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Full text of "History of the Second Mass. Regiment of Infantry: / [First-] third paper"

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973.74 
M38gor 
1755380 



REYNOI OS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



;o 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 00824 8137 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofsecondm03gord 



HISTORY 



1 ^'n<X..^ 

n\. ^-^- -vVj A J '^i 



TEIRD PAPER. 



DF.UVERED BV 



GEORGE PI. GORDON, 

MAJOR-GKNKK.'-.L 0\' VOI.UNll >.KS .AND COLOXF.I. SECOND MASS. KECniFNT OF 
l.VFA.NTKV IX 'lliE l.ATK V.s.K, 



AXXUAI.. MKF.TJXG OV TIJi: SECOXi) MASS. IXFAXTRV 
ASSOCIA'J'IOX, OX JfAV ii, 1S/5. 



]] O S T O X : 
ALFRED ^aiJ)GE & SOX, II:! X'lKRS, 34 SCHOOL STREET. 

3S75. . ' 









I 

|: I' F GORDON, GEORGE KEN^IY , IS^o^-lSSo. f 

8349 History of tho Seco:.d f/.ass. regiment of in- j 

4119 fantry: third paper. Delive-red...at the annuel r 

■ meeting of the Second ?.!as3. infE'.ntry association,.^ 

May 11, 1S75. Boston .Mudge ,1875. | 

231p. I 

FT • f 

I -i On ccvor: The Second Massachusetts and | 

t : 1 "Stonevrall" Jnckson. f" 

I -, ] Dav.'es f 



another copy. } 



J , 23-49 



VT "TO- 



rV.Tf!^7»y«\SgjJf(«p;^rjs :---"«--i^».;gric»»,j-r<.-^>^,gsp<^irn7r»:5a:-PW?f=.- xJWr^^TJt^ItiTi'lTV^?;'^*'"''''^'''" 



^ 



CONTENTS. 



C H A P 1' !■: 1^. 1 1 1 . 

President's order Br advance of Army of Potomac — March of Second 
Ma?.-.acha:>etr> tiirouga Frederick to take cars for Harper's Ferry — 
Condition of Harper's Fer-y— Armed Reconr.ai>sai;ce to Charles- 
tov.p., Va. — Gen. MLCi-.T.an at Cliar!estov;i\ — Duty in and around 
Charlc5tovvn — Scntimrnt< of tlie i)eople — March at ni-ht to save a 
hjyal Maryland re-inient — Composition and number of our troops 
concentrated around Chirkstown — Destination — March of my 
};riuade to iJerrvvi'de — A't.ick upon a threshing-n',acliine — Enemy 
abandons V.'iuchcster— False al.u-m— Night inarch— StoncuaU 
Jackson's leelin-s upon retinng from Winchester without a fight — 
Foran-imc — Our troops punish.ed f.v. it- — Rati jus — Fo! tihcati.'ns 
ab( .lit Winchester — Second F:gin','rnt in r.ew brigade — March of 
]'if:h Corps (Hanks) !or Centieville — March arres'ed — 1 '..tile of 
Kernstown — Appearance of batde-t'vld — Vcnge..nce of a Vh- 
oinian- Enemy's line of battle — Attack upon enemy's line — 
Nu!-bcrs engaged— Gvti. Shield^? slrataoem — John-^tvMi's instruc- 
tions to Jack^nn — Ja-U^,olds r. treat — Ft rocion-^ Germ m — c^tras- 
^.ll■^_^LcCi^ dan's instru .ti'-ns to Danks — Second campa-gn — 
Strasburg to Wood-^tock — Skirinl--!! — Fdenburg — ArLiiiery tight 
— Ashby's exploits — Cart-hor-o for Aid — Picket stacking — My 
horse, his hie and death 



CHAP'IFR IV. 

FifealEdcnburg — Tim and Stephen — Religious services — TMarcli n'om 
Fdenburg — Askbv v.it!^ hi-^ v.hite horse - ^^va-.t J.iekMr.i — The 
t^ankin- o<' ;mn— Denning's ]3rigade — Cr ^^^;^g i! e ShLUandeah 
— Views at X. w ^Ru•ket — Virginia liou-u (entrance to)- lh;gade 
1 i.:.;d piarteis — i'rot- ction to ndsircss of house — Fre-ing s:aves — 
Sufferings o. fand'ics of Southern s.,hiiers — March to I J ,r.i~onburg 
—Jackson retreats across Souti'i Fork of Shenandoah — Ihiterness ot 
Suiithern women — Vi.vvs of Adndiiistration upoti the ch>se ot the 
war — Marri.3 :e of otrker of Second Massacha;.<^tts U> a Virginiai\ 



iv CONTEXTS. 

— Frices of food in 1S62 in Valley — Erokerage business — Green- 
backs for Confederate money — Council of v.-ar — Orders to return 
to Strasburg — Slave woman Peggy — A'arni — Orders to cross the 
G-.;) -A >T-i-=sanutten Mr..i..ntain at New Market — Sunrise from the 
nvji;ntain-top — Xo fight — New Market again — Telegraph oper- 
ators as a guard — Orders from a cierk — Return to Straslnirg — 
(Occupation there 45"^9 

C H A P 1' E R Y. 

Confcdeiate Gen. John-ton's instructions to Jackson and Ewell — Ewcll 
ord-rred to march at once for Gordonsviile — Jackson countermands 
this and orders co'.n'uined movement against Banks — Why Jackson 
fonght Milrov at McD'.-.veU — Jjhnstnn p',:inned Jackson's move- 
• rncnts — Jackson as an executive orncer — Action of the War 
Department in leaving La.iks witli 4, ceo to fight Jackson with 
20,CG0 — Vvhere Jacl<son plaimed his cairipa^gn — Direction in 
vdiich he moved — Strength and composition of forces — Front 
|,;oval — Col. Keniv's ti;;ht and destruction — First report that 
reached Straskurg — Vhat Banks did and did ni't — My }'r<t in- 
ter.ie.v with him — }dy second — What he said — Appeaiance of 
town at night — My brigade prepared to march — What Er-nks did 
and what he officiaily reported he did — .At 11 a.Yi. of the 24- h May 
Eanks determines to reniain at Strasb'irg — F.nmediately ait^r 11 
A. .M. E-.:.k^ det-jrmincs to leave Strask--P-g — Leiler to me f-um 
Ikar.ks — Inf:-rmat;-.n l>y letter ttiat tlie enemy lias cut us oft — Why 
Tackson did not interp^ise his army betv/ceu us and Winchester — 
Description of line johdi.g Strasb'ng, Front Royal, a;;d Wi::.h.:-ter 

— Movement of er.cmy upon Strasburg and V/inchester — Stiiart's 
cavairv attack at Ncwt.in — 0"r flight from Stra-,burg — .Appear- 
arce of column as it r'-ached Ce;'ar Creek — P.a•d^:.^■s adm.i.-iiun — 
Ilea-.! o'-- column r^jached Middletown — Shirndsii wicli ercny's 
(-^vii'rv — DoncUv's l^rigrde and a wagon-train enter \V:r,^he.>ter 
caiiv in afternoon of 24th — Sound of canno:i heard in rear — 
}.\:- Brigade betwe-.n Mlddietown and Nev>town — Fugitives and 
lh;-ir jtjrv — linemy cut< ofi reai-g lard — Fornv, ne^v lenr-guard — 
Geri. Ikxnk> apyears — .Another i car-guard — I ai:ume co:n'.na-:d — 
Wagons wrecked — Ln-my attacked and driven from rsewtnv.n — 
Jackson's strategy — His army encounters oar cavaliy a^ Mi^id;ett)wn 

— -Ti>e rcsnlt— Fancy ^i:etchcs by Coke a-d Dabney— Gen. 1 latch 
commanding our c:iv,-Iry~ Turns townids >.rashurg and opers fire 
u->on Tack-on — Ced.ir CrLci; l;.-id.re bmT.ed Ir.- our trumps— Gen. 
Ila-ch e-capes thruu_,h the V.V.'s. to the West — \\'here and when 
our cavalry returned t..< us — Gen. Jackson discovers that Banks's 
m.dn colcmn l;as c'ud.d hi- attack — He purjin- v, Xewt'nvn — 
Condidua (u cur wagn-,^ nn the road licm Mitld'Ieto.vn to Xewtown 

— Willi my brigade, 1 h.ok! Newtown til! niglit — Gcu. Hatch appears 
th>;re — Capture of a icijcl surgeon — Comnii:::-a!y wlu^kcy — What 



CONTEXTS. V 

the surgeon reveals — Preparation for v.JLbr'.rawal from Xev.tov.-n — 
Order cf march — Second Massachu.^etts as rear-^uard — ^Vhy 
T.>.c':.--on nllo-ed u- to hoM Xew'ov.Ti for so many hours — Jackiou 
enurs Xewt-v.-:. '^lu. ve; jic:;:- — TliJns at th. burning- %va- .no — 
Bartonvire - Enemy attack rear-guard — March resumed — Head 
of colninn reaches \Vincheitcr — Cnl. Andrc^vs arrives at Kerns- 
ton-n— Rear-guard arain a;ta;ked by e: emy _ I return to meet the 
regiment at Kern^to^vn — Enemy cay:vres Dr. Leland and the 
wounded — The Second arrives at \Vinchester — Gen. Eanks m 
AVInchester and my conference v-dth him — Gem Vviiiiams in com- 
fortai'le quarters — Aroused l^ report ot eacmy aavancm^; - :ymg 
visit to Banks ?« rtf?/^'^ to battle-field . ..,.•• 70-il; 



CH ATT Ell VI. 

Pesciirlicn of cou;,try ar-oun.: V/i-chestM- — Fuimatiou of my^^line of 
battle— Length .jf enemy's line and of mine c.-'mriai-e.' — Ta<.k?on 
opens the battle by a movement against my picket,- — I)..'-;'cy's 
piety— Second Mass. ELe^in.ient moves to position under a hoc fire 
from artillery- Skinni:.hers from Second behind Stonewall drive 
enemy's gunners away from their gim^ — Attempt to knockdown 
wall with solid .^hot —Jackson's precautions to keep us from charging 

- his batteries — CoL D.-nelly's fight with Eweii —Jackson's prepara- 
tions to assault with his ^^ho;e command — Advance of Taylor's 
Lri^ade on m> ri^h: and f ; on: — T he advance a:;=theti.aliy cnsid- 
ered — Attempt to rc?i:,t Taylor — Jackson views the scene — We 
are overwh-dmcd — The e.-.my c-owd i'.- ba^k to town — Tisc Sec- 
ond Ma^sachusct:s and Ihird \\!:-consin st,:»p to de'ivcr one nvre 
fire— We enter the sircets — Co\. Andre ^vs retreats at nr-t in contor- 
mitv with i.ie rei^alaiions. but finaily saerilices the tactics Tee re- 
t.-eU t'lr^^u^h tls/miin street in V:incke>t-> de,cr:bed— G^n. Jackson 

^ ---tTfM 

at*i.n\n',s to r!;--cr Jackso;\'s intaritry iohow a? tar as jjup..-:tr rliU — 

A.hby continues to Martin.burg — Stc .van's cavalry make no pur- 
suit— Reason why— Y.'e reach the Potomac — Scene described 

H-w ',\\J. when we crossed — I'ank-'s Odicial R-.por: ot the 

retreat — Wiiat Ranks did kn .w, and wivit he reported I'j knew con- 
t-n5ted— Our lighr and r-trcat reviov cd — ^Vhen j cck^ n: reached 
tv,,, river — Panks':. O.Vicial Rep>.rt of losses — L'-.s>es in Scccnd 
M.,,^._i:;:emy'sa.^connt c.i hi> capr-rcs — Gen. P^nks evpresses 
h-s indignation r!:rough A-^^oc^ucd Prc^- — C'nfedevate Ge-. J. E. 
pdmston's account of cap-nres on 'n;r retreat — X.rt'iern slcries 
of ontra-e by So.uhvrn aruiy contradicted — Confirmatin; ..f nam- 
bcrs of Jackson's army — G-.v. Andrew's nr>:clamati.,m iiow caused 
— ^i^jorCope:and•s pmckimation, and .vhat came ot it— Excite- 
ment in other Slates— Paak^ assigns a ud! br-gad'er to conm^and 
of my brigade — ilanks's order— KecommendatloR signed by gen- 
eral oniccrs fjr my pioniuti^n — l.'cspatch from Secretary of War 
to Go.. Andie.;,'ih.;t C/.. G..uE... »\ll! be pA.m..ied — E:terview 



Vi COXTENTS. 

with tlie President of the Uni'ed States in tall of iS6i — Reasons 

given why the recomm^n<lati.<;i of del-gation in Con;::-?s in Maisa- J 

cliu.^ctts for 171V proia'Hi;.-n were unheeded — Gov. Ar.dvew's pro- | 

te;-t— Gov. An 're v's Cm: c;r iLi.'diif n i:;ji ii •:.3- p: j!n-;t: on — Com- | 

missioned as llriuadiei- General of Volunteers — Ordered to report i 

to Banks — Uanks's order to re[-.ort to Secretary of War — Secretary' | 

of War's peremptory- order to jianks to place nie in command of | 

my old brigade and relieve Gen. Green 1 10-145 | 

3 

CHArTKR VII. I 

I 

Harper's Ferry — Ap-Tiearance ot our old camp on Maryland Heights — | 

Brigade near Front Roynl—C.-n-ratnlations by ofn.cers of Second I 

Massachusetts r.p vn my promo'.:. ;a — Gen. Pope placed in commaiul | 

of new army, called Arm. y of Virginia — Corps of that army and 5 

commanders — Field of opeiatior.s of this army — McC'ellan re- | 

fnses to confer with Pope — n.ddeek Comniander-in-Chief — ^i 

Strength of Pcpe's arrny— Xev.-s of disaster 10 McClellan — Use 'j 

to be made a.'ccr d'-astcr of Ai'i'f ^-i \'irg!nia — March of Lanka's | 

Corps across the Plae Ridge— Pase of operations— E!^ect uf our | 

appearancjnpvn the people avd thelf property — Gen. Ranks re- ^ 

turns from V>'a-!-.ington — lie si-.aka rt his mess-tab'e of alarm in | 

our capital— Copeland hears him— Sends in secret cipher sub- j 

stance of ISanks's remarks to Bvst-vn editor- l):ip^::.di stopped and ' i 

deciphered in Wa-hine ;on— S .•nvn t^ the Fres' lent — Copdand ; 

dismissed, and kr.t apprised of it in a ne-Asnapcr paragraph — ^!y | 

interviev; with R.inks .a:'.er h::> r t;:rn nom \Va.-h::;gr''n^ d^.'cr'bed | 

— Camp near \Vancn-on — Rce..very of my stolen horse, and how | 

it was done— Enemy arrive at Gcrdonsvdle — Camp at i .ittle Wa>h- f 

ipo-toR Position or' coips on base — Scenery — 1 )estrueiion — I 

])"ri'ls — My mni-arv fmnlv -■ P^^pc's ..rdcrs — P: pc's presence- . | 

r.,pv-src.--;;w--Coh.ncF.fih.-i\v.M;v-;e',e.th Pui: --, Capt. Fold- | 

Cc^nt iPnise— rieat and dn:: — Sh'kne ,s a:id d^a'h — Diarrlio^a I 

and dirt— -Sieknefs in the S<-on.l M -.ssachuseUs — Cnpt. Goodwin ^ 

to RaiNks rnd S'/:! "n the vth of .Vnges: to march on Chiipepper— ^ 

ToRickett's Division to mov.. beyond Cuipej^per- Our marqh— | 

Jackson's march to attack P.-pe — Pope's knowVdge of Jackson's | 

movements — Sig'd a<ks what ro:;d lie shall take to Culpepper— | 

Crawford's R:ig:uie at Cxlir Cr^ d. ^npp iting the cava'ry— Aue'.>t | 

oth, Pank-,'s Corps s-nt f Tward to Crawiord-s positi .n — Gen. Roll- | 

erts. Pope's chivfof-^taft, places Pank^-'s Corp^ i'l position at Cedar j^ 

Cj-^ek — (ndcrs mv l>r';:ule to the right on a Ind — i./esenption ^ 

of the connt.ynro-md, in'iinh,>g t-:c bauie-.Rhl -.f Cedar^ Mwnnt:^in | 

lj.jscr;ption i-f our p...di:i.ii e>n extreme rigiit — Hanks'^ elective - « 

force as reputed tn Pope atid hi-> f.ree as reported n. Connnittee on | 

C wsdaet of ih-- War, and wini' it really was -n the 9'h of August— ^^ | 

l;e n;anner in which niv liiga.ie was di-.po. = -d . . . .M6-it>S i 



CONTEXTS. Vll 



C H A P T E R \' I T T . 



Jackson moves his infar.tn,- tor-.vari! into ihe right — ^^ovenleIlts of our 
cavalry — Enemy's lorce on the mountain — Winder's batteries In 
the road — How Jacks jn's wIvAq force wxs di^pjsed while the ar- 
tillery c:.>inb,'.t was goiu;.', on — Banks's nr-t forward movement, and 
■what he made it for — How he intended to accomplish his purposes 
— Hii despatch to Pope — Crawford persuades Banks to make his 
movem;-nt with a brigade — Orders from Banks at five o'clock — 
T'nird Wiic.Misin skirm.isl'ers ord-red by Crawf.^rd to join his bri^'- 
-,l^.^C'\. I\u^er protests — Banks orders the movemeiif neverthe- 
lej^ — Exact p..sition cf the enemy's line of battle — Position ar.d 
numb.-rs of our lire cor.frontinc; it — F-cserves Oi the two armies com- 
p^-^rcJ — Descrij-'tion of the movement of rec,iir.ents of Crawford's 
l.ri-:^ado again=c the enemy and its effect — Banks now threv,- forward 
the v.ho'e of his corps except my Brigade and the Tcnih Maine — 
Soiitiiern description of the charge — Lmss in the enemy' brigvdc.^. 
whicii ch.eci<ed our pursuit — History of the Tenth Maine, its 
position during the assault, and v.'hat v.-as seen by its omcers — 
JiSanks orders the Tenth ?\Ia'ne to advance alore against theeneniy — 
They advance and fall back — Gen Banks sends one of his stafi to 
arrest the baci.ward mivomen.t — Col. Peio'ase, the siah-or.Kcr, 
trkcs con.mani.'; of r'r.e reiiaicn:-— Is soon. v/Land,d and. retires — 
Then \'. hat happened to t'le Tcntii Ma'ne — Where they were when 
mv brigade came into a:u"a — Gen. Williams's signal to me — 
Moven.enis of my brigaile i.i cbcdieace to his orders — AVhat I 
found vviitn I got up to the line of the wood bounding trie vvdicat- 
fi,.:j .- Wheie I f^jund Crawford — My line of batde formed -- CJ. 
Andr;;ws sees nothing to fire at 169-1S5 



C i I -V P f E Iv IX. 

Movements of" enemy at tune my brigade was ordered into action — 
What 1 found on r.^y :.;nt— \Vnat Col. C(dgr..ve tiioiighc he 
sav. — '• We -arc tiring on onr own vacn " — Ilovr 1 proved to !l,a 
c.-ntrar,- — The Tv.-enty-bj\-enth Indiana hreaks to tlie rear in con- 
fusion — Tiie Second Massachusetts standi SLoady — A brigade of 
the enemy gains our rear — I'iist seen in coian^n cf conij)an:e5 behind 
our ii.,h: :'aii^ — hire ugeiKd an.! i's v;:;cCl — Ca;t. Iv':-.-e!: ana 
^faj .r Sa>a.e— Ccl. Andrewi's hor^e wound:d— My hiase breaks 
through t'le tiiuber — Of my brigade I could rally only from tldrty 
to fifty men— :^^eeond Nla-^ .chnsctts niarched in good orderl^y Cul. 
Andi-jws ')nl .<f t!ic v,o d-— Return to the c ttage — Chai^?e in its 
condilioi) — Dead and w. vnnded — (grder from Gen. Williams to fall 
back — ])id not obey it — Order fu.m Gen. Banks to fail back — 
Pope an'' Banks togjth-M in the road — Report to them in person — 
Po-e's arrival on the field, and how he came there -• Incidents of 



Yin 



COXTKXT; 



his ride — My interview with Popt,- and I'aiiks — The former _qives 
orders for ni; l'ri;j::i'Jt; to tal.e i:o>it;<jn — Vopc denies thai, lie ordered 
ilanls to fi^hL cii. I- ■tti- — li.iiiko iUct — Order, received duriiig 
the tlg'i-.t from Uanks to charge acro-s the wlieal-lield— Ka.iks de- 
nies t;-.at he gave such crd.ib — Order througii Major Perkins to 
Col. Andrews to charge across the s.uue held '.vith the Second Mas- 
sacbi'.settr? — Perkins after\\ards admr.s tiiat sac'i an ordc.- -.ias gi\en 
by mistake — Andrews refers to ivrj — He ;s ordered not to obey — 
Eanks's order to nie discussed — IJanks's general moven.ents con- 
sidered — Final charge of Jackson's anviy — My movements in exe- 
cuting Pope's orders — Policed by Gen. I'ovv'er of Rii'kett's Di- 
vision — Fired into !.>y enemy in attenndng to take up p':sition des- 
ignated by Pope — Tv.elith Ma.ssachiu^eils engaged — Capt. Shurtiefi 
killed — Pope and ids staff during tiu? eng.igement, wiiat happened 
to t'lcm and v.d .t t'lcy did — Accidcr.t to Ba:iks's opposing batter- 
ies — Dar.ger from cur o.vn — Move to the rear — We meet Sigel 
and his corpi — S'gei confronrs the Second Mass. Kegiir.ent — 
P' pe C'r::e!S me 'o return to the wood from whicli v.e have been tired 
Oh — I return as near as possible — I'iie enemy enter our lines 
while seeking tlieir regiments — Clark, Eanks's aid, endea-. ors to 
find tlie enemy— Pupeand his general oidctis sitting un:h.ra tree — 
The cn.emv opens t're — if:ft::t r;.e;e >f — Mv C'i;nn;and ordered to 
tiie rear — Why Ja^.k.-vju ilid n .>t attack oi the io:h. — ■ C_>ur line 
of b-i-tle on the i^tli — Fhig o-f irnce on the nth — i^attle-field 
ar.d its appearanci^ — L.;ssjs in n;y b::gade — I. i>es in the Sec- 
ond iMasL^. I\egi;r.":V. — Fijrces c-. spared — Pro<. f that Jar'Kson 
was unwiiiing to n.e.c ns v.l;n e:;nd n-nnber^ — Ja•.;v^on accom- 
piisiied noti:ing by his vict'j."y — A fe'.v woids upon i) ■ 
that he only rcsisced an i^;;..^.k by tin; tnenr/ 



- -- i'l 



c 11 apt;: 



Was Panks ordered to figh: the b.u.ie of Ced tr M..unrain ? — Pope's 
])!a!i:^ — What w;'v: th y r — I ^■..: Pfc cn;::!.u.ntcate hi- plans to 
itianks ? — lIo.v\,<.ie :h--v c-.-ni.au. :i-a:^d - — Proof t'u.r Panks did 
unders-::And 1 '-P-'- '-rier- — 0.:n I.--'v:t;;"a le-iimony bek-re the 
iMcDowell Court «,; InLydrv — V> '.■..:•. h-..:.k.- i.^nst have answered if 
he had bee:; !::terr-'-: :'.'■■'. leicre '. ■■ ngiit or immediately aUer the 
battle— iiow Paui ^ ;-..:i..e:> ;-'n:s.if — - IP.w -ume of his friends 
jasdr.- him — F.-'i...... — ;'-_..■> v.-: :_ — i ne nnu. igen' .nt of the 

battle crit!^;--.-.i — ]!-nk- r^p--::e I tha: h. v. as driving the enemy — 
Crav.-fe-rd's atter.nit to j',>.r:;'y P.,-.;!' — banks retlects ui>.jn my 
brigade— What w-.nid i.a^e i:..,y-!U:-l h.ui Wiiiiams n.ovcd his 
wh.^ie i'ivisio:. >ima :,;■ e '. ;-y :. -iie ;.s;- uil — Ihioks n;nst bc 
nnswered — Our rC.w.n t> Oni; c:..;,e-- and hurried mo\em>;nt 
t-.'wards Wasiiin;tvn— i;.;.c:et:on:, 



Cli APTER I J I. 



I cLOsri) my last paper with the President's order for 
a movement of the oxmy against the er.einy on \Va>hing- 
ton's Birthday. It has been urged that this seeming ir^ter- 
ference with the plans of I'JcCiellan was due to the fact 
that that officer did not sccra to appreciate the value of 
time in its relation to national finances, and to a Demo- 
ciaticform of Govcrntn..-nt ; also that furiiier delay involved 
national despondency. — a tax levied upon the people for an 
immense debt which had borne no fruit in victories ; distrust ; 
a great fall in national stocks ; and a po:.slble ii not probable 
foreign intervention. Idierefere the President's Order, No. 
T. issued against :vIcCiellan's protest, peremptoril}" com- 
manded an riclvance at al' points on the 23d o[ February. 
^IcClellan v/as |daced at the head of t'le Arn-.y of the 
Potomac, and soon ceased to be con;Tnander-in-chiet c>t the 
arniies Cif tlie Unitccl l":)!: ics. 

It was very early iu t; e morning of the 27th ot T-ebruary, 
1862, when I marched our regiment through the streets 
ot Predcrick, in Marvland, to take the cars fur Harper's 
P'erry. As "our band aroused the town, ;'oung lames, hur- 
riedly dressed, waved handkerchiefs from windows, and, in 
some cases with teai^ id repressed, utLered a treuuding 
gooddn'. Tl-tough their hearts were full ot anticijjations, 
h.opeiul and fearful, tl^eir heroism was magniricent. While 
there v/as s'dicin'.de for suffering th;it must come, iherc 
was no fiincb.ing. I saw a sister, sending a bruther to 
fight against her husband ; I saw a father, armed to fight 
aadn.t his sons. All were heroes, and all seemed pruud 



that they could do something;- to crush the "accursed Re- 1 

bclhon." A Mar) land rc;-iuicnt, raised principally in Fred- | 

crick, as a honie 2:uard, choosinir its own dutv. volunteered | 

to g'o v/ith us to the field. Its colonel was one of the | 

most prominent men in the city. | 

When ve arrived at Harper's Ferry, v;e found the place | 

more wreckevl aivd ruined than wlien we last sav,- it in July | 

cf iS6i. Blackened v.-alls met the eye at every turn ; | 

there was n(_i lif*:- in the town. Now and then we saw a | 

prov.'ling inhabitant stealim; around, — the i;liost of a former | 

life. Our passage in the cars had been so tedious, through | 

inierminal)le delays, tiiat we v,-cre glad enough to cross | 

the pontoon bi'idgo, laid duv.-n by the engineers for this | 

invasion, even ii;to that towri of desolation. A good old | 

negro v.-onaan. friglitened to death at first, aided the com- 1 

,. „ . ... . . n 

mandmg ofncer oi our regmient m i-x-ttimg siipi^er m one g 

of the icw houses left. lleie, while ;' biaght fire, made | 

fiom tlie nahn.gs oi an adjoining fence, l>urned in ari | 

open fi re-place, the good old aunty, keeper of the house, ^ 

turned out bedding for th.c nii;'p.L, ana.i made herself ren- 4 

a 

erally usciul, as well as amusing in. Iver talk of tlie § 

" seceshers," as slie called tliem, v.-ho were here only last .| 

5>undny, pray'ug that the river nnght rioC " to keep ihc i 

"^'ankees out." liow she laug'ned as sive tuldt us that ^ 

she sav,' our men, whons she called Indians, lying down p 

on tlieir Ixicks on tiic other sicii.' of trie- ri-cer, to hvid | 

and t'.rc at tl^.c " secesli " here. And "she is •■lad of it,"' 3 

I 

she say.s ; she wants the \'ankees to wh.io the secesh. and j| 

will laugh, long a:i'l louc! again, " if \'-n\ 'se able to do it." ij 

We lound Gen. "AlcClellan here, with a' large start, giving jl 

. , i 

persop.al supervi-ion to this, tiie nrst movement ot h:s ^ 

a'any on its momentous m.ission. R 

}>efore nigliifall, an armed reconnoissancc, to consist of | 

the Second iMassaclmsetts amJ tr.e Third Wisconsin ]\egi- | 

iiienLs, two sections of the hdrsl N'ev»- York ijattery, and four ^ 

i 



squadrons of the First Michifrnn Cavalry, the v.-hole to be 
cofnmandctl hv the colonel of our rc,<;ipaent, was ordered 
" to move as soon after daylight as possible" in the direction 
of Charles town, and explore the roads diverging south and 
west from the town. When the sergeant-major of the 
Second came around and notified company commanders to 
be rcadv, it v/as four o'clock in the morning. Witliout a 
straggle, officers and men threw themselves from hard board 
floors into the open air, washed their faces in a brook, 
snatched some kind of a breakfast, v^hich they vrere an 
hour in getting, and took their places at daylight m good 
slvle, in ad'.ance with rifles loaded. In advance of tiie 
infantry v/ont the cavalrv, and follovoing them, supported 
by a rear-guard, canic the artillery, "all ready to talk the 
right kind of music," as one of our officers said. With 
skirmishers thrown out on the flanks, the column made its 
eight miles to Charlestov.m, taking tiiC town by surprise. 

Son:e few negroes guzed at us fom ti^e by-w:-ys, and a few 
poor whiles looked lisrlesslv on, but none hailed our coming. 
]. caving the infantry l-) L(Alvy as we a[tproached the tov.n. I 
charged through, at the bend of three squadrons of cavalry, 
onlv to drive a pitiful i.wcntv of the enemy's cavalry out. We 
arrived at twelve oVloc'. at noon. W'niio making, with a com- 
pany of cavalry, an c-v.^niination of tlie roads, T came upon ; 
Gen. McClellan, and Ids vd^ole staff, native and foreign. It \ 
appeared that mv advance had been to clear the wa}' for his ] 
nniitary examinanruT of the couatry, and the disposal of his j 
forces for tjie grand oncor.iing movenient. Gen. JMcClellan j 
having bi-en my classn^are at West P(;int, we had a pleasant | 
and far.diiar cona-ersatio;) for an hour or niore. I 

After rerarning to tlie tiiwn it was determined to occupy j 

and hold Charlestown ; so I v/as ordered to ^end back for my I 

kiiapsacks, wagons, and the connpany prOj^erty. Regardnyg our j 

regiment a'V)Tvv.-:;i--l\- as he passed (>o sonic of our y'lnig orfi- ; 

cers ihouglit}, Gen. MeCiclian rode rapkily to Harper's I-'ci'ry I 



and thence b}' special train to Washin^^trin. Frnm some words 
c!r=:.pped at thu:- ii.ii-jn-ic\v, while looking over his maps, I was 
pcr,.uacied that 1 was right, and tijaL tnis was the beginning of 
the movement: of the Army of the I'otcinac. Hardly had tlie 
order to remain in town become known, wiien the men began 
to forage, somewliat. Se\-eral pigs that were running around 
loose, as it was termed, were shot, wliile rnanv a duck and 
chicken went into tiie nieri's haversacks for supi.nL.r. Some of 
you will remeniber that it wa:^ nt Charlestown, and at tiiis 
time, when Majo?' D wight ordered a stop put to foraging in the 
Second, — a.fter he had seen all t'ne men of his regimeuit 
th.oroughly provhled :or. There w.ib gieat exhilaration among 
the }Oung officers of our reginu-nt over the no\elty of being 
f( ''lowed around hiy trust)' men to knock down an}djodv who 
objected to their tii::i):i^ wa)'s, and tl'iere was mu.ch enjoy- 
u'lent and good feei.lin.g \\dtli us for a time. A portion of tv.-o 
\\agondoads of flour, captured ori our march, fell tu the Second, 
and was cooked, t>jO, wnii some ot their own ro!"-.>rcrs, by nice 
old ladles, Vvdio v.ere viulent secessionists when tliey were not 
scared cut ot thi-ir v/its. 

Until the 9th of Marcii, while treojes were being collected 
for an onward m''.>\emcnt upon Winchester, we had man}- 
st:en[>-.des, and can recjU plearvanL c; niieugn experiences. 
Cnu' icgi::ie!it h,.d rejomed Gen. Abcrcrombie's Brigade, from 
vdnich, as I liave saad, we were detached for this movement, 
and ^^e again occnpi^-d the ground ihat we encamped on in 
J id)' uv tlie precednug \ear, v.'heii imder I'attersun. In this place, 
always a hot-bed of sedition, it nmst ha\'e seemed strange to 
see man\' thousa'K; inyal soldiers qu triered, and the Xarional 
Colors waving over ihe tv)wn. Here was tiie field where Jolm 
Brown's eyes fell I'^r the last lime upon tlie " line country " 
ar(aind him; tivc ol.:l fence, and stiunp xsl^ere it was believed 
he was executed.. Tlie .--tunuj Inid been free!}' chipped fur 
mcnicntoes. ' ( )n Simd.:i\-. for th': f.r^^t time in naniv monti-s, 
we had religious :a:r\i.es under a rovjf. Tiie Led on the old 



court-house, which called the people to arui?. to resist John 
Brown, now tolie.I ihe call to cluu\:h. Our chaphun preached 
a movhig serruon. Quite difft-reut scenes li^id that old court- 
house witnessed the past week, from those of two years ago, 
when the walls, that listened to John Brown's death-sen- 
tence, now echoed back, " Gh-ry halleluji''h, his soud is march- 
ing on." 

Secrecy was to characterise our movements. An associated 
press reporter would have laid himself out on the occupation 
of Charlestown, and the presence of Gen. McClellan, but that 
he v.-as not allowed to send a single word that had not been 
supervised by ihe commandirig general. 

Jdere in Charlestown we stumbled across a good Union cit- 
i-:en, whom we had met in Judy of i86i. It is amusing, now, 
to note how eagerly th.en vre hung on such stuii a-s this : " lie 
predicts that tlie rebels v.iil fall back from Winchester, and he 
doubts very much whether they vdli attenipt to l;old Manassas. 
He thinks they will go South and make tlicir last stand there, 
if indeed they 'stand anywhere'; tr:at they are getting no 
recruits, and can get none ; tlnit tliev are pv^orly armed, have 
poor amnumit'on. Only assure the country," said he, " of your 
ability to prott'ci. tlie } eople in the expression of tlieir opinions, 
and t::ey vdll immediaiel)- decku-e fo;- the I'iden." In this I 
doubt not tiicre was a grain of trutli, and ivw.^,;^;;]y :^, r.-i-pj^f^ [ri 
tne lollowing: " Sniceyour ci^.trance into Charlestown, now onI\- 
tnree da;-s, I have heard great cliange in the sentin:cnts of 
some, that tornnerly made use of struiig secession language, 
and I have been much surprised at it." 

'I his was so clieerful tiiat I thought I might venture to 
test the strength of Union fcdiug by sending Major Dwight 
to fmd rooms foj- Gen. Aberciombie, our brigade commander. 
Kn(»ck'n_; at a prc:misingd..oking house, he was ccreeted bv a 
sharp-vnsaged wwKnan, who eallod out to hini from an upper 
V. indow, — 

" d:) a\'. av, I won't have aust'iina,- io do uath vou." 



"Won't you come to the cl^or, and let w.q talk with you?" 
urged t;;c major, blandly smiling. 

The door N/a;^ opened jus'., a c-cick. 

"Couldn't you open the door wider," inquired the maior 
" and so avoid a drait ? " 

"■ I 'm a lone woman. I am a lady, and I am a secessionist ; 
and I hope you will lose the next battle you fight, and I just • 
as lief, tell you so as not. I hope I am a Christian, but I hop.e 
you will get whijjped." 

Through the crack of tlie dcor came this impetuous torrent 
of words, until the flow was checked in a downright cry. 

Major Dwight was embarrassed, but overcame it by pro- 
ceeding to business. 

" I wa'it a rooa," '■vjid he, "for Gen. Abercrombie, and 1:C 
will protect you." 

Still the woman lelused. 

Then the u'.ajur, with sootliing words, mollified the gooil 

woraan, and soon received the assurance that she would take ] 

the general, but she would tell hiiu she ■•h!)])ed he would he | 

whip])ed in the next b;'.Ltle he locghi/' whicli Sccmcd to afford | 

her so much relief that slie at l'.>-t agreed to board the gener;di; | 

and later, so we learned from one lA the staih began to deliver \ 

... ^ 

herself of sentiniLnts ia.oiab'e to the Ui.ien. \ 

■> 
T'hus we cr;iv,-ued in upon the ['eOjue, lakiiig iheir houses, \ 

hoi'ses, furnituie, auid live stock. Of many feath.ered bi}!eds, I 

i^oriliding pigs, and ^^tately .;ee.-e tiiai; were seen upon our | 

euurancc/ alas ! nc't one sin"vi\ed. The eiujrts of the people I 

t',) bear these v;oes v.itli Chri:;tian resii;n.ation were sometimes ] 

Ivalieious. '• I heipe I m a CTiri^tian, and it m}- e.iemy hungers s 

I '11 feed him," iurnished v,-ondcriul co!isoiation to a g«-Hjd | 

wonum, whio hurled it at n-e, because I ga\'e her no encourage- 1 

men.t for Jicr losses. W'e f(vj!id. ti:e lem.aies here nnich more ] 

violent than the males, but perhaj)S this wns only from the i 

female habit of nut suppa'cssing their feelings. The women toeik ] 

malic'ous 'deasure in exnressin'V to our ofiicers tlieir senii- 1 



mcnts of hatred to "your''' president and to "jP7/r" government, 
and no anvnini of s'voaring induced tlicin to believu in our 
recent \'ictorics at Ilenr}', !\iiil Spring?, and iJonelson. We 
found some difficulty, too, in. trading with oiu- treasury noies, 
especially with the luwer clnsses ; but when th.ev found it "^vas 
that or nothiu:;, they took them eagerly. The thin, llimsy- 
h)o]-:ing currency, issued by the Confederate States, as well 
as by their municipal ccrjjf'rations, was exclianged among the 
]>eoi.);e wit'n confiLlcnce in. its value, alth^nigh I observed that 
tliO knowing on.es used it, to buv lands of the foolish. 

Many of our regiment can recall the gua?Tl duty, on picket 
>;ir wiih the batteries, performed during our occupancy uf 
Cliarlestown ; can rcc^dl \}\c huts, thatched with alternate 
la}'ers of corr.-sta)k.> an.d rails, which afforded shelter from 
storms of snow and rain ; the fenceless fields, where hungry 
cattle hrmicdcss waiiflercd, treadin.g do\\-!i the stalks with 
corn unplucked and wheni unthreshed ; tlie pigs, Irauled 
out from burrows uncif^T v.heat-stacks. and tlici^ des!)atc]ied hy 
sv/ords in unpractised hand^-. and so nntinir'v cut off in tlif-ir 
prime-, to satisiy a craving lor i:urk-ciii)!)s ; the e.\citeme:it and 
glorious fun o*" the enemy being nenr. to startle from the 
warmth of huge f's^r^. ar.d give perhc-.pjs u skirmish before 
morihng. On all these lajuiurios I but touch, that I may 
recall to miud t'aat tlu: c;tizc:ns ol Charie.-to'vn were Cjuite will- 
ing if not anvi.-^ijs to nj-'pejl to the oillcer-^ for protection 
again-t t!ie swarms oi loragers who invaded their spring 
houses apid ti\eir cellars f^-r food. .\s the :u"m\- increa.-;cd in. 
numbers, our camiis were pitch.ed on tlie uut>kirts of tlie t^nvn, 
wh'jre I selc( t'.;d as m) h.e.i Iquarters thic yard or park v/'nich 
enclosed a geritleman's r,',usc. 

'J'he n::a!-i's name w:is bi.enncdy, an.d h.e was supposed to 
liavc son.e Union \ roc\W\['.c>: as wcl! as a house fu'l of females 
and slaves. Tha; inmates v. en- so much surprised to see a 
regiment of in.fan.try file into tlicir yard, and locate tents anal 
baggage m front of tr-.e okl lamdy n"!an.>i')n, tliat there was 



10 

an immediate appeal to Gen. Ixinks, who " thought I better I 

move," which I uicl, fir^t however calihi;^: upon the fanilv to ' 
assure them, that I tluuiglit my protection v/as more valuable, 

than my i^re.^ence v.as arP'oyin^. \ 

The old lady of the house was full of apologies for her con- I 

duct in locking the d'.ior, and tlying to the tKxlroom in tliC | 

upper story, as I entered with the regiment. Xotwitlistanding j 

she " had heard " tliat 1 had " the best regiment in tlie Uniied | 
States service, and th.e best disciplined," she v/as alarmed, 

she said ; but she would be gratihed if I would take a bed ! 

in her house, which I declined, and slept in camp where [ 

v/aler froze, arid where breakfast in the open air v.-as cool and I 

invigorating'. | 

Agaui, I nxet here oue of my old frierals of the Patterscin j 

Ccimpaign, a Tdr. James L. ]s.anson (I strorigly suspect it v/as j 

his slave th.at I was <>idered in i86i to r^.ich and return from j 

Harper's Ferry}, v/ho, in a polite note, begged tlie favor of my j 
protectiou. h-r his fauiily. consisting o: i\Irs. Ranson in delicate 
health, his daughter and her child, and himself their sole pre^- 
tccLor. '•Recalling" (the iiote continued; ";an- brief inter- 
view last suimner, at Harper's b'errv, I congratulate mvself in 

a|'peali:ig to one who so favorably imv're-sed. me upon that | 

occasi'.n." j 

■Hovering over a stove in nn tent on the night of the 6th of 1 

iMarch, — it v.-as bitter cold, — I wore av.-a.y tiie evening until ! 

late, in a \ain elioit to lead f-y a wretched candle stuck in a j 

sjjuuter'of wuod'ior a stand ; and then, \,"iLli a ^ensc of uneasi- j 

ness, a jiresage tluit some disagreealjle c!uty v/as impeiKling, \ 

I invoked slnn-ber. tiiocgl: in vain, for hanilv had I lost m\so!f, | 

v.hen an orderly, gallvj[)i!ig thre.ugh my camp, liaited at my j 

tent, witli "despatclies for (\)1. G(n-don." \ 

\ 

W \\\\ matclies reac'y, ] struck a light and read as follov/s : — j 

Geii. AhercroiTibie will imt !iis hri-'adc imir.etlintelv uiulcr arms, and will oult^r I 

. , ' ' ' . i 

tlv.- .~>i.C'jn(.l .K.is.-acir-i-.-Us ;'!i<l Si.xtt'-Jhtli Inclian.i X'uluntcer-; to move caut;oi;^'y i 

di.Wii the I'orryville :\....l to su*.h a pviint as n;.iv l.c ii'dicaud I^y an aiuc-de-caiiip | 

i 



11 



who T\-il! be sent out from these he.idquarters. Two squidrons of cavalry ami 
two si-'ctioas of artilier'.- ■.vil! rCjjort t>j C'-o'.. George H. G'Tclin, who wii! cinanand 
;he entire t\;rc'j, sibject to further orders ircn thcsj l.eajtjuai ters. Lei not a 
moment be lost. 

By coiiv.nand of 

Maj.-Gi:n'U Banks. 

K. Morris Coteland, 

A/aJ. Vols., A. A. G. 

Col. Gordon will criinply with the 'bove order. 
By command of 

Gk.m. At;fj'Crom;;iiu. 

Geo. B. Drakk, 

A. A. G. 



In a moment, I had shivo-'ed iiiivo m.y shoes, ordered my 
horse, aroused our rcg:in!Ciit, inei the staff-officer, received 
tiTc report that artillery and cavnlrv Avere ready; and off I 
.s':^rtcd by the uncertain lig'ht of the scars. Soon thiC long 
column unwound itseU" in t!u: road., an.d we proceeded on at a 
ra^iid i)ace. Ni.)W ii wus. \'^r rliC first time, tlmt I learned our 
destination. Our friends, the Mar\dand regirricnt. Co1. ?d"auhsby 
commanding. h?A bcs^n stationed as a gunrd at a ferry on the 
Sheriandoah, betwe-n [ov.x and fiv(i miles from (,"harlestown to 
the soiitlieast. During tlic day, Col. IsTauisin' had been 
li^reateneti b;.' the enemy's cavalrv. and i^ad a:-.]:cd i\.)x rein- 
forcements, wiiicii were ri^t luriiished. Between twelve arid 
one o'clock, .-v. :.r., of the ^tli, a fright'^n^-d tearn'^tcr came fiving 
ir^m their camp to l^anks's iieavlquartcrs, ci'ying out tiiat liie 
Ic-ya! Maryland rci^an-ient had been cut to p'ieeos. 'i'welve 
himdred ca.vah'}', he saie.. had attackctl ttiem. 

My route for a short v^s^-v^-n:: was along a good paved road ; 
but soon turning to th.e leit, \\\^<i\\ a diit road, the mud aiid 
obstructions reridercd it inapossil:>le to }.)rccecd farther by 
nigh.t. Hailing Iv/ the ro uls.de, I th.rew ou.t pickets to the 
iront, and directing tlie me!> to make theixiselves comfortable, 
fires soon bla/ed along our line irom fuel furnislied h\ ad.join- 
ine' fence-rails, Wiiile awa'tin:' davliuht, I e.xtracte>'. from 



12 I 

the frig-litencd teamster, whom I hcA broiic;h.t,alonc; as p;uide, ] 

tl\e follow ing stoiy oi the ciis-tster tinit had overlaken C(d. .j 

Mauisbv: — * 

" When the twelxe hundre'l cavalry of the enemy made the | 

attack on us, I li-.-ard tlie tirst sliots fiicd, and then heard | 

the ofhcL-rs. say, 'Turn out, bo\"s, the cneniy is upon you.'" ] 

Throudiu' himseh' drjwn in a hollow, this fri£;'hLencd teamster | 

remained conceah-d, uritil Ik- Lhoui;'htall the enemy had passed, | 

when he arose to nnd, "that all his mules had broken away." | 

As fast as his lci^;s could carry him, he ra.n through fields, | 

I 

trembling witii tear, sj^reading the report to our ov.ii pickets; i 

wi!i.>, many of them, with the fugitiw teamster, came crowding j 

into Charlestown. | 

" Did you see tlu: enemy's cavalr}' .' " I asked. \ 

'"I saw the Maryiaiul men run, and lieard tlie firing; and | 

theri 1 tli.fught it tin''e tu take care of m)'St-lf,'" he rerilied. | 

"Lut did ju'u see cm)' of the eneun' ? " I urged. t 

"No; but I wa.^. Undi lijcre were t\vel\'e hundred." I 

" iJiu vou see any one killed ? " I 

'■' Nc', sir. I lai'l ]'.>:\- u.util tliey passed me, and then I ran j 

here tl trough the fields." « 

" Can it he possible that this story is ali of your own irnag- i 

ining ? " I incuiired. | 

'■'' N(-', inoecd, sir ; I hn sure th.e camjj is taken," h.e answered. » 

... ] 

The duty 1 was to perform, was to capture, if possible, the | 

cajVLors, and, it not. to bring l)ack rv-liable infonv.ation. j 

x\i dayligiit i reMUued the march. We \vere buc four miles j 

from oiu" (.lestiujtii.m. As v.'e a[)}.n"oached the river, J came sud- i 

derih' u|'on live or six men of tiie i\iar\'la!id reginicn', as tliey | 

Were crawling uul o; a liole that b.' ! irom a t)arndoli. Tiiese I 

men conhrmed tlic ,-tor}- of the teamster, sayir.g that their regi- | 

merit had been cut to pieces. Su'eepiiu;' thicm in witli ir^y ) 

encircling lin.e of skirmishers, 1 moved. ra])idly for the belt of I 

woods in front of the ferry, v\:iere h.ad beeii the encam;)ment ' 

of tiu; regiment. Near bv v.-as a s'nall xilla-e. in wliich I i 



13 

saw the gleaming of bayonets, and troops apparently falling 
back, but v.-itii my glass I couid not mal-ie out tlicir colors nor 
thc'.r uturorms, b.> I tiirew oat an entire company of skirmish- 
ers, and ordered up the artillery ; but hardly had I madQ 
preparations for a tight, when one of m.y cavalry scouts came 
galloping back, saying. "Those are men of the Marvdmd regi- 
ment." Passing them, therefore, I directed my column for 
the camp, and soon came upon sentinels, whom recognizing 
by their uniformi as of the Maryland regiment, 1 "inquired 
if there had been a fight, and was promrtlv answered that 
there had not. Turning to my frightened teamster, who 
stt-od near, I a-ked him wljat this meant. "Have you not 
had firing.'" he asked a sentinel, without directly address- 
ing himself to me. " Yes : we made a mist.^ie last night, 
and our men just fired into our cavalry pickets, but didn't ! 

hurt anybody. Onl}' a horse — perhaps a man — was v/ouaded," I 

he replied. \ 

"Is this all?" J ask..d. 1 

" That is all I " replied the sentinel. i 

" I ought to lie vou to the tail oi mv horse, and drag vou, j 

as a coward, b^.ck to Cliarlestowri ! " I said to the now pallid i 

tenmster bv mv side. l 

I 
" Weil, there was nring I " he s^aiiniered out. j 

" And -IS sooTi as you iieard ii, you ran, like a great lout, five I 

miles to Charlestown, and v.dth your false repfi: ts have caused j 

tnree thousand iniaiitry, tv^-o seetiun.s of aitilierN, arid tv.o I 

squadrons of cavalry, to be trailed oui on. this useless marcli ! " i 

Afier breakfasting witii the oihcers, I returned again to my j 

camp, wliieli I readied : c ten a. m., b.aving beeri ab:-ent about j 

twelve liours. i 

Information I;aving been received that tb.e enemy had ' j 

ab'andonedl his Ixatteries on the lower I'otom.ae, and was pre- | 
)iaring to abandon ^lanassas, our corps, 'pursuant lo directions 
received from Washington," was ordered to move at seven 

o'clock, A. M., of the lOtii of March. \ 



14 

While Congress had been sitLin;^; in judgment upon iMcCIcl- 

lan, condemning his policy and his plans, discussing his move- | 

ments and misr.ppr^henciing his motives, as if it had become | 

a bod\' of misrepresentatives v.dth the single purpose of decry- I 

ing the commander of the Armv of the Potomac, Gen. ]\IcCicl- ] 

Ian had been carefully and methodically preparing his vast t 

armv for the field. • . ] 

I have referred to, the onvv-ard movement ordered by the i 

President on the 2 2d ot February last, with Gen. McClellaii in | 

command of the grand armv of thiC Potomac, or-.-anized into its \ 

several divisionary corps, unccM' McDowell, Sumner, Pleintzle- | 

man, Keyes, and ixiuks. Halieck was in cliarge of a department | 

at tiie West, c.id Fremont in clrirge of the mmmtain depart- 'j 

ment. it is v/itii Baiiks's corps tliat our interest lies. While \ 

the others were to move on their devious way up the l^eninsula i 

to York.tov,-n, Williamsburg. t!iC Cluckahominy, and the James, | 

we were to move up the vaiiev of the Siienand.'>ah, closing this 1 

gate^rav to the euen:iv. Our ior.re was as fallows : We had 1 

the brigades that v.m.tered v/itli us nt Frederick, command<.-d 1 

b\' Generals llanii'ir'n, Williams, and Abcrcrumbie. Tiiis j 

i 

force was increased by tl;e division formerly commanded '.>v | 

Gen. Charles P. Stone, at ]'v_'''l>vi!lc, and consisted of three | 

i)riL\ades, con;r,ianded by Gcnrrrds German, l^irns, and Dauj. | 

Oul\' the first two v,c;e with u^, anci tiicsv v. ere commanded | 

by Gen. Sedjv.-lck, to v/hom, after St'^iue's rcmox-al and incar- 3 

1 

ceration, the div-i-r-iors was assigned. We had uIm"- a force of i 

some six thousand nun, eomnu! nded by Gen. Sidelds, formerlv 1 

].-ander's force, which v^•as r^rdered to renort to Ikuiks. The'i i 

th jre were about lomtecn hundred men. conuna;ide;l by C<..\. ^ 

Gearv, not serving with an\- briga^le. Th.is ma-le up the whole -^ 

of hkmks's command. Tlie u.^e t') be made of it. was {jrinuirily \ 

the capture ot Wi!;ehe.>ter. It was reiiurted, and \ve beliewd, a 

- . . , - i 

that Gen. (Stonewall) Jackson, wdth irom seven to ele\"en } 

- - 1 4 

thousand n"ien. awaited us belv!:vl those lortitied v/alls. Wluii- 4 

I 

e\'er may liave "i.;ee;i Jackson s force, \\c knew lie couUl incre:tse | 



15 

it from ^Manassas, or farther south. The disposition of our 
coniniarKi was as follov.'s. While our brigaue moved on and 
to Char]r-.town from llaiper's Ferry, Gen. Williams with 
my old Darnstown brigade moved from Hancock through 
IMartinsburg to" Bunker Hill (our old position under Tatter- 
son). Gen. Hanvih;on passing thiough Charlestown stopped at 
Smitluield, midway between Charlestown and ]iunkv,r Hill. 
G.-n. Shields halted at Ivlartinslnirg and Gen. Sedgwick at 
Chaj"lestown. 

Our route v.-as first south from Chailestov/n to Berryville, 
fourteun and one hali miles, then due west tu Winchester, 
about ten and one half miles. Gen. Williams was only fourteen 
miles av\-ay, and flumilton about the same. On the morning 

of th- loth of :^I;u-cIi. Gen. pl 7 o'clock started with 

his brigade to rriake a reconnoissance to Berr}-vi]le : we were 
to follow, and were ready. At 12 m. a mounted messenger 

from Gen. came tearing into cam.p, asking for reinforce- 1 

n.ents. Our brigade was instanth put in motion. Without i 

adventure we encanv..ed about suna';wn within 0!:e ndle of j 

Berryville; CtcTi. v/as there before us, and v.-iihout oppo- j 

sition, although not ^;iIhout ayvg^/i;/. While riding in pdvance, I 

the commanding general saw, as he thought, prcpaiations to i 

op])ose his march. Chi a distant hhl. surrounded with horse- i 

men, a devili.sh invention met hhs gaze. - What is it ? " he j 

asked in vain. "Are these three men on horseback the | 

advance ot legions? J^ring up iihe hoid-batteri^s ! " he cried 
aloud, i'oin'ting, like Xapolcon to the Britibii squ:ires at j 

Waterloo, he shouteil, "Our jjathv/ay lies theie." So Gen. | 

luirled his siiot and shell ai tins obstacle to his progress. ■ 

Olf scamjjered the three horsemen ; dov.-n irunj his perch j 

scrambled an.d scad tlie driver of a threshing-n.iachine, for ! 

tins was the harmh'S> innJenicnt that lihed tiic soul of ' 

Lien. with direiul j urpose. To camp tiiat afternoon there j 

ca!r:c an old farnver to inquire v.hv thev hred af hinn "Ac- { 

corumg to the ptwclamation," said he, " vou didn't con:e to I 



16 

destroy property or interfere with citizens peaceablv following: 

their nvocntio-is ; and certainly there was nothinj.-; rebellious in | 

threshini;- wheat.* | 

'I here were no sicms of Union feelini'; on c>i\v route, save in a i 

single house in a mean, poverty-stricken little collection of ] 

houses, by which our ijad ran, and here we found three or four .| 

youny: women and children lustily v;a\-ing handkerchiefs, while 1 

a small boy held up conspicnousl\' a Uidon fia^-^ v.ho^^e diminu- I 

tive proportions coul I be embraced in tv/o inches by three. | 

The inmates of this house seem.ed reckless in their determina- I 

tion to brave all dan^^.'cr ; indeed, had they been Northern men f 

they could not have expressed more joy, althoup;]-! the jud^-ment 3 

hereafter, if we cdd not sustain our>ci\-es, nr> doubt caused i 

some repression of feeling. The Second l^egiment, with tp.e | 

vest of our brigade, bivouacked on Mondav night, the loth 1 

of Tviarch, in the vvoods near Berryvillc. Vv'itli straw from i 

farmers' stacks, we added to tiie warmth of our single blanket; I 

with r.ids from faruiers' fences we managed to n^ic^deratc nn I 

atmiOSj)here that was near the freezing-jioint. I'rie-ht and | 

earl}- in the rnorniuL; of the nth, our cava]r\-, moving for- | 

ward for Whnchester, encountered the enemv's cavalrv, n^ade I 

prisoners or three, and chased the rest to v/ithin tliree or ie^ur i 

miie^^ of the tov.-n ii-df. | 

I 

Gen. Gorman i-a.-.v began t'5 make arrangements for an | 

armed reconnoissance. in fi.rce. tow:!rds Winchester. This, he | 

wished Hie to cnnK^v.nd, bu: somehow or other thf: day passed ^ 

and nothing was do^c. \\'e were awuiting tVc arrival of | 

Gen. }-'anks. I rode nroun.d the tov;n, out on the V\"inche.-ter | 

road, and sav.- th.t: ami'le airang-numt; f;.r guards and a I 

deter.ce had been ma-_!e. 'J'here were no alarms swd no chani-c I 

during the dav. Tlie Tie.xt m.omin.g, the 12th of .March., just | 

alter a loni; inierview "\.ith a chergA'nna of j^ler'-vxihe, a Union | 

man, who had.beesi giving me a p'hiu of the we^rks aruund I 



* 'J his is no (;cti',n : th-.- ii'jry w.-ii curr..Mon t.'.-K, %'.lv,:i wc reaohcd K-jrrv.-ille. | 



17 

\\'inchcster, \%-]nch I had committed to paper, news came that 
Inst iiij-ht (I'ueS'lav) the eaemv fled i'rom the town, and that our 
force frum Bunker Hill (Gen. Wiriiams) had entered. It was 
trac. The Winchester th.at we had looked at in July of iS6i, 
fi;om this same Bunker Hill, had now been entered from Bunker 
Mill. The W'iivrhcster we had hoped to gain by Berryville, in 
) 86 [, when Patterson implored his rriliiia to march, to its attack, 
we wci'e now ab'->ut entering': from l''>erry\-ille. I galloped to 
the town with a staff-ofhcer in anticipation of ouf march 
tlicre on the niorrow ; f^ound ever)-thing quiet ar^d peace- 
able ; and fancied perhap:^ there was some Union feeling. 
Some Xortiierri men were there, said to be from ?vIilford, 
Ma.-;s., who told me of tlie fliglit o"' the enerii\\ V\'hen I 
returned to Berrvville, it was dark : the ride had been weari- 
some. I was iizdulgin.g in thouglits of a. good supper and 
sleep; bui mv reverie \Nas rudely broker;, bv the siglit of bat- 
teries and brigades e?: route to Winchester. JJerryville had 
been plunged iiito conimoti'in by the report that a fierce battle 
was ragitigi!! th^t town. In vain I urged that 1 had juiSt come 
from there, had f jand and leit no cucmy in sight or sound ; 
that marriage bells were not marc rieaaeful than vras A\'in- 
chester. it was all in vain. On st-'eamed the crdumns of 
imantiy. 0.\ rohtd tiie batteries and the caissons, whiie the 
wheels jarred and cracked against the axles, arid on lumbered 
the baggage-v.-aC'ons and trie camp-followers. Stdl onv.ard, 
tratf!j\ tramp, fur the severe light at Winchester, tiiough not a 
Sinmd ol iigiiting v,-e lieurd. In. tlie (ku'kncss all was quiet, 
save the subdued iioise of our own senseless UKirch. At about 
twelve o'clock at night, rwts or three miles irom the peaceable 
town, I laid down in the v,-oods again, to bivouac in cold 
and in hunger, with a disgiisL, dee}> and undeilnable, to awake, 
h)we\-er, on tia; morning of the 13th, with, all disc'jmforts 
vanished, and our fatigues forgotten. 

T\\c feelings that agitated Gen,. Jackson, as cm- columns 
a.pjr.eached ihc town from the nortii an.d east, have, ."^ince his 
3 



18 

death, been given to the world. This noted commander was 
moved v/ith doubts and {.■crplexiries. Now he v/as readv to 
haza-^d cv^n-tiiin.; t"- make i,"Ood his promise to the peojjle of 
Winchester tiiat the " Yankees " should not enter their town ; 
and then, more prudent considerations prevailing, he would 
resolve to retire, C'uly again to reconsider, v/ith renewed 
agitation.* 

On the nigl)- o' the nth of March, Jackson entered the 
house of a Rev. ?>Ir. Graham, of Winchester, with wh'.ise 
family he v/as iu/'imate. Here he called for a Bible, read 
aloud, and prayed vvdth tiie family. Then suddenly rising, 
he said, " I will u.c\er leave Winchester without a fight, never, 
never!" He sc>"T looking at Ids astonished auditors a 
niom^'nt, and tk/cn, his excitement disai')pe:ir'ng, his sv.ord was j 

driven back vdth a ringing clash into its scabbard, t and in | 

tones of ])rornijn(l discouragement he said, " Xn, I cannot sac- 1 

rifice mv njcn. I inren'.led to attack the enemy on the i\lar- | 

tinsburg road, bu: tliey are approaching on the flanks, to'., j 

and would surround me. I camiot sacriRce my men, I niust | 

fall back;" an;^ so he fell back to J^f')UUL Jack;.on, iortv-nve ) 

UHiCs irom \vnjci, ester. • j 

About two miles from town, tlie canij) of our rcginient w;is i 

lecatetl. 'j'lien cuiuc da\"s o* C'uJ, widi hugv: hres in iniui: i 

of lents; and d.:\"s o: sa'isidne and heat, \ehen the Idue- 
birds and the robins sang, and da\"s wiien t!ie air was niled j 

I 

♦-Life -f Gen. (S^-neuiiHi Jick-on, 1-y E^t-n Cr..kf, p. too. | 

t Oliver Croinv.eii ! F.-\-r.ier Cr'-uiwt!! ! Lord oi tlu- tens' The plovciily, ^ 

u::"ni;.Iy uiti.ii;er f.-r J i!.:;,!iii^ Ion 1 ihe ni :;i v. ;iins^;\e I'ori^i.c.ii!, ;\v;ir. -':\:\:'::^ 
c\c, a;:J ririn-sct !iys v.!: ' l;:i i .i luibic vi ^■:;:..;ci;!v ^i.i--;>:a.^ ;:io hill ■.•: his ^^^.•:l.I 
wiih. iir:r.r.e.-.=, as if t'.cre i:i i.is rai^.l l.v/ tl\e tr'K' a;yiir.i(aU, ov, .it all c\-e;;">, 
wliic'a \v;iuld, all ot'-,c:s i.-ih'iij, ass;aC'.!lv pre\aii : (Olivci Croii.wel!, \vl-a:>, ;:t 
N.i.-cly l-'i<.,;d, p.T.-:\td the v.ore:-, " I'c.a-.w nnd Ho; e," al<);-:: las line a^ liie tri- ] 

uir.pLant I'salni pL-a'cd ij:tli, uiun U:e s-.so'.'Is of iI.l- Tioa-iaCj ilar-i'.ed In tl-.i < 

si.;i: 1 Oiiver C'roiir.veil, wi.o ia piorciji^i; t'^iv.-^, bade his Irv.'r.i'dcs charge i'.oia.c J 

" in ti^c ;;a'ne it' t!;c Mo-t i ii_ h Ch ■.! " I 'i'i.' • L'v'ow.i', !.;■- had ttr..;;-;; i^ear < .:,c | 

hundred ai;J lillv \caiji no hct.'.r or iruLV p!';'u;vpe tl:a!; •' Stoi:e-.'air' J-icksoa. i 



19 



with flocks of unsightly ravens hovering over fields, noisome 

viih the carcasses of dead hordes. Here, too, vere felt 

such cravings for poultry, thai the featiiered tribe became 

almost extinct. The peacock vras caught by his magnihcent 

tail, by vandal hands, and roasted like any common bird. The 

officers shut their eyes whenever a rooster crowed; for Gen. 

Abercrombie, commanding the brigade, had given strict orders , 

to punish all drt.-cttd foragers. This was hard, for Abercrom- j 

bie ate secession chickens ; but he paid for them, it was said. : 

So did the forager of a line officer's mess pay for a calf, he , 

coveted, or attempted to pay for it, but the farmer would not i 

sell. Federal money was offered ; then Confederate, but the i 

o\vner still reiused. I 

"The officers have nothing to eut," said the man. I 

" Let them starve, then," replied the farmer. I 

" Not so," said the man, a.s he levelled his musket, and shot | 

the calf. j 

A Generni S:aff-OffiCLr — an unh-^llowcd quarter-master | 

did not shut his eyes; and thus it was that the whole 1 

force of the North vcas cmplo)-ed to pum^di the destroyer of ] 

calves, to the satisfaction of the destroyers of country; j 

for the forn=er wa^ punished by unprisonnient, and the latter ' 

encouraged to denv food to his enemy. S-.iil, 1 cioubt not, our j 

men survived ; for 1 v.v.y., upon rc^'erring to that period, that ; 

our regiment arrived in camp at Winchester at two p. ^r., and j 

at hve »>. M. some of the cumpanies j:'.ad. birdt brick ovens, j 
from vhich there came forth fresh bread, to njake more pala- . \ 

table the baked beans and mutton-chops wbich graced the j 

line-odkers' mess tables. Such were souict ivies rations. j 

Tlie great fortifications, of which vre had heard, surround- | 

in.g Winchester, proved to be of no moment. One could have j 

jumped over ihcrn as easilv as Remus over ti^e v/alls of Rome. i 

Much dissatisfaction was expressed in our regiment that Jack- | 

son was permitted to get away fn-m Winchester without a hght, 1 

and b^ut lillle heed paid to my assuiances that tins chieftam i 



20 

would be apt, before the war closed, to give us an entertain- j 

ment up to tiie utniust of our aspirations. 'I 

It was about this time that the appearance of our first | 

" jAIonitor " off James River, so providential as it seemed 1 

moved the fears of some of us that the end was about coming, j 

and that, witli the flight of Jackson, our last chance for a I 

fight was gone. Though the country might not be restored I 

in July of 1862, there- was no doubt the war would be | 

over then, said tho.-.e whon.i neitlier reason or reproach could I 

reach, J 

When Gen. ]\IcClellan's order of movement and strong | 

appeal to his army appeared, we learned of the disposition I 

to be made of our corps. Again the destiny of the Second i 

Kegiment gave it a new brigade commander; one that | 

shared with it all the ever.rful scenes, with the attendant \ 

joys and sorrows, that so iargcl\- entered into the year of 1S62. | 

\Ve wx-re to be no more to Giiw. Abercromljie. Gen. liariul- I 

ton was, by order of Gen. :\IcClelian, transferred to anoth-^r I 

corps in his army, and our rcgdment transferred to the bris^ade | 

lately comniandea by Hamilton. As senior colonel, I tims | 

became the commander of a brigade which, then for the first | 

time united, remained unbroken during the remainder of the | 

war, — a brigade with a common history and a common J 

When the achievements of any portion of that organization I 

are jpoken, deed.s are declared in wliose x:une all share. T'he I 

Second r\ki.^sachu--,etts, the Third Wisconsin, and the Tv.enty- I 

Seventh Indiana Regiments, made u]), substantially, tlie % 

brigade that fell to my Command. | 

l-rom Winchester, Gen. Sedgwiek, with his Division, was I 

transferred to another corps in the Army of the Potomac. -I 

We iKAV enter upon our second m.ovement, of v.-hich the | 
advance upun_ Winchester vas the first in jAIcClellan's plans. 
\Villia:ns's Divisi.>n of the I'iftji Corps was ordered to proceed, 
-via I^erryville. tln-ougl' Snicker's Gap to Ceutreville, while 



21 

Shields, with his division of about six thousand men, was to 
remain at Winchester. Our divi.-iori of three brigades moved 
ver)- early in the morninj:^ oi the 22d for its destination. At 
night my brigade encamped at Berryville, and the next night 
we v/ere at Snicker's Gap. Ignorant of the events transpiring 
in our reaj-, I was awakened on the morning of the 24th of 
?>Iarch by despatches coming thick and fast, calling me back 
to Winchester. "W'e have heard cannon at intervals, hear 
them now," v>rote Major Crane, of the Third Wisconsin, at half- 
past si.\ of the day before ; and so, as I read the orders sent me 
at ten minutes past six p. m. from Gen. Williams to return at 
once to 3err}'\\ile, I exclaimed, " There are Major Crane's can- 
non." " Push on to Wincliester," continued the orders, " if on 
your arrival at Berryviiie you hear- the sound of large guns, 
giving an indication of an action in pirogress at the former 
place." Rapidly we retraced our steps. Six companies of our j 

regiment had encamped for the night at the ferry across the j 

Shcna.ndoah. The bridge had broken d.nvn and drl:iycd th.em. j 

These were turned back to Berryviiie by orders from Gen. i 

Williams. " Leave two regmients, with one seciion of artil- \ 

lery, at Berryviiie, and miove the rcm.ainder of your command j 

from three to five miles from, there uiiless you hear firing at j 

Winchester, in v/hich event leave bv^t oae regiment and one | 

section of artillery, and push on for Winchester," came to nie 1 

through a flying orderly at eight o'clock ; and still follo\\ing I 

ui'ion tVie heels of tl'.c former came ano'.her, to sav that 1. 

Gen. r.anks'had returned (from Ilarp'cr's Ferry), that my ' 

brigade would proceed immediateh- to Winchester. Scarcely 
had I digested this, when out ot tlic thick dust loomea up j 

another ordierly, galloping as if for life, and I read, from tlie 
headquarters of the Fifih Army Corps to Col. George II. 
Gordon : " Send forv. ard your battery \vith all possible de- 
spatch." And still liie cry was, '• On th.ev come " ; as yet again 
t'ie orders came, '■ Send back the ordnance train with all 
possible despatch " ; arid '' Send forward t-) Gen. Abercrombie 



22 

to return with all his trains to Winchester": and "Gen. 

Wiliiains exp^.^cts you to lea^'c cue rc--;irnent al .Berrvville, v/ith 

one section of artillery; and Col. Andrews " liopes I will leave | 

some other force to [;-uard the, brid,Lce and ordnance train, and | 

send Capt. Abbott's company to report" to him. I 

From the multitude of despatches and orders that poured | 

fast and furious upon me, it was evident that a battle was 1 

imminent; and that I was expected to push on to be in tim.e I 

to lake a hand. It was late in the evening when I reached j 

Winchester : I had done tw o days' work in one, — had I 

marched twent}--si.x miles. Banks was at Middletown. There | 

had been a tight; Shields's Division had whipped Jackson, | 

who was now beiiig pursued by ]5anks, and the urgent calls | 

i'))o:i me were to aid in the puisidt. I sent a messenger to ] 

Banks (twelve miles) to announce my arrival, and he, on the | 

morning of the 25th, ordered me to report to him at Stras- 

burg. It was apparent tiie nght udih Jackson was not to be 

renewed at once. There v.ns still a little daylight left, as, 

wdth my staff, I rode into \v'inchester in the evening of the 

24th; and I improved it, to ride with my aid over the fxcld, on \ 

which we had gained a decided \ictory. Tlic v/ounded of both | 

sides had been removed ; but the dead still lay wln-re they fell. 1 

Along tlie enemy's lines the r:round was co\-ered v.dth tliem. | 

The oming shades of twilight in the thiclc woods rendered j 

everything obscure. To a novice the scene was awful. As 4 

tbey v> ere v,-!ajn stricken, so iri deatii the dead rennnned : the I 

clcnciied hand, t!ie uplitted arm, tlio effort to stanch a bleed- I 

ing Imib, the solitude, the dreary light — it v.-as a picture I I 

cannot forget, and vet to aid to its hornu-, anridst this f 

I 

deatlily sdenxcc, I hi.-ard a voice invoking cuirses on the dead. -J 

Peering into the darkiiess, J saw a man on horseback, slowly \ 

moving towarcis me, with head bowed low, ga;dng sternly into I 

Ih.e upturned ghastly faces, wiiile angry denunciations fell J 

from, his lips, as witliout pity in his heart he rej'.dced in tin's I 

catni'/al ot death. I 

1 
J 



23 

The bitterness of his cries filled me \Ylth horror. Who was 

iTc that had no sorrow for a scene like that ? Nearer came the 

riJer, near enough lor recognition. It was a son of Virginia, 

here upon the soil of his native State, cm'sing with all the bit- 

. . . 1 

terness of his heart his dead kinsman at his feet : a loyal i 

Virginian, who had been driven from home, wife, and children; j 

wlio had seen his aged father driven out of his l:ouse to die, — • 1 

dri\cn out by those who had plunged tlie nation into war, 

a man maddened by outrages and gloating over this terrible 

retribution, and plunging yet deiiper in that gloom of horrors 1 

as if his vengeance could not be repaid. j 

I'he history of the preceding two days began on the very ] 

day tiia!: we left Winchester for our march to Centreville, i 

when the enemy, under command of *' Stonewali " Jackson, j 

showed themselves in the edge of the woods that skirt the town I 

on the southern side. From here shells were thrown at our | 

pickets, and our artillerv replied, but Gen. Shields paid but i 

i 
little attentMjn to this demonstration, though he gave personal I 

atiention to directing his artillery, until his arm was fractured by 
a fragment of a shell. Sunday the 23d the artillery liring was 
recommenced about noon ; but so litile vras thought of it that 
Gen. i)anks, between one and two r. ^r.,leit to go to Harper's 
F'.-rry oa public business. At four p. m., the enen"i\-'s infantry 
made their appearance, and formed in line of battle, abuut three 
'miles from the town. This pounding of artillery was what 
Major Crane heard \;l!en he sent me his iiOte. Now the scene 
changed. The troops of Shields's Division, under their re- 
spective colonels, turned eagerly to greet Jackson, who had 
marched swiftly UJ.on the town. Urigadier-General (so act- 
ing) Kimball \sas in command. 

The battle of Kernstown, as the enemy named it, v/as fough.t 
near the eastern declivity of the little North i\lonntain, not far 
from the spot where the Opecqiian takes its rise. The enemy's 
line followed the crt:st of the hills tluit lie south of the town, 
and on the v.est of the pike lead.ing to Strasburg. On tlie 



■jrll' 



24 

eastern side of this road, crowning a wooded knoll, the cncmy 
had posted a battery. Jackson's centre was covered by a 
stone wall ; his leit tlanic was covered by a growth of thick 
small timber, into vhich it extended; his right, by the battery 
and by timber. The action commenced, as usual, with inter- 
changes of shots from opi)Osing artillery. I'hcu our men | 
movL-d to turn the enemy on his left fiank. Behi^.d a growth 1 
of timber, in front of tlie enemy's stone wall, our infantry | 
gained a vantage-ground unperceived. From there, by the i 
right, our troops were obliged to march across an open field to . | 
turn the line hidden in the undergrowth. But it was done. | 
Bravely did some Ohio regiments charge up to, and into, this | 
cover; unmoved by the rebel fire, unterrified bvthc rebel yell. I 
In vam did Jack.son iniploie his men to stand ; in vain address l 
them as " my brave bo)-s," and in vain cry out " give them one | 
more round." Ho sav/ his left flank forced back iipon his cen- | 
tre, and our troops sweepii'g over the stone wall, driving his left • | 
farther irito the ^^■oods, capturing his cannon, and mxanv prison- | 
ers. So while his force was retreating in disorder, Jackson I 
turned, tliorouglily beaten, towards Strasbuig."^ \ 

Jackson had promised the people of Winchester that he | 

would return to ihem. This time he failed to kee'p his word. 4 

flis dead, d}ing, and v/ounded were left to our care. Tuo I 

much praise cannot be av.-arue(i the men for their courage, I 

especially the (Jliio troops. It \sas jnuck, more tlian leader- | 

shijj, in tiii::, acrion. The thickets were cut up into slivers by < 

the stoimbf bullets poured in by tliem from the open field J 

over \.!uch they passed to the assault. \ 

That Jackson was deceived in the niunber of our troops | 



♦Jackson blamed Gen. I*. B. Garnett, of whom he savs in hi- uSlcia! report : \ 

"Thou;^h our troops were tr^htiivj; unfl-.r c^reat di.s.-idv.intage, 1 regret that Gen. j 

Garnett gave orders to fall hack, as othcrwHt- the enemy's advance would have j 

been retarded, and other re^^iments brought up. Col. John Cair.pbe!! was rapidly \ 

advancing with hi.i regiment, 1)ut nii^lit, arul an indisposition of tl;e enei^iy to j 

press further, had teruiiu Ued the batde, '.viuch coiiunenced at f jur o'clo.-k, i-. m." \ 



!;(:■) ; ■' ; 



25 

in front of Winchester, is admitted by Southern writers,* 
and that he intended to deceive liim, was always claimed by 
Gen. Shields. It was part of his feint to move forward to 
Strasburi^- on the 19th of March, and retreat rapidly again, 
passing through Winchester, after three brigades' of Banks's 
Corps had marched for Centreville.f And this was his 
movement. 

Gen. Shields dwelt with unfeigned delight upon his '' strata- 
gem " in placing his force in a secluded position two m.iles from 
Winchester upon the i\lartiasburg road, to give the inha.bitants 
an im.pression that the main part of his army had left, and 
that nothing remained but a few regiments to garrison the 
place. He knew that tl^e pcO!)le would convey false informa- 
tion to Jackson at New Market, as indeed they did — Jackson 
turned instantly in pursuit. On the 2 2d, v.-hen Ashby drove 
in Shields's pickets, he discovered only v.-hat he supposed to 
be a single brigade. On the 23d, when Jackson attacked, he 
soon found he had cauglit a "tartar." His force of 4,000 was 
opposed, not to 2,000 less ihrcx his o\-.-n, but to the whole 
of Shiekls's Division of 6,750 infantry, cavalry, and artillery, 
and no more.4: There is no evidence that Jackson conteni- 
plaied tne result that follv.ved, although some wTiters claim 
unfurcbcen consequences, \\dien favorable, as results of welblaid 
plans. Southern v/riters. while speaking openly of Jackson's 
not doubtinu" that he could crush the four regiments at Win- 



* "I hcarJ that the eaemv's iiit,i:itry force at V.'iu^iiester did not excc-ed four 
regiments. A lai— e Federal force w.is k-avin^^ the valley, and had already reac'ied 
Castleton's Feny or. th-.- Shiri'.andoah." — yiirxs^-zi's (?,rA /.:/ a'./- ^/, Bdf'ccf 
K<:r>:st^n.vn. 

t'-On the preceding Friday evening, despatches from Col. Turner Ashliy v.eve 
received, stati:ig that the enomy had evacuated Stra.^Ijurg.'' — jr^L^soj-.'s AVat/. 

\ If Sliieidb h;id remained at Stra-.barg, the hi-tory of Banks's retreat woidd 
never ha v. hccr. written. Mv i!;-i^.;ade would have fjllowe^i the odiers ot the 
division, and all woulJ have reported to McUo>veU in front of Fredericksburg. 
As it was, only Abercrombie got away, and him we saw no more. In tins 
event Lee v,-iuld probably have for.r.rl ciiongh to engngc hi.i atten'don, without 
sending Jac'.suu on tlie raiiiuago li-.rcug'i tr.e valley. 
•i 



Chester.* further affirm that this battle brou^^ht upon him a 

groat deal of ccr.surc ; for i: -.vas a fierce and frightful engage- 1 

ment. in which he lo.st nearly twenty per cent o1 his force In J 
a very few hours of coniiict. One of his officers at thi. tim^^ 
said of him that he was "cussed by every one" ; "and it 

must be confessed," says Pcllard.f " in this instance, at least, | 

the great commander had been entn.pped by the encm^."t 1 
Again, on the other side, it is claimed, that "this was rot a 

bimd, heedless assault; that it was not a blunder or an acci- I 

* Life of Stonewall Jackson, by John Esten Cooke, pa-e loq. f 
t roUard's " Lost Cause," pp. 264, 265. 

t The recent narrative of Gen. Johnston, of the Confederate service, confirn.s 

th^e vi.ws. He s^ys : - After it beca-j,e evident that the valley was to he in- 

vaded by an army t.u strong to be encountered by Jackson's Division, that ofiicer - 

was instructed to endeavor to employ the invaders in the valley, but without I 

exposing himself to the danger of defeat, by keeping .0 near the enemv .. to I 

prevent n.m from making any considerable detachment to support McClen'-^n but I 

not so near thar he n.ight b. c .mpelied w fight. Under these instructions w!. ^n J 

Banks, approaching with a T'cderal force grcativ superior tc his own. wasVidda t 

fourmdes of W mchester, Jackson, on March 12. fell slowly back to Strasburg, | 

eignteen mdes in two days, remaining there undisturbed until ihe sixteenth, w'-'iT I 

finding that the Federal army was again advancing, he feii back to M„unc fark- I 

son. twenty-fear ndle., his adversary hahing at St:asb.rg. I received "the.e I 

reports^on tne nineteenth, and suggested that his distance was too great from the I 

federal .-my for oh,ects in view. Un the twenty-tirst he acknowl--^d-ed th!- avl | 

sa,d that he was aboat to move his headquarters to Wuod.t.-ck, twelve ndle. horn J 

the enemy's cam?. At about half-past six a. m.. on the twentv-third, at Strashm- . | 

he expressed a hope that he sh.uld U r:ear Winchester tha; af.cmoon ; and T' 5 

ten o'clock that night lie wrote in his brief manner that he attacked the Fed- d ] 

aaiiy ..: fbnr P. m., and was repulsed by it at dark. }fc gave Ids force as tM-^e | 

thousand and eighty-seven infantry, two hundred and ninetv cavalry, and t.veatv- i 

seven pieces ot artillery; and his loss at eighty killed, three hundred ,r.d iom^ ^ 

two wounded, ana tuo hundred and thirty prisoners.-- A'/rn./,:v of M^/^tury 

Oicrulions directed d:nlng the I.rJe fVr.r net-. Yen ihe St.:te.-. By Joseph E. J.-hnstJi, \ 

Ge/!c!\:J C. S. .-!., 1S-4,//: 106, loy. - - . , I 

[Xoii- - [c would seem thu not only was Jackson deceived by Shield^ but ' | 

that a gentle reminder from Johnston that the former was too far from his en-mv | 

may have irr.tatcd Jackson to make liis ill-judged moven.er.t. We rind, too ti>at | 

Johnston fustruaed Jackson to keep the Federals in the vihey. all of which has | 

l)>:en claimed for Jacks.Mi. — Author.] ' ! 



27 

dent, but the result of calculation and desi^ : to wit, the 
rctonti'.)!! oi the Feuoral foices in the valley." ^' 

"It was not until he was actually engaged with the 
enemy that he found their force numbered ii,ooo mcn,"f is 
a Southern statement, falsely made, to excuse a defeat, and 
yet containing an undeniable admission that, if Jackson had 
known our force was superior in numbers to his own, he 
would not have attacked us. 4: 

When the enemy fled, their flight was- rapid, and. as 
described by the fugiti\es, fatiguing, — Jackson forcing his 
men along the valley pike all night, pushed on through 
SirasbLa'g.§ and did not rest until far enougii towards Char- } 

lottcsville to be secured against a rapid ijursuit. 

As narrated, I proceeded on the m.orning of the 23th to • | 

unite my forces with the advance, under Banks. Every- i 

where, there were signs of a hast}' rcLreat. To hinder pursuit, ] 

bridges had been destroyed by the fugitives ; v/hcther over 
pike or railroad, the} wc re doomed. We fuund some dead 
and wounded in houses along the road, and in a rniserable 
hut there laid a poor fellow, a wounded rebel, hit so hard by 
a shell, that his arm liad been amiaitated, his right leg badly 
lacerated in twelve ]:'laces, and his left badly torn. Before 
deserting Irm, a surgeon had amputate J the arm, l^ait the leg, 
having received no attention, when we arrived mortification 



* " 1 fee! juitifiecl in sayii\^ t'- ■'.^ thou;:]-, tiie field if in possession of tne eiieinv, 
the mosi cs-,entiai fruits of the b.ealc arc ours.'' — Jiirkjon's Onlcial Rfp0}-1, Battle 
0/ Kr:r)istcncn. 

t Coo!:e's Life of Jackson. 

I 'I he nu.-iiber of troo})s present in the ;1<:Ic'., avaihi'-'e for the fight, in Jackson's 
army, was : "Infantry, 3,087 ; Artillery, z"] guns; and Ashby's Cavalry," — Jjck- 
sjn's 0:'l'u-Lz'. Retort. 

from the same source we find Jackson admitted a loss of killed, wounded, 
and missing, of 701 ; of nhich 46 were ofucers. In addition to this, Shields 
claims to have captured 2 guns, 4 caissons, and i,oco small arms. 

Ou loss was (from Slsields's onlcial report), in kille'i and \\Gundcd, 504. 

§ i:;nile-fe!do of the South, vol. i, Aslito;>.'s later, p2-c 324. 



'»(. 



. 28 

had set in. All we could do was to make him as comfortable 
as possil)le, and leave him to die. 

Thoui^h the reality of this retreat was bad enough, the papers 
of the day indulged in flights of fancy that if possible put to 
shame a rebel pen. Xo one ever saw tlie " nine wagon-loads ■■ 
of the enemy's dead upon the road," nor did they exist, 
although our papers so reported. A German aid to Gen. 
Shields performed marvels of gallantry — so he said; three 
rebel horsemen, if noi six. being in tui"n killed by sword and 
pistol by his single hand. A bullet-hole thrijugh his cap he 
showed me in proof of his escape in this deadly encounter, a 
satirical sketch of which was made for " Harper's Weekly," 
representing this ferocious German in tlie act of transfixing 
two rebel cavalrymen, while a third in rear, with jaws agape 
at such wonders, received the point in his mouth. The % 

tables of our laughter were turned when tiiis sketch appeared, | 

solen'iuly rci)resenLing a swordbman transfixing two only. The | 

sword )\::i\ been rubbed, out beyond the secorid, and thus tlic | 

sketch was sent and published as a true delineation.* | 

On the evenin-j' of the 26th. oi rslarch, my tired briicade i 

laid down their knapsacks in the to-.vn of Strasburg. The .| 

effect of our victory we perceived in strong professions of love \ 

for the l.'ni'.jn, expressed by men of intelligence, in the tov.-ns | 

along our route. We hc;;a"d many confessions ot regret and | 

accusations of deception against Southern leaders by people | 

here v^ ho alnimed their belief, tliat upon our coming, their | ' 

prop'.-rty woiild be taken, tr.eir houses destro\'ed, and them- I 

selves made prisoners. I slept the first night of my arrival in ■ | 

Stra^l-Htrg i'l the iiouse (;f a hne-looking and cheer}- old gentle- | 

mai'i, wlio said to me, that, wlien he first saw our troops coming 1 

i 
down tlie hill into town, he v/as hrmly convinced that he would | 

be killed or made prisoner, and that he could not express his - ] 

astonishment and delight at our treatment of the people ; i 

*The Gcrm.in haJ bo:ro\vol it of tlie artist, raid sent it, stripped of its I 

luJicn.ius e !.-in\.ntj, to the publisher. \ 



• 29 

adding that such information as he could now impart would 
cause hundrLds of meu to rv^Lurn to their allegiance. 

These confessions, coming on the heels of our decisive vic- 
tory, fdled us with enthusiasm, gave tone to our feelings, and 
made our hearts bound with delight at the thought of carrying 
onward the old flag, though our marches might be in days and 
nights of travel in hanger, privation, and death. As the 
superb scenery of the valley opened before us in the sparkling 
waters of the Shenandoah, winding between the Blue Ridge 
and its parallel ranges ; in the trees of cedar and pine that 
lined its banks ; in the rolling suiiaces of the valley, peacefully 
resting by the mountiun-side, and occupied by rich fields and 
quiet farms, there was no foreshadowing of the terror, the des- 
olation and deoth, that vrere to foliov/. 

On the day after our arrival, we were thrown forward 
through the town towards Woodstock to a camp back from 
the road concealed behind Hound Hill, in front of which was 
Col. Sullivan, of Sh.ields's brigade, and, for some purpose 
of offence, beyond Col. Sulli\an v/as Jackson. Now Jackson 
was constantly stirring u]> Sullivan, and Sullivan vras as con- 
stantly stirring up my brigade at Round Hill. The enemy 
seemed to be always advancing. Bits of paper announcing 
it in hurried tiiough Inconic style fluated Lhrou,i_,h camp, until 
How is Sullivan ? became a popular inquiry. The en.emy 
were constantly in readiness to move, said our spies, but in 
which direction was ti;e conundiuui of ti^e hour. When wc 
pursued towards Strasburg, Ashby made a display ot his 
artiller)-, fired a few shots, and retreated ; and in this manner 
we hnd chased him about four miles beyond th.e to-vn. V\ hen 
we halted, Jackson halted. Our pickets v/ere abcut a mile 
beyond our camp : they were u|) to Turn's Brook, as it v/as 
called. About a mile beyond the brook I could see the 
enemy's cavalry. Sometimes the enemy amused himself 
by throwing shells at our pickets, v.-hcn they v.-ere a little 
100 V'.jnturesome ; but beyond a feeble show of strength 



30 

and ugliness, nothing transpired to disturb the dulness of 
ca:rip. 

It was on the first of April that Bariks received from Gen. 
McCIellan a newplan of operations. Up to this point Jackson 
had planned our campaign. Now we were to plan Jackson's. 

From tli.e steamer " Commodore " as his headquarters, on 

the ist of April Gen. McClellan addies.^ed to Gen. Banks, com- | 

man .ling the Fifth Corps, a communication, in w^hich he I 

affirmed that the change in affairs in the valley of the Shenan- I 

doah rendered necessary a departure "from the plan we some I 

days since agreed upon." Assuming that Banks had a force . 1 

sufficienily ample to drive Jackson before him, provided the f 

latter was not largely reinforced, and that tlie former might find -| 

it in'possible to deiach ariylhing tou'ards Manassas for some | 

days, probably not until the operations of the main army had | 

drawn all the rebels towards Richm(.)nd, Banks was ordered, J 

as the most important tiring he could do at present, to throw I 

Jac'csou v/ell back, and then to as^mne sucti a position as to ^ 

pievent his return. When railway communications were re- | 

established, I\IcCi'.IIa:i thought it would be advisable to mo\e | 

on StauiUon ; '-'v.-hich would require a force of twenty-five or - 
thirty tliousand men, and should be mainly coincident with 

my own rno\emer:t on Richmond, at all events not so long ? 

beiorc as to enable the rebels to combine against vou, perhaps ';_ 

with smaller force after the main battle near Richmond." ? 

Ihus began cur second camjraign. Up and along the :, 

North b'ork of the Shenandoah we moved out on the 2d of i 

Apn^', in pursuit of Gen. Jackson's army. !\lv brigade with | 

cavalrv and artillerv was ordered to take the advance. i 

As our sturdy cokimns-, with bayonets glistening in th.e sun- | 

light, moved out upon the main road to form on that bright f 
April morning for an eventful campaign, I was never more 
impressed with .the march of a column of troops, moving 

forward for the accom.plishment of a determdned pui-pose. As ^ 

• • • % 

tlie loni; lines confurm in u'lacelul carves to the undulations 4( 



31 

of the earth, they seem, with their solid tread, like a symbol 
of irresistible force centred in the immovable rocks beneath. 
I know of nothing like it in nature. The columns pass, 
leaving' scarce a trace of motion; and lo ! what changes are 
wrought. Forms and customs, laws and religions, property 
and possessions, all give v/ay before this mysterious pov/er. 
In view of such scenes I have often felt the sternness of this 
reality. I ''ere indeed is the inevitable. It is born of destiny. 

Hardly had we passed Tom's Brook, v.here our advance 
guard had been stationed, when we came in sight of the enemy's 
ca.valry pickets. Saluting them with a shot or two from my bat- 
tery ('' Cothran's FarroLts"), 1 moved rapidly tov/ards Wood- 
stock. As we were descending the hill v/hich brought us into 
this picturesque little town, bang went a gun, and a shell whizzed 
about ten feet over our heads (I won't be accurate about the 
feet), grazing trie neck of Cfl. Brodhead's horse,''' and striking 
the road a few feet in front of a company of the Second I\Ias- 
sachusetts Regiment. Fortunately the shell did not exjilode. 
Perhaps a minute passed, when there arose a puff of smoke, 
then a report, and a shell screamed alorig the road ; but this, 
like its predecessor, did not burst Cothran's battery was 
close behind. At a spanking gallop his horses came up, his 
guns were unlin^bered, rnd wo gave them a dozen to their 
four ; which not lii-ving they retired with thuir artillery, and 
threw forward some of their skirmishers (probabl}' dismouritcd 
cavalry). I 

To meet them. I ordered Lieut. -Col. Anurev/s to deploy the j 

Second Massachusetts, antl move over them ; which was done | 

rapidly, with but fuw ca.^uailies. Without a halt we pushed I 

on for Edenburg, which is about five miles from Woodstock. 1 

At every hill we got some shells, but paid them back with | 

interest. These ia^^ii'ed nieces of iron wiiirring around on.e's I 

cars gave a new sensation to our men. " It there is anvthing j 



*'r.hf coluncl couiraa.'dtJ tl.o c.aalry force alt.\c!it i to my column. 



32 



. hat «n scare a ^an." .nid one of the best of the officer^ of 
e Second. ■■:^ i, a she,, ; and , '.-0 seen precious fe.v who 

snarled at „s. Deploying the Second Massachusetts a, sl<ir- 
m,s ers they advanced handsonte.y towards the town. Bu lets 

'-'"""S'S'-onyCreek, a deep and rapid stream 
nmn.nj easterly across the pike and nulrord. empti s in to " 
North .or,: of the Shenandoah. The place was fa r^b e ^ 
a stand, and .t looked for a tinre as if the enemy were d te" 
n.,ned to make one there. Retreating, ho.veve'r. across tte 

eek, ackson burned both the pike and rail, oad brid .-es in I 

h..^. %hr. and then placed his cavalry and artillerv on a cor' I 

-n m. ndge on the south side of the creek, eo.Vrontin n 

tr ec Lrt '? '" ''"^ '"'""''' ^^"--. P^'^^'^ =b"" 

our p. r " r ■""' '™''" "'■ '''''"''' ^"■"■"-' -^hots with ' 

o. a 1 11, OK. go.:,d execution without loss of men or hors-s 
t nca n .,,. „,„, resting from their fa.igu.n. march of a ^ ,, 
3.-xteen mules, were my infantry. The enen.y's sun. .n.;.-e, 
^or,r r. sent Shells merrily around our heids^burth::-::: 

nut:;r;-;;'-:;^.::i'l'^f;--'--''--='ed their cold i 

r 1, " ; ^ ^'-^"-"' ''"'-' ''''P^ on U'o; a]! but one poor 1 

^ovv, a pnvate of my Twenty-XInth ,.enn.ylvania Re.iu 
^lo .ou.d ha.e contn,ued to mast.ca.e his hard bre^d. but' 
alas a ragged p,eee of .roa severed the back of his head from' 
he front, as cleverly as if a kn ife had passed throu- T t 
«.w^aro™dhm,wa.. great, the comm.:,.i,m„o,ice^le:b 

hur^ fo several days ; so before sunset the line of the crc-k " I 

Mvarmed w.th our pickets. Our n.ea t.nnbied down L "^ 

designated encampments, unm.indmi of the sharp reo.rts of 

hostde muskets or the deeper base of answering arj,- 

i ".-ough the day we had been ughting Asi,by, with his cavalry I 



33 

and horse artillery, —^ the rear-guarci of Jackson's army. 
i\sbby's cavalry force n'.niiberccl about one thousand, and, i 

as cavalry, were greatly superior to oars. In reply to some { 

orders I had given, my cavalry commander replied, "I can't 
catch them, sir; they leap the fences and walls like deer: nei- 
tlier our men or horses are so trained." And this was true ; 
although, before the war was much older, we could give them 
odds and beat them. Ashby v/as as cool and brave as he was , 

experienced. I think ou.r men had a kind of admiration for i 

the rnnn, as he sat unmoved upon his horse, and let our men I 

pepper av>ay at him, as if he enjoyed it. In Southern histories 
the writers never tired iii praising Ashby. The more absurd j 

the stories, the more credible they were to Southern admirers, | 

who gloated over such iviuncliausenisms as that, when our . I 

troops entered Wincliester, Asliby, on his v/hire horse, at \ 

some conspicuous point in the tov/n, alone av\'aited our i 

advance. There he sat, motionless, until almost appror.ched ; i 

when, \vith a defiant wave, lie galloped rapidly away, killing | 

one, and lifting by the coat-collar from Ids hurse to Ashby's | 

own, and so bearing hini oif^ the other of two of our cavalry- 
men sent around to intercept hi.n. 

During the day's miarch I ha.d my first experience of the 
part the bla:ks v/cre to render us in this war. Eiitering a 
collection of pv^or r.jgro huts during one of my halts, I was 
handed, by some of th.e colored people, two letters addressed 
to Gen.. Banks ; v/hic'i proved to be ironi a white man calling 
himself a spy, and givin.g information of importance. If this 
was a ruse, it revealed that there was no surer wa\- to get 
information adverse to the enemy into our hands tlian to 
intrust it to such, messengers. In another instance, sorrow- 
ful coinplaints made to me proved that the colored people 
would be called {ov by the rebel armies to assist them to the 
extent of their capacity. Near our bivouac, there was a poor 
hut; its occupant a neat-looking free negro v.'oman. She 
came to speak to me ; not to cuuiplain, but to say, in a v.'cary, 



•inn 



I 



34 

discouraged way, that the enemy had taken her two sons 

av/ay from her, one of them a poor cripple, who with a wa':':on 

.and two poor "bones" (hor:,e^) carried the pittance upon 

which she lived. He was taken to haul off sick soldiers of 

Jackson's army. " I shall never see him again," mourned the 

poor mother, as she looked eagorly in my face for consr^lation, 

which I could only feel would be hers through that God who 

IS love, though it was to come to this poor woman in this 

lowly cabin through a great sorrow, to open at last into a 

path of freedom and of joy. 

Our stay at Edenburg vv-as a continuous season of artillery- 
brauling and picket-stalking. W'c had some severe lessons 
before we learned to creep up on our game, like our m.ore 
experienced //7£/.Y/,r on tae other side of the creek. It was 
not five minutes after one of my staff had 'entered and 
examined a piece of v.-oods on the outskirts of our camps, 
before the enemy's sharp-shooters fired upon and killed some 
of my men going through the same piece for v/ater. Com- 
pany H, of our r;.ginient, was sent to dislodge them. While 
Lhey were cr.wling up towards the bank, pushing their guns 
before them, and eagerly peering ahead for a shot, I could see 
witii my glass the rebel hunters dodg'ug low along the walls, 
or creeping car-.ully behind the bushes, to ga-n a sheltered 
spot in an unl-vked-for cover, and then, a muhket cracked 
and a lively rattle follov/ed, min.gled with answering growls 
oJ artillery. I'iie creek that separated us from the enemy 
was nu more than ten yards in width. Oa its banks on 
either side were houses. Back from the river about one fourth 
oi a mile there was a thick wood, in which tho enemy con- 
cealed his batierios u-.itii he chose to stir us up, when he 
would sneak up bL-Idnd the cover, open upon us at an unex- 
pected moment, and retreat rapidly when we replied. The fire 
Irom the artillery, and the skirmishing between the pickets, 
though continuous, v.-as wonderfully free from casualties. 0;i 
one ol our alcernoons at this spot, f nad just arisen from the 



rough camp-table that served us for our meals, when hissing 
and crashing came the enemy's sliells over towards our bat- 
ter)'. Instantl}' I heard the cheerful boom of ours in reply ; 
and then, as the enemy's demonstration was a little more 
spiteful than usual, I got the brigade under arms. There was 
no harm done ; but it took at least a dozen shots from our 
guns to make the rebels move off. 

The brigade, after some little delay, went into camp again ; 
and the occasion, though one of no moment to the troo})s, 
proved a trial to my aid, whr>, ha\-iiig just procured a horse out 
of the government train, must needs try his martial ardor. The 
horse was a good-natured, stupid, slow old beast, and, mated 
with another, was ver,' well ; Lvat, alone, he turned out " a bad 
lot." He didn't rairid spurs, ran into every liian he met, caus- 
ing much j^rofanity, an.d was especially obdurate v.dien my aid 
(an otncer of the Second Massachusetts) particulailv desired 
to appear in the role of an equestrian warrior. So here, one 
regim.ent having been formed, rud the SeconJ Massachusetts 
coming up, before which of all others the officer felt a p.ar- 
donahle pride in appearing in njost gallant style, his plebeian j 

charger could not be entreated out of a walk, Now any j 

horseman knows that for a military chieftain, a gallop is the j 

thing, — a ii^ht, airy, arched-neck gallop, a spirited intimation I 

of leserv.-.d force, v/ith champing bit and nostrils dilated, j 

and eye flashing and ear r,ointed, as reminders of what you j 

may get ii you want it. it \s-as something like this tha.t my aid I ■ 

essayed, v.-hon lo ! iiis beast struck a dead, solemn, limpid walk. j 

Spurs were dug into him, by exasperated heels, until tiie 
beast struck a '.rot that ariv S'x-rnule team might have envied, 
jolting the aid a foot from his saddle at every step. I'his 
was the only response, and it caused derisive laughter from 
concealed lookers-on. The continued bumping, and the 
consciousness of being a merited object of mirth, naturally 
increased this officer's ire ; and it was vented in renewed dig- 
girig of spurs, unti' the animal, in sheer desperation at being 



36 

held in tightly ahead, and sharply urged astern, bumped into 

t!ie drum major of our regiment and nearly knocked him dov/n, 

at which the smile v/as louder than allowed by the regulations'. 

" He does n't mind shells, either, half as much as I do,'' said the 

perturbed aid, as he eyed the sorry beast askance while he 

dNvelt upon hi^, vices; " in fact," he added, '< I should Hke to 

see the devil himself make him shy. When those shells were 

coming over at Woodstock, makmg a perfectly infernal noise, 

and other horses were on the rampage, there stood this beast 

as quiet as if in a stable. Even when I saw a shell fired, and ' 

tried the protection of a friendly tree, he would n't stir a peg 

faster than usual ; and the shell burst long before I got him 

there. But he has one virtue ; I can leave him anywhere, and 

he will stanci t:ll doomsday." As I, too, had just secured a 

new horse, one belonging to an officer of Ashby's cavalry, | 

captured by one of our skirmishers as we entered Woodstock, | 

I was anxious to try his mettle. The contrast between my . | 

ai I's horse and mine oy.ly served to make more conspicuous the I 

shortcomings of the former. i\Iy horse would take a six-rail | 

fence beautifully. Aner bounding over I often turned to look I 

back, and call out, " Come alorlg, don't stop for that," at vdiich I 

my aid's big farm plough-horse would come up, run square into I 

t!)e fence, bump his knees, sn(^e;:e, lurn around, and stand, I 

firmly courting death rrither than attempt the fence. " But if | 

there are only four rails, now," cries out the aid, " he will I 

take that.'^— "OrJorly. take down two of those rails. Now, | 

captain, take a lair start, let him out!" Down came the I 

captain with pace growing slower and slower, until lie reached ' | 

the fence; when the horse halted, gravely counted the rails, i 

quietly raised himself on end, put his tore feet o-er, gave him- | 

self an unearthly hitch with his hind legs, and landed on the I 

olher side with a pair of barked shins, then sneezed a-ain as | 

if he fancied he was a gay courser. The effect of this school I 

of jumping is hard on the rider, who generally perferms un- f 

heard of gynn;a:,ticb in tlie air. and co.ac^ down on the pom- 



37 

mel of his saddle, to the s;reat detriment of his pantaloons ; 
though there is some fun in it, and more excitement. 

I have described the animal transferred from cart to cavalier 
duty, and hov/ the change became him. I trust I shall neither 
weary your patience, nor devote too many of these pages to 
horses, if "'. now briefly dcscrib:- the magnificent animal that 
fv^U to mv lot. In doine this I must anticipate, mu^L refer to ( 

many scenes that do not come within the province of these j 

pages to relate, and must with his life speak of his death, j 

v;hich took place long after the v/ar had ended. 

It was after v.^e had driven off Ashby's guns, and when the 
Soco.id I'vlassachusetts, deployed as skirmishers, were sweep- 
ing through Woodstock, that a skirmisher of the Second cam.e 
suddenly upon a negro, leading a hor^e oat of a stable in the 
tov.-n. 

'■'■ Halloo," says the skirmisher, " where are you going with 
that horse .'' " 

"Don't stop m.e.'" replied the n.:gro; "dis is my marster's 
best horse, and I'm taking him to him." 
•■' Where is your master t " 

" Why, dare he is, sir, wid Marse Ashby's cavalry ; d:i;c, sir, 
on de hill yonder." 

'' Well, yr-u can't go tiiere with the horse, i "11 take care of 
him ; hand him over," replied the soldier. 

And so the horse, saddled and bridled, was passing by me 
to the rear, v-dien I learned the facts of his capture. Directing 
the soldier to briiig him to me after the fight vv-as over, we 
moved on. and, as related, sent " IMarse Ashby" and his cav- 
alry whirling up the valley. 

Having occasion towards night to visit General Banks at 
his headquarters, distant about three miles, I called for this 
horse, jumped en his back, and let him take his own gait. 
Though it was a still niglit, I found from the way in which 
the air was rushing past my face that my horse must be going 
at great speed ; and this im[)ressioa v/as strengthened by 



38 

hearing; behind me the rapid gallop of a horse, attempting in | 

vain to j.uss. Presently 1 heard exclamations from the rider, -j 

"Jerusalem!" then sounds of urging to greater speed, until ) 

my pursuer was on a run. My horse had not broken his gait, | 

which was a singular mixture of a trot and a pace ; for although | 

he moved his legs on one side o( his body t'^^gethcr (the char- I 

acteristic of a pace), yet his fore feet were throv/n out v;ith \ 

such a proud and lofty shock that it bore every semblance to | 
a trot. I pulled up my horse to a slower gait, when in a 
moment my pursuer was by my side, exclaiming, — 

" jMister, v/hat sort of a horse do you call that ? " 

" Why, — a very good horse, is he not? " *^ 

" Good horse I " (with emphasis) " I cal! my horse a good | 

ljorc:e, and I have been on the tiglit run to catch you and ; 

could n't do it, and you onlv trotting." i 

The man belonged to a New York cavalry regiment, so he | 

told me, v/as a private, and oij duty as orderly, carrying de- | 

soatches eo Gen. ]]anks. It v,\.s verv amusing to see his look I 

of astonishment and hear his delicate apologv as he found lie § 

had been chasir;g a colonel of infanlry in the dark — but, " I | 

. ' . 5 

do think that horse is a stiinner,'' he stili insisted. j 

I next tried the horse with tliose o( our cavalry, and found \ 

he beat the:n ail in leaping ; indeed, G^n Hatch, commanding I 

the cavalry, ackr:o\vlcdged there was no horse in his command | 

that could compete with him. Plis jump was not a flying I 

lea]/, it vi-as rcaHv a jump. He aporoachcd the fence or bar ? 

. ^' ) 

slowly, and preferred to do so at a walk, then slowlv rising on \ 

- r . o I 

his hmd legs threw over his lore feet, following v/ith the rest i 

of Ids body with a muscular energy that wotJd unseat a care- | 

less rider. 1 found I could t)ave! across the couritry without i 

stopping to take down fences. I have often seen our pickets a 

stare with amazement as I galloped towards theui, taking all ] 

the fences in rny path. I never lowered anything but the rid- I 

ing-rail of a Virginia fence, ar:d I did that for my own ccim- I 

iort, tliough I think the horse would have gone over it with | 



39 

urging. It was not long before general attention was attracted 
to my horse. One could not sec without admiring him. His 
weight was over eleven hundied, and his lieight in proportion 
to his weight. His nostril was of enormous size ; his ear 
was large, but well-made and expressive ; his tail was hand- 
sonie and full ; his mane soft bnjt not thick, though slightly 
flowing ; his color v/as a dark ba}', with a black streak running 
from hi.s mane along his bacl: to the roots of his tail. In 
repose he was quiet ; but mount him, and witness the change. 
Then his neck arched, his imimense nostril dilated, his teeth 
impatiently champed the heavy cavalry bit ; every nerve was 
strung for instant and intense actioji. You feit in every fibre 
of your body that mass of m.uscle and of nerve, and you knew 
that there was strength, will, and courage that could be broken 
only v.'ith his life. It was a hard day's work you would have, 
if }'C'U were restless and impatient when you mounted for your 
day's march. So finely- strung was this horse, that an ap- 
proach to composure vvas only possible when the rider v/as 
calm. 

After our fight with Jackson at Winer. ester, v.'e v/ere 
ordeied to cross the r>:ue Ridge, to join Fope for his cam- 
paign. On our first day's march we passed trie house v/here 
'■' .\3l1by '■' (so I had nanied. the liorse) v/as raised. IMy quar- 
termaster had a nice eye for a horse, and had made up his 
rnind that miiie v.-as a prize. "If you want to get rid of that 
horse," he had once or tv/ice iusi'iuaied, '' I siiould be willing 
to tnke him ort your hands ;" but meeting no encouragement, 
he finally admiitted that he knew more about the aninial tlian 
I did, and he v,\<uld poi:it out the horse's old home when v.'e 
came to it. It was a charming little old house on tiie summit 
o( the I'lue Ridge, with a view away off in the valley towards 
tiie Potomac. There were trees to ;-hade from the hot sun ; 
there were green fields nn.d fresh breezes, ever} thing favorable 
to the nitrture of such a horse. 

There was aji old negro at tiie house, and he, I knew, could 



40 ■ 

tell me something of ray capture ; but I preferred to let this 
old servant make the discovery if he could. So I ordered all 
tho horses of my staff, with some others, to be tied together 
m the woods, and then, calling to the negro, I asked him if 
any one from that house had gone av/ay into Ashby's cavalr3^ 
" Oh, yes," he replied, " Alarse John, he 's gone with Marse 
Ashby." 

" Did he take a horse with him from here ?" 

" Oh, yes, he took a horse from dis house." 

" Do you know the horse ? " 

" Do I knov.- him ? Oh, yes, I raised him." 

" Is he a good horse .' " 

"Yes, indeed, Tuar^^sa, he's good horse ; he's son of de old 
horse, but he a'n't quite ekie to iiim — no. No horse is ekle 
to him." 

" Why not .' " 

" Why not ! why, dat ole horse, he once run sixty mile in 
sixty minutes, and dis iiorse could n't do dat ; no, he could n't 
do dat." 

'■' Look around here in the woods among these horses, and 
sec if you see one that looks like the horse Marse John rode 
away," I said. 

Jn f. moment the darky's e\ es opened as laige as saucers, 
lie had unerringly made straight ior Ashby. 

"■ Wr.ere you don get dat horbC } " he exclaimed, as he 
fonuled his old favorite. " Is r\!arse John dead ? " 

"iiiNo, I replied, " but wc l;ave captured his horse — avwiy 
in the valley at Woodstock." 

'■ Youse hcv {;oi mighty good horse, den ; dat 's trufe." 
That the horse was of famous breed, and that he was then 
old (hov.-old I could not ascertain), v/a's all the reliable infor- 
mation I cnuld get. 

Vjixt from the day of his capture until the close of the war j 

that horse vas my inseparable coiupanion. Nodiing could \ 

tire him or break his spirits. lY^r days and nights in Pope's 1 



41 

campaign neither bridle nor saddle was removed, and all he 
ate was by hasty snatches at g^ass or musty hay ; and yet he 
cam.e into Alexandria with a proud step and an unbroken 
courage, ready for the Maryland campaign. 

I have never known such a horse ; I never expect to know 
one like him. Every moment a manifestation of power and 
gameness, fearless in his sweeping gallop, unmioved by the din 
of battle, his mettle inspired courage. He seemed to invite 
the thunders of v/ar, and he never shrrmk from the sound. In 
winter hardly sheltered from snow and ice, in summer exposed 
to the sun and rain, he bore his part in the campaigns of 
the war with a nerve and bearing that attracted the admira- 
tion of the army. 

lie was v/ith me for eight m^onths on a wretched sand-bar 
oh Charleston during Gillrnore's operations ; lie was with me 
in Florida ; I carried him by sea to New Orleans, and thence 
up the ]\Iississippi in July, where on transports he was borne 
aruund, and bufieted from place to pi, ice — now at rvleraphis, 
then at Arkansas, up the White River, at Vicksburg, and 
back again at Nev/ Orleans, then Mobile Bay, and on that 
malarious shore, until again transferred by sea to tiie Army 
of the Potomac, there to remain until the war closed, when I 
brought him to a quiet country home within twenty miles of 
]-)Oston. 

In a C'^mdortab^c s^abb with a bo:-: stall, vrith every provision 
made for Ids qomfort, old Ashby has passed a tranquil life. 
In his peaceful home, and with kind treatment, his disjvosition 
became gentler, and his response to caresses, never decided, 
was not so haughtily return.-d. ] dou;)t if Asliby h.ad ever 
been in harness, until I clothed his limbs in such ignoble bonds. 
He resisted stoutly and manfully at first, but at last, when 
an a[;peal to his reason w:>.s made, submitted, and behaved 
well if kindly and. quietly treated. In this, as in everything 
about this horse, one could accomplish anything through 
reason — only a-ppeal to his reasoning faculties. He had a 



:\-->^ 



42 

large brain, and could understand when appealed to. He 
could nor be driven by blows. In our twelve years' compan- 
ionship I never struck him a blow. Nothing would have 
tempted me to show passion, or to attempt ^to reach him but 
through reason and love. Therefore I alwa}'3 secured his best 
services, for they v/erc never given from fear. For the nine 
years that have passed since the war closed, my pleasure and 
my joy have been greatly increased whenever I could con- 
tribute to the comfort or the wants of my faithful friend. 
To let him run in the field in summer, to lead him to the 
choicest bits of grass in the spring, to respond to his begging 
neigh when I came tov/ards him in my daily visits, to pick up 
the choicest apples to be taken from my hand --oj] these inter- 
changes of mutual respect and affection added to my pleasure 
in life. 

I have v.-ritten these lir.es to tell of m.y faithful horse, 
though he has at last met that death v.-hich, on the battle-ncld 
or theoc :an, in ;.he chill of winter or tlie heat of summer, seemed 
long ago inevitable. Despite shelter and tenderest care and 
most natn:ious food, he now sleeps under the green sod in the 
orchard where he has so many times playrd without restraint, 
in sight of the home that has so gen :Iy cared for him,. of the 
stable that has so warmly sheltered iiim, and under the apjjje- 
trces whose fjoii he has so often eaten, and whose blossoms 
whit=-i his grave On I^Ionday, the eighteenth o^ ?^Iay,-io74. 
I was aroused early in the morning with the information that 
my poor old horse v/as in great pain, and would not eat. I lost 
not a moment in a[iplying remedies, sending in the meanwhile 
lor one more skilled. 

Everything Vv-as tri.-d, but nothing seemed to lessen the pain 
in the ston.acii. T/wrc v.-as the seat of pain.. Beseechinglv 
woulcl this inielligent animal look, ilrst at (,ine side, and then 
at the other, and then at us, appealing for help. In vain did 
he gallop v.-here\-er he incliiied, trying one road and then 
anuiiier, tne {lasture arid the held, and equally in vain rolling 



43 

and struggling, rising and lying down. The disease advanced 
\vith a force that defied us. Early in the afternoon it became 
evident the noble animal must die. He \vas lying down in 
the soft grass, some distance from the house, only occasionally 
lifting his head in an uneasy manner, as a sick child might 
toss himself in bed. All but myself i ad gone and left him. 
As I saw this splendid frame stretched helplessly on the earth, 
so exhaastcd b}' the agony he had suffered that he could but 
feebly lift his head ; as I saw that bright eye half closed, and 
heard the c|uick breath as it canae througli that great nostril ; 
as I saw my friend, my companion of so many years, so help- 
less before me, strength gone, muscles soft and feeble ; as the 
memr-ry of all this dear companion had been canjc over me, I 
shed sucli tears as I thought never to shed again. Kneeling 
by him I stroked his face, and then gently raising his head 
coaxed him to aUempt to rise. The rain was beginr.ing to 
fall, and I vvished to shelter him, and also that he m.ight 
breathe his last in the old stable where he had .stood so long. 
Putting forth all his dying force, and obedient to a call that he 
knew had ne\"er been made but in lov:;, he stv.;-gercd to his 
feet. Gently I led liim, tottering and reeling, to his stable, 
v,-here a soft bed had been prepared. I covered hini with 
blankets, to retain a:^ '^■'■''■"^-y ^s |.ios:dble the ebbin:; hie. It was 
uow two o'clock. 1 cioubt if there vvas much pain ti;ei\ ; the 
disease, or riarcotics, seemed to stunefv him. ; now an.d th.en he 
would stiii look around at In's side, as if there in his stomiaeli 
where it had begun, there the disease still remained. 

For seven hours " Ashby " hardly n->oved from the spot 
wdiere I had plav-ed id'n in his stall ; tliere wos but little rest- 
lessness, though his breathin.;.-; became more rap'id ar.d labored, 
and this incrcaseii as the night came on. Mv last effort to 
5.a\'e him was i.i ru!..!;ing his legs with n.uistard, and a'pphdng 
bandages; but tins gave no relief. His breath came shorter 
and shorter, his head droj.iped lower and lower, and at a 
cj[uaricr bciore nine at night he fell dead u|/!-)n the door. I 



44 

heard the rattle of death in his throat, as tenderly I closed 
his eyes; then, turnin- froui him, gentlv, lovingly, I said, 
" My poor old friend, rny dear old companion, I have tried to 
be as faithful to you, as you have been true and constant to 
me." 



45 



CHAPTER IV. 

At Edenburg the weather was somethnr.s like our own 
New England in June, v.dien the air is warm and hazy, ai\d 
the leaves rustle with a dreamy melody, and birds are exu- 
berant with song. But hardly had we begun to feel in har- 
mony with sunnv da3-s and blooming peach-trees and warm 
shosvers, bet' -re a charige v ould come, as bitter as the hatred 
of the women cf \'irginia ; the ground covered with snov/, the 
air thick with hail, and the distant mountains hidden in the 
chilling and frozen atmospb-ete. Our shivering sentinels on 
the outer lines met at tinies the gaze of half-frozen horsemen 
of the enemy, peering through the mist as if to see what the 
"Yankees" had been doing within the last t\venty-four hours. 
It v,-as hard to be]ie\'e we were in th.e suj'/ry Sou/A, for there 
was never more marrow-pcuetratirig v,-eather at the North. 
Life, entered upo-p. at Edenburg under the excitement of a 
figlti, became mionotorious. Tents begr>n to take in that 
fulness of equipment only accumulated by time ; and comforts 
began to shov/ themselves, in thick lasers of pine bough.s, 
\' hich served fjr both b-jd arid carpet, l-'or ni^'self, an. ordi- 
nary camp-stooi was devoted to ufiici^l use as my table; v/hiie 
boot-leggings, gauntlets, sword, field and spy glass, candle, 
matches, hair and tooth brush, looking-glass, carpet-bag, box, 
india-rui)ber cloak, wash.-bGsin and pail, with sundry old 
newsp3[X-n's in a pile, la}- in coiu^usion upon the ground. Six 
stones in a circle enclosed the dead ashes that sometimes su|> I 

plied heat, although I usually relied upon a lire of logs in j 

front of my tent, which generally smoked the inside suffi- j 



4G 

ciently. If one inquires whence came articles of comfort, 
I will answ^-r them accordiiv:; to the reply I received from an 
ufticer ol my siaff. " Why, you see, sir, my boy Jim is a very 

good servant, and has a faculty of Ji/u/i/^g \vhatever is wanted. I 

I wanted a surcingle for my horse, — Jim found one in the \ 

woods ; same with a driuking-cup, two chairs, and various j 

other little things. He now is in search of a ham, a frying- I 

pan, and a tea-kettle. I have n't a doubt he will find them in I 

the woods." Well, there v/as novelty in the life, and good | 

cheer at night around the carnp-fires. while scenes and inci- | 

dents of the day were related. I recall the brightly gleaming | 

face 01 our chaplain, v/itli the firelight glancing from his spec- | 

tacles. I hear his jolly laugh, as his rotund form seems to | 

swell with very comfort before the blaze ; I hear again m.y | 

horse's uneasy tranip behind my tent, chided with the vocif- I 

erous Wh.oa ! of my groom ; again the bands of distant regi- | 

rnents playing merrily at tiieir evening hours, the men chaff- | 

ing in their tenrs ; and the voice of our indefatigable S/r/^A.'n, I 

who, announcing "Supper is ready, sir!" invites us into a | 

bower of pmes where he repeats night after njght the same | 

bill, — of tea, strong cuv/ugii to whip a " i\Ionitor," ham, | 

tongue, and brcal, perhaps toast. I 

On Su;idays trie ieli;;;ions ser/ices b}' our cha})lain came to | 

us Witn a new meaning. We iiad seen death enou'di then to 1 

call attention to our own mortalitv ; and the men and officers i 

were more atteritivc on Sundays llian at Winchester, and | 

listened to beautind selecti'Mis read by the chaplain in a clear I 

vuice, from an lipiscurvd praver-book. The band nlavcd a'-d I 
sang, too, some ol the obUnne tunes ; and many perceivctl 

that a gap in their exi-^tence, which tiiey had long k-lt wid^Mit | 
knowing what it was, had been lilleJ, ]a:t our days at Eden- 
burg were soon to be of the past. Jack-fui's main force was 
not Very near us ; they were some eight miles awav, at Mount 
Jacks.^n, and ready to run \vhcn we approached. It was Jack- 
sun's laithiul oificer, Asliby, against wliom (uu- fuurteen guns 



47 

had been daily pouring forth their torrents of fire, — against 
his guns of .-hortcr range, English ammunition, and shells 
thai did not always burst. 

On the seveiiteenth of April, when the joyful news came to 
move forward in pursuit of Jackson, it vyas received with cheers 
of delight. The objective p'.unt was New :\rarket, fifteen 
miles farther southward on the pike. If the enemy were dis- 
posed to give battle, there were some strong positions on our 
route. The military problem, therefore, v/as to turn them 
with one column, while anotlier moved forward. ?\Iill Creek, 
at Mount Jackson, like Stony Creek, at Edenburg, rises in the 
range of mountains bounding the valley on the west, flows at 
right angles to the pike, crosses it, and empties into the Xorth 
Fork of the Shenandoah. On the south side of the creek, a 
few hundred yards from the bridge, rises the commanding 
lull, called ..luunt Jackson. The pike passes throngh the ilnt 
botrum-iand, south of the creek, before it winds over the hill. 
The summb. not oriiy commands all the approaches, bu.l, 
if held, makes the crossing of the pike and bridge at the 
creek an cxccedaigly diilicuit operation, exposing an attack- 
irig force along the narrow, uncovered roadwcy to a destruc- 
tive lire. At four o'clock in the morning, our whole command 
mi.vvjd across ihc creek at Edenburg, torwartt f^r Mount Jack- 
son. The leading column, cummanded by Geri. Shields, arid 
comprising his division, u-as formed at midnight, and crossred the 
creek before da^dight, hoping to talce the enemy by surprise. 
Gen. W'ihianis commanded the reserve, which was made up ot 
his division, in vv"hicli was my brigade, and, oi course, our 
regiment. Tinm Etienbiu-g to the westward, a dirt road, called 
the middle, rims (at a vars'in.; distance Irom one mile to two)_ 
nearly parallel to the pike, with \vluch it Uiiites at Harrison- 
burg. \V;;en Shields advanced, a small force, as a Hanking 
column (^should the enemy stand before reacliing Mount Jack- 
son), moved on this middle road to join the n:ain body at that 
place. As the enemy knew as well as we what we were about, 



48 

it was no surprise to us, that, when the advance reached the 
place where the enemy's pickets hvA been posted, notiung but 
expiring camp-lires were found. 

The negroes told our men that the rebels had moved off, 
but a short time before we came up. We followed after them, 
one mile in rear of Shields, until the hot sun beat down 
upon our troops, and the dust covered them, and their knap- 
sacks became a burden. When it became a certainty that 
Jackson would not meet us this side of Mount Jackson, v/e 
proceeded more leisurely. As usual, Ashby put his guns in 
position once or twice on a wooded hill, and sent his shells 
howling over us, but he did no harm. Our batteries replied, 
and Ashby moved on. Thus we proceeded uiitil the bridge 
across the creek at Mount Jackson v.-as reached, v/here there 
was some heavy skirmishing. Ashb}- v.ith his white horse j 

was conspicuous, in an attempt to burn the bridge, and we | 

in an atiempt to save it, a;id we succeeded ; our cavalry 1 

dashed over, and extinguished the flames. The enemy now 1 

retired behind the hill at JNTount Jackson, and our troops f 

were drawn up in line of battle on the north side of the j 

creek. Some of the enemy's forces v.-ere distinctly visible ' | 

on the summit of the hill We had come up with Jackson's | 

main command. Would he fight h.ere .' it v.\as thought he | 

niiglit : so a flanking column was again organized, to pro- i 

ceed along the north side of the creek to the middle road, j 

th.en turning, south to follow it to New ]).Iarket; thus turning^ ] 

?.Iount Jackson, Rude's Hill, and ail other strong positions 1 

on tlie road. The turning column comnrised two bri<^ade^. 1 

one oi Sliields's Divisi-^'U, commandc'J bv Col. Dunniu'"^, an^i ' I 

my brigade. With orders to attack Jackson in rear or join the | 

main co'urnn if he had iled, I moved off at noon accompanied 1 

by signal omceis, to keep up a constant connnunication with 1 

the main column. The sun was then pouring down a blasting | 

heat, ti:e men were tired already froni their early start, anal tl;e I 

road v.-as a sixcession of quagtuires and stone ledges. The j 



49 

column kept pretty well up until we made our first halt, which 
was when \\c struck the middle road, aljout a m.ile and a 
half from tiie pike. Here we found a house, rather pretentious 
for the country, with a cupola, affording our signal officers an 
extensive view ; and across the road a store, which with 
the house was owned by one Rinker. As a Virginian, 
Rinker did not invite us to partake of his hospitality : both 
house and store v/ere closed. Wliile we rested, some of our 
men, becoming too inquisitive, broke the fastenings to the 
store, and began to levy upon straw hats for the summer cam- 
paign. 1 had observed the unhappy Rinker flitting uneasily 
around, aiid v/as not unaware of his mingled emiotions of rage, 
fear, and cupidity. The man had objected to the signal ofii- 
cers using his cupola, and had borne himself as one defiant 
before his enemy ; but this breaking into his store unmanned 
him iri a m"meiit, and lie begged for my interposition. I pitied 
liim, and restored some of his property ; although enough was 
retained to punish what I then thought was one of the most 
pestilent reh-ets tliat ever cursed the Yankees. What became 
of Rinker and his store, during the campaigns that followed 
in the vali'jy, I leave to the imagination to conceive. At about 
forty minuies aucr two, I received a note from my assistant 
adjutanr-gonc/ril wl:;.«in I had sen: forward to communicate 
with Col. Dunning, that that officer, v/ith four regiments, 
two batteries, and one squadron, was about tv/o and a half or 
three mh-:s in advance ; tliat he vcas ordered to proceed to 
Nevv rdaikct that riiglit, and would like to have me keep 
within oiic mile of him. 

Althi.ugh Dunning's brigade went ah.ead, it was largely in 
the rear. His men began to drop out shortly after leaving 
Mount Jackson : and from there to Nov.- Market they were 
scattered along the road singly and in twenties. They dropped 
down anywhere, and at once were fast asleep. It would not be 
an exaggeration to say that there were one thousand stragglers 
on that m;irci of eieveu or twelve miles ; there v.as a complete 



50 

chain of them. To be sure the road was of the worst descrip- 
tion ; ;. vvai a sn.CLVssioii of clayey sloiighs, with deeo mud 
altcniatirg with rocky hills. There were creeks to be forded, 
in which the water came up to the men's knees ; so that 
shoes, originally bad, were rendered so useless by alternate 
drying and soaking, that many of our own men marched 
along on that weary day in an oppressive heat in their stocking 
feet. The prospect of a fight was e.xciting, and our brigade 
listened eagerly for sounds from the few left in Dunning's 
brigade. Still we plodded on until dark ; everv one com- 
pletely exhausted ; I had been in the saddle from 4 a. :^r. | 
uiitil 9 p, M. V\'e were within two miles of Nevr JMarket, 1 
and well in rear of Rude's Kill and all other threatening posi- 1 
tions, V. hen the column halted, and the men fell asleep as soon j 
as they touched the ground, la the morning v.-e learned | 
that Shields had, the night before, passed th. rough the town, I 
and gone four miles beyond it ; that Jackson had made no } 
stand at Rude's Hill, but that at ten o'clock, two hours at | 
least before we began our graiid hank movement, he had | 
passed through Xew ?darket, whicii is four miles farther | 
south than the point to be turned b-N- ciur flanking march. | 
There was then nothing for us to do but join, the main col- ] 
umn bv a divergir^g di'-t road, wbi^h, f:rst crossing the Shen- 1 
an.doah 3i a lord, led u^ into the main pike at tlK" town. After I 
a scanty breakfast, the river was reached, the passage effected, j 
and afcerv.ards described as follows; — * 

" 'i'l:e ]:''assage oi tlie ShencUJtioah v/as a ludicrous si^ht. 
The river v.-as very swift, waist-deep, and very rockv ; the 
Massachusetts men generally held u;> their cea?-skirts, and 
wer.t in as they v.ere ; the Indiana boys v.ent in in a uniform 
of boots, shirt and coat carefully tucked up to be out of the 
water. An individual is a funny-enough-looking spectacle in 
sucii a dicss, or .rather undress, but a whole regiment, officers 



Lieut. TI. U. Scoit, Second .Mas-sach',i:^etuS Kegiincnt, A. D. C. 



51 

and men alike the same, makes a sight that is quite overpow- 
ering. Every one canio o\-er safely, but a fevv guns were lost. 
The current was so sirong that it took tlie legs out from under 
several of the men, and gave them a good washing, an opera- 
tion that long abstinence rendered sadly necessary." 

Having forded the Shenandoah safely, we marched through 
New ^larket, and went into camp just beyond the town. The 
resistance we had n-;et Vv-as weak, weaker than we expected, 
and was a disappointment, both to our ovvn men and the rebel 
inhabitants of the valley, who, as yet, had no cause to praise 
Jackson for the results of the battle of Kernstown, or for 
retaining our forces in the valley, if that was his motive. 

From Harper's Ferry to New Market I liave thus given a 
faithful narrative of the o}ipusition we encountered from Gen- 
eral Jackson and his army. At Charlestown, at Winchester, 
and at Strasburg we had heard extravagant stories of the 
great resistance we were to meet. It was alv/ays at some point 
farther on, .\r New Market v;e heard that Jackson had left 
the valiev. Waiat this sign.ined we found out afterwards ; but 
of what bad transpired one may well imagine our feelings in 
reading that " Jackson then crept along in tlie days succeed- 
ing Kernstown, like a wounded v;olf, but turning every 
moment to siiao at liis pursuers, and utTer battle if they 
pressed on him." * 

Though the valiev from Strasburg had at every step 
developed new.lieauties, tiie scene at New ^Market impressed 
me that this was or.e of tlie most lovely valleys I had seen. 
Suchi rich slopes and green, fields, magnificent vales and grand 
mountains, ever insight as we followed the North Fork of the 
Shenandoah — they were not only entirely beyond my descrip- 
tive powers, but v.'ere etiough to transport me with ecstasy. 

At New [Market ve Uanul peach-trees that had been in 
bloom since the lOth of April; and fields, too, green with a 

* Co-jkc's Lli'r, oi Stoaewuil Juckion, p. 126. 



52 

magnificent growth of wheat. Just south of the villai^c, on the 
banks of Smith's Creek, at the foot of the Massanutten range 
of mountains, and near where a road crosses through a gap to 
the valley through which runs the Soutli Fork of the Shenan- 
doah, I encamped my brigade in the middle of an immense 
wheat-field, off our main road perhaps one third of a mile. 
On this road and in tront of my encampment was a brick 
house, somewhat pretentious in size and finish. It surprised 
me that access to the house from the main road was effected 
only through an extensive cattle-yard, but upon further inves- 
tigation I found the front door at the back side of the house. 
The back was formerly the front side, I was told; but many 
years ago the road v/as relocared, so that it r:ai by the back 
side and through the cow-yard ; and, although the owner had 
been constantly intending to relocate the cow-yard, he had 
never accomplished it. 

The house v/as owned by a man v.-ho was then away in the 
rebel service, v.ith Jackson, as a c[uarter-master : but he had 
left to our protection his vv-ife and three or four cl.ildren ; 
an old gentleman, a relative, once a practising physician, about 
eighty years of age ; and a large f;-imi;\- of negroe-. Such 
was the human portion of the estate. Of cattle arid horses, 
two of- the former an! o^e of the latter had been left by 
the Conf:;derate quarter-master. The estate, I v;as told, com- 
prised some fi'teen liundred acres, much of it t'len covered 
with a riclx growth of wheat, destined,, alas ! never to be 
gathered. The day after my arrival, 1 received rather a polite 
invitation from the v,-;fe of our rebel quarter-master to make 
her house my headquarters ; the request was pressing, if 
not imploring. With over three thousand armed men — 
enemies they were considered — swarming around the prem- 
ises of this defenceless Wi.man, I eabily understood this appeal 
for protectioru I fou;rl the poor woman tremt)ling in her 
bedroom, surrounded l;-y lier three boys, the eldest about 
fiiteen and the youngest about hve. It was in vain that she 



attempted to repress her tears, as she told me of harsh treat- 
ment by our troops as she sought in vain to prevent the old 
family horse from Doing taken away by a trooper of the cavalry 
arm. Her eldest boy, too, was choking; down his grief, as if 
pride was battling with sorrow. Proud Virginians, never 
before humbled ; lords and masters of domain and slaves, 
their v.'ord the law ; I sympathized with theni in their sor- 
rows, ordered the old horse to be returned to the old uncle, 
and not only gave assurance that I would protect them from 
further insult, but also that every wish in relation to the house 
should be carried out. To the poor woman, I offered myself 
as a prcHCC'-or, In tlie absence of a husband who had tied, and 
left her at our mercy. 

To comj/iy \.-ith ihc. wj^^hes of the family, since no military 
requirem.cn t would suffer thereby, seemed my best course ; 
so I installed myself and staff in the house, and enjoyed, dur- 
ing the few cheerless days we remained, the warmtli of a huge 
fire of logs. 

The sk)-, which had looked so tenderly upon us on the day 
of our arrival, was i^ow covered witli angry clouds, the sun 
was obscured, auvl we remained inactive under the chili of a 
snow-storm. Ifnjovment out-of-doors vcas impossible; wdiile 
cntertaiiimcnt within was conhnecl to th'- study of a -coarse 
print of George \Va^hir,gton, in which, U;)0ii scich an occasion, 
the Father of his Country looked uncommonly placid. An 
old piano, some ancieiit novels, a few books of old operas, 
prints of l-'rench rci)iih;ican hi." rocs in_ cliildhood, — all ^\'ere 
tried in vain : we fell back upon the old doctor. This old 
gentleman of cigfit}' insisted anon it we hud brought Northern 
storms with us ; all of which he lamented as he saw the w;ii:e 
snow-flakes nestling so gently within and around the blossoms 
of his p^jach-trees. Such a good-natiu'cd old gentlem.ari as he 
was, it was impossible to get angry with liim, as he insisted 
upon it, with a good-natured smile, that T\IcCleHan v.-ould be 
whipped on tlie peninsula ; that he hoped for it, and did not 



1'^; 



54 

for a moment doubt it. But, though under my protection, 

I was sorrv sometimes to see tlie " grim-visnged front of war" 

overspread the fice of our otherwise kind iiostess ; for she was 

very rebellious, as one might well imagine. I tliink it quite 

possible she objected to a little entertainment I gave the 

negroes. It was this. Never doubting from the outset that it 

was the right, i^s well as duty, of our armies to declare to all 

the Southern slaves we found around us that they were forever 

free, I sent word to all the negroes that had called my hostess 

viisircss to come, at a certain hour, into' my ofhce, the best 

parlor cf my rebel quarter-master. I think a few outsiders 

joined themi, f'lr the line extended across the room, and there 

w^ere more than I rem.etr.bered to have seen around the place. 

What a sight! what an hour! Steadfastly, though in apathy, 

this motley gang of dark and ragged creatures gazed at me in 

wonder. The gray-haired uncle, the wrinkled auntie, the young, 

the middle-aged, there they were, to hear from my lips the word 

their too-long-enslaved faculties could hardly appreciate. '' I 

have sent for you," I said, " to tell you that from to-day, for all 

your lives, you a^e free. You belong to no one, you need 

work for no one, unless you v/ish." I paused, and waited ; but 

there v\'as no movement, not a word in reply. '' Wherever,'' I 

continued, " our armies go, we shall set all the slaves free ; and, 

now that we are here, -n'ou are forever hereatter vour own 

masters." Still, not a vvord was uttered ; but, instead thereof, 

there was an anxious, earnest, r-.^.laful lujic of inquiry, as if \ 

the mind could not grasp the subject. " Can you say nothing,' j 

I asked, " can you do nothing, to show that you are glad ? Can't | 

you even turn a summersault in rc'jly .' " For a moment there | 

was hesiiation ; and then, from tlie gray-haired old darky at 

the end to one younger and more agile, '' Go ober, George." 

In the most solenm arid matter-of-tact rendering oi obedience 

to an order, down wenL "George's" head on tlie carpet, and 

over he flopped with an awkward thud. This v.aas all ; an.d 

thus, with senses dull to all it meant, tiie line filed out, each 



■!- jrv.. -r 



55 

heart beating with some undefined sensation, as if a great joy 
were coming;. 

Truly, the hour of the negro's trumiph had come at last. 
They had seen their master's glance of scorn at the threatened 
invasion ; they had trembled before his imperious will, and, in 
their ignorance, they had come to feel that none could with- 
stand him. No v/onder they could not take it in. Here, in 
the very home of their toils, they had seen the lordly slave- 
owner fleeing betore the strong arm of a Northern force ; they 
had seen those of whom they had heard nought but scoffs 
and jeers moving with their solid columns in terrible retribution 
over the blue ridges of their mountain confines, across the green 
fields in the valleys of tlie Shenandoah, into the homes of their 
masters, sitting as masters at their firesides, eating as masters 
at their tables, protecting their wives and their children. Truly 
might the slave see the hoar of his deliverance, and know that 
the hand of God was moving manifestly upon the waters. Since 
that day, ihe light trea'l of our column gave place to a heavier 
tramp. Year after }ear, the iron hoof of war ploughed up that 
beautilul valle\', until desolation marked it for its own. If the 
poor woman who v. as then sitting at the head of a table v,-hich 
was surrounded by myself and my staff stdl lives, she v.'ill 
remember that, in ihoio early ^lay- of i86j, I. said to her, 
'• Your peo]/le are n.ad ; they are raising a storm that will not 
subside. To-day we pre taking your fjod and your caltle ; but 
to-moriuw, so far does ihc living force of powerful armies 
outrun our realizations, to-morrow it may be vour hon:es." 
Let the blackened walls of the houses of the Sb.cnandoah 
valley be my witness. Jvit what had become of Jackson.^ 
We had rumnrs that he had turned off from the valley of 
the North Fork, and was somewhere in the ridges of the Dlue 
. ?dounlains, to the eastward, and in communication wiLn Lee 
around Richmond. The wliole of the valley gave evidence of 
his ruthless flight. Bridges burnt to impede our pursuit, was 
a greater injuiy to the industry of the inhabitants than to us: 



5f; 

it might retard, but it did not bar, our proj^ress. T was aston- 
ished at the evidence of forced service, required b}' tlie enemy 
from the citizens of this valley ; the mountains were filled 
with Virginians escaping from forced levies. Wandering sadly 
along by the side of the creek, near my encampment at New 
Market, I saw a poor white u'oman, followed by her children, 
— five little girls and a boy. In her arms she carried a baby ; 
and, behind her children, follou'cd the faithful dog. To my 
question, she answerer! that she v/as going to her sick brother. 
Her home was in the mountains ; but, her husband having 
been driven from hi? home by some of Jackson's men, who 
were forcing recruits into his service, she could not live there 
without his help. "As soon as you come here to protect him," 
said the Vv'oman, " he has promised to return home. What 
would I not give to see him ! '' [ 

On -the 25th ol April, on Fridav, v.-e again moved with our j 

whole force onward up the vallev. Aloivg by the base of the ! 

IMa.^sanuttcn range of mountains on our left, leaving our old I 

..... ' 

friend the Shenandoah to the west, in wliich direction it runs 1 

to its sources in the North Mountains, v.-e followed Smith's 

Creek until we readied Harrisonburg ; and there wc encamped. j 

We v,"ere eighteen miles from New Market, and about eight}- j 

from Winchester. Ai ILirrisonburg vcc found thac Jackson j 

hadi chariged his course, liavin.g left the vallev of the North j 

. i 

I'Yi'-l-: he liad turnedi soulheasterlv, ticking the main pike which j 

runs in that direction to Gordonsvi'le, distant about forty 

miles. At GordonsvI'de tlicre was rpil conim'.Uiication with ■ ! 

i 

Staunton, Richmond, and AlexTaidria. ]3ut Jackson had as j 
usual encamped al :>ut twenty miles from us, and was now in • 
the valley of th.e N':^rth Fork of the Shenandoah to the east of | 
our mountain range, and on the cast side of the Shenandoah, ; 
wherL the Gordoii-vi'ie pike crosses thai stream b}' a long cov- 
ered bridge. While holdmg Harri'ionburg witii our cavalry ■ 
and an adwinced gu.ard of infantry, v.'e turned to follow r.im. j 
I'ur a few da\'s our ODeratioPiS were cmfn^ed to the usual 



57 

skirmish with Jackson's rear-guard : we advanced, they re- 
treated ; and we followed them through the classic shades of 
Keezle and IMagaughey towns to the east, around the base of 
the peaked mountain where the two valleys of the Shenandoah 
flow into one, along the pike to the bridge over the North Fork 
of the Shenandoah at Penn's Ferry, a distance of twenty miles 
from our main encampment at Harrisonburg. At this point 
Jackson, determined to burn the bridge if w^e attempted to 
cross, had lined it with light kindling-v/ood, to ignite at the 
touch. As along the valley, so here, there was constant 
picket-firing. During my only visit to the extreme out- 
post, where the Twenty-Eighth Regiment under Col. Donelly 
was stationed, I saw one of his men, v/ho had been shot at 
his post by some expert and remorseless rebel hunter, lying 
dead at the station. Once, however, the enemy, failing to 
make the bridge in time, were overtaken by our cavalry, 
and prisoners were brought into Harrisonburg. With 
General Hatch commanding the cavalry, I rode in ; the 
prisoners following in oar rear. Or.e of the rebel oiTicers, 
being greatly annoyed at the triumphant lonej of our men, 
turned to rebuke them, at which the storm began to rage with 
such violence that I v/as compelled to order the prisoner to 
maintain silence. 

\\ hde my brig:ide was encamped in the field, 1 made my 
own headquarters within the house, where dwelt the owner of 
the domain. She wiis an elderly matron of very strong seces- 
Siuii proclivities, and given to lameucaLLon over the destruc- 
tion which three thousand soldiers brought to -her fields. 
Ihere were no fences left to davide tillage from j^asture, 
or graiu-f'jids from roads. When her complaints were 
loudest, 1 informed her of the capture of New Orleans, of 
which we had just heard tliruugh the war department ; then 
enlightened her as to the con.dition of slave property, and that 
no restraint could be n<,(id if her slaves chose to leave her 
and loilow us. Sonietinies her replies were acrimonious, 
8 



??T^ 



dS 

sometimes pitiful. Indeed, who could help feeling something: 
akin to pity fur tnese poor people, bending under the power of 
tiieir conquerers. 1 lut with pity came also exultation, for scarcely 
a day passed that some stronghold was not wrested from trai- 
tors. All along our sea-coast, all along our inland rivers, at New 
Orleans, and in manN' places along the course of that mighty 
river the .Mississippi, floated the old flag. The reduction of 
Yorktown we looked upon as an assured fact, so of Corinth. 
The army and the country gave thanks to God that the end 
seemed so near ; and a mightier feeling of exultation came over 
us, that questions which had troubled the country beyond endur- 
ance, questions which the wisest and best in our land could 
not solve, were now at rest forever — slavery dead beyond 
rcstiLution, and tlie insuiierablc atrogance and conceit of the 
Southern people being whipped out of them. Here was a 
strong Northern army holding forcible possession, of their 
lands and of their mansions, replying to their com.plaints that 
they would have it so, would Ivaxc us come from the North to 
free their slaves, take their catde, and reply to their com- 
plaints by the quesiion," Do you like itV"' and offer the conso- 
lation that the n"iOrrow might bring forth a greater sorrow, 
even a forfeiture of their lives and lands. " Oh, anything to end 
this war!" was ag;,!n and again the wailing reph". " Will you 
advise the laying down of arms, and submission, to end it ? " Then 
the flush of anger came, and the graceless temper cried, " No ! 
rather war to the biltcr end than tha'.."- "Then the question 
becomes not one of secession, but subjugati.Mi," I answered. 
"We are deterniincd to whip, yes. subjugate you, if we must ! 
and perhaps the strength we put forth, tr.e courage vv-e displav, 
vdll make the Suuia more williiig to li\'e with a })eo[)le you 
once affected to dcsjjise, but whom now you will find as brave 
as )'ourselves. The end may not be yet, may not be until 
your towns and cities are deserted sa\e by wouien and old 
men, not luitil all your property is destroyed hv the passage of 
arn-des, not until your commuriicaiiuas arc broken up, your 



59 

bridges and roads obliterated, not until your country is flooded 
with a vvorthless currency, not until youi children, even, are 
pressed inlo service, until every raorher has an achuig heart, 
and every household an absent son. We can now make 
peace with you upon such terms that both North and South 
can mutually rejoice, and there will then come a celebration, 
the like of which our country has never seen ; but, as it is, we 
must press on. Let your achievements be never so heroic, ours 
shall adorn the page of history with as proud successes, while 
the inspiration of our mothers, sisters, and homes shall equally 
with yours swell our hearts and nerve our. arms with courage." 
Whilo the main body of the Fifth /irmy Corps was at Harri- 
sonburg. Gen. Banks made his headquarters at New Alarket 
Crossing the ^Masi^anutLen range of mountains at a gap of 
that name, a wide road leads from the North Fork valley of the 
Shenandoa!; eastwardly over the mountain into the valley of 
the Soath Fork, aftbrding Jackson a splendid opportunity, if we 
were unguarded, of taking us in rear. This gap-road, just 
before leaving the mountain on the eastern side, diverges into 
two branclK'3, op.e of v/hich crosses the South Fork of the Shen- 
andoah at Columbia Bridge, the other at Massanutten town and 
thence to Luray. To guard this important road, Col. Sullivan, 
of ShiekU's Divisir.n, had been k;: at Columbia Bridge, 
About the fst of ?.r-y. Subivan inibrmed lianks that a 
deserlcr at Columbia l^ridge reported that on the 30lh of 
April Jackson nioved with his whole lorce towards Harrison- 
burg; and. then, lie believed, he rerurned and marched rov/ards 
Port lve!j".blic. The deserter estimated his whole ibrce to be 
about tiiioen thousand men, composed of twelve or fifteen 
regnnents. commanded by Jackson, 'laliaferro, Winder, and 
Ewell, and added that Jackson expected additional reinforce- 
ments. That Col. Sullivan was in the same state of excite- 
ment as when at Strasburg, was apparent from a despatch 
received f!c>m him, dated at Columbia Bridge at 2.25 p. m., 
addres-ed by .ignai to Gen. Banks, annouucii^g that " rebels 



, t >: J. ■ ' . • ' 



GO 

drove in my pickets at Burnt Bridge and on Gordonsville road, 
started oui reinfurccnien'.s and am n:.\v driving them, vv'iil 
report fully." Burnt Bridge lies south of Columbia Bridge, 
over which the road to Gordonsville and Richmond crosses 
the Shenandoah. Fearing that we would not fail into the 
little trap of moving to Staunton, against Avhich McClellan 
warned Banks, it might be that Jackson v/as trying all 
approaches to our rear, believing he would not have the 
opportunity to crush us with reinforcenaents in his own good 
time. With the pass across the mountain well guarded, v/ith 
our advance at least sixteen and a half miles southeast of Har- 
risonburg, up to the Shenandoah at Conrad's Store, we were 
holding Jackson at arm's-length. What now vras to be done ? 
How would higher powers move in the concentration that 
would force the yet lingering life of rebeldom out of its ugly 
body ? It seemed as if the gloom and uncertainty, that had so 
recently covered everything as v.dth a pall, was being dispelled. 
L.very day deserters came to us in their gray iiniforms to say 
that not more than half of Jackson's army would fight ; that they 
were worn out v/ith service, and had no idea of the cause nor 
the object of the war ; also that the privates of Jackson's 
army had heard of but a single victory gaihed by us, that of 
Fort Donelsoa ; anci th's " one of their bovs accidentailv saw 
in a newspaper." At this time, too, the administration in 
divers v/ays gave out that the end v^-as nigh ; that the services 
ot our troops v/oiild be reciuired but for two or three months I 

longer. An Indiana regiment, ofiered. and enlisted but for - 1 

one year, the government wure unwilling to accept, and 1 

wished to muster it out at once ; but finallv declared that ' 

tliey were willing to keep it ior sixty or ninety days longer, ' j 

for that wa> as long, it w;\5 said, as the government would | 

v.-art any t-oops ; and this Jrom Secretary Stanton. "When I 

Yorktown falls, the end has come," was the cry. I think the 
feeling that he had better strike now, while he was here, sug- 
gested to one of the ofllcers of the Second Massachusetts to i 



61 

call upon me upon "very important business," as he said; 
v/hich \va-^, tliat he was en;^'a,c:;cd to be married to a young lady 
in Winchester, and wished a leave of absence for six days 
that he might g;o back and be married. He had met his love 
for the first time at a house in that town, where T had sent him 
in conmiand of a guard. He v.-ent, he saw, was conquered ; 
he a Yankee, she a \'irginian ; he Union, she a rebel. I 
gave til is ohicer a leave of absence, and he was married. 
It was said at tiiis time in the regiment that I had prophesied 
for the coming 19th of July, that I would march the Second 
Reginicnt up State Street in Boston ; and in a letter stating 
the prophecy, I added, "Verily, it looks so." 

Whether on the main, the middle, or the back road of that 
lo\'el} Slienandioa'i valley, rich with its L';rcen fields stretchirr">- 
off for miles and miles ; wherever our foragers wandered, we 
were the first, to cull dainties from rich farms, then looking very 
unlike the starvation and misery wliich afterwards befell the 
peop'e. Wliile we were at Harrisonburg, purchases v.-ere made 
ot two chickens, tvvo ducks, one tu.rkey, two dozen eggs, and 
three pounds of butter, -ail fur $1.50 in specie, which v/as then 
equal to ;:;5.oo in rebel mone}-. At the sigliL of silver and gold, 
the eyes of the farmers opened wide, and they clutched our sil- 
ver quarters, as a dr'jwning man a straw ; fur they had not 
seen any silver, they said, si^ce April of .jSoi. And yet their 
foolish pride and faith, or something worse, made this people 
contend that their shinplasters were as good as our green- 
backs, and not only profes.-s it, but act up to it, to the manliest 
advantage of one rather smart officer, v/ho bought a twenty- 
dollar confederate note lor twelve dollars iu "silver, and then 
exchan-ed ii v, ith an eager seces.^ionist in tov/n for a twenty- 
dollar bill in our currency. The sutlers realised great 
profits from this trailic ; while son^e of them added horse- 
stealing to the business, and so contrived to keep the v.'olf 
from the de.or for a while, though there is but little doubt 
that Abhby and Moseby finally got even with the sutlers. 



M- '.•-; 



62 

and restored more to Virginia than she lost. It \v:i? a cause 
of complaint anions; some of our oliicers tliat I ahvaj/s paid 
"every one of these secesli " for wiiat I took from them; 
though it was declared that I more tlian compensated for it 
by setting free every darky I came across. 

While our occiipation of Harrisonburg was drawing to a 
close, information was received from the secretary of v.-ar that 
'' Yorktown had been evacuated." " I^et the boys yell," wrote 
Gen, Williams to me, in a note announcing this news ; and 
this note was tollowed by another "that there are strong 
rumors about Richmond." 

Sunday came, the 4th of ]May, and brought Gen. Banks 
unexpectedly to tlie front. He came to call together the 
general oincers of his conimand, t(^ discuss the practicability 
and wisdom of a movement against Jackson. Hardly, however, 
had the sui.\iecL been, brc.r'chcd, when a despatch from the sec- 
retary of war quenched the risin.g flame. W'e (Williams's Di- 
vision with all the cavalry and artillery; were ordered to return 
to Stra^burg, while Shields with his Division was ordered to 
cross the Blue Ridge, and join IMcDoweli at i^redericksburg. 
The change was to take place immediately; we were to move 
at daylight on the returii to New Market. The glories of a 
camjjaigii in the valle^;, so iuil ot promi; e, 'xciy. bding. 

During the day and night of Sunday, preparations for tlie 
return were made. On Mondav morning, some movement of 
the enemy, probably' follovving up our rear-guard, as it was 
v.dthdrawii tr^jm the Oi.it|iOst arid picket stations, gave rise to 
a runi'ir that Jacks'.'U v/as drawing near fer a fight. Gen. 
Williams wrote me a lew hurried Vv-ords c inhrmipig the report. "''•' 
/'Vs absiir.,1 as I then belie\'ed the rumor, unless Jackson 
had dri.)[;ped down upon us fr'.jm the clouds, I got mv brigade 
in readiriess tor a movemt.-nt ; which turned out to be for 



*' Coi_ GcRr^Ci.N, — It is rcjHjrtJtl tlia: Jjcks'jii Is witliiu three intks. Have 

your c'.im.ni.ir.ci re.idy for orders. 

A, \Vu.!.i.\MS, U. G. 



G3 

marching, and not fighting. The unusual bustle which 
attended the preparation, ho'.vever, afiectod the occupants of 
my headquarters dirierently. No doubt my splenetic land- 
lady was overjoyed at the prospect of our departure ; though 
she was, and had been ever since our arrival, apprehensive 
of the effect upon her slaves. A more miserable, watery, 
unhealthy cellar, than the half-underground basement where 
I had often seen an unhappy slave woman, I had not before 
encountered. So sickly and feeble seemed this unhappy 
creature, though she was young, scarcely over thirty, that 
I had spoken kindly, and encouraged her to lea\'e such a 
home. Although she replied that she should go when v/e 
left, I thought no more of her until the confusion of our 
departure, when " Peggy " cauie to say, — 
" I 'm gwine wid ye." 
"Very well," I replied, "come alone-." 
'■' Xo, but I can't go widout my chile," she ansv/ered. 
"Then bring it with vou," 
" I can't, I hab n't g^.t her." 
" Where is slie ? '' 

" Ober dar at Miss — — , she hab her." 
" Go and get her, then, if you have time." 
S'hc Won't gib her up to m::." 
\vnat sliaii I do.' 1 have no time nov/ to send." 
" \ ou jes gib me a v;ritin', an' 1 '11 go wid it." 
" fiiat '.von't do you au}' good ; our troops are all leaving 
here ; t'.ie peoi),e won't niind our writings." 

'■ 1 ase, it wili," insisted Peggy, " )-ou jes gib me v/ritin'." 
Persuaded hx her ini[>ortunity, I scrawled ojf and signed 

with my nan-.e and ofhcial rank an order to ?diss to 

deli\-er over immediately one colored child, the daughter 
of said Peggy: and this o\\ the pains aiul perils of dis- 
obedience. Ti;en Peggy passed out of ni\- mind ; for new 
rumors came that Jackson was about attempting to seize 
tne gap-road across the mountains, v/h.ich connects the two 



rm 



64 

valleys at New iMarket, the road where Col. Sullivan's pickets 
were attacked on the Gordonsville pike. Waile our columns 
were hurryin:: aion^^ the road, my eyes tell upon my Peg2:y, 
keeping up \v;th the artillery, the wagons, and the columns' 
of infantry, and bearing on her shoulders the brightest and 
most sparkling little pickaninny that was ever born to woman 
of African descent. I was surprised, and wln^n I saw the 
mother's happiness delighted. With the child (given to her 
without any hesitation, she said), and a large bundle, about 
the size of the one that the fugitive slave v^-oman v/as for- 
merly represented in pictorial advertisements in Southern 
papers as bearij^g, when she " ran away from the subscriber," 
she was lleeing from slavery, clinging to our guns and ^o 
the columns or our iiifantry for protection. Telling her to 
come to my camp, v.'hen v/e halted for the night (she assured 
me she could keep up;*, I rode on pondering on the amazing 
changes which time works in the field of human events; upon 
the fleeing fugitive, hiding in swamps and tracked by blood- 
hounds, to trie fugitive fearless in the presence often thou- 
sand bayonets, glistening in the arms of ten thousand hated 
abolitionists : for this was what we praotically had become. I 
did not see Peggy again for two or three days ; for hardly 
had we arri\ed at New jMarkct, iioping to make up for the 
warit 01 re^t of Sunday night, and the exhau.sting march of 
tvrenty miles on ?vl.-nday, wlien, the fright at headquarters 
continuing, w^ v.-cre ordered to tear away from the prospect 
of comfurtable beds, and move out in the darkness, ascend 
the mountain, and cross to the valley of the North Fork of 
the Shenandoah, on the eastern side o[ tiie range. 

When ?vlajor Copeland brought the order from Gen. Banks, 
he iiispired the officers of the Second Massachusetts Regi- 
ment to throw off fitigue by promising a battle surely in tiie 
morning; arid he also gave m.e ilie information in writing ti-at 
it was reported that Jackson had divided his f jrce and had nve 
thoijsand nw.\ tliis side th.e river [I suppose h.e referred to tiie 



:.ifj 



65 

Ij.iray valley), and six thousand men the otht.^r, which " if so," 
adds Copeland, "one party may be destroved by a timelv 
movement." 

I left Banks's headquarters in New Market at twelve at night, 
with no more information of the purposes and probabilities 
.of this march than v/hen 1 entered, and witli m.y weary col- 
umn reached the top of the mountain at sunrise on the 6th of 
I\iay. Here I halted for a moment to refresh the troops with 
the marvellous beauty of the scene. In the g'olden li^ht v;e 
sav/ far below us in the valley the apple, peach, and cherry 
trees in full bloom ; the rich green of the growing wheat, 
the green grass, and the lovelv tints of the new verdure of 
tlie forest trees. My horse crushed the most beautiful vio- 
lets, growing in clusters on hillside, in footpath, and by 
many mountain streams which flowed onward to swell the 
Shenandoali at our feet. Witl-jout long delay ^^e pushed 
on for the foot of the mountain on the other (eastern) side, 
vvheie we were promised a sight of the enemy. We reached 
the end of our long and toilsome night march to find that it 
was a lalse alarm, — ^.no enemy, no i>rospect of any fight. So 
Wo fell down to deep slumbers ; I had not closed mv eyes for 
two nights. ITcre I published to my brigade the news of the 
evacuation of Vorktewn. The men cheered on the sides of 
that magniiiceat old mountain with such vociferous shouts, 
that the echo mi'.st have rolled through the valley, rever- 
beraiir.g froui .tlie Blue Ridge, and answered back again from 
the tops ot the higher ranges over wdiich we had climbed. 
Save that I here tied a sutler to a tree, and con il seated all his 
stock for selling liquor to my men, I accomplished nothing-'- 
that tended to a result. 

On the Sth of -May, returning from the mountain, we again 
pitched cur tents in Xew Market ; and I do not recall more 
sleepy and dreainy hours tr.an for a few da\-s were passed 
here, while awaitin.g the order to return to Slrasbiu'LT. 

1 iic ofiiciid report of the evacuation bv the enemy of 



66 

Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., we received on Sunday, the 
nth of I^Ia), the anniveiiary of the day on which the Second 
Massachusetts Regiment was mustered into the service of the 

United States for three years or the v/ar. 

New Orleans, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Yorktown snatched 
from the rebel grasp, we counted as surely upon Jvichmond to 
follow; and so, in noisy demonstrations with the bauds, we 
celebrated our anniversary, saddened only by the reflection 
that to us had fallen the ignoble task of holding Strasburg for 
the protection of the valley. 

On the 13th of May Williams's Division re-entered Stras- 
burg. Tlie roads, ilic bridges, the scenes, and the people 
v/ere little changed ; but the contrast between the advancing 
and retreating march was most noticeable. Now there was 
no pursuit, no ubiquitous Asliby : it was a dull, tame, dead 
level of safety. The important bridge over the creel: at 
I^.Iount Jackson, v.-hich, in nght, aiid in ilighc on our advance, 
Ashby had attempted t'.. dc.-itr.jy, and which it v;as necessary 
to preserve to carry us from New Market to the rear, was 
saved to us, somewjiat, by two telegrapruc operators arnied 
with two sabrcs and three Tevolvers,'''" and somewhat by the 
absence of the enemy. Although I made haste to relieve 
the gallant operat,)rs \i-o:n their \-ol'!nk"'.iy guard duty, I do 
Jiot remember what mu-f^age I sent to Gen. j-iauks's assistant 



*Fkom MouM' T.vcksox, Miiyio, 1S62. 

To Maj.-Gtn. X. r. Banks : 

AU the gvum's h.ive Ijocr; wlii.dr.-nvn from this p'nco, and the bridge near here. 
As we would not like to see t::c: biiii^c dirslroyiu, and e^j'c.;ial!y at this time, we 
have :i,-sii:n',;d conunaiid. and ,;:u:>t(.T-d all the force v.e can, consisting in all of 
five men, and wiil do tiie i>-ot wc can to protect it with this small squad, who 
are arnivd uit!-. two s.-.l;rcs and ihror revolvers. 

\Vc a:c very re.-;-iccti'ai!y yours, 

If A LI. ^'c Lou.NsnuKC, 



67 

adjutant-general's clcrJ:, by whom I was requested to make a 
report.* 

In the middle of a vast clover-ficId jnst on the outskirts of 
the town, our regiment with the others of my brigade were 
encamped. By orders from Washington, we were to fortify 
Strasburg ; j therefore we did the best we could to throw up 
an incomplete field-work upon a hill in the middle of the 
town, and a long line of sim.ple breastworks in the southerly 
part. 

From the 13th to the 23d of IMay this not too exciting task 
furnished, with speculations upon the fall of Richmxond, the 
v/hole staple of amusement.' Again there was much grum- 
bling and dissatisiaction among the officers of our regiment ; 
and here it culminated in a letter from them to the secretary 
of war, asking to be transferred to a more active field 1 

Major Scott, of Col, Mu^-phy's Twenty-Ninth Pennsylvania 



* Headquarters Df.pvrtmext Smf.n'axdoah, j 
Nf.w Market, Va., May 10, 1S62. \ 

I'loase report by bearer if the two companies detailed have been sent from 
your command. 

Very'respectfuHy, your obedient servant, 

R, MoRRii C'JPEtAvn, 

A'\.y. Vob. end Act. AdJ:. Gen. 

fcr ^VHnTKMORC, clerk. 

*■ ''■•'.' Ir, th-:; gciverninc.it siiould haveteatel Front Koy-il as an outpost and 

Stra.e'v.irg .is the main ])iacc to be defi'nde.:!, it is impossible to explain. Invited 

1v.- G'.-.i. I', inks, upon his accession to I'attersLm's cominanrl, to come to him at ' j 

any and all times with such sncrjjestions upon military ailairs as I might wish to i 

make. 1 took the liberty of advising him tu move his main fjrce to Front I 

Ixoyal, and thus, holding a pass over the lliiie Kid-^^e, so place liimself upon his 

lint of conmiunications that his small force could not be surronnded by a larger 

one of the enemy. I I'csouglu him to apply for a change of orders to enable him I 

t'> do tliis, and Mriior I'erkin.s. his ad;utant-eenerril. joined me in mv interces- I 

' ) 

sions, but Banks was immovable. j 

X A reply to this letter, received after Ja^.ksun had driven oiir regiment out of ' j 

the vallcv, declared that the e.\;;^encies of the service recjuired the writers to j 

remain ?i: ijtr.i?bu;g {.■,■.■-'.';/// the valley). ! 



68 

Regiment, suppressed his perturbed spirits, and spent much of 
his pay, in presents as testimonials to officvjrs who met liis 
approbation. Not content with having given superb svvords 
to Generals Banks and Hamilton, and to Major Copeland, the 
former's assistant adjutant-general, he now bent his energies 
towards a gift for the colonel of the Seeond Massachusetts, 
his then brigade commanler ; which, alas I ne\'er came to frui- 
tion, for Jackson soon made us think of other things. But 
we were acting without foreknowledge, and so gathered such 
comforts as v/ere at hand. Peggy, my faithful negro v/oman, 
duly installed as cook, gave more satisfaction for money paid 
tl'.an any of our compromises. Following on with the bright- 
eyed little " Topsy,'" she had come to me at New JMarket to 
remain until 1 could tran.sfcr her Ivostonv.ard. 

With direct rail comnuniicatiDu vvith Washington, Strasburg 
began to take on an air of gayety. A travelling theatrical com- 
pany furnished us with amusem.ent. Sutlers and traders, by 
day and by night overrun with custom, furnished us v/ith 
supplies. The amount of public property at Strasburg was 
enormous. Since v,-e ];ad nrst j'assed th.ruugh. it, a bountiful 
government had piled up stores tor clothing, feeding, moving, 
healing, and killing, until tive warerooms positively groaned 
v.ith the burden, ilere, too, had been deposiu-ci, as in a safe 
depot, ail the superlluous tran:.portarion which Shields had 
abandoned. 

In bi-igade drills, lai)or vpon the held-woiks and defensive 
lines, and in rebuilding the bridges u[)on tlie railniads, the 
days v/ore on without incident or excitement, until tPiC time 
came to look ngain atter our olil aniagonisL |ae':s ^n, whom 
we left on the eastern bank oi the South Fork of the Shenan- 
doah, about ^sixteen and a half miles from flarrisoriburg, 
at t(ic entrance oi a long covere-i wootlen hri'lge, i-reoarcd f'lr 
burning at a moment's notice. F"i\-eryiliing there betokened 
flight. I^anks was so far deceived, th:it he had in inf-^rnnTv^- 
the dejarfacnt of in-.- advance lu I Iarri.-.onburg, announced 



60 

"that the rebel Gen. Jackson has abandoned the valley of 
Virginia permanently, and now is a: route f,>r Gordonsville 
by the way of the mountains." The bridge where Banks 
Ict't Jackson is on the direct road from Gordonsville to Har- 
risonburg. From Gordonsville to Richmond by rail is about 
sixty-two and a half miles, or three hours ; while from Gor- 
donsville to the bridge, by a good pike road across the Blue 
Ridge Mountains, through the Swift Pvun Gap, is but about 
thirty miles. 



rl 



H-r *c.:': 



70 



CHAPTER V. 

Gen. Joseph E. Joiixston, commanding the whole force of 
the enem.y between P'redericksburg and Richmond, was em- 
ployed in preventing any movement by Gen. McDowell to aid 
Gen. ?vIcCle]lan before Richmond. When Jackson fell back 
before cur column, Gon. Ewcll, of the Confederate Army, 
who had been hovering around Fredericksburg v/atching 
McDowell, was sent to Swift Run Gap.*' Jackson found him 
there, v/hen he crossed the South Fork of the Shenandoah, as 
related 

The instructions given to both Jackson and Ewell vrere, f 
*" if Gen. Pranks joins McDowell at Fredericksburg, march 
instantly, by Gordonsviile, and join Anderson 4: in front of 
Fredeiicksburg ; but, if Banks remiairis in the valley, fight 
him there immediately." § 

Cm tric 5Lh of V.S'.y, i.s narrated, one division of Banks's 
corps (Sli'.elds's) did start to join Gen. McDowell ; but whether 



* M.ii.-G -ii. Tv. ell w.-;.-; left -.v^.h h;s divis'or., arid a regiment of cavalry, in 
obscrvi'.rion o'l tiie -upper K.i[>;';'.h;inMMCk. G,n. J.\cksi);i wa.-^ icit in the valley 
V) oppoia <;rcatlv supjrior forces, aurho.'-i/e ! i:> call F.^veH'? Division to li's 
assi.stance, if necessary, an J !v.v ell to c cmply with such a call ; Mai.-Cien .Sraith 
to have a irii.xec force, equal to n lirigaie, in front of I'reclericksl):irg — 2\arr\i- 
i'ize of M.'.'itary O/eralioas d.rcU-.f -.iurirt- the h-.U Wttr bitzvccn the States. By 
josel^h E. Johnston, G.>:ercl C. S. A., i ^r-l, /. tic. 

EweU's Division is given as r.um'ncririg io,c-co men in " ]'attle-Fields of the 
So'.ith." p. 3::,j. 

t Dabnoy. pp. S5, So. 

% Jefferson Davis had placed tho Confederate Kr-'i-id.ic-r-Genernl Anderson vrith 
9,oco men to observe McDowclTs corps. — ye:-h:stc/>'s A\:rrati:-e, />. 12$. 

§ Dabiiey, [^p. S5, S6. 



71 

this was known to Johnston or to Jackson before the latter 
marched to the place called MacDowell to attack Milroy, is 
uncertain ; but it is true, that during Jackson's absence, 
orders came from Joseph E. Johnston to Ewell, to march at \ 

once for Gordonsville. Shields's movement caused these | 

orders. ' ! 

In following Jackson, it v/ill be found in'ipossible to coti- | 

nect the information, communicated by the deserter to Col. ; 

Sullivan on the ist of May,* with the march made by him 
to attack Milro}'" at MacDowell. It v.-ill be remembered that 
although our force left Harrisonburg on the 5th of ^lay, to j 

returi) to Strasburg, Jackson did not start to attack IMilroy | 

until the 12th. On the i^th he readied ".lacDov/ell at 9 ! 

i 

A. M., having' made seventy miles in three davs. At 2 p. m. he j 

attacked and drove Milroy towards Franklin, to which place • 

the next dav he pursued him forty miles farther. Here he ■ 

... I 

remauied tv/o davs, or until the morning ot the i8th, v^-hen he i 

returned to Mount Cravv-fordj eight miles from Harrisonburg ■ j 

on the Staunton pike, to find that Banks had fallen back from j 

Harrisonburg to Strasburg. Jackson's return to ^.lount Craw- j 

ford could not have been earlier than the 20th of IMay. We i 

had then been in Strasburg seven days. -..., j 

IMossy Creek is tv.-o davs' n>arch from New Market. Jack- i 

son notified Ewell of his desire to meet him at a designated ! 

place on this creek. They met, and Ewell was then told j 

by Jackson, that he v.-as hastening back to effect a junc- j 

tion witri liim near Harrisonburg, to assail Eanks.t Ewell \ 

* '' GcP,. Ja::kson, \wth a force of aiiout 15,000 nieii; Ci;r,ino.>ed of t we've or t;t- i 

t.-eii rc-iiir.ent.-^ under Jiicksjn, T.vl;,'t',,rro, V-.'i:vJcr, and K\-.e!l, marched towarc.s j 
Harvijonburs, and then returned and marched towards Port Republic." 

t Eattie-Fieids of the South, Ashtoa's letter, f>, 324. 

t "Generals Jackson and Esvjil, the former commatiding as senior ofricer, were 

then opposing ii.inks in ti.e xa'.ley <•( the Shenandoah, itili under tny direction. j 

Un leaving the Rapidan, I had requested Generals Jac!;s;in ar.d Ewell to send 1 

their letters to me through t;\e adjutant-generai's onicc. The^e papers nuist | 

have been acted upon in Richmond; for nunc weic ever forwarded to me until the | 



72 

informed Jackson of his orders to move at once to Gordons- 
ville, but added that, iiotvdth^tanding this, if he. Jackson, as 
raiiking major-general, would order it, he would remain.* 
Jackson did order it, and the junction of these two armies took 
place on the 20th of }.Iay. Ewell had marched his command 
fron- Elk Kiver valley to meet Jackson. 

We have seen that the battle of Kernstown was fought by 
Jackson, because he was deceived as to the strength of 
"Shields's Division, and because of the intimation sent him by 
Gen. Johnston, f Nov.- let us inquire why he fought the battle 
of iMacDowcll. The most probable reason is, that "' Jackson 
received inlonaation {xox\\ a Col. Johnson of Georgia, com- 
manding at MacDowel!, that Blenker and Milroy with a Dutch 
divi.sion v/cre advanchi^; ccL.->t\vard to western Virginia, a.nd 
that his small force of 1,500 men was falling back before 
them." t This is connrraed by another writer, § wlio sa}'s : 
"■ Forced back to the Blue Ridge bv the heavv columns in his 
front, he rov.' saw ap[;roaching him from tlie v.-estern moun- 
tains another array, under ]Milroy, from which he feared the 
loss of Staunton." Considering these matters in connection 
with his asking instructions of Gen. Johnston as to his furtb.er 
movements in relation to Banks. jl v.-e may judge whether all 
that Jackson achieved in the vallev v. as part '^^'i an}' particular 
plan of aggressi'tii, " ori^.ina.ing \vith him to drive the Federal 
forces from the valle}'," *; or whetlier it can be said of his opera- 



j-.nny h.id rtacb'jrl tlie n-.-iL,hb.^r;;0<H! oT tiie Chickaiion-,i!iy. Then or.e from Gen. 
Jackson, wr.'ticti suiii aft-:r b'S return fro:ri McI''.avcI!, v-.as ce',i\ertd to mt;. Iti 
it he described the pn>ition cf the Fci.!cral .'inny near Str-i.-buig, aii.i asked 
iiiitructions. Tiiese were gi%-en at oi;ce, ar.d. were to advance .and attack, UTiIerS 
he found the erier.iy tuO ^t^^;nL;!y inireP.chcd."' — .\'.:rrciiii ojMiiitury Opiratioiis, 
by Jju-fh E. Johnston, G^:naa! C. S. A., 1074, /. i:y. 

* Da!^ney, pp. S5, S6. 
t See anU. 

% Hattle-Fields of the .S<jutii, p. 321. 

§ Cooke's Life of Jackson, r. 129. 

II See ii/j/'c', Johnston's iiis'.ructioiii to I.:.-kscn. 

* Cooke's Lii'e, p. Wi, 



,, ,;:,,;: -,.-.,, ia: 



73 

tions "on this grand theatre in the spring of 1862, that he 
vv-ill be mainly estimated in that hereafter, which sums up and 
pas:>Oi judgment on all human events, without fear, favor, or 
the prejudices of the contemporary." * We are, too, now ena- 
bled to judge how much truth there is in a criticism by Pollard, 
who says of Jackson's movements. " By his own judgment, 
and at the instance of his own military instinct, Jackson deter- 
mined to act on tlie aggressive, and essay the extraordinary 
task of driving the Yankees from the valley ; to dash at Fre- 
m<.>nts advance west of Staunton, and then turn upon Banks 
and drive him into Maryland." f 

\\c need not pursue this subject further. To whomsoever 
b..;h)ngs the credit of originating the campaign in the valley, 
i-i looj, whether to Johnston or to Jackson, no one will deny 
to the latter the highest praise for an executive ability, rare 
among the most noted suidiers of this or any other age. In 
tliis, at least, Jackson is secure. 

Bc't ul'W Gen. Jcckson was ordered to f.ght. Banks — all that 
was left of him ; and, as less than one half of that officer's 
conui-iand was U:h, Jackson, a^ v.-e have seen, took upon him- 
soir the responsibiiity of retaining Eweli to fight that half, 
a'lhough Johnston had ordered the latter to join Anderson, via 
C.-:^:-uo::svi:ie, to fighr the half that had moved to strengthen 
M.-b<>wc;l 

Whc-n Jackson reached New Market, which v/as on the 
n:\ '■! Alav, he was there joined by Ewell with his 10,000 
It was n-om this point that the campaign against the 
cne:ny was commenced ;" t from this point that the orders 
0-: C.".j!i. Johnston were to be carried out, and the united 
Conicderate force of over 20,000 were to be precipitated 
up-on less than .},ooo men in Banks's corps. § Our force o[ 






*" Cooke's I it>, p. 100. 

t i'oila.rd'5 Sou:h-rn History, vol. ii, p. 35. 

I Co.)Ke's Life, p. 141. 

i liaiiks';5 Oaicial Report. 



74 

ii.ooo, while at Harrisonburg, had been thus reduced, to meet 
a combined army o( tiio eneti.y, againsl wJiich with the larger 
number we could riOt have coped ; a combined army from 
which McClellan feared disaster, should we proceed too far 
south until his movements before Richmond should draw off 
the enemy ; an army only too anxious to meet us, * even 
before the War Department so suddenly scattered the coun- 
cil at Harrisonburg on that Sunday, on the 4th of May. Oh, 
happy War Department ! 

The plan of Jackson's campaign ngainst Banks's command 
at Strasburg was wise, but its execution was feeble ; and in the 
results thai ought to have been achieved it vvas a failure. 

As related, the campaign began at New Market, to which 
point Ewell had sent Gen. Ta}lor with his brigade, as tiie 
advance of the form_er's division. On the morning of the 21st 
of 2d:iy, GcVi. Jacl-cson, v.dth his own com.mand and Taylor's 
brigade, cros:-ed the ^Massanuitcn gap, and encamped at Lurax', 
in the valley of the South Foi-k of t;\e Shenandoah, there or 
in that neighborhood uniting his own f jrce wdth Ev/ell's. 

Oi th/uS movenicPit Jjanks was igriorant ; ior wiien v/e aban- 
doned Nesv^ Market Ash;:;y occupied it, and posted scouts 
as far as Strasburg, so that the \-anev was closed and every 
movement eiicctualiy screened, f 

Although Jackson made every preparation for rapid marches, 
leaving behind him oven the knapsacks of his men, he made 
only tvv'chc _ miits the fu'st d:;\", — one half of vdiich were 
passed iri crossing the g'.ip road over trie mountain. I'he next 
day, h-owever, tiie unite-i force moved forward, making a marcii 
which carried the advance under Ewdl to v.-ithin ten miles of 
Frorit l\.oyaI ; aiid this so secretly that not a sin.gle inhabitant 
suspected Jackson's presence, t 



'■ Itv.-as now hop jd by ;i!! that I?:>nks would leave the ruad, pu--h on through 
HarrisotiburL, and attack us. IJattlc-Ficlds of the South, p. 324. 
t D..brry, p. vo. 
t Cooke, p. 141. 



J , ' . _; 



75 

On the 23d of IsTay the whole of Jackson's armv, con- 
sisting, according;'; to Southern accounts, of about sixteen 
thousand effective infantry and forty field guns,*' with three 
regiments of cavalry, was within twelve miles of our principal 
outpost at Front Royal. The whole of our feeble command 
on this same Friday morning, at Strasburg and stretched 
along the railroad towards and at Front Royal, v,-as one divis- 
ion of two brigades f of infantry at Strasburg, commanded by 
]3rigadier-Geueral A. S. William.s, numbering less than thirty- 
six hundred men present for duty. 4: l\ly own brigade com- 
prised the regiments given below,§ and numbered in all 2,101. 
llicre were also at Strasburg of cavalry Soo, and of artillery 
ten Parrott guns and six smooth-bore field-pieces. At Front 
Ruyal there -were in all not to exceed nine hundred men. jj 

Along the road nearer Strasburg, and already counted in 



■*' Gen. Jackson's own division coinpriied brigaJei of V.'inder, C:i:npbell, an.d 
Talia'^jrro; Ewed's division comprised brigades of Taylor, 'i'dinble, Elzev, and 
S:ewarc; Erigadicr-Gvaeral Stev.-art's biigade comprised Fnst :^lar3-land Regi- 
ment of Ipfantry a-idjor-jckcnborougli s battery; CavaUy regiments of .Ashby, 
Mumlord, and Flourr.oy, with eight battabions of artillery. (Dabney, p. oo.) 

t The iu'st brigade conimanded by Co;. Donel'y of ihc- T\renty-cig!-!th Xeu- 
York. T ic second coinniand^.d by Col. George II. Gordon, of the Second 
M':^s>ar;n:setts. 

t S;eGcn. Wiliia-as's report. 



§ Second Masrachus^tis 

Third Wiscon'sin 

Tv.-C!ity-Sevcr,t!i Indiana 

T-.veiity-Xinth i'ennsyb.'ania (S Cu5.) , 

S-J 2,013 Total, 2,101 

;] i-^;g'it companies First Maryland Regiment, 775 men ; two companies Twenty- 
Xintii IVn;v^ylva:da, F ieut.-Cob P.-r! am commanding; F!:l!> Xcw York, two 
c.jmpames, Ira Han Is s c:>vaby (100 !nen) ; one section ot artidery, Knapp's 
IJ.^ttery, Lieut. Atwell, •3-> men ; Cipt. Mapes's Pioneer Corps, 56 men (cnc;aged 
'-'■■: reconstructing bri d.gos); t.^tai imder comm.md of CuL Kciiiy, of the First 
.'-rar^dauJ, scarcely i.coo men, — did no: exceed 03O men. — lJ.:i:'.s's Ki-purC. 



■^rors. 


En! 


isted Men 


-7 




5S0 


-4 




SS'-- 


20 




43 1 


i? 




45^ 



■ ; "'*."' I *' ' 



7G 

the total, there were three companies from my bripjadc : Capt. 
II. Russell, of the Second ^Massachusetts, at the bridge just out 
of Strasburg ; one company of the Twenty-Seventh Indiana, 
and one of the Tliird Wisconsin, both about five miles out 
from the town. 

So far as the concealment of Jackson's march v.-as one of 
his main par})oses, it was most eftective. This is claimed by 
Southern writers '■'■ to have been one of his main reasons (or 
planning his attack between Front Royal and Strasburg ; 
althor.gh it is said others of weight v/erc, to avoid our fortifica- 
tions, and ensure the issuing of Banks from them to save his 
communications v/ith eastern Virginia. That Jackson got 
fairlv upon Banks's flank v/ithout his knovvled'_''c, the latter 
adniho. 1 

Col. John R. Kcnly, commanding the First Maryland 
(Union.) Regiment of iniantry, wi:h the force already m.en- 
tioned, had been sent from Strasburg in pursuance ot orders 
from tliC War Department, on the loth of May, to protect 
the town of Front Royal and the railroads and bridges 
betv/een that town and Strasburg. ])y the road the dis- 
tance between tlicse tov/n.s is about fourteen miles. The 
picturesque town of Front Royal nestles at the foot of high 
hills, Wiiici' tovs'cr ai?n;ntly abo\c it on almost every side. 
To the east runs the Blue Ridge, over whose summits, by 
winding and steep pathways, roads lead through the gaps 
knov, n as Chester a!id Manassas into the valleys of East- 
ern X'irgiida. About one rniic and a half north of hh-ont 
Royal, in a direct line with V.'inclicstcr, the two branches 
of the Slvenandoah unite into the single stream that pours 
its waters into the I'otoniac at Harper's Ferry. The pike 



* Dab-.ey. p. 91. 

1 On the 2 'id of Mav, it was discovered that the whole force of the enemy was 
in movemeiu down the valley of the Sheiiaiido.-ih, between tlie Mas.>:anutten range 
of ninuntaiv.s ar.-l the Blue Ri'!L;c, and in close proxinuty to tli-j town (Front 
Ro>aI). — /:.:nUj 0^djt.:l Report. 



■■/.' '.V 



77 

road from Front Royal to Winchester crosses both Forks 
of the ri'/er, — the Sovitii Fork at a distance of one mile 
and a quarter from'tlie town, the North Fork about one mile 
farther on. At the two F'orks there were two bridges stand- 
ing" Col. Kcnly had pitched his camp north of and about ' 
half a mile from the to-.\n, in a loveb/ valley, in which, on the ■ 
mornirig of the 23d of May, there vas no token 'of the i 
impending storm. Trees of richest verdure v/ere bathed in \ 
the m">:"ning snn, and f elds s['arkled with dew-drops shining 
amidst hi.xuriant grasses. Fverytliing around seemed more 
in harmony vv'ith life and peace than v/ith bloodshed and I 
death. At two o'clock in the afternoon two companies of | 
infintry v.-ere on dnty as advanced guard upon tlic roads } 
leading south and v/est from "Front Roval ; at the bridges, i 
and along the railroad for about five miles towards Strasburg, , j 
guards had also been stationed. Suddenly, and without the j 
slightest warning, Jackson's advance was upon them. 

On the 22d i.'f Ma}-, at night, v/e left the e:iemy's advance, 
under Ewell, in bivouac on the road that runs up the eastern 
bank o: the South Fc;i: of the Slienandoidi from Fura}', and 
only ten miles from Front Royal. To conduct his march so . 

secrctlv that the descent of his coh.unns would give Kenly | 

thr- Hrst knowledge of his approach, Jackson, in the morn- j 

ing, diverged fi-om ti...: well-trave!led highway that leads 
frr.in I,urav to Front Royal, and by a steep and narrow^ | 

footpath gained the wooded hills to the east. Thence ] 

descending, it was Jackson.'s purpose to cut Keidy oh' from j 

fligh* across the passes o:' the ]>lue Ividge towards W'ash- | 

ington, wr.de Ashbv's cn\'alry, with Flournoy, crt s>irig the f 

Suuth Fork of the Siienaiidoah, m.oved to intercept the flight I 

of the Utile band to the west towards Strasburg. Ashby | 

tlirectevi his mar'ch as far to t'le Wi.-.-t as Buckton, where there \ 

was a hrid.ij-e at\d some fortifications, occupied bv the two ! 

comivmies tr«nn nrv l.iri_:ade, while h-ournovs movements ] 

were between Jjucktoii and i-'ront Ivoval. | 



78 

Before the pickets at Front Royal had been fairly dispersed, 
Col. Kendy had formed his command on tuc crest of a hill 
about a mile north of the town and in rear of his camp, 
liere was his whole disposable force of about nine hundred 
men and two pieces of artillery ; and here he calmly awaited 
the onset of ihe vastly superior force of the enemy. In his front 
the p:rDund was level ; his gun.s commanded the approaches. 
The enemy advanced cautiously, and were received with 
shells from Knapp's Battery. With a grim humor Jackson 
selected a rebel Tvlaryland Regiment to attack the lo}-,!! 
Marylanders. Supported by cavalry, v/ho were in turn sus- 
tained by Taylor's Brigade of Infantry and two battalions of 
Louisiana Tigers under l^.Iajor Wheat, an attempt Vv^as made 
to turn boih of Kenly's ilan.ks, while the Maryland Rebel 
Regiment advanced to make the attack in front. Against 
such odds there was no hope. Setting fire to his camp, Kealy 
now retreated to the first bridge, closel} followed by the rebel 
TvT:'r\la,id, the L.ouisiana ]>attalions, and cavalry. Here a stand 
w;is made, but the overwhelming nu.mbers of the enemy 
pushed on, captured ihe bridge uninjured, and drove our forces 
a mile kirther t.) the bridge over the North Fork of the riven 
Again a stand v/as made with an unsuccessful attempt to burn 
the bridge, but Ken'y was once n:cre forced buv^k on the road 
tov^'urus W'inchesLii. About a mile from this second bridge 
the road runs over a commanding eminence, on tlie right 
of the turnpike. There Kenly dctermin.ed to fighv. When 
tliC enemy appeared he opened on th.em with his two guns ; 
but the enemy's infantry and skirmishers attacked him 
in front, while ihe rel-el cawalry, crossing to tliC left, turned 
his position, and he fell back. It was from here that Ken'y 
dispatched couriers to Gen. Banks, — some of whom got 
through, as will appear. Kenly now m^arched up the road in 
such excellent order that his enemies viewed him with 
admiratio!!. Rea^-hing a favorable position his guns were 
posted, and again tlic roar and rattL of his artillery fell about 



7 9 



J:ickson's ears, who is reported to have groaned out aloud, 
'* Oil, that my guriS were hcT'e ! " 

T>y this time tlie enemy's cavah^y, who had been fighting 
and capturing prisoners all along the railroad from Front 
Ro\'al to Buckton, came upon the stricken band. This cav- 
alry force appeared on the Winchester road, and above 
Kenly, who liad now been driven back as far as Cedarville, 
which is five miles north of Front Royal, on the Win- 
chester road. Here Kenly formed a line of battle with 
his own regiment, the t\vo companies of the Twenty-Ninth 
Pennsylvania, his artillery, and a few cawiliy. Xow Jackson 
ordered tlic new cavalry force und.-r Fiournoy to charge. 
It is claimed that Kenly's line was somewhat broken before 
j:ici;.son gave this 0'"der, and tliLii K.-n'y, when he saw the 
necessity of obstructing the cavalry, ordered liis conmiand to 
form over a fence in a wheat-held (an orchard, the rebels 
call it). This was done, and then tiie enemy's cavalry was 
•dvyin them. Successive discharges were poured into the i 

enemy from Kenly's right and left wings, but in vain. Artil- j 

leiy an.d caxalry were mingled together, sabres waved o\'er the 
heads of the doon;e-i loyalists from ?\Iaryland, and the word 
"Surrender I" passed from every muu.th. It was tinished. 
Save an insignificant nuudicr of men, an<l one j)iece ol artil- 
ier)-, which was carried to within five miles of Winchester and 
there abandoned, the whole of Kenly's comman.d v.-as killed 
or captured. The fight, vrhich had begun at 2 r.Z'., lasted 
until dark. Wiule th^se scenes were transpiring, A^^hln', with 
his cavalry, had attacked and dispersed the two ccmnpanies at 
I'uckton and had torn up the railroad track. Then night came, 
and all around the Slienandoah, at Front Ruyal, and on the 
road t.j Cedarville, thcic v/ere corpses wf brave men, recently 
strong in life ; ar;':' ihere were wounded, moaning in their 
agony, unprotected fro;n the rain tiiat fell in torrents ; while 
an exulting foe of at least tv/enty thousnnd men turned their 
eyes louards Strasburg lor ti;e larger game of the morrow. 



fffe'.' 



80 

At four o'clock in the afternoon of the 23d not one word 

of the capture of Kenly had reached us at Strasburg. The 
day was inter\.sel\' hc't and the aii positively stilling under 
canvas. A general languor was manifested in the drowsy 
way in w^hich the sentinels dawdled along their posts, or in the 
aimless, sleepy air in v/hich the troops p.ddressed themselves 
to such amusements as were suggested by time and place. 
Suddenly a mounted orderly, dashing violently up to my tent 
and inquiring for Gen. Lanks in an eager tone, aroused a spark 
of life in the lifeless scetic. Gen. Hatch of the cavalry was 
sitting by my side, speculating upon our probable movements 
and fate, as the crdv~;rly rode rapidly away without revealing 
his message. " Tliis man, I think, may have news that will 
solve our doubtj," I -^aid to Hatch ; '■' 1 believe he brings news 
of an attack upon our outposts." * 

In less than rwo hours Strasburg was aroused. On the road 
tovv'ards Front Ivoyal, Banks sent his troops, v;ith the vain 
purpose, perhaps, of seem'ug to act, or, it may be, that with a 
single reglm.ent o( infantry he might recover what he had lost. 
The Third Wisconsin I'cgiment I had liajdly serit, by verbal 
orders, to the assistance of Col. Keui}', when Banks directed 
me to add to it a battery. f Then there came a lull, and many 
anxious inquiries : ''What is it.'" "Is it Stoncv.-all Jackson 
or only 'a cava^iv raid.'''" was of ten asked, to be as often 
asked again. Sojq, however, it v.'as known tliat Kenly had 
been ariac^ied at riout ]\0} al ; thar ^'v•hen tl)e mi-ssenger left, 
the fight was in [)r02,Tess ; and hiirdlv had this beer, announced 



* For .some days, from tiie ht.-i';his arO"j;ul 5:'tr:i-burj, we h:ul >et.-n tt.o sua 
reflected from tents, at the Switt Kun G.ip of the iJUie Ki'.'ge, whoie increasitig 
niiiiibcrri indicated rcir-ibrc-nients to the eiiei.iv. 

t Str.\s!;i.rg, 5.45 [. M., 2^^d .May. 
Ci,a. CoRDO.v, 

Sir, — Vgu \\ill tlhect z-. seetiun of the battery I"iearc^t your command to move 

with V'.i'.ir ic^iinciit. 

X. r. D.'.NKS, .]/. G. c. 



.1 -•/ 



81 

when an orderly, rushing with haste through the town, cried 
out that tlie second bridge had been attacked.'^' 

Da}dight melted into night, stars twinkled in tlie heavens, 
lights glistened from the windows of houses in the town or 
shed a murky glare through canvas in the camps ; and no 
movement was made by Banks indicating that he had received 
any information of the strength of the enemy or the purposes 
they contemplated; nothing done towards sending awa}' to 
W'inchesicr any of the immense quantities of public stores 
Ci)necte<l at Strasburg ; no movement miadc to place our sick 
in safety; nothing that indicated any intention by Banks of 
changing his position by reason of anything that had come 
from Liie attack on Kenly at Front Royal. Indeed, it did not 
seem as if Banks interpreted this attack to signify auglit of 
future or further movem.ents by the enemy ; or that it revealed 
tiiat he was acting v.-itii any force larger than he had exhibited 
in brushing away our outposts ; or even tliat it betokened anv 
purpose to cut us off from Winchester, and capture our com- 
mand and material, I was so fully impressed, hovrever, v/ith 
Jackson's purposes, as they were afterwards revealed, that as 
soun as night set in I sought Banks at his headquarters, and 
labored long to impress upon hii^a v/hat I thought a duty, — to 
Wm. Ms imnieuiaie retreat under cover o: the uaikness to- 
w:u-ds W'inctiester, carr\ing his sick and ail sap>plies th.at he 
C'..''.'ld transp:^rt, a'ld destroyinu; the remainder. On tlie sole 
ground that thus a sup-'-rior force could not cut the only line 
<■: comm.un.ications left open to him, did I urge it. I en- 
d>.':i\-(.>red. t'') impress ui)on h'aaks the probability of th.e vastly 
:^i:per;or numi^ers cf the enemy, as manife:i.Led in the increascLi 



•^ Six nii'cs from Str.isbur^j is lUickrc'ii Station. When Jackson's infantry 
\^.t. .:i'.---.: a: Frv^nt Kr-yJ, .\:ihby-ri c^vnlry, i-ruir- the F.Tks of the Shenan- 
C'.;';i!i, iwet't westward .as tar as the po5tj -a here the two compaiacs of the .Second 
Massachu-eils and Tiiird Wisconsin v.ere stitioned. Here a brisk fii,ht tovjk 
'•■■•''iC; ar/l uur troops were overpo',vrr-,:d, though not withou: a severe loss to the 
tnt iv.v. 

11 



82 

size of his camp on the Elue Rid_u-e. Even if it should turn 
out thp.t 1 had overestimated his numbers, we should be in a 
bettor posiiion, I urged, to fight at Wirtchester than at Stras- 
burg : our enemy would then be in our front and not in our 
rear. I failed to accomplish my purpose. Notwithstanding 
all my solicitations and entreaties, Banks persistently refused 
to move, ever repeating, '•' I must develop the force of the 
eiiemy." No argument, no reply to my arguments could sup- 
press this monotonous utterance. Banks seemed bruoding 
over thoughts he did not reveal ; he was spiritless and de- 
jected. His mood depressed me, and I hastened to returii 
to my command. At about ten o'clock at night I received 
a note, containing instruction's serit to Col. P.uger of the Third 
Wisconsin, *^ from which I inferred that possibly Banks had 
obtained further inform.ation, and that nov\- I might press m.y 
views v.'ith better success. 

First I called upon ]\Iajor Perkins, the chief of Gen. Banks's 
stafi. Finding that m)' suspicions of the strength and pur- 
poses of the enemy Vv'ere shared b}- him, I asked Perkins 
if he agreed with me in the ad\'ice I had given. Replying 
that he did, I asked him if he had urged Banks to niove v/ith- 
out delav. lie said he had, but without effect; and he 
begged me to endeavor once more to riersuade Gen. ]->anks. 
So i sought our commander, and ogain, with some v.-armth 
and n^t a liule indignation, used ever\' argument I could, 
to move- him to make instant pre}X'.ration to leave Stras- 
burg an.d jvut himself in a true position. It is not a retreat. I 
urged, but a true militar\- movement to save youj-seU" from 
being cut off; to preve;it stores and sick from falling into the 
hands of the en em v. 



* Ilr.ADQUAKTEK?:, 0.45 !'. M. 

Cor. Go;,noK : 

Sir, — 1 sent a note aJwut an hour a,co to Col. ki.iger to bS.i. U at or beyond 
Bucktor. to fall back, if noces.sary, to a po.sition wlcrc iie would not rwn any risk. 
of bciiig cut oil. I send the two svagons back. 

\'i.)Lir-f, cic, 

D. S. PtRKINS, Mdjrr,c!c. 



,-r i:,:- •■: 



83 

Moved with an unusual fire, Gen. Banks, who had met all 
mv arguments with the single reply, " I must develop the force 
of the enemy," now rising excitedly from his seat, uitli rauch 
warmth and in loud tones exclaimed, " By God, sir, I will not 
retreat! We have more to fear, sir, from the opinions of our 
friends than the bayonets of our enemies." 

The thought, so long the subject of his meditation, was at 
last out. Gen. Banks was afraid of being thought afraid. I 
rose to take my leave, rcj^lying, '' This, sir, is not a military 
ground for occupying a false position ; and, Gen. Banks," I 
added, " T shall now return to my brigade and prepare it for 
an in;->Lantancous movement, for I am convinced tiiat at last 
\ ou v/iU m.ove suddenly. At a moment's notice you will find 
me ready. I shall strike all my tents, pack my v,-agons, hitch 
up my artillery horses, and hold myself in readiness to form 
line of battle. I have to request that you will send me word 
if anvthing new transpires." 

It wa:-. eleven o'clock at night vdicn I left him. As I 
returned through the town, I could not perceive tliat anybody 
was troubled with antici[KiLions for the morrow. Tl^e sutlers 
were driving sharp Ixirgains with thn.,j who had escaped from 
or v/ere not amenable to nnlitary discipline; the strolling 
j)k!.vcrs were moving crowils to noisy laughter in their 
canvas booth, through which the lights gleamed, and the 
music sounded with startling shrillness. I thought, as I 
turned towards, m\' camp. liow unconscious all are of the 
drama [ackson is preparing for us, arid what merrime)it the 
morning will reveal ! 

As m\- troops were aroused from their shunbers a low 
murmmr ran through camp, followed by tlie louder noise of 
packing camp equipage and baggage, the harnessing of artil- 
lery horse >, and hittdriiif; up of triiins. We were ready for 
action. But the night sped on; silence fell upon the town, 
and slumber was as deep tliat night in Strasburg as if without 
there was no cause for watchfulness. ?>Iy brigade, however, 



a.; -a!.' r 



■ V 



ST 

found little comfort sitting around dismal camp-fires, reduced 
to expiring embers by the falling rain. Unsheltered and 
unprotected, in a damp clover-field, the morning dav/ned upon 
a cheerless group. Some unimj)ortant steps ha^.l been taken for 
the security of the sick and i':>r the safety of public property. 
I had ordered my brigade and regimental trains forward t'3 
Winchester, and they were saved. After three o'clock in the 
in.orning Banks had sent off son:c ambulances v.'ith sick and 
disabled; and this v/as all. 

The certainty of demonstration wliich Banks seemed to 
require to develop the numbers of Jackson's force, he evi- 
dently did not secure duri;ig the night nor long after daylight 
en the morning of the 24th ; nor was he on tl^iat morning any 
moie convinced of tlie prudence of my advice of the night 
before, — to remove all the public propertvto a place of safety, 
and take a better position, so tliat if perciiance the enemy 
were present in overwhelming nranbcrs, he could save his 
command and material. As a vcr\- small part of Jackson's 
force took part in the affair with Kcnly at Front Royal, it is 
possible that the re}jort3 of Kenly's messengers convinced 
Banks that all they saw was :ill. tl-.ere were.^- Jf this were 
true, to act during all that niglit, and far into the forcno'm 
of liie next day, as il Jackson was engaged in a cavalr}- raid, 
\'."as an error 01 judgment unp.ardonable in a commander. 
When did Banks come to a different conclusion, andyact ac- 
cordingly? Tliis is an importan.t question. 

In ills ofhcial report of the affair Ba.nks declares that " before 
three o'clock on the morning of the 2_j.th," about four hours 
after I b-lt him at niglit, he had inii-rmaLion that the enenry, 
15,000 or 20,000 stroiig, vv-as advancing upon Winchester ; that 
more v/ere threatening; "that to reniain at Strasburg was 
to be surrounded," and •' tliat to aUack the enenay in su:'n 
overwhelming fierce coidd onlv rcsidr in certain destruction." 



* t'i.'!r.':A ii'i iii,; oiiicial rj[>ort ■^iy< tli's li^l.tirg v.as ru.'Jotiy d-V.c by the tnei 
cav^'ij, :>'.\d th'.it \\u-; furc<" is estimattu! at S.oco ir.en. 



85 

" It \va.s, therefore, determined to enter the lists v/ith the 
enemy in a race or a battle [as he should choose] for the 
possession of Winchester, — the key of the valley, and for us 
the position of safety." * The report then continuing:;, as 
i;iving the narrative in the order of occurrence, savs : " At 
tiiree o'clock, A. :.l, on the 24tli instant, the reinforcements 
sciit to Kenly were ordered to return, several hundred disabled 
men left in our charge bv Shields's d:\"ision were put upon the 
marcli, and our vragon train ordered forward to Winchester 
under escort of cavalry and infantry. Gen. Hatch, with nearly 
our w-hole force of cavalry and six pieces of artillery, was charged 
with the rjrotecLion Oi" ihe rear of our column and the destruc- 
tion of an}' stores for whiclv transporLation was not i}rovided, 
with instructions to remain in froiU of the town as long as 
possible, and hold the enemy in check, — our expectations of 
attack being in that direction. All these orders weie executed 
^vith incredible celerity, and soon after nine o'clock j the col- 
umn was on t::e rnarcii, Col. Donelh" in front, Col. Gordon in 
the centre, and Gen. Hatch in the rear." ± 

When I bcsoughit Baciks. at 1 1 v. m. of the 23(1, to start then 
for Wiiichester, herc}'lied tliat he would not retreat, repeating 
witii an oath his fear of public opinion. At 3 a. m. of the 24th 
(he >ays in his ofricial rerort) he w;!f, con\-incecI that \\"inches- 
tcr was for '' us the key oi: the valley," " the i^osition of safety." 
On tlie 31st of r^Iay, when lianks macle that report, he wrote 
with a full knowledge and a lively experience of all that 
had transpired; he wrote as he would have acted haJ he 
known on that night of the 23d what he knew wjien he 
wrote on the day of t'c.e 3i.>t of "May, 1S62: but he did not 
v.Tite the trutii, as 1 will n.ow j^roceed to demonstrate. It is 
true tiiat after I left Ikinks on the night of the 23d, he did 
(h.-ien/iiir;; t^j sc^id some of his sick to Wirichjster. and 



* <tii IJanksts Oftcia'l Report, Moore's Rsb. Record, Vol. IX. 

t It \v:u c!c>-c-n. 

I ."<ce r..irik^ts 0:!".ci.-'.l Report, >.[oorf;'.s 11:. !\ Re-ord, Vol. IX. 



86 

it is true that they '-lid start some time after three o'clock 
on the morning of the 24th ; but that is all that was clone 
to save oui' supplies or to meet the enemy. Instead of our 
wagon train being ordered forward to Winchester at 3 a. m. 
of the 24th, it was not ordered forward until nearly eleven 
o'clock of that day, eight hours later. Instead of Gen. Banks, 
at three o'clock in the morning, resolving that to remain at 
Strasburg was U> be surrounded, at between ten and eleven 
o'clock in the morning, after m':)re than twelve hours of reflec- 
tion, he Aad determined to remain at Strasburg, and only 
changed his mind v>"hen news came to him that his sick in 
ambulances had been attacked tV7 ?v!:^e to Winchester. So, 
with Gen. Hatcli as rcar-guar..l, and ordering forward the 
trahis, the ''• incredible celerity" was between 9 and 11 a. m., 
and not between 3 a. m. and 11. Let us return, and mo^-e 
forward with events. 

After dayligiit of the 24th we remained inactive until 
between ten and el even o'clock in the luorning, at which 
time I received the follovving note from Gen. I:>anks : — 

HF.ADQe.-Ma?:K.S Dr.r.'.f.TMF.NT GK SHt.NA:-;DOAH, 1 

STKAsiJURG, Va., May 24, '62. J 

Coi, Geo. U. Gordon', 

C^ri ■Uiifi./!/:^'- B-i'^'idc : 

SI', — C;ui' inforp-iatiou this morning showi that the enemy returned to Front 
Royal last night, and M-il! nol, no-.v at least, atieinpt our rear. Cur force will 
remain in Straibiiry, tlicvefore, until furti'.ei orders. 

Our trains v.ilf be sent to the rear except t!i-.>;;C necessary fi^r supplies, and the 
depots established at sonie oilier point 

You will make yoiir men as comfortable as our circuinstances will permit. 
The brigade trains will Ije sent back for s'lpnlics. Th.e Secretary and Assistant 
Secretary vi War bf'tii lelegiaiih tliat ample reinforcen.ents will be sent. You 
will give such orders a^ n^ay be necessary for yoar conimarid. 
Respectfally yours, etc., 

X. P. 1'anK>, M. G C, etc. 

That even Pianks coiild be so deceived iilled me v.ith amaze- 
ment as unspea'Kable as th.e perplexity v/hich overcame me 



87 

when T discovered thnt, six days later, Banks officiallv reported 
that before three o'clock on the moniing of the 24th, he made 
up his mind " that to remain at Strasburg- was * to be sur- 
rounded ' " ; and nov/, seven hours later, here was an order to 
"remain at Strasburg," and "be surrounded"! Ah, no! for 
hardly had I contemptuously thrust the fore^^oing letter into 
my pocket, when an orderly, galloping furiously to my side, 
delivered a note in pencil, of which the following is a copy 
[the italics are mine] : — 

Colon;', — Orders have just been received for the division to vic~jc at once 
toward-- Middletown, taki: g such steps to oppose the enemy (reported to be on 
the road bclzaeen Front Royal and Middietown) as to Gen. Williams may seem 
proper. The general is absent, but I have sent for him. Would it not be well 
to have the Third Brigade ready to debouch oii the pike ? 

Cothraii's Battery is on the hill behind us awaiting vour orders: v.'ill you notify 
him? Reports from Front Ryyal confirra Keniy's death, and the cutting up of 
the First Maryland. 

Respectfully yours, 

W>.'. D. V,"iLKiN3, Capt. ar.d A. A, G. 

Turning now to Jackson's arm}', it belongs to this history to 
follow their movements, and disco\'cr why they did not sur- 
round us at Strasburg before daylight of the 24ih of May, 
Had Jackson moved all night of the 23d. as he intended,* the 
n.orning of May 2\ v\ould have davrned upon his army sur- 
rounding Banks in Strasburg. An untoward event, a blun- 
der, s:'.\'s a Southern writer, delayed jackson.'s march ;t it was 
th.at the main body of his comniand dixerged to the right by 
thic steep and narrow by-path taken b}' the advance wh.en tliey 
gained the Gooney Manor Road (the road from the Blue Hills) 
t'j i.Tccipilate ttiem^clvos the more suddenly upon Kcniy. 
It was not Jackson's intention to use his whole 20,000 to 
crush Kenly's 1,000 ; so when he found that the latter's 
}):ckeLS v.-cre driveii in, he told one of his orderlies, a cavalry- 
man, to direct tlie rear brigades to avoid the circuitous path 

* Cooke, p. 144. t Dabncy, p. y4. 



88 

taken by the First ^Marvlanrl and Wheat's Battalion, and 
move for Front R.;>)'al by tLc cUicct and bhorter route. This 
boy urderly, as iio is called, started upon his errand ; but 
ere he had reached the cobamii, th^e sound of Kenly's artil- 
lery broke upon his ears ; when, thinking only of hiding 
from the dreadful S'jund, he turned his horse's head home-' 
"svard, and was seen no more. And thus it was that all of 
Jackson's infantry toiled over the hills through the steep 
and narrow pathwa\', guided by the footsteps of tlte attack- 
ing column in making the useless circuit. It was night 
before these troops reached the village of Front Royal, and 
then so fatigued, that tliey laid down to rest instead of pursu- 
ing the enemy. — 

Well vvas it for us that tlie ''pastures green" of a Virgirda 
farm were more seductive to the boy orderly tiian the sound 
of Keidy's artiller}- ! Tiuis it v."as that the ni^;iit of Ma}- 23 
left us witJiout disturbance, and that the hours of the 24th 
were not cut sliort soon after sunrise. 

This delay on The })art of Jackson ga\"e, I think, confiden.ce 
to Jkankb t'nat his jULigmeut was sound, ar^d that it was not 
the intention of the enemy to intenere with us. 

Strasburg, Front lioyal, and Winchester, joined by irregu- 
lar lines, form a triangular figure, (d .iseh" resemlding the letter 
A; Winchcrrter at tlie verLcx l^rms with Strasburg and 
Froiit Roval tlie western and eastern sides of the figure. 
When Jackson's troops, ignorantiy foUovvdng the footsteps 
of tile advance, fioutidered into }'T(vnt Royal at night, thev 
threw themseb.es c.vh.austed oi\ the r^round, and remained 
there until mc-rning. At Cedar\ihe, four and a half miles 
farther north, was tlie cavalry and ind":intry tliat had caj.Cured 
Kenly. 

At the first dawn on the 24 th, Jackson's column was_ 
in motion.* Gen. Geo. 11. Stevcart, with the Second and 

* C<.ok-, p. 1.1;. 



■,;'' r^* ■. d r '^'f..; 



89 

Sixth Virginia Cavalry, moved northward to Ncwtov/n. a dis- 
tance of ten miles ; Gen. Ewell, with Trimble's Brigade, the 
First Maryland Regiment, Courtney's and Brockenbrough's 
Batteries, was ordered to move to Winchester, on the main 
Front Royal turnpike a distance of nineteen miles; while 
Jackson in person, in command of the main body of his army, 
proceeded in the direction of ISliddletown,* which is distant 
from Front Royal twelve miles. Stewart's orders were to 
strike the Winchester road at the village of Newtown, and to 
observe the movements of the enemy at that point ; Ewell 
was directed to observe appearances of the enemy's retreat 
and be prepared to strike him in flank; while Jackson, re- 
serving to himscli' the main body of liis army, after reaching 
Cedarville moved by a cross-road towards Middletown. Ashby 
moved in Jackson's front with batteries, and covered his left 
to prevent any attempt on Banks's part to retreat to Front 
R')yal. All the detachments of Jackson's army were in easy 
conim-unication, and conld have been rapidly concentrated at 
Strasburg or Wincliester or at any intermediate point. 

Before Jackson's main body wns fairly in motion, Gen. 
Stewart had already sent news j of his arrival at Newtown, 
and tliat he had there captured a numl:)er of aniLuilances, with 
prisoners and medical Scorcs, aaJi, foc.nd evident signs of a gen- 
eral retreat upon Winchester. This was the second attack upon 
r>anks's command, and was so significant as to make it plain, 
even to Geh. Banks, tlrat the enemy had not "returned to 
Stras])urg," and not only would, but even now were, '" attempt- 
ing our rear." As soon as refugees flying from Stewart's 
attack brought us the news at Strasburg, the order sent me in 
pencil from Gen. W'illiams, adjutant-general, was received, and 
" Banks's retreat" became a reality.t 



* Dabaty, p. 94. Johnst'v.i's Xarraiive, p. 129. 
t Dabncy, p. 9S. 

; L'pon cop.iparing the tirrc of Stewart's attack, the distance from Newtown to 
Strasburg, and the hour we staned irom Stra.-b.irj, t'ua will be appaient. .Start- 
le 



-' • ,'r> 






90 

We may now proceed with our own column. As soon as 
ordercc:, our movernenl was instantaneous. It was eleven 
o'clock in the mornin;;^.* Tiie two brigades uf infantry were 
in the order of march indicated, Col. JJoneily in front, myself 
in rear; and Gen. Hatch \\ith cavalry, as rear-guard, instructed 
then, but too late, to do wliat Ixanks says in his report he had 
ordered done at 3 a. :,r. Our course v.-as directly for Win- 
chester, the distance eighteen miles. Fortunately for us, the 
day was cool and misty. We had cleared the town and 
reached Cedar Creek, about two miles out, when signs of 
excitement and panic vvere apparent. Frightened teamsters 
came thundering back tuwards Strasburg, urging their mules 
at a gallop, — some as if .to gain the town we had left for nev/ 
loads of stores, others as if in a frenz)' of fright to escape 
from the front. Here too I met, in woful plight, the theatri- 
cal com})any, so gay the iiight before, but now hovv' crest-fallen ! 
There vrcre actors, male and female, vvith their car.vas theatie, 
looking inquiringly ye^ despairingly into the face of every pass- 
ing oiticer, as if, in tliis hopeless maze, there alone could hope 
be found. In the midst of al; this confusion there came gal- 
loping rapidly back a staff-officer from Banks, crying. •''The 
enemy is upon us I " andi without stop, keeping on to hurry up 
my b::rt(ry, which ^,ent at douMe-ouick, while we followed 
three or four miles farther, until we came to where there was 
a halted wagon-train. Here tv/o or three v.-agon-masters were 
striking the stampetied v.-agoners right and left v/ith their heavy 
cowhide wliips, interspersing oaths more forcible than solemn 
to dri\-e them back to their duty. The cry was then that the 



ing at three o'clock, o-ir sick ?.ud teamsters would have reached Xewtown, distant 
twelve miles, at between 6 and 7 a. M. Stewart, -.viiL his cavalry, starting from 
Ccdarvilic ai daylight, would ha^•e moved over \.\< ten miles by six or seven 
o'clock, and the refugeco would have returned to .SirasbLir<r, tw-.lve miles, in about 
three and a half or four lu'urs, or by eleven o'clock, A. M. 

* Quint. Boston Travc.er, M.iy, iSO?. Col. Andiews' Report, \'ol. IX, Moore's 
K^b. ILecur.i. 



91 

rebel cavalry had come down on the train, so there had been 
a rc.2;ular stampede. Gen. Banks was now on the alert, and 
well he might be. Before him was a confused mob of terror- 
stricken teamsters, intermingled with infantry and artillery, 
and behind him, volumes of smoke and flame arising from the 
town, announcing tl^e destruction of that property whicit tbiC 
night before might have been removed to a place of safety. 
At last he seems to have been convinced of his error, for as 
he was hurrying along the roadwa\', he turned to one of his 
staff, with a " countenance grave but resolute," as we are 
informed, and said, " It seems we have made a mistake."* 

Tiie head of the column now moved forward, and reached 
Middletown, six miles from Strasbui'g, without interruption. 
None of the enemy were found in tbic town, although three 
hundred had been seen there, f Skirmisliers from the Forty- 
Sixth Pciinsylvania were sent into the v.-oods on the right, and 
they discovered five comjianies of the enemy's cavalr}' in rear 
of i-hc woods. Banks directed the artillcrv to open fire, and 
the enemy retreated; then the Twentv-F.ighth New York was 
brought up, and under a heavy hi'e of iTifantry anrl artillery 
the five companies of cawalry were driven back more than two 
miles from the pike, at which point Col. Donelh', command- 



* In :i p;iper publi-shcd ip " Harper's ^^o^.thly" for ^^arch, iS6', Mr. Strnther, of 
Vir;4inin, has friven his " Reci Ucctions of a Canipa;\::ri in \'irgiiiia." Strother, who 
v.'as •.t'.t.tc;!r?d to J'ank>'s .str-ff in ll.e vaile;,' canipai.Ljii, niakes it ap;>eai in this paper 
that ]■.:? d'jficleci t'.s reriorls of thr r.urn'ier of Jacivson's army with such tffect that 
it innueiued Ixinks's ci^ncluct. Thus .Strother endeavors to shield the latter, and 
relates the f'.)!lo\ving oca;rreiice, when he was riding awav from the smoking" 
rumN of .Str.T-burc^ to the sound of the cannon of tiie army of Jackson. " I was 
T;virf.:i',-u at ti.e failure i.f mv judgment, and n'.led with self-reproach that cb.-ti- 
na;e a:'.d ojic- expressed disbelief in the danger might liave had si..:ne influence 
in delaying a movement upon which the safety of our army depended. Banks's 
countenance was grave an-'l rcs'nute ; as I rode towards him, he observed, " It 
ieenis we have nride a ijii~take." I said, " It seems so indeed." 

When l.'anks made his ofiicia! report, he forgot that he had made this remark ; 
he f jrgot, too, ti;at note, that v,-e would " rcmaia at Strasburg." 

t lianhss Report. 



92 

inc^ the brigade, wa? informed by a citizen that 4,000 men were 
in the woods beyoivl.* Gen. Banks attributes the safety of 
his column to what he calls this episode ; for had the enemy 
"vigorously attackr-d the train," he says, "while at the head ot 
the column, it would have been thrown into sucli dire con- 
fusion as to liave made the successful continuation of our 
march impossible." Undoubtedly I but v.-hy did not the enemy 
vigorously attack ;h-e train ? Simply because tlie small force 
of cavalry which Banks met vras the rebel Gen. Geo. H. 
Stewart's Second and Sixth Virginia Cavalry, which, having 
destroyed the ambulance-train at Newtown, had been down 
the road towards INliddletown, and was watching the route 
from the woods on the right where Donelly's skirmishers 
found them. 

There were, no doubt. " 4.000 men in the woods beyond," 
but they were many miles beyond. It was Ewell's force, con- 
sisting, as stated, of IVimble's Brigade and the First Marylar.d 
Regiment, with t^/o batteries. If this column moved at day- 
light, as ordered, it had made, between 10 and ii a. m., eleven 
ivMc:, at least, and would liave reached the toll-gate on the Front 
Ro\'a] road to Winchester, opposite Newtown and about fi\"e 
miles from it. Ewell was hurrying forward to Winchester to 
cut off '):.n- retrca*. fr'.'ni t'.iat plare as well as to capture all 
the pul^lic propel Ly there ; and for this he was u.sing the ut- 
most expedition, and had no time to make cross-cut diversions 
v/ith his iniatitry o^-er to the Strasburg pike, to Winchestei-, 
and he did not make any; nor did any one hui Stev^"art, with 
his small cavalry force, — for I shall show, that until after dark 
that night, the road was open from Newtown to Wincliester. 

Alter Doncllv's affair with .Stewart's cavaln', the latter 
were heard of no more that day. As Stewart was attached I 

to Eweil's force, 'I it is more tlun prolable thnt he joiiicd 



* Banks's Report 

t See StewMifs refus:!.] to obey Jai. k^oi^s c; tu-r to Ibllnw our retreat, on the 
ground that only I'rum Ewoll would he receive orders. — fi-s'. 



93 

his column, and moved on Winchester content to watch the 
avenues of our escape to the east, and awaiting the m.ove- 
njents of Jackson, whom he knew was hurrvinpj with ahaiost 
the whole of his large army to crush us on the route we v/ere 
taking. 

It was not wise to attribute our safety to Donelly's attack 
upon less than i.ooo of the 20,000 that were pushing upon 
us in every direction ; yet it would be unfair to l-lanks to 
dcnv that, when he wrote his report, he sincerely believed 
that this little skirmish of "one killed and nine woiinded " 
saved Ids whole column. 

Fending this contest, Eanlis* ordered " Col. Brodhead, of the 
First Michigan Cavalr}-, to advance and ?/ possible cut his 
v.-ay through, atid occupy Winchester" Finding no enemy 
in his path, the Colonel wcrit v.-ithout opposition to the town. 
This is conclusive that the attack to be made upon liaaks's 
column in retreat was not made at tne head of the column ; 
and thpt this affair v.-as of no moment in deciding the fortunes 
of the day. 

When the nrst rumors frcun the teamsters came to us, 
fdled with apprehension that he had permitted Jackson to 
throw Ids whole army between him and Strasburg, and fearing 
that he \v'ould be obiige^l to return, Banks directed Capt. 
Abert, of the topographical engineers on his staff, to turn 
back with his bod)'-guard f and foil the enemy's pursuit, by 
preparing Cedar Creek Bridge for tlie fiarnes. Wlnle they 
returned on their nubsion. + the column pushed forward. We 
had been detained a])0ut an hour. 

Donelly's Brigade and a wagon-irain entered Winchester 
early in the afternoon of tlie 24th of T'day. v/ithout sight or 
sound of an enemv ; but our fate was diiierent, and was as 



* l'..nks';, Repoit. 

t A reii-unitormecr company from rhiladclphia, calling themselves Zouaves 
c''AfriqL;c. 

\ E.\n.ks"s Report:. 



94 

follows: Notwithstanding: the confusion* we pushed on, with- 
out much hindernuce or delay, with ordcis to move towards 
^owto•.vn en ro''te Co Winchester, to check an approach of 
the enemy in that direction. The train that preceded as well 
as that which followed us was immense. The distance to 
Middletown from Strasburg is six miles. When the wai^ons 
were straightened out, after Donelly's skirmish, the line\vas 
continuous for tlr's distance, an.d was continually lengthening, 
as wagons emerged from Straslnirg to fill the spaces of the 
line, Still extending. 

It was nearly one o'clock in the afternoon when my brigade 
passed through Middlctown. There was no enemy thererbut 
between Aliddk-town and Xewtovai the ominous sound of can- 
non W3S lieard iu our rear. Quickly tliere came more reports 
of artillery, and then single troopers from the cavalry, riding 
rapidly ttnvards Winchester, nnd halting, as thev came up v.dth 
the head of my brigade, only long enough to cry out that 
Jackson had attacked our rear, had cut our train in two, and in 
short was having the thing pretty much his own way. I 
made the same rc]>Iy to one and all .if these panic-stricken 
cavalrymen. "Go and tell Gen. Banks what you have seen." 
They obeyed, pn..sing forv/ard to the head of the column. 
Shorilv, however, the number of fugitives increased, the roar 
of artillery was continuous, ■^si^, repuits from the rear more 
appalling. At length Newtown was reached, and here we 
found the dc-ad body of one of Shidds's men killed in Stew- 
ari's dayhght attack upon our ambulances and sick. The 
man had been discliarged from the hospital, and was marcli- 
ing along with the au.bulances, unarmed, when he was shot 
through the head. 

I had passed through the ^•illage. when a report reached me 
that the enemy had come in between mj- own brigade and 
the rear-guard, that they nad captured many wagons and were 
now in pursuit. I instantly formed a new rear-guard of the 

* Wa-ons urdc'Lcl to the rc.ir, Sto^var.'s aUa.k v,;:h cav.ilrv 



J--- 



1)5 

Twenty-Seventh Indiana Re.i;imcnt, and two sections of artil- 
lery. " Keep the enemy bnck, avid protect all the train that 's 
left," were my instructions, as I pushed on, until Bartonville, 
a liLtle town about one mile and a half from Newtown, was 
reached. Here reports came to me that the enemy had 
planted a batttry in the middle of the road, and having cut 
off all communication with the rear-guard of cavalry, were 
firing into the rear of my column. 

It was now between 2 and 3 p. m. We were but five and 
a half miles from Winchester. At this point and time 
Gen. Banks made his appearance. Following him came the 
T-u-enty-Eighth New York Regiment, conducted thus far 
under orders to report to Gen. Match if practicable. Gen. 
Banks also directed me to order the Second Massachuseits 
Regiment to the rear, and gave orders himself for two sec- 
tions of artillery attached to my brigade to i)roceed in the 
same direction. Lieui.-Col. Andrews directed the men of 
the Second 10 remove the'r knapsacks, for they were much 
fatigued with the march over a dry and dusty road. This Was 
O'^v^i^, and then tlie regiment turned its face rearward ; so did 
the artillery, —a section of Best's Battery under Lieut. Gush- 
ing. While this force v/as moving out, the wagons in advance 
or my brigade got into a con.dition of inextricnl^le confusion, 
f:om whicn I sav. Banks for a moment attempting personal! V 
to disengage tliem, with the assistance of m.y aid, Lieut. Scott 
of the Second, .whom he requested to keep the wagons mov- 
ing until tiiey got out of the snarl These orders given, Banks 
turned away, and rode forwaixl to the head of the cohmm. 

1 here v.-as thus a new rear-guard constituted, — the Second 
:\rassachusetts, the Twenty-Eighth Xew York, and the Twenty- 
Seventh Indiana Regiment, then in rear. Two of these regi- 
r;ents vere fmm _my brigacie, and the battery was mine. 
rh'.trc were also c-vo of my regiments left Vvdth the main col- 
v.mn, the Thard Wisconsin and the Twent)--Ninth Benn.syl- 
vama, and these were m-ving rapiilly on towaj-ds Winchester. 



■■"']■ 



ye 

Which half should I join ? No orders had been given to vie. 
Knowing- that Banks had ordered the Tweiit) -Eighth New 
York to report to Gen. Hatch of the cavalry, I assumed that 
he intended the rcmanider of the force so to report. I knew 
that Gen. Hatch could not be found ; that he was somewhere 
near Strasburg, or escaj.>ing through the passes of the North 
Mountain to rejoin us. So I determined to assume command, 
and without a moment's hesitation turned to attack the enemy, 
and do what I could in rescuing the rear-guard atid the bagga-^e. 

Near the outskirts of the straggling little village of New- 
tov/n, I found some confusion in the train, and saw six or seven 
wagons that had been overturned and abandoned I found 
unhappy mules, helplessly tied dov/n by tlic pressure of 
falLn teams, appeahng so beseechingly for aid that I halted 
long enough to free them all. Around there were signs of 
panic and confusion. Here in advance I found Col. Colgrove, 
holding his little regiment of four hundred and thirty-one men 
(tlie Twenty-Seventh Indiana) stanchly in line of battle, v.-hile 
his artillery was firing upon the enemy's cavalry showing 
themselves in tiie A\oods on our left. The colonel reported j 

that the enemy, witii infantry and artillery, were in the town. j 

I determined to attack and drive thcn> out. The Second i 

IMassachusetts being called unou ro take the brunt of it, the ! 

reginicnt, with skirmishers thrown out, moved forward, sup- i 

ported by the Tweiity-l-:ighth New York and a section of j 

Best's Battery. As Companies A and C, Cnpts. Abbott aiid 1 

Cogswell, mo\-eu forward tlirough the niain street, followed Iv,- 1 

supporting compani.'S of the regiment, the enemy, posted in | 

the streets, 0[-iei-'.ed upon them witi\ their arciik-rv a strong i 

and well-directed fire. Moving forward the Twenty-Seventh i 

Indiana to their support, I sent in with this regiment two j 

sections of Cothran's Parrotts to show tlve sanne old teeth that | 

had so many, times proved fatal to their antagonists. As 
wc advanced the ep.emy fell back from tlie town and planted 
iheirgunson the heiglits beyond, where thev hekl out obsti- 



i)7 

nately. The advance of my little column, with the Second 
Massachusetts leading off, and the shells bursting square over 
oar reginicnt, was ric>t so much of an experience in warfare as 
afterwards befell us ; but if we had known the immense supe- 
riority of the force in our front, on our flanks, and pressing to 
our rear, we should be obliged to admit that it was among our 
boldest. While Best's and Cothran's Batteries v.ere replying 
to the enemv's shells that burst close enough to be endured, 
while the Second Massachusetts were firing occasional \ olleys, 
and dropping shots v.-ere heard on the left by Capt. Abbott's 
Company, let us step over and look into the enemy's camp. 

As the plan of Jackson's attack, it will be remembered, con- 
templated nothing less than the capture of our whole com- 
mand, his dispositions v/ere made accorriirigly. I'akmg upon 
himself the task of shutting up Banks in Strasburg, Jackson 
expected to cut the Winchester road before Vv-e could pass it 
at Middletown. Recalling the condition of fatigue in which 
his troops entered Front Royal on the night oC the 23d. it vill 
be remembered why Jackson was obliged to deter his march 
until daylight of the 2 -th, when, with his whole armv, save the 
forces under Stewart and Ewell, — that is, with at least five 
brigades of infantry from his own division and Ev.eli's, and 
all of Ashley's cavalry, and with forty hold-guns less the two 
batteries that h.id folluwed Ewell, — he advanced upon 
Middletown. 

I'he distance v/as t\vel%e miles. With no op})OS!tion, save 
thcti near the t,own, he opened with his artiileiy upon a small 
body of our cavalr\- sent out by Gen. Hatch to observe him, 
— tii.e little village came in view across the broad and level 
licLJs. It was then betv\-een one and two in the afternoon. 
As Ids columns moved up in view of the main street the}' 
sf.v it "canopied with a \ast ch'aid of gra}' dust, and crowded 
beneath, as far as the eye could r^-acii, v/ith a column of 
troops.* 

* Dabney, p. 99. | 

13 I 



98 



The troops were our cavalry, under command of Gen I 

Hatch, proceeding to join the head of the column, because I 

oi an order from lianks when he thought the enemy were ! 

between him and Winchester. Leaving at Strasburo- .iv j 

companies of the Fifth New York Cavahw and six "com- ! 

panics of the First Vermont Cavahy to ^cover our rear | 

and destr.n- stores that could not be carried awav, Gen j 

Hatch, at the liead of his column, arrived at Middletown 
m time to witness the enemy swarming upon his right, from 
the hillsides. In an instant two batteries of the'en'cmv's 
artiller>' dashed forward to a commanding position at' a 
gallop. Ashby, at the head of his cavalrv, threw himself 
forward on the right; while Taylor, throwing for^.-arc> the 
first regiment of his brigade mlo hne, advanced at double- 
quick to the centre of the village. Then the artillerv roared 
the shells burst, and the fragments howled ; Tavlor's in- 
fantry p:;.ured terriiic volleys into the confused mass that 
filled the streets; and Ashby. swooping dov/n. took advanta-e 
ot this confusion to dash with sword and pistol among the 
overwhelmed troopers ; while all along the ridges, the re'st of 
Jackson's overpoxvering numl.ers were pressing onward. 

Gen. Hatch's whole cavalry command, "not numberm- 
^\'' "^^'^ ^'^''^-^ ^'^^^V^ was lessened by the" companies 
leit as rear-guard, and those ai the front with Banks.— 
truly an unequal contest, and one which, not even for a 
moment, did our cavalry undertake. That under such circum- 
stances they broke m disorder and sca^ered over the a~r... 
cent helds is undoubtedly true ; but that the wav was encum- 
bered wuh dying horses and men ; that at ;ver^- furious " 
volley from the enemy, our cavalry seemed to melt h^ scores 
irom their saddles, while the frantic, riderless horses ru^lied 
up and down, tramp'ing the wounded wretches into the 
dust; or that cavalrymen fell from their horses before thev 
were struck, and squatted _behimJ stone fences and surren- 



tiered at first challeng"e, as reported in Southern histories,* 
i< a picture of Southern fancy as imaginative as that " Ashby 
alone charged five hundred Yanl^'ee cavalry, dashed through 
their line, and tiring his pistol right and left, wlieeled about 
and summoned them to surrender, taking thirty in this way 
in one instance, being all who iieard his voice," — all of which 
v.-as reported as a fact by " a gentleman of character and 
veracity."! It is 3S true as that "Banks, after he retreated 
to Winchester, took the cars for Harper's Ferry, shedding 
tears, and declaring that he had been sacrificed by his Govern- 
ment," which is solemnly written in Southern history. % 

Xotwitiistanding Gen. Jackson in his report says that the 
tu-rnj)ike, v\-hich had just before teemed v,'ith lite, presented 
sucii an appalling spectacle of carriage, destruction, and demor- 
ali.-'.ation, he avers that he captured only '•'about two hundred 
prisoners, \\\i\^ their horses and equipages, and that the 
groat body of the Federal ca\"alry made good their retreat." 

While numbers of our cavar/y made their way across the 
fields to the westward of the pike, Gen. Flatch, \','ith a still 
larger body, turned back towards Strasbur^^; v.dth Ins six 
pieces of artillery. Wiih this force, afier gaining an advan- 
tageous site, lie opened a rapid fire upoji the enemy. Doubt- 
ful wheiher Banbs's main force Wu> yet in rear or harl passed 
tiirough Middletown, Jackson turned to attack Hatch, im- 
pressed with tlie belief that thic latter was attempting to 
force a passage through his lines. Witli laylor's Brigade 
'fornied in line south of tlie village. Jackson brought up his 
guns, supported^ them bv Campbeii's Brigade, and replied to 
the fire of Idatch's guns. x\fter a short skirmish, a column 
of flame and snio!:e was seen arising from the bridge over 
Cedar Creek. The Zouaves d'Afrique, having been attacked 



* Cooke's Life of Jackson, p. 146. D.ibiiey's Lice of Jackson, p. 99. 
t C^yke's Life :-f Jn.ckso", p. \^^''K 
X Co>'ke's Life of Jackson, p. 146. 



.[.„ 



»-■ 



100 

by the part of Jackson's force that had swept southward, 
had fired the bridge and retreated to Strasburg. Then 
Hatch, convinced of the uselcssness of the effort to cut his 
way through the enemy, turned to the left with his artillery, 
and made his way by narrow and obscure roads westward and 
northward, to effect, if possible, a junction with the main 
column. Six companies of the Fifth New York Cavalry and 
six of the First Vermotit Ca\'alry, after repeated efforts to 
joi?i the column, fell back to Strasburg. 

The subsequent history of this force we ma\^ as well give 
here. The six companies of the Fifth New York Cavalr\^ 
under Col. De Forest, came into our lines via Flancock, at 
Clear Spring, north of the Potomac, bringing with them 
tidra-two wagons and many stragglers; the Zouaves joined 
us at Wiiliamsport ; the Fifth Vermont joined the column at 
Winchester, with six pieces of artillery, in tim.e for the light ; 
and Gen. Hatch joined us in a few hours, as will appear. 
I^.Iajor CoU.ins of the cavalry, with three companies, attempted 
after dusk to proceed up the road towards Middletown, intend- 
ing to turn off where the main body under Hatch left the 
pike ; but mistaking the point, h.e dashed upon a barricade of 
wagons, and was received by the cneuiy with a tem}.)estuous 
fir^- ot intantry arid artiller)', fiom v/hich he suffered griev- 
ously. This dispL.scs of the entire force which was cut off 
from our column when Jackson struck us at Middletown. 

If it was. not apparent at this time to Gen. Stonewall Jack- 
son that Ills ganu- was not on that h.unt, it was not for lack of 
evidence of that fact. The citizens of IMiddletown " informed 
Jackson that dense columns of infaritry, train.s of artillery, and. 
long lines of baggage-wagons had been passing tb.ruugh there 
from Strasburg since early morning." * Indeed, there was 
better evidence of this fact; for upon castir^g his e}'es north- 
ward, riur wagons were seen as he first entered the town, 
disappearing in the distance towards Winchester, f 

* Ccokc, p. 146. t Dabncv, p. 99. 



101 

As bitter as Jackson's disappointment mav have been at 
this time, at the utter failure of his plans, he did not pause fur 
a moment to bewail his fate in either prayers or sighs, but 
turning to Ashby, and ordering him to pursue with his cavalry, 
artillery, and T?ylor's brigade of infantry, he turned his own 
face towards Winchester, and with the Stonewall Bri-'-'ade in 
front, advanced with his whole army towards Newtown.* 

For a description of the six miles between Middletown 
and Newtov.-n,wc m,ust rely upon the enemv. That their nar- 
rative is unhappily too stroiigly founded on facts of our own 
knowledge, we must admit. The six miles of wagons that 
were strung along the road, when, between eleven and twelve 
o'clock. Banks had his first skirmish with Stewart's cavalr\-, 
had foliov.-ed on at the rear of my brigade, so that when I 
reached Xcwtown they vstre mainly scattered from Mid- 
dletown to that place. But the maniiCr of it is c'iven 
as follows : " The deserted wagon-train of the enemy was 
found standing in many cises with horses attached, and occu- 
pying the road for a mile."t "'The whole road was strewn 
with broken-dov.-n wagons, gun^, knapsacks, oil-cloths, and 
accoutrements of every descriprion." t When the unarmed 
and unescorted teamsters savv our cavrdry scattered to the 
ioar v\inds at a breath by Jackson's sudden attack at Middle- 
town, there is not nnich douljt that all of them, made off 
without any retarding attachments of wagons ; and as little 
when Ashby came up with the rear of our trains, and opened 
fire with his batteries all along tiie turnpike, that the first 
confusion vv-as like a saint's rest to the last. " A shell or 
round shot v.-ould strike one of the wagons and o\-cr!.arn it 
and before tliose behind could stop their headway, they 
would crash into the ruins of the first, then others would tum- 
ble in, so as to b! k k up the r ad comj^letely." § Tlius did 



* Uabney"^ I. To cf Jacksyn, p. <.(}. f D-.I.p.ey, p. 99. 

[ Cooke's life of T.icksnp. p. i.<'. § C';oke, p. i.pj. 



102 "^''- 

Ashby's cavalry thunder dcjwn on the defenceless wagons 
linin;^; tiie ro.'id between I\Tidulcto\vn and Newtown. 

It was this contest I had heard. The fugitives from this 
unequal combat of cavalry, artillery, and Jackson's infantry, 
v.'ith our cavalry and six miles of teamsters, were those who 
had been sent b}' me to pour into the ears of Banks the 
story of our disaster, the crime of our wretched halt at Stras- 
barg during the preceding night. It was this General Stone- 
wall Jackson at the hrad of his army that I vvas now con- 
fronting at Newtown. 

The time occupied in returning to Newtovvni from Barton- 
vilie,"^ and driving the enemy out of the town, brings this 
narrative up to nearly four o'clock in the afternoon. Four 
o'clock, five, six, seven, and ciglit at night found us still 
holding the town.. The fight had settled into an artillerv 
combat, an.d to tliis tlicre was no cessation. Again an.d 
again, a pause for a fevv moments gave me hope that I had 
siL-nced the enein}''s guns; bu^ again and again their fire 
was spiiefuily resumed. For hours I held no communication 
with Gen. Banks, had not seen or heard from him since we 
luft BartonA-ilie. I louked upon m}" p.-^'sition as most perilous : 
my force was small, could cover onlv a small front. How 
long br-fore I >iu)uld l^c ::.urrounded, rut off frons Winchester, 
and captured ! 

It was after sunset, v/hen, in tli-"' grov/ing twilight, I saw, 
to my joy, Gen. Hatcli ap]>roac}iin.g. In. a few words he 
acquaisted me witli his escape. He had come in bv a cir- 
cuitous road to the h^ft, bririging with him the greater part 
of his cavalry, which was then sale ot Winchester, but all 
his baggage had been captured. Gen. Idatch confirmed my 
fears ot the numbers of the enemy; he told me that they 
had set ujion hhn in strong force; that thtjy had taken 
a portion of the rear of our train, and such stores as 



* So cn.ii>.d 0:1 the Covernnvjnl rii.ip of '>ar operatiuus in li'.e v.iHey. 



103 

\vere left at Cedar Creek, and such forces as had not haply 
escaped. Gen. Hatch also dwelt with much feelin<:; upon 
the m::~take made by Capt. Collins of ihe cavalry in char- 
ging upon the enemy's barricade ; his losses were mourned 
v.ith more than orditiary expressions of sorrow. The com- 
mand of the rear properly belonged to Gen. Hatch, for two 
reasons : it h.ad been assigned to him by Gen. Eaiiks ; and he 
was my serior in rank. I tendered to him the command, but 
with much courtesy the general replied that he could not do 
better than I was doing, and he should decline to take it. 
Of course I assented, and Gen. Hatch, after leaving with me 
six companies of the cavalry that attended him, left with his 
stair for Winchester. Throwing the cavalry v;ell out on my 
flanks, I continued the light. 

It was sometime after sunset, near eight o'clock, when 
an unexpected visitor came into my hnes, and was brought 
beiore me. It was one of Jackson's medical officers, a sur- 
geon attached to one of our enem}-'s IMarydand batteries. 
While more than half drunk, probably on our liquor found in 
the captured wagons, the non-comixitant surgeon stumbled 
into one of my batteries, supposing it to be his own. Not too 
mu.:h intoxicated to recognize tiie blue uniforni of the 
Vedc'-a] troops, and whh wits qidckened by danger, he 
(K-manded with adniimblc co.'lness the surrender of the first 
man he confronted. 

" Surrender! V replied the burly sergeant. '' Who are you ? " 

" I am a Couiederate ohicer," replied the maji. 

" I guess you 'd better surrender yourself, then," was the 
retort, v.-itii a revolver presented at the surgeon's head. 
Witiiout mure ado he was detained in tlie heavy grasj) of 
his ca'ptor, and brought before me. Our commissary whiskey 
h?d ^o cheered hi'- spirits tb.at our captive was without pru- 
deiice. In a word, he let cut that our position was most 
perilous. 

" What are you doing here .' " he asked. 



104 

" Don't you see," I replied, " what we are doinp; ? " 

" Why," exclaimed my iuel;riated prisoner, " voii 'd better get 
out of this. We are all around you i" 

Glimpses of sobriety followed a p-artial shock, as he realized 
his situation, and he mingled exclamations of surprise, regret, 
and self-condemnation with a caution to treat him well; "for," 
said he, "you will all be in the same condition as myself 
before morning." 

" You have no idea of our force," he added ; " they are all 
around you, and wdll have every one of you, and Winchester, 
too, if not to-night, certainly in the morning." 

" What are the numbers of your forces } " I asked. 

" From 20,000 to 40,000 men, under the command of Gen- 
erals Jackson, Ewell, and Johnston, wiili Gen. Jackson as 
commander-in-chief," was his reply. 

I could not doubt that the ep.emv \vere rnakino- their wav 
slowly around u.s, — v.-ere even so near that they could easily 
stray into m\- iires for their o\v'.\. I had driven them fronn 
Newtown, and held it for nearly fuu.r hours ; all our trains 
in advance were secure and in Winchester ; Gen. Hatch and 
his rear-guard, save those cajjtured or in tliglit over the 
mountains to the west, v.-ere safe ; and am.ple time had been 
aiiord'j.l Gen. Hanks to remove all tiie public property in 
Winchester or destroy it. All that I could do was done, and 
I determined to withdra-.v.* r\Iy disi)ositions were soon made. 



* I; !•; p'fcuant to f;r;d Souchern writers confirming all I have here claimed to 
have accomplished. *' They brought up four pieces of artilk-ry a.nd pLinted them 
m tiie outskirts ol the town, opening a fuiious fire upon the Co:iiederate bat- 
teries. . . . Jaf:k>on hastened to the fro.U, a;ii when he an iveii a: .Vewtow.i 
found PoagLie with, two gu;is engaged in a h',t coml-ar with th.e Fod-jral artilierv, 
which continued to checi^ his further advarce until dark. ... At nightfall 
the Federal artillery, whi.di had held the Confederate advance in check at Xcw- 
tO',vn, retired from the neid, and Jackson determined to pu.^h on after IJanks to 
"'*^' '"Chester." — Coo.ix's Life of Jackson, //■. 147, 14S. 

"The rifled guns of Poague were immediately pla.:ed in pn-itidR, c.jjon arriving 
re..! >:e\vt .\v:i, on an "pp„sa,g emii:eT!ce, and replied to the leduai L-atterie., on 



105 

The Second IMassachu-^etts I ordered to cover our march ; 
tlic Twenty-Scventii huliana I directed to burn the disabled 
\/aL;on3, (listribute amon.p; the men all the clothin^^ and mate- 
rial they could carry, and haul in by hand sucli wagons as 
were whole, if the animals I had seat for did not arrive. 
With cavalry and one section of artillery, followed by the 
Twenty-Eighth New York Regiment and the Twenty-Seventh 
Indiana. I prepared to move forward in the darkness upon 
my march of about five and a half miles to Winchester, 
not knowing at what moment I sbiould be intercepted 
from the many roads that were open to the enemy. To 
aid Lieut. -Col. Andrews, in command of the rear-guard, I 
strengthened him with cavalry and one section of artillery, 
'i'iiere v.-^is delay in v.itlidrawing, but we got off well and with 
a compact column. How we progressed vv-ill follow after v.-e 
have seen why we were allowed by Jackson to hold his 
imrnenseb." .superior nunjbers in chcci: for so many hours 
at Xewtov/n. 

Ashby's cavalry. 1 aylor's Brigade of infantry, and a rifled 
batter)^ of six guns we kft at ?iIiddletov/n, as advance-guard 
to the force, commanded by Gen. Jackson, iri person, that 
was starting in pursuit o[ our retreating wagon- train. 

To Xv;\v*o\vn, as we ha\'e said, ii Wc^^ six mdes ; the hour 
was betvccn t vo and three. Although a vagr.a-train of six 
miles is not usually a formidable opponent to such a command, 
in this c:ise, according to Southern wrirers, it proved a very 
d'jvil in ih.eir path ; ityc after Poague's guns had buv.lcd down 
wagons enough, the whole Southern army became at once 
intent only on pilhige. In vain did Ashby attemiit to rally 
thcivi, to push on after the disordered b:i,i;gagc-wagoriS ; tliey 
would ncitlicr hear nor obey, but scattered in pursuit, not 
of tb.e enemy, but of plunder; and thus Ashb.y was obliged 
to arrest the pursuit. "Alas I" groans the Soutliern his- 



the rigi'.t of the \ '.il.igc: with eUtvt ; but it was SL;r.do\".u bci'ore llicy wc.-e dis- 
I'H'.geu-an.I tho pi.:-^u;C ri:<i;raeJ.;' — ^0^''.\-v, p. io\ 
14 



lOG 

torian. with a!;;;ony somewhat allayed by the "curious ineffi- 
ciency of discipline in the Confederacy,"* "the firing had 
not ceased in the first onset upon Federal cavalry at ]\Iid- 
dletown before some of Ashh.y's men might have been seen, 
like horse-thieves, seizing two or three captured horses, and 
making off with them across the fields, and not stopping until 
they had carried their illegal booty to their homes, in some 
instances two or three days' marches." f 

The artillery of Poaguc had, however, resisting the allure- 
ments of plunder, pushed on ahead, and arrived near Newtown 
without any species of support, t 

We may now follow the course of our column to Winches- 
ter, 'i'he silence of our guns had hardly given warning to the 
enemy oi our Vvithdrav.al, wiien the growing darkness v/as 
illuminated by our burning vvagons, which, liglitins:- up tlie 
surrounding country, shed a lurid glare even up to the streets 
or Newtown itself. All that had not been removed were 
destroyed. As Jackson, at the head of his column, .rode 
through the streets of Newtown, the people gave him the 
welcome of a conqueror. "They illuminated their houses; 
tliey embraced the soldiers; and bringing into the streets 
bread, meat, pickles, pies, and ever)-Lhir)g they could raise, 
ihey forced tliem. upoii their hdi-starved swldiers. . 
They were crazy with joy at the sight of the gray uniforms." § 
Truly, a striking contrast this tn the lifeless desertion that 
reigned during our occupancy. 

As the red h-ht oJ: our burning wagons mingled with the 
cheerful illumination of the town, we heard the •resoundiir'- 



* Dabnev's i.iu- ui [ack.-:-oii, p. ic:;. i 

t Coiike's Life of Sti.^newall Jaoksoii, p. i^p. 

t Gen. Jackson was disappointed to Juid his artlllen,- unattended and wholly 
unsupported by his cav.i.lry. "Tiiis n.isconduct nearly prevented him ivoiu 
scLuriag the fruits of a"l his marching and li-iiting." — Dai-ucy. j 

" lie was much displea.sed with Ashbv, with whom he had many Lot woi ds." 
— C'.v/r--,/. 14?. 

§ Cooke, p. 14S. 



107 

cheers of our enemies, -^-hr^ moved rapidly on to find the 
coveted stores reduced to blazing \vagi:)ns * and pontoon boats, 
blackened heaps of rice, beef, and bread intermingled with 
bands and bars of glowing iron, f Jackson made no halt in 
his mareh ; but at the head of his column, without a moment's 
pause for food or sleep, with a small advance-guard of cavalry, 
he puslied on, to prevent, if possible, our occupancy of a range 
ot hills to tlie south and west of the town of Winchester, 
v.diich would cotnn'iand his approaches. + The night was 
calm, but dark. Pursu.ers and pursued had passed over the 
half-mile to Bartonville, and reached the creek which crosses 
the road south of tlie town, when the enemy, Vvdth their com- 
mander at their head, was upon us. 

Liei:t.-Col. iindrews had throvvn out as his rear-guard 
three companies of the Second, Captains Abbott and Cogs- 
\vcll, with a third company. Captain Will lams, as flankers. 
At a sliort distance in advance were the remaining com- 
panies of the regiment, and before them artillery, infantry, 
and cavalry, as described. The rear-giiard was on the south 
side of the creek. In tins posture oi affairs, Jackson with 
his escort came unconsciously almost up to them. He was 
received by Major Dwigb.t, who commanded the rear, by 
a v.j'lcy delivered at sh(.>rr range vrirh perfect coolness and 
gi'ent cliect. Major Dwighi's tbrmation was judicious : Capt. 
A!)bott commanded one platoon, posted on one side of the 
road ; Capt. Cpgsv^ell anotlier, on the otlier side ; while in 
the ceiiti'c were two platoons from tliese companies formed 
in square, under command of Lieut. Grafton. The effect 



* I buriici the seven or ei^ht vvai^'uiii wliich had been overthrov. a, and cuiild 
not bo tr.insported for want oi ar.iinaio. — Gdi', n's I\\-po7-(. 

t Cooke says, p. 14S, " Beyond Xewtown the .spectacle along the roads was even 
more striking t:-:ia thit presented near Middktowa. Hundreds of abandoned, 
overtuf.'.cd, or burning wa^on.-^, filled with .stores of every description, were en- 
countered by the troops. 

See als') Dabney, p. 10.:. 

t DALn;y, p. 104. 



108 

of this fire was such a surprise to the enemy that Jackson's 
cavalry escort, upon whom it f-'ll, drew rein, wavered for a 
moment, and Icil back out of range. Then came a single 
shell from the enemy's battery, A\hich was replied to by^ 
another volley from the rear-guard, delivered without seeing 
the enemy. 

Col. Andrews now changed the rear-guatd, supplying their 
places with Company 1, Capt. Underwood, and Co. D, Capt- 
Savage, as flankers. The remainder of the regiment then 
moved on to wliere their knapsacks had been deposited, while 
the new rear-guard was stationed on the north side of the 
creek. By this time Jackson had again brought up his 
cavalry escort, and commanded, in crisp, sharp tones, over- 
heard by our rnr-n, "■ Charge ther.' ! Charge them!" Advan- 
cing, but unsteadily, for a little space, they came again in good 
range of ConipLiny I, and v.-ere received by Capt. Underwood 
with a hot fire, delivered, like the first, with perfect coolness, 
upon which a second time they turned, and fled past Gen. 
Jackson himself, carrying him and his attendants along with 
them,* ami riding down several cannoneers, v.'ho had been 
brought up to their support, thas leaving Jackson with his 
staft^ alone in the road.f Towering v.dth indignation, Jackson 
trrned to the oiilcer n^'xt him eyclaiming, "Shameful!" then 
added, '• Did you see any one struck, sir .^ Did you see any- 
body struck ^ Surely they need not have run, at least until 
they were hurt !'' 

Jackson then called up a Virginia regiment, the Thirty- 
Third liifantry, Col. Neff, and sent it in to attack Co. I. 
Advancing abreast of Jackson/s column, the infantry threw 
out skirmishers, who were soon erigaged wiih Capt. Under- 
wood. The skirmish lasted about ten minutes, and was very 
severe, but it v.as sustained anil replied to by Companv I 
in a most creditable manner. The heat of this engoge- 
ment caused Col. Aiidrews to send forward, in support f)f 

* D.ibiicy, p. loj. t Iiabncy, i;'p. ic^, 104. 



'I f 



109 

this Company on the right and left, platoons from Compa- 
nies B and C, Captain-S Cogsv/ell and Williams. The increased 
iMi produce-d a marked eftect upon the enemy, but it did not 
destroy him. In the few minutes of the fight our loss was 
severe. When the men had all taken their knapsacks, the 
march of the re ir-guard was resumed, and Jackson's col- 
umn for a time saved from further " insidt," as his historian 
called it. So pertinacious was our stand here that the enemy 
adm.it that thev brought up three regiments of the Stonewall 
Brigade, the TwiTity-Seventh, Second, and Filth Virginia 
Regiments, and that the affair grew to the dimensions of a 
night combat before we gave way.* 

Necessary delays in burning the wagons and abandoned 



* D.ibr.ey, p. IC4. | 

An ofticer of the Second Massachusetts Regiment, Major Francis, places the '. 

fighting part o: the rear-guard nearly as I have given it, but he says that Com- 1 

panics A and C formed sr.uare after the skirmishers had rallied, — the former one. | 
hundred teet from the road on tht eastern side, and the latter the same distance 
on trie \v;sivrn side. Wher^ tlie rebel cavalry came down, he says, "Both com- 
pa'::es couM plainly s-:e t'lem. though not visible themselves. A treacherous gua 

fired by one of our men in the read prevented our companies from doing the j 

cxeciition thev othenvise would. This one shot brought the cava'ry to a halt, at j 

t!ie top of the small hill south of the bridge, ar.d it was time for Companies A j 

a'd C to fire, if at all, ar:d th.cy each fired one voiiey, w'lich sent the rebels fiyir.g [ 
b.i- :• Q-ry ih". hill. a"d aii '.'.-as quiet for the space of half ar. h'r'ur or more. 
r>oih compairles were no'.v placed in the road, and here a prisoner was captured. 
He cam.e down the road thinking we were Confederates, but upon discovering 
hi- mi.-^taf-e tried to V'a.:S hirasclf off as beloi^gir.g to a New Ycrk Regiment, and 

thf-n cr^r.fossed that' he b^elongcd to a Virgir.ia Regiment. lie v,-as th.cn put j 

r:rler a guard of t-.vo men from Couipauy A. Soon afterwards Companies A { 

and C were relieved by Company T, which took up a position across the road on j 

tliC nortiic-riy side of the creek close to tlie bridge, and he diiuks Company D i 

de;>'-)ye'.'. as skirmishers -in both •■i:!es of tlie road. Wiiile tiie lear-guard was in j 
this positi'-.n, anil the other companies getting their knapsacks, a second attack 

was made by the enemy, but this ti.i.e it was with infantry skirmishers. The ] 

GriTig wa^^ sharp, but we maintained our position." There was some confusion ' ; 

here : our 'wn cavahy rode into us, arul thu prisoner tO'ik advantage ot it, and j 

tried to escape, but was prom{)tly shot dead by private Huntley, of Company A, j 

one of the euard. Major Fran.ci^'s hor^e was wounded in tliis last attack, two ! 

sii.'i.t wounds bv bucKsiiot. ' • 



■ nJ 



110 

property, and recovering the knapsacks, had caused the head 
of my column to advance bster than the rear-^-uard ; so that 
when I heard the single gun followed by \^ollcys of infantry, 
I sent to inquire as to the force attacking, and received the 
reply from Col. Andrews that he was somewhat annoyed with 
skirmishing cavr.lry. I, sent back tlie two companies of our 
cavalry which I had retained, and a section of Best's Battery, 
with instructions to give the enemy a heavy fire of grape if 
they closed upon the rear. This pressure did not allay my 
apprehension for the safety of my column ; for although there 
were many roads through which, in the darkness, the enemy 
could pass unf ercelved bet\vee:i my command and Winches- 
ter, the most threatening, and the one from which I was most 
fearful, was that in whijh both roads, on which the enemy 
were marching, converged at Winchester. Either there, of 
on a road which joined the pike east of Kernstown, mv 
information led me to believe the enemy v/ould make this 
attempt. 

Feeling that Col. Andrews had been sufficently rein- 
forced, I pressed on with the Twenty-Seventh Indiana and 
Twenty-Eightli New York, an-iving at the outskirts of Win- 
chester between eleven and twelve o'clock at night. The 
road was then cler.r. I had hardly selected n bivouac for the 
regiments oi n^y brigade, when a messenger from the rear 
announced that Col. Andrews was in want of ambulances. 
Sending my aid, Lieut. Scott, in search of them, I seated 
myseh by a few embers by tliC road.-.ide and waited impatiently 
for Col. Andrews's arrival. Frequent reports from that officer 
had advised miC since his skirmish at ikarlcjrjviile, of his good 
progress; but th:rL progress was slow. He was impeded by 
Ins vvounded, who were being transported on gun-carriages, 
and by the n.ecessity of kee])i'ig his skirmisliers well out to 
his rear and on iiis danks. In this manner Col. Andrews 
reached Kernstown, two and a half miles frr^m Winchester, 
without further muk;5tati<ei. Jjere he determined to con- 



Ill 

vey his wounded no further on gun-carriages, but await the 
arrival of the ambuhmce.s. And here again the regiment 
was overtaken by the enemy. 

The rear-guard was. as it had been, under command of 
iSIajor Dwight, the remainder ol the regiment in column in 
the road, and the v/ounded just transported into a brick 
house to be used as a hospital. Impatient at the delay, I 
returned to Kernstown with a single orderly^ and came 
up to our regiment at about one o'clock at night. Rather 
a severe skirmish was then going on between Captain Under- 
wood's company, then rear-guard, and the enemy. The 
darkness of the night concealed the ioe, wlule our column, 
formed in the middle of the road, offered a good mark. 
i\s^ the enemy approached tiiey were greeted with a warm 
fire upon their right, left, and front, from the rifles of the 
Second.* 

The halt here was short, as dela.y was dangerous. To wait 
longer for ambulances v^'ould have been folly, so the march was 
resumed ; but we were obliged to lea've our wounded in the 
hands of the enemy, and v/ith them Dr. Leland, surgeon of 
the Second. The remaining two and a half miles to the 
outskirts of Wmchester were made without molestation. It 
wa,- two o'clock in the m^nming of the JU'h of }-hiy' v.'hen, 
witli Ihc oilier regiments of my co amand, the Second saids. 
down to rest just outside the town. Our loss during the night 
had been three killed and seventeen wounded in the Sectmd 
Massacliusctls alone. Without fires and v/ithout lood, or so 
little that it served to temj>t, not satisfy the appetite, the 
troops, overcome VN-Jth fatigue, fell asleep where tliey were 
halted, — all except Captain Cogswell, who was ordered, with 



* Wtr have, in i'-.:; histori' s we hz^ve quored, .-iron.^ adnussiuns of t'":c p'ucky 
fii'l-.t nir^de here- l.y our regnncp.;, in *hdi we alta^ked J:ick.s.>n v.ith great gal- 
lantry, our nrc appearing dancing along the top of the walls '.stone walls), 
accornpan;ed !)y the ir.arp cAplosiun of the riilf--, and tb.'.- Ij'j'iets whittling up 
the ruad. (See Da!}i,e\, p. icr.) 



i 
112 j 

his company, upo:i outpost duty. It was with regret that I | 

was con-ipcllcJ to hurry the re;.;:inent off from Kcrustown, | 

leaving in the hands of the enemy those of their wounded j 

comrades whom they had supported while so faithfully guard- j 

ing the rear of my colunm. I 

I had sent my aid for ambulances as I have said, and j 

he had, in the night, found three full of wounded, which 
he had taken to the hospitals, emptied, sent off, and then 
searched for more ; but one surgeon sent him to another, who 
reierred him to a third, with as much interest as if he were in 
search of forage for his horse. Finally, he sought for Gen. 
llanks, but could not find him ; then he came across Gen. 
Shields's surgeons, but tliey had no appliances for any one but 
Gen. SjuieUs'^ sick. 7dicn he searched unknown places, and 
found an ambulance, but the driver was afraid to go back, 
so rn\' aid j^rocured a soldier to dri\-e, rnul came to where 
I had been, to iiiid that I had become anxious at the non- 
appearance of the Second, and had gone out to meet it. Fol- 
lowing with his single ambulance, he got well out beyond the 
pickets ; but finding that the regiment was still farther out 
how mu.ch he could not imagine, he returned again to town. " 
We had thus reached Winchester. From between two and 
thrre o'clock in the afternoon of th.e 24th, to between two and 
three o'clock in the morning of the 231]], we had held back the 
enemy. Though we could not cut through their columns, we 
had not only snatched from them much valuable property that 
they were just ready to giasp, but had s«> delayed their march 
that ample time had been afforded Banks to remove all the 
public property in tow-n to a place of safety, and take such 
measures for the futiu-e as sound judgment should dictate. 
I determined to hunt up Gen. Banks, and give him such 
facts as the experiences I have related revealed. With- 



* L:ei:t. 1-rp.ncis, then actin- as regimental quarUTm.istcr, ha J been more 

fortunate, and met the re-i:ncat with half a dn/cn aiuLjuiances, but the wounded 
huti bcei; laj-tuicti. 



11?. 

out much difficulty I found the house he occupied in town. 
He was in a bedroMm, but had not retired ; before him was a 
bathing-tub, giving evidence thai he had found time to enjoy 
that luxury. To confirm, so far as he v\'ould reveal, my own 
belief in the force of the enemy, and th:it they would attack 
at daylight with a force thr.t could overwhelm us at once, I 
brought with me my once inebriated surgeon, now, however, 
completelv sobered. In a few words I told Eanks all that 
had befallen us, urging that this afforded confirmation 
i)f the belief I had expressed to him the preceding night at 
Strasburg, and then bringing forward my prisoner, I pre- 
sented him as a man v.-ho, if he v.-ould speak at all, would tell 
liu- truth. I appealed to hirn. He rei'lied that, filled with 
regret as he was at the circumstances of his capture, we 
could hardly e.Kpect him to reveal the number of Gen. Jack- 
son's army ; still he v/ould say that he believed his force to be 
greatly suj^crior to ours, and further that it v/as Gen. Jack- 
son's intentirm to attack us at daylight, that is, he did not 
d'>ubt such was his intention ; and then, said b-.-, v.-itli a show 
of humor, " If you can v,-h'p him, he won't whip you." It ni\' 
own assertions, backed up b)' my piisoncr, made any inipres- 
sion on Ge.n. Ixinks, I did not j>jrceivc it. I'o rr.y af-peal tr.at 
now, even at this ho.:", all the public pr^pL-ity in the town 
shoul-.i be sent forward to the other side Oi the rotomac, 
a!:d preparations made to reti^-e in proper order, before th.e 
tremcnd.ou< odds against us, dcstroyin.g public |.iropert}' that 
cou!-.l ntst be transported, Banks preserved tiie same stolid 
iront. the same or a more unintelligible silence than had 
nu-t me at Strasburg. Ii^fci'ining him, if he asked me, of 
the position of niy brigade, I wit'idrew witr.out a word from 
Iiim of liis plans. 

Gen. W'illian^s, cominanding our d:\ision, was caln)ly bleep- 
ing in the principal hotel in Winchester. It reciuired loud 
calls, ad.ded to th.e sou.nd of ni.y cavalry lioots and spurs, as I 
st.dked heavi'y along the liails in search ol his rio-n. to liring 
1'. 



114 

him at last to the door of his apartment, where, as his red 
face beamed above his lunp; ilannel ni;2;ht-shirt, he was a 
spectacle to behold. To advise him of the situation, to 

represent how uncomfortable his interview v/ith Gen. (Stone- | 

wall) Jackson would be in such apparel, v/as the work of a | 

moment. Other brij^adier-a:encral3, utiattached to any com- | 

rnand, — Greene and Grawtord, — in night array, had listened | 

to my interview v.ith Williams ; but under the circumstances ! 

these gentlemen v/ere men of leisure. It was still dark, ' 

though near daylight, Vv'hen I turned from the hotel, and | 

sought ray old Winchester quarters, if haply I might seize 1 

a few moments' rest, the first in forty-eight hours. • 

I found the place my aid had selected for a very temporary I 

headquarters, and tiirew m\ self upon, a bed without removing i 

an article of clothing; buc hardly had I touched the blankets ! 

when there came to my ears tb.e sound of a horse's gallop, | 
drawing nearer and nearer, until it ceased at my door. The ■ 

rider was Major Dwight, an.d hds greeting, '" Coloriel, the pick- j 
ets are falling back! the enemiy is advancii:g!" It was four 
o'clock in the morning. 

Gen. Jackson closely follovv-ed up from Kernstown my 
retiring culnmii. Not until he had advan.ced so far that the 

coveted heights v;ere within his eaiy g:a.-p did he halt, and \ 

then, allowing tljc n.ain bo'ly (S his army to lie dov/n upon the ) 

roadside lor an hour's sleep, he pushed forward his skirmiish- | 

ers, who, although drenched with the dew, waded through | 

the rank fields of clover and v.heat, and stumbled across \ 

ditches in the darkness * until they encountered my outlvmg j 

line oi pickets, v.dth \shom lor an hour th.ey kept up a con- j 

stant fire. Although through all the fatigue of the two days \ 

through which our regiment had passed, Capt. Cogswell main- \ 

tained stoutly thr'jugh the remainder of the night his unequal j 

combat v.-ith tl-e enemy's skirmishers, holding them on his 1 

front at bav. But not much to be envied were those com- j 



* D ihaey, p. io|. 



115 

panies of my brigade who, during that brief hour, were allowed 
10 rest. The constant iirluo; at the outposts ; the wearv march 
of over twenty mile,^, prolonged through fiUeen hours, and the 
f.ght of one of them, the Second, from 3 r. m. until 2 a. m. of 
the nevt day ; the coldness of the night, ai'id the want of 
shelter and blankets, combined to make sleep almost im.pos- 
sibie. 

'■ Yes. I will be there instantly." I replied to ^lajor Dwight, 
as I jumped from my blankets and threw m\-SGlf into the sad- 
dle. Galloping rapidly to Banks's headquarters, I rushed into 
his bedroom, and exclaimed, " Gen. Banks, the question of 
what is to be done has now settled icself. The enemy, now 
moving in force, has almost reached the town. I shall put my 
brigade instantly in line of battle upon the heights I now 
occupy. If you have any orders to give, vou will find me 
there to receive them." Banks replied, " Yes, sir." Was he 
thinking. I wondered, of the opinions of his friends, or of trie 
bayonets beyond the dark cresis of the hills ; where for more 
tiian an hour, in the early dawn, v/ithout a cloak to protect 
him troni the chilling dev.-s, standing as a sentinel at the 
liead of his column, listening to every sound from his front, 
looking at the figures of the Federal skirmishers as on the 
lull-tops they stood out in distitict reliei agaiiist the faint 
blush of the morning sky, was the figure of Stonewall Jackson. 
In a quiet under-tone the word " Forward !" had now fallen from 
ids lips, was passed ojiv.-ard down ins columns, and his hosts 
arjbmg froiri their short slumbers, chili and stiff with the cold 
night damps, were advancing to battle * Ere the word was 
given, a dispat'-h from Ewell announced that he too v.'as 
ready ; that early in the night he had readied a position three 
miles from the town, on Jackson's right, and that his pickets 
were yet one mile in advance, f 

* DabTiey, p. 104. t Co:'ke, p. 1^9. 



116 



CHAPTER YI. 



On the north and west,, wiihin about one third of a mile 

from the town, a commanding ridge partially surrounds | 

Winchester, and extends southwesterly parallel to the pike- | 

road to Strasburg. South of the town the country is broken | 

up into hills, which reach to within a mile of Kernstown. | 

As you stand on ihe southern end of the ridge, facing south- \ 

ward, there is on your left the turnpike gradually surmounting s 

a gentle ascent, in your front a valley, and bevond, the crest i 

of a higher ridge, pernaps four hundred ■.ards distant. Turn | 

to your right and look up the valley, and you will see that it i 

leads to the summit of a hill to the west, of about the height I 

I 

of the ridge on v.liich vou stand, but lower than the one I 

beyond the valley, and, pcri'iaps, a hundred yards from you. I 

When I arrived at t'je spot whei'c the regiments of my I 

brigade had dropped C.'iwa to sleep, I tbund them iorming j 

in line in the valley I have described. Posting ray batter}- ■ 

of Parrotts (six guns, under command of Lieut. Peabodyj on \ ^ 

the bluff end of the ridge, 1 moved my brigade up the val- ] 

ley. and occupied the summit of the hiii to the right and a I 

little farther to the froiU, with the Second Massachusetts \ 

Regiment ; next came tiie Third Wisconsin, farther down I 

the ravip.e tiie Twer.ty-Xmth Pennsylvania, and on tiie left I 

the Twenty-Seveutli Indiana. Before us, just over the crest \ 

of tlic hill opposite, u-as the enem}-, but :hcy could not shov,- I 
themiselves without being in sight and range of my com- ■ I 

maiid. l-"rom one and a half to two miles on my Itii, on the | 

]""ro!it Ri.'Val n:Mcl, Ivvvell was confronted bv DoncH\''s ]:>r!gade * 



117. 

of three regiments, the Tu'enty-Ei^hrh New York, Fifth j 

CcimecticLit, Forty-Sixth Pennsylvania, and Best's United j 

States Battery of six snriooth-bore brass pieces, under com- 
mand of Lieut. Crosby. The country in front of Donelly 
on the south and east is almost level. 

Frnni this description it v/ill be seen thac, v.-ith "Winchester j 

as a centre, we occupied at daylight of the 25th a portion of { 

an arc the whole of v^-hich was at least two and a half miles j 

in length, or 4.400 yards. We could with our command 
occupy only 1,750 yards of the 4,400; for 3,500 men in two i 

ranks will cover no m.ore. In other words, we could extend 
over a little more than one third of our front. With i6,coo 
infantrv in tv;o ranks in line of battle, the enemy- could not 
only encircle our entire front, but extend beyond our right [ 

and left flanks i,Soo yards, or forty more than a mile. With i 

rn}" Ijrigade and Donelly's Vv-e could occupy only the Ranks of | 

our lirie ; the centre v/as unprotected, except by a fire from j 

Best's Battcr\-, which vrn^ so posted as to bear upon either 
flank of the enem,y's line. I 

}>Iy picket line, which had occupied the summit of the j 

hill opposite our position, had been driven back ui>ori the j 

main bodv just before m;v arrival. Gen. Jackson had hoped i 

tt> s'-i-c those hills, before daj-ligr.t warned us of his pres- 
eiKe ; '" but if the detention of the previous day did not 
show the futihtv of such a wish, the strong line of pickets j 

i 

that con.fronted ' him mu^t have been more convincing. j 

Jackson, looking u])on this position as t'le key-point upon 1 

the field, and determining to possess it, threw forward, j 

at'ter a careful examination of a few moments, a brigade 
of infantry, under Gen^ Winder, — the Stonewall Brigade, — 
and strengthening thus on its right v.dth the Fifth Virginia ' 
Regiment, he ihre-.- this f;rce, larger thnn my whole com- 
mand, against mv i^ickets on his front. This was the con- 

test that aroused me trom an. atteru'it to secure a moments I 

___ ' i 

* Co.^kc'a U.k of Jaek-oi;, p. i.io. ; 



118 

sleep. Of course my pickets f^ave way, and when I reached 
the ground the enemy were in pijssessiou oi their coveted 
prize, — the hili beyond the ravine, in front of my battery 
and my hue of infantry. 

"That the enemy did not post their pov/erful artillery upon 
the foremost of the^e heights, supported by their main force, 
was," ejaculates the pious Uabney,"" " due to the will of 
God." To v\'hich I reply that it was due to the will of the 
War Department, which deprived us of the requisite numbers 
of troops to hold an)' position against the overwhelming lorce 
in our front. 

To continue: As soon as Jackson got possession of this 
hill, he advanced tliere, just beiow its crest, a strong detach- 
men'L of arliiiery, cotiiposcLl oi the batteries of Poague, Car- 
penter, and Cutshaw, ai'.d these he supported with tv.'o 
brigades of inLmtry, the Stoncvvall ijiigade and that oi Gen. 
John A. Campbell. 

As the Second Regiment moved up on the right of the 
line to the crest of the hill, the enemy opened upon it with 
grape ; b^'t this dil nol disconcert or cause it to waver ; 
steadil^' it niuved on and took up its position. Co]. An- 
drews then threw out to his right and front his right com- 
pany, conmiandecl by Capt. Sa^'auc, as a covering skirmish- 
line. Soori, liowever, this company \\as sent ff^rward to a 
stone wall a few rods in advance. 

It v.as no;.v five o'clock in the morning. As my eye fell 
on the eiicmys columns, ur.der Winder, moving up in support 
of tfjcir batteries, I ordered niy gunners to fire upon them ; 
and at th.e sar."ie time Capt. .Savage, finding the enemy's artil- 
lery withhi good range from his ^>tone wnll. opened upon their 
gunners. Now, Col. Andrews strengthened Capt. Savage by 
Capt. Criry's Ci:in'ipany. 

While the fire from m}' battery was iricessant and effective, 
the two companies of the Second behin.d the Vv-all poured an 

* DaiMViy'-s L.'ie of Jarksoa, p. 104. 



no 

annoyin.2^ fire into the enemy's gunners, and the two right 
comj)anic? o^ the regiment ailded to the effect bv firing 
volleys at their batrery. The effect of our artillery hre was to 
drive the enemy's cohimns hack over the crest of the hill, 
where the}- had for a nv-ment vaiintingly showed them- 
sehv-es, and to cause one of their guns to be abandoned by 
their cannoneers. From five until alm.ost seven o'clock in 
the morning, a fire of shell, round shot, and canister was 
poured lorth upon my command, from which nothing saved 
us but the accurate aim of our men of the Second, who 
from behind the stone wall and the crest of the hill drove 
the enemy's gunners under cover so that their firing was 
wild. 

The Southern account of this tv/o iiours cf the fight bears 

testimony to the pluck with which we responded to our 

enemy's challenge.* Gen. Jackson, i-t seems, had been an 

observer cf our movements. He is described as having 

riuden forward with two fiekbofticers. Campbell and another, 

to the ver\- crest of the hill, and amidst a perfect shower of 

balls ob<er\-ed the position. It is said that though both the 

otncers beside him were speedily wounded, he sat calmly on 

lus iiorsc until h.e had satisfied hirv-^elf of our dispositions. 

lie s-nv. i; is said, my bat':ery, as I was posting it on the cdga 

ot the rid^e ; he saw, nearer to his left front, Caijtains Carv 

10 • • • • . '' 

ann .-Ravage just seizmg a position behind an oblique stone 

ience ; and he saw these gallant fellows pourinp; a galling fire 

upon his gunners that siruck down many men and horses. 

He saw his battery, sometimes almost silenced, holding 

well up to punishment, uiitil Winder ordeied it to change 

front to the left an.d bring part of their guns to bear wi:h 

solid shot, to shatter the wall, behind which were the two 

• This n^r: of ihe contest is spoken of a> a '^ licrce ca!!:u;inc!e, inteniiinc^led 
with a sharp, ruitling lire of riri<.-mL-:,," the smoke ct which " mc-ltcd awav into 
tl.f silvery \C'.l of May clews, cxi;.!;c.J by the beiinis of tlie rising sun." ' (Sec 
liainieys l.iio ui I:iLk:5o:i, p. 16.;.) 



1-20 

companies of the Second. With solid shot crashing into 
and over them, and with canister raking them. Gen. Jackson 
foiiiid that not one inch couM he make Savage or Gary turn 
back, although Gar}- was knocked over by a flying stone, hit 
by a shell that killed a man by his side. 

As Jackson looked upon the scene, it is represented that 
he did not doubt that the enemy would attempt to drive his 
artillery from this vital position and occupy it with their own ; 
and so turning to Col. Neff, commanding the Thirty-Third 
Virginia Infantry, then supporting Garpenter's Battery, he 
asked him, — 

*' Golonel, where is your regiment posted ? " 

" Here," he replied. 

'•'I expect," arisv.ered Jackson, " the enemy to bring artillery 
to this hill : they must not do it. If they attempt to come, 
charge them with the bayonet." * 

Tl-en after this survey, leaving two more of his batteries 
to reply to my single one, Jackson, -glancing again at the 
scene, planned his attack and turned to his command.f 



* Dabney relates this incident as of such powerful cast, thr.t he uses the wcrcls 

"strident voice " and " biood tingle" to convey its effect. (See Dabrev's Life | 

of Jacksor., p. 104.) ■ 

t '1 here is .'•ciii ano.-h.er account of Uie forward movement of the eneniv to the j 

hi:i upon wiiich ov.v pickets were stationed, of their reception by my brigade, \ 
and of Jackson's observation of the scene: " \Vhen the Fifth Virginia was thrown 

forvv?ird as skirnrishrrs in adv:;nce of Winder's lirigade, which was deployed in j 

line of battle, -a n:>h was made for the hi!!, and they [oiir three or fonr co:t!- i 

pr.nies on picket diityj recoiled bef.jre the Confederate fire, and the Southern j 

troops, uttering loud cheers, gained the crest and were in possession of the hilL • 

Prompt measures were then taken to improve tliis advantage, and open the at- i 

t3':kwithan energy which ?.hould give the I'cdcral forces no time to prepare. | 

They had hastily opened with a battery directly in front, and to dislodge those j 

gun:s Carpenter's and Cutshaw's Uatteries, with tv.-o Parrott guns from the Rock- j 

bridge Artiiieiy, were rat idly placed in r"'-ition and opened .^.re. The battle ! 

speedily comme.-.c.d in g:>od earnest, it was absolutely necessary, if the P'edcral i 

forces expected to hold the town of Winchester, tliat the Confederates should be j 

dislodged from tlicir cornrnanding position, and a body of Federal s'-.arpsliooters 1 

was promptly thrown !brv,ard to feel Jackson s left, atid drive liini. if possible. I 



121 

Turning now to the southeastern part of the town, the left 
of our line of battle, we find Col. Donelly confronting Evvell. 
] la^'in^w-eaclied liis position wiLhin two miles of Winchester 
at ten o'clock the pn'cceding evening, Ewell at dawn had 
continued his n^.arch until he confronted our outlying pickets. 
This command consisted, as will be remembered, of a North 
Carolina brigade, under Gen. Trimble, the First Maryland 
Regiment, and tv/o batteries, Courtnt-y's and Brockcnbrough's, 
As Ewell advanced his brigade, the left regiment, under com- 
mand of Col. Kirkiand, encountered Donelly's Brigade in lir.e, 



from the hill. [So the enemy seems to have interpreted the movements of Cap- f 

ta;n? ."-^cncre and Caiv.] A: the sp.mc mo;:i-:iii another Federal batterj' beg;in to { 

thrmder on the left, and a dangerous enfilade fire v.as poured upon the Southern i 

lines Th's r/^varce of irifiintry- and the fire of the new battery w.is promptlv j 

respo.ided to by Jackson. The battery in his fror.t had been reduced to silence, ! 

and his c;uns were now turned upon tr^e enemv's shiirp-shoorers, who hastily * 

retreated behind a heavy stone fence that protected them. From this excellent '■ 

po^iuc^ they opened a galling and destructive Uic on tlie cannoneers and horses I 

attachrd to the Confederate batteries, which were now engaged hotly on the left. t 

The c<.T.ibi::cd fire of .^liarp-s hooters and artillery v.-as so hfa\'\- that Capt. 1 

Poague, who was most exposed to the enemy, was compelled to change position in j 

th.e jrJdst of a .storni of balls. He rapidly v.ilhdrow his guiis, moved to the left | 

and rear, and agai.-i taking position, poured a determined fire upon the enfilad- ■ 

ing l.intteries ot the enemy. The Federal sharp-oliooters continued to nre from i 

their p' sirion behird th.r storiC wall with a p!eci.^ion v.-hich was galli.ng and i 

tiiir^CT. .:.•> in ::.c e.xtre.'ne. No one couid n-oi:;-;t to the crest oi the Iiill without ! 

heaiin^.; the sudden repovr of their excelleiit long-range g-ans, succeeded by the j 

whisliir.g of balls near his person. Col. Campbell, commanding the Second j 

Brigade of Jackson's division. »vert u;,- to the sumrn't to recoimoitre, and was giv- j 

ing some directions to Col. Patton, the senior ohicer under him, when a ba.ll ] 

pi--rccd his -jiTm and breast, and he w.is borne from th.e field, leaving Patton in ; 

i 

Conr-.-nund. lo drive out tl.ese j>ersistent arid accurate marksmen, Capt. Poague j 

threvv several solid shot at the v.ali which protected them, but in spite of tlie mis- ■ 

siics and crashing scone- ai ound them, the line of sharp-sho^iters still gallantly 1 

held ti:eir position."' — Cc'\:^s Life of J -kson, p. \.\'^. | 

[Nort. — The battery upon which Dabney says " Carpenter and Cutshaw also j 

keyt up So s; irited a content v. iih th.e batteries in the direction o: th.e tov.n as Vj \ 

silence their hre," was i.'cst'3 smooth-bore baUery, which alone, near the Stra.s- i 

burg pike and to my left, formed the centre of our Jine of battle. The battery j 

v.iiich Cooke say.-) bega'i to thunder on J.ick^on's left with a dangerous enfilading ! 

fire wa; my battery of I'arroits. — AuTHoK.] j 

lo ■ 



122 

covered by a stone wall. Donelly's fire was terrific. We 
claim that Kirkland's regiment was nearly destroyed. Tlie 
enemy admit ihat all the field-officers were wounded, and that 
the "gallant regiment was obliged to recoil"'^ (run away). 
Ewell then sent in the Twenty-First Georgia Regiment. 
Approaching with caution, its fate was better than that of its 
predecessor; but yet Doneliy was not routed nor in danger 
of it, either from tliat mode of attack or from any other that 
the small force Jackson had given Ewell could make. Seeing 
this, Trimble suggested throwing forward the right and turn- 
ing Donelly's tlank. It was done, and the enemy claim that 
Doneliy, v.'ho liad been dri'/en from his cover by the Georgia 
regiment, now gave v>-ay entirely, f In his report Gen. Banks 
thinks that Trimble's fiarik muvemenl was abandorjcd, because 
Gen. Williams, our division commander, seeing the movement, 
sent a detaclmient of cavalry to intt.^rcept it. t 

Could Doneliy have held Ewell back.^ It is more than 
]")robable, if there had been no ether iorce confronting us. 
Did Jackson's movements on my tlank, by causing me to with- 
drav.-, compel L>( ■nelly to retire.' It is quite probable : Banks 
so v/rites in his report. Why then did I v.-ithdraw.' To answer 



*^ Uabr.ey, p. ico. 

t "Mer.r.wh:ic Ewl-'J hrA •.,-t beer; idle. .-'•? s^on r? Jncb^on's guns were 
heard on tl'iC iefr, he r.-ipidiy advanced towards the southeast side ofthetnv, n, 
and becaaie engaged uith the enemy, who v.cre ported on the hills, and in the 
farm-h'Jusrs \\hich here d .t the rulliir^- Lii d^._•l;)o. The Tv. entv-Fi:.-t North 
Carolina and Twenty- Fi-st Georgia attacked and drove back the advanced 
force of the ener.iy, and Esvell pushed rapidly forward. Tut here, as on the left, 
one ot these obstinate stone walls which appear so often in the narrative of bat- 
tles in the valley, ot'tered its bristling front to his purpose. The Federal sharp- 
shooters lined it, and rcstirg tlitrir guas on the tv>p pocred into the ranks of the 
Twenty-First Nor;h Carolin-., which were in ad.vacce, so destructive a .P.re, th.at 
they were forced to fail back with heavy loss. 'JTiis success wa.s, however, brief ; 
taking the place of tl;e rcpu!-;ed rcginicnt, the TwentyT'':ist Georgia made a de- 
teuv.incd tharge, the encn.yv.ere diivcn :r:an tlicir cover, and the main botly of 
Eweil's forces, which had been arrested by this obstacle, swept forward amidst 
the thunders of artillery to tlie .usaulL" — Cvc/, /. i:,^- 

I L.tuks's Report. 



123 

this, I resume my narrative. For two hours the Stonewall 
Brigade (Jackson's own, under Gen. Winder) with Carpenter's 
and Taliaferro's Brigades, and three batteries, had been held 
in check on the heights opnu^ite by the rifles of the Second 
JMassachu-setts and by the battery of six Parrotts on oar flank. 
During' this time the roar of artiller) and infantry on our left 
before Donelly was continuous. And now Gen. Jackson, 
thinking the battle had reached a critical stage,* determined 
to strike a final blow, i'or this purpose he ordered forward 
one of his reserve brigades, the one com.manded by Gen. 
Taylor. This, with Elsey's Brigade, was in reserve behind 
the mill-house on the turnpike, about three fourths of a mile 
from town. Burning with eagerness, Jackson's impatience 
outstripped tne speed of hi.^ messenger, and he rode rapidly 
to meet it ; then conducting it by a hollow way in rear of the 
tvs-o brigades before us, he gained the cover of a wood to our 
right, and here directing its rapid formation in line of battle 
with the left regiments, thrown forward j to gain our rear, he 
was ready for his assault. 

The moment tlie enemy began to emerge from the woods, 
Col. Andrcvvs. through Major Dwight, reported to m.e that he 
could see them advancing in line of battle directly upon our 
right flank, ivcceiving this message while opposite the centre 
of i,iy brigade line, I dashed up to the head of our regiment, 
jumped from my horse, atid with Col. Andrews crawled for- 
v.-ard to the cre^st of the hill, just behind which our regiment 
was in line. On any day in spring tlie view from that sunnnit 
would have been most fascinating. There to the south and 
west were a cluster of beautifl:! hills, commandiu- tlie town, 
and covered v.-ith lu.xurious clover and pnstur.-.ge, whh here and 
there a forest grove crov/ning the eminen.ces. Everywhere 
the fields were enclnsed with ienccs and stone walls. The ver- 
dm-e of the forest trees, the rich green of the grasses, the 
blue sky overhead, and tiie soft beams of the miming sun- 
* ].>ab:.cy. p;). laS, lo-j. f lAilmcy, pp. 104-IC9. 



124 

light, lent all their beauties to adorn the picture. But to ! 

all that Nature offered, man had added his touch to stamp j 

forever the scene upon my mind. There, just below us, in I 

i 

good rifle-range, preceded by swarms of skirmishers, regi- | 

ment after regim.ent of the enemy v.'ere moving in good ■? 

order steadily but rapidly up the hill.* Farther south, com- t 

ing from the direction o^ the Strasburg pike, and gallop- | 

ing across the fields, I saw a new battery urged- forward to a I 

new position to support this attack ; vvd-iilc nearer my centre, ] 

the crest of the hill was wreathed with the smoke of the \ 

three batteries that for two hours had tried, in vain, to drive | 

u.s from our position. There was no time to linger. In an ] 

t 

instant I again mounted my horse ; ordered the Twenty- 1 

Kinth Pennsylvania and the Twenty-Seventh Indiana to move j 

by flank on the run and extend to the right of the Second, at | 

the same time directing a section of my battery to the front, I 

where the guns could bear upon the enemy's columns. But | 

at this time a shell kil'evl one man and three horses, so that i 

the guns were pulled up by hand, and progress was nccessa- \ 

lily slow. Before trie arrival of these regiments the Secon.d 5 

had opened upon the enemy a heavy iire of musketry, vvdiieh -I 

was taker, up arid continued by the new regiments as they | 

came into position. Alrhough the encn:rv claim that their I 

• . '' ' 

flanking culumn was greeted with a shower of shells and rifle- | 



* Thi:^ was 1 aylor'; l.'.rigadc, numbering 4,000 niJii (about five huudred more \ 

ihan tb.e whole of l)a;iks's army), p.s apjjear.s from tb.e fol'owirig letter to me from | 

(icn. Geo. L. Andrews, my fornn-jr licuter..i:U-co"'j;-.el : — J 

"\VEir Poi.NT, X. v., Tune r.i, iS^v I 

" £>:.;> Ge;;:rj.', — . . . After the surrender at Mi.r;':i:.n, on t'nc borderi ft J 

Alabama arid .Mississippi', \<. here 1 went to receive the parole of General Taylor's f 

aniiv, I had a conversation with the latter about the Winchester light. In t!:e | 

course of it, I said that if we could have or.pr.scd his v.'ho'e bri.Tatle with a battc"",', | 

and re-.(;rvtd t!ie infantrv nvc l<,'!;p.er, 1 thouL'lu vv.- mig't I^ave cl';ecked him. | 

" lie re]>lied in substance that no tloubt v/e should have hurt them a good 1 

deal, but he th-jui,'ht v,e couid nor have stop^-'cd him ; n'ldii g, ' I had 4, ceo men \ 
in tliat briurade.' " 



125 

balls, it is true to history to state that when the Twenty- 
Ninth Pennsylvania and Twenty-Seventh Indiana reached 
their position, they were imperfectly formed ; their fire was 
hasty and less effective than it should have been. At all 
events, the fire did not check the advance of the enemy, 
who, somewhat favored by the ground, formed his lines with 
the accuracy of a parade. 

When Jaok.-on saw Taylor in motion, he galloped along the 
rear of his line to the centre, and ordered a general advance ; 
then again nioving to the liill where Carpenter's Battery was 
firing upon our lines, the same from which he had exposed 
hirnselt at the beginning, he is represented as mounting it 
with an air of eager caution, and peering like a deer-stalker 
over its sur.irnit as soon as his eyes reached its level* What 
Jackson sav.^ ought to have encouraged him ; for now, looking 
down upon the steady movement of Taylor (despite the fire 
we poured into him), he saw the Twenty-Ninth and Tvv-enty- 
Seventh of my brigade break into disoider and begin to fall 
to the rear ; he saw the Second holding on for a moment, 
then turn, and v.e vvere in retreat, t 

"I can't help it," replied Col. Andrev.-s, as I rode hastily 
up to him v.ith the question, "Why are you falling back?" 
It v;as true. With hi-? right unco\'ered it would hnve lieen 
madness tu leniain.' " TJove in order, then, and retreat 
steadily,"' I replied, giving the same caution to the Third 



* Dabrcy, p. 109." 

t Gen. Andrews says, in letter of June 14th referred to, " The fire of the two 
regiments (Twenty-Seventh Indian.! and Twenty-Ninth Pennsylvania), opened at 
tu-t :>.l too grej.t .1 dist..nce from ilic enemy, suddenly ceaSi.d; the men broke rar.k.s 
:ii:d icii to the rear. I n-iw u .^'e the e .nun.o.id to the Second .M:t.-;iacl!:;--etts, ' liy 
company, r:;jiu wheel, n'.arcli ! ' interidiiv^ to dci)Ioy to: ward and support what was 
left of the line opj)osed to the enemy ; but I soon saw that there was nothing left 
inline to o'ppose the enemy. The Twen.ty-Xinth Penns, Ivania hid partiaiiy rallied 
i:: ,1 !-r.t o'.'ii ]ue to the front of the ScxonJ .Mas.-:achu.-clts, before the wheel into 
column, having tiieir tacks turned towards iis. The Second MassachuGctts being 
now in colunin cf companies, I nivi-.x-d it to tlie r<-ar tov.-ar.is the town by tl-.e 
light of compat-'c.-, liie organization feeing perfectly preserved." 



1-2G 

Wisconsin, as it too turned. The scene imfolderl to Jack- | 

son vas one in which two regiments were retiring, some- | 

what in disorder, down the hiil towards the 'town; another, | 

the Second iMassach.usetts, was breaking to the rear in col- j 

umns of companies as quietly and orderly as if on parade ; I 

while the fourth and last, the Third Wisconsin, with line of . | 

battle formed to the rear by an about face, was moving leis- 1 

urely in retreat. Seeing this, Jackson, setting spurs to his | 

horse, bounded upon the crest, and shouted to tlie officers I 

nearest to him," Forward ai>er the enemy! " Then on ri"-ht ^ 

left, and centre, they swarmed in pursuit. There in front I 

were the Sconewall, Carpenter's, and Taliaferro's Brigades ; I 

to my right was Taylor's Brigade ; and hurrying up from \ 

the reserve was Els. v's, — ail in pursuit of my four regiments, | 

who were now in full retreat for the town.* \ 

On nght, left, and centre, immensely superior columns of I 

the enemy v/ere pressing upon my brigade, which numbered I 

at the beginning of the fight, all told, exactly 2,101 infantry I 

and one battery. Not another man v/as available. Tliere I 

vvas no support between us and tiie Potomac, f Above the \ 

surrounding crests surged the enem}-, wlio opened upon, us a -| 

sharp and v.dthering fire of musketry. A storm of bullets | 

from tlie hill wJiere we ha J so k.ng <:cw\\w\XcA the main body j 

oi Jackson's lorces crr-;ssed their fire wiiii that fi'om Ta3-lor's | 

Brigade now on the crest in our rear. Above the din of mus- I 

kctry, a yell of triumph rose from t!ic endless columns ihat \ 

seemed to gn-u the town. My troojxs were not dismayed, I 

though many had killen. We had not yet gained the cover | 

of the streets, and soine of my brigade, notably the Second \ 

* \y j^hx\\.\ , p. 109. I 

t During our whole ti-ht tlie Tenth Maine Regiment, on duty as a provost- \ 

guard at \Vinchester, w-^ aii.^wod to peiforn"; ti.i-; duty. M I; inks I.i.cw t!icv \ 

wercm tcnvr, he did n-U aul upon thoin. It is .l.iaied that tlicy were held in | 

rc-oerve ; but it is manile>t that if, in that battle ^^i Winchester,!" was proper \ 

to hold .uiy tro'jps in reserve, tlicre %va. no lack of oceuMon to call upu-i them ; j 

and this was n.jt dr'ue. See .Maine i:i the V,"ar o. 22a. \ 



127 

IMassachiisetts and Third Wisconsin, disdained to do so until 
again they liad turned in defiance upon the foe.* In full 
sight of Jackson and his army, the Second kept its formation, 
and delivered its fire, ^vhile three companies of the Third 
Wisconsin, from behind a stone v/all, emptied tlieir muskets 
ItUo the faces of the advancing lines. 

Not until my acting adjutant's! horse was shot dead by my 
side, not until my aid returned to reply that he had given my 
m.essage to Gen. Banks that my right had been turned, and I 
was fai'ing back, did I, with the last of my command, leave 
the field and turn into the streets of Winchester. We had 
made our last stand, and though driven after a three hours' 
fight, in such a retreat there was nothiiig of shame. There 
were but fifteen rounds of ammanltion left for roy baitery ; 
and there was no amrnunition-train from which tn replenish 
the cartridge-boxes of the infantrv. Ali this, if tliere v,-ere 
no other reasons for turning when we did ; but there Avas 
another, even this : a delay of a few minutes from the time 
the Twenty-Ninth Pennsylvania and Twenty-Seventh Indiana 
broke to the rear from the right woi:ld have caused our cap- 
ture or destruction. It was cff.ciapy repc^rted t that an order 
to these regiments to fall back was given. If so, it was with- 
out au'i^ority. I teel sure none was ever given ; bui in vie^v of 
the results, I cannot condemn the \vant of discipline that 
caused it. 



* It was aSou: this lime tr.at Lieut. Crowninshicld was wounded, .'^avs C.ipt. ■ 

Coriiev, of tl.e Second Maisnchiisetts Ke^iimeni, in a letter of April 24, iSr; : ! 

, . ' . ... ;^ ' 1 1. /J . , 

" The right of the coiurnu had ne.irly reached a jtreet on the outskirts of the town i 

whfo. Oou niiishicid was hit, rr.^d cried our, ' I am sh^.t 1 D j nor ieave nie! ' In^mc- | 

ciately we left the ranks and went 10 his as-isT.mce ; f:jur.d him trying to rise from 1 

the ground. Together we strove to re.ioh the town, — had but little hopes of j 

doing so, as the rebels were closiiig in on ail sides but one. ^cvgt. McDowell j 

came to our assisLance, and picking Crowninshield cp, we harried him to one of } 

the .:;:u;i stre.-r; ai^d pbci::g him in an anibdance, h'-^ Ntartcd f-r a >:.(:: '^iace. i 
Tlij driver of the ambuLanpe at one time was going to cut the traces and leave, 

but Crowiiinshiold's revolver {je!'.-riiaded him to starid bv." j 

\ I.i-iit. Charics P. llotton, of tiie Second M.asbachusetts. \ 

\ n;u;ks's Kciwrt. 1 



128 

As my troops faded away into the streets of Winchester, ^ 

the scene, as painted in colored sketches by the imaginative 5 

Dabney, * is represented as the most imposing sight that j 

ever greeted the eyes of a victorious captain. " Far to the j 

east," he says, "the advancing hnes of Ewell rolled forward, j 

concealed in waves of white smoke from their volleys of mus- ^ 

ketrv, as thoy were rapidly passing the suburbs of the town. | 

On the west', the long and glittering lines of Taylor, after one | 

thundering discharge, were sweeping at a bayonet chaige up | 

the reverse of the hills witli irresistible momentum. Nearer | 

the general (Jackson) came the Stonewall Brigade, v.dth the | 

gallant Tventy-Third Virginia, who sprung from their lairs.f i 

and rushed panting dov.n the hillsides. Between him (Jack- | 

son) and the town the enemy v/cre everywhere breaking away | 

from the wahs and fences, behind which they had sheltered | 

themselves, at firbt with some semblance of order, but then 3 

dissolving into a vasi confusion, in v^'hich the infantry, mounted 



* P. 109. 

t " Lairs " is good. 

X In Gen. Andrews's letter, of Jur.e 14, he says, " I supposed the Strug;.::!? might 
be rcntv.e:! i:; tb.e town irself, as I s.wv st.me tro-.p^ a]'n.ireivly disposed t'^ make 
a stand in one of the streets of the town. It was in one »i the streets that I halted 
the regiment and' rectified the position of some of the cimpanies that had got 
out of place ir; filing into the narrow streets. Soon tinding, however, that evury- 
tliinj vv.i:> i:^ full retreat, I marched off the re dnienL" 



officers, and artillerv ciowded and surged through the streets." i 



Vast confusion 1 Our artillery and ird'antry moved through 1 

the touTi in as good order as the crov.'ded conditiofi oi the j 

streets would permit. The Second Massachusetts Regiment, \ 

marching in order, passed through the lower part of the sub- | 

u'-bs, and formed in lir.c b\ Lieut. -C<_d. Andrews v.dth perfect | 

steadiness and. reguiariry, in ord;:r to change the position of ^ 

certain companies t that they might be, if the fight were to i 

be continued, in the order provided te>r by the regulations. To | 

do this, he threv; out his guides to secm-e a good alignment. | 

A hot f re of grape and shell from the enemy's batteries close 1 



129 

to the town, the near approach of the cavalry, and the victo- 
rious cheers of their infantry about his ears, induced Col. 
Andrews to follow the retreating column, even though he 
sacrificed some paragraphs of the tactics. The Second, the 
last regiment to leave the town, followed the line of the rail- 
road, which for some miles runs parallel to the road from Win- 
chester to r.Iartinsburg, and joined the main body of Banks's 
column a few males out ; but the ertcray were so close upon 
them that Major Dwight fell into their hands. He could have 
escaped but for his sympathy with a wounded m.an, whom he 
aided into a house.* 

ivciurn now to the main street, through which, towards 
IMartinsburg, moved the main column of our troops. An 
eager ejiemy was C'ose upon u/. ; there was no time for any 
arrangement or defence. Pursuers and pursued were swal- 
lowed from view, and the rout roared through ever}' street 
with rattling rihe-shots and ringing cheers f from the enemy. 
In the main street J found myself, with my staft', in rear of 
a battery. All around and in front, there w-as a confused 
mob. At the whidows and on the piazzas there v/ere more 



* .Aftei Major Dwi^ht's capture, a very quiet and peaccible affair (given by i 
Qiiirii in "Second MassacLu-ctts Reaj^d '')) *-ii" nujcT reir.i.ineJ in \^'inchester, 

and of cnjr?e v.'.i3 n^jt ir.-iCLive. iTe visited the scene of oi.r fig ;it, reviewed our ! 

position, comforted tlvj wounded, and buried our dead. For some required con- | 

veniences Major Dwij:;Iit was compelled to appeal to Gen. Jacks>.>n, of whom the j 

majur had often !v_'a:u nie .-pe.;k as an old friend an.u cla...jnijte, as ">\eil as as-'o- j 

ciate in our Mexican War. It %■ .^s urged by Major l-wi^ht, in his appeal to i 

Stonewall Jackson, that he was a major in tlie Second Massachusetts Regiment, | 

comniar.dcd by Col. Gordon, of Massachusetts, "who is, I believe," said the i 

mij'.)r, " un o'.d friend of yoi;rs." I 

" i r;ci:d of mir.e, sir .- " repiicd " old Tack." " He was, sir, once a friend." ] 

iVc.ajor Dv.iglit retired, hi> request unheeded. As I '^rile these lines, the name ] 

of " 'J'. /• Jackson, of Virginia," confronts mc from a sheet filled -with the auto- j 

tr:'p'.,T '^f my classmates at the Mili'ary .Academy at \Ve;-t Point, reminding | 

niG of tlu't l.'Oy companion to whom the dawn of life ua,- as sen'oiis as its close, — -j 

that honest, dear "old Jack," who as Lieut. -Gen (Stonewall) Jackson rem'.m- | 
heied n.e, in 1^6.?, no Icr.ger as a fricrd. — Author. 

f Da'juey, p. 104. i 
17 



f .,} 



130 

men than I had ever before seen in the town. Women, 
too, were there, well dressed, rushing to their doors and 
windows with unrepressed expressions of joy at our defeat. 
Besides soldiers, horses, and batteries, there were men, 
women, and children in the streets, each making frantic 
efforts to get out of the way. Amidst the crack of rifle-shots 
and the bursting of shells ; * through the fire of musketry and 
pistol-shots, which killed many of our men in the street ; and 
worse than all, under the humiliation of jeers and taunting 
glances of defiance from young and old, male and female, we 
at length came out of the town upon the north, on the Mar- 
tinsburg road, where a lojig column of baggage-wagons, divis- 
ion, brigade, and regimental, were making their way in fair 
order towards the Potomac, Gen. Jackson was in possession 
of Winchester. Greeted with every demonstration of affec- 
tion by the inhabitants, Jackson is rej>resentcd as, for the first 
and only time in his life, tearing a greasy, faded old forage^ 
cup from his head, svv-inging it in tlic a'r, and attempting to 
cheer ; then, with his " face inflamed v.ith towering passion 
and triumph, galloping amidst the foremost of his pursuers 
and urgi!ig them upon the enemy." 

With all tb.e baggage that we had saved from Strasburg, 
and wit.h all that we had added ac Wmchester, leaving behind 
us the sick, the djdng, ihe dead, and many prisoners, v\'e 
moved rapidly northv^-ard for Williamsport to cross the Poto- 
mac. As we gained the hill north of the town, I turned 
to look back upon the ridge of v.hich I have spoken as 
almost surrounding Winchester. The entire crest for three 
parts of tins vast circumference was covered with the encnr.-. 
Now, for the first time, I saw Gen. ]>anks making a feeble 
efiort to arrest the troops, and utterirjg some words about 
pronnsed r='inibrcemeuts. Turning his eyc^ backwa-xl I 
think there .was no doubt in his own mind that the enemy 
had developed his force to him, — tluis reversing the necessity 

* Uue cr uliich bv.rst cloic to us, neurly c'en-.LiIishir.g a hoiise. 



131 

with which Gen. Banks had met my most urgent appeals on 
the night of the 23d of May, — "I must develop the force of 
the enemy." Gen. Banks had made no provision for a retreat, 
evidently believing that, with his inferior force, he should com- 
ply v.-ith his telegram to the War Department, sent the day 
before, and return to Strasburg. * "Why, encumbered as v/e 
were with baggage and wagons and all the material that 
hours before should have been sent awa}-, v/e v/ere not de- 
stroyed, must be answered by those who claim that, on this 
occasion, Jackson exhibited the highest order of military 
talent. 

The pursuit was feeble iii the extreme. Jackson with his 
whole force followed us to Bunker Hill, thineen miles, but 
finding that he could not llanl: or cut us off, he halted his in- 
fantry and gave up the pursuit to Ashby, the untiring, who 
continued it with his battery aiid cavalry, sending shells, round 
shot, and grape into our rear, with destruction to some bat- 
tery-horses and a U:\v men ; but even this v/as stopped at 
Martinsburg. After twenty-four miles of mounted pursuit of 
foot-men, eveu Ashby was tired. Where v-.-as Stev.-art with 
his three cavalry regiments, Ashby's, Alumford's, and Fiour- 
noy's, to oppose Gen. Hatch v;ith less than one (he had, as it 
will be remenibered, less than nine hundred men al Strasburg). 
Urjdoubtedly a leeble pursuit by cavalry was made on the 
Beryville road and on tlie railroad, wliere broken parts of our 
command were -seeking to make their way to Harpers Ferry; 
many stragglers, and men wearied from long marching, fastiuig, 
and fighting, also the wounded " who had sunk on the ground 
over[)o\vered.," — many sucti were picked uto b}- the enemy's 
cavah-y ; b;it what else .^ What, that any commander of even 
ordmary ability would have done, under similar circumstances ? 

* Such a t-legrari was in the hands of the Couiraittco on the Conduct of the 
\V:ir, and aa expkiuaiion asked of a \vi:ness who was attemjiling to show that 
l^aiiks kiic'.v before ho Itit Strasbiir,;, the number of Jackson's forces. When 
l-aiiks in hio onicial report s.iii fcj did kno^v tho nuuiber, he iuT'^oi this tclcstam. 



132 

Feeling the necesF-ity of dcfendinc; him, Dabney or Cooke, I 

or both of them, aver that Gen. Jackson ordered Gen. Stewart a 

to follow with his cavalry, and capture lis, even as Flournoy I 

had ridden down and captured Kenly on the 23d in his I 

attempt at escape ; and Ste\."art would not obey, because he | 

was under the immediate command of Ewell, from whom he | 

had received no orders. What man of military fame would I 

not blush at such an excuse ! It is v.dth amiazement that I, | 

e\en now, recall that retreat from Winchester. Encunibered | 

'i 
with baggage, a wearied, defeated, overworked, and despond- | 

ing force plods on its foot-march for fifty-four miles to the i 

Potomac, receiving a constant fire of artillery in its rear for | 

tv/cnty-fou:- mdies, and is jicrmitted to cross, its material and | 

its troops occupying m so domg until ten o'clock of the r^ext |. 

day; and this without an attempt to waylay, to flank, or to - i 

surprise it wiih a cavair}- force in numbers quite equal to if | 

not exceeding one half of all Banks's command. | 

It was eleven o'clock at niglit v/hen the last of our column I 

reached the banks of the Potomac, opposite Williarasport. = 

Our m.en tumbled dov/n upon the grass and slejjt until 2 a. m. I 

of the 26:h, v,-hen we v/ore aroused to begin the passage of I 

the river. The scene before crossing scorns to have struck 1 

. . . k 

Gen. PauKS''^ as " ut the mosi animating and exciting descnp- | 

tion." " A thousand camp-fires," he says, " were burning on | 

the hillsides, a thousand carriages of every description v/ere | 

crov.-ded on the banks ; and the l:>road river rolled between the f 

exhausted troops and their coveted rest." The appliances tor | 

crossing v.-ere miost inadequate. It was a mercy that Jackson's | 

iinv/illing cavalry and too tired infantry did not follovv' us up; | 

it was a crime not to be forgiven that our passage ot that | 

river depended upon such contingencies. For the passage | 

of the "thousand wagon.s" (if there were a thousan.d) by the \ 

''thousand ca;iip-fu'es " f there was a single ferry, and o"/er | 

. this the ammunition-wagons had preceden.ce. In the lord, | 

* J'.inkis's Rt; urL j Omo w.igjn to coxa fire. 



133 

too deep for safety, many hapless mules were drowned and 
many wngons lost. Only a few strong; animals got through. 
Sonie of the pontoon-boats, saved fromi the burning, luckily 
were found in our wagons, and with these, the ferry, and the 
ford, some in one v/ay and some in another, all got safely to 
land. At midday of tiie i6th the last of our command had 
crossed, and thercvvere "never m.ore grateful hearts in the 
sam.e number of men," sa}-s Banks, * " than when we stood on 
the opposite shore." I certainl}' can speak for one grateful 
heart, that of my colored woman Pt-ggy, who with her child I 
passed among the first across the swollen river to a land of 
freedom. 

Acrr>5;s the Potomac! Yes, we were again whei'e, in July of 
the preceding year, we had made our march so gayly into \ 

Virginia. One more ca.m.paign was ended. There was nov/ 
left from Banks's command on Virrdnia soil a feeble rear-guard j 

of four companies from the Second Massachusett.- and Third ! 

Wisconsin of my brigade. I 

The purposes and plan", that animated Gen. Banks during j 

this retreat wore revealed to the world on the thirty-first day i 

of r^Iay, iSGz (six days after the events here narrated had i 

occurred}, in his Official Pvcport. In this pajjor I not only i 

learned for ti;e nrst time what hi^ plans were (if he liud any) j 

at our conference in Winchester, but I further found out that | 

bcf jre three o'clock in the morning of the preceding day, the j 

.^-ithi, v.-hile at Strasburg, he knew all about '-'the extraordinary j 

force of the enemy," and fnlly appreciated that '' to attack him, . i 

he being in sucli overwhelming force, could only result in cer- j 

tain destruction," and that "it was arjparent that the enemy's i 

i 
troop", embraomg at least 25,000 to 30,000 men, were close 

upon us." Now, with all this information and belief, Banks 

had arrive 1 at Winc'ncvt-.T, hnd heard .';il ray statements in i 

i 

confirmation of his. own opinions, liad questioned my [prisoner, j 

had heard iroai all classes, — secessionists. Union men, refu- j 

- i;;ir.l:t>'s Report. | 






■1 



, i-..i rd.io J 



134 

gees, fugitives, and prisoners, until os he says his " suspense 

was relieved, for all agreed that the enemy's foree at or near | 

Winchester was overwhelming, ranging from 25,000 to 30,000 \ 

men." With all this information, and conclusions based upon 1 

such incontrovertible testimony, Banks states in his Official | 

Report that then and there at W'inchester, he "determined j 

to test the substance and strength of the enemy by actual j 

collision." | 

Everything was confirmed at Winchester that was known | 

at Strasburg of the overwhelming numbers of the enemy, and \ 

yet Banks " determined to test by actual collision the sub- \ 

stance and strength of the enemy" ; to attack an' enemy | 

known to be "in such overwhelming force that our attack 3 

could only result in certain destruction" — to ourselves. j 

And therefore upon his arrival at Winchester, Banks sent j 

off his telegram to the War Department that he would return I 

to Strasburg the next day.* | 

In conclusion, I may say that it v.as not until the scenes of I 

that march from Strasburc" had been carefullv reviewed, not i 

uniil the terrible tatiuae, the heat and dust, the rack and I 

roar of battle, the feared attacks of cavalry hovering around i 

the long miles betore us, the v/ide and dangerous river in I 



* Alat for hi-:ory \vhi.-u made up fiuiu 0.';ici:-L! KciioUs ! 



our path, and the paaic-strickon crowd of fugitives ; -not until I 

these Vv'ere over could we fairly estimate our achievements. \ 

From the 24th of May, at eleven o'clock, a. m., until near ] 

midnight of. the 25th, my brigade had marched from Stras- | 

burg to Williamsport, a distance of fifty-four miles. To this, | 

two miles more should be added to the march of the Second | 

Massachusetts, on its return from Bartonville to Nen-town. i 

where we turned upon Jackson. Without sleep on the night of I 

the 23d, the brigade marched the ne.xt day eighteen miles to j 

Winchester. On this same day the Second Massachusetts not \ 

only marched farther than any other regiment of the brigade, J 

but from three o'clock, p. m., until two o'clock of the next dav, I 



135 

it was en^faged in an almost continuous skirmish with the 
enemy, holding back alone, in the most plucky manner, as 
narrated, the head of Jackson's army, materially defeating his 
plans, and giving ample opportunity, which might have been 
availed of, to remove much government property, that was 
destroyed or captured. And on the :!5th, after two hours' 
rest, my brigade maintained its unequil contest for three 
hours against alm-rist the vvhole of Jackson's army. In this 
the principal share of the lighting in the infantry fell to 
the Second oNlassachusetts. It was entirel}' due to this regi- 
ment that Jackson was unable to, or at any rate did not, seize 
the crests of the hill from v/hich he had driven our pickets,* 
and render untenable the heights from which we at last fell 
back into the- town. After their three hours' fight, my 
brigade marched thirty-six miles in about twelve hours. 

On the evening of tlie same d:iy in which we crossed the 
Potomac, Jackson's arm.y, prostrated with fatigue and helpless 
as chii'.lrcn, reached the vicinity of Williamsport. They had 
been overv.'orked by their great commander, and to this we 
owed our safety. 

Theie remains to consider our losses in this retreat, — 
first of rren, second of material. 

Barilcs, in his Official Re[>ort of Losses on the 24th and 
25 th, gives as totpd killed, 3S ; wounded, 155; missing, 711; 
total, oo-i- ; he thinks the number of killed and v.'ounded may 
be larger than this, while many missing may return, but that 
the aggregate wdl i5ot be changed. t 

Ideut.-Col. Andrews reports the loss in the Second Tdassa- 
chusetts Regime!! t on llie 25th, as 7 killed and 2S wounded ; 
amiong the latter are included two commissioned officers, Capt. 

* Major Dwight, uhile on parole at home, saw a Confederate captain at Fort 
'War'i.-n. taken at Cro^s Kcyes. Ti\;s captni;-; s:iid to Dv.iij;ht, "I have been in 
every battle in ^'irc:inia since Buil Run, and I never was under sucii a fare as that 
of ti!c S-cond Massachusetts at Winchester." 

t To our own force, as t-nunierated, should be added r.ve companies of Mary- 
land cavalry that were stationed at Winchester. 



:• ;- i 



13G 

Mudge and Second Lieut. Crowninshicld, He also reports 
131 missing, " though many are coming in daily, having been 
compelled to halt from exhaustion, and after recovery finding 
their v,ay in by different routes." On the 24th, Lieut. -Col. 
Andrews reports his total loss to have been 3 killed and 17 
wounded. Banks also reports that there were 1S9 men of 
Williams's Division sicl; in hospital at Strasburg, and that 125 
of them were left in the hospital at Winchester and 64 not 
removed frc.m Straaburg, — left there with two surgeons and 
attendants. At Winchester, Dr. Stone of the Second was 
left in charge. Ln addition to these surgeons, there were 8 
others who fell into the enemy's hands. Gen. Shields, when 
he marched for Fredericksburg, left !,ooo sick and disabled 
men at Strasburg. Banks says, " Surgeon King, division 
surgeon, exhibits tlie disposition of them," but does not say 
what it was. 

Of material, Banks states, " All our guns were saved. Our 
wagon -train consisted of nearly five hundred v;agons, of which 
number fifty-five were lost. They were r^ot, with few excep- 
tions, abandoned to the enemy, but ^vcre burned * upon the 
road. Nearl}' all of our supplies were thus saved." ]3ut the 
stores at Front Roval, of which he "had no knowledge until" 
his visit to that post CiV,. the I'ist irst., " and those at Win- 
chesier, of v/iiicli a considerable portion was destroyed by 
our troops," are not erabraccd in this statement. Quint f says, 
" A. v.-agi)n-train eight miles long lost only fifiy UTigor.s, and we 
brought off 'all our artillery, losing ori!)- one caissori." 

Tile enemy's account of his captures is put with force: 
" The complete success of our etTorts can never be known. 
We liave captured thousands of prisoners, killed and wounded 



* I never hcirJ of any \^agrn.^ burned iip'-ir. the road but \\\c nine I destroyed 
\.\?x Xc\v[o.'. n. I r.e\cr heard of our rec.ijj'turc ot tiie six miles of wagons, taken 
by the eneniy bct\\fen Strasburg and Middktown. — AuTiior- 

t C!;aplaia i^tcct.d Ma.-^aci.Listtts, in '• Record of b'eCv^nd M.issachu.-ietts 
Jiifantrv." 



137 

hundreds more, seized miles of ba:;ga_ge-\vAg;ons, immense 
stores of every imr-^inabie description, together with many 
cannon, thousands of small arms, ammunition by hundreds of 
tons, medicines, and public documents of value, thousands 
of shoes, and have burned millions of property for want of 
transporLation."* Says another Southern v/riter, " Banks had 
abandoned at Winchester all his commissary^ and ordnance 
stores; he h?d left in our hands 4,000 prisoners, and stores 
amounting to millions of dollars." f 

Our o'va papers reported our losses as very heavy. 
This excited Banks, who sent on the 31st of May, through 
the Associated Press, froni V/illiamsport, a despatch that 
" Great regret and some indignation is felt here, that 
exaggerated and unauthorized and luifounded statements 
of losses of public property sustained by our retreat from 
Stra.sburg and Winchester have found publicity through 
papers at a distance. At present the figures cannot be 
accurately ascertained ; but the Jicavirst losses are knnmn 
to be very light compared v/ith the amounts exposed to cap- 
ture or abandonment by such a rapid retreat as it was nec- 
essary to perform." 

Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, in his order of May 29, 1862, 
announcing another brilliant victory b}' the combined divisions 
of Major-Generals Jackson and P2\vell, constituting a portion 
of thisa^my, over Gen. Tianks at Front Royal, iMiddletown, and 
Winchester, declares "that several thousands of prisoners! 
were captured, and an immense quantity of ammunition and 
stores of every description." § Among other captures the 
cnem.y claimed, to have taken a large amount of baggage at 
Cedar Creek, with all the knapsacks of the Zouaves. 

* Ashton's Letter from Batllc-Fieldi of the South, p. 324. 

t Polbrd's Lo>: Caaie. 

X In Johnsnn'.s Narrative he p'its the prisoners at 2, coo [probably nearly cor- 
rect — .4u(':,>\. Sec Xarr.itivc of Military Operation?, by Joseph E. Jehnstoii, 
C-,n. C. S. A., 1S-4, V. i^r). 

§ rtichn;./:'d M.xaminer of Ti'.ne ;, rS'?. 
I,s 



138 

The oris^inal reports of this retreat, my own among' the 1 

number, attributed many cold-blooded atrocities to the enemy. I 

In the excitement of snch a retreat, and thus early in the war, i 

] 

it was not strange that we put faith in improbable stories. I | 

have before me the account of one of the theatrical company, | 

whom I met in flight at Strasburg. He got tlirough to Win- j 

Chester, slept through the fight there, and was captured. Taken ] 

for a Southerner, which he was by birth, he volunteered to drive { 

Ashb}- to Martinsburg in an ambulance : Ashby, it appears, s 

was wounded at Front Royal in the shoulder, and could not | 

mount a horse. Following in the rear of our retreating armv i 

amid cannonading and dust, he saw nothing of the reported ? 

cruelties, but upon one occasion v^-as directed by Ashby to see ] 

11 one of our men lying by the road-side was alive. He was | 

of the Tenth Maine, — was dead. " Carry him over into the | 
adjoining field to prevent mutilation by animals," v/as Ashby's 



orders. . \ 

It does not come within the scope of this narrative to fol- | 

low the fortunes of the enemy under Stonewall Jackson fur- | 

ther than to say general!}', that for one week he held high j 

carnival all along the Potomac. He concentrated his troops 1 

m and around Charlestown ; he attempted v/ith his infantry to j 

ford the Potomac two miles above the railroi'd brio'^e at Har- 1 

per's Ferry, and was diiven back by our shells, fired from bat- j 

teries established where v.-c first pitched our encampment in j 

July of loGi ; he ascended Loudon Heights between the j 

Shenandoah and the Potomac, but v.-as driven off by our cuns \ 

r , . ' '• s 

from across the nver. Information of the numbers of Stone- \ 

wall Jackson's forces given by observers during his occupation * 

of towns between Winchester and Martinsburg, shows that we | 

had not exaggerated his strength. EwelFs Division, consist- 1 

ing of Taylor's Brigade, 5,00:>, Johnson's, 4,000, and Trimble's, ! 

4,000, vvas e.'.timated at 13,000. Jackson's own ir.imediate I 

column was given as n.ooo or 10,000. The lowest estimate | 

placed the combined sticn-tii of the cr.-r.iw at ?0,0OO. In { 

i 
\ 



,'. ■ I 



139 

the pursuit of Shields and Fremont, the battles of Cross 
Keyes and Port Republic, the march of Jackson to unite with 
the Army of Virginia, we did not participate ; therefore I 
leave them with no other allusion. On the 3rst of May, the 
enemy at Bunker Hill, Martinsbiirg, and Charlestown were 
apprised that Fremont from the west and McDowell from the 
east were closing in upon his rear. In one week after our 
fight at Winchester, Jackson, with his whole army, turned 
southward in flight. 

The effect of our retreat upon the country was startling. 
Here in Massachusetts the people were aroused by a proc- 
lamation. Plardly had "the thousand camp-fires" begun 
to glow around " the thousand wagons upon the banks of the 
rotoniac," at eleven o'clock at night of the 25th of May, when 
Gov. Andrew at Boston penned the last words of a proclamxa- 
tion, calling upon Massachusetts to rise once more for the 
rescue and defence of the capital. I'he wliole active mdlitia 
of Massachusetts were summoned to report on ]3oston Com- 
mon " to-morrovv-," from thence to "oppose with fiery zeal and 
courageous patriotism the march of the foe." * The next day 
the public \x?.s again CKcited by an appeal from Major R. 
Morris Copeland, Banks's adjutant-general, who happened to 
be in Boston during the fight. Copeland blamed the War 
Department for leaving Banks defcncc'ess.f 

* This wa> d.ite.l the 2;ih of May, Sunday evening, at eleven o'clock. 

1' This appe:.! came out in the '• Hoston Daily Advertiser," of v. hicli C. F. Dun- 
bar was thv^ editor, en the 2C±. of May, 1S62. As soon as it cuno to his notice, 
Banks, in a lel^jrar.-i to Dunbar, offered up Cope'aitd as a prjpiliatorv sacrince, 
as f^jllov.'S : — 

" Vv'iLLUMSL-JKG, Mi>., Tui;e 2, 1S62. 

"ToMr. C. F. Dl-.n-ear, 

"Major Copeland should secure some position in the Massachusetts Regiments 
of equn! rank to th.i': h- now lioids. Il is not con-is'-Ciit that lie shou'd return to 
his post here ai^jr his jirocjauiacioa in Ijoston. Please convey to him tiiis infjr- 
mation. 

" X. r. Banks, J/. G. C." 

See otatcnicr.t of it. M. Copeian'.', p. 17. 



140 

"The hands that hold the pen, the rr.ler, an (i the hammer 
■^■erc made in the;-fc days," says Copeland, ** for better things." : 
" Seize the musket and the sabre ! " he continues. But 
alas for Copeland ! that he should have told the country 
to blame the Secretary of War fur our retreat ; for this was 
given by the President as one of tlie reasons * v;hy Cope- 
land's hands, during the remainder of the war, held nothing | 
more belligerent than '•' the pen, the ruler, and the haminier."t | 

In other States the excitement v/as scarcely less intense than I 

in j\Iassachu.-.etLS. Nev,- York sent her Eleventh Regiment of | 

I 

State INIilitia. They arrived at Harper's Ferry on the 30th of I 

May, ar.d refused to be sv/orn into the service of the United | 

States unless they could dictate terms, which v/ere, that | 

they s'lould go to Washiuglon a:id ])c placed in a camp of ■i 

instruction. This being refused by officers of the United | 

States army, the vdiole regiment marched over to Sandy | 

Hook, where they sle[)t upon it, with the result that eight ^ 

companies took the oath, one asked for further time, and one | 

started for home. » 

On the 2Slh of ?.Iav, Gen. Banks thought it his dutv to I 

. I 

assign a tall brigadier-general to the command oi mv bri- « 

gade, and m3.ke the War Department responsible for the |- 

change. I-'or this lie selected Gen. Greene, one of the two | 

* After Copc'aiid'i c:^;:n-.s;; vl froru the army, iu Augu^t, 1S63, he sought an | 

interview with Abraham Lincoln, the Presidt-.t of the United States, nt which | 

the follc\vi!-ic: occurred : — 1' 

I 

••' The PrcsKknt replied, ' Well, sir, I kn.jw son-iethir.g nbcut your case, r.r.d I 11 'j 

tell you v.-hat I know. You '/c tlie maji who v.-ent to Boston about the V.v.\c Jack- | 

SOP. broke through at Frunc Kuyal, a:id wrote letters and editorials abusing t!;e | 

administraticn, and made sr-ecches, and did all that you could to make a tu53.' " — ■! 

SictUT'urtofJ^. M. Cc-d:itid,p. 30. I 

" .\nd I'.'.n li-.e Prv.sidcn: renlied, ' We!;, I did r.r^t know you were dismissed. 1 

I never saw the order, that I know of, until to-day, tliough of course it has been | 

laid befjre me and recc' .ed \:\\ oldcial sanction.' " — SiuLmc:U r/'A'. M. Ccfcuma, j 

t See a letter vindicatijig Secretary Stai'.ton, vrritten 1^7 Iforatio ^Vood■!un, | 

Esq.. in "lio-toa Dai'y Tra:,3:r;pt" of Ju-.-.o n, 166::, supriOj'ed to have bjcn | 

inspire'.! by Gcjv. Audrtw. i 



141 

supernumerary brigadiers who had accompanied us from 
Strasburg. In his order Ge:i. Banks tn.kes especial care to 
speak in praise *-orthe part taken by my brigade during the 
retreat. Witiiout the services rendered by my own Second 
Regiment, I co;iId not have been commended. 



* Hi:.A.DQUART£r,s Department of the Shenando.-vh, , 
Wu.LiAMSPOKT, Md., May 2S, 1S62. ( 

Gf.-Verai. Order, No. 26. 

I. Ilriji-.-Gen. Geo. ."-;. Greene, (J. S. A., having reported for duty at these 
headquarters in acccrdaucc with the orders 01 the War Dep.annierit, is assigned 
to the command of the Third Brigade, Gen. A. S. Williams's Division, and will 
relieve Col. (_ieo. II. Gor^lon, Second Massacliusetts Volunteers, who on being 
relieved vriii assume command o£ his regiment. 

I I. In annnanoirg this change in the orgari/atiov: of the Third jir'gade, under 
the general diieciioii oi tb.e Depaument or War, the commanding general desires 
to express his anqvialined approval of the manner in v.hich Col. Geo. H. Gordon 
has discharged tlic duties of brigade-commandcir. In organization, discipline, 

instruction, and e^uipn-.ent he has maintained and elevated the standard of his com- '• 

niand. In rhe execution of his orders, often, from the e.xtreme necessities of our ! 

position and t:.c great redaction of our forces, sudden and difncuU, he has been i 

prompt and sncccs-fal, e.\hib;ting on all occasions the quahtics of a prompt and ; 

patri'/tic otrice.. [ 

The conup.ancling general has also the pleasure of expressing his approval of j 

the manner in '.vhich the Third Lrigade and its commander discharged most | 

importa.at duties on the march, fr ^m Strasbnrg, on the 2.;th in-;t., in tliC affair v.-ith 1 

the cncn'.y, as the rear-guard of the cor.mi., on the cvc.ang of the sa'.ne day, ' 

\,"idch contiibut^..:' so :::uch to the sni^tv of the co.mmar.d, and in tiie engagement ! 

of the twenty-llicii at W mchester, Virgini.-i. He has the strongest confidence | 

t!rit its distinguished character and reptitadon vi!! be m.ainlained hereafter. 
T!ie comnianding general commends to the just consideration of the brigade its 
new c jnunandcr, Gen. Geo. S. Grecr:e, as an otficer of large experience and dis- 
tinguished character. 

I'y C'jinmar.d of 

Majok-Gl.nera:. X. P. Banks. i 

D. D. Perkins, ALi/o?- and A. A. A. G n. \ 

By coranrand of I 

G::.n-. a. S. Wn.Lr;..MS. 

\\ M. D. WiLKiNs, Ccjt. A. A. G. \ 

Official, 

S. K. PiTiMAN, 1^'. Lieut, and A. D. C. 



{\\ 






A. S. Williams, ^;-?^-Cc'«. N. P. Banks, 

Comd'g \it Dliision. J/. G. C. 

JuKN P. H.vicu, G"o. S, Gkeenk, 

Lri^-Cai. C'-:^y. £rig-C.>i. U. S. V. 

S. W. Ck.wvfoki), 

Bri<-Gcn. I. 0-. ;: 



142 

I 

On the 31st of May a paper was handed me by Gen. Hatch* I 

sie^iied bv all the officers of rank who were cocrnizant of or had ^ 

parricip.it^.d in the cveiit-s of the :'4Lh and 25th of rvlay. This \ 

paper, containing most flattering references to our brigade, | 

was the more acceptable, as without any knowledge what- | 

ever of it or its contents, it was presented to me with all the '^ 

names it now bears, save that of Brig-Gen. Crawford, which | 

was placed there afterwards. My own regiment shares v.-ith % 

me in the not t'alsume but discriminating praise bestowed, 1 

and again my heart speaks its thankfulness to the Second. I 

The feeling among the troops themselves, as indicating their I 

opinion of the part taken by our regiment, is here recorded | 

as of more worth than any praise bestowed upon us by others. | 

The 31st of May found Mr. Dwight, of Bosto^i, the brother | 

of our captured major, at our camp cii Toatc through Martins- \ 

burg to Winchester, to learn his brother's fate. Col. DeFor- ] 

est, then in command at Martins!)urg, was ordered by Gcrn. : 

Hatch to send with Tslr. Dwightan escort often men. — "n;en \ 

who can remember what they see of the enem}' and his ; 



* WlLLLA,M^POS.T, Md., May 3I, 1S62. 1 

To TiiK Hon. Edv.-in Stanto.v, % 

Secretary of IVar. | 

The uiK;er*ignc':1 ofricers cf the aiipy, scivir,.'::^ in the Dep?.r;ment of the Shcn- | 

ariUo.ih, tr.kc grc^t plij.-iurc ia recomiiienJing lor the nppointnicnt of brigadier- I 

f en-.r:ii, CoL Gtoii^e l\. Crordo!!, co:nraaRdii":g Second Maisachuseits RepimeiU. I 

Cot. Gordon h.is for the I.-.st three months t'^IIed the position asked for hir.i, ^ 

having been in commaiid of the Third Brigade of Williams's Division. T!ie higlr | 

state of discipline attained by his brigade, together with its admirable drill, h:ivc | 

proved his competency for the position. 2 

The apjiointment is more particularly asked as a reward for tl-.e niilitar,- ikill | 

and good cc-nd.uct shov.-n by him at ihc battle of V\'iii:",p^ter ou .Sunday last, and | 

thrcugliont the retreat from StrasburL'" to tl.is piace. I 



143 ! 

j 

strength." " Let them move," said the order, " with a white 

flag twenty }anls in advance of the ma'n body, and waving ; 

th-:^ flag, wait to be recognized by the enemy's pickets."* - 

A tclegiam from the Secretary of War, tliat my promotion 1 
from colonel to brigadier-general " could no longer be de- 
ferred," was sen; immediately after our arrived at Williams- j 
port to Gov. Andrew of Massachusetts. Tins tlnal act con- | 
nected with the days of the 24th and 25th of iMay requires I 
explanation. ' 

In July of 1S61 it came to my knowledge tliat the congres- 
sional delegation from Massachusetts had recommended my i 
promotion. The President of the United States in a personal . | 
interview informed me that the reason why he did not heed j 
tins re.jommendatioa v/a^ because "the go'v'crnor of yoLir ! 
State protests against it." I\Ir. Lincoln, at the time of j- 
n)aking this repl}', held in his han.d a pnper, from which he | 
assumed to read the protest. ! 

On the 4th of June, tS:'"2, Gov. Andrev;, in acknowledging I 

my application for tv.'o surgeons, and informing me that he has j 

sent Doctors Keadi and Davis, adds, " Ferinit me in closing ' 

to congratula'e vou, Colonel, upon vour nomination for promo- I 

tion U) the rank of brigadier-general, and also upon the bril- i 

liant ^;uccess achieved bv the withdrawal o; our forces, wiih so ' i 

little loss, froni the heart of tlie enemy's country and against a j 

lorce so completelv overwhelming." j 

On the 10th '.if June- Gen. Ikmks's corps recrossed the river {• 

at Willianisporl, moved through iMartinsburg and Winches- i 
ter, over historic ground, and went into camp at Eartonville, 

where the Second liad so al.ily arrested Jackson's march in | 

the night of the 24th of ?day. 1 

On the 1 2th of June, at W'^ashington, my commission as 



* Hov," cur major e>c.ipeJ from c:\ptivity without aid fioin his brother, has beea 
told too many times to repeat. Oa the 2i6t of June a despatch came to me, 
"ijwij^'it is saiCj pr'^oner at WincKesler. " 

(Sij^ued) F, d'UAUlEVlLLE. 



brigadier- p:eneral of volunteers was handed me, accompanied 
with an order from the Secretary of \v^ar to " report imme- 
diately for duty to Gen. Banks, wherever he might be found," 
and this proved to be at Winchester, where I arrived the 
next night to learn from him that he could not remove the 

brigadier-general commanding m.y brigade v.dthout a special | 

order from the Secretary of War.* The nc.\-t day, there I 

fore, I returned to Washington, carrying with me on her 1 

vv'ay to her new home, my negro woman Peggy and her child. \ 

Before I could purchase tickets for the woman I v.'as compelled | 

to give a bond to save the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Balti- | 

more Railroad harmless from any lawful claims that might be | 

hereafter brought against it by the owner of this colored j 

property. I rvradiJy gave niy bond, secured tlie tickets, placed ^ 

the bewildered v.-ornan and child in charge of a faithful express- \ 

man, and soon heard of their safe a';rival at tlie North, where, | 

i 

since tlien, they have in prosperity continued. | 

On the i8ih of June tlie Secretary of War specifically 1 

assigned mc to the command of my old brigade ; f. and \ 

on the ?.2d, after a fi-uitlcis eftort on the preceding day bv | 

rail z'/a Manassas, to reach Front Royal, to v/hich place my | 

com.mand Isad moved from I'urtonvilR', I slior-.k the dust of i 

Washington frori nvv' feet, vot to return to it again for two ] 

months, v.-iien, as part of a v/recked and broken armv, we \ 



* V/iNCHEST!iR, Va., Junc I ^. lVi..;.-r,-^r.. Gi:.rd>:ui v.\\\ proceed at once to .j 

Wa^hii-iorton, and remrt to t!;e Secretars- ot \Vaf fur faitl.er orders. 1 

^ ' - I 

V>y corainarid of | 

N. P. BvNvs, .V. G..C. \ 

\ 

t War DE."AiVrMfc..Nr, AujT-Gen.'s OFFrci-, ; | 

Vv'vsiUNGTON, juae iS, 1S62. ) | 

SPFcrvL Okper', Xo. 133. ? 

r,th. Bri-.-Gcn. Geo. 11. Gordon, U. S. Vols., is assij;ntd to duty in the 1 

Dei'-artnient of tlie Sliciiandoah, tn take comn\and of tiie brigade now LinJer | 

Bri^u; -Gen. Greene, ar.d will retiort in persoii to Major-Gen. I'-anks. | 

Jjy o.-der of the .Secret.uy uf War. ? 

I.. Tu.jMAS, AdiL-Gfu^raL \ 



145 

made our way across the Potomac to fight under McClellan 
at Antielarn for the safj.y of Maryland aad the North. Be- 
fore leaving" Washington, I enlightened the Committee on the 
Conduct of the War upon the subject of Union guards over 
enemv's property, upon which political soldiers vs"ere much 
exercised. 



19 



146 



CHAPTER. VII. I 

Bearing peremptory order? to Gen. Banli'?, I took the p 

route by Harper's Ferry, delaying there for an hour to stray | 

up to our old encampment on ^Maryland Heights. The camp- I 

groivnJ liad been converted into a flourishing v/heat-field, \ 

m vrhich the green bushes that once formed our slielter now | 

lay iri withered ard luisightly heaps, testifying to the not too | 

energetic efforts of the phlegmatic proprietor, the good old I 

Dutchman, Unseld, from, v/hcm I received a cheerful and -1 

hcariy welcome. Without pausing to moralize upon the | 

events wdiich our former bivouac recalled, and too hurried to | 

hear any of the long stories v/hich our eld host delighted in '| 

telling in slow ana measured tones, 1 recrossed to Harper's | 

Ferry, ^^here, taking cars lor Winchester, I readied my com- | 

mand oi; the 25th of June. | 

My camp was located on the I'^-ont Royal aiul Winchester | 

road, some seven, or eight miles nortii of the former town, | 

Vv'here v/e could warch the cro:5sings of the Shenandoah. The | 

officers of our regiment took the occasion of my a,rrival to i 

offer their congratulati(.)ns upo7i ray promotion. In f.ill I 

uniform, but v/ithout other display, they came forward to my | 

tent, led b}" Ca:jt. Carv, v.-'no, in. behalf of all, in, quiet but | 

feeling words, expressed for him:;'jlf a'^^d others gratitude at 1 

my return. I replied very briefly, — there vras no occasion for | 

much speaking : every one knew how glad I was to come | 

back, o.c.d how I had labored to o\'ercome plans (if there I 

were any) for my removal to another arri'jy. Tiicie '^vas ii'*L | 

an officer or j)riv.i.Lc of tlie Secorid Regiment v."ho did not I 



147 

know, without assumnce of mine, that my nearest, dearest, 

and st!-op,-';est tie was just themselves ; they knew it then, 
they know it now, and if they do no: die in that conviction 
it will be because they will never die at all Alas ! how 
soon the kind voices, the sparkling eyes, the generous and 
manly hearts that expressed so much sympathy in my pros- 
perity, v>ere to be hushed and lifeless on the fatal field of 
Cedir Alountain, towards which, over the Blue Ridge, we were 
soon to move, unconscious of the impending doom ! 

It was while Gen. Banks's headquarters v/ere at .Middle- 
to\\,n, and we were in camn near Front Royal, that we 
heard of the President's order of the 26th of June, 1862, 
gathering up all the stray and loose armies v.dthin the theatre 
of our op.:rations, and placing in conunand John lope, of the 
United States Engineers, v/ith the rank of major-general. 
1 well remember tlie day wlien this order cani'e to my head- 
quarters. An intense heat was fallowed by a terrinc storm, 
in v.dn.ch heavy clouds, obscuring th.e sun, spread over the 
landscape an unnatural gloom. The lightning flashed, and 
the thuiider roared in incessant peals, — a fitting prelude to 
almost any foirowing tragedy. Il was for us, at the begirining 
of our new campaign, a storm of ill omen, foreboding and 
portending dire ills. Wnnicvt-r the future might be, we now, 
however, addressed ourselves to instant preparation lor an 
active and important duty. 

1 n,e three corps of tlie new army v/ere to be conimanded 
by ficnerals IMcDowell, Banks, and Fremont. Our coips, 
no longer the Fifth of the Army of th.e Botomac, was to be 
known as the Second of tlie Anny of A^'irginia, and was to 
be commanded by Gen. l>anks. Bopc, at the date of this pro- 
motion, was Fremont's junior in rank, — a fact which the latter 
considered so okens"ve to his dignity that he refused to take 
the command assigned him ; therefore, Sigel was substituted, 
and Fremon.t retired, carrying with him all but our regrets. 
Gou. iV^pe's dopuitment covered th.e region which holds, 



148 

east of the Blue Ridge, the great battle-fields of the war. 
The troops were organized an.d posted to cover the city of 
Washington f.om any attack in the direction of Richmond ; 
to assure -the safety of the Shenandoah Valley ; and to 

operate upon the enemy's lines of communication in the | 

direction of Gordonsville, thus hoping to draw a considerable 5 

force of the enc/ny from Richmond to tlie relief of the Army i 

of the Potomac* | 

It is affirmed by Pope, and established by many facts that | 

form the groundwork of the history of that period, that j 

McClellan's refusal to correspond with Pope, or to unite with | 

him. in the execution of his plans, caused his removal from ,| 

the chief command of all the armies of the United States, \ 



1 



3 



and the substitution of Gen. Ilallcck as coniinauder-in-chicf. 

The strength of the three corps commanded by Pope, v/as 
as foUovrs : Sigel's Corps was reported as 11,500 strong; 
Eanks's Corps as 14,500, although in reality it numbered only 
about S,oo-D ; and McDov/cH's Corps v;as given as 18,400, 

— a grand total of 38,000, to which add for cavalry about | 

5,ooo.t j 

July came, to find us quiet in our camp, with Banks in | 

Washington ; from whence, on the 2d, he telegraphed to his | 

assistant adjutant-Tcneral to be in readiness to march. On i 

th.e 5th, ds.Sjiite holding back and suppression by the War ? 

Department, we knew that the Army of the Potomac was | 

driven back to Harrison's Landing, and that its struggles tor | 

Richmond had, for a time, ended. This adversity caused such • 

a departure from the plan Pope had formed, that it was nov.-, | 

not how to aid the Army of tlie Potomac in the capiure | 

of Richmond, but how to unite the two armies to save the I 

national capital and provide for a further prosecution of > 

the attack upon Richmond. After consideration, it was de- j 

termined to use the Army of \"irgirna maii-sly, while covering i 

the front at Washington and securing the valley of tlie j 

* I'ope'i Oii!.Lial Ktpoit. t Pope's Oiricial Report. j 



149 

Shenandoah, in forcing such heavy detachments from the i 

main force of the enemy as to enable the Army of the j 

Potomac to 'A-ithdraw from its position at Harrison's Land- ! 

ing, and take shipping for Aquia Creek or Alexandria,* and i 

so to embarrass the enemy, should he move northward, as 1 

to give all time possible for the Army of the Potomac to j 

arrive behind the Rappahannock.t , I 

On the 6th of July, with our part in the coming tragedy not 
yet revealed, we took up our line of march, halting the first 
night one mile south of the town of Front Royal ; and the next : 
day crossed the Blue Ridge at Chester Gap, to begin our i 
campaign within the reg'on bounded by those mountains and . j 
the sea. We rested at night in a pleasant woods, just before 
reaching the liltle. town of Plint flill, v;berc I had an ami- 
cable discussion with a Virginian upon secession a Consti- 
tutional ric'^ht. On the Sth we encamped near Amissville, i 
from whence, after a short day's march, I pitched my tent in \ 
the front door-yard of an unwilling host on the Warrenton road. | 
Our camps generally v/ere established in the neighborhood . j 
of q.iiet farms, which v,^3 occupied and ove'Tan, until we ; 
became a great, unnatural plague to the people. We filled ' 
their Vv'oods v,-ith our tents, we killed their sheep and calves, | 
and substituted, for the "drowsy tinkling of their lowing | 
lierds," the beating drum, the ear-piercing fife, and all the ! 
loud alarum of v,-ar. My sympathies were often touched as j 
our cold-eyed cemmissaiT seized the cattle, as they were mov- j 
ing from their quiet lolds in the early morning to their well- j 
known pastures, and doomed them to the shambles for our | 
troops. We were beginning to live upon the country. ' | 



* The p;e!ieral-in-clr.ef, accon:panicd bv (.ret'. Bnni^iJe; who had come from 
Korth Caiolina to Fortress Monroe with his army, visited Gen. rvIcClellan at 
IT.ivrist'u's n-T. The qisesiion of the U'ilhura:v:il of thr.t armv w^s Mjl^mitted to 
a cuuacil of oiiicers, and, agiinst the wishes and protests of McCkllan, was de- 
termined upon. It was to he removed at once to Fredericksburg. See Report 
of Congressional Committee, Opcratioi\s of Army of the Totuniac, p. 13. 

J i'opes Oi:k;ial Rcpoit. 






'.I 



150 

When Gen. Banks, on the 5th of July, returned from Wash- | 

ington he v.'ns despondent. At his mess-table the next morn-" | 

ing, ill the presence of some eighi olTicers and their servants, | 

v/iih an indiscretion unusual to him, he spoke of rumors oiloat I 

in Washington of disaster to McClellan, and fears of the cap- | 

ture of his whole command. He said that the President was | 

believed to be much alarmed and uncertain what to do, and I 

that some one commander should be placed in charge of the 1 

War Department and the armv in the nekl* The relation I 

of such matters v/as too much, for one of Banks's listeners, the | 

unlucky ^lajor Copeland, who, despite the telegram for his f 

removal af er the unfortunate proclamation, v/as here again 1 

with Banks, temporarily abiding until service could be secured | 

with Gen. Blunter in the S'.^utliern Department.-j- Copeland, j 

listening to the promptings of the evil one, believed that now | 

was the time for him to make the United States Government | 

abandon conservatism, as he called it ; t so he determined to | 

take the first step, and send a dispatch in secret cipher to Iris | 

friend Dunbar of the '" Boston Daily Advertiser," § v/hich | 

should riot only accomplish that >re5ulL, but perhaps eliect 5 

chariges in \\'ashington that might restore his status wiLli i 

officials in the War Department. 1 

The despatch!; v/as sent, ?nd Copeland"s doom v.-as sealed. i 

Within a lew days, while preparing to sail Irora New York tor | 



* r:in.-,.li'.ct .\-tr.Unient of I',. Murris Coi'c'and, forireily assistant adjutar.t-gvn- I 

cral to Banks, p..2i. j 

'] Un tl'.e 2d (.;" ju'.\ K.ir.ks telcgf.-.plicd Copeland iVoin Washington, " There is | 

nothing to ccinnuinicate up.in aiYairs Soiuli. Have rCLcived your desparciics. | 

The secretary \viU assign \ -■u *o Cen. IIu;ucr. Pi't o.ii ;;rce ir.to condition to j 

niove as soon as pos^i'lie, Yv'ili send you wc rd v,-l.._;i I iHiturn, think to-m'iirow. ^ 

•' X. r. ]ja\ks, .:/. G. c," I 

J Coi^ch.r.rl's Pamphlet Statcr.'.cnt, p. 22. | 

§ Coyeianc'-s^tat.rncn^. p. -. | 

;, *'Gcii. Pauko ref.ur.^d. McC.clinn, defeated and !in: It to be captnrcd, the | 

President, akirmed and iir.cer'ai;' what to do, urge that 'a >trong man be p'.iccd | 

at '.hc-h.e.id of afia;!-, U!'.d ticops be sent ra[ii'iiy fo! ward frfUi west.' '' — C\'-'- i 



151 

the Southern Department, he read in a New York paper that 
he was dismissed from the United States Service. Tiie only 
reasons for this e\'er given him by the President were founded 
upon the proclamation and despatch.* 

My ov.n experience with Banks, in an inter\'-iew after his 
return from Washington, in whicli I labored hard to get some 
hope out of our heavy despair from disastrous reports, was so 
intensely satisfactory that I cannot forbear giving it in this 
history. 

It was on the evening of the 5th of July, the day Bardcs 
arrived at the headquarters of his corps, that I rode to his 
tent, dismounted, and engaged with our austere chieftain in 
the follovving aniniated conversation : — 

"' Vv'hal irif(;rmatiG;i have 3'ou brought back to us, General.-" 

" None, sir." 
■ " Nothing of this sad o^Tair of Gen. McClellan's, — this rumor 
of his defeat ? " 

" Nothing, sir." 

"Nothing of the purposes of the AdministraLion in such an 
event .' " " ' 

" Nothing, sir." 

" Nothing, sir } Nothing ' Nothing I Can you, under these 
circumstancos t.<f our excessive anxiet^• an:i desire to know 
so:uet'uno, can you not rep^cat something.-* Surely the Ad- 
ministration must have some plans." 



"' "Con'i!p;e:l the Pr(^:dent, 'I don't known-hat t'-e char^^?; are, but I du 
know tli.it sua sent a nii'St ir.ip;o|>er and malicious telegram iji cipher to a 
iJo.ston edit.jr, wh.ich no orricer had a right to do, saying I was scared, .\rcClelIan 
was to i-.e capuired, and we were all going to ruin. Yt-m ihougiit yui were 
very sha.i\ and put it into ,s<Mne kii>d of a cipher you ir.a;le up; b'lt we've got 
some very cute fe'.liws in th.; tch.-graph or":;.:'., and '■ne •>■. thcui f >und it out and 
sent it to rae to read, a'.\d I could see p'aiiiiv enough t.hat you i)e!onged to that 
chtss '-A \r,.'T\ \:l:r> arc tryiug !•> ni -.ho all the iri-ch; f -or chc Go-, orni-icnt th:it 
tl-.ey can. Fact is, I L-^lieve yoa want to help run thi; Go.'e.r;nr;-.;i!, :-^nd because 
you don't get as inach notice a.% you thinlc you deser.e, you arc trying to iliake 
troul.ile.''" — S:.::.;/ui:; rf A', .'/i Cf—^s./J,/:. 32. 

[XoiK. — As Copciaiid w.is t:jr:n.r.y quaiteruiaster of the Second Regiment, 
this cxcr.vci is [lait of the hiiibry I am ibiiowiag. — Avrir'i^] 



,-r 



152 

With a great oath Banks broke his, silence : " By God, sir, 
v/ithout houest men this country will be ruined, sir ! " * Gen. 
Banks delivered tliis irrefutable sentiment to the intense sat- 
isfaction of — himself. 

At the camp near Warrenton (we moved there on the Sth) 
we sent to Alexander such superfluities as baggage and tents, 
for we were not only to live on the country, but were to sleep 
on it unsheltered, and cloti'ie ourselves as might be. But the 
men v;ere in good spirits, and soon threw off all depression, 
even if they had felt any, because of the defeat of the Army 
of the Potomac. 

One of the memorable incidents that occurred at this 
camp was the recovery of a horse that had been stolen from 
me b}' some of lac New York cavalrymeii, on the morning 
we crossed tlie river at Wiiliamsport on our retreat before 
Jackson's army. I'he animal, noticeable for his flowing 
mane and tali and for his rich color, a mahogany bay, dis- 
appeared a fev,- minutes after my servant had tied him to a 
fence on the TJaryland side of the Potomac at Wiiliamsport. 
There was -a house near tlie fence occupied by a sergeant or 
two of the Xcw York cavalry, but they had seen nothing of 
such a horse, they told my man, repeating their denial to me 
with an iioncst. toucli of incipient indignation at my cros.s- 
cxaminc'.tion. It was certain the horse had not strayed off, 



" IvIar-kll!; j. 11' v.- i-- "t, lay ruble lord ? 

" Horatio. Vv'hat news, my lord 

" Hamlet. Oh, wonderful ! 

" lloR. Good my lord, teli it. 

'• Ham. No ; you will reveal it. 

" Ho:;. Not I, n\.- lord, by heaven ! 

"Mar. Nor I, my lord. 

" Ham. How say you then : would heart ot man once think it ? 

— But you 'II be secret ? 
''■ Hor:. Mar. Ay, by heaven, my lord ! 
" Ha.\!. There 'i ne'er a villain dwelling in all Denmark 

JJat he's an arrant knave. 

— Iluinht, Princi of lJu~ir!.:rA:, A:t I, Scfit:- 5, 



153 

nor had he committed suicide in the river, nor v-ould any citi- 
zen of Williamsport, under the circumstances, have dared to 
steal him. 

All search proving vain, I sought Gen. Hatch, who invited 
rne to attend with him, in the afternoon, a review of his 
cavalrv, " where," he sugs^ested, "in riding between the ooen 
ranks, you will see your horse if he is there ; and if he is 
not, he v.-ill be fou;id, if taken by any of my cavalry men, 
among" the horses left in camp, and there your groom can look 
during the review." — " Good ! " I replied, " that is the thing. 
I '11 find him." 

After the review T rode along the ranks, seemingly criti- 
cising the troops, but really looking for the horse-thief. 
Returned to the reviewing ofiiccr's position, when the order 
"Rest!" was given, the cavalry command gave me three 
rousing cheers. 

"Th.at's for your accusing them of stealing your horse," 
said Hatch, laughing. 

How the fellow that did steal that horse must have smiled ! 
for the horse was there, but I could not recognize him. After 
a few davs t gave h.im up. 

On a buy afternoon of the 13th of July, on Sunday, at 
thi;:: cau^ip rear Wanenton, n^}^ g^o-^m, Fuller, carrio to nie, 
excitedly saying,- — 

" General, I have found your horse." 

" Wiien, where, .and Ikjw } " I asked. 

" Ridden by a private in the New "v'urk cavalry." 

In a few minutes, in charge of my guard, the private ap- 
peared riding a hor.<e with ragged mane and tail, — a gaunt, 
dejected animal, upon whose flank was stam.ped or branded 
the letter "A," thus denoting a public animial belonging to 
" A" Compan}- of a cavah'v regin"i::nt. 

"Do you mean to tell me that is my horse.?" I said to 
Fuller, as he and the private a.nd the guard awaited in silence 
my decision. 



; .l',,'f 



lo-i 

" I think so, sir," replied Fuller. 

"Think so? ])y what token.'' Wherein do you see any- 
thln^i:; like my bright-colored horse, his thick mane and wav- 
ing tail, his spirit — anything 1 Tell me, where do you see it ? " 

Looking down doggedly, as if indignant at a suspicion t?iat 
he could, through a mistake, have originated this scene, Ful- 
ler lii'ted the animal's fore-leg, looked interitly at the shoe, 
dropped the foot, struck a defiant attitude, and exclaimed, — 

" It 's your hoss, sir ! "' 

"Well, by Jo\'e ! so it is, or the remains of him," I ex- 
claimicd, after a critical examination. 

Then followed a scene. 

The pri\'atc and the sergeant, the one who denied at tlie 
house in Wilhamsport any knowledge oi the horse (and I 
have every reason to be.liexe the captain of the company to 
which these worthies were attached), were accomplices in 
the theft ; tl-ey were memibcrs of a gang of horse-ihieves. 
When this hne-iooking animal was espied tied to the fence 
in Williamsport, wi)iie Fuller was trying to get some break- 
fast after his long fast, it was the work of a moment to 
lead him to a secluded spot, and there to crop and notch 
his mane as if mules had fed on it ; to dock and thin his 
ta"! until there was uo waviiig curl about it ; and then with 
s':arp-pointed scissors to haisii the work by cutting the 
letter A in the hair on his flank. One without experience 
cannot conceive the transformation thus effected. Add 
to this the rough riding of a cavalry-trooper from the .''bth 
of May to the 13th of July, and gauntness, lack of tire, 
and dulness o'~ coat complete the disguise. 

Alter seeing the letter A of appropriate dimensions cut 
out of the shock of hair on the head of the private, I sent 
him away under guard, with the good intentions I enter- 
lainetl concerning the captain and sergeant, dissipated in the 
crowding events that thickened and darkeiied until Pope's 
campaign v/as at an end. 



i:)5 

In carrv'ing out the plans already referred to, Pope had 
ordered Gen. Kin';- <- f McDowell's Corns, at Fredericksburg-, 
to send forward detachments of his cavalry to break up and 
destroy the Virginia Central Railroad, and at the same time, 
with a view of destroying the eneniN-'s coninumications by 
rail in the direction of Gorclonsville, Banks v/as, on the 14th 
of July, ordered to send an infantry bi'igade with all his 
cavalry to Culpepper Court liouse, froni whence the cavalry 
were to take possession of Gordonsville and destro}' the rail- 
road fur ten or fifteen miles east, while another detachment 
was to move on Charlottesville, destroy a railroad bridge there, 
and break up communications. But on the 17th of July, 
Banks reported that Gen. Hatch, commanding the cavalry, 
had .started on his niarch with infantry, artillery, and train- 
wagons, and had at that date succeeded in getting no farther 
than !\Iadison Court House. The arrival of the enemy at 
Gordop.sviile on the i6tli of julv rendered the contemplated 
ni ovem en t i mpossi b! e. 

On the 19th of July we had moved our camp to Little Wash- 
ington, a small town east of the B'-ue Ridge, on a line from 
Lura}- to' Warrenton. The following are trie points our army 
occupied on this line, v/hich v/as iii length thirty and on.e third 



miles. 'J'he two di^ isions of the Second Corps were at \\ a 
ington. Gen. Sigel with the First Corps v/as at Lu.ray, and 
Gen. }JcDov.ell with tiie Third Corps at Warrenton. We were 
concentrating on this base. There, in that summer seasoii, 
scenes 01 rural lovelii'jess bccanve desolate and unsightly bv 
the occupation and destruction that ever marks the devasta- 
tinti ^A armies. From mv tent I could see on the v/est, the 
wondrous beauty, faniou,- in \^irginia .^ccnery, of the l>!ue 
Ridge ; an.d towards the south a rolling country from which, 
on n I'ly 'lelds, tlie g;ai.n, carefully shocked up i;pon our 
arrival, had all been appropriated by our soldiers as straw 
for bedding. Tents wh!ter:ed the hills, and thousands of men 
were wandering aroiuid, knov/ing no man as owner of t'leld, 






i? ,:0 



, 1..V. PI* 



156 

fora^'-c, or domain. From the hill we could look for thirty 
miles towards Richmond, the bourn of all cur. hopes and 
many of our bodies. 

The remaining days of July were passed in drills, brigade 
and regimental ; and when the latter. Col. Andrews (^who had 
received full promotiori to the command of our regiment) 
practised his men in aiming, to enable them to do better than 
at Winchester, when not one of the enemy could show him- 
self with impunity at a thor.sand yards. My military fam.ily 
consisted of officers taken from the Second IVlassachusetts 
Regimenr, This was due to the kindness of the Secretary of 
War, who promoted at my request, to the rank of cap- 
tains, Lieut, il. B. Scott as assistant adjutant-general, Lieut. 
Wheaton as conm^issary of subsistence, and Lieut. IM. ?^I. 
Hawes as quartermaster; Lieut. Robert G. Shaw, who subse- 
quently, as colonel of the First -Massachusetts Colored Rcgi- 
nient, was killed at Fort Wagner, served as an aid on my stair. 

Ab.hough Gen. Pope was at Washington, in the District of 
Columbia, we began to receive at Little Washington, through 
the newspapers, furious orders, inteu'L-d to inflame his army 
with zeal: "No lines of retreat," " Xo bases of -supply,'' 
"Live upon to- country," "We have always seen the backs 
of our enemy," " Discard yr.ur lalse notions," etc. etc.* 
We kncv/ well enough that this was a fling at the com- 
mander of the Arm.y of the Lotomac, and was intended to 
please the Ghatidlcrs and such-like war-horses of the Admin- 



* On the T4th of T'^lv, 1S62, Gti:. Pope issued the fullowing order to the om- 
ctrs and .sok'.i'.-rs oi the Ariiiy of Virginia : — 

. . . " I have spent t-.vo -.veeks in Ic.irniii^'; your 'Ahcreab'urs. I have cor.^e 
from the west, where we have always seen the backs of our enenries. Dismiss 
from your minds certain phrases I hear constantly, — of taking strong positions and 
holding t'itm, of lin.eb of retie il, and bases of suvphes. Let us di<(;ard s-jch ideas. 
Tt-.e str'■■n■:;c^t petition a soldier should de^iie to occupy is one from uhich he 
c.un niost e.isily advance upon the enemy. Let us ;^tudy possible lines of retrc.it 
of onr opponents, and Ijav- lyv u>\n to ta'K.v: caio of tlicmsclves. Let us look 
lofore and not behind. Succes- and i;\o:y :i;e in the advance." 



157 

istration, who were then comparing IMcClellan to an old 
woman with a broom. 

Although the newspapers laughed at Pope, and criticised 
his Falstaflian pretences, aiKl dubbed him five-cent Pope ;* and 
although every man in his army wondered if he were not a 
weak and silly man ; there were none who fell away in fervor 
or determination, to do all that mortals could Uj retrieve the 
losses sustained by the Army of the Potomac, be it under Pope 
or the Devil him=elf. On the 29th of July, v.-e were favored with 
the actual presence of the comm.ander-in-chief of the' Army of 
Virginia. He had come to take- up his abode v/ith us. As 
recorded at that time by an observing officer ot my staff, the 
following description of Gen. Pope may serve to recall hini 
to your minds: " Pope is a tiiick-set m:an, of an unpleasant 
expression, of about fifty years of age, average height, thick, 
bushy black whiskers, and v/ears spectacles." The savage 
orders that had preceded our commander created an intense 
curiosit}- to actually look upon him, and we were gratified on 
the 3d of August, for he came to inspect tb.e troops of our 
corps in a review. Upon this momentous ocCc.:,ion, v.hich had 
been preceded by many drills, in some of v.'i.rch Gen. Banks 
attempted and performed creditably division movements, v/e 
were anxious to excel, as v,e knew we ou^ht, and so were 
ready long before tlie arrival of //.>:• Pope, and long after the 
time assigned in orders. " Xapoleon did not fail to keep his 
appointments to review his troops,'' said a critical oiliccr, 
somewhat nielted by the heat. '■ Nor did Wellington," was the 



* Ukad'ju.^kteks A:^.mv of ViRr.i.Ni.\, 1 
\V.\sHlN(;i"oN, July 26, 1S62. S 

Capt. Samue! L. lliirrison, of the Niii-;y-Fiith Kcgin.eiit cjf New York Vi.lun- 
teers, i.s reported l)y his commanding general as h.iving deserted his company on 
t!-e 2iit of ti-.c .;i-.tjaih, and go:ie to New York. A reward of tivc cei.ts is o!f-.red 
for his apprchcn:;ior.. 

Ey order of 

M.\J-GkN. I'Oi'E. 

Gfo. I). RrcciK:;, Chi-f of Staij. 



i r'il! 



I- 'I 



158 



amiable reply of another. Further comparison was checked | 

by a rising- cloud of dust, within which Pope and a numerous I 

staft drew rein, wiiile tlie cannon roared, the drums sounded, | 

and the horses pranced or cavorted so vigorously that it took I 

'" "" I 

about ten minutes to quiet their demonstrations of adtnira- \ 

5 
tion for Pope. Tiien the review began in column of brigades, | 

of which mine v/as the last. | 

As the General rode in turn in front of each brigade, he 1 

was to be received b\' each regiment in the orthodox style I 

of the regulation, — tliree rufRes Irorn the drum, the march, | 

the colors drooped, and a present arms. Now when Pope I 

was receiving these regulation tokens of respect from the \ 

left reginieiit ot the brigade in my front, what did that incor- | 

rigible T wcutv-Sev'ciith Indiana, on the Icit of my line, do, \ 

but put the whole pntragraph of rulYles, marches, and droops % 

in, aiid all in the v\Tong place ; trie colonel comniandirig 1 

looking on meanwhile as blandly as did Pickwick v;hcn h.e \ 

av/oke in the pound as a trespasser upon tliC lands of the \ 

fierce Capt. Boldwig. My feelings were iridescribah.le. I | 

fancied Pope looked iike Capt. IJoldwig, when that wortiiy \ 

discovered tl":e ha]icl)arrov." and lieard the words "cold ^ 

punch " muttered as l:is baptismal name by the imhappv | 

Pickwick; at ail e\er:'s, we knew tliat wo had lost what \ 

otliorwliv' would have been an easy victoiy. ■ 

There was no reserve about Gen. Pope; he "let out" in • 

cen>ure with x>uch '-."igia", that it words had been missiles our 
arm)' would never ha\'e failedi fur want of .anmiunition. In 
a long udk witii n.^ic at Ids headquarters on the 5th of 
August, he attributed o-ar want of success at Richmond to 
mismanagement by McClelian, ior whom fie seemed to enter- 
tain a bitter hatred, which might have pleased the Adminis- 
tration., but fi'iund little lavor with us. 

I thinic Gen. ^Pope's freedum of speech infected his com- 
mand witii a general mania for discussing nven and measures. 
it wa:i not aa unccnimon event for i^enerals and colonels 



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159 

to meet at my tent, and express their views in words stronger 
than those generally used in v.:ir council^, — " cuss words " of 
such vigor, v/hen they fell i'rum the lips oi our division com- 
mander, that all were appalled into silence, save Col. Knipe 
of the Forty-Sixth Pennsylvania, and when he began, 'Wil- 
liams was silent. Ordinary v.-ords being totally inadequate to 
express one's feelings, swearing became an epidemic. 

While here in our camp at Little Washington, we heard of 
the promotion of Capt. Underv/ood, of Company I, to the rank 
of major in a new [Massachusetts regiment. Perhaps, had this 
officer encountered Stonewall Jackson, he might have ad- 
dressed with l;carty thanks the one v/ho, when he drove us 
out the vallcv, did not make Underwood unhappy, since it 
seemed thei'e were more compensations for Jackson's acts 
in jMassachusetts than he ever dreamed of. 

On the 6th of August the Army of Virginia began its 
march for Culpepper Court House. Gen. Pope's main purpose 
in thus mo\'ing forward was not to fight. His instructions 
required him to be very careful not to allow tn.e enemy to 
interpose l>etwcen him and Fredericksburg, to which point 
the forces from the Penin.-^ula were to be brought; nnd it was 
to cover the Army of the Potomac that we were now in motion, 
fuilowing uj) with our corps a brigade of Wiiliams's Division 
that had moved from Culpepper on tlie 4tli to support the 
cavalry. The day was hot, the roads were dusty; and when 
tlic men ot n^v brigade came into bivouac at Wuodville, some 
ten miles from wb.ere we started in the morning, they were 
so tired that they vilted nwav in a merciless manner, until 
the sun had turned his hot face towards aiiotiier quarter of 
the world, vvhen a cooler and more refreshing atmosphere 
replaced tlie fierce heat of the day. Then the crickets 
began "to sing, and all tlie soothing sou'td< of night hushed 
our senses to such sweet repose tliat our men entered upon 
the next d.iv's mare'n with reireshed spirits. - 

Our march on ti^e 7th was sliort, but 2 very tiresome one. 



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160 

Gen. AuG^ur's Division of our corps encamped in advance of 
us the nip;ijt before, and thus claimed the right of precedence. 
It was my wish to move at t'nree o'clock, a. m., and thus com- 
plete our work before the heat began; but Augur did iiot get 
off until eight o'cLjck, as this was the time designated in one of 
Pope's long orders. When we were off, and had proceeded 
about ten rods to a corner, we found the rear of Augur's bag- 
gage-trains at a halt. After waiting fifteen minutes, v.'c pushed 
the train one side and wt:;nt on a quarter of a raile farther, until 
we came to another train standing still in the road. The sun 
by this time was pouring down so hot and fierce upon us that I 
put all ni}' men in the woods, unhitched all my horses, and 
gave a gerieral rest until twelve at noon, when, tlie roati being 
clear, I pushed on. It vras then the hottest part of the day- 
Clouds of dust hung over us, there was not a breath of air, 
and the road was I'ke a furnace. We did get over the six 
miles that made that day's miarch, but nianv of our men fell 
out from v\-eakness. Diarrhcea was more jjrewalent than usual. 
The atmosphere of our camp while we were at Little Wash- 
irigion was like that of a pest-h.ouse, from the number of dead 
animals l}ing about. In Augur's Di/ision of our corps, tuo 
entire regiments had been sent to the hosjntak In the Sixtieth 
i\ev,- A'ork, men died eigiit anil ten a day. In a single day 
from that regiment two commissioned officers were buried. 
The drum and fife, constant!}' sounding the dead march., made 
the evcihrig^s seem sad and solemn. If \\e were not conform- 
ing to pMjje's order to liA"C on the countr}-, we were doing 
the next thing to it, — we were dying on it. Gen. Augur's 
Division vas made up of iruoj*i v/hose oiTicers h.ad little or 
no experierice in discipline or h)'giene. The men' ate every 
miserable, crabbed green apple they came across, and, in 
short, so \';olated evcrv sanitary regnlatini^ that it was no 
wonder typ'e.oid fever marked them for its own. We suffered 
in the .Second Regiment, but in a less degree. Poor Capt. 
Goodwin, having 'oeen sick lor nearly two momhs, applied at 



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at Little Washington for a leave of absence ; but was answered, 
it Is said, tliat if he was as sick as he rej-iresented, he had 
better resign. 

On the /th, Pope's army, a force numbering about 28,000 
men, had assembled along the turnpike from Sperryville to 
Culpc{)per. King's Division of IMcDowcH's Corps was still at 
Fredericksburg, on the Lower Rappahannock, but Rickett's 
Division arrived at Culpepper on the "th from Waterloo 
Bridge. Pope's cavalry was distributed as follows : Gen. 
Buford, Vv-iio had relieved Hatch. \^'as, with five regiments, 
posted at Madison Court House, with his pickets along the 
line of tliC Rapidan from Barnett's Ford as far west as the 
Blue Ridge. These vv-ere supported by a brigade of infantry 
and a battery of arlillery from Sigel's Corps, stationed 
v/here the road from IVIadison Coiirt Idoiise to Sperry- 
ville crosses Robertson's River.. Gen. Ba)'ard, with four regi- 
ments of cax'alry, was near Rapidan Station, the })ulnt where 
the Orange and Alexandria Railroad crosses Rapidari River, 
with his pickets extended east to Raccoon Ford ond crmnect- 
ing with Buford at Barnett's Ford. Tlie Rapidan was hned 
with cavalry pickets from Raccoon Ford to the forks of the 
Rappahannock above P'almouth, and in addition thereto, on the 
top of Thorougiifare Abjuntain, about lialf-way beiwecn Bayard 
and Buiord, there \\:i.i a signal station, which overlooked the 
whole country as far south as Orange Court HouoC.*' 

On the moriiing of the 8th, Pope, v.dio had in person cirrived 
at Culpepper Court ! Imise, sent word to Banks to move his 
corps to that town, and at the same time notified Sigel at 
Sperrvviilo, to which uh.cc he had marched Irom J^urav, to 
move to the same point. The other important orders given 
by Pope this day were to Crawford to n:iove forward and sup- 
p«n"t Gen. P>ayard,f in iioldiug the enen\y in clieck, and an 



* Pope'.-- Report. 

t I rec-.-ivc(.l ici)ort.s froni ''Icu. Tayarf!, tl.;'.t th; enemy wa.s advancing upon 
him, a;:cl hi-- cavalry f.>ri:eil to rctirf. (Set^ Po[jcj'j ',\ep Tt.) 
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162 

order to Gen. Ricketts, of l^-IcDowell's Corps, to move his 
division of three brigades two and a half or three miles south 
of Culpepper Court House. All these movements, save 
Sigel's, were executed as ordered. 

It was two o'clock on the afternoon of the Sth when our 
corps received its orders. Tents, all we had, were struck, and 
we were ready ; but Geary's Brigade was before us, and 
making such slow progress that v/c were delayed in a burning 
sun three hoars beibre v.-e got off, and then it was not much 
better, — a few steps forward, then a halt; then on, again to 
stop, motion alternating with rest and rest witli motion. Our 
tired troops were more fatigued than if they had made a 
march of twice the distance. It was eleven o'clock at night 
when our division arrived at Culpepper, having made eight 
miles in eight hours. 

Why Gen. Pope was hurrving his forces into and a.round 
Culpepper Court Mouse will appear from a review of the 
movements of the enemy. On the 19th of July, Jackson, 
with two divisions of troops, commanded by Winder and 
Ewell, arri\ed near Gordonsville. Gen. Lee thought that 
important railroad place was in danger; and from what we 
have seen of the instructions given by Tope to Banks at 
Wa^rrenton, well might he have thought so. Jackson, finding 
Pope strong in Ui umbers, asked for reinforcements, and the 
whole of A. P. Hill's Division was added to his army. 

On the 7th oi August, Jackson moved his three divisions 
of troops from tlicir respective encampments near Gordons- 
villo, in the direction of Culpepper. His motive, as he says, 
was not to attack Pore's whole army, but only that part of 
it which he had been informed was at Culpepper,* and this 
part, "through the blessing of Providence," he hoped to 
defeat. I'his force, as we have shown, was Ricketr's Divis- 
iori, Crawford's Brigade of Banks's CorjDS, and Gen.. Bayard, 
who had been statior:ed on the Rapidan, at Barneti's Ford, 

* J.\ck?on"s OtV.rial Re;:'ori, 



1G3 

about fifteen miles from Culpepper, with four regiments of 
cavalry. 

Am.ple information was conveyed to Pope on the 7th, 
that Jackson was movin:; to attack him, and not only to 
attack, but the strength of his cavalry, infantr3% and artil- 
lery was known or ought to have been. What did Pope 
know? On the 7th, while he was at Sperry\-ille" inspecting 
Sigel's Corps, he was informed that the enemy was crossing 
the Rapidan at several points between the railroad-crossing 
of that river and Liberty Mills. Rightly divining the enemy's 
purposes, so it seems, Pope left Sperryville at four o'clock in 
the afternoon, and proceeded in person to Culpepper Court 
House, arriving there (a distance of twenty miles) on the 8th, 
as we have said. 

In the mean time, Jackson, with his columms, v/as pushing 
our ca\-alry back, and Buford and Ba}'ard were constantly 
sending Pope word to that effect, — the latter that he was 
failing back in the direction of Culpepper Court House, and 
the former that the enemy were advancing in heavy force 
upon ]vIadison Court House. A glance at the map will show 
that these two forces could have had but one objective point, 
znd that was Culpepper. If all the enemy were at Madison 
Cown House, it might be doub<:cd ; but with Bayard's report 
tliat h.e v.-as f-iliuig back on Cidncpper, and the enemy fol- 
lowing him, it v;as no lon.gcr doubtful. But during all day 
of tiic 8rh Pope, says he did corisider it doubtful whether the 
enemy's movemients were in the direction of IMadison Court 
House and Culpepper, so he determined to keep himself 
bctv/ecn the cricmv and the lower fords of the Rappahan- 
nocl: ; in c-thcr words, he determined to hold on to Culpepper ; 
and this was v.-ise. Therefore oi\ the Sth he sent Crawford 
.with his briga'.le to support Ba}-ard, and to assist him in deter- 
mining the movcm.ents and 101 ces of tlic enemy. Sigvl did 
not obey his orders to march at once from Sperryville to 

* I quote tro!u P..pe's Ot'ticiAl Reiscrt. 



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1G4 

Culpepper, but to Pope's surprise returned in reply a note, 
which, dated at the former place at 6.30 p. m., and received 
after nij;ht, asked b}' what njad he should march to Cul- 
pepper Court House. "There v.as but one, and that a broad 
stone turnpike, between these points," says Pope ; " how could 
he entertain any doubt as to the road ? " And then Pope adds 
that this doubt delayed the arrivpJ of his corps se\"eral hours, 
and rendered it impracticable for it to be pushed to the front, 
as he had designed, on the afternoon of the next day. 

The morning- of the 9th of August found Jackson, with his 
whole force, pursuing his way northerly on Bayard's line of 
retreat towards Culpep})er. Cra\^ford's Brigade tlien occupied 
a strong position nortli of Cedar Creek, with Bayard's cavalr\- 
in his front. 

It was nearly ten o'clock on that morning, when, under the 
heat of an overpowering sun, our corps moved at a quick pace 
and v, ith few halts (under orders which will be referred to 
hereafter) from Culpepper Court House over a shadeless, 
waterless road. We soon came to where Rickett's Division, 
of three brigades oi McDowell's Corjjs, was watching the road 
v.'hich turns off from tl'ic Orange Court House and Culpepper 
road to Madison Court Blouse. These troops were stripped 
01 harness, and taking iticir ease under siicltcr tents. We 
pa-^sed tliem and. p-_;shed onward until, iri our regiment, one 
recruit fell dead from exhaustion, an.d many veterans of a year 
v.ere disabled; onward for about live miles, until before us, 
high in air, ro^e Slaughter IMountain," bearmg southwest from 
Crawlord's Brigade, v.hicli was drawn up in line of battle. 

\Vlien I arri\'ed a: Ceu.ir Creek, ihough all was quiet, I felt 
in tlie air the consciousness of an impending battle. The 
cavalry were still in our front, but not far; Crawtord's skir- 
mishers were dcplci\'ed tlu'ougBi the woods; and tkicre was 
Gen. Roberts, a staff-olllcer sent by Pope to designate the 
groiiud Banks was to hold, and to give him instructions. It 

* Vr e CJ.1I it Ce-vl.Tr Mount;\ir.. 



165 

was about twelve o'clock at noon when I approached Roberts, 
as he WHS pointing:; out positions for the troops. Off to the 
right of the road upon which we had been marching, I saw 
a strong position on ihe crest of a hill, in front of which 
the land was clear, and fell off by a gentle descent to Cedar 
Creek " That should be held by our right," I said to Gen. 
Roberts; "shall I take it?" — "Yes." he replied, "do so." 
I moved my brigade tliere immediatelv. The distance from 
v.'here Roberts then stood in the road to this position was 
about three fourths of a mile. When Banks came up, he said 
to Gen. Roberts, " Gen. Pope said you would indicate the line 
I am to occupy." — " I have been o\'er this ground thoroughly," 
replied Roberts, '' and I believe this line," meaning the one 
which Crav.-ford's Brigade then held, " is the best that can be 
taken." — " In this opinion I concurred with him," says Banks,* 
and {ilaced my command there." 

As you approach Cedar Creek, going south from Culpepper 
to Orange Court House, a gentle descent for half a mile leads 
to the low ground, through which the creek winds in a north- 
westerly and southeasterly course. As the road approaches 
the ridge from which the descent begins, a thick wood skirts 
it on either side for some four hundred yards. Turn to the 
north, and, leaving tlv road, foUo'vV tl.;;: ridge for abvjut: tv.cdve 
hundred yards, and }-ou come to a house, wiih thick forest trees 
on the north and west. Here my brigade was stationed ; it 
was tiie extrenie rigiit of our line of battle, and was the exact 
positiuti designated by Gen. Roberts. 

Reiurn to the road, cross the creek, go on for nine hundred 
yards trom it, and \'0u will have passe<i a I'ise and crossed a 
plateau v.'hich is four hundred yards in depth. Just beyond 
the plateau, there was, on your left, on the 9th of August, 
1862, a corn-field, and. on your riglit, a growtli of timber, 
which, touching the road at a }<oint, \\idened out as it ex- 
tended back, until in front of mv station it was from four to 



Te.stir.ionv before referiiil Xn, by ILinks. 



16G 

six hundred yards deep. In front of this timber there was a 
stur-ble-fielci, bounded on the opposite side by thick woods. 
I'his stubble or wheat field, cut out as it were from the forest, 
was somewhat in the form of a parallelogram, of which the 
two sides, at rig;ht angles to the road, were about eight 
hundred yards in lenglh. One of the short sides of the lield 
rested on the road, and was about six hundred yards long; 
v.dule the other, skirted by brushwood the height of a man's 
head, was only about four hundred yards. Clearing the corn- 
field, which was of the same width on the road as the wheat- 
field, there was on your left a ridgy })lain or pasture, which 
continued for a third of a mile, and then the timber began. 
On your right t'^e timber lined the road as soon as you cleared 
the wheat-field, and continued for nearly a mile. The corn- 
field and the plain extend away towards the base of Cedar 
Mountain. From where the road divides the corn and wheat 
field to the base of the mountain it is about a mile, and it is 
tlie same distance to the base from whei e the wood again 
skirts both sides of the road. Going towards the Rapidan. 
from the cro.ssin.g of the creek to the limit of t'fic road I have 
described, the distance is not o\'er two miles. From the 
j)Osition occupied by my brigade to tlie sanie crossing of the 
creek is, as slated, about twelv'e hundred \ards. and to Cedar 
Mountain about two miles. I have endeavored to depict 
without tedious details the face of the countrv, thnt the 
movements q\ the troops may be intelligible, arid that v.e may 
form an accurate judgment of the progress of the battle. 

Gen. Roberts crossed Cedar Creek v,-ith Augur's Division of 
Ijanks's Corps, and formed it in line on and t'lwards the rear 
of the plateau ; Gear3-'s Brigade, forming t'~ie right of this 
division, rested on the road; then in line came I'rince's 
, bh'iga ie, an.d on the exLrLn"'e leTt, ilirown liack, v»-as Greeri's 
I'-Srigade, wliich, reduced by derachments, numbered only four 
hundired and fift\'-se\eu men. It nais stationed iiere to su})- 
P'.n"t a battery. On tlu: riglit of the road anci covered by the 



1G7 

wood that skirted the wheat-field was Crawford's Brigade, 
moved tliere by Roberts in the morning from the wood on 
the ridge on the Culpepper side of the creek. In front of our 
troops, with an unobstructed fire over tlie corn-field and plain, 
and themselves commanded by the mountain, were our bat- 
teries. 

On the crest of the hill, where the Second Ta'assachusetts 
with, the other re-giments of m}' brigade were statioiied, I have 
spoken of a little cottage. A pretty picture it was, with its 
green turf enclosed by a fence, and behind, almost touching 
it, an inviting grove of forest trees. This cottage, occupied 
by women and children, was the central figure, about which 
clustered the infan.try and a; tillery of my briga.de. As 
out Oi that impendiiig war-clou'i we swarmed around this 
peaceful home, the women and children were startled at the 
strange and unusual sigh.t. Nervously they asked me what 
they should do, and without waiting for a reply, again and 
again they inouin d ; and when tuld to move away at once, 
they paid no lieed to my 'words. ^My position was a very 
strong one. I do not think Banks knew its capabilities for a 
defence ; at all events, he did not think the right of his line of 
suiTicient importance to visit it, either before or during the 
battle. I am sure lie did not know v.here we were.* 

Allhougli the consolidated reiv^irtf of Banks's Corps, sent 
into Pope some days previous to the 9th of August, exhibited 
an effective force of something over 14,000 men, made up of | 

* I'his :> fully confinaed by the'chapr.'.'n of the Second Massachusetts, who, j 

ill an interview with E.-iiiks at Culpepper Court Hoa^e, after the battle, wheii { 

Banks a^.ru>ed my brigade of trirdlncsci in g^iu^ into the fi;-d;t, replied that I j 

•'ran in." " Then wiiy did he not get in with. Crawford, or to su|'port Craw- j 

ford.""' a-:hed Ba.Tks. " \\'hy, he was nowhere near Crawr'ord," replied the { 

chaplain. " Wheie was he, tlien ? " asked the commander of the corps. " Upfn ) 

the hill, near the c-.'ttage," replied :ho chrpkiin. " Who ;;iit Idm there?" a.sked ' 

the commander. " Gen. Roberts, Pope's chief-of-stati," was the nnswer. " I did 
not know it," said Banks. " I thought he was just behind th; woods, on Craw- 
ford's riciht.'" 

t Pope's Orncia! kenorc 



i(;8 

infantry, 13,343, artillery, 1.224, cavalry, 4,104, total, 18,671, 

less iafanlrv and artiliervleic a.t P'^ront Roval and Winchester, | 

3,500; in his Official Report Pope distinctly states that it | 

appeared after the battle, that when Hanks led his forces to | 

the front he had in all nut more than S.ooo men,"^ and that i 

this discrepancy has never been explained, althou^yh "I i 

have Irequently called his attention to it ; and I do not | 

yet understand," writes Pope, " how Gen. Banks could have | 

been so greatly mistaken as to the forces under his immediate | 

command." Gen. Banks, in 1S64, testified under oath that | 

he had but about 6,ooo men on the 9th of August, 1862, and .} 

before he concluded his testimonv, he ]n\t his force at ^.ooo -I 

and that of the enemv' at 2;,ooo.t '.Iv own briy'ade corn- ;•] 

p.-ised less than 1,500 infantry. I'he Second Massachusetts, % 

all told, commissioned and non-commissioned, numbered, as ^ 

near as ever will be knov/n, 497. S 

It was about twelve at noon when I made the follou-ing | 

disposition of my infantry and batteries. On my right, skir-- I 

mishers from the Twenty-Seventh Indiana penetrated the i 

woods ; in my front, over Cedar Creek, in the timber upon the \ 

edge of the stubble-neld, six companies of the Third Wiscon- | 

sin Regiment were deployed ; while in the v\-ood directlv be- ^ 

hind tlie cottage, to the north, my o\, n Second Regiment v/as .1 

ready to lespond to nv, call. IMy tv.'o batteries coverd the ] 

hill, the valley, and the hillside fringed v>-ith its dark lining of i 
thick foiest trees. lieyond was the 'oluody wheatdield, over 

which, though v>e did not know it then, th.e old reaper, Death, ' 
was hovering to gather up a more precious harvest than was 
[promised in the sheaves ot g.^ain that dotted the ground. 

* Banks's force in ihe field was officially stated as 6,2S9 i;-.fantrv and arlillerv, . ( 

with 30 guns, and a brigade of cavalry, approxii:\-itclv stated as i.oco or i,20C', ■ 

ri'.akint; an .Ty;;^regate force of neaiiy 7,500 tiicv: of .:11 arms. Pope's Ofticial , 

Report d'.cl;ires tr.at it did not e.\ct.cd o.cco. ; 

t Testimony of Banks before Coininittee on Conduct of the War, Decc'.n- 
!;cr 14, 1 561, p. 4;, vol. 3. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 

W'HiLE our troops were forming, Gen. Jackson v/as silently 
aclvancin,':^. His leading division of three brigades %vas com- 
manded by Gen. Ewell, our old antagonist at Winchester. 
Gen. Early commanded the foremost brigade of this division, 
and v/^F, therefore the first of all the enemiv's infantiy to 
encounter our cavalrv under Bavard. In the morning the 
enemy's artillery o[)ened on our cp.valry, before Roberts had 
crossed Cedar Creek witli infantry ; but Knapp's Battery 
replied, and the enemy withdrew. After the main body of 
our infantry had crossed the creek and taken up the line 
designated, Bavard formed his line on a ridge in the plain 
that held the corn-fiel:], and about tv;o thirds of a mile in 
advance of the infantry. In this position he recei\'ed for a 
time the enemy's fire from his field-guns, a^id then fell back, 
but in a few minutes advanced again to the ridge. 

As Early came up with his skirmishers, he scoured the woods 
on our l.-ft, of the road beyond the plain, but found no enemy 
until he came -in sight of the ridge, where, formed in daring 
array, he saw the fearless Bayard. Early then passed a short 
distance to his right of the road, and Bayard fell back before 
him to the crest of a second hill, which was in frorit of the 
rise or plateau con L:\ining our batteries and the infantry of 
Augur's Division. Although a large number of our cavalry 
remained in the v.duat and cornfield, many retired even to the 
creek, across which they came hi a half-disordered state, as if 
some resistless pov/erwere brushing t'lom back. At this tinie 
our batt(.Ties openedi, and E:irlv withrircw to a sUL-i''t depres- 



170 

sion behind the crest of the foreir.ost ridge between the wood 
and the corn- held. Here he brought u]) four guns and 
engaged our latteries. As yet none of our infantry were 
visible in his front. 

Hardly had Early taken up his jiosition. when suddenly 
the two remaining brigades of Ewell's Division appeared 
on the northwest face of the mountain, at an elevation sev- 
eral hundred feet alwve the plain, where the whole scene of 
action was unfolded beneath them. Here, two batteries, 
placed in position by Ewell, hurled shells upon our guns 
without molestation, as the enemy claim. 

■Winder now advanced his division along the Culpepper i 

road as far as Early's left. His batteries were j-laced in eche- | 

Ion along the road, and his infantry stationed as follows : | 

Campbell's* Jirigade v/as in the woods fronting the wdieat-field j 

and opposite Crawford's, which was concealed by the woods | 

on our side of the same field ; Taliaferro's J^rigade was drawn 1 

up parallel to and facing the road, in rear of the batteries ; j 

while Winder's or the Stonewall Brigade was in reserve ; j 

Hill's Division of six brigades was still fartiier to the rear, but | 

within supporting distance. 1 

The fire from opposing batteries had been gradually grovs-- 
ing warmer until about 3 r. m., when it perceptibly increased. I 

x\lthough the enemy's guns seemed to have the advantage 
of the highest ground, our artillery practice was admirable. 
Indeed it was so on both sides. hVon:» where my brigade v.as j 

stationed we could see our shells bursting in every direction { 

over the enemy. From the plateau near the corn-field we ! 

answered the enemy from his lofty station on Cedar .Mountain, I 

from Early's right, and from Winder's JSrigade in the Cul- j 

pepper road, just beyond the wheat-field. Oi^ our right my 
guns covered the wood in our front, and though silent, were [ 

ready to take part in the tragedy unfolding before us. 

Between three and four o'clock, with a view of attacking, ! 

* Comniani-led by G;ir:iett. j 

i 



171 

Banks _^ moved forwird his whole line (excepting my brigade) 

about four hundred yards, sn.yi'ig to Gen. Roberts, Pope's 

chief-of-staff, that he thought he "should attack their batteries 

before night," that he did not " believe the enemy was in con 

siderable force yet," that "his men v/ere in the best fighting 

condition," and that he " believed ho could carry the field." 

So far, there had been no opposition to our advance, and this, 

perhaps, caused Banks to believe that he was frightening 

Jackson. A battalion from the Eighth and Twelfth Regulars, 

^ander Capt. Pitcher, from Prince's I'rigade, had advanced on 

our left through the corn to within thirty yards of the 

enemy's line, where, despite grape, canister, and musketry, 

they maintained their position until their commander and 

nearly ah the company-officers were killed or disabled, until, 

indeed, the general advance of their brigade. Before five 

o'clock Banks had determined on a new aggressive mo\'e- 

rnent. It was to attack the enemy with two reginients, one 

* . . . 

from the left and ano.her from the right of his line of battle. 

It was a rem.arkable movement, ^^x have the cftlcial cor- 
resp',vudeiice from Baiiks to Pope, anriouncing what had been 
done and v/hat was to folknv,* 

" i have ordered a re-iment from the right " (said Banks in 
his dispatch) "to adva;.ce." Crawford, peering across the 
v.heat-feld into th.c dark forest beyond, over vchich the sm.oke 
of Winder's batteries hv.ngin thick clo^'ds. aided Banks in giv- 
ing form to the. shapeless plans which had flitted through the 
lalter's brain. Banks would, have attempted with one regim.ent 



* AuGVsr 9, ii.62, 4.50 p. M, 
To Col. Rcggles, 

Chiif-oJ'-S'.-.iJjf: — 

About four o'clock shots were exchanged with the sldrmishers. Artillery opened 
f.re on both s-icies in a few mo:n r.tb. Or..' rcjrir.i'- r.t cf rebel infantry advancing, 
nosv deployed 3.5 skit niislicrs. I have oidered a regin-.erit from the ri..;ht. (Wil- 
liams's Diviiionj and one from the left (Augur's) tj advance on the left and in 

front. 

5 r. M. — They arc now approaching each other. 



'P!, 1 



172 

the capture of the enemy's batteries in the Culpepper road, 
had not Crawford persuaded him to increase his force to a 
brigade." Al five o'clock in the afternoon Crawford was 
ordered to advance through the woods, preparatory to an 
attack upon the enemy's left flank. 

Col. JvUger, commanding the six companies of the Third 
Wisconsin Regiment of my Brigade, had swept with his skir- 
mishers throug'n the v.'oods between my position and the wheat- 
field, without finding the enemy, when Gen. Williams received 
orders from Banks to send these companies to report to Craw- 
ford. J3efore Williams received this order, Crawford himself, 
in violation of military law or etiquette, had ordered the 
Wisconsin companies to join liis troops then filing into the 
woods for the gerieral charge v.hich Banks contemplated mak- 
ing all al(>ng his line. To Crawford's unlawful order Ruger 
replied that he was, momentarily expecting orders from Gen. 
Gordon, his brigade-commander, and suggested that before 
taking his regiment from the brigade it would be better to 
have superior authority ;t at tlie same time he advanced his 
command towards Crawford's rigl^.t. Crawford's appeal to 
lianks was answered through an order to Williams, commu- 
nicated to me ; and thus six companies of the Third Wis- 
consin Regiment were dv^ta^^hed from my brigade and jdaced 
on the right of Cravv-ford's line. 

As Crawiord's Brigade, comprising the Fifth Connecticut, 
Twenty-Ligliih 2\ew Vor!:, Forty-Sixth rennsylvania, and 
Tentli IMaiiie, Vvdll now claim our closest attention, we vrill 
cross over to the ot'ner side and look again upon our enemy's 
line ol bnttle. 

In front of the two brig:ides of Prince and Geary of Augur's 
Division v/as Early, reinforced by Thomas's ]3ngade of A. P. 



* ■' ' The enemy's line begins to appear here,' savs Crawford to Banks; ' I must 
have more force.' I sent him a brigade." — Banks before ComviUuc oit Conduct 
of thi War. 

\ Wisconsin \\\ the War, p. 2tj. 

Ik 



173 

Hill's Division, with their right resting on a clump of cedars 
and supported there by four batteries. Tiiis portion of the 
enemy's line extended lo witliin half a mile of the mountain, 
upon the face of v.diich and bearing upon the field were tlie 
two remaining brigades of Ewell with more batteries. • Here, 
therefore, were four brigades opposed to two on the left of 
our line, witli the further advantage that two of the four were 
in an almost unassailable position, and were supported by bat- 
teries having a plunging fire upon us. In the road and opposite 
our right \vas stationed Winder's Division of three brigades, 
one of which, the Second (Campbell's), commanded by Col. 
GnrnetL, was in line in the woods on the edge of 'the wheat- 
field and im.rnediately opposite Crawfoi'd. Then came 'i'al- 
iaferro's Brigade, v.-hich closed the gap between Early's left 
and Garnett's right. The remaining brigade of Winder's Di- 
vision, the Stonewall, was in reserve, as also were five of the 
six brigades of Hill's Division, which were successively formed 
on the enemy's left of the roi d. Winder's reserve brigade 
was formed a little to the left of Branch, who was followed by 
Archer, Pender, Stafford, and Field.* 

On our left we had two brigades preparing to charge 
through the corn-field upon three brigades! 'i^'<J ^our batteries 
in tiieir front, vhile L\ro brigades :md n:;n'.^. batteries of the 
eneiny v.-ere reaciy to spring froui the mountain-side upon their 
fiank. On our right a single brigade confronted the enemy's 
left ; but liere the enemy had only a single brigade in line of 
battle. Our tliree brigades confronted six of the enemy's with 
the advantage to tiie latter of receiving our attack in posi- 
tions strengthened by numerous batteries. These v.-ere the 
lines. 

Now let us look at the reserves. On our side, on the 
extreme riglit. there vet remained mv brigade of t\\o regi- 
ments and the four com]xinles of tlie Third Wisconsin that 
had not then been engaged ; besides which there was the 
* A. P. Ilili's Kopurt. t Thomis, liariy, 'lalmterro. 



; -A 



174 

Tenth IMaine (our old Winchester associate), which for some 
uiiacconntabic reason had been dropped out of Crawford's 
line wlicri the regin^ents of his brigade moved forward, and 
was now destined, as we shall see, to wrestle alone with the 
enemy in a \'a!n effort to retrieve the fortunes of the day. 
On tlic left of our line there was absoluleh' no reserve : so 
that against the six entire brigades of the eiiemy held in 
reser\'e we could throw barely four small regiments;* in 
numbers we could oppose the enemy's 8,000 by not over 
2,500 micn. 

This was the military disposition made by Banks for an 
assault along his whole line, over the corn and wheat field; — 
•these the numbers v/hich he burled against six entire and 
fresh brigades of the enemy, comprising at least twenty-four 
regiments, with six brigades in reserve. 

We left tiie regiments of Crawford's Brigade filing into the 
woods. At about haif-past five, th ;se troops, in long line, 
with tilt* six compardes of my Third Wiscon.sin upon the right 
fiank, burst v/ith loud cries from the woods, swept like a tor- 
rent acr'.'ss the wheat-rieul, were arrested for a moment by a 
liigh rail-ttTice in the edge of the timber, and then disappeared 
in the thick forest, bearing before thera the enemy's Second 
Brigade of Winder's j^ivisii-n, — broken, thrown back in 
masses from front to rv_ar, and intermingled with their assail- 
ants. The storm burst suddenly upoii the enetny. It came 
while they were deciding that there was no hostile infantry 
in their front, and gave them barely time to open tire. The 
enemy's line extending farther to our right than our own, 
the companies ot ihc Wisconsin regiment received a deadly 
fire, which soon reached their rear but did not stop them. 
Unshrinkingly they dashed on, alihough the farther they 
pdvaneed, the more wirhiCrir.g tliC fire became At last, with a 
loss of eiirhtv kiiled and wounded out of tlie two hundred and 



* 'the S^'corJ M'as^.acl.ii' '.-tis, Twenty-Seventh Insiiaiij, and four companies 
Third Wis'j.nsir., of ni}- biijatie, and the Tenth Maine. 



ax 

,, .-* 
; nt 
■> "y 



. .1 1 



175 

sixty-seven that char-ed across the field, thev fell back into 
the wo'xis, to be re-forn-ied and ac^ain to advance, as will 
appear hereafter, 

While this atiack was in progress, Banks threw forward his 
two brigades on the left of the Culpepper road.* Prince on 
the extreme left moved his infantry against the right and 
front of Early's line, but v/ithout effect. Early stood "like a 
rarnpart," says the Southern historian, and " hurled back all 
efforts made against him." Geary's advance through the 
corn-field, with his right along the Culpepper road, uniting 
with the regiments assaulting across the wheat-field, forced 
back the enemy's line in their front and threw them in such 
confusion that if there Juid b^'Oi no reserve to the enemy, and no 
brigades on Cedar Mountain to rush in and take Prinee in fan k 
and rear, and if I had been ordered to move fcr-.vard siviulta- 
neo:nly ivith viy brigade as a support, the chances are that we 
would have whipped Jackson. 

But notwithstanding the defiance with which our fellows 
braved death in that heroic charge, the destiny of overpower- 
ing numbers was against us. Campbell'sf i^rigade had been 
thrown, helpless and confused, into a disordered mass, over 
'A-hich, with cries of exultation, our troops poured, while field 
and woods were hiied with cbmor and horrid rout, — poured like 
an ail-destroying torrent, until the leR of Jackson's line was 
turned and its rear gained. Then, while the left of Taliaferro's 
i^rigade gave way, Geary's blows upon its right and upon the 
left of Early began to tell.t As Cami-bell had been over- 
thrown, so next was Taliaferro, and then came the left of 
J^arh-'s Brigade, which, first wavering, then fell back, until, 
on both sides of the road, a vast irruption had been made 



"hiiiu;:tancoi;i:3- -.ith C r^^vtord'^^ advai.cc, Geary in cuntre and I'lince on 
left moved against the enemy witii \\^iy — i,t,o:hcr, in Jicrt^ir's Mcmhr' far 
Au^mt, 1S71. 

t C'>n;:i:a!KlLJ by G.lr!:et^ 

X Ainijst tl:e lan-ua-c u^cd by I.»abiiey arcl Cc. ke iu their histuries. 



,J- 



.?)■;. " / 



17G 

which involved the v/hole of the enemy's line even as far 
towards the right as one half of the -latter brigade.* 

That this success was achieved without a desperate resist- 
ance, Southern writers will not admit. It is claimed that the 
Twency-First Virginia, v.'hich was on the extreme right of the 
left brigade, " fought like lions, until the invading lines had 
penetrated within twenty yards of their rear," and that, owing 
to the "terrific din of the musketry, the smoke, and the dense 
foliage," this short distance only intervened when the (oq was 
for the first time seen. Then, says the Southern historian,! 
"the orders of the ofRcers were unheeded amid the vast uproar 
and shouts of the assailants. Col. Campbell was slain, but the 
survivors of the Second Brigade fought o'.i without rank or 
method, with bayor.et-thrust and musket clubbed, until borne 
back, like angry foam on mighty v.^aves, towards the high road." 
Though the right of Early's Brigade still stood unmoved, we 
were gaining the rear of the enemy's line in the open field, 
when Jrckson called upon his rcsorv-s. He threw forward 
the old Stonewall Brigade of Winder's Division, with Branch's 
of .Hill's Division, and these, with the newly-formed lines of 
those that had been broken, arrested our progress, and com- 
pelled our hitherto victorious troops to fly ])ack through the 
bloody tiuibcr over the fatal wheat aiul corn fields. Jackson 
says t the two brigades of his reserves "drove our' troops 
back with terrible slaughter," while Hill t says, " The pursuit 
vv-as cliccked and the enemy driven back." 

But to Dabney must we turn for Jackson's achievements in 
heroic measure. As c-.ntrasting the laconic despatch of Jack- 
son himself, from the actual field of his prowess, with the 
gorgeous word-painting of his Boswdlian ]?abne}, the quota- 
tion is pertinent : — 

■'■ That th-; enemy's lii.e- were tl-.u.- forccJ lack by chc regiments of Ciawford's 
Biig.-icle alone, as ciainied by Major Gauld, in i::e History of the Tciiih Maine, 
i:> ut'erly ^vitho•Jt loundatioa. — .A.un!uTU 

i J )ahne-.. 

t 0:"ikia! Keports, Gens. J,..;k:=oa and iiid. M. ..re s l-Ubciaoa Record. 



177 

" It wns at this fearful moment that the genius of the storm 
reared his head amid-.t the tumultuous billows, and in an 
instant the threatening- tide was turned. Jackson ajjpeared in 
the mad torrent of the highv/ay, his figure instinci with maj- 
esty, and his face flaming with the inspiration of battle. He 
ordered Winder's batteries to be instantly withdrawn, to pro- 
tect them from capture, issued his summons for his reserves, 
drew his own sabre for the nrst time in the war, and shouted to 
his broken troops, with a voice v/hich pealed higher than the 
roar of battle, ' Rally, brave men, and press forward ! Your 
general will lead you. Jackson will lead you. Follow me!' 
Fugitives, with a general shame, gathered around their adored 
general, who. rushing with a few score of them to the front, 
placed rlicm behind the icriCe which bordci-ed the roadside, and 
received the pursuers with a deadly volley. They recoiled in 
surprise, while ofhcers of every grade, catching the general 
fervor of their commander, liew among their men, and in a 
moment restored ilie failing battle. Fragments of Early and 
Taliaferro returned to their places, forming around that heroic 
nucleus, the Thirteenth X'irginia, and swept the t'ield clear of 
tiiO eriemw The Stonewa.ll Brigade had alread}- come up and 
clianged the tide of batth' in the bloody vvoodlands ; for some 
of the re!a:!meats, swecjvng far around to the left through the 
held of brushwood, had taken the Federalists in turn upon their 
tiank, and were driving them back with a fearful slaughter 
into the stubble-ikld. Searccdy Vv-as this Titanic blov/ delivered 
v.-'.-ien tlie iii\e brigade of Ihanch, from the division ut A. P, 
Hill, hardlv allowing itself time to form, rushed forward to 
.second them and complete the repulse. The Federal com- 
mander now bruught forward a magnincent column oi cavalry, 
and liurled it along the hig!iwa\' full against tiie Confederate 
centre. No cannon was there to ravage their ranks; but as 
thev pressed back the Yuic for a little space, the infantry of 
Branch closed in upon their right, Taliaferro and Farly upon 
their left, a:vd opened fire, v.dien it he 1 to the rear, scattered 



178 

and dissipated. So Jackson delivered blow after blow upon 
his insulted left wing-." 

It was between half- past ii\e and six o'clock when our 
assault was made. Althoug-h at least one half of Banks's 
command must have succeeded in gaining the enemy's rear, 
in the Stonewall Brigade, which, with Branch's, has received 
the praise of checking our pursuit, tlie loss \vas light, being 
only ten killed and fifteen wounded. 

It now becomes necessar\- to take up the history of the 
Tentli Maine, which, for some unaccountable reason as I 
have said, v/as dropped out of Crawford's Brigade when the 
charge was made. After a little delay it was m.oved into 
the woods in its front by one of I-'ai.ks's staff-otticers ; or- 
dered to halt and li: down, with it'- left resting near the 
road, where a United States batter}', under Capt. Best, was 
recei\'ing two for every one of its solid corni)liments sent 
the eneiny. In the roavl and near tlie regiment was Banks 
and stfiif. 

From v.'here the Tenth ^Mainc were stationed, a movement 
of troops on t'ne enera\ 's slue was perceived ; and Ikuiks's 
reply, v.d"ien this v\'as pointed out to Inni, — " Thank you, sir ; 
this io provided for," was heard, although it was soon found 
that Banks was simjjy indi^^ging in tragic ineLapnor, and iiad 
not provided for tliat ev au\Lhiiig else. And frem this point 
shells and shot could be seen coming faster and faster from 
Iiwell's batteries on Cedar r^Iountaii; ; from Earl\''s right, 
near tlie clump* ot cedars; fioni Winder in the road, and from 
every point in ihe more than a mile oi circumterence occu- 
pied by tliC enemv. W'lvilt; the Tenili Maine were lying in 
these woods, the battle began \sith the crash., wliicli came to 
our ears as we rested on the right, axsaiting orders from Gen. 
Williams ; began in \ol!evs so terrible t'nat the sound of artdler}' 
v.'as unnoticed or a reliei. l-'rom wiiere the Tenth iMaine were, 
the enemy could' be seen planting new batteries, nearer and 
nearer to ours, over tli-ae on the plaleaj.i truni wlience our 



Ml 

'■'■J 



J I 



170 

c^uns had not been moved during the day. Then Geary's 
skirmishers came into view, foliov/ing up those of the enemy 
^vho uere retiring through the corn-field; while riderless horses 
were running around between opposing fires. The roar that 
met the assault of our troops as the new brigades of the 
enemy turned upon them, was borne to the ears of the Tenth 
j\Iaine, as they laid there idle in the northern edge of the 
woods, their hearts beating with an excitement and an appre- 
hension which one must feel, to depict. One of the officers* 
of this regiment went forward through the woods and saw part 
of Geary's Brigade of Ohio troops in the road advancing by 
flank. Before this officer was the wheat-field, the shocks, and 
the opposite belt, as described. The firing was then still 
iarltier to the front, but out of sight. 

When the assault we have described had been checked, and 
our troops were being drivcd back in confus'on, iMajor Per- 
kins, of Banks's staff, ordered Col. Beal, commanding the 
Ter,th Maine, to advance through the woods,! telling him 
it was Banks's order. Accordingly his regiment moved out 
into tl'.e wheat-tleld, iirst passing down a slight hill, then over 
a ridge at right air^les to the road, then down again. Col. 
})eal knew only that his brigade was far ahead, not in sight, 
a'.-d he was told that an Ohio regimcn.t on tlie left of the road 
was also ad^"ancing. The prospect that confronted the regi- 
ment as they entered upon this murderous pathway was 
thi.s: The distance from tlie wo ids to those opposite was less 
tiian six hundred yards ; in the cdg:c of the woods the enemy's 
musketry v/as both heard and seen ; the Ohio troops 
(Geary's Brigade) v/ere retreating along the road slowly, turn- 
ing often to fire upon the increasing numbers oi^ the enemy. 
Yet the Tenth Maine pressed on until they came to the ridge 
which h.as been described. Then they saw {he remnant of 
then- brigade coming back to their rii^ht, leaving a clear way 



- M.ii';r Go^^.!. See H-^-ory of Tenth Maine in the W 
t Co!. Be-il, ia the Hi.^torv of Tciuh Maine in ■!;€ War. 



180 

for them to fire. The enemy now rapidly filled the vroods 
in their front and opened on the Maine regiment-, who 
pressed on, though the fire v/as most murderous, until they 
found themselves the only regiment visible on the field. 
Tiie \v>)ijds opposite was still filling up with the enemy ; 
the fugitive officers aiid mien of their brigade were rciurn- 
ing singly and in squads, calling out to the co or.el as they 
passed, that there v/ere too many of them for him to handle. 

Alone, of all that had preceded, v.ith brigade after brigade 
of the enemy pouring into the thick forest in their front, sur- 
rounded with the broken and defeated fragments that dis- 
heartened them by their cries, this plucky regiment "gave 
three cheers, in thai narrow valley of death, between those 
belts of timber."* No wonder that Col. Beal, who had re- 
ceived no other order than to advance through the woods, 
was "strongly impressed with the conviction that Banks 
could not expect hi: single regiment to advance unsupported 
upon the whole of Jackson's army." T>v.t he was mistaken ; 
for no sooner had Col. Beal, with a view of regaining; the 
woods to continue ti:c fight under such cover as the enemy 
had, and such as it was proper for him to seek, faced his 
regiment about and rn(.ved a few steps, than P5anks, who saw 
that Col. Beal v,-as njt advancing, :;~kcu Major Pelouse, his 
adjutant-general, "v.hy that regiment did not advance," and 
ordered him to " direct it to do so." f ^Major Pelouse gal- 
loped forward arid delivered the order, saying that Ikanks 
" forbade this backv.-ard movement." Col. Beal persisted, and 
the regiment kept on. A ferious altercation, v.dth angry 
gesticulations, arose, during wdiich Major Pelouse proceeded 
to the rear of the regimental colors and ordered the regiment 
to advance, crying out in loud tones that " Sigel was in the 
rear," or " v.as cuui'ng," and alh--' in.iurnung Col. Beal tliat 
Banks "wished him to know that there was oidy a small 



* .M.ii'ir Gou!'.l, Tuaih Mu^iie. 

t 'Shr.vv I'clouic to M.uor GouUl (Itttfjr), In History of the Tcu'.h Maine. 



! [V 



181 

force of the enemy in front of him." ]Major Felouse was 
with the regiment five minutes, when he was disobled, and 
then Col. Ecal placed his command behind the ridge to 
secure so much, of protection. 

It was while fighting behind this ridge, "and when they had 
not been firing long," that skirmishers from the Second 
Massachusetts Regiment were seen to the right, on a 
run,* iollowed by the regiment and the remainder of the 
brigade. The time then, says Major Gould, was about sunset, 
and the enemy's fire so severe that soon the line of the Tenth 
Maine began to melt away. The enemy's skirmis'ners could 
be seer., darting around in the woods on the right of this regi- 
ment ; also the fror;t of the enemy's line, at least three times 
longer than that cf the Tenth I\Iaii-;c was visible,! and there 
was a flank fire from the Culpepper road on their lett, where 
the Ohio troops under Geary had been driven back, and this 
fire crossed at right angles that from the woods opposite — the 
oriK into v, hich m.y brigade had just come and formed in line of 
battle. For a description of the " huge gaps " and dreadful car- 
nage ; of the reeling aiul plunging of the woLmded, the shock 
of the tailing of the dead ; the excitement of the men, the con- 
ceivable and inconceivable positions they took in loading, their 
swearing and jibing ot tiie enemy, intermingled wiUi tlie din i 

oi ml;;-ketr^•. while the bright siu'isct SLrLam<.d in their eves \ 

over the dark and smoky woods which covered the superior | 

n.un-ibers of the toe and greatly gave them the advantage ; '. 

-md ftr an account of the charge of Federal ca\'alry 4." v.ith j 

v.hieh Banks sought to retrieve his fortunes, and which ll:c \ 

grandiloquent Dabney speaks of as "a magnificent column j 

* Mnior Gould, in Ter.th Maine. j 

t Hiaton-of Maine in the War. • | 

I "SiJiiiC ■>ne sent a very siiiall force of cav.nlry into the flell we h.\<\ just left : j 

V e wv I'l (.'iU-ii', I:. They charj;eJ down tlie Orange Court Hou>e road, and i 

wiihout st.'i'i;iiig tc sriv or do n-.uci":, they turned around and came back, leaving i 

a iiuiViber of dw.id h.oi.ses -jn th.e field. Tb.e cneiny said it v\.;b a j)!;iv.ky act." — ^ 

M-.ijor Lcii'.,i, :ii T.ui/i j.\I :!i:j :n i.':i I'/ar. ! 



;I.i./ 



i; ■ 



182 

of cavalry," reference is made to the full details in Major 
Gould's history. 

The events tl;at tianspired here ser\'e to fix for us the fact, 
that when I came up with mv brigade the Tenth Maine was 
contending alone with the whole reinforcements (at least 
three brigades) that Jackson had thrown in to sustain his left ; 
they show, too, not only the severity of the hre of the enemy 
fron: the protection of the woods, but that their advance along 
the Culpepper ruad enabled them to deliver a flank fire dov;n 
the whole lenglh of the wheat-ficld. As my brigade appeared, 
the Tenth ]\Iaine fell back into the woods, passed through 
them, and retired from, the action. The time they were under 
fire behind the ridge is variously estimiated from thirty min- 
ut'.s to five;^' their loss was one hundred and seventy killed 
and wounded. Our position, as given by Major Gould, was a 
little to the rear of that regiment and about three hundred 
yards to its right. 

Now we are prepared to exaniino the details of our own 
movements. We have seen the condition of Ixanks's line when 
skir.'T-iisliers froin. the Second .Massachusetts of my brigade 
were seen coming into action, and we can, from the official 
reports of Jackson and Branch, Archer and Pender, know 
exactly the force of the enern_v th.at confronted us. 

Ji \vas al^out h.ili-'.xist five o'clock in tlie afternoon, when 
Gen. Williams, our division commander, sent me an order to 
oljscrve him, audi when lie made a sigrial by waving his hand- 
kerchief to thrt>\s' f'jrv.-ard my v/liole command to support 
Crawford. Gen. Williams with Ids statt" was on the hillside, 
ill rear of the ^voi';ds through which Crawiord's Brigade had 
passed ; he was plainly in siglit fron\ v^diere I stood. That 
there might be no delay, I withdrew mv command from the 
wood to the rear aivl flank of my position. ; form.ed my 
l;rigadcdine ; th.vn fixed my field-glass upon Gen. Williams 
and awaited his simimons. Moments passed ; the fire of the 



« \ 



lajor Gould tliinki the ijtter most probable. 



:<■■ '■! 



183 

artillery, now falling off for a moment and again resumed, 
mingled with the pitiless crash of mii^^ketry that lose from 
the assaulting cola-.nn I was to support, — and yet no signal ; 
but instead thereof a messenger dashing up from Gen. Banks, 
the first from him that day : "Gen. Banks directs that you 
send the Second Massachusetts Regiment down the pike to 
him." Before I could do more than give the order, before the 
regiment could take a step on its course, a horseman, spur- 
ring in furious haste, dashed to mv side. It was Capt. Pitt- 
rnan, aid to Gen. Wdliams : " Gen. Williams directs vou to 
move your whole command to the support of Gen. Craw- 
f.;rd." 

If Gen. Williams had waved Ids handkerchief (engaged in 
moving the Second Regiment in compliance with Banks's 
order), I did not see him ; but the delay was onlv m.omentary. 
The Second sprang forward ; so did the remaining companies 
of the Tiurd Wisconsin; so did the Twenty-Seventh Indiana. 
It ^va'^ now a little bef.jre six o'clock. The rattle and roar of 
musketry had given place to a dreadful, an ominous silence. 
A thick smoke curling through tlie tree-tops, as it arose in 
clouds from corn and v.iieat fields, marked the place to 
which we were ordered, the place where the narrow valley 
was strewn with dead. " Double-quick I " I ga\-e the order, 
and my brigade responded. Down the slope from Brown's 
house at a run, through the marshy land at its base, over 
Cedar Creek to the steep hill and up its sides into the 
wo.'j-as, I pressed my troops witli speed rmabated, dest^ite 
remonstrances from some of the officers that the men could 
not h'jld out at this pace. At tiie edge oi the wooti> 1 rallied 
and gathered up the six com})aines of the Third Wiscorisin, 
part ot the broken fragments of Crawford's Brigade, a second 
time to be baptized in the fiery flood of Cedar Aloimtain. So 
We went Uinil wc^ had penetrated the v>oods, and stood in line 
of battle on the very ea-j;e of the wheat-field. We had come 
at topmost speed to suj^purt Crawford., but his whole line had 



^"m 



184 

melted away. We iiad come to sustain, but we remained alone 
to bear the brunt oi the fight, ourselves unsupported. The 
whole distance we had passed over, in an incredibly short 
period of time, was about one thousand five hundred yards, of 
which nearly tour hundred* was through the woods. 

When I gained the timber I looked for Crav.-ford's regiments, 
but so broken had they been by their repulse that I could 
find, of all, only v.diat remained of the six Wisconsin com 
panies. Of the Twenty-Eighth New York, the Fiith Connec- 
ticut, or the Forty-Sixth Pennsylvania, not a vestige met my 
eyes. There was, however, one relic of Crawford's Brigade, 
and thai: -^vas CrawlV.rd him.sclf. I saw him back in the woods 
sitting quietly on his horse, with a musket across his saddle, 
although at aboiu this time the only regiment of his brigade 
then in action, tlic Tenth Maine, was out in the wheat-field 
where an officer from liardvs's staff was then or had been 
ur-'ing it forward. x\s soon as the firing upon my line 
b^igan, Crawf.)rd disappeared, and this was about the time 
the Tenth Maine fell back, thus making the last appearance 
of Crawford and Ins brigade simultaneous v/ith our tirst 
movement upon the scene. 

Mv line of battle Vs'as quickly formed, — the Second on the 
left. :ken the Twentv-Seveuth Indiana, and on the right the 
Third Wisconsin. From tl^e edge of the wood we looked 
across the wheat-field, not over four hundred yards, at the 
long lin.es of the enemy, who, having now advanced irito 
cleared ground, ojjencd upon u.-. a heavy fire, which was 
immediately responded to b)' ti^e Twenty-Seventh Indiana 
and Third Wisconsin Regiments. 

As I rode up to the Second ^^lassacliusetts, I was amazed 
that no firing was going on. There sat Col. Andrews, rather 
complacentlv. on the left fiank of his regiment, and in line 
with it. '• Whv dunt vou order yoitr men to fire.' " I shouied. 
" D<m"t see anytlung to fire at.'^ was the cool response. "^^^ 

* Col. Coi^rovL-, ofii-.e r-.vciity-ScvtMlh Indiana, pins it at two hundred. 



185 



by the right flank and join on with the Twenty-Seventh, and 
voLi v.ilt soon find enough to fire at," 1 replied. The regiment 
waii moved where the field was a little more exposed to Col. 
Andrews's vision, and I heard no further complaint that he 
could find ••■ nothing to fire at." 



24 



isn 



CHAPTER IX. 

From the mo.st authentic sources * v>"e now know the move- 
ments of the enem}'at the time I was ordered into action. In 
addition to the reserve brigade of Winder's Division, and 
Branch's Brigade of A. V. Hill's Division, both of which had 
united with tlic restored fragments of the two that had been 
driven back by Banks's assault as described, Gen. Jackson 
threw tv,'0 fresh brigades, those of Archer and Pender of Hill"s 
Division, into the v."Oods opposite the wheat-field, not only 
extendhng them far to tlie left, but ordering them also to throw 
their left contin.ually forvv-ard and attack tlie en.eniy in the 
opposite woods. JBcfore the tv.o brigades of Archer and 
Pender VvX-re added to tiiis force, the Tlhrd or Stonewall 
Brigade of Winder's Division, on the left of Branch, was pro- 
longed so far into the Liinhcr that its fire took the repulsed 
regiments m flank as they \vere retreating across the wheat- 
fxcld, after whicli, in connection Vvith Branch's, the two brig- 
ades poured a united hre into the Tent'n IMaine, un.til. as 
related, it was dri\ en back into the woods. 

In the v/oods upon which Jackson now directed his attack, 
nothing but my tliree small regiuicnts was left to confront not 
less than fvej entire brigades of the ejiem\', of whicli four 



* Ofticln! R-por:, T ut'- ot C<:d.ir Mount.iin. \.y Limc-Gcn. Jiokso.;, Generals 
Ilill, Archer, Perider, aiici otlieis. (.See also Dabney's lii-story.) 

t Brigadis of Branch, Aicher, and Pender of HIU's Division, the Stoiiewall 
Brigade and Tcdiafu-rri)";., -.vicii wh.-.t was left of ( '.a:;;i.:t's, of Jackion"» own 
division. 



.187 

were in line when we came upon the held, and one reaching 
far around to envelop our right. Of the ten brigades 
wnich Jackson threw (out of the twelve in his army) * into 
the fight at Cedar Mountain, one half oi them awaited our 
attack on the right of the road across that deadly wheat-field. 
My force was less th.an 1,500 men ; the enemy's could not have 
fallen short of S,ooo out of his whole force, of from 20,000 to 
25,000 men. It will be seen that the woods opposite must 
have been literaily packed with the enemy, and that thev must 
have extended far beyond our right to have enabled even one 
third of them to have got to the front. 

lliis was the situation, as we alone, of all Banks's Corps, 
when the liglit was growing dim on that fatal August night, 
opened fire from the right of the road on the long lines of 
Archer's Brigade, as they, disdaining cover, stood boldly out 
amid the v,-heat-stacks in front of the timber. As may be im- 
agined, our position was an exposed one. It is almost in vain 
to attempt to convey an im^jressiun of the fierceness of that 
nre ; there was no interinission ; the crackling of musketry 
was incessant. To Col. Colgrove, commanding the I'wcnty- 
Seventh Indiana, on the right of the Second .Massachusetts, 
the enemy seemed to be all around him, in his front, on his 
right, in a dense growth of underbrush, and on his left, in line 
extcnaing nearly across the wh.eat-field. B'rom iron t and. ilank, 
direct and cross, cam.e this terrible fire upon the Twenty- 
Sevenih Indiana. Then signs of panic began to show them- 
selves in th-.s regiment. '- We are firing upon our own men !" 
cried those udio sav/, in the wooded thicket at the end of the 
wheat-field, large bod'es of troons endeavoring to approach, 
undercover, nearer to our fiank. "We are firing upon our 
own men!' shouted Col. Colgrove to laicas he pointed to 
what seemed to him to be the blue unifurms of our tioops in 
tne dense brushwood on our right. "We have no men there/' 
I replied, '^ the enemy is tliere. Order year men to (■■pen fire 

♦ Si.'iioid's aad I-iekU's, of tliili Divisoii, utre not cn-agcd at aij. 



■r?:[: 



'i^i^i" 



188 

9 

upon them." * The colonel still hesitating, to convince him of 
his error I rode forward to the right of his regiment, up to 
the fence t'pat skirted the t^rushwood, and was received v/ith 
a fire that settled the matter at once.f Then the firing of 
the enemy became heavier along our whole line, and the 
Twenty-Seventh Indiana, after giving many symptoms of 
disorder, broke, and fled through the v oods to the open 
ground, a distance which Col. Colgrove gives as two hundred 
yards. 

The fortunes of the Third Wisconsin were involved with 
those of tlie Twenty-Seventh. This regiment, on the 
extreme right of my line, stood, with six of its companies, 
bearing, for a second tirae v/ithiu an hour, t'lis baptism of 
blood. When the l\vefily-Seventh fell back I could not cen- 
sure because the Third Wisconsin did not stand. I know 
of no otlicr regiment in Banks's entire corps that twice 
on tnat day, in different brigades and iri difterent parts Oi 
the field, stood so unflinchingly before numbers and fire so 
overwhelming. 

And how was it witli the officers and men of the Seconxl 
IMassachusctts .' Before them, too, appeared the enemy, with 
his long lines far outflankiiig the right ot our brigade, and 
j)0uririg u|)0!i tliem a bail-storm ol muskvtry from lines open 
and Concealed. Steadv! the}" replied to t;ie enen-iy's fire, in 
the face of the continual flashing of muskets, — an undimin- 
ished flame, — from which bullt'.s hissed witli sound n^iore 
terrible tiian ever heard by ihen.i before. They also saw, 
unmoved, the enemy advancing in line, tlmowing forward his 
Iv'it as orderr'd, and thus npproachin.p; oblicjuely their ri^i'.ht 
liank ; and t'nev received him wiih a fire sn severe that his 



* The Indian.! Ke-imeni had aliuost ceased firi'.ijj, the colonel giving this as 
an e.\>:i:se. 

t " I saw you on the right nf my reg:nient liJe forward to thv.- fence, and injr.ic- 
diatcly a very heavy fire was oi>ened upnu that part o[ the line by the enemy, 
upnn you. I cainiot conceive !io\v yo>i [)o^sibIy tscapeii it wiihout fujury." — Co'. 
Co'^rxtcs Ojji id! Kepcrt, Har'.'d <>/ CeJj.r MouKtatn. 



189 

shattered line could easily have been driven back,* had this 
been all. The Second stood tliere for some time, oi: all my 
brigade alone, for the right re.i:^iments had fallen back. Of 
course, when thev, too, v/ould be compelled to retire was only 
a question of moments ; but the moment had not yet come, 
and it v/as not anticipated. 

The Twenty-Seventh Indiana, which had retreated through 
the wood^, wa-"; rallied, re-formed, f and m.oved to the right 
of the Second Massachusetts, where again it opened fire 
upon the encmv. By this time, Pender with his brigade, 
\vho until now had kept carefully out of sight, had gained 
our rear. In the confusion, the roar and smoke, this force 
was nrit seen until after thev had reached our side of the 
fence, and wjre within tv/entv paces of the rigl'it of Col. Col- 
grove's regiment t and a little in rear of our line. As they 
Avere marching dehberately towards us in coluu'ins of compa- 
nies, tlvj commander of the Twenty-Seventh Indiana saw them, 
andi shouted instant] v to his men to face and fde to tlie right, 
but he was c/oeved by his riglit company only. The enemy 
lialred, wheeled into line, opened fire with tliat portion of his 
front that cuidd reach, us, and tiirew forward the remainder ol 
his brigade full upon our flank and rear.§ But the Twent\'- 
Sc\"enth Indiana had again fled, leaving exposed to this nev>- 
attack the nank and rear of tlie Second Massachusetts. Oii 
t!ie extreme riglit of the Second v,as brave Capt. Goodv/in, 
figiiting Co. K most valiantlv and fearlesslv ; and in front 



* It \va-; here that Archer's. Eri.;,acle rcL.-iivfcd stich a severe punishment I'roiu ihe 
Second M.issachu-ett:. Mis looses were reinirted ns very hc-i\y. See Jacki;oa".s, 
}iiil's, a:\d Archers Oidcial Rcport.s. Voh IX, Moore's " Kcbsl Records." 

t " In ra!';yi;;g a-d re-forming the regiment at this point, and indeed daring the 
whole ac'i>':5, f \\as r.'ded by yoLn>eif ar.d y.jur smiT, and particularly by Capt, 
Scoit, your assist.int adjutant-general, whose energy and bravery it is impossible 
to conunc-'-d t-i'> highly."' — CJ. L'o/p-jz/ s 0_^lcla!. K.port, Batil: of Cc-iJr Mc:i>'.- 
lain, ':> G.-ri. Cro. II. Gaj\tt':i. 

J Col. Coigrove's Report. 

§ Whcii I'lrr.dcr's rr;,;L.!e made :t-- tinal charge, it was so rvM-ih in our rear that 
its Ios> fn^iu ou.' iire nas oi;!y na-.-cn iti ail. (.See Jaci^-oirs Onlci.d Report.) 



190 

was Capt. Abbott with his company, in the open field, where, 
upon our arrival, lie had deployed his skirmishers, who were 
lyii'g do^vn and firing upon the enemy. 

Now, in front and on flank, full and fierce the storm 
tore through and around us. The crash was terrific ; it 
was indescribable. Capt. Good-.vin fell dead, and with himi 
over twenty of hks n-.en ; fifteen more were missing. iMajor 
Savage, opposite the right anrl rear, in the verv face of this 
deadly blast, fell grievously wounded, while his horse was shot 
dead upon the spot. I will not here name the dead, as I 
shall refer to iliem wliere, under a flag of truce, we were 
piermitted to rrco\'er their bodies. But as I am speaking of 
that terrible, that dreadful and remorseless fire, that came 
like a v.hirlvvii-u, and licked up with its fiery blast more Tr.-es 
than were lost to our regiment and mv brigade in any bat- 
tle ot the war, I may upon this occasion be })ermitted to 
recall the name of one of our number, who, in tlie midst of all 
this carnage, in the verv face and front of th(^ enemv's fire, and 
almost v/ithin reacli of their guns, himself unwounded, placed 
his own body an>l las own frail life between his friend and the 
enemy, ^vlajor Savage and Capt. Henry S. F'.usstll were cap- 
tured together; the former, lingering for a fev/ weeks, died at 
Cliarlottc^viile, Ijut the latter v;e greet rejoicingly as annmg 
the survi'v-ors or the officers of ou.r ix-giment.* 

Flesh and bluod coiJd stand no longer ; th.e last attack 
had been made ; arid now we, too, v/ere driven the last from 

* Nowhere can I fi;id :v.^re: tittiiig word- to ripplv to this knightly act than thoie 
used hy the aged iath-jr of Major Sava.C;e, in-,dcr date of August 20, lS''i2, in re[)ly 
t') ir:y letter of syini athy. " .^I;:c!l satiafjcti-Mi,"' ise sr.yi, " is cicrived Liy a p.ueiu 
from t::e proof of s;. nipathy with tiie niiafo! tunes of a child, expressed !)y his 
nearest companions, and it v.ili seldor-; ha;ipen that more affectionate regard is 
shown by his fe! low-officers to anv one than my only son gained Ironi those of 
your ori^iral rec^in.ent. .Swch evidence wei-jls more than is aHvays furnished 
a'.T.r.d.uuiv for sTicrc C'l-.ragi., because biavery ijchings to most of uur race, and 
the want of it i.s a disgrace ; but the overslow of genial bcntinicnt i.s not an i:\d-i- 
T'.ci'.;-ab:e requisite of the tiu-st va'.ucd a:;d h.onorable serv.ir.t of the pubic, and in 
p.oportion to its rarity s;ii>uld be admirei.l as a heavenly grace." 



191 

the field. While Col. Andrev\-s was endeavoring to rally his 
rogim'^nt, his horse received two balls, one in tlie she-ulder 
and one in the neck, the effect of which, the colonel says, was 
" to send him p]ung:inp: among the branches and nndergrowth 
and to bewilder his rider." My own horse, when that lire 
came, shook for a momeut with terror, then bore nie despite 
rnv will'through the underbrusli and Avoods to the left of the 
line of my brigade. * 

It was about hall-[>ast six o'clock in the evening, when, in 
the company of from thirty to fifty men (principally of the 
Wisconsin and Indiana regiments) whom I had rallied, I 
found m}'self out of tlie timber on its edge, ^t the foot of 
the iiill up wliich we liad^ scrambled, and nor three hundreds 
\'ards from the fatal field. The horror with which ai first I 
contemplated the possi]>ility that these vere all that remained 
was soon relieved by tiie siglit of the Second Massachusetts, 
led bv Col. Andrews, emerging irom tlie woods, farther towards 
the centre of our lit-e than he wen.l" in, and moving, all that 
were not dead, ^^■ounded, or captured, in perfect order to the 
rear. 1 directed my shmttered and broken comman.d towards 
the ptjint from whence, scarce an hour Ivjfore, we had started. 
We arri\'ed after dark, to sink down exhausted upon the 
^; round. J^ut what a change since our de|,)arttrre I The cot- 
lage, the yard, the giuimds around were filh.'d with oiu" dead 
■dv.'.l d\"ing. All v.dio coidd be recovered from Crawford's 
Ihigade, as well as all from mine, were here. ^ly Ijat- 
terics were in pos'tion, as when I liad lert them, but there 
was nothing else to resist the inonientaril)- expected forward 
rncjvenH.-nt ot the eiicm}-. In tlie nnd>i of nnich coniusion, 
a stait-ofiicer from Gen. Williams brought me an order to fall 
back. Tut little did Gen. Williams know what I shcadd have 
to abandon. I sent on.e of m\' stntf to ir.form him. It was 
quite dark, and my pickets were extended to th.e iront. Sor>ii 
a message v/as received from Gen. Tanks orderin.g me to fall 
back. On nsy way t<.) cniiguteu liini ^!ie was near the 



192 

centre of our line on the pike) upon the condition of things 
around my station, I encountered one Clark, an aid of the 
general, who repeated to rne an order from Banks to leave my 
present position wl^.en I should be relieved by troops from 
McDowell's Corps, and take up a position in the centre of 
our line. Replying that I v/ould see Banks in person, I 
groped my way forward, and soon came upon IMajor-Generals 
Bope and Banks, standing "together in the road nearly two 
miles in rear of the wheat-field, and about one mile on the 
Culpepper side, from Cedar Creek. 

Gen. Bope had at last arrived on the field, and the following 
will explain haw he happened there: — 

The boom of artillery that echoed back to Culpepper Court 
Blouse in the miorning, and continued at intervals until it 
broke out into the heavy cannonade svhich I have described, 
made it at last no longer doubtful to Bope, and some ofiicers 
of his staff, that a battle between our corps and Jackson's 
army wa- impending or in progress. Until four o'clock in the 
afternoon Bope sat quietly reading and smoking, at his tent- 
door in Culi)epj:>er. At this hour, as peal after peal from oar 
artillery fell upon his ears, he ^^prang into his saddle, and 
calling upon his staff to follr.w, galloped rapidly thro'agh 
the v;lla:::e in the di^cciio^i of Cedar Moiintain, udlowed b}- 
glariCfS of tenor from the citizens, who, during the day, had 
listened with anxiety to the combat. Gen. McDowell, who 
accompaviird B'jpe, gave to Kickett's L)i\-ision of his corps, as 
he came up to it, orders to form and n"!o\-e forward inmiedi- 
ately. As Bope neared the battle-field, the cannonade beconi- 
ing more and uiore lurious, the i:roo})s of McDov.'cil v/ere 
pushed on through, road and fields in separate cokunns and 
with increased rapidity. Soon a column of wounded wdth 
assistan.ts was met, s^ane on foot, some on horseback or in 
ambulances, whom Bope's staff, mistaking for stragglers, val- 
iantly set upon, and thuis endeavored for a time to force l>ack 
men, v»"iiose blood v r>an.da'\;s and biout countenances and 



J -. : >'> 



19;] 

arms, to which they still ckni- denoted, upon a closer inspec- 
tion, that there vver.^ no coward.^ -mon- them. And now the 
soand of cannon ceased, and that pireous roll of muskctry 
which I ha\-e described, was borne to Pope's ears, " while the 
long procession of bandaged and bloody soldiers and dripping 
ambulances continued." * Theji came silence, for Banks had 
been overpowered. 

Alone, or atrended by a single aid, in the twilight after our 
defeat, IJaiiks encountered Pope. They met only a few min- 
utes before I came upr,n them as I have narrated. Gen. Pope 
Lnefly inquired of me as to the condition of my command. 
'■ I do not think I have now," I said. "' more than three or four 
liun-.lred troops together; \rc have been very much cut up." 
-General Gordon," Gen. Pop- replied, " you will move as soon 
as relieved to the right of the pike and form the centre of a 
nevv' lip.e ot battle. I don't expect much of vour troops to- 
m.crrow, but you will make a show and can support a battery. 
You will not have mu.h to do. / ./^a// have tivcnty tkousand 
Jrcsli troops to-viorroiv vioyniiio-y 

Ihis was the first appearance of the major-general com- 
manding the Army of Virginia upon the disastrous battle- 
field of Cedar Mountain. He had come, when disaster could 
not be averted, to talk of his tv/enty thousand iVesh troops, all 
of whom had been available to gi\e us the victory, — at least, 
save us from, defeat; he had come to propose supporting 
a bailer)- v.-:tti my brigade on the morrow, and I was angry 
^vltha!. In an Instant I rejoined, - General Pope, this bat- 
tle should not have been fought, sir!" To v/hich Pope as 
j)ri.ri;!^tiy replied, "I never urdercd it tougnt, sir." And to 
tnis licn. iianks made no reply, no retort oi remonstrance, 
thoi!-h he was standing by Pope's side. 

'idien turiiin- t.) Ikmks, iwW of indignation at the crime, the 
blunder, 01 the batrle, 1 exclaimed. " General Banks, I diso- 
beyed your order, received durincr the fight " 

* Strucher, in ffurpcr's .\[jiitlily. 



'^&!\^''ri.'',/. >''','•, 



"What was it, sir?" replied Banks. 

" An order brought by an ofiiccr, purporting to come from 
you, to charge across the field, where my troops were then 
fighting." 

" I never sent you such an order," retorted Banks. 

" I am glad to know it," I replied ; '' it would have resulted 
in our total destruction." 

So important an order, and so direct a deidal demand that 
the circumstances attending its reception sliould be given in 
full. 

When ]Maior Pelouse was attempting to move the Tenth 
Maine forward ir. the wheat-ficld, it v/ill be remembered that 
an omcer passed him, saying he had orders for Gordon's 
Erigade,* th.en on the right. 

In the midst of the struggle of my brigade with the enemy, 
an ofncer, representing hmistlf as sent by Banks, condng 
through the woods, rode up to me, saying, " General Banks 
wishes you to charge a-ro.-^s th.'i field.'' Wiih what had 
transjjired already in my front, the astonishment this order 
caused may we!! be concei\-ed. 

" \\ hat field ? " I asked in amazement. 

"I don't know,"' was the reply. " I suppose this field." 

'■ Well, s:r," I reto:-i:ed, " 'su^ipc -e ' w^n'i do at such a rime 
as this. Go b.tck to General Banks and get explicit instruc- 
tions as to what field he wishes me to charge over." 

I'he ofucer (I had never seen him before) disaiipeared, an.d 
before he could have reported to Banks, the enemv solved all 
doubrs as to wh.ere oiu- conmiander V;-ished n-ic to charge, by 
doing all the charging himself, and gaining tlie fiaiik and rear 
of my three regiments, with his five brigades. Into the open 
arms of the enemy, had I obeyed the order, I should most cer- 
tainly have entered. 

But other orders, unauthorized and fatal, uselessly fatal if 
obeyed, given to regin-ients of my l-rigade during that half 

* Col I'doiiic, ki'.or to -Major Gouii!, iii Tuith .■t'ai-.ic in liie War. 



105 

hour of battle, swell into most unseemly proportions the huge 
blunders committed at Cedar ?vIountain. 

While tlie enemy's nre was at its hottest, Tvlajor Perkins, 
of Banks's staff, coming from the wooded cover, rode up to 
Col. Andrews with an order to charge, with the Second Alas- 
sachusctts, across the held. "In utter astonishment at such 
an order," writes Col. Andrews to me in a recent letter, "I 
exclaimed, ' Why. it will be the destruction of the regiment and 
will do no good ! ' Major Perkins (who was an educated 
soldier) made no reply, but shrugged his shoulders in a sig- 
nificant manner. Determined not to subject the regiment 
to such wanton destruction if I could avoid it, I reported 
to you, and you told me I need not obey the order. I met 
Major Perkins a day or tv/o after, and he said to me he sup- 
posed I blamed him very much for bringing me such an order, 
but it was sent by signal, and, he had since found, under a 
misapprehension,* it having been forgotten that the regiment 
hr.d been sent to the rigiit instead of the centre, as first 
ordered." 

It is somev.-hat of an explanation that Major Perkins, v,-hile 
on the extreme right of our line of battle, in giving an o.-der 
to one of my regiments that he did not communicate through 
me, imparted in an au'vu-atic way what was received by 
signal ; out as an cxplan-^Lion, it is wholly inadequate to clear 
up why Major Perkins did not himself discover the error, and 
not pat upon me ti:e responsibiliiy. Perkins knev.-, not only 
tnat Col. Andrcv.-s could not iiave made tliat n-.ovemerxt witii- 
out n-iy orders, but that such a movement would have resulted 
in a mo^Vi direlul disaster ; he knew, ni'ireover, that Banks did 
not know where we were. 

Most important is it tiere to consider whether Banks sent 
rnc the order im[)ULcd to him. I do not think it admits of 
doubt. Who would have taken sucli responsibility .'' Not the 
officer who brought me the order: I charged him v,-ith it in 

* Col. Aiiviiewii ^J..llt:;ic.1t. Letier of ju:;c 14, 1075. 



the presence and hearing of Banks a few days after, and he 
strongly and indignantly reiter;Ued that he received the order 
from Gen. J^anks ! And Banks made no reply. 

If we seek for a sohition in some of the v/ell-proven facts 
of that battle, we shall find a managem.ent so inexplicable 
that the directions given me, and received bv Col. Andrev/s, 
can be taken only as fitting parts of this abortive-eftort. Did 
not Banks, at five o'clock in the afternoon, in sending his last 
despatch from, the field, speak of the skirmishers approach- 
ing each other, without indicating that he expected a >-en- 

■^ to 

era] engagement, and v/ithout asking for any assistance;*' 
althongh at four o'clock the cannonade which reached Pope's 
ears in Culpepper was so heavy and continuous that he 
feared a geneial engagement was going on, and so hurried 
forward .= JInd not Banks, \vith an estimate of 6,000 troops 
as his own strength, undertaken to whip Jackson's 25,000 
under an impression that he could carry the field .^ . Had 
he not, in eiitire ignorance of the numbers in his front, 
precipitated Geary's and Crawford's Brigades, and six com- 
panies of my Third Wisconsin Regiment, against two whole 
brigades in position, and five of Hill's Division in reserve? 
Then had he not, v.dien everything com.bincd to inform him 
o. the m:iny tnousands more than his ou n that were before 
him, attempJod to whip them v/ith the Tenth I\iaine, single- 
handed, on his right ? And when the enemy had poured into 
the woods in my front a brigade for each one cf my small 
regiments, and two to spare, why should Jkauks, so long as 
he " feared the opinions of his friends" (as he conceived them) 
more than '■ tlie bayoiicts of his enemie^," have hesitated to ' 
send me the order I receivedi ? 

There remains to tell, that when Jacksr.n su-ung his forces 
around my brigade, he at the sanu' time ordered Taliaierro's 
brigade to cjiarge bearing towards their right (the position 
of the field of Indian corn), against our left and in front of 

* Toi-'e un.Jer nat'h bef^.rc t!ic .McDowci; Couic of Ip.ouirv. 



St 



v-^ 



]il7 

Early's Brigade. At this time Gen. Prince, in i<:;norance of 
what had transpired, was riding to wher^- Geary had been, to 
find out what had become of i^anks's coros. In this iuudable 
pursuit his bridle was suddenly seized, and hintsclf summoned 
to surrender. He was captured when surrounded by the 
enemy, who were silently moving o\'er the gi'ound lately 
occupied by Geary, an,d enveloping his own troops, whom he 
could not warn of tl.eir danger, though his officers soon dis- 
covered it, and fell back, but not until four hundred of thcra 
were captured.* 

Tr.ere are yet two brigades of the enemv to account for : 
those of ILvv-ell's Division, which lemaincd inactive upori the 
face of tliC mountain through the scenes we have described. 
Keut back from advancing bv tiic incessant fire of their own 
batteries, wddch swept the valley through which they must 
p^ass.t tliey now advanced upon the right, to turn, the leit 
flank of our line, but fouPid we were m full retreat. 

The battle was over. On our lett, Gen. Prince v.^as a pris- 
oner, Generals Gearv and Augur wounded ; not a general offi- 
cer left 01 those who forPx^ed that pari of our liric of battle. In 
the centre, out of a brigade numd^ering about 1,467 nien, 
nearly every field-ofncer on tlie ground, and about half the 
conipany-oulcers and u'lcn, were kiiied or wounded. t 

Upon recei\'ing Pcpe's orders, I returned to niy brigade, 
and directed commanders to move out their regiments, while 
I proceeded to point out to Gen. Tower, of Rickett's Division, 
wlu") had now come up to relieve m.e, the exact position J had 
held for so manv hours. Althougli it was then atter daylight, 
a bright jp.oon made objects sufiiciently promineiit to eniible 
me to discover that the enemy's })ickets had greatly advanced 
towards tile v/cods nortii of the creek on tlie Culpepper road, 
and th.at our ow;\ were fdiing back. I could also see that the 
enemy had moved liis batteries to the positions oceup-ied dur- 
ing the fight by our own. My description of positions to Gen. 

* Dahn^.}-. ■*■ JacksDiiVf; Kcp;;rt. t Siro'Jier. 



198 

Tower concluded, ambudiinces sent v/ith my command and 
scouts taken from, niy own escort recalled, I was leady to leave ; 
but to ray surprise ray command did not join me wliere I had 
ordered : they had taken a shorter way to the pike, where they 
expected to meet me. Upon approaching the road, in mov- 
in,^ with m.v staff to select our position, I perceived that our 
cavalry, which previously had been in line between the woods 
I was ordered to occupy and Cedar Creek, had now passed 
through the woods and were in line behind it on the Culpepper 
side, ha\ing fallen back before the ajioroach of tlie enemy. 
As my orders from Pope vv^ere imperative, I headed my 
somewhat numerous retinue of staiT-officers and orderlies 
(accompanied by Gen. Williams, wh') with his staff had joined 
me) for the woods, which I was about entering", when a hot hre, 
from V. hat sounded like a regiment, was poured into our mddst. 
In the darkness, aim was so uncertain that no greater damage 
followed than the killing of one of my orderlies, while Gen. 
Williams, myself, aiul our respective stafrs were warned in 
time to escape inevitable capture. Moving quickly to the 
rear of the cavalrv. I there found the Tweirth Massachusetts 
regiment drawn up in line I halted for a miOment to speak 
to its commander, vvhen again the enemy opened fire, with 
more fatal efiect; Capt. Shurtleff of the Twelfth falling dead 
with a build through his heart. This regiment returned the 
enemy's fire with vigor. 

We wih turn again to Tope. Beliccing that he could form 
his new line 'of battle in the woods I had just tried in vain to 
enter, Gen. Pope, with ?dcDowell and Banks, their staffs and 
escorts, had, before mv arri\a], dismounted and seated them- 
selves behind the shelter uf a rocky ledge which rose to a gentle 
eminence. In the woods or through them, or somewliere 
towards CeJar i^.Iountain, there had been heard at iritervals a 
dropping tire of musketry, with occasional volleys and now and 
then a single shell.. Sometimes a flight of shelh, in coursing 
over the hi-U'ls of Pope and his o.'Tuers, had rendered night 



191) 

hideous with their screams. The situation was picturesque, 
almost romantic — "As romantic as hell,''* one of the staff 
Ventured to remark, as attentioa was called to a full moon 
which disclosed the dark shadows of the woods and threw a 
dreamy light over the landscape. Three quarters of an hour 
passed ; the moon had become obscured ; strasf^^lcrs and even 
ori;"anized companies seen in the moonlight moving from 
the woods and through the fields, to the rear along the Cul- 
pepper road, had dwindled into a dribbling stream. The fire 
from the batteries had ceased, v.-hen the cavalry (I found in 
my rear) emerged from the woods, and halted not over forty 
yards from where Pope and his general officer's were reclining. 
^^'hen the fire broke out upi::n myscif, Gen. Williams, and our 
staft's, and was coatinued upon the cavalry and the Twelrth 
IMassachusetts, the bullets hissed through the bu;-hcs, sparkled 
in the darkness as thev struck trie flinty road, or singing 
through the tree-tops,- covered Pope and his oilicers with 
leaves and twigs. 'The effect upon tlie conclave of ron;antic 
officers was as follows : Pope's party of officers, staft", and es- 
corts, nunibering in all one hundred, rose suddenly to their 
feet, while the cavalr}' v.ath pistols returned the enem.y's fire 
in. a continuous fusilade. i^.Ioun.ting with imdue gravity, the 
Cvmm-ander of the Arinv ui" Viigi'iia and his olficers moved to 
the rear at a iro;;. winch soon bojkc intu a ga-lop, while the 
Twelfth ^Massachusetts, which was lying as I have said in 
rear of tlie cavalry, on a slight elevation, r^jse and opened 
fire as I have"de.^jribed.| 

Jt was sufficiently apparent that the enemy were in pos- 
session of the wood I had been ordered to hold. It was a 
chan.ge of Pope's programme made by the enemy since I had 
received Pope's orders. The only accident that had hapjiened 
to th.e party of ecneral officers or their stafis v.-as a severe 
copitusion suffered by Banks, whc was struck by the loreioot 



■* Srroih.cr i.-i ixs'/ciisu/.e lor ti-.c siory, not the coiiiparison. 

t Siioriier give^ clicic f.icC3 i'roai iiis esporlciioe as one of Pope's saitf O'ficers. 



200 

of an orderly's horse as the animal reared from fright. The 
rider of the horse, it was said, was killed. 

In the daikness and coniusion, I had not been able to hnd 
my command. The two regiments that were to join me at 
the pike were not to be seen. I pushed to the rear in 
search, and s.;on came up with the Second Massachusetts 
and Twenty-Seventh Indiana, but the Third Wisconsin was 
not in sight. While groping around to find it, the enemy 
advanced his batteries to the position we had just vacated, 
and serit a shower of shot and shell at short ranf^e, that 
shook our ears and the earth itself with the noise. To add to 
this confusion, a battery of ours, some half mile to the rear, 
opened upon the enemy's guns with such malevolent satisfac- 
tio?. that its shells f .r a i^x moments threatened to destroy 
what little life the enemy's guns nnght leave in' our bodies. 

Plump in our midst came the friendly shells ; one e.xploding 
so nearly un.der my horse that I have never been able to tell 
whether it v/as to the right or left of a plumb-line throuadi 
his belly. '• Stop him ! Stop that d— d ass !" with expletives 
stronger than rcrfined, greeted this ambivious artillerist, who 
seemed bent, like the Irishman at Donnvbrook Fair, to hit 
the first head he saw : and he was stopped by one of Pope's 
staff-nhicers bjf.re he had destroyed the commanding gen- 
eral of the Avn.y of Viiginia. 

Hardly had the enemy opened v.dth his battery when two 
Maine P-.^tterics * of Ivickett's Division sent their compli- 
ments in such furious earnest and with such accurate aim, 
that the enemy retreated with a loss of nearly all his horses 
and many of his men. Vfe found them where tliey fell when 
J:ickson retreated. 

While batteries were still passing farther to the rear, accom- 
panied by straggling regiments of infmlry and cavnlry, I dis- 
covered Gen Williams, commanding our division, by my side. 
I asked him whether, in view of the probal>le form.ation of a 

* The Scco:;-! and FUdi M.une. 



-201 

new line of battle, I better m<:.ve a h'ttle farther to the rear. 
T(.) this he assented. 

With the Second Massachusetts Regiment leading, followed 
by all that I could gather of my brigade, I had proceeded 
but a short distance when, out of the darkness of the night, 
I heard a voice scolding at the retreating troops which pre- 
ceded me. "Where are you going.? Halt, I will report 
you! Flalt, I say!" etc. etc., was uttered with an accent 
not English, and with a volubility quite foreign. In the midst 
of his vehement exclamations, whom should the speaker 
next encounter but Col. Andrev/s, at the head of the Second 
rJassachusetts Re^giment. Him, tlierefore, th.e voice ad- 
dressed with the same energy and almost in the' same words 
used to others, ending with the threat of a report. Evidently 
the speaker fancied the whole army vv-as going to the rear, 
and his duty it was to save it front disgrace. I doubt if Col. 
Andrews ever received such a blessir.g in a few moments in 
his li'e. It seemed to stagger him.. I heard it, and rode for- 
"waid. to find Andi-ews's m.arch impeded by a little man, sur- 
rounded with a large staff. -It v.ms near midnight, and too 
dark to di.-.tinguis'i the person or rank of the speaker. 

"Who are }':;u,'' I angialy exclainaed. " wlio uses su.ch lan- 
guage to liiis regiment, or anv olncer belonging to it?" 
"Who am I ?" slowly and oniphatic.:dly uttered the voice. 
"■ Yes ! Who arc }-ou ? ^Vhat is your name .-" " 
" yiy name .'" .again sp:)kc tlie voice, in measured tones, 
" ^''es ; }-our name, — if you have a name ! Who are you } " 
" I am General Sigel!" was the rejily, witl? an emphasis as 
cri'..<hing as could be extract;.'d from these words. 

" You are General Sigel, are } ou ? Well. General Sigel, you 
caniiot address youirself to troops that I command, in this 
manner. Tiiis rc-i^iment is ':tie Second rvFa-^saolTusetts, a regi- 
ment th.at never retreats imtil ordered. It is just out of the 
fi:^;'.t, has su'tcred a terrib'e hiss in oiTicers and men, a!Kl is now 
mnving under orders to tlie rear to t d:^ up a new position." 



202 

In an instant Si.c^cl, with softened tones, made the aviauie 
honorable. He h.i(.l seen, he said, so man}- goin^- to the rear, 
that he thon-hr all were moving- without orders. With many 
apologies he moved forward with his corps of fresh troops, 
v.'hose presence a few hours earlier would have saved our 
corps, perhaps given us the victory. 

And here v/e may pause in our narrativ-e to ask, — Whv, 
when Jackson threw l>om 20,000 to 25,000 troops upon our 
corps, Sigel was not there to help us? 

Impressed by the furious cannonade v.dth the belief that 
Banks might be about to fight alone the battle he intended to 
fight with the three corps of his army, we have narrated that 
Gen. Pope hurried, with McDowell's force, to the front. About 
tlic time Pope^- left Cu.li^cpper, Gen. Sigcl, v/ith his staff, 
entered it to report to him. The troops of this command, 
said to be mucli jaded by the heat and fatigue, were not yet 
in town. 

It will be lemembered that on the Sth Sigel received orders 
from Pope to march immediately frum Sperryville to Culpep- 
per, a distance of about twent}' miles. Instead of obeying 
these orders, he sent a note (which the latter received 
after night (,n the 8th), dated at Sperryville at 6.30 p. m., 
asking \y< what road i^e should march to Cu;[^epper Court 
House. This delay ol Sigel':, detained him until too late 
for the action, — "delayed him," as Pope says, f "by the 
singular uncertainty of what road he ought to i)ur-ue." 
Nor was this aii. At this \-ita! hour, at four o'ch>ck ir. the 
aiternoon o{ the 9th of August, Sigel's Corp.? had nr,i 3-et 
arrived at Culpepper, and worse than that, when it did 
arrive, the men were liungry as v/el! as j.aded, for they were 
without rations. "I had given notice," says Pope, "that the 
whole Armv of \"rgin!a should always be readv to move at 
the shortest notice, and sh.-uld habitually keep tv.-o days' 
ratiuns in their haversack"; and this Pupe seems tu have 

* Tope's Kcport. t Tepr's OtVl-Ja! kei--rt. 



r . .1 



203 

thought sufTicient to assure, beyond peraclventure, the arri- 
val of Si;;;el at Culpei)per wirh food at all events on the dav 
of the battle of Cedar IMountain. But not so Sigel. His 
corps had not a cracker nor a ration of pork ; and his men 
could not march without them. So provisions v;ere procured 
from McDowell's command and cooked at Culpepper Court 
House. While Sigel's Corps, between four and five o'clock 
in the afternoon, were getting their dinners to be in readi- 
ness to move forward between five and seven miles to aid in 
fighting the battle Pope intended to fight with his whole 
army, the principal events which I have recorded were trans- 
piring. " It was intended," testifies McDowell, in the Court 
of Inquiry, where Sigel broaglit charges against him for not 
supporting Banks, — *• it vras intended that Sigel should follow 
and support ]-5anks, and Sigel did not do so because of unnec- 
essary delay in marching to Culpepper." ]^ut at last Sigel 
had found his road, and we had foun.d Sigel. Had he moved 
wlien ordered, there would ha\'e been a very different history 
of the fight of Cedar Mountain. It is not probable that 
lUnks would have ass;iuU"ed Jackson's army at all, at least not 
single-handed and alone. 

We left Pope, ^.IcDovv-ell, and l>anks, their stafis and escorts, 
n'.aking rapid time to the re^r, while, Irom the woods v.'here I 
v;a5 ordered to take up a position, the enemy poured into us 
a heavy fire of mu-4:etry. After my interview with Sigel, I 
halted my command about where I supposed a new line of 
battle v.'ould be formed by fresh, troops and the remnant of 
Banks's Corps, v.'hen Pope suddenly came upon us. 

"General, you hrive mistaken your position," he said. 

" I ha\-e not taken the one vou designated, because the 
enemy in large force occupy it," I replied. 

" You are nri-.^akeu.," said Pope ; " those ai'c our own troops." 

" No, sir," I urged, " 1 was there but just now, and we 
were fired at, In" irjfiintry, frum the wood.s wh.ere you ordered 
me." 



''^mmrw^ ■■■> 



■) .. , 1' 



204 

Again insisted Pope, " It is not so." 

" or course, then," I replied, " I will move there now, oi as 
near tlicre as I can, if you wish it." 

" Do so," was tlic order. 

Facing about, I moved my diminutive column, that some 
how or other had dwindled to less than two hundred men, 
over the groimd from whence the whole of llanks's Corps had 
retreated. On my right, our troops, under Gen. 7'ower, still 
held their strong point at Brown's cottage, and held it through 
the night, as I had m.aintained it through, the day, unmolested ; 
but on m}^ left and frunt 1 was alone. When within a reason- 
able distance of the woods I halted. Pope, with Banks, Mc- 
Dowell, and Sigel, had followed me, and novv dismounted, 
were sitting under a tree by the road-side. It was after twelve 
at night. 

An examination at the front convinced me of the truth of 
more than I had asserted to Pope, and I went to him to report 
that, save my small guar^i, tliere was notliing between him and 
the whole of Jackson's army. 

"Not so," replied Pope. ''Generals Green and Prince are 
there with tlieir com.mands.''" 

I denied it, affirmirig that they had fallen far back to the 
rear long before. 

But Pope \\-as persiste-it, and would not believe that I, alone 
of all Banks's Corps, v,"as in his front. .Soon, however, many 
members of the Se^'entli \"irginia Cav:dr)", gn.'inng about in 
the dark, hicg'an to make infjuiries at my princi})ai picket .sta- 
tion whether we could inform them where their regiment was. 
Some dozen or so of thera were thus silentl}' taken into our 
arms, and immediately sent back to Pupe. 

Then again I sought the geireral commanding, and urged as 
conf;''ming prr-.of of my statement th.at we were alone, the fact 
that the enem\', unmolested, were v. andering around in oiir front. 

"But Col. Clark [Banks's detective aidT says Green and 
r'rince are there on oar lelt," urged Po}--.:. 



205 

" Won't you send him out to find them ? " I replied. ■ 
"Yes;'* replied Pope. "Givj him an escort and let him go." 
Cb.rk, who^e informrition was generally in the inverse ratio 
of his assumption, went doubtingly forth with a large escort; 
but he had not proceeded fifty yards across the pike towards 
my left, when he was met by a sharp musketr}- fire from the 
enemy's skirmish line. Tumultuously Clark returned, iollowed 
by the troops. The bullets pattered witli such eOect against 
the trees and fence-rails beneath which Pope and his generals 
were reposing, that a second time the whole body ot othcers 
and followers moved in an incredibly short time to the rear. 
It was rather a Ijng chase bi^f^-e T could catch Pope, but 
v.-hen I did, I asked him if he was now satisfied of the truth 
of n"'V assertions. 

" Rem.ove your- men to the rear," replied Pope, v;ho then 
with McDowell addressed himself to the vvork oi forming a 
nev,' line of battle (which about daylight v.-af. effected with fresh 
trcops) for a resumpt'on of our fight, v.'hich did not take place. 
P>om where Gen. Jackson rested after his movement for- 
ward upon Banks's line, to v;here he halted agairi in doubt, the 
distance was one mile and a half It was the intention of 
the enemy " to reach Culpepper tl~=at night" ; but the vigorous 
at;.j.ck upon his battery," the report of his '• most reliable 
sco.;t ibat the enerv,' was but a few hundred yards in advance," 
and the additional fact that Col. "Jones, of the Seventh Vir- 
girda Cav.ilry, roported. tlnat li e had learned from some prisoners 
he had taken, thai P^ederal rcinforcem.ents had arrived," 
induced Jackson to think it "prudent to halt."! 

Il was not inuil moridng that Jackson added to this prudetit 
resolve yet amother, v.-iiich was, not to figlit Pope again on 
that crround. lie cives as ids reason " that he was con.vinced 



•* The triiciiiy a.Jin>. iu Orri..ial Kepuiis &.2'. tu:- b.-;ttery v.hicli opcii-cd u-ioa as 
.Tc ;aidni_:;ht w.i.s s'.lenLLcl, cau:-ii-j Cap;, i'e^raiv: severe loij and co'.r.pellin^ him 
to wit'.Kiuav. 

t Jackson's Report. 



206 

that Pope would have 60,000 men before he could resume." * 
When we consider that the whole force Pope could have had 
on ihe moriiing of the lOlii v/a.5 all on the ground before twelve 
at midnight of the 9th ; that this was sufficient to make Jack- 
son doubt and waver ; and that with the addition of only King's 
Division of McDowell's Corps, ii was sutTicient to make 
Jackson retreat across the Rapidan on the night of the nth, 
who can repress their indignation that this force was not 
united against Jackson on the 9th ? There is not a shadov/ of 
a doubt that it might have been. Why was Banks's Corps of 
6,000 or 7,coo men allowed to stand mangled and bleeding 
in a useless assault against Jackson's entire army of at least 
20,0C0 able-bodied and fresh troops ? 

Pope answers, "Banks was not ordered to fight that battle, 
was not expected to fight it, until I could bring up the force 
which Jackson admits would have been too strong for him to 
have encountered." Banks answers with a denial of Pope's, 
statements. I will endeavor to show, before I close, wliich of 
these conflicting stalenients is tlie true one. 

When the sun rose on the morning of the icth of August, 
our arm}- held a new line of battle almost tv.-o miles in rear of 
tlie woods into which the enemy had passed during the night. 
Sigel, hi : corps strorgly posted in. liie woods, wiih a wide 
space of open ground in its front, was on the let't, -^vhile Rick- 
etts, withdrawn from our old position to a corner of timber, 
and behind ridges, held th.e right of the lino. The vdiole effec- 
tive force thus in line is officially stated at 20,000 artillcrv and 
infantr}-, and about 2,oco cavalry. j This is exclusive of 
Banks's Corps which ha.;l been sent b)- Pope aljout two 
miles farther to the rear, with orders to Gen. Williams, 
who had succeeded to the command; to put it rapidly in 
condition for service. The day was intense!}' hot ; hour after 
hour passed, aud the silence continued unbruken, while, in 
compact lines," our troops remained in constant readiness. 

* Daon^^v. t Pope's Oiiici-i! Report. 



?07 

Early in the day or during; the nig!;ht of the 9th Jackson 
had withdra'A'n his h'nes back towards Cedar Mountain. The 
icth passed; our dead were unburied, and our wounded were 
lying where they fell, all through the wheat and the corn field 
and in the surrounding forest. 

Jackson did not attack Pope, and we have h'S reason : he 
was afraid of his numbers. Pope did not attack Jackson, and 
we have his reason: his "troops Vv-ere too much fatigued to 
ren.ew the action "* But Pope's true reason for delay was that 
King might come up with the other division of McDowell's 
Corps. King arrived on the evening of the iith, and Pope 
" made up his mind, though his force barely equalled Jack- 
son's, to fall upon the enemv on the ]2th."t Tviany such 
resolutions have been frustrated by the enemy not waiting 
to be fallen upon. So Jackson. He fled on the evening of 
the iith, leaving many of his dead and wounded on the field 
and along the road from Cedar i^.Iountain to Orange Court 
House. t 

On the morning of that day, Pope sent, by flag of truce, 
for permission to recover the wounded and bury the dead. 
This was gra-.ued ; and t'lus we were permitted, by those over 
whom, according to Halleck's despatch ij to Pope, we had won 
a hard-earned and ].)rii:iarit .-success, to succor our v/ounded, 
to recosx^r our dead. All day of the iith, the rnnk aiid fde 
of tlie two armies met and talked, between hostile lines, 
without passion or resentment. On our left the corn-field 
was only sprinkled with dead, but on the wheat-field, and in 
the v;oods into which our recriments chars-ed and bv the fence 



* Pope's 0:!iv:ial Report. 

t Pope's Omciai Rtporr. 

I '• \VI>en J.ickson went tiimbiing across the K.ipiil.in, under cover of niglit, 
a'L'asu'.jiiir:^ nvriny woiritied aii-d stragglers ;•.■. :lie -a .•.•.■, ?.v.d h:v.\:]\- .saving his bag- 
gage ; calling iVr re;nu rccments, and thanking the Lord for the victory in the 
same breath ; we are at a loss to iniagine the grounds for his piou.s gratitude." — 

, Il.ilieck's ord.r to V r^-i, \\:\.r I)ep..rtii.cu;:. ,\uga>t 14, iSr,:.. 



208 

where my br;G;ane foup;ht in line of battle, there v.-ere c;hastlv 
piles of dead, with here and there a livino- siitferer, wlio had 
drawn his painful breath through more than thirty-six hours 
of exposure. The severest loss feli to the Second. The 
mortality among the officers was unu^■.ua^ly heavy. One 
writer attributes this to their conspicuous dress, making them 
a mark for the enemy's sharp-shooters ; but it can be better 
and more satisfactorily accounted for by the habit which our 
regiment had acquired fif standing .-tcadily where and when it 
was ordered, despite all attacks made upon it, even though, 
as at Cedar Mountain, it was overwhelmed on its front, flank, 
and rear. 



Our total loss in killed, woutided, and prisoners in th 



c ::> 



c;^.' 



end Regiment was one hundred and seventy-four, — thirty-five 
per cent of all engaged. Out of the v/hole loss, but fifteen 
v/ere prisoners unwoup.ded. Tv;elve officers and one hun- 
dred and lort}'-seven non-commissioned officers and privates 
were killed and wounded out of the Second alone, and of this 
number, six of the officers and fift}'-two of the non-commis- 
sioned OiTicers and privates were instantly killed or morrally 
wounded. ■•'■■ Sn.-Tounded by manv of tlieir men killed in t!ie 
action, I sav,- desd upoii the field, Cajjtains Carv, Goodwin, 
Abbott, Williams, and Lieut. Ferkin.;. iMajor Savage had 
been removed, to die at Charlottesville. 

Never in the e-.i'ire history of tlie Second ^Massachusetts 
Regiment, /nas its percentage of loss been so great. Not at 
Winchester, Antietam, Chaneellorsviile, not at Gettysburg, 
Rosacea, the .\tlanta campaign, or in. the march to the sea, 
was tlie sacrifice so larg'\ In my wh ole b';ig:ide, number- 



* I can add noihii'.g to Col. Andiew.s's letter, written after the battle, in which 
lie said, "Tell the friends of tlie rci:i::ient that it h.is fully sustained its reptita- 
t).:)n, l^.;\in^ foi^ht Lr:ively and \vi:h great ■■. ;.!n^<r, u-uii forced hack \)y t;;e 
(A-eruiielndn.g tiunibera of ti:e enemy, I'.^sir.g uf all it carried in.to action two 
thirds of it-; ohicers and myri: than one third o>: {'.< uon-comnaissioned of'lccrs 
and ;'ri\-i;'.-s." Vor a e-ii<i;K-;te ii.;t i>( a!! the v^oun;.!ed and urisoners, see Quint's 
Uccordof Second Ma^>.icl.;:>eit> Regiment. 



201' 

ing- less than 1.500 men, the loss in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners was four hundred and sixty-six, — over thirty in 
every hundred of my conmiand. 

Jackson had won a complete victory. How, indeed, could 
it be otherwise ? Place the figures of the force I have given 
for Banks's Corps against the twelve brigades of Jackson's 
three divisions, against the 25,000 men of all arms which met 
the charge of our 7,500 men,"- and can there be a doubt how 
su.ch a contest v.'ould terminate? Even Dabney, Jackson's 
Boswell, admits in his history of tl)is action that Jackson had 
20,000 men engaged, but he puts our force at 32,000 "engaged 
in the battle."! Claims for Jackson's prowess, based upon such 
figures, are groundeJ on air. Jackson admits a lo^s in killed 
and wounded of 1,314, and claims to have caused us a loss of 
twice that number. t 

" Jackson thought," says Dabney, " that Cedar ?vIountain was 
his most successful battle," ^ Had Jackson known that 
he was figiitin?' none oth<-r than ]3ank3's Corps, would he 
have thought this battle so successful .-' Who shall say ? 
Jackson v.'as fallible, and oitertimes too stubborn to know 
or admit the truth. In_ his Official Report, he feels obliged to 
defend himself for not attacking, on the loth, the army he 
thought he had whijioeJ 0:1 the otl:, by assumiiig that Pope 
Ijad received lein.iurcernL-nts, which, DalMtey says, Jackson 



* Tl'.e foT'ce r.ader J ickiOM, accorJ.ng to our r:i';--jt aut'ici'iic i'.ifonnation, was 
2~,cco nieii of aH ruT.is and sb:'v p;!i:s, (if which about 25.000 luen were present 
in t.he action. IJar.k^V tore; i^ o!''icia!ly staled at 6,28-) nie.-;, with thirty gun.- and 
a brigade of cava'ry. total, 7,500 men of all amis. See Strother's Recollections 
of \'irg:nia Cain;.n)iun. 

I Dabiiey's Life oi Jackson. 

I " \Vf c-ptured four hii'.dred jiri-^oncrs, 5,302 sm.dl arni.s. one twelve -pounder 
X.ipo'eon and its caisson, with two other caissons and a limber." — yackson's 

. ^^?< '■<■ 

§ "This nd.d was rcniarkabie for tlie narrownes- of its front : a niiie in width 
embracing the whole t^round Uixm which centre and left wing had w.'cstlcd for 

li-j.'i a u.iv .i;.;.ii;;>t 3.',"Co ui-,ii, a ninuber wldch W'-vld n\ .ke ;'. line uf battle six 
miles loner."' — D i<iuv. 



L>10 

placed as high as 60,000. Jackson himself savs that he fled 
on the I ith '■ to avoid being attacked by vastly superior forces 
in front." 

The evidence we have £,iven is conclusive that althou^^^h 
Jackson shrank from an encounter with Pope vs-hen the two 
armies were evenly matched, his historians, clamorous in their 
falsehoods of the numl>ers overpowered, demanded that Cedar 
Mountain should be emblazoned on Jackson's shield. But 
the mills of Time at last grind out the truth, and before Dab- 
ney had exhausted even his endless vocabulary in coining 
loud-sounding vv'ords of praise, he felt obliged to defend Jack- 
son, not only for retreating, but even for fighting where he. 
did. 

The reinforcements which caused Jackson to retreat were 
not present v.dth Pope's army on the loth, when the former 
refused t') renev.-_the nght ; and when thev came up, on the i ith, 
they gave us, as we ha\'e shown (King's Division onb;), a force 
no larger than Jacksoii's. Yet this made him retreat. Of the 
fight at Cedar Mountain, Dabney says, "Jackson meant to 
have fougiu at Culpe|:=per Conn House on the Sth. Had he 
done so. his victory would have been so much more complete 
as to silence every charge of fruitlessness ; for we have seen 
tlrat the sui'O'crts vdiicii saved Pope from destruction onl}^ 
arrived at rdgliciall on the Qth." 

To si'ence such criticism, to shov; what would have happened 
had something not inii.-rposed of v/hich v.e are not informed, 
it is suiTiclent to reicr to what we have said of Pope's dis- 
positions on the Sth. Had Jackson marched to Culj^epper 
Court House oa that day, he would not onlv have sa\cd I'ope 
much time in concentration, but he would have met, in addi- 
tion to hbnks's Corps, the whole of Rickett's Division, antl we 
may b^lie\'e Sigel wuuld have found a road upoii wliich he 
could have arri\'ed in time. 

Jackson's battle of Cedar Mi-uiitain cannot be defended. 
It accompUsh.cd lio purj-.j^e, it establi.^iicd no dcsira'ble end. 



ml 

In three days from the time the last gun was fired our cavalry 
pickets were re-established upon the Rapidan. 

In concluding'; this chapter, it seems proper to offer the fol- 
lowing criticism upon the plan of this battle, and the causes 
which led to the peculiar efforts put forth In Banks's testi- 
mony before the Committee on the Conduct of the War, he 
attempts to exculpate himself for attacking the enemy, by try- 
incr to make it appear that the enemy were coming down to 
attack him. He had seen the movement of Ewell's remaining 
regiments to the mountani-sidc, and the brigade of Thomas, of 
Hill's Division, reinforcing Early ; and, in his own language, 
he "had gone dovv-n to the front with some officers, and been 
in-ipressed v.ith the idea th.at Vvhile they v.-ere moving on the 
other side (the left), they were coming down on the righ.t," 
that is, across the v.-heat-field and through the woods, behind 
which all of Williams's Division were concealed. If Jackson 
ever thought of turning our right, it was not while Crawford 
and Banks were peering through tne woods and trying to _^/u'ss 
what was behind them. 

I'he enemy could not have crossed that wheat-field and 
attacked Crawford without exposing their flank and rear to an 
attack from my whcle brigade of infantry and batteries, nor 
could they have attemptc.) it, without full warning to viv^ from 
my ski'.mishcrs, who filled t.;c v.'oods in iVoJit of Crawford's 
right. 

"Turning our right!" It would not have been attemipted 
at that stage of the battle; or if it had, to swing his whole line 
b:ickward on mv position, as on a pivot, and cover his left by 
tlic woods on tlie ridge, on tlie northern side ol Cedar Creek, 
wlsere Crawford was the evening before, when we were sent 
out to establish ourselves at Crawford's position, would have 
leen Banks's true movement to repel such an attack. As proof 
of this. I may refer to the fact that the renmantof Banks's 
Corj)5 fell back behir.d a lino of Ijatllc thus p.osted, vhea i\^['e 
came up, and with new troojis established a new fine, tueiigat 



-,T 



212 

of which was at the position I had occupied until I was 
ordered forward to the stubble-field.* 

Our rigiit never was atiacked, it was too strong-; but alas ! 
it was too evident that Banks did not know where the right of 
his line was. With all these facts (which cannot be disputed) 
before us, I read, with tfic same amazement that iVtls me when- 
ever I investigate any of Banks's military efforts, that "the 
enemy had massed his forces on our right, and v.-as moving 
forward and begun an attack upon us. I\Iy force encountered 
him about five o'clock, which is the usual tim.e for them to 
make an attack. They u'lade a desperate attack on our right : 
of course we had to strengthen that with all our force/'f Now 
every one but Banks and Crawford knows that the cneniy 
made, at this time (nve o'clock), no attack at all on our right, 
the right of our line. If I5anks had not sen.t four regiments 
over the wheat-field to attack Jackson, and tlicn sent me from 
the right over half a mile to tiie front, after the enemy had used 
•lip these regimeiits, then this whole force would have been 
saved to meet Jackson',- attack, if he had made one ; and had 
it been upon the rigrit, v/e could have held the enemy at bay 
until night or McDowell aiid Sigel had come. There is no 
room for contrcvers}' here : tlic weak and unhappy confer- 
ence with CraWiV)rd is marled with blunders, -.vhi:!! would be 
comedies it' they were not crimes. 

Bearing in mind that Ban.ks moved his lirie forward at 
least four hundred yards from v\-here Roljcrts staticTicd him, 
before he " sent Crawtord a brig:;.ue " ; that Crawiord's regi- 
ments advanced six hundred \'arils in crossing the stubble- 
field before they entered the woods, and then that they totalh^ 

surprised the enemv, driving him back some hundreds of 
« ^ ^ 

* This waa the position I surrtiidered after dark to Gen. Tower, of Rickett's 
Division. 

t Banks. "s testimony, Report of Coininitice on Coiid'ict '.tl il;e War, p. 44, 
Vol. III. 

NoTK. — The whoie of ilank^'s tcstinicnv, "s to a proL.i.! ie attack r.pon him 
v.hen he resolved ti:> att.i;k tiie cticriiV; is an a;':erth;ni jlic. — .■\ur!{.jR. 



213 

yards farther, and almost capturing Winder's Battery, — the 
very thing wirch i'lan.ks told Roberts he thought he could do 
and should do, — \\c are forced to the conclusion that Banks, 
instead of fearing an attack, was determined to make one, 
because he thought he " could carry the f^cld," and did not 
believe the enemy vrere there in force ; and that f;^r this pur- 
pose he advanced his troops until the regiments of Craw- 
ford's Brigade, when repulsed, were at least one mile from 
the position assigned him (Banks). Whether Jackson v/ould 
or would not liave attacked us is not the question. For 
Banks to give in sworn testimony, as he has, that the eneniy 
" made a desperate attack upon our right," and that Crawford 
was thrown forward to repei it, is to pervert history ; it is 
10 substitute, vvitii iormal solemnity, fiction for fact. 



214 



CPI AFTER X. 

"General Banks war. neither ordered nor expected to 
attack the enemy," says Gen. Pope. " I was both ordered and 
expected to attack the enemy," rephe? Gen. T!anks, 

Let us briefly examine the testimrmy. What were Gen. 
Pope's purposes and plans when he sent j^anks's Co^'ps for- 
ward on the morning- ol' the Qth } Tlicre can be no doubt that 
he did not authorize or expect it to attack, single-handed, the 
xvhole of Jackson's army. Says Pope in his Official Report of 
tliat action, " My chui-i'-of-staff. Gen. F^oberts, whom J sent 
forward early on the oth to re])ort to Banks and to advise 
freely with him as to operations of his corps, as well as 
Ikmks himsel::, Vv"ere both fully a:' vised of niy wishes ; tliat 
I desired Banks merely to keep the enem}' in check l)y 
occup\'ing a strong; position in his front until the v/hole dis- 
posable force of my ccr;im.and should l>e concentrated in the 
neighborhood." 

Gen. Pcpe ad'hessed, Jan. (2, 1865, a letter to the Chair- 
man of the- Comnnttee on l^wit Conduct of the War. replying 
to testimony which Bar.ks, in the absen.ce of Pope and all 
others who had any intcres in denying the statements there 
made, had vulunteered before that committee. These ex parte 
statements v.'ere made at Washington, Dec. 14, 1S64. 

In Gen. Pope's letter, which may be found in the second 
volume of the conmii'tee's report, he says, " To n;ake sure 
there could be jio mistakes of my orders and inleritions, at 
Q 30 A. .\i. I sent C'.':^. Roberts with full and precise ordei"s 
that he (ri:inksj should take up- a stro'ig positiori near where 



215 

Crawp^rd's Brigade of his corps was posted, and if the enemy 
advanced upon hini. tliat he (Banks) should push his skir- 
mishers well to th.e front, and attack the enemy with them ; 
exj)'ainin2,' fully that the object was to keep back the enemy 
until Sigcl's Corps and Rickett's Division could be concen- 
trated and brought forward to his support. Roberts was 
directed to rem.ain with Banks until further orders, and he 
accordinglv did remain with him until I reached the held in 
person just before dark.* The objects I had in view were so 
plain that no military man could tail to see it. Roberts was 
authorized to communicate them to Ranks and everyone else. 
I conferred freely with McDowell about it, and refer to his 
Official Report in corroboration." 

And again, in the same letter: "Tl'ie object in sending 
Banks's Corps to the front to take and hold a strong position 
against the advaricii^.g enemy until Sigcl's Corps and Rick- 
ett's Division could be united in his r^ar, was so plain and so 
cleariy understo-jd b\- evei'V man of ordinary intelligence, that 
I find it impossible to 'oehieve 15anks did not unJ.erstand it. 
It is clear to me that lie did understand it." 

And yet again, before the IMcDoweli Court of Inquiry, Pope 
swears, "On the mornin.g of August Qih, in a personal inter- 
view at nn' hea:i(ii;::rLers at Culpepp-.n, I gave Ban!:- instruc- 
tions. I told hiiu if the eneruj. a'i^anccd to attack hiai, he 
should push his skirmisliers well to the front, and notif\- me 
immi^liately, it being my wish to gain ail the time possible to 
con.centrate our forces at Culpe|)r>er C(;urt House." 

R would seem as if there could be no doubt of Pope's in- 
ti!U:..;!s: let us see if there is any doubt tiiat lie connnuni- 
cated them to Banks. 

First, we have the above verbal communication from Pope 
to Banks, whiei;, if correctly given, and it is swi^rn to, seems 
to nutkc it clear that P-anks was noi. ordered to attack Jackson, 
save v>nth his skirniishers. 



216 

Second, the order communicated at 9.43 in the morning; 
of the 9th of Au:;ust bv Col. Lewis rvlarslial, Pope's adjutant- 
general, and reduced to writing by Major L. H. Pelouse, 
Banks's adjutant-general. This verbal order, as given by 
Banks before the committee, agrees in substance v\ith ?vIajor 
Pelouse's \'crsion communicated to me under date of April 7, 
1875, i''' '^^^P'O' ^'~* ™y iCiier, asking for the exact words. His 
answer is as follows : — 

Washington, D. C, April 7, 1S75. 
Cf.n. Gr:o. H. Gordon, 

xVc. 7 Conri, Square^ Bos'ok. 

My D.ir Genera'., — In reply to yours of the zd. inst, I will state that I have 
exaniir.ed niy retamed papers, nnd fnund a true co;jy of the verbal orderi de- 
livered by Col L. Vi. Mar<:>^-i to Gen. Banks on the morning of the day of the 
battle of Cedar Mountain, 2-- follows : — 

"CULPKPPEK, 9.45 A. M., Aug. 9, '62. 

"From C'jL, Lnv/ii Marshal. 

" Gen Banks to move to th.- front ininediately, assume conarnand of all forces 
i"' the front, d :pl-.y l.is skinrdriiers if the eneinv advances and attack him im- 
mediately as he approaches, and be reinfi;'rced froru iiere." 
^ 1 am, Gciisral, truly you;;:, 

L. 11. Peloi'se. 

Though Pope denies that he sent Banks iJiis order, I do not 
tliink the diiYerent version which Col. Marshal gave of it 
Irum mcmorj,', Dec. 26, 1864, embodied in Pope's letter to the 
committee, should be allowed to weigh against Major Pelouse's 
statement, based as it is upon words taken as they fell from 
Col. idarshal's lips when he communicated it. 1 thereiore 
believe that Banks received this order from Pope. 

Third, tliO orders communicated to Bariks through Roberts, 
Pope's chief-of-stalf, now availa'ole to us in the form (yi sworn 
testimony before the iNIcDowell Court of Inquiry : — 

Gen. R(/oerts tcstifi :s, " Early in tlie morning of the 9th of 
Ai'gust I was sent to the front of the army with directions, 
when Banks should reach a p.osition v/iiere the nigiit bci^ore I 
had posted Crawfurd"s Brigade, that \ should show to 35anks 



217 

positions for him to take to liok^ the enemy in check if he 
attempted to advance towards Culpepper. I had been to the 
front on the 7th and Sth, and had reported to Pope my impres- 
sions that a large force of Gen. Jackson's would be at Cedar 
Mountain, or near there, on the 9th. . . . Gen. Pope au- 
thorized nie, before 2;oing to the front, to give any orders in 
his name in relation to holding the enemy there until his (Pope's) 
forces could corne up, to any of the ofticcrs that might be in 
the field senior to me. I understcod h,is object was to hold 
the enemy in check there that day, and not to attack until the 
other troops of his command should arrive and join General 
Banks." '^' 

And again ; "When I first came on the field, I met and 
went to the fiont with him (Banks), showing him positions 
where the enemy had batteries already posted, and shov.-ed 
him positions \^i■!ich iiis corps should take, to their advantage, 
and hold these position.s, as I thought, if attacked. / t/ien fold 
/urn I hat Goicral F'ope ivaujai hiv: to hold tJic eiie}ny in check 
iJure tiiitil SigeF s forces could he brougJit up, -ivhich were 
cxfccted that day, and all his other forces united to fght sack- 
so /is forcesl' t 

In the ligb.t of the subsequent orders from Pope, com.muni- 
cated through Gqw. Roberts to Banks while on the field, can 
the latter defend his interpretation of the written order, 
received through Col. Marshall in Culpepper at 945 in the 
morning, — his interpretation given to the committee, " that 
he was ordt^red to attack Jackson's army v/ith his corps" .'* If 
tliat v;ritten order and Pope's verbal instructions to Banks, 
ai;d the information which a corj-is comtnarider ought to have 
of the intentions of the commanding general, and which the 
latter says Banks did have, — if these were not enough to 
instruct him as to his duty, could he not comprehend Gen. 



* Testimony, Geii. l:. S. RoIjcit~, McDowell Court cf Iniuiry, B-itt;^ uf 
Ceiiar Motintain, p. 51. 

1 'J'he i'alic- ar.- :r\;nc. — ACTiroR. 



■218 

Roberts's orders ? I say nothing now of the exercise of thit 
prudence v/hich the most inoxperiejiced oi men, intrusted 
v/iih the Hves ot his feliow-crcatures, is bound to empluv ; 
I ask only, Did Ibnks know what he was ordered to do ? 
Of this there is no doubt. The answer is plain, the proof 
irrefutable. It is found in the conferences, while on the 
field, between Banks and Roberts, and in the subsequent 
action of Banks, and the reasons he gave for such action ; it 
is found in the words that fell from Banks's lips in his sworn 
testim.ony belore the committee, wlien he says that " within 
an hour from 0-45 A. M. (the date of the order from Col. Alar- 
shall), as his troops were on tlie march, he left the head of his 
column, went to Pope's headquarters, and asked him if he had 
any otlier orders, to which he said, ' I have sent an ofhcer 
acquainted with the country, who will designate the ground 
you are to hold, and v;ill gi\-e you any instnictions he may 
deem necessary ' " ; and if this is not enough to show that 
Roberts was aulhorii-ed to act for Pope, and that Jjanks was to 
Ao/c/ a position, and that Roberts w^iuld show him the one he 
v.as to hold, we have the additional evidence, given by Banks 
hiniseif before the committee, orice before quoted, that 
upon his arrival at the field he '" (I) saw Gen. Roberts, told 
him General Por-e saii.1 lie v; )uld indicate the line I was to 
occuj-y. Said he, "T have beeu over this gcourid thoroughly, 
and I believe this line [meaning the one v.'hich Crawford's 
Brigade then held] is the best tliat can be taken.' I con- 
curred with him, and placed my command oi about 6,000 men 
there." 

Can any one doubt wliat would have beeii Ibmks's rcplv at 
that time to the Cjucition, "Are )"ou ordered, sir, to advance 
your whole line from this position and attack tb.e enem\'.'" 
WouM it not hn.\'e been, " Is\), sir ; ni}' orders, reduced to writ- 
ing from Gen. Pope thruugh Col. i\kirshall, are to attack the 
enemy with my sklrmislicrs, it he advances, aiv:: send for 
reinforceriiciits. Tficse orders were repeated to me by Gen. 



219 

Pope an hour later in a personal interview at his headquarters, 
in v/aic'i, after telling me of his desire to concentrate his forces 
before fr^^ating, he said he had sent an officer to designate the 
ground I :.m to liold, and also to give me instructions ; and 
this line where I am now stationed has been designated by 
Gen. Pope's chicf-of-staiT as the one I am to hold"? 

If. then, after his attack and defeat, rt the time I addressed 
Pope in B.mks's presence v.ith " This battle should not have 
been fought, sir," Banks had attempted to defend himself, 
what would he have uttered ? Could he have replied, " I was 
to obey General Roberts, your chief-of-staff, General Pope! 
and he ordered me to leave my strong position and attack the 
enemy " ? 

Turning to the sworn testimony of Gen. Roberts, given 
before the McDou'cll Court of Inquiry, we find the following 
as his answer to this question from the court: — 

*' Oucsfion. Was the battle of Cedar IMomitain brought on 
by P inks or the enen.iy ? 

" Ans-Lcer. In tlie early part of the day the artillerv battle 
was brought on by the enemy's batteries opening from new 
positions o\-^ Crawford's ardllery, 1 liad been directed by 
Gen. Pope to send information to him hourly of what was 
goiiig on. anti I Ind exprc>3ed my opinion about three o'clock 
in the afternoon to Bau;:s that Jackson had arrived. The 
forces were very large. Gen. Banks expressed a different 
opinion, saying that he thought he should attack the batteries 
betorc night. I stated to Banks then my reasons for believing 
that an attack w.iuld be dangerous, that I was convinced that 
the bal'.eries on Cedar or Slaughter Mountains v.'cre sunnorted 
by heavy forces of infatury massed in the v/oods. He expressed 
a difterent opinion ; he told me he believed he could carry the 
field ; ids men were in the best f.ghtiug condition and that he 
should u'.idcrtake it. 

" Qifs!io!i. Why did Banks advance to make a division 
movement upon the enemy, witiiout aid of r\lcDoweH"s troops .^ 



220 

"Afiszi'er. After_ Banks was in position I went to the 
e.xtieme rip:ht (position of Gordon's Bi-i.-jacle), and was gone 
an hour or more. On retiu-ning I Aound j,anks had advanced 
his hnes in order of battle considerably towards the enemy, 
so that very sharp musketry firing had already commenced. 
It was about 3.30 p. m. 1 expressed my opinion that the 
enemy was in very large force, and massed in the woods on 
his right. J!anks replied that he did not believe the enemy 
was in any considerable force yet, and said he had resolved 
to attack their batteries or to attack their main force. It was 
either one or the other. I immediately sent a dispatch to 
Gen. Pope il think my dispatch v.-as dated 4.30 f. m.), telling 
him that a general battle would be fought before night, and 
tljat It v.-as of the utmost importance, in my opinion, that Gen. 
IvIcDowell's Corps should be at once sent to the field." 

With such testimony of tlie instructions given by Roberts 
to Banks on the field, surely Pope would have replied, 
" General Roberts gave you no order to attack, but on the 
contrary endeavored to dissuade you irom so doing." 

"Well, sir," Banks might have retorted, in the language 
used by him before the committee. " General Roberts, when 
he indicated the position, said to me, in a tone that was 
hnrdly proper fbr one officer to use to another, 'There must 
.be no backir.g out this da;--.' Me said tins to me from, six 
to twelve times, I made no reply to him at all, but I felt 
it keenly, because I kriev. that my connnand did not want to 
back out. We had backed out enough. He repeated this 
declaration a great manv times. — 'There must he no back- 
ing out this day." At the crisis of the battle he left." 

Had Gen. Pope then asked, " Did you think this justified 
you in disobeying my orders ? " 

" I was a little desperate, because I supposerl that General 
Pope thought we did not want to fight," Banks swore before 
the committee, and might, therefore, have returned it for an 
answer. 



>.",! 



221 

And had. Pope continued, " Did you think your desperation 
jiistified you in precipitatin;:^ a force, which you number as 
6, coo, upon an enemy \vhosc stren2;th you now afurm to have 
been 23,000. when, by waitinc: a fev/ hours,. I could have 
brought up a fresh corps and a division to your aid ?" 

•' I did n't know the enemy was in force, and I sent to you 
(Pope) every hour information of what was transpiring," Banks 
swore before the committee, and might, therefore, have repUed. 

Gen. Pope's retort, in this attempt to put the responsibility 
of I'anks's conduct upon him, may be found in his Official 
Report, as follows : — 

" Ho (Banks) was in easy communication -svith me all day, 
and all dav I received regular reports from him, and he on 
every orca^ion expressed the belief that the enemy did not 
intend to attack him, and he at no time intimated to me that 
he intended to attack the enemy. At no time did he ask for 
reinforcem.ents, nor intimate that he needed them. His last 
report, at 4.50 p. m., announced the aitillery f'ring, that shots 
were exchanged bv skirmishers, and that, at 5 p. m., opposing 
skirmishers weie nov.- approaching each other. "^ This was the 
last despatch from Banks, and before. I received it I was half- 
way to the field v.dth Rickett's Division, believing, from rapid 
artillery firing, that an engagement was going on or might be 
brought on." 

What excuse, then, is left for Banks } This is wliat he offers, 
— all tliere is to offer , and it only adds to our heavy grief 
(without justifying him), tliat either to add the v,'arrior's to the 
politician's fame, or to retrieve at Cedar IMountain w^hat, in 
in's ignorance, P'anks fancied he had lost at Winchester, such 
sacrifices sliould have been m.ade. 

A writer, once on ]>anks's staff.f echoes him in these 
woT'l^: " There V.MS ano'her moti\'e underlying and probably 
controlling pjanks's judgment: neither he nor the troops under 



* :>ce ante. 

t .Strother, ia llar;jer's Mont'i'.y fur Augusr, 1S67. 



/. 



222 

his command were at all satisfied with the verdict of an exact- 
ing; and ungenerous public upon the actions in the valley of tiie 
Shenandoah ; they felt the injustice of that judgment, which, 
wilhout regard to circumstances or contingencies, accepted 
success as the only test of merit, and were burning for an 
opportunity to wipe away unmerited opprobrium. They were, 
consequently, in no mood to discuss discretionary forms or 
prudential suggestions, and upon the first explicit order to 
attack tiiey burst upon the foe with a valor so splendid and 
devoted that cavilling criticism is silenced in admiration, and 
History will mark the day of Cedar IMountain as one of the 
proudest upon her illustrious record." In l^anks's words to 
the committee, " Our troops never fought better ; they had 
been retreating up to that time and panted for a fight. Alex- 
ander's troops never fought better." 

In these lines, all but ])raise for the fighting is balderdash 
and nonsense. But one of the five brigades, constituting 
Banks's Corps at Cedar Mountain, and a part of another, 
composed the force that fought against the overwhelming 
numbers of the enemy in the valley of the Shenandoah. 
Our conduct in that fight everywhere met, as it merited, pub- 
lic approbation. The troops, therefore, tliat were with Banks 
did not " bur;i to wipe away unmerited opprobrium." But did 
Bani;s burn for fnme> and tlid he seek, by throwing his troops 
against the bayonets of Jackson's armv at Cedar Mountain, 
to wipe out an opprobrium which he imagined liis friends 
might feel for him because he did not acliieve impussibiiities 
at Winchester ? This is much more probable. All of this 
rubbish, as well as Bariks's defence for fightin.g this battle, was 
an afterthought. Banks was ignorant of the numbers of the 
enemy in his front ; he hoped to win, but he lost ; then he set 
about finding excuses, and they are such that it had been 
be.ter for him to have been impaled on. the " bayonets of his 
enemies," than to have submitted them to the world. 

Says l'i/{-e, " I regret tr^at Ikaaks though: it expedient to 



223 



depart from my instructions. He left the strong position 
which he had takcTi up, ana advaaccd two ndlcs to assauU- the- 
enemy, bchevinp: they vs-ere not in considerable force, and 
that he would be able to crush their advance before their 
main body could come up. He accordingly threw forward his 
whole corps into action against superior forces of the enemy, 
strongly posted and sheltered by woods and ridges. His 
advance led him over the open ground, which was every- 
wdiere swept by the nre of the enemy concealed in woods and 
ravines beyond." * 

On the 13th of August, only four days'after the action, Gen. 
Pope telegraphed to Halicck precisely what is stated in this 
quotation from the former's Oftlcial Report, and this, Pope says, 
" Banks must have seen, kr it v/as published in all the news- 
papers ; and now," adds Pope, "at the end of tv/o years, while 
he is on leave of absence, Gen. Banks procures himself and 
one or two of his staff-oihcers, to be taken before your com- 
mittee in relation to verbal orders which he says he received 
early in the morning of the cith of August, 1S62, before his 
corps had ever gone to the front. Fie seems to have inter- 
preted this alleged order in the light of at'terthought, with- 
out alluding (o other orders received. ... I leave your 
conimittee to charaotcri/vj: such trai = sacti(.n as it merits." f 
And again says Pope in the same letter, " Panks's interpreta- 
tion of my orders is an afterthought, ingenious, but not cred- 
itable to his judgment, is absurd, and on its face is a contra- 
ciction, and requires strong personal motives to understand it 
as Banks says he did." TJiis is in reply to Banks's testimony, 
in which he savs, "This battle was Ibught under orders. I 
am sorry Gt:n. Pone says it was nut." 

1 here can be no other conclusion in disinterested minds, 
than tliat Banks, knov/ing he was not ordered to attack, I'an 
the risk, hoping f(;r a victory, vdiich he believed would silence 

* Pope's Oltkial liejjort. 

t rope's Idler 10 Chairm.nn of Co:iiiii:it'j'.:, Jill, u, 1865. 



224 

criticism. As he failed, he has endeavored to impute to others 
the f:iult which, belong.-- to him. 

One Word more ma\- be added to the manner in which 
Banks fought that battle, — "his remarkable arrangement," 
as Pope calls it. To enlighten the committee upon this 
point, Gen. Pope wished a number of officers to he called, 
whose names he gives, my own among the number. 'My 
testimony is found in these pages. Others have spoken. 
Says Strother in his " Recollections of a Virginia Campaign," 
before referred to: "A Confederate officer said to me, 'Your 
attack under the circumstances was rash and meaningless.'" 
And again., " W'ith his feeble colunm,'' ''■' says the same 
v/riter, " Banks advanced upon an enemy 25,000 strong, judi- 
ciously jioiied, and assailed him with a fur)- which, for a 
brief moment, seemed about to triumph over all odds and 
advantages, but v.diich, without support or reserves, presently 
expended itself and fell back from the unequal contest ex- 
hausted and impotent." 

Says an officer f of the Tenth Maine, in his history of that 
regiment at Cedar ^Mountain, " The fact still remains, that it 
was a shockingly mismanaged battle, and every man of us 
knows now, what Gen. Gordon and Col. Beals believed then, 
th'.^t the \v-o jds was our be.~.t posici''-!. T'ae enemy poured 
regiment att^-r reginient upon our lines. Gen. Banks evi- 
dently had no idea of the immense number of rebels in his 
front. They had a contiiuious line from the road up to Gor- 
don's right, \viiicli they overlapped so far that it woidd seem 
as if Pender's (rebel j Brigade was out of musket-range." 

As further e\idence of Bariks's iguiirm-ice of the field, the 
forces, and tiie management of his troops, we find in Gen. 
Pope's letter to the committee, that when he was hastening to 
the field, "supposing of course that the enemy had attacked 



* Omcially stated at 7,5C>o men of all arms, of wiiich infantry and artillery num- 
bered only 6,2S9. 
t M.iior Gouid. 



225 

Banks, and that he was still holdin- liis position, I received, 
whea u^jv the held, word fr.^ni hira that Ai- zvas driving tke 
c:;eii:r, w.iich infurmation I at once conirnuaicated to Rick- 
ett's Division." Instead of a victorious Banks, Pope found a 
thoroughly whipped and beaten corps, — not demoralized, it is 
true : no route, no panic. " Sullen and defiant they retired." 
says Strothe--, " leaving nothing on the field but their dead, the 
graver cases of wounded, a couple of empty caissons, of which 
the horses had been killed, and a disabled gun spiked and 
overthrovvn." 

Of the engagement. Pope says in his Official Report, ••'Not- 
withstanding these disadvantages [all the mistakes enumer- 
ated in this paper, that means] his (Banks's; corps gallantly 
responded to his orders, and assailed the enemy with great 
fury and determination. The action lasted about an hour 
and a hair, and during that time our h.rces suriered heavy 
loss," an:i were gradually driven back to their ibrmer position, 
ai which point Ricketts came up." And again, '• Tne Massachu- 
setts t regiments behaved with espe:ial gallantry, and although 
I regret that Banks thought it expedient to depart from my 
instructions, it gives me pleasure to bear testimony to his 
gallant and intrepid conduct." And again, " Williams, Geary, 
Augur, Caroll, G'jrdon, Crawford, and Green behaved with 
distinguished gallann v'." 

It may be asked wny, after the severe language we have 
ciuoted from Pope, upon J5anks's disobedience of his orders, 
there should have been so much mildness about it in Pope's 
first despatches to Halieck and in the former's Ofhcial Report 
upon this subject. Pope has answered t];e question, in his 
letter to the committee, saying, " I endeavored in my Ofricial 
Report to avoid the censure justly chargeable upon Banks for 
h^s management of that battle, though I was warned at the 



* Orlic-ally given as i\(/n kiiled and wounded, and 732 missi.a-, — Cutai. 2,39 \ 
Enemy, 1,30c kiiled and v.-ounded. ^ . • 'J > 

T 'i'iiCi'j \sai but ur.e, iLc Second. 



22(1 

time, by officers of high rank, that it was misplaced gener- 
osity, and that my forbearance would assuredly be used 
against me ihcrefor. I did not believe it possible, and felt 
disposed to deal with Banks with the utmost tenderness"; 
. . . but from the course he has pursued, it is now due 
that the w^hole subject should be fully and fairly presented 
to the count! y, and the measure of praise or censure be cor- 
rectly fixed upon the parties concerned." 

To give Banks all the measure of praise we can, I am vdlling 
to admit to this paper the following frnm Crawford,* in his 
attempt to defend Banks against Pope: " My positive orders 
vrere, when ordered out of Culpepper on the Sth,'to resist 
the approach of the enemy at all hazards, and tins with one 
brigade of infantry, V'.o batteries, and Bayard's cavalry." It 
is apparent that this order does not justify Banks directly 
nor infcrentially : for on the Sth, Jackson's army was not at 
Cedar i\Iountam ; on the Sth, Banks had n.ot gone to the front 
with orders to hold a position and be reinforced if attacked, 
nor had Roberts, as Pope's chief-of-staff, imparted to Banks 
the instructions given to him on the 9th. That Crawford, 
who says he v.-as to resist the approach of the er.emy on. the 
8th, should think and urge that Banks was therefore justified 
on the oth in assumhiLf th^; offensive, and attackint^ an enen:iv 
whom he believed not to be in full t"orce, contrarv to the 
expectations of the commander-in-chief, who had ordered him 
to act on the defensive and hold the enemy in ehccM until the 
army could be concentrated, v/ill not occasion conmient or cre- 
ate surprise among the survivors of the Army of the ]\:)tomac. 

The battle of Cedar ^dountain v,-as quickly k-.iown to the 
public through correspondents from the field, through private 
letters and Pope's despatches. P^veryu-hcre there was praise 
for the fightin.g, and it was deserved. As was to be expected, 
a few newspaper-generals puffed themselves at tiie expense ot 
others. l-Sanks, as usual, sought salvation through condemna- 



* Letter fnnn CrawiorJ to Majur Cnild, '.n Tcntii Maiiie in t.he War. 



227 

■ tion. Conceive my astonishment at the announcement in our 
first pa-er fi-om the Xor:h, that " Gen. Banks attril.uted his 
Icsb ot the battle of Cedai- Ivlountain to Gen. Gordon's failure 
to obey his orders." The moment I saw this article I carried 
it to J'anks's headquarters. 

" General Banks, I do not know that you are responsible 
for th.is : newspaper correspondents publish much that is not 
authentic. Did you authorize it } " handing; him the paper. 

Band:s looked at the paper, and returned it, remarking, 
" 'T is true,' sir, I did say I thought you were late in getting 
into action at Cedar Mountain." 

" Ah ! did you ? I am very glad, then, that this has beccrme 
known to me now, while the eviden.ce is at hand to show the 
ab.^'nute talseuess of such a charge. Will you remain in your 
room, si?-, for fifteen minutes ?" 

" I will," replied Banks. 

Galloping rapidly to the headquarters of Gen. Williams, I 
greeted hir/i v. iih a bricl extract from my conversation with 
Ban.ks, the purport of which v\-as that the latter accused me of 
not moving into the fight when ordered. 

" Did he say that '■ " asked V/illian-s. 

" He did." 

"Win- , * you ran inio the fight the nionient you 

received the oider," uttered Williams in a breath. 

" I know it," I responded. 

"I waved my handkercliietV continued Wiiiiams, " and at 
tn.e same time told Idtiman to gailup to you with the order to 
move forward and support Crawford." 

•' 1 know it, and I v.as ready, and moved instantly at the 
double-quick ; and that is what I want you to go and tell 
Banks," 1 replied. 

" 1 '11 ser.d Pitt.man," ai-mvered Williams. 

" I prefer you sliould go," I urged. " It was your order I 
obe\'ed." 



* This dash will be andci-tood bv tho-e who know Willian.s. 



22S 

But Williams for some reason or other did not seem to wish 
to meet Banks upon this subject, and ended the matter by 
calHiig Piuman, and diiecting him to return with me and tell 
l^anks what he saw. 

With Pittman, I again sought Bank?, whom I addressed as 
follows : — 

" General lianks, I have seen General Williams, who, as 
division commander, gave me the order to m.ove my brigade 
to Crawford's support. General Williams knov/s and acknowl- 
edges that I obeyed the instant I received the order ; he saw 
me run my trov^ps into the fight ; and he prefers, instead of 
coming himself to teli you this, to send Ca]jtain Pittman, his 
aid, who lias all the infcrmation that rie has." 

" i'e.s ! " said the Captain; "General Banks, 1 carried 
General Gordon the order to move forward his brigade into 
action. He miovcd instantly on the double-cpaick ; when I 
returned to Gen. Williams I said. See how quick General 
Gordon has got into the fight."* 

"1 am very glad to hear it," was Banks's reoly. 

"Then, sir," I said, ■' I presume you will correct the false 
impression you have given." 

Banks muttered that he would ; at least such was ray 
understanding as 1 lett him. 

})iit nut only did ]xtrd-:s iail to correct then what he knew 
to be false, but he has repeated the uritruth, until impressed 
uijun some ot his toilo\\'ers, tiiey too l";ave spread the report, 
liven Crawford has re}>eated it, in a letter in Gould's " His- 
tory ot the Tenth -Manie," but with added blunders and mis- 
statements. 

li I repeat here what will be found in another part of 
this paper, namely, that my command moved to support 
Crawtord the instant the order wis given, it being then in 
perfect readiness ; that human eftort could not have trans- 



* I j>re>u:nc- liv the limc I'i'tii::.n had rc'urr.e.i lo W:lli;iin<, I mu-t hp.ve disaj)- 
[•e:i.re<! in the woods .-ki.-tin,' tliu \\hejt-ritjhl. .My m'.-n ar:i', cd there quite Ijlown. 



229 



fen ?d it with mnre celerity to the edge of the field, across 
which arid on our flank there was a lart^er force than was 
assailed by the re,i::;iments of Crawford's Brigade ; that some 
hundreds of yards before I got to this field, the assault I was 
to support had failed, and the assaulting troops were retiring 
far to my left ; that I picked up the broken companies of my 
Third Wisconsin Regiment, who had beeii in the assault, and 
carried them again into the fight ; and finally that Crawford 
(who complaiiis that I did not support him) was found and 
marked by nie as being alone in the v.'oods quite a distance 
from the front, to which we were hastening, while the single 
regim.ent of his own brigade, that Banks had sent against 
Jackson's reserves, aft-er manfally fighting in the open field, 
was about retiring into the woods : if I repeat this again here 
and in this connection, it is that I may challenge proof to the 
contrary. 

There is a m\"stery, v/hlch perhaps Gen. Willianns can 
explain. I was to support Crawford when Williams gave me 
the signal, and Williams did not give me the sigr:al until the 
assauh had been made and repulsed ; but liacl it been other- 
v/ise, we now see that the two small regiments and four com- 
panies I should have added to the assaulting colum.n would 
have been nothing to the :^ix brigaJes of the encnn' in rcserv'e 
— coi;:d not h,n.vc gi\'en us the victory; and that Banks knows 
now : possibly Crawford understands it. 

The fight we madeagamst the overpov.-ering numbers of the 
enemy v.-as far more useful to Pope's army in the events that 
followed the night than had we been ordered up in time, to 
dasli ourseb'es. v/itii CrauU.rij's Brigade, uselessly against 
those of Winder's and Hill's Di\ision. This is th.e fii-st lime 
1 have publicly noticed this accusation by Banks ; and should 
r.i>t no-.v' (believing it urnvorthy of notice) but for the part it 
bears in our history. In dismissing it, I should add that Banks 
affu'ins that he jt^v// me " lialf a tluzcti limes" an order lo mo\'e 
to support Cr;uviord. In his beiuiif I thin.k it shouk! be stated 



tn f\ .' 






230 

thnt Gen. Banks honestly thinks that if he scJitme such orders, 
I am entirelv rt- sponsible whether I received them or not. Did 
lie send them .^ I challenge him to name a person other than 
Gen. V/illiaras's aid, who brought me an order to move to 
Crawford's support on the 9th of August, 1S62. It cannot be 
donr, it never has been ; and the accusation of Jiot moving 
when ordered, fmallv substituted for not moving quickly as 
first reported, must be regarded as an unworthy effort to 
escape merited censure. And in Crav/ford's behalf, there 
should be urged in extenuation his inexperience in the duties 
of a general ofncer.^ 

In conclusion, there can be amor.g intelligent men, among 
fair-minded mevi, but one opinion of the disaster, of the crime 
of Cedar }.Iou.ntain. Censure and condemnation must fall 
U[)on the commander vdio. in the presence of all that trans- 
pired in his front froni the morning of the 9th of August 
until liis final fatal assault upon tlie enemy, made that assault, 
with the krov.^ledge that in hi,-, rear, a distance of less than 
three mjiles, there was a wdiole division of troops, resting 
leisurely by tiie road-side, that he could .have for the ask- 
ing ; and if that was not enougli, a co-ps, that had probably 
fr.uad the road to Culpepper, could be added. When Banks, 
v,ivl: this kn'jwledge, plunged into that abyss of horrors with- 
out c.illing for these reinforcements, he conmiitled a blvtnder 
that even a politician might shudder at, — a crime that he 
cannot transfer to I'^pe. 

On tlie nth of August we returned to the same spot, near 
Culpeivper, from wlrence. on tlie 9th. v/e went out to fight the 
battle of Cedar Mwur tain. After a lew days {on the 14th), 
n-iv brigade, with reduced numbers, moved out oi Culpepper, 

* Crawford, who a short lime before the w.ir was a physician from Pennsylvania, 
hap;-L!i..cI t'.Lc a:ta..:;c.i to ihe garrison rl.ai occupied Fort Sun;ttr durin- the 
boir.baidniciit. 'I'ho'Jgh a non-combatant, Dr. Cr.iwiord became somewhat 
notori us, at a period wl-,eii an excited public placed a faNe value upon every 
cxpusmc, howc--cr invo'uiUary, in defence of the ila-. This accident, liowcvcr, 
^ave ^itccci.,- to Crawford .'= efforts for a brigadiergencrars appointment. 



2-M 

hurrying to cor.front the march of Lee's victorious army. 
Fnjm the Pca::.:^ula ciiid fron-i North Ciirolina new divisions 
and corps were marching- to our aid. The music of the 
band of the Second echoed as ga\'ly tiirough the streets, 
as we turned our backs on the town, as if no lives had 
bt,^en extinguished in our regiment, and no grief pressed 
heavily on our hearts. We marched onward to Alexandria, 
to the grave of the Army of Virginia. 

1 have endea\'ored to portray to you, from my own notes 
written on the held, from my own memory of what I saw and 
did, from contemporaneous papers and from official reports 
the facts tl^at make up the battle of Cedar Mountain. In 
carefully and candidly dealing with all these facts, I have so 
endeavored to enlighten yo'u, as I would the world, upon the 
matters herein set forth, that truth, which is said to be 
mighty, shall at last prevail. 



r Ki¥f . ¥1/1 



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