored and made to 
feel as much at home as if he were in the 
house of a Catholic. During the nine 
days stay he came in contact with most 
of the Islanders, without distinction of 
creed, and was much besought by the 
Americans to send them Father Mullon, 

" Letter dated Mackinac June i, 1831. Be- 

riclue (k-r Leopoldin Stif. 111. p. 23. 



nac because, while he is asked for, I thinl 
he would counteract the efforts 

whom they had learned to know two she will render the good cause greater 
years before. The future of the mission and more permanent services than if she 
was discussed with Father Maz/uchelli acts contrary. Of course she will have 
who shared the opinion of the bishop, to guide, instead of being guided, but it 
that nothing but a Sisters school would being for the honor of God and the sal- 
effectively check Presbyterian proselyt- nation of fellowmen she should not hesi- 
ing. "I am very much inclined, writes tate and so much less because, I assure 
the bishop, to accede to the wishes of these her. Ferry s school needs a speedy check- 
people and send Father Million to Macki- mating." -~ 

On the 9th of June Bishop Fenwick, 
f Mr. accompanied by Father Mazzuchelli, left 
for a three weeks visit to Green 
Bay. They found only spiritual 
destruction and desolation people 
ignorant, steeped in vice and all 
sorts of disorders. \Yithout delav 
they opened a mission, preaching in 
the morning, afternoon and in the 
evening and hearing confession 
from early morning till late at night. 
Xot in vain were their efforts. 
"There were confessions of twenty, 
thirty, and forty years. Xot since 
I am bishop, nay, I would almost 
say, since I am priest, have I held 
so difficult, but at the same time, 
so consoling a mission where the 
old dough had wrought such a ter 
rible devastation." 23 

In expectation that Redemptorist 
MAY Fathers from Vienna would soon 
arrive and take the mission the 

Bishop selected two acres of land 
Ferry and. confirm the faith of the weak- between Averjno and Shantiestown A 

hngs. It would be very good, too, if hous wag rented for ^^ puf _ 
Sister Bernardme would come to Macki- poses and Mrs Dausmann> a widoWf 
naw and open a school. Two girls here, assjsted by a yQun? ]ady were j nstalled 



well educated in English and French, and 
able to put in the shade Ferry s teachers, 

as first teachers. Mr. Stambock, the In- 

22 Letter to Vic. Gen. Rese, dated Green Bay, 

111 MI- i. 1 i^euer tu vie. oeii. ixese. uazeu ureen oay, 

would be willing to assist her and help June II; l83I . BerichtederLeopoldinenStif.III. 

carrv on the good work. Please tell Sis- p. 25. 

23 Letter, dated Mackinaw, July i, 1831. Be- 
ter Bernardme that I am convinced that r ; c h tc der Leopoldincn Stif. II. 



dian agent, whose acquaintance, the Rev. J. T.ostrie, a secular priest was the 

bishop had made on the boat, promised a next permanent pastor. lie remained 
contribution towards the maintenance of only until October Jist. His short ad 
it from the monies under his control. 24 ministration leaves nothing of impor- 
After this successful work the bishop re- tance, except that on the _ 5th of Septem- 
turned, by way of Mackinac, to Detroit, her he blessed the marriage of Kdwurd 
visiting Canton, Somerset and other Mackey and his wife Alary Anne, 38 and 
places on his way home. thirty six years old, respectively, and on 

Bishop Fenwick s plans regarding the same day christened them and their 
Mackinac expressed in the 
above letter to his Yicar 
General did not come to 
realization. Father Mill 
ion did not wish to go to 
Mackinac. 2 " Father Maz- 
zuchelli therefore con 
tinued his pastorate until 
July 23, 1833, when he 
left the place to take up 
missionary labors in Wis 
consin. After this a two 
months vacancy occurred 
at the Island and Father 
Saenderl, of the Redemp- 
torists who had settled in 
Green Bay, 20 paid it one 

" 4 Berichte der Leopoldinen Stif. III. p. 24. 

25 Rev. James Ignatius Mullon was born in 
Ireland. He finished his studies in Mount St 
Mary s Seminary, Emmitsburg, Maryland and 
was ordained by Bishop Fenwick in Cincinnati 
in 1824. He was a good preacher. He had 
charge of several missions in Northern Ohio 
and from 1831 to 1834 he edited with success the 
"Catholic Telegraph". In 1834 he left Ohio and 
was received into the diocese of New Orleans 
where he died in 1866, at the age of seventy two 

"* Father Rese on his tour through Austria, 
in 1829, on behalf of the American missions, be 
came acquainted with the Redemptorist Fathers 
in Vienna, and to them he so vividly portrayed 
the pressing need of missionaries, particularly 
for the German speaking settlers, that the pro 
vincial of the transalpine province, Father Pas- 
serdt, consented to send some Fathers and Broth 
ers of the community to America. For this pur 
pose he selected the Fathers Simon Saenderl, 

Francis Xavier Haetscher, and Francis Xavier 
Tschenhens and added to their number three 
lay brothers, Jacob Koller, Aloys Schuh and 
Wenceslaus Witopill. They embarked at Trieste 
on the 6th of March 1832, and reached New 
York, after all sorts of hardships so essential to 
transatlantic voyages of those days, on the 20th 
of June. The journey was continued, after a 
week s rest, by way of the Erie Canal to Buffalo 
and thence to Cleveland and from there to Chil- 
licothe, Portsmouth and Cincinnati, where they 
arrived July i/th. As the bishop wished to re 
tain one of the Fathers for the German Cath 
olics of that city, Father Saenderl, who was the 
superior, detailed Father Tschenhens to that duty 
and left Brother Jacob in the seminary for the 
supervision of the culinary department of that 
institution. The two other priests and two 
brothers travelled north to Detroit. Father 
Haetscher remained in that city with Brother 
Aloys for the time being, while Father Saenderl, 
accompanied by Brother Wenceslaus, went by 
wav of Mackinac to Green Bav. 



five children Edward, sixteen, Alexander, 
twelve, Alary, nine, William, seven, and 
Vitns one year and a half old. 

During the winter of 1833-34 Father 
Francis Ilaetscher. C. SS. R., took up his 
residence on the Island but remained onlv 
until the following July when he depart 
ed for Sault Ste. Marie, in order to es 
tablish there a permanent mission. His 
successor became Rev. V. J. Bonduel, a 
secular priest, whose pastorate was a long 
and uninterrupted one, from August 16, 


1834 till August 30, 1838. lie had the 
pleasure of witnessing the declining days 
of the Presbyterian mission and the final 
break up of it. Xo doubt his own vigi 
lance and zeal hastened its inevitable 

In 1833 the Diocese of Detroit was 
erected. Bishop Rese and his successor 
Bishop Lefevere took lively interest in the 
Island. They personally visited the place 
and steadily maintained there a pastor. 
The successions since Father Bonduel s 

time are the following: Rev. Sante San- 
telli, from August 2, 1838 to August 5, 
1843. At the same time he had charge 
of St. Tgnace. There is one casual en 
try, September i, 1839, by Rev. Jean 
Baptiste Proulx, missionary. 

Rev. Otto Skolla, a Franciscan, whose 
short biography is to be found elsewhere 
in this book, from August 24, 1843, until 
September n, 1845. With the sanction 
of the Bishop he went to La I ointe, Wis 
consin. During his administration there 
are some stray entries by 
Father Pierz and Pronlx. 
Rev. Henry Van Renter- 
ghem, November 9, 184^ 
to August if>, 1846. 

Rev. Andrew J. Pirct, 
August 30, 1846 to August 
12. 1854. During his time 
occasional entries are by 
Fathers Baraga, Pierz and 
Mrak. Baraga baptized on 
September 23, 1846, one 
Abraham Wendell, born 
May 5, 1791. The follow 
ing day he baptized Aman 
da Chapman, born April 
25, 1827, and Lucy Chap 
man born July 9, 1830. In 
the winter of 1851-52, Father Pierz sub 
stituted Father Piret during his absence. 
Rev. F. L. M. Jahan, from August 26, 
1854 to October 6, 1857. 

Rev. Patrick Bernard Murray, from 
January 3, 1858 to May 8, 1861. 

Rev. A. D. J. Piret, from St. Ignace, 
during the month of June, 1861. 

Rev. Flenry L. Thiele, from July i9th 
to September 12, 1861. 

Rev. A. D. J. Piret, from St. Ignace, 



from September 12, 1861 to August 16, 

Rev. Anthony Gaess, from September 
1 2th, to November 9, 1862. He left for 
St. Paul, where he labored successfully 
for many years. 

Rev. A. D. J. Piret, from St. Ignace, 
from December /, 1862 to May 15, 1867. 
During- this long interregnum on the Is 
land there are a few entries by Bishop 
Baraga and Rev. X. Louis Sifferath. 

Rev. H. L. Thiele, from May iQth to 
July 14, 1867. 

Rev. A. D. [. Piret. 
from St. Tgnace, from 
July 15, 1867 to May 
3, 1868. 

Rev. Mathias Orth, 
May 16, 1868 to June 
n, 1871. On June 
19. 1871, is an occa 
sional entry by Bishop 

Rev. L. B. Lebouc. 
from St. Ignace, from 
July 9, 1871 to June 
i f>, 1872. On Oc 
tober 1871 Bishop 
Mrak recorded sev 
eral baptisms. 

Rev. Moise Mainville, from Septem 
ber i, 1872 to August 1 6, 1873. He tore 
down the old church and commenced the 
erection of the present one in its place. 
Times were not very good and he was 
only partly successful. Besides, his de 
sign was somewhat out of the ordinary 
for those days, therefore the work pro 
ceeded slowly. Belonging to the Viateur 
Fathers, he was recalled by his superiors 
before the end of the year. At the time 

of his departure the church was sided 
and shingled, though no windows were 
placed yet. During the later part of Oc 
tober (1873) Father Jacker came as pas 
tor. Mass was said in the old court 
house west of the Astor House. Divin 
ing that the completion of the church 
would be a long time off, he sought more 
suitable quarters for his congregation. 
The Presbyterian "Old Mission Church" 
came as a natural suggestion. For the 
stipulation of re-shingling the roof, he 
obtained permission from Mr. E. A. 


Franks, the owner, to use it as long as he 
needed it. Here then the congregation 
worshipped for over two years. In the 
meanwhile no efforts were spared to fin 
ish their own church. "While Father 
Jacker looked after the spiritual wants of 
his charges St. Ignace included he 
gave Father Dwyer, who sojourned with 
him, the care for the completion of the 
church. Due to his exertion the build 
ing was plastered at last in 1875. Fath 
er Jacker planned moving to St. Ignace 



but this he did n< >t do until the spring- of 
1876, and soon after that Father I)\vyer 
commenced holding services in the ne\v 
church. One year more the two priests 
jointly exercised the pastorate over the 
Island after which time Father Dwyer 
became actual pastor. lie remained un 
til A Fay 21, 1878, when he was appointed 
to a similar position at Rockland. 

MICHIGAN, JUNE 24, 1893. 

From the time the old church was torn 
down, and with it the old rectory, the 
pastors of St. Anne s lived in rented 
homes. When Rev. John Brown suc 
ceeded, in June 1878, Father Dwyer, al 
though many things were needed around 
the church, and not an inconsiderable 
debt was still overhanging it, the first 

thing thought of was the house. Father 
Brown collected the money but did not 
build it. Hoping that a warmer clime 
would benefit his failing health, he went 
to Italy in the fall. His successor. Rev. 
John C. Kenny, finished the rectory and 
remained with the congregation from No 
vember 16, 1879 to May 15. 1881. 

In the summer of 1881 the St. Ignace 
parish was given to the Fathers of the 
Capuchin Order of Calvary, Wisconsin, 
and the two Fathers, Kilian Haas and Is- 
idor Handtmann, alternately took care of 
the Island parish from July 2, 1881 to 
November I, 1882, when the Order re 
linquished the parishes. 

Rev. Joseph Xiebling, from March 4, 
1883 to July 25, 1883. 

Rev. I*, (r. Tobin, from December 9, 
1883 to February 24, 1884. 

Rev. William Dwyer, second term, 
from September 8, 1884, to August 27, 

Rev. Peter W r . O Connell, from No 
vember ist to December ist, 1887. 

Rev. Joseph Barren from December 
i, 1887 to January 31, 1888. 

Rev. Alberico Vitali, U. J. D. from 
April i5th, to October 4, 1888. 

During the winter 1888-89 no priest 
was on the Island. In case of necessity 
requisition had to be made on the pastor 
of St. Ignace. With the advent of sum 
mer 1889, among other clerical visitors 
arrived Rev. John Gruender, rector of the 
Immaculate Conception church at Loose 
Creek, Osage Co., Missouri. A class 
mate of Bishop Vertin, he was given per 
mission, during his stay on the Island, to 
perform the ordinary duties of a pastor. 
His last baptismal record is on Septem 
ber 9th. During the winter of 1889-90 



there was again no priest on the Island. 
The following summer Rev. Philip J. 
Erlach, a diocesan priest, \vas stationed 
there but only until early fall. On De 
cember I5th (1890) the St. Anne s par 
ish received unexpectedly a ne\v pastor 
in the person of Rev. A. J. Rezek. Des 
pite his youth, and inexperience counting 
against his good will, he commenced to 
improve the standing of the parish as 
much as was under circumstances possi- 

blasts of the winter storms like a reed 
shaken by the wind. Xo plaster could 
stay on the walls; great pieces which had 
fallen off made the church unsightly. 
The trustees, ]>enoni Lachance, Michael 
McXally and Frank Chambers, heartily 
supported the pastor s undertaking. 
AYith the opening of navigation, which in 
1891, was about the middle of April, the 
contract was given to Air. Edward Cou- 
chois. The entire church was stripped 


ble. His appeal for new sets of vest 
ments and a complement of church linens 
was most generously met. This gave 
him courage to broach the subject of re 
pairing the church, which was in a la 
mentable condition. In the days when 
it was built a keg of nails cost any where 
from five to ten dollars, hence they were 
used most sparingly and unfortunately 
too much so for the stability of the build 
ing which was giving way under the 

inside to the bare studclings, braced and 
re-sheeted diagonally. The sanctuary 
partition placed and the ceiling vaulted 
in a semi-circle. All sides were lathed 
and plastered anew. The gallery was 
finished and turned to its use. Thus the 
church obtained a solidity and firmness 
against any kind of storm, as also a 
church-like appearance. The summer vis 
itors were delighted with the much need 
ed improvements and gave their offerings 



freely. The entire cost ran up to two 
thousand dollars. Eight hundred dollars 
were realized from the sale of the old 
cemetery, the first land owned by the con 
gregation under U. S. patent; Messrs. 
John and Michael Cudahy gave each 
three hundred dollars while the balance 
came in by smaller contributions from the 
congregation and the visitors. In Sep 
tember (2nd) when Father Rezek was 


called away there was no indebtedness 
on the parish. 

Rev. Adam J. Doser immediately suc 
ceeded Father Rezek and anxious to carry 
on the good work begun placed a much 
needed heating apparatus in the church. 
Unfortunately ill health compelled him 
to relinquish his post, February loth. 
The parish then remained without a res 

ident priest until August (1892) when 
Rev. James Miller received the appoint 
ment to the "state s prison," as it was for 
merly jocosely called among the priests 
ol the diocese on account of its poverty 
and desolation. Father Miller at once 
summarized the work before him and 
put his heart and soul into it, making not 
only the church but the congregation, as 
well, what they are today. His taste for 
neatness reflects so well in the plain but 
beautiful frescoe decorations and the 
three splendid altars, in white and gold, 
furnished by the renowned altar builder 
F. Hackner of La Crosse, \Yis. The 
external appearance was not neglected. 
The spire was remodeled to its present 
shape, the semi-circular steps added in 
the front of the church, and the whole 
painted, so that it now rivals in appear 
ance any church of the diocese. The work 
when done was unincumbered by indebt 
edness. Father Miller enjoyed the fruit 
of his labors almost eight years. In the 
fall. November 5th, 1899, to the sincere 
regret of his parishioners, he was re 
moved to another field of activity. 
Other successions since then are : 
Rev. \Yilliam PI. Joisten, from Janu 
ary 2nd to August 12, 1900. 

Rev. F. X. Becker from September 17, 
1900 to June 22, 1901. 

Rev. John A. Keul, from July 3, 1901 
to July 24, 1904. 

Rev. Francis H. Swift, from July 28th 
to October 27, 1904. 

Rev. Joseph N. Raymond, from Octo 
ber 28, 1904 to September 13, 1905. 

Rev. Martin Sommers, the present pas 
tor, from September 14, 1905. It has 
fallen to his lot to remodel the small res 
idence in use since 1879. He is credita- 



bly acquitting himself of the task just at 
this writing. 



The site where Xcwberry stands today 
was in 1882 an unbroken wilderness. 
The vast areas of finest hardwood at 
tracted the attention of financiers who 
planned and erected here the furnace, re 
torts, and chemical works of the Vul 
can Furnace Company. At first thirty 
acres were cleared and the furnaces 
built to the north side of the D., S., S. 
A. Ry. tracks ; the south side was 
platted for village purposes. The first 
year over thirty neat cottages were 
built. The population was promis 
cuous in creed and nationality. Cath 
olics were attended to from St. Ignace, 
made more difficult on account of the 
distance, fifty-five miles. Towards 
the end of August, 1886, Bishop Yer- 
tin sent the Rev. John M. G. Manning 
with the instruction to build a church. 
In the incredibly short time of five 
months the Father acquitted himself 
of his task and on Christmas services 
were held in the new, though not quite 
completed edifice. A month later, when 
it was about ready for dedication, the 
whole was consumed by fire, on Februarv 
2, 1887. It would be easier to imagine 
than to describe the promiscuous feelings 
of Father Manning and his small flock. 
But they lost no time bemoaning the 
loss. With new energies and sacrifices a 
second church of the same size and de 
scription was ready for dedication before 
the middle of June. On the iQth of the 

same month, it being the third Sunday 
after Pentecost, the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Yertin with the assistance of Fathers 
Manning and Keul blessed it to the 
patronage of St. Gregory of X T uziunzene, 
one of the patron saints of the pastor. 

Four lots were secured from the Pal 
mer estate, two by donation and two bv 
purchase. The company s agent, Mr. 
Moran, promised four lots but on his re 
moval his promise was repudiated and 


Father Ilollinger, then pastor, paid for 

The following priests were pastors : 
Rev. John M. G. Manning, from Sep 
tember i, 1886 to Xovember i, 1889. 

Rev. Joseph R. Boissonnault, from Xo 
vember 22, 1889 to March ir. 1890. 

Rev. J. Reichenbach, from June I5th 
to August 17, 1890. 


Rev. Joseph Haas, from August JOth 
to Septemhcr 10, 1890. 

Rev. Fidelis Sutter. from September 
I i , i8<)O to April j i , i8g_>. 

Rev. Philip J. Frlach. from July - 3. 
189- to August 20, 18(13. 

Rev. John Cebnl. from Xovember i, 
i8<)3 to May 10, 1896. 


Rev. Joseph T,. Hollinger, from June 
14, 1896 to August 4, 1^99. 

Rev. Frederic Glaser, from August 6, 
1899. to August TI. 1901. 

Rev. F. S. Ilawelka, ad interim, from 
Tune 9, to August 4, 1901. 

Rev. R. Becker, from September 14, 
!<jOi to June 22, 190.2. 

Rev. \\~illiam F. Gagnieur, S. ].. ad 
interim, during August and September, 

Rev. Martin C. Sommer, from October 
i<), 1902, to September 13, H)OV 

Rev. Joseph F. Dittmann. the present 
pastor, from September 15, 

Father Glaser renovated 
the church inside by a steel- 
ceiling which makes a warm 
impression upon the visitor. 
It is no doubt one of the 
neatest frame churches of 
the diocese. After the res 
toration Bishop Fis blessed 
it, on August 30, 1900. 

Sixty-five families con 
stitute the congregation of 
Xewberry, being Irish, 
French, German and Polish. 
Missions connected with it 
are : 

Seney; church was built 
by Father Manning. Four 
teen Irish and Polish fam 
ilies. Visited once a month. 
Xaubinway ; Church built 
by Father Manning. In 
July 1894 Rev. E. P. Bor- 
das became the first resident 
pastor of this place. He 
added a larger sacristy to 
the church, some pews and confessionals 
and finished the house which was started 
by Father Manning. His successors 
were, in turn, Fathers Manning, Sauriol 
and Hasenberg. During its independ 
ence it had Gould City for a submission. 

Fr. Gccrs since March 2/th. 



two building s interiorly. This place is 
isolated upon the shore of Lake Superior 
and has but one train daily for communi 
cation with the rest of the world. The 
eomunity must therefore depend upon 
itself for social intercourse, and for the 
building of churches upon its own re 
sources. These facts alone vividly por 
tray the sacrifices the priest must make. 
To say Mass in a shell of a clinch and to 
live in an unplastered shanty during the 
rigorous winters of the northern climate, 

The place has been made again a mis 
sion and has at present only fifteen 
families. Visited from Xewberry once 
a month. Since 1906 attached to Man- 

Germfask. No church. Fifteen 
Irish families. In a quandary how to 
name the place, the inhabitants took the 
initial letters of their sur-names and the 
best they could get out of them was 

Rappinville, church under construc 
tion. Twenty-five French 
families. Five acres of land 
were donated for cemetery 
purposes, but Father Som- 
mer turned it over to the 
Township for care under 
usual restrictions for Cath 
olic interments only. 




The Grand Marais Lum 
ber Company can take the 
lion-share of blame for the 
existence of the town. The 

site for the church was partly donated by is to say the least, extremely uncomfort- 

them and partly bought from them. The able. But it was done for the sake of the 

edifice itself was commenced by Father people living in so isolated a community, 

Mlynarczyk who, on account of his short far from being large enough to maintain a 

stay, accomplished but little. His succes- parish institution. They usually do what 

sor. Father Sutter, completed the exterior they can and the deficiency is made up by 

of the house and church but died there be- the sacrifices of the priest. As there is 

fore he could devote any attention to the a limit to every kind of endurance, so 

interior finish. The next priest. Father there is also to the sacrifices on the part 

Glaser, could do no more than to pay for of the priest. Hence we do not wonder 

the work already done so that it fell upon that the changes at this mission were so 

Father Mockler to plaster and finish the frequent, with some room left between. 



Rev. A. Mlynarczyk from August 3ist 1899 to October 23, 1901. 

to Nov. 5, 1895. Rev. A. J. Doser from November 3, 

Rev. V. Sutter from June 7th to No- 1901 to July 12, 1903. 

vembcr 22, 1896. Rev. A. Schneider from July 26, 1903 

Rev. John Cebul from January i5th to to March 6, 1904. 

August 1 6, 1897. Rev. F. Marceau from March 13, 1904 

Rev. F. Glaser from January i6th to to September 5, 1905. 

December 8, 1898. Rev. P. Girarcl, the present pastor, 

Rev. John Mockler from February 5, from September 17, 1905. 

Chapter XVIII. 



St. Peter s Cathedral. 

The city s history practically begins 
with the organization of the Marquette 
Iron Company in 1848 by A. R. Har- 
lovv, Edward Clark, then of Worcester, 
Mass., and Robert J. Graveraet. In May 
1849 Mr. Graveraet brought in a small 
party of men to develop the company s 
holdings; they located at what is known 
as the Cleveland Mine, but, a few weeks 
later, joined Mr. Harlow who, on his ar 
rival, decided to place a forge near the 
lake, south of Superior Street, later 
known as the old Marquette forge. In 
the first party was Peter White, at this 
writing the only survivor and a most res 
pected citizen. Of the first clearing made, 
Mr. White gives the following interesting 
account: "Until the loth of July, we kept 
possession of all the iron mountains then 
known west of the Jackson, fighting" mos- 
quitos at night and black flies through 
the day. On the loth of July, we came 
away from the mountains, bag and bag 
gage, arriving at the lake shore, as we 
then termed it, before noon. Mr. Har 
low had arrived with quite a number of 
mechanics, some goods, lots of money, 
and what was better than all, we got a 

glimpse of some female faces. We were 
all much excited and buoyant with the 
hope of a bright future before us. At 
i o clock of that day, we commenced 
clearing the site of the present city of 
Marquette, which we called Worcester, 
in honor of Mr. Harlow s native city. 
We began by chopping off the trees and 
brush at the point of rocks near the brick 
blacksmith shop just south of the shore 
and of the Cleveland Company s ore 
docks. We cut the trees close to the 
ground, and then threw them bodily over 
the bank on to the lake shore, and thus 
began the construction of a dock." 

The infant industry was slow in devel 
oping. But the growing population at 
tracted clergymen of various creeds. The 
first priest to visit Marquette was Father 
Menet. S. J.. from the Soo. He said 
Mass in a log house on Spring Street in 
the summer of 1853. The same vear the 
Upper Peninsula became Vicariate Apos 
tolic and Father P>araga became its first 
bishop. The Jesuits from the Sanlt vis 
ited the place from time to time, but no 

gan, p. 415. 

of the Upper Peninsula of Michi 




steps were taken towards the building of 
a church until 1855 when in October the 
new bishop visited the Place. lie con 
firmed, October i_>th, thirty persons and 
selected the site for the future church. 
Late in the fall of i85(">. Rev. Sebastian 
Duroc arrived on Mackinac Island, from 
France, and proceeded by order of the 
Pishop to Marquette on a dog sleigh, lie 

pastor until July 31, 1864, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. Henry L. Thiele. At 
this time it was generally known, to the 
inner circle, that the see would be trans 
ferred from the Sault to Marquette as 
soon as Rome would give its sanction. 
To prepare for it. Father Thiele com 
menced the building of a substantial 
church, and indeed for those davs an ed- 



arrived there in February 1857, and in 
the spring commenced the erection of a 
two-story frame building on the site of 
the rear-end of the present Cathedral, of 
which the upper part he occupied himself 
and said Mass in the lower. The first 
baptism recorded, October 12, 1857, is 
that of John Shade. Father Duroc was 

Till-: REAR. 


ilice of extraordinary design worthy of 
the name of a cathedral. It was a frame 
structure of Gothic character based on a 
stone foundation. Bishop Baraga laid 
the first corner stone in his diocese to this 
church and on his removal dedicated it 
to St. Peter the Apostle, in 1865. Fie 
took pardonable pride in his new cath- 



edral because it compared favorably, as 
far as its appearance went, with any 
church in the state. But it proved to be 
poorly built to withstand the extreme 
cold, so traditional of those days. Likely 
to lessen the cost, which was anyway over 
twelve thousand dollars, there was no 
outside sheeting under the siding, an es 
timated saving outrun annually by addi 
tional cost in fuel. In zero weather the 
wood furnace had to be fired for three 
days, night and day, to temper the at 
mosphere inside even to a tolerable de 

The list of priests who officiated in 
Marquette is as varied as it is interest 
ing; it illustrates practically the scrip 
tural "non habemus hie locum manen- 
tem." Father Thiele just saw his un 
dertaking completed, but very much in 
debt. Rev. Charles Magnee, his succes 
sor, not being conversant in English, re 
mained, in mid-summer of 1866, for only 
two months. The Bishop looked around 
for a priest who would not only be pastor 
of the cathedral but who would share 
with him in the administration of the dio 
cese, as he felt more and more enfeebled 
by each year added to his long mission 
ary life. His choice fell on Rev. Ed 
ward Jacker, pastor of St. Ann s Church 
in Hancock. Reluctantly he relinquished 
his post which through so many years 
of toil had become dear to him, and in 
August 1866 removed to Marquette. He 
became truly the right hand of the Bish 
op, and in his prolonged sickness was as 
much a nurse to him as he was an advis 
er. The Bishop s death occurred on Jan 
uary TQ, 1868, and the Archbishop of the 
Province appointed Jacker administrator 
scdc racmitc. At first he tried to fill both 

offices pastor and administrator but 
finding them too difficult, he called Rev. 
Edmund Walsh to his assistance, lie 
stayed from February loth to March 3, 
1868 and was succeeded by Father Mag- 
nee in March who remained till June. 
Then Rev. Martin Fox was made regular 
pastor of the cathedral and remained as 
such from August i, 1868 to October 18, 
1870. In February 1869, Father Jacker 
laid the administration of the diocese into 

BY BISHOP lilS, JULY 26, 1903. 

the hands of the second bishop, the Rt. 
Rev. Ignatius Mrak, but took it up again 
in the fall of the same year during the 
attendance of the Bishop at the Vatican 

On his return in the fall 1870, Bishop 
Mrak ordained Rev. Frederick Eis and 
installed him immediately as pastor of 
the cathedral. He held the position 



from November i, 1870 to September 
14, 1873 and had. for a time the assis 
tance of Rev. L. Lebouc, May 1871, of 
Rev. John Stariha. July 1871, of Rev. 
Moise Mainville, July 1872. 

I he present episcopal residence was 
built in 1873 wholly from the residues of 
contributions by the Propagation of 
I r aith societies for the maintenance of 
missions. The old residence was sold to 
Air. John McCabe who remodeled it for 
his own dwelling purposes. It is still 
existing on South Fourth street. Xo. 61. 

After Father Fis the successions were 
the following: 

Rev. John I>rown. from October ;, 
1873, to August 25. 1874. 

Rev. Hugh AIcDevitt. from September 
6th to December 21, 1874. 

Rev. Oliver Comtois, from January 
loth to Xovember 31, 187^. 

J\ev. JJ. J. Rousseau, from January 
2nd to December 23. 1876. 

T-i Xovember, Rev. A. O. Pellisson ad 

interim. Rev. Th. A. Trottenberg, from 
Xovember 10, 1876 to February 4, 1877. 
Rev. John C. Henry, from February 10, 
1877 to September r, 1878. Rev. li. J. 
Rousseau, second term, from September 
20th to Xovember 1878. 

At this period Bishop Mrak resigned, 
and Father Jacker became administrator 
for the third time. Rev. Kilian Haas, 
O. M. Cap. from Calvary. \Yis.. rendered 
temporary assistance until Rev. John C. 
Kenny, received from Father Jacker the 
appointment, for a second term, in J ? eb- 
ruary 1879. On September 
14. 1^79. the third bishop of 
Man|uette, the I\t. Rev. 
John Yertin was consecrated 
at Xegatinee. The cathedral- 
pastor, being persona non- 
grata to the new Bishop, was 

\pcremptorilv removed. As 
an act of vengeance for this 
priest s removal the cathe 
dral was set on fire October 
2, 1879, and in the glare of 
his burning titular church, 
Bishop Yertin held his entry, 
ungreeted. The most critical 
days for the cathedral par 
ish followed. The beautiful 
characteristic union of Catholicity was 
so ignominiously rent in two upon the de 
testable rock of nationalism. The guilty 
ones have long ago been called by their 
Maker into the beyond, together with the 
object of their hatred, and we hope they 
have repented, in ilesh, for injuries done 
to religion, and that with their dying-off 
has died out the scandal which they have 
afforded to this posterity. 

The burning of the church was keenly 



felt by the entire community. Catholic 
and 1 rotestant, and perhaps most by those 
who have been instrumental in reducing 
it to ashes. Much substantial sympathy 
was given to Bishop Vertin by outsiders. 
The rector of St. Paul s Episcopal church 
offered him free use of their old church 
on Ridge street, but the Bishop grate 
fully declined. An arrangement was 
was made, according to which the home 
less congregation found accommoda 
tion in the French church on \Yash- 
ington street. Two days after the 
conflagration Father Kenny caused 
the following notice to appear in the 
Mining Journal: The members of 
the Catholic Congregation will have 
Mass at the French Church on 
Washington Street, tomorrow (Sun 
day). First Mass at eight o clock; 
the late Mass at 10:30; Vespers at 
7:15 P. M. ; Boys of the Sunday 
School Catechism class will attend 
with their teachers at the school 
room in the Orphan Asylum at two 
o clock: The girls at the Convent 
School room", 

Father Kenny. 

And on October nth: The 
Catholic Congregation will have 
Mass in the French Church to 
morrow as follows : First Mass at 7 .-30 
and late Mass at 9 o clock. 

By order of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Ver 

J. C. Kenny. 

This arrangement became permanent 
for Sundays; on week-days the chapel, in 
the basement of the bishop s house, was 
used. Xo time was lost by the Bishop, 
in the meanwhile, though under much ad 

verse circumstances, to make steps to 
wards the building of a new Cathedral. 
A committee consisting of Messrs. Jacob 
Frei, Balthazar Xeidhart, Henry Frbeld- 
ing, and John Thoney, was selected by 
the Bishop. For some reasons the last 
t\vo gentlemen remained inactive. The 
undertaking, however, made good head 
way, so that the corner stone was laid on 
the i Qth of June 1881. 


To the spiritual wants, after the re 
moval of Father Kenny, the Bishop at 
tended himself for a time, till he se 
cured the assistance of the Capuchin, 
Father Maurice, of Calvary, AYisconsin, 
during November and December 1880. 
Rev. Th. Al. Majerus served from De 
cember 15, 1880 to March 13, 1881. On 
the ^5th of September 1881, Bishop Yer- 
tin leaving for Rome, entrusted the par- 



ish and the diocese to his own prede 
cessor, Bishop Mrak, and, after his re 
turn from Europe, on December i/th, 
steadily kept one clergyman in his house 
whose standing position was merely that 
of a vicar and duties those of a parish 
priest. Many of these remained only 
for a short time, particularly if they were 
more necessary elsewhere in the growing 
diocese. Thus : 

Rev. A. \Y. (Jeers remained onlv about 




four weeks, from the ist to the 2/th of 
January 1882. 

Rev. Charles Drees, from February 
5th to July 7, 1882. 

Rev. Martin Kehoe from July 30 to 
September 15, 1882. 

Rev. M. McLoy, from October 28, to 
November 29, 1882. 

Rev. A. Perella from February i6th to 
March 3, 1883. 

Rev. F. X. Becker from March 6th to 
June 10, 1883. 

Rev. Th. Al. Majerus from June i/th 
to December 19, 1883. 

Rev. Kilian Flaas from January ist to 
July 15, 1884. 

Rev. Joseph Barron from August 2nd, 
1884 to June 28, 1885. 

Rev. Matthew J. Lyons from July i2th 
to August 25, 1885. 

Rev. Fabian S. Marceau from Septem 
ber 6th to October 4, 1885, ad interim. 

Rev. F. X. \Yeninger, S. J., in Sep 
tember 1885, ad interim. 

Rev. Thomas Turner from October 
10, 1885, to September i, 1886. 

Rev. Augustine Bayer, O. S. F., in 
September 1886, ad interim. 

Rev. J. E. Struif from September 26th 
to November 28, 1886. 

Rev. Philip Kummert in December 
1886, ad interim. 

Rev. Ignatius Balluff from December 
20, 1886 to July 26. 1887. 

Rev. J. A. Keul from October 23, 1887 
to September 10, 1888. 

In the fall of 1883 the great cathedral 
was under roof and the people looked 
forward with pleasurable expectation to 
the time when they would be again in 
their own church. The hospitality of 
the French was indeed appreciated, but 
the small edifice hardly accommodated 
their own people and then, there is, no 
place like home. The completion of the 
entire cathedral was not to be thought of 
yet, but the Bishop exerted himself to 
have the basement ready for occupancy 
by Christmas. In this he was not disap 
pointed. The spacious basement which 



a couple of months before looked like a 
sand-pit was transformed into a beauti 
ful place of worship. Streams of light 
revealed to the gathering multitude the 
tasteful arrangement. The pews al 
though of home-make proved to be very 
comfortable, the white and gold altars, 
likewise of domestic design, adorned, be 
tween the glittering candlesticks, with 
cut flowers greatly pleased the artistic 
mind of the people. At the stroke of 
twelve Bishop Vertin with his assistants 

Mr. Joseph Bosch, of Lake Linden, in 
memory of his wife Alary, nee Yertin, 
the St. Mary s altar was also donated. 

The organ was purchased at the cost 
of three thousand dollars. The pews, 
railing, side altars and the episcopal 
throne are the work of Grammer, of Chi 
cago. The Cathedral was consecrated 
on the 2/th of July, 1890. 

L T p to this time the Bishop was the pas 
tor of the cathedral himself. Willing to 
confer this title on his resident priest, he 

entered to the melodious strains of "Ecce 
sacerdos inagmis." After the usual 
blessing of the new place of worship the 
bishop sang Pontifical-Highmass. 

This basement remained the home of 
the congregation for seven years. Grad 
ually the upstairs was finished and the 
furniture installed. The beautiful white 
marble altar is a gift of the bishop s fath 
er, Mr. Joseph Yertin, Sr. of Hancock; 
the St. Joseph s side altar a donation of 

ordered Father Langan to build a resi 
dence on the northwestern corner of the 
Cathedral. It was erected at an expense 
of four thousand dollars. 

Rev. Joseph M. Langan, who had come 
to Marquette October 14, 1888 became the 
hrst pastor and held the position until 
October 21, 1894. During his time the 
congregation increased considerably and 
the following assistants shared the work 
with him : 



Rev. Adam J. Doser from January to 
July 1901. 

Rev. James A. Miller from July 20, 
K;OI to February 5, 1902. 

Re\ . I abian Pawlar from February 3, 
to April 16, 1893. ad interim, 

Rev. Anthony C. Keller, from June 5, 
1892, to February 21, 1893. 

Rev. \\ illiam Ff. Joisten from April 
30. t< June 21, 1893. 

Rev. \Y. Anzelm Mlynarc/yk in Aug 
ust 1893. 

Rev. Joseph A. Sauriol from Decem 
ber 12. 1894 to May 27, 1895. 

Rev. X. FI. Xosbisch, pastor, from 
February 26, 1895 to May 10. 1896. 

Rev. Anton Flodnik, during July 189:5. 

Rev. Joseph Flollinger, from August 
10. 1895 to May 24, 1896. 

Rev. Adam J. Doser. pastor, from 
June 12, 1896 to October 17, 1897. 

Rev. Anthony Zagar from August 18, 
1896 to February 5, 1897. 

Rev. J. A. Sauriol, from April 2ist 


Rev. Hubert Zimmermann from June 
28th to October I, 1893. And again from 
December 27th, 1893 to March 15. 1894. 

Rev. Joseph \Yallace from April 25th 
to May 29, 1894. 

Rev. James Lenard, Ph.D. from June 
1 2th to October I5th, 1894. 

Rev. James Miller, succeeded Father 
Fangan in the pastorate on October 28, 
1894, hut resigned his charge February 
17, 1895. 

to June 28, 1897. 

Rev. Mathias Jodocy, from September 
25, 1897 to January 27, 1899. 

Rev. John Kraker from December 19, 
1897 to April 17, 1899. 

Rev. Joseph G. Pinten, the present pas 
tor from April 30, 1899. Flis assist 
ants : 

Rev. James J. Corcoran from May 3, 
1899 to August 12, 1900. 

Rev. M. Faust took charge of the cath- 



cdral parish and diocesan chancery dur 
ing the months of June, and July and part 
of August, 1900, in the absence of the 
Rt. l\ev. Bishop and Father I inten. 

]\ev. Peter Manderfield from Septem 
ber 3, 1900, to April 7, 1901. 

key. Dennis B. Sullivan from October 
^. 1901 to August i, 1902. 

key. Joseph A. Sauriol from August 
;. 1902. 

quctte. Teaching communities were 
scarce and to those \vho were in position 
to open a school he had scanty remuner 
ation to o lifer. At last the (Jrsuline Xuns 
from Chatham, Ontario, realized his ar 
dent desires and came to Marquette in 
1867. They rented a building on Supe 
rior street, now Barag-a Aye., which 
stands yet at Xo. 213 in the same place. 
Here they opened an Academy and day 


Rev. Jeremiah Moriarty from June 
17, 1905. 

The parochial school is essential to the 
life of the church. This was well real 
ized by the bishops and pastors of Mar 
quette. Bishop Baraga who in most of 
his missions was the teacher himself in 
the simple arts of reading-, writing- and 
arithmetic, exerted himself to establish a 
school soon after his arrival in Alar- 

school under the supervision of Mother 
Mary Theresa. The year after they pur 
chased block Xo. 8 and erected in the 
centre of the square a brick-veneer build 
ing-. The revenues not being- equal to 
their obligations the g ood sisters, despite 
their best endeavors, were forced to sur 
render their interests to the St. Joseph s 
Sisters in 1872. These Sisters opened 
their academy on October I5th. The 



first band under [Mother Du Chantal 
.Martin were Sister Alphonsus Byrn, Sis 
ter Bernard Walsh, Sister Agues Gill and 
Sister Zita Kavanagh. The Ursuline 
holdings were acquired for ten thousand 
two hundred dollars and it took the Sis 
ters a quarter of a century to pay it. In 
1875 Mother De Taxzi became superior 
ess. Being a woman of great piety and 
zeal and prudence, she harbored some or 
phan girls at the Academy wholly at the 
expense of the community. To reward 

proviso that they turn into the cathedral 
fund fifty cents of every dollar collected. 
This was conscientiously complied with. 
A great deal of good was accomplished 
thereby. Many more destitute girls found 
a home in the new institution and were 
given an education which otherwise 
would have been without their reach 
The girls were cared for here until 1902 
when they were transferred, for economic 
reasons, to Assinins. In 1883 the Sis 
ters commenced a new chapel which was 


as well as to secure the continuance of the 
good work, Bishop Mrak in his last year 
of administration suggested a separate 
girls orphanage. To provide means the 
Sisters were authorized to collect 
throughout the diocese for this laudable 
purpose. In 1879 the girls new orphan 
asylum was completed and to liquidate the 
outstanding bills, Bishop Yertin extended 
to the Sisters the same privileges, accord 
ed to them by his predecessor with the 

dedicated the year after to the Sacred 
Heart. In 1890 a second addition was 
made to the same west wing in order to 
provide more and better classrooms. The 
school was conducted on monthly tuition 
plan, until 1899, the present pastor, 
Father Pinten, adopted a new system, the 
teachers being now paid the ordinary sal 
ary from the common church funds. The 
academy and the school enjoyed an en 
viable reputation from their inception 



and were in latter years at the height of 
prosperity when on February 17, 1903, 
fire laid all past labors and future hopes 
to ashes. This calamity broke up the 
schools only for a few days. The educa 
tional work of the church was so much 
appreciated by the public that the pastor 
had little difficulty securing accommoda- 

communicated his ciil designs upon the 
partition of her property to Mrs. Harlow, 
who, almost contrary to all expectations, 
showed herself willing to part with one 
hundred and fifty feet frontage, by 
one hundred and fifty feet deep. The 
price was two thousand five hundred dol 
lars; equivalent to a magnanimous dona- 

nificent red sandstone cathedral. A 

tion in the city hall. But then a serious tion of the property. The style and ma- 
problem presented itself. That a new terial should be in keeping with the mag- 
school had to be built was clear to every 
mind. The old buildings were 
owned by the teaching commun 
ity. Shall the parish build a new 
school for them or for itself? 
The imperative answer suggested 
itself. There were many among 
the people, carried away by their 
friendly sympathies for the Sis 
ters, but the path of duty was 
clear to the pastor. His policy 
for a parish school owned by the 
parish was seconded on a second 
consideration, by all those who 
had the welfare of the cathedral 
parish at heart. Xo small task 
it was to place there a building 
commensurate with the needs as 
well as with the dignity of the 
mother church of the diocese, an 
undertaking which must needs 

have taxed the best financial talent pursed 
into clerical cloth. Father Pinten displayed 
his best judgment in the location, style, 
and material for the new school. In view 
of the fact that the Harlow property op- 


good stroke of business was done in this 
line by the purchase of the old Grace fur 
nace for seven hundred dollars, which 
furnished more than enough stone for the 
entire school. But when the foundations 

posite the cathedral laid waste for years were to be placed, it was found that the 

without anybody being able to purchase proposed building would obstruct the 

a foot of it, would have annihilated any front of the cathedral. More ground was 

thought in that direction at its very birth, the logical suggestion leading to Mrs. 

Not so with the pastor of the cathedral. Harlow s residence. The good taste 

With an inborn indomitable pluck he with which the subject was again brought 



before her appealed to the old lady s big 
heart, she smiled and said yes. This 
time 50x150 feet to the west were added 
to the first purchase, for a consideration 
of eight hundred dollars. \Yest of this 
another similar piece was later acquired 
for an equivalent sum. The building 
was located far enough in the lot to 
leave a free view of the cathedral. Plans 
were prepared by John D. Chubb. The 
corner stone was laid by the I\t. Rev. 
Bishop Kis on the fiftieth anniversary of 


Bishop Baraga s consecration. November 
i, 1903, and in honor of the saintly bish 
op, who in his day stood so much for ed 
ucation, named Baraga School. 

The old court house was bought for 
two hundred and forty dollars and most 
of its material used for rough work in 

Concerning this school, so happily 
completed. Father Pinten, in a circular 
addressed to the parishioners and the cit 

izens of Marquette, partly says: "I be 
gan, as you all know without any money, 
but with good credit. Being well aware 
that those who buil-J. churches and schools, 
above all other things, need God s bless 
ing, for Unless the Lord build the 
house, in vain do builders labor, we 
prayed that God would bless our under 
taking and inspire you to come to my as 
sistance. My aim has been to erect such 
a structure of which Marquette could well 
be proud, that would be in keeping with 
the Cathedral and with the 
other magnificent buildings 
of our city, and that by its 
dimensions, solidity and ar 
chitectural beauty, would 
proclaim to future genera 
tions the love, zeal, and 
self-sacrifice of the Catho 
lics of to-dav. 

"It was fitting that the 
building should be dedi 
cated to the memory of our 
saintly and highly vene 
rated Bishop Baraga. It 
was he who more than half 
a century ago, before the 
white man had made his 
appearance, was in this 
vicinity and taught the In 
dians the rudiments of 
Christianity. Mankind will perhaps 
never know the hardships, trials and suf 
ferings which he endured on his iour- 
neys. But his life has left an indelible 
impression in the annals of our history. 
It was. therefore, meet and just that we 
who still remember him should erect a 
monument in grateful remembrance, to 
tell of our love for him, whose memory is 
held in benediction. The thought that 
my humble efforts are instrumental in 



erecting this monument to the great Apos 
tle of the Chippewa Indians strengthened 
me and gave inspiration to the 
work." - 

Since the completion of this magnifi 
cent school the remaining piece of land 
84x250 feet, between the school and 
Spring street, \vas also purchased for two 
thousand one hundred dollars and paid 
for by two members of the congregation. 
This makes the school site two hundred 
and fifty by two hundred thirty three 

In 1899 Bishop Vertin realized a long 
cherished desire in giving the congrega 
tion a boys school. The Sisters of St. 
Joseph gave to this purpose on the east 
end of their block a hundred feet square. 
In money, four thousand dollars came 
from Father Cebul s and about one thou 
sand from Father Haas estate, while the 
balance was paid by Bishop Vertin him 
self. Since the Baraga school is large 
enough for all purposes the boys school 
was sold to the city for a sum of seven 
thousand live hundred dollars. 


This church is situated on lots 2 and 
3, Block 5, Harlow s addition Xo. I, and 
is facing Washington street. It was built 
entirely of logs in 1856 by the Rev. A. 
C. Shaw for the Methodist Fpiscopal con 
gregation. Mr. Shaw cut all the timbers 
within the present city limits, and hewed 
and drew them with his own hand. Flere 
the Methodists worshipped until 1872, 
when they erected a handsome brown- 
stone church on the corner of Ridge and 
Front streets, and then sold their old one 
for twenty-five hundred dollars to the 

Canadian French, who just then had 
banded into a congregation of their own. 
The church was clapboarded on the out 
side and remodeled on the inside to suit 
the demands of Catholic worship. On 
the 1 8th of August, 1872, Bishop Mrak 
dedicated it to St. John the Baptist. Rev. 
Moise Mainville, of the Viateur Fathers, 
was the only priest present on the occa- 

" Circular letter dated July 25, 1906. 


sion. He also held services for a few 
Sundays. The first pastor, Rev. \Y. T. 
Roy, was appointed early in November 
and remained in charge of the congrega 
tion until October 19, 1874. The first 
christening recorded on the parish rec 
ords is that of Marie Melina Chartier. 
on November 19. 1872. 

Father Roy built a residence on the lot 
west of the church at the cost of three 



thousand dollars. He became financially 
embarrassed and Mr. Gregory, the con 
tractor, took possession of it and leased 
it to a third party for a boarding house. 
It remained in this servitude until Father 
Muriel redeemed it and occupied it him 
self. Ilis predecessors lived in rent. 

Further successions were : 

Rev. Oliver Comtois, from October 20, 
1874, to January 11, 1875. 


Rev. James F. Bcrube, from March i i. 
1875, to June 30, 1876. 

Rev. Anatole O. Pelisson, from July 
1 6, 1876, to April 2, 1877. 

Rev. G. Simon Marceau. from May. 
1877, to July 14, 1878. 

Rev. Louis Faquet, from April iSth. 
to October 2, 1878. 

Rev. Tames F. Berube. ad interim from 
October 2nd to Nov. 12. 1878. 

Rev. H. J. Rosseau from November 

13, 1878, to October 26, 1879. 

Rt. Rev. Ignatius Mruk, Episcopus 
Emeritus, during a part of October and 
November, 1879, ad interim. 

Rev. Maurice liens, O. M. C, alter 
nately with leather Th. Al. Majerus, from 
the Bishop s house, from November 17, 
1879, to May 7, 1881, ad interim-. 

Rev. J. Flie Martel, from May 15, 
1 88 1, to August 21, 1888. 

Rev. Fubiun S. Marceau, from August 
31. 1888. to November 7, 1889. 

Rev. Antoine Yermure, from Novem 
ber 13, i88(>, to July 1 6, 1902. Rev. A. 
Molinari substituted leather Yermure, 
during his visit to his native country, 
from May till August, 1897. 

Rev. Raymond G. Jacques, from July 
17, 1902, to September, 1905. 

Rev. Mathias Jodocy, from September 

14, 1905 the present pastor. 

Despite the old fashioned style, St. 
John s Church has been made by its pas 
tors very attractive, l^uch one in his suc 
cession has striven to add some improve 
ment. In this Father Yermure has out 
stripped them all. He gave it a modern 
dress, clupbourding it outside, though it 
was done at an expenditure, as he boast 
fully says, of thirty-five dollars. Verily, 
he could not add a suit of clothes to his 
own person for that amount! He pur 
chased the altars, statues, vessels and 
vestments. The statue of St. Jean Bup- 
tiste being six and one-half feet high and 
weighing six hundred and forty pounds, 
is imported from Paris, and costs there, 
F. O. B., 500 francs, and could not be 
bought in the United States for double 
the price. 

All the beautiful things which the pas- 


tors have added to the equipment of the 
old church have not been able to conceal 
the fact that a new church is needed. For 
many years the talk on this subject has 
been louder and louder. Under July 26, 
1890, the Alining- Journal had the fol 
lowing: "There is a great deal of talk 
among the congregation of St. John s 
church about building a new edifice for 
worship in this city. The present church, 
though a large one, cannot accommodate 
the three thousand Catholics of the city 
and larger quarters are a necessity and 
not a luxury. The consecration of St. 
Peters Cathedral at Alarquette next Sun 
day will mark the end of an up-hill strug 
gle by the Catholics of the Diocese, and 
the congregations of all churches will be 
in easier circumstances financially than 
they have been while building the Cathe 
dral. It is quite within the bounds of 
possibility that the project of building a 
new church will assume tangible form 
within the next two weeks, and that the 
work of construction will be begun this 
summer or fall. A new church is cer 
tainly badly needed here to accommodate 
the many followers of the Catholic 
Church." Since then fifteen years lapsed 
and this seems almost humorous. Facts 
talk louder than words. There has been 
nothing wanting- in the good will of the 
pastors. Father Vermare found four 
hundred dollars in the building fund and 
increased it to twenty-three hundred. 
Father Jacques set himself to work, with 
all his youthful energies to push this al 
most stale subject of common interest 
to a successful issue. He bought from 
George Cummings the south end of lots 
17, 18, and 19, each 50x78; lot 15, 50x69, 
abutting on the old church property on 
the north side and fronting on Fourth 

street, all for a consideration of three 
thousand, three hundred and eighty-live 
dollars. Besides he swelled the building- 
fund to almost twelve thousand dollars. 
His untimely removal has checked his ac 
tivity, much to the regret of the French 
people of Marquette. 

As it was expected the new pastor took 
up the question where his predecessor left 
it and pushed it to an issue. At length 
the contract was given to Lipsclt and Sin 
clair for the sum of $32,500. The new 


church, built in Spanish renaissance style 
will have a seating- capacity of 770 in the 
main auditorium and 230 in the balcon 
ies. The corner stone was laid on Sept. 
1 6, 1906 and the building is, at this writ 
ing, under roof. If financial conditions 
permit it may be ready for occupancy a 
year hence. 

The St. John s congregation still wor 
ship in the old church. It has a mem 
bership of 400 Canadian-French families. 



L n fortunately it has no school of its own. 
The children are admitted, upon payment 
of tuition, to the Cathedral schools. 


This city owes its birth to the Jackson 
Iron Company, who began mining in the 
fall of 1846. The operations were rather 
limited until 1857. Then, with the ad 
vent of the Marquette and Bay de Xoquet 


railway the 1 ioneer furnace was built, 
and with the facilities of smelting and 
shipping the growth of the population 
kept pace with the development of the 
only industry. But after all it remained 
only a mining camp, as there was no regu 
larly laid out village until the spring of 
1865, when the company made a plat 
naming it Negaunee. 

Father Menet likely visited this place, 

as he did Marquette, in 1853. After 
1856, Xegaunee became one of Father 
Duroc s regular missions, but no attempt 
was made to build a church. The first 
step in this direction was made by Bishop 
Baraga. On the /th of September, 1860, 
he went thither from Marquette to select 
a site. His choice fell on lot 3, of block 
2, and he paid to Mr. Spilman, the com 
pany s agent, twenty-five dollars on ac 
count. At the same time, he entered into 
a contract with Dr. John Mclvenzie. the 
owner of a saw-mill, to furnish all the 
required lumber for a sum of one hun 
dred and ninety dollars. Who built the 
church, we have been unable to ascertain. 
On June 16, 1861, the Bishop revisited 
Xegaunee and was much pleased to find 
the church read} . In addition he bought 
from the same Dr. McKenzie a small 
house at the saw-mill for two hundred 
and eighty- four dollars, and caused it to 
be removed to the side of the church. 
This house still exists at Xo. 408 Case 
street, and is owned by Mrs. John ITardi- 
man. The church was sold by Father Fis 
to one Mr. Root, \\-ho had it cut in two 
and made two dwellings out of it. They 
are still on the corner of Case street and 
Brown avenue. The one facing the 
former is owned by John O. Adams, and 
the other with the front on Brown avenue 
by Mr. Gilbert. 

The first resident pastor was Rev. 
Honoratus Bourion. End of May, 1862, 
he arrived in Marquette, where his uncle. 
Father Duroc. was pastor, and from there 
looked after the interests of the parish, 
removing to his mission about the first 
day of July. The first baptismal entry 
is that of Vitalie Foye, on July 6, 1862. 

In 1865, the demand for iron became 



brisk and regular. Iron regions were 
suddenly fanned into an unusual activity, 
not less so Negaunee. Prosperity seemed 
to have come to stay and made itself ap 
parent in the improvements and growth 
of the location organized into a village 
but three years hefore. In August, 1867, 
"B.," a local poetical genius describes the 
town in the following verse : 

"But few of the houses six years have been seen, 

The oldest, I m told, is only sixteen, 

They are fram d cabin fashion, of course, all of 


Some made in six days, but all very good ; 
But I quake for their fate in case of a fire, 
A hurricane, too, might blow them up higher. 
A good fire engine would help to secure em, 
And stone and good brick now you can procure 


In case of a fire or high, windy weather, 
Would help hold the village and houses together. 
The houses are modest, some large and all roomy, 
Well-lighted and painted and none of em 

gloomy ; 

Some are mere shanties built up with logs 
And filled full of people and not a few dogs. 
Few have a side front, but like a statue, 
Stand out to the street, as if they d come at you. 
There is a good school-house cost eight thou 
sand dollars, 

And filled to repletion by three hundred schol 

The Catholics already have built them a church, 
And left all their brethren thus far in the lurch." 

True enough, the Catholics had a 
church, but the great influx of people 
made it altogether inadequate to the de 
mands. Like the rest of his townsmen, 
Father Bourion believed in a great future 
of the town. To him the six-years-old 
church was not only too small, but not 
sightly enough. And (we would like to 
write this between the lines) he secretly 
hoped that Xegaunee would soon outstrip 
Marquette in growth, wealth, improve 
ments and everything that makes a town 
more desirable to live in, and that the 
Bishop who had just come to Marquette 
could be induced to make it his espiscopal 
city, so he resolved to build a church far 
in excess of the times. To carrv out his 

plans, he purchased three lots on the 
corner of Pioneer avenue and Case street, 
and at once commenced the building of 
the foundations. On November 10, 1867, 
Bishop Baraga, so enfeebled that he had 
to be carried on his chair, laid the corner 
stone, the second one in his diocese, and 
the last on earth. It was a gala day for 
Negaunee. The autumn contributed one 
of her best days. Crowds had gathered 


around the corner to witness the cere 
mony. \Yith bared heads stood the men 
while the aged pontiff was being borne 
to the place of solemnity. Not a whisper 
fell while the tremulous hands of saintly 
Baraga cemented the corner-stone, and 
his words, distinct and clear, rang out to 
heaven craving blessing upon the new 
house of God and the future worshippers. 
On account of his infirm condition, the 



Bishop asked the pastor to address the 
assembled people. \\ e give here leather 
Hourion s full sermon, purloined from an 
old scrap-book in possession of Mrs. Ine- 
opile I\ois. his sister, and must confess 
that, aside of the grammatical shortcom 
ings, we have admired the masterly effort, 
in view of the fact that Lather P>ourion 
was only a fe\v years in the country, and 
had hut small opportunities to acquire the 
English lani/uau e : 



T!T ui art IVter On- rock) ami upon this rock 
T will build my church, and tlu gates of Hell 
shall not prevail against it. Matt., Chap. 16, v. 
1 8. 

Behold, T am with you all (lavs even to the con 
summation of the world. j8, 20. 

"Monsignor and Dearly Beloved Breth 
ren - 

"It is hut a few days that the Church, 
our holy mother, the everblooming spouse 
of Christ, called us all her children 

around the altars of the Most High to 
celebrate all together the triumph of our 
forefathers, who. having fought strenu 
ously the tight of the Lord in this vale of 
tears, have received the palm of victory 
in I leaven. 

"( )n that day we rejoiced exceedingly, 
tor the path, the narrow path of 1 leaven, 
which seemed so arduous and so abrupt, 
followed and trodden by so many of our 
ancestors, whom the Church propose for 
our imitation, the difficult path appeared 
to us of easy access; and all at once the 
heart of the desperate has been illumi 
nated with a divine ray of hope. Yes, 
indeed! on that festival of the elects we 
were in exultation; for Heaven with all 
its splend r and magnificence, opened its 
lotty gates to let us contemplate the he 
roes ot six thousand years, who, during 
their lives proved themselves worthy of 
following the Lamb through the man 
sions of eternal bliss. Oh! what triumph 
tor Heaven! and what glory for the mili 
tant Church here on earth, the prolific 
mother of all the elects! How proud 
was she not, that Church of all ages, to 
show and prove that she does not fear 
decrepitude, and that, like her mother, 
her spouse, the times do not affect her, 
and that always, until the consummation 
of ages, she will continue to bring forth 
and nurse children for Heaven. Is 
it not indeed to her that the uni 
versality of times and places belongs; 
to her that the infallibility of the 
doctrine, the perpetuity of duration, the 
victory in all that combats, are promised? 
She is that house built upon the rock 
which sometimes seems perhaps to give 
way under the repeated strokes of the 
enemy, but which shall never fail, for 
said the Lord : The gates of Hell shall 



never prevail against it. Against that 
Church the tempests rage in vain; in vain 
shall the torrents raise up their furious 
waves. She does not fear destruction, 
for she has her foundation on the eternal 

"But, in what time do I come to speak 
such language? Is it not when the effects 
seem to contradict the magnificence of 
those promises? When that sacred edi 
fice which, almost during nineteen centu 
ries, has stood firm against so many 
storms, seems at last to incline to its ruin, 
and that, as the infidel says and repeats 
since eighteen hundred years, the time 
has come in which Christianism, hereto 
fore victorious over Idolatry, must at last 
give room to a philosophy or infidelity 
more conform to the depraved taste of 
humanity, and disappear itself from the 
scene of the world. 

"I doubt not, dear brethren, that it is 
the secret and perverse desire of many 
incredulous and blind men that the 
Church be overthrown by the power of 
the devils and men. Vain hopes! Dear 
brethren, Heaven and earth shall pass 
away before a word of our Lord should 
remain unfulfilled. But to confound the 
one and comfort the others, I must show 
you that the present state of the Church 
of Christ, assailed in her chief pontiff, 
the Bishop of Rome, in which state some 
short-sighted men foresee the manifest 
signs of her ruin, is, in contrary, the 
pledge, the token of her triumph. O, 
divine spirit, come to defend yourself, 
the Church, or at least put on my lips 
that language of fire of light, which for 
merly, in the mouths of her founders, the 
apostles, illuminated the whole world ! 

"Experience ought to have tranquil- 

i/ed us, reassured us long ago, dear 
brethren, on the destinies of our immortal 
Church, whose conservatism amid so 
many dangers, is the work of the Al 
mighty, as well as its establishment. How 
many times, indeed, in the course of 
eighteen hundred years, did she not seem, 
I shall not say just perishing, but even 
according to human appreciation, already 
lost beyond resource, drowned forever, 

and as annihilated by the furious tem 
pests that always assailed her! And is it 
not from death itself, to speak so. from 
the bottom of abyss, that she has risen 
as many times, glorious and triumphant? 
Follow her history through the ages, and 
see whether her greatest prostration, her 
profoundest annihilation, has not been al 
ways the prelude, the signal of her great- 



est victories; whether every enemy (and 
God knows how many she has had ) has 
not fallen before her, in the very moment 
that he seemed to have inflicted the last 
and mortal blow. 

"Xo, that immortal Church is never so 
formidable nor so invincible as when she 
seems to be reduced to the last extremity; 
because the strength which sustains her 
is not her own, but that of God, whose 


might breaks forth in the infirmity of the 
creatures. Oh! most holy and most pure 
daughter of the Most High! how little 
thou fearest the attacks of those who have 
sworn thy destruction, when Christ him 
self has assured thee of thy destiny, say 
ing: Behold, I am with you all days, 
even unto the consummation of the 
world. That the paraclete may abide 

with you forever. Have confidence, I 
have conquered the world. But, I must, 
dear brethren, to confirm what I advance, 
to console our faith and stir up our cour 
age, now when once more among the 
thousand times that the Church has been 
assailed, her chief pontiff is attacked from 
all parts, I must retrace here a few lines 
of that magnificent picture which holds 
forth to us the annals of that Church, al 
ways persecuted and always victorious. 

"Consider her at first in the struggle 
with the synagogue and the rebel Jews. 
Jesus Christ, her founder, had sunk under 
their repeated stroke, and expired in the 
middle of unspeakable torments. His en 
emies triumphed and His timid disciples, 
who, during His passion, left Him in 
the hands of His murderers and tied, hid 
den in the cenacle, dared not even to ap 
pear in public. All. then, is consum 
mated? Oh, Jesus, you said it on 
the cross! All is consummated! The 
new religion of one day shall not 
even deserve mention in the history 
of nations, and the famous temple of 
Jerusalem and the city which has called 
upon her head the innocent blood, threat 
ened with destruction by the author of 

that new religion, must 

which preceded it ? 

"Oh ! behold another more formidable 
enemy has come forward to destroy thee, 
O, Church, already too proud of thy vic 
tories! Oh, God! how can your Church 
fight against the whole world conspiring 
the total destruction of your rising 
Church, if you do not sustain her? No, 
no ; purchased by the infinite price of your 
blood, she cannot succumb; victory is 
hers, for your word is sacred ; you have 



said it : The gates of Hell shall never 
prevail against her; and yourself, Oh, 
Lord, shall fight with her until the con 
summation of ages ! But see, dear breth 
ren, children of that imperishable Church, 
the whole world is leagued against twelve 
poor fishermen of the lake Genesaret, 
who have undertaken what? To sub 
mit the whole universe to the law of their 
Christ, of their crucified Master! Every 
thing is used during more than three 
hundred years to suffocate the rising re 
ligion ; the power of the Caesars, the au 
thority of the senate, of the pontiffs, of 
the magistrates, the tortures, the armies, 
the nations have sworn her destruction. 
Italy and the whole Roman empire is 
overflowed with the Christian blood. 
Millions of Catholics lay down their lives 
and die to seal their faith, and at last the 
tyrants, thinking that the new religion 
has been drowned in the blood of the 
martyrs, solemnly declare and proclaim 
that the religion of Christ has disappear 
ed from the earth. 

"See those fatuous movements which 
are hastily erected to eternize the memory 
of that remarkable event. O, tyrants, 
how great are your delusions! Those 
columns erected by your sacrilegious 
hands dyed in the blood of our ancestors, 
far from giving the lie to the words of 
Christ, shall only serve to carry to the re 
mote posterity the memory of your cruel 
ties ! But let us read those proud inscrip 
tions : Diocletiano, novo Jovi, nomine 
Christianorum delete. Maximiano, novo 
Herculi superstitione Christi ubiqui Dele- 
ta ! To Diocletian the new Jupiter, to 
Maximian the new Hercules, for hav 
ing at last abolished the Christian name 
and destroyed in the whole world the su 

perstition of Christ ! Is it so, O Mighty 
God, is your Church destroyed ? Shall 
your enemies give you the lie? Have 
you, then, against your word, deserted 
your Church ? Oh ! Is not the blood of 
your martyrs in vain which they have 
so courageously defended? Behold, now, 
your enemies proclaim it; your sacred 
name shall be henceforth an object of hor- 


ror to the whole world! \Yill you, O, 
Lord, allow them to consummate their in 
famous designs? See, dear brethren, 
those proud monuments were scarcely fin 
ished, when a mysterious sign appears 
in the air; the instrument of our redemp 
tion, the cross, appears in the luminous 
skies. Guided by this wonderful sign, 
the Emperor Constantine, yet Pagan, tri 
umphs over his enemies: the gates of 



Rome are opened to him, and immediately 
the standard of the cross waves over the 
capitol. Rome is converted, and soon 
alter the universe, astonished, adored the 
Crucified, and that Rome, inebriated with 
the blood of the martvr, St. Peter, and 
thirty-six of his successors, on the pon 
tifical scat of Rome, is recognized publicly 
by the whole world, and shall be to the 
end of time, the seat of the true religion 


and the capital of the Catholic world; for 
it was said: Thou art Peter for rock) ; 
and upon this rock I shall build my 
church, and the gates of Hell shall never 
prevail against it. O, Church of the liv 
ing (iod, how little thou fearest the cries 
of victory, the insulting- trophies of thy 
enemies, who are never so near their fall 
as when they foolishly believe that they 
have struck thee down to their feet. 

"From this time cease your combats 
outside; get ready to fight inside a fiercer 
and more desperate battle. The heresies 
and schisms prepare to continue the war 
begun by the infidel synagogue and the 
pagan world. Great God ! what extremi 
ties thy Church must be reduced to ! when 
those sects leagued against her shall lacer 
ate her bosom and tear away her en 
trails! Yes, O. desolate mother! it is 
written that here on earth you cannot 
have a moment of rest! Arians, Xesto- 
rians, Donatists, Photinians, Apollana- 
rists, Pelagians, etc., etc., who could ever 
enumerate them all in the course of eigh 
teen hundred years, or recall to mind, 
without shuddering, the frightful tem 
pests which they excited? Everywhere 
altar against altar, pulpit against pulpit, 
pastor against pastor, flock against flock. 
The Church fulminating against the here 
sies anathematising the Church ; all the 
doctrines confounded; the light buried in 
the darkness. \Yho then clears up tin- 
chaos? Yourself, O, God, whose com 
mand to the waters of the abyss are 
obeyed; you, who never permit that Hell 
should prevail against your Church, for 
you have declared it solemnly. In fact, 
at a word of that God, the dark shadows 
of lies are dissipated, a hundred and 
thirty-eight great heresies and schisms 
have passed away and disappeared for 
ever. From the time of the apostles to 
the fifteenth century, the Catholic Church, 
always immovable on the rock on which 
she has been established, rules since over 
eighteen hundred years, from the summit 
of the sacred mountain, the ocean of hu 
man passions and human errors, and to 
her feet come vainly to expire the waves 
which her enemies, in running- to the 



abyss, have excited against her. O, vic 
tory of victories! hundreds of heresies 
and schisms have been dissipated, and the 
true church alone waves her victorious 
banners over the whole world, converted 
at last to her immortal doctrines ! 

"O ! you all who, perhaps, have been 
scandalized to see, in our own days, the 
divisions among those who glory in the 

sane that they are, because they see her 
now exteriorly weak and poor, they im 
agine that thev shall have over her an 

o ^ 

easy victory ; but no ; she is not less inca 
pable of fear, in the storms assailing her 
old age, than in those which assailed her 
cradle. O, children of a mother always 
persecuted ! do not close your ears and 
your hearts against the pitiful cries of 
your mother ! Can a mother in want ask 

name of Christians, do you yet doubt our j n V ain of a good child? Or, then, shall 
victory ? it be said that the Church of God has tri- 

"Who shall now fear 
poverty, when he remem 
bers that of her s in the 
catacombs of Rome ? She 
does not forget that her 
kingdom is not in this 
world, but in the other. 
To reduce her to poverty ? 
but she is proud of it ; for 
in that she imitates her di 
vine founder, who had not 
even a place to rest his 
own head. What they 
cannot take away from 
her is her faithful chil 
dren, who never left her 
in the want of anything. 

"Ah! when she was 


rich, she was not obliged, as she is now, 
to beg from her children to build temples 
to her spouse. In the time of her splendor 
and magnificence, the widow and the or 
phans, the poor and the naked were wont 

umphed over the hardness of heart of her 
own children? Oh, how glorious, is it 
not, dear brethren, to contribute, by our 
earthly means, to the triumph of that 
Church which is so much entitled to the 

to find retreat and comfort on her mater- gratitude of all men, for having, alone, 

nal bosom. But now, deprived of all the 
marks of her antique splendor, she must 
cry for help to her children ; not for her 
self, indeed, for she thinks that she did 
not lose anything as long as the promises 
for her divine spouse are left to her. In- 

wrested from barbarism all nations, and 
for having in its stead, by diffusing the 
light of the Gospel all over the world, 
brought on earth the true civilization, 
which is the pride of the world ! But why 
should I speak any longer on that subject? 



I know that every one is ready for any 
sacrifice for the honor and glory of that 
religion of all our ancestors; and that her 
call shall find an echo in your hearts. 

"But I cannot finish, dear brethren, 
without saying a word of another triumph 
of the Catholic Church, her head the pon 
tiff of Rome, the successor of Peter, 
against whom the infidelity in despair 
has directed all her batteries. Jesus Christ. 

SACRED 1IKAKT 1 1 1 r, 1 1 SCHOOL. 

in establishing the seat of Peter, promised 
to it an immortal duration and defied the 
powers of Hell of ever destroying it. 
The gates of Hell shall never prevail 
against it. ( Mat., xvi, iS.) Hell did 
not forget that challenge, and during 
eighteen hundred years it did not cease to 
direct its efforts against that imperishable 
Church, but alwavs in vain, twice or three 

times already in this century, Hell flat 
tered itself for having at last overthrown 
it, and proclaimed its victory over Christ. 
But, great God! how short was its joy? 
and by what miracles of thy hand thou 
hast raised again the sacerdotal throne, 
that pillar and ground of truth which 
many blind men thought broken forever 
and buried in the dust! Napoleon the 
First, that colossus of might, who dealt 
out scepters according to his wishes, after 
having trampled upon the whole Europe, 
which he submitted to his laws, was sub 
dued by an aged successor of Peter, whom 
at one time he held as a prisoner, after 
having despoiled him of his dominions. 
There only his iron will, which during 
twenty years had trampled upon every in 
surmountable obstacle, has been resisted 
by our old Pontiff in chains, then the tv- 
rant himself on his throne! How ephem 
eral was the empire of the one, and how 
sure and certain was the reign of the 
other, tur the one was human, the other, 
divine. Behold! at the twinkling of an 
eye, the so-called king of kings is over 
thrown from his throne, and the captive 
and his successors reign and shall reign 
forever on the rock of Peter. After those 
trials. () Church of Rome! O center of 
the true religion! what can you fear from 
the Pygmies of this age? Have you not 
vanquished the conquerors of the world? 
Sooner or later, but perhaps too late for 
them, they shall say the word of the time 
of St. Helena. Cod has sworn it, and 
men, even your enemies proclaim it! O 
Pontiff of Rome ! the last day of the world 
shall find you sitting in the chair of Peter, 
your first predecessor, and ruling the 
whole world with the sacred rod, the in 
corruptible scepter of Aaron, which ha* 



been deposited in your hand by him who 
raised and destroys the empires by the 
only act of His will. 

"Let us then conclude, dear brethren, 
that we must never tremble for the Church 
which cannot perish; but let us tremble 
rather for her enemies ; let us tremble also 
for her rebel children who lacerate her 
bosom. Let us tremble for ourselves, 
also, if we are not faithful enough to her 
laws; for Christ said: "He who heareth 
you, heareth me, and he who despiseth 
you despiseth me. " Oh! may our respect, 
our love console that 
holy mother of all the 
elect, always fighting 
and afflicted here on 
earth, but who shall be 
eternally triumphant 
and glorious in Heav 
en, with all her faithful 
children, in company of 
the Father, and the 
Son. her author and 
spouse, and of the 
Holy Ghost, her light 
and defense Amen." 

Bishop Baraga did 
not live to see this 
church finished. In 
deed, the work progressed very slowly. 
It was not until April 1871 that it was 
ready for occupancy and then only with 
an enormous debt, which so much dis 
pleased Bishop Alrak that the solemn 
dedication was indefinitely postponed. 
After a simple blessing Father Bourion 
celebrated Mass the first time in the new 
church on Faster Sunday, April Qth. It 
was named St. Paul s after the first 
church, and likely in contra-distinction 
of St. Peter s in Marquette. A mitre art 

fully worked into the transom window 
above the main entrance friendly greets 
the comers and symbolizes Father Bour- 
ion s heart s desires. As his sermon at the 
dedication reads today like a prophecy, so 
this mitre has become prophetic in as 
much as three out of four pastors and one 
assistant, have attained the purple and 
Father Botirion himself was on the con- 
suitor s slate for the bishopric. 

The cost of the church is estimated to 
have been about thirty thousand dollars, 
two-thirds of which was unpaid at the 


time of the dedication and proved to be 
an oppressive burden on pastor and con 
gregation. A general dullness in com 
merce and industry which swept the coun 
try in the seventies, well nigh led the 
church into bankruptcy. In the belief that 
he could master the situation, if given free 
hand in the temporal administration of 
the church, Father Bourion entered into 
a contract with Bishop Alrak according to 
the terms of which he agreed to pay all 
indebtedness in Xegaunee and Ishpeming 



within five years from date, February iS, 
1871, for the consideration of being al 
lowed to use, without restriction, any hon 
orable and legal means for raising money. 
A sudden illness of Father ] >(>urii>n made 
the agreement inoperative and he was re 
leased from duty one month later, March 
1 8, i8;i. :; 

II is two assistants Rev. John X. 
Stariha, now bishop of Lead, S. D. 


"I). Ilonoratus Bourion. sacerdos diocesis 
nostrae cnixc nos supplicavit ut ci concedere- 
mus permissionem reliquendi suam missioncm ad 
tcmpus eundiquc in quandam regionem calidior- 
cni ad recuperandam ex rnedicorum consilio san- 
itatcm. Xullis quoad scimus cst nodatus cen- 
suris ?ed bonis moribus praeditus. 

Rogamus proptcrca omnes ad quos pervenerit 
ut ad Sacrificium Missae celebrandum et ad alia 
divina officia admittcnt ct in cunctis favcant ct 

Datum Marquette, 18, Martii 1871. 
Ignatius, Episc. (Dioces. Arch.) 

(from September 26, 1869 to June 12, 
1871) and Rev. S. Duroc (from Feb 
ruary 17th to June 19, 1871) took 
charge of the parish and when in course 
of the summer Father Bourion signified 
his unwillingness to return Bishop Mrak 
appi tinted the second pastor in the person 
of the Rev. John B. Yertin. He arrived 
September 17, 1871. 

Father Yertin s administration was a 
very successful one. B} his high financial 
genius he wiped out sixteen thousand dol 
lars of the standing debt, bought three 
lots on corner of Pioneer avenue and Peck 
street, right back of the church, and 
built, at a cost of five thousand dollars, 
a much needed residence for himself, do 
ing away with the necessity of living sev 
eral blocks away from the church which 
was, to say the least, inconvenient and 
contrary to Catholic custom. His eleva 
tion to the episcopate, September 14, 
1879, removed him from this useful ac 
tivity. The well-wishes and tears of his 
parishioners he rewarded by the appoint 
ment of his own predecessor, the vener 
able Bishop Mrak, who with the help of 
Fathers Xiebling and Orth, presided over 
the parish from November 9, 1879 to 
November i, 1880. 

The third pastor of Negaunee was Rev. 
Frederick Eis. He arrived in the first 
week of November, 1880. The congrega 
tion, though not quite unincumbered, 
there being less than two thousand dollars 
of the old debt, was in a healthy condition. 
The new pastor, with the sale of the old 
property for one thousand dollars and 
private contributions, liquidated this debt 
during the first year and immediately 
took steps towards building a parochial 
school. The pastoral residence, although 



in close proximity, was lung considered 
out of place, hence the idea of building a 
new one along side of the church and 
giving the old one to the Sisters for their 
dwelling, easily suggested itself with the 
plans of the proposed school. Accord 
ingly both were built of brick ; the house 

Rev. Charles Langner now Mon- 
signor came to Xegaunee on November 
9, JcStjo. The parish was, what we 
would term, "built up," but it was by no 
means an easy berth. Buildings do 
not make out a parish, they require peo 
ple, people of lively faith who are ce- 

at a cost of four thousand dollars, and mented by practical Christian lives into a 
the school of five thousand dollars. The living church. To inspire practical Cath- 
latter is a building 30x60, two stories high olicity may be difficult but it is still 
and contains four large school-rooms. 
In September 1882 the Sisters of St. 
Joseph from St. Louis took up the in 
struction under the direction of Mother 
Philomena Joyce (1882-1884) with her 
band of teachers, the Sisters Henrietta, 
Mary Anne, Maxima and Anna The 
resa. Since then the following supe 
riors were in charge: 

Mother Constance Fleming, 1884- 
1887, Mother Evelyn O Xeil, 1887- 
1889, Mother Dominic Fink, 1889- 
1894, Mother Lucretia Burns. 1894- 
1897, Mother Michaela McDonald, 
1897-1900, Mother Columbia Banyard, 
1900-1901, Mother Celestia O Reilly, 

In putting up of the two buildings 
no debt was incurred and Father Eis 
was considered a good debt-killer. 
This had earned him a temporary re 
moval from Hancock to Menominee, 
where an old, stale debt was to be 


more difficult to exercise everywhere 

"killed." On account of poor health and at all times that pastoral prudence 

Father Eis took a few months rest, 
and Bishop Mrak took charge of Xe- 

which prescribes the right kind of nurture 
insuring the lasting healthy complexion 

gaunee, from November 3, 1883, to April of one s flock. Xegaunee is noted for its 
i, 1884. On April 5, 1884, Father Eis diversity of tongues, and besides the par- 
returned and remained until All Saints ish is not bounded by the city limits, but 
1890, when ill health compelled him to extends many miles beyond them. To 
yield the place to the fourth and present be all to all the pastor must develop a 


brisk activity. Many a vouneer 




would have shrunk back before this task. 
Father Langner, although well advanced 
in years then on the sunny side of fifty 
devoted himself with an exemplary zeal 
which would challenge imitation. On 
Sundays, at home, in the confessional, on 
the pulpit and altar, the week would find 
him among his scattered parishioners, 
following pursuits of life in the remotest 
locations. The following missions partly 




GAN. JL LY I(>. 1660. 

owe him their existence partly their cred 
itable standing : 

Palmer, twelve French, one Italian, 
and one Irish family. Mass is being said 
in the schoolhouse. 

Sands, seven families, of which four 
are French, and three Irish. Mass was 
celebrated in the house of Barnev Good 

man, and since his removal in the house 
of Alfred Yelle. 

Swanzie, or Princeton Mine, thirty- 
sex-en families, one German, thirty-two 
French and live Italian. Mass in the 
scho< il. 

Little Lake, R. R. station, seven fami 
lies, one German, two Irish, and four 

Forsyth, farming settlement, eleven 
French families. Mass in the school house, 
formerly at Mrs. P>asil Rabi s house. 

Turin, or Mac Farland s llill has a 
chapel dedicated to St. Charles liorromeo 
by Rev. Father Hollinger. It was built 
in i<jO_> through endeavors of Mrs. Xich- 
olas Oswald who collected four hundred 
dollars among the families residing there, 
among her friends and in the camps. 
Since 1905, this mission has been at 
tached to Perkins. 

Among the many improvements in the 
town pan>h we may mention only the 
spacious winter chapel. The fuel ques 
tion in this part of the country is always 
a serious one. Long winters make deep 
holes in the church treasury. To lessen 
these expenditures most of the pastors 
equip a winter chapel where they cele 
brate Mass on week days when the attend 
ance is not large. The school room is 
a poor substitute for such a chapel be 
cause the children on account of their 
intimate acquaintance with the locality 
are apt to treat the Holy Sacrifice with 
levity. In leather Langner s parish Mass 
was being celebrated during winter in 
the good-sized sacristy, but the increas 
ing attendance made it soon too small and 
it occurred to him that in the basement of 
the church a chapel could be provided for 
such purposes. Excavations were made 



and a chapel, to accommodate three 
hundred, fitted up at an expense of four 
teen hundred dollars. For convenience 
and nicety no other parish of the diocese 
can boast of so handy a winter chapel. 

Heating plants were installed in 1902 
in house and church at a cost of three 
thousand dollars, being a donation of 
Mrs. J. B. Maas. 

Negaunee leads other parishes by sev 
eral distinctions. 

The first consecration of a 
bishop in Upper Peninsula took 
place in Xegaunee. 

During forty-five years exis 
tence it had only four actual pas 
tors, two of whom, and one assis 
tant, became bishops, and Rt. 
Rev. Ignatius Mrak was bishop 
when pastor of Negaunee. 

It is the only church that draws 
royalty from mineral rights. 

In the sixties Father Bourion 
had purchased five acres of land 
situated in section 5, T. 47, 
R. 26 W., and Sec. 32, T. 48, 
N. R. 26 for cemetery pur 
poses and had sold half of it to the 
city for the same uses. In 1901 it 
was found that the land contained 
valuable deposits of iron ore. Air. 
George J. Maas, the explorer, bargained 
the mineral right for a consideration of 
twenty cents per ton royalty with the stip 
ulation that after three years a minimum 
of five hundred dollars shall be paid an 
nually to the St. Paul s church, whether 
mining is being done or not, until the 
mineral deposit is exhausted. The first 
royalty was paid in 1904. 

The first and only domestic prelature 
conferred by the Pope on a clergyman in 

Upper Michigan is borne by the present 
pastor of Xegaunee. The diocese was 
close to the semi-centenary of its exis 
tence when the fourth bishop came to the 
See of Marquette. Making his visit to 
the Apostolic See, as the bishops are wont 
to do from time to time, Bishop Eis 
mentioned to the reigning Pontiff, Leo. 
XIII., the fact that no recognitions have 
come to the diocese notwithstanding 1 the 


pre-eminent, and self-sacrificing labors of 


her clergy for almost an half century. 
The Holy Father considerate of the 
bishop s wishes conferred the title of 
Monsignor on Father Langner whom the 
Bishop had made his Vicar General. 
Shortly after Bishop Eis return the apos 
tolic brief arrived and the solemn inves- 
ture of Rev. Charles Langner as domestic 
prelate, took place in the St. Paul s 
church, the /th day of Xovember, 1900. 
In 1894 occurred Monsignor Langner s 



silver Jubilee of priesthood. As he 
wished to celebrate this anniversary 
among his relatives in his native place, 
the parish was looked after during his 
absence of three months, first by Father 
Cebnl and then by Father F. X. Pecker. 
Assistants in recent years assigned to the 
pari-h were: Rev. J. A. Sanrinl in 1895 
and again in 1900: Rev. Alexander 1 las- 
enberg in i S<)S ; Rev. Frederick Richter in 
1901 ; ( Rev. Clarence Rntmeier, O. S. B. 
rendered temporal help in 190. during 

R1-:V. AUGUST KKof.ri.SKI. 

the pastor s sickness ) ; Revs. Ad. Des- 
champs and J. X. Raymond in 1903; Rev. 
Joseph F. Dittmann and Rev. Joseph 
Lamotte in 1905. 

The Xegaunee parish has about three 
hundred families in the city and close 
proximity and sixty in the missions. Ac 
cording to nationalities they are French, 
Irish. Italians, German, Poles and Slo 
vaks, with a small sprinkling of many 



The town owes its existence to the Lake 
Superior Aline and was first known as 
Fake Superior Location, it dates from 
itS^X and received the present name in 
iS()_> which signifies in the Olchipwe 
language Heaven, though the first settlers 
were eluded for living in 1 lell Town. The 
Red-man s name was not so much a mis 
nomer "if one can imagine this spot of 
fifty years ago, ere yet the pick of the 
white man had delved the ground for 
the precious minerals, the name "Heaven" 
does not appear so ostensibly antagonis 
tic to the appearance that it presents to- 
day. The noble savage, as he stood upon 
one of the many heights which sur- 
round the city, and gazed into the shady 
valley where nestled so tranquilly the pure 
crystal waters of two beautiful lakes; 
where a bubbling silvery brook wended its 
length with various windings; where the 
deer came to slake their thirst and under 
whose surface the speckled trout sported; 
where all was quiet and peaceful, free 
from the various strifes of this world, no 
name could have been more aptly chosen. 
In those days, it was a heaven of nature, 
and without doubt approached the red 
man s ideal of the "Happy Hunting 
Ground" as closely as anything he could 
picture to his mind." 4 

The church was commenced in 1869 
and completed the year after by Father 
Pourion who was then residing at Xegau- 
nee. At first it was intended as a mis 
sion but when the membership rapidly 
increased Father Bourion calculated to 
make it, together with Xegaunee, a sort 
of a dual parish. To carry out his plan 
1 History of Upper Michigan. 



he added to the rear of the church a t\vo 
story dwelling which should serve as an 
accommodation to the priest who hap 
pened to be sent out on duty to this end of 
the parish. Prosecuting his plans with 
out due respect for the treasury depart 
ment, he encumbered the property by a 
heavy debt. Rather than to give up his 
ideas he included Ishpeming in the cel 
ebrated agreement with Bishop Mrak, 
which gave him for five years an absolute 
control over the temporal affairs of the 
mission. Baiiled by an adverse course 
of things, he resigned the pastorate in 
Xegaunee, and with it that of Ishpeming. 
Father Bourion, with his two assistants, 
Stariha and Duroc, attended to this parish 
during two years. The first baptism 
recorded by Father Stariha is that of 
Elizabeth Buckley on April 20, 1871. 

The first resident pastor became Rev. 
John Burns, from August 12, 1871 to 
February 5, 1877. He and his successor, 
the Rev. Theodor Arnold Trottenberg, 
from February n, 1877 to June 8, 1879, 
had an extremely hard time of it satisfy 
ing the creditors. And after the depar 
ture of Father Trottenberg, who was 
forced to leave his post on account of fail 
ing health, the congregation had a rockier 
road to hoe. Bishop Mrak had just then 
resigned and Father Jacker as adminis 
trator, at the best of his will, could not 
find a suitable appointee. Nothing re 
mained but to take care of the parish as 
best he could. Between himself and 
Bishop Mrak they shared the work of the 
parish until after the consecration of 
Bishop Vertin who selected Father John 
Tjrown, a man of excellent character, for 
the post. His good will counted for more 
than his strength. With the help of as 

sistants. Revs. Thomas J. Atfield ( from 
June to August 1880) and Luke Mozina 
(October and November 1880) and oc 
casional services of Revs. Louis Vermare, 
Maurice Ilenns and Theodore Aloysius 
Majerus, he tarried away his existence 
from October 1879 to May 1880 with 
out being able to ameliorate the status of 
the parish. He retired to a small parish 
at Fort Howard of Green Bay diocese, 
where he passed to a better life. 




In May, (22) iSSi, Rev. Hilary J. 
Rosseau, a man of stern mien and strict 
discipline, took hold of the parish. He 
rigidly enforced the laws of the church 
and diocese and unswervedly went re 
organizing the parish. His splendid motto 
bend or break, though keenly felt at the 
time, had the most salutary results, both 
in temporalities and spiritualities, and 



gained him the esteem and love of every 
heart who had the pleasure of knowing 
him. In his time the present residence 
was built. He resigned his pastorate Jan 
uary 6, 1889 to take a trip abroad. 

During Father Rousseau s administra 
tion the following priests served as assis 
tants at St. Johns : 

Rev. A. \Ym. (leers from February 10, 
1 88 1 to April 30, 1882. 


Rev. Charles Dries from March iith 
to June 17, 1883. 

Rev. F. X. Becker from June 2-j.tli to 
August 8, 1883. 

Rev. Fabian S. Marccau from Novem 
ber 8, 1885 to January 13. 1886. 

Rev. Joseph Barron from January I7th 
to October 11, 1886. 

Rev. Joseph O Keefe from January ist 
to June 10, 1887. 

Rev. J. P. Fitzsimmons, during August 

Rev. Joseph O Keefe, second term, in 
October and November, 1887. 

Rev. Peter G. O Connell from Novem 
ber 13, 1887 to February 12, 1888. 

Rev. Joseph M. Langan from June 
22nd to September 30, 1888. 

Rev. T. V. Dassylva from November 
1 8, 1888, to February 15, 1889. 

Rev. Joseph O Keefe, third term, 
from February 21, 1889, to Febru 
ary JO, 1890. 

Father Rosseau was a man of or 
der. There was no record of the 
dedication of the church; it was evi 
dent to his mind that if it was blessed 
at all, it was never canonically dedi 
cated. Bishop Vertin, to whom he 
communicated his doubt, shared his 
views and on the I3th day of Sep 
tember 1887 in the presence of the 
pastor, and the Revs. Fredrick IMS, 
F. J. Martel, Edward P. Bordas and 
Joseph O Keefe. privately, but can 
onically dedicated it to St. John the 

As much as Father Rousseau did 
for the promotion of Catholicity in 
Ishpeming the parochial school will 
be a lasting monument to his zeal. 
Himself a teacher, a Christian- 
brother before he entered the 
priesthood had ample opportunities 
to observe the necessity of training 
the heart simultaneously with the mind 
which is so happily being done in Catho 
lic schools. The people of Ishpeming 
had so generously responded towards 
paying off the debt and the building 
of the presbytery, as Catholic people 
generally do if they know that their sac- 



rifices are not wasted, and Father Rous 
seau would not have burdened them with 
an additional taxation if he could have 
conscientiously omitted the school. He 
told them in plain unadorned speech that 
the Catholic school is the safeguard of 
their children s morals and faith. His in 
tegrity as a priest and man was a suffi 
cient guaranty for what he said. In the 
spring of 1884 the new school went up 
and was ready to receive the youth for in 
struction on the first Monday of Septem 
ber of the same year. The Sisters of St. 
Joseph of St. Louis, Mo., were selected as 
teachers and Mother Matilda with the 
Sisters Eusebius, Angeline, Mary Anne, 
Ermelinda, and Salome formed the first 
faculty. The school struck the right key 
by following the course of public graded 
schools and has ever since been a promi 
nent factor in the educational system of 
the city. 

Mother Matilda left her work in 1887 
and the following were her successors : 
Mother Concordia, 1887-1890, Mother 
Agnes, 1890-1895, Mother Austin, 1895- 
1898, Mother Concordia, second term, 
1898-1904, Mother Alexandrine. 1904. 

Father Rousseau s successor became the 
Rev. H. Bourion, the founder of the Ish- 
peming parish. After eighteen years of 
absence he returned to the diocese and 
was assigned to vacancy in Ishpeming. 
Time had wrought a great change in the 
pastor and the parish. The renewal of 
acquaintance was quite a happy one, but 
not of long duration. The Canadian- 
French had decided to separate from St. 
John s and form a congregation of their 
own. Father Bourion unwilling to take 
upon himself the formation of a new par 
ish was removed to Iron Mountain. This, 

his second term, was from February 17, 
1889 to August 27, 1890. During this 
period Rev. C. F. Schelhammer, in July 
1889, and Rev. Christopher Murphy 
from June to August, 1890, were tempo 
rary assistants. 

At the division of the old parish it was 
agreed that all non-French speaking mem 
bers were to remain with the St. John s 
congregation and that they were to pay 


to the out-going I r rench three thousand 
dollars. Rev. Michael Letellier was ap 
pointed their pastor while Rev. John A. 
Keul became the rector of St. John s, 
August 31, 1890. Four years later, 
November 12, 1894, he was succeeded by 
Rev. Joseph M. Langan. He, to use the 
words of a writer in the parish Fair Bul 
letin, "captivated all hearts and made 



himself all to all." Not until the big book 
is opened on the reckoning day will it lie 
known IK >w many destitute people he 
quietly succored, how many tears he dried, 
how many pecuniary sacrifices he made 
for the welfare of religion even to the 
extent of impoverishing himself at times. 
Father Langan lahored late and earlv for 
the upbuilding of the work committed to 
his care and provided his church with 


man\ splendid comforts and ornaments." 
Hy means of several successful fairs he 
was enabled to liquidate standing indebt 
edness incurred for the building of the 

Doubtless Father Langan would be still 
at St. John s enjoying quietly the fruits 
of his achievements had not his own suc 
cess singled him out for another, greater 

undertaking. In Fscanaha the Irish peo 
ple were on the point of separating from 
the St. Joseph s parish and needed a 
leader of just such business talent. As 
events have proven the choice, on the part 
of the Rt. Rev. liishop, was a wise one. 
To the sincere regret of the people of Ish- 
peming Father Langan severed his con 
nection with the parish on the jQth of 
July, i (jo i. Fathers James J. Corcoran 
(September to November 1898) and 
Henry P.uchholtz served tor a short time 
as assistants. 

Rev. Martin Ivehoe was the next pas 
tor, lie took the reins on August 3, 
1901. A man of scholarly attainments, 
he easily won the esteem and confidence of 
well disposed people. Continuing in the 
footsteps of his predecessors to upbuild 
and to improve his trust he had in view 
the erection of a new, more modern 
parochial school when a nervous debilitv 
impaired his usefulness. With the help 
of Fathers. Renatus Uecker ( 1902) 
Henry Reis ( 1903) and Joseph X. Ray 
mond (1904), who were sent to his as 
sistance lie continued in his office until 
November 1904 when he decided to retire 
from active ministry until restored health 
would enable him again to take up parish 
work. lie was immediately succeeded by 
the present incumbent, the Rev. fohn F". 
keul. who by his appointment commenced 
his second term as pastor of Ishpeming. 

St. John s congregation is on the main 
composed of members of Irish extraction, 
there being over three hundred families 
of that nationality with a few Italian, 
German and Slovenian. 

The parish owns and operates in com 
mon with the French congregation, its 
own cemeterv. 




In 1890 the French members of the St. 
John s congregation received permission 
from the Ordinary to form a congrega 
tion for themselves. Rev. Michael Letel- 
lier was sent to them as the first pastor on 
September ist. Under his management 
the affairs for the building of the new 
church took their first form. By the 
terms of division one-half of the old 
cemetery was given to the French, and 
it was upon this site that Father Letel- 
lier wanted to place the new church. 
He had, however, no more than run 
one plow-share over the staked-out 
ground when popular indignation made 
further work unwise. Seeing his plans 
thwarted at the very outset, Father 
Letellier resigned on June 4, 1891, and 
was immediately succeeded by the Rev. 
Joseph R. Boissonnault. Through his 
offices the Lake Superior Iron Com 
pany leased the new congregation t\vo 
lots on Lake street at an annual rental 
of seventy-five dollars, which they 
tacitly donate when due. On this 
ground a frame church and house were 
erected at a cost of twenty thousand 
dollars. The church was dedicated to 
St. Joseph, March 6, 1892, by Bishop 
Vertin, with the assistance of Fathers 
Langner, Keul and Boissonnault, the 
pastor, who continued his work, so happily 
begun until May 22, 1898, when the par 
ish owed but three thousand dollars. Pas 
tors since then were : 

Rev. T. C. Dassylva, from June 4, 
1898, to March 10, 1901. 

Rev. A. Poulin, from March 23, 1901, 
to November 9, 1902. 

Rev. F. Marccau, from November 16, 
1902, to March 7, 1904. 

Rev. Ed. Proulx, S. J., ail interim., 
from March I3th to June 1 1. 1904. 

Rev. P. LeGolvan, from July i i. 1904, 
to September 5, 1905. 

Rev. E. P. Bordas, the present pastor, 
from September 14, 1905. 

From the mother church the French 
received also three thousand dollars and 
one-third interest in the parochial school. 


This last they have thought best to give 
up and their children are admitted to the 
Sisters school upon payment of a regular 




West of Marquette, twenty-six miles 

up the old Marquette, Houghton and On- 



tonagon road, the present D. S. S. & A., 
sprang up in 1862 a sa\v-mill settlement 
named Clarksburg. At first it had only 
a few houses but, as the mines were 
opened around it, it gained probably less 
in houses than in importance. In 1864 
the TTumbolt mine was started by the 
\Yashington Iron Company just two miles 
west. Contiguous to this, on the north 
west, the Argyle was opened one year 


4, 1904. 

later by the Pittsburg and Lake Angeline 
company, and to these was added, on the 
northeast, in 1879, the Boston. All three 
had their individual locations, but Clarks 
burg retained some kind of pre-eminence, 
whether on account of its central location 
or its seniority it is hard to tell. For re 
ligious services it was first dependent on 
Negaunee where Father Bourion was pas 

tor. In fall of 1871 Bishop Mrak com 
missioned Rev. Joseph F. Berube, a new 
arrival from Canada, to build a church 
there. He delivered himself creditably 
of his task. Purchasing an old carpenter 
shop, lie transformed it on short notice 
into a rather low frame church, with room 
accommodations for the pastor in the 
rear. The first baptism recorded is that 
of Joseph Adam Kammerdiener, on No 
vember 28, 1871. Two years later, 
Father Berube gave the charge of the 
mission over to his countryman, Father 
Comtois, while he himself moved to 
Champion. Rev. Oliver Comtois re 
mained only until January 22, 1874, and 
Clarksburg became the mission of its first 
pastor until March, when Rev. Charles 
(iuay accepted its pastorate. Although 
he staid only about two months, he was 
most likely the first one to say Mass in 
Republic or the Iron City, as it was then 
called. It was a newly platted town, oc 
casioned by the new mines of the Repub 
lic Iron Company. After Father (iuay 
came Rev. Simon Marceau, who served 
the missions from June 29, 1874, to 
April 28, 1877. During May, June and 
July of that year. Rev. A. Paganini was 
pastor, and was succeeded, on the 3ist 
of July, by Rev. James \V. Kelly. 

By this time the mines of Republic 
were developed far enough to give prom 
ise of a large town, while, on the con 
trary, Clarksburg commenced to decline. 
Following the indications of prosperity, 
Father Kelly obtained ground from the 
company and erected upon it a frame 
church of modest dimensions. In the 
summer of 1878, he took up his own 
residence in the town, locating in the 
rooms back of the church. His successor, 



Rev. Martin Fox, who came to Republic 
in the beginning of August, 1880, took 
steps towards building a proper pastoral 
residence. The plans were drawn up, 
but at once given up because of the too 
high estimate. An addition of 16x26 feet 
to the rear of the church was agreed upon 
and contract given for six hundred and 
fifty-three dollars to F. \Y. Reed, of Fagle 
Mills. The work was begun immediately 
and pushed to completion and was ready 
for plastering, when Father Fox died, 
.March 21, i88r,at 10:30 A. M. Solemn 
obsequies were held two days later by 
Bishop Yertin himself, and the remains 
of the veteran missionary interred in 
the local township cemetery, one half 
of which is reserved for Catholics. The 
good old Bishop Mrak then filled the 
vacancy for about six weeks. On May 
1 6th Rev. Mathias Orth came and 
served as pastor just about one year, 
being succeeded on May 8, 1882, by 
the Rev. A. W. Geers. He also staid 
only one year. After him came. May 
22, 1882, Rev. J. PI. Reynaert. who re 
mained till October 16, 1.887. After 
that the pastors were : 

Rev. P. P. Bordas, from October 
30, 1887, to October 24, 1889. 

Rev. J. M. G. Manning, from No 
vember i, 1889, to April 12, 1892. 

Rev. F. N. Becker, from June 5, 

1892, to February 5, 1893. 

Rev. A. C. Keller, from March 7th, 
to October 25, 1893. 

Rev. Dr. Alberico Vitali, only four 
weeks; he died December i, 1893. and 
was buried aside of Father Fox on the 4th 
of December by Rev. Charles Langner. 

Rev. F. Pawlar, from December 10, 

1893, to October 13, 1894. 

Rev. F. Sutter, from October 25, 1894, 
to October 7, ,1895. 

Rev. A. \\ . Geers, second term, from 
November 9, 1895, to June 20, 1901. 

Rev. John Burns, from September 5, 
1901, to April 23, 1906. 

For a few Sundays Rev. Jeremiah Mo- 
riarty attended it from Marquette until 
the appointment of the present pastor, 
Rev. Owen J. Bennett, March 15, 1906. 

Father Orth, upon his arrival to the 
parish, did not find his predecessor s ar- 


rangements satisfactory to his tastes. As 
long as the house was not yet plastered, 
he had the contractor, for one hundred 
dollars additional, build a kitchen and a 
dining-room. In his time he not only 
paid for the house, but furnished the 
church with a high-altar, new pews, a 
gallery, a bell and belfry (the first in the 



district), bought another lot for fifty dol 
lars, and surrounded the whole property 
with a picket fence. At this time the con 
gregation numbered two hundred fami 
lies. Alexander Glaube and son dug the 
well for twenty-five dollars. In Decem 
ber, i88(>. Father Reynaert bought two 
lots just across the street for three hun 
dred dollars from Ambrose Campbell of 
Marquette. On these lots Father Bordas 
built a modern church 90x45 feet at an 

expenditure of seven thousand dollars, 
not including the interior finishing. He 
paid for the work done as he went along, 
and for this reason, at the time of his re 
moval, it was still unfinished. Rev. Man 
ning plastered it, and Bishop Yertin dedi 
cated it in 1892 to St. Augustine, the 
same patron as of the old church. 

As the church, so the house, too, had 
outlived the comforts. Father Bennett 

tore down the old church in the fall of 
1906 and built on its site a modern rec 
tory. In this work he received more than 
a liberal assistance from his congregation 
and other townsmen, but particularly the 
ladies of the congregation deserve credit 
for their unselfish devotedness at fairs 
gotten up to help pay for this new, much 
creditable home. 

The congregation consists of about one 
hundred families, and, according to na 
tionality, they are Irish, French, 
( ierman and a mixture of every 
thing else. 

After the pastor s removal from 
Clarksburg Mass continued to be 
celebrated at both places every Sun 
day until almost the end of Father 
( )rtlf s pastorate. After that it was 
attended once a month, and leather 
Keller was the last one to say Mass 
in that church, which now has fallen 
a prey to decay. But as long as it 
stands, the little stubby steeple will 
tell of his first zeal and immortalize 
his architectural genius. 

Today missions of Charming and 
Sagola are attached to the parish. 


The village dates from 1863. Real 
life, however, came to the village 
with the opening of the Champion mine 
in 1867. The burning of the Marquette 
ore docks, June n, 1868, checked the 
development of the mine for a time, but 
shortly after the company caused opera 
tions even on a larger scale. Among the 
early settlers there were a good many 
Canadian French. These were visited 
at intervals by a priest from Xegaunee. 
and from the fall of 1871 regularly from 



Clarksburg , where Father Berube was the 
first stationary priest. Mass was cele 
brated in different private houses and af 
terwards in the school house until the 
summer of 1873, when Father Berube 
commenced the building of the present 
church. Not to deviate from accepted 
custom of the day, he built in the rear of 
the church some rooms for his own habi 
tation. In November, 1873, he took up 
his residence there. The first baptism is 
recorded on the 2 2nd of December. Grad 
ually he succeeded in upbuilding a well 
regulated congregation, but imprudently 
took titles to the property intended for 
the church in his own name, causing 
Bishop Mrak to raise objection. To this 
came a friction between himself and an 
employe on account of a hire. The whole 
matter so thoroughly displeased the Bish 
op that he suspended Father Berube, who, 
in his appeal to Rome, had the Bishop s 
sentence reversed and was transferred to 
Chicago diocese, October, 1876. Pending 
the rehearsal of the case. Father Pelisson 
took charge of the mission, and after the 
final decision Rev. Martin A. Fox was 
appointed on November 25, 1876. He 
remained until September, 1878. Even 
to this day the changes in the administra 
tion of the parish were many, to wit : 

Rev. Joseph Anton Hubly, from Oc 
tober 10, 1878, till his death, which oc 
curred December 19, 1879. lie was 
buried by Father Kelly, of Republic, in 
the local cemetery on December - 3rd. 

Rev. Daniel Swagers, from April _>8th 
to August 31, 1880. 

Rev. Joseph Niebling, from September 
26, 1880, to January 28, 1882. 

Rev. Thomas J. Atfield, from February 

n, 1882, to July 5, 1885. During May, 
1883, Rev. S. Favre was assistant. 

Rev. Fabian Pawlar, from July 25, 
1885, to September 25, 1887. 

Rev. F. N. Becker, from October 2, 
1887, to March 31, 1889. 

Rev. M. J. Van Stratten, from April 
7th to August i, 1889. 

Rev. Dr. Alberico Vitali, from Michi- 
gamme, ad interim, during August. Sep- 

21, I 8 f) 2 . 

tember and October, 1889. 

Rev. E. P. Bordas, from November 
27, 1889, to May 30, 1892. 

Rev. J. II. Reynaert, from June 4, 
1892, to January 2, 1894. 

Rev. John lienn, from February lotli 
to October 24. 1894. 



Rev. P. Girard. from November 18, 
1894, to July 17, 1905. 

Rev. Fabian Marceau, from November 
i, 1905, to September, 1900. 

Kev. Alexander Hasenberg, the present 
pastor, from September 15, 190(1. 

The extensive grounds, almost ten 
acres, were donated by the Champion 
Iron Mining Co. The priest s residence 
was built bv Father . \tfield in 18X2. 



Contemporary with Champion, Michi- 
gamme had its origin occasioned by the 
discovery and the opening of the Michi- 
gamme Mine in 1872. It was attended 
as a mission from Champion until 1886. 
The church was built by Father Berube. 
The first resident pastor was Rev. Fabian 

S. Marceau, from May 29th to October 
16, 1886, and since then: 

Rev. J. Reding, for some time after 
Father Marceau. 

Rev. Ph. Kummert, from December 
27, 1886. to January 24, 1887. 

Kev. H. P. liordas, from February 6th 
to October 16, 1887. 

Rev. V. N. Becker ad interim, from 
( hampion. 

Rev. G. P>eliveau. from January 29th 
to May 27, 1888. Again by Father 
Becker, from Champion. 

Rev. Thomas J. Butler, from May 
23d to July 17, 1888. 

Rev. Dr. Alberico Yitali, from 
November 4, 1888, to October 24, 

Rev. John Henn. from March 9th 
to August 20, i8()O. 

Rev. J. R. Boissonnault, from Au 
gust 30. 1890, to April 9, i8(ji, 

Rev. T. V. Dassylva, from May 
3, 180,1, to April 23, i8<j2. 

Rev. Joseph Sauriol, October, 

Rev. J. II. Reynaert, December, 
|8()_>, from Champion. 

Rev. Joseph Dupasquier, from 
May 6, 1893, to A Fay 14, 1894. 

Rev. John Burns, from June 30, 
1894, to October 16", 1895. 

Rev. Dr. J. Lenhart. from Decem 
ber i, 1895, to July 22, 1898. 

Rev. Alexander Ilasenberg, from Au 
gust 9, 1906. and is now attended by him 
from Champion. 

The list of successions at this little mis 
sion is big enough to fill the roster of 
canons of a European cathedral. But it 
is this long list that tells best of the strug 
gle for existence. It was mostly with 



the help of smaller mission stations that 
a resident priest was maintained. At one 
time, Siclnaw, Covington, Ewen, Kenton, 
Trout Creek, Berg-kind and \Yatersmeet 
belonged to it. Since 1903, Ewen was 
made an independent mission, to which 
most of their stations were attached. 

The original church, of course, only a 
small frame structure, has undergone sev 
eral changes. Father Bordas added a 
steeple to it, and Father Dassylva the 
sacristy portion. The house was ac 
quired and reconstructed by Father Vi- 

The congregation has about ninety 
families French and Irish. In Coving- 
ton is a church since 1904, and there are 
about thirty-five families, mostly French. 
In Sidnaw Mass is celebrated in the 
school house and in private houses. 
There are twelve Irish families. 





The church was built in 1892 by Rev. 
Renatus Becker, when the small saw-mill 
town showed disposition to permanency. 
The lot was donated by D. J. Norton, 
the local mill owner, now residing at On- 
tonagon. Father Becker was succeeded 
by Rev. W. H. Joisten. who served the 
mission for eighteen months. A disas 
trous fire destroyed a goodly portion of 
the town, including the house where the 
priest resided. The pastor s unusually 
large library, church records and one cha 
lice were also destroyed. Rev. H. Zim- 
mermann was the next pastor, but after 
three months service was recalled by the 
Ordinary, and the place attached to 

Michigamme as a mission. Revs. Du- 
pasquier. Burns, henhart and Hasenberg 
took care of it in turn until August 13, 
1903, when the present pastor, Rev. Ber 
nard Eiling, received his appointment as 
resident priest. 

Interior decorations, furnishings, etc., 
were made mostly in Father Hasenberg s 
time. The house occupied by the pastor 

was purchased for five hundred and sixty 
dollars. Stations depending for services 
from Ewen are: Kenton, about fifteen to 
twenty families ; Trout Creek, seven to 
ten families; \Yatersmeet, ten families; 
Bergland, five families. According to 
nationality, they are French, Irish, Ger 
man and Bohemian. 

Chapter XIX. 


Church of the Holy Name. 

By L Anse was formerly not under 
stood only the present village of L Anse, 
but in general the country around the 
L Anse Bay, called so by early French 
men because of its shape like an arch. 
Looking upon the landscape from either 
shore one does not wonder that this 
natural beauty attracted the early Indian 
with a lake in front of him full of best 
varieties of fish, but one can but marvel 
what this country must have been in its 
virginal state. From times immemorial 
these sons of the forest must have made 
Keweenaw Bay, if not a permanent dwell 
ing place, at least, a resting place during 
the warmer portion of the year. Indeed, 
Father Menard found in the fall of 1660 
on the east side of the bay a band of Ot- 
tawas wintering there. That any other 
white man ever before visited the place 
is not known, and not until the fore part 
of the last century were any attempts 
made by the whites to settle there. 

Of Father Rene Menard s visit we 
have an authentic record left. Driven by 
the desire of imparting the Christian faith 
to divers Indian nations scattered through 
northern Michigan and Wisconsin, he 
joined at Three Rivers on the 28th of 
August, ^, a flotilla of Ottawas on 

their way to Lake Superior. Of this 
voyage he writes : 

"Our journey has been very fortunate, 
thanks be to God, inasmuch as our 
Frenchmen all arrived in good health, 
about the middle of October. But, to ac 
complish that, we had to suffer much and 
avoid great risks from the lakes, which 
were very stormy; from the torrents and 
waterfalls, fearful to behold, which we 
were forced to cross in a frail shell ; from 
hunger, which was our almost constant 
companion ; and from the Iroquois, who 
made war upon us. 

"Between Three Rivers and Montreal, 
we luckily met Monseigneur the Bishop 
of Petraea. lie uttered to me the fol 
lowing words, which entered deep into 
my heart, and will be to me a great source 
of consolation amid all the vexatious ac 
cidents which shall befall me : My Father, 
rrvry reason seems to retain yon here; 
but God, more powerful than aught else, 
requires you yonder. Oh, how I have 
blessed God since that fortunate inter 
view, and how sweetly those words from 
the lips of so holy a prelate have re- 
entered my soul at the height of our hard 
ships, sufferings, and desolation God re 
quires me yonder! How often have I 

23 1 



repeated those words to myself amid the 
noise of our torrents, and in the solitude 
of our great forests! 

"The savages who had taken me on 
board with the assurance that they would 
assist me, in view of my age and infirmi 
ties, did not, however, spare me, but 
obliged me to carry very heavy burdens 
on my shoulders at all, or nearly all, the 
waterfalls which we passed ; and, al 
though my paddle did not greatly hasten 
their progress, being plied by arms so 
feeble as mine, yet they could not endure 
that I should be idle. Accordingly, not 
knowing when I should find the time to 
say my Breviary, I was forced to have 
recourse, wherever I could, to my mem 
ory, all the more that we touched land 
only at night, and set out before daylight. 
I found my advantage at the meeting of 
other canoes ; for then our Savages stop 
ped for some time to smoke, or talk about 
their routes and the courses which they 
were to take. After all, as they saw me 
with my hours in my hands oftener than 
they wished, they found means to take 
them from my bag, and threw- them into 
the water. This was a great affliction to 
me, to see myself deprived of this precious 
chattel, until I hit upon another parcel, 
in which, by good luck, I had put a sec 
ond Breviary in small volumes ; thus they 
did not profit by their impiety. 

"They compelled me, on occasion, to 
disembark in a very bad place, where I 
had to pass over rocks and frightful preci 
pices in order to rejoin them. The places 
through whch I had to go were so cut up 
with abysses and steep mountains that I 
did not think I could extricate myserf 
from them, and as it was necessary to 
hasten, if I did not wish to be left behind 

on the way, I wounded myself in the 
arm and in one foot. The latter became 
swollen, and gave me much trouble all 
the rest of the journey, especially when 
the water began to be cold, and it was 
necessary to remain barefoot all the time, 
ready to jump into the water when the 
Savages judged it fitting in order to 
lighten the canoe. Add to this that they 


are people having no regular meals; they 
eat up everything at once, and keep noth 
ing for the morrow. In taking their re 
pose, they pay no regard to their bodily 
comfort or that of their guest, but only 
to facility in landing their canoes and 
the convenience of embarking and dis- 



embarking . FurtheriTiore. they lie ordi 
narily upon rocks and rough pebbles, con 
tenting themselves with throwing some 
branches upon them, when they find any. 
"Our Frenchmen and myself have 
scarcely caught sight of one another 
during the whole course of our journeys: 
and so we have not been able to give one 
another any assistance. They have had 
their Crosses, and I mine. Perhaps ( iod 

contenting ourselves with some small 
fruits which were found rather seldom, 
and which are eaten nowhere else. For 
tunate were those who could chance upon 
a certain moss which grows upon the 
rocks, and of which a black soup is made. 
As to moose-skins, those who still had 
any, ate them in secret; everything seem 
ed good in time of hunger. 

"But matters became much worse 

gave more patience to them than to me; 
but I can say, nevertheless, that I have 
never thought, day or night, of this 
Outaouak expedition except with a sweet 
ness and peace of spirit and a feeling of 
God s grace towards me, such as I would 
have difficulty in explaining to you. 
We all fasted, and very rigorously, 

when, arriving at last at Lake Superior, 
after all this fatigue, instead of rest and 
refreshment, which we had been led to 
hope for, our canoe was shattered by the 
fall of a tree; nor could we hope to repair 
it, so much was it damaged. Every one 
left us, and we remained alone, three 
savages and myself, without provisions 



and without canoe. AYe remained in this 
condition six days, living on some offal 
which we were obliged, in order not to 
die of lning-cr, to scrape up with our 
finger nails around a hut which had been 
abandoned in this place some time ago. 
\Ve pounded up the bones which we 
found there to make soup of them; we 
collected the blood of slain animals, with 
which the ground was soaked ; in a word, 
we made food of everything. One of us 
was always on the watch at 
the waterside, to implore 
pity of the passers-by, from 
whom we obtained some bits 
of dried flesh which kept us 
from dying, until at last 
some men had mercy on us 
and came and took us on 
board, to transport us to the 
rendezvous where we were 
to pass the winter. This was 
a large bay on the south side 
of Lake Superior, where I 
arrived on saint Theresa s 
day; and I had the consola 
tion of saying Mass there, 
to pay myself with interest 
for all my past woes. It was 
here that I began a Christian community, 
which is composed of the Flying Church 
of the Savage Christians, more nearly 
adjacent to our French settlements, and 
one of those whom God s compassion has 
drawn hither." * 

Notwithstanding the terrible experi 
ence, his strength and good humor return 
ed, as he found the other eight French 
men who had been landed there. In 
grateful remembrance of the day on which 

1 The Jesuit Relations. Burrows Edit. Vol. 
48, pp. 257-265. 

lie reached L Anse Hay, he named it St. 
Theresa Hay. 

Father Alenard landed on the east shore 
of the bay, where he found some Indians 
encamped. The chief, called the Pike, re 
fused him and his companions any hospi 
tality, and even bade them to live away 
from his settlement. Xot daunted by this 
inhuman treatment, Father Alenard re 
treated some miles into the thickest woods, 
towards the point, the present Pcquaming. 


and prepared to winter there. AYhile his 
companions provided the necessaries of 
life. Father Alenard made excursions into 
the forbidden village in the hope of get 
ting some poor soul for Christ and his 
Church. The fruits of his labors were 
some, but scant indeed, so he decided to 
push his way to other powerful tribes, 
which, as he had heard, lived some two 
or three hundred leagues away. Some 
Hurons who had come to traffic with the 
Ottawas on Keweenaw Bay encouraged 
him in his purpose by offering to act as 


guides. Taking Jean Gnerin for his com 
panion, lie started out. He wrote his last 
letter from L Anse Bay July J, inYn. On 
the \vay the Indians abandoned him under 
pretext. lie tried to find the coveted set 
tlement with the help of his companion. 
In a canoe, found accidentally in the bush,, 
he started down the Black River. At 
some rapids where portaging was neces 
sary he became separated from his guide, 
and was never again heard from. 


\Yhether he died forsaken and exhausted 
or a victim of the tomahawk, God only 
knows. Thus perished the first apostle 
of L Anse Bay! 

Xot until 1843 after one hundred and 
eighty-two years came another priest to 
L Anse with the intention of establishing 
a Catholic mission. During this long pe 
riod circumstances had materially 
changed. The savage character of the 
Indian had been subdued ; he was a van 
quished hero, willing to accept the terms 

of his conqueror. The trading post had 
taken the place of all the important cou 
riers dcs bois and was the first approach 
to civilization. Such a post was estab 
lished by the American Fur Company on 
the west shore near where the Catholic 
mission stands, and was known, after the 
first agent, as Dube s place. Peter Cre- 
bassa, who succeeded Mr. Dube, moved 
the agency in 1830 to the east shore, east 
of the Methodist Mission. A practical 
Catholic himself, he was ask 
ed by the Indians if he could 
not get a priest to come to 
stay with them.- The only 
priest in closest neighbor 
hood was Father Baraga at 
La Pointe, Wisconsin. So 
he wrote to him once, twice 
and more times, until he 
consented to pay them a visit 
in the spring of 1845. He 
arrived on the 24th of May. 
During his stay of twenty 
days he was the guest of Mr. 
and Mrs. Crebassa, who also 
set aside one chamber where 
he could say Mass and cate 
chise. After necessary in 
struction, twenty-two were baptised, 
but many more promised to accept 
the Catholic faith if the missionary 
would come and stay with them. A great 
prospect for a missionary ! La Pointe 
had become a well regulated parish, new 
conversions were seldom and few and of 
fered small attractions to the missionary 
whose soul was always yearning for new 
converts. Father Baraga easily decided 
for what was more precious in his sight 

" See Vol. i, p. 77- 



than the comforts of a well furnished 
mission. On the 24th of October of the 
same year he returned to L Anse, in order 
to establish himself there permanently. 
lie was again domiciled at Crebassa s, and 
one chamber was given him for the ex 
clusive use as a chapel. There he read 
Mass, gave instructions and baptized. 
Catechizing- was going on almost all the 
time. On Christmas (1843) ne chris 
tened thirty of his red neophites. The first 
baptism conferred and recorded by Father 
Baraga is that of Louis Osagi, six years 
of age, on the j/th of May, 1843, and sin 
gularly enough he was the first one, too, 
Baraga buried, two days after the bap 
tism. Happy lad! 

The attendance at all exercises was so 
regular that right after Christmas Father 
Baraga began to plan the building of a 
new church. Where ? There was no lack 
of sites, but still the where? was as im 
portant then as it is today. Father Ba 
raga did not like to build in the neighbor 
hood of the Methodist [Mission, in order 
to avoid all sectarian feeling between the 
followers of the two opposing missions. 
So he decided to build on the west shore 
almost directly opposite the Methodist 
mission. Mr. Crebassa gave him an old 
warehouse built of cedar logs. Taken 
down, the logs were moved across the 
lake on the ice, and with some new tim 
bers added, the church went up, and on 
the 1 6th of June, 1844, [Mass was celebra 
ted in it for the first time, although its in 
terior was yet unfinished. At the same 
time, Father Baraga moved into the 
rooms partitioned off in the back of the 
church for his accommodation. The 
church-" was solemnly dedicated to the 

" See view of this church Vol. i, p. 73. 

Holy Xame of Jesus on the jQth of Sep 
tember ( 1844). 

Before Father Baraga decided to build 
his church on the west side he secured 
496.70 acres of land and the promise of 
his Christian Indians to remove where 
the church would be built. In return, he 
promised to build houses for them if they 
would give up moving and live after the 


fashion of the whites. Immediately fif 
teen log houses were put up and the fol 
lowing summer seven more. In the ab 
sence of skilled labor Father Baraga not 
only directed the construction of these 
dwellings, but worked with his Indians 
side by side as much as his other duties 
allowed. Such exemplary life of the mis 
sionary brought a good many Indians to 


the west shore 1ml many who had received 
the faith still preferred to stay in their 
hnts on the east side. They however 
managed to attend services regularly, 
only exceedingly had weather in the 
spring and fall held them hack. On ac 
count of this drawback I .araga tried his 
best to coloni/e the Catholic Indians 
around the mission church. 

The baptismal record-, on the lly-leaf 

of which are the annotations concerning 
the beginning of the mission is neatly 

4 Adnotatio circa originem hujus Missionis. 

Fundamenta hujus Missionis jccit infrascnp- 
tus Missionarius, adjuvante Deo O. M. die 24 
Maji anno 1X45. qua die hue advenit, et viginti 
dies inter Indianos hujus loci commoratus est. 
Aliqui statim crediderunt verbo. et post necessar- 
iam instructionem bapti/ati sunt. Aln yero clix- 
crunt: Si iterum vcnit Missionarius iste, non 
quidem ut aliquot tantum dies, sed ut constanter 
nobiscuni maneat. etiam nos recipiemus doc- 
trinam quam praedicat, et baptismum. Quare 
iterum vcnit. die 24 Oct. ejusdem anni, et statim 
coepit praeparare quaccumque ad firmiter stabih- 
cndam Missionem necessaria visa sunt. 

Deo specialiter adjuvante pptius inops Mis 
sionarius adificare istam ecclesiam cum adnexo 
presbyterio, necnon et quindecim domus parvulas 

written, so characteristic of all Baraga s 
documents. From its pages we see how 
careful selection of real names was made 
for the converts and later for their off 
spring. Thus for men. besides the names 
commonly tised. Kustache, P>asil, Daniel, 
Clement, Moses, Stephen, . \ugustin, I>en- 
iumin, Isidore, (lahriel. Julian. Joachim. 
Alexis, Solomon. Oliver, Abraham. Thad- 
daeus, Dominic. Maurice. Theodore. 
Achillaeus, Vincent; and for 
women: Flavida. Isahelle. 
Sophia. Jeanette. Magda 
lene, Martha. A n g e 1 i c a. 
Esther, Agatha, 1 elagia, 
Rosalia, Amabilis, Adelaide, 
Veronica, etc. I ntil the 
jjth of l ; ebrtiary 1853 he 
ba])ti/ed two hundred and 
ninetv-t\\ o persons, the old 
est being fifty-eight years of 
;ige. and amongst them the 
chief Kdward Assinins at 
the age of thirty-six years 
and his wife, Anne P>a- 
\vitigokwe. at the age of 


T h e il r s t confirmation 

was given on the 2 \ st ot 
Inly 1846 by the Kt. Rev. Peter Paul 
Lefevere. " of Detroit. He was the first 

pro Indiani^ ncophytis. Postea adhuc septem 
alias aedificavit. 

Die 1 6. Junii anno I.S44, quae fuit Dom .11 
pu-t Pent., prima vice in hac ecclesia S. S. Mis- 
sae Sacrificium Deo oblatum est. Sed tune utique 
haec ecclesia adhuc imperfccta crat. Quando 
-u ltem ad aliciuem perducta fuit perfectipms 
cradum cam infrascriptus Missionarius Dominica 
i Oct ejusdem anni, Deo Patri Omnipotent} 
solemniter dedicavit, sub Nomine dilecti Fihi 
cius J1-;SU, qui cum eodem Deo Patrc et Spintu 
Saiv-to est Deus in saecuh ; simulque cum de- 
precatus est, ut misericorditer praestare dignetur, 
ut quisquis hanc ecclesiam ingressus fuent bene- 
ficia petiturus ab co in Xomme Jesu, accipiat 

r> Photo Vol. i. p. 67. 


bishop to visit any point Xorth of the 
straits. He arrived at L Anse on the loth 
and continued on the following Sunday 
eighty-six persons. During his stay at 
L Anse he and Father Baraga dined with 
the Methodist preacher, the Rev. John 
Pite/ell, which shows that no animosity 
existed between the two missionaries. 
The following letter confirms the friendly 
relations : 

"Re: . John Pitezell, and the isliole com 
munity of the Methodist Mission, 
L Anse: 

DKAR FRIKXDS : I have been requested 
by some of you to let you have the bell, 
which is hanging in our steeple here, as 
soon as another one, which is now at the 
Sault, shall be brought to this place. Hut 
this bell does not belong to me; it was 
lent to my chapel by the deceased Airs. 
Cotte, to whom it belonged. 

As Mrs. Cotte is now no more, I re 
quested her afflicted husband to let you 
have the said bell in regard of the kind 
services which some of you have be 
stowed upon his lamented wife, in her 
last days; and he cheerfully consented to 
give you the bell; for the use of votir 
chapel, as soon as mine shall be brought 
from the Sault. 

l\esp. your sincere friend, 

L Anse, April /th, 1845. 


quod Ink-liter peticrit, ut sciat quani verc locuta 
sit Veritas, dieens: "Si quid petieritis Patrem in 
Nomine moo, dabit vobis." 

Die 1 6. Julii anno 1X46. Rwinns et ]\\inits 
Domns Petrus Paulus Leievre, Kpisc< >pu> /.<.- 
lanus, Administrator Diocesis Detroitensis, bane 
Missionem canomcc visitavit, et die Dominica 
seqiK-nti, 86 Indianos in line ecclesin SS. Xoni- 
ini-; JF.SU confirmavit. 

Friderious Parana, 

l ; rom L Anse Lather Baraga visited 
Indian camps as he was wont to do from 
La I ointe and in January 1847 he paid 
his first visit to Fagle Harbor where he 
had heard that mines were being opened 
by the Whites. When at home Father 
Baraga devoted his leisure time to writ 
ing. There he wrote his Indian dram- 
mar and Dictionary, the first attempt at 
modernizing an Indian language. 


In the summer of 1852 the first rumors 
reached Father llaraga that he was likelv 
to become the first bishop of the newly 
created vicarate but this did not disturb 
him in the least in his work. Assiduously 
as ever he kept on copying his Indian Dic 
tionary and in March 1853 took it to Cin 
cinnati to have it printed. During hi.-- 
absence Rev. Angelus Van Paemel, whom 
Bishop Lefevere had sent to Baraga tha. 



he might learn Otcliip\ve, took care of the 
mission. Returning- from Cincinnati. 
Baraga visited his out-lying missions 
during August and September and then 
leaving for Europe he again entrusted 
L Anse with the missions to Father Van 
I aemel. While on his way Baraga was 
informed in Detroit that he was made 
Vicar Apostolic of Upper Michigan. 
After his consecration at Cincinnati he 


continued his journey to the old country. 
Father Van Paemel remained till the 
Bishop s return and for reasons of poor 
health was replaced in September 1854 
by the Rev. C. L. Lemagie who stayed 
just one year. 

On the 25th of September 1854 Bishop 
Baraga visited this mission for the first 
time as bishop and confirmed forty-three 
Indians. This was the third time con 
firmation was given at the place. Bishop 
Lefevere made his second canonical 
visit in May (26) 1850. 

Bishop Baraga on assuming active 
charge of his vicarate was anxious 
to provide his own clergy for the missions. 
Flis first-ordained he sent to Eagle Har 
bor where among the mines and miners 
his presence was a crying need. On 
August 5, 1855, ne ordained Edward 
Jacker and immediately sent him to 
L Anse. The first baptism recorded by 
him is on the 5th of September, of Wil 
liam Xanaassin. Not 
knowing any Otchipwe 
Father Jacker gave him 
self utmost pains to ac 
quire that most difficult 
language. With the help 
of Bishop Baraga s Gram 
mar and Dictionary he 
soon picked up enough of 
it to make himself under 
stood. From the reading 
of the Gospels and Epis 
tles he advanced to a few 
remarks and gradually in 
course of five years mas 
tered the language to the 
great delight of his sub 
jects. On May 1861 
Father Jacker was suc 
ceeded by Rev. Gerhard Terhorst, whose 
labors at this mission were ended by his 
demise, October 4, 1901. 

At the outbreak of the civil war the 
Indians also became restless. The ever j 
lasting rumors that the government in 
tended to concentrate the tribes in reserva 
tions agitated the minds of the Mission 
Indians greatly. To obviate any such 
plans that would destroy his early labors 
and the promising condition of the Mis 
sion experience had made him wise 
Bishop Baraga under date of July 2, 1863, 



conveyed to Edward Assinins the chief 
and his band the 486.70 acres of land: 
"excepting and reserving FOURTEEN 
acres to be taken in a square form and 
shape and to include the Catholic Church 
now standing as part of said premises, at 
L Anse aforesaid. The said church to be 
the center of said fourteen acres." Be 
sides Edward Assinins the following 
members of his band were included in the 
deeds: Elias Kebeassading, Peter Xei- 
wash, Julian Operagan, Edward Man- 
gosid, Solomon Wewapanh, 
Louis Wison, Michael Pay- 
wanegizig, Moses Migisis, 
Joseph Gendron, Benjamin 
Gabiwabikokea, John B. 
Gosens, Augustine Wawaas- 
sin, Henry Pilassin, Daniel 
Kebriassing, John Kayigobi, 
John Awassigig, Moses Obi- 
migijig, Edward Enwakami- 
gishkong, Moses Kebene, 
Erancis Wembesisash, Jo 
seph Mekatowikwasnaie, S. 
Denomie, William Bemwe- 
wem, Closes Atikone, An 
thony Misigan, James Keo- 
wodosse, John B. Metako- 
sige, John B. Ombereisass- 
ing, Peter Mamadjigwan, Benjamin 
Cloutier, Peter Moiiawinim, Joseph Oko- 
beranakwadwebi, Amabil Otchipwemegis- 
ins, Joseph Totok, George Omadagami, 
Samuel Jawanash, John Nanigijig, Fran- 
cis Mogwade, John Mesiworash, William 
Xeobinesse, Alexis Watisins, Henry Wa- 
bigagons, Henry Omaeawigezig. William 
Bebamoshi, James Wobigug, Julian Xo- 
din, Kagagins and Pushkwegin. 7 Consid- 

Warranty Deed, Baraga Co. Lib. III. pp. 

eration of one hundred and fifty dollars 
was nominal. 

The diocesan institution at Assinins as 
it is called now-a-days is the life work 
of Father Terhorst. He found the old 
church and a small Indian school built 
in 1860 which stands there yet at the 
right as you go up from the station. At 
the head of this school was an incompe 
tent male teacher. To improve the school 
Father Terhorst conceived the idea of 
getting Sisters but in this he was not 


successful until 1866 because the Bishop 
considered the plan on account of the 
great poverty wholly impractical. When 
he was told that the Sisters of St. Joseph 
would take the place such as it was and 
would be contented to share the poverty 
of the missionary, the Bishop withdrew 
his objections. The Sisters came Mother 
Justine Lemay with Sisters Marcelline 
Reilly and Maxime Croissat arrived in 
the August of 1866. Preparatory for 
their reception the front part of the pres- 



ent stone convent, facing the lake, was 
put up. This moulded a new era at the 
Mission as it was then commonly called. 
Plowing the virgin soil around the mis 
sion lor a vegetable garden so indispensa 
ble to the enlarged household. Father Ter- 
horst encountered much sand stone which 
he piled up for a stone fence. P>ut as he 
annually added to the garden patch his 
stone heaps increased in proportion. To 
put them out of the way he commenced to 
build. In 1873 he built the body of the 
present church, and tore down the old 


land mark which had stood on the brow 
of the hill, directlv above the present 
windmill, thirty years. Then he built a 
house for himself. In 1877 he extended 
the convent to the west in order to give 
room for girl-boarders. This suggested 
an orphan asylum and in 1881, urged by 
liishop Yertin, Father Terhorst erected 
an orphanage. At first only the boys were 
here cared for but in 1902, for economic 
reasons, the girls, too, were removed 
from Marquette and housed in the west 
wing of the convent. Improvements 

which Father Terhorst made from time 
to time would be hard even to appreciate, 
leave alone describing them. Everything 
bespeaks his creative genius ; he was not 
modern in his ideas, but was abreast of 
his days. The buildings, the field and 
the orchard are the witnesses of his 
ceaseless activity. In his association with 
the Indians he did not become as one of 
them because the influence of the whites 
was constant but he always valued what 
there was of virtue in his red-skinned pa 
rishioners. He held in high regard the 
chief Assinins and when in 
the nineties a Post Office 
was established at the Mis 
sion he named it after the 
chief, so that the place is 
now known as Assinins. 
Kdward Assinins was bap 
tized by Bishop I>araga at 
the age of thirty-eight, April 
7. 1^44, and died March 4, 

In the early days it was 
customary that when an In 
dian died the priest supplied 
him some calico for the 
shroud. One John Kaga- 
gins, ninety-five years of 
age, after he was annointed asked Father 
Terhorst if he would grant him a last re 
quest. Xot suspecting anything he sim 
ply said he would. Then Kagagins said: 
Father, you have been giving all the In 
dians who died a shroud; I do not want a 
calico shroud, I want you to give me 
your old coat. (He meant the cassock.) 
True to his promise, when Kagagins died, 
March 24, 1869, Father Terhorst buried 
him in his old cassock. \Ye have recorded 
this little whim of Kagagins, so that if 
antiquarians should ever come across his 



bones wrapped in ;i cassock they may burga, Cordula, Claudine, Priscilla, Kay- 
know that Little Raven had the pleasure m,,nd, Isidore, Kunegunda, Matrona, 
of being" buried in a priest s cassock and An/elm 

To find a successor to Father Terhorst 
was no easy matter, for the occupant of 
this position ought to be not only pastor 
to the congregation, but also a father to 

that they are not the remains of some cele 
brated missionary. 

A school was conducted at this mission 
ever since its establishment in 1843. First 
by some lay person whom .Bishop P>araga 
brought from La Pointe. This kind of the orphans. The bishop selected Father 
school he kept up from his own resources Melchior Faust of Alenominee. Tie ar- 
until after he had become bishop when rived at the mission on October 15, 1901. 
government aid was secured 
in maintaining one teacher 
for the Indian children. This 
support was given until 
1900 when it was withdrawn 
altogether. Superiors of 
the Sisters of St. Joseph 
who conducted the school 
since since 1866 w ere: 
Mother Justine Lemay, 
1866-1874; Mother Marcel- 
line Reilly, 1874-1880 ; 
Mother Sylvester Murray 
1880-1892; Mother Justine 
Lemay, second term, 1892- 
1900; Mother Frances Mac- 
key, 1900-1906. In the " APEL AT E CENTRAL MINE 

spring 1906, the St. Joseph s Sisters ten- L ANSE. 

dered their resignation to Bishop Eis. 
Singular enough they, too, like Father ST - JOSEPH S CHURCH. 

Terhorst held the place forty years. Of 

,, . . . in 1871 L Anse became the terminus 

their companions, Sisters Protais, Ilde- , . 

i -r r i 1 r- ot tne Marquette, Houghton and Ontona- 

i -r r i 1 r- 

phonse, Errnelinda and Genevieve have 

found their resting place among a race 


Up tO that time 

they benefited by their self-sacrifices. Pax C nple f lone h USes stood there but in 

sit eis perpetua in luce sanctorum ! 

expectation that the place would become 

On the 20th of June 1906, the Sisters of consi derable importance a town site 

of St. Agnes of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, was P latted ]) 1 S enough to rival the town 

took charge of school and orphanage. at tlie otner end of the line. People came, 

The first band sent out for this work were: I)I( n R n f r the best sites, built homes 

Sister Isabelle. superior, with Sisters \Val- an( l invested their savings in all kinds of 



enterprises. Everything seemed to war 
rant this extravagance. The mineral 
wealth, seldom found in such a variety at 
one point, was well known; a half million 
dollar dock, that was being built pointed 
to its future importance, as a shipping- 
place. If it were not for the general panic 
of 1873 most of these expectations might 
have been reali/ed, but that cold wave of 
industrial stagnation touched also the 


growth of L Anse, from which it has 
been very slowly recuperating. 

The church lots were also secured at 
that high fired point of excitement. Lots 
8, 9, 10 and 11 of Block 21 were pur 
chased for five hundred dollars from 
Samuel L. Smith, but not paid for until 
1875, hence the deed was not executed 
until May first of that year. Father Ter- 
horst built a frame church, 18x30 

and completed it in the winter of 1872, 
dedicating it to St. Joseph. He came 
from the Mission every Sunday to say 
Mass until the fall of 1886. On Decem 
ber first. Rev. Anatole O. Pelisson was 
appointed as first resident pastor. He re 
mained until April jo, 1887. After him 
the list of pastors is as follows: 

Rev. T. S. Guilmin, from May 15, 
1887, to April 2, 1888. 

Rev, Joseph Haas, from June 3, 
1888, to April 21, 1889. 

Rev. Th. Y. Dassylva, from May 
5, 1889, to July 13, 1890. 

Rev. J. 11. Reynaert, from July 
2/th to August 31, 1890. 

Rev. C. F. Schelhamer, from Sep 
tember 22, 1890, to August 19, 1901. 
Rev. J. Ilenn, from September 3, 
1891, to March 20, 1892. 

Rev. Joseph C. Wallace, from 
May 2Oth to September 26, 1892. 

Rev. Joseph Dupasquier, from 
December 21, 1892, to January 15, 

Rev. Fidelis Sutter, from May 
25th to December 31, 1893. 

Rev. \\ . II. Joisten, from Janu 
ary u, 1894, to July 10, 1898. 

Rev. Joseph G. Pinten, from Sep 
tember i, 1898, to April 1 6, 1899. 

Rev. J. II. Colin, from April 19, 

1899, to January 7, 1900. 

Revs. Otto Zicgler, 0. F. M.,and J. A. 
Reinhard attended from December for a 
few months. 

Rev. J. A. Sauriol, from November 18, 

1900, to November 4, 1901. 

Rev. John Henn, the present pastor, 
second term, from December 4, 1901. 

Father Terhorst built a three-room 
house for his occasional accommodation, 



and the same building with but slight ad 
ditions and alterations serves yet as rec 
tory. The first church has been replaced 
by a new, stone one. It was erected by 
Father Joisten at a cost of $10,500. Great 
sacrifices were made by the people and 
their pastors for this church. \Yhen com 
pleted it was still encumbered by about 
$6,000. Father Heim has reduced the 
debt to a few hundred. 

The congregation has only eighty-five 
families. They are French, Irish, Indian, 
German and Polish. Pequaming, with 
thirteen families, is at 
tached as a mission. The 
small church of St. Jo 
seph was built by Father 
Terhorst. Services are 
held every other Sunday 
and in summer only ; in 
the winter the mill, which 
is the only support of the 
settlement, is closed down 
and the most of the in 
habitants move away. 

Half of the village cem 
etery has been set aside 
for burial of Catholics 
and was deeded on Au 
gust i, 1877, to the Rt. Rev. Ignatius 
Mrak, then bishop of the diocese. 


This village owes its existence to the 
short-sightedness of L Anse land owners. 
Xester Brothers came in 1883 from Sagi- 
naw, with the intention of building up a 
large saw-mill within the reach of the 
great timber districts. They desired to 
locate at L Anse, but could obtain no site 
except at prohibitive prices. So they went 

further up the west shore of the bay and 
put up their plant. The buzz of the saw 
drew a settlement which was named after 
Bishop Baraga. At first the Catholics at 
tended Mass at the Mission, two miles 
distant. In 1886 Father Terhorst, en 
couraged by the mill owners, erected a 
frame church on a piece of land known 
in the village plat as lots i, 2, and 3 of 
Block 4. This site was donated by An 
thony Girard, and on October 3, 1892, 
a contiguous piece of ground, 125x62^ 
feet, was purchased from the same man 


for three hundred dollars. 

In 1902 St. Anne s church underwent 
a substantial alteration. First, it was 
moved some seventy-five feet from its old 
props and bodily turned around from its 
south to north position, so that it is now 
facing east. The basement runs the full 
length of the church. The old church cut 
in two, thirty feet were intersected, and a 
large sacristy added. A fancy pattern of 
steel-ceiling was used inside, fortunately 
painted in a color that, together with hard 
wood floors, pews, side altars, carpet, 



communion railing, stained glass win 
dows all new breathes friendliness and 
bespeaks good taste. More than eight 
thousand dollars were expended on the 
renovation, not including the lumber, 
which was all donated bv the Xester 

Brothers. Other prominent donors are: 
Two side altars by Mrs. John F. Xester; 
carpet by Mrs. Thomas Xester; Lilian K. 
Xester, John F. Xester, Frank I . Xester, 
Marie M. Xester. Girls P>. V. Sodality, 
Choir, Holy Rosary Confraternity, John 

Jiild. Martin Cosgrove. and Father J. 
llenn each gave a window, and Father 
1-aust two. The windows are manufac 
tured by A. F. Sterneberg, and the figures 
in them are far above the average produc 
tion. The church is entirely out of debt. 
J he congregation consists 
of one hundred and fifty 
families, and it would be 
next to impossible to class 
them according to national 
ity on account of the inter- 
in a r r i a g e. Individually, 
however, they are French, 
Irish. Indian, Polish, Ger 
man, Slovenian and others. 
The parish is attended 
from the Mission where the 
pastor resides. The distance 
of two miles, however, has 
not interferred with the ser 
vices due the parish. lie- 
sides the private conve 
nience, there is the train ser 
vice. \Yhen the right of 
way was ceded to the railroad people. Fa 
ther Terhorst included a clause that the 
company should maintain a signal station 
for all passenger trains. 

The present pastor, Rev. M. Faust, suc 
ceeded to the parish in October, 1901. 

Chapter XX. 



Si. Ignatius Loyola s Church. 

The settlement of Houghton was pro 
moted, like most other towns of the Up 
per Peninsula, by mining interest with 
the difference that it did not follow the 
mining locations, but commenced to nestle 
on the sloping south shore of Portage 
Lake. Credit for this may be ascribed 
as much to the land owners as to the only 
highway the lake. As early as 1845 
Ransom Sheldon spent the winter at Port 
age Lake, but finding that he had gone 
out of tne reach of civilization, he estab 
lished himself at Portage Entry, pursuing 
a general trading until the fall of 1851, 
at which time he concluded to carry out 
his former plan and removed to Quincy 
mine, just then started. A year later he 
associated himself with Columbus C. 
Douglass, and the two purchased the 
lands where Houghton now stands. In 
company with his brother-in-law, Mr. 
Sheldon put up a log building, where the 
Roach & Seeber refrigerator now stands, 
and opened a general store. Encouraged 
by the trade from the mines and from 
across the Portage, they erected the build 
ing known later as Pope s store, now oc 
cupied by the Peninsula Wholesale Gro 

cery. In 1854 the Sheldon-Douglass con 
cern platted a small portion of the town 
site, embraced by the Dacotah, Franklin 
and South streets. Up the hill towards 
the Isle Royal mine a good wagon road 
was made, being the longest and best 
thoroughfare, it was considered as a main 
street. The town was named Houghton 
as a tribute to the memory of Prof. 
Douglass Houghton, whose accidental 
death by drowning off Keweenaw point 
in 1845 was lamented by a grateful people 
who had barely commenced to value 
his great services in pointing out the 
mineral riches of the Upper Peninsula. 
In 1 86 1 Houghton reached a population 
of eight hundred and fifty- four, and was 
incorporated on November 4th as a vil 
lage. The inhabitants were alive to pub 
lic necessities. Eour years prior to the 
organization of the village a school was 
built on the southwest corner of Portage 
and South streets, and religious denomi 
nations, too, tried to build churches for 
themselves. Catholics, few in number, 
and scattered at that, were looked after 
by Father Jacker from the Mission. At 
first he came to Portage Lake only every 




two months and staid with the Quinn 
family at Albion, as the two rows of 
houses adjacent to the Isle Royal location 
were called. After 185*) he came once a 
month. Steps to build a church were not 
taken until 1858. On the 3rd of Septem 
ber of that year Bishop Baraga came with 
Father J acker, by the way of Kntry, to 
Houghton. They found hospitable quar 
ter at James Ouinn s house, which stood 
just north of the old Isle Royal rock- 
burrows. While Father Jacker busied 
himself with the instruction of children 
preparatory to confirmation the Bishop 
held conference with prominent men about 


the building of a church. A general meet 
ing was decided upon, and to insure good 
attendance Michael Finnegan visited per 
sonally all the Catholics on both sides of 
the lake. The meeting was announced 
for Sunday after Mass, to be held in the 
school house. This school house stood 
where the residence of Mr. Peter Renaud 
is to-day, and was used for services by 
Protestants and Catholics alike, and some 
times it was turned into a court room. 
\Yhoever asked for it first got it, strictly 
according to the old adage, "first come, 
first served." On September 5, 1858, the 
school room was a scene of an extraordi 
nary event. Bishop Baraga gave Con 

firmation for the first time in Houghton. 
After Mass the meeting, for the purpose 
of making arrangements for the building 
of a church, was called. Favored by the 
general opinion the lots on the corner, 
diagonally across the street from the 
school house, were selected as a church 
site, and Mr. Michael Finnegan was ap 
pointed by the Bishop as general collec 
tor. We attach the fac simile of this 
commission. The complete list of donors 
is a follows: 

Bishop Baraga $20.00 

Father Jacker 10.00 

Sylvester 1 larrington 10.00 

Michael Finnegan 10.00 

F. F. Douglass 5.00 

E. Brady 2.00 

F. J. Black i. oo 

Joseph J. Edwards 3- 

Francis ( illegible) 2.00 

Joseph Hess 5.00 

Joseph 1 lenke 5- 

Peter Baldus 5.00 

Jodokus 1 lennen 5-OO 

Kaspar Schulte 5.00 

Xaver Erd 4.00 

William Campbell 3.00 

Michael Buckley 3.00 

John F. Ryan 2.00 

John Ryan (Turnkey) 2.00 

Zacharie (illegible) 5.00 

James H. Blancly 5.00 

Lewis (illegible) i.oo 

James Gauly 2.00 

Robert (illegible) 

Michael Young i.oo 

Father Jacker s bill 35- 

Michael Foley 10.00 

Adam Haas 5.00 

John Martin 4.00 

Nicholas Stroble 3.00 



Piwabick Company 2 

Ouincy Company I 

Edward Ryan 

Richard Cummins 

John C. Ryan 

James H. Quinn 

John Ryan Connurs 

Mathew Hennesy 

John Kinzep 

John H. (illegible) 

Doctor Jenkins 

Peter Hencligas 

Tat White 

James Kelly 

Patrick Kenny 

John Powers 

33.00 31, were purchased from Ransom and 

2 1. oo Theresa Shelden for one hundred thirty 

3.00 dollars. Under the supervision of 

>oo Mr. Finnegan the church was commenced 

5.00 in the spring (1859) and her steeple 

10.00 proudly overlooked the wood-grown 

_>.oo neighborhood. On the 29th of July Bish- 

2.00 op Baraga came to dedicate the church. 

3.00 lie found it completed, only the glazing 

j.oo of the windows was to be done yet. On 

10.00 the 3ist of July the feast of St. Ig- 

2.00 natius Loyola, Bishop Baraga dedicated 

2.00 it to the honor of that saint. On the 

2.00 occasion, the Bishop celebrated a Pontifi- 

2.00 cal High-Mass, with the assistance of 

2.00 Fathers Jacker, Thiele and O Xeil. The 


John Ryan 3.00 

Michael Grehan 2.00 

Pat Mullany 3.00 

Dana Bussier i.oo 

John Q. McKernan l S- 

Capt. R. Ed wards 10.00 

Patrick Currin 2.00 

John Madigan 3.00 

Patrick Cudahy 2.00 

James H. Slossen 5.00 

Ben. (illegible) i.oo 

Total, $630.50. This was the result of 
the first collection taken up. It was far 
from being enough for the church, but 
it was a starter. Two lots, 6 and /, block 

Bishop himself addressed the people in 
English, French and German. The col 
lection amounted to three hundred and 
four dollars. After Mass a petition was 
presented to the Bishop for the appoint 
ment of Father D. O Xeil, a non-resident. 
He possessed no knowledge of German 
or French, and for this reason the two 
nationalities opposed his installation; but 
owing to the pressure of the greater part 
of contributors the Bishop yielded and ap 
pointed Father O Neil the first pastor. 
His first baptism was prior to the dedica 
tion, July 23, that of Ducket ( !) May- 
bury. He had only twelve more during 



his stay. These were Elizabeth Sullivan, 
Eugene Behan, Denis Eynch. Daniel 
Coughlin, Julia Kelly, John O Connor. 
Daniel Lowney, John McCarthy, John 
Buckley. Ilanna O Brien, Andrew Mc- 
Cormick, and Anne Finnegan. Already 
in December leather Jacker had to come 
from K Anse in order to prolong the 
modus t i i cndi between the pastor and 
flock, but even this did not help much. 
Mis best supporters became tired of his 

overbearing conduct. Being apprised 
of the condition of things. Bishop Baraga 
came to Portage, on May 4, 1860, and 
ordered Father Jacker to supersede the 
first appointee. For almost a year Jacker 
attended to Houghton every other Sun 
day from the Mission. Only in February 
and March, 1861, Rev. Andrew Andol- 
schek staid in Houghton, a sort of an as 
sistant, as he could speak neither English 
nor French. End of May Father Jacker 
removed permanently to Houghton, 

where, besides his pastoral duties, he su 
perintended the building o f a new church 
in Hancock, which afterwards was dedi 
cated on August 4th, 1861. After that 
time Mass was celebrated on both sides of 
the Portage every Sunday. But soon he 
took a tancy to live in Hancock, and upon 
htting out some rooms as a rectorv there, 
removed to Hancock and continued to 
come to Houghton as he did before from 
Houghton to Hancock. This arrange 
ment was kept up between himself 
and his assistants until September, 
1864, when the l\ev. Aloysius M. 
Kopleter was appointed resident 
pastor of Houghton. He died 
the following January (24, 186^) 
and is buried in the Catholic cem 
etery of Hancock. His funeral 
was an occasion long to be re 
membered by those who witness 
ed it only a few the pall-bear 
ers. A fierce snow-storm swept 
over the country for almost two 
weeks, so that it was impossible 
to cross the lake. So it was de 
cided to deposit the coffin in the 
snow inside the fence of the old 
Houghton cemetery until the 
storm subsided. After the storm 
the body was taken up and conveyed to 
its resting place in Hancock. Loving 
hands have reared a monument to his 

After Father Kopleter s death the St. 
Ignatius parish became again dependent 
for services on Hancock pastors until 
June, 1865. But then, as if wanting to- 
make up for lost time, all of a sudden re 
ceived two pastors one for the Irish and 
one for the others. Rev. John Powers 
held the first honors and occupied the rec- 


tory. while his confrere, the co-pastor, Rev. 
John Hums, had to live in a private place. 
They believed in racial separation so much 
that they entered their baptisms on sepa 
rate pages in the same book. On the 
22d day of July, 1866, Father Hums was 
relieved of this painful situation, and was 
succeeded on September 3Oth by Father 
Vertin. He lived in Hancock with his 
parents until he got possession of the pres 
bytery, and by removal of Father Pow 
ers, January 13, 1867, remained the sole 
pastor. \Yith the harmony restored, the 
attendance at Masses so visibly increased 
that an addition to the church and a 
wing for sacristy purposes was made at 
once. Father Vertin remained with the 
congregation until September 13, 1871. 
For a short time after that Father Luke 
Mozina attended to the congregation, 
and after him Father Dwyer, from Flan- 
cock. Beginning of July, 1872, Rev. 
Anatole O. Pellisson was appointed pas 
tor and remained till April, 1875. Since 
then the list of pastors is as follows: 

Rev. \Yilliam T. Roy, from March 7, 
1875, to August 4, 1877. 

Rev. Fabian Pawkir, from August 15, 
1878, to May 30, 1880. 

Rev. James \V. Kelly, from June 3, 
1880. till his death July 2, 1886. Assist 
ants during his time were Rev. F. X. 
Becker in September. October and Novem 
ber, 1884, and Rev. Charles Raphael, from 
November i, 1885, till July 25, 1886. 

During the summer months ( 1886) 
Rev. Joseph La Boule, a professor of St. 
Francis Seminary, took care of the con 

Rev. Thomas J. Atfield, from October 
31. 1886, to September 30. 1888. His 
assistants were : Revs. Dominic Vento, L. 

Andre, Philip Knmmcrt, F. Hamet, Fidel- 
is Suiter and Th. \ . Dassylva. 

Rev. Charles Langner, from October 
7, 1888, to Oclober 26, 1890. Father 
Dassylva was assistant when Father 
Langner became pastor. After him served 
in the same capacity. Revs. J. O Keefe. 
R. Regis ( May 30, i889-June 22, 1890) 
and Rev. Joseph Hoeber, from July i ^th 
to November 22, 1890. After the re- 


moval of his pastor he administered the 
parish until the appointment of Father 
Langner s successor. 

Rev. F. N. Becker, from December 7, 
1890. to May 29, 1892. Father A. Poulin 
was assistant, and during the pastor s ab 
sence administrator, from September 131!: 
to December 18. 1891. 

Rev. John M. G. Manning, from June 
5, 1892, to October 7, 1894. In his time 



served as assistants Revs. \Y. H. Joisten 
and F. Sperlein. 

Rev. A. William (Jeers, from Novem- 
ber 4, 1894, to November f>, 1(895. 

Rev. A. J. Rezek. the present incum 
bent, arrived in Houghton November o, 
i8<;5- Periodically he received an assist 
ant, and, they were: Revs. Joseph A. 
keinhardt (September, 1899 - April, 
1900), I. J. Lauzon (September, 1900- 
lannary, 1901), I". S. llawelka (March- 
lime, 1901 ), Peter l ; . Manderfielcl (June- 

October, 1901), Joseph \\ uest (Novem 
ber. i9OT-April, HjO- ), and Alexander 
Wollny (July, 1901 ). 

The growth of the village of Hough- 
ton to its present size and importance was 
very slow indeed. Mines tributary to her 
gave her at first a promising start, but 
when some of them closed down for good 
and others, with their primitive way of 
mining, dug up just enough of the red 
metal to keep open. Houghton was se 
riously checked in her onward march. 
The port facilities and a few manufac 

turing enterprises depending also on the 
mines, just about kept up life of the vil 
lage. Had it not been for the men, her 
most honored citizens, who knows but 
she would be a faubourg to her sister 
town if not perhaps effaced altogether 
from the map. It is wholly due to the 
public spirit of these men. that new, 
healthy life pulsates through Houghton. 
As the countenance is the best indicator 
of internal health, so 1 loughton s latest 
improvements, public buildings, and, 
above all. the growth out 
wardly, plainly show her 

The St. Ignatius church, 
too, has witnessed and borne 
this mutation of circum 
stances. Her membership 
slowly increased until she 
has to-day more than three 
hundred families, who, ac 
cording to nationality, would 
almost evenly divide the 
honors among the German, 
French and Irish, respect 
ively, although there is a 
good sprinkling of every 
ROCKI.AXD. conceivable language from 
the Syrians, Bohemians, Croatians, Slo 
venians, down to Poles, Italians and Hun 
garians. Material advances are princi 
pally marked by the acquisition of new 

In 1882 Father Kelly frescoed the first 
church at a cost of fifteen hundred dollars. 
His successor, Rev. Thomas J. Atfield, 
built the school in 1887, and to Rev. John 
M. G. Manning credit is due for the new 
house. The building of the new church 
became the lot of Father Rezek. He suc 
ceeded to the pastorate at a time when 



the congregation was singularly unset 
tled. No one thought of the new church 
then, but even before matters were ad 
justed the pastor announced his intention 
of commencing to build. Brought to a 
focus, the question created a good deal 
of discussion among the congregation, not 
as to the necessity, or the advisability, of 
building a new church, but as to the loca 
tion. The "moneyed" part of the congre 
gation stood for a church down the hill, 
or, the main street; the "poorer" ones 
took sides with the pastor, who for the 
sake of keeping the church property 
close together, advised to build in the 
block where the old church was. A few 
meetings failed to bring about an agree 
ment, except that the congregation 
should vote upon the issue. It was not 
easy to foretell the outcome, because of 
the influence, but when the vote was 
counted the "hardsorabble" had won out 
by a leading majority. The building 
committee elected by the congregation 
was composed of Messrs. Joseph Croze, 
Edward C. DesRochers, Joseph Kaspers, 
Michael Michaels, Patrick Murphy and 
Antoine Crignon. The first and last 
named of the gentlemen refused to act, 
and in their stead were appointed Jo 
seph Corrier and Joseph Stahl. Mr. 
Stahl was then elected treasurer. 

The beginning was more a courageous 
than an encouraging enterprise. The 
plans, furnished by E. Brielmaier and 
Sons, of Milwaukee, called for a church 
of fifty thousand dollars, but there were, 
after paying 250 dollars for lot 3, which 
was thought to belong to the church, but 
turned out to be owned by some one else, 
only eight hundred dollars in the treas 
ury. The first thousand was furnished 
by the young ladies of the congregation. 

The excavations began on June /, [898. 
In the fall the basement walls were com 
pleted. In the spring of 1899 it was de 
cided to roof and finish the basement. 
Contract was given to McCurdy Brothers, 
and they finished the work early in the 
fall. Sunday, the 8th of October, the 
last Mass was celebrated in the old 
church. Many a tearful farewell was 
witnessed, men and women whose life s 


incidents were so closely allied with the 
old church were sad to see the venerable 
building despoiled of its decorations 
which made it a church to them and their 
children. On Sunday, October I5th, 
Bishop Eis, who had just succeeded Bish 
op Vertin, with whose sanction the edi 
fice was begun, blessed the basement and 
confirmed a class of children. 

The basement cost ten thousand dol- 


lars. T\vo thirds were paid off at the 
time of the dedication. To get financial 
relief the pastor, although broken down 
in health, and confined to a hospital, or 
ganized (more by letter than person) a 
gigantic bazaar, which netted the sum of 
eight thousand five hundred dollars. This 
is still the banner "fair" in the diocese. 
I he following year, summer, 1901, an 
other fair was held and was scarcely less 
successful. Towards it contributed one 
hundred dollars each: James H. Seager, 


James Proyor & Sons, Dr. A. M. 
\Yheeler, Robert J. Hill, Ed. C. Des- 
Rochers, Dr. \\ illiam S. Jackson, A. L. 
Krellwitz, Michael Messner, J. II. Rice, 
Christof I ; ox, Stephen Carkeek, A. F. 
Rees, Dan. J. Murphy. James W. Goggin, 
Michael M. Foley, M. Van Orden, Dr. 
J. G. Turner, J. J Case, R. M. Edwards. 
S. J. Beahan, A. Pope, James T. Healy, 
Elizabeth Hennes, M. J. Dillon, Adolph 
Haas. Margaret Healy, Mrs. James P. 
Edwards, Casper and Catharine Brand, 
John McKenzie, Matt. Hang, Ferdinand 

Wieber, Horace J. Steyens, James R. 
Dee, Mrs. Margaret Ruppe (two hun 
dred), Joseph II. Croze, Samuel Werner, 
Joseph Strobel, Mrs. Frances McConnell, 
B. F. Chynoweth, Joseph Croze, Thomas 
S. Dee, Mrs. Emma Manderfield. 1 

Results like this and contributions from 
the parishioners warranted enough the 
building aboye the water table. Mason 
contract was awarded to Fred E. Kino- 


Co., and the wood work to McCurdy 
Brothers. They barely succeeded inclos 
ing the church that fall. 
The early spring and 
summer of 1902 witness 
ed great actiyity around 
the premises. The mason 
contractor raised the stee 
ple to its proper height, 
and while the McCurdy 
Brothers were completing 
their contract Mr. Peter 
L a u e r, of Milwaukee, 
was finishing the interior. 
Only with great hustling 
it was ready for dedi 
cation. On August 10, 
1902, Bishop Eis, sur- 
n winded by eminent ec 
clesiastics, dedicated it, the same as the 
first church, to the patronage of St. Igna 
tius Loyola. The celebration was aug 
mented by the ordination of Rey. \Y. B. 
Stahl, a son of this parish, to the priest 
hood. Besides the Rt. Rey. S. G. Mess- 
mer. Bishop of Greenbay, now Arch 
bishop of Milwaukee, who delivered the 
sermon, were present Bishop Stariha, of 

1 The pastor wishes also to acknowledge a 
similar contribution from Mrs. Amelia Wash- 
hum, Mrs. Elizabeth \\\rtin. Peter Ruppe, Sr., 
Peter Ruppe, Jr., and Mrs. Schcurmann. 



Lead: Msgr. J. J. Fox, now Bishop of 
Greenbay; Rev. Edward F. Van Hoote- 
gem, of Ilollandtown, Wis., and twenty- 
six priests of the diocese. 

At the time of the dedication just the 
necessary furniture was installed for the 
very subtantial reason the lack of funds. 
But since then the generosity of the peo 
ple provided three line Gothic altars at 
the cost of as many thousand dollars, and 
more than four thousand were expended 
on art glass windows, which are, of 
course, all individual donations. The 
windows were made by the Gavin Art 
Glass Works of Milwaukee. Other im 
provements it would be too tedious to 
enumerate. The total cost of the church 
and furniture is upward of sixty-five 
thousand dollars, of which sixteen thou 
sand are hypothecated at this writing. 

As everywhere in the diocese where 
strictest economy allows it, a parochial 
school is maintained so also in Hough- 
ton. In the early days of Father Jacker s 
time, when educational advantages of 
Hough ton were not so boastful, the priest 
gathered children, Protestant and Catho 
lic alike, into the sacristy of the church 
and taught them elementary branches. 
There was a public school right opposite 
the church, but it was kept on a tuition 
plan, and for obvious reasons not always 
within the reach of all like the priest s 
school, who gave what he gave gratui 
tously. This "academy" existed only to 
meet the exigencies of those times. The 
same way Catholic children frequented 
afterwards when the school system im 
proved the public schools. In 188" the 
congregation had reached, in the judg 
ment of the Bishop, that stage of material 
comforts which enable them to support a 

school. The spirit of the world is always 
against retrenchment. So there were not 
a few in the congregation who strenu 
ously opposed the new burden of paroch 
ial education. But the school was built 
perhaps somewhat short of the demands 
of times but even at that, credit is due 
to Father Atfield to have accomplished 
what he did under adverse circumstances. 
It has and is fulfilling its mission, and 
rates today as high as any educational 
agency of this size in the county or state. 
In September, 1887, it first opened doors, 


unfortunately, to all applicants. The in 
discriminate admission had the sad con 
sequence that the attendance became sub 
sequently as scant as it was in the begin 
ning overflowing. In 1895 there were 
only one hundred twenty pupils enrolled 
and one room out of four empty. In 
1896 the antiquated system of tuition 
was abolished. Houghton. therefore, en 
joys the distinction of having had the first 
free school in the diocese. This innova 
tion was hailed with the delight by the 
parents whose offspring attended the 
school. The enrollment grew larger, but 


still, in 1899-1900, the fourth room was 
not needed and \vas occupied by a large 
grade of the public school and the entire 
old church, too while their new building 
was under construction. In the fall, 
1900, the fourth room came into commis 
sion by the opening of the seventh grade, 
and since then the attendance has been in 
creasing so much that in September, 1900, 
a iilth room has been opened on the third 
floor of the Sisters residence. For the 
year there is an average enrollment of 


two hundred and seventy-five pupils. 

The teaching was entrusted to the Sis 
ters of St. Agnes of Fond du Lac, \Yis. 
The first faculty was composed of Sisters 
M. Bernard, superior; M. Augustine, M. 
Dionysia, M. Ida, M. Liguori, M. There 
sa, and M. Blanche. 

There is but one more interesting chap 
ter of this parish to be told a law suit. 

In March, 1893, Messrs. Joseph Croze, 
Joseph llennes (now deceased), Charles 
Ruelle. Ferdinand \Yieber. Christof Fox, 

Michael J. Dillon, Adolph Haas and Cas 
par Brand jointly purchased what is 
known as the Fish property, or the Michi 
gan House. The title was vested in Jo 
seph Croze, as trustee, while the others 
appear as endorsers of the note on which 
money was raised in the National Bank 
at Iloughton to pay for the property. 
1 he purchase was made for uses and pur 
poses of the St. Ignatius congregation, 
and in accordance an option was given 
to Bishop Vertin, or his successors in 
office, on behalf of the congrega 
tion, to acquire the property, by 
liquidating all obligation standing 
against the property, on or before 
the 4th day of April, 1896. 

About the same time that the 
above named gentlemen entered 
upon the purchase of the Fish 
property, a society was formed 
from among the ladies of the con 
gregation to raise funds for a new 
church. Later the ladies were in 
duced by Mr. Croze and his com 
panions to make their cause com 
mon. But in case that the church 
should refuse to avail itself of the 
option, then the ladies should have 
an undivided half-interest in the 
property, and as a guarantee for it Mr. 
Croze conveyed the title to one undivided 
half to Mrs. Flizabeth Hennes, trustee 
for the Xo Xame Club or Harmony Club, 
as the ladies - society was respectively 

The ladies went to \vork with an, as-a- 
matter-of-course idea in their minds, that 
it was all for the church, and so by means 
of socials, public entertainments, their 
fees as well as the rents of the property 
they succeeded paying the interest on the 



borrowed money, taxes, insurances, gen 
eral maintenances, as also, from time to 
time, reduced the principal. While this 
work of "clearing" the property went on 
no one seemed to pay attention to the lim 
itation of time, and almost two years 
passed after the expiration of the option. 
On this account, when the pastor called 
for the surrender of the property he was 
refused not only by the defendants in 
this suit, but even the members of the 
Harmony Club were divided on the 
subject. No reasoning brought satis 
factory results, and he threatened suit. 
When the Harmony Club members saw 
that he meant earnest, fourteen out 
of sixteen active members voted their 
share to be conveyed to the church, and 
for the other half suit was entered in 
the circuit court in and for Houghton 
County. The case was heard in May, 
1905. All defendants 1 except Joseph 
Croze confessed the facts as set forth 
in the bill of complaint by non-appear 
ance in the court. Upon hearing the 
evidence the circuit judge, the Hon. 
Albert Streeter, gave his opinion in 
favor of the complainant, and after the 
formalities of the law were complied 
with, entered the decree April 26, 1906, 
to the same effect. The legal ends of 
the suit were looked after by Chad- 
bourne & Rees for the defendant and by 
L. N. Legris for the complainant. 

Mr. Croze took appeal from the above 
decision and the matter is before the su 
preme court for a final adjudification. 

This place was first attended from 

1 Messrs. C. Brand and M. J. Dillon were only 
passive defendants in this suit. 

Houghton as a mission. Besides the ex 
tensive farming the Sturgeon River Lum 
ber Company s mills help to maintain the 
town. Mass was celebrated for several 
years in the school house, but in 1890 
steps were taken to build a church. For 
the purpose two lots were donated by the 
lumber company, and under the superin- 
tendance of Father R. Regis, who also 
became in July, 1890, the first resident 


pastor, the church went up. His suc 
cessor. Rev. P. Girard, built the house. 
He remained with the congregation from 
May 12, 1891, to June 6, 1894. Other 
pastors were : 

Rev. Joseph Hoeber, during July, 1894. 
Sickness compelled him to retire. 

Rev. I . Datin. from August, 1894, to 
April. 1896. 



Rev. T. Y. Dassylva, from May, 1896, 
to May, 1898. 

Rev. Fabian Marceau, from June, 
1898, to October, K>OJ. 

Rev. A. \ ermare, the present paster, 
from November 14, K;OJ. 

There belong one hundred and twenty- 
five families to the parish, all of which, 
except three Irish, are French-Canadian. 

TON, MICH., KKBRfARY 2>S, 1X73, ( ) R I) A I N K I) 
UST 24, KJOO. 



This settlement dates from 1865. In 
March of that year the South Pewabic 
Copper Company began working- on the 
Pewabic lode. Under mismanagement 
the company went into bankruptcy, and 
in 1872 was formed, together with the 
Adams Mining Company, into Atlantic 

Mining Company. Catholic services were 
held at the mine from the very beginning 
of mining operations there. Father Ver- 
tin was the first to establish regular ser 
vices once a month. Mass was said in the 
school-house, though not a few times it 
was celebrated in different private houses. 
The pastors of Houghton maintained 
this status until 1898. In the summer of 
that year Father Rczek raised among the 
fifty families the sum of three hundred 
dollars, and commenced the building of 
the church on a lot - 00x200, leased by the 
mining company for ninety-nine years. 
Hard was the struggle of the few to get 
a church, but they accomplished what they 
thought at first impossible. From non- 
Catholics they received very substantial 
aid, but in particular from Mr. Michael 
Messner, who not only gave liberal cash 
contributions as it is his way wherever 
he can to succor the needy but his teams, 
regardless of the busy season, hauled the 
building material from the scows at the 
old Atlantic mill. The carpenter work- 
was done by the McCurdy Brothers, and 
the writer recalls with great pleasure their 
foreman, Mr. Kenny, who, a Scotchman 
and a Protestant, was the very personifi 
cation of an ideal workman, moulded into 
a gentleman. Unfortunately meningitis 
took him off the next spring to a better 
world. \Ye must also mention Michael 
Menkovski, who plastered the church, 
with the assistance of one paid tender, as 
his contribution towards the building 
fund. The church was ready for dedica 
tion December 18, 1898. Illness, which 
two months later proved fatal, prevented 
Bishop Yertin from coming up, and in 
his place the pastor. Father Rezek, as 
sisted by Fathers Peter \Yelling, O. F. 



M. and John Mocklcr, dedicated it on the 
above date to the patronage of Saint 
Alary, Star of the Sea. 

The cost of the church with all neces 
sary furnishing- was only thirty-six hun 
dred dollars, which at the time the place 
received a resident priest was all paid 
off except three hundred and fifty dollars. 
This was as much due to the painstaking 
of Clemens Steimle and John Miron who 
were the general collectors as to the gen 
erosity of the people. After the 
dedication, Mass was still being said 
only once a month until September 
1899, but from that time till April 
1902, when it became a parish, every 
Sunday and holy day of obligation. 
The first resident pastor was Rev. 
Adolph Schneider and after him, 
July 1904, the present incumbent, 
Rev. Frederick Richter. 

At the time when this church was 
built it was thought to be amply big 
for all times, but restless search for 
copper was bountifully rewarded by 
the now flourishing mines at Baltic. 
Trimountain, and Painsdale. In 
consequence the territory became 
like an ant-hill, a ceaseless activity 
spreading through the section so 
happily tapped by the Copper Range 
road. The farthest settlement is five 
miles from the church, it was therefore 
thought best to erect a second church, 
which was done at Painesdale in 1905. 
The site was donated by the Copper 
Range Consolidated Mining Company. 

Father Richter s flock is as diverse ac 
cording to nationality as it is scattered 
over a large territory. There are Croa- 
tians, Slovenians, Poles, Italians, Ger 
mans, French and Irish. Most of the 

foreigners have families in their native 
country, so that it is impossible to gain 
a fair idea of the parish by the number 
of families. 



Hancock, now a city, owes its existence 
and growth to the Ouincy Mining Com 
pany. It was platted by George D. Em 
erson in 1859. In August (20) 1860 


Bishop Baraga and Father Jacker se 
lected lots 9 and 10 of block 8 for a 
church site. The Ouincy Mining Com 
pany donated this ground but for some 
reasons no deeds were executed until July 
2, 1875. A week later, after the se 
lection, Bishop Baraga on his visit to Ke- 
weenaw awarded the contract for the 
building of the church to John Burns who 
promised to have it ready before winter, 
but owing to the scarcity of suitable help 


he first commenced it in the spring and 
completed it by the end of July. Dedi 
catory services were held on the 4th of 
August and St. Anne was chosen as the 
patroness of the new mission. On the 
occasion Bishop Baraga, assisted by 
Fathers Jacker, Fox and Seif, celebrated 
a Pontifical High-Mass and confirmed 
forty-eight persons. This was the first 
confirmation held in Hancock. 



The St. Anne s church was a frame 
structure of no small dimensions, built in 
the prevailing style: a small, square bel 
fry over the front gable, a vestibule in the 
front and the indispensable addition in the 
rear for a rectory. In this instance the 
rectory was of extraordinary proportions 
and formed almost a cross with the church 
only that it extended more into the lot 
towards the east, giving the structure an 

L shape. The house portion was not en 
tirely finished on the day of the dedication 
of the church. Father Jacker and his as 
sistant. Father Seif, therefore, continued 
to li\ e in lloughton and crossed and re- 
crossed the Portage in a canoe or on the 
ferry as necessity required. On the day 
of the dedication Bishop Baraga wrote in 
his diary: "From this day on there will 
be services in Hancock as well as in 
lloughton." This order was not only 
observed on Sundays but many times 
during the week. Only when left 
alone, about the middle of September, 
Father Jacker, after moving to Han 
cock altogether, said one Mass in Han 
cock and the other one in Houghton, 
but seldom crossed the lake to the south 
side on weekdays. 

On the joth of September 1862, Rev. 
James Sweeney came to Father Jacker 
as assistant. His arrival sounded new 
signals among the young people. The 
strictures he placed and sometimes 
made woefully felt on dances and like 
gatherings are still remembered by the 
survivors. Enjoying the fullest confi 
dence of his pastor Father Sweeney 
pitilessly enforced his principles, so 
that his name spelled terror to the 
merry-makers in the surrounding hills. 
Traversing the parish in his ministe 
rial duties nothing escaped his keen obser 
vation. Among the young men he found 
one of college training, but, who for want 
of means had given up higher aspirations 
and was about to disappear among the 
every day men. Him he presented to 
Father Jacker with whose encouragement 
and help he resumed the given-up studies. 
To this one another one was added and 
Edmund \Yalsh and \Yilliatn Dwyer 


soon formed the nucleus of a college. 
Under the professorship <>t 1 ather Jacker 
they were as rapidly advanced as their 
talents permitted. The life of the two 
priests and their students resemhled much 
that of a community and in 1805 when the 
students, together with Rev. Peter Galla 
gher, were raised to the priesthood at the 
instance of their preceptor, serious 
thoughts were entertained as to laying the 
foundation to a religious community. 
Their number was, however, immediately 
reduced by two. Father Sweeney was 
made to accompany Father Gallagher to 
Beaver Island and a year after Father 
Jacker was himself called to Marquette. 
St. Anne s parish remained in charge of 
Fathers "Walsh and Dwyer and they re 
ceived from Father Vertin of Houghton 
and in October 1867 from Father Ce- 
bul as much assistance as they needed 


for the French and German. For the 
same end Father Stohrr was assistant 
from September to December 1866. The 
consecration of Bishop Mrak, February 
7, 1869 finally dispelled all aspirations to 
a religious community. Father Jacker 
was sent to form a new congregation at 
Calumet. Father Walsh went to Green 
Bay diocese. Father Sweeney returned to 
Iowa, and Father Dwyer was left alone 
in charge of the Hancock parish. For 
the French and German, assistants were 
appointed from time to time. Rev. Fred 
eric Gerst, in September 1869; Rev. H. 
L. Thiele, June 1870; Rev. Luke Mozina 
in April and May 1872; and Rev. J. A. 
Hubly from May 30, 1873 to June 30, 

At this juncture the Bishop thought 
that, in view of the scarcity of priests, 
one priest, being able to speak the three 

languages, could take care of the parish, 
he removed Father Dwyer July o, 1874. 
and appointed in his place his former as 
sistant. Father Hubly. This move met 
with a resistance which led to the closing 
of the church and the placing of the mal 
contents under indictment. On October 
iith Bishop Mrak personally opened the 
church and on the 25th appointed Rev. 
Frederick Eis pastor who labored in the 
congregation until August 10, 1880. 


Since then the list of pastors and their 
assistants is as follows : 

Rev. Edward Jacker, second term, from 
August 10, 1880 to July 13, 1884. As 
sistants : Rev. Thomas J. Atfield, from 
May 14, 1880 to February 7. 1882; Rev. 
Jerome Henkel, July and August 1881 ; 
Rev. T. A. Majerus, from February 2Oth 
to October 3. 1882; Rev. Martin Kehoe, 
from October 28, 1882 to October 7, 



1883; Rev. M. ( )rth, from September 
1 6th to C)ctol>er 14, 1883; Rev. \V. 
Dwyer, from October 22, 1883 to July 
13, 1884. 

Rev. Cbarles Langner. pastor, from 
July JO, 1884 to September 27. 1885. 
His assistants. Rev. l ; . X. P>ecker from 
July 22, 1884 to February 22, 1885; Rev. 
\\ inserter, from March <jth to April 13, 

MARTI! 15, 1870, ORDAINED 1M M A RO V I. T l I-; 

Rev. Josepli Barron. pastor, from July 
9th to October 25, 1885. 

Rev. J. Ignatius Otis. pastor, from De 
cember 10, 1885 to September 30, 1888. 

Rev. T. J. Atfield, the present pastor 
from October i, 1888. His assistants: 
Rev. Christopher Murphy, from Septem 
ber 19. 1899 to April i, 1890: Rev. Den 
nis Geary, from July 15. 1890. to Sep- 

t ember 10. 1891 ; Rev. Joseph C. Wallace, 
from October 18, 1893 to March i, 1894; 
Rev. J. B. McGowan, from July to 
October 1894; Rev. F. N. Barth, from 
August i, to November 15, 1895; Rev. 
Alexander Hasenberg, from October 
i8<)7 to January 1898; Rev. W. Shea, 
from May 15, to September loth 1898; 
Rev. John Mockler from October 15, 
1898 to February 10, 1899; Rev. Frede 
rick Richter, from July 5, 1901 to Sep 
tember i, 1901; Rev. T. A. Kennedy, 
from October i. 1901 to August 10, 
1902; Rev. F. Swift, from August 15, 
1902, to February i, 1905. 

In course of twenty-five years St. 
Anne s church had become non-service 
able. All concerned were agreed upon 
that point and steps were taken to secure 
a modern house of worship. It seemed 
providential that it should fall to the lot 
of Father Jacker to build a second church 
tor a congregation which he had started 
more than a score of years ago, but it was 
precisely that that delighted the veteran 
missionary and spurred him on in the un 
dertaking towards which he found good 
will abundantly in evidence among the 
parishioners. But when the foundations 
began to rise slowly out of the ground he 
also realized that he was overtaxing his 
own strength, and, like a wise man, re 
signed, yielding the honors and labors to 
a younger man. Father Langner finished 
the basement, but just then it occurred to 
them all. as an after-thought, that the di 
mensions, 125x65 feet, though extraor 
dinarily large, were hardly large enough 
for the accommodation of the ever grow 
ing Catholic population. As a. remedy 
for the hastily committed mistake the par 
tition of the parish naturally came up for 



consideration. \\ ith the division agreed 
upon and sanctioned by the Bishop, he 
placed upon the old property a valuation 
of five thousand dollars to be paid to the 
out-going party or parties. The Irish 
members at once volunteered to retain the 
old property; the German voted to build 
for themselves: and the French remained 
undecided, but after mature deliberation 
that they would be easier served from the 
German church, they decided to cast their 
lot with them. 

The education of the youth, always of 
the greatest concern to the Church, was 
not less exhibited in the parish of Han- 

Sisters Gregory, Louis, Dominica, Alary 
Sacred Heart, and Raymond, under the 
superioress, Mother Gonzaga, opened 
their respective classes. For lack of room 
in the school building class-rooms were 
opened in the convent for the teaching of 
German and French. This order was 
maintained until the close of the scholas 
tic year of 1871. The panic years that 
followed made the existence of the school 
impossible. F>ut in 1877 resumed their 
duties and since then have conducted the 
school under the following superioresses: 
Mother Genevieve, 1877-79; Mother 
Philomene, 1879-82; Mother Mathilda. 

cock, as elsewhere in the young diocese. 
This lesson so well learned from the Ven 
erable Bishop Baraga, Father Jacker pur 
chased the three lots, n, 12 and 13, 
facing: Franklin street and abutting the 


original holdings, with a view of estab 
lishing a school. The old building on 
lot No. ii was remodeled into a school. 
Mr. T- B. Looney was the first teacher in 
this institution. In 1866 two buildings, 
from lots 12 and 13 were merged into 
one to be the residence for the Sisters of 
St. Joseph who were invited to take hold 
of the school. In September of that year 

1882-84; Mother Angelina, 1884-87; 
Mother Azeline, 1887-88; Mother Eliza 
beth, 1888-92; Mother Xavier, 1892-94; 
Mother Cassilda, 1894-98; Mother Co- 

lumba, 1898-1900; Mother Baptista 
1900-04; Mother Ursula, 1904. 

The first school burned in February 
(23) 1884 and the classes were transfer 
red to the basement of St. Patrick s Hall. 
F.arly in 1888 Father Otis resumed the 
building of the church from the water- 
table up. After enclosing the building 
and brick-veneering it, he finished the 
basement and removed thither the classes 



where they remained until September 
1888 when the new school was ready for 

St. Patrick s school is one of the larg 
est and best equipped in the diocese. It 
numbers three hundred and sixty-five 
pupils. The curriculum embraces a full 
high school course which has been credit 
ably maintained since 1890. 

Old St. Anne s church was in use 
nearly thirty years. Time made it an old 
land-mark. It had witnessed the de 
struction bv fire of almost the entire town. 

on April 11, 1869. On that memorable 
day nearly everything- around it lay in 
ashes and fifteen years later was again 
left unscorched by the burning of the 
school building" touching almost its eaves. 
Spared by the elements it was at last 
compelled by the hand of man to give 
place to a new building. Father Atfield, 
immediately upon his coming to the par 
ish, commenced the interior finishing of 
the new church. All through the winter of 
1888-89 work was vigorously prosecuted 
so that on March 17. 1889, the festal day 

of the Irish national patron, it could be 
dedicated to his honor. The blessing was 
performed by Bishop Vertin with the as 
sistance of the pastor, Father Atfield, and 
the Fathers Langner, Krogulski, Chapuis 
and Dassylva. To remove any possible 
danger from fire the old church and with 
it its twin-building, the house, was torn 
down in the fall. In their place the pres 
ent rectory was erected and first occupied 
on the 1 6th of August 1891. Two years 
later almost to a day foundations were 
laid to a new school and hurried to com 
pletion so that in February 
1894 the Sisters were able 
to occupy their new quarters 
and in September following 
the classes moved to their 
present rooms. 

The congregation of St. 
Patrick numbers four hun 
dred and fifty families scat 
tered through the city, the 
(Juincy-hill and R i p 1 e y. 
Their sacrificing spirit can 
best be appreciated by the 
amounts spent for the church 
property, besides the annual 
maintenance: the cost of 
church, thirty thousand dollars; school, 
sixteen thousand dollars; priest s resi 
dence, five thousand five hundred dollars; 
frescoing of the church in 1905, and the 
pipe organ, five thousand dollars. 

The cemetery known as the Catholic 
cemetery was blessed by Father Fis on 
June 20, 1875. 


The necessity of a new church in place 
of the old St. Anne s also brought up the 


division of the parish. The. question 
touched upon, it soon became apparent 
that the three predominant nationalities, 
Irish, German and French, could no 
longer peaceably dwell under the same 
roof. But they could peaceably divide 
their common property. The outgoing 
party was alloted five thousand dollars. 
The Germans took their share and went 
looking for a site which was not so easy 
to find without going off the main thor 
oughfare or too far from the center. In 


those days there were few houses beyond 
the present site and none on the other side 
of the railroad track. Mr. Daniel Gloeck- 
ner, clerk of the Quincy Mining Company 
found out that his company owned a tri 
angular piece of land next to the public 
school property. With his assistance this 
was secured for a consideration of one 
thousand dollars and the deed executed in 
1885. The building was commenced at 
once. Under Father Langner, who was 
still in charge of the old St. Anne s con 
gregation, the corner stone was laid to 
the new church on June 21, 1885. While 
the church was being built the French, not 
numerous enough to build for themselves, 
decided to cast their lot with the Germans 
for the simple reason that provision for 
their language could be easier made in se 
lection of the pastor for the just forming 
congregation. In October the church was 
blessed in honor of St. Joseph and the 
parish started under its own regime. Rev. 
Charles Langner became its first pastor 
and held the office from October 18, 1885 
to September 20, 1888. He lived in a 
rented home on corner of Hancock and 
Menard streets. His successor, Rev. E. 
Chapuis purchased a residence on Ryan 
street, in close proximity of the church. 

There the pastors continued to live until 
1894 when it was sold and the following 
year the present modern rectory built by 
Father Keller, who designed it and super 
intended its construction. It was first oc 
cupied on Thanksgiving day 1895. 

The priests who have served the parish 
offer an interesting study. Their varied 
complex is due to the dual-language used 
in the church. During the summer 


10, 1903. 

months of 1886, probable absence of Fa 
ther Langner, there are occasional entries 
of baptisms by Father J. Ignatius Otis. 
Joseph S. La Boule, Joseph Rainer, Mich 
ael Letellier and Don Vento. The list 
after Father Langner is as follows: 

Rev. F. Chapuis from October 13, 1888 
to March 21, 1889. Ad interim Revs. 



Joseph Xalokar and T. V. Dassylva, April 


Rev. A. Th. Schuettelhofer. from May 
5th to August 4, 1889. 

Rev. Julius Baron von Gumpenberg, 
administrator, from August 11, i88<> to 
February 10, 1890. 

Rev. John Kossbiel. from February 
1 6th to April f>, 1890. 

Rev. Joseph R. Boissonnatilt, from 
.April (, to August 17, 1890 with the as 
sistant. Rev. P.Joseph I loeber. July 1890. 

At this time Bishop Yertin thought 
that it would be best for the interests 
of the parish if some religious com 
munity took hold of it. He offered it 
to the Franciscan Fathers who already 
had two houses in the diocese. First 
Father Peter Welling, O. F. M. came 
down from Calumet for a few Sundays 
until Father Francis S. Schafer, O. F. M. 
was appointed by the Provincial the first 
pastor from their Order. The Order held 
the parish one year, from .August I, 1890 
to the latter part of July 1891. There not 
being enough work for two Fathers they 
rather gave up the place than to go con 
trary to their rules of keeping only one 
priest where no absolute necessity de 
manded it. Father Francis was assisted 
during this pastorate first by Father Peter 
Welling O. V. M. (September 7th to No 
vember 9. 1890) and Father Ignatius 
Welkins, O. F. M. (December 4, 1890 to 
July 19, 1891.) 

I pon the retiring of the Franciscans, 
Rev. Joseph Hoeber was made pastor, 
from August I, 1891 to August 22, 1892. 
A short time during the summer of 1891, 
Rev. A. Poulin was assistant. 

Rev. F. Slitter from .August 28, 1892 
to A Fay 13, 1893. 

Rev. F. Fis, from May 29, to October 
24, 1893. 

Rev. A. C. Keller from November 5, 
1893 to June 21, 1901 the day of his 
death. During his illness Father Otto 
/iegler, O. F. M. and afterwards Rev. A. 
Schneider performed duties of assistants. 

Rev. A. W. (ieers, from June 23, 1901 
to March 22. 1907. 

Rev. A. \Vaechter, the present pastor, 
from March 22, 1907. 

The St. Joseph congregation maintains 
a parochial school since September 1888, 
opened under the direction of St. Joseph s 


Sisters. The neat and substantial brick 
building was erected in Father Langner s 
time. Many substantial alterations were 
made by Father (ieers for the accommo 
dation of higher grades. The curriculum 
embraces eight grades and there are five 
teachers employed at the institution. 

The congregation, over three hundred 
families strong, is composed of German 
and French, with some sprinkling of other 
nationalities, particularly Italians and 



In 1889 the Lake Superior Smelting 
Works anil a copper wire mill was located 
on the bay. Around these two industries 
grew up the present prosperous village of 
Dollar Bay, at first called Clark. Being 
only four miles from lloughton or Han 
cock the first Catholic residents attended 
religious services at either of the two 
places. Subsequently, as their number 
increased, Mass was said for their benefit 
by one of the Hancock priests in the 
school house. The initiative collection 
for the building of a church was made by 
Father Hoeber. Two lots were donated 
by the Dollar Bay Land & Improvement 
Company. During the summer of 1892 
the church was completed and blessed by 
Bishop Vertin, on the 6th of November 
of that year. Present at the dedication 
were Fathers Atfield, Sutter, Molinari, 
Marceau, Zalokar and Rev. Joseph Du- 
pasquier who had been made the first 
pastor, October 3Oth. A vacancy oc 
curred by December i_|th. Fathers Atfield 
of St. Patrick s Hancock and Joisten of 
St. Ignatius lloughton, attended to the 
wants of the parish until shortly before 
Christmas when Rev. A. J. Doser became 
pastor. He took steps towards building 
the rectory and at the time of his removal 
from Dollar Bay. December 9, 1894. it 
was completed. With a few successful 
fairs his successor was enabled to pay for 
it, and finish it suitably. Rev. H. Zimmer 
man remained with the parish from 
March 16, 1895, to December 10, 1899. 
He was immediately succeeded by the 
present pastor. Rev. James Miller. 

Finding the parish without debt Father 

Miller saw opportunities for desirable im 
provements. In 1901 he lengthened out 
the church by thirty feet, furnished three 
altars, confessional, railing, statuary, sta 
tions, and a hot air furnace. F<>ur thou 
sand dollars were expended on these im 
provements and one thousand upon the 
house and yard. 

One hundred and ten families consti 
tute the parish. They are Irish, French, 
Slovenian and German. 

Gross Point three miles distant, is a 
mission with fortv. mostly Canadian, 

families. Mass is said there every other 



The town is an outgrowth of the Calu 
met and Hecla mining interests. Here 
the company s smelters are located. They 
were built in 1887 and since then, with the 
enlargement of this industry, the popula 
tion drawn to this point, is very consider 
able. The first houses lined up along the 
township road for almost two miles com 
pelled the late comers to scatter upon the 


y or THE DIOCESE or 

which have added no inconsiderable con 
tingent to the parish. 

Most of tiie first employes at the smel 
ters came from Lake Linden where the 
Catholics were accustomed to attend at 
one of the two churches. This member 
ship was maintained for a couple ot years 


\H.\K MAKnrK TTK. AUGUST 24, 1867, OR, 


when tired of the long walks of two miles 
to church the subject of a new church was 
reached. On August 24. 1^93 Rev. Jo 
seph A. Sauriol was appointed to take 
care of the new congregation. Mass was 
first said in the old skating-rink. The 
site was selected in the heart of the vil 

lage and purchased for fourteen hundred 
dollars from Dr. Simonson. The corner 
stone was laid bv Bishop Vertin on the 
_ 4th of September and on the first day of 
November Mass was celebrated in the 
new church. Father Sauriol remained 
till October in, 1^94 and bv the first of 
November was succeeded bv Rev. Ra 
phael Cavicchi under whose administra 
tion of live vears the congregation mate- 
riallv prospered. On November 5th. 1^99, 
Rev. James Miller received the appoint 
ment, but. with the approval of the Or 
dinary, one month later, exchanged the 
place with his neighbor of Dollar P>ay, the 
Rev. II. Zimmermann, who is still pastor. 
The first two pastors lived in rented 
homes till Father Cavicchi built the pres 
ent brick rector\-. For several years it 
looked as though the congregation would 
have a straggling existence but it quickly 
rose to prominence. Its pastors under 
stood well how to guide it to prosperity. 
Not only did the congregation pay for its 
property of church and house but since 
iS<)9, while it may be tedious to mention 
everything, we may say that the church 
was frescoed; new altars, light fixtures 
and many vestments furnished, the house 
provided with a heating apparatus, and, 
to meet a popular demand, a twenty 
thousand dollar school built. Most of the 
time it is more difficult to maintain the 
school than to build one. In this parish 
the free system was adopted from the 
first. The eight graded institution is in 
charge of the Sisters of St. Francis of 
Milwaukee. They opened school Septem 
ber 1903 and the first staff of teachers 
consisted of Mother M. Gertrud and Sis 
ters Kathryn, Damascene. Roberta, Cor- 
dula. Paul. Cassilda, and Luscilla. 




The crowded condition of St. Joseph s 
church necessitated a separation, made 
must feasibly on the lines of nationality. 
The French, as the strongest of the three, 
gave their German and Irish co-parish 
ioners four thousand dollars and retained 
all acquired property. Mr. Joseph Bosch 
donated, directly ahead of Central street, 
on the hill, a site for the buildings of the 
new congregation. Rev. John Henn, who 
filled the first pastorship was succeeded on 
May ist by Rev. A. Th. Schuettelhofer. 
Under his direction the new rectory and 
church went up. The latter was dedicated 
by Bishop Vertin on October 12, 1888 to 
the honor of the 1 Messed Virgin under the 
title of Holy Rosary. The building was 
of frame constructed two-story-like with 
a view of opening a school. Two laymen 
George and Michael Kunkel. brothers, 
were engaged as teachers, one of whom 
also filled the position of organist. Father 
Xosbisch partitioned off the lower story 
into four rooms and furnished them for 
school purposes. The Sisters of Xotre 
Dame of Milwaukee were invited to take 
charge of the school. Three Sisters ar 
rived, Sister M. Redempta, Sister M. Gis- 
ella, and Sister M. Orielda. For their ac 
commodation Father Xosbisch had pur 
chased a house in the closest vicinity of the 
school. Classes commenced on Septem 
ber i, 1894. In 1896 Sister M. Etienne 
became superior and in 1903, at the in 
stance of Father Doser, another room was 
opened, making eight grades in all. In 
struction is given in English, but Ger 
man is taught to pupils of German de 

After Father Schuettelhofer, who sev 
ered his connection \vitli the parish April 
28, .1889 the following were pastors: 

Rev. Joseph Haas, from May 3, 1889 
to August 3, 1890. 

Rev. A. \\ . (leers, from August JO, 
1890 to June i i , 1893. 

Rev. X. II. Xosbisch from June 18, 
1893 to February 13, 1895. 

Rev. Joseph E. Xetimair, from Febru- 


ary 25, 1895 to June 2, 1896. 

Rev. X. II. Xosbisch, second term, 
from June 6, 1896 to December 3, 1898. 

Rev. Joseph E. Xeumair, second term, 
from December 4, 1898 to October 20, 
1 90 1 . 

Rev. John Henn, from October 26th 
to December i, 1901. 

Rev. Frederick Richter, from Decem 
ber i, 1901 to July 12, 1903. 


Rev. A. J. Doser. from July 17, 1903, fall term of 1905. The priest rents a 

to July 7. i <)<")-(-. 

home for his residence until lie is enabled 

l\ev. Henry Reis, the present pastor, to build one. 

I he congregation is composed of sev 
enty (ierman, twelve Irish and ten other 
families of French extraction who have 
affiliated with the church. 



Although some attempt had been made 

from July iS, 1904. 

On June i. i<)<)5 the house and church 
became a prey of the flames. The con 
gregation found a temporary shelter in 
the city hall. Steps were immediately 
made towards rebuilding the church. Op 
position against the steep hill was heard 
from different directions and at a final at settling this place in the fifties when the 

first house was built at the 
head of the Torch Lake, it 
was really spurred to growth 
and organization after the 
great Calumet and Hecla 
c o m p a n y located their 
stamps at this point in 1867. 
About this time there were 
only twenty-five Catholic 
families living at Torch Lake 
as the to\vn was then called 
and known by that name un 
til i<88_>. The post office, es 
tablished July 23, i<8()<8, was 
called Linden Lake till grad 
ually, in 1882, it was trans 
pose! 1 into Lake Linden 
which n a m e h a s since 
meeting of the interested parties, it was been applied to the village. \Yhat there 
agreed to buy a new site available on the was of Catholic inhabitants found em- 
main street. Lots n and 12 of Block i, ployment either at the Calumet and Tlecla 
Torch Lake City, were bought for one stamps or with the lumber manufactur- 
thousand four hundred dollars from Mr. ing company of Joseph Gregoire. Di- 
Jacob Brown. I pon this site a new, mod- vine services they all attended at Calumet 
crn building arose, a combination of till later Mass was occasionally celebrated 
church and school just as the old one was. in the public school building and in pri- 
The church was solemnly dedicated by vate houses. To obviate the pressing need 
Bishop Lis on June 24, 1906. of a building for this purpose, Mr. Gre- 

The school which was held in two go ire commenced building a small church 
empty store rooms re-opened with the on the site of the present one and when 




he was about to inclose the structure Rev. 
Francis Heliard was appointed pastor. 
For a time he resided in Calumet with 
Father J acker and from there superin 
tended the building of his church. At his 
request Mr. Gregoire added ten feet to the 
original design and on the 27th of August 
1871 the edifice was dedicated to St. Jo 
seph de Calasant. This initial day was 
replete with solemnity; Bishop Mrak cele 
brated Pontifical-Highmass and in the af 
ternoon Pontifical Vespers. Twenty-three 
person s children and 
adults received first Holy 
Communion and were con 
firmed. The first baptism 
was on June 13, 1871 of 
Jean Baptiste Edmond Cor- 
beil, and on the same day 
the first marriage took 
place : Delphis Thibodeau 
and Marie Montague. The 
first burial was that of Ma 
dame Beaudel, on October 
5, 1871. She was interred 
in a cemetery above where 
the convent now stands, but 
transferred, June 14, 1874, 
to the new cemetery, still 
in use. 

After the church was completed Mr. 
Gregoire interested himself in a rectory. 
He gave all the required lumber and nine 
hundred dollars in money towards the 
building of it. In those days priests resi 
dences were mostly rear-end-additions to 
the churches. The Lake Linden presby 
tery was stately, palatial inside and out 
side, but so only through the munificence 
of Mr. Gregoire. who, during life would 
not have it known how much he did for 
the church or house or later for the con- 

vent. Father Ilcliard was removed from 
Lake Linden to Menominee, June 15, 
1881, and was succeeded by Rev. Peter C. 
Menard. How rapidly the congregation 
was growing is well demonstrated by the 
fact, that, although the church received a 
liberal addition in 1876 through the liber 
ality of its old patron. Father Menard, at 
the beginning of his administration, saw 
himself compelled to remodel the first 
church. It was more a new church than 
remodeled one, though the first one was 


used in its entirety. On the 5th of No 
vember 1882 Bishop Yertin re-dedicated 
it in honor of St. Joseph, S. B. M. V.- 
the first patron having been lost sight of. 
Education of youth was not neglected. 
Particular stress was laid on teaching the 
off-spring of French parents their mater 
nal language. Madame (Adeline Gar- 
can) Pierre Pichette opened a class with 
seventy pupils in 1881 about where the 
new Holy Rosary church stands. The 
following vear the attendance increased 



to one hundred and thirty-five pupils and 
new quarters for their accommodation 
were located on the corner of Calumet and 
Torch streets. In 1886 the stately school 
was finished and the Sisters of the Holy 
Cross trom Xotre 1 )ame. Indiana, under 
Mother Euphrasine, took charge of the 
school. They taught for three years and 
gave uj) the institution in 1889. Five lay 
teachers took their place. In 1893 the 
Sisters of Jesus and Mary (Montreal, 
I*. <_).) accepted the school but held it 

only two years, when it was again, for one 
year, conducted by lay teachers, who, in 
the fall of 1896 were succeeded by the 
present teaching community of the Sisters 
of St. Joseph (Concordia, Kansas). The 
first band, under Sister Alary Anne, were 
Sisters: Flavian, Justina, Fdward, Mar 
tha, Loretta, Evarista, Anastasia, and 
Germaine. The year after Sisters Marce- 
lina de Margaret and in 1888 Sister Mad 
eline were added to the teaching staff. 
In 1889 Sister Clara became superior but 

was succeeded in the fall of 1903 by Sis 
ter Ambrosia. 

Father Menard severed his connection 
with the parish June 11, 189^ During 
his administration he witnessed a phenom 
enal growth of the congregation, not only 
among the French but German and Irish 
as well, so that provision was first made 
for these two last named nationalities by 
special assistants and in February 1888 by 
appointing a pastor for them. This posi 
tion was first held by Father Henn. The 
new congregation continued 
to worship in the French 
church until October when 
their own church was com 
pleted. Assistants under Fa 
ther Menard were: Rev. 
\Yilliam \Yingarter, (Febru 
ary 1885); Rev. Nicholas 
Reding. (January and Febru 
ary 1886); Rev. j. F. Struif, 
(December to July 1887); 
Rev. Joseph Moder, (Octo 
ber 1887 to January 1888). 
Casual entries are by Revs. 
Theobald Spetz, C. R. D. IX, 
M. Letellier, C. Duprat, and 
many others from among the 
neighboring clergy. 
Other pastors of St. Joseph s were: 
Rev. Michael Letellier, from June 17, 
1893 to May 19. 1895. 

Rev. F. S. Marceau, from May 30, 
1895, to April 1 8, 1896. Rev. J. A. Sau- 
riol assistant ad interim from November 
28, 1895, to May 14, 1896. 

Rev. Paul Datin, from May 21, 1896 
to February 19, 1897. Rev. M. T. Dugas, 
C. S. V.. ad interim, from February to 
May 29, 1897. 

Rev Edward P. Bordas from May 22, 



1897 to September 14, 1905. Assistants, thousand nine hundred dollars has been 
Revs. P. Lebon, O. P., (April 1904 to reduced to twelve thousand dollars by the 
February 1905) and Rev. Joseph La- 
motte, (from July to September 1905.) 

Rev. Napoleon Joseph Raymond the 
present pastor, from September 14, 1905. 

During Father Bordas administration 
heroic efforts were made to build a new 
church. In this only partial success has 
been attained, on account of internal dis 
sensions which hindered the magnificent 
plan from being carried out. Notwith 
standing this the airy and spacious base 
ment has been finished and furnished for 
the accommodation of the congregation 
until such time when the work can be 
prosecuted. So far Portage Entry red 
sandstone has been used in the construc 
tion and the carved facade makes a splen 
did impression upon the observer. Mass 
was first celebrated in it on the 26th of 
January 1902, when, after the usual sol- 
emn blessing, it was turned to its present present pastor% besj(les material i mprove _ 
use. The considerable debt of twenty-one m ents made on the house and convent. 

Chapter XXI. 


Church of the Sacred Heart. 

Had it not been for the discovery of 
the Calumet and Hecla mines there would 
be no Calumet today. This tells in a 
nut-shell the story of the upbuilding of 
the three villages, Calumet, Red Jacket 
and Laurium, but more commonly known 
and spoken of by the people and the press 
under the name of Calumet. Only locally 
distinction is made, outside of the civil 
division, as one would speak of the dif 
ferent sections of a city, otherwise the 
great complex of buildings scattered over 
a great area reminds one vividly of a 
large city viewed from some point of ele 
vation. \Ye will treat its history under 
its popular name Calumet. 

The Calumet mine was discovered in 
the month of October 1865. One year 
later the Hecla was organized and its 
stock of twenty thousand shares sold at 
five dollars each to the holders of the Cal 
umet stock. In May 1871 the two com 
panies were consolidated under its pres 
ent corporate name. Tributary to the 
parishes of Calumet are the locations of 
Osceola, Tamarack, Centennial, Wolver 
ine, Allouez, and many other mines in the 
close neighborhood. 

The Sacred Heart parish was organized 

by Rev. Edward Jacker. Hopeful to be 
relieved of the burden of administration 
by the appointment of the Rt. Rev. Ig 
natius Mrak to the vacant See of Mar- 
quette, Father Jacker visited the new 
mining camp of Calumet in the early part 
of October 1868 the first baptism is re 
corded on the 1 8th of that month. The 
locations were not unfamiliar to him. 
From Hancock out before he went to 
Marquette in 1866 to assist the aged and 
feeble Bishop Baraga in the administra 
tion of the diocese, he and his assistants 
made trips to the new mines which were 
then just being started. Charging the 
priests of Hancock with its care, he re 
turned to Marquette for the winter, 
(1868-69) to take up his permanent resi 
dence at Calumet after the installation of 
the new bishop in the spring of 1869. 
Upon his return he found the bulk of 
people in Red Jacket where land could be 
bought out-right from E. J. Hulbert who 
had disposed of the Red Jacket J mine to 
the Calumet and Hecla. Although offered 
an elegant site, where the present city hall 
stands. Father Jacker followed the in- 

1 So called for an Indian chief 



ducement held out to him by Capt. John 
C. Ryan of the then Hecla Company. 
With his aid he obtained, according to the 
practice of the company, a lease upon a 
site and there commenced the building 
of a frame church 40x90 in size with the 
customary addition for residence, at a cost 
of about four thousand dollars. The rec 
tory was built later by Father B rown. 
The two building s were put up in keeping 
with the prospects of the future which 
was of the brightest hue, and certainly, as 
we see it today, not misleading. The ex 
pansive territory called for Father Jack- 
er s fullest attention, but his activity was 
no where wanting. In October 1873 his 
valuable experience and services were 
needed in St. Ignace whither, at the ex 
press desire of Bishop Mrak, he removed, 
we might say providentially, too, for no 
one knows if the grave of venerable Mar- 
quette would have been discovered by this 
time or not had it not been for this 
incidental appointment of Father Jackerto 
the dual parish of Mackinac and St. 

In 1870, \vhile Bishop Mrak w r as at the 
Vatican Council, Father Jacker was again 
at Marquette and during this time Calu 
met parish was looked after by Father 
Terhorst from January to May and then 
till September by Father Thiele and one 
Rev. A. L. David. 

The succession of pastors at Sacred 
Heart is the following : 

Rev. Frederick Eis, from October K), 

1873 to October 8, 1874. 

Rev. John Brown, from October 10, 

1874 to October 24, 1875. 

Rev. Fabian Pawlar from January u, 

1875 to August u, 1878. 

Rev. John Burns from August 15, 1878 
to March 20, 1880. 

Rev. Luke Mo/.ina, from April i ith, 
to August 10, 1880. 

Rev. Peter Menard, from August 13, 
1880 to May 29, 1881, with Revs. Jo 
seph Niebling (August and September 
i88r, and Mathias Orth (November 
1880) as assistants. 

Rev. Fabian I awler, second term, from 



June 5, 1 88 1 to October 30. 1882 with 
Rev. J. C. Kenny (June 1881 to July 
1882) as assistant. 

Rev. John Cebul, from September ist, 
to October 30. 1882. 

Rev. A. Majerus, from October 15, 
1882 to June 10. 1883. 

Rev. A. W. Geers from June 17, 1883 



to May 14, 1885, with Rev. S. Favre 
(June and July 1883) and Rev. Aemilius 
Goch (September 1883) as assistants. 

Rev. John Cehul, second term, from 
June 12, 1885 to September 26, 1886. 

Rev. M. Faust, from October 2, 1886 
to April 7, 1888. 

Rev. Philip J. Frlach, from April 23, 
1888 to April i, 1889, with Rev. Joseph 
O Keefe (July to October 1888) as as 

Rev. Ignatius Otis from April 7, 1889 
to November 30, 1890, with Rev. Joseph 
Zalokar (May 1889 to August 1890) as 
assistant for the Slavs. 

At this time the Franciscan Fathers of 


the Province of St. John the Baptist of 
Cincinnati accepted the pastorate. The 
parish was canonically turned over to 
them usque ad bcncplacitum Stac. Scdis. 
Rev. Peter Welling. O. F. M. one of their 
Fathers residing at Hancock, was sent to 
Calumet for Sunday December /, 1890. 
He remained there alone until August 
1891 when Rev. Hilary Hoelscher. O. 
F. M., was appointed superior of the mis 
sion. Since then two Fathers have been 
stationed at this church. 

Rev. Pacific Winterhekl. O. F. M., suc 

ceeded Father Hilary, from September 6, 

1892 to August 5, 1894. 

Rev. Paul Lotz, O. F. M., succeeded as 
assistant Father Peter, from January i, 

1893 to October 1895. 

Rev. Angelus Ilafertepi, O. F. M., pas 
tor, from September 23, 1894 to Septem 
ber 10, 1895. 

Rev. Peter Welling, O. F. M., pastor, 
from September 1 7, 1 895 to October 7, 1 899. 

Rev. Otto Ziegler, O. F. M., assistant, 
from November 17,1895 to October 4, 1899. 

Rev. Sigismund Pirron, O. F. M., the 
present pastor, from October 5, 1899. 

Rev. Caspar Matz, O. F. M.. assistant, 
from October 5- 1899 to February 25, 1901. 

Rev. Julius Henze, O. F. M., assistant, 
from February 26, 1901 to July 1906 
when he was sent as pastor to St. Jo 
seph s church, Fscaiiaba. 

Rev. Alban Schneider, O. F. M., from 
August 1905, the present assistant. 

Rev. Simon Griesam, O. F. M., from 
August 1906 the present assistant. 

The greatness -of the Sacred Heart 
parish is the work of all these priests. 
Fach one contributed his share towards 
its present well-being. If space permitted 
many an interesting chapter could be writ 
ten about their individual labors and sac 
rifices. They all bent their energies on 
promoting its interests, but none of them, 
at least of the early ones, had heart 
enough to prognosticate such magnificent 
results. Its founder and his immediate 
successors surely did not think that it 
would be the parent of five other churches. 
Until such time that single nationalities 
felt strong enough to go for themselves 
only common interest was held in view. 
In 1880, (November 6th) Father Menard 
purchased for nine hundred dollars from 



the Laurium Mining- Company, six lots in 
Block 9 for a cemetery. In 18(87, a l~ 
though two other congregations already 
then existed. Father Fanst planned a 
common parochial school. With the pro 
ceeds of a fair, over two thousand one 
hundred dollars, he intended to buy 
twenty lots, but an opposition gained the 
ear of the Bishop and he was allowed to 
buy only eight of them and thus his 
scheme came to naught, for the time being. 
Twelve lots more would have been more ap 
preciated by his successors 
than the thousand dollars 
left in cash. In 1891 when 
Father Peter, O. F. M., 
undertook to build a pa 
rochial school, only two of 
those lots, Nos. 6 and 13, 
of Block 9 were available, 
and purchased by him 
for 2,500 dollars. The 
Catholic school, so fought 
against in 1887, was sin 
cerely welcomed four 
years later. On Septem 
ber 14, 1891, the Sisters 
of Xotre Dame opened an 
eight graded school with 
an enrollment of three 
hundred and seventy-five pupils. The first 
teachers were: Ven. Sister M. Antonia 
superior, Sisters M. Clara, M. Lucy, M. 
Apolonia, M. Kyllena, M. Corine, M. El- 
phege, and M. Digna. How much the new 
institution was appreciated best tells the 
steady increase of the number of pupils. 
At this writing eight hundred and thirty- 
two scholars are enrolled. The first build 
ing not being large enough to accommo 
date them all, a second one was erected by 
Father Sigismund, O. F. M., in 1902 at a 

cost of twenty thousand dollars. The high- 
school, commenced in 1891 was sup 
pressed for financial reasons from 1895 to 
1898, but since then well equipped with 
laboratories, has elicited the highest praise 
of the best educators of the county. The 
faculty is represented by sixteen Sisters, 
under Sister M. Almira, the present su 
perior. The school is conducted on a tui 
tion plan, and although built by the Sa 
cred Heart parish, children of other Cath 
olic parishes are admitted on equal terms. 


In the basement of the new school 
building are spacious rooms for the 
Young Men s Catholic Club which has 
now a membership of two hundred. The 
rooms are equipped with bowling alleys, 
pool and billiard tables, a convenient li 
brary, gymnasium and bath rooms. 

\Yhile so much was being done for the 
youth of the parish the common comforts 
of a modern church were not lost sight of. 
In 1897 it was decided by a general meet 
ing to replace the old wooden church, 


which was gettting to be too small, by an 
up-to-date structure. Plans, drawn by 
Architect Picket of Cincinnati, embraced 
a church, a winter-chapel and the presby 
tery, all under one roof. The chapel is di 
rectly back of the sanctuary and adjoining 
at right-angles is the rectory, (inmnd was 
broken June 14, 1897, and the corner 
stone laid, by permission "t~ the Ordinary 
by Father Raphael Hesse, O. F. M.. Pro- 


MAKCJUETTE XV HISHoI VKKT1N, JL L, on Sunday, July i8th, 1897. On 
the i(>th of October, 1898, Bishop Yertin, 
with the assistance of numerous clergy 
dedicated it to the Sacred Heart, the same 
as the first church. The contract price of 
the entire building was thirty-two thou 
sand six hundred dollars, exclusive of the 
frescoing, windows, altars, pews, heating 
apparatus, house furniture, etc., which 

cost twenty-five thousand dollars more. In 
1906 the church received a pipe organ 
made by W. Schuelke, of Milwaukee, 
Wis., which including the electric motor 
cost three thousand eight hundred dollars. 

The new church stands directly in front 
of where the old church stood, and occcu- 
pies a site of two hundred feet frontage 
on Rockland street. The site is leased 
ground from the Calumet and Hecla Alin 
ing company. 

The erection of this magnificent church 
is chiefly clue to the efforts of Rev. Father 1 
Peter Welling, O. F. M., who had been 
sent for a second time to Calumet. 
Through his untiring and unselfish ener 
gies the building was put up and almost 
entirely paid for in three years. 

The congregation is composed of three 
hundred and forty families, two hundred 
and eighty of which are Irish, sixty (ier- 
man, and three Polish. 

In the fall of \<)O<> the congregation de 
cided to build a new home for the Sisters 
because the one occupied by them since 
iS<)[ had become too small. The old one 
was moved to the rear of the old school 
and is now used as a kindergarten. The 
new building is of concrete blocks 
throughout and contains a beautiful chapel 
entirely furnished by Mr. and Mrs. Peter 
Ruppe as a memorial to their son Albert, 
who died January 31. 1902. One parlor 
was furnished by Albert Holtenhoff, and 
the community room by John D. Ryan of 
T.utte City. The total cost of the building 
was eleven thousand dollars. 


The St. Patrick s Society owned at the 
south end of the main street in Red 



Jacket a hall, 33 x 100, two stories high, 
since 1874. Six years later the society dis 
banded and offered the property for sale, 
but when there was no ready buyer it was 
rented for all kinds of public purposes. In 
the eighties when the Canadian Catholics 
belonging to the Sacred Heart Church 
thought of separating the purchase of this 
hall suggested itself as the cheapest way 
of coming to a church. The bargain was 
closed for three thousand five hundred dol 
lars and after obtaining the lease of the 
lot on which it stood, corner of Fifth and 
Scott streets, from the Calumet and Hecla 
Company, the remodeling was com 
menced. In the fall of 1883, Rev. Antoine 
Vermare was sent to look after the French 
interest and incidentally to fill the va 
cancy at the Polish church as administra 
tor. In July of the following year, re 
lieved of duty in the Polish church, he 
took up his residence on Sixth street in 
close neighborhood of the church, to labor 
only for the welfare of the French con 
gregation. On August i, 1886, Bishop 
Vertin blessed the church to the honor 
of St. Louis. On November 5, 1889, 
Father Vermare was succeeded by Rev. 
S. Marceau, whose first care was to pro 
vide a parochial residence, which was 
built at a cost of four thousand dollars on 
an adjoining lot fronting on Scott street. 
On A lay 25, 1895, Rev. Achilles Poulin 
became pastor and was succeeded on Feb 
ruary n, 1897, by Rev. Michael Letellier 
and he in turn on June i, 1898, by the 
present incumbent, the Rev. J. R. Boisson- 

By this time in course of twenty years 
the French congregation had increased 
to three hundred and seventv-five families. 

Even two Masses, as is customary 
throughout the diocese, could not accom 
modate the parishioners. Instead of en 
larging the old building a new church was 
agreed upon. Plans were drawn by Gil 
bert, Charleton and Demar and contract 
signed for twenty-eight thousand three 
hundred dollars. The old church was 
moved to a vacant lot and services held 
there while the building was going on. 
Excavations were begun in the summer 


of 1900 and on June 16, 1901, it was sol 
emnly dedicated in honor of St. Anne by 
Bishop Eis, with the assistance of Fathers 
Atfield, Dupras, Letellier, Bordas, Moli- 
nari, Polic, Zimmermann, Miller, Pakiz, 
Maciarcz and the local pastor. The church 
is built of Portage Entry sand stone. The 
interior decorations and furnishings are 
far above what even the exterior would 



indicate. The entire cost is forty-three 
thousand dollars, nearly all paid. In the 
basement a four-graded school is taught 
by lay teachers and the average attendance 
is about one hundred and ten. 




In 1872 there were only four Polish 

families and a few single men in Calumet. 

JULY 2, l8()I. 

Total strangers among other nationalities 
they naturally sought their own company. 
Kather J acker was then pastor at the Sa 
cred Heart and in him they found a great 
friend and protector. He not only had the 
Jesuit Kather Szulak visit them but he 
1 imself made an attempt to learn Polish 
in which he progressed enough to be able 

to read the gospel to them and in case of 
necessity make himself understood. Several 
changes came, the Poles keenly felt the 
loss of their friend, so they decided to 
call upon Bishop Mrak the first time he 
stepped into town. And when they did, he 
said: "I have written for a Polish priest 
and he will shortly arrive here. I intend to 
leave him here for the Polish and German 
Catholics." On the I2th of January, 1875, 
Rev. Kabian Pawlar arrived and he and 
Kather Brown divided the honors of the 
pastorate. In October Kather Brown was 
removed and Kather Pawlar remained 
alone in charge of the parish until August 
n, 1878. When removed to Houghton 
he still remained in touch with his coun 
trymen and kept the awakened desire of 
having a church of their own alive. A 
committee was benignantly received by 
Mr. Alexander Agassi/, president of the 
Calumet and Hecla Mining Company and 
he gave them two lots on Seventh street 
and six hundred dollars in cash. \Yith this 
aid their spirits rose and the church be 
came an accomplished fact. At the end of 
October Kather Pawlar removed again to 
the Sacred Heart and from there superin 
tended his new church. It was a frame 
structure 75x41, with the sacristy and the 
"traditional few rooms for the priest." 
The church was dedicated to St. Anthony 
of Padua on the 5th of November, 1882, 
by Bishop Vertin. On June 24, 1883, 
Kather Pawlar severed his connection 
with the parish. After a vacancy of three 
months. Rev. Aemilius Goch became pas 
tor but remained only one month. Ran 
corous disorders convulsed the whole par 
ish and the Bishop placed it under an ad 
ministrator of non-Polish nationality. Rev 
Kather Vermare took hold of it on Decem- 



"ber 30, 1883, and ruled until the follow 
ing July 3Oth, when pre-occupied with his 
own, the French, congregation he with 
drew. Then Rev. \V. \Vingerter attended 
to it for a month. Finally, Septemher 20, 
1884, a Polish priest, Rev. J. Horbaczew- 
ski, was again appointed. He stayed till 
September 18, 1887. To forestall threat 
ening dissension Bishop Vertin sent a 
German administrator in the person, of 
Rev. Fidelis Sutter, from November 13, 
1887, to April 8, 1888. Although not 
averse to non-Polish priests the rejoicing 
was general when in the beginning of 
May Rev. August Krogtilski became pas 
tor. After his departure to Europe, July 
6, 1892, these pastors followed: 

Rev. Julius Papon, from August 14, 
1892, to July 24, 1894. 

Rev. W. A. Mlynarczyk, from July 29, 
1894, to May 12, 1895. 

Rev. A. Krogulski, second term, from 
June 2, 1895, to August 22, 1897. 

Rev. Francis Maciarcz, the present pas 
tor, from August 29, 1897. 

The rooms in the sacristy were not long 
considered suitable accommodation for the 
pastor. In 1889 they built him a neat res 
idence at a cost of one thousand four hun 
dred dollars. And as the congregation 
was rapidly gaining in membership the 
enlarging of the church became a neces 
sity. In 1892, Father Papon lengthened 
it out twenty-five feet to the rear and at 
the same time built an addition 42 x 22 
for the purposes of a Polish school, which 
has an attendance of eighty pupils and 
is conducted by two lay teachers. The co 
of these additions and repairs was in ex 
cess of twelve thousand five hundred dol 
lars. The rebuilt church was blessed by 
Bishop Vertin. November 27, 1892. 

The number of Polish familes in Red 
Jacket and neighborhood has grown from 
four to the two hundred of today. Not 
withstanding the unfortunate dissensions 
caused by unscrupulous souls the parish 
has prospered. \Yith faith deeply rooted 
in their hearts these sturdy sons of old 
Poland have more than liberally contrib 
uted towards the upbuilding of their 
church, which today stands without an in 




From 1 86 1, when Joseph \Yertin, and 
soon after him Peter Ruppe, first arrived 
in Calumet the colony of Slovenians or 
preferably called Austrians 2 has been on 
the increase ever since. One by one they 
augmented their number and found occu 
pation with the world-famed Calumet and 
Hecla Mining Company. The opening of 
other mines served as an incentive for 

"This is a mis-nomer; all foreigners of Slavic 
descent call themselves Austrians. They may be 
Austrians as coming from Austria, but they are 
not Slovenians people speaking the Slovenian 



many more to come to this copper region, 
because they had heard from their coun 
tryman "that it is good to be here." In 
church circles they commenced to assert 
themselves close in the nineties. Before 
that time Father Weninger, S. J.. did for 
them what Father S/.ulak did for the 
Poles. In May, 1889, in response to their 
request, Bishop Yertin sent Rev. Joseph 
Zalokar as their first pastor. He struck 
his abode with the pastor of the Sacred 
Heart church and at special hours said 


Mass for them and the C roatians who 
made common cause with the Slovenians. 
To encourage their undertaking President 
Agassi/ granted them the lease of two 
lots on corner of Oak and Fighth streets 
and donated two thousand dollars in cash 
towards the building fund. On the 29th 
of September, 1889, the corner stone to 
the new church was laid by Bishop Vertin 
and by him dedicated to the honor of St. 
Joseph on the 9th of November of the 
same year. The building took in the 

whole length of the lot and on the north 
side was connected the rectory. On No 
vember 1 8, 1891, in absence of the Ordi 
nary. Bishop Mrak blessed three bells. 
This was, we believe, the venerable 
Bishop s last public act. 

In the summer of 1892 a change of pas 
tors took place; Rev. Marcus Paki/ suc 
ceeded Father Zalokar. The church en 
joyed great prosperity and was one of 
the few, if not the only one, that had 
money on interest after being lavishly fur 
nished with everything nec 
essary. \Yith pardonable 
pride did the "Austrians" 
look upon the sacred edifice,. 
representing, as it stood, 
their long cherished dreams 
and their sacrifices. Having 
so creditably acquitted them 
selves in the matter that first 
appertains to the human 
heart they were just about to 
make provision for teaching 
of their language to their off 
spring when on the Feast of 
the Immaculate Conception, 
December 8, 1902. in a few 
hours the whole building was 
consumed by fire. Nothing 
was saved, the pastor barely escaped with 
his life; charitable hands provided him 
with necessary clothing in that hour of 

Reduced from prosperity to ashes and 
rendered homeless the congregation found 
accommodation in the Italian church. The 
question, of rebuilding was immediately 
taken up. After the time-honored little 
wrangling concomitant with the building 
of a church it was agreed upon to replace 
the old church bv one of solid sandstone. 



Contract was awarded to Paul R. Roehm 
for the sum of forty-six thousand six hun 
dred dollars; which meant the building 
under roof, but without the interior finish. 
Mr. Roehm donated six hundred dollars 
upon completion of his contract, and Mr. 
Peter Ruppe two hundred dollars. The 
rest came in in smaller amounts painfully 
collected by the pastors and their faithful 
helpers. Just before Lent of 1904 the 
basement was completed and equipped for 
holding of services. At this time Father 
Pakiz was compelled through sickness to 
leave the field of his indomitable activity. 
For some months the Franciscan Fathers 
read Mass for the congregation and when 
Father Pakiz signified his unwillingness 
as well as his inability to return. Rev. 
Luke Klopcic was appointed to the va 
cancy, April 7, 1904. Since then he has 
been paying for work done and adding 
contract upon contract according to the 
wealth of the treasury. Fifteen thousand 
dollars more will complete the great 
church which, when finished, will repre 
sent an expenditure of upward of seventy- 
five thousand dollars. All but the above 
still needed is paid for. 

The art glass windows were donated by 
the St. Peter s Society i, ($700.00); St. 
Joseph s Society i, ($700.00) ; Mr. Peter 
Ruppe i, ($600.00) ; Rev. L. Klopcic i, 
Joseph Agnich, John Medved and Joseph 
Gazvoda i, Vertin Bros, i, Nicholas Saitz 
i, Michael Klobuchar i, Xovomeski 
Fantje i, Starotrski Farani i, Dragatuski 
Farani i, Matt Samida and Frank Shi- 
metz i, St. James Society i, Married and 
Single men of the parish i. 

The parish consists of three hundred 
and fifty Slovenian families and about 
four hundred of as many individual men. 

who are either single or whose families 
are still in the old country. The Croatians 
have formed a congregation of their own. 


In the fall of 1901 Rev. Joseph Polic 
was assigned assistant to the St. Joseph 


church for the Croatian members of the 
parish. The ever increasing numbers of 
the two nationalities more than taxed the 
capacity of the large church so that either 
a separation of two nationalities or the en 
larging of the church had to be consid 
ered. The latter was not easy in view of 
the fact that almost all the available 
ground was already used, so the separa- 



tion \vas agreed upon and effected in the 
spring of i <)()_ . The new congregation 
was plaeed in charge of father Polic who 
immediately took his people to the Italian 
church where, at a nominal rental, ar 
rangements were made for their accom 
modation until such time as they would 
have a church of their own. The kindly 
interest of the Calumet and llecla man 
agement in their behalf was not lacking. 
With customary generosity they assigned 
to them two lots on South street and con 

tributed five hundred dollars to the build 

ing fund. 

This was the first chapter in the history 
of the Croatian parish, the second one is 
probably not as smooth, naturally so: the 
further up from the ground the more 
bumps there are on the log! 

Plans for the church were furnished by 
Messrs. E. Brielmaier and Sons of Mil 
waukee, Wisconsin, and the contract 
sio-ned for seventeen thousand dollars. 

*~ o 

Work was carried on rapidly so that by 

fall the structure was under roof. The 
basement was then furnished and the con 
gregation moved into it just in time to 
make room in the Italian church for their 
former co-parishioners, the Slovenians, 
whose church burned down, on December 
iSth. The church was, at length, dedi 
cated by Hishop Kis on the Jist of June, 
11)03, to the honor of St. John the Bap 

Induced through illness Father Polic 
resigned his pastorate, September 8, 1905. 
The Franciscan Fathers 
held services ad interim 
on Sunday while the pas 
tor of St. Joseph s looked 
after the spiritual wants 
until December 5th when 
the Ordinary made provi 
sion for the parish in the 
person of Rev. Henrico 
liontempo, S. J., who re 
mained until May, 1906. 
On August 1 4th the pres 
ent rector, the Rev. Alex 
ander Wollny came to the 

The Croatian congrega 
tion numbers three hun 
dred and twenty-five fam 
ilies and about two hundred individual 
men. who are single or have families in 
their native country. 





The Italians, like all other national 
ities, originally were looked after by the 
pastors of the Sacred Heart Church. 
And since other nationalities had made 



steps toward erecting tlicir churches in 
1893 a move to the same effect 
was made by the Italians. To further the 
cause Bishop Yertin sent Rev. Anthony 
Molinari to Calumet to assist them in 
the undertaking. Between the I5th of 
August and December 3rd he succeeded 
in collecting- the neat sum of four thou 
sand dollars. Preparations were being- 
made to build in the next spring when 
unfortunately a strike broke out among 
the miners of the C. & H. company in 
which the Austrians and the Italians 
participated. In an accident at the 
\Yhiting shaft ten men lost their lives; 
being a Sunday and a feast of the 
Blessed Virgin the men asked not to 
be forced to work on that day and be 
ing refused they walked out. As a re 
taliation the company refused to give, 
there and then, any ground for the in 
tended church. Father Molinari was 
removed to Eagle Harbor, the project 
dropped and the money returned to the 
subscribers. In July (2Oth), 1895. 
Rev. Anthony Petillo was sent in order 
to revive the undertaking, but was un 
successful and he left April 19, 1896. 
Relations between the company and her 
Italian employes became in the mean 
while more amicable and the Italians, 
like other nationalities, were given the 
usual support of two thousand dollars 
in cash and two lots fronting on Portland 
street. There the Italians erected a church 
which was blessed by Bishop Vertin on 
the 1 2th of October, 1897, Father Moli 
nari returned to the parish on August 10, 
1897, and has since then freed entirely the 
congregation of debt. 

About three hundred and fifty Italian 
families constitute the parish. 


To write the history of Eagle Harbor 
is to write the history of the county of 
Keweenaw. Eagle Harbor and .Copper 
Harbor became on account of their nat 
ural harbor facilities the door to the Ke 
weenaw county, first comprised in the 
Houghton county, but on March 1 1, 1861, 


set off as an independent county. Copper 
was known to exist in what is today the 
Upper Peninsula even to the early Jesuit 
missionaries. The first exploration was 
made by an Englishman, Alexander 
Henry, the survivor of the Pontiac mas 
sacre at Mackinac. On May 24, 1820, 
Governor Cass. under instructions from 
the Secretary of War, with a considerable 
party including Henry R. Schoolcraft as 



geologist, conducted an expedition. I he 
year after Mr. Schoolcraft published his 
observations. Nothing practical was 
reached, however, until 1841. when Dr. 
Douglass Iloughlon. state geologist of 
Michigan after a thorough research made 
known to the legislature the natural 
wealth of Upper Michigan. The first 
search for copper was made under the 
permits issued by the General Land Office 
at Washington. 




An article published in The Keweenaw 
Star, of Kagle llarhor, March 15. 1861, 
gives the following account of the early 
settlers of the "Copper Region." 

" The Lake Superior Company held 
origfinallv several leases of three miles 

square, located in the vicinity of Eagle 
River and Lagle Harbor, covering prop 
erty now valued at millions of dollars. 
With the exception of the one commenc 
ing at the mouth of Kagle River, their 
lands were disposed of and works began 
on the river about one mile from its 

"Mr. Charles H.Oratiot, from the Wis 
consin lead mines, had charge of these 
works in the winter of 1844-5. He was 
succeeded by Mr. C. C. Douglass, who 
had been one of Dr. Houghton s assist 
ants, and who has ever since been engaged 
in mining on the waters of the lake. He 
has had charge of the Douglass Hough- 
ton, of the Quincy. and of the Ohio and 
the Isle Royal Mining Company s works, 
on Isle Royal and on Portage Lake. 

"Mr. John Hays, then of Pittsburg and 
since of Cleveland, conducted the works 
of the Pittsburg and Boston Company, at 
Copper Harbor, in 1844, working the 
black oxide vein in the conglomerate. The 
point where the lighthouse now stands is 
named Hay s point, their first works be 
ing there. 

" \Vhen this company having abandoned 
the oxide vein, and transferred their force 
to the Cliff-mine, on the West fork of 
Kagle River, Mr. Hays and Mr. Pettit, 
of Ohio, took charge of their works. 

"The Isle Royal Mining Company had 
like the Superior Company, leases of 
large tracts, and their explorations were 
conducted by Mr. Cyrus Mendenhall, who 
had been on the lake several years, en 
gaged in trade with the Indians. His field 
of operations embraced points somewhat 
distant from each other. The company 
had works three miles east of Copper 
Harbor, others among the Porcupine 



Mountains, one on the waters of the ()n- 
tonagon, and a fourth on Isle Royal. To 
look to concerns thus scattered, with only 
birch canoes for vessels, and half-breeds 
and Indians for motive power, certainly 
required activity and energy of the high 
est order. 

"I give Mr. M. s description of the en 
try of the first vessel into Copper Harbor, 
as a piece of local history: 

" Copper Harbor, Nov. 13, 1845. 

" Dear Sir In reply to your inquiries 
respecting of the first use made of the 
harbor I have 
to inform you 
that no vessel is 
known to have 
entered it prior 
t o M a y 24th, 
1842. At least, 
it is certain that 
n o American 
vessel had been 
in before that 
period. On that 
day, the schoon 
er Algonquin, 
belonging to the 

"Cleveland Northern Lake Company," 
James Smithwick, master, cast her an 
chor in the harbor opposite the spot now 
occupied by the Mineral Agency. There 
were on board at the time, as passengers, 
Daniel P. Buchnell, Esq., the then Indian 
sub-agent at La Pointe, Mr. Asa Fowls, 
a cooper, just out of the coy. s employ 
ment at La Pointe, his wife and her sis 
ter, Miss Stella Johnston, of the Sault Ste. 
Marie, and myself; there were also 
Simon Sayer and Ouatosh, (a half-breed 
and a Chippewa Indian) together with 
.Sayer s wife, whom we were bringing 

to the harbor for the purpose of ascer 
taining the value of the vicinity a.-; a 

"The Algonquin, laden with fish taken 
at Isle Royal, had sailed from Rock Har 
bor, on that Island, at six o clock the same 
morning; the wind becoming heavy from 
the westward, we made rapid way, and 
not knowing the exact position of Copper 
Harbor, we kept well to the windward, 
and by I P. M. had made in as close to the 
shore as we dare, near Agate Harbor, nine 
miles to the west. As we ran eastward. 


looking for Copper Harbor, the forbid 
ding appearance of the rock-bound coast, 
upon which the seas were breaking half- 
mast high, rendered the prospect of enter 
ing an unknown and narrow opening in 
the rocks rather appalling. I had, how 
ever, been furnished with a copy of the 
survey of the harbor by S. \Y. Higgins, 
made under the direction of Dr. Hough- 
ton, in 1840. and having perfect confi 
dence in its accuracy, when, by compari 
son with the coast before us, we were 
satisfied the vessel was opposite the place 
sought, we stood boldly in between the 



breakers to the west of the middle rocks. 
The moment \ve were through the reef, 
the harbor opened out on each hand as by 
enchantment. Turning to its western arm. 
we beat to our anchorage, where, at half- 
past two o clock. 1 . M., we dropped an 
chor in three fathom s water. The smooth 
surface of the water inside contrasted very 
agreeably with the wild scene just out 
side the narrow barrier we had passed. 


and we were delightd to find so safe and 
commodious a retreat on that portion of 
coast which had ever before been looked 
upon with dread by the hardiest sailor, 
and which, in passing- through the Lake 
he had always taken good care to give a 
wide berth. 

" The wind veering to the northward, 
\ve were detained the following day dur 

ing which Mr. Buchnell and myself were 
eagerly exploring the neighborhood. \Ye 
ascended the mountain to the westward 
of Houghton Lake, examined the copper 
vein cm Hays Point, and together with 
Capt. S. made further soundings in the 
entrance of the harbor. 

Leaving salt, barrels, boat and fish 
ing tackle, with Savers and Ouatosh, we 
towed the vessels out of the harbor on the 
morning of the jCth and sailed for the 

In September following the Algonquin 
again came in for the men and the prod 
ucts of their fishery. The success had been 
but limited having put up only thirty 
barrels of trout and siscoweit. When I 
left them I had furnished them with pota 
toes, corn, beans, and other seed, with di 
rections to plant bu ; they reported that 
they could find no ground which in their 
opinion offered any encouragement, and 
that they had therefore omitted planting. 

" During the month of May, 1843, the 
Algonquin entered Copper Harbor \vith 
the first mineral adventures. The party 
consisted of Colonel \Yhite, of Kentucky, 
Capt. Sage, of Mineral Point, and two 
other gentlemen, together with a Mr. Mc- 
Causlin, of \Yisconsin, going to the On- 
tonagon river. 

" Again on the i8th of June, of the 
same year, she brought in General Cun 
ningham, the Mineral Agent just appoint 
ed by the War Department, together with 
Messrs. Bernard and Mendelbaum. of St. 
Louis, Mr. Raymond of New York, Mr. 
Cams of Georgia, Mr. E. Taylor, now of 
Agate Harbor, and Mr. J. Aldred of De 
troit, and a large number of other gentle 
men and miners from different sections of 
the union, to examine the country in ref- 



erence to its mineral resources. 

During the remainder of the sum 
mer the same vessel made frequent calls 
at "The Harbor," and also several times 
entered the Ontonagon river, which, up 
to the present time, I believe, has received 
no other vessel, but which is a g ood har 
bor, furnishing at all times seven feet of 
water and over, and needing only a bea 
con light. 

" In May, 1844, the brig, John Jacob 
Astor, Capt. Benjamin A. Stanard, carry 
ing troops and munitions for Fort Wil- 
kins, was the next vessel to 
enter Copper Harbor since 
Which time it has been one of 
"the haunts of busy men," 
and ceased to be a locus in- 

1 Very respectfully yours, 


geologists, mining engineers, explorers, 
agents and mining captains, was such that 
the pioneers were absorbed in the general 

"I then met Professor Mather and Col. 
Foster, of Ohio, Professor Sheppard, of 
New Haven, Dr. Charles F. Speicker, of 
New York, Prof. Hall, and numerous 
other gentlemen of reputation traversing 
the forests of the South Shore in the em 
ploy of mining companies. 

"Neither should those hardy and per 
severing men be forgotten who ran the 

Col. D. R. McXair,, 

" U. S. Mineral Agent. 
Fort Wilkins. 

"Among the scientific gen 
tlemen who first succeeded 
Dr. Houghton of the State 
survey in the examination of 
the country, was Dr. John Locke, of Cin 
cinnati, formerly of the Ohio Geological 
Corps, who partially explored Isle Royale 
in 1843. In 1844 the Hon. David Hen- 
shaw, of Boston, induced Dr. Charles T. 
Jackson, of that city, to examine parts of 
Point Keeweenaw, with a view to prac 
tical mining, accompanied by Mr. J. D. 

"Dr. Jackson returned in 1845 in the 
capacity of an analytical chemist and as 
the mining engineer of the works at Fagle 
River. During this year the influx of 


first surveyed lines of the Upper Penin 

"Among them no one has traversed as 
many miles as that veteran surveyor and 
mathematician. Mr. William A. Burt, of 
Mt. Vernon, Michigan. He had contracts 
with the surveyor-general for running 
township lines in the Upper Peninsula 
from year to year, until he had measured 
and marked into blocks of six miles square 
all the country north of the fourth cor 
rection line, in the State of Michigan. 
Through all the difficulties of this under- 



taking, his \vurk was performed with such 
fidelity and despatch that the office never 
lost confidence in his honest, and never 

sections, a complete geological examina- 
tion. The plan was an admirable one, 
worthy the genius who devised it and 

had occasion to correct his work. His two commenced its execution. It gave to the 

sons. \\ illiam and John, were partners in 
these and other surveying contracts. 

"Judge ISurt has also executed surveys 
for the government in Wisconsin, Iowa, 

work a character of strict accuracy and 
completeness, which can be attained in no 
other way Dr. Houghton gave the linear 
survey to Mr. Hurt, who was required 

and the Lower Peninsula. He is the in- (and who was capable of doing so) to 

make an examination of the rocks, and 
to bring in specimens as often as once 
in each mile. 

"1 he iron region of Carp river, and 
part of Point Keweenaw, was surveyed 
in 1844, and the masses of iron ore dis 
covered noted on the maps. Mr. S. \Y. 
Hill, who had in 1841 acted as sur 
veyor to Capt. Cramis expedition 
along the boundary line between Mich 
igan and Wisconsin was also employed 
by Dr. Houghton and Mr. Ikirt. Mr. 
1 1 ill has remained in the country since 
that time either in connection with the 
geological surveys or as a mining en 
gineer. P.y ten years of active exam 
ination in all parts of the mineral re 
gion he has acquired a high practical 
knowledge of its deposits. 

"Dr. Houghton s fate is well known. 
He was cut off in the midst of his 
1868, ORDAINED BY BISHOP VERTIN AT MARQUETTE, great enterprise, not being spared to 

MICHIGAN" U l-Y 2, lS()2. . 

witness the truth of his predictions m 

ventor of the solar compass, an instrument regard to the mineral value of this region. 
which is independent of the magnetic His name has been happily fixed to its soil 
needle, and without which the public forever, not only by the labors he per- 
lands in the copper and iron regions could formed, and by the county which bears it. 

not have been surveyed by compass. 

but in a more impressive manner by the 

"In 1844, Dr. Houghton obtained from dome of Mount Houghton, which strikes 
the government a contract for the survey the eye of the mariner from the central 
of the unsurveyed parts of the Upper Pe- parts of the lake. 

ninsula, which was to embrace in addition 

It is to me a source of the greatest 

to the linear survey into townships and pleasure thus to have an opportunity to 



touch briefly upon some of the meritorious lion to the Detroit paper throws a side 
men who first penetrated these forbidding light upon the early history of Kewee- 
solitudes to assist in developing- the riches naw. The signer of the article describes 
that were hidden there. 1 have seen them the First Trip by Steam upon Lake Su- 
in their soiled and tattered garments pur- perior: 
suing their daily journey for months to 
gether, through forests apparently impas- "To the Editor of the Post and Tribune. 
sable. It was an occupation that required "I noticed a communication from your 
bodily endurance, perseverance, and tact. Marquette correspondent sometime ago, 
Amid swamps, precipices, and rivers, in which he referred to the old hulk of 
there was but one motto and but one the steamer Julia Palmer, now lying at 
thought, which said On 
ward/ Onward. 

"The subordinates whom 
it was necessary to employ, 
the axemen, chainmen, voy- 
ageurs and packers were of 
the same stamp as their em 
ployers, or they could not 
have executed their work. 

"In the eyes of a stranger, 
and especially an exquisite, 
these rough companies, car 
rying every one something 
bound to his back, master as 
well as man, would not have 
presented anything heroic, 
worth and energy were all CHURCH JUST TORN DOWN. 

conspicuously there. that place, and made the remark that she 

"Those who are succeeding them, and was the first steamer that ever plowed 
who are enjoying the benefits of their en- Lake Superior, which is an error, and he 
terprise, should never forget the pioneers, has been misinformed. I have waited thus 
I never examine a corner post, or a wit- long to see it corrected, but I don t think 
ness tree, the figures and marks of which it has met the eye of the other survivors 
in the depths of the forests are growing of that trip (if there are any left). There- 

dim by time without a feeling of respect 
for the man who first passed that way 

fore, before I, too, pass away, and while 
my memory yet serves me, I will correct 

with his chain and compass. By that act the statement and give a short history of 

civilized beings took possession of the soil, 
and savages resigned it." 

Another quite interesting communica- 

that memorable first trip by steam on 
Lake Superior. 

My memory carries me back to the 



spring- of 1845, or more than one-third of 
a century, and I have a vivid recollection 
of -standing- on Dorr & Webb s dock in 
Detroit early in that spring, watching the 
process of transforming a little tub of a 
sloop, of about lit teen tons, into a fore- 
and-after called the Ocean. Said sloop 
had a history, she having capsixed once or 
twice and drowned part of her crew. 
They thought they could disguise her so 

as to get a crew to man her. My funds 
being rather low I determined to ship if 
I could, and ship I did. \\ e took in a 
cargo of fish for Sandusky and Milan. 
Ohio, and in due time sailed for those 
ports, and returned without any serious 
mishaps. \Ye then received orders to fit 
up for Lake Superior, which we accord 
ingly did, but T being slightly indisposed 

o > 

when we got ready, I could not proceed 
with the vessel, which sailed without me. 
Some time in June i think, the same 
firm that owned the Ocean bought and 
fitted up the topsail schooner Merchant of 
about seventy five tons, Capt. John \Yat- 
son, for the same trade, i. e., Lake Supe 
rior, and I being determined to visit that 
famous lake shipped on her, with the un 
derstanding that I might join my own 
ship (the Ocean) at the Sault if I felt so 
disposed. In due time we took on board 
all the necessary materials for taking both 
vessels over the rapids, i. e., the Ocean 
and Merchant, and reached the Sault, 
where we found the Ocean waiting for 
us. \Ye fell to and jerked her over in 
short meter, and then tackled the larger 
one, the Merchant. Thy were both taken 
over on rollers the same as buildings are 
sometimes moved. \Yhen we had the 
Merchant about half way across, word 
came that a steamer had just arrived from 
Chicago, with all the rigging on board, 
to be taken over the rapids. A few days 
after a misunderstanding arose among the 
crew of the Merchant, and a part of them 
quit and left her. Hearing that they wei\ 
in want of a porter on board the newly ar 
rived steamer Independence, then lying at 
McKnight s dock getting ready to be 
hauled over. I applied and got the berth 
of porter and immediately began my du 
ties as such. Everything being in readi 
ness, the ship was hauled out of water, 
and began its transit across the neck of 
land forming the rapids. In the meantime 
I was promoted to head waiter in the 
cabin. No mishaps occurring, the process 
of hauling progressed slowly but surely, 
and in about seven weeks we were again 
launched in the river at the head of the 



falls. In the meantime the schooner Xa- 
poleon of about one hundred and fifty 
tons was being put together (her whole 
works had been got out and shipped there 
ready) and she was launched a short time 
before the Independence, and so was the 
Merchant, she having stuck in the process 
of launching, which caused considerable 
delay. By this time it had got to be quite 
late in the fall and it began to be feared 
that we would not be able to make the 
trip before we were frozen in. On the 
strength of this the steward and cook, 
both belonging in Philadelphia, quit and 
went home. I was then left alone to do 
the cooking and see to the cabin, for t\vo 
or three days. \Ye then found a cook and 
everything went lovely again, and I had 
to fill the place of steward and waiter for 
the balance of the trip. In due time we 
got a mixed cargo and were ready to sail 
for up the lakes, but we didn t just then 
The passengers came on board and among 
them was a family named Spencer with a 
very sick child, who lingered a day or two 
and died, on whose account we delayed 
sailing until after the burial. We again 
got ready and this time sailed with a 
crew of fourteen all told, composed of the 
following, as near as I can recollect them : 
Albert Averill, captain ; Samuel Moody, 
chief mate; Thomas Richie, chief engi 
neer; Ruins Durham, assistant engineer; 
Capt. Stannard, pilot; myself as steward, 
and Stafford (forget given name) as 
cook, two firemen and six deck hands of 
mixed nationality, comprised of Greek, 
Scotch, Irish, Yankee and English. Only 
one of these I remember by name, a little 
Englishman, James Bendrey, who after 
wards became well known on the lakes. 
I do not remember how many passengers 

we had, but distinctly remember that C. C. 
Douglass was one of them. lie was then 
in charge of the Cliff mine at Eagle River, 
the only one of them that was then being 
worked to amount to anything, and also 
the Spencer family, in the employ of Mr. 

"As w r as before stated, we steamed up 
the lake, and the first place we touched at 


was Copper Harbor or Fort \Yilkins (no 
such place as Marquette then being 
thought of), where we found a small gar 
rison and two or three log huts. The next 
in order was Eagle Harbor, where there 
were a few prospectors, and then on to 
Eagle River, where we discharged the 



most uf our cargo, but before \ve could 
throw oft some fifty kegs of powder the 
wind raised from the northwest, and 
kicked up such a sea that we had to weigh 
anchor and leave. \\ e shaped our course 
for Lapoint but made poor headway, the 
wind being almost ahead. \\ e, however, 
persevered till we got within sight of the 
Apostle islands, when the wind freshened 
ino a gale and we had to turn about and 
run before it and make for the lee of Ke- 
weenaw Point, the nearest harbor that we 
dared enter with safety. In the meantime 
the sea trot running so high that it tossed 

M A N S V 1 1. 1. E , M I C 11 1C, A X . 

our little steamer like a shell and rolled so 
heavy that the stoves broke loose from 
their moorings and tumbled all over the 
cabin, scattering fire all over the floor. 
When it is remembered that it was not 
generally known among the passengers 
and crew that we had fifty kegs of powder 
aboard it made rather lively work for us 
straightening things up. 

"We succeeded in reaching our objec 
tive point in safety, where we cast anchor 
and laid by for three or four days waiting 
for weather, repairing and laying in a 

stock of wood, which we had to chop and 
take off in our yawlboat rather slow but 
sure work. \Ye again set sail, and this 
time having favorable weather we suc 
ceeded in reaching Eagle River, where we 
bid good-bye to our dangerous cargo 
(powder), and where some of us strolled 
up to the Cliff mine and there saw the first 
stamp mill (rather a primitive one) in op 
eration in that now famous region. 
Returning on board we again steamed up 
the lake to Lapoint, our final destination 
( no such a place as Ontonagon then being 
thought of), which we reached in safety 
and gave the natives a dreadful scare with 
the appearance of our craft and the noise 
of our steam whistle. 

"Our trip tip the lake being so accom 
plished, we started on our return to the 
Sault, which we reached in safety. The 
season being now far advanced, we im 
mediately proceeded to dismantle the 
steamer and laid her up for the winter, in 
company with the following named 
crafts, which then constituted the avail 
able licet of that greatest of all great 
lakes: the Ocean about fifteen tons, the 
Chippewa about twenty tons, the Algon 
quin about thirty tons, the Swallow about 
forty tons, the Merchant about seventy- 
five tons, the Xapoleon about one hundred 
fifty tons, and the Independence about 
three hundred sixty-five tons, the first 
steamer that ever plowed Lake Superior. 
Thus ended that memorable first trip by 
steam to the mining regions. \Ve found 
below the falls the steamer Baltimore, 
which was either hauled over in the winter 
or early spring. The Xapoleon was also 
fitted up the next summer with engines. 

"So you see that the Julia Palmer was 
not the first nor second, and I doubt the 



third, steamer on Lake Superior. \Ve 
were fortunate to find a small topsail 
schooner, the very last of the season, on 
which the most of us took passage for De 
troit and civilization. 


Parkville, St. Joe County, Michigan." 
The first priest to visit Keweenaw was 
Father Baraga. lie was then in charge 
of the mission known today as Assinins. 
Roving Indians continually narrated of 
the doing of the "Kitchimo Komanag" :! 
so that Father Baraga decided to investi 
gate for himself. On the i ith of January 
1847 ne took up the Indian trail by way 
of the Entry and arrived the same day at 
Eagle River. To his great amazement he 
found "civilization" amidst of the wilder 
ness. Without much difficulty he located 
some Catholics. From this time dated his 
acquaintance with John Kerry in whose 
house he said Mass for the first time for 
the Whites this side of the Sault. 4 Later 
when Mr. Kerry built a new home in the 
village of Eagle River, Baraga, as priest 
and bishop, not only stopped at his place, 
but, as long as there was no church at the 
Cliff, said Mass there. In May of the 
same year Father Baraga made a second 
trip to Keweenaw. This time it became 
clear to him that only another burden has 
been added to the difficult charge of a long 
list of missions he was wont to visit. 
While he welcomed the hardy miners, the 
harbingers of a new era for this country, 
he regretfully saw how the peaceful soli 
tude of the Indian, he loved so well, was 
tapped forever. Known, respected, and 
welcomed in every home in the great min 
ing camps, Protestant or Catholic, he 

wished to shut out from himself this light 
of civilization and to withdraw to his 
Indians on the Hay of L Anse where the 
song of the hammer and drill was yet 
unheard. Unsuccessful in his attempt to 
obtain a priest from the Bishop of De 
troit for the Whites in Ke\veena\v he was 
compelled to visit the mines himself. After 
establishing a reirular route amonir the 

3 Big-Knives /. c. Americans. 

4 Cf. Vol. I, p. 83. 






numerous mines from Copper Harbor to 
the Cliff he visited them regularly twice a 
year and as often as he was called in case 
of necessity. This service he kept up until 
1853 when he became bishop. On the 2ist 
of October 1854, he ordained Rev. H. L. 
Thiele and sent him to Eagle Harbor. 
The first pastor was not bedded on 



roses. He had no house or church of his 
own. The village was yet small but of 
fered best advantages for the attending 
of the large mission territory and he de 
cided to build his church at Eagle Harbor 
much to the disappointment of other loca 
tions, particularly of Eagle River, which 
vied for the honor. Lot io/> of Block 22 
was purchased for one hundred dollars 
from Dennis Dugan, and Xick Grasser set 
to the task of building the church. Be 
fore the winter set in it was enclosed and 


ready for service. Like all the churches 
of those days it was a combination of 
church and house. Usually a portion of 
the main building was partitioned off into 
rooms. Such was the church at Eagle 
Harbor. It was dedicated to the Most 
Holy Redeemer. Anton Grewe of Eagle 
River g-ave sixtv-five dollars for the bell, 

o > 

and was to have in return one Mass an 
nually for his mother, himself and wife. 

From Eagle Harbor the priest visited 
occasionally Copper Harbor and said 

Mass in private houses; in Eagle River 
Mass was said from time to time in John 
Kerry s house and at the Cliff every third 
Sunday in the month services were held 
in the school building. In 1858 The 
North American Company of Detroit do 
nated one acre of ground and Nicholas 
Grasser was given contract to build a 
church for 1,860 dollars, almost the same 
as that in Eagle Harbor. Among the do 
nations was a hundred dollars from 
Thomas M. Howe, president of the com 

After the dedication of 
St. Mary s at the Cliff 
Mine services were held 
alternately, every second 
Sunday, at Eagle Harbor 
and Clifton. 

The list of pastors : 
Rev. H. L. Thieie from 
October 25, 1854 to Octo 
ber 7, 1862. During his 
absence Eather Jacker at 
tended to the mission 
from L Anse, from No 
vember 1856 to July 1857 
and Eather Andolschek 
from April to September 
[86 1. 

Rev. N. J. Konnen from October 5th 
to November 5, 1862. 

Rev. P. M. Elannigan from November 
4, 1862 to August 24, 1863. 

Rev. John Broun, from October 4, 
1863 to June 24, 1866. 

Rev. John Burns July 19, 1866, to 
August 15, 1871. Eather Jacker, ad in 
terim, for two months. 

Rev. A. O. Pelisson, from November 
19, 1871 to April 29, 1872. 

Rev. Luke Mozina, from June 9, 1872 
to July 20. 1877. 


Rev. A. Paganini from August i, 1877 
to October 29, 1879. 

Rev. Andrew Andolschck, from No 
vember 16, 1879 till bis death, June 23, 

Rev. Charles Dries, from July 2oth to 
October 21, 1882. 

Rev. W. Dwyer from November 13, 
1882 to October 14, 1883. 

Rev. M. Orth, from November 4, 1883 
to June 8, 1884. 

Rev. Edward Jacker from July 20, 
1884 to May 1 6, 1886. 

Rev. Philip Kummert from May to 
November 1886. 

Rev. D. Vento from February to July 

Rev. John Henn, from October 10, 
1887 to February 23, 1888. 

Rev. C. F. Schelhammer from July 13, 
1889 to September 3, 1890. During a 
vacancy, in April, May and June 1890, 
Rev. Joseph Zalokar. 

Rev. Michael Weis, from September 
24th to October 12, 1890. 

Rev. Andrew Henderson (O. S. F.) 
from November 2, 1890 to May 18, 1891. 

Rev. N. H. Nosbisch, from August 12, 

1891 to October 23, 1892 

Rev. A. Molinari, from December 12, 

1892 to September 24, 1893. 

Rev. A. Mlynarczyk from December 
i, 1893 to February 4, 1895. 

From this time only occasional visits 
were paid by Rev. Angelus, O. S. F. in 
April 1895; Father Paul, O. S. F. in July 
(1895), Father Pakiz from the Austrian 
church in Calumet, Rev. A. TTodnik. Cal 
umet, and by Father Sauriol from South 
Lake Linden (from December 8, 1895 

to February 11, 1890; Father Otto, O. 
S. F. (June 8, ifyh to March 29, 1898) ; 
Father Peter O. S. l<\, March 1898. 

In August 1898, Rev. \V. II. Shea was 
appointed regular pastor, but remained 
only to November 5th. In the spring of 
1899 the mission was visited by Father 
Otto O. S. F. and in October (9th) Rev. 
A. Smietana came as regular pastor. He 
stayed till his recall to his native diocese 





Kansas Citv, February 26, 1902. Then 
followed Joseph \Yuest from May 25, 
to December 28, 1902; Rev. \Y. P. Stahl 
from February loth to June 7, 1903 and 
Rev. A. Deschamps, from August 30. 
1903 to lune 12, 1904. closed the ranks of 
regular pastors. Since then it is attended 
bv Franciscan Fathers from Calumet. 



Father Alban Schneider. (). S. F.. is 
at present detailed to look after the mis 
sions in Ke\veena\v connty including Mo 
hawk Mine, which is the most prosperous 
of them and is likely to become the seat 
i if a parish. 

These changes in themselves tell the 
story of Keweenaw from prosperity to 
absolute inactivity. Where there was 
once a ceaseless puff of the steam engines 
heard, there is today a dead stillness. A 
thousand homes, whole villages, once the 




scene of liveliest activitv are today de 
serted and undergoing a quiet decay. 
Here and there only curls the smoke 
above a home indicative of the life within. 
It will not always be so! If we wrote this 
page ten years hence we would have an 
other story to tell. The mineral wealth 
is only waiting to be extracted by mod 
ern mining methods from the bosom of 

the earth and then new life shall pour it 
self out over the now waste Keweenaw. 

In the summer of 1863 Father Flanni- 
gan built a church at the Delaware. The 
ground was donated by the Company on 
the lower side of the creek, in the so- 
called Hilltown, nicknamed, for its many 
saloon brawls and lights, "hell-town." 
Although the services were held in it im 
mediately after its completion it remained 
un-dedicated for almost seven years but 
in the seventies was named for St. Jo 
seph. With the closing of the mines the 
church also came out of use and vandals 
have, of late years, wrecked it almost be 
yond repair. 

The principal locations in Keweenaw 
are Copper Harbor, Fagle River, Copper 
Falls, Phoenix, Cliff, Central and Dela 
ware; some of these are a good many 
miles away from F agle Harbor where the 
priest resided. To lessen the hardships 
of travel P>ishop P>araga appointed in the 
summer of 1865 Rev. Mathias Orth to 
the St. Mary s Church at the Cliff, but 
the experiment proved less beneficial than 
it was intended and was abandoned the 
following year. Since then the once 
promising mines became idle one by one 
and their locations depopulated. Even 
one priest finds ample time to tarry away 
in looking up isolated families. 

In 1899 the Phoenix Consolidated 
Copper Company was formed from what 
used to be the old Phoenix, St. Clair and 
the Garden City and bid fair to develop 
a producing mine. To provide for the 
men employed there a place of worship, 
Father Smietana moved the old Cliff 
church to Phoenix and re-erected it upon 
a site given by the company. After five 



years this company, too, suspended oper 
ations and the expenses of re-building the 
church are outlasting its benefit. 

The Central also has a church, but with 
a most pathetic record. Some thirty 
years the company permitted to the Cath 
olics the use of a building which burned 
down in 1903. Then they obtained per 
mission to use an empty house almost 

ground, about three feet from the rear 
to the front. Mr. I eter Scljuler has acted 
all these years as the custodian of the 
church property and under his roof the 
priest has always found un-feigned hos 

In Keweenaw there are two cemeteries, 
one at the Cliff and the other one at Eagle 
Harbor. The site for the latter, about 


directly opposite to where the old church 
stood. With few alterations it was made 
to suit the purpose. An altar was brought 
from the old Cliff church. On the 9th 
of October 1904 a stiff gale blew the 
building off its open props without doing, 
however, any other damage than that the 
floor includes, according to the lay of the 

five acres in all, was conveyed to Bishop 
Mrak by the Township of Eagle Harbor. 
The little rectory at Eagle Harbor 
built by Father Jacker and substantially 
improved upon by Father Xosbisch 
awaits in its loneliness the time when it 
shall be again occupied by a permanent 
pastor to Keweenaw, 

Chapter XXII. 




The land where the village now stands 
was pre-empted in 1843 by James K. 
Paul, a generous, open-hearted Virginian, 
who came to these regions in the begin 
ning of May of that year. In 1844 the 
United States Government opened a Min 
eral Agency which gave an impetus to se- 
tlements, particularly after the survey of 
Ontonagon County which was com 
menced in 1845 and completed in 1849. 
Father Baraga, then stationed at L Anse, 
the present Assinins, periodically visited 
the place. Catholic population must have 
been sparse because no attempts were 
made to build a church until 1853 when 
on the nth of January of that year 
Father Baraga received a donation of two 
lots from James K. Paul for church pur 
poses. Being nominated Bishop, Baraga 
was absent from his missions from Sep 
tember 1853 till August 1854. On his re 
turn he brought with him four priests, 
one of them, the Rev. Lawrence Dunne, 
was immediately appointed to Ontonagon 
as the first stationary priest. On Sep 
tember 4th the Bishop himself arrived in 
Ontonagon to make arrangements for the 
buildinp- of the church. Finding his lots, 

4 and 5 of Block 52 adjoining the Episco 
pal property, he purchased from the 
Wardens and Vestry-men of the church 
of the Ascension, three lots, numbers I, 
2 and 3 for a consideration of two hun 
dred and seventy-five dollars. The 
Bishop celebrated Mass in a private 
school room which was also used as a 
Methodist church. On the loth of Sep 
tember he administered for the first time 
in Ontonagon, the sacrament of Confir 
mation, to twenty persons. The building 
of a frame church, 30x81, was com 
menced under the supervision of Father 
Dunne; the cost, two thousand five hun 
dred dollars. Bishop Baraga defrayed 
mostly from the funds contributed by the 
Leopoldine Society. It was dedicated to 
St. Patrick, but unfortunately Bishop 
Baraga mentions nothing about it in his 
diary nor is there anything reliable ob 
tainable from the survivors of those days 
of whom there are but few. 

In the rear of the church, rooms were 
partitioned off for the pastor, but the ex 
tensive territory of his mission gave him 
little time to think of home comfort, for 
this reason only the scantiest furniture 
was installed. There were over eight 




hundred Catholics scattered throughout out-lying missions, finding, however, the 
the country; only few made their home in travelling to and from Ontonagon tedious 

the village, the great majority lived at 
the locations of mines in which they were 
employed. At the time Father Dunne 
came to the Ontonagon district there 
were working the Minnesota Aline, the 
Axtec, the National, the Ridge, the Rock- 
land, the Douglass-Houghton, the Algon 
quin, the Norwich, and many others. 
The mining industries fanned Onton- 

and often inconvenient, he decided, with 
the sanction of the Bishop, to locate at the 
Minnesota Mine, a place nearer within 
call from the other mines. Accordingly 
he built himself a small shanty alongside 
the chapel which Bishop Baraga had 
caused to be put up in 1X51 and removed 
to Rockland. 

Father Dunne, left to himself, strove 

agon, their base of supplies, into a brisk to promote the welfare of his congrega- 
enterprising town. The 
best example of this enter 
prising spirit is the fact 
that the citizens not satis 
fied with an ordinary hotel 
formed a stock company to 
build a second one, the 
Bigalow House, five sto 
ries high. eighty feet 
front, by one hundred and 
ten feet deep, a frame 
structure with stone base 
ments at the cost of twenty- 
two thousand dollars. In 
proportion to the strength 
of the town Catholic popu 
lation increased so that 
Bishop Baraga thought 
best to send a second priest into the dis 
trict. Father Dunne was able to take 
care of the Canadians being perfectly con- 


tion. Particularly he felt the want of a 
school. The public or district school was 
in a disorganized condition, and the two 

versant with the French language, but private schools poorly met the aims of 

could do little for the Germans of whom 
there were many in the county. Father 
Martin Fox, a native of Germany, was 
sent on the 24th of September 1855, the 
day after his ordination to fill this want. 
He commenced his duties with his first 
Mass. At first he remained in Ontona 
gon with Father Dunne, attending to the 

Catholic education. To find relief in this 
matter Father Dunne had his brother 
open a school in the sacristy of the church. 
This school lasted for two scholastic 
years and in 1857 was discontinued. A 
year later Father Dunne, too, laid down 
his pastorate to resume similar duties in 
the state of Illinois. After Father Dunne, 



Rev. Patrick Yenantius Moyce came to 
Ontonagon on the 8th of August 1858. 
He was a young" man ordained for dio 
cesan missions and Ontonagon was his 
(first appointment. Conditions did not 
prove to his liking and he left his charge 
on the nth of October without the pre 
liminary permission of the Bishop, who. 
upon request willinglv gave him the 


At the advanced season it was difficult 
if not practically impossible, to get an 
other priest for Ontonagon, so that the 
Bishop was obliged to give charge of it 
to Father Fox. His administration 
called forth such general satisfaction 
that Bishop Baraga left it in his care, and, 
rather than to separate it again sent him 
an assistant whenever he had an available 

priest. Xot only did Baraga do so but 
his two successors maintained the same 
status even the Ontonagon valley was in 
its height of prosperity. Thus Ontona- 
gi>n was attended from Rockland during 
twenty-seven years. In November 1885, 
Rev. Joseph Haas, who was pastor of 
Rockland .up to that time, and had, of 
course, charge of Ontonagon, was or 
dered by Bishop Yertin to remove to On 
tonagon. liver since the individuality of 
the parish has been kept up. In the ab 
sence of parish records, which were de 
stroyed in the fire of 1896, the usual 
dates concerning each pastorate cannot be 
given. Father Haas was succeeded in the 
fall of 1886 by Rev. Joseph Barron. 
Then came Rev. Gideon Heliveau, in the 
fall of 1887, but remained on account of 
being unable to speak English, only some 
months, when in the spring of 1888 he 
was succeeded by Rev. John C ebul. He 
stayed till June i88(). Rev. John ITenn 
came next; from June 1889 to March 
1890, then, for a short time Father Yon 
Gumpenberg, Father Boever, from Rock- 
land, after him Rev. Philip J. Frlach 
from 1892-93, and then John Burns, 
who was succeeded by Rev. Joseph Xeu- 
mair, from March 21, 1892 till February 
15, 1895. 

\\ith Father Xeumair s advent began 
a new chapter in the history of the parish. 
The frame church which had served its 
purpose almost forty years had become 
rickety and in as much need of repair as 
its surroundings became undesirable. 
Lake Superior in his furious moments 
had trespassed upon the church grounds 
by depositing enough sand handy for the 
winds to distribute over the once grassy 
yards. Loath to part from the grounds. 



hallowed by so many memories, the older 
members finally gave in to the younger 
element of the congregation led on by the 
young pastor. It was decided to build a 
new church on the south side, a com 
manding elevation. Lots n and 12 of 
Block 5 in Kami s addition were bought 
on May 18, 1892 from Robert P. Mul- 
cok and his wife Rachael Anne for five 
hundred and fifty dollars. And on the 
23rd of May an adjoining triangular 
piece of land 122x81x92, together with 
eight feet of the alley, was purchased 
from the Ontonagon County Agricultural 
Society for five hundred dollars. On this 
site rose a magnificent frame structure 
of attractive design. The present genera 
tion would not be outdone by their fore 
fathers! The little church on the lake- 
shore built by them in those pioneer days 
has been a splendid monument of the 
early Catholics of Ontonagon. For forty 
years it has served them as a place of 
worship, and its white steeple has been 
the landmark to the passing boats : every 
captain, and sailor knew Ontonagon by 
the little white church on the shore. Now 
the descendants of these sturdy Catholics 
are trying to build a monument to their 
faith, condign to the progress of times. 
On the highest elevation in the village, 
they have placed it that its glittering cross 
on the tower may be to them ever and 
anon, like an unfurled banner, an inspi 
ration in the path of duty to church or 
state. Efforts worthy of the aim were 
crowned in May 1894 when Bishop Yer- 
tin with the assistance of Fathers Xeu- 
mair, and the late Renatus Becker, and of 
almost every inhabitant. Catholic or Prot 
estant, dedicated it to the honor of the 
Holy Family. 

The old property in Block 52, consist 
ing of the church and the historical con 
vent were sold April 16, 1894, to Mis- 
wald Brothers (Joseph and Martin) for 
six hundred dollars. Absurd enough to 
say, they turned the buildings into a 

Father Neumair built his church with 
out indebtedness and the congregation 
seemed to be just on its feet, when on the 




25th of August 1896 between one and five 
o clock in the afternoon the town was 
swept by a most terrible conflagration in 
which "three hundred and forty-four 
buildings, including the court house and 
jail, four churches, three hotels, three 
school houses, the Diamond Match Com 
pany s plant, forty million feet of lumber, 



the large general store of this company, 
the barge City of Straits, two iron 
bridges, (. organ s opera house and many 
happy homes were erased from the face 
of the earth." 1 The new church and 
house, too, were the prey of flames. 
Nothing was saved, not even the Blessed 
Sacrament or the parish register. 

Xo sooner the winds had blown away 
the smoke from the smouldering ruins, 
Ontonagon began to rise from its ashes. 
A general activity began in clearing 
a\vav the charred remnants and putting 


up of new buildings. Father Renatus 
1 eckcr lost no time in building a home 
for himself and a place of worship for his 
congregation. He designed the present 
church according to the dimensions of 
the old foundations and caused a base 
ment of ten foot ceiling built under it. 
It was dedicated in 1897. 

Father Becker built his church little in 
excess of insurance-money obtained for 

J Thc Ontonagon Herald, Saturday, August 
2Q, 1896. 

it was thought neither prudent nor prac 
ticable to burden the sadly visited peo 
ple. Ill health compelled him to lay down 
his office in October 1898. His successors 
have striven ever since to beautify the 
church interiorly. Rev. James J. Cor 
coran, who served the parish from No 
vember 27, 1898 to April 19, 1899, bought 
the organ and furnished the church with 
the stations. He was succeeded by Father 
William II. Shea, April 29, 1899 xvno m ~ 
stalled new pews and steam heat. The 
unbounded zeal of this young priest gave 
reason to expect a great deal 
from his activity but the 
promising young life was so 
unexpectedly crushed out by 
pneumonia, contracted in the 
exercise of his priestly duty, 
on May 26, 1902. During 
the vacancy, which followed, 
Fathers Kennedy and Julius 
Ilenze, O. F. M. said Mass 
for the people on Sundays 
until the appoinment of Rev. 
Joseph Hollinger, July 19, 
of the same year. 

Father Hollinger has con 
tinued the improvements be 
gun by -his predecessors ; he 
has appropriately steel-ceiled the entire 
church, purchased three altars and ex_ 
pended on an aggregate over three 
thousand dollars in his work. 

The parish is at present composed of 
one hundred and seventy families Irish, 
Polish. French, German and Indian. It 
owns a cemetery, and has the Norwich 
and Nonesuch locations attached as mis 
sions which, however, are attended for 
convenience sake from Ewen. 





Ever since the organization of the Min 
nesota Mining Company in 1848, Rock- 
land was regularly attended by a priest. 
The first priest to visit the place was Fa 
ther Baraga, who early in 1849, walked 
on snow-shoes from L Anse to look up 
Catholic miners who had found employ 
ment there. He said Mass in Mr. Peter 
Gies boarding house. Later, in 1853, 
when the richness of the 
mine seemed to warrant 
the permanency of the 
location he built a small 
church 20x30. The 
company apportioned 
him a piece of ground in 
Irish Hollow and do 
nated enough basswood 
lumber for its construc 
tion. This was the first 
church in the Ontona- 
gon valley. Scarcely 
had Father Baraga com 
pleted it when news of 
his elevation to the epis 
copal rank reached him. 
Leaving for Europe af 
ter his consecration in Cincinnati on All 
Saints, no priest came to Rockland until 
after September 1854 when Father 
Dunne became the first resident pastor 
in Ontonagon. He was, therefore, the 
second priest to visit Rockland. After 
him came Father Fox, who was assistant 
to Father Dunne. He said regularly one 
Mass on Sundays in St. Mary s and an 
other in some outlying mission. In 1856 
with the sanction of the Bishop, he re 
moved altogether to Minnesota Mine, and 

built a small house aside of the church 
for his own accommodation. After that, 
dates his real activity in the Ontonagon 

The principal stations in Father Fox s 
new parish outside of St. Mary s were, 
Norwich Mine, Nebraska Mine and 
Maple Grove. He decided to build a 
church in each of them, and started with 
the Norwich Mine. There he built a spa 
cious, neat church, we should say about 
24x40, with a room to the east of the 


sanctuary for his own accommodation. 
Today it is a complete ruin. For years 
the residents guarded it zealously but 
when after a lapse of many years, the 
main roof fell in under the heft of snow 
the building went speedily to destruction. 
First, windows and doors were carried 
away by unscrupulous persons and then 
board after board disappeared. Today, 
there stands only the vestibule at the 
main entrance, the back wall of the sanc 
tuary and the room where the priest lived. 


scribbled all over. One wrote: 

When the days of life are ended 
.And the path no more you trod 
.May your name in gn\(\ be written 
In the autograph of God." 

This room, although \vindo\vless is in pardonable pride in it because it was, ac- 
a good state of preservation. The plaster, cording to the testimony of Bishop Bar- 
as good as if put on yesterday, bears aga himself, the finest church in the dio- 
many signatures of visitors from near and cese ; besides, it possessed a pipe organ, 
far. Verses of not ignoble character are the first ever brought to the I pper Penin 
sula. Father Fox went purposely to Buf 
falo, Xew York, to purchase this musical 
instrument from G. House, the maker, 
for seven hundred dollars; the transpor- 
Behind the church, to the south is a tation and the setting up of which cost 
cemetery, undoubtedly blessed for Catho- him two hundred more. The church was 
lie use. Creditable tombstones still tell surrounded by the cemetery which was 

blessed by the Bishop 
two years later July 21, 
iS6r. For this property 
no deed was given to the 
diocese, because, in the 
first place. Father Bar 
aga obtained permission 
only to build, but when 
the Minnesota Mining 
Company transferred its 
holdings to the Michi 
gan Copper Mining 
Company the Benjamin 
Jeffs estate inserted a 
clause into the deed re 
serving the ancient cem 
etery site in perpetuum. 
The Baptismal record 
the names of those who have found a final of this parish offers many interesting fea 
tures. The first pages were ruled into 
rubrics by Bishop Baraga, and the first en 
try made by Father l ; ox is that of the bap 
tism of Barbara Sattler on November r, 
1855. In October 1859 Father Cebul 


resting place there. The church was dedi 
cated to St. Francis Navier, by Bishop 
Baraga, on August 24, 1856. 

In 1858 Father Fox commenced the 
erection of a new and more spacious 

church at the Minnesota Mine. Capt. came as assistant, his first baptism is re- 
Vogtlin, gave the main portion of the tim- corded on the 25th of December of the 

ber and the work was done by the day. It 
took over a year s time to complete it and 
was solemnly dedicated September 4, 

same year. He went to Bayfielcl, Wiscon 
sin, in August 1860. In the winter of 
1861-62 Father Andolschek was assistant. 

1859. The pastor and the people took During 1863 and 1864 and part of 1865 



Father Flannigan filled that position. 
There are also entries by Fathers Rich 
ard Baxter and Edmund Walsh. On the 
iith of September 1864 Bishop Baraga 
christened seven Indians : John Baptist 
Bebamisse, fifty years old; Joseph Ajaw- 
igijig, forty- four; Theresa Ninganas- 
sanokwe, forty ; Catharine Okanikwe, fif 
teen ; John Ajagavogijig, twelve; Louis 
Ajagavigijig, nine; Mary Anne Ajagav- 
igijig, two, and Mary Ajagavigijig, 
two months old. 

If the early missionaries deserve 
much credit for their enterprising spirit 
in building churches surely greater 
credit is due them that they never for 
got the school. They considered secu 
lar education a part of their duty. It 
would be a poor part of valor to crit 
icise the efficiency of those schools or 
to compare them with those of today. 
If they imparted only reading and 
writing and elementary arithmetic 
they attained what they aimed at which 
gainsays the institutions of today. 
Father Fox was not oblivious of this 
duty towards his flock. Early in 
1858 he obtained through Captain 
Hall from the National Mining Com 
pany a lot in the platted town-site and 
built a two-story school house and TI 
with the help of a lay-teacher opened 
classes to thirty pupils. It was here that 
the present Bishop taught school for some 
time previous to his going to college. 
After him another lay-teacher kept the 
school until the arrival of the Ursulines 
at Ontonagon who provided the school 
with a suitable teacher till the break-up 
of their insitution. 

In the summer of 1858 Ontonagon and 
Rockland were again joined into a dual 

parish. No sooner had Father Fox ob 
tained control of the St. Patrick s con 
gregation than he thought of re-opening 
the school which closed with the depar 
ture of Father Dunne s brother. To make 
it permanent he sought to induce some 
religious community to settle in Ontona 
gon. In this he was not successful until 
1862 when the Ursuline Nuns came, un 
der Mother Margareth Stehlin. They 


opened in connection with a graded gram 
mar school an academy for girls. At first 
a very prosperous institution, it broke up 
in 1867, much to the disgust of its found 

This calamity together with the de 
crease of mining activity, and conse 
quently in population Rockland and 
vicinity had in 1860 a populaion of two 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, 



and ten years later not one-half of that- 
decided Father Fox to accept the pastor 
ate of the Cathedral in Marquette, which 
\vas offered to him by Father Jacker, who 
was then administrator of the diocese. 
His last entry is on August 4, iSoS. 

Father Fox was immediately succeeded 
by Rev. Henry L. Thiele who remained 
till the fall of 1871 when he withdrew to 
Notre Dame, Indiana, to spend there the 


evening of his life. Father Jacker then 
came to Rockland for the winter and was 
relieved in the beginning- of March, 1872, 
by Rev. Oliver Comtois. He remained 
in charge till September, 1873. After 
that the parish was attended from Han 
cock by Fathers Dwyer and Hubly, and 
in December, 1874, the latter took up his 
permanent residence in Rockland, re 
maining in charge till June 23, 1878. Al 

ready his predecessor had rented the John 
Voghtlin home on the northwest cor 
ner of the present church block in order 
to live among his people who had wholly 
deserted the old Minnesota Mine location 
and moved to the town site. Father 
Hubly purchased the old post-office build 
ing which occupied the place of the pres 
ent Masonic Flail, and moved it almost 
directly west from the "school-house." 
This first parish-house is still standing 
and is used for club purposes. Father 
Dwyer who succeeded Father Hubly on 
June 24, 1878, wanted also the church in 
town. lie proposed to tear down the St. 
Mary s in the Hollow and build it anew 
alongside of his residence, but found too 
much opposition among the old settlers. 
To do the next best thing he took the ceil 
ings and partitions out of the school- 
house and turned it into a chapel. There 
after services were conducted in this 
chapel, only in the summer season occa 
sionally Mass was read in old St. Mary s 
when the whole congregation with a sort 
of traditional reverence pilgrimmed in a 
body to the Hollow. 

Father Dwyer left Rockland on Octo 
ber 29, 1882. After him the list of pas 
tors quickly grew : 

Rev. Charles Dries from November 6, 

1882. to January 21, 1883. 

Rev. Charles Langner, from March 10, 

1883. to July 13, 1884. 

Rev. Anacletus O. Pelisson, from Au 
gust 1 6, 1884 to June 9, 1885. 

Rev. Joseph Haas, from July 7, 1885 to 
November 9, 1885. 

Rev. John Burns, from December 19. 
1885 to September 18, 1887. 

Rev. Michael Weis, from November 
9, 1887 to November 25, 1889. At this 
juncture an interregnum of several 



months followed, during which Father 
Henn from Ontonagon and after him 
Rev. Joseph Boever from Hancock at 
tended the parish. 

Rev. August \V. Geers from May 21, 
to August 17, 1890. 

Rev. John Reichenbach, from August 
1890 to Sepember i, 1891. 

Rev. Joseph Haas, second term, from 
September 13, 1891 to December 18, 

Rev. Renatus Becker, from April 12, 
1893 to September 20, 1894. 

Rev. James Lenhart, from Novem 
ber n, 1894 to October 27, 1895 

Rev. Fidelis Sutter, from November 
24, 1895 to March 12, 1896. 

Rev. Edward P. Bordas, from July 
5, 1896 to March 28, 1897. 

Rev. Renatus Becker, second term, 
from December 24, 1897 to Ocober 28, 

Rev. Frederick Sperlein, from De 
cember 16, 1900 to October 13, 1902. 

Rev. Peter F. Manderfield, the 
present pastor, from October 13, 1902. 

The present church was begun by 
Father Reichenbach and completed by 
Father Haas who also tore down the 
school house, during his second term. 
After this church was made service 
able the pilgrimages to the old St. 
Mary s fell into disuse, so were also 
the necessary repairs on the venerable 
edifice more and more neglected. The 
elements soon did their work of destruc 
tion, and in 1899 Father R. Becker, re 
moving the pipe organ to the new church, 
tore down the old one, and thus removed 
an old, venerable land mark in the On 
tonagon valley. 

Father Becker built the present house 
using most of the heavy lumber from the 

old St. Mary s church. The foundations 
were of concrete. This experiment 
proved a failure, it not being able to en 
dure the ravages of the frost. Father 
Sperlein was obliged to replace it by a 
stone wall. Since the arrival of the pres 
ent pastor many repairs were made, par 
ticularly, on the church. The entire inte 
rior was renovated and frescoed ; new 
pews, three new altars and statuary fur 
nished ; a furnace was installed after the 


necessary excavations were made amidst 
obstacles arising from the many springs 
in the ground. The reconstruction of 
the belfry greatly improved the exterior 
appearance of the church. 

In this work Father Manderfield was 
liberally assisted by his parishioners. 
Mrs. W. B. Jeffs donated the main altar: 
Sacred Heart side altar was given by 
Mrs. Theodore Kaling in memorv of her 



husband, Herman Kaling. Airs. Anna 
Wiesen gave the Blessed Virgin altar, the 
pews are a gift of Air. \\". B. Jeffs, and 
the new larger bell blessed by Bishop 
Eis, February 5, 1905, of Airs. Julia Jeffs. 
The twelve stained glass windows were 
presented by Aliss Emma Jeffs, Joseph 
Voghtlin, Airs. Anna Wiesen, John \\ 
Houle, Thomas Emmond. in memory of 
his wife, Mrs. Alary Kmmond ; Airs. 
Adelaide Verier, in memory of her hus 
band. Peter Verier; Mrs. Mary Magda 
lene Thielman, in memory of her hus 
band, Christ Thielman, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Huber, in memory of her husband, Jos 
eph Huber, and children; Rose and An 
ton Hedriek in memory of heir parents, 
Anton and Rosa Hedriek; Airs. Elizabeth 
Richards; James and Alary Burns .in 
memory of their daughter Sadie Burns; 
Air. and Airs. Anton Wiesen; and one 
large window in the tower by Bishop Eis. 

Statues given: St. Anthony, by the 
Rev. P. AI. Elannigan; Immaculate Con 
ception by Rev. Peter E. Alanderiield ; 
St. Aloysius, by Eather Pinten ; adoring- 
angels, Alesdames Arland and Smith : As 
sumption of the Blessed Virgin, Airs. 
Anna Weisen; SS. Heart, Airs. Theo 
dore Karling. The sanctuary lamp by 
James Weir in memory of his wife, 
Julia; carpets and linens were purchased 
by the Altar Society. 

The church owns the entire block- 
framed in by Victoria and Alichigan 
avenues and Pine and Elm streets with 
the exception of one lot on the southwest 
corner. Lots 2, 3, and 4 were donated 
by the National Alining Company and 
there the old residence is located. At 
present it is used by the Young Alen s 
Catholic Club, Catholic Alen and Lady 

Eoresters and for the parish library and 
parish social functions. The east half 
of the block was donated by Airs. Catha 
rine Voghtlin and August Gerblich. Lots 
Xos. 5 and f> together with a small house 
on the Northwest corner were donated, in 
Eather Sperlein s time, by Airs. Catharine 

The Catholic population of Rockland 



numbers about eighty-five families about 
evenly divided among German, Irish and 
Erench. Attached to Rockland are the 
following missions: Greenland, fifty Irish 
families, thirty-two Slovenian, German 
and French ; Alass every second Sunday. 
Alass City; five Polish, twenty Italian, and 
fifteen of all others; Vicoria, ten Sloven- 



ian and t\vclvc German, French and 
Irish. Mass is being said in the public 
school, three to four times a year. Rtibi- 
con ; four families; French and Irish. 
Mass in the Township hall three to four 
times in a year. \\ inona, \Vyandotte 
and Kim River, ten families; visited oc 
casionally. Greenland, the old Maple- 
grove, situated on the Copper Raege 
Road, has a quaint little church, built by 
Father FY>x in 1859. Like most churches 
of those days it is sur 
rounded by a cemetery, 
which is still in use. 
The land, lots, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
Block 6 of Maple Grove 
was acquired by Father 
Fox. Despoiled of its 
heavy timber the stumps 
were pulled out by that in- 
d o m i t a b 1 e missionary 
with a team of oxen. The 
lopsided cross over the 
steeple cried for years for 
need e d improvements. 
The present pastor shing 
led the roof, painted the 
building inside and out- ITAI.IAX CIITRCH 
side. 1 

Besides the original four lots this mis 
sions owns two west of the old property 
donated, one lot each, by Attorney R. 

Flannigan of Xorway and Mrs. I.ridget 
Ouannnf ( inmland. ( )n the site of the old 
Flannigan homestead Father Manderiield 
built in the fall of i<;oh a priest s residence 
at a cost of two thousand dollars. I le also 
purchased lots i and 14 of block n from 
Henry Mead fur six hundred dollars. 
Notwithstanding these extensive improve 
ments the mission is entirely free of debt. 
Mass City is the terminus of the Cop- 

The Catholic Directory gives the name of tin s 
church as St. [Martin s from i<S6o to 1868 in 
clusive; in that of 1869 it appears as St. Peter 
and Paul s. The oldest residents, Mr. James Cof- 
fey, aged ninety-eight, Mrs, Margaret Bond, aged 
eighty-eight, Mr. Daniel Harrington, seventy- 
nine. Mrs. Bridget Quann, sixty-eight, all unani 
mously say that it was always known to have 
been dedicated by Father Fox to Sts. Peter and 
Paul. "I he contradiction can only lie explained 

per Range railway, and gets a subsistence 
from the surrounding mines. The church 
was a district school. Through the in 
strumentality of Mesdames Mary Mullen. 

by accepting the view that Bishop Harag.i prob 
ably wished to dedicate it to St. Martin in recog 
nition of the services of Father Fox, whose Chris 
tian name was Martin and thought it so dedi 
cated, but Father Fox actually dedicated it in 
his unselfishness to the patronage of the princes of 
the Apostles, and corrected the mi-take in 1868 
when he was in Marqnette and assisted Father 
Jacker in making the report for the Directory. 



L. Lansing and A. Bergeron it was nated two lots further up town, opposite 

bought for four hundred dollars not in- 


eluding the lot on which it stands. 


the ne\v public school, and it will be 
moved thither. The remodeling of the 
school cost three hundred dollars and was 
furnished with the old altar, pews, and 
bell from the Rockland church. 

Mass City and Greenland, being only 
three miles apart, are situated at the out 
let of the Ontonagon Valley and the en 
vironments of the two villages embrace 
some of the prettiest scenery in the On 
tonagon district. Should the population 
of the two villages increase by the stimu 
lation of the mining activities, they will 
form, as it is even now intended, one 
parish, in which will be included several 
of the mining locations along side the 
Copper Range road. With this end in 
view, the Reverend pastor, Father Man- 
derfield, has exerted himself to erect a 
priest s residence, which, at this writing, 

Mass Consolidated Mining Company do- is just about being completed. 

Chapter XXIII. 



If the Jesuit missionaries of the seven 
teenth century, who sojourned around 
Green Bay, ever found their way to Men- 
ominee is not known. It is likely that they 
did, though no such record has reached 
us. Their successors, the contemporaries 
of Baraga, followed the Indian trail 
along the shore from Green Bay to Man- 
istique touching at all points where either 
Indians or Whites made their stay. At 
that time, by Menomiee was understood 
the settlement around the outlet of the 
Menominee River. The Redemptorists 
Saenderl and Haetscher visited this 
place and after them Father Bonduel, 1 
Skolla and Parrodin. Mass was said 
in the house of John Jacob, on the 
Marinette side, almost exclusively from 
1850-57. Afterwards by Father Mazeaud 
from Peshtigo in the house of Charles 
McLeod at Menekaune until he built a 
small church in 1865 which burned 
down three years later. His successor, 
Rev. P. Pernin built a large house in its 
place and used a portion of it for divine 

It was here that Catholics of Menom 
inee attended services usually twice a 
month, though Mass was celebrated many 

Died at Green Bay, December 13, iS/i. 

times also on the Menominee side, as a 
rule in the old school house which stood 
on the corner of Kirby and \Yest streets, 
occupied today by a Hat-building owned 
by the Kirby-Carpenter Co. The Church 
of Menominee had its birth on the Mc- 
omincc River. It was on the 4th of Au 
gust 1872 when the Menominee contin 
gent of Mass-goers were returning on a 
ferry from Marinette from Mass. As the 
vessel was slowly nearing the Michigan 
shore and the parching sun was at his 
best said Thomas Breen, one of the pas 
sengers I am tired going to Mass to 
Marinette, why couldn t we have a 
church of our own ? 

The slogan was taken up and there and 
then agreed upon to call meeting for the 
purpose of building a church. Mr. Joseph 
Garon was entrusted with the advertising 
for the meeting. By means of posters all 
over the town as well as through the col 
umns of the Menominee Herald the ma 
jority of the interested parties were 
reached and, following the call, assembled 
at the school house on Saturday evening 
of August 10, 1872. The meeting was 
called to order by Bartley Breen who, 
with the assistance of other speakers, 
aroused more than usual interest in the 
object in view. The result of the meeting 
was the following: 


jy ^ y ^ / ~y 

li .t/7/v/iv f"b ^tvAfr-A : /<..- ; i< 7^ 

- Ax. A 

At subsequent meetings the trustees, 
who were the collectors, reported their 
successes : 

t/oJLtM oic, 

ffixM <un& hdt 




With this cash in hand it was decided 
to build at once. Through the offices of 
Joseph Garon and Robert Pengilly, 
Messrs. Stephenson and Kirby donated 
lots 8 and 9 in Block 25 in their first ad 
dition to Menominee. 2 Contract for the 
building of the church was given to Mr. 
A. J. McGillis and the structure went up 
though without the sanction or the knowl 
edge of the Ordinary. When appraised 
of the movement Bishop Mrak imme 
diately sent Rev. Martin Fox as first pas 
tor. He found a hospitable home and ta 
ble at Mr. Pengillys. The church was 
then hardly enclosed and while the finish 
ing was going on Father Fox said Mass 
in the schoolhouse. To help out his sacri 
ficing people to complete the church 
Father Fox readily took to the camp on 
the Menominee range and collected many 
a dollar from the ever generous lumber 
jack. Notwithstanding all these efforts 
the funds ran low and a debt had to be 
contracted to complete the edifice. An 
individual was found willing to loan the 
money but unwilling to take a mortgage 
on the church property. In this dilemma 
the Breen Brothers mortgaged the Em 
met mine to secure a loan of one thousand 
five hundred dollars. At length the 
church was completed and furnished and 
on the 29th of June 1873, the Feast of 
Saints Peter and Paul, Bishop Mrak, un 
der the assistance of Father Fox, the 
pastor, and the Revs. Charles Langner, of 
Escanaba. and Edmund Walsh of Fort 
Howard, Wisconsin, solemnly dedicated 
it to the patronage of St. John the 

The first baptism recorded is that of 
Anthony Schreier, November 20, 1872. 
Father Fox left the parish April 4, 1875. 
Bishop Mrak and Father Oliver Comtois, 
alternately, filled out the few Sundays 
intervening before the appointment of the 
second pastor, the Rev. Peter Menard, 
who arrived May 9, 1875. 

Father Menard s first effort was to get 
a residence for himself. This was built 

2 Lot 10 was purchased from S. M. Stephenson 
for three hundred dollars, January i, 1879. 


to the East of the church at a cost of two 
thousand dollars. lie next turned his 
mind toward establishing a parochial 
school. It was a hard task. There was 
no suitable building available and no 
means to erect one, as the congregation 
was still paying off the indebtedness on 
the house and church. But Father Me- 



nard evidently believed in the old saying 
that where there is a will there is a 
way. He induced Mother Agnes of 
the St. Agnes Sisters of Fond du 
Lac, Wisconsin, to send him teachers. 
For their accommodation he rented a 
small house, and the class rooms he lo 
cated in the commodious gallery in the 
church. The first Sisters were Anastasia, 
Theodore, Fmerentia and Philomene. 
In the fall of 1876 they opened school 
with thirty pupils, on a tuition plan, and 

living- apartments for the Sisters down 
stairs, it was first occupied in 18/8 and 
two years later, when Father Menard 
was removed to Lake Linden, August i i, 
1880, had an attendance of only seventy- 
live pupils. 

For reasons of scarcity of priests 
Bi>hop Mrak, who had in the meanwhile 
resigned and was living in Marquette, 
signifid his willingness to succeed Father 
Menarcl. Out of consideration for his 
dignity and age Bishop Vertin sent Rev. 


taught under these trying circumstances 
for two years. The income of the Sisters 
was so small that it barely sufficed to meet 
their bodily wants, but they were willing 
to endure poverty if they could only have 
better class-rooms. In this the Mother 
Superior succored them. She purchased 
four lots on the corner of Ogden Avenue 
and Jenkins street and erected almost in 
the centre of them a plain, square build 
ing with two schoolrooms upstairs and 

Frederick Fis, pastor in Hancock to liqui 
date a debt of nine hundred dollars. He 
stayed during the months of September 
and October. Bishop Mrak then had 
again charge of the congregation until 
February 1881 when Father Luke Mo- 
zina relieved him and was in turn re 
lieved, February 2ist by Father Fabian 
Pawlar, who was succeeded by Rev. 
Francois lieliard on the iQth of June. 
His devoted interest in the school de- 



serves special mention and praise and his 
kind heartedness frequently relieving the 
want of the Sisters caused them greatly 
to reg-ret his departure for his native land, 
August (10) 1883. 

Rev. Fabian Pawlar s second term was 
from August 19, 1883 to July 7, 1885, 
and Rev. Thomas J. Atfield, from July 
12, 1885 to September 21, 1886. He was 
the last rector of St. John s before the 
separation of nationalities. 

until the arrival of the new pastor, Rev. 
Melchior Faust, January 13, 1889. 

Father Faust s administration proved 
to be an eventful one. Decidedly a school 
man, he took much interest in the stru-- 


gling institution. Xowithstanding that 
the French children were withdrawn to 
their own school the daily attendance rose 
to one hundred and twenty-five which was 
more than the two school rooms could 
comfortably hold. A new school loomed 

The Menominee congregation was up in the horizon, an evident necessity, 
from its inception of a cos 
mopolitan character. There 


French, Ger 
mans, Poles, Bohemians, 
Belgians, all belonging to 
the St. John s congregation. 
Steady employment in the 
mills added annually to their 
numbers but particularly 
were the Canadian French 
attraced by the lumber indus 
try to settle there. In 1886 
their number was so large 
that a movement was set 
afoot to form a French Ca 
nadian congregation. Bishop 
Vertin approved of it and 
it was agreed that the out 
going French were to receive four thou 
sand dollars from the mother-church. In 
October Rev. Michael Letellier took hold 
of the new congregation and Rev. A. 
William Geers became pastor of St. 


To meet this eventuality he intended to 
build on lots i and 2, Block 25, donated 
by S. M. Stephenson in November 1879. 
Nothing came, however, of these calcula 
tions, because the congregation increased 

John s which then included all national- at such rapid strides that in 1890 the ques- 
ities but the French. He served in that tion of division forced itself again upon 
capacity from October 3, 1886 to October the people and pastor. The terms of sepa- 

28, 1888 and had Rev. Michael \Yeis, 
from May to August 1887, and Rev. 

ration were easily agreed upon, a bonus 
of seven thousand dollars to the outgoing 

Joseph P. Kunes, assistants. The latter parties. The Germans being in majority, 
was the last two months administrator about one hundred and fifty families in 



all, decided to withdraw. Trustees at the 
time of division were Messrs. Frank 
r>enish, Edward Ilatton, Joh-n Passack 
and Frank Seidl. 

The integrity of the parish was pre 
served until February 1892 when the 
(lennan church was ready for occupancy. 

Father Faust formally ceased to be the 
pastor of St. John s February 21, i8<>2. 
During his time the following priests 
served as assistants: Rev. Julius yon 
(iumpenberg in July 1889. Rev. John 


anuary i8<)n. Rev. A. 
uly 2nth to December 


Kossbiel in 
Rezek from 

From September 2nd. to December in, 
1891, in absence of Father Faust, Father 
Rezek acted as administrator with Rev. 
Anthony C. Keller, for a time, as assis 

In the spring of 1891 the Polish peo 
ple also decided to build a church for 
themselves. Rev. Julius V. Papon, was 
detailed, July I9th, to organize this con 

gregation, so that by the spring of 1892, 
St. John s became a purely English-speak 
ing congregation. On March 2oth, Rev. 
Dennis Cleary, the present incumbent, 
became its first pastor. 

Alter twenty years of existence the 
church was in a state of much needed re 
pairs. In i8<j4 a stone foundation wide 
enough for a prospective brick veneer, 
with excavations of the entire basement, 
replaced the old one at a cost of two thou 
sand dollars, and two years later at a simi 
lar expense the church was 
renovated inside and outside. 
In i goo a most practically 
arranged five room school 
was added to the parish. It 
is of brick veneer, and is sit 
uated on the two lots ac 
quired originally for that 
purpose and cost, complete, 
eight thousand dollars. The 
Sisters of St. Joseph, from 
St. Louis, Mo., opened this 
eight graded parochial 
school on first Monday in 
September 1902. The first 
teachers, under Mother 
James Stanislaus, superior, 
were the Sisters, Geraldine, 
Fabian, Lctitia and Dositheus. 

The congregation started out with a 
membership of eighty-five families but in 
creased to date to upward of one hundred 
and fifty. 


St. Ann s congregation is a twig from 
St. John s parish. On October ist, 1886 
Rev. Michael Letellier was appointed first 
pastor. Under the terms of division the 



French received from the mother-church 
four thousand dollars in cash with the 
rights to conduct services in the St. John s 
church until their new church would be 
completed. The new site, 132x197 feet, 
was selected on the corner of Ogden 
avenue and Broadway and was purchased, 
on December 21, 1886 from Agnes Wal 
lace Smith for three hundred and twenty- 


five dollars. Ground was broken in the 
spring of 1887 and the new church was 
completed in the fall of the same year. 
On July 12, 1887 a house and lot, ad 
joining to the east, was bought from 
Henry Horde for two thousand dollars 
and remodeled into the rectory. The cost 

of the church was about fifteen thousand 
dollars. Two-thirds of this sum was paid 
at the time of Father Letellier s removal, 
August 17, 1890 and was collected by him 
mostly in the lumbering camps. The first 
trustees were Hercule Raiche, Alphonse 
Lauzon, Joseph Moreau, Edward Cote. 
Joseph Lebrun, John Parent, and Antoine 
Boucher. During the month of August 
1890 Rev. Joseph R. Boissonnault served 
as assistant. 

The second pastor was Rev. Hilary J. 
Rousseau from August 24, 1890 until his 
untimely demise on November 19, 1891. 
During his short sickness, and until the 
appointment of the sucessor, services were 
conducted by Revs. James Miller, Cyrill 
Fournier, C. S. V., Julius Papon, and An 
thony C. Keller. On December 20, 1891 
Father Anatole O. Pelisson took charge 
of the parish and he, too, beloved by 
young and old, ended his pastorate by his 
death which occurred on the 28th of 
May i893. 3 During the short interreg 
num that followed, Father Faust, of 
Epiphany church, looked after the parish 
until the arrival of Rev. Honoratus Bour- 
ion, June 18, 1893. Many improvements 
were made during his administration, but 
the most noteworthy is the acquisition of 
more school facilities. The old school 
back of the church, had long been 
crowded and the problem of a new school 
was before the board of trustees and the 
pastor when in 1898 a splendid opportun 
ity presented itself. A few blocks west 
from the church a private residence, be- 
lonsrinof to the Breen family, togefher 

"For this interment the congregation bought 
four lots in the public cemetery which is used 
by the Catholics of the city. Besides him there 
are buried there the two Fathers Bourion. Father 
Wallace, and Sister Praxedis. These lots are 
now common property of the four parishes. 



with three lots, Xos. 2, 3. and 4 of Block 
2, Stephenson Addition, was offered for 
sale. This site it was argued, would give 
enough room for a future school while 
the present building would relieve the 
over-crowded situation in the old school 
and would at the same time he of ample 
accommodation for the teachers, and later 


could he used for their exclusive conven 
ience. These advantages urged them 
selves on the mind of the pastor and 
Father Bourion closed the deal, on Octo 
ber 20, 1898. for a consideration of three 
thousand five hundred dollars. Poor 
health prevented him from pursuing his 
plans and even compelled him temporarily 

to leave his post. During such intervals 
the parish affairs were attended to by 
Father Sauriol who was assistant from 
May to November 1898 and again from 
May 1901 to July 1902. On All Saints 
1902 Father Bourion s life came to a sud 
den close. On a trip to St. Paul he con 
tracted a severe cold and on his return 
IK me the thread of life was abruptly 
severed. Father Le Golvan who was 
assistant but for a short time filled out 
the vacancy until the appointment of 
the present pastor, the Rev. Achilles 
Poulin, who assumed his duties on Xo- 
vember 13. 1902. Improvements made 
by him are as many as they are valu 
able and necessary. Among other 
things worthy of special notice are the 
windows placed in the sanctuary, the 
re-arranging of the vestibule and of the 
gallery, and the purchasing of the new 
pipe-organ. At the present time he has 
in view the building of a new St. 
Anne s academy, which will be a school 
modern in every respect. 

St. Anne s congregation counts four 
hundred families. Of these one hun 
dred are Belgians. It has an eight- 
graded parochial school which com 
menced its career in the two story 
building, back of the church purchased 
by Father Letellier in 1887. Here the 
Sisters of St. Agnes opened two rooms. 
For want of accommodation for them 
selves they continued to live with their 
Sisters at the German school until the 
Breen property was bought. In January 
they removed to this building opening at 
the same time a third class-room and in 
the fall of 1901 a fourth one. There are 
at present one hundred and eighty pupils 
with four teachers under the direction of 



Sister Bonaventure, successor to Sister 
Isabell, now of Assinins, who bears the 
singular distinction of having labored 
twenty-five years in the city of Menom- 
inee for the education of youth. 


Epiphany, or German congregation 
commonly called, is an offspring of St. 
John s church. In the division it received 
seven thousand dollars from the mother 
church. The burden of organizing 1 the 

o o 

congregation fell upon Rev. Melchior 
Faust, who was pastor of St. John s for 
three years previous to the separation. 

The site, consisting of four lots on cor 
ner of Ogden avenue and Jenkin s street, 
the future home of the congregation, was 
purchased from the St. Agnes Sisters for 
a consideration of three thousand six 
hundred dollars. In the fall of 1891 the 
foundations to the new church were built 
by Golueke Bros, and the work on the 
upper structure prosecuted to completion 
in the following year. It was dedicated 
by Bishop Vertin on the i3th of Novem 
ber 1892. Besides the pastor, the Rever 
end clergy present were Fathers C. Lang- 
ner, A. Pelisson, A. C. Keller, D. Cleary, 
A. J. Selbach of Freedom, Wisconsin, and 
J. J. Fox of Marinette. The main altar 
is the donation of Xavier Allgeier. 

For the pastors residence the adjoining 
house and lot were bought on May 4, 
1892, from Elizabeth Frost for four 
thousand dollars. Ever bent on increas 
ing the church property while opportuni 
ties lasted. Father Faust bought on Sep 
tember 7th the East 57.75 feet of the 
South 133 feet of Lot 2 from John B. 
Lambert for seven hundred dollars and on 

September 18, 1900 the South 10 feet of 
the North 164 feet of Lot 2 and the South 
40 feet of the North 124 feet of Lot 2 
from Godfrey Valley for six hundred dol 
lars. The purchase price was paid from 
the two thousand dollars left by will to 
the congregation by the late Bishop Ver 
tin. By this purchase the congregation 
came into possession of two small build- 

(JUETTE, FEBRUARY 26, 1883. 

ings which were immediately removed 
some forty feet back of the church and 
remodeled into a residence for the Sisters, 
while the rooms occupied by them in the 
old school buildings were transformed 
into two additional class-rooms. 

The school is taught by the Sisters of 
St. Agnes and is still on the tuition plan. 

For the work so unselfishlv accom- 



plished not only in this parish but in other 
places of the diocese Father Faust en 
joyed the fullest confidence of J.ishop 
Vertin. This, the no\v lamentable bishop, 
showed in an appreciable manner by 
drawing- Father Faust as his companion 
in search of health in the last years of his 
life. And during such absences from 
the parish he was substituted by Rev. 
John Henn from March to August 1897 
and again from May to August 1900 and 

which he loved so well, on the 25th of 
October 1901 to take up his labors at 
Assinins, the home of the orphans. 

The present pastor, Rev. Joseph E. 
Neumair, succeeded to the parish on the 
24th of October 1901. lie reduced the 
debt from ten to eight thousand, refur 
nished the school with new blackboards, 
maps and desks. 

The congregation has two hundred and 
thirty families, all of German descent. 


by Rev. Alexander Hasenberg in May 
and April 1898. 

On the 3rd of October 1901 Rev. Fa 
ther Terhorst, who was at the head of the 
diocesan Orphan Asylum for forty years 
died. No one more eminently fitted to be 
the father to the fatherless than Father 
Faust, he was asked by the new Ordinary 
to resign his pastorate and to devote his 
remaining days to the noble work of 
charity. To the immeasurable grief of his 
people leather Faust left his congregation 




Like the French and German the Polish 
congregation is also a branch of St. 
John s. The first movement towards sep 
aration was started in 1890 when in a 
general meeting the Polish people agreed 
to build a church for themselves. Steps 
were immediately taken towards the selec 
tion of the site. Lots 8 and 9, Block 3, 
of Sephenson s addition to Menominee 



were purchased from Samuel M. and 
Isaac Stephenson on August 18, 1(890 for 
seven hundred dollars. The work of 
building was not commenced right away 
because the Ordinary of the diocese was 
not able to provide them with a suitable 
pastor. On July 3. 1891 Bishop Vertin 
ordained seven priests amongst whom was 
the Rev. Julius Y. Papon who was at 
once sent to organize this Polish congre 
gation, lie achieved marked success in 
his first enterprise; the lots were bought 
and paid for but nothing else 
was on hand or in the treas 
ury as his new 7 congrega 
tion had received no dowry 
from the mother church. Fa 
ther Papon held special ser 
vices for his people in St. 
John s church until the day of 
the dedication of St. Adal 
bert s church. 

Father Papon held the pas 
torate until August 14. 1892 
when upon his removal to 
Red Jacket, Revs. John C. 
Bieniarz. A. Allynarczyk, 
Stanislaus Baranowski, Fa 
bian S. Pawlar, Francis Ma- 
ciarcz, in succession served the parish. 
After an absence from the diocese of 
three years Father Papon returned to 
Menominee in 1897. He found that the 
Reverend Fathers who rilled the pastor 
ate since his first term had accomplished 
many reforms and improvements but still 
left enough work for him. Father Bar 
anowski had built the rectory, the church 
however was still awaiting for the origin 
ally intended brick-veneer and for that 
matter might have waited longer had not 
an unforeseen accident accelerated its ex 

ternal completion. On the 4th of July, 
1897, lire broke out in the building dam 
aging it considerably and shortly after 
wards ligntning added its share of de 
struction but in both instances the insur 
ance fully covered the damages. Making 
these repairs Father Papon thought best 
to complete the church inside and outside 
which he also creditably carried out with 
out a cent of indebtedness. 

The congregation numbered at one 
time almost four hundred families, 



equally divided between Poles and Bo 
hemians. The decline of lumber indus 
tries in the city caused a considerable re 
duction among these. To recompense 
him for the loss Father Papon received 
Birch Creek as a mission. Finding the 
country life congenial he removed to that 
place and attends, from there to both 
places every Sunday. 

Birch Creek, has a church, dedicated 
to the Blessed Trinity. It was built by 
the people themselves and blessed in 1886. 
The rectory was built by Father Papon. 





The lumbermen and few scattered 
farmers first drew the attention of Father 
Fox, then stationed in Spalding, to Steph- 
enson. Being detailed to look after the 
spiritual welfare of Catholics scattered all 
over the Menominee Range he found his 
way to Stephenson in September 1878, 


where many men were employed by the 
several lumber industries and not a few 
farmers, attracted by the richness of the 
soil, had already made their homes there. 
The veteran missionary at once saw in 
these two factors permanency to the 
small village. In the little school house he 
gathered the willing ones, said Mass and 

preached to them teaching their children 
to love God, their neighbor and their 
country. His unselfish zeal imbued them 
with sacrifices on their part and the re 
sult of mutual labors was a small church. 
Mr. J. B. Goodman, now of Chicago, do 
nated three lots and by the end of the year 
1879 the quaint little church, overlooked, 
like a watchtower, the busy camp to the 
Xorth. for live years the pastors from 
Spalding held it as a mission, and went 
there every Sunday to say Mass. On 
August 19, 1883, Rev. F. X. Becker came 
as the first resident pastor, but, as the fre 
quent changes would indicate, it was pre 
maturely turned into an independent 
parish. Father Becker himself stayed less 
than a year, leaving on June 8, 1884, 
and some of his successors spent even less 
of their life in Stephenson. \Ye deem it 
best to give their list as they appear in the 
baptismal record. 

Rev. F. X. \Yeninger, S. J., occasional 
visit on August 7, 1884. 

Rev. Mathias Orth, from August 6th 
to September /, 1884. 

Rev. F. X. De Langie, from December 
21, 1884 to January 8, 1888. He bought 
a small house and moved it alongside of 
the church for his own residence. He 
also purchased, with his own money, 
from Mr. Goodman, five lots adjoining 
the church property to the South and do 
nated them to the parish. 

Rev. P. Girard from June 3rd to Sep 
tember 17, 1888. 

Rev. John Burns from September 2 r , 

1888 to February 1889. 

Rev. A. O. Pelisson from June 9th to 
November 7, 1889. 

Rev. Michael Weis, from December i, 

1889 to March 13, 1890. 



Rev. P. P. Mazuret, ad interim from 
Nadeau, during March, April and May 
1 890. 

Rev. Dr. Alberico Vitali, from May 
24th to November 10, 1890. 

Rev. Joseph Iloeber from November 
15, 1890 to July 7, 1891. 

Rev. J. A. Sauriol from August i/th, 
to December 29, 1891. 

Rev. Paul Datin from June 25, 1892, 
to October 4, 1893. 

Rev. William Joisten from October 
1 2th to December 17, 1893. 

Rev. Fidelis Sutter from January 4th 
to October 21, 1894. 

Rev. John Henn from November 4, 
1894 to May 19, 1895. 

Rev. T. V. Dassylva from May 27th 
to October 13, 1895. 

Rev. F. X. Barth the present incum 
bent, from November 29, 1895. 

Whatever may have been the causes of 
these constant changes they were detri 
mental, spiritually and materially, to the 
development of the parish. During 
twenty years practically nothing was ac 
complished, except that time and weather 
had deteriorated the two humble build 

Father Earth s first step was to look up 
the property of the parish. He found the 
title to De Langie s lot defective. Clear 
ing a small but stale debt and the tax titles 
he commenced to stir the people to ac 
tivity. It was not difficult to make them 
understand that a new church and house 
were badly needed, but it was hard to 
guess which of the two was needed more. 
Here a little worldy wisdom served a 
good purpose. The Priests have found 
out that it is a good deal harder to find 
money for a rectory after the parish has 

been drained for a church than to build a 
church after the house stands there. 
leather Barth followed his own wise coun 
sel and with the spring of 1896 began the 
erection of the parish house. At the 
cost of four thousand dollars he put up a 
dwelling that would grace any congrega 
tion. Every parishioner was proud of it 
and it served to increase his individual 
confidence in the new pastor who was 
quick to exploit the general effusion of 
good will by commencing the prepara 
tions for the new church. A thorough 
canvass of the congregation convinced 


him of the loyal support of the people. 
Securing suitable plans Father Barth 
submitted them for approbation to the 
bishop who was pleased to give his sanc 
tion to the project. No time was lost 
breaking the ground and on the 24th of 
September 1900 the corner stone was laid 
by Bishop Eis with an impressive solem 
nity, amidst of a great concourse of 
people. Throughout the fall and follow 
ing spring the work was carried on with 
such success that the 22nd of May could 
be set for the dedication. It was a gala 
day for Stephenson. Surrounded by 



many diocesan priests and clerical friends 
of the pastor from the neighboring dio 
cese. Bishop Kis dedicated the new church 
to the Most Precious Blood. 

The church is htiilt of solid brick upon 
a stone foundation, calculated to seat four 
hundred people. The style is Gothic and 
has cost complete twenty-six thousand 
dollars, including the altars and other 
furniture. Of the sum only ten thousand 


remained unpaid at the time of dedication 
which speaks volumes for the generous 
sacrifices of the people and the untiring 
efforts of the pastor. One of the fore 
most workers for the success of the un 
dertaking at the same time most gener 
ous, was Mr. Paul Perrizo, Jr., of Dag- 

Stephenson parish has in the neighbor 

hood of three hundred families who are 
in the main English speaking, but there 
are Belgians, both Walloon and Flemish, 
Canadians. Germans, Slovenians, Italians, 
Poles, Indians and Bohemians. English, 
(ierman and French languages only are 
used in the pulpit. By the parish is un 
derstood the incorporated villages of 
Stephenson and Daggett with the vil 
lage of Ingalls and the rich farming coun 
try adjacent. Dagget and Talbot to the 
Xorth, Wallace on the South, Cedar 
River on the Fast and Koss on the West 
are the missions attached to the parish. 
Cedar River is a small saw-mill town, 
twenty-four miles east of Stephenson, sit 
uated on the shore of Green Bay. Father 
Martin Fox was the first priest to visit 
the place. After him Father De Langie 
stationed in Stephenson, added it to the 
list of his regular missions. Finding it 
more out of the way than other missions 
he suggested the building of a small 
church. The subject was readily taken 
up and at a meeting agreed to pass the 
hat among the residents once or if neces 
sary twice and then to make up the deficit 
among themselves, each sharing alike. 
Mr. John Ringwood, then accountant for 
the Spauling Lumber Company, now a 
prominent resident of Ashland, Wiscon 
sin, was entrusted with the passing of the 
hat. That he did his work well and that 
he met with most generous encourage 
ment is proved by the fact that he col 
lected more money than the estimated 
cost called for. During the summer of 
1887 the building was put up and when 
all bills were paid there was fifty dollars 
left in the treasury. With little exertion 
the ladies of the congregation made 
enough money by means of picnics and 



socials to pay for the pews, altar, bell and 
other furnishings. In September 1888 
Bishop Yertin dedicated the church to 
the Sacred Heart and on the occasion 
blessed the bell. 

The place was always attended to by 
the pastors of Stcphenson with the excep 
tion of the summer of 1890 when Father 
Boever went up from Birch Creek, every 
other Sunday. 

The Catholics of Stephenson use the 
Township cemetery for burial purposes 
but have lately acquired ten acres of fine 
land which will be turned into a cemetery 
as soon as it can be cleared and graded. 



All along the North Western Railway 
from Menominee to Negaunee as a na 
tural result of shipping facilities com 
mercial centers, larger or smaller, accord 
ing to patronizing neighborhood, has 
sprung up apace with the development of 
the country. Nadeau owes its beginning 
to the man whose name it bears. Bnm- 
eau Nadeau, Sr., built there a small saw 
mill in the early 8o s, drawing a good 
sized lumbering industry to that town, 
which occasioned not only the up-build 
ing of the village, but also brought a new 
contingent of farmers into the neighbor 
hood. Among the earliest settlers can be 
counted the Roussos, Boudins, Des Ros- 
iers, Gretiens, Legaults. and Nadeaus. 
Being mostly Catholic they depended for 
religious services, at first on Escanaba 
and Menominee, and later on Spaulding 
and Stephenson, wherever the priest hap 
pened to reside, until the fall of 1887. 
The first Mass was celebrated by Father 
Martin Fox in a small log house of Mr. 

Bruno Nadcan. Occasionally Mass was 
offered in the house of Isidore Legault, 
a short distance out in the country. Thus 
services were held in private houses until 
the fall of 1887 when the settlers consid 
ered their number large enough to main 
tain a church and a priest of their own. 
For this purpose Mr. Xadeau donated 




two acres of land in the non-incorporated 
village, and on this site the people, of 
their own accord, commenced erecting a 
small church. They were unable to finish 
it inside, so that in extreme cold weather 
it was unfit for use. In the fall of 1889 
Rev. Peter P. Mazuret was sent as the 



first pastor, and through his efforts the 
church was plastered and made inhabit 
able. He also built the steeple to it and 
during his stay from September 15, 1889 
to April 27, 1891. erected the priest s resi 
dence, both of which, the house and the 
church, he painted himself. 

Other pastors were : 

Rev. J. A. Sauriol from May 3rd to 
June 7, 1891. 

Rev. Michael Letellier from June 27, 
1891 to May 1 1, 1893. 

Rev. Joseph \Yallace during September 



Rev. A. Poulin from October 7, 1893 
to May 12, 1895. 

Rev. Fabian Pawler during August 


Rev. Anthony Hodnik from September 
8th to October 31, 1895. 

Rev. John Burns from November i, 

1895 to May 10, 1896. 

Rev. Fabian S. Marceau from May 24, 

1896 to May 25, 1898. 

Rev. John Henn from June 7, 1898 to 
October 6, I9OI. 4 

4 Father Earth of Stephenson attended to the 
parish in May, June and July, 1900, while Father 
Henn was administrator in Menominee. 

Rev. Peter F. Manderfield from No 
vember 20, 1901 to October 12, 1902. He 
gave the priest s house a much needed and 
a thorough over-hauling. 

Rev. Frederick Sperlein, the present 
pastor from November 16, 1902. 

The original church was 50x32 feet 
and proved after four years too small. 
Father Poulin added twenty feet to it and 
a roomy sacristy ; the unsightly windows 
were replaced by stained glass, and the 
old pews by modern ones. But these sub 
stantial improvements furnished relief 
only for a time. After six years still 
more room was needed. To supply this 
the present pastor built a spacious sanc 
tuary upon a stone foundation, thus not 
only gaining the needed room, but giving 
the church externally a shapely appear 
ance and at the same time providing un 
der the sanctuary a room for many useful 
purposes, such as he wishes to have for 
catechism, parish library, choir practices, 
etc. To accomplish all this with such 
limited funds as the parish just then, 
after a liquidation of old debts, yielded, 
Father Sperlein worked side by side with 
those who were donating their labor or 
were receiving only a nominal compensa 
tion. Three new altars also bespeak 
his zeal for the beauty of the house of 
God. On November 16, 1904, the church 
was re-dedicated. 

The Nadeau parish is composed of one 
hundred and fifty families, Canadians, 
Belgians, Irish, Germans, and Russians. 
It is limited by Kloman on the North, 
Carney and Bagley on the South, Nathan 
on the West and the fertile farming 
country to the East. 




In 1872 the Chicago North-Western 
Railroad Company extended its line from 
Menominee to Escanaba. Two years la 
ter Lemoyne, Hubbard and Wood built 
a small sawmill at Spalding. This was 
the first settlement at this place. What 
little call there was for religious services 
down the North-Western Line was at 
tended from Escanaba until 1878 when in 
September of that year Rev. Martin Fox 
was sent to attend to the religious wants 
of Catholics on the Menominee Range. 
Finding Spalding most conveniently lo 
cated for the discharge of his duties he 
settled there taking lodging in a private 
family and saying Mass in private houses 
that offered best accommodation. En 
couraged by his presence and the pros 
pect of steady employment many em 
ployees of the sawmill put up their own 
houses. This caused the general boarding 
house to be empty and the business un 
profitable. Jesse Spalding, the proprietor 
offered it for sale and as there was no 
other buyer Father Fox bought it, to 
gether with two lots, for two hundred dol 
lars and commenced immediately re 
modeling it into a church. One-third, the 
rear end, was set off for the dwelling of 
the pastor; from the remainder the sec 
ond floor was taken out to give it a higher 
ceiling, and to make it more suitable for 
a church. A primitive altar, a counter 
part to a set of rough benches, was in 
stalled and the building assumed the 
character and the duty of a church. 
Father Fox remained in charge of the 
mission until September 7th, 1879. His 
first baptism recorded is on September 



15, 1878, that of Marie St. John. Hi? 
first two successors, during their short 
stav do not appear to have done much im 
proving. Father Bordas partitioned the 
rear end set off for a priest s dwelling 
into a comfortable residence, built the 
steeple, bought a bell and fitted up many 
necessary things in the church and sac 
risty. Father Fox in his time attended to 
Cedar River, Stephens* >n, Xadeau, Klo- 
inan, Wilson. Hark River, I lermansville 
and intermediate missions up to Vulcan. 
His successors had lost jurisdiction over 
the missions west of Hermansville. All 


other missions except Stephenson were 
visited every three weeks. Spalding and 
Stephenson having services every Sunday. 

The succession of pastors after Father 
Fox, is the following: 

Rev. J. E. Martel, from July 14. to 
May 29/1881. 

Rev. Theodor Aloysius Majerus, from 
May 1 4th to August 14, 1881. 

Rev. P. E. Bordas, from August 18, 

Rev. J. H. Raynaert. from October 8, 

1 88 1 to September 27. 1882. 

1882 to June 28, 1883. 

Rev. F. X. Becker, from August 12, 
1883 to July 12, 1884. 

Rev. M. Orth, from August 17, 1884 to 
April i i, 1885. 

Rev. A. O. Pelisson, from June 21, 

1885 to October 18, 1886. 

Rev. F". S. Marceau. from October 25, 

1886 to October 3, 1887. 

Rev. P. Girard, from October 11, 1887 
to May 27, 1888. 

Rev. (i. Beliveau, from June 3, 1888 to 
February 9, 1890. 

Rev. A. Vitali. from March 3rd to June 
i . 1 890. 

Rev. T. V. Dassylva, from July 26, 
i8*jO to April 25, 1891. 

Rev. J. R. Regis, from May 3rd to Au 
gust 12, 1891. 

Rev. A. C. Keller, from March 8th to 
May 29, 1892 

Rev. Joseph Hoeber, from August 26, 
1892 to November 27, 1893. 

Rev. R. Cavicchi, from March 13th to 
August 27, 1894. 

Rev. A. Molinari, from December n, 
1894 to August 23, 1896. 

Rev. Frederick (/laser, ad interim, 
from September 6th to November 15, 

Rev. F. Sutter, from December 13, 

1896 to April 24, 1897. 

Rev. Julius Papon, from May 5th to 
August 22, 1897. 

Rev. John Henn. from August 29, 

1897 to May 31, 1898. 

Rev. John Burns, from August 20, 

1898 to August n, 1901. 

Rev. Frederick Glaser, from August 
1901, the present incumbent. 

In the course of these many years 
the small saw-mill location has grown 
into an extensive parish. For many miles 



the whole neighborhood has been settled 
by lurmers who, one by one, as they came, 
added their individuality and their wealth 
to the strength and permanency of the 
parish. A mile to the South, the railroad 
junction, too, has attracted a good many 
families who make their home there for 
reasons of employment by the railway 
company or for business attractions. In 
short, in less than twenty years over two 
hundred and fifty families have added 
their membership to the Spalding 
church so that the old boarding-house 
structure could neither afford them 
room nor was it in keeping with the de 
mands of time. A popular cry was 
raised for modern buildings, house and 
church. In 1895 Father Molinari built 
a $1,300 rectory without incurring 
a debt. This manifestation of popu 
lar good will sufficiently warranted 
the construction of a new church, and 
although its realization postponed for 
five years, enough life was infused into 
the project to awaken the never-miss 
ing calculations as to the new site. 
Powers, the junction for the Waters- 
meet branch of the North- Western 
Road anxious for its own importance, 
with pardonable pride, vied with Spald- 
ing, her sister village, for the honor. I 
But popular vote decided in favor of 
the latter. Ross Brothers donated then 
three lots, a block s distance east of the old 
church. With the bothersome prelimina 
ries disposed of, Father Glaser lent his 
energies to actual building. In 1892 the 
corner stone was laid privately and on 
October nth of the following year Rt. 
Rev. Consignor Charles Langner, as 
sisted by the neighboring clergy, solemnly 
dedicated the new church which is a credit 

to the pastor and people. It is of Gothic 
design and brick veneered; its cost is over 
sixteen thousand dollars, half of which 
was paid before it was blessed. The plans 
were furnished by K. Brielmaier and Sons 
of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

The parish is composed of Canandian, 
Irish, German and Bohemian families re 
siding in the towns, Powers, Spalding, 
Wilson and the surrounding farming 




This mission was attended from Spald 
ing from its inception. Once a month 
the priest read Mass in the old school 
house which was kept in repair by the 
town mainly for public dances, political 
caucuses and cheap shows. Frequently 
services had to be given up because the 



night before the hall was occupied by 
some ministrel show \vlio left the hall in 
an unsightly condition. For this reason 
the pastors attempted at different times to 
build a small chapel but always met with 
a failure because the company would 
neither sell nor donate a site. Finally 
Father (ilaser succeeded in obtaining a lot 
from the Wisconsin Laud and Lumber 
Company where he erected a small but 

JUNK 29, 1902. 

neat church. It was dedicated on Decem 
ber 14, 1902 by Rev. Father Menard. Af 
ter that the services were held every three 
weeks and then every other Sunday. In 
September 1906 Rev. Anthony \Yaechter 
was appointed as the first permanent pas 
tor, but was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph 
Dittman. March 28, 1907. 

The parish numbers one hundred and 
twenty families, and about two hundred 
and fifty individual men, who are either 
single or have their families in the old 
country. According to nationality they 
are French. Irish, Italian, Croatian and 
( lerman. 


The Catholic miners at Vulcan were 
wont to attend divine services at Norway. 
In 1882 some Tyrolese banded together 
for the purpose of having a church built 
at the Vulcan location. The 1 enn Iron 
Company leased them a lot 124x116 feet 
for the purpose. Their earnest endeavors 
soon gained the favor of public sentiment 
and a small church was the result. The 
pastors of Norway came to say Mass on 
Sundays until October 8. 1887, when Rev. 
Dominic Vento became the first resident 
pastor. He staid till September 8, 1889. 
List of other pastors: 

Rev. A. O. Pelisson, from December 13 
1890 to July 20, 1891. 

Rev. Alberico Yitali, from January 31,. 
i8()2 to November 5, 1893. 

Rev. A. Molinari, from November 8, 
1893 to November 13, 1894. 

Rev. Joseph Pinten, ad interim, from 
November 18, 1894 to February i, 1895. 

Rev. Joseph Haas, from May 5, 1895 
to September 26, 1897. 

Rev. Beniamino Berto, from October 
17. 1897 to August 25, 1898. 

Rev. W. H. Shea, from November 4, 
1898 to April 19, 1899. 

Rev. John Kraker, from May 3rd to 
November 5. 1899. 

Rev. Raphael Cavicchi, from Novem- 



ber 12, 1899 to Jly ii, 1906, when he 
came to his untimely death by accidental 
drowning while outing on one of the 
neighboring lakes. 

Rev. A. \Vollny, ad interim, from July 
1 3th to August 12, 1906. 

Rev. John Stenglein, the present pastor, 
from August 15, 1906. 

The rectory was built by Dr. Vitali. 
Father Shea expended eight hundred dol 
lars in enlarging the church and Father 
Cavicchi some three thousand additional 
in improving the entire property. 

The congregation consists of two hun 
dred and fifty-three families including 
those residing at Waucedah and Loretto. 
According to nationality they are Italian, 
French, Irish, German, Polish, Belgian 
and Slovenian. 


Here as elsewhere in the Menominee 
Iron Range the town has its raison d etre 
in the mining industry. In August 1878 
the first operations were commenced in 
the Norway mine owned under lease by 
the Menominee Mining Company. The 
richness of the hematite ore was such that 
over the first half year s mining of 7,276 
gross tons the second year s output in 
creased to 93.619 gross tons and in 1880 
to 198,165 gross tons. Evidences of this 
excellent ore and in inexhaustible quanti 
ties were from the start most remarkable. 
The mine was an assured fact from the 
beginning and upon this security the town 
commenced to nestle around the hills. It 
was platted by Carl L. Wendel. Father 
Rousseau stationed in Ouinnesec but a 
short time, with an inborn keenness per 
ceived the possibilities of the future and 

took proper steps to obtain lots for the 
building of the church. A large piece of 
land, overhanging partly the deep cut of 
the railroad bed, was given him by Mr. 
Carl L. Wendel. On this property he, 
Father Rosseau, built the present house 
and right aside of it the church. When 
this church was dedicated it is impossible 
to ascertain. The first baptism recorded is 
that of Agnes Ronan on the i7th of July 
1878. When Father Rousseau was erect 
ing his two buildings, woods bordered on 
his premises, but he built well, especially 
he demonstrated a sense of practicability 
in building a model of a priest s house. 


Thirty years have passed since and Nor 
way s rectory is still considered the best 
laid-out rectory in the diocese. Rousseau 
finished only the lower story of his home 
because in May 1881 he was changed to 
the St. John s church in Ishpeming, where 
he duplicated the priest s residence of 

After Father Rosseau, came, on May 
15, 1881, Rev. Luke Mozina. The un 
fortunate man s mind became deranged, 
and about the middle of February 1882 
he was taken to the St. Joseph s Retreat, 



Dearborn, Michigan, and ended there his 
clay on the iQth of April (1882). 

In the parish, odd fate! he was suc 
ceeded by the bishop who had ordained 
him. In his simplicity the good Bishop 
Mrak consented again to fill the vacancy 
until the Ordinary could find a suitable 
pastor. On May 2nd the Rev. Mathias 
Orth arrived. He staid with the parish 
nnlv a little over a vear during which time 


he lengthened out the church by twenty 
feet to meet the growing demands. Upon 
his removal to Eagle Harbor, September 
n, 1883, Father Brown of Ouinnesec, 
who was on the point of going to the 
Green Bay diocese, through courtesy acted 
as pastor during the month of September 
until the appointment of Rev. Martin 
Kehoe, October TO, 1883. 

Under these continual changes the par 
ish did not prosper. Each incumbent na 
turally did his best but in the short time 
of his stay could carry out no lasting im 
provements. \Yith the arival of Father 
Kehoe this rather disheartening aspect 
changed. Being conversant with the prin 
cipal languages, English, French, Ger 
man, and Italian, spoken in the parish, 
he soon won the confidence and the affec 
tion of the people. He labored assidu 
ously amongst them and laid particular 
stress upon the training of the growing 
generations. To be more successful in 
moulding the character of the young of so 
many mixed nationalities he thought of 
enlisting the help of that powerful aux 
iliary, the Christian school. It took some 
time before the means of the congregation 
allowed him to carry out his plans, but 
with his persistence, and, not without sac 
rifices, the new school, in charge of the 
Franciscan Sisters of Alverno, AYisconsin, 
opened its doors in September 1888. The 
course embraced a full high school until 
after the change of Father Kehoe to Iron- 
wood, October 17, 1890. Since then the 
following were the pastors: 

Rev. John Cebul, from November 22, 

1890 to April 29, 1891. 

Rev. ]ohn H. Raynaert, from May 10. 

1891 to May 22, 1892. (Dr. Vitali from 
Vulcan ad interim.) 

Rev. John Henn, from October 21, 1892 
to June II, 1893. 

Rev. A. \V. Geers, from June 20, 1890 
to October 14, 1894. 

Rev. F. X. Becker, from November 5, 
1894 to September i, 1900. 

Rev. \Yilliam H. Joisten, from Septem 
ber i, 1900. the present incumbent. 



In 1904 a complete remodeling- of the 
church was undertaken and forty feet 
added to its length. The interior was 
frescoed and furnished with new altars, 
stations, and stained glass windows. On 
January /, 1906 a fire broke out in the 
church, but fortunately the damage was 
limited to a few hundred dollars and was 
covered by the insurance. 

The Franciscan Sisters of Alverno give 
up the management of the school in May 
1895. The following Sep 
tember the Sisters of St. Jo 
seph, Concordia, Kansas, 
took up the teaching, but 
gave it up in May 1900. 
Then for one year it was 
maintained by means of lay 
teachers and since Septem 
ber 1901, the School Sisters 
of St. Francis, Milwaukee. 
Wis., are in charge of it. 

The congregation num 
bers two hundred and fifty 
families English, French, 
Belgian, Polish, Italian and 
German about evenly di 
viding the honors. 

nearest station on the Chicago Xorth- 
\\estern road. Owing to persistent ru 
mors of ore being found on this range the 
railroad company abandoning the original 
idea of extending the road from Menom- 
inee to Escanaba by the lake shore route, 
parallel with the state road, built their 
line more inland. After Mr. Buell s dis 
covery the same company, but under the 
charter of the Menominee River Railroad 
Company, obtained from the Legislature 




To John L. Buell is due more credit 
for the early development of the Menom 
inee Iron Range than to any other man. 
In 1873 he located a body of iron ore at 
Ouinnesec. By driven test pits he proved 
the existence of such ore in sufficient quan 
tities and demonstrated its practical value 
by a test in the Menominee Furnace, 
transporting the ore in the winter across 
a roadless country of thirty miles to the 


of 1876 seven sections per mile of the 
State swamp lands, in Menominee and 
Delta counties, for the construction of a 
road through the Menominee Iron Range. 
The road was actually commenced from 
Powers to Vulcan in 1876, a distance of 
eighteen miles, but not completed until 
the summer of the following year. In 
the winter of 1877-78 the road bed 
reached as far as Ouinnesec and at the 
close of the year to Iron Mountain, Flor 
ence, and Crvstal Falls. 



out his town in io// 
platted town on the range the advent of 
the railroad naturally raised it to a sud 
den importance. Father Fox was at the 
time stationed at Spalding. Seeing his 
territory studded all at once with mines 
he followed the crowds up the line to the 
new town site. The future looked bright. 
Among the new homes of the miners and 
tradesmen rose also a frame church a 

Mr. Buell, the father of (Juinnesec, laid became known, easily won out over her 
|Js >__ Ueino- the first older sister, Quinnesec. In the summer of 

1878 Father Rosseau was sent to Nor 
way to establish a new parish. He fin 
ished the church in Quinnesec and he and 
his successors retained it as a mission un 
til the end of 1882. Although Mass was 
celebrated there every Sunday the people 
would not be satisfied till they had their 
own priest. To lay a better claim for one, 
they built quite a stately residence for 
him. Yielding to such pressing petitions, 
Bishop Yertin sent them the 
Rev. John C. Kenny, whose 
stay was, however, very short. 
Ileginning of January 1883 
Rev. John Brown was made to 
succeed him. Seeing their 
wishes realized the people liber 
ally contributed towards what 
was still necessary for the 
equipment of church and house. 
On the sixth of May 1883 
Bishop Vertin blessed their 
church in honor of the Immacu 
late Conception. 

Father Brown s administra 
tion was a good one, but the 
hard and scattered missions 
proved too much for his enfee 
bled health. From the hands of Bishop 
Krautbauer he accepted an easier pastor 
ate at Fort Howard, Wisconsin, where 
there were no missions attached to the 
parish. During September, one month 
before leaving the diocese, he lived in 


mere shell, unplastered, unfinished. But 
such as it was it gave him room for ser 
vices and a corner for his own abode 
whenever he happened to slay in town. If 
the rough boards could talk they could 
tell of the sacrifices of this pioneer-mis- 

sionary, how often he prepared coffee for Norway looking after the two parishes 

his breakfast in an oyster can! until the appointment of new pastors, Oc- 

In 1878 the Norway mine became a tober i, 1883 when Rev. M. Faust came 

producer. Following better and steadier to Quinnesec. 

earning facilities new comers soon made At the time when Quinnesec was made 

a new town and Norwav, as the town an independent parish all settlements due 



west were included as missions, so that 
the priest had to visit periodically Indiana 
Mine, Iron Mountain, Crystal Falls, Iron 
River and wherever people made a home 
throughout the trackless territory of the 
present Gogebic. At these places pros 
pecting was carried on and they were all 
more fortunate in their finds than Ouin- 
nesec where the ore body was of peculiar 
formation. The Chapin mine at Iron 
Mountain discovered in 1879, was ship 
ping ore in less than a year after the first 
test-pit was sunk. The richness of the 
ores and seemingly inexhaustible deposits 
of it attracted not only the attention of 
the mining world but brought people to 
the location who in a short time built up 
a town of no small proportion. With awe 
did Quinnesec look upon her best citizens 
moving to a better town. The scramble 
for town lots and positions was such that 
in less than two months two-thirds of Fa 
ther Faust s parishioners were living in 
Iron Mountain. He visited them regu 
larly and held services for them, but what 
was more natural than that they should 
ask him to remove to them? With the 
approval of the Bishop, Father Faust se 
cured lots in the new town site and upon 
completion of a spacious church moved 
to Iron Mountain in the summer of 1884. 
Thus Quinnesec, struggling under divers 
fortunes, became a mission to Iron Moun 
tain and has been attended from there 
ever since. 

On May 18. 1906 Quinnesec was visited 
by a disastrous conflagration started from 
carelessly ignited rubbish. The church 
burned to the ground. Only the vest 
ments, chalice and a few statues and pic 
tures were saved. The house was dam 
aged but has been repaired since and one 

part of it is used as a chapel. The old 
bell, which was blessed by Bishop Ver- 
tin, on May 30, 1884, was rendered use 



When the building of a church at Iron 
Mountain came up for consideration Mr. 
William Foster, agent for the Hamilton 




Lumber Co., offered the forming congre 
gation two lots which were gratefully ac 
cepted by Father Faust. Finding two lots 
inadequate he purchased from the same 
company three more for the sum of three 
hundred and seventy-five dollars. On this 
site he commenced building a church 
105x50 feet including three rooms in the 



property which, by the purchase of five 
additional lots consisted, besides the 
buildings, of the entire block, number i^, 
Kimberly s addition to Iron Mountain. 

rear. The building was not completed taut from December 20, 1889 to August 

until June 1884 although, for want of 7, 1890. Rev. R. Cavicchi, assistant for 

other accommodation, services were held the Italians in the fall of 1889 and in the 

in it as soon as it was enclosed. In 1886 spring of 1890. when the Italian Holv 

Father 1 aust added three more rooms to Rosary congregation was formed, 

his living apartments and at the end of Rev. Honoratns Bourion. from Waist 


September when he was changed to Cain- 8. 1890 to June 14, 1893. Rev. Joseph 
met, there was no indebtedness on the Wallace, assistant during fanuary and 

February 1893. 

Rev. T. V. Dassylva, from June 18, 
1893 to May 1895. 

Rev. M. Letellier, from June 9, 1895 
to January 10, 1897. 

Rev. A. 1 oulin, from Feb 
ruary i, 1897 to December 
27, 1900. 

Rev. L. Z. Iluet, ad in 
terim, from December 30. 

1900 to February 3, 1901. 
Rev. T. V. Dassylva, sec 
ond term, from March 2. 

1901 to July 9. 1903. 

Rev. M. Jodocy, from Au 
gust 5, 1903 to September 9, 


Rev. R. Jacques, the pres 
ent pastor from September 
14, 1905. 

The upbuilding of the St. 

Joseph s church and congre- 

The list of pastors and their assistants gation, started by Father Faust, has a 

since 1886 is as follows: 

Rev. A. Th. Schuettelhoefer, from Oc 
tober T, 1886 to October i(>, 1887, Rev. 
Don Vento, for the Italians, during May 

Rev. J. II. Revnaert, from October 21, 
1887 to October i, 1888. 

Rev. J. A. Keul from October 8, to 
August 8. 1890. Rev. J. A. Sauriol, as- 

checkered history. Father Keul built the 
new house and leather Bourion added the 
southwest wing to it. On December 25, 
1890 the church burned to the ground. 
To house his congregation Father Bour 
ion built on the west end of the block 
a spacious shed where temporary com 
fort was obtained. The summer pre- 

sistant from August 231^! to November vious to the fire the Italians had 
S, 1889, and Rev. A. O. Relisson, assis- withdrawn and built their own church in 



the neighborhood of Lake Antoinc. Then 
old whispers of separation of the French 
and all other nationalities became loud. 
Terms of division were effected. The 
French retained the south half of the 
block with the house, and the outgoing na 
tionalities received as thci r share four 
thousand dollars in cash and the north 
portion of the block. Both congregations 
started to build. Father Bourion laid out 
his church on the site of the one devas 
tated by fire, only larger and more modern 
in style. Limited means 
permitted him to finish the 
basement and enclose the 
wooden frame of the 
church. Father Poulin, 
brick-veneered it, furnished 
the art-glass windows, 
three bells, blessed Novem 
ber 25, 1900, incurring an 
indebtedness of three thou 
sand dollars, gave it a metal 
ceiling, and had it dedicated 
by Bishop Eis on June 18, 
1899, although the inside 
was neither lathed nor plas 
tered. This work fell to 
the lot of Father Jodocy 
who finished and furnished 
the inside. The Altar Society gave him 
the main altar; and the stations were 
purchased at the cost of seven hundred 
dollars. The outstanding debt of three 
thousand dollars was not reduced. 

The St. Joseph s congregation consists 
of one hundred and fifty Canadian fami 


It is doubtful if St. Mary s church 

would be built had not fire destroyed the 
old mother church of St. Joseph. The 
terms of division of property would have 
been more difficult which problem would 
have deferred the outgoing of either 
party. However, the ashes of the church 
were not cold yet when it was a settled 
fact that the Irish, German. Austrian and 
other nationalities would have to build, 
the St. Mary s church. Father Bourion 
bought on March 14, 1893, from William 
H. Clark lots 6 and 7 in I lock 17, Kini- 


berly s First Addition, for the sum of 
seven hundred and seventy-five dollars. 
Plans were adopted and the church well 
under way when Rev. V. N. Meeker came 
to the congregation as first pastor but re 
mained only six months till the end of 
August 1893. Father John Cebul served 
the congregation during September of 
1893 and Rev. Joseph P. Mimes from Oc 
tober 10. 1893 to October 7, 1897. Then 
came, on October iith. Rev. Anthony 
Hodnik. II is term was brief. Yielding 



to popular demand, Bishop Vertin per- Besides a new foundation and a new roof, 
mined him to return, December 10, 1897, speedily given to the new rectory, fe\v 

to his former parish of Bessemer and his 
successor at that place, Rev. A. J. Doser, 

changes were necessary. For the socie 
ties of the parish the basement under the 

became his successor at Iron Mountain, church was converted into St. Mary s 


Ever since the birth of Iron Mountain 

He administered the parish one year, and 
was succeeded on December 18, 1898 by 
Rev. X. II. Xosbisch. Until 1900 the the township cemetery at Ouinnesec was 

held in common by the inhabitants 
of both towns. This seemed natural 
enough because most of the early 
settlers of Iron Mountain had first 
lived in Ouinnesec. In twenty years 
the population has for the greater 
part changed, the small mining lo 
cation of one hundred and fifty peo 
ple has grown into a city r> of over 
nine thousand inhabitants and the 
question was more than once raised, 
"\Yhy couldn t we have our own 
cemetery?" Nobody seemed to know 
really why, except that a common 
opinion prevailed that an available 
location was wanting in the neigh 
borhood of the city. Father Nos- 
bisch, induced by the disagreeable- 
ness of long drives in winter to the 
cemetery, looked into the matter. 
He found suitable grounds adjoin 
ing the city limits and at once 
brought the subject to the notice of 
the mayor, the Hon. Alfred Cruse. 
The matter looked into, no one was 
more agreeable than the common 
priest lived in a rented home in the rear council and the mayor. Purchase of the 

ROME, MAY 19, 1874. 

of the church on \Y. A. street and later 
on at 308 \Y. A street. Then, a house 
and lots 9 and 10 of the same block in 

site was made on the 9th of June 1901. 
One-half was deeded to the Bishop of 
the Catholic diocese of Marquette, for 

which the church is situated were for sale the burial of Catholics and Bishop Eis 

and Father Nosbisch bought them on the deeded it back to the city of Iron Moun- 

i;th of April for twelve hundred dollars tain with the proviso that no one shall be 
from Martin J. Hilleman and his wife. incorporated as a city April 2, 1887. 



buried there without the permission of the 
pastor of Catholic Churches in Iron 
Mountain, or the Bishop himself. 

The appointment .of Father Nosbisch 
to Ironwood terminated his activity. He 
was succeeded, August 4, 1901, by Rev. 
John Kraker, who, by way of temporal 
improvement in the parish did much for 
its welfare, but in particular may be men 
tioned the frescoing of the church, the 
purchase of the house and lot number 8, 
which stood between the church the 
priest s residence. This property was 
bought on May 29, 1903 from Sidney 
Mitchell and wife for one thousand three 
hundred dollars. 

The work of the Ironwood parish 
proved too much for the none-too-robust 
health of Fr. Nosbisch. At the Bishop s in 
stant request he returned, November 4, 
1904, to the pastorate of St. Mary s. 

St. Mary s parish is a fair sample of 
different nationalities. There are one 
hundred and sixty-three families in all; 
fifty-seven Irish, fifty-two Slovenian, 
forty German, seven Polish, four Arabian 
and three Hungarian. 

Besides Ouinnesec where Mass is said 
regularly once a month on Sunday s there 
is the new mission of Pentoga, Iron Co., 
with nineteen families. Mass is being 
said once a month on a week day. 




This congregation is exclusively Italian. 
From the beginning of the Chapin Mine 
Italians were favorite employes of the 
company. Becoming numerous Bishop 
Vertin gave them in the fall of 1889 a 
priest in the person of Rev. Raphael Ca- 
vicchi. Under his supervision arrange 

ments were made for the formation of an 
Italian congregation. In the spring of 
1890 they purchased lot 3 in Block 4 in 
Gay s subdivision to Iron Mountain and 
commenced the erection of a frame church 
with rooms over the sacristy for the ac 
commodation of the pastor. In the fall it 
was blessed under the title of the Holy 
Rosary. On November 2, 1893 this struc 
ture burned and Father Cavicchi was sent 
to Spalding from where he directed the 
re-building of it. At the dedication the 
title was changed to that of the Assump 


Next pastors : 

Rev. Joseph G. Pinten, from December 
20, 1894 to August 21, 1898. 

Rev. Benjamino Berto, from Septem 
ber 10, 1898 to March 30, 1902. 

Rev. Peter Sinopoli, from April 4, 
1902 to April 1903. 

Rev. Aloysius Lango, the present pas 
tor, from March 25, 1903. 

The second church was practically the 
same as the first, as it was rebuilt upon 
what was saved from fire. Hence, the 
scarcitv of room was felt as soon as the 



attendance increased, which it did 
through new immigration as also by re 
newed practice of religion inspired by pre 
ceding pastorates. The idea of a com 
modious church therefore easily gained 
the minds of people who were anyway de 
sirous of having a substantial church, 
such as they had left in their native coun 
try. Just at this period Father Sinopoli 
came to the parish and he took up at once 
the popular demand. The rest of block 
4. in which the parish owned but one 


lot. was purchased from the Houghton 
Mineral Land and Mining Company, 
June TO, 190- , for a consideration of one 
thousand dollars and there commenced 
to rise the red-sand-stone building in style 
exclusively Italian, so that one cannot 
mistake the character of the building nor 
the nationality of its owners. The inte 
rior, distinctly foreign, is not disappoint 
ing, although the frescoing done by Fa 
ther Sinopoli himself, is rude. To the 
church is attached in the rear the rectory. 
The entire building cost little over thir 

teen thousand dollars of which two-thirds 
are paid. It was dedicated to the Imma 
culate Conception on January i, 1903. by 
Bishop ICis, assisted by Fathers Sinopoli. 
Dassylva, Kraker and I inten. 

The congregation is composed of two 
hundred and fifty families. 


1 he discovery of iron at \Yaucedah by 
Partly Preen in 1867 led gradually to the 
exploration of the Menoin- 
inee Range so that in a 
do/en of years the entire 
line from Rowers to Flor 
ence, Wisconsin, was stud 
ded with mines and towns. 
The railroad closely fol 
lowed them and made in 
1870, her terminus in Flor 
ence. From this point all 
sorts of prospecting was 
carried on. One John X. 
Armstrong, a woodman, 
strayed to the falls of the 
Paint River and discovered 
there an out-cropping of 
iron. He was followed by 
the Maltby Brothers who also found iron 
but farther up the hill. These finds of 
ore enticed into the district George Run- 
kel, who, for what he did later for the 
town, might justly be styled the father 
of Crystal I ? alls, for as soon as he real 
ized the value of the discoveries he 
formed the Crystal Falls Iron Company, 
taking into partnership, for the most 
part, officers of the North- Western road 
with whom he was intimately connected. 
To form a new commercial center for the 
evolving mining enterprises, Mr. Runkel 



laid out a site for a town and christened it 
Crystal Falls, a name derived from the 
falls of the Paint River. The growth of 
the town was as rapid as the richness of 
the neighboring" mines was promising, so 
that the North-Western railroad manage 
ment did not hesitate to extend their line 
to the foot of the town in the fall of 1882. 

The people who llocked to this new min 
ing camp were of a promiscuous avoca 
tion, nationality and creed. The Catholic, 
belonging as usual to many different na 
tionalities, were visited for the first time 
in the early fall of 1883 by Father Faust 
of Ouinnesec. Fie said Mass in Doucet s 
hall and afterwards in the skating rink, 
which he was ordered to vacate just in 
time to save his Mass-paraphernalia from 
burning. From this time on the pastors 
from Iron River attended the mission. 
They were Revs. A. O. Pelisson, Ch. 
Raphael, Fabian S. Marceau, J. F. Struif, 
Joseph Haas, Joseph Barron, and E. Cha- 
puis, who was the first to take up his 
residence in Crystal Falls, May 8, 1887. 

Father Struif, a ne\v arrival from Ger 
many, and an excellent priest, who much 
disliked saying Mass in school-houses, was 
the first to take steps towards building a 
church here as well as in Iron River. 
During his short stay of three months he 
had in both places the building material 
on the ground when he was called to 
Marqnette. Father Haas, his successor, 
immediately took up the work and built 
both churches as far as the means went. 
In May 1887 the Bishop sent Rev. E. 
Chapius as first resident pastor to Crystal 
Falls. For his residence he built in the 
rear of the church an addition and in the 
summer months finished the interior of 
the church, which afterwards was dedi 

cated -by Bishop Vertin on the 23rd of 
October 1887, in honor of the Guardian 

Father Chapuis was succeeded by Rev. 
F. X. L. de hangie on June i i, 1888 and 
after his departure, April 18. 1889, the 
mission was again attended, from August 
to December, from Iron River, bv Rev. 
Father Cebul. On December i =;th. Rev. 



Joseph A. Sauriol was appointed pastor 
and stayed till August 17, 1890. Since 
then the following priests served the 
mission : 

Rev. J. IT. Raynaert. from September 
14, 1890 to April 29, 1891. 

Rev. John Burns during May 1891. 

Rev. Fidelis Sutter from June 7, 1891 
to August 22. 1892. 



Rev. A. J. Rezck from August 25, 1892 vicchi, J. F. Van Oudenhoven, F. Justin 

to November 3, 1895. 

\Velk, O. F. M., F. Herman Rogier, 

During his absence from November James Lenhart, P. Eustachius Goerlich. 

1894 to May 1895, Rev. Fabian Pawlar. 
Rev. Frederick Eis from November 10, 

1895 to February 26, i8<)<;. Then he be 
came administrator of the diocese upon 

The material building-up of this mis 
sion was slow and during industrial de 
pressions as that of 1893, the parish had 
to put forth a considerable effort to make 
both ends meet. The first ground lot 

the death of Bishop Vertin. and subse- 2 g Q of the FJrst Ad(lilion to the vm 

quently his successor. 

of Crystal Falls was donated in 1886 bv 

Rev. John Kraker, ad interim, from the Crystal Falls Iron Co. and the same 
Marquette in March until the appointment time lots 281 and 282 secured under op 
tion but not purchased un 
til January 30, 1893, al 
though Father Sutter had 
the rectory built the year 
before on these lots, east of 
the church. To him many 
are due. 

Fencing in the 
property he planted trees 
all along the four sides and 
was the first to lay side 
walk in that block. Laying 
out a lawn between the two 
buildings he put all the rest 
of the ground under culti 
vation raising the greatest 
variety of vegetables so 
of Rev. John A. Keul, March 26, 1899 to that his garden became an object of ad- 


May 1 8, 1901. 

miration to the neighbors. A serious ob- 

Rev. William Gagnieur, S. J. looked stacle to gardening was the scarcity of wa- 

after the parish during June 1901. 

ter. The village plant being too small the 

Rev. F. X. Becker from July /, 1901 people did not take trouble to bring pipes 

to May 19, 1904 and from that day the to their premises but rather dug wells or 

present incumbent, Rev. Joseph P. Kunes. borrowed water from the neighbor who 

Illness which led to his final resignation, was more fortunate striking water at 

compelled Father Becker to be absent at an inconsiderable depth. Real cold or 

different times. On such occasions he real hot weather did not agree with these 

was substituted by Revs. M. G. Van den wells, they usually went dry to the great 

Elsen. O. Praem., F. Van Nistelroy, O. annoyance of the proprietors. In the fall 

Praem., J. N. Pociecha, J. Kraker, R. Ca- of 1892 Father Rezek, determind to ob- 



tain a permanent supply of water, dug a 
well and with the first blast in the ledge 
at a depth of thirty-six feet such a volume 
of fresh water poured forth that the two 
Finns working at it were unable to re 
move the debris of the stone. A well 
beaten path in winter and summer spoke 
loudly how much this inexhaustible sup 
ply of water was appreciated. For the 
protection in the winter of those who 
came to draw water, the priest put a spa 
cious shed over the well. 

Crystal Falls region tasted in 1893 of 
the great poverty so common in those 
days in all iron regions. The Shafer, the 
Dunn and the Mansfield, were the only 
mines working, employing a reduced 
quota of men. The same year ho\vever 
the Dunn suspended operation through 
the failure of the Schlesinger syndicate 
and the Mansfield, the only Bessemer ore 
property in the Iron County, was inun 
dated (in the fall of 1893), the Michi- 
gamme River breaking through, drown 
ing twenty-eight men. In those days 
only two classes of people lived in Crys 
tal Falls : those who did not have enough 
to get out of town, and those who had 
enough to tide them over to the brighter 
days. The Guardian Angel s parish was 
reduced in the fall of 1892 from one 
hundred and twenty-six to sixty families 
in less than two weeks. Still the people 
were cheerful and generous. A bazaar 
held for the church netted something like 
three hundred dollars. An urgent debt 
was paid and in place of the ugly large 
box stoves, a hot air furnace placed in the 
church. In February 1893 the pastor 
picked up even enough money to pay for 
the two lots, the price for which Mr. 
S. D. Hollister had reduced bv one-half. 

In 1897 with the revival of industry life 
begun to pulsate with greater vigor than 
ever. Prosperity was never greater in 
Crystal Falls than it is today, when every 
mine is being worked. The little church 
bears witness to this. Already Father 
Keul gave it the much needed repairs in 
and outside, giving the pick-roofed 
steeple the present appearance. But Fa 
ther Kunes has completely transformed 


the building, at the cost of six thousand 
dollars, now all paid for. To the rear an 
addition of thirty feet was made. The 
interior is steel-ceiled with an artistic de 
sign and decorated. The old altars, 
partly the hand-work of Father Rezek, 
replaced by three gothic altars of a most 
modern pattern, manufactured by Hann, 
Wangerin-IYeickhardt Co. of Milwaukee, 



\Yis. Xc\v pews, stations and stained 
glass windows give the church a com 
pleteness seldom rivaled in a town of this 
size. The stations are paintings of un 
usual merit executed by Anton Lang of 
Reichenau, Bohemia and were donated 
by Senator M. 11. Muriarty, way down in 
1893. The same gentleman donated the 
present main altar. Other donations 
were: The St. Joseph s side altar by the 
Slovak and Polish members of the con 
gregation; the Blessed Virgin altar. Fa 
ther Kunes; the local Knights of Colum- 

The Guardian Angels congregation 
numbers about one hundred and fifty fam 
ilies, more than one-half being Slavs. 
According to predominant majority, 
they are Slovaks. Canadian, Irish, Po 
lish. Bohemian. Lithuanian, German, Bel 
gian. Italians and others. Missions at 
tended from Crystal Falls, are Amasa 
with twenty-five, and Mansfield with ten 
families. The number of families is sub 
ject to continual fluctuation. ( Sagola 
and Channins/ attended now from 


bus a two hundred dollar vestment; each 
a window, Bishop Fis, Father Rezek, 
James Corcoran, Father Kunes. Joseph 
Leonard, Mottes Brothers, John Tuft, 
Paul Schook, Jerome B. Schwartz, John 
Dawson, Mrs. John Harbour, William 
Russell, William Rogers and the Slovak 
Catholic Society. 

The church was re-dedicated by the 
Rt. Rev. F. Eis, on the 28th of October 
1906 under the assistance of the pastor, 
of Rev. C. J. Kirkfleet, O. Praem., and 
Rev. Jeremiah Moriarty. 

The parish makes 
use of the city ceme 
tery, half of which is 
allotted to the burial 
of Catholics. 




At the same time 
that iron was discov 
ered on the Paint 
l\iver parties were 
diligently searching 
for similar ores west 
of Crystal Falls, firmly believing that na 
ture has deposited her gifts also in this 
section. In this they were not mistaken. 
One of the first to find iron on the Iron 
River, was Richard L. Selden, a native 
of Connecticut, who came to the Upper 
Peninsula with the railway survey. About 
the same time the MacKinnon Brothers 
discovered an out-cropping which after 
wards became the Xanaimo mine. X T ot- 
withstanding the failures of several min 
ing enterprises to develop a profitable 
mine during the first years, it was clear 



to the mind of the public that iron was 
there and in plenty. That these opinions 
were right is proved by the fact that to 
day large mines exist right over the once 
abandoned pits. Faith in the future of 
Iron River never faltered. The MacKin 
non Brothers laid out during the summer 
of 1882 a town which has had a steady 
growth ever since. The same year the 
North-Western railway people extended 
their line from Florence to Stambaugh 
and since then to Watersmeet making a 
connecting link with the 

The territory of this 
new mining district was 
included in the Ely town 
ship with the seat of gov 
ernment at Republic. 
Upon a petition two new 
townships, that of Iron 
River and of Crystal Falls 
were formed. Patrick E. 
Dunn became the first su 
pervisor of Crystal Falls, 
and Donald C. MacKin 
non of Iron River. These 
two townships embraced 
enough territory to ac- 

night carted away all the records of the 
county from Iron River. A bitter contest, 
closely resembling a contest for a new 
church site, ensued. In the spring election 
the Crystal Falls people worked hard and 

For religious services Iron River as 
well as Crystal Falls depended at first on 
Ouinnesec and then on Iron Mountain. 
Father Faust made periodical visits until 
November 1883 when Rev. Anatole O. 
Pelisson was given charge of the entire 


commodate a European monarchy, hence 
three more townships w r ere created, Mas 
todon, Stambaugh and Bates, and then 
the agitation for a new county began. In 
1884 the legislature established the county 
of Iron leaving it to the popular vote to 
decide where the county seat should be lo 
cated. On account of the restriction not 
to erect any county buildings for five 
years this question was allowed to rest 
until 1889. The Crystal Falls people evi 
dently believing in the old axiom "pos 
session is nine points of law," one winter s 

new district. He had neither house nor 
church in either place and the number of 
Catholics was too limited to think of 
building a church as most of them were 
just making homes for themselves. So 
he said Mass in the school house and staid 
where charitable people opened a door for 
him. Being the holder of a pass on the 
North-Western railway, it is said that he 
rode many a time all day long on the cars, 
in order not to be too much of a burden to 
the good people. Later arrangements 
were made with Mrs. Mestelle, who, char- 



itably disposed, looked after the wants of 
the stationary priest. Of these there were 
several before they had their own home. 
Father Pelisson staid about one year after 
which the place fell back upon the services 
of Father Faust. In May 1885, Rev. Ch. 
Raphael came but he barely served out 
that calendar year; he was succeeded in 
January 1886 by Rev. Fabian S. Marceau 
and in June of the same year. Rev. J. E. 


Struif followed. During his short stay 
of three months he finally made a start for 
the building of a church. From the Mac 
Kinnons (i he obtained a piece of land 
I20XIOO feet. With the material on the 
ground ready to begin building, Father 
Struif was called to Marquette, Septem- 

"Deed signed on August 25, 1886 by Donald C. 
MacKinnon, Belle M., tixor, and Alexander Mac 

her 23, 1886. Rev. Joseph Haas came, 
October /th, and put up the church, but 
without plastering the interior. Never 
theless he said Mass in it. On October 
1 6, 1887, Rev. Joseph Barren became 
pastor, but he staid only a few weeks, and 
for the remainder of that year the congre 
gation was served by Father Chapuis who 
made his residence at Crystal Falls. In 
January 1888 Rev. M. J. Van Straten re 
ceived the appointment and Iron River be 
came a parish, independent of Crystal 
Falls. Father Van Straten bent all his 
energies to build a rectory. lie finished 
the lower story of it but did nothing to 
the church. His successor, Ivev. Philip J. 
Frlach, at last had it plastered, built a gal 
lery and after painting it inside and out 
side, Bishop Vertin blessed it on the 6th 
day of October 1889, to the title of St. 
Agnes, the virgin and martyr. 

Father Erlach s service was from April 
1 4th to August 14, 1889. After him 
came : 

Rev. John Cebul. from August 15, 1889 
to November 5, 1890. 

Rev. Dr. Alberico Vitali, from Novem 
ber 8, 1890 to September 7, 1891. 

Rev. Dennis deary, from September 13, 

1891 to February 28, 1892. 

Rev. James Miller, from March till 
August 17, 1892. 

Rev. N. H. Nosbisch, from October 30, 

1892 to May 21, 1893. 

Rev. Anzelm Mlynarczyk, from May 
28th to July 13, 1893. 

Rev. John Henn, from July 14, 1893 to 
January 21, 1894. (Then for a while 
attended from C. F.) 

Rev. Hubert Zimmermann, from March 
18, 1894 to March 14, 1895. 

Rev. Adam J. Doser, from April 17,, 



1895 to May 1896 (Ad interim Fr. Mly- 
narczyk during June.) 

Rev. John M. G. Manning, from June 
21, 1896 to August 31, 1898. 

Rev. James Lenhart, Ph. D., from 
September i, 1898. 

The above notes show that it took a 
marvelously long time to finish the 
church, but even then it was not com 
pleted. There was neither a belfry nor a 
sacristy to it. The priests managed to 
get along by keeping the vestments be 
hind the high altar and vesting there, and 
Father Cebul, as he did in other places 
where he found no belfry, built a shed 
right in front of the house and placed a 
good sized bell in it. These arrangements 
answered their purpose well enough for 
a time, but when the question was raised 
of building a tower in front of a sacristy 
in the rear, the figures suggested a new 
church, and taking into consideration 
that the old building was out of propor 
tion and poorly put together, the congre 
gation decided to build a new church. 
At the public meeting the members 
pledged themselves to contribute each ten 
dollars a year until the entire cost of the 
new church, about fifteen thousand dol 
lars, should be paid. With this pledge 
and eight hundred dollars on hand the 
work was commenced in 1901. Messrs. 
E. Brielmaier and Sons of Milwaukee, 
sketched the plans and their townsman, 
Peter Lauer, put it up. On the 28th day 
of November of the same year. Bishop 
Kis, under the assistance of the Pastor, 
Dr. Lenhart, Revs. H. Zimmermann, 
James Miller, \Y. IT. Joisten, Fabian 
Pawlar, F. X. Becker, Adolph Schneider, 
J. M. Langan, Anthony Arzt from St. 
Cloud diocese and H. B. Gillenbeck of 

Green Bay diocese, dedicated the new 
church to St. Agnes. It speaks well for 
the faithfulness of the people that they 
have kept their pledges during the past 
five years, so that at this writing the in 
debtedness is only a triile more than six 
thousand dollars. 

Donations: High Altar by William 
Murphy, St. Joseph s side altar by Jo 
seph and Charles Malinoxvski, Blessed 


Virgin s Altar by John McGillis, Win 
dows: Mrs. J. M. Crippen. Mrs. B. Mes- 
telle, Mrs. T. G. Atkinson, A. J. Santo- 
mow, W. C. O. F.. Mrs. Agnes O Brien, 
C. O. F., Miss Margaret Stenglein, J. J. 
Sipchen, Louis Porrier. M. F. Kenny, 
Patrick Larkins. 

The real estate of the congregation is 
a magnificent piece of land 240x260 feet 



as level as a table. All was acquired from 
MacKinnons and Father Lenhart pur 
chased on April 24, 1900 for the sum of 


four hundred and fifty dollars a piece of 
it 120x130 feet and again November /, 
1901, for a similar price an irregular 
piece of 240x130 feet less 60x120 feet. 

The congregation owns in addition the 
cemetery site of seven acres in the East 
part of X. \V. >4 of X. E. y 4 Section 28 
T. 43 R. 32. But this site was so badly 
mixed with the interment of non-Catho 
lics that a new one donated by the Stam- 
baugh township has been accepted with 
the clause that no one without permission 
of the pastor of St. Agnes church may be 
buried there. 

St. Agnes parish of Iron River, as 
most others, is composed of divers na 
tionalities. Of one hundred and twenty- 
five families there are Polish, Irish, 
Erench, German, Italian, Slovenian and 

Settlements which belong to Iron 
River parish are Stambaugh, Sanders and 
Pentoga. Formerly Atkinson, Interior 
and \Yatersmeet belonged to it. \Yaters- 
meet has been ceded to Ewen in 1903. 
Interior and Atkinson went out of exis 
tence. The latter place had a church dedi 
cated by Bishop Vertin in 1895. The land 
75x200 feet in the Southwest corner of 
Section 4 T. 44, Range 35 was donated 
by the Metropolitan Lumber Co. With 
the closing down of the saw-mills the 
chnrch was sold and taken down. 

Chapter XXIV. 



The church was built by Father Kunes 
in the summer of 1891 on lot i, block 10, 
village of Wakefield, donated by Mr. L. 
Clements. This was a great step towards 
the realization of the hearts-desire of the 
Catholics who wished to have a church 
and priest of their own. To accelerate 
their design they purchased in the spring, 
April 30, 1892, the adjoining lot No. 2 
to build thereon a priest s residence. But 
just then the iron industries began to de 
cline and with the suspension of work 
their hopes vanished from the horizon. 
The pastors of Bessemer continued to 
come and say Mass from time to time in 
Wakefield other missions, Mikado, 
Ramsey and Marenisco, had become al 
most depopulated. With the prosperity 
returned also the people and for the bet 
ter taking care of them the Ordinary ap 
pointed towards the end of July 1905, the 
Rev. John Stenglein assistant to Bessemer 
parish, and on the first of October trans 
ferred him to Wakefield as its first resi 
dent pastor. A house standing on lot 3 
adjoining the church property was pur 
chased for eight hundred dollars from Mr. 

Thomas Edwards and paid for from the 
proceeds of a fair. On August 14, 1906 
Father Stenglein was succeeded by the 
Rev. Dr. Theophile Eisele, the present 

To the Wakefield parish still belong the 
missions of Ramsey, Mikado on the east 
and Marenisco on the west. Mikado or 
Verona as it is called today has a church, 
dedicated on September 8, 1903 by Msgr. 
Langner to the Sacred Heart. 

This parish, like the majority of them, 
in the diocese, has a mixed population, 
Irish, German, French, Italians and Slavs 
of all kinds. 


Early state geological surveys directed 
the attention to the rich deposit of iron on 
the Gogebic Range, but not until 1879 at 
tempts were made to locate these bodies 
of ore. The first explorations began at 
the Colby mine and the success gave an 
impetus to similar enterprises in a direct 
line east and west, so that in an incredi 
bly short time the entire Range became 
the scene of liveliest activity. Where for 
centuries reigned an unbroken wilderness 
the toiler s hand commenced 





homes. House < >n house arose and four 
little villages, only a fe\v miles apart, 
marked the centers of human activity. In 
the fall of 1884 the Milwaukee Lake 
Shore and Western Railway tapped this 
mining field opening the tlood-gates to 
immigration and industrial commerce. 
The inllux of people was so great that 


eight years after the first exploration the 
once uninhabited section of Ontonagon 
county asked for a county of its own. The 
division was amicably settled June 4, 1886 
and by an act of legislature of February 
2, 1887 the new county of Gogebic estab 
lished. Its name was derived from an 
old Indian. Agogebie, by dropping the A. 
In the contest to secure the county seat. 

Uessemer, with the help of \Yakefield and 
other locations, won out. 

The parish of I Bessemer dates from 
1886. father 1 lennessy was sent early 
in the spring to look after the wants of 
the Catholic people on the Range. He 
located in Bessemer, it being the center 
and also of greater promise. Renting a 
hall above a store he held services 
there while preparing to build a 
church. He purchased May 11, 
i88(>. from D. II. Meritt and wife, 
Lots 11 and u of P.lock ( > in Mib- 
bings, being an addition to the Vil 
lage of I Bessemer. Trouble about 
the collections made the priest s fur 
ther utility impossible, so he was 
replaced by Rev. Fdward P. P>ordas. 
His first entry on the baptismal rec 
ord is that of Mary Sullivan, daugh 
ter of Richard and Johanna Sulli 
van, on October I, 1886. lie re 
mained only until February 1887, 
but had succeeded in that short time 
in building the main body of the 
church with a room in the rear for 
sacrist}- purposes and the accommo 
dations for the priest. On Febru 
ary 4th he was succeeded by Rev. 
John Henn, whose pastorate ended 
on August 29, 1887. Rev. l r abian 
Pawlar, who came next, added to 
the church a steeple and completed 
the building, liishop Vertin dedicated 
it to the honor of St. Sebastian. On Feb 
ruary 3, 1889, Rev. Joseph Kunes suc 
ceeded leather Pawlar. During his pas 
torate, which ended June 22, 1893, he 
built the priest s residence. 

The complete paralysis of the Iron in 
dustry in the go s impoverished the re 
gion and the congregation dwindled to a 



small number of families. Those who re 
mained were scarce!} able to keep a priest 
and in consequence changes in pastorate 
were many. During July, August and 
September, Revs. J. B. McGowan and 
\Yilliam Joisten attended the place suc 
cessively. October 14, 1893 Rev. Philip 
J. Erlach was appointed permanent pas 
tor and despite the great personal sacrifi 
ces held out at his post, till April 16, 1894, 
when the daily privations had undermined 
his health. lie was forced to go to the 
hospital in Chippewa Falls, \Yisconsin, 
and died there May 8, 1894. Brought to 
his last parish he was buried on the nth 
of May. After that Father Kehoe at 
tended the parish from Ironwood until 
the appointment of Rev. Frederick Eis 
who served ad interim from June i/th 
to October 24, 1894. On October 28th 
Rev. Joseph Haas came as regular pas 
tor. On May 5, 1895 ne was succeeded 
by Rev. A. J. Rezek, upon whose resig 
nation, June 2nd, Father Eis temporarily 
had charge of the congregation till No 
vember 3, 1885, when Rev. Anthony 
Hodnik became pastor. 

\Yith the revival of iron mining the 
long looked for prosperity returned. Fa 
ther Hodnik s youthful energy made it 
self felt creating a new order of things. 
Much to the sorrow of his parishioners 
he was removed from his activity in Octo 
ber 1897 and replaced by Rev. Adam J. 
Doser, but yielding to a general petition 
of the people Bishop Yertin sent Father 
Hodnik back in December. He continued 
his labors in greatest blessing till June 26, 
1898. Desirous of visiting his parents 
in the old country, he undertook the voy 
age across the Atlantic on the ill-fated 
steamer Ea Bourgogne and perished with 

her July 4, 1898. His sad end evoked 
among his much-devoted people deepest 
sorrow. The Catholic order of Forest 
ers, Sebastian s Court Xo. 602, caused a 
St. Anthony window to be placed in the 
church as a loving tribute to his memory. 
Father Buchholtz who was replacing Fa 
ther Hodnik during his absence remained 
only during the months of July and Au 
gust and Rev. NVilliam H. Joisten was ap- 


pointed as pastor on the 2ist of August 
and was in charge until November 5, 
1899. Then came Rev. John Kraker, 
from November 18, 1899 till July 28, 
1901; Rev. Adolph Schneider from Au 
gust 3, 1901 till April 15, 1902; Rev. Al 
exander Smietana from April 20, 1902 
till August 3, 1902, when he was recalled 
to his own diocese of Kansas City. 

If we say that each one of these priests 



strove to promote the welfare we simply 
generalize their work as it would be in 
deed difficult to single out the improve 
ments each one of them made. The 
present pastor s labors Rev. Charles J. 
S \voboda came to Bessemer beginning to 
August 1902 his labors deserve our 
closer attention. Better times enabled him 
to do more than his predecessors and he 
did not fail to avail himself of the oppor 


The church, built almost twenty years 
ago, not only became too small but her 
sacristy and sanctuary arrangements 
were as awkward as her outward appear 
ance out of consonance with the progress 
of times. Additional accommodation was, 
however, the prime motive governing the 
enterprising spirit of the pastor. He pur 
chased an adjoining lot in the rear of the 

church for five hundred dollars from Mr. 
Palado. Then, without making the 
church out of proportion he extended it 
towards the rear forty-four feet, and 
brick veneered the entire structure. How 
much this improvement added to the 
looks of the parish property a glance at 
the old and new view of the church will 
tell. For the internal decoration besides 
the new pews and a new pulpit a new altar 
was installed towards which the Men For 
esters gave one hundred dollars. Stained 
glass windows were donated by the fol 
lowing benefactors of the church: 
Charles Petranek, Charles Babicky, Au 
gust Krzek. French .Members of the con 
gregation, Irish Ladies, Irish Men, Mary 
Benskol, Ignatius \Yardin, Sarah Waters, 
Lady Foresters, Italian Society. Cash 
donations of one hundred dollars each by 
Dr. August Paradis and Valentine Wrob- 

The rebuilt church was blessed by 
Bishop Fis on May I3th, 1906, under the 
assistance of Fathers Sigismund, O. 
F. M., John Stenglein, Fabian Pawlar 
and Charles Swoboda. 

From the inception of the parish the 
missions of Wakefield, Mikado, Ramsay 
and Marenisco belonged to the parish, 
but since October i, 1906 they constitute 
the new parish of Wakefield. 

Bessemer is a polyglot parish, having 
over eighty Polish, thirty Slovak and 
Croatian, twenty-four Irish, eleven 
French, ten German, eight Hungarian, 
three Hollandish, over fifty Italian, and 
twenty-five Bohemian families. 

The cemetery is owned by the city of 
Bessemer and lots sold by her, but the 
west half is set off exclusively for the 
burial of Catholics. 





Ironwood like her sister town, Besse 
mer, owes her existence to the iron mines. 
At first it was a mission to Bessemer and 
Father Hennessy laid the foundation to 
the future parish. He purchased lots 27, 
28 and 29 of Block 35 in the village of 
Ironwood, from Alfred L. Cary and wife 
for two hundred and twenty-five dollars 
on May 6, 1886. While holding serv 
ices in the school house he built a small 
church in the summer of 1886 without 
plastering it. Father Joseph Barren fin 
ished the interior in the summer of 1887, 
and was succeeded by Rev. John Cebul, 
November 22nd of the same year. With 
the departure of Father Cebul, July 15, 
1888 the congregation was again served 
from Bessemer by Father Pawlar, with 
the exception of the month of August 
(1888) during which Rev. Conrad Rot 
ter, a priest of Peoria diocese, rusticating 
for his health, attended to its spiritual 
wants. On October 7, 1888 they received 
a permanent pastor in the person of Rev. 
J. Ignatius Otis, who was succeeded on 
May 12, 1889 by Rev. F. X. Becker. Ow 
ing to the rapid growth of the town there 
was no more doubt as to the stability of 
the parish and Father Becker took steps to 
build the rectory which is still in use. His 
pastorate ended November 16, 1890 and 
was immediately succeeded by the Rev. 
Martin Kehoe. 

Arriving from Xorway, where he had 
ample opportunities to study the benevo 
lent influences of a parochial school. Fa 
ther Kehoe at once made up his mind to 
erect a school. With an inborn persua 
siveness he gained the influential people for 

his idea and the needs of the church were 
left sight of while the committee of four 
took up the task of acquiring the grounds 
which were selected on Aver street 
within a few blocks from the church. 
The site consisting of five lots was bought 
from Fdward K. Butler and wife for a 
consideration of one thousand three hun 
dred and eighty-one dollars and the price 
as well as a considerable portion of the 
building fund raised by a very successful 


fair. The entire cost of the school was 
about four thousand dollars ; fixtures and 
furnishings not included. The Franciscan 
Sisters of Charity, of Alverno, Wiscon 
sin, were invited to take the school. They 
arrived in December 1892 and after the 
Christmas vacation opened, in January 
1893, classes for twelve grades. Under 
Sr. M. Aloysia, Superioress, the Srs. 



Placida, Jerome, Aspiranda, Modesta, 
Michael and Alagna formed the first staff 
of St. Ambrose school. In 1896 Sister 
Bridget became superioress; in 97, Sister 
Richard, from 99 to 1902 again Sister 
llridget and then Sister Aquinas who as 
sisted by ten other Sisters is still scrupu 
lously watching over progress of the 
school the attendance at which has risen 
from the opening day from three hundred 
to four hundred and fifty pupils. The 


curriculum embraces a high school 
course and although the Sisters do not 
conduct an Academy, lessons in foreign 
languages, music and painting etc. are 
taught to those who desire them. 

Having accomplished one of his pet 
undertakings. Father Kehoe lent his at 
tention to the church. He found it steeple- 
less. The bell, a purchase of Father 

Becker was hoisted upon a frame of four 
posts standing to the east of the church- 
front. This primitive arrangement was 
substituted by the tower added to the 
church and the bell removed to its proper 

With the population of the town, the 
membership in the parish also increased, 
so much so, that, in order to facilitate the 
work of the pastor, an assistant was as 
signed to him, first, during August, 1891, 
Rev. X. II. Xosbisch, and then for the 
Slavic people. Rev. An/elm Mlynarczyk 
from August 31, 1891, to the I4th day of 
the same month 1892 when the new Pol 
ish congregation of St. Michael was 
formed with Father Mlynarczyk as the 
first pastor. In 1901, July 31, Father Ke 
hoe was removed to Ishpeming. The ten 
thousand dollars worth of improvements 
made on parish property only bespeak the 
material success of Father Kehoe s la 
bors, but these sums of money to some 
extent mirror his usefulness for the spir 
itual welfare of his parishioners. 

To Father Xosbisch must be credited 
the present appearance of the church. He 
came to the Iron wood parish, the first of 
Augest. 1901 The old adage "new 
brooms sweep clean" acclaimed its old 
worth. A bazaar which he organized net 
ted the parish the handsome sum of over 
four thousand dollars. After paying off 
the indebtedness of two thousand five 
hundred dollars he started the improve 
ments with the balance on hand. To the 
school property he added one lot which 
was bought mainly to enable him to build 
a bay-window-like addition to the chape! 
whither he removed the altar. He also 
installed new lavatories and bathrooms in 
the school. Under the church he built a 



stone foundation adding at the same time 
thirty-two feet in length to the building 
which gave it a better proportion outside 
and a greater seating capacity. The work 
of enlarging and shingling the entire roof 
was done by Peter Lauer of Milwaukee. 
Internally the church was also greatly im 
proved by new frescoeing, remodeling of 
the main altar, and an addition of two 
side altars, the one of the Blessed Virgin 
being the gift of the L. A. O. H. and 
W. C. O. Foresters and the other of St. 
Joseph, by the parish. In place of the 
former old fashioned box stoves, which 
would have marred the beauty of the 
church if allowed to remain, a hot air fur 
nace was installed. All these improve 
ments ran up to four thousand two hun 
dred dollars. Had the health of Father 
Nosbisch held out, this sum would have 
been entirely liquidated, but the state of 
his health did not permit him to cope 
with the work in so large a parish and he 
relinquished his charge to return to St. 
Mary s in Iron Mountain whence he had 
come to Ironwood. The present pastor, 
Rev. Henry A. Buchholtz, arrived Sep 
tember 15, 1904 

The church site of St. Ambrose parish 
consists of two lots facing Marquette 
street. The parish owns also a cemetery 
just outside the city limits on the east 

bank of the Montreal river. The ground 
was bought from the City of Ironwood 
for a sum of fifty dollars. Until June i, 
1904, it was managed by the parish, but 
on that date it was transferred to the 
city with the clause that no one is to be 
interred there without the written per 
mission of the pastor. 

Notwithstanding the creation of a Pol 
ish congregation, St. Ambrose parish is 

still a mixed congregation, Irish and 
French predominating, numbering about 
300 families; Irish (150), French (55), 
Italian (50), (ierman (35), and Bel 
gian (10). 


St. Mi 
chael s con- 
grega t i o n 
was formed 
from that 
of St. Am- 
b r o s e in 
1891. It is a 
mixed con 
gregation of 
t \v o hun- 
d r e d and 
fifty f a m- 
ilies, c o n - 
sisting o f 
Hung ari- 
ans, S 1 o - 
vaks, Slove 
nians, Croa- 
tians, B o - 
h e m i a ns, 
b u t, how- 
e v e r, t h e 
Poles are in 
the major- 
i t y . Rev. 

A n z e 1 m RKV- J ULIUS 
Mlynarczyk was the first pastor, but re 
mained with the congregation only one 
year, from September 20, 1891, to Octo 
ber 1 6, 1892. In rapid succession fol 
lowed Rev. Francis Jiranek, from Jan 
uary 8th to July 15, 1893; Rev. Frank 
Maciarcz from July i5th to September 3, 



1893; Rev. John C. Bienarz, from Octo 
ber i, 1893, to April 24, 1895 ; Rev. Stan 
islaus Barancnvski, 1 from May 5, 1895, 
until his death in December, 1896. The 
present pastor, Rev. Fabian Pa \vlar, came 
to Ironwond i >n December 22nd, 1896. 
The site for the church, consisting of 


:I.HI:KT MORGAN, o. F. M. 

t\vo lots, was purchased on May 18, 1891, 
from Mr. Louis K. Spiller, for eight hun 
dred dollars. The church as built by 
Father Mlvnarczvk, is of frame but was 

in 1841 in Poland, ordained in 1865, 
died in Milwaukee, December 4th and was buried 
in Iromvood on December n, 1896. 

brick-veneered by the present pastor cov 
ering- the cost of this work from a bequest 
of one thousand dollars made for this pur 
pose by Father Baranowski at the time of 
his death. The rectory has a history of its 
own. Built by the first pastor as private 
property on the lot adjoining- the church 
it was sold by the owner to a Polish 
saloonist of Marinette Wisconsin. He 
went bankrupt and the house came into 
possession of a Menominee Brewing Co. 
For several years the congregation paid 
rent to the owners and were willing to buy 
it but the prohibitive price made the pur 
chase impossible. To demonstrate that the 
house was not so unavoidably necessary 
to the congregation :is the owners thought, 
Father Baranowski built on the Southeast 
corner of the church lot a shanty practi 
cally of one room, and lived there. In 1898 
when the Brewing Company reduced the 
price on its house the congregation be 
came stubborn and refused to buy it. But 
Father Pawlar appreciating the opportun 
ity purchased it for nine hundred dollars 
as his personal property, and immediately 
moved into it, charging the congregation 
a nominal rental. The case being brought 
to the notice of Bishop Eis, he ordered 
the trustees to reimburse the pastor the 
purchase price of the house. 

The St. Michael s congregation is at 
present out of debt and has the church 
equipped second to none in the diocese. 
Father Pawlar had it frescoed, furnished 
with three altars, statuary, pulpit, baptis 
mal font, and other fixtures. 

The St. Michael s church and rectory 
are on West McLeod avenue. 

Chapter XXV. 





Farming along the North-Western 
Railway, all the way from Menominee to 
Escanaba, dates from the time of the 
building of the road. The railroad station 
became also the center around which a few 
enterprising men grouped themselves for 
such business purposes as would thrive 
upon a farming community. Bark River 
is one of such places and one of the ear 
liest settlers was Mr. George W. Douglas 
a man of strictest integrity. His individ 
uality made itself felt among the fellow- 
settlers ; his word was as weighty in mat 
ters of religion for Mr. Douglas is Cath 
olic to the core, as every Canadian should 
be as in matters of politic or domestic 
economics. In the early stages of settle 
ment religious services were dealt out by 
spells that is when the missionary 
chanced to come from Escanaba or some 
other place. But when the priest came 
to reside in Spalding, Bark River had 
Mass two or three times a year in the local 
school-house, otherwise they had to go to 
Spalding to attend at Mass. The distance 
of ten miles made such attendance possible 
only to a few. It was therefore natural 
for the Bark River people to think of a 

church of their own. They proceeded in 
this work, as farmers do, under the guid 
ance of Mr. Douglas. The first trustees 
associated with him were Michael Harris 
and Seraph Belanger who are still staunch 
supporters of the little parish. A piece of 
land situated on the hillside overlooking 
the raiload, 135.35x208.78 feet, was se 
lected and donated by Louis Bodin. In 
1889 a modest little church was built on 
the site at a cost of six hundred and fifty 
dollars and what extra labor was donated. 
In June of the following year it was dedi 
cated to St. George, the patron Saint of 
Mr. Douglas in recognition of his services 
to the mission. After that Mass was read 
more regularly but not every Sunday un- 
until the appointment of Rev. F. Sperlein 
as resident pastor in January 1894. To 
his efforts is due that the house was built 
during the following year. Other priests 
stationed there were Fathers J. Bums, 
from the spring of 1895 to the summer of 
1896; P. Datin from the summer of 1896 
to the early spring 1897; then a vacancy 
of some months; M. Jodocy from June I, 
1898 to June 1900; J. Corcoran, from 
June 1900 to August 1905 and since then 
the present pastor. Rev. W. B. Stahl. 
At the time Bark River received a resi- 




dent priest, Schaefer a farming commun 
ity, three miles distant was included in his 
jurisdiction. The two places having 
churches, formed a sort of a dual parish, 
because the pastor celebrated Mass in both 
places. In 1899 Father Jodocy changed 
his residence from Bark River to Schaefer 
and deprived his former parishioners of 
regular Sunday s Mass for about three 
months. His successor. Father Corcoran, 
although he, too, .staid in Schaefer read 


Mass in Bark River every Sunday; and 
when on May 26, 1904, the Schaefer 
church burned to the ground, changed his 
residence to Bark River where he contin 
ued to live until his removal at which time 
each place received a permanent pastor; 
Rev. Father Dassylva went to Schaefer 
and Father Stahl to Bark River. 

Since the erection of the church many 

improvements are recorded, the most no 
table is the lengthening of the church by 
sixteen feet. This was done in Father 
Jodocy "s time. 

The parish though small has kept pace 
with demands of the day and kept out of 
debt. In Bark River, proper, there were 
about seventy families, French and Irish. 
Many Belgians live within the border of 
the parish but the spirit of irreligion has 
swept over them and but few of them 
practice their faith. Annexed to the parish 
are all the settlements on the Felsh Branch 
of the C. & X. W. Ry., and Ford River 
with fifteen families. One Mass at Ford 
River Mills every second Sunday of the 
month for the past two years. Drive of 
fourteen miles. 


The town is situated in the Township 
of Bark River at the intersection of the 
Township Highway and the Fast line of 
the North Fast quarter of the South West 
quarter in Section JO of Township 39, 
North of Range 24 West. The commun 
ity is composed exclusively of farmers and 
they attended Mass at Bark River, three 
miles distant, since that mission had been 
provided with a resident priest. In 1898 
expressions were made for a church of 
their own, but the Bishop demurred be 
cause he feared that the community was 
not quite large enough to build one and 
that if they did, the property would be so 
encumbered with debt that they could not 
take care of it. This, however, did not 
disturb their calculations. Peter Belanger 
donated, June 21, 1898, a piece of ground 
215x210 feet, for the site and upon this 
land they commenced building a church of 
their own accord. Just as it was com- 



pleted Bishop V r ertin died and the ad- the Sand Point or Escanaba, as it was 
ministrator, Father Eis, dedicated it to its called by the Indians, to Negaunee. In 
purpose in the spring- of 1899. Eor some June 1863 ground was first broken for 

time it still remained a mission to Bark 
River, but in the same year Eather Jodocy 
removed thither making it the parish seat 
and the former parish a mission thereof. 

this great railroad which marked so au 
spiciously the date and site of the present 
city of Escanaba. That the Indians, in 
their days, frequented this place prove the 

In June 1900 Eather Corcoran became the graves discovered in 1865, and that they 
second resident pastor. He built a rectory were Catholic plainly indicate such relics 
and continued the status created by his as crosses and medals found in these 
predecessor until May 26, 1904 when a fire graves, but it cannot be ascertained that 
destroyed completely the house and any of the early Jesuit missionaries ever 
church. Rendered 
homeless Father Cor 
coran moved to Bark 
River and from there 
.superintended the build 
ing of the basement 
which is in use today. 
On August 10, 1905, 
Rev. T. V. Dassylva be 
came pastor at Schae- 

The parish consists 
of three h u n d r e d 
French Canadian fami 



Prior to 1863 there stood only one 
house on the present site of the city. It 
was erected by the Sinclair-Eudington 


came to this locality. The earliest traces 
of missionaries in modern times are the 
Redemptorist Fathers, who in all proba 
bility visited the Escanaba Indians from 
Green Bay in 1832-34. Another visit on 
record is an occasional trip of Father 
Baraga to Green Bay in 1853. He left 

Lumber Company in 1852 when they L Anse on the second day of March and 

were engaged in cutting the timber from 
the site, but it stood deserted until the 
Chicago North-Western Railway Corn- 

after a four days, snow-shoe-tramp ar 
rived in the Indian settlement on the 
\Yhite Fish River, at the head of the bay, 
pany decided to tap the rich mine region from \vhere he continued his journey with 
of Lake Suprior by building a road from a team of ponies, driving on the ice all 


the way to Green Bay. lie may not have 
even touched the present city site. The 
first positive date of a priest officiating 
within the present city limits is that of 
Father Joseph J. Keenan. no\v pastor of 
St. Patrick s church. Fond du Lac, Wis 
consin. Manv of the Wisconsin farmers 
came with their teams, and alone, to be 
employed at the grading for the railroad. 
Fresh on their tracks followed them Fa 
ther Keenan, partly to look after their 
spiritual welfare, while they were in the 
Michigan wilderness, partly to raise 

funds for his church at home. No other 
place being available, he gathered the 
Catholics for miles from alongside the 
projected tracks into the Chicago North- 
Western Railway Company s boarding 
house, part of which was used for offices, 
machine shop and a stall for old "Apple- 
ton," the first locomotive engine. Here, 
on the boarding house table, Father Kee 
nan celebrated Mass while his congrega 
tion those hardy toilers, knelt on the rough 
plank floor. This was in the summer of 
1863. The following summer Father Dael, 

of Fond du Lac, made a similar visit to Es- 
canaba and made an attempt to organize 
a congregation. His efforts, for lack of 
jurisdiction, proved futile. Moreover, 
Father Bourion of Xegaunee, who consid 
ered Fscanaba a tributary mission, when 
he became aware of these priests periodi 
cal visits vehemently protested against 
this infraction of jurisdiction. In his indig 
nation over the matter he appealed to 
Bishop Baraga, who, however, pleased 
that the people had a chance to hear 
Mass, failed to intervene. But this did 
not suit the zealous pas 
tor of Xegaunee. He 
prepared a lengthy doc 
ument forbidding the 
aforesaid priests, and all 
others, under penalty of 
excommunication, to 
trespass upon the dio 
cesan territory and sub 
mitted the same to the 
Bishop for signature. 
The good Bishop silently 
signed his name and 
queried ironically : 
"Xow, Father, how will 
you enforce your de 
cree?" Seeing the puerility of this meas 
ure, but still determined to ward off any 
encroachments on his missionary terri 
tory. Father Bourion, urged the Bishop to 
send Father Duroc as pastor to Escanaba. 
In this proposition the Bishop would have 
been agreeable enough if he could have 
been assured of the sufficient strength of 
the new congregation to build a church 
and house. He feared that after the com 
pletion of the road bed the number of 
Catholics would be reduced and that they 
could not maintain the establishment, par- 




licularly if any indebtedness was incurred. 
To overcome this last objection Father 
Duroc volunteered to build his own house 
and to build the church according to the 
collections. The Bishop yielded. In the 
spring of 1865 Father Duroc moved to 
jEscanaba. Steps were immediately taken 
towards building a church. Two lots 
were donated on the corner where the 
present church stands by Nelson Lud- 
ington and the deed executed on Sep 
tember 8, 1869. Father Duroc built 
his residence on the opposite corner, di 
agonally across from the church. The 
frame church, 20x40, was placed in the 
center of the first lot and the unoccu 
pied room around it used for a burying 
ground. In the fall the congregation 
moved into their little church. In 
course of the two years following the 
congregation increased with the growth 
of the population and it was thought 
necessary to enlarge the edifice. A 
cross form was added but was still un- 
plastered when many obviating ele 
ments caused Father Duroc -to become 
discouraged, whereupon he sold his 
house and departed for France. A few 
weeks after, in September 1869, he 
was succeeded by Rev. Charles Lang- 

Escanaba counted at that time only 
seven hundred inhabitants but the pros 
pects for a rapid growth were such 
that the new pastor did not consider it 
worth while finishing the recent addition 
to the church but rather set his calcula 
tion on an entirely new structure. But 
just then a residence was most neces 
sary. Receiving commendable encourage - 
men from his congregation Father Lang- 
ner built on lot 2 a rectory, none equal 

for comfort or outward appearance in 
the whole diocese, at a cost of several 
thousand dollars. He moved into the 
new home on the I4th of August 1870. 
Then he turned his attention to the 
church. Of solid brick it was built ri^ht 


around the old one where services were 


continued until its removal was necessi 
tated by the laying of the floor to the new 
one. The new St. Joseph s church was 
dedicated on the 8th of December 1873 
by the Rt. Rev. Ignatius Alrak. 

For burying purposes Father Langner 



iel Wells and wife. 

During the eleven years of his pastor 
ate in Fscanaba Father Langner had a 
large territory attached to his parish. To 

obtained, from the Ludington Lumber His immediate successor became Rev. 
G >mpany a large plat of ground known The< >dor Al. Majerus, who remained only 
today as the Old Catholic Cemetery. He from July 31, 1881 to February 5, 1882. 
also purchased, for four hundred dollars. Bishop Alrak and I ; ather Hyacinth O. M. 
lots 3, 4, 5 and (> of Block 39; the deed Cap. took care of the parish until Father 
was jointly executed by Xelson Luding- Joseph Xiebling s appointment, Feb- 
IMII and wife. Terry 11. Smith and wife. ruary 12, 1882. Upon his retirement 
Harrison Ludington and wife, and Dan- January 31, 1883, Rt. Rev. Bishop Alrak 

was again in charge of it until August 
171!! of the same year when Bishop Ver- 
tin ceded the parish to the Franciscan 
( )rcler. 

The succession of the 
Franciscan leathers is the 
following. The pastors are 
printed in italics : 

AYr. Eugene Bu Her 
mann, O. S. P., from Au 
gust 19, 1883 to January 

Rev. Benedict, Haupt, 
O. S. F., from November 
29, 1883 to August 19, 
1 888. 

Rev Augustine Bayer, 
O. S. F., from March 23, 
iSS( to June 24, 1888. 

Rev. F. Solanus Schae- 
fer, ( ). S. F., from August 
26, 1888 to spring, 1889. 


Indian Rev. Francis Xavier Buschle, O. S. F., 

the West, Garden, Fayette. am 

Point; to the South all stations on the from .March 28, 1889 to July 22, 1894. 

North-Western as far as Stephenson, and Rev. Lawrence Long, O. S. F., from 

North as far as Lathrop. For two years February 2, 1890 to February 26, 1893. 

Father Martin Fox, prior to his appoint- Rcr. Francis Lings, O. S. P., from Feb- 

ment to Menominee in 1873 assisted him ruary 4, 1890 to August 8, 1893. 

in the care of souls and after that received Rev Alexis Center, O. S. F., from 

occasional help from the Revs. John April 9th to August 19. 1893 

Brown, James Sweeney. J. C. Kenney, Rev. William Cause pohl,0. S. F.,irom 

Peter Menard, Luke Mozina and Fabian August 27, 1893 to December 8, 1895 

Pawlar. Father Langner gave up his Rev. Charles Schoeppner, O. S. F., 

charge June 19. 1881. from August 30, 1903 to August 5, 1894. 



Rev. Anthony Hcithoff, O. S. F., from them to one superior while his assistants 
August 22, 1894 to October 20, 1895. contributed as much of their enenne 

Rev. Stanislaus Meyer, O. S. F., from could consistently be expected of them! 

November n, 1895 to July 25, 1897. 

Rev. Bcdc Oldcgccring, O. S. 1 ., from 
December 29, 1895 to April 19, 1901. 

Hut certainly the superiors in two instan 
ces deserve particular credit for their 
srood judgment. To Father lUittermann 

Rev. Hermenegild Filermann. O. S. F., credit is due for the school and to Fathei 

from August 9, 1897 to J ll b" 3- 1^99- 
Rev. Francis Salesius Stueremberg, O. 

Lings for the house. 

The school was built in 1884 and in 

S. F., from August 19, 1899 to March 18, September opened its doors under the su 
pervision of the Sisters of Xotre Dame. 
Rev. Hubert Kalt, O. F. AL, from April The first band, with Sister AI. A. Li-ouri, 

12, 1900 to June 30, 1901. 

Rev. Ensebius ll agiicr, 
O. F. M., from April 20, 
1901 to August 6, 1906. 

Rev. Flavian Larbes, O. 
F. AI., from July 21, 1901 
to August 3, 1902. 

Rev. Silas Lichtefeld, 
O. F. AI., from August 10, 
1902 to September 13, 

Uev. Justin Welk, O. 

AI., from September 

27th to December 20, 1903. 

Rev. Gaudentius Schus 
ter, O. F. AL, from Janu- 

as superioress, were Sisters AI. Dympna. 


ary 31, 1904 to July 30, 1905. 

Rev. Joseph Forest McGce, 0. F. M., 
from August 17, 1905 to August, 1907. 

Rci>. Julius Hcnze, O. F. .]/., from Au 
gust 8, 1906 the present superior. 

Rev. Ethelbert Morgan, O. F. M., from 
August 12, 1906. 

Brother Herman Joseph Hummeldorf 
is with this mission the last twenty years. 

To the Franciscan Fathers is due the 
excellent status of the parish. It would 
be difficult, nor probably just, to single out 
the improvements made, and attribute 

AI. Michael, AI. Blanche, M. Hyacinth, 
AI. Adelgundis, AI. dementia. For want 
of a special convent they occupied some 
rooms in the school building as their living: 


apartments until the spring of 1890, when 
Father Lings completed the convent on 
Hale street begun by his predecessor. Fa 
ther Buttermann. The site for the convent, 
lots 9 and 10, Block 39, were purchased 
at a cost of one thousand two hundred 
dollars from Henry J. Derouin, on Feb 
ruary 28, 1888. Sister AI. Pacifica suc 
ceeded Sister AI. A. Ligouri as superior- 



ess in 1903 and in 1905 was herself suc 
ceeded by Sister M. Viola. 

The school so well merited for the edu 
cation of youth is conducted on a tuition 
plan and it embraces besides the kinder 
garten and the ordinary eight grammar 
grades a well regulated high school 
course. The regular attendance is four 
hundred and eighty pupils. 


In 1892 Father Francis Lings erected 
the present presbytery. 


Believing that it would serve to their 

better interest, the French Canadians de 
cided in 1887 to separate from the St. Jo 
seph s congregation to which they had be 
longed from the very start. With the 
sanction of the Ordinary they proceeded 
to build a wooden church on lot 12, Block 
38, purchased for three hundred thirty- 
nine dollars and thirty-three cents, from 
Daniel Wells and others. When the 
church was almost finished Rev. J. E. 
Martel was appointed their first pastor on 
August 25, 1888. One month later, Sep 
tember 3Oth, the church was blessed by 
Bishop Vertin to the honor of St. Anne. 
The first baptism recorded is that of 
Emma Rachel (Jagnon, September 2, 
1888. Father Martel, remained pastor 
until his death, which occurred on March 
19. 1893. Then, Father Sauriol. who 
was assistant at the parish, from Novem 
ber 1892, administered the affairs until 
the appointment of Rev. P. C. Alenard, 
the present pastor, June 18, 1893. Rev. 
J. Tranchmontagne served as assistant 
from June 12, 1904 to 1906. 

The separation from the mother church 
was mainly for the reasons of language. 
There is scarcely a nation that loves its 
native tongue so much as the French Ca 
nadians. And justly so. Hence, no sooner 
had the Canadians of Escanaba com 
pleted their church when they turned 
their thoughts towards a school. On lot 
13 the pastor s residence was erected and 
on lot 15 the school building. The Sisters 
of St. Joseph, Concordia, Kansas, were 
invited as the teaching community, and 
on the first of September 1901 they 
opened the first classes. The school is 
eight-graded ; instruction language Eng 
lish, but French is obligatory. The av- 



erage attendance is three hundred pupils. 
The first band of teachers, under Sister 
Borgia, superioress, were Sisters Aure- 
lia, Paul, Eulalia, Euphrasine. 

Father Alenard s administration is re 
markable for many improvements. The 
residence was at the time of his arrival in 
great need of repairs. To carry out his de 
sign, he first acquired lot No. 14, bought 
from John Corcoran for one thousand 
dollars, which still intervened between 
the church property and the school and 
one on the other side of the school, from 
the Ludington Company for the children s 
playground. He added to the residence 
the entire north wing. Next in turn was 
the school to receive his attention. New 
floors, desks and other furniture were 
placed, besides the general renovation of 
the entire school including the Sisters 
chapel. In 1895 the frame church was 
practically rebuilt. The old boards, placed 
at the time of building instead of the us 
ual clapboards, to await a more propi 
tious time, served probably longer than it 
was intended. The old decayed lumber 
was removed and replaced by a substantial 
veneer. In 1903 the interior was frescoed 
and a pipe organ installed. 1 The Church 
possesses a magnificent equipment of vest 
ments. On the whole Father Menard ex 
pended twenty thousand dollars. The 
church is free of debt. 

The St. Anne s congregation is com 
posed of four hundred families all of 
whom are Canadian French, except three 
being Belgians. 

The congregation owns a cemetery site 
of ten acres for the exclusive use of its 
members. The ground was purchased on 

April 13, 1893 from Peter Semer, for a 
consideration of one thousand dollars. 
The cemetery adjoins that of St. Joseph. 
The farming district of Flatrock, which 
belonged to this parish, has been formed 
into a separate congregation a year ago. 
Rev. A. Deschamps is the first pastor. 


A long cherished desire amona: the Irish 


Mt was made by Hinncrs Organ Company, 
Pckin, 111. 

members of St. Joseph s church to have a 
congregation of their own was fanned into 
flame by some uncalled for remarks of 
Rev. Hubert Kalt, O. S. F., the assistant 
priest, on March 17, 1901. A petition for 
the creation of an Irish parish was im 
mediately circulated and received among 


that nationality a majority of signatures. 
At a second preliminary meeting, April 12 
1901. Messrs. John Power. John Cor 
coran, Patrick Fogarty, James Lyons, 
Patrick Finnegan, Owen Cleary, John 
O Meara and James S. Doherty were se 
lected as committee to wait on the l\t. 
Rev. Bishop to present their petition and 
to urge their claim. To the petition pre 
sented, the Bishop, after due deliberation. 




promised to visit Escanaha in person on 
July 14, 1901 for the purpose of investi 
gating existing conditions, the result of 
which would determine the question at 

On the above date, at 3 p. in. a meeting 
of the whole St. Joseph s Congregation, 
Irish and German membership thereof, 

was called to order by the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Eis. He stated briefly the object and af 
ter the selection of John J. Cleary, as 
secretary, he ordered the election of a 
committe on credentials whose duty it 
shall be to determine the title of each per 
son to vote upon the proposed measures. 
Lt was agreed that each head of a family, 
or in his absence his wife, and each widow 
in her own right, shall have a vote. After 
a free and broad discussion of the advis 
ability of a division of the St. Joseph s 
congregation between the Irish and Ger 
man members thereof, the Bishop stated in 
plain unequivocal terms the importance of 
the meeting, and called on all those who 
favored the division of the congregation 
to signify their wishes by rising and in the 
same manner those who were opposed to 
such division. The tellers, Messrs. George 
Hughes, John Fisher, and Patrick 
Fogarty, counted two hundred and forty- 
seven votes for and nine against the divi 
sion. The bishop announcing the vote, 
stated that while he would not declare a 
formal division until the entire matter 
has been submitted to the diocesan coun 
sel, he would approve of a double commit 
tee, one for the Irish, the other for the 
Germans, who would thereafter have in 
charge such work as might properly have 
connection with the division. Messrs. 
John Corcoran, John Power, James S. 
Doherty, John J. Cleary and J. B. Moran, 
were appointed for the Irish and John 
Seiner, Peter Gross, Otto Loefiler, Frank 
Hamacher and Peter Hirm for the Ger 
man portion of the congregation. 

On July _>6. 1901, Rev. Joseph M. Lan- 
gan, of St. John s, Ishpeming, was ap 
pointed by the Ordinary of the diocese, 
the first pastor of St. Patrick s in Esca- 



naba and thus the formal division was Joseph s Priest s House, but the former 

declared. failed to appear. The matter was re- 

As to the division of property, Father ported to the Bishop and elicited the fol- 

Langan received the following instruction lowing letter from him : 

on the same date of his appointment : 

MARQUETTE, Mich., August 9, 1901. 

"DEAR FATHER LANGAN : Kindly call Rev. Euscbius Wagner, O. F. M., Esca- 

the two committees, Irish and German, 
and also Rev. Father Eusebius, Pastor, 
together, to come to some understanding 

naba, Michigan. 

"REV. DEAR SIR : I had expected that 
the two committees would come to an un- 

and thus the time of remaining in St. 

how much the old Parish will pay to the derstanding by this time about the 
outgoers. Remember the School and the amount to be paid to the outgoing party, 
Sister s house remain mutual for the pres 
ent. These two buildings 
will belong to all, till we 
make further arrange 
ments. Only the Church, 
Priest house and the 
ground will be taken into 

"After due deliberation, 
etc., you will not close the 
bargain till you hear from 
me, after informing me first 
how matters stand. 

Most sincerely yours, 

I* "Frederick Eis. 
Bishop of Sault Stc. 

Marie and Marquctte." 

Father Langan arrived 
in Escanaba and took his quarters at the Joseph Church together for separate ser- 
Tilden House. On Sunday, August 4, vices could be shortened. 
1901, at 6:30 o clock, a. m., he held the 
first services as pastor of St. Patrick s 
church. Addressing his. people, he dwelt 
at length on the condition that prevailed 


"Today I learn that the German Com 
mittee did not come to the announced 
meeting last night. You will announce 
another meeting of the two committees 

in St. Joseph s parish and gave expression for next Sunday, at all Masses, to be held 
to hope that an amicable adjustment in at 3 o clock next Sunday afternoon. If 
the matter would be reached and that all then one committee fails to appear that 
should resound to the greater honor and 
glory of God. 

committee waives and loses its right in 
the discussion, and the Bishop will fix 

A joint meeting of the German and them the amount to be paid to the out- 
Irish Committee was called in the St. goers. Till this point is settled the Irish 



Americans have full right to have their 
services in the church they built. As soon 
as they get what in justice belongs to them 
they will go. 

"Sincerely yours. 

4* "F. Eis, /?/>." 

Pursuant to this instruction both com 
mittees met at the parochial residence. 
The meeting was opened with an intro 
ductory speech by Father Langan, and 


i<;, 1904- 

the Irish committee offered the following 
proposition to the German committee: 

"For and in consideration of the sum 
of Sixteen Thousand ($16,000.00) dol 
lars we will vacate St. Joseph s Church 
peaceably and shall give our right title 
and interest in St. Joseph s Church prop 
erty to the German American members of 

said church, or in the event of the German 
Americans refusing to give said amount 
of Sixteen Thousand ($16,000.00) dol 
lars, we will give the German-Americans 
Sixteen Thousand ($16,000.00) dol 
lars to vacate said church and give their 
right and title to said church to the Irish 
American members." 

The German Committee failed to enter 
tain any proposition and stated that fur 
ther conferences on the matter would be 

The pastoral rights over St. Joseph s 
parish were ceded to the Franciscan 
Order of the Cincinnati province in 1883 
by Bishop Yertin. The adjustment was 
therefore taken up with the Provincial 
but to no purpose, and it was finally 
brought to the notice of the Apostolic 
Delegate, His Eminence Cardinal Mar- 
tinelli. On October 6, 1901, Bishop Eis 
and Father Langan held several confer 
ences with the Cardinal-Delegate, at 
Washington, but with no other result than 
that the new parish may retain the four 
thousand dollars which the Bishop had or 
dered turned over to the outgoing congre 
gation The Cardinal-Delegate stated 
that it was beyond his province to appor 
tion the petitioners the sum of ten thou 
sand dollars, but that he would urge the 
Provincial to pay an additional two thou 
sand dollars to the four already obtained. 

This request of the Cardinal was not 
only not complied with, but the Provin 
cial protested that Father Langan or any 
other priest outside of the Franciscan 
Fathers should hold or attempt to hold 
services in the St. Joseph s church to 
which his Order had exclusive pastoral 
rights. This court reply was sent to the 
Bishop without comment, and he in turn 



forwarded it to Father Lankan with the 
instruction to vacate the St. Joseph s 
church at the earliest possible moment. 

On Sunday, October 27, 1901, Father 
Fang-aii announced to his people the out 
come of the negotiations and called a 
final meeting for that afternoon at 3 
o clock. It was unanimously decided to 
build; a subscription of seven thousand 
nine hundred and eighty (7,980,) dol 
lars was taken right there and then and 
the building committee consisting of 
Hon. John Po\ver, Patrick Fogarty, 
D. E. Glavin, William Mauley, and John 
O Meara chosen. For the administra 
tion of parochial business were elected 
these trustees : John Corcoran, James S. 
Doherty, John J. Cleary and J. B. 

This was the last time the Irish made 
use of the church where they and their 
fathers had worshipped thirty years. 
They started out without a church, or 
home for their pastor, with four thou 
sand dollars on hand. 

For a monthly rental of thirty dollars 
Father Fangan arranged with Father 
Menard, pastor of St. Anne s French 
church for the accommodation of the 
Irish congregation until their church 
shall be finished. Services for them were 
held on the feast of All Saints, at 6:30 
and 8:30 a. m. Later the hour for ser 
vices were set at 7 and 9 o clock for Sun 
days and Ilolydays. 

A private house, in close proximity of 
the French church, was rented for a tem 
porary pastoral residence. 

Unfavorably as the settlement fell out, 
all concerned were glad that the strife 
ended. The building committee at once 
looked up a site for the new church and 

decided at the meeting, held in the rectory 
Sunday, December 8, 1901, to purchase 
Lots i, 2 and 3 of Block 82, situated on 
the corner of Jennie and Hale streets. 
Fach lot was burdened with a house, the 
three buildings were sold later for an 
a ggi~egate sum of two thousand dollars. 
Lot number one bought from John C. 
Keenan for two thousand five hundred 
($2,500.00) dollars. Lot two from Airs. 
1 lora Gauthier for two thousand three 
hundred and fifty ($2,350.00) dollars, 
and Lot three from Arthur Xarbonne 
for two thousand and forty nine 
($2.049.00) dollars. 


From among the designs submitted for 
the prospective church those of the archi 
tects Schick & Roth, of La Crosse, Wis 
consin, were selected and adopted. The 
contract for the construction was award 
ed, March 9, 1902, to John W. Lawson 
for the sum of $29,974.00. 

Subsequent contracts were placed : 
Coogan & Strothenke, of Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, heating plant; The Manito- 
woc Seating Works, pews; Dubuque Al 
tar Manufacturing Company, main and 
side altars, two confessionals, baptismal 
font, pulpit, altar rail; Flanagan Bieden- 



weg Company, stained glass windows ; 
\Y. \V. Kimbull Co., of Chicago, Illinois, 
for a pipe organ; Meneely and Co. of 
Troy, New York, three bells ; John \Y. 
ha \vson pastoral resilience; Chicago Fix 
ture and highting Company, chandle- 
liers, and many other small contracts. 

The cost taken from an official re 
port is as follows : 
Site $ 4,899.00 


Church and house contracts. 40,600.00 

Tews 2,400.00 

\Yindows 2,400.00 

Church heating 2.850.00 

Organ 2,600.00 

Altars, pulpits, rail, etc 2,750.00 

Bells 850.00 

House heating 930.00 

Electric wiring, fixtures, etc. 1,200.00 
Church and altar furniture, 

stations, vestments, etc... 5,500.00 

Decorating 680.00 

Architects 810.00 

Plumbing, church and house. 1,200.00 
J. A. Burns, church and 

house and hall 1,200.00 

D. A. Oliver, church, house 

and hall 500.00 

Hardware 250.00 

Sidewalks, grounds, etc.... 550.00 


The church is built in romanesque de 
sign. The corner stone was laid on May 
25, 1902, and was dedicated to St. Pat 
rick, February 15, 1903, by the Rt. Rev. 
Frederick Fis. The solemnity attracted 
priests and laymen from far and near. 
Especially honored was the occasion by 
the presence of the Most Rev. John Ire 
land, Archbishop of St. Paul, who out of 
high esteem for the pastor, consented to 
preach the sermon. His Grace took for 
his theme : "Jesus Christ, yesterday, and 
today: and the same forever." 2 

The first child baptized in St. Patrick s 
church, on the day of dedication itself, 
was Cecelia Frances McGillis, daughter 
of Joseph McGillis, who was foreman 
throughout the construction of church 
and house. First Holy Communion for 
the first time took place on the iQth of 
July, 1903, and first Confirmation May 
15. 1904. 

St. Patrick s church property ranks as 
one of the finest in the diocese. And 

"Ileb. 13, 8. Full text of the oration is to be 
found in "The Church and Modern Society, by 
John Ireland," Vol. 11. 



when we take into consideration that at 
this writing it is encumbered by scarcely 
twenty-thousand dollars debts. We are 
amazed at the success of the undertaking 
which is mainly due to the untiring zeal 
of the pastor, who, from past experiences, 
masterly understood how to urge every 
body to activity. Few would have done 
as well, none better. 

St. Patrick s stands a monument of 
faith and sacrifice of the Irish people of 


A disagreement on the subject of a 
bonus between the city of Escanaba and 
the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. 
Marie Railway is responsible for the 
existence of Gladstone. The manage 
ment of the road made the Gladstone 
Station the terminus of the Western di 
vision because the excellent harbor facili 
ties it afforded and built the great grain 
elevators for the export and distribution 
of wheat which is brought from Minne 
sota and the Northwest. Around this 
nucleus other enterprises, such as saw 
mills, furnaces and other smaller fac 
tories, found a home. 

The Catholic population depended for 
services on Escanaba. , The Franciscan 
Fathers readily responded to any call of 
emergency. In 1880 the first step was 
made towards obtaining a resident priest. 
To make sure of their success a small 
church was built by the people under the 
leadership of Mr. A. Z. White; upon see 
ing- so much good will exhibited Bishop 


Vertin appointed Rev. Fidelis Sutter, the 
first pastor. The first baptism recorded 
by him is on November 8, 1899 and the 

last on August 28, 1890. The church 
was dedicated on May 4, 1890 in honor 
of St. Fidelis; in the summer of the same 
year the rectory was built. 

Subsequent pastors : 

Rev. J. Haas, from September 19, 

1890 to August 30, 1891. 

Rev. A. J. Rezek, from December 15, 

1891 to August 25, 1892. 

Rev. T. V. Dassylva, from September 

1892 to June 1893. 




Rev. Alexius Center, O. F. M., ad in 
terim, from June to September 1893. 
Rev. F. N. Becker, from September 

1893 to July 1894. 

Rev. J. G. Pinten, from July to October 


Rev. J. M. G. Manning, from October 

1894 to June 1896. 



Rev. J. E. Xeumair, from June 1896 
to December 1898. 

Rev. F. (llaser, from December 1898 to 
August i8<j(). 

Rev. Joseph Hollinger, from August 
1899 to Julv 1902. 

Rev. D. I . Sullivan, from July 1902 to 
December 1903. 

Rev. II. J. Reis. from December KJO^ 
to July 1904. 

Rev. A. J. Doser, from Julv i<KH the 
present pastor. 

The changes amply tell of the struggles 
the mission has had. To the indomitable 


zeal of Father Suiter is due that the 
house was built, and partly paid for. 
\\hen he left there was but little furni 
ture in it. One of the early pastors re 
ceived ten dollars compensation in three 
months and was obliged to pick-up drift 
wood on the beach for his winter s fuel. 
Times turned to the better ; in March 1892 
the last five hundred dollars drawing- an 
interest of io < still due on account of 
the house, were paid and three months 
later eight hundred dollars for the land. 

lots, 5, 6, and 7, Block 72, First Addition 
to the cily of Gladstone, purchased from 
the Sault Ste. Marie Land and Improve 
ment Company of Minneapolis. -The 
first live years the church did not even 
have a bell. Father Xeumair bought one 
in 1896 and Bishop Vertin blessed it on 
September 29th. 

Things have changed from those days 
of hardship. Father Xeumair was en 
abled to build a new church, which stands 
a monument to his zeal and to the faith of 
his people. The church was dedicated to 
All Saints on Xovember 6, 1898. 

The congregation is a mixed one of 
Irish, French and German nationalities. 

The Mission on the North-Western 
road from Flat Rock to Lathrop, were 
attached to the parish until Rapid River 
received a resident priest in 1896. 



The place was a mission to Gladstone 
until 1890. The year previous Father 
Manning caused the church to be built. 
Rev. J. A. Sauriol was the first resident 
pastor from May I2th to Xovember 6, 
i8</>. Other pastors: 

Rev. F. Glaser, from XV)vember 10, 
1896 to January 10, 1898. He purchased 
the house from one Le Roy, for eight hun 
dred dollars in 1897. 

Rev. M. Jodocy, from January 8th to 
May 22, 1898. 

Rev. Paul Datin, from June I, 1898 to 
August 10, 1900. 

Rev. J. M. G. Manning, from Septem 
ber 20, 1900 to August 10, 1901. 

Rev. R. Jacques, from August 5, 1901 
to July 12, 1902. 



Rev. A. Vermare, from September 28th 
to November 2, 1902. 

Rev. P. LeGolvan, from November 15, 
1902 to June _>6, 1904. 

Rev. A. Deschamps, from July 23, 1904 
to November 1906. 

Rev. J. Duford from November 1906 
the present pastor. 

Rapid River has forty-five families: 
French thirty, Irish fifteen. But there are 
attached to it the following missions: 
Saint Jacques, ten French families. 

Nahma, church of St. Andrew, built 
by Father Deschamps, blessed by Bishop 
Eis on May 16, 1906, forty-five families 
French and Irish, evenly divided. 

Isabella, ten French, two German fam 

Cooks Mills, Church of St. Mary Mag 
dalene, thirty families, French and Irish. 


This farming community was attended 
as a mission first from Escanaba by the 
Franciscan Fathers, then by the pastors 
from Gladstone and lastly from Rapid 
River. Mass was said for almost thirty 
years in private houses. In 1898 Jo 
seph Dugas and Magloire Geroux inter 
ested themselves in the project of a new 
church. By collections in the camps, 
socials, picnics, etc., one thousand six hun 
dred dollars were raised and the building 
commenced on a one-half acre of land 
bought from Louis Lavarne for thirty- 
five dollars. The church was dedicated in 
May 1903. 

In October 1905 Rev. Paul Fillion was 
sent there as the first resident priest. Of 
course there was no presbytery and he 
was obliged to board with the neighbor 

ing people until he succeeded, during the 
following summer, in building a residence 
for himself at a cost of one thousand live 
hundred dollars. He also furnished the 
church with all the necessarv vestments 
and utensils, purchased a one-half acre 
cemetery site and built a ninety foot long 
shed for the sheltering of horses while 
their masters are at Mass. 

Perkins has about sixty families 
mostly French. Missions attached are: 
Trembly eighteen, Maple Ridge three, 
and Lathrop six families. Turin is 
ceded back to Negaunee. 




In 1867 the Jackson Iron Company lo 
cated their blast furnaces on the so-called 
Snail Shell harbor on the east shore of the 
Big Bay de Noquet. This industry laid 
the foundation to a town called Fayette. 

The first priest to visit the place was 
Father Duroc and afterwards Father 
Fox. Rev. H. Rousseau was appointed the 
first pastor in the spring of 1876. He 
built the church and had it dedicated by 



Bishop Mrak in honor of St. Peter. Later 
this church burned down but was re 
stored by Father Mozina. The house was 
also built by Father Rousseau who served 
the congregation for about three years. 
Other priests : 

Rev. L. Mozina, from February I, 

1879 to March 2, 1880. 

Rev. F. Jacker, during the month of 
June 1 880. 

Rev. A. Paganini, from September 19, 

1880 to July 30, 1882. During the month 
of August 188 1 Bishop Mrak looked up 
all the Indian settlements in the neisjh- 


borhond and recorded thirty-live baptisms 
as the result. 

Rev. V.. P. I ion las from October i, 
1882 to September _><;, 1880. 

Rev. V. X. Becker, from October 10, 

1886 to May 8. 1887. 

Rev. I . Marceau. from May to ( )ctober 
1 8*7 

Rev. A. O. Pelisson from October 10, 

1887 to October 7, 1888. 

Rev. F. Sutter. from November i, 

1888 to October jf>, 1889. (Fayette.) 

Rev. P. Girard, during February and 
March 1890. 

Rev. M. Weis, from March to October 
1890. (Fayette.) 

Rev. J. A. Sauriol October 1890 to 
March, 1891. (Fayette.) After that Revs. 
A. Poulin, P. Datin, J. Henn, F. Sutter, J, 
Cebul, A. Zagar, M. Jodocy, T. V. Dassyl- 
va, I*. Fillion, and Rev. P. LeGolvan the 
present pastor since September 20, 1905. 

The Jackson Iron Company owned six 
teen thousand acres of land covered with 
the best kind of hardwood from which 
they manufactured charcoal used in their 
own furnaces. \Yhen the wood was re 
moved it was discovered that the soil, 
overlying a lime stone formation was 
very fertile and adaptable for fanning 
purposes. In consequence further up in 
land a farming community sprang up. 
From the beautiful bays, islands and the 
scenery amazingly attractive to the eve 
the village was called Garden. The dis 
tance of fourteen miles between the two 
places made attendance at Mass very diffi 
cult ; so the idea of a church easily gained 
ground. Antoine Delorier donated a plat 
of ground. I54.\i<)3 feet, and under Ins 
leadership a structure purposed for a 
church, was erected. Father Bordas en 
dowed it later with a steeple and fur 
nished it and had it dedicated by Bishop 
Yertin 1884 to St. John the Baptist. 
Aside of the church Father Bordas built 
a modest residence which he made his 
home every second week, living two 
weeks in Fayette and two weeks in Gar 
den. With the decline of the iron indus 
try and total suspension of the furnaces 
at Fayette, the priests reside in Garden 
but attend Fayette as a mission which still 
has forty families all farmers Irish, 



French, Polish, Bohemian and Belgian. 

The Garden community has risen to a 
certain affluence. There are one hundred 
and twenty-five families French, Irish, 
and German, and although geographically 
secluded from closer contacts with other 
communities they have attained a remark 
able degree of what we are pleased to call 
Americanization i. e., adopting the ways 
and language of the country. 

Improvements upon the church prop 
erty were of course as gradual as the de 
velopment of the parish. Besides the 
equipping of the church they have 
been able to add new buildings. Father 
Zagar added a large sacristy. Father 
Jodocy prepared plans and collected one 
thousand seven hundred dollars for a new 
house but his successor Rev. Dassylva put 
it up. The old residence was sold to An- 
toine Delorier for two hundred dollars. 
He moved it across the road directly op 
posite to where it had stood in the church 
yard. It was in this house that Rev. John 
Cebul died on August 3, 1898. He was 
buried in St. Ignace. 

Formerly the territory now embraced 
by the Manistique parish was included in 
the jurisdiction of the pastors. Also the 
Indian Point, where the church of St. 
Lawrence was built, with funds coming 
from the Propagation of Faith, under the 
direction of Father Bordas. 


Next to Mackinac Island and the Sault 
Manistique has the distinction of having 
the earliest record of a church in Upper 
Peninsula. On the Qth of August 1833 
Father Baraga dedicated there a chapel 
to St. Vincent de Paul. 3 This bark-church 

stood on Lot i, Section 34, Township 42, 
North Range 16 West, or what is today 
known as the Indian Lake Mission. Then 
the land was part of the Indian domain 
and likely could have been had later from 
the Government for the asking, but it was 
patented to Abner Sherman on August 
3, 1853 and since has come into posses 
sion of August C. Miller who operates 
there an extensive farm. On the old mis 
sion site he has platted a Summer Resort 
which the people make a favorite camping 
ground. Of the buildings there is noth 
ing left but the few foundation-stones 
upon which they had rested, the rest has 

ft i 

Cf. Vol. i, p. 51. 


been all carried away. The surroundings 
plainly indicate that the Indians at one 
time cultivated a large area of this 
ground. The timber is now as large as 
anywhere in the neighboring forest but 
there are quite a number of old apple 
trees still living which were undoubtedly 
planted by the Indians under the tutelage 
of their missionaries. The old cemetery 
is also in good state of preservation and 
has been fenced in. some ten or twelve 
years ago, by Semo Ossawinamakee, a 
son of the old Indian chief. 


The present city of Manistique is situ 
ated on the shore of Lake Michigan- 
three miles south of the old Indian Alis- 
siun. Its principal industries are lumber 
ing- and manufacturing of pig-iron, alco 
hol and lime. From a mere Indian village 
it has grown to a city of six thousand 

During its stages of growth the Cath 
olics were attended to from Garden. Mass 
was said in the Town Hall. In the fall 
of 1883 Rev. T. A. Majerus was ap 
pointed first resident pastor. He com- 


menced the building of the church and 
completed only the exterior. The interior 
was finished by Father Geers. The house 
was built by Father Faust. 

Other pastors : 

Rev. A. W. Geers, from November 7, 
1885 to July 11, 1886. 

Rev. John Cebul, from October 5, 1886 
to October 6, 1887. 

Rev. Joseph Haas, from October 23, 
1887 to April 29, 1888. 

Rev. M. Faust, from May 6, 1888 to 
January 6, 1889. 

Rev. J. Burns, from February 25th to 

October 20, 1889. 

pointed first resident pastor. He coin- 
Rev. P. J. Erlach, from November 10, 

1889 to August 3, 1890. 

Rev. A. O. Pelisson, from August 2Oth 
to November 25, 1890. 

Rev. F. Pawlar, from November 30, 

1890 to January 3, 1892. 

Rev. A. J. Re/ek, ad interim, from 
Gladstone, from January I5th to March 
26, 1892. 

Rev. J. Henn, from April 3. to October 
28, 1892. 

Rev. V. Sperlein. from 
November 4, 1892, to Jan 
uary 7, 1894. 

Rev. J. H. Reynaert, from 
January 20, 1894 to Sep 
tember, 1895. Then, ad in 
terim. Father Chambon, S. 
J. and after him Father 
\Y. F. Gagnieur, S. J. 

Rev. M. Jodocy, ad in 
terim, from December 1897 
to April 1898. 

Rev. J. P. Kunes, from 
December 20, 1898 to March 
1904. Father W. Gagnieur, 
S. J., again ad interim, from March 25, to 
June 5, 1904. 

Rev. \Y. B. Stahl, from June 19, 1904, 
to August 1905. 

Rev James Corcoran, the present pas 
tor, since August 1905. Rev. Joseph Du- 
ford, assistant since July 1906. 

Here as elsewhere the continuous 
changes in the pastorate have been detri 
mental to the welfare of the parish. But 
immaterial improvements are to be re 
corded. Father Reynaert gave the 



church a coat of paint and the tower a 
more shapely steeple. Rev. Kunes turned 
the hall built by Father Sperlein into a 
school. In the fall of 1901 the Francis 
can Sisters of Alverno, Wisconsin, under 
Sisters Lucretia, opened the lower grades. 
Sinee then the institution, laboring under 
many disadvantages, has expanded unto 
eight grades. The average attendance is 
two hundred and twenty-live pupils. The 
present superior is Sister M. Blanche. 

The congregation is composed of 
French, Irish, German, Slovenians and a 
sprinkling of all other nationalities. 
Missions attached are, Gould City, Nau- 
binway and all stations on the Soo line 
between Manistique and Trout Lake. 


Munising can boast of the largest tan 
neries in the state and has a very exten 
sive lumber manufacturing. These two 
industries are the mainstay of the town 
Catholics were attended, prior to 1896, 
from Marquette by Father Hollinger. Late 
in the fall of that year Rev. A. Molinari 
was sent to them as the first resident 
priest. During his short stay of five 
months he said Mass in the Fraternity 
Hall with an old fashioned piano for the 
altar. He had started the collections for 
a new church but was recalled by the Or 
dinary and replaced in June 1898 by Fa 
ther John Burns. In course of the sum 
mer he built the church and had it dedi 
cated by Bishop Vertin to the Sacred 
Heart. The venerable old missionary \vas 
relieved of duty on July 21, 1898 and the 
task of furnishing the church left to a 
younger successor. In the beginning of 
August Rev. Henry A. Buchholtz be 

came the third regular pastor. His youth 
ful energies enabled him to fill the posi 
tion with more than an ordinary tact. In 
short order he paid the outstanding one 
thousand dollar debt, frescoed the church, 
furnished it with new pews, altars, 
stained glass-windows, vestments and 
utensils, and besides built a pastoral resi 
dence. His recall to another field of labor. 
November 8, 1904 was generally regret 
ted by the people of all classes. The pres- 


ent pastor, Rev. John Kraker, came to 
the parish in November 1904. To the fur 
nishing of the church he has added a valu 
able pipe organ. 

The church property, besides the build 
ings, consists of six lots, in the Wallridge 
addition to Munising. Two were donated 
by the Munising R. R. C. and four pur 
chased by Father Buchholtz. 

The congregation is composed of sixty 
French, fifty Irish, twenty Polish and ten 
German families. 



This parish, although last in order, is 
not the last one formed. \Ye have rather 
followed the geographical lay of the par 
ishes, although \ve have taken into con 
sideration, as much as was consistent with 
this rule, the time of their formation, be 
cause we thought that parishes in one sec 
tion of the diocese, originating as they do 

from one mother parish, form a sort of 
an integral history for themselves, and 
we have, therefore, tried, although treat 
ing each one individually, to give the his 
tory of their development together as 
much as possible. Only in one or two in 
stances this order has been inadvertently 


We subjoin seven years of CATHOLIC DIRECTORY, which will prove as interesting from the point of diocesan 

development as from its own make-up. 




The Diocese of Detroit, \VliicJi Embraces the State of MicJiigan, was formed in 

1833. The RigJit Rev. Peter Lcfevre, Bishop of Zela, in part, inf., is 

Coadjutor and Administrator of ike Diocese. 


Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul Rt. 
Rev. Peter Paul Lefevere, D. D. ; Very 
Rev. Peter Kindekens, Vic. Gen. ; Rev. 
Michael E. Shawe, Pastor; Rev. Fran 
cis H. J. Peters, Assistant. Sermon in 
English at 10 o clock A. M., and cate 
chism at 2 o clock P. M. The New Ca 
thedral was solemnly dedicated to the 
worship of God, on the 29th of June, 
1848, under the invocation of the Apos 
tles SS. Peter and Paul. 

St. Ann s Rev. Peter Hennaert and Rev. 
John H. De Bolle. Sermon in French 
at 10 o clock A. M., and catechism at 2 
o clock P. M. 

St. Mary s (German) Rev. Al. Schoef- 
tler, C. SS. R. ; Rev. A. Kotte, C. SS. R. 

Trinity Church Rev. Patrick J. Dona- 
hoe. Sermon in English. 

River Ecorces, St. Francis Navier. Wayne 
Co.; River Rouge, The Holy Cross, 
Wayne Co.; River Huron, St. Mary s, 
Wayne Co. ; Swan Creek, St. Charles, 
Monroe Co. Rev. C. L. De Preitre 

and Rev. C. A. R. Chambille. Sermon 

in French. 
Greenfield, St. Lawrence; Dearbornville, 

new church, Wayne Co. Attended 

from Detroit. 
Grosse Pointe, Wayne Co., Assumption 

of B. Y. Mary Attended from Detroit. 
Mt. Clemens, St. Francis of Sales; L Anse 

Creuse, St. Felicita, Macomb Co. Rev. 

H. Van Renterghem. 
Cotterellville, St. Agatha; New Port, 

church built; St. Clair and Port Huron, 

St. Clair Co. Rev. Lawrence Kilroy. 
Monroe, St. Anthony s (French. English 

and German) Rev. J. Poirier, C. SS. 

R. ; Rev. P. Cronenberg, C. SS. R. ; 

Rev. Giles Smulders, C. SS. R. 
The same Rev. gentlemen attend Hills- 
dale. Medina, Clayton. Adrian, Muddy 

Creek, Otter Creek, Stony Creek, Brest, 

every other month; Palmira, Blessfield, 

Ida, every three months. 
Vienna. Monroe Co., St. Joseph s Rev. 

Peter Warlop and Rev. Henry Rivers. 

Sermons in French. 
Flint, Gennessee Co., St. Michael s Rev. 

Joseph Kindekens and Rev. II. J. H. 



Sclmtzes, who also attend several sta 
tions in La Peer county. 

Lower Saginaw. Saginaw Co., St. Jo 
seph s; L pper Saginaw, Saginaw Co.. 
St. Andrew s: \\oodhall. Shiawassy 
Co.. St. Patrick s Attended from 

Westphalia, Clinton Co. .St. Peter s Rev. 
Geo. Godez. who also attends Ionia and 


NADA, JUNE 10, I()06. 

St. Joseph s, Berrien Co., St. Lewis At 
tended from Pokagon. 

Bertrand. St. Joseph s ; Xiles. St. Francis 
of Assisium Rev. E. Sorin. of the Di 
ocese of Vincennes. who also attends 
Xew Buffalo and Mendon. 

Ann Arbor, St. Thomas : Xorthfield, St. 
Bridget s ; Ypsilanti and Lodi, \Yash- 
tenaw Co. Rev. Thos. Cullen. 

Marshall, Calhoun Co. Rev. James Hen 
nessey, who also attends Dexter, Syl 
van. Jackson and Kalamazoo. 

Green Oak, Livingston Co. Rev. P. 
Kelly, who also attends Pinkney, Deer- 
field and Ilartland. 

Pontiac, Oakland Co., St. Vincent of Paul 

Rev. Peter Walace, who also attends 
\Yhite Lake, Birmingham, Royal Oak 
and Clarkston. 

Clemens Road, once a month; Freedom, 
Lyndon, Newport, Sylvan, once a quar 
ter Visited by the Redemptorist Fa 
thers of Detroit. 

Mackinac, St. Ann s; Pointe St. Ignace, 
St. Ignatius, Michillimackinac Co. 
Rev. A. Piret. 

Grand Rapids, St. Andrew s; Cannon- 
burg, Kent Co., St. Patrick s Rev. 
Andrew Viszosky and Rev. Clias. L. 
De Ceuminch, who also visit Grand 
Haven and Yankee Springs. Sermon in 
English. French and German. 


Little Traverse Bay, St. Peter s; Sheboy- 
gan, St. Mary s ; Grand Traverse Bay 

Rev. V. Picrz and Rev. A. Van Pae- 
mel, who also attend several stations on 
the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. 

La Croix, St. Anthony s; Middletown, St. 
Francis Xavier; Beaver Island, St. 
Leopold s ; Manestie, St. Joseph s 
Rev. Ignatius Mrak, who resides at La 

For an account of the origin and prog 
ress of the Indian mission on Lake Michi 
gan, see Almanac of A. D. 1848, pages 
1 60-6 1 . 

Pokagon, Cass Co., Most Holy and Im 
maculate Heart of Mary Rev. Lewis 
Baroux, S. S. C. This mission numbers 



about 300 Catholic Indians of the Poto- 
\vatomi nation. They are regularly at 
tended hy their pastor, and have a good 
school under the direction of two Sis 
ters of the Society of the Holy Cross. 
Sault St. Mary s, Chippcway Co., St. 

Mary s Rev. Jno. B. Menet, S. J. 
Anse, Kewenaw Bay, Lake Superior, The 
Most Holy Name of Jesus Very Rev. 
Frederick Baraga, Vic. Gen., who also 
visits the different stations in the cop 
per region. The Indians belonging to 
this mission are continually advancing 
in civilization, good religious conduct 
and industrious habits. They live peace- 
ble and contented, and enjoy already, in 
this world, the reward of their sobriety 
and christian-like mode of living. Their 
families increase and enjoy good health. 
It is remarkable how healthy these In 
dians are now. The circumstance de 
serves to be noticed that since the ninth 
day of June, 1849, to the I5th day of 
.August, 1850 (over fourteen months), 
not a single soul, either man, woman, 
or child, departed this life. There is 
much hope of a considerable increase 
of this mission. 






This Apostolic Vicariate embraces the 
northern peninsula and the adjacent is 
lands of the State of Michigan. It is gov 
erned by the Rt. Rev. Frederick Baraga, 
Bishop of Amyzonia, in part, inf. 

Sault Ste. Mary s, Chippewa Co.. St. 

Mary s Rt. Rev. 
D. 1).; Rev. John 1 
- Kohler, S. J. 
Anse, Most Holy Name 

Frederick Baraga, 
Menet, S. J. ; Rev. 

of Jesus Rev. 
A. Vanpaemel, who also attends Point 
Keweenaw, Ontonagon District, and 
the mining localities. The Indians be 
longing to this mission are continually 
advancing in civilization, good reli 
gious conduct and industrious habits. 


They live peaceble and contented, and 
enjoy already, in this world, the reward 
of their sobriety and christian-like mode 
of living. Their families increase and 
enjoy good health. It is remarkable 
how healthy these Indians are nov/. 
The circumstance deserves to be no 
ticed, that since the ninth day of June, 
1849, to the i 5th day of August, 1850 
(over fourteen months), not a single 



soul, either man, woman or child, de 
parted this life. There is much hope of 
a considerable increase of this mission. 
Mackinac, St . Ann s, Michillimackinac 
Co. ; Point St. Ignace, St. Ignatius, 
Michillimackinac Co. Rev. A. Piret. 
Beaver Island, St. Leopold s; Manestie, 
St. Joseph Attended by Rev. Ig. 
Mrak, from La Croix. 
Indian schools are conducted at Mack 
inac, Point St. Ignace, Manistee, Sault 
St. Marie s and L Anse. 



Churches 6 

Clergymen 5 

Schools 5 



This Apostolic Vicariate was estab 
lished by his- Holiness Pius IX., on the 
29th of July, 1853, and embraces the 
northern peninsula of the State of Mich 

igan and the adjacent islands. It is gov 
erned by the Rt. Rev. Frederick Baraga, 
Bishop of Amyzonia and Vicar Apostolic 
of Upper Michigan. The Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Lefevere, of Detroit, has ceded to Bishop 
Baraga his power, authority and jurisdic 
tion over five counties of the southern 
peninsula of the State of Michigan, viz: 
the counties of Sheboygan, Emmet, 
Charlevoix, Antrim and Leelanat, where 
the principal Indian missions of Michigan 
are situated. The Rt. Rev. Bishop TTcnni, 
of Milwaukee, has ceded to 
Bishop Baraga the mission of 
Lapointe, on one of the 
Apostle Islands, Lake Su 
perior, \Yisconsin. 

Sault St. Marie, Chippe\va 
Co., St. Marys Church 
Rt. Rev. Frederick P.ara- 
ga, D. D. ; Rev. John 15. 
Menet, S. J. ; Rev. Au- 
guste Kohler, S. J. 
Mackinac, Michilimackinac 
Co., St. Ann s Rev. Eu 
gene Jahan. 

Point St. Ignace, St. Igna 
tius Rev. A. Piret. 

Beaver Island (Garden Island), St. Leo 
pold s Attended by Rev. Ignatius 
Mrak, from La Croix. 
L Anse, Houghton Co., Church of the 
Most Holy Name of Jesus Rev. 
Charles Lemagie. 

Eagle Harbor, Houghton Co., Church of 
the Most Holy Redeemer Rev. Lewis 
Thiele, who also visits all the mining 
locations of Keewenaw Point district, 



where he preaches and hears confes 
sions in English, French and German. 
Ontonagan Village, Ontonagan Co., St. 
Patrick s Rev. Lawrence Dunne, A. 
M., pastor of St. Patrick s Church. Ser 
mons in French and English. He also 
visits from time to time the principal 
mining locations of Ontonagan district. 
There is a regular English Catholic 
school conducted at Ontonagan by the 
worthy brother of the Rev. Pastor. 

La Croix, Emmet Co., St. 
Anthony s Rev. Igna 
tius Mrak, Rev. Law 
rence Lautishar. 

Little Traverse Bay, Em 
met Co., St. Peter s 
Rev. Angelus Van Pae- 
mel. Rev. John G. Stein- 

Middletown, Emmet Co., 
St. Francis Xavier s 
Attended by the Rev. 
Ign. Mrak, from La- 

Sheboygan Village, She- 

boygan Co., St. Mary s 

Attended b y Rev. 

Angelus Van Paemel, of 

Little Traverse Bay. 

Duncanville, Sheboygan Co. Served oc 
casionally from Mackinac. 

Grand Traverse Bay, Leelanat Co. 
Served occasionally from Little Trav 
erse Bay. 


Lapointe, Lake Superior, St. Joseph s 
Rev. I. D. Carie. This mission, indeed, 
had declined much in consequence of 
the commenced removal of the Indians 
and half-breeds of Lake Superior; but 

many returned after the first excite 
ment and continue to live at Lapointe. 
Schools are conducted at Sault St. 
Marie by a Jesuit lay-brother for boys, 
and by Ursuline Sisters for girls. At 
Mackinac a regular school for boys and 
girls. Likewise at Point St. Ignace, at 
La Croix, Little Traverse Bay, She 
boygan, L Anse and Lapointe. 

Churches 13 

Churches building 4 

Clergymen 1 1 


Schools 8 

Catholic population 5-/OO 



This apostolic Vicariate was established 
by his Holiness, Pius IN., on the jcjth of 
July, 1853, and embraces the northern 
peninsula of the State of Michigan, and 
the adjacent islands. It is governed by 
the Rt. Rev. Frederic Baraga, Bishop of 


Amyzonia. and Vicar Apostolic of t pper 
Michigan. The neighboring bishops have 
ceded to Bishop Uaraga part of their In 
dian missions, those bordering on Lake 
Michigan and Lake Superior. 


Sault St. Mary, Chippewa Co., St. Mary s 

Church- Rt. Rev. Frederic Baraga, 

I). I).; Rev. John I ,. Menet, S. J. ; Rev. 

Augnste Kohler, S. J. There are two 


HA.\), FKANl K, JANl AR V 5, I S 7 4 , ORDAINED BY 


Catholic schools at Sault Ste. Mary, 
one for boys, conducted by Bro. La- 
coste, and one for girls, conducted by 
L rsuline Sisters. Preparations are 
making for the first female Academy in 
Upper Michigan, for a higher educa 
tion of young ladies, under the direc 
tion of the Sisters. The Archconfra- 

ternity of the Immaculate Lleart of 
Mary, for the conversion of sinners, 
lias recently been established in St. 
Mary s Church by the Bishop, and is 
placed under the direction of the Jesuit 

Garden River ( on the Canada side of St. 
Mary s River), Church of the Immac 
ulate Heart of Mary Occasionally 
served from Sault St. Mary by the 
Rev. Father Kohler. 

Mackinac, Michilimackinac Co., St. Ann s 
Church Rev. Eugene Jahan, pastor. 
Instructions after High Mass on Sun 
days, in French. Catechism twice a 
week. There is a Catholic English 
school kept at Mackinac. for boys and 
girls. Two religious societies have been 
established here last winter, the Arch- 
confraternity of the Immaculate Heart 
of Mary, for the conversion of sinners; 
and the Society of St. Vincent of Paul, 
for mutual relief and charity. This so 
ciety is under the superintendence of 
Rev. E. Jahan. and is doing much good, 
by the particular care of the zealous 

Point St. Ignace, St. Ignatius Rev. Tim 
othy Carie. Instructions after High 
Mass on Sundays, in FVench. Cate 
chism twice a week. A regular Cath 
olic school is kept here, for boys and 
girls. The Society of St. Vincent of 
Paul was established last winter, and 
is progressing. 

Beaver Island (Garden Island), in Lake 
Michigan, Church of the Immaculate 
Conception of the B. V. Mary At 
tended from time to time from Cross- 
Village, Emmet Co., by Rev. Lawrence 
Lautishar. The Indians of Beaver Is 
land are very faithful and steady. Al- 



though they seldom see their mission 
ary, they faithfully persevere in their 
religion, and meet every Sunday in 
their humble church to sing and pray, 
until the missionary comes again to 
hear their confessions and announce to 
them the word of God, which they re 
ceive with thankfulness and spiritual 


Marquette, Marquette Co., Lake Superior, 
St. Peter s Church Rev. Sebastian 
Duroc, who also visits occasionally the 
iron mines of Marquette district. 

L Anse, Houghton Co., 
Church of the Most 
Holy Name of Jesus 
Rev. Edward Jacker, 
w h o also attends, 
every second month, 
the Portage mining 
locations, where he 
preaches and hears 
confessions in Eng- 
glish, German and 
French. The Indians 
of this mission, who 
were at one time 
much afraid of a re 
moval, are now per 
manently located on 
a large tract of land 
around their mission, which is secured 
to them by Government forever. There 
is a numerous Catholic school at 
L Anse, for boys and girls, kept by Mr. 

Eagle Harbor, Houghton Co., Church of 
the Most Holy Redeemer Rev. Louis 
H. Thiele, who also visits from time to 
time all the mining locations at Kee- 
wenaw Point district, where he preaches 
and hears confessions in English, 
French and German. He especially 
visits once a month the great Cliff 

Aline, where a lot was kindly given us 
by the Company, on which a church 
will soon be erected. 

Ontonagon Village, Ontonagon Co., St. 
Patrick s Rev. Lawrence Dunne, M. 
A., pastor of St. Patrick s Church; Rev. 
Martin Fox, from All Flallows College, 
Dublin. Sermons in English and 
French. They also visit every second 
month the principal mining locations of 
Ontonagon district, where the Rev. Mr. 
Fox preaches and hears confessions in 
English, French and German. There is 


a regular English Catholic school at 
Ontonagon, for boys and girls, con 
ducted by the worthy brother of the 
Rev. pastor. 


Cross Village, or La Croix, Emmet Co., 
Church of the Holy Cross Rev. Law 
rence Lautishar. The Indians of this 
mission, in the beginning of their con 
version in 183-. erected in their village 
a large cross, the emblem of our salva- 



tion, which was afterwards renewed; 
and from this cross the mission has its 
name. A numerous and regular Eng 
lish school is conducted there by Mr. 
McXamara, who also instructs in the 
evening young men in the English lan 

Middletown, Emmet Co., St. Ignatius 
Attended every Sunday from Cross 
Village, by the zealous and indefatig 
able Mr. Lautishar. 


Little Traverse Bay, Emmet Co., Church 
of the Holy Infancy of Jesus Rev. 
John G. Steinhauser, who also attends 
St. Paul s, on the opposite side of the 
bay. English school for boys and girls, 
kept by Mr. Dusauix. 

Sheboygan Village. Sheboygan Co., St. 

Mary s Church Occasionally served 
from Little Traverse Bay, by Rev. J. G. 
Steinhauser. An English school is con 
ducted there by Mr. Matthews. 

J Hmcanville, Sheboygan Co. Served oc 
casionally from Mackinac, by Rev. E. 
Jahan. A small frame church is in 
progress of construction at this place, 
on a lot given us for that purpose, un 
der the care and direction of Rev. Mr. 

Eagletown, Grand Traverse Bay, Grand 
Traverse Co., Church of the B. V. 
Mary Rev. Ignatius Mrak, who also 
visits occasionally several other towns 
that are springing up around Grand 
Traverse Bay. There is an English 
school at Eagletown, kept by the zeal- 
ens missionary himself and by Mr. But 


Lapointe, Lake Superior, St. Joseph s 
Church Rev. Angelus Van Paemel. 
This mission, indeed, had declined 
much in consequence of the commenced 
removal of the Indians and half-breeds 
of Lake Superior; but most of them re 
turned after the first excitement and 
continue to live at Lapointe. A regular 
and numerous English school of over a 
hundred pupils is conducted at Lapointe 
by Mr. Hickey and Mr. Carpentie r . 

Bad River, or Swamp River, twenty miles 
from Lapointe Attended from time to 
time from Lapointe, by Rev. A. Van 
Paemel. Church building, under the 
care and direction of Mr. Van Paemel. 

Superior City, Fond du Lac, Lake Su 
perior Served occasionally from La 
pointe, by Rev. Angelus Van Paemel. 



Grand Portage, on the northern shore of 
Lake Superior, near the boundary line 



Eugene Benoist. 

School kept by the missionary himself, 
until the arrival of a school teacher. 
Isle Royale Mining Locations Occa 
sionally served from Fort William, Jjy 
the Rev. -Father Du Ranquet. 
Fort William, Lake Superior ( Canada 
side). Church of the Immaculate Con 
ception Rev. Father Du Ranquet, S. 
J. ; Rev. Father Nicholas Point, S. J. 

Churches 16 

Churches building 5 

Missionary stations 14 

Clergymen 16 

Schools ii 

Academy for young ladies i 

Catholic population 6,000 




This Apostolic Vicariate was estab 
lished by his Holiness, Pius IN., on the 
29th of July, 1853, and embraces the 
northern peninsula of the State of Mich 
igan, and the adjacent islands. (This 
Apostolic Vicariate has been erected into 
a Diocese, under the name of the "Diocese 
of St. Mary," by a decree of the first pro 
vincial council of Cincinnati, celebrated in 
May, 1855. But the confirmation of the 
decrees of this council had not yet arrived 
from Rome at the time of the issuing of 
this Report.) It is governed by the l\t. 
Rev. Frederic Baraga, Bishop of Ama 
zonia, and Vicar Apostolic of Upper 

Michigan. The neighboring Bishops have 
ceded to Bishop Baraga part of their In 
dian Missions, those bordering on Lake 
Michigan and Lake Superior. 

Sault St. Mary, Chippewa Co., St. Mary s 
Church Rt. Rev. Frederic Baraga, 
D.D. ; Rev. John B. Menet, S. J. ; Rev. 
Auguste Kohler, S. J., who for the most 
part resides at Garden River, on the 

Canada side of St Mary s River, Dio 
cese of Hamilton, Canada West. There 
are two Catholic schools at Sault St. 
Mary, one for boys, conducted by Bro. 
Adrian Lacoste, and one for girls, con 
ducted by Ursuline Ladies. The first 
female Academy in Upper Michigan, 
for a higher education of young ladies, 



under the direction of the Ursuline 
Ladies, is now prepared for reception, 
and a fe\v young ladies have already 
entered the Institution. (See Prospectus 
below.) The Archconfraternity of the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary for the con 
version of sinners, and the Confrater 
nity of the Holy Scapular are estab 
lished in St. Mary s Church, and are 
placed under the direction of the Jesuit 

Mackinac. Michilimackinac Co., St. Ann s 
Church Rev. Eugene M. Jalian, pas 
tor. Instructions after High Mass in 
French and English. Catechism twice a 
week. Three religious societies are 
established here, the Archconfraternity 
of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, for 
the conversion of sinners, the Confra 
ternity of the Holy Scapular, and the 
Society of St. Vincent of Paul, for mu 
tual relief and charity. This society is 
under the superintendence of the Rev. 
E. M. Jalian, and is prospering and do 
ing much good, by the indefatigable 
care of the zealous pastor. The Cath 
olic congregation of Mackinac, under 
the direction and encouragement of 
their pastor, are making preparations 
for a new Church, which they hope to 
complete and pay in two years. 

Point St. Ignace, Michilmackinac Co., 
Church of St. Ignatius This Mission 
is served from Mackinac by the Rev. 
E. M. Jahan, every second Sunday. In 
structions after High Mass in French, 
and occasionally in Indian. A regular 
Catholic school is kept here for boys 
and girls. The Society of St. Vincent 
of Paul is established here, and is pros 

Beaver Island (Garden Island), in Lake 



Michigan, Church of the Immaculate 
Conception of the B. V. Mary At 
tended from time to time from Cross- 
Village, Emmet Co., by Father \Yei- 
kamp of the third order of St. Francis; 
or from Little Traverse Bay, Emmet 
Co., by the Rev. Lawrence Lautishar. 
There is a numerous Indian school for 
boys and girls in this Mission, recently 
established, and conducted by Mr. \Yil- 
liam O Donovan. The Indians of Gar 
den Island are faithful and steady 
Christians. Although 
they seldom see their 
Missionaries, they 
faithfully persevere in 
the Catholic religion 
and meet every Sunday 
in their humble Church 
to sing and pray, until 
the Missionary comes 
again to administer to 
them the Sacraments of 
Penance a n d Holy 
Eucharist, and to an 
nounce to them the 
word of God, which 
they receive with thank 
fulness and spiritual 


Marquette, Marquette 
Co., Lake Superior, 
St. Peter s Church Rev. 

preaches and hears confessions in Eng 
lish, German and French. The Indians 
of this mission are no\v permanently 
located on a large tract of land an >und 
their mission, which is secured to them 
by our government forever. There is 
a numerous Cath. Indian school at 
L Anse, for boys and girls, kept by Mr. 
Thomas Branen. 

Eagle Harbor, Houghton Co., Church of 
the Most Holy Redeemer Rev. Louis 
H. Thiele, who also visits from time to 

Duroc, who also visits occasionally the 
iron mines of Marquette district. Prep 
arations are making to build a new 
church, as the present temporary one 
is already too small for the increasing 

L Anse, Houghton Co., Lake Superior, 
Church of the Most Holy Name of 
Jesus Rev. Edward Jacker, who also 
attends, once every month, the Portage 
Lake mining locations, where he 


Sebastian time all the mining locations of Kee- 
wenaw Point district, where he preaches 
and hears confessions in English, 
French and German. He especially 
visits every third Sunday the celebrated 
Cliff Mine, where he has a large con 
gregation of Irish, Germans and Cana 
dians. An acre of land was kindly 
given us by the North- American Min 
ing Company, on a very fine elevated 
spot at the South-Cliff, on which prep- 



arations arc making for the erection of 
a spacious church. 

Ontonagon Village, Ontonagon Co., St. 
Patrick s Church - - Rev. Lawrence 
Dunne. M. A., Pastor. High Mass at 
10 o clock every Sunday and Ilolyday, 
and sermons in English and French. 

Minnesota Mine. Ontonagon Co., Church 
of the P.. V. Mary Rev. Martin Fox. 
Instructions in Fnglish. German and 
French. There is a large congregation 


VKRT1X, OCTOBER 28, 1897. 

of Irish, Germans and Canadians on 

this great mining location. 
Norwich Mine, Ontonagon Co., Church 

of St. Francis Xavier Attended from 

Minnesota mine once a month, by the 

Rev. M. Fox. 
Maple Grove, Nebraska Mine, missionary 

stations Attended by the Rev. M. Fox. 

The same Rev. Gentleman visits also- 
occasionally all the other mining loca 
tions of the Ontonagon district. 


Cross-Village, or La Croix, Emmet Co., 
Church of the Holy Cross -Rev. Fa 
ther John P>ernard \Yeikamp and Rev. 
Father Seraphin Zorn, of the Third Or 
der of St. Francis. The Indians of this 
mission, in the beginning of their con 
version in i^- , erected in their village 
a large cross, the emblem of our salva 
tion, which was afterwards renewed; 
and from this cross the missionary vil 
lage derives its name. The Rev. Father 
\Yeikamp, who settled in October, 1855, 
in our Indian Missions of Emmet Co., 
with many Brothers and Sisters of the 
Third Order of St. Francis, is now 
building here a large church and two 

o o 

convents, one for the Brothers and one 
for the Sisters. A numerous and reg 
ular English school is kept at this mis 
sion ; for the boys by a Brother, and for 
the girls by a Sister of the Third Order 
of St. Francis. 

Middle Village, Emmet Co., Church of 
St. Ignatius Attended every Sunday 
from Cross Village by the Rev. Father 
YVeikamp, or the Rev. Father Zorn; 
and occasionally by the Rev. L. Lau- 
tishar from Little Traverse Bay. A 
school has recently been established at 
this village and is kept by a Brother of 
the Third Order. 

Little Traverse Bay, Emmet Co., Church 
of the Holy Infancy of Jesus Rev. 
Lawrence Lautischar, who also attends 
the missionary station of Agaming, on 
the opposite side of the bay. There are 



regular English schools at Little Trav 
erse Bay, for boys and girls, kept sep 
arately by a Brother and a Sister of 
the Third Order of St. Francis. 

Sheboyg-an Village, Sheboygan Co., 
Church of the B. V. Alary Occa 
sionally served from Little Traverse 
Bay, by the Rev. L. Lautishar. An 
English school for boys and girls is 
kept here by Mr. Nicholas Murray. 

Duncanville, Sheboygan Co., Served oc 
casionally from Mackinac, by the Rev. 
E. M. Jahan. 

Eagletown, Grand Traverse Bay, Grand 
Traverse Co., Church of the B. V. 
Mary Rev. Ignatius Mrak, who also 
visits occasionally several other towns 
and villages that are springing up 
around Grand Traverse Bay. There is 
an English school here for boys and 
girls, kept by the zealous missionary 
himself, and by Mr. Dusauix. 


Lapointe, Lake Superior, St. Joseph s 
Church Rev. Angelus Van Paemal, 
Rev. Auguste Eugene Benoist. Instruc 
tions in Erench and Indian. This mis 
sion, indeed, had decline much in con 
sequence of a commenced removal of 
the Indians and Halfbreeds of Lake 
Superior; but most of them returned 
after the first excitement, and continue 
to live at Lapointe. Two separate Eng 
lish schools are kept there, by Mr. Mi 
chael Hickey for boys, and by Mrs. 
Isabella Ducheneau for girls. 

Bad River, or Swamp River, about 20 
miles south-east from Lapointe At 
tended occasionally by the Rev. A. Van 

Superior, Fund du Lac, Lake Superior 
Served frequently from Lapointe by 
the Rev. A. Van Paemel. Instructions 
in English, French and Indian. The 
Catholics of Superior, consisting of 
Irish, Canadians and Halfbreeds, have 
purchased, under the direction of their 
zealous missionary, a large house, 
which will serve as a Chapel until they 
are able to build a regular church. 



Grand Portage, on the northern shore of 
Lake Superior, near the boundary line, 
Church of St. Peter Occasionally 
served by the Rev. Dominic Du Ran- 
quet, S. ]., or the Rev. Peter Chone, 
S. J., who resides at Fort \Yilliam, Dio 
cese of Hamilton, Canada, \Yest. 

I his Institution under the charge of 


Vrsuline Ladies. Mother Mary Xavier, 
Superior, is situated in the town of 
Sault Ste. Marie, t pper Michigan, on. a 
very agreeable spot and in a most healthy 
climate. The system of Education at this 
Academy embraces every useful and or 
namental branch, suitable for young 
Ladies, as English, Grammar, Arithmetic, 
ancient and modern Geography, ancient 
and modern History. Cosmography, 

mending and bedding for the whole year 
Si (>.()(.). Making the entire charge for 
each young Lady, for the whole year, 
only $90.00; but invariably payable half- 
yearly in advance. Lessons on the Piano, 
making artificial flowers, and the French 
language, will form extra charge, as fol 
lows : 

Lessons on the piano and the use of the 
instrument per month, $2.50. 


Astronomy, four different kinds of writ- Making artificial flowers, per month, 
ing, all kinds of female manual work, as $1.50. 

French language, per month, $2.00. 

Doctor s bills will be payable by the 

sewing, knitting, embroidery. 

Terms Board and tuition for the 

whole year of twelve months, and instruc- parents. 

tions in the above mentioned branches for For further particulars application may 

the scholastic year of eleven months, the be made to any of the Clergymen of this 

very moderate price of $80.00. Washing, Diocese. 




Churches TQ 

Churches building 4 

Missionary stations ]8 

Clergymen 16 

Schools i? 

Academy for young ladies i 


ist Bishop, consecrated Bishop of Amy- 
xonia in part, Xov. I, 1853. created 
Bishop of Sault Sainte Marie in 1857. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Chippe\va Co., St. 
Mary s Cathedral, Rt. Rev. I ; rederic 
Baraga, D. D. ; Rev. John B. Menet, 
S. J. ; Rev. Auguste Kohler, S. J. 

Catholic population, about 6.000 Beaver Island, in Lake Michigan, Immac- 




l8 57- 

Comprising the Xorthern Peninsula of 
the State of MICHIGAX and the Islands. 
Bishop Rt. Rev. Frederic Baraga, D. D., 

ulate Conception of the B. V. M. At 
tended from Cross Village by Rev. |. 
B. \Yeikamp, O. S. F., and from Little 
Traverse Bay by Rev. L. Lautishar. 

Cliff A tine Every third Sunday, Rev. L. 
H. Thiele, of E. Harbor. 

Eagle Harbor, Houghton Co.. Most Holy 
Redeemer Rev. Louis H. Thiele. 

Ke\veena\v Point District Attended by 



Rev. L. IT. Thiele. 
L Anse, Hou</hton G 

Ontonagon Village. Ontonagon Co., St. 
Lake Superior, Patrick s Rev. Lawrence Dunne, M. A. 

Most Holy Xame of Jesus Rev. Ed- Pointe St. Ignace, Machilimackinac Co., 

ward Jackcr. 
Mackinac, Michilimackinac Co., St. Ann s 

Re\\ F.ugene M. Jahan. 
Maple Grove Attended by Rev. M. Fox. 
Marcjnette, Marquette Co., St. Teeter s 

Rev. Sebastian Duroc. 

Attended by Rev. E. M. 

station Attended 

St. Ignatius 

Portage Lake, minin 

from L Anse. 

The neighboring P>ishops have ceded to 
Hishop Baraga jurisdiction over that part 

Minnesota Mine, Ontonagon Co., St. of their Indian missions bordering on 

Mary s Rev. Martin Fox. Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. 

Nebraska Mine Attended by Rev. M. SOUTHERN MICHIGAN. 

Fox. Agaming Attended from Little Trav- 

Norwich Mine, Ontonagon Co., St. Fran- erse Bay. 

cis Xavier Attended once a month by Cross Village, or La Croix, Emmet Co., 

Rev. M. Fox. Holy Cross Indian Mission. 



Duncanville, Sheboygan Co., B. V. Alary 
-Rev. E. M. Jahan. 

Eagletown, Grand Traverse Co., B. V. M. 
Rev. Ignatius Alrak. 

Little Traverse Bay, Emmet Co., Holy 
Infancy of Jesus Rev. Lawrence Lau- 

Middle Village, Emmet Co., St. Ig 
natius Attended every second Sunday 
from Cross Village. 

Sheboygan Village, Sheboygan Co., B. V. 
Alary Attended from Little Traverse 


Bad or Swamp River Attended occa 
sionally by Rev. A. Van Paemal. 

Lapointe, Lake Superior, St. Joseph s 
Rev. Angelus Van Paemel, Rev. Au- 
guste Eugene Benoist. 

Superior, Fond du Lac, Lake Superior- 
Attended from Lapointe. 


St. Mary s Academy, Sault St. Mary s 
Directed by the Ursuline Ladies, 
Mother Alary Xavier, Superior. 

School for Boys, Sault Ste. Alarie Rev. 
Adrian Lacoste, Director. 

Convent of Brothers of the Third Order 
of St. Francis, Cross Village The 
Brothers direct Schools for Boys at 
Cross Village, Little Village and Trav 
erse Bay. 

Convent of Sisters of the Third Order of 
St. Francis, Cross Village Schools at 
Pointe St.. Ignace, Beaver Island, 
L Anse, Sheboygan, Eagletown, La 
pointe, etc. 


Churches 22 

Stations 18 

Clergymen 16 

Schools j^ 

Academy for Young Ladies i 

Convents ^ 

Catholic population 6,000 




January Qth, 1857. 

It embraces the northern peninsula of 
the State of Michigan, and the adjacent 
islands. The Coadjutor-Bishop of Detroit 
has ceded to Bishop Baraga his Indian 
missions, situated in the northern part of 
the southern peninsula of Michigan; and 
Bishop Henni his missions bordering on 
Lake Superior. Rt. Rev. Frederic Bar 
aga, D. D., ist Bishop, consecrated Bishop 
of Amyzonia in part., Nov. i, 1853, cre 
ated Bishop of St. Mary s in 1857. " 


Sault St. Alarie, Chippewa Co., St. Mary s 
Church Rt. Rev. Frederic Baraga, 
D. D. ; Rev. John B. Alenet, S. J. ; Rev. 
Auguste Kohler,S. J.,who for the most 
part resides at Garden River, on the 
Canada side of St. Mary s River, Dio 
cese of Hamilton, Canada West. There 
are two Catholic schools at Sault St. 
Alarie one for boys, conducted by 
Brother Ardian Lacoste, and one for 
girls, conducted by Ursuline Ladies. 
The Archconfraternity of the Immac 
ulate Heart of Alary, for the conversion 
of sinners, and the Confraternity of the 
Holy Scapular are established in St. 
Mary s Church, and are under the di 
rection of the Jesuit Fathers. 

Mackinac, Michillimackinac Co., St. Ann s 



Church Rev. Patrick Bernard Mur 
ray, Pastor. Instructions in English 
and French. The A rchcon fraternity of 
the Immaculate Heart of Mary, for the 
conversion of sinners, and the Confra 
ternity of the Holy Scapular are estab 
lished in St. Ann s Church. There is a 
very numerous Catholic school lor boys 
and girls at .Mackinac, conducted by the 

Pointe St. Ignace, Michillimackinac Co., 
Church of St. Ignatius of Loyola, Rev. 
Andrew I). Piret, Pastor Instruc 
tions in French, and occasionally in In 

Beaver Island (Garden Island), in Lake 
Michigan, Church of the Immaculate 
Conception o r the B. V. Mary At 
tended occasionally from Cross Village 
by the Rev. Father Seraphin Zorn. 
There is a numerous Indian school 
for boys and girls in this mis 
sion, kept by Mr. William () Dono 
van. The Indians of Garden Island 
are faithful and steady Christians; 
although they seldom see their mis 
sionary, they faithfully persevere 
in the Catholic religion and meet 
every Sunday in their humble church, 
until the missionary comes again to ad 
minister to them the sacraments of Pen 
ance and Holy Fucharist, and to an 
nounce to them the \Yord of God, 
which they receive with thankfulness 
and spiritual joy. 

Marquette, Marquette Co., Lake Superior, 
St. Peter s Church Rev. Sebastian 
Duroc, who also visits (Mice a month 
the iron mines of Marquette district. 
There is a Catholic school attached to 
this mission. 

L Anse, Iloughton Co., Lake Superior, 
Church of the Most Holy Name of 
Jesus Rev. Edward Jacker, who also 
attends once a month the Portage Lake 
mining locations, where he preaches 
and hears confessions in English, Ger 
man, and French. The Indians of this 
mission are now permanently located in 
a large tract of land around their mis 
sion, which is secured to them by gov 
ernment forever. There is a numerous 
Catholic Indian school at L Anse for 
boys and girls, kept by the pastor as 
sisted by his brother, Albert Jacker. 

Eagle Harbor, Iloughton Co., Church of 
the Most Holy Redeemer Rev. Louis 
LI. Thiele, who also visits from time to 
time all the mining locations of Point 
Keewenaw district, where he preaches 
and hears confessions in English, 
French, and German. He especially 
visits, every third Sunday, the cele 
brated Cliff mine, where he has a large 
congregation of Irish, Germans and 

Ontonagan Village, Ontonagon Co., St. 
Patrick s Church Rev. Lawrence S. 
Dunne, M. A., Pastor. Instructions al 
ternately in English ;uul French. 

Minnesota Mine, Ontonagon Co., Church 
of the P). V. Mary Rev. Martin Fox. 
Instructions in English, German, and 
I rench. There is a large congregation 
of Irish, German and Canadians. 

Norwich Mine, Ontonagon Co., Church 
of St. Francis Xavier Attended from 
Minnesota Mine once a month by the 
Rev. M. Fox. Maple Grove, Ontona 
gon Co., new church, Rev. M. Fox. 

Nebraska Mine and many other mining 
locations and missionary stations are 
attended by Rev. Martin Fox. 




Cross Village, or La Croix, Emmet Co., 
Church of the Holy Cross Rev. Fa 
ther Seraphin Zorn. The Indians of 
this mission in the beginning of their 
conversion, in 1^3- , erected in their 
village a large wooden cross the emblem 
of our salvation, which was afterwards 
renewed; and from this cross the mis 
sionary village derives its name. The 
Rev. Father John Bernerd Weikamp, 
who settled in our Indian missions in 
1855, with several Brothers and Sis 
ters of the Third order of St. Francis, 
has built near this mission a church and 
two convents one for the Brothers 
and one for the Sisters. Two numer 
ous English Indian schools are kept 
at this mission for the hoys by a 
Brother, and for the girls bv a Sister of 
the Third Order of St. Francis. 

Middle Village Emmet Co., Church of St. 
Ignatius Attended every Sunday from 
Cross Village. 

Little Traverse Bay, Emmet Co., Church 
of the Holy Infancy of Jesus Rev. 
Lawrence Lautishar and Rev. Louis 
Sifferath, who also attend the mission 
ary station of Agaming. on the oppo 
site side of the Bay. There is a regu 
lar English School at Little Traverse 
Bay, kept by Airs. Hamlin, for boys 
and girls. 

Sheboygan Village, Sheboygan Co., 
Church of the B. V. Mary Occasion 
ally served from Little Traverse Bay 
by the Rev. L. Lautishar. A regular 
school for boys and girls is kept here 
by the Rev. Nicholas Murray. 

Duncanville, Sheboygan, Co. Church 
building Served occasionally from 
Pointe St. Ignace, by the "Rev. A. 

Eagletown, Grand Traverse Bav. Grand 
Traverse Co. Church of the B. V. 
Mary Rev. Ignatius Mrak, who also 
visits occasionally several other towns 

and villages that arc springing up 
around Grand 1 raverse Bav. I here is 
an English-Indian school kept here lor 
boys and girls by the missionary. 


La Pointe, Lake Superior. St. Joseph s 
Church Rev. Auguste Eugene Beno- 
ist. Instructions in French and lndi::n. 
Two separate schools are kept here; for 
boys by Mr. Dillon O Brien, and for 
girls by Mrs. Elizabeth O Brien. 

Bad River, or Swamp River A mission 
ary station about twenty miles south 
east from LaPointe, occasionally at 
tended by Rev. A. Van Paemel, or Rev. 
A. E. Bcnoist. 

City of Superior, Fond du Lac, Lake Su 
perior Rev. Angelus Van Paemel, 
who gives instructions in English, 
French and Indian. The Catholics of 
Superior, consisting of Irish. Cana 
dians, half-breeds, and Indians, have 
purchased a large log-house, which will 
serve as a chapel until a regular church 
be built on a lot, kindly bestowed by 
the proprietors of the city ground. 


St. Mary s Academy for Young La 
dies, Sault Ste. Marie, under the charge 
ot the I rsuline Ladies, Mother Mary 
Navier, Superior. Terms $80 per annum. 

Convent of Brothers of the third order 
of St. Francis, at Cross Village. 

Convent of Sisters of the third order 
of St. Francis at Cross Village. 

Rev. J. B. \Yeikamp, Ecclesiastical Su 


Churches 20 

Churches Bnil .iing 8 

Missionary Stations 13 

Clergymen 16 

Schools i } 

Academy for Young Ladies i 

Convents ^ 

Catholic Populations about 6,500 

BX 1417 .M3R4 1906 
v . 2 SMC 



AZM-5650 (MCFM)