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Copyright, 1892, r.v the Author. 

Private and Public Schools of Columbus. Ohio. 



The history of the Schools of Columbus properly begins with those of Franklin- 
ton, the pioneer village of the Capital City, and would be incomplete without an 
account of the generous gifts and wise policy of the National Government which so 
greatly promoted the cause of education, and which have contributed directly. to the 
support of the schools. Before the pioneer settlement of Central Ohio was planted 
"on the low banks of the slow winding Scioto," Congress made certain provisions for 
the maintenance of schools within the territory in which that settlement was after- 
wards situated, thus anticipating its welfare by a " sort of parental providence." On 
May 20, 1785, in an ordinance for disposing of western lands, Congress provided that 
" a thirty-sixth of every township of the western territory " should be reserved from 
sale for the maintenance of public schools within the township. Tlie ordinance of 
July 13, 1787, for the government of the territory northwest of the river Ohio con- 
firmed the provisions of the land ordinance and further declared that "religion, 
morality and knowledge being necessary to gcod government and the happiness of 
mankind, schools and the means of education should forever be encouraged." The 
original reservation of land for school purposes did not provide like donations for the 
support of schools in certain tracts in Ohio, amon^ which was the Virginia Military 
District in which a part of Columbus is situated. The first constitutional convention 
requested that a "like provision be made for the support of schools in these districts," 
and on March 3, 1803, Congress assented and appropriated lands to the amount of 
one thirty-sixths of each of these tracts for the use of schools therein, and provided 
that all the lands " appropriated for the use of schools in the State should be vested 
in the legislature, in trust, for the maintenance of schools and for no other use, intent 
or purpose whatever." 

The Constitution of 1802 embodied the famous educational clause of the 
Ordinance of 1797, and supplemented it by declaring that schools and the means 
of education shall forever be encouraged by legislative provision not inconsistent 
with the rights of conscience. It further declared that the doors of the schools, 
academies, and universities endowed in whole or in part from the revenue arising 
from the land grants, shall be open for the reception of scholars, students and 



The Schools. I. 5 

teachers of every grade. The school lands were to be leased and the revenue 
applied impartially to the education of the youth, but owing to the newness of the 
country it was many years before the income from this source could materiall}' aid 
in maintaining schools. The income to the Columbus schools from the land grants 
will be separatel}' considered, but before any such revenue was realized the chil- 
dren were needing school facilities, and hence private schools or schools supported 
by donation or some form of local taxation were necessary. The early inhabitants 
were men and women of intelligence who held the church and the school to be 
indispensable to the welfare of the community. With the usual promptness of our 
western pioneers they first provided places, however rude, for divine worship, and 
second, places for the education of their youth. The same building served fre- 
quently, if not usually, the purposes of both a church and a school. Private schools 
and academies Avere liberally sustained, and for several years after the organization 
of the public schools the predominant sentiment was in favor of the former. But 
even these schools were favorably influenced by the educational policy of the gov- 
ernment and by the general awakening of interest in education occasioned by the 
land grants and subsequent school legislation. The private schools directed atten- 
tion to the subject of public education and emphasized the truth that general intel- 
ligence is necessary- to the prosperity of a community. They nurtured a sentiment 
in favor of good schools and inculcated the noble idea that school privileges should 
be extended to all classes, so that finall}-, by the side of the exclusive private 
school the general subscription school also flourished. Donations were not infre- 
quently made for the maintenance of schools or to pay for the tuition of the needy. 
When at length State laws made adequate provision for the support of good public 
schools almost all others were discontinued. The private schools formed a memor- 
able episode in the educational history of the infant capital, and fulfilled an impor- 
tant mission in its social development. 

Common schools sustained by the State and patronized by all classes are, of 
comparatively recent date. Massachusetts first proclaimed and established the 
principle that it is the right and duty of government to provide by means of fair 
and just taxation for the instruction of all the youth of the community, and free 
schools were among her earliest institutions. The article on education in her con- 
stitution of 1780 was one of the first of the kind ever incorporated into the organic 
law of a State. The fii'st law for the support of schools in the State of New York 
was passed in 1795, and not until 1834 did Pennsj^lvania adopt a general free 
school system. 

The school history of the City of Columbus will be here treated under the fol- 
lowing general topics in the order of their mention : School funds and school leg- 
islation, private schools, and the public school system. 

The schools of Franklinton and subsequently those in that portion of Colum- 
bus west of the Scioto River have been supported in part by the Virginia Military 
School Fund. The Virginia Military School Lands, consisting of 105,155 acres, 
were not finally located until February 13, 1808. They were located in Wayne, 
Holmes, Ashland, Richland, Crawford and Morrow counties. Provision was 
made by the legislature for leasing the school lands for the purpose of improving 

f, History of the City op Columbus. 

the same and thereb}' rendering them more productive in order that the profits 
which tlie.y should yield might be applied to the support of the schools, but the 
lands were really not leased and the rental derived from them was small. In his 
annual message of 1821 Governor Brown said: "So far as my information 
extends the appropriation of the school lands in this state has produced hitherto, 
with few exceptions, no very material advantage in the dissemination of instruc- 
tion — none commensurate with their presumable value." In 182G the income 
from all the lands then leased was about five thousand dollars. Pursuant to a pro- 
vision of law the people of this reservation voted in 1828 their assent to the sale of 
their school lands, and within the same year the unleased portions were ordered to 
be sold. Prior to 1838 sixtyeight thousand one hundred and fiftyfive acres had 
been sold for 8129,549.29 ; the annual rental on the remainder was then $4,503.76, 
which made an annual income from this source of $12,276.71. The proceeds from 
the sale of these lands have been loaned to the State, and the annual interest at six 
per centum on this money and the rent on the unsold lands constitute the Vir- 
ginia Military School Fund, whicli fund is distributed annually among the several 
counties of the reservation in proportion to the youth of school age in each. From 
1821 to 1828 the State borrowed the income of these school lands, compounding 
the interest annually, during which time the fund amounted to $54,000. Early in 
the following year this amount was distributed proportionately to the schools ot 
the Virginia Military district. Our County Auditor's ledger shows that Distinct 
Number Two of Franklin Township of this county received on March 10, 1828, 
the sum of $73,873, or $1,717 for each householder in the district. The annual 
distribution thereafter was of course much less. In 1835 the income distributed 
was $11,091.77, or about eighteen cents for each school youth; and in 1837 it 
amounted to about seventeen cents for each youth between four and twentyone 
yeai's of age. These school lands have all been sold, except a few sections which 
^-e under perpetual lease without revenue, at twelve cents per acre. The total 
amount of the proceeds of the sale of this land up to 1890 was $192,622.68, and the 
interest on this fund and on the unsold land for that j^ear amounted to $11,800.87, 
which amount was distributed according to law to the counties and parts of coun- 
ties embraced in the reservation. 

In lieu of Section Sixteen of Montgomery Township, which was a part of the 
Refugee grant, Section Twentyone of Madison Township of this county was selected 
March 4, 1806. There seems to be no record to indicate whether or not any 
income was realized from this land prior to its sale. It was sold October 15, 1828, 
in half quartersections severally to John Swisher, Adam Sarber, Benjamin Cleringer 
and Adam Rarey for $2,688.84, to be paid in four equal annual instalments, with- 
out interest on deferred payments. This money was loaned to the State and the 
interest on it at six per centum has been annually applied to the support of schools 
in this township. In 1882 there were 1,052 youth between five and fifteen years of 
age in the township, 886 of whom lived in the school districts of Columbus. This 
fund therefore amounted to fifteen cents and three mills for each youth of school 
age, or $135.55 for these districts, which sum at that early day gave great encourage- 
ment to the schools. 

The Schools. I. 7 

The first general school law of Ohio, entitled an " act to provide for the regula- 
tion and support of common schools," was passed January 22, 1821. This law 
authorized the division of townships into school districts, the election in each dis- 
trict of a school committee consisting of three resident householders, and the 
assessinent of a school district tax, not for the maintenance of a free public school, but 
only "for the purpose of erecting a school house," and of "making up the deficiency 

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■ T'^.wJjA.'a 111 A 


that might accrue by the schooling of children whose parents or guardians wer® 
unable to pay for the same." The law was entirely inadequate to provide good 
schools, but it is of historical interest as the first statutory provision of the State for 
local taxation for school purposes. 

The law of February 6, 182n, being an act to provide for the support and 
better regulation of common schools, required county commissioners to levy and 
assess onehalf of a mill upon the dollar to be appropriated for the use of common 

8/ History of the City of Columbus. 

schools in their respective counties "for the instruction of youth of every class and 
grade, without distinction, in reading, writing, arithmetic and other necessary 
branches of a common education." This law made it the dutj^ of the County 
Auditor to open an account in a book to be kept by him for that purpose, with eacli 
township, in which the several townships should be credited with the amount col- 
lected on their duplicates for the use of schools. The]amount so collected in each town- 
ship was required to remain in the county treasuiy for the use of the schools, and it 
was made the duty of the trustees of each township to lay off the same into districts, 
the numbers and descriptions of which were to be communicated in writing to the 
clerk of each township, who was required to record the same. The law further 
provides that 

The trustees shall take or cause to be taken an enumeration in writing of all the house- 
holders residing in the district, and the clerk shall record the same ami deliver to the County 
Auditor the number and descrijition of each school district and also the list or enumeration 
of the householders residing in each, and all alterations which shall from time to time be 
made. Onethird of all the householders of a district assembled in pursuance of due notice shall 
constitute a legal meeting for the transaction of business ; they shall elect three school 
directors to manage the concerns of said district, and have power to designate and determine 
upon the site of a schoolhouse and to provide the means of building the same and to provide 
the necessary funds for organizing a school. It shall be the duty of said school directors to 
employ a teacher and also to receive and faithfully expend all funds, subscriptions, donations 
or dividends of school funds. The Court of Common Pleas of each county shall appoint 
annually three suitable persons to be called examiners of common schools, whose duty it 
shall be to examine every person wishing to be employed as a teacher, and if they find such 
person qualified and of good moral character, to give a certificate to that effect. No person 
shall be allowed to teach any district school or recover at law any wages for teaching 
until such person be examined and receive a certificate of approbation. The township 
trustees shall pay over to the school directors of the several school districts a dividend of all 
rents or moneys received on account of section sixteen for the use of schools, or other 
lands in lieu thereof, in proportion to the number of families in each district. School 
directors shall pay the wages of the teachers employed out of any money which shall come 
into their hands from the revenues arising from donations made by Congress for the support 
of schools or otherwise so far as such money shall be sufiicient for the purpose, and for the 
residue of the wages of any such teacher the school directors shall give him a certificate stat- 
ing the length of service and the balance due him on account of wages thereof. . . . 

This law, from the pen of Nathan Guilford, Senator from Hamilton County,, 
was the first adequate legislative provision for the establishment of free coinmonl 
schools. For its enactment great credit is due to the commission appointed by 
Governor Allen Trimble in 1822 to devise and report upon a common school 
system. This commission consisted of Caleb Atwater, Chairman ; Eev. James 
Hoge, Rev. John Collins, Nathan Guilford, Ephraim Cutler, Josiah Barber and 
J. M. Bell. In 1827 a supplementary act was passed which crcatc<l the office of 
school district treasurer and <letincd his duties; authorized the school directors of 
each district to levy a special tax of not more than Lhi'ec hundrbd dollars for 
building or repairing a schoolhouse, provided threefifths of the householders 
assented ; appropriated certain fines for the use of schools, and authorized an 
increase of the number of school examiners to the number of townships in the 
respective counties. An act of January 27, 1827, authoi-izcd the sale of the school 

The Schools. I. y 

lands and established a school fund consisting of the proceeds from the sale of the 
salt lands and such donations, legacies and devises as might be made to the fund, 
the interest thereof to be annually funded for five years and distributed to the 
counties in proportion to the number of free male inhabitants in each above the 
age of twentyone. On February 10, 1829, an amendatory act was passed raising 
the rate of school taxation to threefourtlis of a mill, giving minute directions for 
holding district meetings and defining the powers of school officers. Failure of 
townships to form disti-icts and organize schools within three years forfeited 
school funds. Black and mulatto persons were not permitted to attend the public 
schools, but all taxes assessed on their property for school purposes were to be 
appropriated by township trustees " for the education of such persons and for no 
other purpose whatever." In 1831 the maximum school tax per district in any 
one year might not exceed $200 ; in 1836 it was again placed at $300 ; two years 
later all limitation of the amount was removed. The law of 1834 made it the 
duty of every person sending a child to school to provide his just proportion of 
fuel, but no child could be excluded from school on account of the delinquency of 
its parents in this respect. In 1827 each householder was required to pay a school 
tax of not less than one dollar, which he might discharge by performing two days' 
labor in building a schoolhouse. This tax was lessened subsequently, and in 1838 
was omitted entirely. In 1831 the country commissioners were given discretion to 
add onefourth of a mill to the existing rate of taxation for school purposes. In 
1834 the law was reenacted with amendments and the rate of taxation was raised 
to one mill, to which the county commissioners were authorized to add half a mill 
at their option. In 1836 the rate of school taxation was raised to one mill and a 
half with an additional half mill at the option of the commissioners. 

In 1836 Congress directed the surplus revenue of the National Government to 
be deposited with the several States in proportion to the number of their Senators 
and Representatives. Ohio's share was a little over two million dollars, and by act 
of the General Assembly passed in 1837 this fund was distributed to the several 
counties in proportion to their population, the interest on onetwentieth of it to be 
appropriated for the support of schools. For several years the income from this 
source was one hundred thousand dollars per annum. In March, 1837, the office 
of State Superintendent of Common Schools was created and Samuel Lewis was 
elected to the position. Under the able supervision of Mr. Lewis great progress 
was made in developing the common school system of Ohio. In March, 1838, the 
school laws were thoroughly revised, new features were added to them and new 
life was imparted to the entire system by a more liberal provision for its supjiort, 
especially by the establishment of a State common school fund of $200,000 " to be 
distributed annually among the several counties according to the number of 
youth therein." An additional fund to be raised in each county by a county tax 
of two mills per dollar was authorized. By this law school directors in districts 
consisting of incorporated towns or cities, and township clerks acting as township 
superintendents of common schools, were dix-ected to make an estimate of the 
money required additional to the distributable fund " to provide at least six 
months' good schooling to all the unmarried white youth of the district 

10 History of the City of Columbus. 

during the year ensuing;" the question of levying a tax to raise this sum to be 
submitted to the voters of the district or township. Provision was made for 
instruction in English grammar and geography when requested by three or more 
householders. Every incorporated town or city was made a separate district with 
power to create subdistricts and assess taxes for building schoolhouses. In 1839 
provision was made authorizing any district to borrow money to purchase a lot 
and erect a schoolhouse thereon, and the directors were authorized to levy a tax 
for such purpose and also for renting rooms for school purposes when necessar}'. 
The county commissioners were authorized to reduce the county school levy to one 
mill and directors of town districts were required to provide evening schools for the 
instruction of young men and boys over twelve years of age whose occupation 
might prevent their attendance at the day schools. The directors were also 
authorized to determine what branches and languages might be taught provided 
they were such as were " generally taught in common schools." They might 
employ German teachers when the patronage of such as spoke that language was 
sufficient. Since 1853 boards of education have been authorized to provide German 
schools for such youth as may desire to study the German and English languages 

On February 3, 1845, the General Assembly passed an act "for the support 
and better regulation of the common schools in the City of Columbus," which pro- 
vided for election in the spring of 1845 of six directors of common schools, two of. 
whom should serve for one year, two for two years and two for three years, the 
order of seniority to be determined by lot, but after the first election two directors 
to be chosen annually for the term of three years. The directors elected in pursu- 
ance of this statute were declared to be "a body politic and corporate in law by 
the name of the Board of Education of the town of Columbus." The law provided 
that this board should employ teachers, establish rules for school government, keep 
the schools in constant operation except during seasonable vacations, and, should 
the public money be found insufficient for the support of the schools, provide for the 
deficiency by levying a tax at the end of each term on the parents and guardians 
of the scholars, provided that exemption from this tax should be made of such per- 
sons as might be unable to pay. The law further directed that a vote should be 
taken on the question of levying a tax for the erection of schoolhouses under su- 
pervision of the Board of Education, all legal title to property acquired under the 
act to be in the name of the town of Columbus. It provided also for the enumera- 
tion of all youth in the town between the ages of four and twentyone, and author- 
ized the City Council to appoint three school examinei's whose duty it should be to 
examine applicants for positions as teachers and to grant certificates to those found 
qualified. " The examiners," pursues the law, "shall visit the schools, observe the 
discipline, mode of instruction and progress of the scholars, and semiannually 
report their proceedings and suggestions to the Council and to the Board of Edu- 
cation. Annually, at such time as the board may appoint, public examination of 
all scholars shall be had under the direction of the Mayor, the Board of Education 
and the Examiners." Under the provisions of this law the Board of Education 
of Columbus maintained schools of two grades in 1845 and 184G, and in January, 

The Schools. I. 


1847, elected a suiicriiiteudeut of public hcIiooIh Jind organized primary, aecondary, 
grammar and hiijh schools. 

Tlie Akron school law passed February 8, 1847, is, with the exception of five 
sections, a verbatim copy of this law, but the new sections of the Akron law con- 
stituted its distinctive features, since they provided for establishing a central gram- 
mar school and primary school. The Columbus law, as amended February IG, 
1849, authorized the Board of Education to establish " schools of such grades as 
they may deem most for the public interest, employ such officers and teachers as 
they ma}' deem expedient, make all necessary rules and regulations therefor, 


determine the age at which scholars may be admitted into such schools and the 
period for each grade and prescribe terms for nonresidents," and also, in lieu of 
the levy made on parents and guardians to supply deficiencies in school funds, to 
levy an additional tax of not more than one mill and a half per dollar on the tax 
valuation of city property. The County Treasurer was required to pay to the 
Treasurer of the Board of Education all school funds collected for the use of the 
city. A tax for sites could be ordered only by vote of the electors. This act sub- 
stituted in the law to which it was an amendment the word city for " town " and 
public school for "common school." The city, whatever its corporate limits might 
be, constituted but one school district. A further amendment passed March 21, 


1851, authorized the Board of Education to enlarge scliool buildings, purchase new 
sites, erect new buildings as they might be needed, provide school furniture and 
apparatus and lev}- an additional tax of not more than three mills per dollar of 
tax valuation for school purposes. On March 25, 1864, the law was so amended as 
to provide that "the qualified voters shall, on the second Monday of April, 1864, 
meet in their respective wards and elect one member of the Board of Education 
for each of said Avards who shall serve for the odd wards one year and for the even 
wards two years," the term of service thenceforth to be two years and vacancies to 
be filled by the City Council with the consent of the board. An amendment of 
April 11, 1865, authorized the Board of Education and the County Auditor to levy 
such amount as might be needed in addition to the State school fund for defraying 
the expenses of the public schools of the city, provided such sum should not in any 
one year exceed five mills, or after 1868 four mills, per dollar. By a supplemen- 
tary act of April 16, 1867, the Treasurer of Franklin Countj^ was made ex officio 
treasurer of the Board of Education. A special act of April 12, 1870, authorized 
the board to borrow money and issue bonds to the amount of fifty thousand dollars 
for the erection of the Sullivantand Central German school building. An act of April 
3, 1871, authorized the board to borrow seventyfive thousand dollars for building pur- 
poses, twentyfive thousand to be expended in building and furnishing a schoolhouse 
for colored children, twenty thousand for building and furnishing the Fieser School- 
house in Middletown on the West Side, and thirty thousand for finishing and 
furnishing the two buildings which had been partially constructed the year 

By act of February 24, 1848, boards of education in cities were authorized to 
establish separate school districts for colored persons, within which the colored 
taxpayers might choose their own directors and their own property was alone 
chargeable for the support of such schools. An act of March 14, 1853, authorized 
and required boards of education to establish separate schools for colored children 
when the enumeration of colored youth exceeded thirt}', which number was 
changed to twenty by an amendment of 1864. These laws relating to schools for 
colored youth were not repealed by the codification of 1873. In 1874 colored 
youth were admitted to the Central High School, and in 1882 the color line was 
entirely obliterated from the public schools of the city. In this, as in several other 
instances, Columbus is distinguished for moving in advance of the general educa- 
tional progress of the State. 

The general school law of March 14, 1853, devoted onetenth of a mill ])er dol- 
lar of tax valuation as an annual fund for providing school libraries and apparatus 
for all the common schools of the State. The books provided under this law 
formed the nucleus of a school library for each school in the State. This levy 
has been maintained by all subsequent legislation, and additional provision has 
been made for the appointment of librarians and the regulation of school libraries. 

A law of May 1, 1873, entitled "an act for the reorganization and mainte- 
nance of common schools "' was a codification, producing, to some extent, uniformity 
in school organization throughout the State, and rendering local school legislation 

The Schools. I. 23 

unnocesHury. With ;i lew supplemental and amendatory acts it constitutes the body 
of school laws embraced in the Eevised Statutes of 1880. 

Section 4023 of the Eevised Statutes provided that every child between the 
ages of eight and fourteen should be sent to a common school at least twelve 
weeks per year unless excused for legal cause. It also prohibited manufacturers 
and other persons from employing children under fourteen j^ears of age during 
established school hours, and made it the duty of boards of education to ascertain 
the condition of all children under fourteen years of age, within their jurisdiction, 
who v/ere not in attendance at any common or private school, and to report all 
infringements of this law for prosecution and punishment, the penalty being a fine 
of from five to ten dollars for each offense. The present statute applicable to this 
subject was passed April 15, 1889, and requires all parents, guardians and other 
persons having the care of children to instruct them or cause them to be instructed 
in spelling, reading, writing, English grammar, geography and arithmetic, and 
requires that such children between the ages of eight and fourteen shall be sent to 
some public or private school not less than twenty weeks per annum in city dis^ 
tricts under penalty of from five to twenty dollars for each violation of this provi- 
sion. The law further provides that all children between seven and fourteen years 
of age who ai'e habitual truants from school, or vicious or immoral in conduct, and 
all minors between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who cannot read and write the 
English language, who absent themselves from school and habitually wander about 
the streets and public places during school hours, shall be deemed juvenile disorderly 
persons, and subject to a sentence to some juvenile reformatory or count}' chil- 
dren's home. Boards of education in cities of the first and second class are required 
to employ a truant officer to assist in the enforcement of this act, said officer to be 
vested witli police powers and authorized to enter factories, workshops, stores and 
other places where children m&j be employed, and perform such other service as 
the superintendent of schools or the board of education may deem necessary for 
preservation of the morals and good conduct of school children. 

An act passed April 14, 1888, requires that the nature of alcoholic di'inks, and 
of narcotics, together with their effects on the human system, shall be included 
in the branches regularly taught in the common schools. 

Since 1825 teachers have been required to obtain certificates of qualification 
from some properly constituted board of examiners. A law of 1831 required that 
no certificate should be given to any teacher unless he should be found qualified 
to teach reading, writing and arithmetic. A later statute passed in 1853 required 
that every teacher should be qualified to teach orthography, reading, writing, 
arithmetic, geography and English grammar. The present law additionally 
requires that the teacher shall be qualified to give instruction in United States 
history, physiology, the nature and effect of alcohol and narcotics, and, in city dis- 
tricts, in still other branches, and shall be versed in the theory and practice of 
teaching. A law of 1864, now in force, provides for a State board of examiners 
who are authorized to issue State certificates of high qualification to such teachers 
as may be found upon examination to possess requisite scholarship and who may 
also exhibit satisfactorj' evidence of good moral character and of eminent profes- 

j^ IfisToKV (»F TiiK City of Columbus. 

sional experience and ability. Such certificates, countersigned by tiie State School 
Commissioner, supersede the necessity of any other examination, and are valid 
throughout the State during the life of the holder. 

For the purpose of affoi-ding the advantages of free education to all the youth of 
the State, Section 3951 of the Revise<l Statutes, as amended March 20, 1S91, jiro- 
vides that there shall be annually levied a State tax the proceeds of which shall 
constitute a State common school fund, and that, for the purposes of higher agri- 
cultural and industrial education, including manual training, there shall be levied 
and collected a State tax which shall constitute the Ohio State University fund. 
The General Assembly is expected to designate the rates of levy for these funds 
once in two years, but in case it fails to do so the rates are fixed at one mill for the 
common school fund, and one twentieth of one mill for the university fund, u])on 
each dollar of taxable valuation. 

From 1825 to 1853 the legal school age was from four to twentyone years; 
from 1853 to 1873 from five to twentyone; from 1873 until now it lias been from 
six to twentyone years of age. Since the law of 1873 was passed the enumeration 
has been taken under oath, but the laws of Ohio have never expressly excluded 
from school either ehildi-en under school age or adults over it. Jn 1834 provision 
was made for the admission of adults to the common schools on payment of tuition. 
In Columbus it is customaiy to admit to the evening schools all adults who apply 
for admission. The public schools are free to all youth between six and twentyone 
years of age who are residents of the district, and no pupil can be suspended from 
school except for such time as may be necessary to convene the board of education 
of the district, nor can any pupil be expelled except by a vote of twothirds of such 
board, and then not until the parent or guardian of the offending pupil shall have 
been notified of the proposed expulsion and permitted to be heard against the 
same. In any case expulsion can be made only for the current term. 

An act repealing some previous legislation on the same subject was passed 
March 4, 1891, creating a State Schoolbook Board, to be composed of the 
Governor, State Commissioner of Common Schools and the Secretary of State, and 
providing for snp])lying the schools of Ohio with good and sufficient schoolbooks 
at the lowest jn-ices at which such books could be furnished. This board was 
required to fix the maximum price at which said textbooks were to be sold and 
purchased by boards of education, the ])rice so fixed not to exceed seventyfive per 
cent, of the wholesale price. It further provided that if, in the opinion of said 
Schoolbook Board the proposals of publishers for supplying textbooks should not 
well and sufficientl}- supply the public schools of the State with good schoolbooks 
equal to the demand and best interests thereof, it should be the dut}^ of the Board 
to jirocure texts for a series of Ohio Schoolbooks, and to contract with persons 
qualified to compile such texts to be used in the production of a com])lete sot of 
books to be known as the Ohio Series of Schoolbooks. Under the operation of 
this law the prices of schoolbooks have been greati}' reduced, resulting in a 
saving to the city of hundreds of dollars annually. 

The Private Schools. — The pioneers who, in the autumn of 1797, j)lanted the 
settlement on the west bank of the Scioto beside which our hi'autiful city has 

The Schools. I. j. 

grown, were men and women of intelligence who brought witli them enlightened 
vicwH on tlio subject of education. They evidently regarded the hcIiooI 
and the church as indispensable lo the pros|)erity and happiness of their 
new community. The private schools and academies of a litlle later date could 
ordy have been the outgrowth of such inlelligence and enlightened sentiment. 
The early settlers encouraged private schools and instruction. Some of them who 
had witnessed the practical operation of public schools in the New Kngland States 
cluiished the hope that free schools iiiight in the course of time be organized here 
also; meanwhile they joined hands with their neighbors in establishing, with 
weslern promptness, private schools for their children. " They lost no time after 
securing bodily shelter in providing, first, places — though never so rude- of 
Divine worship for their families; and second, of educational training for their 
youth." The schools were supported usually by tuition fees, the teacher agreeing 
with a number of families that for a fee of one, two or three dollars for each child 
insti-iicted he would teach school a certain lenglh of time. 

The character of the early inhabitants is sufficient assurance that the scho(ds 
were not neglected. Lucas Sullivant, the founder of Franklinton, took a deep 
interest in education. Jeremiah Armstrong, John Brickell, Jacob Overdier, 
Jose|)h Foos, Arthur O'llarra, Lyne Starling, George Skidmore, Jacob Grubb, 
]iobert llussell and James Hoge were all intelligent |)ublicspirited men, who hehl 
education to be of prime importance. The names of several of them are insepar- 
ably connected with the history of the schools during subsequent years. The 
primitive schoolmaster, it is said, was a "consequential individual," generally 
" morose and forbidding in manner; who with goads and switches in view of the 
scholars," ruled his school with an imperious air; that he usually had a local rei>n- 
tation as an astronomer, mathematician or almanac-maker; that he believed in 
witches and ghosts, a belief which he took special pains to communicate to his 
scholars; that he was looked upon as a prodigy of knowledge and a village oracle, 
"the indispensable terror of school youth;" that in general he was a scholar 
according to the books; a stickler in spelling and arithmetic, but knew little or 
nothing about hunmn nature; not unfrequently ])rofessing to know a great deal 
about dead languages but having really little knowledge of the living ones. Some 
of the |)ioneer teachers of Franklinton and Col undjus possessed their full share of 
these characteristics, but most of them were well qualified and successful. A few 
made teaching their life work, while many exchanged it for other callings and 
became leading citizens of the community. 

At a very early date, not exactly known, Ijucas Sullivant built a roundlog 
schoolhouse which was about fifteen or sixteen feet square with puncheon floor, 
I'ough slab benches su])p()rted at either end by a pair of hickory pins inserted into 
auger holes ; battened doors with wooden hinges and latch raised from its notch 
with a string; a clapboard roof with weight poles, and a fireplace and stick 
chimney. It is probable that this village scholhouse of early times, like its suc- 
cessors of later years, had greased white paper for window light in winter and 
o|)en windows in summer. This building was located about a square and a half 
north of the Old Courthouse west of Washington (now Sandusky) Street, and was 


Htstoky ok the City of Columbus. 

probably built before or about the year 180G. It is the first school building in 
the Franklinton settlement of which we have any recood. 

Many persons still living remember this primitive schoolhouse. At tirst it 
was warmed by means of a large " fireplace," but later by a stove. Joseph Sulli- 
vant said his first acquaintance with school life began in this " cabin with its slabs 
for seats polished by use, and big chimney with downward drafts, with fleas inside 
and hogs under the floor, no grammar, no geography, but a teacher who ruled 
with a rod." Miss Sarah Reed, afterwards long and favorably known as an 
instructor and Christian worker, was one of its early teachers. She is said to have 




assisted Doctoi- Ilogc in organizing the fii'st Sundayschool of the town. Miss 
Mary Wait, whose ])arents came to Franklinton in 1803, taugiit scliool tliere at a 
very early date. It is probable that Misses Keed and Wait both taught in this 
primitive schoolhouse. The following article of agreement between one of the early 
teachers who afterwards became prominent in Columbus, and the patron of his 
school, is an extract from the diary of Joel Buttles, whose parents settled in Worth- 
ington in 1804: 

These presents witnesseth : That, on condition that Joel Buttles shall attend duly live 
days in one week and six days in the otiier, alternately, and six hours in each day for the 
space of three months and teach roadint;, writing;- and arithmetic according to the hest of his 
knowledge, we the suLscribers promise and oblige ourselves to pay said Joel Buttles at the 
expiration of said term of three months, each for lumself, one dollar and sixtytwo and a half 

The Schools. I. 27 

cents for each scholar we may respectively subscribe, and shouUl some unavoidable or unfor- 
seen accident hinder said Buttles from attendinu; the whole of said term, we obligate our- 
selves to pay said Buttles in a due proportion for the time he may attend. And likewise the 
subscribers are to bear each his just proportion in boarding said Buttles, and to furnish a con- 
venient schoolhouse together with a sufficient quantity of firewood so that school may com- 
mence the first daj' of January next. In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hand 
and seal this 14th day of December, ISOS. Name of subscriber : Robert Molean, two 
pupils; Michael Rareden, three ; Charles Warde, one and onehalf; Philip Woollet, one; 
Alexander Dennixon, two ; Philip Hare, one; William Hamilton, one. 

This school was probably located in or near Worthington. The following 
notice appeared in the FreeiiuDis Chronicle of Februar}^ 4, 1810 : 

J school II I aster wanted. — A man well qualified as a teacher for young scholars, and can be 
well recommended by respectable characters to be trustworthy and exemplary in that 
emj)]oyment will, on application to the editor, be furnished with proposals from a few 
individuals of good standing wherein the necessary encouragement will be given by them to 
a teacher as aforesaid to take charge of a school in Franklinton. 

In the Chronicle of February 25, same year, this notice appeared : 

A schoolmaster wanted. — A person possessing a good moral character and the necessary 
qualifications for a teacher of a school of young scholars will meet with employment on 
application to Lucas Sullivan t. 

It is thus evident that the pioneers took an active interest in providing school 
advantages for their children. The leading men of the town were endeavoring to 
secure good teachers. They wanted teachers "well qualified, trustworthy and 
exemplary in that employment." Peleg Sisson, afterwards a prominent physician 
of Columbus, taught school in Franklinton in the log schoolhouse just described, 
"boarding around" a week at a time with the patrons of his school. The follow- 
ing is an extract from a letter written by Mrs. Judge Price, ncV McDowell, now of 
Hillsborough, Ohio: 

In 1816 Doctor Sisson had a school in Franklinton which I attended. It was a log 
schoolhouse built, I think, for that purpose, the only furniture being benches made of slabs of 
wood with legs in them. My uncle, Lucas SuUivant, had it built. As no one in those early 
days took boarders, Doctor Sisson made his home for a week at a time among his different 
pupils, with the rich and poor alike. The only two pupils I remember who attended this 
school were my cousin, the late Joseph Sullivant, and Mr. Elijah Backus, now of Toledo. Il 
was a good school, for Doctor Sisson was a man of high character. I was studying the 
elementary branches and do not know what else was taught. 

At a very early day William Lusk, an Irish schoolmaster who came here from 
Massachusetts, settled in Franklinton and taught a common subscription school. In 
1817 he began the publication of an alamnac entitled the Ohio Register cuuJ Western 
Calendar^ a pamphlet of aboutsixty or seventy pages which he published annually for 
about thirtyfive years. In 1818 or 1819 Mr. Lusk established an academy. In his 
almanac of 1821 he said: "There are in Franklinton a common school and an 
academy; in the latter are taught English Grammar, geography, bookkeeping, 
(double and single entry), mensuration, geometry, trigonometry, (plane and 
spherical), surveying, navigation, algebra, and astronomy." 

18 History of the City of Columbus. 

First Schools East of the River. — In 1814 a school was o})encd in the log Pres- 
byterian Church on Spring Street. In Zion Cha])el, which was a hewed log house 
built in 1815 on the present site of the Public School Library building on Town 
Street, William T. Martin conducted a school in 1816-17. lie taught the advanced 
scholars and his wife the younger ones. One of his pupils, Elijah Glover, speaks in 
the highest terms of Mr. Martin as a teacher and says that he cannot recollect an 
instance of any chastisement in any form in this school during the time of his 
attendance. Joseph Olds, who afterwards became a prominent lawyci-, taught 
school in a building on Broad Street, subsequently known as the Broadway Hotel. 
While teaching, he prepared a manual on astromomy. About this time Uriah 
Case and John Peo])le8 were also engaged as teachers. 

The first classical school in Columbus was opened in 1817, in the west room of 
a frame building on the northwest corner of Town and High streets, where the 
United States Hotel now stands. Its first teacher was a Mr. Butler, who conducted 
it for two years, and was succeeded by Doctor P. Sisson who had moved his school 
from Franklinton to a room in the Pike Tavern, which room he abandoned to take 
charge of the classical school, which contained several quite advanced students, 
"thus justifying its enrollment in the list of early seminaries of the State.' From 
the Pike Tavern, says Mrs. Price, above quoted, " Doctor Sisson removed to a build- 
ing which stood on the present site of the United States Hotel and which, I think, 
was built by subscription for a schoolhouse. This was Doctor Sissons largest 
school, and I think he had an assistant. He had previously taught both boys and 
girls, but now his school consisted of boys alone. About this time Mrs. Smith, wife 
of the editor and proprietor of one of the papers published in Columbus, o])ened a 
school for girls only on Front Street near the old Presbyterian Church. She 
had twelve or fifteen pupils. In addition to the instruction in the different branches 
of learning, we were taught to embroider samples, and had lessons in needlework 
on satin and painting in water colors. She [Mrs. Smith] was a refined, intelligent 
and cultivated woman. " Rudolphus Dickinson taught the languages to a class of 
boys in a frame house on Front Street, not far in rear of the Neil House. The 
Exj)lanatory Monitor, a schoolbook, was published in Columbus in 1818. Samuel 
Bigger, afterwards an able lawyer and Governor of Indiana, and Daniel Bigelow, 
were among the early teachers. 

During the settlement period the number of schools was sufficient to accom- 
modate all who desired to attend. "There was not," says Hon. J. R. Osborn, " as early 
as 1817 the same demand for schools that would be found perhaps in similar-sized 
villages of the present day, and in the absence of a general law for the maintenance 
of schools ])ublic sentiment was not sufficiently advanced to ])ermit an assessment 
for the education of all the children of the community." The advantages of general 
education were not then regarded as indispensable to the welfare of the State, yet 
it was sufficiently esteemed to secure to this isolated community fair school 
o))portunities at moderate cost. When it is remembered that in 1817 there were less 
than two hundred dwellings in Columbus and about seventy in Franklinton, it will 
be perceived that this community was fairly provided with schools and with 
excellent teachers, for a pioneer settlement. 

The Schools. I. ■l^ 

From 1820 to 1830 the number of private schools increased from about four to 
eio-bt or ten, all grades included. From that time the private schools for small 
scholars diminished in number until 1845, by which time nearly all of them were 
discontinued. John Kilbourne's Ohio Gazetterr for 1826 says: "Columbus con- 
tains four or five English schools and a Classical Seminary," there being " two 
hundred dwellings and fourteen hundred inhabitants." Near the close of that 
year the first public school was established, and with the gradual growth of the 
public school system the private school pupils, especially the younger ones, were 
drawn to it. Nevertheless, many primary pay schools were maintained, while 
instruction in the higher branches was left almost wholly to the private schools, 
which, under the names of academies, seminaries, classical schools and institutes, 
prospered until the introduction of the graded public school system. The number 
and character of the schools indicates a strong sentiment in favor of education. 
Persons who took " bound ' children to rear were required to send them to school 
at least one quarter in each year and " to teach them reading, writing and the 
three rules of arithmetic." The term of school usually lasted three months but 
some of the schools were kept in almost continuous operation. Until the advent 
of the common school system the primary schools in which the rudimentary 
branches were taught bore the name of "common," and the academies and 
seminaries received the more advanced pupils. The terms "subscription" and 
"pay," as applied to schools, came into use to distinguish the private ones from 
those which were public or free. Many schools designated as academies and 
seminaries were simply subscription schools into which pupils of all ages were 
admitted, and in which little else than the common branches was taught, while 
others contained classes of advanced scholars and merited the names applied to 

On December 1, 1820, John Shields, a Newlight preacher, afterwards a justice 
of the peace, opened a school called the New Academy, in the second story of the 
old markethouse, a single room being used both for schools and for church 
purposes and another for a printing office. Mr. Butler, already mentioned, and 
others, also taught in this building. In 1820 Miss Sarah Eeed taught a school on 
the east side of High Street near Broad ; the same lady afterwards taught a 
" Female Seminary " in a frame house on the west side of High Street north of 
Main. Among the textbooks used were Murray's Grammar and Morris's Geog- 
raphy. There being but two copies of the geography in the schools, the scholars 
learned their lessons from them by turns. Drawing and painting were taught in 
a rudimentary way. 

The Columbus Academy. — In 1820 Lucas Sullivant and about twenty other 
citizens organized a school company and built what was known as the Columbus 
Academy, a singlestory tworoom fi-ame building near the site of the present Second 
Presbytei-ian Church on Third Street. Its furniture was of primitive style — 
" desks built around the room where scholars could conveniently sit with backs to 
their teacher, while their eyes, unobserved, might look out at the open windows or 
else be employed with pocketknives upon the smooth surface of the desk." This 
building stood away out in the commons "among the pawpaw bushes, with but 

20 History of the City of Oolumbiis. 

three otlier houses in the vicinity." The Academy was opened tor the reception 
of students, having as its first teacher, Aaron G. Brown, a graduate of the Ohio 
University, who was "a gentle and kind man, a good scholar and a good teacher." 
One of his pupils refers to him as kind, good, patient Mr. Brown. He was after- 
wards a professor in his alma mater and still later became a noted lawyer. His 
successor as teacher was Cyrus Parker, a man of education and high character, 
who taught in the Academy for a number of years, usually in the north room 
after it was removed to Front Street. Moral suasion was not an element of 
school management with him. Although he had a partially withered right hand, 
he excelled all the other teachers of the town in the administration of corporal 
punishment. His frequent and immoderate use of the whip sometimes trans- 
cended even the tolerance of that age of physical force and heroic living. During 
the winter months Parker also taught an evening school. At the close of each 
term, certificates of diligence and good behavior were given to the scholars who 
merited them. Besides the common branches, geometry and astronomy were 
taught. The textbooks were Webster's Spellingbook, Murray's English 
Grammar, and Pike's and Daball's arithmetics. Among the pupils during the 
first two or three years after the school Avas opened were J. Sullivant, W. A. Piatt, 
John Overdier, Daniel Overdier, Margaret Livingston, J. R. Osborn, Robert and 
John Armsti'ong, Henry Mills, Keys Barr, Margaret Hoge (afterwards Mrs. Judge 
Baldwin), Elizabeth Hoge and Rev. Moses Hoge. The Academy was several 
times removed ; about 1826 it was taken to the southwest corner of Sugar (Chapel) 
Alley on Fourth Street, the latter being then the eastern limit of the town, beyond 
which were cowpastures and cornfields. In close proximity to this location was 
a large pond which occupied the territory on which now stands the Central 
Markethouse. At a later date William Lusk, the almanac-maker, in good nature 
and with lax discipline, taught a crowded school, composed usually of boys, in one 
room of this building. Often, as he took his afternoon nap, the boys would steal 
away to skate on the pond or to enjoy their games of " two and fourhole cat " and 
" round the stake. " After the nap was completed, a wave of the teacher's old 
umbrella or at most a short trip down to the pond brought back the troop of boys 
who, after mild reprimand, returned to their studies. Mr. Lusk also taught in 
other ])arts of the city. He is said to have been well educated an<l at first efficient 
and popular, but in later life he became intemperate. " Old Billy Lusk," says one 
who knew him, was "a short stout man with a red face, a still redder nose and 
short grisly hair, who wore an old camlet cloak and carried an old umbrella with 
a brass ring about it." 

H. N, Hubbell, Andrew Williams and Moses Spurgeon also taught in this 
Academy. Most of the persons over sixty years of age, educated in the schools of 
Columbus, received instruction in this institution, which will always be an object 
of interest in the history of the city. Although the school, directors bought the 
Academy in 1827, it seems that members of the original company (whether at that 
time school directors or not does not appear) collected part, at least, of the rent 
for the use of the building, and Willi:im Lusk claimed to have bought nearly half 
of the shares from the original owners. Lusk says: " Two of the comj)anf rented 

The Schools. I. 


tlic building, the teachers paying only what would keep the house in repair for 
some time. After the disorganization of tlie company, the member wiio pur- 
chased the lot deeded it to the directors of the district iu which it was located." 
On July 16, 1SB{3, William Lusk ottered for sale an undivided onehalf of the lot 
on wliich the Academy stood. At an early date James Robinson taught school in 
a small brick building on the southeast corner of Wall and Broad streets. Sheep 
were then pastured on the commons around that building. In the fall of 1826, 
J. P. Smith, who afterward taught in the public schools, had charge of a school in 


the Academy and gave instruction in the "various branches of English learning;" 
— in orthography and reading at 02.50 per quarter; in writing and composition, 
arithmetic and the first rudiments of grammar and geography at $3.00 ; in 
geography and astronomy, chemistry, and natural and moral })hilosophy at $5.00. 
Mrs. Smith instructed young ladies in fine needlework, drawing and painting. 
"In 1824 or 1825 Miss Bigelow opened a school for girls in a double frame house 
next to the residence of Otis Crosby. The instruction was in reading, writing, 
arithmetic, and grammar, which latter study neither teacher nor pupil under- 

In 1820, J. M. C. Hazeltine, an able teacher, opened a school in a frame 
building on Main Street between Third and High. After teaching there for sev- 
eral years he built a frame schoolhouse, probably in 1832, on the east side of Third 
Street near Rieh, where he and others taught both jniblic and private schools. 

22, History of the City of Columbus. 

In 1838, he was accidentally drowned in tlie river at the foot of Rich Street. J. H. 
Godman taught in Fraidvlinton between 1820 and 1825 and Orange Davis con- 
ducted a school ahout the same time in a onestor}^ building on the south side of 
West Gay Street. Simultaneously with these, Stern Berryhill, James Kiggs, 
Cornelius Sharp and Huldah Bull were instructing the youth in the southern i)art 
of the city. Scth Smith, A. Montgomery and John Calvin were also teachers of 
that period. 

"A Female Academy," -conducted by Miss Anna Treat, formerly of the 
Worthington Academj-, and Miss Sarah Benfield, of Columbus, was opened in the 
Jarvis Pike pro})ertv on West Broad Street, in 1826. and was maintained for sev- 
eral years Reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and embroidery were among 
the branches taught. This was a well managed school. Maps are still extant 
which were drawn by a ten-year-old pupil of this school in 1827, and show good 
instruction. In 1829, an " English Classical and Scientific School " was opened by 
John Kilbourne in the Miller building (Buckeye House) on the north side of the 
Public Square. 

The Columbus Female Seminary was opened on the first Monda}- in 
December, 1829, under favorable auspices, with Rev. Joseph Labaree as Principal, 
and N. McLean, R. W. McCoy, J. M. Espy, Henry Brown and James Hoge as 
superintending committee. It occupied rooms in the second story of the McCoy 
building on High Street, opposite the Statehouse. Mr. Labaree was a refined 
and successful teacher who " i,-equired the scholars to get their lessons." The 
school contained two departments, one taught by the principal and the other by 
Miss Emily Richardson, a niece of Mrs. Labaree, assisted in 1829 and 1830 by Miss 
Margaret Livingston. Setting copies and making quill pens for the scholars was 
no small part of a teacher's duties in those days. Tlie studies were reading, writ- 
ing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, botany, Latin, and heathen mythology. Mr. 
Labaree taught at a later date in the Eight Buildings. The memory of Mrs. Am^^ 
Adams, a teacher of several years, is still cherished by those who received her 

In the basement of Trinity Church were kejit successively a Grammar School 
by J. W. Mattison, a Scotchman; an English and Classical School by J, O. Master- 
son ; a Select School, in 1837, by W. S. Wheaton ; a Classical School by George 
Cole; a "School in English Branches"' by Ezra Munson ; and an "Elementary 
School for Boys "by Dorance Mathews. Twent}- years later R. W. Thom))son, 
referring to this period, addressed these lines to General Irvin McDowell : 

When that old fence was built around 

The yard, you know, 
*T\vas there we played our schoolboy games 

Upon the lovely green, 
And hapj)ii'r hearts — some sikuit now — 

The world has never seen ; 
'Twas Wheatoii's school just over tlie way, 

Methinks I hear the bell, 
Thai called us from our spm fs and play,— 

Its riiijriri}' seemetl a kni'll. 

The Schools. I. 23 

For sever;il yeui-s a ycliool was l;ma;lit in a liewed log house on the southeast 
corner of'Spi-ing and High streets, near tlio banks of Doe Run, by Hugh Maxwell, 
who h'ved in the upper story of the same building. The same teacher taught in a 
small brick building which is still standing on the southeast corner of High and 
Gay sti-eets. J. O. Masterson taught in the Old Jail Building on Gay Street, and 
also on West Broad. One morning, just before dismissing his school, Mr. Master- 
son requested each of his scholars to write an essay — a very unusual request 

giving them as a subject, " never speak ill of the dead," and told them to bring 
their compositions next morning, which they did and learned that their teacher 
iiad been drowneil in the Scioto. Miss Molly McGowan taught in a building on 
High Sti-eet near McGowan's Run. Penelope Lazelle and othei-s taught in a 
small schoolhouse near the coi-ner of Third and Lazelle streets. George B. White- 
sides, who taught here about 1830, was very exacting about having the boys 
" make bows."" He is said to have governed without the aid of the whip. In 1830 
Rev. George Jeffries taught in a hewed log schoolhouse which he erected on the 
south side of Mound Street near Wall. The First Baptist Church, of which he was 
pastor, used the same building as a house of worship. The record shows that the 
congregation contributed $4 95 in money and two and threefourths daj's' work 
"toward fixing the sclioolhouse built by Elder Jeffries for the purpose of having 
meetings in." Several years later the Baptist Church building, which is still 
standing on Front Street, near Noble Alley, was used for. a Mrs. J. 
B. Ward, a refined English lad}*, taught a school for young children in afnme 
building yet standing on the southwest corner of Fourtli and Walnut. She after- 
wards conducted a Ladies' Seminary. 

During the cholera plague of 1833 the schools were suspended. In an auto- 
biography of Christian Spielman we find this passage: " The schools were closed 
and business was almost paralyzed. Our seminary was al>o closed for a number 
of months and the students returned to their homes. I desired to utilise tliese 
months in earning a little money. Through the aid ot Professor Schmidt I secured 
quite a number of jjupils in German, to whom I imparted instruction in the little 
frame church on Third Street, where, in after years, the Universalist Church was 
erected. At that time there were only six or seven German families in Columbus. 
A larger number of my pupils belonged to prominent American families among 
whom a lively interest had been awakened for the German. At last, in the height 
of the plague, I was also forced to close my school." 

The department of classical and general education of the Lutheran Theological 
Seminary was opened in 1831 under the superintendence of Rev. William Schmidt. 
For fifteen or twenty years instruction was given in the elementary branches to 
students preparing for the ordinary business of life as well as to those preparing 
for the advanced studies of the Seminary. Neither the teacher nor the students 
in this department were required to bear any special relation to the Lutheran sect. 
The school was conducted first in the basement of the Reformed Church which stood 
on the south side of Town Street; in 1849 and 1850 in the Covert Building on 
Town Street; and later in the University Buildir)g on South High Street. The 
literary department was afterwards undvr the dii-ection of C. K, Scliaeff>.r and 

24 History of the City of Columbus. 

Charles Juckseh, and special instinictioii was also given in the training of teachers. 
P. Pence, C. P. Schaeffer and S. Ileyl were the managing committee api)ointcd hy 
the Board of Directors. Throughout the early history of the city the basenientH 
and lecture rooms of the churches were very generally used for school purposes. 

In 18H8-9 a Higli School for Young Ladies was conducted in the lecture room of 
the First Presbyterian Church by Miss Mary A. Shaw, who had formerly tauglit in 
other parts of the city. Rev. J. Labaree conducted a school in this room sit one 
time, the pupils reciting French to Monsieur Gauthior. Abiel Foster and others 

TriE Schools. I. -25 

also taught school in this elim-ch at different times. The Wells sisters, Susannah, 
Ahbioand Anna, were identified with the schools of the city as prominent teachers 
for many years. They taught a Young Ladies' School in a rude building on 
High Street just north of the Doshler Block, and also in the Exchange Building. 

Among other schools of less note between 1830 and 1845 may be mentioned 
one on the corner of Front and Cherry, taught by Jacob Hare, subsequently 
founder of the Hare Orphans' Home; a " Ladies School for instruction in the vari- 
ous branches of a useful and polite education," by Miss E. Johnstone; a school for 
the study of French, Spanish and Italian, by Carlo de Haro ; a school in the base- 
ment of Mrs. E. Campbell's residence on Front Street by Mary B.Smith ; instruc- 
tion in music, singing, drawing, painting, French and Gl-erman by Edward 
Kersten, late from Paris; a school in Numher 5, ('ommercial Kow, by Samuel D. 
Pi-eston ; "an evening school for gentlemen in Greek, Latin, bookkeeping and 
Euclid, " by J. K. Hoffer; instruction in "common and higher branches, together with 
the French language, also drawing, painting and needlework, by Miss H. Shaw, 
tuition four to ten dollars per term;" school for young ladies and misses in the 
Exchange Building, over the store of Cashing & Warner; "boarding and day 
school for young ladies by Mrs. and Miss Heilson ; " a school by Doctor and Mrs. 
McCauly at their residence, Number 32 East Town Street ; a Female Seminary in 
Mrs. O. Parish's residence by the Misses De Bartholds ; the Columbus Female 
Seminary by B. Gonzales; a young gentlemen's select school in the Buttles Block, 
corner of High and Town, by J. S. Brown; and a school for instruction in survey- 
ing, engineering, drawing and mathematicsin the Exchange Building by Valentine 
Gill and others. We here perceive the great variety of this class of schools and of 
their location. There was no uniformity in their courses of study or textbooks. 
Many of them existed for onh^ a short time. 

A High School was opened June 18, 1832, by Hoi'ace Wilcox, in a building erected 
on State Street by Colonel Olmsted. It contained three departments, each having 
its appropriate studies and textbooks best adapted to the ages of the pu])ils and 
their capacity for improvement. Its managers endeavored to make its course of 
study and thoroughness of instruction compare favorably with those of the best 
contemporary institutions of its kind, but during the following winter it was dis- 
continued for want of a suitable building. In the ensuing spring it was reopened 
with some modification and in more commodious apartments. As reorganized it 
was styled the Columbus High School for Young Ladies. Horace S. Gillett was 
engaged as one of its assistant teachers. Adjacent to the building were five or six 
acres of land planted with shrubbery and fruit trees, and used as a playground. 
The school was subsequently removed to Town Street and is said to have been 
equipped with chemical and philo.«ophical apparatus. The tuition was three dol- 
lars in its primary, four dollars in its junior, and five dollars in its senior depart- 
ment, per quarter. 

In July, 1836, a Charity School was established under the patronage of a few 
ladies who became convinced of the necessity for it while engaged as almoners of 
the Female Benevolent Society. It was instrumental in doing much good. The 
ladies who founded it organized a society of representatives of all the Christian 

2o History of the City op Columbus. 

denominations of the city. The annual subscription fee was one dollar. At the 
time of the December meeting in 1837 seven hundred and fifty dollars had been 
raised and the school had been conducted five quarters at an expense of $287.55, 
on a lot in rear of Mrs. Parish's, which had been presented to the society by Alfred 
Kelley and on which a commodious brick schoolhouse was erected. Of ninetytwo 
children received, thirtynine were fatherless and several motherless. The average 
daily attendance had been thirtyfive and the average annual expense of each child 
less than 16.20. 

The colored people of Columbus have been active in their efforts to secure 
educational opportunities for their youth, and their school progress has been in 
advance of that of their people generally throughout the State. Prior to 1836 the 
colored people maintained a school in the southern part of the city, near Peters's 
Run. In that year they organized a school society with David Jenkins, B. 
Eoberts and C. Lewis as trustees. In the fall of 1839 they had sixty dollars in 
their treasury and a subscribed building fund of $225.00. The estimated cost for 
schoolhouse and lot was $700.00. M. M. Clark was their authorized agent to 
solicit subscriptions. Within the year ended August 31, 1840, a colored school with 
sixtythree scholars enrolled was maintained for six months. On September 7, 1840, 
the School Fund Association of the colored people of Ohio met in the Methodist 
Church, and received the cooperation of citizens of Columbus in promoting its objects. 
In spite of many discouragements the colored people secured fair school privileges for 
their children so far as possible to do so by their own efforts, and by prudent manage- 
ment prepared the way for the final withdrawal of the color line from the schools. 
In 1841 Alfred Kelley, John L. Gill and Peter Hayden, as a company, erected a 
building on the northeast corner of Oak and Fifth streets, and established a school 
therein which was successfully conducted for several yeai-s by Robert Barrett. 
The building is now used as a residence. 

On May 11, 1840, the Columbus Institute was opened under the direction of 
Abiel Foster and his sister, Miss Catherine Foster. It was begun in a new building 
on the corner of Rich and Front streets. Its course of instruction included reading, 
writing, composition, English grammar, geography, Latin, Grreek, mathematics 
and higher branches. It was graded at first into two departments, and was soon 
removed to the Eight Buildings, where a third department was opened under 
the care of Augusta Foster. In two rooms on the second floor girls were taught by 
the Misses Foster, while Mr. Foster taught the boys " down stairs." One of 
the tricks of mischievous boys in this and other schools of that day is said to have 
been that of throwing crackling hackberries on the floor and stairways, which 
startled the pu])ils as they walked over them and often prefaced the morning 
exercises with a fusillade. The Fosters were well educated and capable teachers. 
They introduced new methods of instruction and were quite successful. Special 
attention was given to good reading. 

The Columbus Literary and Scientific Institute, a school for advanced scholars, 
was opened November 2, 1840, in a private residence on Town Street, under the 
supervision of Rev. John Covert, formerly of Black River Institute at Watertown, 
New York, and Rev. Leicester A. Sawyer, from New liavo-u, Connecticut. A Female 

The Schools. I. ^^ 

SciiiiiKiiy under Mrs. S. S. Covert was attached to this institution, of which 
the general inunui^'enient was entrusted to a board of trustees the members of which 
were H. N. llubbell. President, Joseph llidgway, Junior, Vice President, J. R. 
Swan, D. VV. Deshler, Ermine Case, Peleg Sisson, Joiin Covert, Warren Jenkins, 
Ichabod G. Jones, William Cha])in, M. J. Gilbert and L. A. Sawyer. In the follow- 
ing year the name of the institution was changed to that of Columbus Academical 
and Collegiate Institute. On June 1, 1841, the corner-stone of a building for this 
Institute was l.iid. A twostor}' brick house of four rooms, ])leasantly situated on 


Town Street, in a '' retired part of the city " was erected. It is now the residence 
of Mrs. J. J. Person. The Institute was designed to partake of the nature of both 
an academy and a college, and consequently offered instruction in a great variety of 
studies. It was })rovided with chemical and ])hilosophical apparatus and a library 
of some hundreds of volumes. Rev. Leicester A. Sawyer was President ; Rev. John 
Covert Vice President ; R. S. Bosworth Professor of Chemistry ; and Mrs. S. S. Covert 
Principal of the Female Department. - The following j'ear Rev. J. Covert became 
Principal, and Robert Thompson, C. Runyan and W. B. Hubbai'd were added to the 

28 History of the City op Columbus. 

board of trustees. Miss Mjuy A. Shaw was afterwards employed as an assistant in 
the Female Department. T. C. Hunter was the teacher of vocal music, and 
R. S. Bosworth of mathematics, surveying and astronom3^ Mr, Bosworth had a 
telescope of considei'able power mounted upon a ])ile of rocks in the Statehouse 
yard for the use of his classes. The Institute was closed in 1846 or 1847. 

A Female Seminary, conducted by Mr. and Mrs. E. Schenck, the former a 
graduate of the United States Military Academy and the latter from Mrs. Wil- 
lard's Female Seminary of Troy, New York, was established in a new brick build- 
ing at the corner of Broad and High. It began on Monday, April 3, 1843. and 
continued until Mr. Schenck's death in 1848. In 1846, the trustees of this school 
w^ere J. E. Swan, Adams Stewart, O. Follett, Joel Buttles, N. H. Swayne, P. Sis- 
son, John Noble and John W. Andrews. 

' The Esther Institute was opened October 4, 1852, in a ])rivate residence on 
Eich Street, under the name of the Columbus Female Seminary, with Profe.ssor 
Charles Jlicksch, Profe.ssor T. G. Wormley, Miss Hermine A. P. Tctu, Samnia 
Schnedly, Mary W. Atcheson and G. Machold as the corps of teachers, and 
Christian He}^ as business manager. In 1853, the present Irving House, near the 
northwest corner of Fourth and Broad streets, was erected for this school, which 
was opened therein September 28, 1853, under the name of Esther Institute. Miss 
Agnes W. Beecher was principal and Miss Margaret A. Bailey was teacher of 
mathematics. Tlie Institute was closed in 1862, and its building was converted 
into a military hospital. Financially, it was not successful. 

Throughout the earlier history of the city many of its prominent families sent 
their children to the seminaries and colleges of other towns or cities; at the same 
time the schools of Columbus were also much patronized from abroad. Some of 
the disadvantages of the jjrivate schools were : 1. The unsuitable character of 
their apartments, which were usually adapted for other purposes and were insuflfi- 
ciently heated and ventilated. Of the seven private schools in operation in 1847, 
four were taught in basements and the remainder in a room space affording less 
than one hundred cubic feet of air per scholar. 2. The incompetency of many 
teachers and their transient character, which precluded the adoption of neces.sary 
means for testing their efficiency. 3. The want of uniformity in courses of study. 
In perhaps the majority of cases, in order to make up a school of sufficient num- 
bers, scholars were received without any reference to pi-evious attainments, and 
were allowed to pursue such studies as their own caprice or that of their parents 
dictated. Hence it was not uncommon to find scholars studying natural philoso- 
phy or astronomy who did not know the multiplication table; or studying botany, 
geology, or rhetoric without being able to spell the most common words or to 
read intelligibly a single paragraph in the English language. 4. Irregularity of 
attendance, wdiich was not infrequently encouraged by the practice of exacting 
j)ay only for the time of actual presence in the school. 5. The cost of tuition, in 
the better class of seminaries and higii schools, was so high as to prevent the 
great majority of those who attended them fi-om continuing long enough to secure 
anytliing like a thorough education. But the day of private schools was by this 

The Schools. I. 20 

time past. They liad served a good pui-pose, but a new and better systein had 
become established in the hearts of tlie people. 

Various societies have at different times been formed in the city for mutual 
education. Among these was the Columbus Lyceum, organized in October, 1831, 
under the personal direction of Josiah Holbrook, founder of the Boston Lyceum. 
Kev. James Hoge was its President; Hon. J. W. Campbell, Vice President; 
William Preston and Henry Espy its Secretaries; P. B. Wilcox its Treasurer; 
James Labaree and Messrs. Parker and Smith its Curators. The design of the 
Lyceum was " to procure for youths an economical and practical education, and to 
diffuse useful information throughout the community generally by means of 
essays, discussions and lectures.'' 

An-English and Classical School was begun by Misses L. M. Phelps and 
B. H. Hall in 1884 in the Arnold House on East Broad Street with seventeen 
pupils. During its second year it occupied more convenient apartments in the 
Eogers House, a few doors from its former location, and at the end of 
that year was removed to the Gwynne House, which is its present location, 
on East Broad Street. The school prospered from its inception, and in 1890 
the trustees of the estate erected the present handsome and commodious 
building which it now occupies on Fourth Street and which is admirably adapted 
to its needs. The rooms are large, well lighted and well ventilated, and accommo- 
dations are provided for both boarding and day pupils. The purpose of the 
school is to furnish the girls a liberal education while giving special attention to 
conduct and health. The school embraces four departments: The Kindergarten, 
Primary, Intermediate and Classical, the latter including the studies of the usual 
curriculum in higher institutions of learning. A well-selected librar}^ and suitable 
apparatus are among its equipments. The present teachers are : Miss L. M. 
Phelps, Mental and Moral Philosophy and Logic ; Miss B. H. Hall, Mathematics, 
History and Ehetoric; Miss Ellen Dewey, Drawing, Painting and Art Criticism; 

Miss Charlotte E. Parmele, Primary Department; Miss Elizabeth 

Kindergarten ; J. D. H. McKinley, Latin, Greek and Mathematics; Miss Catharine 
Preston, Latin and English Literature; F. W. Blake, M. D., Physical Science; 
Miss Anna Petersen, French Language and Literature; Miss Zaide Von Briesen, 
German Language and Literature; Miss Mary Shattuck, Elocution and Physical 
Culture; Mrs. Emma Lathrop-Lewis, Vocal Music; Professor Hermann Ebeling, 
Instrumental and Class Music; Professor Hermann Schmidt, Instrumental Music. 

The Columbus Latin School was opened under the name of a Preparatory 
School for Boys in the full of 1888 in a building on the corner of Fourth and State 
streets, by Charles A. Moore, a graduate of Yale College. During the first year 
twentythree pupils were received. Mr. Moore having accepted a tutorship at Yale, 
Mr. Frank T. Cole, a graduate of Williams College, took charge of the school in 
the fall of 1889 and removed it to East Town Street, where it has since been con- 
ducted under the name above given. Professor Amasa Pratt, also a graduate of 
Williams College, became associated with Mr. Cole in the management of the 
school, the object of which is to prepare boys for college. The ancient and modern 
languages are embraced in the course of instruction. During the last two years 

30 History of the City of Columbus. 

the school has had an average attendance of fort}'; its graduates thus far number 
eighteen. It has a boarding department, but depends chiefly on the city for its 

The city being an important commercial and manufacturing center, it has 
given rise to numerous business colleges, many of them of high standing. The 
Columbus Business College, established in 1864, prospered for twentyfive years. 
The Capital City Commercial College, established in 1878, continued in operation 
eleven years. These two schools were consolidated in 1889 under the name of the 
Columbus Commercial College, which was discontinued in 1891. The National 
Business College, established in April, 1889, by H. B. Parsons, is located in the 
Sessions Block, and instructs classes both day and evening. The Columbus 
Business College, now managed by W. H. Hudson, on North High Street, was 
established about seven years ago. Yarnell's Business College, also on High 
Street, gives special attention to bookkeeping. A school of penmanship was 
established in 1888 by C. P. Zaner. A school in stenography and typewriting is 
now conducted in the Wesley Block by Professor W. H. Hartsough. 

Several kindergartens are sustained as individual enterprises; others which 
are free are maintained in different parts of the cit}' by the Woman's Educational 
and Industrial Union, of which, at present, Mrs. J. N. Dunham is President and 
Mrs. F. C. Maxwell, Secretary. These fi"ee kindergartens are intended for 
children under school age, and especially those whose parents are unable to send 
them to the subscription schools. The Union also maintains at its central build- 
ing on the corner of Oak and Fourth streets, a training school for preparing 
teachers in kindergarten work. 



Pvhlir Schools. District School Maruujcmcnt, 182(j to 1H38. — In keeping with 
the enlightened sentiment of the famous educational compact the pioneer settlers 
of Franklinton and Columbus provided fair school privileges for their children. 
Before revenues from the land grants were realized or general school laws enacted, 
private schools and means of education had been ver}^ generously encouraged. In 
the very infancy of the town of Columbus its founders had constructed a school- 
house for the benefit of the community. In 1820 a school company formed by 
leading citizens for the extension of school facilities erected an academy, organized 
a school and otherwise aroused public interest in education. An academy on the 
west side and a classical school and the academy on the east side of the river had 
been liberall}^ patronized. A great many subscription schools had been main- 
tained. Some of the teachers were college graduates and the leading spirits of tlie 
community were men of learning. The general sentiment seems to have been in 
favor of popular education, but there were very naturally differences of opinion as to 
the best modes of securing it. Lucas Sullivant and Orris Parish were among the 
incorporators of the Worthington College. They with other proniinent citizens had 
taken an active interest in securing efficient legislation for the maintenance of 
schools. Not only had schools been encouraged but the claims of moral instruc- 
tion had not been disregarded. The church and school were planted side by side 
and fostered as cardinal interests. The schools were frequentl}" conducted in 
church buildings and the New Testament was used as a textbook in reading. 
Eev. Dr. James Hoge, the founder of the first church and first Sunday school of 
the settlement, was a zealous friend of popular education, was identified with the 
efforts to promote its interests and greatly aided in molding the educational 
sentiment of the community. 

In January, 1822, Governor Allen Trimble appointed a board of commissioners 
in which Caleb Atwater, Eev. James Hoge, and Rev. John Collins were the active 
men, to report a system of common schools for Ohio, and although the system 
agreed upon by these commissioners was not adopted " they are entitled to grate- 
ful i-emembrance for what they did in awakening an interest upon which more was 
ficcomplished th^^n they deemed advisable to i-ecommend." They prepared the way 


33' 1 History op the City op Columbus. 

for the enaclment of the Guilford law of 1825, which was the first general law for 
the support of schools in the State. 

On April 25, 1826, the Court of Common Pleas of this county appointed Eev. 
James Hoge, Rev. Henry Mathews and Doctor Charles H. Wetmore as the school 
examiners for the county. The examiners appointed by the court in 1828 were 
.Eev. James Hoge, Doctor Peleg Sisson and Bela Latham ; in 1829 Samuel Parsons, 
Mease Smith, P. B. Wilcox; in 1830 S. W. Ladd, E. Tute, E. W. Cawley and Doc- 
tor C. H. Wetmore; in 1832 Isaac N. Whiting, Eev. W. Preston and Isaac Hoge, 
Cyrus Parker being at the same time appointed examiner of female teachers ; in 
1834, John VV. Ladd, Erastus Burr, Eev. James Hoge, Eev. W^illiam Preston, Eev, 
George Jeffries, William 8. Sullivant, Jacob Grubb, Doctor A. Chapman, W. H, 
Eichardson, Jacob Gander, Eev. Ebenezer Washburn and Timothy Lee; in 1835 
J. C. Brodrick, W. T. Martin, Joseph Sullivant, Jacob Grubb and M. J. Gilbert; in 
1836 David Swickard, James Williams, Joseph Moore, Henry Alden, J. E. Eodgers, 
Cyrus S. Hyde, David Smith, and Arnold Clapp. 

Among the first teachers to receive certificates were Joseph P. Smith, W. P. 
Meacham, C. W. Lewis, Eli Wall, H. N. Hubbell, Nancy Squires, John Starr, Eobert 
Ware, J. Waldo, George Black, Kate Eeese, Margaret Livingston, Cyrus Parker, 
Lucas Ball and Ira Wilcox of Montgomery Township ; Ezekiel Cui'tis, Caleb Davis, 
Phoebe Eandall and William T. Dcnson of Franklin Township; Lucy Wilson, Wil- 
liam Dunlev}', Priscilla Weaver, Isabella Green and F. J. Starr of Sharon ; Grace 
Pinny, John Sterrett and Benjamin Bell of Mifflin ; Flora Andrews, Emily Maynard 
and W. G. Harper of Clinton; Eachel Jameson, W. H.J. Miller, Pymela White, 
Hannah Calkins and S. Lucius of Blendon ; Joiin Scott and Daniel Wright of Plain; 
W.G.Graham, Mary Eoss, Samuel Gould and David Graham of Truro; Orange 
Davis and Jacob Keller of Norwich; Peter Sharp, J. M. Cherry and T. J. Howard 
of Madison ; Frederick Cole, JinUs Wail, O. Eisby and Isaac Lewis of Pleasant ; 
C. S. Sharp, Henrietta Christie, J. W. Maynard and D. Benton of Hamilton; John 
Juds of Jackson ; J. K. Lewis, Jacob Feltner, T. Kilpatrick, Joseph Ferris and 
Jacob Kilbourne of Perry ; Peter Mills and Willis Spencer of Jefferson. All of 
these taught in their respective townshi})s prior to December 31, 1829, and for such 
service were paid by the County Treasurer. 

Franklin Townshij) was divided on May 10, 1826, b}' its trustees into five full dis- 
tricts, of wliich the second and third included the town of Franklinton, which con- 
tained at that time about sixtyfive houses and three hundred and fiftysevcn 
inhabitants. The boundary of District Number Two was thus described : " Com- 
mencini,' at tiie Scioto Eiver where the road leading from Newark to Springfield 
(West Broad Street) ci'osses it, then along said road to the west line of the town- 
shij), thence northerly with the township line to the northwest corner of the 
township, thence down said river to the ])lace of beginning." The householders 
of this district were Joseph Grate, Eeuben Golleday, Nanc}' Park, Sarah Jameson, 
Lewis Eisley, Joseph Davidson, Polly Perrin, Homer L. Thrall, William Barger, 
Nathan Cole, Samuel Flemming, Jacob Eby, Henry Saunders, Jacob Grubb, Mrs. 
Sterling, Elisha Grada, Horace Walcott, Earl Frazel, Joseph K. Young, Edward 
Green, William Eoss, Williain Flemming, John Swisgood, .1. B. Menelc}', John 

The Schools. TI. 33 

Fowler, Mrs. Haiiiuih Mciicley, Mrs. Broderick, Jucol) Keller, Esther Waldo, John 
Scott, Joseph Badger, Samuel Johnson, S. Wickson, William Scott, George Read, 
George Skidmore, Mrs. Marshall, A. Hopper, J. E. OJodown and Jennie Robinson; 
forty in all. 

District Number Three was thus bounded : '• Beginning with District Number 
Two, thence down the Scioto River to the line dividing I. Miners and Thomas 
Morehead's land, westwardly with said line until it intei'sects the Hillsborough 
Road, thence northeastwardly with said road until it intersects the road loading 
from Newark to Springfield, thence along with said road to the place of begin- 
ning." The householders in this district were Joseph Brackenrage, William Per- 
rin, Samuel Deardorf, Jacob Armitage, William Lusk, A. Brotherlin, John Robin- 
son, Ezekiel Pegg, Mr. Monroe, Samuel Scott, Jacob Runels, Mrs. Park, E. 
Curtis, William Domigan, Temperance Baccus, Mrs. Lord, Robert W. Riley, Mrs. 
Barr, Epkin Johnson, David Deardurff, Katharine Deardurff, Urias Perrin, Elias 
Pegg, Elizabeth Swan, William Wigdin, Lewis Williams, Thomas Reynolds, Arthur 
O'Harra, Isaac Miner, J. Ransburg, Andrew Jameson, John Mannering, Mrs. 
Rabourn, Cornelius Manning, Mrs. Bennett, Lewis Slaughter, Widovv Fanny; total 
thirtyseven. This list is certified in behalf of the trustees by Ezekiel Curtis, Town- 
ship Clerk. In the entire township there were one hundred and fortysix house- 
holders. The school directors were elected in the fall or winter of 182(5. In the 
following year Caleb Davis and Ezekiel Curtis were emploj'ed as teachers in the 
second and fifth districts respectively. Winchester Risley, William Badger, 
Samuel Deardurff and Horace Wolcutt were among the earliest directors in the 
Franklinton districts. The amount of school funds appropriated to the second 
and third districts respectively for the 3'ear 1826 was $9,845 and $9,107; for 1827 
$9.52 and $8.29; for 1828 $10.48 and $11.53. From the levy of five mills for school 
purposes in 1826 Franklin Township received $35.86, Montgomery Township 
$162.31, Hamilton $61.04, Truro $17.75, Jefferson $10.63, Plain $9.68, Mifflin $16.27, 
Clinton $27.73, Perry $22.80, Sharon $42.62, Norwich $15.18, Blendun $22.96, 
Washington $10.02, Prairie $12.58, Pleasant $17.43, Jackson, $10.60. 

On July 26, 1828, that part of District Number Two lying west of the " Cattail 
Prairie and a line extending northerly to the river near the stone quarry" was set 
apart as District Number Seven. The householders of the Second District still 
numbered forty. Many had moved out of the district, while the following new 
names appeared: Fredom Bennett, Ambrose Canfield, John Robinson, Nathan 
Cole, Ignatius Wheeler, Peter Lisk, Wesley Srieves, Samuel Scott, William 
S. Sullivant, William Mitchell, John Hickman, William St. Clair and Israel Gale. 
The following new names appeared in the third district in 1828; Michael 
L. Sullivant, Griffin Miner, Levi Taylor, Abram Mettles, William Riley. Henry 
Saunders, Winchester Risley, Enos Henry, Benson Sprague, Rile}' Thacker, and 
Jane Brown. The total number of householders in the district was fbrtythi-ee. 

Montgomery Township was divided by its tj'ustees into school districts in the 
spring of 1826. According to William T. Martin the first school mooting foi- the 
district embracing the town plat of Columlms was hold pursuant to the act of 1825 
at the old Presbyterian Church on Front Street November 21, 182(). Orris Parish 


History of the City of Columbus. 

was chosen chairman and William T. Martin secretary; and Doctor Peleg Sisson, 
Rev. Charles Hinkle and William T. Martin were elected school directors. Soon 
afterwards a Mr. Smith was employed as teacher and a public school which 
continued about three months was organized. This teacher was probably Joseph 
P. Smith, who a short time before had been engaged in teaching a private school in 
the Academy on Fourth Street, and who, as the records show, taught during the fol- 
lowing year a public school in the fifth district. However, before the school funds 
for 1826 were distributed, the township had been divided into seven districts con- 
taining respectively 29, 59, 27, 36, 34, 59 and 24 householders. The total number 


of householders in the township in 1826 was 268, about two hundred of whom 
rcsiiled in the town. The distribution of the school funds to the districts for 1826, as 
entered on the Count}' Auditor's books, was as follows : First District 817.416, second 
$35,365, third §18.170, fourth $21,644, fifth $20,505, sixth $35,150, seventh $14,063; 
total $162,313. The following additional entries appear : "March 31,1827. The 
Trustees of Montgomer}' Township met and new-districted the township for school 
pui'poses as follows, to wit: 

FirPt District to be composed of all that part of the town of Columbus and township of 
Montgomery lyinj; north of Lonji Street in said town and as far eastward as the eastern 
extremity of the outlets of said town [line of East Public LaueJ; householders, John Van- 

The Schools. II. ^>5 

Voorst, John Brickell, Stephen Robinson, John Doherty, David Jones, Margaret Johnston, 
Benjamin Piatt, H. Rochester, Abraham Jayoox, Samuel Cady, Jonathan Fuller, Thomas 
Dawson, John Hamm, John Jackson, John Jones, John Loutharos, James Dean, Joseph 
Gamble, Bela Latham, Thomas Tipton, Solomon Miller, Elizabeth Sparks, Thomas Robins, 
Gustavus Swan, G. Leightenaker, William Gimpson. Martin Baringer, Sarah Philips, Thomas 
Locket, Samuel Ayres, James Wood, Jane Lusk, John Thomas, Elizabeth Zinn. Total thirty- 
four. [The Clerk says this should be tiftyfour. The estimated number of children in the 
district from five to fifteen years of age was sixtyone.] ' 

Second District, to be composed of all that part of the town of Columbus lying between 
Long and State streets ; householders, R. Pollock, D. Rathbone, Henry Brown, Charles 
Knoderer, G. B. Harvey, Cyntha Vance, Jarvis Pike, D. W.Desbler, Orris Parish, R. Osborn, 
R. Armstrong, Mary Kerr, Mary Justice, Jacob Elmore, E. Browning, Thomas Johnston, 
Thomas Martin, Edward Davis, John Young, John Marcy, R. M. McCoy, J. McLene, John 
Loughry, James Hoge, William Doherty, Mrs. Miller, William Latham, Joseph Ridgway, 
Samuel Crosby, John Jones, (tailor), Elizabeth Culbertson, David Lawson, James Coudson, 
Benjamin Henly, William Montgomery, Mary Peoples, Mrs. Adams, James Robinson 
(teacher), Robert Dawson, William Waite, Henry Hawkin, Hiram Plate, A. J. McDowell, 
John Cunning, M. Smith, E. Herrington, P. B. Wilcox, Theodore Nealy, Samuel Leonard, 
Ebenezer Butler ; fiftyone. Estimated to contain sixtynine children from five to fifteen. 

Third District to be composed of all that part of the town of Columbus lying between 
State and Town streets, including the white bouse at the end of Town Street ; householders, R. 
Rupill, P. M. Olmsted, James Robinson, R. Brotherton, F. Stewart, L. Reynolds, William 
Long, David Smith, Joseph Jameson, Henry Farnum, Joseph Leiby, C. Fay, L. Goodale, 
William Armstrong, J. Neereamer, J. M. Walcutt, Otis Crosby, R. Lalaker, George McCor- 
mick, Abraham Raney, Mrs. Lanford, Elijah Cooper, M. Northrup, Joel Buttles, Mrs. Tumey, 
Ed. Phenix, George Riardon, M. Gooden, Joseph P. Smith, John Wilson ; thirty. Estimated 
to contain fiftyfour children from five to fifteen. 

Fourth District, to be composed of all that part of the town of Columbus lying between 
Town and Rich streets ; householders, Alex. Patton, William K. Lawson, J. C. Brodrick, 
John Greenwood, Peter Putnam, John Kilbourn, Jeremiah Armstrong, William Madison, 
John Whitsel, Nathan Soals, David Brooks, A. Benfield, J. Vorys, A. Backus, Benjamin 
Sells, John M. Edmiston, Gibbs Greenham, Samuel Barr, C. Lofland, Margaret Wherry, 
William Altman, M. Matthews, Jacob Overdear, John Stearns, Thomas Wood, Henry Butler, 
James Bryden, Amos Jenkins, Samuel Parsons, James Harris, John Wise, Conrad Notestone, 
Mrs. Powers, Jennet Vanderburgh, James Uncles, John Boiland, Hamilton Robb ; thirty- 
seven. Estimated to contain sixtyseven children from five to fifteen. 

Fifth District, to be composed of all that part of the town of Columbus lying between 
Rich and Friend streets; householders, John McElvain, James Cherry, Peleg Sisson, John 
Kelly, Ira B. Henderson, Mary Nichols, William John, J. W. Flinniken, John Emmick, C. 
Heyl, John Warner, Conrad Heyl, Peter Sells, George Nashee, Dennis Faris, Amos Menely, 
Jacob Hare, Aaron Mathes, William St. Clair, John D. Hodgkins, John Robinson, Samuel 
Gelin, William T. Martin, Mrs. Wynkorp, John B. Compston, Moses Jewett, Thomas Piper, 
John John, William McElvain, Elizabeth Strain, H. S High, Sarah Stahl, Moses R. Spingien, 
William Thrall, Mrs. Wright ; thirtyfive. Estimated to contain sixtyfive children from five 
to fifteen. 

Sixth District, to be composed of all that part of the town of Columbus and of the town- 
ships of Montgomery as lies south of Friend Street, and as far eastward as the eastern 
extremity of the outlots excepting, however, such territory and families as have been attached 
to Hamilton Township for the formation of a school district from a part of each township ; 
householders, Matthias Kenney, David Gibson, Caleb Houston, John McLoughlin, Ebenezer 
Thomas, N. W. Smith, Jesse K. Nixon, Mrs. I^ooth, Joseph McElvain, Jo.soph O'Harra, 
Arthur O'Harra, Nathaniel McLean, Purdy McElvain, Christian Cruin, Thomas Bryson, 

■ ^^> iiisT(»Ry OF THE City of Columbus. 

Hiram Barret, Andrew Wood, James Pierce, John Scott, William Parker, Jacob Shier, James 
Parish, George Dolten, Philip Boreman, Peter Yarnel, Hugh McMaster, James Young, 
William Young, Thomas Webb, Jacob (ioodhen, Adam Kerns, John Cutter, Richard Fluig, 
Samuel Price, Brincklej' Daniels, Robert Williams, James Brown, George Eastwood, Mrs. 
Huster, Thomas Carpenter, Elijah Tolle, Alphan Tolle, Walter Vanhorne, Henry Jewett, - 
Colbert Stewart, Mrs. Putnam, Jacob Robinson, John Miller, Thomas Jones, Nathaniel 
Turner, Anson Smith, George JefFeries, L. Sharp, Nathaniel Powers, Gilbert Jewett, Jacob 
Leaf, David Shead, John D. Rose, Elijah Glover, Gardiner Bowen, Jonathan Farrer, Edwin 
Burnley, Henry May, David Bowen, Charles Hinkle, Julius G. Godman ; sixtysix. Esti- 
mated to contain eightyeight children from five to fifteen. 

Seventh District, to be composed of the Alum Creek settlement including all that part 
of the township not already inckuled in any of the foregoing districts ; householders, 
Alexander Mooberry, Thomas Hamilton, Sarah Ross, George Turner, William Turner, 
Elizabeth Kooser, C. L. White, Daniel Boothe, William Shaw, David Nelson, Junior, John 
Lewis, John Barr, John Wallace, John White, Catharine Vining, George White, Frederick 
Otstott, Robert Barrett, Edward Livingston, William White, John Moobery, Isaac Taylor, 
Harvey Adams; twentyfour. Number of children not returned A correct extract from the 
township record. W. T. Martin, Township Clerk. 

According to this report the six districts embracing Columbus contained two 
hundred and seventy three householders an(J four hundred and five children from 
five to fifteen years of age. 

On October 4, 1832, the first district, containing 180 school children, was 
divided, on petition of Augustus Piatt, John Starr and others, into two districts, 
the part east of High Street and the new turnpike to remain district number one 
and the western part to be renumbered as district number eleven. At a called 
meeting the inhabitants of the sixth district petitioned the township trustees to 
divide their district, as it was " much too large for an}' common school," and on 
October 4, 1832, it was divided and renumbered so that the portion south of 
Friend Street and east of High should remain district number six ; the portion 
west of High and north of South (Fulton) Street, extending west with the section 
line to the river, should be numbered twelve ; and the portion lying south of 
South Street and west of High should be numbered thirteen. On October 23, 
1833, the northern portion of the first and eleventh districts, the dividing line 
between which was the north corporation line, then Naghten Street, was desig- 
nated as district number fourteen, the portion of these districts between Long 
Street and the corporation line remaining as district number one. On March 7, 
1838, Columbus became by legislative enactment a separate school district, to 
which, by consent of the district, the townshij) trustees, on October 13, 1838, 
attached all tlie territory within the following boundaries : Beginning at the Scioto 
River on ti)e southwest corner of Henry Brown's land, half-section twentynine, 
and running east on Moler Jload to the east line of said section, thence north 
to the south line of halfsection number thirty, thence east to the east line of said 
halfsection, thence north on a line of the said halfsection continued to a point half 
a mile north of North Public Lane to the Whetstone Eiver, thence with the 
raeanderings of the Whetstone and the Scioto to the place of beginning. This dis- 
trict, comprising the whole town plat and part of the township, and embracing 
five and twotenths square miles, was divided by the directors into subdistricts in 

The Schools. II. '27 

such a maimer "as best to nieol the needs oC the inhahitants." The disli-ic.l was 
bntsliu-htly altered until February 5, 1845, when l>y a specinl act of the legislature, 
the cori>orate limits of the cit}^ became again its boundaries as they have since 
remained, except that certain territory within the city limits has occasionally been 
attached to the district for school purposes. In 1856 the school district extended 
south to Kossuth Street, east to East Public Lane (Parsons Avenue), north to 
North Public Lane and the Johnstown Plank Road, and on the west to the (Jolum- 
bus Feeder, the river and Penns^dvania Avenue. 

In Franklinton the boundaries of the districts remained about as oi-iginally 
described for thirtythree years. To entitle the third district as well as as the 
second to the use of the old Courthouse for school purposes, the dividing line was 
fixed on April 18, 1853, as follows: "Commencing at the centre of the National 
Road where the same crosses the Scioto River, westward to a stake directly south 
of the west side of the south door of the Old Courthouse, then embracing the 
entrance to, and upstairs, and all the upper story of said building and onehalf of 
the courthouse lot, then from said stake westward to the line between the Ranee 
and Stevenson survey, near the twomile stone. The southern boundary of the 
third district was the Columbus and Harrisburg Road. On September 10, 185S, 
subdistricts numbers two and three were united and designated sulidistrict number 
two. On December 5, 1870, the corporation line was extended westward with the 
Scioto River to Darby Street, thence south along that street to the Harrisburg 
Pike, and thence eastw^ard to the river, including most of the Franklinton Dis- 
trict, while the remainder of it was attached to the city for school purposes. 

Division of the history of the public schools of Columbus into periods ma}' be 
made as follows: 1, From 1826 to March 7, 1838, twelve years, during which the 
schools were under township district management under the law of 1825 ; 2, from 
the end of the first period until February 5, 1845, seven years, during which time 
Columbus was a separate school district under the law of 1838 ; 3, from the end of 
the second period until May 1, 1873, twentyeight years, Columbus being during 
that time a city school district under the law of 1845 and subsequent local legisla- 
tion ; 4, irom the end of the third period until the present time, eighteen years, 
during which the schools have been conducted under general laws, Columbus being 
a "city district of the first class." Franklinton was divided into two districts 
from 1826 to 1858, and was included in one district from that time until 1870, 
when its identity was lost in the capital city which had absorbed it. Prior to 
1830 the school funds remained in the hands of the County Treasurer and were 
paid out only on the order of the Auditor; hence the records of these officials show 
the amount of school money raised, the dividends to the several districts and the 
names of the teachers employed up to that time. During the remainder of the 
first period the school money passed through the hands of district treasurers, and 
during the second period the Township Treasurer was custodian of the school fund. 

In the spring of 1827 school directors were elected in several districts and 
schools were organized. Among the first directors chosen were William T. Martin, 
Doctor Peleg Sisson, David Smith, Otis Crosby, William Long, D. W. Deshler, 
Orris Parish, Andrew Backus, Rev. Charles Hinkle, Thomas Carpenter and Joseph 

38- , History of the City of Columbus. 

Hunter. The pioneer teachers of the public schools were Joseph P. Smith, W. P. 
Meacham, C. W. Lewis, Caleb Davis, Eli Wall and H. N. Hubbell. After the new 
districts had been formed the directors chosen in the fifth district, between Eich and 
Main streets, were Peleg Sisson, William T. Martin and James Cherry, two of 
whom had been directors in the previous year. They employed Joseph P. Smith 
as teacher. The time of his service is not given, but the following transcript from 
the Auditor's journal shows part of his salary: "June 7, 1827. Paid Joseph P. 
Smith in part for his services as school teacher in the fifth district of Montgomerj^ 
Township as per voucher No. 520, $19,625." This account was paid by the County 
Treasui-er June 16, 1827. It is the first item of expenditure for school purposes 
found in the records of the County Auditor and Treasurer. The second teacher to 
draw a salarj' was W. P. Meacham, who taught in the district south of Friend, 
now Main Street, probably in the hewed log schoolhouse on Mound Street. The 
record runs: "June 30, 1827, paid W. P. Meacham as schoolteacher in district 
No. 6, of Montgomery Township, $34.00." In the fourth district, between Town 
and Eich streets, Andrew Backus was one of the first directors and C. W. Lewis 
was employed as teacher. A record of payment to Mr. Lewis from the public 
funds reads: "Julj- 4, 1827. Montgonery Township, To Paid C. W. Lewis as 
schoolteacher in district No. 4, $21,644." 

According to this record Caleb Davis was the first teacher to receive public 
money for his services in Franklinton, as appears by the following entry : "August 
the 12, 1827. Paid Caleb Davis as school teacher in district Number two, Franklin 
Township, $9,845." Mr. Davis probably taught in the Sullivant log schoolhouse, 
as that was the only building in the village at that time exclusively devoted to the 
use of schools. The second district paid its first dividend of school money to Eli 
Wall. The record reads : " September the 8, 1827. Montgomery Township, To 
Paid Eli Wall as school teacher in district No. 2 $35,365,' which was a fair salary 
at that day for a service of three months as teacher. 

The school directors of the third district — Otis Crosby, David Smith and 
William Long — who had bought the old academy on Fourth Street " for the sole 
use of the inhabitants of the said school district for the use and support of a school 
therein according to the statute passed Januar}^ the 30, 1827, respecting common 
schools," employed Horatio N. Hubbell, afterward first superintendent of the 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, to teach a common school, concerning which 
service we find the following record : "October 11, 1827. Montgomery Town- 
ship, To Paid H. N. Hubbell as school teacher in District No. 3 in said township 
in full of all money due said district as per voucher No. 198, $18.17." The 
Mr. Smith who was employed in November, 1826, may have been paid out of 
school money which came into the hands of the Township Trustees for the School 
Directors as rents froni the section of school lands, and would not therefore appear 
in the county records. Some of these first teachers are known to have been men 
of education and ability who distinguished themselves in later years. The names 
of the directors are a suflScient guaranty that the school funds were wisely used. 
As to the respectable character of tiie teachers emj)loyed and the liberal public 

TiiK Schools. II. 39 

sentiment wliicli prevailed witli reH])ect to education, we have the tollowino- testi- 
monial in tlu^ Ohii) Sfiifc Joiininl o^ A.\)y\\ 19, 1827: 

This town has been laid off into school districts and teachers of respectability have 
been employed. Onr citizens seem disposed to give the system a fair experiment, and if 
found deficient, endeavor to obtain such amendment as will remedy any defe(;ts that may at 
present exist in the laws upon the subject. 

One of the first acts of the dii-ectors of the third district — the territory 
between State and Town streets — was to purchase the academy on Fourth Street 
for school purposes. This historic building, the first school property acquired by 
the town, or any part of it, was purchased nineteen days after the organization of 
the district. The instrument of conveyance of this property reads as follows: 

John Cunning to Schowl Directors. This indenture made this nineteenth day of 
April, A. D. 1S27, between John Cunning of Franklin County State of Ohio of the one part, 
and Otis Ciosby, David Smith and William Lotig as school directors of school district No. '.\ 
in the township of Montgomery, and county aforesaid of the second part, witnesseth that 
the said John Cunning for and in consideration of the sum of thirty dollars to him in hand 
paid by said school directors hath and does hereby sell and convey infeoff unto the said 
school directors and their successors in office an inlot in the town of Columbus in the 
County of Franklin numbered on the town plat of said town six hunclreil and twenty to 
have and hold Siud inlot with tlie appurtinences unto said Otis Crosby, David Smith and 
William Longasschool directors as aforesaid and unto their successors in said office for the 
sole use of the inhabitants of said school district for the use and support of a school therein 
ect, according to the statute passed January 80, 1827, respecting common schools. In 
witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal the <lay and the year first above 
written. Executed in the presence of D. W. Deshler, Robert Brotherton, John Cunning, 
seal. Acknowledged and certified to by D. W. Deshler, Justi<^e of the Peace. 

The lot thus conveyed extended from Town Street to Sugar (Chapel) Alley on 
the west side of Fourth Street, and on its north end stood the "academy" facing 
ea.stward. The building was a tworoom frame fortyeight feet long and thirtyonc 
feet wide. Its furniture consisted at that time of a few writing shelves or desks 
which usually stood against the wall; board benches, a few of which had low 
straight backs while most of them were plain benches without backs, so arranged 
that the pupils on either side of the room usually sat facing those on the opposite 
side; a plain boxlike desk and a chair for the teacher ; and a small blackbo:ird. A 
large box stove in which wood was used as fuel stood in the center of the room. 

The Fourth Street Acadeiuy, purchased as just narrated, was erected in 1820. 
This temple of education, the pride of the infant capital, was distinguished by a 
respectable belfry and a bell much superior in tone to " the common tavern bell " 
and second only to the Statehouse bell. A publicschool was conducted for an annual 
term of three months or more in one room of this building for a number of years. 
On January 12, 1836, the school directors -John L. Gill, Ichabod (I. Jones and 
Jonathan Neereamer sold the lot upon which the academy stood to Orris Parish, 
reserving the building for school purposes. Sometime afterward it was converted 
into a blacksmith shop, and then into a feedstore. In 1870, it was removed. 

Within the year in which the first public money for .schools was received, five 
teachers were employed in the Columbus District and an aggregate of $128.80 was 


History of the City of Columbus. 

paid for instruction. Tn these tive districts there were in 1S27 thi-ee hundred and 
fortythree children from five to fifteen 3'ears of age. Part of these teachers tauL^ht 
free public schools for all who attended, and no doubt then, as lalei", the j)iil)lic 
inonc}' was in some instances used to ]>ay the tuition of (diildren whose parents or 
guardians were uiuible to pay tlie tuition fee; butas the ne\vspaj)er files show, there 
was from the first a strong opposition to this misapplication of the school fund. In 
either case, however, the fund was used to provide free instruction to school 3'outh. 
Assuming that the wages of male teachers was at that time fifteen dollars per 
month, and the average attendance in these schools fift}^ this amount of money 


would have provided one quarter's schooling to one hundred and fortyone children ; 
or, if simply used to ))ay the usual tuition fee of S2.50 per quarter, it would have 
provided free instruction to fiftyono school youth, or more than oneseventh of all 
the children of the districts between the ages of five and fifteen. The school 
money collected and ai)portioned to the districts of Montgomeiy Township under 
the levy of 182G amounted to sixty cents and five mills to each householder, or about 
fortyone cents for each child between the ages of tive and fifteen years. The 
dividends apportioned to the same district for the year 1827 amounted to fiftyone 
cents and three mills for each householder. The dividends for 1828 were $31.06, 

TiiK Schools. II. 41 

$16.56, $10.85, $19.32, $19.31, $35.7(5 ; for 1S29, $47.03, $40.80, $27.24, $33.60, $31.78, 
$59.93. In 1880 the first <listrict i-cfeived $03.00, the second $81.23, the thin! $48.93, 
the fourth $45.50, the fifth $72.73, the sixth $119.87, there being 370 houseliolders 
at that time in the six districts. 

Tlio first public scliool in the first district was taught bj' John Starr in the win- 
ter of 1827-28. The Auditor s record is as follows : " February 13, 1828. Paid John 
Starr as school teacher in district number one, Montgomery t(nvnship, $40.30." 
In the following winter he taught in the same district, and on March 23, 1829, 
received for his services $31.00. Charles L. Webster, a teacher from Clinton 
Township, and J. S. Martin taught a few years later in "Jonesburg," the neighbor- 
hood near the corner of Third and Spring streets. The following treasurers of 
the district drew from tlie county treasury the amounts following tlieir names, 
respectively, for school purposes: Joseph Hunter, March 20, 1831, $03.00; David 
Smith, February 17, 1832, $58.25 ; same, April 14^ 1833, $41.00 ; John Keam, May 
22, 1834, $08.27 ; John Smith, April 11, 1835, $74,187; J. McPherson, April 16, 
1830, $.59.85 ; same. May 15, 1837, $83.70 ; T. Mason, April 0, 1838, $150.24. Hugh 
Maxwell, who usually taught private schools, was employed to teach a few terms 
of public school in the hewed log house on the corner of Spring and High streets. 

From 1833 to 1838 the first district was bounded on the west by High Street 
and on the north by Naghten. The second district was extended from Long 
Street to State. D. W. Deshler was a school director and the treasurer of this 
district from 1829 to 1838, during which time he drew from the county treasury 
and expended for school purposes $1,021.22. On February 13, 1828, Robert Ware 
received $27.28 for teaching in this district. In 1835 Miss Kate Reese taught a 
district school in a frame building on Third Street near Long. Miss Penelope 
Lazelle and Eli Wall taught in this district. During this same period Hugh Max- 
well taught private and occasionall}' public schools in this district, in the small 
brick building on Pearl and Gay, and in the small frame on Lynn and Lazelle 
streets. The number of white unmarried youth between the ages of four and 
twentj'one in this district during the ten years ended with 1838, was respectively, 
59, 85, 117, 150, 237, 324, 337, 351, 350, and 301. 

The third district, between State and Town streets, received for these ten 
years, respectively, $27.24, $48.93, $70.17, $72.32, $99.50, $07.75, $55.00, $113.00, 
$105.02, $271.07. In 1830, the school tax for this district amounted to $35.00, and 
the interest on the proceeds of the section of school land was $13.93; there being 
fifty householders, this amounted to seventy cents of the former and twentyseven 
cents and eight mills of the latter fund to each family. The successive treasurers 
of this district were H. Delano, G. W. McCormick and J. Wilson. After J. P. 
Smith and H. N. Hubbell, the next teacher in this district was the severe dis- 
ciplinarian, Cyrus Parker, who is best remembered as an instructor in private 
schools. He was in 1832 one of the township examiners under the law of 1825. 
The Auditor's journal shows that on June 30, 1829, Cyrus Parker was paid as 
teacher in district number three $32.97. In 1832, J. M. Smith was district clerk. 
The directors in 1830 were John L. Gill, Ichabod G, Jones and Jonathan Nee- 

42 History of the City op Columbus. 

reamer. The following report of the clerk of the district to the County Au.litor 
ar the yeav 1837, is very instructive: 

Number of public schools ia the district, one ; number of private schools, two ; num- 
er of months that public schools have been kept during the year, four ; idem for private 
chools, fourteen [two schools seven months each] ; number of scholars in usual attendance 
B public schools about forty ; idem for private schools, about forty ; one teacher, male ; 
amount paid teacher, one hundred and twelve dollars ; schoolhouse, frame ; value of school- 
house, two hundred dollars; amount paid this year for repairing schoolhouse, $19.27. The 
teacher has a good moral character and is well qualified to instruct. Books are such as 
are generally used in schools, selected by parents and guardians. This district cannot 
keep up a school longer than four months, as the amount of school funds is not sufficient 
to continue longer, and also not enough to get qualified teachers for all branches of erlucation. 
The officers of the present year are AVilliam Armstrong, Jonathan Neereamer and I. G. 
Jones, directors; John Wilson, Treasurer, and J. D. Osborn, Clerk. 

Of the fourth district Andrew Backus was treasurer from 1830 to 1838. His 
withdrawals of scliooi funds from the county treasury for the district Avere as fol- 
lows: 1831, $110.00; 1833,1160.00; 1836, $250.00: 1837, $91.31; 1838, $586.75. 
The families of this district numbered during the five years beginning with 1826, 
respectively, 36, 37, 37, 41, and 45. The children of school age in the district 
during the eight years ended 1838 numbered, respectively, 125, 166, 159, 172, 175, 
186, 234, and 235. The Hazeltine schoolhouse was situated in this district, as was 
also the Presbyterian Church on Front Street in which the first meeting was held 
for the organization of the public schools. J. M. C. Hazeltine was first employed 
as a teacher in 1832. He taught a jmblic school for about one quarier in each 
3^ear, and at other times taught a private school in his own building. On Septem- 
ber 25, 1835, he announced a night school which was free except that the "scholars 
must furnish their own lights." About the year 1838 Mr. Hazeltine was accident- 
ally drowMied in the river at the foot of Rich Street. He was a popular teacher. 
In 1837 Mathew^ Mathews was one of the directors and clerk of the district. The 
following report was forwarded b}^ him through the oflfice of the County Auditor 
to Samuel Lewis, State Superintendent of Common Schools on official blanks 
prepared for the purpose : 

Columbus, November 1, 1837. School District No. 4. Number of white males 121, of 
white females li;5, between four and twentyone years of age. No public school this year. 
Three private schools. Number of months private schools have been kept during the year, 
twelve. Eightyfive scholars in usual attendance in private schools. Two male and two 
female teachers employed in private schools. No officers elected for the year. Character 
and (pialifications of teachers good. Books in general use, Smith's Grammar, Cobb's Arith- 
metic, Olney's Geography. There is no uniformity of practice in the use of books among the 
different teachers. They use such books as they have been accustomed to either in their 
own education, or in their business of instruction heretofore ; and oftentimes those books 
which the pupils bring with them — books which they have used in other schools. It is 
much to be desired that a thorough examination of books should be made with a view to the 
selection of a set which should be recommended to the teachers and school officers of each 
district in the county for adoption in their respective schools. An association of teachers 
would alone be likely to institute an examination of this kind, and use the means necessary 
for conducting it properly and thoroughly. Such an association is much needed among ua 
on various accounts. It is ardently hoped and confidently anticipated that one will be estab- 

The Srnooi.s. TI. "^3 

lisbcd wilhiii the space of a few months, at k-ast for the dty if not for the country, as all the 
teachers of this cilv who have been spoken to on the subject have expressed their decided 
approl)ation of it and their desire to support the measure, having personally felt the want of an 
institution of the kind. A prominent defect of the system [of public schools] is a want of a 
uniform method of instruction. A heterogeneous mass of lessonbooks in every brancli encum- 
bers almost every school.— M. Mathews Clerk. 

In the fifth district, lying between Rich :uul Msiin streets, Charles llinkle, 
James CMierry and W. T. Martin were directors. The Auditor's ledger shows the 
followinu- entry: "Paid, in 1880, James Cherry, treasurer of school district 
number's, Montgomery Townshi]., $72.73 ; in 1833, S104.37 ; in 1836, $267.46; in 
1837, $187.00; in"l838, $259.54." The number of families each year from 1826 to 
183o'was respectively 34, 35, 42, 49, and the number of children of school age for 
the same years respectively was 128, 128, 139, 149, and 154. The school directors 
in this district in 1830 were John Warner, Christian Heyl and William St. Clair. 
In the following year William McElvain, Ilorton Howard and Nathaniel McLean 
were chosen directors. This district deserves credit for having taken steps to 
grade the schools at a very early date. " In 1836, at a public school meeting, it 
Wiis resolved that the directors should cause two schools to be opened at the same 
time, one to be taught by a male teacher for the instruction of advanced scholars, 
and the other by a female for the instruction of young children." The number 
of school children between four and twentyone in the district in 1836 was 238, and 
the amount of school money drawn by the district treasurer that year was 
$267.46. One of the city papers of July 24, 1837, remarked : " In district number 
five, lying between Eich and Friend streets, a public school was opened this 
morning for the children of that district under the directions of a female teacher ; 
schoolroom on P^-ont Street." William T. Martin was clerk of the district from 
1832 to 1837, and George Slocum was director in 1837 and 1838. The teacher, 
J. O. Masterson, lived in the district. 

Of the sixth district Lucius Ball succeeded W. P. Meacham as teacher; 
Daniel Nelson, George JeftVies, T. Carpenter, T. Peters and David Spade served 
successively as treasurer; an aggregate of $701.75 of school money was drawn 
from 1830 to 1838; and George Jeffries, Moses J. Spurgeon and James Stevens 
successively served as clerk. The clerk reports in 1837 that the teachers ai-e 
generally of good moral character, " their qualifications ordinary." The school 
fund was not sufficient to support school six months out of twelve. Eulda Bull, 
James Riggs and Steven Berryhill taught public school in the southern part of 
the district. From portions of this district the twelfth and thirteenth districts 
were created in 1833. The twelfth received from 1834 to 1838, $493.S7. Its 
successive treasurers were J. Kelley, J. Whctzell, William Thomas and John 
Otstott, the latter drawing $223,74 school money in 1838. The directors in 1837 
and 1838 were Robert Chnul, Elijah Glover and John Otstott, of whom the latter 
is still living and occupies the same dwelling now as then. In 1837 there were 48 
boys and 63 girls of school age in tiie district; the sum of $104.42 was paid for 
teaching its private schools and $43.54 for teaching scholars outside of its boundaries. 
The number of scholars usually taught in private schools whose tuition was paid 

44' History of the (Jity of Columbus. 

with the public money of the district was 17. Nine months private school but no 
public school was held in the district that year. One female and three male 
teachers were employed. The books used were Webster's and Cobb's spelling- 
book, Smith's Grammar, Smith's and Adams's arithmetics, and geographies by 
different authors. Some of the teachers were good, some indifferent ; generally 
they failed in good government. " The greatest defect in our district is the want 
of a good schoolhouse, and under the present law we cannot build one ; the 
greatest part of the real estate is owned out of the district, consequently the sum 
which we can legally raise in a year is so small that we cannot purchase lot and 
build a suitable house. As we had no house and the directors would not hire a 
suitable room, we thought it best to pa}- the money to a private teaclier to take 
the scholars by the quarter, as there was no one in the district who had a room. 
— Eufus Bixby, Clerk." The directors in the winter of l(S37-38 employed 
Elizabeth 'Williams, who taught in the small brick building which constituted 
the old Baptist Church, still standing on the southeast coi-ner of Court and 
Front streets. 

The thirteenth district contained 44 schoolage children in 1837. P. C. White- 
head was its treasurer and one of its directors. The fourteenth district, lying 
west of High Street and north of West Nagh ton, contained 44 school children 
during the years 1835 and 1837. Robert Neil, John A. Lazelle and John M. Starr 
resided in this district. The sum of $38.37 was paid a male teacher for three 
months services in 1837. The schoolhouse was built of logs, and was valued at 
twenty dollars. The usual public school attendance was fifteen. The successive 
treasurers of the district were James Holmes, J. Shasborn and John M. Starr. 
Andrew Williams taught a public school in the district. 

The number of ])ublic schools in Columbus, beginning with one in 182(), 
increased to ten in 1837. Five different teachers drew pay in 1827 for teaching 
in the town districts. The Ohio (idzcttccr for 1829 states the population of the 
town at 2,014, and the number of schoolage children at 560, and says " there are 
not over eight or ton schools actually taught in the town." Tiiis included the 
public and private school. In 183(5 and 1837 the schools were graded and an 
effort was made to secure uniformity of textbooks and methods of instruction. 
Ilented school buildings were mostly used. 

The two Franklinton districts contained in 1826 soventysevon, and in 1830 
seventynine families; in 1831, one hundred sevontyeigiit, and in 1835 one hundred 
eightyfour schoolage children ; in 1837, ninetyseven male and 94 female schoolage 
children ; in 1840 one hundred eighty, in 1846 one hundred eighty two, in 1850 
two hundred five, in 1854 two hundred fiftythree and in 1858 two hundre<l twonty- 
thi'oe schoolage children. In 1829 the second district of Franklin Township 
received $73.87 of the Virginia Military school fund, this being $1.71 to each 
householder. Winchester Risley was the district treasurer, and on April 19, 1830, 
drew tiie sum of $33.03 for school purposes. His successors drew as follows: 
Horace Walcott, October 1, 1831, $37.37; same, April 4, 1832, $1().10; \l. (lolliday, 
July 1, 1833, $49.25 ; William Perrin, April 5, 1835, $87.00; William Domigan, 
June 21, 1836, $03.85; same, May 8, 1837, $51.00; same, March 27, 1838, $144.52; 

The Schools. H- 


1839 $103 77. Similar dividends 
J„..ob Gvubb as '""-'f.l'*'";;^;";;,;"^ district. Wimam Badge,- wa» dis- 
wcro at ll.o »aM,o d,s .ursod to Iho t^ ^^^^ ^ ^^3^ j^ .^ worthy of 

tHct.-oa»„,-onn 1830 and Sa.,l^Do.d>,^^ ^^^_^^^ ^^^^.,„^, ,,„ ,„,„,,„, 

note ihat while llie &uiie .a. 


8c'„.ol levjMl.e levy U>v "'7 :'^^;^" X the third district for that year wa 
generally sa,„.orted. The scho 1 7;y„„„^, ,„,„;„,» „ft,,e Frank,i„ton 
$103.72, or Jl.lU lo'' ^»"^h seholai. 

^ History (»f the City of Columbus. 

during the ensuing seven years averaged S181.90. Caleb Davis, Ezekiel Curtis 
and William Lusk were the first teachers in the public schools of Franklinton, the 
earlier schools of which were probably held in the log schoolhouse already 
described, as it was still used for such purposes in the thirties. 

In 1837 William Caldwell and J. D. Perrin were directors, and A. Cole clerk 
of the second district. The clerks report for that year shows as follows: Male 
children of school age, fifty: female, fortyeight: public schools, one: private, two ; 
public school kept two months: private schools twelve ; forty public and thirty- 
five private school scholars; fortysix male and fortyfour female scholars in attend- 
ance more than two months : paid .public school teacher -378 ; paid private school 
teachers 8150.00: amount of school tax, 837.30. The studies pursued were read- 
ing, writing, arithmetic, spelling, geography and grammar. John Perrin, William 
H. Stevenson and Elias K. Dearduiif were the directors and J. Caldwell the clerk 
of the third district in 1837. ^N^o public school was kept in the district during that 
year, but the sum of 8302.88 was paid to the teachers of two subscription schools. 
A male and a female teacher were employed. The number of scholars in usual 
attendance was seventytwo. The textbooks were usually selected by the teachers. 
The amount of school tax was 831.13; studies, reading, writing, arithmetic. 

Since 1840 the school funds have been suflBcient to provide schools to all who 
apply for<»n. Fur many years the old Courthouse was used for public 
schools, the second district occupying the lower story and the third the upper one. 
The following persons served as school directors in Franklinton : Arnold Clapp, 
1853, two years: Michael L. Sullivant, 1853, six years; A. Hall, 1855, five years; 
P. X. White, 1855, two years; T. J. Kerr, 1857, two years; J. D. Couden, 1858, 
two years; A. O'Harra, 1860, two years; F. Mull, 1863, six years ; M. 8. Hunter, 
1864, four years ; H. B. Deardurff, 1867, three years. In 1853 the .schools of Frank- 
linton were maintained seven months, and 8315.00 was levie<l in the second 
district to repair the old Courthouse for school purposes. This building stood on 
one of the lots originally donated by Lucas Sullivant for public purposes. The 
property was leased fur several years to the school directors, and on April 6, 1865, 
it was conveyed to the Board of Education of Franklin Township for the sum of 
one dollar by Michael L. Sullivant, Charles L. Eaton and Joseph Robinson. Sub- 
sequently it was transferred to the City of Columbus. Among the teachers who 
taught in Franklinton after 1850 were J. Mull, R. Crain, Miss D. Mix, M. 
Harvey, Mary Hurd, James Goldrick, Mary Faundersmith, Miss L. Crain, A. Mc- 
Campbell, J. Meyer and W. R. Postle. For the fifteen years beginning with 1855 
the average number of schoolage children in Franklinton was 245. 

Columbus as ii Separate School District: M<irrh 7, 1838, to 1845.— During the 
brief period of twelve years after the organization of the first school under the law of 
1825, there had been a great change of public sentiment not only in Columbus but 
throughout the State. On June 22, 1826, an observer wrote : " It is surprising to 
see the indifference of the people of Ohio to the education of their children. Hardly 
a cabin can be pa.ssed by the traveller in .some parts of the State without .seeing 
rushing from it a drove of little whiteheaded urchins (wh«>, by the way, generally 
have nothing to cover their nakcdnes.s but dirt and a short piece of dirty linen) 

The Schools. II. 47 

reared like stock on a farm." Witliin the .^ame year a resident of tiie city 
recorded his observations thus: " There are amongst our old citizens, permit me 
to sa)', as much order, temperance and morality as can be found amongst the same 
population anywhere. AVe have abroad the reputation of being a plodding, 
industrious, sober, hospitable and going-to-meeting people; but there are many 
children growing up amongst us whose parents entirely neglect their education. 
They are wholly illiterate and enjoy at home neitlier the benefit of precept or 
example which ought to be imitated. Youlh nightly infest our streets with riot 
and din, accompanied with the most shocking profanil}-. What few schools we 
have are for the most part left to themselves and their teachers to manage their 
pupils in their own way. Teachers see to the moral.s of the little ones entrusted 
to them no further than the hour.s of exercise, and even then sometimes suffer a 
state of insubordination wholly inconsistent with improvement.' On returning 
from a tour through the State in 1838, the Superintendent of Schools remarked : 
" The spirit of the people in favor of schools amounts almost to enthusiasm. ' May 
Heaven speed the cause of common schools," has been the prayer of many hundreds 
as the}' hid me farewell. Heaven has heard and is answering the pra3'er. " 

The drift of sentiment, however, was still in favor of private schools. The 
interest in " seminaries "' and " institutes " far exceeded that in the common schools. 
The advanced studies of these independent institutions, their high sounding 
names, their respectable buildings and their chartered privileges gave them a 
decided advantage over the public schools which professed to teach only the com- 
mon branohes. A spirit of exclusiveness also tended to foster the private and 
retard the jjrogress of tlie free schools, w^hile the selfish motives of private instruct- 
ors very naturally led them to o])pose a S3'stem of free education. The critics of 
the public schools further sought to bring them into disrepute by calling them 
pauper schools. Nevertheless, with the low school levy from 1826 to 1838, the 
i-esults achieved in Columbus compare favorably with those of any other town in 
the State. The chief cause of the unpopularity of the common schools was tlie 
insufficiency of funds to make them in all respects good. Schools maintained only 
three months a year, in wretchedly inadequate apartments, overcrowded by chil- 
dren who had no other educational advantages, would naturally be disliked by 
]»eoplc who were able to patronize the private institutions. There seems to have 
been no oj)position in Columbus to the principle of taxation fbi" school j)urj)08es. 
Within two months after the enactment of the law of 1838, which increased the 
levy for school purposes fourfold, the leading citizens of the town held public 
meetings to devise the best means of " securing uniformity of action and the 
greatest possible benefits under its provisions."' This indicated a wholesome senti- 
ment in favor of the free school s^'stem. 

Columbus deserves credit for the impulse that was given to the cause of popular 
education in 1837, and also for assistance rendered in securing the wise scIkjoI legis- 
lation of 1838. Alfred Kelley, Eej)rese!itativo of Franklin County in the General 
Assembly, who was Irom the tii'sl a warm friend of the jiublic sehool sy.->tem, in 
January, ISiiT, introduced a resolution in the House instructing the standing 
Committee on Schools to inquire into the expediency of creating the office of .State 

48 History of the City of Columbus. 

Superintendent of Common Schools. As a result of tliis movement, on March 30, 
1837, Samuel Lewis became the first incumbent of that office. By his efficiency 
and general interest and activity in the cause of education, Mr. Lewis awakened 
popular interest in that cause and secured legislation for its benefit. His travels 
over the State within the first year after his appointment amounted to over twelve 
hundred miles, and were chiefly made on horseback, the streams which he 
encountered being often crossed by swimming or rafting. He visited forty towns 
and three hundred schools, urging upon school officers "augmented interest, upon 
parents more liberal and more active cooperation and upon teachers a higher 
standard of morals and qualification." In his report to the legislature lie repre- 
sented that the spirit of the pe<)})le from the humblest cabin to the most splendid 
mansion was in favor of schools, mothers and fathers especially speaking of the 
education of their children with the utmost zeal ; that where the schools were free 
to rich and poor alike the}' flourish best. He recommended the cTeatit)n of a 
State school fund, the establishment of school libraries, the publication of a school 
journal and pro])er care of the school lands. He desired that school officers should 
make reports and was authorized to call upon county auditors for information. 

The General Assembly to which the Superintendent addressed himself was 
distinguished for its ability. In the Senate were Benjamin F. Wade, David A. 
Starkweather and Leicester King; in the House, Seabur}- Ford, William Medill, 
Alfred Kelley, William B. Thrall, William Trevitt, John A. Foote, Otway Curry, 
Nelson Barrere and James J. Faran. The clerks of the Columbus and Franklin- 
ton districts made the reports called for to the County Auditor, in whose office 
tiiey are still on file. Some of these reports have been quoted in this history, but 
it would seem that that they did not reach the State Su])erintendent, as lie does 
not mention Franklin County as one of those which i-esponded to his call for 
information. The Superintendent was seconded in his efforts to secure improved 
school legislation by some of the leading public men of Columbus, notably by James 
Hoge, Alfred Kelley, Mathew Mathews, P. B. Wilcox and Smithson E. Wright. 
Meetings were held to arouse public interest and to carry out the provisions of 
the new school law. At one of these school meetings held April 27, 1838 — Joel 
Buttles, Chairman, and Smithson E. Wright, Secretary —a committee consisting 
of David W. Deshler, Mathew Mathews, John McElvain, William Hance, Joseph 
Kidgway, Junior, E. Bixby and P. B. Wilcox were appointed a committee to 
examine the new school law and inquire what steps were necessary to be taken 
under it to secure uniformity of action and the greatest possible benefit. This 
committee was instructed to report to an adjourned meeting the result of its 
inquiries and such suggestions as it might deem appropriate and useful. 

>Sr/iO()l Kramiiicrs, 1838 to 1845. — The school examiners during this period 
were: Warren Jenkins, 1839, one year; Noah H. Swayne, 1839, two years; 
William Smith, 1839; Mathew J. Gilbert, Lewis Heyl, Doctor A. Curtis, Rev. F. 
Cressy and Abiel Foster, Junior, 1840; Samuel T. Mills and Rev. H. L. Hitch- 
cock, 1842; James K. Sinse, 1843; Charles Jucksch and Smithson B.Wright, 

The Schools. II. 49 

The passage of the law of March 7, 1838, marked a new era in the history of 
the schools. Cohuubus became, as an incorporated town, a separate school district 
over which the township trustees had no authorit}'. This g-ave it enlarged powers. 
Elected for three years, the directors were authorized not only to divide the 
district into subdistricts, but were authorized to establish sehools of different grades, 
and were directed to estimate the amount of money required additional to the dis- 
tributable funds " to provide at least six months good schooling to all the white 
unmarried youth in the district during the year ensuing." The separate school dis- 
trict, as created b}' law, comprised the incorporated territory of the town. Seven 
months later contiguous territorj^ was attached for school purposes. The manage- 
ment of the schools by a board of directors was under the general supervision of the 
corporate authority of the town, the town clerk being clerk of the school board. 
In 1838 twelve schools were maintained in the Columbus district, the amount of 
school funds being more than $3,000. Although power was given in 1839 to county 
commissioners to reduce the school levy, the amount of school taxes, as shown by 
the Auditors books, indicates that a fair assessment was maintained in Franklin 
Count}' during that time. The receipts for school purposes during seven years 
beginning with 1838-9, were, bj' years, respectively: $3,502.10; $3,182.00; 
$2,128.91 ; $2,081.79 ; $1,946.86 ; $2,212.82 ; $2,174.80 ; the average annual enumera- 
tion during this time being 1,645, and the average tax being one dollar and 
fifty cents per annum for each youth of school age. 

From 1838 to 1840 Colunibus was the battlefield upon which a great victory 
was won for the cause of popular education. The persuasive eloquence of Super- 
intendent Lewis was heard in the legislature and frequently in public meetings in 
behalf of education. Doctor W. H. McGuifey and Professor C. E. Stowe spoke on 
the same subject in the churches of tlie city. Eev. McGuffey preached on educa- 
tion in the Methodist Church on Sunday, August 26, 1838. At the Ohio Educa- 
tional Convention which met in Columbus on December 18, 1838, its Chairman, 
Rev. James Hoge, and its Secretary, Rev. F. R. Cres.sey, both of Columbus, took an 
active part in the deliberations, and Professoi's Smith and H. A. Moore, also of 
Columbus, read papers. The newspaj^ers of that day made frequent allusion to the 
cause of education, and did much to popularize the free school system. The 
increased interest in educational aftairs bore evidence to the active spirit of the new 
school law, which had stirred up the " whole commonwealth upon the subject 
of pojnilar education." 

On August 28, 1838, one of the Columbus pajjers said editorially: 

The people are becoming deeply interested in the subject. They see plainly that tlie 
.system of free common schools is, more than all other state legislation, calculated to secure to 
all equal privileges ; and since the people have taken this matter into their hands we may 
depend on its ultimate triumph. 

At an adjourned meeting of citizens held at the courtroom on Septembers, 
1838, with P. B. Wilcox as Chairman and J. C. Brodrick as Secretary, a committee 
was api^ointed to ascertain the probable cost of a suitable lot and house and to 
recommend measures relative to the common schools for consideration at a sub- 
sequent meeting. Joseph llidgway was chairnian of this committee. Another 

50 History of the Citv of Columbus. 

committee was appointed to "recommend three suitable persons as candidates for 
the office of school director of the city of Columbus "' at the " approaching annual 
school election to be holden on the tvventyfirst instant." Colonel Noble, of this com- 
mittee, reported the names of P. B. Wilcox, First Ward ; M. Mathews, Second 
Ward ; and Warren Jenkins, Third Ward. Consideration of this report was post- 
poned to an adjourned meeting in the Presbyterian Church September 11, at which 
Alfred Kelley presided and Superintendent Lewis was present. At this meet- 
ing Joseph Pidgway, Junior, in behalf of the committee on lots and schoolhouses, 
made an elaborate report which was accepted and in its main features endorsed at 
the annual school meeting. The committee expressed the belief that it would be 
necessary to make arrangements for accommodating during the current and com- 
ing year about eight hundred scholars, and suggested that the buildings should be 
large and commodious, having some pretension to architectural taste, " since the 
recollection of that house would be among the most familiar things in memory." 
The report continued : , 

Our halls for the administration of justice, our temples dedicated to the worship of the 
Almighty, are generally intended to display a taste and beauty in their designs and execu- 
tion to which we can refer with a proper feeling of pride and satisfaction. Should we not 
then feel as much solicitude to render the buildings which are intended for the education of 
our children worthy of a place amongst the public edifices toward which we might point with 
some little feeling of pride ? Is not this a matter of more deep and vital interest than 
any other winch can possibly command our attention ? Does not the earthly prosperity as 
well as the eternal welfare of our children depend wholly upon their education? It is 
important, then, to elevate the standard of morals for the rising generation; to instil into 
their nunds a love of the chaste and beautiful. Let us, then, begin by cultivating a taste for 
such things in early youth. Give them the planting of trees, and the cultivation of shrubs, 
of flowers, in a schoolhouse yard. Set before them forms of classical beauty. 

The committee recommended that a tax should be assessed, at the ensuing 
election for directors, sufficient to purchase a lot and build one schoolhouse. " The 
location of such a house," says the committee, "is a matter of little importance to 
any of our citizens, as the erection of the requisite number to accommodate all 
of our children must necessarily follow in the course of another year." The report 
proceeds to say : 

The committee recommend the erection of hut one house the present season in conse- 
(^luence of the great tax which would be entailed ujton us were we to build the required num- 
ber at tliis time It is probable also that our legislature, in the course of their next .session, 
will provide a fun<l in some way to loan to corporate towns for the purpose of education, but 
should this siOieme fail an<l direct taxation bi^ resorted to to raise the whole amount 
required the committee believe that when the houses are built and the scihools in suc- 
cessful operation, the enlianced value which will thus l)e given to all the property in this 
city will be tenfold greater than the tax to be raised. The committee would propose a build- 
ing wlucli should contain four rooms for small and two rooms for large scholars, all above the 
hasement story : the building should present a neat, chast«' front, iti strict architectural ]>ro- 
portion and should be siirmounteil by an appropriate cupola. One such huiiding would 
acconimodate from 250 to 'JSO scholars and w(! slufuld consecjuently re(iuire about three such 
houses for our present poj>ulation proviiled all the children can he sent to these schools. The 
committee consi<ler it imjtortant that the business to be tran.«acted at the meeting on Tues- 
day, the twentyfirst instant, should be fairly understood beforehand as it will be almost 

The Schools. II. ol 

impossible to discuss any subject satisfactorily on that day. After the directors are elected 
the business in its details must necessarily devolve on them. It is important therefore that 
this selection be judiciously ma<le. 

The following resolution reoom mended by the committee, iiftcr having been 
amended on motion of Colonel Noble by insertion of the words in bracUels, was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That this meeting recommend that the district meetinj,' to be holden on the 
twentyfirst instant authorize the levying of a tax of five thousand dollars for the purpose of 
imrchasin-,' a lot of ground (in the middle ward) and erecting a school house thereon, and that 
it be payable on or before the first day of January next. 

The meeting thereupon adjourned to reassemble September 21, at the council 
chamber, for the purpose of electing three school directors and of levying a tax 
for the purchase of ground and erection of schoolhouses. At the meeting held in 
pursuance of this adjournment, Doctor Peleg Sisson, Adam Brotherlin and George 
W. Slocum were elected school directors, and a tax of $3,500 was authorized. The 
school directors were at the same meeting authorized to purchase one schoolhouse 
site on Long and Third streets in the First Ward; one on Third near Rich Street 
in the Second Ward, and one on the corner of iVLound and Third streets in the Third 
Ward. On January 8, 1839, the school directors purchased of Lyne Starling for 
the sum of five hundred dollars in lot No. 531, on the southeast corner of Long 
and Third streets. On April 4, of the same year, they completed the purchase from 
E. W. Sehan of inlot No. 563, on the northeast corner of Mound and Third streets, 
now the site of the Mound Street School building. For this lot the sum of $525 
was paid. On April 8, 1839, " lor the sum of $1,200 in hand paid," Adam and 
Elizabeth Brotherlin deeded to the School Directors inlot No. 563, with school- 
house and appurtenances thereon, being the same as was deeded lo Brotherlin by 
M. Mathews, administrator of J. M. C. Hazeltine's estate. This was the middle 
lot on the oast side of Third Street between Walnut and Kich — the north half of 
the present Kich Street schoolhouse site. The building erected by the teacher J. 
M. C. Hazeltine in 1833, was a respectable oneroom frame which was used for 
school purposes until 1846, when it was sold and removed to the corner of Sixth 
and Main streets where, in a fair state of preservation, it is still standing. 

During this period public schools were generally conducted in rente<l rooms. 
Prior to 1845 the only buildings owned by the Board of Directors were the 
Academy on Fourth Street and the Hazeltine schoolhouse on Third Street. In an 
old log house still standing, on New Street, a school was kept which must have 
been of a very I'ough character, since the boys, it is said, practised such tricks as 
that of climbing on top of the house and covering the chimney with boards to 
smoke out the teacher and the school. Among the other buildings used for 
schools were the Jeffries hewed log house on Mound Street; the Baptist Church, a 
' small brick building still standing, on Front Street; an old frame and an old log 
schoolhouse, both south of Town ; a frame on the east siile of Third Street near 
Long; and an old frame on Front and Kandolph streets. From 1837 to 1839 C. H. 
Wetmore taught a district school in a hewed log schoolhouse on the northwest 
corner of Bull's Ravine and the Worthington Road, north of town. 

52 History of the City of Columbus. 

The f(»ll()\viii<r letter, wliicli u|»i>eiired in one of the eit^^ papers Mareh 22, 1839, 
illustrates tlic eilucational spirit of the coinmunit}" : 

It is not generally known in other parts of this State that there are now twelve teachers 
employed in the common schools of this city, and that the schools are free and conducted as 
nearly upon the plan of the Cincinnati schools as they can be until we have ourschoolhouses 
built, the schools being taught now in rented rooms and, of course, subject to great inconven- 
ience. There are now in daily attendance in these schools more than four hundred scholars, 
many of whom but for these institutions would not have the means of instruction, while 
children of the most intelligent and worthy citizens of the place are found in the same room 
and in the same classes ; and the progress of the pupils generally would do credit to any town 
in the State. I speak advisedly when I say that some of the common schools of Columbus, 
both male and female, are as good for the branches taught as the best private or select 
schools ; and the whole number will bear a fair comparison with any other equal number of 
schools of the same grade. These things are stated as facts, and they reflect no small share 
of credit on the members of the present Board of Directors, who have had the chief labor 
and direction in introducing so much order and advancing the schools so far in the short time 
since the work was begun. It is said that the public funds are now sufficient, without increasing 
the school tax, to keep a free school for all the children the year round, if it were not for the 
expense of renting school rooms which has hitherto been necessarily paid out of the tuition 
fund. The city has, by a vote of the people, purchased three handsome schoolbouse lots 
and levied a tax of $3,500 to pay for the same. Shall these lots remain unimproved and at 
the same time the city be taxed $600 per year for room rent for the miserable accommodations 
now furnished in the rented rooms, or shall the people borrow money enough to build at once 
the three schoolhouses that are required to accommodate the children ? The interest on the 
loan will not exceed the amount now paid for rent; the expense must be borne by the city 
and will be the same either way. Will not the parents of four hundred youth now in these 
schools, as well as all others who have the prosperity of the city at heart, take hold of this 
subject and secure convenient accommodations for their offspring? Will they suffer the 
children to contract disease and death by confinement to unhealthy rooms and seats when 
they have the right and power to secure good rooms and seats? While the State is expend- 
ing millions here for the accommodations of her legislature and olher public bodies shall 
there be no attention paid to the people's colleges ? Where are the patriotic females that sus- 
tained a charity school when there was no other sufficient provision to include the poor ? It 
will take less effort on their part to procure the erection of three good common school houses 
with four rooms each than it took them to sustain the charity schools for a few. Is the 
whole of less importance than a part, or are you unwilling to have the poor sit with the rich ? 
The very suggestion, if made in earnest, you would consider an insult. Let us all then take 
hold of this work, and by taking the only step now required, place Columbus on tbe most 
elevated ground in reference to common school advantages. 

It is not improbable that the author of this letter, V7 ho signs himself "M.," 
was Kev. Mathevi^ Mathews from whom we have elsewhere quoted, but whether it 
was from this warm friend of the common schools or not it is evidently the testi- 
mony of an intelligent and public spirited citizen. 

In November, 1840, the Directors made arrangements to open an evening 
school in the Eight Buildings for the benefit of sucli white male youth as could 
not attend a day school. Arithmetic, bookkeeping, geography and other useful 
branches were taught; the school was under the care of Messrs. Soyer and Covert. 
Each pupil furnished his own light; in other respects the instruction was free. 
The Directors also maintained a night school in the middle ward. 

The Schools. II. 


In September, 1841, Jjuues (Mieny, P. 15. Wilcox mu-I Pclcg Sisson were 
chosen School Directors lor the term of three ye.irs. The niinual report of the 
directors of tlie common schools of (;olnml)iis for the year 1S|2 shows tlic followini,^ 
facts: Since hist i)rcvioiis rcpoiM, dated Sciilcmhcr 17, 1S41, thirteen common 
schools were kept until the fiiiuls were exhausted ; one of these was German ; five 
were taught by male and eight by female teachers; spelling, reading, writing, 
arithmetic. geogra})hy and other English hranches were taught, aiuonling to the 
capacity of the chihircn ; the number of scholars varied from (500 to 750 ; pay of 
male teachers eighty and of female teachers fiity dollai-s jR-r (|u:irter; money 


drawn since last report $2,677.38, viz. : For pay of male teachers $946.90, for pay 
of female teachers $1,144.47, for rent $409.00, for w^ood $45.37, for stoves and putting 
them up $50.50, for cutting wood and sundry e.Kpenaes $81.14. These dish unse- 
ments included a portion of the expenses for the preceding year; amount still due 
on schoolhouse lots purchased $500.00; no school money likely to be in the 
treasury until the following spring. According to this report, which was sub- 
mitted in behalf of the Directors by P. B. Wilcox and addressed to " the Clerk of 
School District in Columbus," five schools taught by male teachers were kept in 
operation seven months, and those taugiit by female teachers eight and a half 

54 History of the City of Columbus. 

nioiitlis ol" lliat school year. There heiiig 1,59S childi-eii of Hchool aij^e in the 
ilistriet, forl3'eiicht |)ei' cent, oi' them were enrolled in the pnMic schools. On 
Decenibei' 2>>, 1S42, a niec1in<; of teachers and the friends of education was held at 
the ('overt Institute on Town Street and a teachers' association Ibr inijirovciuent 
of the schools and elevation of the profession of teaching was organized. The 
teachers who signed the call for this meeting were William Chapin, M. J. Gilbert, 
A. W. Penneman, W. H. Churchman, H. N. Hubbell, J. S. Brown, J. Covert and 
H. S. Gilbert. The association was maintained for many years. On April 1, 
1843, fourteen schools were opened and in the course of the year an additional 
one was organized. Of the fifteen teachers employed three were males (one a 
German) and ten were females. The Directory of Columbus, published in 1843, 
states that " the schools and seminaries of learning" comprised fifteen district or 
free schools with over seven hundred scholars; a respectable academy for both 
sexes conducted l>y llev. John Covert ; a German Theological Seminary, and "some 
half ilozen small subscri[>tion common schools."' The first annual report of the 
Board of Education made pui'suant to the law of 1845 and signed b}^ Smithson 
E. Wright, Secretary, states that when the Board entered uj)on the discharge 
of its duties on April 7, 1845, there were in operation thirteen public schools, 
of which five were taught by male and eight b}- female teachers. 

Thus it a])pears that throughout the period from 1838 to 1845, which was one 
of financial depression and slow municipal growth, from twelve to fifteen common 
schools were maintained for twentyfour to thirtyone weeks per annum, and that the 
aggregate amount expended for school purposes during the period was $17,229.18. 
From 1836 the schools were graded into at least two departments, one for the 
primary and one for the advanced scholars. The primary schools were usually 
taught by female teachers, those for the larger and more advanced pupils by males. 
The number of teachers increased during the period from twelve to fifteen in 
1843 and thirteen in 1845. Of 1,231 youth of school age in the district in 1838-9, 
six hundred, or fortyeight per cent., were enrolled in the public schools. In 1845 
the enrollment comprised only fortjthree per cent, of the school enumeration. 
While the attendance in the public schools had not kept pace with the growth of 
the population, this was chiefly due to the lack of school accommodations. The 
schools were even at that time I'egarded as " established facts and not as experi- 
ments." Their defects were beginning to be regarded as results of mistaken man- 
agement rather than of the principles of the system. 

That the common school system possessed superior advantages as a plan for 
securing general education had become evident, and the conviction had been 
deeply rooted in the public mind that it was the duty of ever}- community to 
educate all its youth. Hence all publicspirited citizens anxiously anticipated such 
legislation as would secure practical imjtrovements in the management of the 
schools. In the autumn of 1844 juiblic meetings were held for the purpose of 
awakening public interest in education for securing such legislation as would 
insure better regulation of the schools and for raising money to erect school build- 
ings. This movement took shape in an effort to secure "union graded schools." 
Its leading spirits were Joseph liidgway, Alfred Kelley, P. B. Wilcox, James 

Tfik SriTooi.s. tl. 55 

Clu'ri-v, Mathew Matliews and .1, 11. 'riioiiipson. On Deconibec 4, 1S44, Hon. 
.Joso])li Hi(li.\vjiy, Junior, IJepivHcnlative of Kraiilvlin County in tiio (Jeneral 
Assembly, introduced in the House a bill to i)rovide for the better regulation and 
support of the common schools of Columbus. This bill was endorsed by Hon. 
Alfred Kelley, then a member of the Senate, and became a law February 6, 1845. 
This statute, understood to have emanated from the pen of Joseph Ridgway, 
Junior, laid the foundation of our present public school ajstem and marked an 
important era in the educational progress of the city. 

Oiya/u'-dtion of the Schools under the Act of 1845.— ^;>;v7 15, 1845 to May 14, 
1847.— At the annual election of city officers which took place April 7, 1845, 
William Long, P. B. Wilcox, James Cherry, H. F. Huntington, J. B. Thompson and 
Smithson E. Wright wore elected common school directors. This was done in 
pursuance of the act of Febi-uary IJ, 1S45. On April IS, they organized by appoint- 
ing William Long President, S. F. Wright Secretary and H. F. Huntington 
Treasurer. Those directors and their successors in office constituted a body politic 
and corporate in law by the name of the Board of Education of the Town of Colum- 
bus. It was decided by lot that the first two of the directors above named should serve 
for thi-ee years, the next two for two years and the last two for one year. At the same 
election a vote was taken, as required by law, on the question of levying a tax for 
erecting schoolhouses, and resulted in 404 votes in favor of the tax, 211 against it 
and 501 blanks. This unfortunate result indicated apathy rather than enmity in the 
public mind with reference to the needs of the public sdiools. The |)revious Board 
of Directors, \oytx\ to the interests of the schools, served until their successors were 
qualified and then turned over to them thirteen schools then in session, five of which 
were taught by male and ciirht by female teachers. These schools had enrolled 
750 scholars. For the year 1844 5 the receipts forsehool purposes from all sources 
amounted to 12,174.81, of which sum |l,277.<*o was expended by the previous 
board ; of the remain<ler, $404.50 was disbursed prior to the first of April of that 
year. The number of schoolage youth enumerated in the ftill of 1845 was 2,430- 
the school funds for 1845-(] aggregated |3,377.:U. The city owne.l but one school- 
house, and that was the frame one already described on Third Street near Rich, 
which was becoming unfit for school purposes. The Board therefore rented 
rooms, as had previously been done, in different parts of the town. These rooms 
were generally inconvenient, badly lighted, warmed and ventilated, and so situated 
that any accurate classification or gradation was impracticable. The teachers, 
remote from each other, had few opportiiniti^R for personal intercourse, comparison 
or mutual improvement. In 1845 thirteen schools were sustained Ibr three months 
and sixteen for an average of five months each, all being suspended from the third 
until the twentyfirst of Julj-. The amount i)aid for teachers' salaries was $1,499.34. 
The whole number of pupils enrolled was about one thousand, the avei-age attend- 
ance about five hundred. The expense for the tuition of each scholar was about 
$1.50, and the cost of the tuition of each scholar in actual attendance durinu- 
the year, $3.00. , " 

At the spring election of 1840 J. P.. Thompson and S. K. Wright were reelected 
directors, and the question of a tax for building schoolhouses was cai-ried by a 

56 History of the City of Columbus. 

vote of 776 to 323. At a meeting on February 25, 1846, tlie Board ordered tliat 
the scliools should resume their sessions on the first Monday of April of that ,yoar ; 
that five male and eight female teachers should be emploj'ed, at fifty dollars for the 
first, and thirty dollars for the last named, per quarter; and that J. B. Thompson 
be authorized to provide the schools with fuel. James Cherry was delegated to~ 
furnish the schoolrooms with stoves for heating. The Board appointed P. B. Wil- 
cox and James Cherry to report ]ilans and estimates for new schoolhouses. The}' 
recommended that three onestory buildings, modeled after some " Lancastrian " 
schoolhouses in the East should be built. This recommendation being approved, 
the City Council levied a tax of ^7,500 for the proposed buildings, three of which 
were located on the sites purchased in 1839. One of these three, called the South 
Building, was located on the northeast corner of Mound and Third streets; the 
Middle Building on Third Street near Rich ; and the North Building on the 
Southeast corner of Long and Third. These buildings were completed in June, 
1847. They were each 187^ feet long and twentyfour feet wide. Each contained 
six rooms fourteen feet in depth. The end and two middle rooms were each about 
twentytwo by twenty nine feet; the remaining two were each about eighteen bv 
thirtytwo feet, in lateral dimensions. The two entrance doors each led into a hall 
extending along the side of the middle rooms of each half of the building, with 
doors opening from it into three schoolrooms. The windows were suspended by 
weights ; the ceilings were provided with ventilators and the rooms were heated 
by stoves. The middle room of each half of the building was designed for the 
large pupils, or grammar grade, and the others for the primary and secondary 
schools. The primary school rooms were furnished with single seats fastened to 
the floor and receptacles for books and slates between each two pupils. The 
secondary and grammar school rooms were furnished with seats and desks accom- 
modating two scholars each ; they were made of poplar lumber stained and 
varnished, and were comfortable, firm and "altogether respectable" in appearance. 
The amount invested by the city in these sites, buildings and furnishings was 
about S14,000. The new buildings provided a home for and gave an air of respect- 
abilit}' to the public school system. The effect of this was favorable to the cause 
of popular education both here and elsewhere. While the buildings did not con- 
form to the suggestions of the Kidgway committee of 1838 as to " strict architec- 
tural proportion" and the cupola, they did present "a neat, chaste front" and 
interior forms possessing some degree of " classic beauty." 

In June, 1846, the Board took measures to secure uniformity in the textbooks 
used. They decided to continue the use of Webster's Elementary SiJeller, 
Mitchell's Geographies, Hay's Arithmetics and Smith's Grammar, and adopted the 
Eclectic Readers. The primaiy schools were, as a rule, conducted by female and 
the more advanced ones by male teachers. The number of scholars enumerated in 
1846 was 2,129. In their second annual report, dated April, 1847, the Board states 
that fourteen teachers have been emjDloyed for four quarters. The greatest num- 
ber enumerated in any quarter was 912, and the largest average attendance 528. 
They paid for salaries for teachers 81,992.52 ; for rent, $40.25; for taking enumera- 
tion, 810.00; other incidental expenses, $11.05; total expenditures, $2,053.82. 

Till-; Sciioor.s. IT. 



The eiirolliiUMit was more tlian one lliousaiul, Hie cost of tuilioii less (lian two 
dollars eaeli. " 'V\\o expense was a little less tliaii four dollars for each scholar in 
daily attendance diirin<i^ the yeai*."" 

To Colunibus belongs the distinction of having employed the first Superinten- 
dent of Public Schools in the State. Haviui;- found it impossible to give "the 
necessary amount of pei-sonal attention to the schools and to the manageirient of 

the details ol' a school s}-steni for the eity,'' the Boai'd 
o1' K lucation cast al)out for the best nn^ins of secur- 
ing supervision. After consultation with Hon. 
Henry I)arnard, of Rliod(! Island, lion. Samuel Gal- 
loway, Secrelaiy of State, and other distinguished 
friends of education, the Boai-d decided to create the 
ottlcc of Supei-inlendcnt, and in ,Ianuar3^ 1847, 
largely u|)on t! e recommendation of Mr. Rai'nard, 
elected Asa D. JiOrd, M. D., late Principal of the 
Western JJeserve Teaidiei's' Seminary in fjake 
County, to the position. Mr. Jjonl assumed the 
duti(;s of his office May 15, 1847. About this time, 
upon solicitation of Ohio educators, Hon. Henry 
Barnai'd visited the State to aid in promoting the 
cause of popular education therein, and spent two 
weeks at the capital as the guest of Hon. John W. 
Doctor Asa D. Lord, the first Superintendent of Puhlic Schools of C<dumbus, 
was born in Madrid, St. Lawrence County, New York, June 17, LSIG. He taught 
his first school at the age of si.xteen, and in 18:]9 accepted the position of Principal 
of the Western lieserve Seminary, at Kirtland, Ohio, which was one of the first, if 
not the very first, of the noi-mal schools of the United States. In lvS43 he organ- 
ized the first teachers' institute in Ohio at Kirtland, from whence he was called to 
Columbus. Here he inaugurated the first graded schools in the State. He served 
as editor of the Ohio School Journal, the School Friend, the Public School Advocate 
and the Ohio Journal of Education. While at Kirtland he took his degree in 
medicine. In lS(i3, having completed a course in theology, he was licensed to 
preach by the Presbytery of Fraiddin. He was styled "one of the pioneers and 
masterbuilders in the educational enterprises of Ohio." He made the Ohio Insti- 
tution for the Blind, of which he was fior several years the Superintendent, "an 
honor and a blessing to the State." In 1868 he was called to the superintendeney 
of a similar institution in Batavia, New York, which position he held until his 
death in 1874. His memory is inseparably connected with the school history of 

During Doctor Lord's incumbency as Superintendent, from May 15, 1847, to 
February 25, 1854, the board entrusted to the Superintendent a general oversight 
of the schools, the examination of applicants for employment as teachers, the 
arrangement of the course of study and instruction, and the supervision, as 
Principal, of the High School. For his first years services he received $(;()(►, 

58 History of the City of Columbus. 

of which sum $100 was paid by a publicspirited citizen. The first official net of 
tlie Superintendent was that of assisting in tlie examination of cantiichites foi* the 
position of teacher. The Board of Examiners, of which the Superintendent was 
chairman, adopted from the first the plan of using printed questions and requiring 
written answers in connection witli an oral examination. At the beginning of tlie 
school year 1847 the following teachers were employed: North Building, 
D. C. Pearson, Principal, Misses Larina Lazelle, Roxana Stevens and A. N. Stod- 
dart ; Middle Building, Charles J. Webster, Piincipal, Miss Catherine Lumney, Miss 
Eoda Sinnel, Doctor and Mrs. A. D. Lord, Miss E. Fally ; South Building, Orlando 
Wilson, Principal, S. S. Rickly (German teacher), Emily J. Eicketts. To this list 
four more teachers were added during the first year. The principals were paid $-100 
per annum, the other male teachers less; the female teachers received $140 per 
annum. Before the commencement of the sciiools the teacherselect were asseml)led 
as a class and instructed as to the pro])er mode of organizing, classifying and govern- 
ing sciiools, together with the best method of teaching and illustrating the studies. 
The new schoolliouses were first opened July 21,1847, and primary, secondary and 
grammar grades were organized in each building. . At the beginning of the term 
foiuleen teacliers were employed, during the second quarter sixteen and during the 
last quarter seventeen, besides the Superintendent. The average cost of tuition and 
supervision for each of the 1750 scholars enrolled was S2.07, and for the 798 in daily 
attendance during the year $4.53 each. 

The po])ularity and growth of the schools surpassed expectation. The need of 
a lligli School for years to come had not been anticipated. So long had the people 
been accustomed to rely on private sciiools for instruction in all the higher branches, 
;ui(l so few who were able to patronize su«.'li schools had ever made api-actice of send- 
ing llu-ir ( hildren to free schools, that it was assumed that thei'c would be no 
immciiiiitc (Iciiiimd for such a depai'tment. However, soon alter the new buildings 
wi re i»((ii|)ied, applications began to l>e made (or the admission of scholars already 
loo fur iidvanced to be profited by the grammar schools, and it was perceived that 
unless instruction could be furnished to such it would be impossible to secure 
in behalf of the system the favor and cooiieration of many citizens and taxpa3'ers. 
On September 22, 1847, announcement was made in one of the daily papers that the 
Iligii School department of the ))ublic schools would be opened in the west room of 
the Middle Building on that date, and that in this apartment instruction would be 
given in the higher bjuglish branches, mathematics an<l the Latin and Greek 
languages. The advanced ]»u|)ils had evidently not been turiuKl away but had been 
organized into classes and instructed in the branches mentioned. These classes con- 
stituted, in sul)stance, a High School, but this department was not officially 
organized until two months later. Soon after the commencement of the second 
quarter the west room in the Middle Buihling was a])proj)riated by the Jioard for 
the instruction of advanced scholars under the immediate charge of the Superin- 
tendent for half of each day, while Mrs. Lord, who was an invaluable coworker with 
her husband, taught the school during the remainder of the time. Thus in 
November, 1847, the High School was formally established. 

The Sonooi-s. II. 59 

For soino tiiuo the jtropi'iely of maUing the Ili^li Seliool an integral j>art of 
the sehool ^^stem wuh earefull}^ deliherated by the Board. The eonehi.sions 
reached were : 1 . That such a department was nece.ssar}' in order to give the course 
of insti'uction its requisite conipleteueNs, .system and eiticienc}'^ and to enable it to 
meet public expectation ; 2, that the diflereiice in the average cost of tuition 
inclusive or exclusive of a High School was very trifling corajjared with the intlu- 
once and eflSciency imi)arted to the whole system by such a department; 3, that 
without sue!) a school the advanced scholars could not be properly iusti'ucted 
without neglecting the majority of the school ; 4, that thei'e was not a city in the 
Union with flourishing schools, which did not possess or contemplate such a depart- 
ment; and 5, that while more than a hundred towns and cities had established 
such a department, not one had abandoned it after trj'ing the experiment. 8uch 
are some of the considerations which induced the Board of Education to make the 
High School a ]»ei"manent part of the system, b}^ which step a more influential 
pati'onage was obtained. 

A systematic and consecutive course of study was prescribed. The required 
time for comj)leting the coui'se of study in the lower grades was from two to three 
years and in the High School four years. Pupils from five to seven years of age 
were assigned to the primary department; from seven to ten, to the secondary 
grade ; those over ten to the grammar grades, and those over twelve, who were 
prepared for it, to the High School, in which, during the year 1848, an English 
and classical course was arranged. The studies of the lower grades comprised 
exercises in elementary language sounds, spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic — 
mental and written — geography with globe and outline maps, and English gram- 
mar. In all the schools instruction was given in the meaning and use of words, 
the elements of geometry and in vocal music. 

The English course in the High School included the sciences and was fully 
equal to that of the best academies. The classical course was more extensive than 
was then required for the preparation of college students. During its second term 
this school became so large that the Covert building, now Mrs. J. J. Person's 
residence on Town Street, was rented for it, and the school was opened in that 
buihling on Wednesda}", April 19, 1848. S. S. Rickly began service as an assistant 
teacher June 5, 1848. He taughtabout one year, and on April 3, 1849, was succeeded 
by E. D. Kingsley. From May, 1849, until some time in the following winter the 
High School occupied the basement of the Reformed Church on Town Street at the 
present site of the Hayes Carriage Woi'ks. From thence it returned to the Covert 
Building, where it remained until the com])letion of the State Street building in 
1853, in which it found a home for nine years. Twentyfive pupils attended the 
High Scho^ during the first quarter, thirtythree the second and fifty the third. 

For some time the Superintendent visited the schools several times per week, 
and after the organization of the High School at least once a week, for the pur- 
pose of aiding the scholars, estaljlishing proper order and discipline and inciting 
due diligence. For the purpose of awakening deeper interest in the schools a 
series of juvenile concerts was given during the fall and winter of 1847 in the 
largest churches of the city. 



One school for partly colored children had been suatuiiicd since the passage of 
the act of IH39, and was still maintained with about fifty scholars who were 
instructed at an expense of about three dollars each. Two such schools were 
sustained in 1853. 

From the organization which took place under the law of 183H to 1845 one 
and perhaps more German schools had been maintained as a ])art of the public 
system. In 1845 there were two German-English schools, and at the beginning of 
Doctor Lord's administration three, occupying the South Building and a rented 


room. In 1S50 the three schools of this character had an enrollment of 207 

From the first, teachers were I'cquired to attend at the I'oom of the 8i4)erin- 
tendent three hours cveiy Satui'rlay morning for review of all the studies taught 
and for instruction as to tuition, government and discipline. In addition to this 
the teachei's foi'med a society for mutual im])rovement which met biweeUly. The 
visitation of teachers by one another during schooltime for profit by mutual sug- 
gestion and ol>sei"vation was requested by the Board. Besides these means of 
improvement the teachers attended county institutes which were held in April. 

The Schools. II. g- 

Al tlie close of the first yuur of Doctor Lords supcrinteiideiicy, the Bo;ird 
spoke with pleasure of the great change that had taken place in public sentiment 
in regard to the schools, and of the faithful services of the Superintendent and 
teachers, the schools having " succeeded beyond their highest expectations. ' The 
following official statement of Samuel Galloway, Secretary of State, ex officio State 
Superintendent of Common Schools, is of interest as coming fi-om a man who, with 
favorable opjiortunities, closely watched the indications of school progress: 

As evidence of the improveiuent which may, by appropriate exertions, be realized, and 
as deservedly complimentary to those who have conducted and sustained the laudable enter- 
prise, it may be stated that an intelligent citizen of this State who recently visited the public 
schools of this city remarked that their organization, mode of instruction and advantages 
were superior to those which he had seen or in which he had been educated in his native 
New England state. 

The Superintendent's salary was increased to $800 in 1848 and to $1,000 in 1849. 
In 1848-9 the average cost of tuition in all the schools for each of the 1,800 
instructed was 82.80; for those in actual daily attendance, 85.37. The cost of 
tuition in the High School was 818.60; in the grammar schools, 87.80 ; in the 
secondary, 84.15 ; and in the primary, 82.87. The price of tuition in private 
schools varied from ten to forty dollars per year. In December, 1850, evening 
schools were opened in each of the districts under the instruction of teachers of 
the grammar schools, and were attended by one hundred and fifty thi-ee scholars, 
varying in age from twelve to thirty two. 

The High School teachers and their salaries in 1850-1 were as follows: Asa 
D. Lord, 81,000; Almon Samson, 8700; Anna C. Mather, 8400. The grammar 
school teachers were, D. C. Pearson, 8500; William Mitchell, 8500 ; John Ogden, 
8500. Secondary teachers. Misses M. L. Wheeler, 8225.50 ; J. E. Welles, 8225.47 ; 
S. J. Hull, 8225.45; M. E. Eobertson, 8225.52 ; H. S. Gregory, 8225.49, and H. S. Car- 
ter, 8225.49. Primary teachers, Mrs. W. F. Westervelt, 8225.63 ; Misses M. Bunker, 
8225.60; C. E. Wilcox, 8225.47; S. S. Miner, 8225.48; Amelia Byner, 8225.55; 
P. H. Brooks, 8225.46, and Mary Sawhill, 8225.56; Mrs. M. J. Ogden, 8225.54. 
German-English teacher, Peter Johnson, 8400.60 ; Gustavus Schmeltz, 8300.51 and 
Christian Pane, 8300.96. 

In 1851, r^. Doolittle, Secretary of the Board of Examiners, reported that the 
schools had been constantly rising in public favor and confidence. The Sui^cr- 
intendent had guarded them, he said, with a parent's care and his judicious 
management and unwearied vigilance had eminently contributed to their pros- 

The enrollment in all the schools for the eight years from 1847 to 1855 was, 
respectively, 1,750, 1,800, 2,000, 2,000, 1,691, 2,400, 2,483, 2,800 ; the average 
enrollment for these years being seventyfour per cent, of theaverage enumeration. 
The number of teachers increased from seventeen to twentyseven and the annual 
expenditure from about 85,000 to 823,000. Prior to 1850 the annual school 
tax, exclusive of the sum paid to the State fund, was less than one mill })er dollar on 
the taxable valuation. In January, 1851, the German-English schools, four in num- 

62 History of the City of Columbus. 

ber, liad im ciii-ulliiic^nt of Bid ami an average daily atleiulauce of fitt}' eacli. 
Their classification was improved. 

On November 7, 1851, the Board piii-cliased a lot on Fourth and Court streets, 
93 X 120 feet, valued at $2,000, and erected thereon in 1852 a frame onestory build- 
ing, 32 by 70 feet, at a cost of $3,000. The (irerman-English schools were removed 
to this building during the winter of 1852-3. 

The present site of the Sullivant School building was purchased in 1852, 
and upon it a plain brick building, 60 by 70 feet, three stories and basement, 
was erected. Its estimated cost was fifteen thousand dollars. To this building the 
High School, which had been previously taught in the Academy on Town Street, 
was removed in 1853. These two buildings accommodated seven hundred scholars. 
In 1854-5 the instruction at the High School embraced a full English course, 
a l)usiness course and an academic course. 

The twentythrce schools taught during the last 3'ear of this administration 
were, one High School, thi-ee grammar schools, seven secoiidaiy, seven ])i'ini:irv, 
three German English, and two colored. In the course of the year two a<ldi(ional 
schools — one secondary and one colored — were o])ened. Besides the Superinten- 
dent, there were em])loycd thirtytwo teachers, eight of whom were males and 
twentyfour females. In January, 1854, the Superintendent's salary was iiici'eased 
from one thousand to twelve hundred dollars. Salaries of other teachers were 
rai.sed in ])ro])ortion. The total expense of each pupil during the year 1853-4 was 
as follows : High School, $17 ; grammar school, $13 ; secondary, $7 ; primary, $6 J 
grammar, $7 ; colored, $8. The rules adopted for school government were a<lmirable, 
as the following extracts will show: 

It shall be the constant aim of the teacliers to secure the greatest po.ssible amount of and accuracy in scholarship on tlie part of eac;li \m\n\ ; to this end tlicy shall 
be careful not to propose leading questions, or employ in their questions the language to be 
used in answering them, and not to question classes regularly in the same order ; they shall 
adopt as far as possible, the plan of reciting by to[)ics, and of preparing written at)stracts of 
the lessons ; they shall constantly aim at cultivating in their pupils the habit of selfreliance, 
of looking for the meaning of everything studied, of comprehending ideas rather than mem- 
orizing words, and of expressing their ideas clearly, correctly and elegantly ; and should 
never allow them to think they understan<l a subject till they can exjjlain it clearly and intel- 
ligently to others. 

The teachers will be expected to improve favorable opportunities for communicating 
prudential and moral instruction, to pay special attention to the physical, social and moral as 
well as the intellectual habits of their pupils, to exert over them an elevating and refining 
influence, and to inculcate both by precept and example the importance of purity, integrity 
and veracity, and of habits of industry, order, cleanliness and propriety of deportment. 

The High School graduated its first class in December, 1851, and b}^ the 
authority of the Board issued diplomas. to the graduates and honorary certificates 
to scliolars who had completed a course of two or three j^ears. The graduating 
exercises were held in the Reformed Church on Town Street. They elicited the 
following iiews])aper comments: 

A large number of our citizens have this week hail an opportunity of attending the 
examination and exercises of our public schools under the sui)erintendence of Doctor Lord, 

The Schools. II. 


and \vt* l)iit report tin- general voice when we say it has been with high gratilication and 
admiration of tlie Zealand ability of the teachers and the progress of the scholars. . . . On Tues- 
daj' evening we attended the exhibition of the schools connected with the High School at the 
Reformed Church on Town Street. The capacious building was completely and densely filled. 
The exercises were of an interesting character and well calculated to gratify the teachers, the 

Board of Education and the friends of the scholars that took 
jiart in these exercises. We cannot close this article without 
I commending the arduous labors of our city Board of Edu- 
cation in their efforts to make our public schools what 
they are. The citizens of Columbus owe them a debt of 
gratitude that they can never pay. Among the number 
let us designate one, the Hon. James L. Bates. His address 
to the graduating class on Tuesday evening was one of the 
happiest and most impressive things we have ever listened 
to in that line; and his remarks in favor of the public 
schools of the city to the audience at the close were excel- 
lent. We wish every parent in the city could have listened 
to him. 

In acceptinsi; Dr. J^ord's resignation as Sui)eriii- 
teiident of Public Instruction on February' 24, 18.i4, 
the Board of Education adopted i-esolutiuns hig'lily 
eulogistic of the efficiency and usefulness of his 

David r. Mayhew, second Superintendent of the Columbus .schools, was a 
native of New York State, and graduated in 1838, from Union College. From 
1839 to 1852, he was Principal of Lowvillc Academy. His services with the 
schools of Columbus began February 25, 1854, and ended with his resignation 
July 10, 1855. During the next ten years he filled tiie chair of Chemistry and 
Physics in the Michigan State Normal School at Ypsiianti, of which institution he 
was President from 1800 to 1871. His death took place in 1887. Under his 
administi-ation the schools vpcre opened August 21, 1854, and closed for the school 
year on June 30, 1855. They included three grammar, eight secondary, nine 
primary, tliree German and three colored schools and the High School. Night 
schools under the direction of the Board of Education were also maintained. Kev. 
Daniel Worley was appointed Doctor Lord's successor as Principal of the High 
School, but resigned November 13, 1855. J. Siiffern was appointed as a special 
teacher of music and Mr. Folsom of penmanship. These were the first special 
instructors in those departments. Superintendent Mayhew^ gave much attention 
to the improvement of the'primary and secondary departments, particularly as to 
methods of promotion, classification and conduct of recitations. On May 30, 1855, 
the Board ordered that Webster's Dictionai-y be adopted as the standard. After 
the four colored schools had been organized much zeal was show^n by the colored 
people in the education of their children, of w^hoin 33ii were enumerated and 312 
in attendance. These schools, of which two were on Ga}' Street, one on High 
and one on Town, were taught by C. H. Langston, J. A. Thompson, T. N. Stewart 
and A. E. Fuller. In the High School 150 pupils were enrolled and the average 
attendance during the year was 100. 


History of the City of Columbus. 


During the school year 1855-(;, tweiit^-sevcn schools were taught. At the close 
of the term in December, Rev. D. Worley severed his connection with the High 
School and John G. Stetson succeeded him as Principal. The enrollment was as 
follows: High School, 159; grammar, 48G ; secondary, GOG ; ])rimary, 1,262 ; Ger- 
man, 589; colored, 300. J'he Principals were: 
North Building, D. C. Pearson ; State Street, E. L. 
Traver ; South Building, George C. Smith; Mound 
Street, H. N. Bolander; Middle Building, Miss E. 
Robertson. Dui'ing the summer of 185G, the school 
houses on Mound and Long streets were enlarged 
by the addition of a twostory wing to each and by 
putting another storj^ on the middle portion. On 
July 18, 185G, an additional lot was purchased for 
the Mound Street school. 

On July 10, 1855, Doctor Asa D. Lord, who had 
resigned the year before to accept the position of 
agent for the State Teachers' Association, was 
reelected Superintendent. During his second admin- 
istration more than the usual amount of time was 
spent in the examination of classes for promotion 
and special impi-ovement was made in reading, spelling and penmanship. The 
schools for colored children were classified into two grades. Teachers' meet- 
ings, which had been mosti}' omitted for some time, were resumed. On the sub- 
ject of moral instruction, the Superintendent thus expressed himself: 

Religious culture should not be entirel.v ignored in the schoolroom. Whatever 
increases our reverence for tlie Supreme Beingaud our regard for His word, whatever height- 
ens our gense of obligation to Iliui and cherishes the desire to avoid His disapprobation and 
secure His favor, wluitever inclines us to do right because it is right, to do this in the dark 
as in the light, may be regarded as connected with religious culture. The practice of reading 
the Scriptures, of singing appropriate hymns and engaging in i>rayer, which has been pur- 
sued by a majority of the teachers has had a most excellent influence upon our sciiools and 
perliaps done more than any other thing to secure order and obviate the necessity of a resort 
to discipline. 

Having accej)ted a call to the su])erintendency of the State Institution for the 
Blind, Doctor Lord retired from the superintendency of the Columbus schools. 
He was indeed a masterbuilder in the educational enterprises of the city. 

Erasmus D. Kingsley, A. M., third Superintendent of the Columbus schools, 
was a native of Whitehall, New York, and was for one year Principal of the 
Aurora Academy. In 1848 he graduated at the New York State Normal School 
at Alban}-. Li 1848-9 he was one of the teachei-s in the Columbus High School. 
From the termination of that cng;igcment until his return to Columbus he was 
Superintendent of Public Schools at Marietta, Ohio. In 1854 he received the 
degree of Master of Arts from Marietta College. Ilis election to the superinten- 
dency ot the public schools of Colutnhus took place .Inly 11, 185G. He filled the 
position for nine years. 

Tbe Schools. II '^^ 

In 185»> the five scliool buildini^ owned bj the city wei-e that erected in ls53 
on State Street, the north, middle and south buildings, and the German school- 
house on Fourth and Court streets. Added to thes*c were rented buildings, mak- 
ing the whole number of sch.x>l room.s in use thirtjsix. On July 18, 1856, an 
additional lot be.side that occupied by the German sch.jol on the corner of Fourth 
Street and Strawberry Alley was pureha.'*e«l for §490. On February 25, 1857, the 
Board purchased a lot adjoining that occupied by the South Building and now 
forming part of the present Rich Street site. A large lot in Medary s Sub^livision, 
now fo^mins the site of the Douglas School, was bought about the same time. 
On March 20, 1858. the Board purchased lot Number 645 on the corner of Long 
and Fourth streets, then valued at S2.500. The school house sites were at that 
time estimated to be worth f 33.700, and the schwl buildings, §32,000. In 1859 the 
Middle Building was declared unfit for use, and in 1860 a plain, twostory brick 
structure of seven rooms was erected in its stead at a cost of $15,000. This was 
the third generation of school buildings on that site, and represents the prevail- 
ing style of architecture at that period. At the sugsreslion of Superintendent 
Krngsiey it was provided with cloakro;)ms. This building serve.1 as a model for 
tho.-*e afterwards erected on Third and Sycamore streets, on Sprinij Street, on 
Second Avenue, on Park Street, and on Fulton Street. 

In 1859 the Board of Education purchased -of Trinity Church for §8,820 a lot 
99x200 on the southeast corner of Broad and Sixth streets, inclusive of a stone 
foundation which bad been laid on tbe premises in 1856. On this foundation, 
originally intended as the substructure of a church, the Board erected the main 
part of the present High Sch.jol building in 1860 61 This building, opened f^^r 
u-sc at the ensuing autumn term, was at the time considered an architei-tural orna- 
ment to the city. From the northwest corner of its main part, 60x200. rose a 
tower one hundred and fifty feet in height. The first floor comprised the Superin- 
tendent s room, in the tower, three large school ro«>ms, a laboratory and an 
apparatus TOf*m. On the second floor were three school rooms, a library and a 
reading room. On the third floor a large room for chapel exercises and an 
audienl-e room were arranged. The building cost §23,400, and accommodated 
about three hundred pupils. A few year> later some contiguous ground was pur- 
chased and two additions to the building were made. 

During Mr. Kingsley s administration the number of buildings belonging to the 
Board increased to twelve : the number of school rooms fr»jm thirtysix to fifiyseven 
and the number of teachers from twentyseven to sLxtythree: the number of school- 
age youth from 4,366 to 7,759, and the enrollment from 2,881 to 4,148 in 1864. 
Notwithstanding the distractions of the CivU War. the average daily attendance 
increased from fii\yone per cent, in l-5f^-7 to seventvfive per cent, in 1864-5. and 
fiftyone per cent, a year later. , 

In 1856-7 the Board had under Us supervisiuu twentynvo English, four 
German and three colored schools. Of the forty teaehers employed, ten were 
males- Special teachers were engaged for classes in German, French, penmanship 
and niusic. The German language was taught in the High School by C. E. Boyle, 
and mu^ic in all the schoofs bv S. B. Phipps. The teacher of writing was 


History of the City of Columbus. 

Mr. Rittenberg; of French, Adolph Mott. In 1859 the Principals wore: High 
School, Horace Norton; grammar, State Street Building, A. W. Train; North 
Building, Osmer W. Fay; Middle Building, J. B. Peck; South Building, 
CI. W. Hampson ; Gorman schools, H. N. Bolandor ; colored schools. J. A. 


T'hoinpsoii. The buildings wei-e at that time crowded to tlioir utmost capacity. 
The total attendance numbered 2,000 children, of whom 388 wore in the German 
schools and 120 in the colored. During Mr. Kingsley's administration the rules 
governing the schools were made more ample and explicit and the courses of 

The Schools. II. 67 

study were revised. The classification was chnnged fi-oin four to five depai'tinents, 
designated primary, secondary, internicdiate, grammar and liigli. The grounds 
appurtenant to the buildings were enlarged and so divided as to provide separate 
plaj'grounds for the sexes, whicli were also separated in the High School. Pro- 
grammes designating the hours of" study and the daily exercises were prepared for 
the use of teachers, and special ])ains were taken to secure uniformity in the 
studies of each grade. Natural methods of instruction were adopted and special 
attention was given to the elementary branches, particularly reading and spelling. 
The office of principal of the scliools of the district, or building, was created. In 
1856 Mr. Ivingsley introduced the word method of instruction in reading. This 
method he thus defined : 

Instead of commencing with the alphabet, the child is tanjiht at once a few easy and 
significant words from cards or blackboard; these words are then combined into short and 
simple sentences. The scholars are required to reproduce each lesson on their slates as an 
exercise in spelling, and to impress the words more firmly on their minds. The parts that 
compose the words are frequently dwelt upon and by such means the child learns tlie force 
of letters better than in any other way. Tlie names of the letters can soon be taught by 
occasionally calling the attention of the scholars to them as they occur in words. It 
has been the universal testimony of teachers that by the word method in a single term 
children can be taught to read fluently in easy reading. The only practical use of spelling is 
the proper arrangement of tlie letters that enter into the construction of words in written 
composition. The old routine mode of teaching by pronouncing columns of words to be 
spelled orally failed to secure the desired end. There is no certainty that scholars who have 
been taught to spell orally, correctly, can write the same words without making nnstakes, 
but it is certain that those who spell correctly in writing will be prepared, if necessary, to 
spell audibly ; hence, written exercises should be mididy relied upon in teaching. Oral spell 
ing is simply a tax of the memory ; written exercises in spelling are mental and mechanical, 
and correspond with practice in after life. 

Pupils entei'ing the primary" grades were required to furnish themselves 
with slates and pencils. From the organization of the schools under Doctor Lord, 
it had been the custom to invite committees of citizens to visit them, assist in the 
examinations and make reports to the Board. The course in music was by order 
of the Board confined to the grammar, intermediate and secondary schools, and 
the music instructor, Mr. Phipps, was provided with a room at each of the bui'd- 
ings where he had the same control of his pupils as that exercised b}' other teach- 
ers. The average age of the pupils in 1857, was thus stated : Primary, seven and 
onefifth j'^ears; Secondary, eight and fiveninths years; Intermediate, eleven and 
onefourth j^ears ; Grammar, thirteen and onehalf years ; High School, sixteen 
years; average in all the departments, eleven years. 

In 1858, Mr. Joseph Sullivant, a devoted and useful promoter of the educational 
interests of the cit}', procured for the High School, at great personal sacrifice of 
time and effort, a wellselected collection of apparatus to illustrate the principles of 
natural science, including Obcrhauscr's achromatic compound microscope, a solar 
and oxyhydrogen microscope, Atwood's machine illustrating laws of gravitationi 
working models of the electric telegra])h, an extensive set of electrical apparatus, 
a powerful magic lantern, and various other interesting articles. 


History op the City of (^olumhiis. 

Niujlit schools and teachers' meetings were maintained throui^hout this admin- 
istration, which was a period of steady growth and prosperit}-, signalized by 
increased patronage and improved equipments. In 1801, (leorge E". Twiss suc- 
ceeded T. H. Little as J'rimipal of the Third District. 

Until 18t)4, the members of tlic JJoard were elected on 
a general ticket by the whole city, but in that j^ear a 
special act, drawn by J. J. Janney, was passed changing 
the time of election and authorizing each ward to choose 
a member of the Board. The first election by wards in 
pursuance of this law took place April 11, 18G4, and the 
Board thus chosen organized in the ensuing Maj' by 
%, ^^^^^^Hj^K^^H electing Frederick Fieser as its President and H. T. 
Chittenden as its Secretary. E. D. Kingsle}' was at the 
same time reelected Superintendent and Jonas Hutchin- 
son was chosen as Principal of the High School. Hon. 
Thomas W. Harvey, then of Massillon, was elected 
Superintendent of the Columbus schools on July 10, 18G5, 
WILLIAM .unciiEj,L. byt decHncd the appointment. 
William Mitchell, A. M., fourth Superintendentof the Columbus Public Schools, 
elected September 11, 1865, was educated at the Ashland (Ohio) Academj^, under 
Lorin Andrews, and received the degree of Master of Arts from Kenyon Col- 
lege. Prior to his teaching service here he had been Superintendent of Schools 
at Fredericktown, Norwalk and Mt. Vernon. In 1862 he entered the National 
Volunteer Army at the head of a company. In the position of Superintendent of the 
Columbus schools he served six years. Subsequently he practised law in Cleveland 
and removed from thence to North Dakota, where he was elected State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction and died in March, 1890. 

Until 1867 one of the members of the Board of Education served as its 
Treasurer, but in that year a special act was passed by virtue of which the 
Treasurer of the County became e.r officio Treasurer of the School District. 

Under Captain Mitchell's administration, as had been the case before, the 
school buildings were overcrowded ; accordingly, additional grounds were pur- 
chased. These acquisitions in 1866 comprised three lots on the northwest 
corner of Park and Vine streets, and one on the corner of Third and Sj^camore. 
On each of these tracts a brick building costing about $15,700 was erected, hi 
1867 six lots on the northeast corner of Spring and Neil streets and five on East 
Fulton Street were purchased at a cost, in each case, of about five thousand 
dollars. In 1868 a building was completed on each of these tracts, the whole cost 
being $34,000. These four buildings were all patterned after that on Rich Street. 
They were of two stories, plain, and contained besides an office and a recitation 
room, three school rooms each. 

In 1870 the old State Street building was condemned and in 1871 the Sullivant 
building, so named in honor of Joseph Sullivant, who had done so much for the 
cause of education in the city, was erected at a cost of .$68,992.27. It is an impos- 
ing structure and was the beginning of another era in local school architecture 

The Schools. U. "69 

although not. except in size, subsequently patterned aftei- in other IniiUlings. It 
contained originally nineteen rooms including one for reception and an offiee. 
Two playrooms were provided in the basement. The lurnishings, wiiicii were 
very complete, included an electrical clock and a system of signals from the prin- 
cipal ortice to the other rooms — a contrivance constructed under the direction of 
Protessor T. C. Mendenhall, who was at that time teaching in the High Sehool. 
The Central German building, corner of Fulton and P'ourth, was completed the 
same year; cost, 817,981.14. Thus, within tiie six years of Captain Mitchell's 
administration, six buildings with an aggregate .seating capacity of about three 
thousand, were erected; aggregate cost, §174,530.27. This increased the number 
of buildings from ten to nineteen and more than doubled the rooms available. 

The school enumeration in 18t55 was 8,216 ; in 1871 it was 10,117. The aver- 
age daily attentiance increased meanwhile from 2,773 to 3,70.'). From §70,786.78 
in 1866, the annual expenditures increased to 8140,229.95 six j'ears later. This 
shows that the educational progress of the city kept abreast with its material 
growth. In 1865-6 the number of children instructed was 4,087; in 1870-1 it was 
5^683 — in each case over fifty per cent, of the enumeration. The number of 
teachers increased during this time from sixtyfive to ninetyfive. In 1869 the 
city was divided into nine school districts. The schools were still classified into 
five grades, with a grammar department, when practicable, in each subdistrict. 
The school 3'ear, beginning on the first Monday in September, comprised three 
terms aggregating forty weeks. The rules and regulations were revised and in 
large part remained unchanged for several years. The course of study was rear- 
ranged, but still covered a period of nine years excepting the High School course. 
These nine grades were designated as Lower and Higher Primary, Lower and 
Higher Secondary, Lower and Higher Intermediate, and C, B and A grammar. 
The High School course of four years compri-sed the Freshman, Sophomore, Junior 
and Senior Departments. The textbooks then in use were Webb's Word Method, 
McGutfey's Headers, De Wolf's Speller, Guyofs Geography, Stodilard's Arithmetics, 
Quackenbos's English Grammar and Rhetoric, Sclmabel's Erstes Deutsches Sprach- 
buch, Berthlet's and Adlers German Readers, Goodrich's United States His- 
tory, Worcester's General History, Youman's Chcmistr}-, Gray's Botany, Rays 
Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry, Spalding's English Literature, Woodbury's 
German Grammar and various textbooks in the languages. The methods of instruc- 
tion were those most approved by the leading educators of the time. Children under 
six years of age were not received, although the legal school age was not raised from 
five to six j-ears until four years later. Special attention was given lo school dis- 
cipline and government. Contemptuous language, passionate reproof and the imposi- 
tion of additional tasks as a penalty were held to be improper modes of punishment, 
and teachers were adnionished that their fitness would be judged in great measure 
by their ability to maintain good discipline by mild measures and gentle influences. 
Success in government took rank before length of service or variety of scientific 

Guided by such enlightened sentiments, the teachers sought opportunity for 
professional improvement, regularly attended the teachers' meetings, collected libra- 

'^^ History- OP the City of roLuMBUs. 

rios and r()()p('r!it(>(l zealously and harmoniously with the Superintendent and the 
Boanl. Corporal imnishment averaged one case in a school of fifty every twenty- 
tive days; tardini'ss avera,u;ed one case to one hundred and twenty days of attend- 
ance ; the truanc}' record showed one case to every thirteen j)npils enrolled. Oidy 
sixtyfour scholars wei'e re|>orted to the Superintendent for infractions of the rules. 
"Compared with loi-nier ^-ears,' says the Superintendent, "those items, though 
quite too large, show a satisfactorj' falling off." The final examinations of each 
year were us far as possible written. Advances from class to class and from grade 
to grade were made on the ground of scholarship simply, but honorable promo- 
tion could take place at any time on the ground of good conduct united with good 
scholarship. The names of all pupils found worthy of honorable promotion were 
inscribed on a Table of Honor. Pupils whose general standing reached ninety per 
cent, or over were exempt from examination. A general standing of at least 
ninety per cent, was a necessary condition to honorable promotion. Pupils whose 
general standing was below sixty per cent, were classified without examination in 
the next lower grade except that when such low standing was due to |)rotracted 
illness the scholar could be examined and passed with his class on condition. 
Pupils whose general standing was between sixty and ninety per cent, were 
examined and obliged to make an average of seventy per cent, or be set back to 
the next gi'ade below. 

Frederick Fieser, President of the Board in 1S69, called attention to the 
fact that the school attendance was proportionately larger in Columbus than in 
any other city of the State, and in his annual report of the same year the Super- 
intendent said: 'There is no (^ity in the State nearly equal in size to Colum- 
bus which has in its High School an enrollment and attendance as large in propor- 
tion to the enrollment and attendance in the other grades." 

Superintendent Mitchell resigned August 25, ISliS, and S. ,J. Kirkwood was 
elected to succeed him, but Professor Kirkwood declined and thereupon Mr. 
Mitchell was reelected at a largely increased salary. 

Prior to 1871 the buildings in which the colored schools were conducted were 
unsuitable both in character and in situation, but the active efforts of a few leading 
colored citizens, among whom were W. Ewing, W. H. Roney, James Poindexter, 
Butler Taylor, J. T. Williams, James Hall, J. Freeland, J. Ward and T. J. Washing- 
ton, brought the subject pron\inontly before the public, and on May 23, 1871, 
the Board of Education decided to reconstruct the school building on the corner of 
Long and Third streets and assign it to the colored schools. At the suggestion of 
Mr. Andrews it was designated as the Loving School, in honor of Doctor Starling 
Loving, the member of the Board who had been the prime movei- in its establish- 

In the fifth and sixth districts, comprising the southern ])art of the city, 
the children were taught to read German and afterwards English ; subsequently the 
reading exercises comprised both languages. The schools of the eighth district were 
exclusively for colored children, whose thoroughness and vaiv, of jirogress, said the 
Superintendent, compared favorably' with the achievements in the other schools. 
Male principals were employed in each district which contained a large building, and 

The Soiioni,s. II. 



were ehiirifc*! with eiitorcoinent of tlie rei;uljiti(ms of tlie 15o;u-(l. It was iiiude the 
duty of each pi-incipal to visit all the rooin.s under his chargo at least three times a 
week and announce " hy the riui^-inu;- of the hell the hour of beginning and closing 
school, recesses and recitations." J^uringthis administration the average attendance 
varied from ibrtyeight to filtyseven per cent., and the average daily attendance 
from sixtyfour to seventyfour per cent, of the enrollment. 

Robert W. Stevenson, A. M., the tifth Superin- 
tendent of the Columbus schools, was a native of 
Zanesville, Ohio. His election to that position took 
|)Iace July IH, 1S71. He had previously performed 
similar service at Dresden and Norwalk, in this 
State. As subsidiary to his professional duties he 
took an active part in educational societies and 
movements, and was a frequotit contributor to the 
current educational literature of the da}'. In 1889, 
lie was appointed Superintendent of Public Schools 
at Wichita, Kansas, a position which he, at the 
pi'csent time, continues to occupy. During his long 
administration of the schools of this city, their devel- 
0])ment in extent and usefulness was steady and 
gratifying. Prior to 1875, one of the members of 
the Board of Education acted as its Secretary- 
From 1875 to 1885, Granville A. Frambes, who was Assistant Superintendent, 
served also as Clerk of the Board, l)eginning with a salary of $1,200, which was 
increased to $2,200. In 1885, O. E. D. Barron was elected Clerk at a salary of 
$1,200, and now holds the jiosition at a salary of $2,100. 

By the extension of the corporate limits of the city in 1872, the following 
s^iool property came into the possession of the Board : Franklinton Building — 
the Old Courthouse — total value $1,890 ; Mount Airy Schoolhouse ; Friend Street 
Schoolhouse ; Mount Pleasant Schoolhouse; North Columbus Schoolhouse, total 
value, $3,620; South German Schoolhouse; North High Street Schoolhouse; 
Johnstown Road Schoolhouse; East Broad Street Schoolhouse; all of which except 
the Franklinton Building were suburban. In 1873, the Fieser school building and a 
twostory, fourroom building on East Main Street and Miller Avenue were erected. 
In 1875, a fourroom addition to the Fieser school was built. The Douglas school, 
fifteen rooms, was erected in 1876, and in the same year a sixroom addition was 
made to the High School. Most of the large buildings were heated by steam and 
supplied with water by the Holly system. 

In August, 1879, the corner stones were laid of a twelverooni building on the 
corner of Third and Mound streets, of a fourroom building on the site of the Old 
Courthouse in Franklinton and of another fourroom structure on Northwood 
Avenue and High Street. In 1882, the Loving School building was abandoned 
and sold. The Garfield School building, on the southeast corner of Garfield and 
Mount Vernon avenues, was built in 1881-2. In 1882, nearly all the schools were 
provided with slate blackboards, and during the same year a tract of ground 187^ 

'- History op the City op Columbus. 

feet square on the northeast corner of Front and Long streets was purclinsed at a 
cost of $41,977.10. On the ground thus acquired a tlireestory building which cost 
$54,783 was erected in 1885. A tract measuring 145x2(j2^ feet on the corner of 
Fifth Avenue and Highland Street was purcliased June 3, 1884,and two years hiter 
a threestory building of tifteen rooms was erected thereon at a cost of $40,(i7(1.48. 
This was the last of the threestory schoolhouses, the building committee of the 
Board having made it plain that l)uildings of two stories were more convenient, 
economical and conducive to health. I'he average cost per schoolroom of eighteen 
of the principal school buildings of the city at that time was $3,200, wliilc the 
average cost per room of the threestory buildings was $3.5()0, and of the twostoiy 
buildings S3, 141. Tlie entire school proj>ertv controlled by the Board in ISSO had 
an estimated value of $700,000. The Ruttan-Smead system of warming and venti- 
lating was about this time introduced in several of the buildings ; most of them have 
since been equipped with it. 

On June 14, 1887, six lots extending from Reinhard Avenue to Siobert Street, 
east of the City Park, were purchased for $3,G00, and on the same date a site on 
the southeast corner of Twentieth Street and Mount Vernon Avenue, 200 x 150 
feet, was purchased for $5,500. On June 28, 1887, the Board purchased a site on 
the corner of Eighth and Wesley avenues for $7,500, and in the following ^^ear a 
twostory, tearoom building was erected on the Siebert Street ground and a twostoiy, 
fifteenroom building on Tweutythird Street. In 1884 the Board of Education 
created the office of Superintendent of Buildings, at a salary of $1,200, and Henry 
Lott was elected to that position. The office was abolished three years later, but 
was again established in 1888, at which time it was conferred upon Frederick 
Schwau at a salary of $1,800. In 1890 Schwan was succeeded by Frederick 

During the eighteen years of Mi-. Stevenson's administration the extent and 
value of the school jH-operty of the city were largely increased and many improve- 
ments w^ere made in the equipments of the schools. The few oldfashioned double desks 
which remained in the buildings in 1871 were soon displaced by single desks. The 
amount expended for slate blackboards alone was, in 1882, $1,751.75. Much atten- 
tion to the ventilation, lightiug and sanitation of the buildings was given. Radical 
changes in the organization were made. On July 12, 1871, a plan reported from 
the Committee on Salaries was adopted by which the city was divided into three 
school departments or districts, each to be composed of subdistricts, and a male prin- 
cipal for each department and a female one for each subdistrict were provided for. E. 
P. Vaile, Alfred Humphreys and C. Forney were elected supervising principals of 
the three departments, among which the schools were divided as follows: 1, Park 
and Spring Street schools and the suburban ones in the northern part of the city; 
2, the SuUivant school, the Middle Building and the schools of Franklinton and 
"Middletown" (Fieser); 3, The South Building, the (rerman-English schools 
and the suburban ones in the eastern and southern portions of the city. A female 
superintendent was placed in charge of each largo building, and the A-Grraramar 
classes which had been distributed among six buildings were united in three 
classes, of which two were assigned to the SuUivant and one to the Central Ger- 

TiiK Schools. II. 7^3 

iiKVii-Kiiio-lisli scliool. The duties of Mr. Vuile vvcu'c divided, upon his resignation, 
whieli soon took' place, between the two reniainint;- supervising- principals. The 
course of study was thoroughly' revised and its length reduced from thirteen years 
to twelve. The grades wei-e designated as A, B, and D Primary and A, B, C 
and 1) (rrammar. The elements of zoology, botany and phj'sics were introduced, 
and in tlie grammar grades one hour per week was devoted to oral instruction in 


these sciences. To secure full and accurate statistics of the work performed new 
blanks for teachers' reports were prepared. In lieu of the practice of marking 
daily recitations, periodical examinations were adopted. On the basis of these 
examinations many promotions from lower to higher grades took place; the 
standing shown by the examinations was considered in the promotions made at 
the end of the year. Meetings of teachers for discussion and comparison were fre- 


History of the City of Colttmbus. 

(juent. Tlic salaiy of tlic Supcriiitcndont was raised to $:),0()0; of tlic assislanls 
to 11,500 each ; of the Principal of tlio High .Sciiool to $2,000; of the ].i'iiicii).ils of 
the Grammar and Primary departments from $S00 to $1,000; of the other teachers 
the salaries varied from |400 to $700, according to efficiency and experience. T. C. 
Mendenhall, then teaching in the High School, gave, outside of school hours, a 
course of triweekly lectures on ph3\sic8 for the benefit of the teachers. Visiting 
committees whose duty it Avas to inspect the various grades to which they were 
assigned at least once a month, and to attend and report upon the public exaniina- 
tions, were appointed by the Board. The standard of ])roficiency required in the 
High School was fixed at sixty per cent, as the minimum in any one study and at 
seventy per cent, as a general average. The requirement for ]iromotion from the 
A-Grammar grade to the High School was fortyfive per cent, minimum and sixt}' 
per cent, as the general average; in the B, C and D Grammar and the Primary 
grades forty per cent, was the minimum and sixty the general average. As the 
years passed, this standard was raised. 

At the end of the school year 1872-3 Professor T. C. Mendenhall retired from 
the High School to assume the duties of Professor of Physics in the Ohio Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College. Albert G. Farr, who had for several years 
been associated with Professor Mendenhall in the High School, was elected teacher 
of physics. Soon after the beginning of the school year 1873, C. F. Krimmel 
I'csigned from the duties of Assistant Superintendent, which were thereupon 
assumed by the Superintendent and his remaining assistants. Drawing and music 
were made prominent features of the course of instruction, which was revised from 
tin\e to time accoriling to the suggestions of experience. In accordance with sug- 
gesLions from the Board, additional time was given to English literature and com- 
position, and courses denominated English, German-English, Latin-English and 
Classical wci-e ju'ovided for. The English course was one of three years; the 
others contained English literature in their first and last years. In 1877 the three- 
year and the classical courses were abandoned and the other two were combined 
with elective studies and English through most of the curriculum. In 1884 Greek 
was dropi)ed from the High School and in 1885 a " business course " was adopted. 

The German-English schools have always formed an integral part of the 
Columbus system, of which they have constituted a proportion varying from one- 
eighth to onefourth. Generously sustained, they have also been wisely directed 
and have been patronized by many native American families on account of their 
superior advantages for language study. They send up to the High and Normal 
schools pupils of unusual thoroughness in scholarship. In 1872 they were attended 
by over fifteen hundred, and in 188G by more than three thousand scholars. They 
were mostly located in the southern part of the city. The study of German was 
permitted only on the request of parents and was found to be no hindrance but 
rather an advantage in the completion of the English course. Institutes for the 
teachers of the city began to be held in 1874 and were frequently visited by dis- 
tinguished educators from abroad. A City Teachers' Association, organized in 
October, 1880, was maintained for several years afterwards. In 1875 the sujjer- 

TnK Schools. II. 75 

vising Ibi'cu \\■a^^ ruduced l>y uddiiig llie duties of the (Jlcrlc of llie l)0:ii-d of I^]diicu- 
tion to those of the Assistuiit Superintendent. 

At the recjuest of the National Bureau of Education at Washington the Boar<i 
prepared an exhibit to represent the schools of Columbus at the Vienna Exposi- 
tion in 1S7S. Por this purpose the manuscripts of the scholars in the monthly 
examination of January, 1872, were bound in eleven volumes, eacii containing 
about one thousand pages. For those papers and accompanying reports a diploma 
of merit was awarded. At the Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia in 1876 
the Columbus schools were represented by an educational exhibit consisting of 
twenty volumes, eighteen of which were wholly the work of the pupils. Each 
volume contained about eight hundred pages. By invitation, an exhibit of draw- 
ing from our schools was made at the New Orleans Exposition of 1884. Premi- 
ums for the art work of pupils of the Columbus schools have frequently been 
awarded at the Ohio State Fair; the number of such premiums conferred at the 
Fair of 1883 was twentyfonr. During the same 3'ear specimens of art work from 
our scIkioIs, in such number as to cover over one thousand square feet of wall 
space, were exhibited at an educational exposition held at Madison, Wisconsin, and 
elicited high commendation. 

In 1874 a class of colored pupils applied for admission to the High School, and 
all of the applicants who passed the examination were received. The next step in 
the solution of this problem was to admit colored pupils to the schools for 
white children, which was done without difficulty and with only one protest. The 
third step was the distribution of the two bigher Grammar grades of the separate 
colored school to the buildings occupied by white children. By resolution of the 
Board the Superintendent was instructed in 1881 to place all pupils in buildings in 
the districts where they dwelt, and at the opening of the schools on Monday, 
September 5, of that year, the colored people availed themselves of this privilege. 
The principal of the Loving School had only four pupils in his room ; one or two 
other teachers had only a few. The final step in this movement was taken 
February 21, 1882, by the sale of the building which had been used exclusively for 
colored children. This resulted in the distribution of all the colored j^outh of 
school age to the other buildings. 

In 1883, in order to relieve the crowded condition of the High School, a branch 
of that institution was established in the Second Avenue building with C. D. Everett 
as Principal and Miss Eosa Hesse as assistant. 

During this administration the number of schools increased from lOU to 108; 
the number of pupils in the High School from 211 to 652 ; the number in the 
grammar grades from 1,714 to 3,617; in the Primary, from 4,129 to 7,227 ; and the 
number of teachers from 110 to 229. In 1881 Mr. A. G. Farr severed his con- 
nection with the High School, of which he was an alumnus, after a service of eleven 
years. Mr. Abram Brown was reelected as Principal of the School, the general 
progress of which, particularly in the department of pbysics, pi'obably surpassed 
that of any similar institution in the State. 

Jacob A. Shawan, A. M., sixth Superintendent of the Columbus schools, 
elected on June 11, 1889, is a native of Wapakoneta, Ohio, and a graduate 

7^ History of the City of Columbus. 

of Obcrlin College. At the time of his call to Columbus he was at the 
head of the public schools of Mount Vernon. His activity in educational associa- 
tions and movements has been marked. During his administration numerous 
improvements to the school property of the city have been made, among which 
may be mentioned the Eighth Avenue building and an addition to that on East 
Friend Street, both erected in 1889; the Fair Avenue building and thi-ee additions 
erected in 1890, and four other buildings and additions now in course of construc- 
tion. In conjunction with this enlargement of material facilities the rules and regu- 
lations and the courses of study have been carefully revised. More time has been 
given to reading, arithmetic, geography and history, and less to music and draw- 
ing. The series of textbooks entitled " Classics for Children " has been adopted 
for supplementary reading in the grammar grades. The course in United States 
Historj' has been extended from one to two years, and a s])ecial course preparatory 
to the Ohio State University has been introduced in the Hitrli School, the other 
courses of which have been so arranged as to afford time for careful review of the 
common branches during the last half of the senior year by candidates for the 
profession of teaching. Enforcement of the compulsory school law and supervision 
of the night schools have been added to the other duties of the Superintendent. 
In pursuance of the compulsorj^ law, David O. Mull was elected truant officer, but 
a conservative course has been pursued in the sentence of delinquents to the 
Eeforra Farm, and the law has been so administered as to commend it to popular 
favor while increasing the school attendance. Mr. Mull having died, John E. Jones 
was elected his successor. For the benefit of children affected by the compulsory 
law, who were unable to attend day school, night schools have been conducted 
about two months during the winter season and were attended in 1890 by 434 
persons; in 1891 by 796. 

During the first year of Mr. Shawan's service the following plan of promotions 
was announced : 1. The teachers to make an occasional estimate of the daily 
work of each pupil in each study, to constitute the grade in recitations; 2. Three 
regular written examinations to be held during the .year, the third covering the 
work of the entire year including that graded ; 3. An estimate in habits of study 
to be made once or more per year as a test of the dcgi^ee of ap])lication ; 4. Pu])ils 
sustaining an average grade of eightyfive or more in any stud}^ taking the three 
foregoing elements into account, to be excused from final examination provided 
the standing in deportment is eightyfive or more ; 5. Seventy to be the passing 
grade in each branch of studj^ This ])lan has proved satisfactoi-y and has been 
applied, in substance, to the High School. In the lowest primary grades instruc- 
tion in reading is begun with the sentence method, "as children comprehend 
a simple thought ex])i'essed in words more readily than they do an idea as 
expressed by a single word." Further on, a com])ined method is used embracing 
the good points of the word and phonic methods. On January 1, 1892, C. W. 
Slocum was api)ointed special teacher of ]jenmanshi|», and recently the 15oard has 
engaged Anton Ij'Mbold as a special instructor in jihysical culture. The classifica- 
tion of theschools has remained substantiallx- unchanged; in buildings of less than 
twelve rooms the principals are held res])oiisible for the g(A'ernmcnt of the entire 

The Schools. II. ^;. 


building; in buildings containing twelve or more rooms the principals teach cer- 
tain classes regularly, give model lessons for inexperienced teachers and take per- 
sonal charge of the backward pupils ; the principal of the High School teaches 
from one to two classes regular!}-. 

"When women were first employed as principals, it was done as a matter of 
economy and with numy misgivings as to the success that would attcn<l this inno- 
vation ; but experience has justified the step to such an extent that the Board has 
adopted the equitable rule that salaries in school work should be based on the 
character of the service performetl without regard to sex, and in accordance with 
this enlightened view, the Board of Education, on June 17, 1890, placed the 
fenuile teachers in the High School on the same basis as to compensation as 
the male teachers, which is to say, they w-ere to receive |1,000 for the first year's 
service and an increase of $100 per year until the maximum of $1,500 should be 
reached. As early as 184G Samuel Galloway recommended the substitution of 
female for nuile teachers, but not merely as a measure of economy nor from the 
weightier consideration that the schools could be maintained for a longer period; 
but from the "conviction that more eminent moral and intellectual advantages 
would result to the country.'" "Woman," said he, "appears to be Heaven-anointed 
for ministering in the sacred temple of education." 

" I am glad to be able,"' says Superintendent Shawan, " to testify to the pro- 
fessional spirit of our teachers."' The Columbus Educational Association has a 
large membership, and the various reading circles organized under the direction 
of the Ohio Teachers' Eeading Circle have an aggregate membership of 181, 
Columbus having a larger membership than anj other city in the State. The 
enrollment in the High School now exceeds one thousand ; in 1889 it was 652. 

Instruction in music, introduced in 1854, has ever since been included in the 
course of study. Its early teachers were Messrs. Dunbar, Phipps, VanMeter, Carl 
L. Spohr, Carl Schoppelrei and Hermann Eckhardt. Professor Eckhardt resigned 
in 1873 and was succeeded by J. A. Scarritt. Mason's Natural Music Course, 
known as the Boston System, was adopted. In 1880, Miss Mary II. Wirth, a 
teacher of ability, was placed in charge of the department of music in the High 
School. On June 29, 188G, Professor Scarritt resigned. His successor was W. H. 
Lott, by whom the course of musical instruction was revised and the National 
Music Course was adopted. In 1888 he was directed by the Board to give special 
instruction to all the teachers who were unable to teach music satisfactorily. His 
salary was raised during the same year to two thousand dollars. On the occasion 
of the recei)tion of General Grant in 1878 a chorus composed of two thousand 
school children under the direction of Professor Scarritt rendered the song of 
welcome written for the occasion. "The singers were massed in the liotunda of 
the Statehouse and made its arches ring with earnest, joyous welcome." One of 
the memorable features of the opening day of the Ohio Centennial in 18S8 was the 
rendering, under direction of Professor Lott, of the Centennial song by a c-hil- 
drens chorus of one thousand voices. Ilecently the Board of Education has 
adopted a rule that every teacher shall be qualified to give instruction in 


Ill 1872 instruction in drawing was given b}' the teacher of peninanship. At 
a later dater Walter Smith's sj'steni of industrial drawing was introduced and Pro- 
fessor William Briggs, of Boston, was engaged to instruct the teachers and mark 
out a graded course in this branch. Before the opening of the schools in the 
fall of 1874, Professor Walter S. Goodnough was elected Superintendent of Art 
Education at a salary of $1,500. A graded course of Art instruction was intro- 
duced, drawing classes were organized, and on November 18, 1875, .a free even- 
ing art school was opened which continued for some time with an average 
attendance of from fort}' to fifty pupils. A room was specially fitted up for 
drawing purposes in the High School and was sup])lied with a generous collec- 
tion of examples and models. N. Neale Stewart, who had for some time been 
special teacher of drawing in the High School, resigned in 1879 and was succeeded 
by Miss Helen P'raser. The salary of Professor Goodnough was raised in 1882 to 

Under his supervision the course in drawing developed into a s^'stem of 
manual training. In December, 1890, Professor Goodnough resigned to take 
charge of a similar department in the schools of Brooklj-n, New York, and Miss 
Helen Fraser was elected as his successor. Miss Jane I). Patterson was promoted 
to the position of teacher of drawing in the High School, and Miss Lizzie Cook 
was elected an assistant teacher in the same branch. 

In his first annual report Superintendent Stevenson suggested to the Board of 
Education the propriety of establishing in the High School a class for instruction 
in teaching, and in the following year the Board of City Examiners expressed the 
opinion that a training school for the preparation of teachers sliould be estab- 
lished. On September 25, 1875, a school for normal instruction, to be held each 
Saturday forenoon, was opened under direction of the Principal of the High School, 
who was assisted by such members of the corps of teachers as he might select. 
The teachers chosen for this service performed it without extra compensation. 
The course of instruction embraced the theory and practice of teaching, reading, 
writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, physics and German, and was limited to 
two years. Upon its completion a certificate of recommendation to the City Board 
of Examiners was granted after a satisfactory test of proficiency. High School 
pupils who had reached the age of sixteen were entitled to the ])rivilege8 of the 
normal class. The number of scholars enrolled in this school varied from sixty to 
one iiundred and twentyfour. It soon became evident that the class could not 
supply thoroughly (pialified teachers ; nevertheless it was an initiatory step toward 
the establishment of a normal department. In August, 1888, the Board of Educa- 
tion authorized the organization of a normal school to be placed under the charge 
of Miss L. Hughes as Principal, and Miss N. T. Wolverton as training teacher. 
The school was opened in the Sullivant building during the following September 
and consisted of two departments, one of theory and one of training. The train- 
ing departments comprised three and sometimes four primary schools, usually of 
different grades. Pu]>ils were admitted after having completed the High School 
course, or its equivalent, and having been tested in the fundamental branches by 
the City Board of Examiners. In 1889 the school was reorganized in pursuance of 

TiiK Schools. 11. *;_ 

a plau reported by the normal scliool cominittee of the Board of Education adopted 
July 10. Thenceforward the normal course comprised a department of theory 
and two dej):iilnuMjtsof jiractice, one of the latter consist! n<j^ of eight model schools 
located in pairs in scpai-ate buildings and including the primary and grammar 
grades; the other dejjartment of practice included the eightroom buildings and 
such others as the .Superintendent might select. On July 1(5, 1889, Miss Margaret 
\V. Sutherland was elected Principal of the Normal Scliool and Miss Alma Simp- 
son, Miss Mary Gordon and Miss Pauline Mees were elected as training teachers. 
In 1890 Miss Anna M. Osgood and Miss Augusta Becker were also elected training 
teachers, the latter in lieu of Miss Simpson, who resigned. Under the supervision 
of Miss Sutherland, who is widely known as assistant editorof the Ohio Educa- 
tional Monthly, the normal school has taken rank among the best of its kind in the 
State. Its course includes psychology and moral science, school managenient and 
the history of education, and a review of the common branches with reference to 
methods of teaching. The kind of school government inculcated " is that which 
aims at character culture as its result." The department of theory and two of the 
model schools under the training teachers are located in the Sullivant building ; 
two of the model schools are in the C4arfield, two in the Central German and two 
in the Fifth Avenue building. In the department of observation and practice the 
pupil-teachers assist the principals to whom they have been assigned and in this 
way obtain an insight into the general working of the schools of the cit3^ 

Before the Normal School was organized about twothirds of the teachers 
annually employed by the Board had been educated in the public schools of 
the city. Most of them had graduated from the High School, but a few had passed 
through the grammar grades only. Since the Normal School has been established 
the standard of teaching qualifications has been raised and few untrained teachers 
have been employed. Of the 297 teachers now employed in the schools of the city, 
205 are graduates of the High School and 115 are graduates of the Normal School. 

Ever since the gradation of the schools in 18-17 the school library has 
been cherished as an important educational agency. Early in Doctor Lord's 
administration a library of books on the subject of education and the theory and 
practice of teaching was formed. In 1853 the High School library contained 649 
volumes ; the libraries of the grammar departments 1,(335 volumes ; total 2,284. In 
1872 the number of books in the High School library had increased to about 
thirteen hundred. At the opening of the City Library on March 1, 1873, the 
Board of Education placed therein 385 volumes. Further deposits from the same 
source were made as follows: August 21. 1874, one hundred volumes; September 
28, 1875, two hundred and nineteen volumes. These later deposits chiefly consisted 
of juvenile books transferred from the High School. On July 19, 1875, an 
arrangement was made between the Board of Education and the Trustees of the 
City Library whereby the two libraries were temporarily united, that of the city 
being controlled by a Board of Trustees consisting of the Mayor, the President Of 
the City (youncil, ihe President of the Bcnii'd of Education and four members 
elected by the (Council. Rev. J. L. Grover was the Librarian. To this board was 
entrusted the keeping and management of the school library, the Board of Educa- 

80 History or the City of Columbus. 

tion bearing about half of the expense. Since 1876 the Board of Education 
has received the benefit of a tax lev\' of onetenth of a mill per dollar for librar}- pur- 
poses, and the City Council has had for the same jiurpose a levy of onetwentieth of 
a mill per dollar. In 1890, 16,79G of the 28,000 volumes in the combined libraries 
belonged to that of the schools. The veteran librarian, Rev. J. L. Grover, has had 
for his assistants John J. Pugh and Evan J. Williams, Avho still have charge of the 
Public Library. 

But the combined collections of books outgrew their accommodations in the 
City Hall, and an obvious duty devolved upon the Board of Education of provid- 
ing for the school collection separate apartments where it would be under the 
exclusive management of the Board. Accordingly, after careful consideration of 
the prices and availabilitj^ of various sites and properties, the committee on Public 
School Library recommended that the Town Street Methodist Episcopal Church 
should be purchased for S35,000, and that it should be reconstructed and furnished 
for the uses of the library and the official meetings of the Board. This recom- 
mendation was unanimously adopted; on June ii, 1890, the purchase was con- 
summated ; and in 1891 the reconstruction of the building was completed. The 
building is centrally located, architecturally handsome, and, in addition to its 
principal library room, 52x59 feet, provides assemblj^ rooms for teachers and 
principals, rooms for the Board of Education and offices for the superintendents 
and clerks. On March 24, 1891, J. H. Spielman was elected Librarian ; on April 
20 of the same year Miss Hattie Toler was elected first, and Mrs. Charles Taft 
second assistant librarian. At a later date Mrs. J. L. Eastman was engaged as 
clerk. On April 7, 1892, the building was formally opened, and thus, on the spot 
where seventysix years ago a primitive school was conducted in a little log church 
on the outskirts of a pioneer settlement, has been established the library of the 
schools of a great and prosperous city. The Public Librarj' is still maintained 
in the City Hall and continues to grow in extent and usefulness. Both it and the 
school collection are alike open to the general public as well as to teachers and 


ISLT). W. T. Martin, Peleg Sisson, Charles H inkle. 

1827. W. T. Martin, James Cherry, Charles Hiiikle, Daniel Smith, Otis Crosby, William 

182S. David Smith, Otis Crosby, William Long, C. Hinkle, W. T. Martin, James 

18:!(). John Warner, William St. C'lair, Christian Heyl, ticorge Jetfrit'S, James Cherry. 

18:51. William McElvain, Horton Howard, Nathaniel McLean, David Nelson, A. 

18P>2. John L. Gill, I. (J. Jones, J. Neereamcr,.(ieor<^e Jeffries, George Delano, Andrew 

18;i:{. John L. Gill, I. G. Jones, J. Neereamer, David Smith, D. W. Deshlcr, Andrew 

18:M. John Ream, D. W. Deshler, H. Delano, Andrew Backus, James Ciierry, T. Peters. 

1836. Joiin L. Gill, 1. G. Jones, J. Neereamer, I. Wilson, D. W. Deshler, James Cherry, 

The Schools. II. ,9j 

1837. William Armstrong, J. Neereamer, I. G. Jones, Mathew Mathews, George W. 
Slocum, John Otstot, Robert Cloud, Elijah Glover. 

1838. Peleg Sisson, Adam Brotherlin, G. W. Slocnm. 
1841. James Cherry, P. B. Wilcox, Peleg Sisson. 

1845-G. WMlliara Long, P. B. Wilcox, James Cherry, J. B. Thompson, H. F. Huntington, 
S. E. Wright. 

1840-7. J. B. Thompson, S. E. Wright, P. B. Wilcox, James Cherry, William Long. 

The first three names of each list denote those of the President, Secretary and Treasurer, 

1847-8. William Long, S. E. Wright, H. F. Huntington, P. B. Wilcox, J. R. Thompson, 
James CherrJ^ 

1848-9. William Long, S. E. Wright, H. F. Huntington, J. R. Thompson, P. B. Wilcox, 
A. F. Perry. 

1849-50. William Long, J. L. Bates, H. F. Huntington, J. R. Thompson, S. E. Wright, 
J. W. Baldwin 

1850-L J.B.Thompson, J.L.Bates, H. F. Huntington, William Long, S. E.Wright, 
J. W. Baldwin. 

1S51-2. J. B. Thompson, J. L. Bates, H. F. Huntington, William Long, S. E. Wright, 
Joseph Sullivant. 

1852-3. J. B. Thompson, J. L. Bates, H. F. Huntington, S. E. Wright. Joseph Sul- 
livant, Thomas Sparrow. 

1853-4. Joseph Sullivant, S. E. Wright, Thomas Sparrow, H. F. Huntington, J. K. Lin- 
nel, James L. Bates. 

1854-5. Joseph Sullivant, S. E. Wright, Thomas Sparrow, J. K. Linnel, J. J. Janney, 
J. L. Bates. 

1855-6. Joseph Sullivant, S. E. Wright, J. J. Janney, J. K. Linnel, A. B. Buttles, A. S. 

185G-7. Joseph Sullivant, S. E Wright, J. J. Janney, J. G. Miller, A. B. Buttles. 

1857-8. Joseph Sullivant, A. B. Buttles, S. E. Wright, A. G. Thurman, J. G. Miller, 
A. S. Decker. 

LS58-9. Joseph Sullivant, A. G. Thurman, Thomas Sjiarrow, J. G. Miller, William Tre- 
vitt, George Gere. 

1859-60. Joseph Sullivaut, Francis Collins, Thomas Sparrow, A. G. Thurman, Doctor 
Eels, J. H. Smith. 

18()0-1. Joseph Sullivant, John Greiner, Thomas Sparrow, A. G. Thurman, J. H. Smith, 
George Gere. 

1S61-2. Joseph Sullivant, Otto Dresel, Thomas Sparrow, George Gere, J. H. Smith, Star- 
ling Loving. 

1862-3. William Trevitt, Otto Dresel, Thomas Sparrow, George Gere, Starling Loving, 
E. Walkup. 

1863-4. William Trevitt, Otto Dresel, E, Walkup, Starling Loving, E. F. Bingham, S. S. 

1864-5. Frederick Fieser, H. T. Chittenden, E. F. Bingham, T. Lough, C. P. L. Butler, 
K. Mees, H. Kneydel, S. W. Andrews, J. H. Coulter. 

1865 6. Joseph Sullivant, S. W. Andrews, Frederick Fieser, E. F. Bingham, H. Kneydel, 
J. H. Coulter, K. Mees, T. Lough, H. T. Chittenden. 

1866-7. Joseph Sullivant, Peter Johnson, Frederick Fieser, E. F. Bingham, K. Mees, 
Isaac Aston, Starling Loving, S. W. Andrews, T. Lough. 

1867-8. Joseph Sullivant, Peter Johnson, Frederick Fieser, K. Mees, E.F.Bingham, 
Lsaac Aston, Starling Loving, S. W. Andrews, T. Lough. 

l.SOSO. Frederick Fieser, Peter Johnson, Jose|)h Sullivant, Otto Dresel, F. Lough, Star- 
ling Loving, K. Mees, S. W. Andrews, C. P L. Butler. 

82 History of the City of Columbus. 

1SG9-70. Frederick Fieser, R. C. Hull, C. P. L. Butler, Starling Loving, Otto Dresel, 
Daniel Carmichael, K. Mees, R. M. Denig, Lewis Hoster. 

1870-L Frederick Fieser, R. C. Hull, C. P. L. Butler, Starling Loving, C. T. Clark, Daniel 
Carmichael, K. Mees, R. M. Denig, Louis Hoster. 

1871-2. Frederick Fieser, R. M. Denig, Starling Loving, C. T. Clark, K. Mees, S. W. An- 
drews, Louis Hoster, C. P. L. Butler, T. C. Mann. 

1872-0. Frederick Fieser, R. M. Denig, Starling Loving, K. Mees, E. F. Bingham, S. W. 
Andrews, Alexander Neil, Louis Hoster, V. Pausch, I^. J. Critchfield, L. D. Myers. 

1873-4. Starling Loving. Otto Dresel, L. D. Myers, L. J. Critchfield, C. C. Walcutt, J. B. 
Schiiiler, S. VV. Andrews, Louis Siebert, V. Pausch, Alexander Neil, Rudolph Wirth. 

1874-5. C. C. Walcutt, S. W. Andrews, L. D. Myers, L. J. Critchfield, Horace Wilson, 
J. B. Schiiiler, Philip Corzilius, Louis Siebert, J. W. Hamilton, Alexander Neil, Rudolph 

1875-(3. C. C. Walcutt, J. E. Huft", L. J. Critchfield, Horace Wilson, J. B. Schiiiler, 
C. Engeroff, Philip Corzilius, Louis Siebert, J. W. Hamilton, J. H. Neil, Alexander Neil. 

1876 7. C. C. Walcutt, Charles J. Hardy, J. E. Huff, Horace Wilson, John B. Schiiiler, 
Henry Olnhausen, Louis Siebert, Starling Loving, J. H. Neil, Alexander Neil, Christian 

1877-8. Starling Loving, J. E. Huff, Charles J. Hardy, C. C. Walcutt, Horace Wilson, 
George Beck, Henry Olnhausen, Louis Siebert, J. S. Andrews, A. Neil, Christian Engeroff. 

1878-9. Starling Loving, J. E. Huft", Charles J. Hardy, C. C. Walcutt, Charles E. Pal- 
mer, George Beck, Henry Olnhausen, Louis Siebert, J. L. Andrews, Alexander Neil, Christian 

1S79-S0. Henry Olnhausen, J. E. Hufl', C. J. Hardy, C. C. Walcutt, C. F. Palmer, 
George Beck, Louis Siebert, Starling Loving, J. L. Andrews, Alexander Neil, Christian 

1880-1. C. C. Walcutt, Louis Siebert, Christian Engeroff, George Beck, P. H. Bruck, J. 
E. Huff, C. T.Clark. J. L. Andrews, P. W. CorziUus, L. D. Myers, G. H. Stewart, T. P. 
Gordon, Alexander Neil. 

1881-2. C. C. Walcutt, J. B. Schiiiler, P. W. Corzilius, R. Z. Dawson, G. D. Jones, G. H. 
Stewart, S. H. Steward, P. H. Bruck, Starling Loving, T. P. Gordon, G. H. Twiss, E. Pagels, 
C. T. Clark, Alexander Neil. 

1882-3. C. C. Walcutt, R. Z. Dawson, P. W. Corzilius, J. B. Schiiiler, G. D. Jones, B. N. 
Spahr, S. H. Steward, W. H. Slade, Starling Loving, F. C. Sessions, G. H. Twiss, E. Pagels, 
C. T. Clark, Alexander Neil. 

1883-4. Edward Pagels, J. B. Schiiiler, P. W. Corzilius, C. A. Miller, C. C. Walcutt, 
W. R. Kinnear, B. N. Spahr, J. Z. Landes, W. S Huff, Starling Loving, George H. Twiss, F. 
C. Sessions, F. Schwan, Alexander Neil. 

1884-5. Edward Pagels. J. B. Schiiiler, P. W. Corzilius, B. N. Spahr, J. J. Stoddart, C. 
C. Walcutt, W. R. Kinnear, J. Z. Landes, W. S. Huff, James Poindexter, G. H. Twiss, 
Edward Pryce, F. Schwan. Alexander Neil. 

1885-(). B. N. Spahr, W. R. Kinnear, C. C. Walcutt, Frederick Krumm, P. W. Corzilius, 
J. B. Schiiiler, J. N. Bennett, W. S. Huff, James Poindexter, J. E. Sater, Edward Pryce, W. 
H. Albery, F. Schwan, Alexander Neil. 

1880 7. B. N. Spahr, W. R. Kinnear, C. C. Walcutt, Frederick Krumm, John Hein- 
miller. J. B. Schiiiler, J. N. Bennett, W. S. Huff, James Poindexter, E. J. Wilson, W. H. 
Albery, Alexander Neil, J. E. Sater, F. Schwan. 

1887-8. B. N. Spahr, W. R. Kinnear, C C Walcutt, Frederick Krumm, John Hein- 
miller, Frederick J. Hier, J. N. Bennett, W. S Huff, James Poind li.vter, K. J. Wilson, J. A. 
Hedges, Alexander Neil, D. P. Adams, F. Schwan, J. E. Sater. 

1888-9. J. E. Sater, F. J. Heer, John Heinmiller, F. Krumm, C. C. Walcutt, W. R. Kin- 
near, E. O. Randall, J. N. Bennett, W. S. Huff, James Poindexter, K. J. Wilson, J. A. 
Hedges. W. A. McDonald, D. P. Adams, B. H. DeBruin. 

TiiK Schools. II. 8^ 

]S,S1M)0. J. K. S:iter, B. II. DeBriiin, .1. II. Hennctt, J. A. Hedges, J. U. Barnliill, James 
Poindexter, E. J. Wilson, E. O. Randall, F. Krunini, F. J. Heer, John Ileinniiller, W. S. 
Hufi", W. A. McDonald, D. P. Adams, C. C. Walcutt. 

ISOO-I. J. A. Hedges, J. U. Barnhill, F. J. Heer, John Heiiimiller, J. J. Stoddart, C. C. 
Walcntt, T. H. Kieketts, J. N. Bennett, F. (innsaulns, James Poindexter, E. J. Wilson, W. A. 
McDonaUI, D. P. Adams, William A. Inskeep. Albert Cooper. 

lSi)l-2. E. J. Wilson, James Poindexter, F. CJunsaulns, J. X. Bennett, Thomas 11. 
Ricketts, Thomas C. Hoover, C. C. Walcutt, John J. Stoddart, Henry Olnhausen, F. .1. Heer, 
G. "W. Early, W. A. McDonald, E. R. Vincent, W. A. Iiiskeep, Lewis C. Lipps. 

1892-8. J. J. Stoddart, F. J. Heer, T. C. Hoover, J. N. Bennett, JaJnes Poindexter, G. 
W. Early, E. R. Vincent, L. C. Lipps, H. Olnhausen, Junior, C. C. Walcutt, Z. L. White, F. 
Gunsaulus, T. A. Morgan, W. A. McDonald, R. S. Albrittain. 



1820. James Hoge, C. H. Wetmore, Henry Mathews. 

182.S. Peleg Sisson, Bela Latham, Samuel Parsons. 

1829. Mease Smith, P. B. Wilcox. 

1832. Isaac N. Whiting, William Preston. 

1834. John M. Ladd, Erastus Burr, George Jeffries, W. S. Sullivant. 

1835. W. T. Martin, Joseph Sullivant, Mathew J. Gilbert. 

1836. Joseph Williams. 

1837. Cyrus S. Hyde, Arnold Clapp, Henry Alden, J. R. Rogers. 

1839. W. Smith, Warren Jenkins, Noah H. Swayue. 

1840. Mathew J. Gilbert, Lewis Heyl, A. Curtis, T. Cressey, Abiel Foster, Junior. 

1842. Henry S. Hitchcock, S. T. Mills. 

1843. James K. Simse. 

1845. Charles Jiicksch, Samuel T. Mills, Suiithson E. Wright, John P. Bruck. 

1840. Samuel C. Andrews, A. P. Fries.' 

1847. A. D. Lord, N. Doolittle, A. F. Perry. 

1850. S. C. Andrews, James H. Smith, F. J. Mathews. 

1860. E. D. Kingsley, F. J. Mathews, S. C. Andrews. 

1872. W. F. Schatz, Abram Brown, Charles E. Burr, Junior. 

1873. E. E. White, Charles E. Burr, W. F. Schatz. 

1870. Frederick Fieser, T. C. Mendenhall, R. W. Stevenson. 
1878. Frederick Fieser, R. W. Stevenson, J. J. Stoddart. 
1889. J. A. Shawan, J. J. Stoddart, J. J. Lentz. 


History of the Citv of Columblts. 







1827 Acadoiny 

1S3!) Rich Streot 

l,s4r)Mi(l(lle Building 

1,S45 N'ortli Building 

IS-lo South Building 

l,So2 (ieinian-English 

IS.'i.S Addition North Building- 
^S'^'i Addition South Building- 

ISoljICentral Fourth Street 

],sr)3[01d State Street 

l,S()U|Rich Street 

ISliljHigh School 

],S(;(l|Park Street 

18(Hi'Third Street 

lS(i.s:Spriiig Street 

1, SI ).s: Fulton Street^ 




Central Fulton 

Loving School 



1873 Second Avenue 


New Street 

First Avenue 


North High 

North Columbus 

Mount Airy 

Johnstown Road 

East Hroad 

South High 


Friend Street 

Mount Pleasant 

Addition to Fieser 

East Friend Street 


Addition to High School 


Mound Street 


Addition to First Avenue — 

Addition to Park Street 

Garfield School 

Addition to Fulton Street- -- 
Addition to Second Avenue 

Beck Street 

Front Street 

Fifth Avenue 

Addition to Franklinton 


Twentythird Street 

Addition to Northwood 

Eighth Avenue 

Addition to East Friend 

Addition to First Avenue — 

Addition to High School 

Addition to Ficbor 

Fair Avenue 



North Side High School 


Addition to New Street 

Cost of 
anil .Site. 

30 00 
{)00 00 

15,490 00 

37,500 00 
:^9,070 00 
29,540 00 
17,050 00 
38,900 0(1 
39.550 00 
20,781 00 
] 0,000 00 
73,497 00 

22.371 00 
24,574 00 
19,731 00 
12,100 CO 

3,500 00 
1,100 00 

i,o:^o 00 

1,000 00 
2,300 00 
10,500 00 
1,000 00 
1,350 00 
9,345 00 
12.710 00 
40,848 00 
16,301 00 
22,217 00 
51,4:30 00 
14,551 00 
7,944 00 
15,400 00 
58,783 00 
10,2(59 00 
15,400 00 
13,900 00 
9(),500 00 
52,582 00 
11,140 00 
35,400 00 
4:},500 00 
10,500 00 
()0,000 00 
13,193 00 
13,203 00 
5,500 00 
i:3,(jnl 00 
38,(392 00 
45.000 00 

























14,000 00 




















Sugar Alley and Fourth. 
Third near Rich. 
Third near liich. 
Long and Third. 
Mound and Third. 
Fourth near Fulton. 

Fourth and Fulton. 

East State near Fifth. 

Third and Rich. 

Sixth and Broad. 

Park and Vine. 

Third and Sycamore. 

Spring and Neil. 

Fulton and Washington Avenue. 

Fourth and Fulton. 

[-ong and Third. 

East State near Fiftli. 

West Broad and Sandusk}'. 

East Second Avenue. 

New and Steward Streets. 

First Avenue and Joiin Street. 

State and Starling Streets. 

West Broad and Sandusky. 
East Main and Miller Avenue. 

State and Starling. 

East Main and Miller Avenue. 

Douglas near Oak. 

Sixth and Broad. 

North High and Northwood .\ve. 

Third and Mound. 

West Broad and Sandusky. 

First Avenue and John Street. 

Park and Vine. 

Ciarfield and Mount Vernon Ave. 

Fulton near Washington Avenue 

East Second Avenue. 

Beck and Briggs. 

Front and Long. 

Fifth Avenue and Highland. 

Hroad and Sandusky. 

Siebert Street and Reinhard Ave. 

Twentythird and Mount Vernon. 

North High and Northwood. 

i'-ighth Aveiuie and Wesley Street. 

East Friend and Miller Avenue. 

First Aveiuie and Harrison Ave. 

Sixth and I5ri'a<l. 

State and Starling. 

Fair Avenue near Latta. 

East Town near High. 

Town and Avondale. 

Dennison and Fourth Avenues. 

Medary and Tompkins. 

The Schools. II. 













1S33 34 





























ber of 


































































3 710 






















$148 25 

152 77 

139 87 

245 S8 

430 20 

510 05 

541 01 

709 90 

704 78 

829 12 

1,101 55 

1,172 39 

1,507 50 

3,502 10 

3,182 00 

2,128 91 

2,077 38 

1 ,940 80 

2,212 82 

2,174 80 

3.377 34 

2,053 82 

17,770 16 

5,122 00 

6,643 52 

7,992 75 

13,009 63 

19,145 33 

33,249 92 

23,605 33 

18,497 51 

29,656 28 

30,547 88 

24,833 40 


1.S.59 (iO 
1870'- 7 7 




ber of 



































91 1 


3 7i:; 












5 082 



















































$28, 1 1 1 0() 

38,315 18 

37,889 72 

29,763 48 

4I,17(! 30 

52,239 02 

68,908 70 

90,373 42 

88,353 94 

98,769 82 

112,488 18 

137,581 65 

148,846 28 

137,270 51 

150,027 11 

170,224 11 

1 75,434 50 

I02,2(i0 70 

182,005 12 

164,709 36 

135,857 10 

183,775 95 

266,538 17 

237,238 99 

202,795 44 

209,058 64 

243,811 09 

227,540 87 

264,745 79 

347,087 40 

364,826 58 

459,166 79 

433,000 00 


History of rriE City of Ooijimbtts. 

1S51. Ili'iiry 'J'. Chittrndi'ii, Isabt'lla Poole, Maria H. Dnntoii, Maria Cutler, Melane 
I'arl, Sterne riiittenden, Mary K. Cnol, Jane Fitch, Mary M. Dryer, FJizuheth D. Mor<,'an, 
Amelia N. Darlinir, I-tuty M. Wileox, Ipabella Brown. 

1852. Ahel W. Hall, En<;enia Gray, Elizabeth C. Thompson, Mary C. McClelland, 
Melissa IJ. VWbf-ter, Vir^nnia A. Sampson. 

1853. Cornelia Johnson, Elizabeth E. Thatcber, Eleanor Morgan, Francis E. Scarritt, 
Henry Butler, Henry V. Hitcbock, Mary E. Finley, Mary E. Armstronfr, Montgomery 
H. Lewis, Mary E. Gooding, Martha Thompson, Sarah J. Laugblin. 

ISoJ. Frances V. Washington, Frank Higgins, Jane Shepherd. Kate Gardiner, Mary 
A. Thursten, Pamela B. Neil, William H. Hubbell. 

1855. Anna C. Foos, Eliza K. Ball, Edward C. Stone, Howard Fay, John N. Champion, 
John Z. Hall, John F. Hitchcock, Lizzie B. Gardiner, Lucy H. Peters, Mary E. Barnhart, 
Margaret Richards, Mary W. Campbell, Melinda 8. Holmes, Mary S. Whitney, Theodore 
S. Greiner. 

1856. Clarissa Cram, Charlotte Herd, Euphemia Duncan, Charles W. Remington, Mary 
E. Cutler, Josiah H. Jenkins, William J. P. Morrison, George P. Roberts. 

1857. C. Sullivant, Edward Bates, James Kilbourne, John M. Wheaton, Jennie Stump, 
Kate Dunning, Lizzie Christian, Louisa Staflord, Lucy Weaver, Minnie Awl, Mary Jones, 
Mattie Thompson, Mary Howie, Martin Wright, Mary Hirsh, Nettie Johnson, Sarah Siebert, 
Tillie Hayden, William H. Rice. 

1858. A. Wright, A. S. Field, Linda Clarkson, Lizzie Cooke, C. W. Breyfogle, Emma 
Humphreys, Ed. Rudisill, Gus. M. Ba.scom, H. J. Page, H. Raynor Wood, Jennie Hurd, 
Lizzie F. Merrick, Marion E. Gault, M. B. Gilbert, Mary Tnther, L. Babbitt, R. G. Alexander, 
Wood Awl, W. H. Day, W. W. Olds. 

1859. Anna Hall, Annie Washington, Charles H. Hall, Emma McClelland, Georgiana 
Williams, Hannah Wilier, Henry O'Kane, Hiram McArthur, Irene Barnhart, John A. Ball, 
Julia A. Pryce, I auraTruax, Lizzie Denig, Lou. Brownell, Mattie Riley, Minnie Lowe, Mattie 
Simonton, William P. Brown, Thomas J. Janney. 

18(30. Amanda McDonald, Amelia Sanderson, D. H. Zigler, Ermine Case, G. W. Shields, 
John S. Roberts, L. S. Sullivant, Martha Powell, Mary E. Wetherby, Mary E. Dunl)ar, Mary 
H. Wirth, W. H. Smith, W. B. Headley. 

LSfil. C. E. Baker, C. L. Osborn, Carrie Strong, C. G. Piatt, B. F. Stage, Emma Black, 
P. H. Brack, F. W. Merrick, Minnie Neal, Mary S. Bates, Nellie S. Walker, Selina R. Whitsel, 
R. J. Nelson, Mary L Taylor. 

1862. Antonie E. Mees, Gertrude Green, Louisa F. Boyle, Mary E. Edwards, Pauline S. 

1863. Annie E. Marshall, C. Clay Corner, Emma J. Brown, Fannie B. Scarritt, George 
W. Ball, Jennie Howell, Julia A. Felton, Julia A. Freeman, J. M. Bennett, Kate Stone, Louise 
C. Christie, Sarah E. Ogan. 

1864. Clara C. Wetmore, Florence S. Williams, Hattie L. Cutler, Isabella Frost, Jennie 
Proctor, Jay A. Coatesworth, John P. Bruck, Mary Douthart, Morris S. Booth, Mary E. 
Denny, Nettie R. Curtis, Lillie Nelson, Lucy A. Booth, S. F. Aspinwall. 

1865. Annie E. Peters, Arthur Mees, Ellen A. Hartford, Grace E. Reed, Helen M. 
Hayden, Helen Millay, Isadora Runnels, Minerva S. Louder, Martha H. Pilcher, Theodore 
M. K. Mees. 

1866. Anna B. Kilbourne, Ada Shewry, Carrie R. Thacker, Delia Roberts, Eugenia G. 
Pearce, George Reuhlen, Josie E. Romans, Jennie Hall, Lucy Benton, Lydia J. Milne, P^lwood 
Williams, Emma C. Willard, Emily A.Jennings, F. I). Albery. W. IL Albery, Maggie A. 
Lewis, R. H. Hurd, Snrah D. Crozier, W. C. Stewart. 

1867. Albert A. Hall, Alice M. Denning, Belle Clark, Clara A. Pamar, Ella M. Stage, 
Ella Harrison, Frank B. Fassig, George S. Knapp, George C. Mall, Julia A. Young, Josiah R. 

The Schools. II. ^ 

Smith, Mattie M. Jenkins, Maggie B. Eldridge, Marion Neil, Leiie S. Dniry, Mary A. 
Ruggles, Robert A. McGowan, W. P. Little. 

ISOS. Alexaiuler W. Krnmni, Anna M. Janney, Artliur M. Gray, Anna E. Riordan, 
Emma Arm.strong, Ellen A. Ruchlen, Francis ,1. Reed, James L. Harrington, Julia A. Powell, 
Josephine Klippart, Kate R. Millay, Linda E. Work, Linnie S. Wood, Maria L. Shield, Mary 
E (jlale, R. R. Rickly, Rush S. Denig, Libby L. Tarbox, W. L. Jamison, Z. F. Westervelt. 

lS()i). Augusta Pfeiffer, Arthur H. Smythe, Alice Williard, Alexander Eraser, Clara G. 
Brown, Cornie Lonnis, Carl L. Mees, Lizzie Briggs, Laura A. Ritze, Lizzie White, Laura 
AfHeck, Lucinda B. Weaver, Mary S. Case, Mary M. Harrington, Frank Merion, Frank B. 
Everett, Frank H. Eldridge, Frank C. Burt, George S. Innis, Hattie J. Comstock, John S. 
Galloway, John N. Eldridge, Susie A. Mendenhall, Mary H. Fowler, Mary Graves, M. Alice 
Shaw, Maggie E. Dennis, Nannie S. Wise, Anna E. Sims, Rosa D. Weaver, Sallie M. Harker, 
William H. Silver. 

1S70. Annie E. Spen(;er, Annie Palmer, A. G. Fare, Ella E. Palmer, Emma Franken- 
berg. Flora A. Brooks, Helen M. Wheeler, Jessie A. Neate, Jennie Miner, Jennie M. Tracy, 
Katie C. Ellis, Kate L. Phelps. Luura V. Schilling, Mary G. Overdier, Mary L. Fisher, R. 
Grace Denig. 

187L Alexander L. Smith, C P. L. Butler, Clara M. McColm, Ella Eraser, Grace M. 
Dungan, Isaac M. Bortle, Isabella C. Innis, Julia L. Lott, Kate B. Foos, Kate B. Ritson, 
Lucy B. Stone, Percy R. Wilson, Retta M. Cox, Ralph O. Smith, Belle Williams, Sallie M. 
Dering, Frances G. Janney. 

1872. Anna A. Monypenny, Alice Ilayden. Carrie L. Olds, David W. Pugh, Edward T. 
Williams, George W. Stockton, George B. Stewart, John C. L. Pugh, Virginia S. Clark, Louise 
Knoderer, Lida Postle, Mary M. Denig, Samuel Bevilheimer. 

1873. Delia Bingham, Jessie F. Wood, Hattie L. Brocklehurst, Emma F. Harris, Ella 
Jones, I,aura B. Ware, George M. Halm, Curtis C. Howard, Lilla Southard, Frank P. Ross, 
Emma B. Thompson, Frank D. Jamison, Eva J. Jones, Wilbur B. Marple, Edward C. Moore, 
Annie M. Osgood, Annie M. Perley, Sarah F. Perry, Eva M. Preston, Addie L. Palmer, Alice 
L. Duval, Ira H Wilson. 

187+. William Wallace, Allie L. Cherry, Nettie H. Martin, Laura Belle Matthews, Ida 
M. Evans, George W. Lattimer, Lillie E. Eastman, A.da A. Bell, Ada S. McDowell, John 
Field, Rosella A. Moore, Jennie Ethelyn l^ewis, Minnie Hammond, L. Anna Cornell, George 
T. Spahr, Sadie A. Henderson, Dida Phillips, Wade Converse, M. Laura Cornell, Belle M. 
Coit, Jane D. Sullivant, Anna M. Spencer, G. Stanton Coit, Edward Pfeiffer. 

1875. Ella M. Earhart, Flora E. Shedd, Julia E. Ware, Clara E. Piatt, Jessie Creighton, 
Jennie S. B. Cashatt. Julia T. Hyer, Mary J. Rowland, Annie E. Hull, Olive M. Beebe, Min- 
nie M. Bohanan, Mary Mullay, John H. Williams, Lillie M. Davies, Almeda E. Loomis, 
Libbie M. Cherry, Osman C. Hooper, Clara L. Remmy. 

1876. Mary D. Anderson, Harry Barcus, George A. Backus, Kate K. Tower, Janie M. 
Earhart, Charles D. Everett, John F. Evans, B. Gard Ewing, Caddie M. Field, Harry M. Gal- 
loway, Annie Houck, Fannie D. Clark, Jenny Kelley, Anna Lofland, Hattie Adair, Sarah 
Murray, Christina Robertson, Cora B. Runyan, Noble L. Rockey, Ada Stephens, F. Belle 
Swickard, Charles B. Spahr, Ida Strickler, F. Josie Tippett, Edward R. Vincent, Nettie A. 

1877. Kate T. Ayers, Harriet E. Akin, Emma Bancroft, Jennie Bailey, Ida M. Stitts, 
Kate Deterly, Wilbur T. Eldridge, Bertha V. Farr, Edith Fales, Fred W. Flowers, Nellie S. 
Gill, Kittle Tablant, Emma M. Howald, Mary P. Jones, Lily Jamison, Fannie I. Kinsell, 
Rebecca L. Kelly, Emily J. Ogier, Mary L. Miller, Ida E. Marshall, Annie R.Jenkins, Esther 
A. Reynolds, Mary E. Rose, Mary H. Ritson, Anna B. Smith, M. Ella Stimpson, Thomas G. 
Spencer, Cora Breggs, Kate E. Smith, Fannie B. McCune, Ida B. Rankin, Lizzie Wallace, 
Charles A. Woodward, E. J. Warning, Mary Hall. 


^ History of the City of Columbus. 

1878. Emma Pegg, Caroline Beatty, Edith C. Bingham, CalHe M. Breyfogle, Flora 8. 
Barnett, Laura Monett, Harriet G. Bortle, Emily S. Butler, Mary L. Case, Lettie H. Clark, 
Lizzie F. Curtiss, John W. Champion, Mary E. Cunningham, Helen M. Day, Phena Nesbitt, 
Martha L. Day, Thomas M. Earl, Mary H. Evans, M. Ada Evans, Lolla J. Foos, Neoma Fank- 
house, M. Miller, Lelia J. Griffin, Sada J. Harbargar, Flora Hesse, Sylvester W. Hoffman, 
Ida B. HufTman, Joseph C. Hull, Adelia M. Hanlen, Louise Harpham, Rosa Hesse, M. 
Leonora Horlocker, Minnie B. Hughes, Mary E. Knight, Jane E. Kershaw, Eva S. Knopf, 
Emma E. Lesquereux, Margaret C. Livingston, Kate M. Haller, Orville McAninch, Frank B. 
Miller, Thomas A. Morgan, Kate A. MuUay, Fred C. Marvin, Mary P. McVay, Henry A. 
Morgan, Sarah J. Morris, Sarah J. Mullay, Lizzie B. Nagle, Ella C. Nevin, Mary H.Neil, 
Mary Osborn, Clara G. Orton, Emma M. Newburg, Minnie P. Pickles, Mary E. Poste, Rosa 

A. Reed, Mary A. Ross. Cora M. Ross, A. Mary Runyan, Charles L. Schwenker, Frank R. 
Shinn, Mortimer C. Smith, Lucy T. Sells, Carrie O. Shoemaker, Louisa D. Stelzer, Harriet E. 
Thompson, Clara Tippett, George A. Weaver, Charles R. Wheeler, Hattie M. Taylor, Kate 

1879. Allie E. Bancroft, M. Abbie Booth, Sarah D. Broadis, Edward B. Champion, 
Oliver J. Gaver, Nettie C. Claypoole, Minnie S. Davis, Carrie A. Durant, Edwin Eberly, 
Mary K. Esper, Olive Flowers, Belle Gardiner, Annie E. Griffiths, Henry F. Guerin, Emma 
J. Hall, Hugh Hardy, Mamie E. Johnson, Fannie Kahn, Louisa A. Krumm, Julia Loomis, 
Minnie Loy, Ella G. McCoy, Cora A. Miner, George W. Mitchell, Thomas H. Mullay, Anna 
Pfeiffer, Lewis L. Rankin, James L. Rodgers, Edwin Fay, Ernestine O. Schreyer, Florence M. 
Snell, Carrie B. Staley, Mary Stokes, Flora Stump, Gertrude Swickard, Lizzie Thomas, 
Edward O. Trent, Eliza S. Huffman, Ellery W. Wilkinson, Riley F. Williams. 

1880. Harry E. Armbruster, Charles Bauer, Harry C. Cook, William G. Benham, Eagle- 
ton F. Dunn, Milton H. Fassig, Warren W. Gifford, Henry Gumble, Edward O. Horn, Fred- 
erick W. Hughes, Ewing Jones, David Tod Logan, Charles E. McDonald, James D. Osborn, 
Frank C. Smith, J. Macy Walcutt, Alice B. Barnett, Emma C. Elliott, Helen L Bortle, Helen 
M. Capron, Lizzie L. Crook, Lizzie S. Denig, Emma Deterly, Louise Dunning, Fannie F. 
Elliott, Ella J. Evans, Leanor Fankhouse, Fannie M. Farringer, Dora Frankenberg, Jessie 
Eraser, Lizzie C. Ginder, Fannie S. Glenn, Belle Goodel, Ella M. Graham, Louta A. Hamil- 
ton, Mary Hanlen, Carrie Hegner, Ida B. Henry, Florence M. Holton, Julia Horton, Emma 
F. Irwin, Anna D. Jenny, Katie B. Evans, Lizzie Jones, Louise W. Kanmacker, Maggie H. 
Kanmacker, Clara E. Kemmerle, Emma Kienzle, Madie E. Knepper, Emma Litchford, Lida 
R. McCabe, Cora A. McCleery, Maggie L. McElvain, Stella M. Nelson, Cornelia C. Olnhausen, 
Frankie C. Park, Nellie J. Perley, Adah A. Phelps, Kate B. Porter, Louise Reither, Maggie 

B. Remmy, Rae F. Sanders, Xenia L. Schaefer, Emma B. Schneider, Mattie Stelzig, Blanche 
Stevens, Florence Todd, Geneva Trent, Helen I. Twiss, Lizzie fu. Vincent, Lizzie Vogle- 
gesang, Ella F. Warren. 

1881. William Benbow, John H. Davis, Clyde L. Farrell, Arthur Gemuender, Theodore 
E. Glenn, J, Nicholas Koerner, Edmund J. Montgomery, Charles A. Pryce, John J. Pugh, 
George R. Twiss, Lizzie Alexander, Jennie Armstrong, E. Louisa Painter, Tuza L. Barnes, 
Ella Boyer, Ada D. Charters, May M. Cherry, Emma J. Clark, Ottilie Clemen, Mamie 
Cornell, Emma L. Dieterich, Alma Dresel, Lizzie Earl, Florence Eberly, Bessie M. Edgar, 
Mae F. Elliott, Flora L. Engeroff, Eva Ewers, Anna Finn, Lottie I. Geren, Mattie Glover, 
Ida Gottschall, Marie S. Greenleaf, Ella M. Grove, Augusta Haberstich, Mary Haig, Emma 
Holton, Laura M. Hughes, Addie Johnson, Minnie Jackson, Mattie V. Kershaw, Carrie D. 
Houck, Annettie Lakin, Jennie Lee, Mignon Loechler, Oliver LoelUer, Mina Loomis, Lydia 
Mahlmann, Harriet C. Marple, Carrie W. Martin, Zitta McConnell, Mattie E. McGrew, 
Alma McKenzie, Jennie Merion, Clara E. Miller, Louisa S. Mulligan, Mary E. Nagle, 
M. Helen Osgood, Willie A. Phelps, Louisa Piersche, Nettie Poindexter, Sallie E. Price, 
Lena M. Schoedinger, Alice H. Sells, Lizzie Shoemaker, Lulu Stelzig, Mamie Taylor, 

The Schools. II. 89 

Alwina M. Turkopp, Emma C. Uhlmann, Mary E. Vercoe, Caroline M. Viet, Adelia I;. 
Waring, Dora H. Weis, Carrie Williams, Nellie C. Wilson, Jessie G. Zigler. 

1SS2. Robert H. Allen, Harry Bingham, Charles E. Chandler, Albert B. Fletcher, 
Alfred A. Jones, Gustavus J. Karger, Harvey Kirk, Carlton Nelson, Leonce A. Oderbrecht, 
George W. Siiielair, Lillian Auld, Stella Baker, Grace Barcus, P^lta M. Benbow, Luella A. 
Boston, Caroline Buclusieb, Flora M. Burdell, Susan Cunningham, Jessie Edwards, Estelle 
A. Farmer, Ella K. Farquhar, Alice A. Fassig, Lizzie R. Fassig, Emma P. Felch, Margaret 
A. Felch, Clara Fisher, Georgia A. Fornoflf, Margaret A. Godsall, Kate Hertenstein, Carrie 
D. High, Louise M. Hittler, Carrie F. Johnson, Ida M. Joyce, Agnes W". Keagle, Anna R. 
Kinney, Florence Kinsell, Ida M. Knell, Emma Lentz, Hattie J. Levy, Emma L. Linke, 
Frances E. Loudin, Florence A, Martin, Annetta McDonald, Bertha McVay, Rose B. Mullay, 
Sallie B. Olmstead, Sallie Phillips, Adelaide E. Pugh, Harriet M. Ritson, Norma E. Schueller, 
Belle T. Scott, Nora F. Seegur, Susan Senter, Viva Torrey, Laura E. Vorhees. 

1883. Mary Johnson, Anna B. Keagle, Clarence Jones, Belle Kinsman, Minnie Schaub, 
Ella Hesse, E. Corner Brown, Cassius C. Collins, Robert Eckhardt, Charles E. Hampson, 
John B. Metiers, Emma Jones, Mary Jones, Ordelia Knoderer, Mary B. Lakin, Carrie M. 
Lash, William H. Siebert, Harry Taylor, Mattie Allen, Fannie Bancroft, Emilie Bauer, 
Nellie B. Bordie, May Comstock, Lulu Conway, Fannie Doherty, Maggie Ebin, Alice Ewing, 
Lizzie Fearn, Hilda Finn, Lida Filler, Mazie Geren, Benigna Green, Ella M. Graves, Lizzie 
Griswold, Antoinette Haberstich, Minnie Hofllman, Annie L. Holman, Lizzie A. Hughes, 
Nora B. James, Beatrice Joyce, Henrietta Lesquereux, Fannie Litchford, Abbie McFarland, 
Clara Miller, Sallie Morgan, Anna Moore, Mary Mulligan, Cora J. Neereamer, Ada Otstott, 
Laura Owen. Margaret Pinnev, Mary Reed, Minnie Reese, Minnie Reynolds, Ida Rowland, 
Lulu B. Runyan, Rettie Russell, Lizzie Sinclair, Nellie G. Smith, Ida Stelzig, Leah Thomas, 
Clara Weinman, Fannie Wheeler, Emilie Wirth, Clemmie Watson. 

1884. Jennie Chamberlain, Josephine M. Mcliuffey, Theodore B. Comstock, Emma 
Parsons, Maude Alexander, Ida L. Pryce, Richard Bebb, George Constock, Rudolph Day, 
Joseph A. Frambes, Harry Holton, Daniel Hughes, James Judge, Harry Lum, Edward 
McConnell, Morton McDonald, Birnie Neil, Howard C. Park, John F. Robinson, Benjamin 
Talbot, Lincoln Wagenhals, Allen W, VViiliams, Jennie Arthur, Katie Aston, Emily Bortle, 
Alice L. Brown, Amalia Buchsieb, Jennie T. Burr, Hattie C^lark, Maggie Dent, Clara Dresel, 
Lulu M. Fankhouse, L. Minnie Ferrell, Marion (iiarner, Bessie Garwood, Mary Etta Gatch, 
Jessie L. Glenn, Addie C. Gordon, Kena M. Haig, Jennie Hammond, Nannie Harrison, 
Laura Hoft'man, Florence Hopper, Jessie Jelleff, Jessie Jones, Louisa C. Junker, Kate M. 
Lacey, Emma C. McCloud, Jessie B. McKim, Effie G. Millar, Henrietta Moler, Telia Miller, 
Anda G. Morin, Wilhelmina Ochs, Julia L. Palmer, Mamie B. Price, Laura J. Pryce, 
Sadie Reed, Minnie M. lijeichard, Eudora F. Ross, Carrie L. Scott, Jennie L. Shilling, Josie 
Sullivant, Clara Spohr, Nellie K. Thatcher, Emma E. Trott, Mea J. Williams, Sarah A. 

1885. William B. Abbott, William Altman, Philip Cullman, William P. Dunlap, Gran- 
ville S. Frambes, F]arl M. Gilliam, A. H. Huston, John C. Lincoln, Harry F. Miller, William 
H. Reams, Andrew D. Rodgers, Frank W. Savage, Sherman T. Wiggins, Charles A. Wikoff, 
Thomas D. Williams, Sadie D. Akin, May Baker, May F. Barratt, Pauline Beck. Maude F. 
Beller, Elizabeth E. Bortle, Maude E. Botimer, Helen Bradford, Eleonora Brunning, Josie M. 
Burck, Sarah A. Carr, Maude Collins, Nellie M. Crawford, Jennie M. DeHaven, Lillie E. 
Dougherty, Bertha Drobisch, Anna P. Fischer, Kate FornofF, Margaret S. Getz, Clara Good- 
man, Florence A. Holmes, Jestina Jones, Ella Kershaw, Margaret Koerner, Clara McDonald, 
Fannie K. Morrell, Mary K. Park, Jennie D. Patterson, Julia T. Phelps, Mary H. Ransom, 
Rose M. Rittinger, Emma A. Ruppersburg, Emma Schaub, Laura E. Schreyer, Eda H. 
Schueller, Stella E. Schueller, Minna A. Schafler, Ada M. Shipley, Nellie B. Skinner, Nellie 
A. Spring, Nellie Talbot, Bessie T. Taylor, Minnie Williams, Alice C. Willson, Emma Wirth, 
Adaline E. Woods, Flora L. Ziegler. 

^: History of the City of Columbus. 

1886. Maude C. Baker, Mabel Basterdes, Harry L. Bean, Nellie Beggs, Frank Benbow, 
M. H. Bliss, Junior, Clara T. Bucbsieb, Hallie G. Brown, Carrie C. Bidleman, H. W. Cham- 
berlain, George N. Cole, Lucy Corbin, Lillie M. Crethers, May A. Collier, Mary Doherfy, 
May B. Davey, Retta J. Dutoit, Lollie Flowers, Tillie T. Gill, Alice H. Moodie, Arabella 
Marks, Laura M. Martin, Ernestine Mayer, Mary P. Martini, Camma Neil, Clarice G. 
Nessmith, Mary J. Orton, Margaret M. Owen, Martha Ochs, Sarah D. Patterson, Thomas C. 
Pugh, Florence M. Eeasoner, Grace T. Roberts, Jennie A. Roberts, Grace E. Radebaugh, 
Bessie S. Seibert, Ella A. Somermier, Daisy Schaefer, Zalmen P. Gilmore, Gertrude K. Gregg, 
Hattie L. Hall, Minnie G. Jeffrey, Frank Jennings, Lizzie Jung, Harriet Knight, Lulu Stout- 
senberger, Ray Steward, Myra Slyh, Florence Turney, Dora Walter, May L. Weaver, Mina L. 

1887. Carrie E. Allen, Edna Adelia Archer, Martha H. Bailey, Margaret Alice Beach, 
Hattie M. Blackwood, Mary Blakiston, Clara Blesch, May V. Bromley, M. S. Browne, Olivia 
Bruning, Carrie M. Bryson, Le Ora L. Burington, Joseph P. Byers, Charles L. Clark, Junior, 
Charlotte L. Claypoole, George S. Cooper, Theresa M. Daly, Jane McC. Doren, Annie L. 
Diinlap, Lillian S. Fassig, Laura J. Garner, Daisy Z. Glenn, Mary E. Gormley, H. Louise Hall, 
Rose Hammond, Florence E. Henderson, Margaret E. Huston, Helen G. Jaynes, Annie 0. 
Jones, Marie Jane Lash, Clarence Metters, Martha Moses, Edwin A. Myers, Elizabeth H. 
Naddy, Desdemona E. Neil, Mary V. Nessmith, May O'Harra, Sarah E. O'Kane, Katherine 
Palmer, Lila J. Piper, Edward W. Poiner, Norah Prentice, Isaac Pugh, Elmer G. Rice, Ida 
Richards, Grace H. Rose, Emilie Schaub, Lucy Alice Seely, Hany J. Shaw, Alica B. Sherman, 
Christopher E. Sherman, Esther Steinfield, Mignonnette Talbott, Edward L. Taylor, Atta M. 
Terry, Mary J. LTart, Hattie B. Waggoner, Edwin R. Wheeler, Ida Wirth. 

18S8. Riley H. Bean, Elmer J. Butterworth, D. F. Callinan, W. R. Colton, Harry F. 
Flynn, James E. Meek, Arthur L. Pace, William E. Restieaux, William C. Safford, Herbert 
S. Talbot, Olive Alison, Mary E. Bainter, Emilie L. Beck, Mary Beekey, Lois E. Bradford, 
Lizzie M. Bratton, Hortense H. Brooks, Henrietta Browning, Etta G. Bryson, Nannie Colf- 
nian, Gertrude Conklin, Carrie A. Cooke, Cora B. Crane, Grace E. Croy, Abbie E. Dean, 
Esther Dent, Minnie E. Fearn, Ruth E. Fenimore, Evangeline Fox, Grace Fox, Eunna A. 
Fritsche, Emma M. Gates, Margaret M. Greenwood, Louise Herrick, Harriet A. Judd, Emma 
K. Kaefer, Bathsheba A. Lazelle, Gertrude C. Leib, Anna N. Loudenslager, Adah V. Millar, 
Ella Miller, Lora D. Dix, Helen Monroe, Mary F. Nelson, Juliet E. Nesmith, Alice Pflieger, 
Mary W. Roberts, Alma Schaub, Cora L. Sch rock, Winifred A. Scott, Ella M. Shupe, Ada 
M. Skinner, Olive Slade, Anna M. Spencer, Carolena M. Stock, Daisy J. Swickard, Florence 
M. Taylor, Lucy B. Tucker, Clara B. Turney, Clara A. Tussing, Wilhemina L. Volk, Anna F. 

188!). Conrad C. Born, John W. Butterfield. Dennison D. Byers, Jesse H. Comsauth, 
William E. Dawson, Walter English, William L. Graves, Christian Jaeger, John K. Krumm, 
William H. Krumm, Sinclair B. Nace, John Newton Patton, Frank R. Shepherd, John G. W. 
Slemmons, William C. Williard, James H. Zinn, Margaret F. Ackerman, Renetta M. Ayers, 
Maude G. Archer, Dorothy B. Beach, Lillie Von Behren, Cora W. Brooke, Minnie Buchsieb, 
Luella B. Crook, Anna G. Dill, Helen C. Fickey, Grace M. Ford, Mary C. Gale, Minnie G. 
Hanawalt, Alice D. Hare, Florence L. Hess, Carrie B. Humphrys, Amelia Jaeger, Florence 
M. Jaquith, Emma L. Jenkins, Dickie Joyce, Anna L. Kaiser, Lillian M. Lee, Theresa L. 
Lentz, Nellie Lombard, Elizabeth Lucas, Ella R. Mayhugh, Clara McGuire, Fannie W. Mix, 
Minnie A. Mock, Grace O'Harra, Grace A. Piatt, Nettie M. Reitsche, Elizabeth Samuel, Anna 
L. Schwarz, Elizabeth Scott, Maud V. Smith, Emma L. Schiele, Laura E. Stoner, Sarah A. 
Vandegriff, Anna Wilcox, Elizabeth Williams, Mae Willoughby, Lillie Witter. 

1890. Grace G. Alexander, Lois E. Atwood, Louise C. Balz, Effie F. Beach, Albert Bean, 
Flora D. Becker, Mary E. Bell, Grace B. Bidleman, Mary A. Blakely, Erden E. Blackwood, 
Ella A. Brooke, Ashley Bradford, Amy F. Bratton, Bertha B. Browne, Grace S. Burdell, 
Frederick V. Burington, Grace D. Butterfield, Mary E. Carr, Martha A. Carter, Arthur W. 

The Schools. II. 9i 

ColtoD, Alice Comstock, Emma Criswell, Edith L. Daiiu, Nellie K. Davis, Meitie I. Davis, 
Bertha Dille, Abigail Donovau, Katherine L. Doren, Rstelle Dubois, Carrie L. Earnest, 
Mary Eisenbise, Laura H. Eswein, Fannie O. Fassig, Martha J. Fisher, Maud A. Fowler, Oscar 
R. Flyun, Francis E. Gill, Joseph C. Goodman, Maud E. Graham, Jessie C. Graves, Mary 
Green, Jeannette B. Hall, Charles Hiell, Lulu P. Henry, Ida Hoffman, Chester Hardy, Mary 
L. Hull, Holmes Hubbell, Gracie M. Jamison, Ida M. Jones, Rachel E. Jones, Adeline 
Kaefer, Edward Kaemmerer, Flora Kercher, Anna S. Kilroy, Blanche A. Kroesen, Leanora 
M. Krumm, Gertrude A. Leport, Elizabeth M. Lisle, Mamie L. Loewenstein, Bertha Maddox, 
May McClane, Grace E. Martin, Clara J. Miller, Helen E. Ziegler, Mary G. Miller, Charlotte 
E. Moore, Amelia Moritz, Kate L- Neereamer, Edith B. Newman, Albert Nickens, August 
Odebrecht, Elizabeth H. O'Harra, Elsie M. Phaler, Anna L- Phelps, Clara Pfeifer, Maud L. 
Piatt, Lewellyn E- Pratt, Mary Pumpelly, Maud Ray, Minnie Ray, Anna L. Rickel, Susan A. 
Ritter, Charles A. Roedelheimer, Kate V. Sands, Charles Swan, Annie Sheppard, Alice G. 
Shilling, Josie P. Slemmons, Ida Steiuhauser, Ethel M. Stewart, Lily M. Thomas, Helen M. 
Tippett, Mary G. Twigg, Tessa Wharton, H. O. Williams, Elva H. Young, Harriet A. Ziegler. 

1891. Nellie Bachtell, Jessie Barber, Lulu Barton, Emma Blesch, Edith Benbow, Mabel 
Booth, Nellie Bradford, Daisy M. Brooke, Grace Conaway, Estella Conklin, Mary E. Conwell, 
Grace Crawford, Phena Davis, Emma Drake, Rica Hynemau, Leona D. Humphreys, Ida 
Jones, Emma Lentz, Maud Jeffrey, Clara Kaiser, Katherine Kiser, Lillian L- Krumm, Daisy 
Loewenstein, Lena Lockhart, Cora Livingston, Ida Ines Martin, Gertrude Owen, Lida Park, 
Nellie N. Smith, Effie L. Stewart, Grace Thompson, Lucy Thomas, Daisy Tootle, Daisy 
Tyhurst, Edith M. Twiss, Clara Volk, Mary Walker, Nellie Webster, Hattie Wilcox, Grace 
Williams, Christine Wood, Harry Alexander, Cora Eichhorn, Mary E. Ewiug, Georgietta 
Fisher, Clara Garner, Clara German, Maud Gillespie, Delia Gunning, Helen M. Hague, Rose 
Havilaud, Nellie Herrick, Retta Howell, Maria H. Peters, Edith Prall, Florence Pritchard, 
Mary Pyne, Fannie Riggs, Grace D. Saviers, Lena Schenck, Alice Schrock, Abbie E- Simpson, 
Blanche Saiith, George H. Calkins, W. C. Cole, Harry Frost, Charles Herbert, Newton Jenkins, 
Otto H. Magley, William A. Marsh, Perry L. Miles, George A. O'Bryau, Marcus Simonton, 
Anna N. Cody, Edna P. Collins, Jessie Crane, Lillie Howie, Sarah Shay, Bessie Shields, Lulu 
Townsend, William Beitel, Frank J. Dawson, Oscar A. Newfang. 

The universities and colleges of the city and the parochial schools were omitted in this 
historical sketch for the reason that it was originally prepared for a larger work — Captain 

A. E. Lee's History of Columbus — in which these subjects were presented in separate 
chapters. They will be included in a subsequent edition. 

The Roman numerals in map on page five indicate the school districts of 1826 and 1827, 
outlined by fine dotted lines. The continuous line bounds the district of 1838, and the dot 
and dash line bounds the school district in 1S45. 

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to the following persons who furnished invalu- 
able information and otherwise kindly assisted in the preparation of this histor)' : 

Mrs. J. Sullivant, Mrs. Judge Price, Mrs. David Taylor, Mrs. Martha U. Merion, Mrs. 
Emily Stewart, Mrs. Stacy Spade, Mrs. Mary Higgins, Mrs. Mary F. Going, Mrs. Sarah 
O. Miner, Miss Margaret W. Sutherland, Mr. and Mrs. G. S. Innis, Mr. and Mrs. J. L- Gill, 
Dr. and Mrs. C. E. Denig, Dr. Starling Loving, Rev. W. E. Moore, Rev. J. Poindexter, 
Gen. C. C. Walcutt, ex-Superintendents E. D. Kiugsley and R. W. Stevenson, Superinten- 
dent J. A. Shawan, Hon. Henry C. Taylor, Principal A. Brown, Messrs. O. E. D. Barron, 
J. H. Spielman, John Otstott, Richard Hodgkins, J. Neereamer, J. M. Kerr, W. G. Deshler, 

B. F. Martin, H. Armstong, E B, Armstrong, S. S. Rickley, R. Cloud, W. B. Brooks, John 
Shilling, C. M. Parsons, and the principals and teachers of the schools. 


Ohio School System, by J. A. Taylor ; Records of Court of Common Pleas ; Report of 
Clerk, Franklin Township; County Auditor's Journal, No. i, and Ledger 1826 and 1827. 
Reports of Clerk, Montgomery Township ; History Franklin County, W. T. Martin ; County 
Treasurer's Account Book, No. i ; Proceedings of Trustees, Montgomery Township ; History 
Columbus, J. H. Studer ; Columbus Directory, 1843. J- R- Armstrong; Ohio State Journal, 
1826 to 1892 ; Ohio School Directory ; Ohio Gazetteer ; History of Education, Taylor ; School 
Reports ; Education in Ohio ; Columbus Ga/.etteer ; Columbus Dispatch. 


Page 20, sixth line, read Fourth instead of Front street. 
Page 22 fourth line, read Steven instead of Stern. 
Page 23 . twelfth line, read Lynn instead of Lazelle. 
Page 2j, twenty-fifth line, read Young instead of Fifth. 





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