(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of the Seventy-sixth regiment New York volunteers; what it endured and accomplished; containing descriptions of its twenty-five battles; its marches; its camp and bivouac scenes; with biographical sketches of fifty-three officers and a complete record of the enlisted men"

THE REAR ADMIRAL 
FRANKLIN HANFORD, U.S.N. 

COLLECTION IN THE 
NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

•1929- 






- 










Dap.' te I > 
Be Kept 



\ 















uAsd (ryoc£y / 




HISTORY 



SEVENTY-SIXTH BEGIMEHT 

NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS; 

WHAT IT ENDURED AND ACCOMPLISHED : 



CONTAINING DESCRIPTIONS OF ITS TWENTY-FIVE BATTLES ; ITS MARCHES 

ITS CAMP AND BIVOUAC SCENES ; WITH BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

OF FIFTY-THREE OFFICERS, AND A COMPLETE RECORD 

OF THE ENLISTED MEN. 



BY -V 

A:. IP. SMITH, , 

i 

LATE FIRST LIEUTENANT AND Q. M., SEVENTY-SIXTH N. Y. VOLS. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH FORTY-NINE ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD, 

BY J. P. DAVIS & SPEER, OF NEW YORK; 
AND A LITHOGRAPH, BY L. N. ROSENTHAL, OF PHILADELPHIA. 



CORTLAND, N. Y. 

PRINTED FOR THF T?UB---,lSH.ER. 

1867. 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 18G6, 

By A. P. Smith, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Northern 
District of New York. 



TRITAIR, SMITH & MIL£», TRWsS EBfJ ' '' '. 
JOURNAL OFFICE, S.YHAJvsEf $. ' Vi • ' « • 



JACOB MILLER, BINDER, 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



TO 
THE MEMORY OF THOSE HEROES OF THE 

SEVENTY-SIXTH REGIMENT NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS, 

WHO, ON THE MARCH, IN THE CAMP, AND ON THE STORMY BATTLE-FIELD, 
GAVE UP THEIR UNSULLIED LIVES THAT THEIR COUNTRY MIGHT LIVE, 

THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



No apology were necessary for writing the history of such an organization as 
the Seventy-sixth Regiment, were it well written. Nor can the writer claim 
credit for it except as credit is given for the attempted performance of duty. 
Intimately connected with the organization and early experiences of the Regiment, 
intensely interested in everything pertaining to it, and looking back with unal- 
loyed pleasure to every day of his association with the officers and men, the 
writer had half written this book before he ever dreamed of its assuming a book 
form. 

Great men— as men are estimated by their eagles and stars— will easily enough 
find their way into history ; shining quite too frequently with a light emanating 
from a patriotism farther down in the scale of promotion, while the patriotic 
private who endures the hardships and does the fighting, dies in obscurity. With 
the sincere desire that patriots in the rear rank, as pure as ever shouldered a mus- 
ket in defense of the right, may be awarded their meed of fame, and that a 
Regiment which hewed its way to glory, may not be forgotten in the multitude 
of similar organizations of Freedom's defenders, this volume is sent forth. 

The pressing demands of an arduous profession, must plead in mitigation of 
the sentence of a discerning public for the imperfect manner in which this duty 
has been done. The effort has been made to make this work a truthful record of 
the doings of this Regiment ; exact in detail of incidents, times, places and per- 
sons. That errors have crept in is quite likely. The facts have come from a 
great variety of sources, and it would be, indeed, surprising should there prove to 
be no inaccuracies. 

In this connection the writer desires to tender his warmest acknowledgements 



G Preface. 

to Major-General Abncr Doublcday for diagrams and descriptions of the early 
battles in which the Regiment was engaged, and the free use of his Order and 
Scrap Books so kindly tendered. Also, to Colonel William P. Wainwright, who 
has added to his kindly interest in the work, over fifty pages of personal reminis- 
cences ; and to Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel A. L. Swan, Major John W. Young, 
Adjutant H. F. Robinson, Captains Fox, Byram, Sagcr, Pierce, Potter and Jarvis, 
and Lieutenants Myers, Edgcomb and Stebbins, who so kindly furnished inci- 
dents ; Private 'William J. Mantanye, of Company D, who furnished personal 
incidents, and numerous official reports from Brigade Headquarters ; and H. Perry 
Smith, Esq., of Syracuse, who translated the diary of Adjutant Carpenter, kept 
for the first year and a half, in Phonography. The men who furnished facts and 
diaries so liberally, will each accept the profound gratitude of the writer. With- 
out their co-operation, these facts could not have been collated. 

It is with regret that the valuable article on " Prison Life," furnished by Cap- 
tain B. B. Porter, of the Tenth New York Cavalry, has been compressed into the 
biography of Lieutenant Myers. The press of matter connected with the Regi- 
ment alone prevented its insertion entire. 

This work is now given to the public, asking that the criticisms may be tem- 
pered by a recollection of the difficulties under which such a work is compiled. 
If it shall prove instrumental in bringing to light the heroism of one deserving 
patriot, and giving to a meritorious Regiment even an humble niche in the tem- 
ple of fame, it will amply repay the effort. 

Cortland, N. Y., January 1, 1867. A. P. S. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



A. P. Smith, 

Camp Doublcday, D. C, (Fort Massachusetts), 
Colonel N. W. Green, 
Colonel W. P. Wainwright, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Joun D. Shaul, 
Lieutenant-Colonel A. J. Grover, 
Lieutenant-Colonel C. A. Watkins, 



Brevet Lieutenant-Colouel A. L. Sw 
Major John W. Young, 
Surgeon J. C. Nelson, 
Chaplain H. S. Richardson, 
Adjutant H. F. Robinson, 
Adjutant H. Carpenter, 
Quartermaster U. A. Burnham, 
Sergeant-Major Thomas Martin, 
Captain H. W. Pierce, 
Lieutenant W. H. Ripley, 
Captain O. C. Fox, 
Captain Robert Stort, 
Lieutenant C. B. Crandall, 
Lieutenant W. S. Walcott, 
Lieutenant William Cahill, 
Lieutenant A. L. Carter, 
Lieutenant M. P. Marsh, 
Lieutenant M. M. Whitney, 
Lieutenant Carlos Baldwin, 
Lieutenant T. F. Weldon, 
Captain S. M. Byram, 
Captain J. M. Waterman, 
Lieutenant E. T>. Van Slyck, 
Lieutenant W. H. Tarbell, 
Lieutenant L. Davis, 
Lieutenant B. Phenis, 
Lieutenant Wm. Stringham, 
Lieutenant T. C. Guernsey, 
Captain N. G. Bartholomew, 
Captain Ira C. Potter, 



AN, 



Frontispiece. 
Facing page 48 

Page 345 

" S49 

" 350 

" 352 

" 355 

" 357 

" 858 

" 3C0 

" 363 

" 304 

" 365 

" 307 

" 308 

" 369 

" 370 

" 370 

" 3?2 

" 373 

" 374 . 

" 375 

" 377 

" 377 

" 378 

" 379 



384 
885 
385 



390 



Battles. 



Lieutenant JonN H. Ballard . Page 392 


Captain John II. Barnard, ......... 


' 393 


Captain J. L. Goddard, ..........' 


' 394 


Lieutenant W. W. Green, ' 


' 395 


Lieutenant W. H. Myers, ..........' 


' 396 


Lieutenant H. Cliff, .......... 


' 400 


Captain A. Sager, ...........' 


' 401 


Captain J. C. Hatch 


' 403 




' 404 


Lieutenant "WE. Evans, ......... 


' 405 




406 


Lieutenant M. Edgcomb, ......... 


' 407 




' 408 



BATTLES 

PARTICIPATED IN BY THE SEVENTY-SIXTH REGIMENT. 



Rappahannock Station, Va., 

Warrenton Sulphur Springs, V 

Gainesville, Va., . 

Second Bull Bun, Va., 

South Mountain Md., 

Antietani Md., 

Snicker's Gap, Va., 

Fredericksburg, Va., 

Chancellorsville, Va., 

Gettysburg, Penn., 

Mine Run, Va., 

Wilderness, Va., 

Laurel Hill, Va., . 

Spottsylvania, Va., 

North Anna, (Jericho Ford), Va., 

Tolopotonioy Creek, Va., . 

Coal Harbor, (Bethesda Church), Va 

Petersburg, Va., 

Weldon Kailroad, Va., . 

Poplar Grove Church, Va., 

First Hatcher's Bun, Va., 

Hicksford Raid, Va., 

Second Hatcher's Run, Va., 

Five Forks Va., 

Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Court House, \ 



August 21st, 
August 26th, 
August 28th, 
August 29th & 30th, 
September 14th, - 
September 17th, 
November 1st to 3d, 
December 12th & 13th 
May 1st to 5th, 
July 1st to 4th, 
November 27th, 
May 5th & 6th, 
May 8th, 
May 12th, 
May 24th, 
June 1st, 
June 3d to 5th, 
June 18th, 
August 18th to 21st, 
September 30th, 
October 28th, 
December 6th to 12th 
February 6th, 
April 1st, 
April 9th, 



1862. 



1865. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



The Bull Run Disaster — North Unprepared — The People Aroused — Organization 
of the Seventy-sixth in Cortland County — First "Hair-breadth 'Scape" — 
McNett and his Allegany Company — Colonel Green Shoots Captain McNett — 
General James Wood — Orders to March to Albany — Arrival at Albany — Indict- 
ment and trial of Colonel Green. ...... 17 

CHAPTER II. 

Arrival at Albany— Court of Inquiry— Colonel Green Restored to Command— New 
Year's Parade — Recruiting the Otsego Regiment — Ordered to Albany — Consoli- 
dation of the Two Regiments — Flag Presentation — Speeches — Orders to March 
— Riker's Island — Introduction to the Paymaster — Orders to March to Wash- 
ignton. .......... 27 

CHAPTER III. 

Orders to March — Sail Down the Bay — Reception at Philadelphia — Influence of 
Woman— The "March through Old Baltimore"— Change of Sentiment in Bal- 
timore — Washington — First Camp on Meridian Hill — Camp Trials — First Death 
in the Seventy-sixth — McClellan Moves — Difficulty in the Regiment — Occupy 
the Forts— First Battle of the Seventy-sixth. .... 39 

CHAPTER IV. 

Camp Life around Washington— Discipline— Cal. Totman— Standiug on a Barrel 
—Pat. McKone— Fire in a Powder House— Marching— Fight on Pennsylvania 



10 Contents. 

Avenue— Slave Catchers Foiled— Sailing Down the Potomac— Aquia Creek- 
Tracks of the Rebellion 51 

CHAPTER V. 

March to Fredericksburg— Virginia Shower— Fording— Arrival at Fredericksburg 
Movement on Foot— Rumors— General McDowell— The Lacy House— Abraham 
Lincoln, Secretary Stanton, and the Generals in Council— The Seventy-sixth to 
Remain at Fredericksburg. ....... 63 

CHAPTER VI. 

Fredericksburg— Changing Camps— A Reconnoisance in Force— Diabolism of the 
Rebels— Explosion of a Magazine in Fredericksburg by a Rebel Torpedo— Rebel 
Sentiments— Lawyer Wallace— The Women of Fredericksburg— Shunning the 
Flag_" Stonewall" Jackson Expected— Preparations for His Reception— Major 
Livingston as Governor— Capture of Major Lacy, of the Lacy House— Smug- 
gling— Remarkable Cures of Dropsy. ..... 69 

CHAPTER VII. 

General McCall Leaves Fredericksburg — General Pope Takes Command of the 
Army of Virginia — Number of Troops in that Army — Movements of the Troops 
— Doubleday's Brigade Assigned to King's Division — Another Wallace — " Joe," 
the Contraband— Foraging on the Enemy— "Slow Note." . . 81 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Colonel Wainwright assumes command of the Seventy-sixth — Drill — Sunday Ser- 
vices — Celebration of the Fourth of July in Virginia — Truth Spoken in a New 
Locality — Battle Impending — Organization and Movements of the Army — March 
from Fredericksburg to Culpepper — Eagerness of the men — Death from Ex- 
haustion — In Search of the Enemy — Fording the Rapidan — A Night March — 
The Army of Virginia Concentrated at Culpepper. ... 87 



CHAPTER IX. 

A Fight Imminent — Cartridges Distributed — No Enemy Appears — Foraging — 
Battle-Field of Cedar Mountain— " Fall In "—Retreat of General Pope Com- 
menced — The Seventy-sixth under Fire for the First Time — Battle of Rappahan- 



Contents. 11 

nock Station— Improper Liberties with a Rail Pillow— Arrival at Warrcnton— 
Bold Instance of Foraging. ....... 99 

CHAPTER X. 

Battle of Warrcnton Springs — The Lady and False Flag of Truce — Retreating at 
Double-Quick — Reinforcements Promised, but Not Received — Battle Imminent 
— Fire upon the Ambulances — Dr. Metcalfe Induces Bravery in a Teamster — Bat- 
tle of Gainesville — Terrible Slaughter — Instances of Bravery — Retreat of Our 
Army — Sufferings of Our Wounded Prisoners — Feasting and Resting are Sud- 
denly Terminated in the Army. ...... 113 

CHAPTER XI. 

Fighting Renewed — Second Battle of Bull Run — "Following a Retreating Foe," 
and What Came of It — " Don't Fire on Tour Friends " — Major Livingston Ral- 
lies the Second Mississippi — The Colors of the Seventy-sixth — "Confusion 
Worse Confounded" — Death of Lieutenant Williams — Between Two Fires — 
"Be Quiet, Men! God will do with Us as He Will '."—Wading through the 
Mud — Terrible Night Duty — The Regiment Reaches Upton Hill — Forgiving 
Spirit of Mr. Lincoln. ....... 129 

CHAPTER XII. 

A Short Rest — March through Washington — Seventh Street — Fort Massachusetts 
— March through "My Maryland" — Frederick City — Cordial Welcome by the 
People — Battle of South Mountain — Death of Charles E. Stamp — Colonel Wain- 
wright Wounded— Rebel Ruse— They are Severely Punished— Union Victory. 145 



CHAPTER XIII. 

After the Battle of South Mountain — Decided Union Victory — Appearance of the 
Battle-Field — Pursuing the Rebels — Ben Van Valkenburg Captures Nine Pris- 
oners — Battle of Antietam — Terrible Slaughter — Another Victory — Description 
of the Field after the Battle— Failure to Reap the Golden Harvest. . 159 



CHAPTER XIV. 

On the March— John Brown— Jeff. Davis— Rainy Experiences— Return of Cloth- 
ing Left at Alexandria— Confiscation in the Army— Capture of the Blue Ridge 



12 Contents. 

Passes — Fight at Ashby's Gap — Guarding Rebel Property — Foraging — Honey — 
Chickens — Marching Orders. ...... 171 

CHAPTER XV. 

March to Warrenton— " What Guns do You Carry ?"— Snow Storm— General 
McClellan Leaves the Army — Colonel Wainwright Returns to the Regiment — 
Warrenton to Falmouth — Continually Changing — Arrive at Fredericksburg — 
Another Battle Imminent. ....... 183 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Crossing the Rappahannock — Battle of Fredericksburg — Heroic Charge of Double- 
day's Division — Lieutenant Crandall Killed — The Rebels Driven from a Strong 
Position — Seventy-sixth Guards the Battery — Night Fight — Incidents and In- 
stances of Bravery — Skillful Retreat of General Burnside — Tom sees "Do Ole 
House Agin" — Getting into Camp — Winter Quarters — General Doubleday 
Transferred to Another Command — His Farewell Address — Corduroying. 187 



CHAPTER XVII. 

A Forward Movement — The "Mud March" of Bumsidc — Incidents and Descrip- 
tions — Discipline — Furloughs — The Sick Sergeant — General Bumsidc Relieved 
by General Hooker — Review of the Army by President Lincoln. . 199 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Battle of Chancellorsville — General Wadsworth Crosses the River in a Boat in the 
Face of the Enemy — A Dead Rebel — Building Breastworks — Between Two Fires 
— Sergeant Baker, of Company H — Perilous Condition of the Seventy-sixth — 
A March of Twenty Miles— Entering the Battle— Shameful Conduct of the 
Eleventh Corps — John Smith Arrests the Dutchman — Inefficiency of Undrilled 
Nine Months Men— A Third Retreat. ..... 207 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Seventy-sixth Recruiting— Ann Redmond— Trading Between the Pickets- 
March of Thirty-five Miles in One Day— Colonel Wainwright Takes His Leave 
of the Seventy-sixth— Heat, Dust, and Sun-stroke— Again in Maryland— Camp- 
ing in the Mud— March Past South Mountain— Reception at Frederick City— 



Contents. 13 

Change of Con manders— Acta of Generosity by the People— Amusing Incident 
—Master for Pay— The Rolls Never Signed 233 



CHAPTER XX. 

March to Gettysburg— The Seventy-sixth Given the Post of Honor— Major Gro- 
wl's Order— Battle of Gettysburg— Details and Incidents— Half the Seventy- 
sixth Killed and Wounded in Half an Hour— Instances of Heroism— Recruiting 
from the " Wounded" on the Field— The " Nameless Heroine" of Gettysburg 
—The Aged Volunteer of Gettysburg— Sergeant Cliff, of Company F— Union 
Victory— Old Archie — Ann Redmond. ..... 235 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Victory at Gettysburg answered by Victory at Vicksburg — An Advance Ordered 
— Crossing South Mountain — Watching the Enemy to See Him Safely Across 
the Potomac— Following the Rebel Army — Guarding Rebel Property — General 
Wadsworth Takes a Temporary Leave — Reminiscences — Picket Duty on the 
Rappahannock — Night Experience in Camp — March to Culpepper — The Pay- 
master Comes — Flag Presentation in the Second Corps — Drunken Scene — Large 
Profit on Whisky — Execution of Winslow N. Allen, of Company H, for De- 
sertion. ......... 251 



CHAPTER XXII. 

The Seventy-sixth Recruited to One Thousand Men — Building Winter Quarters — 
March and Leave Them — Night March — On the Retreat — Marching Thirty 
Miles in Eighteen Hours — Visit to the Battle-Fields of Gainesville and Bull 
Run — Sickening Sights — Retreating and Advancing — Wading Broad Run — An 
Important Capture — John Minor Botts, the Loyalist — Dark and Dangerous 
Night March — Battle of Mine Run — Building Winter Quarters Again — Another 
March — Winter Quarters in Earnest. ..... 263 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Winter Quarters — Re-enlisting — Furloughs — Theater Established — Presentation 
of a New Stand of Colors by the Ladies of Cherry Valley — Parting with "The 
Old Flag" — A March — Engagement at Raccoon Ford — Return to Winter Quar- 
ters—General Grant Assumes Command— General Wadsworth Returns— Re-Or- 
ganization of the Army — Preparations for a Grand'Advance. . . 275 



14 Contents. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

On the March— Battle of the Wilderness — Three Companies of the Seventy-sixth 
as Skirmishers — Interminable Forests — A Clearing in the Wilderness — Falling 
into an Ambush — The Three Companies Captured by the Rebels — Confusion in 
the Rebel Ranks — Brigade Commander's Opinion of the Seventy-sixth — Severe 
Fighting — Death of General Wadsworth — Death of Adjutant Carpenter and 
Captain Bartholomew— Off for Spottsylvania, .... 283 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Battle of Spottsylvania— General Rice Killed— " Turn Me with My Face to the 
Enemy" — "This is an Unhealthy Country, Captain" — Continuous Night Firing 
— Terrible Slaughter — Appearance of the Ground the Next Morning — A Camp 
of Dead Heroes — Battle of the North Anna — On the Plantation of Patrick Hen- 
ry — Battle near Bethesda Church — Captain Goddard and Lieutenant Baldwin 
Wounded — Losses in the Seventy-sixth — March to the Chickahominy — Deserted 
Villages 295 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Crossing the James River — Fighting South of the James — Captain Byram Wound- 
ed — Battle at the Weldon Railroad — Lieutenants Phenis and Weldon Killed — 
Captain Hatch Captures a Rebel Stand of Colors — The Enemy Throw clown 
Their Arms — Report of the Battle — Death of D. Webster Smith — Dangerous 
Service — Consolidation of the First Corps into One Division — Voting in the 
Army. ......... 305 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

On the March — First Hatcher's Run — Distributing Clothing — Sad Reminiscences 
— The Re-Election of Abraham Lincoln in the Army — "Worth More to the 
Country than a Victory Won "—How the Rebels Relished it — Fort Hell — The 
Truce Terminated— -Thanksgiving and the Northern Turkeys. . 313 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Another Advance — Hicksford Raid — Report of General Hofmann — March of Fifty 
Miles — Consolidation of the Seventy-sixth with the One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh New York— Farewell to the Sacred Number. s . . . 321 



Contents. 15 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

The Army in Winter Quarters— Negotiations of President Lincoln for Peace- 
Orders to Advance— Flanking the Enemy— Second Battle of Hatcher's Run— 
The Third Division, Fifth Corps, Suffers Severely— Summary of Casualties— 
Changing Camp— Third " Winter Quarters." .... 327 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Another Advance— Battle of Five Forks— Repulses and Successes— Brilliant 
Charges— Important Captures— A Lull in Battle— Petersburg Evacuated— The 
Rebels Retreat from Richmond— Pursuit of the Rebel Army— " Iu at the Death" 
Lee Surrenders — Rejoicing. ...... 333 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

The Surrender of Johnston— Murder of President Lincoln— Homeward Bound- 
March to Petersburg— " On to Richmond"— Fredericksburg— Crossing the Old 
Camp— March to Arlington Heights— The Grand Review— Coming Home— 
"Expended in the Service." ...... 341 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Colonel Nelson Winch Green, 3-45. Colonel William P. Wainwrigkt, 348. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John D. Shaul, 350. Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew J. Grovcr, 351. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles A. Watkins, 355. Lieutenant-Colonel John E. 
Cook, 35G. Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Amos L. Swan, 357. Major John W. 
Young, 358. Surgeon Judson C. Nelson, 360. Surgeon George W. Metcalfe, 
:;(>:.'. Chaplain II. Stone Richardson, 363. Adjutant Heman F. Robinson, 363. 
Adjutant Hubert Carpenter, 365. Lieutenant U. A. Burnham, Q. M., 367. Ser- 
geant-Major Thomas Martin, 367. Captain H W. Pierce, 369. Lieutenant W. 
II. Ripley, 369. Captain O. C. Fox, 370. Captain Robert Story, 371. Lieuten- 
nant C. D. Crandall, 372. Lieutenant W. S. Walcott, 373. Lieutenant Wm. Ca- 
hill, 374 Lieutenant A. L. Carter, 376. Lieutenant Moses P. Marsh, 377. Lieu- 
tenant Moses M. Whitney, 378. Lieutenant Carlos Baldwin, 379. Lieutenant 
Thomas F. Weldon, 379. Captain Charles L. Watrous, 381. Captain Samuel 
M. Byram, 381. Captain John M. Waterman, 382. Lieutenant Edward D. 
Van Slyck, 383. Lieutenant William H. Tarbell, 3SL Lieutenant Lucius 



16 Contents. 

Davis, 385. Lieutenant Barnard Phcnis, 386. Lieutenant William Stringham, 

387. Lieutenant Theron C. Guernsey, 387. Captain Norman G. Bartholomew, 

388. Captain Ira C. Potter, 390. Lieutenant John H. Ballard, 391. Captain 
John H. Barnard, 392. Captain James L. Goddard, 393. Lieutenant William 
Wallace Green, 394. Lieutenant William H. Myers, 39G. Lieutenant Henry 
Cliff, 400. Captain Aaron Sager, 401. Captain J. Church Hatch, 402. Lieu- 
tenant John Fisher, 403. Captain Warren Earle Evans, 404. Lieutenant Ralph 
W. Carrier, 405. Lieutenant Martin Edgcomb, 406. Lieutenant Richard Wil- 
liams, 407. Captain Edwin J. Swan, 408. Lieutenant Job Norwood, 409. 



ROLLS OF FIELD, STAFF AND COMPANIES. 

Field and Staff, 411. Company A, 411. Company B, 413. Company C, 415. 
Company D, 416. Company E, 418. Company F, 420. Company G, 421. Com- 
pany H, 423. Company I, 425. Company K, 426. 



THE SEVENTY-SIXTH REGIMENT N. Y. V. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Bull Run Disaster— North Unprepared— The People Aroused— Organiza- 
tion of tiie Seventy-sixth in Cortland County— First " Hair-breadth 'ScArE" 
— McNett and his Allegany Company— Colonel Green Shoots Captain MoNett 
—General James Wood— Orders to March to Albany— Arrival at Albany- 
Indictment and Trial of Colonel Green. 

The Twenty-first day of July, 1S61, will ever be re- 
membered in the history of the United States. Warlike 
preparations had been made previous to that date, and the 
country was hilled with inflammatory speeches and prophecies, 
but so much had been said by the rebellious leaders in the 
South whenever they had been defeated in their schemes ; so 
much belligerent spirit had for a time shown itself, only to 
ooze out at their fingers' ends, that the North had come to 
believe all the talk at the South about war was only a repeti- 
tion of the bravado which had characterized that section in 
other contests. The apparent warlike preparations and the 
actual taking of Fort Sumter, were considered mere menaces 
to frighten the timid, and thus aid the time-serving, self-styled 



18 The Seventt-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Conservatives of the North, while the whole insurrection 
would lie quelled in a month or two, and nobody would be 
hurt. This feeling was all but unanimous at the North; 
President Lincoln was considered hasty and unnecessarily 
frightened when he issued his call for seventy-five thousand 
men, and the tax-payers already began to fear that keeping so 
many men, even for a few months, would overwhelm the 
country with taxation. They little realized the vast and inex- 
haustible resources of this country. The collection of an 
army around Washington was looked upon more in the light 
of a marshal or sheriff calling a posse comitatus to quell a 
riot, than the commander-in-chief marshaling an army to de- 
fend the very existence of the Government. On the part of 
the North no need was felt for drill or other preparation. It 
was only deemed necessary to arm a few men, march to 
the camp of the rioters and disperse them ; and when fifty 
thousand men were said to be in arms, in and around Wash- 
ington, the masses considered the army of the North invincible. 
" Our army is beaten !" " Total rout !" " The Federal army 
flying in disorder upon Washington !" " The Capital in dan- 
ger!" These were the first greetings flashed from this 
invincible army by the telegraph. 

Then it was that little groups of men were seen, hurriedly 
canvassing the best methods of sending aid to the Govern- 
ment. The supposed invincible army had been defeated. 
The North was for the time crushed. The riot had proved a 
rebellion, and the North, though but partially aroused, caught 
a glimpse of the .herculean task before it. Old men shed 
tears ; young men rushed to the Capital ; companies were 
formed in every county, city and village, for the purpose of 
discipline and drill ; and everything bespoke the intense feel- 
ing of the people, as the cloud of defeat darkened the political 
horizon. 



Organization at Cortland. 19 

It was iu this dark and trying time that a few men assem- 
bled in a law-office, in Cortland Village, to consider the 

question, what conld be done by Cortland county to aid the 
Government. A great diversity of opinion existed. One 
full company — Captain Clark's — had been sent out in May, 
with the Twenty-third New York Volunteers. Several 
thought another such drain upon the young men, would leave 
us sadly in want of help. Others M'ere more hopeful, and 
estimated the number at five hundred, that, by proper exer- 
tion on the part of every loyal man, might be raised. One 
man — Nelson W r . Green, afterwards Colonel, in whose sanguine 
temperament faith and confidence bore a more conspicuous 
part — alone suggested that a regiment might be raised in this 
vicinity. Even the awkward pretense of the old-fashioned 
" general trainings " had passed away, and the people had very 
little idea of military life or of their military strength. Mr. 
Green had been partially educated at West Point, from which 
he had been discharged on account of a wound, and was, 
therefore, supposed to understand the science of arms better 
than the denizens of a strictly agricultural community. He 
had consented to drill a company once or twice a week at the 
village hall, and consequently in a short time had become the 
military man of the village. For these reasons chiefly he was 
chosen at this informal meeting as the leader in the experi- 
ment of raising a company or companies, and, if possible, a 
regiment, in Cortland and the adjacent counties. On a more 
thorough canvass, it was determined to attempt the organiza- 
tion of a full regiment. lion. Edwin D. Morgan, then 
Governor, authorized Mr. Green to raise a regiment, with its 
headquarters temporarily at Cortland, with the assurance that, 
when a sufficient number of men were enlisted to justify the 
establishment of a camp there, he would order that one be 
established. The following circular was immediately sent to 
every leading citizen in the county : — 



20 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

FREEMEN TO THE RESCUE! 

To the Citizens of Cortland and Adjoining Counties : — 

Loyal Friends:— It behooves us to address to you a few earnest and 
practical words in behalf of our disturbed country. 

It cannot be unappreciated by you that at this moment the greatest issue 
of the age is pending ; that the best, and mildest, and freest Government 
ever known to mankind is in imminent peril ; that the national enemies are 
fully armed, alert, banded and desperate, while the peaceful and home- 
loving loyalists oi the great and powerful North are comparatively 
unaroused ; that within the next ninety days the enemy must be crippled, 
or otherwise this great people, now familiar only with the arts of peace, 
must know also the arts as well as the calamities of war; that nothing but 
a prompt rally to the nation's standard, to the flag of our fathers, can avert 
the necessity of passing this war down to the next generation, when it 
should be only a war of to-day. Delay does but invite foreign interference. 
With these evident and startling facts before us, and impelled by duty, it 
has been deemed advisable to make a strong and united effort to organize, 
arm, equip and bring to the field, at once, a well-drilled regiment of infantry 
from these central counties ; and looking into our own hearts and knowing 
the tone and character and the patriotism of these counties — the heart of 
the Empire State, whose great past has so well illustrated its motto of " Ex- 
celsior," — it has not been doubted that to open the way for such an enterprise 
would be to insure its success. 

Having this end in view, the undersigned have procured from the Adju- 
tant-General of the State the necessary authority and made the following 
arrangements, viz: — "That whenever . eight companies for the force now 
organizing under General Order No. 78, of not less than 32 men each, shall 
have assembled at (Cortland Village), and shall have been inspected and 
mustered into the service of the United States, that said point of rendez- 
vous shall be considered a branch of the Depot at Albany, and 30 cents per 
day for subsistence shall thereafter be allowed for each recruit, until the 
regiment shall be organized or ordered into sendee." 

Therefore the attention of our fellow citizens is called to the following 
directions. 

Any and all persons wishing to organize a company for the above regi- 
ment will 

First — Ascertain how many able-bodied men, between the ages of 18 and 
45 can be enrolled in their locality. 

Second — If 64 men cannot be so enrolled, (exclusive of officers, of whom 
there will be 16, to wit: — 8 corporals, 5 sergeants, and 3 commissioned 



Call to the Rescue. 21 

officers), then to unite with one or more other towns or neighborhoods, 
until the requisite number can be made up. 

TMrd — When 32 of the said number are so enrolled, to report the fact 
immediately by mail to Nelson W. Green, Cortland Village, N. Y., and pro- 
ceed at once to enrol the remaining number of 04 privates, and when that 
number is completed, to also report that fact as above. 

Upon application, the necessary papers of enlistment will be sent to 
those wishing to organize companies. 

The undersigned would add that they have entire confidence in the com- 
petency of Nelson W. Green, Esq., to whom the reports of enrollments are 
asked to be made, he having received a military education at West Point. 

The volunteers, as they arrive will have the benefit of a perfect drill 
under Mr. Green. 

Dated Cortland Village, Cortland Co., N. Y., Sept. 2, 1861. 
Hiram Crandall, County Judge, Henry Stephens, 
R. H. Duell, M. C, Henry S. Randall, 

H. J. Messenger, Banker, Horatio Ballard, 

Wm. R. Randall, Banker, Charles Foster, 

A. W. Ogden, County Clerk, Arthur Holmes, 

Silas Baldwin, Sheriff, J. T. Davidson, 

A. J. Grover, Pastor M. E. Church, Daniel Nye, 
Geo. B. Jones, District Attorney, JosiAn Hart, Jr., 
Charles P. Cole, Editor Gazette, M. M. Waters, 
E. D. Van Slyck, Editor Banner, ■ A. P. Smith, 
Fred A. Gee, P. B. Davis, 

Frederick Ives, H. A. Jarvis, 

II. P. Goodrich, Anson Fairchild, 

Josiah Hart, L. II. Utley, 

E. II. Doud, F. Goodyear, M. D., 

J. S. Barber, G. N. Copeland, 

M. Goodrich, D. C. Cloyes, 

S. Brewer, M. Goodyear, M. D. 

Persons wishing to form companies will be furnished with speakers to 
address public meetings, upon application to N. W. Green. 

Pursuant to this call, meetings were held in every town, 
addressed by the patriotic of all professions ; the people be- 
came thoroughly aroused, and the work of recruiting went so 
rapidly forward, that an order soon came to form a camp at 
Cortland. The Fair Grounds were leased of the Cortland 



22 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

County Agricultural Society, and on the twenty-sixth day of 
September, 1861, the enlisted men were called together. A 
large tent was procured and erected upon the Grounds ; the 
open sheds of the Agricultural Society were enclosed, new 
barracks erected, and, in a very short time, the Fair Grounds 
presented the appearance of respectable regimental winter 
quarters. The nights were becoming cool, and the recruits, 
unaccustomed to the hardships and privations of camp life, 
began to feel keenly the need of fuel and clothing. The 
patriotic ladies contributed freely of blankets, coverlets, towels 
and such other things as were needed to make the camp seem 
homelike, while each company was gratuitously furnished 
with one or more stoves. 

The twenty-seventh of September, the second night in 
camp, as the men had fallen asleep on their loose straw upon 
the ground, suddenly there came a crash, and, as they awoke, 
they found themselves in a drenching rain, with their tent 
prostrate upon them, and the wind blowing almost a gale. 
At eleven o'clock at night, with scarcely a dry thread upon 
them, these unfledged warriors were obliged to seek shelter 
from the rain in the barracks. This was the first instance of 
" hair-breadth 'scapep " experienced by the recruits, and fur- 
nished the text for many a discourse upon the adventures of 
the soldier, as their friends came to visit them. 

It had now become very cold. Meetings had been held in 
nearly every school-district ; young men, with enlistment 
papers, had visited every man capable of performing military 
duty, each ambitious to procure as many men as possible, 
prompted by patriotic motives and stimulated by the pros- 
pect of a commission or other honorable position ; and 
altogether about eight hundred and forty men were enlisted 
by the first of December, with a fair prospect of filling the 
reo-iment to its maximum number during the month. It had 



Gkeen and McNett. 23 

already received the name of the Seventy-sixth — an honorable 
number in the estimation of every loyal American — and 
several of its companies were properly organized and mus- 
tered. Clothing' had been furnished by the Quartermaster's 
Department, and though no arms had been received, the men 
presented a soldierly appearance as they formed in line on 
dress parade. 

At this time, (December sixth), an incident occurred which 
entirely changed the prospects of the Regiment, and blighted 
the hopes of its friends for its complete and harmonious or- 
ganization and equipment, before leaving the county. 

Mr. Green, who had now become Colonel of the Regiment, 
had made an arrangement with Mr. Andrew J. MeNett, of 
Allegany county, by which MeNett, who had seventy men or 
thereabouts, was to recruit his company to the maximum 
strength and join the Seventy-sixth Regiment as Captain, and 
on the performance of certain conditions, MeNett was to be 
made Major of the Regiment. Captain MeNett joined the 
Regiment sometime in October with about seventy men. 
Colonel Green assisted in raising the number to upwards of 
ninety, by adding to the company certain men who had been 
brought by II. "W. Pierce, of Dundee, Yates county. These 
men — about twenty -five in all, fifteen or twenty of whom 
were put into Captain McNett's company — were brought by 
Mr. Pierce, who was to be Captain ; but failing to procure the 
required number, he was made Lieutenant in Captain Grover's 
company, and his men distributed between Captain Grover's 
and Captain McNett's companies. The latter part of Novem- 
ber, Captain MeNett procured a leave of absence to go to 
Syracuse to purchase his uniform, and to Allegany county to 
procure more men. On his return, a few days after this, 
Colonel Green charged him with having used his leave of 
absence to go to Albany, to stir up strife, in violation of tlie 



24 The Seventy-sixth Regiment jST. Y. V? 

understanding when he received it, and ordered him to give 
up the paper as fraudulently obtained. This Captain MeNett 
refused to do. Colonel Green then ordered it taken from 
MeNett by Captain Grover. MeNett made a formal resist- 
ance, but unbuttoned his coat and Captain Grover took the 
document from McNett's pocket. Colonel Green then ordered 
Captain MeNett in close arrest in the officers' quarters, with 
orders that he be permitted to communicate with no one, 
except by permission from the commandant of the post. This 
created some feeling in Captain McNett's company, and gave 
rise to much angry discussion in camp. 

On the sixth of December, Colonel Green had been to Cap- 
tain McNett's company, to adjust some difficulty, and on his 
return, when riding past the officers' quarters, saw Captain 
MeNett standing in the door-way. Colonel Green claims the 
Captain was outside the door, shaking hands with his men, in 
violation of orders. Captain MeNett claims he was inside the 
door, though near it, where he had resorted to get fresh air. 
AVe give both versions, as this history is not written with the 
view of vindicating or condemning either party, and this inci- 
dent is only mentioned as one that had something of a 
controlling influence upon the subsequent history of the Regi- 
ment. As Captain MeNett was thus standing in or near the 
door, Colonel Green rode up and the following dialogue, in 
substance, took place : 

Col. Green. — The prisoner should not leave his quarters. 
Retire to your quarters. 

Gapt. MeNett.— -I shall not, sir. 

Col. Green. — Do you refuse to obey my orders, sir '( 

Copt. MeNett. — I do, such orders. 

Col. Green. — (Dismounting and drawing a small Smith & 
Wesson pistol), Will you retire to your quarters ? 

Capt. MeNett.— I will not, sir ! 



Shooting of McNett. 25 

Colonel Green, at this point, tired over the head of the Cap- 
tain, the ball lodging in the root of the quarters. 

( '<>/. Green. — Retire to your quarters, sir ! 

Copt. McNett. — (Straightening up), I will not, sir ! Shoot 
me if you dare ! 

The Colonel then lowered the pistol and tired, the ball taking 
etfeet in the Captain's chin, and lodging in his neck. McNett 
immediately turned around and sat down in a chair. The 
Surgeon of the post, Dr. J. C. Nelson, was called, and the 
wound dressed. 

This very naturally created great excitement in camp and 
the vicinity. Colonel Green had, by his patriotic course, en- 
deared himself to many of the loyal people. Captain McNett 
was not without friends, who gathered around him, and, in the 
discussion that followed this affair, excitement ran high. The 
Governor was informed of the affair, and sent General James 
Wood to Cortland to ascertain the tacts, and in the meantime 
to take command of the Regiment. General Wood arrived 
December ninth, and on the evening of that day, met the 
officers of the Regiment, when a full interchange of opinion 
was had. The officers were nearly or quite unanimous in 
approval of the course taken by Colonel Green, and so 
expressed themselves. The next day the General visited the 
camp and possessed himself of all the material facts connected 
with the history of the Regiment. On the thirteenth of De- 
cember, General Wood again met the officers at the house of 
Colonel Green, when the matter was again fully canvassed. 
The next day Colonel Green was arrested on a criminal war- 
rant, for the shooting, and gave bail before the County Judge 
for his appearance at the Oyer and Terminer, to be held 
in January following, to answer an indictment to be found 
against him for an assault with intent to kill.* 

•An indictment was found for said Offense at said Court, and Colonel Green gave bail for his 
appearance at tUc next Court. Since writing the above, he has been tried (at the Cortland Oyer 



20 T«e Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

After giving bail, on the fourteenth Colonel Green and Gen- 
eral "Wood set out for Albany to confer with the Governor, 
On the sixteenth orders were telegraphed from Albany 'to be 
in readiness to proceed (by rail) to Albany on the following 
day. Colonel Green and General "Wood returned, and on 
"Wednesday, the eighteenth day of December, 1861, we took a 
tearful leave of the friends, with whose welfare and very life 
ours was so firmly woven, and entered the cars for Albany. 

Talking patriotism is all very pleasant ; Artemus Ward may 
even be willing to sacrifice all his wife's relatives upon the 
altar of his bleeding country ; this was a fashionable senti- 
ment in 1S61 ; but if one would test his loyalty let him shake 
the hand of a weeping wife, and give a parting blessing to his 
little ones, and, bidding adieu to his friends, turn his face to 
the scene of bloodshed and carnage, without bounty, on a cold 
December day, with nothing to cheer him on but. love of 
country, and if he does not repent his enlistment, set him 
down for at least a prima facie patriot. We had rode on 
parade through Homer and Cortland, been toasted and feasted, 
but what was all that gaudy show, now that we were to meet 
the reality of war ? 



and Terminer, held by Judge Boardman in April, 18GG), and after a fair trial for five (lavs, the 
Jury, on the morning of the sixth day, reported their inability to agree. They were thereupon 
discharged and a nolle prosequi entered upon the indictment. The case was very fully and 
ably tried on both sides, upon the Question of the legal right of Colonel Green to shoot the < lap- 
tain, under the circumstances. Judge Boardman laid down the law with great clearness and 
impartiality, deciding that willful and persistent disobedience of orders, in the presence of 
enlisted men, is mutiny ; that in cases of mutiny, the amount and kind of force necessary to 
suppress it is in the discretion ot the superior officer, that this camp was at that time under 
military authority, and this shooting was to be judged by military law. 



CHAPTER IT. 

Arrival at Albany— Court of Inquiry— Colonel Green Restored to Command- 
New Year's Parade— Recruiting the Otsego Regiment— Ordered to Albany — 
Consolidation of the Two Regiments— Flag Presentation— Speeches— Orders 
to March— Rikers' Island— Introduction to the Paymaster— Orders to March 
to. Washington. 

The Regiment arrived at Albany on the evening of the 
eighteenth of December. The wind blew cold and dreary 
over Capitol Hill as we marched from the depot to the bar- 
racks, some two miles distant. As the wind whistled through 
the rough wooden quarters that night, and the men, under 
their scanty covering, felt the biting of that December air, 
they could not but think of the warm beds they left in Cort- 
land county, and hopefully look forward to the time when, 
the rebellion crushed, the country saved, they should again 
enjoy the comforts of those homes, now fully appreciated. The 
measles had broken out in camp previous to leaving Cortland, 
and many of the men were weak and illy prepared for the 
exposures that awaited them. A severe snow storm soon set 
in, and in a few days the snow was piled so high that drilling- 
was impossible. General Rathbone, in command of the post, 
did all in his power to make the men comfortable, but not- 
withstanding this, many suffered severely. 

Colonel Green had recpiested the Governor to convene a 
Court of Inquiry in his case, which was done, and on the 



28 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

twenty-first of December the hearing commenced. The Court 
was presided over by lieutenant-Colonel LaFayette Bingham. 
Judge-Advocate-General Anthon conducted the prosecution, 
and Clark B. Cochrane and A. P. Smith the defense. The 
investigation consumed three days, when the findings of the 
Court were submitted to the Governor. On the twenty-eighth 
of December the Governor announced the decision by placing 
Colonel Green in command, of the Regiment. This announce- 
ment was received with many cheers by the officers and men, 
and the prospects of the Regiment seemed to brighten. 

New Year's immediately followed the restoration of Colonel 
Green to command, and was a gala day for the troops sta- 
tioned at Albany. The Seventy-sixth was drawn up in line, 
with the Ninety-third New York Volunteers, and a battery of 
artillery, in all about twenty-five hundred men, Colonel Green 
commanding the battalion. It formed at the barracks and 
marched to the Capitol, where each man was received and 
warmly shaken by the hand by Governor Morgan. Thence 
the battalion marched to the Delavan House, where they 
were addressed by Hon. Horatio Ballard, Secretary of State, 
and by the heroic Colonel Mulligan ; thence to pay their re- 
spects to Hon. C. B. Cochrane, who had so ably defended the 
Colonel, and thence to the barracks. A lbany wore her holi- 
day dress, and the parade was enjoyed by both citizens and 
soldiers. 

"While the Cortland branch of the Seventy-sixth Regiment 
was being recruited, as we have related, a similar effort was 
being made to raise a full regiment in Otsego and Schoharie 
counties, with headquarters at Cherry Valley. In September, 
1861, the Thirty-ninth Regiment New York State National 
Guards, at a general parade, overcome by the sentiment of 
loyalty which pervaded the country, had authorized their 
Colonel, John D. Shaul, to tender the services of the regiment 



Organization of tiie Cheery Valley Branch. 29 

to the Governor for active service in the field. About the first 
of October, General George E. Danforth, of Middleburg, 
commanding the brigade of militia to which the Thirty-ninth 
was attached, received orders to proceed at once to recruit and 
organize the Thirty-ninth Eegiment for active service. The 
order established a branch depot at Cherry Valley, and made 
General Danforth commandant of the post. Many of the offi- 
cers of the Thirty-ninth Eegiment tendered their resignations. 
But on the fourteenth of October, about seventy-five men were 
waiting to be mustered into service at Cherry Valley, being 
parts of the companies of Captains A. L. Swan, John E. Cook, 
and John W. Young. An officer was sent from Albany to mus- 
ter such companies as contained the minimum number — thirty- 
two. There not being enough present for three companies, 
two, Captain Cook's (company B), and Young's (company C), 
were filled to the requisite number, and mustered on the four- 
teenth of October. Captain Swan's company. was mustered 
on the twenty-second. Meetings were held in all parts of the 
counties of Otsego and Schoharie, and recruiting went on brisk- 
ly for a time, with a fair prospect of ultimately filling the Beg- 
iment to its maximum strength. This was the first Regiment 
raised in Otsego county, and was the pride and pet of the people. 

Dr. George \V. Metcalfe was appointed Surgeon of the Eeg- 
iment, and Examining Surgeon of the post. Andrew E. 
Smith was made Quartermaster, and by his faithful attention 
to the duties of his office — an office the duties of which are 
not surpassed in difficulties during the organization — won 
golden opinions from his brother officers. 

The Eegiment was quartered in a large stone hop house, and 
the Colonel gave daily lessons in company and regimental 
drill. Armed sentries, with flint-locks from the State arsenals, 
paced their " beats," military rules and regulations were en- 
forced in cam]), and everything that could be done was 



30 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

brought into requisition to make true soldiers of the yeomanry 
of Otsego and Schoharie. The liberal sums of money expended 
by General Danforth, Colonel Shaul and Quartermaster 
Smith, with their influence and advice, had greatly aided the 
company officers in forming and recruiting their companies. 
Adjutant James Davenport, of Richfield Spa, and the other 
field and staff officers had bestowed much time, money and 
influence upon the organization, but on the eighth of January, 
1S62, only six companies, in all about five hundred men, had 
been mustered into service. At this time an order was re- 
ceived for the Regiment to proceed to Albany. The order 
was as unexpected as it was unwelcome. The troops and 
the people had fondly hoped that they would be permitted to 
send out a full regiment, armed and equipped. Each county 
in the country felt a proper desire to send out a complete or- 
ganization which should represent the loyalty of that partic- 
ular locality, whose achievements and glory should belong 
exclusively to such locality. But military orders must be 
obeyed, and on the eighth day of January, the six companies — 
now consolidated into five, and commanded by Captains A. L. 
Swan, J. E. Cook, J. W. Young, E. N. Hanson, and N. Bow- 
dish — left Cherry Valley in upwards of fifty sleighs furnished 
by the citizens of that vicinity, and proceeded to the railroad 
at Canajoharie, a distance of thirteen miles. They arrived in 
Albany after dark by a special train, and were escorted to 
camp by company A, of the Seventy-sixth. The Otsego Reg- 
iment passed a cold night in their barn-like barracks, without 
fire, and many without blankets. Poor fellows ! they after- 
ward found that what now seemed " grievous to be borne," 
was but " the beginning of sorrows." 

At the time the Cortland branch of the Seventy-sixth Reg- 
iment reached Albany, it numbered about eight hundred men. 
The Governor considered it improper that Colonel Green and 



Consolidation of the Two Regiments. 31 

Captain McNctt should lunger be associated as officers of the 
same regiment, and of the correctness of that conclusion no 
one acquainted with the tacts and the men could have any 
doubt. They are Loth positive men, of unyielding will, and 
diametrically opposed on almost every question that would be 
likely to arise. Looking at the war, its causes, its objects, and 
the manner in which it should be prosecuted, from entirely 
different and opposite stand-points, it would have been as dif- 
ficult to harmonize their views, and bring them to act together, 
especially after what had already transpired, as it would be to 
unite oil and water. The Governor, therefore, preserved the 
organization of the Seventy-sixth Regiment, with Colonel Green 
as its commander, and transferred McNett and his company to 
the Ninety-third Regiment New York Volunteers, then sta- 
tioned at Albany, and commanded by Colonel Crocker. At 
the same time, Captain J. V. White, who had joined the Sev- 
enty-sixth with about forty-five men, requested to be trans- 
ferred to the Third New York Artillery, which request was 
granted. The remaining companies of the Seventy-sixth were 
consolidated into seven — A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Three 
companies were transferred from the Otsego Regiment to the 
Seventy-sixth, as follows : — The company commanded by 
Captain A. L. Swan became company II ; the company com- 
manded by Captain Cook became company I, and the company 
commanded by Captain Young became company K. Each 
company, so far as possible, retained its company officers. The 
field and staff were distributed as follows : — 

Colonel — N. W. Gkeen, of Cortland. 

Lieutenant-Colonel — John D. Shaul, of Springfield. 

Major — Charles E. Livlngston, of New York city. 

Surgeon — J. C. Nelson, of Truxton, Cortland county. 

Assistant-Surgeon — Geo. W. Metcalfe, of Otsego county. 

Chaplain — H. Stone Richardson, of New York Mills. 



32 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Adjutant — IIeman F. Robinson, of Cortland. 

Quartermaster — A. P. Smith, of Cortland. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant — Albert J. Jarvis, of Cortland. 

Commissary Sergeant — William Storks, of Allegany. 

The two Otsego companies, commanded by Captains Han- 
son and Bowdish, were transferred with Captain White to the 
Third New York Artillery. Thus the Seventy-sixth had 
passed through the formation state, the tendency of which is 
to engender ill feelings between the officers, and before it was 
as fair a prospect of unity and usefulness as the most sanguine 
could desire. 

On the sixteenth of January, 1862, orders were received to 
be ready to march to New York City on the following day. 
All was tumult and confusion. The Regiment had not yet 
been provided knapsacks, haversacks, or camp and garrison 
equipage, and the day was busily occupied in distributing 
these necessaries to the men. 

When the time arrived to march, everything was in readi- 
ness, and at two P. M., on the seventeenth, the Regiment left 
the barracks and marched to the Capitol. Here a beautiful 
stand of colors was presented to the Regiment by S. R. Camp- 
bell, Esq., in behalf of his mother, Mrs. Samuel Campbell, of 
New York Mills. Mr. Samuel Campbell, a man of wealth and 
character, had been a sort of god-father to the Seventy-sixth 
Regiment, presenting the Colonel and Chaplain each with a 
splendid black war steed, with equipments complete, and in 
many other ways at great expense and trouble aided the Reg- 
iment. This would it is believed be deemed a sufficient 
apology, if apology were needed, for printing entire the ad- 
dresses made on that occasion. It will be remembered that to 
speak of " liberty and equal rights to man" was, at that time, 
considered " radical." It was at a time when the poor African 
came to us torn and bleeding, with hands and eyes uplifted 



Address of Mk. Campbell. 33 

imploring for protection, and the privilege of aiding in defense 

of the government that had wronged him, only to be sent back 
to his bondage and his scourgings ! This fact adds significance 
and value to words which now seem common place : — 

Gentlemen Soldiehs op the Seventy-sixth: — Before turning your 
footsteps away from the Capital city of your native State, you have assem- 
bled to receive from my hands the emblem of our common country ; and I 
know you will the more gladly welcome me when I tell you that I bring it 
not in my own name, but as a "mother's gift" — an earnest of that protection 
which our country gladly extends over all her obedient children ; and sure 
I am it will prove no idle ornament to grace your ranks, but will be borne 
aloft, if need be, over victorious fields, a terror to traitors and tyrants — a 
presence where loyalty may find shelter and protection — a fit symbol of the 
majesty of our Government. 

Soldiers, many of you, perhaps, are entering upon a new and untried 
life — a soldier's life. You have left your peaceful avocations, and are about 
to meet the enemies of your country in the field. I know not what form 
in the workings of "military necessity" this struggle may assume. Coming 
events are but dimly foreshadowed. Your part in the great struggle for 
the unity of tins people is yet to come ; but I do know that when that an- 
ticipated time shall come, when you are permitted to clothe your thoughts 
and aspirations in deed, they will be such as shall electrify the nation, and 
bring joy and gladness to the hearts and homes of those who claim your 
deepest regard and warmest affection. 

You are of that number, now a great multitude, who, scorning alike the 
dangers of the battle-field, and the siren whispers of peace — peace, when 
there is no peace, — whose only ambition is the privilege of sacrificing your 
all to insure the perpetuity of our free institutions, and the stability of our 
benignant Government. To your care I consign your " country's flag," and 
I doubt not you will prove as worthy of fighting under its " Stars and 
Stripes " as were the heroes of '7G. In your hands it will not, like that re- 
bellious standard of a treasonable foe, carry chains and captivity with it, 
but its coming will be the herald of liberty and equal rights to all men. 
Then, in the hour of danger and peril, let every man do his whole duty in 
protecting that flag which has so long been our pride and shelter. 

Officers and privates, you have a common object ; your interests arc one ; 
the mutual respect and affection which I know exists between you, are pro- 
pitious of a brilliant career ; that Regiment which bears the number of 
honor will never be appealed to in vain; you will always find your chief 
joy in the discharge ot these active duties, whether upon the Gulf or the 
c 



3i The Seventy-sixth Regiment ]S r . Y. V. 

Potomac, in that part of our country through -which the Mississippi rolls 
its baud of waters, and, by its shining link, proclaims us one and indivisi- 
ble, or upon the shores of that State whose very name is an insult to loyalty. 
Wherever you may go, there shall our sympathy and best wishes follow 
you. The Empire State has already spoken in thunder tones ; you may 
listen and hear her words of endearment to 3-011. You shall always hear 
her voice of defiance to the enemies of our country. 

" Startling and stern! the northern winds shall hear it, 

Over Potomac's to St. Mary's wave, 

And buried freedom shall awake to hear it 

Within the grave." 

Colonel Green replied as follows : — 

Mr. Campbell— Sir : — In the name of the Seventy-sixth Regiment of 
New York State Volunteers, I accept the colors now presented by your 
excellent mother. 

It is hazardous for untried men to undertake to say what they may do in 
the future. We have no promises to make. We only know how much we 
wish to do for our bleeding, struggling country. If our hearts and our 
hopes were accepted as an index of what we are to achieve, these banners 
will never be dishonored. 

The embarrassment of this moment is this — that we so little deserve the 
favors which the confidence of our friends has vouchsafed us. But in 
accepting these banners, we somehow lose sight of ourselves, and only re- 
member how beautiful is the soul that has prompted so magnificent a tribute 
to the defenders of our country, and how great the peril which gives char- 
acter to this occasion. 

Our poor country ! Our imperiled flag! What bitter fears, what anx- 
ious misgivings oppress the heart as we look upon these symbols of our 
Nationality ! The flag of our fathers — God defend it ! 

It is fitting, and quite in keeping with the sublime significance of this 
hour, that fair hands should deck and elaborate our coat of arms and our 
national flag ; that gentle hearts are prompted to make more beautiful these 
symbols of our great past, and we are thus reminded how much they have 
a right to expect at our hands, and how sacred the trust committed to us. 
That country must not despair whose soldiery goes to battle under the in- 
spiration of such encouragement. The gentle heart which thus cherishes 
her country's flag, Must love that country with no ordinary devotion. 

We may not tell what deeds of daring we propose to do, but it is per- 
mitted to hope that at least somebody is to wage this warfare until this most 
unnatural treason shall find an utter end. Extermination alone can meet 
the ill-deserving of the race which would deface the Stars and Stripes. But 



Arrival at New York. 35 

whatever may be the result of this war, or whatever our fate, we shall never 
forget this noble proof of the patriotism of your family ; nor that " '76 is 
on our banners." The heroic memories which cluster about that number 
shall inspire us, and when disasters or dangers shall thicken around us, we 
shall take courage in remembering the kindness of your mother, in whom 
we recognize one of the representative women of America. 

Upon the presentation, and after they had been formally 
accepted by Colonel Green, the Regiment loudly called for 
Governor Morgan. His Excellency speedily answered the 
summons, and upon appearing upon the steps of the Cap- 
itol, was vociferously cheered by the soldiers. Owing to the 
prevalence of a snow storm, his address was short, but the few 
well-timed words he uttered were gladly, nay, thankfully re- 
ceived by the volunteers. 

He assured them that they enjoyed the confidence of the 
people and expected them not to betray that confidence ; for 
evidence as to how faithfully they heeded that exhortation, 
they point with pride to their record. At the close of Governor 
Morgan's speech, the Regiment moved down State street, 
through to Broadway and Hamilton streets, over the bridge to 
the Pier, and thence across the Hudson on the ice to the Hud- 
son River Railroad Depot. 

The Albany Evening Journal of that day, speaking of the 
Seventy-sixth said : — " This Regiment is composed of as fine 
appearing and as intelligent a body of men as has been gath- 
ered together since the breaking out of the rebellion." 

At seven o'clock the regiment was aboard the cars for 
New York, where we arrived about noon the next day 
(eighteenth). Marching to City Hall Park Barracks, we went 
into quarters, where we remained until Tuesday, January 
twenty-first, when we were taken to Riker's 'Island, about ten 
miles up the East River from the Battery. 

Riker's Island contains about one hundred and fifty acres of 
land, is low, and, being a mile from the main land, is much ex- 



36 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

posed in winter. Besides the barracks, which were cheaply 
constructed wooden buildings, there was but one house. This 
was an old tavern, occupied by a low family, who eked out a 
miserable existence by selling cheap whisky to the lower class, 
who resorted thither to light men and dogs, run horses, and 
enjoy such other sports as the roughs of New York city in- 
dulge in. 

Through the carelessness of the Post Quartermaster at New 
York, the stoves and coal did not go up on the boat with the 
Regiment, but were sent up on a lighter the next day. The 
night was very cold, the wind whistled through the crevices in 
the barracks, the ground was covered with ice and snow, the 
quantity of snow being materially increased during the night 
and next day, and the men suffered severely. 

The Regiment had not, at this time, received any pay, 
though many of the men had been in the service nearly four 
months. Many of them had families depending upon their 
earnings for support, and when it is remembered that the Sev- 
enty-sixth received no local bounty, and the Government 
bounty of $100 was only payable at the end of two years' 
service, it will be understood that the men were very anxious 
to make the acquaintance of a paymaster. 

The twenty-third day of January, 1862, will be long re- 
membered by the members of the Seventy-sixth as the day 
which, through the medium of greenbacks and silver, brought 
happiness to their soldier hearts. Few of them slept that 
night until some portion of their pay was on its way to the 
loved ones at home. Probably forty thousand dollars was 
thus sent home at this time. 

This was the first time we had seen salt water, and the men 
made the most of their opportunity. If oysters and clams 
hand down their history, there will be a number of its pages 
devoted to a description of the depredations of the Seventy- 



Ordered to Washington. 37 

sixth New York Volunteers. Hoes, picks, shovels, sticks, 
anything that could dig for clams or rake for oysters, were 
brought into requisition, and the " boys " ate oysters and clams 
until their stomachs rebelled under the tyrannical oppression 
of their appetites. But soldiers are not long permitted to 
remain in statu quo. Humors had enlivened the camp, of pro- 
jected expeditions to Kentucky, then to Charleston. But now 
the orders came to march directly to Washington. 



CHAPTER III. 

Orders to March— Sail Down the Bat— Reception at Philadelphia— Influence 
op Woman— The "March Straight through Old Baltimore"— Change of Sen- 
timent in Baltimore— Washington— First Camp on Meridian Hill— Camp Trials 
— First Death in the Seventy-sixth— McClellan Moves— Difficultt in the 
Regiment— Occupy the Forts— First Battle of the Seventy-sixth. 

To the uninitiated the movement was one of great magni- 
tude, as the knapsacks were packed and horses loaded upon 
the government transport that was to convey us to Amboy, on 
our way South. It was a lovely day, and as we sailed down 
the beautiful bay, covered with its steamers and other craft of 
every description, soldiering assumed the pleasing garb of a 
picnic excursion. We lost sight, for the time, of the fact that 
we were going to the theatre of war, and indulged only in the 
unalloyed pleasure of sight-seeing. At Amboy we were 
shipped upon the cars of that huge monopoly, the Camden & 
Amboy Railroad, and were soon steaming away toward the 
Capital. We arrived at Philadelphia about midnight of Jan- 
uary thirtieth. Here we met the first act of hospitality, which, 
during the war, made the women of the North so enviably con- 
spicuous. No sooner had the Regiment reached the wharf, 
than we were met by an escort from each of two benevolent as- 
sociations, which conducted the Regiment to their headquarters 
and furnished a meal to which the supperless regimental 
stomach was not long in doing justice. Now that the 



4-0 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

war is ended, and we come to understand tlictnie elements of 
our success, we must give woman a prominent place in the 
ranks of those who saved the country. She has not herself 
gone to the field to spread death and destruction over the land ; 
but she it was who breathed the encouraging word in the ear 
of the patriot that she loved, awakening within him the pa- 
triot's ambition. She buckled on the armor with more 
than Spartan fidelity. She fed and cheered the soldier 
onward, giving him the cup of cold water with such smiles of 
encouragement as rendered it nectar to his lips, and more 
strengthening than wine to his heart. She it was, who, in the 
darkest time, while the tear trickled down her face, wrote those 
words of comfort to her soldier friend, which prompted him to 
deeds of nobler daring, and when the call came for those things 
which made the sick and w T ounded soldiers comfortable, she it 
was who, through the lonely day and weary night, picked the 
lint, and sewed the garments, and pickled the fruit. We can- 
not too much honor her. 

Again, after breaking down, starting, halting and starting 
again, the troops were on their way to Baltimore. Here we 
arrived at about four P. M., January thirty-first. On the 
nineteenth of April before, the Sixth Massachusetts had been 
assailed by a mob in the very streets through which we were 
to pass, and several of them killed, and the boys considered 
themselves pretty brave as they sang on nearing the city : — 

" We'll march straight through old Baltimore." 
" "We'll hang Jeff. Davis on a sour apple tree," &c. 

Bnt a radical change had taken place in Baltimore. With 
martial music the Regiment marched unarmed through the 
city, welcomed in every part by the waving of flags and hand- 
kerchiefs, and the approving smiles of the loyal of both sexes. 
To be sure, now and then a rough old customer, in whom 
whisky had usurped the domain of loyalty, frowned and in- 



Arrival at Washington. 4i 

wardly swore at the Yankee horde that had usurped the reins 
of the Government, so long controlled by secessionists and 
traitors; but the feelings of the masses were changed for the 
better. Here another collation was served up for the Regi- 
ment by the citizens. It was impromptu, they not having 
had any notice of the expected arrival ; but it nevertheless did 
great credit to the loyal citizens of Baltimore. Here, in the 
midst of a miscellaneous crowd, at the depot, the Chaplain 
of the Regiment sang the favorite song, " We'll take our gun 
and go," and received the hearty applause of the crowd. 
Public sentiment had, even at that early day, began to im- 
prove. 

Again on the cars, we reached Washington about midnight. 
The men were soon asleep in the " Soldier's Retreat," lying 
about promiscuously upon the floor, no bedding of any kind 
being furnished, except the soldier's single blanket. The offi- 
cers, and the wives of such as accompanied them, slept upon 
the floor in another room. The next morning was rainy and 
dreary. In the place of the snow and ice which the soldier 
had left at the North, came the Washington mud. Snow, water, 
clay and sand, trodden up and mixed into mortar by thousands 
of loaded army wagons, and mules and cavalry horses, until 
the road, as far as the eye could reach, was one belt of liquid 
mortar. 

Washington is situated on the Potomac river, where two 
branches meet. On the north it is surrounded by ranges of 
hills, rising from one hundred to four hundred feet above the 
level on which the city stands. The first hill, or range of hills, 
is called Meridian Hill, being the national point from which 
Americans reckon their longitude. Two days were spent by 
the Regiment at the " Soldiers' Retreat," when we were or- 
dered into camp on Meridian Hill. The tents had at this time 
never been opened ; the arms were in the boxes as delivered 



42 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

to us at New York, and the Regiment had, as yet, no ex- 
perience in putting up tents or cooking their rations. The 
mud was deep, snow had fallen and was still falling; the 
ground was covered with water and snow intermingled, and 
the prospect before our raw recruits was anything but inviting. 
But orders in the army are peremptory, and not to be post- 
poned on account of the weather. The Regiment, therefore, 
on the fourth day of February, 1862, went into camp on Me- 
ridian Hill. It was well for the Regiment that veterans did 
not stand by to enjoy the mistakes on that occasion of our first 
tent-pitching. A camp laid out according to " regulations " is 
a somewhat regular arrangement. This, our first effort, was 
to be laid out according to regulations. A long street was 
therefore marked out along the brow of the hill, which was to 
be the Broadway of the camp. From this, and at right angles 
to it, ran ten streets to the west, on each side of which were 
arranged the tents of the respective companies, each facing the 
street. Each company occupied one street, and were allowed 
from twenty to twenty-five tents, according to the number of 
men. On the opposite side of the main street were ranged 
the tents of the field and staff officers, according to their rank. 
Straw could not be procured, wood was furnished in insuffi- 
cient quantities, owing to the blockade of the Potomac, and 
orders were given that no trees should be felled by the soldiers. 
Inclined, as we were, to obey orders, Yankee ingenuity was 
taxed to solve the problem of how to keep warm in the cold 
month of February, without wood; and if wood is not furnished, 
how is the fire to be kept aglow without felling the trees ; and 
how are the trees to be felled without disobeying orders ? "Ne- 
cessity is the mother of invention," somebody said. Down 
came a tree. Every limb and chip was precious. Soldiers 
are brotherly, and there was an equal distribution. A luckless 
chap is called before the Colonel for disobedience of orders, 
and the following colloquy takes place : — 



Camp Trials. 43 

Colonel. — Who cut that tree down, sir '. 

Private. — I did, sir. 

Colonel. — Did you not know that it was against orders to 
fell these trees '. 

Private. — I did, sir. 

Colonel. — Then why did you fell the tree '. 

Private. — You know, Colonel, that last night the wind 
blew very hard from the northwest. This tree stood near 
your horse's shed. I went out to sec to your horse several 
times, and every time this tree creaked as though it was com- 
ing down. Your horse, sir, reared, and I resolved that if I 
lived till morning I would prevent him a like sleepless night 
and so this morning I felled it, sir. I trust, sir, I have vio- 
lated no orders in saving the life of your noble horse. 

Colonel. — Your intention was praiseworthy, and, after all, 
intent must govern. You are excused this time, but see to it 
that you cut no more trees unless absolutely necessary. 

The Colonel had scarcely finished his trial of the first of- 
fender, when the boys were seen running to their tents, with 
arms full of wood, from the direction of the cook-tent of com- 
pany A. It was very cold, but one of the men was ordered 
to put his wood in his tent, and report to the Colonel. The 
investigation failed to convict him of felling the tree. He 
found it down, and deemed it no violation of orders to indulge 
in the luxury of a fire. After a long investigation, however, 
the man who cut the tree was ascertained, when the following 
facts were elicited : — The tree had been about half cut down 
before the order against felling trees was promulgated. It 
had all night threatened to fall upon the cook-tent. If it fell it 
would be likely to fall upon a whole row of tents, and cause 
a fearful loss of life. Its beauty and very life were already de- 
stroyed, and so he cut it down to save life. The argument in 
favor of human life was certainly stronger than that in favor 



44 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N". Y. V. 

of the one who had saved the horse's life, and so the Colonel 
being confronted by a staro decisis, as the lawyers say, dis- 
charged the culprit with an admonition against further similar 
acts, without a special order from headquarters. These exam- 
ples illustrate the manner in which Commodore Porter's 
magnificent oaks kept us warm for the first week of our camp 
life, and until the Government began to supply the fuel. 

Sickness now appeared in camp, in the form of typhoid 
pneumonia, induced by our camping in the snow and mud, 
and our want of the necessaries to keep warm and dry. The 
first death that occurred in the Regiment, was that of William 
B. Potter, a private in company A. He died at Meridian Hill, 
D. C, February nineteenth, 1862. It is a solemn reality to 
die, even among friends. The solemnity is greatly heightened 
by the absence of those we love to smooth the dying pillow. 
With sad hearts we followed his body to the depot, and he 
sleeps now in his native town (Taylor), the first offering of 
the Seventy-sixth at the bloody shrine of this unholy rebellion. 

At this time, General McClellan was marshaling his hosts 
in and around Washington, with a view to attacking the rebels 
in the direction of Richmond, as soon as the weather might 
permit. He had already gathered a large army, and the hills 
and valleys about Washington were literally covered with 
camps for miles on both sides of the Potomac. Look which 
way you might, and the Stars and Stripes were seen to float 
from some fort, or regimental, brigade, or division headquar- 
ters, while the bands were playing almost continually in every 
direction. To the unfledged warrior, just out from civil life, 
these scenes were very inspiring, and conveyed to his mind 
rather the idea of a pleasure excursion, or extensive parade of 
the uniformed militia of other days, than a serious and 
extensive preparation for actual warfare, and scenes of blood- 
shed and carnage, of which this grand marshaling was the 
precursor. 



Opening of the Campaign. 45 

McClellan was, at this time, the Commander-in-Chief of all 
the forces of the United States, and it was confidently asserted 
that when he should move upon the enemy, no force which 
they could oppose against him could impede his progress to 
the rebel Capital. The people were anxious that he should 
move, and this feeling was shared in by the soldiery to an 
almost incredible extent. They longed to march against the 
enemy, and the days wore heavily on, while they lay about 
the Capital, inactive. Camp life is ever irksome to the raw 
recruit. There is a sameness, an uninviting routine of which 
he tires, and he actually thirsts for new excitements and new 
scenes, and deems the battle-field preferable to the monotony 
of the camp. Older soldiers change their views, and many 
of the Seventy-sixth afterwards, when on the march, the 
bivouac, or the battle-field, looked back upon the encampment 
about Washington, as the old man tottering down the declivity 
of life, halts for a moment to recall the pleasant recollections 
of the sunshine and happiness of boyhood. 

Everything was now put in readiness for the forward move- 
ment of the Army of the Potomac. 

The plan of General McClellan was, to attack Richmond by 
way of the Rappahannock. About the middle of March, the 
grand movement commenced. As far as the eye could reach 
in every direction, the troops came pouring from every hillside 
and valley, into Washington, and as we gazed southward over 
Long Bridge and Georgetown Aqueduct, as far as our vision 
extended, could be seen the long solid ranks of infantry, with 
their bright bayonets and polished guns gleaming in the sun, 
and as we looked into those manly faces, we observed that 
unselfish patriotism and stern, unyielding determination which, 
properly appreciated and directed, would have made this army 
invincible. 

On the twenty-fourth day of February, the Seventy-sixth, 



46 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

at this time tmbrigaded, moved from Meridian Hill, to occupy 
forts De Russey, Massachusetts, Totten and Slemmcr, with 
headquarters at Fort Totten. 

A serious difficulty had arisen in the Regiment, and it was 
considered by the military authorities to be in an unfit 
condition to take the field. The officers, with very few 
exceptions, had preferred charges against Colonel Green, and 
those charges were being investigated by a military commission 
then convened in "Washington. This placed Lieutenant- 
Colonel Shaul in command of the Regiment. After a 
somewhat protracted hearing, Colonel Green was ordered to 
Washington, and thence to his home in Cortland, !N". Y., 
where he was afterwards, by order of the Secretary of War, 
dismissed from the service. The controversy growing out of 
the trial of Colonel Green for a time nearly paralyzed the 
Regiment, and destroyed its usefulness. Good men found 
themselves differing with equally good men, upon the merits 
and demerits of the prosecution, and skillful tacticians con- 
fessed that the only wa} 7 to harmonize the feeling was to bring 
the Regiment into action. 

The headquarters of the Regiment were now, March twen- 
ty-fourth, established at Bright wood, at Fort Massachusetts, 
(since changed to Fort Stevens), formerly the headquarters of 
General Keyes. 

General McClellan having drawn off his forces to Fortress 
Monroe, a very small force was left about Washington, chiefly 
occupying the chain of forts which, at a distance of about five 
miles, entirely surrounded the Capital. 

We felt the loss of so many men, and it seemed almost as 
quiet about Washington as in our northern homes. For a 
time the men found employment in the erection and repara- 
tion of tents, ornamenting of grounds, and those other little 
improvements which make the camp homelike. This was 



The First Battle. 47 

interspersed with that continuous and ever-present drill, which 
was to make the Regiment what it afterwards proved to be, 
one of the most effective in the field. 

Whatever may be the experience of the soldier, though he 
may wade through blood, and bullets be showered upon him 
on a hundred battle-fields, he still looks back to the first con- 
test, bloodless though it be, as the great battle of his soldier 
life. The first charge of the Seventy-sixth was a bloodless 
one, yet summoning the courage, and planned with all the 
skill of its commander. Headquarters were about two miles 
from the Maryland line, near by which, and just in the State 
of Maryland, were four corners. A little group of buildings 
had grown up, and with them one of those pests of any com- 
munity, and especially detrimental to military discipline — a 
whisky shop. During the quiet period following the exodus 
of General McClellan's army, several of the men had in 
strolling about the country, found this pot-house, and the 
result was an extensive replenishment of the guard house. 
Colonel Shaul believed this the work of the enemy. Rumors 
circulated that we were to be attacked from the direction of 
Maryland. ~No one could tell but this house had been estab- 
lished with a double purpose ; to weaken our forces and from 
the inebriated soldiers ascertain our actual strength. It was 
even reported that rockets had been observed in that direction, 
at night, answered by and answering rockets in other directions, 
and in the opinion of the regimental commander, the time 
had come to " strike for our altars and our fires, God and our 
native land." The cannon in the forts had been shotted, and 
proper sentinels stationed ; but this was only a preparation for 
a defensive warfare. Colonel Shaul determined upon taking 
the offensive. An expedition was, therefore, fitted out under 
the immediate command of the Colonel. It consisted of a 
detachment of about three hundred men, well armed and 



48 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

equipped, attended by the regimental drum corps, and an 
army wagon drawn by four horses, and intended as a convey- 
ance to camp of the vanquished foe. It was a clear, pleasant 
April day. The soft southern wind fanned the heated brows 
of the excited braves, as they rushed forward to their first 
charge upon the enemy's works. The time ordinarily given 
by the then commanding general of the Army of the Potomac 
for a two mile march had not elapsed, ere this miniature army 
had formed itself into a hollow square about the obnoxious 
house. Having carefully disposed his troops, the Colonel dis- 
mounted, and, with his aids, demanded admission. This 
accomplished, he followed it with a demand for an uncondi- 
tional surrender. The owner in vain pleaded his loyalty to the 
Government, the number of his family, and his inability to 
support them in any other way. The Colonel was inexorable^ 
It was hard, he admitted ; but it was a " military necessity," 
and argument? which might touch his heart in the civil walks, 
fell powerless when judged from a military stand-point. Noth- 
ing but surrender of the contraband article would prevent a 
resort to extreme measures. The poor Mary lander looked out 
of his window, then his door ; wherever he turned his eyes, 
on every side, he was hemmed in by double ranks of the " boys 
in blue," each possessed of a shining piece of infantry arms. 
There was no escape ; resistance would be worse than useless ; 
so with many a demurrer, and much semi-loyal argument 
against confiscation, the owner of the pot-house surrendered. 
A detail of men conveyed the suspicious casks and flasks to 
the army wagon, which was soon on its triumphant march 
back to Camp Brightwood. The Colonel marched his men 
back in rear of the wagon, with feelings akin to those of a 
certain general at that time high in command, who, it is said, 
always requested the band to play, on his appearance in camp, 
" See, the conquering hero comes." It may not be amiss to 



Captuked Whisky. 49 

say, that the Colonel saw that the suspicious enemy was stored 
safely in the cellar of his boarding-house, where he could have 
a personal supervision of it, and a perfect personal control of 
this destructive agent. It was soon after, however, removed 
to the cellar of the store at Brightwood, and undoubtedly 
finally proved a large if not valuable accession to the hospital 
stores of the post. 

We shall have occasion hereafter to note the doings of this 
" thing of evil," yet the " whisky invasion," as it was face- 
tiously termed, proved a most salutary movement to the 
Seventy-sixth. The men accustomed to intoxication saw that 
the regimental commander was determined to prevent it ; the 
liquor-sellers entertained that respect for him which they ever 
do for those who do them full justice, and the guard-house 
soon began to furnish unmistakable evidence of an improved 
condition of the temperance cause in the Regiment, The mis- 
erable pot-house keeper was seen on divers days, hanging 
about camp, and it was whispered that he advocated the doc- 
trine of payment of damages caused an enemy. The records, 
however, fail to show that he convinced Colonel Shaul of the 
justice of his claim. 



CHAPTER IV. 

c'AMr Life around Washington— Discipline— Cal. Totjian— Standing on a Barrel 
—Pat. McKone— Fire in a Powder-house— Marching — Fight on Pennsylvania 
Avenue— Slave Catchers Foiled— Sailing down the Potomac— Aquia Creek- 
Tracks of the Rebellion. 

No army ever occupied pleasauter quarters than those con- 
nected with the defenses of Washington. A belt of young 
chestnut forest nearly half a mile in width, with a diameter of 
ten miles, had been felled about Washington, leaving ample 
material of the finest quality for tents. These were split into 
planks and slabs, and placed on end in a square or circular 
form, according to the kind of tent that was to surmount 
them, or laid up into log houses, after the manner of primi- 
tive civilization. Over these were stretched the cloth tents. 
The internal arrangements varied with the ingenuity, taste 
and enterprise of the occupants. As the spring wore away, 
these tenements became more and more homelike. The sol- 
diers had retained sufficient of the money paid them at Biker's 
Island to purchase a small sheet-iron camp stove for each tent, 
and many of the latter were furnished with board bunks and 
floors. Conveniences for writing were erected, and the long 
months of March, April and May were well improved by 
the men in writing their friends at home. 

Nothing disturbed the monotony attendant upon the regular 
drill, drawing rations and putting the arms in order for in- 



52 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

spection, except now and then a case of discipline, or one of 
those exciting rumors which, with or without foundation, 
always find currency in camp. 

Much as soldiers become endeared to each other, it is some- 
times really a relief to witness a case of discipline, providing 
it is not too severe in its nature. Discipline in the army is 
generally summary, and apparently arbitrary. No trial, (except 
for more heinous offenses), is had ; but the commanding officer 
punishes " on view," as the parent does the wayward child. 
A case falling under my observation will illustrate : — 

" Cal. Totman," of Company E, was about sixty-five years 
of age. He, of course, appeared but forty-four on the rolls. 
He boasted of having been a soldier in 1812 ; but so much 
time had elapsed between 1812 and 1862, that Cal. forgot 
to some extent the difference in position between a private and 
the regimental commander. He had been tutored for the last 
fifty years under those free institutions, where every man is 
equal to his fellows, especially if his skin is white and his hair 
straight, and he had forgotten that " military necessity " which, 
by putting shoulder straps upon his neighbor, made him an 
autocrat, while he (Cal.) remained a plebeian. 

Alike to the evil customs of society, and to Cal's weak- 
ness, be it charged, that he had learned to imbibe too freely of 
liquor, and when well charged with this inspiration, he had 
not the fear of man before his e} 7 es, He was neither malicious 
nor vindictive on these occasions, but simply free. On this oc- 
casion Cal. had met a man such as hang about camps, who, 
for a dollar, conveyed the precious intelligence to him 
where he could find a quart of whisky under the roots of a 
stump. The whisky was found, and Cal. was not long in 
getting happy. But a quart will not last always, and he, 
therefore, soon found it necessary to replenish. His mind nat- 
urally turned to a sutler's tent about twenty rods off. Thither 



Discipline in the Army. 53 

he turned his steps, making, in the meantime, a path imitating 
a Virginia rail fence. As he neared the coveted spot, he met 
a guard, who stood in the way more effectually than the lion 
in the path of Bunyan's pilgrim. To pass was an impossi- 
bility. Cal. was in a belligerent state of mind and as he 
turned from the guard, he stopped to give him a parting salu- 
tation. Then on he went towards camp, halting at regular 
intervals to give the guard a reminder of the great injustice 
he had done him, and continually muttering oaths against 
those who, in this free country, would rob a soldier of his 
God-given right to get drunk. He had proceeded but a short 
distance towards camp, when he met Colonel Shaul, who 
called out : — 

" What are you saying, sir ?" 

Cal., a little mixed, lifted his free American head and 
replied : — 

" Who in h — 1 are you ?" 

" Take that fellow to camp and place him on a barrel for 
an hour," shouted the Colonel to the guard. 

Cal. was accordingly treated to a barrel for an hour. 

This punishment may not be understood by all. It is a very 
simple process of chastisement. A barrel is placed upon one 
end, and the criminal is required to stand upon the other end 
the length of time requisite to execute the sentence or order. 

Cal. was placed upon the barrel, and there, with his white 
locks playing in the breeze, he delivered, in the presence of 
about two hundred soldiers, an oration by no means flattering 
to the Colonel, ever and anon descending to give emphasis to 
his harangue by kicking the barrel a rod or more, after which 
he would mount it again and proceed with his oration. 

Cal. survived the war and draws a pension ; but he has 
never been known to acknowledge the right of any man to 
place a soldier of 1812 upon a barrel for an hour, because he 



54 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

disapproved of the interference of the guard in the exercise of 
his natural right to get drunk. 

Another case of punishment came near resulting in an ex- 
plosion of Fort Slocum. Pat. McKone, of Company F, aged 
about fifty, had formed the same habit as Cal. He was an 
excellent hostler, but could not go to the city to get the Quar- 
termaster's horse shod without returning elated with unnatural 
spirits. 

"Who are you?" said the officer of the day, as Pat. stag- 
gered toward him. 

" Ah ! indade, and am I not Misther McKone ?" 

" But, you are drunk !" 

"Indade, and Captain Barnard tells me that ivery time I 
sees him ; but he has searched me many a time and niver 
found a bottle." 

" Guard, put this man in the bomb-proof. I will see what 
dungeon life will do for him." 

Pat. was put into the bomb-proof, located in the center of 
the works, (there being, at that time, no guard-house connected 
with the fort). The proof had just been well replenished with 
loaded shells, kegs of powder, pails of loose powder, and all 
the other varieties of the combustible materials of war. All 
was still for a time. Presently the guard heard a sound in 
the proof. 

" Murther ! Murther !" shouted Pat,, and then came a sound 
as of some one falling. The door was opened, and there lay Pat. 
in the last stages of suffocation. On coming to himself, he 
explained the smoke and the suffocation thus : — 

" That's a very damp place, Capt'in, very. Well, I thought 
the Gover'ment ought to warm its soldiers at public expinse, 
and so I scraped what I could togither, and built me a little 
fire on the floor, and soon I couldn't brathe. I can't tell you 
any more, Capt'in." 



Orders to March. 55 

It was fortunate that this lire in a powder-house was discov- 
ered in time. 

McClellan had now (May, 1S62), crept his slow way up the 
peninsula. The rebels were fleeing before him, and the gene- 
ral impression prevailed, both in camp and about "Washington, 
that the Seventy-sixth would never see any fighting. It was 
thought that McClellan could not fail to take Richmond, and 
then, by common consent, the war was to close. Though the 
termination of the war, and the return of peace was desired 
by all, yet the " boys " were not a little chagrined at the 
thought of a six months' campaign, and a return to their 
friends without having seen the enemy ; and if a vote had at 
that time been taken in the Regiment, upon the proposition 
of going into battle, or returning home without a fight, the 
battle would have received a large majority. 

Poor fellows ! They afterwards learned to judge differently 
of fighting. Fighting in theory scarcely equals the reality of 
war, and though a man may be thoroughly convinced that he 
would like to try his hand once, he is seldom, if ever, known 
to try it the second time, simply for the sport of it. 

But strategy did not always win the day, even for McClellan. 
The battles at Seven Pines and Fair Oaks tested the general- 
ship of the Commander of the Army of Virginia, and he was 
found wanting. 

In the midst of public expectation, when the capital of the 
rebellion was to fall a prey to the victorious concpieror, the 
exultant hopes of the loyal North were blasted, and General 
McClellan and his splendid army were hurled back to the 
James, and took refuge beneath the guns of our men-of-war. 

The policy of President Lincoln required a force between 
Richmond and "Washington sufficiently strong, in case of the 
defeat of McClellan, to protect the latter city. 

The orders finally came on the twenty-first day of May, 



50 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

1862, for the Seventy-sixth New York to proceed to Frede- 
ricksburg. The men were all elated with the idea of a change 
of scenery ; anything was preferable, they thought, to the 
monotony of camp life. Knapsacks were quickly filled, tents 
struck and packed, the little conveniences for camp life that 
had been gathered together, were assorted, and those packed 
which were to be taken, and the balance thrown away ; and 
when the morning of the twenty-second dawned, it found the 
Seventy-sixth in line ready for the march. The day was very 
warm, and to soldiers unaccustomed to marching, the five 
miles to Washington seemed ten before it was accomplished, 
and the knapsacks grew to be very heavy burdens. But, tired 
as were the men, they never forgot those principles of justice 
and equal rights which called them from their peaceful homes 
to engage in a death-struggle with treason. 

However much this war has been misunderstood by some of 
the commanding generals, judging from the kid-glove style in 
which they fought it, and the general tone of their orders and 
speeches, the common soldier has not failed to come to a cor- 
rect understanding of the issues involved. Men high in 
position, have had ambitions to gratify, and a name to write 
in living letters on the scroll of fame, and in the writing have 
not unfrequently overlooked the cause of the rebellion ; but 
the soldiery left home and all that was dear, not for fame, not 
that they might secure a name as tactician or strategist ; but 
that they might write, though in humble letters, upon their 
country's escutcheon, those inspired words, " All men are free 
and, before the law, equals," and to the credit of the Ameri- 
can soldiers be it said, they never forgot to act upon that 
principle. 

While encamped at Fort Massachusetts, the Maryland seces- 
sionists assisted many of the soldiers to desert, by the aid of 
money and citizen's clothes, and those who remained true had 



PkOTECTINO " CONTKAUANDS." 57 

few scruples against helping off the colored servants of the 
traitors residing in the vicinity of the Regiment. The num- 
ber of colored attaches became greatly augmented. Being 
against orders, few, however, but privates and non-commis- 
sioned officers were aware of the number. 

One day, Stephen Bennett, a little private about sixteen 
years of age, appeared at the tent of Captain Fox, with a col- 
ored boy about his own age, and thus introduced him in his 
own peculiar dialect : — 

" Cap'n, you see, I have invited this young gentleman down 
to see you, and I want to have you look 'im over. Bill's 'is 
name. I told Bill 't I could n't afford to keep 'm any longer, 
an' I reckoned we 'd better come down 'n' see the Cap'n, an' 
see 'f 'e could n't stay with us. I've had 'im some time (a day 
or two), — he's a good feeder, Cap'n — up in our tent I've had 
'im." 

Bill stayed as the Captain's second steward, until subse- 
quently turned over to Lieutenant Walcott. He went with 
Company B to Fredericksburg and Cedar Mountain. 

At this time slavery had been abolished in the District of 
Columbia. By act of Congress, the famous, or infamous, 
" Order No. 3," of General Halleck, remanding the panting 
slaves to the scourging of an enraged master, had been 
annulled, yet the virus of slavery not unfrequently broke out, 
and numerous attempts had been made while in the defenses 
of Washington, to abduct slaves found in our camps. 

Let it be written, that coming ages may read it and blush 
for an institution that demanded a rebellion to sustain it, — 
that, after the war for the preservation of our Government had 
progressed a whole year, the abettors of the institution, and 
the officers elected in the District of Columbia, under the very 
eye of Congress, sought to wrest from the Union Army those 
who, with uplifted hands, implored their protection ! and that 



58 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

;it a time when those same fugitives were marching with the 
army to the scene of conflict and of death ! 

John Burch and Charles Burch were two African slaves, 
who, having escaped from their master in Maryland, had taken 
refuge in the camp of the Seventy-sixth. When the Hegi- 
ment left the forts on its way to Fredericksburg, these men 
went with it, lending their aid wherever needed, in carrying 
the baggage of the officers, or performing any other duty that 
might be imposed upon them. They were black, but they 
loved the smell of that air of freedom which gives spirit and 
hope to the white man. 

As the Regiment came down Seventh street to Pennsylvania 
Avenue, in Washington, these men were marching with Com- 
pany D, and carrying the officers' baggage, when an attempt 
on the part of their owner (just think of that, American citi- 
zen, man-owner), was made to arrest them. This was sternly 
resisted by the men of Company D. A policeman of the city 
of Washington lent his aid to the attempt ; but no sooner had 
he seized one of them by the collar, than Jay Webster, of Com 
pany D, gave the order, " charge !" The whole company 
immediately obeyed, but before the bayonets were in position 
for the charge, the officer lay upon the ground, senseless from 
the effects of a blow from the butt of Jay Webster's gun. 

Jay has since died in the service, but his glorified spirit will 
never tire of contemplating this daring assertion of the doc- 
trine that human freedom is above all the pomp and show of 
power, and its vindication the first duty of every patriotic cit- 
izen of the Republic. 

A strenuous effort was made on the part of the semi-seces- 
sion officers of Washington, to arrest those who took part in 
this defense ; but to the credit of the officers of the Seventy- 
sixth, and of their gallant, true-hearted commander, General 
Abner Doubleday, be it said, no arrests were made, and the 



Landing at Aquia Greek. 59 

would-be slave-catching officers of Washington returned to 
their illy-performed duties with a clearer appreciation of 
Northern character than when they first met the Seventy- 
sixth. This daring act of heroism went the rounds of the 
papers, and found its way into the London press. 

At length, after that delay which always attends the em- 
barkation of a regiment of troops, with baggage, horses, tents, 
&c.j the Seventy-sixth was on its way down the Potomac, 
leaving the secure and safe defenses of "Washington for scenes 
of battle and carnage. The day had been exceedingly warm, 
and the men, unaccustomed to marching, found it no light 
task to walk the seven miles from camp to the landing, and 
though a few were kept awake by the change of scene, yet by 
far the greater part were asleep soon after the boat left the 
wharf. 

About midnight the boat reached Aquia Creek. The 
sleeping soldiers were awakened, the knapsack strapped upon 
the back, the haversack, gun and accoutrements seized, and 
soon the Regiment was formed on shore and marched over a 
sandy road a distance which appeared five miles, but was, in 
reality, less than two, to an adjacent hill, where it bivouacked 
for the remainder of the night. It was a lovely, balmy night, 
though there was no moon, and sweet sleep soon carried the 
weary soldier, in dreams, to those much-loved friends at home. 

This was our first entrance upon the theater of war. The 
Seventy-sixth had never before trod upon soil that had been 
polluted by rebel feet. 

Upon awaking in the morning, the men were surrounded 
on every side by evidences that rebels had once occupied the 
ground. On every hand were deserted rebel fortifications, 
bomb-proofs, rifle pits and habitations. Here were the plat- 
forms upon which the rebels had moved their heavy artillery, 
in blockading the Potomac, which, could they have spoken, 



60 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

might have explained why we were so long deprived of wood 
on Meridian Hill. There, down the bank, were the remains 
of gun-carriages, dismantled, the brand " U. S." showing rebel 
thrift, alias theft ; while in every direction the deserted camps 
and roofless tents presented a more dilapidated and home- 
sick appearance than did the " deserted village " of Goldsmith. 

Climbing high up the cliff, the Potomac, confined in its 
winding course by high green bluffs, dotted here and there with 
groves of young trees, this morning, (May twenty-fourth), pre- 
sents a truly magnificent landscape. There are few better 
harbors than that at Aquia Creek, and at this moment it 
seems dressed in its holiday garb. The river, as far as the eye 
can reach, is dotted with vessels of all descriptions — the steam- 
er, with its accompanying barges, the government transport, 
the stately ship and the low, frowning gun-boat, while ever 
and anon, floating on the sweet morning air, comes the ever 
welcome and soul-stirring strains of music from the bands and 
drum corps. The weariness of yesterday has worn off; na- 
ture is refreshed, and now is no time for gloomy meditations. 
What if we have left our friends behind us % What if this 
sunshine precedes a storm, and the battle's fury may be in re- 
serve for us but a short way ahead ? The God who made this 
landscape, and fills us with pleasurable emotions as we 
contemplate it ; lie who gave us ears to hear, and an appreci- 
ative nature to be made happy by these strains of sweet music, 
will surely protect them and us. Such were the meditations 
after breakfast that morning ; but they were of short duration 
— all too short. 

Before noon the order to " fall in " was given, and soon the 
Regiment was in line ready for marching. Then the order 
to " break ranks " was given, and thus the Regiment awaited 
the arrival of several men who had been left behind, but who 
were now approaching, on board a vessel which brought down 



Makch to Fredericksburg. 61 

the One Hundred and Second New York. Soon all was 
ready, and the Kegiment took up its line of march to Frede- 
ricksburg', eighteen miles distant. 



CHAPTER V. 

March to Fredericksburg— Virginia shower— Fording — Arrival at Fredericks- 
burg — Movement on Foot— Rumors— General McDowell— The Lact House— 
Abraham Lincoln, Secretart Stanton and the Generals in Council— Conclu- 
sion op TnE Council— The Seventy-sixth to Remain at Fredericksburg. 

The day, like its predecessor, whs extremely hot, and there 
was scarcely a dry garment in the Regiment, when, at length, 
the order was given to bivouac for the night. 

The country from Aquia Creek to Fredericksburg, presented 
a desolate appearance. All along the railroad, now torn up 
and impassable, were to be seen the deserted rebel camping- 
grounds, dismantled fortifications, dilapidated rebel huts ; and 
everything bore unmistakable evidence of the ravages of war. 
Scarcely a fence was to be seen ; the country was thinly pop- 
ulated, and to add to the general desolation, the stumps of 
imperfectly cleared tracks of country, gave to the landscape 
an uninviting aspect. Judging from the appearance of the 
country from Aquia Creek to Fredericksburg, the " mother of 
Presidents " will require some time to arrange her toilet be- 
fore she will again become presentable. 

The first night of this march the Regiment encamped in an 
open meadow, about six miles from Aquia Creek. Scarcely 
had they retired upon their blankets, which were spread upon 
the ground, before the rain came down in torrents, and the 



64 The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y. V. 

Regiment came to a full appreciation of the magnitude, if not 
the beauty, of a Virginia shower. 

The soldier of several campaigns comes to view everything 
as natural and endurable that may befall him ; but the soldier 
who has just left a comfortable camp and tent, considers such 
a storm as an unusual catastrophe. 

The night, though sleepless to the unfledged soldiery, finally 
passed away, and again the march was resumed. 

The rain had raised Potomac Creek almost to a river. The 
rebels had destroyed the bridge, and here the Regiment ex- 
perienced that other unpleasant feature, the fording of a 
turbulent stream. 

This done, on went the Regiment, each man's load growing- 
heavier as his body became more wearied, and the rain more 
thoroughly saturating every garment upon him, until about 
10 o'clock P. M. Covered with mud, wet to the skin and 
nearly exhausted, the Brigade arrived in sight of Fredericks- 
burg and encamped for the night. Only about four tents 
were provided for a company, and when we consider that a 
small tent will protect but about four, it will be understood 
that most of the men were unprovided for. 

The best of feeling usually prevails among the soldiers. 
They are cemented together by their common dangers, priva- 
tions and experiences, and the weary and sick are always first 
provided for. On this occasion the exhausted and sick would 
more than fill the tents, so that the healthy found themselves 
out in the cold and rain. 

The morning of the twenty-sixth was ushered in by the 
reveille, not of a regiment alone, but of regiments, brigades, 
divisions and corps. We were reminded of those days when 
we first entered "Washington, before General McClellan had 
left for the peninsula, with his grand army. In every direc- 
tion as far as the eye could see, nothing was to be seen but 



Opposite Fredeeicksbueg. 65 

men and the materials of war, while everywhere the indica- 
tions satisfied the nnpracticed eye that some great movement 
was on foot. 

Scarcely had the roll been called when the rumbling of 
artillery and baggage wagons gave rise to the rumor that a 
forward movement was being, even at that time, made. Then 
came a rumor, snch as always finds credence in camp, that 
General Shields's division had been ordered back to Winches- 
ter, to reinforce General Banks, who was said to have been 
driven .back by the rebels. Then the story received sanction 
that the rebels had recaptured Manassas. 

But little time was given to ascertain the truth of rumors, 
for, early in the afternoon, orders were received to march 
again, and take a position near the site of the camp just evac- 
uated by a regiment of General Ord's Brigade. Unaccustomed 
to the experiences of actual warfare, the soldiers would have 
much preferred to march across the river, where they might 
be in closer proximity to the rebels. 

General Shields's men had been six months or more in the 
field, and were looked upon by the young soldiers who had 
never smelled powder, with as much respect as civilians con- 
template the browned and scarred veteran of a hundred 
•-* battle-fields. They could even cook their rations and make 
palatable coffee without the aid of camp stoves, and could 
cleanse and polish their warlike weapons while cooking over 
a fire between two logs, seeming perfectly at home. 

Everywhere the ground was covered with soldiers and ma- 
terials of war. Here, long rows of army wagons, forming a 
regular village of canvas covers ; there a park of artillery. 
Yonder a corral of army horses, and, further on, of mules, 
while hurrying to and fro rode the orderlies, carrying dispatches. 
Everything bespoke business — business of a serious character. 

General McDowell was in command of the forces there 

E 



66 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

assembled and assembling. He occupied the Lacy bouse as bis 
headquarters. This is a brick building, near the left or 
northern bank of the Rappahannock, in plain view of Fred- 
ericksburg, and about two miles from Falmouth. The 
grounds surrounding it, which had been tended with so much 
care, were now covered with the tents of staff officers and 
orderlies ; the fences were gone, the shrubbery destroyed, and 
the whole plain, now covered with troops, was, aside from the 
bustle of marshaling hosts, a barren, uninviting waste. Down 
the walks, which the proprietor had laid out with so much 
taste, the sentinel now paced, with his gun at a shoulder ; 
where once the petted daughter admired her bright flowers, 
the " contraband " now held the war steed of the hated 
Yankee general or colonel ; while in the parlor and halls 
where the fashionable " F. F. V.'s " were wont to congregate, 
perchance to sing themselves happy over 

"The bonnie blue flag of a single star," 
now assembled the hero generals who were striking a 
blow at that very flag, and the infamous institution 
which sustained this scene of aristocracy, and pricking the 
bubble which, broken would show the " F. F. V.'s " to be 
really something other than the first families of Virginia. 
And there, in the midst of this group, counseling and being 4 
counseled, in this rebel mansion, was the hated rail-splitter, 
Abraham Lincoln, whose very election had been seized upon 
as a pretense for secession. 

Mr. Lincoln and his Secretary of War, Mr. Stanton, had 
arrived upon the ground about the same time with the Seven- 
ty-sixth, and was now in close consultation with the leading 
generals, at the Lacy house. 

It is generally understood that Mr. Lincoln was never satis- 
fied with the manner in which General McClellan had left 
Washington unprotected when he went upon the peninsula. 



President Lincoln in Council. 67 

lie had, therefore, ordered General McDowell to remain with 
his troops to defend Washington in case of a repulse of Gen- 
eral McClellan's army ; and the wisdom of this course has 
been approved by the events which have already passed into 
history. With that ever-watchful eye with which our mar- 
tyred President guarded every movement of the army, he had 
now come to the front to see with his own eyes that all was 
being done that was possible, to protect the Capital and save 
the country. 

It was a proud sight to see his tall form surrounded by the 
best generals in the country, receiving and giving counsel as 
to the future movements of the army. While there was a de- 
termined look, confidence beamed also upon every countenance. 
Though the President could not have felt otherwise than a 
foreboding of the evil that was about to fall upon the country 
yet he displayed no symptoms of distrust. There was that 
same calm, assured air that ever marked his bearing, and he 
animated rather than depressed his generals, as they discussed 
the weighty subject before them, and occasionally the council 
was enlivened by one of his dry jokes, or one of those never- 
fading "that reminds me of a story," with which he was wont 
to preface a happy illustration. 

Judging from the external appearance of that council, an 
inexperienced observer would have seen nothing tending 
to induce the belief that those very men who seemed to 
drink in the counsels of each other, and to heartily sympathize 
cacli with the other in every sentiment expressed, were 
inwardly rankling with jealousies, which, in three short 
months, would permit one portion of the army to be cut in 
pieces, while the other portion was within supporting distance, 
disengaged. And yet, such is the fallibility of human nature, 
that the goddess of history has blushed while she lias been 
forced to write it down against them. More than to any other 



68 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

one cause, the prolongation of this war was clue to the jeal- 
ousies, rivalries and envies of the commanding generals. 
This, with that other idea of President-making by the kid- 
glove style of fighting, may be set down as the reason for the 
rebellion lasting beyond the limits of a single year. The 
North was strong enough, and anxious to crush it in six 
months, but its strength was neutralized by being divided 
against itself. 

The result of the consultation was, that General Doubleday's 
Brigade was to remain at Fredericksburg to guard that city, 
while the other troops went on to win laurels in a more active 
field. ' 

Though it may seem incredible to those who are unaccus- 
tomed to the monotony of camp life, yet it is true that the 
recruit who has never seen battle, but has spent several months 
in camp, considers it a misfortune to be thus confined, and, if 
left to choice, would prefer the march or the field to the se- 
clusion of camp life. This feeling, however, is changed by 
one active campaign. 

The officers and men of the Seventy-sixth were disappointed 
when notified of the conclusion of the council. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Fredericksburg— Changing Camps— A Reconnoissance in Force— Diabolism of the 
Rebels— Explosion op a Magazine in Fredericksburg by a Rebel Torpedo- 
Rebel Sentiments— Lawyer Wallace— The Women op Fredericksburg— Shun- 
ning the Flag— " Stonewall " Jackson Expected— Preparations for His 
Reception— Major Livingston as Governor— Capture of Major Lacy, of the 
Lacy House— Smuggling— Remarkable Cures of Dropsy. 

It is no small matter to settle a family in a strange house, 
and get things set to rights, so that the place will seem like 
home. The shelf where the clock is to stand, is on the other 
side of the room, as you enter, from that on which it was 
accustomed to stand ; the stove does not look familiar where 
necessity compels us to locate it ; we look in vain for the mir- 
ror where it used to hang by the clock, and so on ; but 
changing quarters in civil life is not to be compared, in point 
of vexation, with the " change of base " in the army. This 
was amply illustrated on the arrival of our Regiment opposite 
Fredericksburg. 

We have already spoken of the bivouac the first night. 
The next morning the men were aroused from their slumbers 
on the ground, by the reveille. Soon the roll of wheels and 
the bustle in camp betrayed a movement. Vague rumors of 
defeat at Winchester, and then of victory, agitated the camp. 

Sunday, May twenty-fifth, orders were received to march to 
a hill about a mile distant. While this was being done by 
the Seventy-sixth, a reconnoissance in force was being made 



70 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

on the south side of the Rappahannock, with a view to ascer- 
tain the position and strength of the rebels. Though the 
Seventy-sixth took no part in this reconnoissance, the general 
commanding the Brigade, and liis staff, rode to the front and 
participated in it. 

These reconnoissauces are very exciting, requiring all the 
courage necessary in battle, and adding the excitement and 
interest of an ordinary hunting excursion in an extraordinary 
degree. In this case the demonstration was made upon two 
roads leading from Fredericksburg nearly south. First came 
the Harris cavalry, filling the roads with gallant troopers, as 
they galloped forward in search of danger. These were closely 
followed by the infantry, which was to support them in case 
of a collision. 

The rebels had made a demonstration upon Fredericksburg 
but a short time before, and a fight was expected ; but the 
reconnoissance only established the fact that the rebels had 
placed a respectful distance between themselves and the Union 
army. 

This reconnoissance was made upon the day on which prep- 
arations had been made for General McDowell to leave 
Fredericksburg, to join General McClellan. But the enemy 
were not followed in their retreat from Fredericksburg, for 
just at this time Stonewall Jackson commenced his expedi- 
tion down the Shenandoah Yalley, and General McDowell 
was sent, in connection with General Fremont, from West 
Virginia, to the assistance of General Banks, and to intercept 
Jackson in his retreat. This departure of General McDowell 
set at rest all idea of a general forward movement by the 
troops about Fredericksburg. 

To the Brigade of General Doubleday was assigned the duty 
of guarding and repairing the railroad from Aquia Creek to 
Fredericksburg. All this foreboded a repetition of camp life 



Explosion of xV Magazine. 71 

experiences, without the excitements of the march and the 
field. 

On the day of the recoimoissance, an incident occurred 
which illustrates the utter recklessness with which this war 
was carried on by the rebels. They had but recently occupied 
Fredericksburg, and the city was at this time inhabited by an 
intensely bitter rebel population. Yet, not only regardless 
of the rules of civilized warfare, but disregarding the safety 
of their own friends and property, the rebel army, on leaving, 
planted torpedoes in different parts of the city, and especially 
about the magazines connected with the fortifications. 

On the Sunday spoken of, as a guard from the Twenty- 
third New York was on duty, he chanced to step a little one 
side from his accustomed path, when his foot came in contact 
with one of these torpedoes. In an instant he was blown into 
the air, and his body torn to atoms. The fire communicated 
with the magazine, causing a most terrific explosion. The 
earth and timbers were thrown into the air above the highest 
buildings, and the shock, as of an earthquake, was felt for 
miles around. 

Had this been done in an enemy's country, it might have 
been paliated, though not justified, as a war measure ; but 
when we come to realize that the enemy planted these mur 
derous engines in their own city, at their own doors, where 
their families and friends were the imperiled parties, we can- 
not conceive a more fiendish act. 

After marching, halting and counter-marching for a week, 
the Brigade finally settled down, and the old routine of camp 
life followed. 

Brigade headquarters were established atjhc house of a law- 
yer named Wallace. lie was a most bitter secessionist. With 
two sons in the rebel army, his slaves all escaped to the North, 
his farm completely desolated, stripped of everything upon 



72 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

which he had set his heart, he remained true to the cause of 
secession. He was one of those men who could not play a 
double or a doubtful part ; but, whether surrounded by his 
friends in gray, or his enemies in blue, he was the same firm 
supporter of the rebellion, and he more than once asserted to 
the staff officers who occupied his mansion, that if the United 
States Government should require him to take the oath of al- 
legiance, on pain of confiscation of all his property, he should 
choose the confiscation, rather than violate his obligations to 
his State. 

No better illustration is needed of the proposition that per- 
sistency, and even conscientiousness, is not always an evidence 
of right. Here was a man who had spent a lifetime in sur- 
rounding himself with all the attractions that make this life 
desirable. Under his personal supervision, his ample fields 
had been enclosed with fences and hedges ; his house had been 
neatly and tastefully adorned ; his yards were laid out with 
care, and planted with the choicest trees, shrubs and plants ; 
he had reared his two sons to be the support of his declining 
years ; yet now, as he cast his eye over his former Eden, he 
saw his broad fields one vast camping ground, not of friends, 
but of foes ; his trees and hedges cut down, and his fences 
burned by what he deemed a horde of invaders ; the hated 
African, the cause of all his woes, held the war steeds of the 
officers on the broad walk to his mansion ; his two sons were 
fighting to defeat the very flag that now floated from his own 
house-top ; they had not been heard from for several months ; 
no friends surrounded him ; the Union officers were occupying 
his best rooms, and their subordinates swarmed on every hand. 
And yet, in his despair, crushed and broken, he never for a 
moment faltered in his attachment to the cause he had 
espoused. 

Nor was the case of Wallace a solitary instance. Frede- 



The Women of Fredekicksbueg. 73 

ricksburg was one hot-bed of secession. The women, as they 
passed the " boys in blue," drew their dresses closer about 
them, and not unfrequently left the sidewalk, lest perchance 
they might be contaminated by a touch of the garments of 
their enemies. Did a flag wave from headquarters, fort, guard- 
house, or sutler's tent, the " chivalry " would cross the street 
to avoid the shadow of the banner of the invaders, and in all 
maimer of ways, which could not and were not intended on 
the part of the secessionists to be mistaken by the Union men, 
did the inhabitants of this city show their disrespect and utter 
abhorrence of everything that favored the United States. 
This feeling was confined to no particular class, (if we except 
the colored race), but was shared by the merchant, mechanic, 
professional man, and reached the climax in the female popu- 
lation, who were frequently more forcible than elegant in their 
expressions regarding the hated " Yankees." 

Captain Pierce had been lamed while working upon the 
bridge. Shortly afterwards while walking along the street 
with a brother officer, they discovered a group of women in a 
parlor. 

" There come two damned Yankee officers, and one of them 
is limping," remarked one of the " F. F. V.'s," in tones 
intended for the officers' ears. 

" It is a pity he is permitted the luxury of limping," re- 
plied one of the bevy. 

" Oh, dear ! I wish Stonewall Jackson would come and 
clear these scoundrels out," chimed in a third. 

JBy this time the officers were opposite the window. 

" Ladies" remarked the Captain, rather sarcastically, " we 
heard your exclamations. You were right about our being 
Yankee officers ; but the Yankees have come to stay, and it is 
to be hoped that your acquaintance with them will improve 
both your morals and your manners." 



74 The Seventy-sixth Kegevient N. Y. V. 

The officers passed on, and " Southern aristocracy " discussed 
" Northern mud-sills." 

At this time General Doubleday's Brigade had not been 
attached to any division, but remained a separate organiza- 
tion. 

For two weeks after the arrival at Fredericksburg, nothing 
occurred to disturb the routine of marching and changing po- 
sitions, with now and then a little drill. 

Frequent and very exaggerated stories were circulated in 
reference to the whereabouts and intentions of Stonewall 
Jackson. Scarcely a day passed but some " loyal refugee," or 
"intelligent contraband," came to camp direct from the neigh- 
borhood of Jackson's army, with the startling intelligence 
that Fredericksburg was sure to be attacked in force. These 
announcements were usually followed by orders to be ready to 
move at an hour's, and sometimes a moment's notice. Knap- 
sacks were packed, haversacks stored with rations, arms put in 
readiness for a fight, but no enemy came ; until finally the 
army of " loyal refugees " and " intelligent contrabands," who 
had brought the intelligence of our danger, nearly equaled 
the imaginary army of the threatening Jackson. 

These rumors were at first very exciting ; but when a month 
or more had elapsed, and no Jackson made his appearance, 
they were made the occasions of jests, and Jackson became to 
the Union army a sort of mythical or harmless ghost, with 
no power, nor, indeed, any intention, to inflict evil upon us. 

After remaining on the north bank of the Rappahannock 
about a week, the Seventy-sixth was sent over the river to 
guard the city, the depot, the bridge, and other important 
points. 

Major Livingston was made Military Governor, and no one 
familiar with his characteristics, will question the propriety of 
the selection. To the best order of executive ability, Major 



Capture of Major Lacy. 75 

Livingston added a large and varied experience with men, 
with something of a military education. In the city of Fred- 
ericksburg, these qualities were put to the severest test. If a 
horse disappeared mysteriously from its owner's possession, the 
Major was supposed to be able, not only to determine its 
whereabouts, but to convict the offender of the taking. For 
the time being, he was the supreme dictator. His word was 
the essence of the law, and never was law more effectually 
administered. The rebels themselves were compelled to admit 
that their city was better governed under the administration 
of the Major, than while occupied by their own troops. The 
liquor-sellers were greatly restrained ; the soldiers were em- 
ployed in building bridges, repairing roads and fortifications ; 
the streets were policed, and lounging and the necessary con- 
comitants — street brawls and riots — were prevented, and the 
citizens of this rebel city had many occasions to thank the 
Military Governor for the peace and quiet which reigned, and 
the protection which, in person and property, they enjoyed. 

The first day after the installation of the Major as Governor, 
an important capture was made — one that filled the city with 
excitement. Major Lacy, the owner of the Lacy house, situ- 
ated on the north bank of the river and opposite Fredericksburg, 
had ventured too near the Federal lines, and had been cap- 
tured. 

A squad of about forty men, under a lieutenant, was sent 
out to reconnoiter the country, and ascertain whether there 
wore rebels in the vicinity. Observing a smoke a short dis- 
tance ahead, the Lieutenant called for volunteers to act as an 
advance, and learn the cause. D. C. McGregor, of Company 
F, Seventy-sixth Regiment, and six others of the party volun- 
teered. Stealing up cautiously to near the place whence came 
the smoke, they discovered a fine horse, saddled and hitched 
to a tree, and farther on a camp fire, and the rebel Major and 



76 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

two men evidently cooking their coffee. The scouts managed 
to get between the Major and his horse, when they no longer 
attempted to conceal their movements. Discovering our party, 
the Major arose, and with great assurance of manner, ex- 
claimed : — 

" You are my prisoners !" 

" I guess not. You surrender !" replied the leader. 

" Come on, boys ! Take these men into your charge !" 
shouted the Major to his two men. 

The men not readily obeying, the Major sprang for his 
horse ; but the boys in blue presented the ugly ends of their 
Enfield rifles, and the Major surrendered unconditionally, and 
was taken to camp. McGregor was soon after promoted to 
sergeant. 

Major Lacy was one of the wealthiest and most popular 
men in the county. A man who had spared no effort to bring 
about the secession of his State, and now that it had seceded, 
he avoided no responsibility or danger, but threw himself 
heartily into the work of aiding the military forces by his per- 
sonal presence and labors. He was a man of ability and 
character, and felt most keenly the tortures of that fate which 
confined him a common prisoner in the guard-house of the 
enemy in sight of his own mansion. " Alas ! how are the 
mighty fallen !" 

What severer punishment could be inflicted upon a sensitive 
man ? It was, however, of short duration, for in a few days 
he was sent North, and in due time exchanged. 

Those familiar with the devices of smugglers on our north- 
ern frontier, will understand some of the difficulties 
experienced by our gallant Major. Every day, and several 
times in the day, cases of a suspicious character came under 
his observation, or before him, as Governor, for his adjudica- 
tion. Did a female set out on a journey over the lines, the 



Smuggling Detected. 77 

size of her trunk could not fail to attract the attention of the 
guards, who, ignorant of the wants of " F. F. V.'s," would 
frequently indulge in suspicions that led to the opening of the 
package. The obtrusive guard would convey the trunk to the 
Governor, and direct the suspected female to convey herself 
thither, when a trial something like the following would take 
place : — 

Governor. — Madam, what is your name, and where do you 
reside ? 

Female. — My name is and I live in Fredericksburg, 

sir. 

Governor. — Is that your trunk ! (pointing to the package 
mentioned). 

Female. — It is, sir. 

Governor. — Where were you going ? 

Female. — I have a pass to Richmond, sir. 

Governor. — What does your trunk contain ? 

Female. — Articles of clothing, sir. 

Governor. — The size of the trunk, madam, indicates that 
the contents cannot be all clothing. It is my duty to have 
them examined. 

Female. — (Indignant). What ! search my trunk % Would 
you be so vulgar, sir, as to pry into the private wardrobe of 
a lady ? I assure you, sir, that that trunk contains nothing 
but my clothing, and I protest against its being disturbed. 

Governor. — My duty, madam, demands that this matter be 
investigated. Have you the key ? 

Female. — (Excitedly rummaging her pocket). I have lost 
my key, sir. I implore you not to disturb my wardrobe ! 

Governor. — Guards, open that trunk with as little damage 
as possible. 

Female. — Oh, Governor, I've found the key ; but I conjure 
you, by your respect for my sex, do not permit a public exam- 
ination of my traveling wardrobe ! 



73 Tiie Seventy-sixth Eegevient N. Y. V. 

Governor. — Guards, do your duty. 

Then came the opening of the trunk. Of course the ward- 
robe was the first thing that met the eye ; but as, to the 
astonishment and contempt of the fair owners, these " vulgar 
soldiers " proceeded to remove the clothing, huge packages 
and large bottles were discovered, while the odor of the apoth- 
ecary's shop confirmed the idea that something was enclosed 
beside those articles, the safe transportation of which is guar- 
anteed by the ordinary contract of the common carrier. 
Whisky, quinine, liniment, rolls of lint, packages of bandages, 
etc., — these were the chief articles, varied in the proportions, 
but invariable as to the specific articles. 

Governor. — (Sarcastically). Madam, do the contents of 
those packages and bottles constitute a portion of your ward- 
robe ? 

Female. — But, sir, may not a lady prepare herself against 
those diseases incident to a change of climate % 

Governor. — If eighty miles' travel brings you into such a 
malarious climate, I advise you not to leave Fredericksburg. 
Your pass will, however, be so amended as to permit you to 
pass through the lines without baggage. Guards, convey 
those hospital stores to the chief surgeon for the use of the 
sick Union soldiers. Here, madam, is your pass, corrected. 

And so the female left the Governor, sadly reflecting that all 
her efforts to assist the rebel army had proved abortive, 
and forming new plans to forward her favorite project. 

A more ingenious method of smuggling was, however, car- 
ried on, until vigorous measures were adopted to prevent it. 
Females, young and old, who were naturally tall and slender, 
when seen upon the streets of Fredericksburg, were observed 
to become suddenly corpulent. This transformation frequently 
occurred in a single night, and was finally brought to the at- 
tention of the Governor. Without female assistance, the 



Report of "Contraband" Committee. 79 

investigation would be very painful to a sensitive gentleman, 
like the gallant Governor. Yankee ingenuity, however, soon 
suggested that a committee of female contrabands might be 
trusted to investigate and report as to the cause of the unnat- 
ural metamorphosis. The examination made, the report, 
though informal, was nevertheless to the point, and clearly 
demonstrated the secretive capacity of the " double elliptic 
steel spring skirt." 

" Lor 1 , massa Gov'ner, we'se found dese articles all under de 
skirt ob dis woman," reported the committee as they presented 
the governor with an armful of " goods, wares and merchan- 
dise." 

Not unfrequently were whole pieces of cloth proper for 
soldiers' clothes, sheets for bandages, packages of lint and 
medicine, and even the indispensable bottles of quinine 
whisky included in the inventory. These took the direction 
of the other " medical stores," and the thin female reduced to 
her normal condition, cured of her dropsy without medicine, 
returned to her home, or went over the lines, to relate to her 
secession friends the ungallant conduct of the Governor in so 
suddenly depriving her of all her greatness. 

The darkey population were not long in fully appreciating 
these cases, and many a joke arose among them based on these 
investigations. 

"Missus 's gwine to die !" 

" What for you tink so ! " 

" Oh ! Lor', she's swellin up — she's got de dropsy, shure ! " 

"You go long, now. I know a doc'r '11 cure her in no 
time." 

"Who's daU" 

" Why, de Gov'ner. Yah ! yah ! yah ! " 

At a later period, during the war, this system of imparting" 
assistance to the rebels, became greatly extended, and although 



80 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

the strictest surveillance was exercised, on the part of our 
Government officials to prevent it, large quantities of medical 
stores, the scarcity of which made them worth their weight in 
gold, in the rebellious States, surrounded, as they were, by a 
cordon of argus-eyed detectives, were very ingeniously 
smuggled through the lines, into the possession of the enemy. 
And, though we write it with shame, the chief headquarters 
of these double-traitors was in the city of "Washington, where 
many, filling important positions of trust with apparent hon- 
esty, were secretly engaged in affording " aid and comfort to 
the enemy." The most successful agents of these traitor-serv- 
ing smugglers were females, and numberless instances might 
be cited where more ingenious methods and devices were 
adopted for accomplishing their objects, than those given above. 



CHAPTER VII. 

General McCall Leaves Fredericksburg — General Pope Takes Command op the 
Armt op Virginia— Number op Troops^in that Army— Movements op the Troops 
— Doubledat's Brigade Assigned to King's Division— Another Wallace— " Joe," 
the Contraband— Foraging on the Enemy—" Slow Note," 

June tenth, General McCall's Division left Fredericksburg 
to reinforce General McClellan on the peninsula, and General 
Doubleday's Brigade was left alone at Fredericksburg. 

June twenty-sixth, General Pope took command of the 
Army of Virginia, by a special order from President Lincoln. 
His command included the First Corps under Major-General 
Fremont, about eleven thousand five hundred strong ; the 
Second Corps, under Major-General Banks, reported at four- 
teen thousand five hundred, but really only about eight 
thousand ; the Third Corps under Major-General McDowell, 
eighteen thousand five hundred ; with a small unorganized 
force under Brigadier-General Sturgis, near Alexandria, then 
in process of being organized for field service. The forces in 
the entrenchments around Washington were also included in 
his command ; but all the disposable available forces for active 
operations, consisted of the three Corps named, amounting to 
thirty-eight thousand men. Doubleday's Brigade was in- 
cluded in McDowell's Corps. 

General Fremont was afterwards relieved by General Siegel, 
in the command of his Corps. 

F 



82 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

At this time the Corps of General Banks and General Fre- 
mont were in the Shenandoah Valley, between Winchester 
and Middletown. One division of McDowell's Corps was at 
Manassas Junction, with its advance thrown forward to Cat- 
lett's Station. 

Jackson had retired from the Shenandoah Valley with his 
forces, and was rapidly marching towards Richmond, so that 
there was no force of the enemy, of any amount, within a 
week's march of any portion of the Army of Virginia. The 
President had directed General Pope to cover Washington so 
that in case of a disaster to McClellan, the Capital should be 
protected. 

The first effort of General Pope was to concentrate all the 
movable forces under his command, and while he covered 
Washington, so to operate upon the enemy's lines of commu- 
nication in the direction of Gordonsville and Charlottesville, 
as to draw off, if possible, a considerable force of his troops 
from Richmond, and thus relieve the operations of General 
McClellan against that city. 

Orders were, therefore, sent to General Siegel, who had now 
relieved Fremont in the command of the First Corps, to move 
forward, cross the Shenandoah at Front Royal, and, pur- 
suing the west side of the Blue Ridge, passing through 
Luray Gap, to take post at Sperryville. General Banks was, 
at the same time, directed to cross the Shenandoah at the 
same place, and take a position between six and ten miles east 
of Sperryville. General McDowell was ordered to move 
Rickett's Division of his Corps from Manassas Junction to 
Waterloo Bridge, the point where the turnpike from Warren- 
ton to Sperryville crosses the Upper Rappahannock. 

At this time, General Doubleday's Brigade had been 
assigned to General King's Division, and it was thought best 
by the War Department, that this Division should be left at 



General Pope's Idea of War. 83 

Fredericksburg to cover the crossing of the Rappahannock at 

that point, and to protect the railroad to Aquia Creek, and 
the public buildings which the Government had erected at 
that place. This latter arrangement of dividing General 
McDowell's Corps, separating King's Division so far from the 
main army, and thus making it possible for the enemy at any 
time to cut it off, by interposing between it and the remainder 
of the army, gave General Pope serious uneasiness, and 
engaged his earnest attention. 

General Pope was very unlike many who have been high in 
command in the Union army. He had an idea, not always 
possessed in the army, that war means fight, and that the best 
time to parley with the enemy and try to woo him back, is after 
you have whipped him, and he has begun to implore rather 
than exact terms. lie had another idea well received by the 
loyal masses at the North, but not at all favorably received by 
the bulk of commanding generals of that time, and most vio- 
lently opposed by secessionists both North and South. He 
thought that the Union army might very properly forage and 
subsist on the enemy's country. An order was finally issued 
by him to that effect, which, though it created a howl among 
the enemy, brought blessings upon him from the Union army. 
This is not the only time that a howl by the rebels was an- 
swered by a shout from the " boys in blue," and an instance 
might be cited where the Union army regretted an occurrence 
at the North, which sent up a shout all along the rebel lines. 
But the people of the North silenced that shout at the ballot- 
box. 

Several incidents occurred in the Seventy-sixth to illustrate 
the benefits of this order to subsist on the enemy. "We give 
one : — 

The Wallace mentioned in a preceding chapter, had a brother 
about fifteen miles below Fredericksburg, on the Rappahan- 



84 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

nock. lie was a rich farmer, and, though a gentleman in 
appearance, like his brother, he was a most violent and un- 
compromising secessionist. " Joe," an intelligent contraband, 
who had " served massa dese forty long years," used to bring 
vegetables and provisions to Fredericksburg for sale. Like all 
his race, he was loyal to " Massa Lincum's guv'ment," and the 
intelligence was conveyed by him to the officers of the Seven- 
ty-sixth, that " Massa Wallace got heaps o' perwisions to his 
house ; heaps ob sheep, and mules, and cattle." 

A foraging party, headed by Lieutenant Goddard, and com- 
posed of his company (G), accompanied by Lieutenant, 
(afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel) Watkins, the Quartermaster 
of the Seventy-sixth, and his Quartermaster-Sergeant, (after- 
wards Captain Jarvis), proceeded to make a visit to " Massa 
Wallace." Accompanied by the means of transportation, the 
party presented themselves to Mr. Wallace, and requested a 
donation, or at least a sale on credit. He demurred ; declared 
he was the poorest man in the county. His slaves had all run 
away, and left him without help ; the Confederate army had 
encamped upon his lands, and a general blight had scarcely 
left him enough to carry his little family through the next 
winter. His story was well told, and emphasis duly given by 
a meek countenance and honest tone ; but Lieutenant God- 
dard had traveled, and knew that honeyed words and long 
faces are not infallible indices of truth. The Lieutenant pre- 
ferred to believe loyal "Joe," who had no interest in 
equivocating, to " Massa," who, besides being a rebel, had a 
little interest, which might obscure his vision, or blunt his 
judgment. 

A squad was, therefore, sent out to reconnoiter, and take an 
inventory. The result was the return of the party to camp 
with one pony, eight mules, six fat cattle, several good sheep, 
a large wagon-load of potatoes, and as many cabbages, turnips, 



The -Slow Note." 85 

and other varieties of garden vegetables, as the Regiment 
could consume before they would spoil ; and left Mr. Wallace 
more personal property than he professed to own when they 
visited him. These articles were paid for in what one of the 
brigade staff-officers called a " slow note," which read in these 
words, varied to suit the facts : — 

" The undersigned freely acknowledges to have received, on this first day 

of July, 18G2, from Wallace, of King George county, Va., for the use 

and service of the United States of America, one pony, eight mules, six fat 
cattle, ten good sheep, one wagon-load of potatoes, one wagon-load of veg- 
etables, which I have valued at one thousand dollars. This voucher will 
be payable at the conclusion of the war, upon sufficient testimony being 
presented that said Wallace has been a loyal citizen of the United States 
trom the date hereof. By order of 

BRIG.-GEN. AbNER DOTJBLEDAY." 

" Charles A. Watkins, A. Q. M. U. S. A." 

If the truth ever appears before the tribunal that passes 
upon this claim, and the tribunal possesses the semblance of 
integrity, this document will never prove very valuable to Mr. 
Wallace ; for dark days to the Union cause soon succeeded, 
when every rebel sympathizer became emboldened, and made 
no concealment of his sympathies for the rebel cause. If, how- 
ever, we take the trials in the court of claims, in Washington, 
as a test, we can readily believe that when fully " reconstructed" 
according to " My Policy," Mr. Wallace will find ample proof 
to show that he was never out of the Union ; and could never, 
by any sort of inducement, be seduced from his allegiance to 
the United States. And the thousand dollar certificate of the 
Quartermaster will be shown to cover at least five thousand 
dollars worth of property, and Wallace will forget to prove 
that Colonel Wainwright sent back the Shetland pony to its 
master, because it could be of no use to the service. 

Those who have lived on hard tack and salt junk, will 
readily appreciate the fresh beef, mutton and vegetables which 



86 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

this excursion gave to the Seventy-sixth. The mules " re- 
lieved " those which had been worn out in the regimental 
teams, and all ranks of officers and soldiers inwardly thanked 
General Pope for his foraging order. 

I am informed by a gentleman who was engaged as a clerk 
in the office of the Quartermaster-General, in "Washington, at 
the close of the war, that large numbers of these "slow notes" 
and similar " promises to pay " were presented to that depart- 
ment for settlement, One illiterate old rebel from Dinwiddie 
county, Virginia, came all the way to Washington, in June, 
1865, to present his claim for adjustment ; and the laugh that 
greeted him was a hearty one, when the chief clerk of the 
division of "Quartermasters' Stores" read the document upon 
which the old fellow based his claim, and which was noth- 
ing more than an order on the Quartermaster for pay for a 
bushel of oats ! signed by a sergeant of a Wisconsin regiment. 
The old man insisted that the Yankees had devoured and 
destroyed all he had, and that the " officer " who gave him the 
order told him that the paper would secure him full pay for 
all that had been taken. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Colonel Wainwright Assumes Command op the Seventy-sixth— Drill— Sunday 
Services— Celebration of the Fourth of July in Virginia— Truth Si*oken in 
a New Locality — Battle Impending — Organization and Movements of the Army 
—March from Fredericksburg to Culpepper— Eagerness of the Men— Death 
from Exhaustion— In Search of the Enemy— Fording the Rapidan— A Night 
March— The Army of Virginia Concentrated at Culpepper. 

On the second of July, Colonel William P. Wainwright hav- 
ing been assigned to the Seventy-sixth, assumed command. 
From this time until the Regiment went into battle, all the 
time that could possibly be devoted to drill was thus improved. 
The Regiment had been employed in building bridges, and 
doing guard duty, greatly to the neglect of that drill which 
alone can make a regiment effective in battle. It was a favor- 
ite theory with the Colonel, that to secure any certainty of 
success, the men must become acquainted with all the move- 
ments required of them, until every one was as familiar as 
household words. 

Less than two months elapsed after Colonel Wainwright 
assumed command, before the Seventy-sixth was engaged in 
battle — one of the severest of the war — and we shall have 
ample occasion to record the benefits that resulted from that 
two months' drill. 

The first day that Colonel Wainwright commanded the Reg- 
iment, a careful personal inspection was had, and the defective 
guns condemned and replaced by perfect ones ; old clothes 



88 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

were relieved by new ones, and soon the Seventy-sixth pre- 
sented itself in a new dress. To those who have been in the 
army, the weariness of squad, company, battalion and 
skirmish drill day after day, will be readily appreciated ; and 
if the boys did not consider their new Colonel an arbitrary and 
cruel officer, it might be set down as a new wonder. But 
those same men, in many a subsequent battle, as they have 
seen the lines of other and poorer drilled regiments waver and 
finally break, while the Seventy-sixth remained firm, have 
inwardly, and many of them openly, thanked the officer who 
forced them to a drill thus beneficial. 

The first Sabbath that Colonel "Wainwright was in the Reg- 
iment, he requested one of the Captains, whose avocation in 
civil life was ministerial, to conduct religious services, the 
Chaplain being absent. This the Captain declined. The 
Colonel, ready for any emergency, gave notice that at a cer- 
tain hour religious services would be held under a specified 
tree. At the appointed time, when the men and officers had 
seated themselves upon the grass, the Colonel stepped forward 
and read a prayer. He then read a hymn, which was sung 
by the Regiment, when he proceeded to read a sermon. Un- 
like many as high in command, the influence of Colonel 
"Wainwright upon the men was most excellent. 

July Fourth was celebrated at Brigade headquarters, at the 
Phillips house, in true Northern style. Captain Noyes, of 
General Doubleday's staff, delivered an eloquent and patriotic 
address. It was one which would hardly have been listened 
to by the degenerate sons of the " Old Dominion," but was, 
nevertheless, one well adapted to the locality and the times. 
Such truths were not usually spoken in any part of the country 
covered by the dark pall of slavery. Could the ashes of the 
mother of Washington, then sleeping across the river in view 
of the speaker, and almost within the sound of his voice, have 



PrEPAKATIONS FOR BATTLE. 89 

revived at that moment, she would alone, of all the white 
Virginians in that vicinity, have shouted amen to these patriotic 
utterances. The soldiers who volunteered to put down this 
rebellion, heartily responded to the sentiments, and consecrated 
themselves anew to their holy mission. 

While General Pope was concentrating his forces, the series 
of battles commenced, which preceded and attended the 
retreat of McClellan from the Chickahominy towards Harri- 
son's Landing. 

It was the policy of the Government and General Pope, in 
case of the defeat of the army under General McClellan, and 
in case the rebels made an attempt upon Washington, or in 
that direction, to throw such obstacles in their way as was in 
the power of the Army of Virginia, and thus hold the enemy 
in check until the arrival at A quia Creek, or Alexandria, of 
the Army of the Potomac. To accomplish this the more 
effectually, General Pope ordered General King at Fredericks- 
burg, to send forward detachments of his cavalry to operate 
upon the line of the Virginia Central Railroad, and as far as 
possible to embarrass and destroy communication between 
Richmond and the Valley of the Shenandoah. General King 
accordingly dispatched several cavalry expeditions for that 
purpose, which were completely successful and succeeded on 
different occasions in breaking up the railroad at several 
points. General Pope at the same time ordered General 
Banks to send forward an infantry brigade, with all his cav- 
alry, to march rapidly upon Culpepper Court House, and after 
taking possession of that place, to push cavalry forward 
towards the Rapidan, in the direction of Gordons ville. 

On the fourteenth of July, after this movement was success- 
fully accomplished, General Pope directed General Banks to 
move forward during the night of that day the whole of his 
cavalry force, under General Hatch, and take possession of 



90 Tile Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Gordonsville, and destroy the railroad for ten or fifteen miles 
east of that place, with a portion of his forces, while all re- 
maining hastened on in the direction of Charlottesville, 
destroying the railroad bridges, and interrupting that line of 
communication as far as practicable. At that time there was 
no force of the enemy at Gordonsville. Before General 
Hatch reached Gordonsville, the advance of Jackson's forces 
under Ewell had reached that place, and the proposed move- 
ments, as ordered, became impracticable. 

General Banks was ordered by General Pope to pro- 
ceed on the seventh of August, and take post at the point 
where the turnpike from Sperry ville to Culpepper crosses Hazel 
river. General McDowell was also ordered to move forward 
with Rickett's Division, from Waterloo Bridge to Culpepper 
Court House ; so that on the seventh day of August, all the 
infantry and artillery forces of the Army of Virginia were 
assembled along the turnpike from Sperryville to Culpepper, 
and numbered about twenty-eight thousand five hundred men. 
This did not include King's Division at Fredericksburg, and 
which was not available for active operations in the direction 
of Gordonsville. 

On the fourth of August, General Burnside arrived with his 
army from North Carolina. He was to hold Fredericksburg. 
This indicated that King's Division was to make its long con- 
templated forward movement. 

That the reader may more clearly understand the part which 
the Seventy-sixth took in the battle to be hereafter described, 
it may be well here to state the different organizations com- 
posing King's Division, as it is often necessary to speak of 
brigades and divisions instead tff regiments. A regiment in 
civil life is considered an important and imposing organization ; 
but it is quite likely to be lost sight of in the reports of battles 
in which from fifty thousand to one hundred thousand men are 
engaged. 



Organization of King's Division. 91 

At the time of which we are speaking, Major-General 
Rufus King commanded the First Division of the First Army 
Corps. Four or Jive regiments, as the army was organized, 
constituted a brigade ; three or four brigades a division ; and 
three or four divisions an army corps. The First Brigade of 
King's Division was under command of General Hatch, and 
consisted of the Second Regiment of United States Sharp- 
shooters, and four regiments of New York troops. The 
Second Brigade was under General Doubleday, and composed 
of the Seventy-sixth and Ninety-fifth New York Regiments, 
and the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, to which was afterwards 
added the Seventh Indiana. The Third Brigade was under 
General Patrick, and composed of four New York regiments. 
The Fourth Brigade was under General Gibbon, and com- 
posed of one Indiana and three Wisconsin regiments. 

On the seventh of August, General Pope inspected the 
troops under General Siegel, at Sperryville, and, while there, 
learned that the enemy was crossing the Rapidan at several 
points between the railroad crossing of that river, and Liberty 
Mills. lie proceeded to Culpepper Court House, which he 
reached the next morning. This place had been occupied 
several days by Crawford's brigade, of Banks's corps, and on 
the day before, Rickett's division of McDowell's corps had 
also arrived. On the eighth reports continued to come in 
from General Bayard, who was slowly falling back in the di- 
rection of Culpepper Court House, the enemy advancing ; 
and from General Buford, who also reported the enemy ad- 
vancing in heavy force upon Madison Court House. General 
Pope was in doubt from the reports whether the enemy's 
movement was in the direction of Madison Court House, or 
of Culpepper. His instructions, however, requiring him to 
keep his communications good with Fredericksburg, and by 
no means to permit the enemy to get between him and that 



S 



92 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

place, he deemed it advisable to concentrate Ins whole force in 
the direction of Culpepper, so as to keep his whole force be- 
tween the enemy and the lower fords of the Rappahannock. 
Early in the day General Crawford's Brigade was pushed for- 
ward in the direction of Cedar or Slaughter Mountain, to 
support General Bayard, who was falling back in that direc- 
tion, and to assist him in determining the movements and 
forces of the enemy. General Banks w T as also ordered to move 
rapidly from Hazel river to Culpepper Court House, and Gen- 
eral Siegel was ordered to march at once to the same place 
from Sperryville. Siegel did not arrive as early as was 
expected, which rendered it impracticable for that Corps to be 
pushed forward to that point on the afternoon of the next day, 
as General Pope had intended. 

Early on the morning of the ninth of August, General Pope 
directed General Banks to move forward towards Cedar 
Mountain, with his whole Corps, and to join General Crawford 
who had been sent there the day previous. 

Thus much has been stated of the forces, that the reader 
may have some idea of the condition of affairs two or three 
days afterward, when the Seventy-sixth arrived at Culpepper. 
On the ninth of August, orders were received for King's 
Division to leave Fredericksburg and join the First Corps at 
Culpepper. At four P. M., all was ready. The men were 
heavily laden with knapsacks, extra ammunition, and three 
days' marching rations in their haversacks. As the Regiments 
wheeled into line, the band struck up a spirited air, and the 
Brigade was soon crossing the pontoons into Fredericksburg. 

The bridge which the Seventy-sixth had built, had been 
carried away by a recent freshet. 

After the troops came the long train of brigade and regiment- 
al wagons, carrying officers' baggage, camp kettles and other 
cooking utensils, followed by the supply train laden with 



Leaving Fredericksburg. 93 

forage and subsistence, and the whole followed by the rear 
guard. 

Never were men more anxious for a march than were those 
stationed around Fredericksburg. The summer months had 
dragged their slow length along, and it was with difficulty 
that the sick and convalescent troops were kept from following 
their regiment. 

I have before me now the diary of a Sergeant of Company 
D, who was prevented from marching with his company, and 
the " burden of his song " each day, is a hope that the next 
day lie will be able to join the Eegiment. As it was, he went 
as far as Chancellorsville, but was obliged to return to Frede- 
ricksburg, greatly to his disappointment. 

The day was very hot, and as an illustration of the eager- 
ness with which the troops pressed forward, it is proper to 
state that one man, at least, whose anxiety to get along was 
greater than his physical strength, actually fell down exhausted, 
and expired on the sidewalk, before his regiment had left the 
city. 

It was a beautiful evening. The polished barrels glistened 
in the moonbeams, as onward the column rushed, till, finally, 
as the first excitement wore off, and the troops began to weary, 
they calmed down to a sober walk, and at about midnight 
came to a halt for the remainder of the night, nine miles from 
Fredericksburg. 

When we consider that these troops were unaccustomed to 
marching, and that the common load for a soldier, fully 
equipped, is about eighty pounds, we are enabled to under- 
stand that they marched a good distance, and made good 
time this first day. 

The troops were bivouacked in the fields on either side of 
the road, and there, wrapped in their blankets upon the ground, 
with the broad canopy of stars above them, they slept the re- 
mainder of their first night in search of the enemy. 



94 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

At sunrise the next day, they were up and cooking their 
coffee, cracking their jokes, and questioning each other as to 
the probability of being blessed with a sight of game, in the 
persons of " Johnnies " in grey. 

There is no class of persons who bear privations with a bet- 
ter grace than the soldier. After he has been out six months, 
with a few hard biscuits, a cup of coffee, and sticks enough to 
make a fire, he will make a satisfactory meal ; and while he 
blows the smoke from his face with one hand, and holds the 
cup of coffee over the fire with the other, he will sing and joke 
with a better relish than when eating a well cooked dinner in 
his quiet home. 

In the course of an hour after daybreak the troops were 
again on their way in search of the enemy. 

The roads were good, but the day was extremely hot, and it 
was necessary to make frequent halts to prevent the men falling 
out from sheer exhaustion. The men were permitted to carry 
their arms as was most convenient, and were marched at the 
" rout step," the only requirement being that they should keep 
in line with their companies. There was no martial music ; 
nothing but the steady tramp, tramp, from morn till night. 

The Regiment arrived at Chancellorsville about ten A. M. 
At this point stood one of General Doubleday's staff officers, 
who informed Adjutant Robinson that the object of the march 
was to reinforce General Banks, who was even then hotly en- 
gaged with Stonewall Jackson some distance beyond the 
Rapidan. The General's instructions were to hurry up the 
troops as fast as the great heat of the day would admit, but 
not to let the men know that fighting was going on, lest they 
should exert themselves too much. The Adjutant, in speak- 
ing of this, says : — 

" Murder will out, though, and the men seemed to have an 
intuitive perception, from the appearance of things, that gun- 



On the March to Culpepper. 95 

powder was being burned not a great way oft"; for I very soon 
observed many knowing winks, a sort of stiffening of the 

back, a throwing back of the head and elevation of the nose, 
together with an evident desire to rid themselves of some of 
their extra traps, which convinced me they understood matters 
as well as though the same had been explained to them in 
' special orders.' " 

By noon large numbers had fallen out from exhaustion ; 
some because they preferred resting to marching. These 
latter were brought up by the rear guard, and the former were 
helped into ambulances and brought on. Many, however, 
evaded the guard ; some to return to their regiments after 
they had halted for the night, and many have never been 
heard from since. 

At six o'clock P. M., the Division reached Ely's Ford. Here 
it was necessary to cross the Rapid an, at this point about two 
hundred feet' in width. A recent heavy shower had raised the 
stream to the waist, and yet it must be forded before camping 
for the night. In rushed the men, nothing daunted, even at 
the idea of a severe drenching. 

The Brigade was halted for the night in the Held ; arms 
stacked ; boughs obtained for beds ; the camp-fires lit ; the 
evening meals soon in course of preparation, and again the 
jokes and the stories were passing around, and, though wet to 
the skin, our boys were again happy. 

Orders were given by the Commanding General, that the 
troops should retire immediately after their evening meal ; 
that the camp remain absolutely quiet, so that the faintest 
sound of a distant engagement, or the slightest movement of 
an approaching enemy, might be heard. The only persons, 
except the guard, allowed to be up, were the company cooks, 
who were ordered to have cooked rations prepared for their 
respective companies, for the ensuing day's march. The bugle 



96 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

call to fall in would be sounded at headquarters at precisely 
one o'clock in the morning, and at the second call the Seventy- 
sixth was to immediately file into the road and take position 
at the head of the column. 

One by one our brave boys stretched themselves upon the 
" heather " and slept as well as their aching limbs would 
permit. To-morrow was to bring them face to face with the 
enemy, they supposed, and the near approach of the event 
robbed it of many of its charms. It is all pleasant in war 
meetings, a thousand miles from danger, to talk of the glory 
of dying for one's country ; we can almost envy Leonidas and 
his brave three hundred, as we read of their deeds in rhyme 
and prose ; but arrived almost face to face with the enemy, 
we think of friends at home, and the air castles we have built 
for the future, and which one stray bullet may cause to topple 
and fall, the poetry of fighting loses much of its bewitching 
sweetness ; and a man is a little other than natural if he does 
not wish that the difficulty might be settled without the effu- 
sion of blood. Strange misgivings — not of cowardice, but a 
sort of repugnance of nature to the idea of having ourselves 
set up as a mark to be shot at, found entertainment in many 
of those patriotic bosoms that night ; but sleep came at last, 
and transported them from the impending crisis of the mor- 
row, to friends, and social gatherings, and heart-communings 
with those they loved in their Northern homes. 

One o'clock soon arrived, however, and all was activity 
again. The coffee was hastily swallowed, and on went the 
Division towards Culpepper. 

The advance guard was under the command of Captain 
Grover of Company A, of the Seventy-sixth, who, three weeks 
later, at Gainesville, fell pierced by five bullets, and lay for 
weeks upon his weary bed, to be at length, on recovering, pro- 
moted to the position of Major, and then offer up his life at 



Fkedeeicksbueg to Culpepper. 97 

the bloody field of Gettysburg. At three o'clock, all things 
being ready, the column moved, and in the strictest silence, 
marched until daylight. No one who participated in that 
night march will soon forget it. It was a lovely night — 
neither so light nor yet so dark but that the waving branches 
cast their tremulous shadows over the roadway, now and then 
of a figure resembling an imaginary concealed enemy in the act 
of springing from his ambush — for which this timber land 
afforded many fine locations — no sound heard but the steady 
tramp, tramp, tramp, the smothered word of command, as it 
was passed from the front down the left of platoons, to the 
extreme rear, the rumbling of carefully-driven ambulances, 
the situation, the time, the accompaniments, and above all, 
the cause, taken together, were enough to photograph a never- 
fading impression on the mind of any ordinary subject. 

About daybreak Richard's Cross Roads was reached. Here 
the Brigade came to a halt, and remained for three hours, 
while crowding the roads with cavalry, artillery and infantry, 
the other three Brigades of the Division passed. They had 
come by another road, which, at this point, joined the road 
over which our Brigade had marched. 

Towards night, orders came for a forced march, as General 
Pope intended to attack the enemy the next day. The men, 
therefore, unslung their knapsacks, and, leaving them in care 
of a guard, rushed forward without them. 

At night the men rolled themselves in their blankets, and 
the teams and rations being several miles behind, they went 
supperless to bed on the ground. 

The morrow was sure to bring a bloody battle, and with 
nothing but this contemplation to disturb their slumbers, they 
slept. 

Morning at last came, and found the men refreshed. Or- 
ders for the fight . were expected, but instead came the 
o 



98 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

intelligence that a bloody battle had been fought at Cedar 
Mountain on Saturday, and Jackson had withdrawn his army 
and was marching towards Gordonsville. 

The Brigade of General Doubleday was now bivouacked in 
an open field near the highway, and about half way between 
Culpepper Court House and Cedar Mountain. 

The entire Army of Virginia under General Pope, before 
scattered over Northern Virginia from the Shenandoah to 
Fredericksburg, was now concentrated in and about Culpep- 
per. On every hand all was life and activity. The fields 
were filled with artillery, cavalry and infantry — not encamped 
as when about Washington ; but in a state of unrest. The 
roads were crowded with army wagons, going to and from the 
station at Culpepper ; nor were the ambulances idle. A 
severe battle had been fought by General Banks, at Cedar 
Mountain, and large numbers of the wounded were being con- 
veyed from the field. The weather was extremely hot, and 
many of our men had fallen, and several died from sun-stroke. 

The men had brought their shelter tents, and now that 
marching was ended, and fighting for the time suspended, 
these little tents were soon erected, and thus furnished a par- 
tial defense to the scorching rays of the sun. 



CHAPTER IX. 

A Fight Imminent— Cartridges Distributed— No Enemy Appears— Foraging— Bat- 
tle-Field op Cedar Mountain— " Fall In"— Eetreat op General Pope Com- 
menced—The Seventy-sixth under Fire por the First Time— Battle op 
Rappahannock Station— Improper Liberties with a Rail Pillow— Arrival at 
Warrenton— Bold Instance of Foraging. 

August 12th. — Considerable excitement prevailed at Brigade 
headquarters this morning. Colonel Wainwright called our 
officers together, and informed them that the enemy was near 
and liable to attack in force at any moment, and that he 
trusted every man would do his whole duty, placing his reli- 
ance upon the God of battles. 

Every man was at once supplied with his full number of 
rounds of ammunition. This done, events were quietly, 
though somewhat nervously, awaited. The enemy, however, 
did not attack, and the Regiment remained in camp until the 
fifteenth. 

After resting the twelfth, the boys began to feel the need of 
fresh meat, vegetables, and such things as give relish to hard 
tack, and nothing could have been deemed more apropos than 
General Pope's foraging and subsistence order. 

This part of the State was well supplied with corn, pigs, 
sheep and cattle, and the men made hunting a profitable as 
well as pleasant recreation. 



/i q a n n *7 A 



100 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

" Halt ! Where did you get that fowl, sir ?" shouted the 
guard, as a private tugged along the game cock of a neighbor- 
ing rebel. 

" Down yonder at that plantation." 

" But, don't you know it is against orders to interfere with 
private property ?" 

" I know it was, once ; but, you know, General Pope says 
that it is always proper to forage upon the enemy, and thus 
weaken him. We train under a different General now, and 
old rules don't apply." 

" But," replied the guard, "to make foraging legal it must 
be sanctioned by the order of a commanding officer. Where 
is your foraging order ?" 

" Oh, but I put the little matter on a different footing from 
ordinary foraging. I'll tell you how it was. You see, I went 
down to learn if there was anything on which to base a for- 
aging order. An order, you know, don't amount to anything 
unless there is something to enforce it upon. Well, as I was 
looking about a tree, I heard a shout for Jeff. Davis. In my 
loyal wrath I threw a stone into the tree and down came this 
cock. Anybody wasting good rations is liable to court mar- 
tial, and so I concluded to preserve him." 

" The argument is unanswerable, pass on," said the guard, 
expecting the favor would be reciprocated on the morrow, 
when the parties to the colloquy were transposed. 

Every day squads of foragers would go to the neighboring 
plantations and return with a fat pig, sheep, or beef, while 
green corn and apples, just at this time in their glory, added 
their share to the temptations of army life in Virginia. 
Whether General Pope's order improved the sanitary condi- 
tion of his army is not so clear ; but that it materially aided 
in making camp life seem homelike, can be proven by all the 
survivors of the succeeding campaigns. 



Battle-Field of Cedar Mountain. 101 

Just enough of the orders to be in readiness to march at an 
hour's notice were indulged in by the commanding officers to 
give zest to the brief stay at Culpepper. 

August lGth. — Orders were received to march, tents were 
struck, and the Regiment in line at eight o'clock ; but owing to 
one of those inevitable delays usually witnessed in the army, 
the Regiment did not move until eleven. 

This inarch was over the battle-field of the previous Satur- 
day. The field was about three miles in extent, and every 
where the sickening evidences of the late battle presented 
themselves. The horses and mules killed in the battle were 
yet unturned, and though an effort had been made to bury the 
soldiers who had fallen in that terrible struggle, it had been so 
hastily and imperfectly done that now and then a body was 
found lying upon the field. The stench was almost suffocating, 
and the buzzards swarming in the air plainly told of the aw- 
ful carnage which war had made within one short week. 

Here was the introductory lesson. Jackson had presented 
his problem ; Banks had solved it, and all around lay the an- 
swer for us to contemplate. It would be folly to expect any 
man possessing sensibilities keener than those of a brute, to 
look such a scene squarely in the face, and say he did not 
dread such a conflict. The more honor to our noble farmer 
boys who were sustained on such terrible occasions by a holy 
love of country — a due appreciation of the great principle for 
which they were fighting, and for which their fathers fought 
before them. 

At one o'clock the Regiment halted and went into camp at 
the foot of Cedar Mountain. On Monday, the eighteenth, the 
mail was received — the first since the Regiment left Frede- 
ricksburg. None but those who have been in the army can 
duly appreciate our postal facilities, as, after being cut off from 
the loyal world, it brings words of cheer from the loved ones 
at home. 



102 The Seventy-sixth Regiment ~N. Y. V. 

The letters had hardly been distributed, when the order to 
" fall in " rang out through the camp. No one knew the ob- 
ject or destination. Tents were struck, and at five P. M. the 
Regiment was in marching order. Then came the order to 
break ranks, and soon the boys were encamped for the night. 

In the face of the enemy, in sight of the battle-field of a 
week before, these orders to march will be readily understood 
to have been very exciting, summoning all the courage which 
an enlightened patriotism could inspire. 

At eleven o'clock the orders came again to fall in, this time 
awakening the men from a sound slumber. All along the 
line, at each tent, the sergeant or corporal shouted " fall in !" 
"fall in !" The men, half aroused, rushed out, and, stumbling 
along through the darkness, were soon formed in line in a 
little hollow back of the camp. 

As they became more awakened, the anxious inquiry was 
made, " Where now ?" but no one could answer. They only 
knew that marching orders were received and whether they 
should march, or again break ranks was all unknown. 

The wagons in the advance had been moving to the rear all 
the evening. 

The Regiment was finally, after some delay, marched about 
twenty rods, and halted an hour ; then a little further and 
halted again. At last, at three o'clock, the order was given 
to break ranks. The night was very cold ; at least, the con- 
trast between the night air and the excessively warm days was 
severely felt. Many of the men had thrown away their, 
clothing to lighten their loads, on the march, and now suffered 
from the loss. 

A large pile of rails and wood was collected and a fire 
built, around which, upon the ground, the men slept the re- 
mainder of the night. 

At sunrise they were awakened with the orders to get 



Pope's Retkeat Commenced. 103 

breakfast and prepare for a march, and at nine o'clock they 
were recrossing the battle-field in the direction of Culpepper. 
The day was intensely hot, and the march was continued 
until about eleven that night, when the Regiment encamped 
in a piece of " scrub-oak " woods. 

At day-break the next morning, the men were ordered to 
get ready to march. A hasty cup of coffee and a few hard 
tack constituted the breakfast, which was barely disposed of, 
when the Regiment was again in motion. 

This was the turning-point in the forward movement of 
General Pope upon Richmond. 

The battle of Cedar Mountain was fought on Saturday, 
August ninth. The next day was too hot, and the men too 
much exhausted on both sides, to renew the fight. In conse- 
quence of the vigorous resistance of the night previous, and 
the severe loss of the enemy in attempting to advance, before 
daylight of the tenth, Jackson drew back his forces towards 
Cedar Mountain, about two miles from the front of our army. 
Our pickets were immediately moved forward, supported by 
Milroy's Brigade, and occupied the ground. 

General Pope's whole army, exclusive of General .Banks's 
Corps, which was in no condition for service, numbered about 
twenty thousand, artillery and infantry, and about two thou- 
sand cavalry. General King, as we have seen, had been 
ordered forward, and after a prompt and very fatiguing march, 
arrived on the ground late in the evening of the eleventh. 
The day was occupied by both armies in burying the dead and 
bringing off the wounded. 

Although after General King joined the main force, Gene- 
ral Pope's army only about equaled that of Jackson, he 
determined, after giving King's Division one night's rest, to 
fall upon the enemy at daylight of the twelfth, on his line of 
communication, and compel him to fight a battle which must 



104 The Seventy-sixth Eegeviext X. Y. V. 

have been decisive for one army or the other. But during the 
night of the eleventh, the enemy evacuated his position in 
front, and retreated rapidly across the Rapidan in the direc- 
tion of Gordonsville, leaving many of his dead and wounded 
on the field and along the road from Cedar Mountain to 
Orange Court House. The losses on each side -were severe ; 
but no baggage trains or material of war were sacrificed by 
either army. 

A strong cavalry force, under Generals Buford and Bayard, 
pursued the enemy to the Rapidan, and captured many strag- 
glers. 

This was the condition of things at the time mentioned 
above, when the Seventy-sixth was disappointed on the morn- 
ing of the twelfth, on finding they were not to go into battle. 

On the 14th of August, General Eeno, with eight thousand 
men, of the forces which had arrived at Falmouth with Gene- 
ral Burnside. joined General Pope. 

From the twelfth to the eighteenth of August, reports con- 
stantly reached General Pope of large forces of the enemy 
reinforcing Jackson from the direction of Richmond, and by 
the morning of the eighteenth he became satisfied that nearly 
the whole force of the enemy from Richmond was assembling 
in his front along the Rapidan. 

From the capture of General Stuart's Adjutant-General, 
made by our cavalry in the direction of Louisa Court House, 
and from papers found with him, including a letter from Gen- 
eral Robert E. Lee to General Stuart, dated at Gordonsville, 
August fifteenth, General Pope became satisfied as to the 
position and force of the enemy, and their determination to 
overwhelm the army under his command before it could be 
reinforced by the Army of the Potomac. He saw that it 
would be presumptuous for him to attempt a battle with his 



At Rappahannock. 105 

small force against such overwhelming numbers, and decided 
to withdraw as rapidly as possible behind the Rappahannock. 

The trains of the different Corps were ordered across that 
stream at different fords, to be followed by the respective 
corps. During the day and night of the eighteenth, and day 
of the nineteenth, this was accomplished, so that on the night 
of the nineteenth the whole army, with its trains, was posted 
behind that stream upon the north bank. 

On the morning of the twentieth our pickets were driven in 
at Kelly's Ford and Rappahannock Station, but finding those 
fords covered by our troops, and that it would be impractica- 
ble to force a passage of the river without great loss, the 
advance of the enemy halted, and the main body of his army 
was brought forward from the Rapidan. 

At this time, (August twentieth), the Seventy-sixth was 
encamped about half a mile from the river, upon a knoll, from 
which was plainly visible the whole of General Banks's Corps. 
Batteries were planted all along the river ; the infantry was 
forming in line of battle ; the rebels' advance was in sight on 
the other side of the river ; our rear guard of cavalry were 
crossing the river northward, many of them wounded during 
their late skirmishes, and altogether the appearances indicated 
pretty strongly that a battle was imminent. 

On the twenty-first, General Pope was assured that if he 
would hold his position for two days, he would be so strongly 
reinforced as not only to be secure in his position, but would 
be able to resume operations ; but after having held his posi- 
tion until the twenty-fifth, no forces reached him, except 
twenty-five hundred of the Pennsylvania Reserves, under 
General Reynolds, which had arrived at Kelly's Ford, and the 
Division of General Kearney, consisting of four thousand five 
hundred men, which had reached "Warrenton Junction. 

August %lst. — This morning the cannonading commenced, 



106 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

and an artillery duel was kept up most of the day. To-day 
the Seventy-sixth marched about a mile, and took position 
about fifty rods in rear of a battery. In doing so it passed in 
plain sight of a rebel battery, by which it was shelled. Ex- 
cept killing a mule, no damage was done. This was the first 
fire under which the Seventy-sixth was placed. 

The next morning, the rebels having learned our positions 
during the night, from our camp fires, commenced a vigorous 
shelling as soon as it was daylight. The position being 
exposed, the Seventy-sixth was moved towards the battery, and 
lay down behind the ridge on which the guns were planted. 

Immediately in front of the Seventy-sixth, not forty rods 
distant, lay the remains of two of our sharpshooters, who had 
that morning given up their loyal lives in defense of country. 
Their bodies were horribly mangled, and the fact being known 
that the rebels had obtained a perfect range of the position, 
driving off one battery, and killing the men and horses indis- 
criminately, the introduction was anything but pleasant. 

Here sixty additional rounds of ammunition were distrib- 
uted, making in all one hundred rounds. 

The infantry took no active part in the fight, except to sup- 
port the batteries, and be ready at any moment to arise and 
meet the enemy, in case they should silence the battery, and 
attempt to effect a crossing ; yet it was not a little exciting to 
listen all day to the whizzing of the balls and the screaming 
of the shells overhead, while ever and anon one of the latter 
would burst in mid air, scattering its fragments all too care- 
lessly among the men. Most of the shot and shell, however, 
passed over the infantry supports, and plowed the " sacred soil " 
of the Old Dominion far to the rear. 

Nobody getting hurt, and a sense of security gradually 
gaining upon the men, this listening to the " music in the air " 



The Seventy-sixth First Under Fire. 107 

at length became dull and uninteresting, and the troops thought 
more of the stories they were telling, and the cards they were 
playing, than of the missiles of death upon the effects of 
which their enemy was reckoning. 

As we were the assaulted, and not the assaulting party, the 
fact that nothing had been accomplished, but everything re- 
mained very much at night as it was in the morning, in no 
way very seriously disturbed the equanimity of the Union 
army. 

General McDowell made his appearance about nine A. M., 
and ordered up fresh batteries, which being posted, General 
Doubleday, assisted by his gallant brother, Major Doubleday, 
took charge of two pieces, and did much damage to the ene- 
my's batteries on the opposite side of the river. 

" There are a couple of pieces doing splendid execution," said 
a staff officer riding hastily up from the river. " "What batte- 
ry is it that possesses such superior gunners ?" 

" General Abner Doubleday sighted those guns," replied an 
officer. 

" Oho ! that accounts for the close shooting. Why, he 
made one rebel battery shift position three times, and finally 
draw off entirely !" 

This, spoken in presence of the men, could not fail to fill 
them with admiration for their General, — a feeling to this day 
indulged by every remaining member Of the Seventy-sixth. 

As a general rule, the higher in rank the officer, the less ex- 
posed to danger. If the movement be an advance, the colonel 
goes behind his regiment, the brigadier-general behind his 
brigade, and the major-general behind his division or corps. 
This is also the case in battle. But on this occasion, when the 
artillery and sharpshooters were the only men exposed, the in- 
fantry being shielded by the ridge, the hero of Fort Sumter, 



108 The Seventy-sixth Regiment ~N. Y. V. 

who fired the first gun against the rebels in this war, actually 
went upon the ridge and sighted the guns of the battery under 
his command. It is no wonder that the man who could thus 
override custom to imperil his life for the cause he was serving, 
was willing to blow up Fort Sumter, without regard to per- 
sonal safety, rather than disgrace his country by its surrender. 

This artillery duel was kept up for three days, the Seventy- 
sixth occupying nearly the same position behind the ridge. No 
men were killed in the Regiment, though several were more 
or less severely wounded. 

The first night after crossing the river, a heavy shower had 
rendered the ground wet and muddy. Several of the men had 
placed a rail upon the ground, with a view of using it as a 
pillow to keep them out of the mud. It had, however, 
scarcely been dedicated to its intended use, when a shot from 
the enemy's battery sent it whirling through the air, wounding 
several of the men, some severely. As may well be imagined, 
rails for pillows were soon dispensed with in that Regiment. 

Here was displayed the good effect of that drill which Col- 
onel Wainwright had so strenuously insisted upon, and which 
in the after history of our Regiment, gave it such an enviable 
notoriety. 

Orders were given to change the position of the Regiment 
for one farther up the river. In doing so it became necessary 
to pass over a plain, within sight and fair range of a rebel bat- 
tery, which fired a full broadside into the Regiment. The air 
was vocal with shrieking shells, and the ground was plowed in 
every direction by the solid shot which fell like rain, and 
yet, while other regiments broke in disorder, the Seventy-sixth 
kept in line, each officer and man keeping his place as on dress 
parade, following the example of cool indifference, (externally, 



Maecii to Warrenton. 109 

at least), displayed by their intrepid Colonel, who had been in 
battle before. 

The enemy had now commenced a flank movement in the 
direction of Sulphur Springs, farther up the Rappahannock. 
General Pope had three remedies in this dilemma. First — to 
abandon the line of the Rappahannock, and push forward to 
Warrenton, Second — to move towards the base at Fredericks- 
burg, thus leaving the approaches to Washington open to the 
enemy. Third — To recross the Rappahannock and fall upon 
the rear of the rebel army which was now on its way to Sul- 
phur Springs. 

It was finally decided to adopt the latter course, on the 
twenty-third. But during the night of the twenty-second, a 
heavy rain so raised the water in the river that the bridges 
were carried away, and the fords rendered impassable. Gene- 
ral Pope had learned from General Siegel, who commanded 
the right, that the enemy had crossed part of his forces at 
Sulphur Springs and Waterloo Bridge. 

On the morning of the twenty-third, General Pope massed 
his forces near Rappahannock Station, with the view of falling 
upon that portion of the rebel army which had crossed the 
river, and probably could not recross in consequence of the 
sudden rise of the stream. McDowell's Corps was directed to 
march directly upon Warrenton, while Siegel proceeded to 
Sulphur Springs. 

Early in the morning the men were quietly and quickly 
called up to repel an anticipated charge of the enemy, who 
were reported to have forced the passage of the river, and to 
be near at hand. This proved to be a false alarm, but the 
men were kept under arms until daylight. At nine A. M., 
the march was taken up for Warrenton. 

When late at night the Seventy-sixth arrived within a mile 



110 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

of that place, it was halted in the midst of a shower, approach- 
ing a deluge: Completely drenched, and almost exhausted 
with marching through Virginia mud, averaging nearly a foot 
in depth, the men sank down upon the wet ground, to pass the 
remainder of the night, but not to sleep. 

The next morning the Division resumed its march, passing 
through the main streets of Warrenton with banners unfurled, 
and bands discoursing loyal music, where the day before the 
rebels had taken a hasty leave. 

Passing about two miles beyond Warrenton, the Regiment 
was halted and went into camp. The rebels had effected a 
crossing at Warrenton (Sulphur) Springs, and the hotel regis- 
ters under date of the day before, exhibited the names of 
many officers of the rebel army. Their stay must have been 
so brief as scarcely to permit them to make a very extended 
acquaintance with their Warrenton friends ; for on the same 
register, immediately following these names, were certain 
other autographs to which were annexed the significant letters, 
"U. S. A.," plainly indicating the rapid exit of the one, about 
the time of the entrance of the other. 

A rest of one day and night was here given to the men, and 
after the excitements and marches of the last two weeks, this 
respite was warmly appreciated by both officers and men. The 
troops had been continuously marching and fighting night and 
day for two weeks, and when not fighting, they were in con- 
stant expectation of it. They had enjoyed very little sleep — 
one day marching through the scorchings of an August 
sun, and at night drenched with the severe storm, which com- 
pletely inundated the camp ; the next, marching through mud 
nearly to the knee, and when we add to all this the fact that 
the men had but little time to properly prepare what scant}' 
food came to them from the disorganized, retreating commis- 
sariat, we have rather a disheartening picture for the young 



FOK AGING. Ill 

soldier just from a summer residence in camp about Washing- 
ton and Fredericksburg. 

The poorer the commissariat, the more important the for- 
aging order of General Pope. The men had scarcely gone 
into camp, before foraging parties were again in full operation. 
Daniel Carr, A. F. Smith, B. F. Watrous, and Wm. J. Man- 
tanye, of Company D, concluded to try their hands. General 
McDowell never permitted his troops to draw rations, except 
according to regulations, and the country about Warrenton 
was full of poultry. Darkness had set in, and the four started 
on their expedition. It was intensely dark, but after wander- 
ing about for some time they came to a barn, and were not 
long in finding the hen-roost. Mantanye was to climb up and 
catch the fowls and hand them to Carr, while Watrous and 
Smith stood guard at the doors to notify of any approaches. 
Scarcely had Mantanye seized a hen, when his foot slipped and 
he fell upon a pile of loose boards, setting the poultry in a 
cackle, to which the watch-dog added a chorus. Smith soon 
notified the others of an approach, when, with one hen, they 
beat a hasty retreat. 

Not satisfied with the result, and seeing a light in the dis- 
tance, they traveled in that direction. On nearing the house 
they found the door and windows open, and the fowls in a tree 
about two rods from, and nearly in front of the door, and the 
family engaged in a chat with a neighbor. An empty stom- 
ach gives a person great courage. Seizing a pole, Carr struck 
a limb, and down fell two or three chickens, which fortunately 
failed to give an alarm. The house stood about two feet from 
the ground upon stone abutments. The chickens ran under 
the house. Now came the test of courage ; but Carr, resolved 
on succeding, crawled under the house and soon returned with 
two ducks. Looking into the door to assure themselves that 
their "secesh" donor was properly entertaining his neighbor, 



112 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

the boys returned to camp well satisfied with the addition to 
their scanty rations. 

Numerous incidents have been related to me, detailing the 
different methods in which General Pope's order was carried 
out. Unless the forage was seized in the night, unbeknown to 
the owner, the soldiers were generally met by entreaties, at- 
tended with protestations of loyalty to the Federal Government, 
to spare the little the rebels had left. In some cases, these 
stories of destitution told by the rebels, were believed; but 
after a time, the soldiers found these pleas and prayers to be 
only a ruse to further the safety of property and provisions 
hidden in out-of-the-way places, for preservation against the 
" Yankee thieves." 



CHAPTER X. 

Battle op Warrenton Springs— The Lady and False Flag op Truce— Retreat- 
ing at Double (iuicK— Reinforcements Promised but not Received— Battle 
Imminent— Fire uroN tue Ambulances— Dr. Metcalfe Induces Bravert in a 
Teamster— Battle op Gainesville— Terrible Slaughter— Instances op Bravery 
—Retreat op Our Army— Sufferings op Our Wounded Prisoners— Feasting 
and Resting are Suddenly Terminated in the Army. 

Only twenty-four hours were given for rest, before (August 
twenty-sixth), the order came to march to Sulphur Springs, 
about seven miles distant, with two days' rations and an extra 
supply of ammunition. 

General Siegel had had a skirmish with the enemy at that 
point, and the column had not proceeded more than a mile 
when heavy cannonading was heard in that direction, and all 
now expected something beside a protected support of bat- 
teries. 

Through picturesque scenery, too beautiful for the destruct- 
ive car of war, onward rushed the column, to find on its 
arrival, that, with the exception of skirmishing parties, the 
enemy had again placed the Rappahannock between him and 
the Union army. 

As the column neared the artillery duel being carried on , 
the bursting shells, with their wreaths of smoke, were plainly 
visible, and their unearthly screams could be distinctly heard 
as they rent their way through the air. 
n 



114 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

The different Brigades were turned from the road into the 
fields, and so disposed as to secure, as far as practicable, the 
safety of the troops, and yet be in a position, in case the bat- 
teries proved insufficient, to aid in preventing any attempted 
crossing of the river. 

Here the Seventy-sixth witnessed one of those dodges which, 
all through the war, the enemy invariably employed to save 
himself from capture or destruction. A company of rebel 
skirmishers had become so hemmed in by our troops that they 
could neither fight their way out nor retreat without the risk 
of capture or destruction. They accordingly started the white 
flag of truce towards our men, accompanied by a lady. Of 
course firing on our part was discontinued until the occasion 
of sending the flag was ascertained ; but no sooner had the 
firino- ceased than the skirmishers started off on a brisk double- 
click, and were soon out of range of our angry men, not, 
however, without a parting salute. 

All day and into night was this artillery fighting kept up. 
Major Doubleday, brother to the General, stood in full view of 
the rebel battery, with his glass, noting the effect of the firing, 
and, by the motion of his hand, causing our pieces to be ele- 
vated or depressed, as our shot and shell over-reached or fell 
short of the enemy, until they were sent with such precision 
that they fell directly among the enemy's batteries, many of 
the guns of which were silenced. 

Most of the enemy's shots were fired at such a range as to 
pass harmlessly over the heads of the Union army — not only 
the batteries, but also their infantry supports, with scarcely 
enough of danger to make the position interesting. None of 
our Regiment were killed, and but two or three wounded. 

The next morning (twenty-seventh) came the order to "right 
about face," and off went the column through Warrenton, 



General PorE Disappointed. 115 

almost on a run, and still on, on swept the regiments until 
late at night, when they were halted beyond New Baltimore. 

General Pope had, on the twenty-second, received a dispatch 
from the General-in-Chief, informing him that heavy reinforce- 
ments would begin to arrive at Warrenton Junction the 
succeeding day ; and on the twenty-fourth he received dis- 
patches from Colonel Ilaupt, the Railroad Superintendent, at 
Alexandria, informing him that thirty thousand men ordered 
forward to join General Pope, had demanded transportation of 
the Superintendent, and that they would all be shipped that 
afternoon or early the next morning. 

The force which General Pope thus expected consisted of 
the Division of General Sturgis, ten thousand strong; the 
Division of General Cox, seven thousand strong ; the Corps 
of General Heintzelman, ten thousand strong, and the Corps 
of General Franklin, ten thousand strong. 

General Pope disposed his troops with the expectation that 
these promises would be kept ; but we shall have occasion to 
record with regret the shameless abandonment of the gallant 
Army of Virginia, in its extremity, by the very General whose 
army was saved from destruction by the advance of the army 
thus abandoned. 

When the impartial history of this war is written, the Com- 
manding General of the Army of the Potomac, who quietly 
sat down in Alexandria, while the gallant Pope, with his tried 
but heroic troops were being cut to pieces by the overwhelm- 
ing rebel hosts, will receive at the hands of the Goddess of 
Liberty a condemnation equal in bitterness to that which an 
outraged people have already pronounced upon him at the 
ballot-box. 

Up to this time the men had been induced 'to believe that 
the enemy was being hemmed in, and this idea was entertained 



116 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

by officers high in command ; but now, as the retreat became 
more marked and rapid, all sorts of rumors of disasters threat- 
ened and partially realized, found credence in camp — as that 
Lee's forces had cut them off, and that General was with a 
large army between them and Washington; then, that the 
comparatively small army of General Pope was lost, and the 
first contact with the enemy would surely overwhelm it. In 
the language of the Captain of Company II : — 

" Things did look bad ; in fact there seemed to be great 
doubts in the minds of the leading officers what we ought to 
do. The very air seemed to whisper, ' danger ! danger !' ' ; 

The march towards Washington was renewed on the morn- 
ing of the twenty-eighth. At noon a halt of two or three 
hours, near a little creek that crossed the road, enabled the 
men to rest and make coffee. Here were found four dead and 
mortally wounded soldiers, belonging to a preceding regiment, 
killed by a rebel shell which had exploded as it dropped into 
the regiment. This added to rumor indubitable evidence that 
the enemy was near, and had sent a messenger to apprise them 
of the fact. 

As the Brigade again took up its line of march, evidences 
were multiplied that things were coming to a crisis. Con- 
stant cannonading was heard in different directions ; squads of 
cavalry rode furiously through the cross-roads and fields, while 
the smoke of battle could be seen rising in ominous clouds in 
the distance. These scenes were sufficiently exciting for the 
most fastidious. 

After passing Gainesville a mile or two, as the Brigade, and 
more particularly that part formed by the Seventy-sixth, was 
moving over a level tract of half a mile in extent, with a 
wood in their front, and a hill at their left, they were nearly 
paralyzed for a moment by a terrible discharge of artillery 



Beayery of Colcxnel Wainweigiit. 117 

from the hill on their left, and so near that the flash from the 
guns dazzled their eyes. Not the most interesting feature of 
the position, was the fact that this was a rebel battery, which had 
not until that moment been discovered. Self-preservation is 
the first law of* the nature of heroes as well as cowards ; and 
the first impulse on this sudden introduction to the minions of 
Jefferson Davis, was to obey the injunction, " every man for 
himself." Some dropped down ; others rushed forward upon 
those in advance, while others still were inclined to turn back. 
Never was the example of a cool and courageous man more 
opportunely set, than by Colonel Wainwright at this critical 
juncture. Riding at the head of his Regiment, he instantly 
turned his horse, and coolly riding back toward the rear of the 
column, between it and the batteries, as well by his easy and 
unconcerned manner, as by his words, allayed the excitement, 
and brought every man to his place. 

" Oh, my boys, don't run, don't run. Think a moment how 
it would sound to say, ' the Seventy-sixth ran !' " 

No pen can describe the magic effect of those few words, 
and that collected self-possession. The tone and manner were 
more potent even than the words. Quietly turning his horse, 
he allowed him to almost walk toward the head of the column ; 
and, although the shells came thicker and faster, and with a 
more dangerous and destructive aim, the men kept steadily on 
until the wood was reached, and they in comparative security. 
Several horses were killed, but the men escaped as by a mira- 
cle. 

As the rebels opened this fire upon our Regiment, a shell 
passed through the ambulance train, causing great consterna- 
tion among the drivers and teamsters. The ambulances were 
immediately ordered to the rear. Just as they were wheeling 
for that purpose, a frightened teamster on a baggage wagon 
put his whip to his horses in the act of forcing his way up the 



118 The Seventy-6ixtii Regiment N. Y. V. 

narrow road, without regard to ambulance loads of sick and 
wounded. Surgeon Metcalfe, of the Seventy-sixth, realizing 
the danger from such conduct in the crowded highway, quickly 
drew his pistol, and in his convincing style, informed the 
driver if he moved another inch he would end his fears. This 
had its desired effect. The teamster, finding himself be- 
tween two fires, concluded to take the chances of the most 
remote, and thus a panic was avoided. 

But a few moments elapsed after entering the wood, before 
sharp and continuous musketry firing was heard very near, 
and up the hill hidden by the woods. 

A strange mounted officer came riding down through the 
woods, shouting — 

" Come on ! Come on ! Quick ! Quick !" 

The Seventy-sixth was immediately in motion — over fences, 
through the bushes, around the trees, over logs — the bullets 
and shells tearing through the woods like a hail storm 
through a wheat field, on rushed the Regiment. Several of 
the men were killed and wounded before leaving the wood. 

After going about twenty rods, the Regiment emerged into 
an open field. Here was battle in real earnest. Just in front 
and a little to the left were the gallant boys of the " Iron 
Brigade," (composed of three Wisconsin and one Michigan 
regiments), fighting and falling in a manner terrible to behold. 

Just at this juncture, as the rebels were preparing in great 
numbers in the woods beyond, for a charge upon our lines, 
the Seventy-sixth New York and Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania 
were ordered into line to fill a gap between the Sixth and Sev- 
enth Wisconsin. By this timely movement, the noble " Iron 
Brigade " was saved from total annihilation. 

This movement not only saved this Brigade, but was the 
commencement of a friendship between the Seventy-sixth and 
the Wisconsin regiments, which was never forgotton by either 



Instance of Braveet. 119 

party. This timely aid was reciprocated at South Mountain, 
when the Seventy-sixth was saved by similar assistance on the 
part of these same Wisconsin men. 

On coming near the enemy, Colonel Wainwright thought it 
prudent to deploy a few files as skirmishers, a most dangerous 
duty, when the enemy were known to be so near. He called 
up Captain Grover, of Company A, whom he supposed well 
fitted for the duty, and told him what he wanted. How well 
and nobly it was performed was evidenced by several wounds 
received on that occasion, from one of which, in the chest, it 
was supposed he would never- recover. 

Captain Grover ordered out a file of eight men, as follows : 
— Whitney, Knapp, Fox, John W. Seeber, Itipley, Moore, 
Marvin Mynard, and Norman Mynard. These skirmishers 
moved promptly to the front to ascertain the position of the 
enemy. It had now begun to be dark. The skirmishers hav- 
ing reached a rail fence about ten rods in front of the main 
line, were within plain hearing of the enemy in the edge of 
the wood. They distinctly heard the orders given, and, at the 
risk of their lives, communicated as fast as they heard to Gen- 
eral Doubleday, which enabled him to properly understand the 
enemy's intentions. Nor was this the only service performed 
by the skirmishers. Lying upon the ground they fired volley 
after volley into the rebel ranks, thus drawing their fire from 
our line, and thwarting their design to make a charge upon 
and break it. 

During a lull in the action, a body of men was seen moving 
on the extreme left flank. As they came forward they 
shouted, — 

" Don't shoot your own men !" 

At that distance it seemed doubtful whether they were 
friends or enemies, and it was not without much hesitation 



120 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

that the Colonel gave the order, " By the left oblique ! Aim ! 
Fire !" 

No rebel of that column who escaped death, will ever forget 
that volley. It seemed like one gun. So well was it directed 
by our men, as could be judged by the immediate results, that 
there can be no doubt it very materially contributed to the 
repulse of this attempted flank attack. 

The Regiment had been thoroughly drilled in firing and 
target practice, and it seemed as though every man took 
deadly aim, and brought down one or more of the enemy. 

When the smoke cleared away a little, the few left of that 
mass of human beings who had so rapidly left the woods a 
few moments before, had disappeared, but the ground was lit- 
erally covered with their dead and wounded. 

Here the rebel General Ewell lost his leg, and, as he con- 
templates that battle in the future, he will have detached from 
his person the best of evidence of his contiguity, on that 
occasion, to the Seventy-sixth New York. 

During the light, the skirmishers under Captain Grover 
were placed in a sad plight. 

While drawing the fire of the enemy, which, under the cir- 
cumstances, and considering the short distance between them 
and the enemy, was about as much as could well be relished, 
our men on the right of the line opened upon the enemy, thus 
placing the skirmishers between the two fires. Corporal, 
(afterwards Lieutenant,) Whitney undertook the dangerous 
task of notifying Colonel Wainwright of the condition, when 
the firing on the right was ordered to cease. Captain Grover 
and two of the skirmishers were wounded. 

Before the firing ceased it had become quite dark, and the 
officers hardly knew how to communicate with the remainder 
of the Brigade. On calling for some one who would under- 
take the dangerous duty, (for they were within a very short 



HONOKABLE MENTION. 121 

distance of the enemy, and might stumble upon him anywhere) 
of ascertaining where they were, Corporal, (afterwards Cap- 
tain) Bartholomew, of Company C, and private Redmond, of 
Company I, promptly and coolly stepped forward and tendered 
their services. 

Bartholomew was afterwards killed in battle, at the "Wilder- 
ness, May fifth, 1864. Private Redmond was an old soldier, 
having served twelve years in the English army, and been 
present at the attack upon Sebastopol during the Crimean 
war ; a man who, though from want of education unfitted for 
the position of an officer, was, on several other occasions con- 
spicuous for his bravery. No one connected with the Seventy- 
sixth will ever forget Thomas Redmond, or his wife Ann, who 
was ever with him, on all occasions, marching by his side, 
and sharing all his joys and sorrows, and by her lively conver- 
sation, helping to drive away many a gloomy reflection 
incident to the life of a soldier. Though Ann did not shoul- 
der a musket, she should be set down as much more useful to 
the army than many a one who did. Could clothing speak, 
many a blood-stained garment would testify to Ann's industry, 
as day after day she labored over her half-barrel wash-tub to 
keep the Seventy-sixth comfortably clean. 

"When we begin to particularize in such a Regiment as the 
Seventy-sixth, we run great risk of neglecting very many as 
meritorious as those we mention ; and let it be distinctly under- 
stood that whenever, in the progress of this work, honorable 
mention of names is made, it is not done with any intention of 
making a comparison favorable to one man or unfavorable 
to another ; but such cases of meritorious conduct are men- 
tioned as have been related to me by those who were present. 
And if any errors appear in this book, as there undoubtedly 
will, they are errors of my informants, and not of my own ; 
for the facts are written as they come to me from a multitude 
of sources. 



122 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

I give a few instances of heroism in this, the first real battle 
in which the Seventy-sixth was engaged — give them as sam- 
ples : — 

In the early part of the fight, William H. Miller, a private 
of Company II, was wounded through the foot. He refused 
to be carried off the field, though unable to stand ; but lay 
upon the ground loading and firing until darkness closed the 
scene. 

John L. "Wood, a private in Company C, and not quite 
eighteen years of age, had his thumb shot off, but continued 
firing until he received a mortal wound in the shoulder. 

Daniel McGregor, of Company C, received a wound in his 
thigh, from the effects of which he died. Yet he continued to 
load and fire, resting on the other knee, until from loss of 
blood he was unable to hold his gun. Though wounded in 
the early part of the battle, he fired thirty-three rounds. 

Sergeant Lawrence M. Banker, Company F, fell mortally 
wounded. On hearing of the casualty, his brother Isaac, of 
the same Company, obtained permission of Colonel Wain- 
wright to see him. The two brothers had scarcely met — the 
last sad meeting — when the bugle sounded, denoting some new 
crisis in the battle. "Leave me and rush to the front!" 
shouted the dying Sergeant, and two hours later his voice on 
earth was silenced ! 

Thomas II. Hoffman, of Company F, was mortally wounded. 
As he lay covered with blood, Captain Barnard called to see 
him. As he recognized the Captain, Hoffman, bringing up 
his hand, exclaimed : — " Captain, if I ever get over this, won't 
I give it to them though V Brave boy ! He never lived to 
perform the coveted duty. 

Albert Olin, of Company G, wounded in the arm, contin- 
ued firing until disabled by another shot in the shoulder. 

James J. Card, of Company F, although covered with 



Losses of tiie Seventy-sixth. 123 

blood from a wound in the head, continued to fire until he re- 
ceived another ball in the arm, making a further continuance 
impossible. 

Darkness, and the sudden and timely repulse spoken of 
above, soon put an end to the battle of Gainesville. There 
seems to have been a studied effort to make this battle a mere 
skirmish — possibly to cover a defect in the military skill of 
our division commander ; but time, which at length reveals 
history in its true light, will yet write it down as an important 
battle, in which a small force, in its first experience, stood 
up coolly and bravely against the flower of the rebel army. 

The Seventy-sixth went into this fight with one hundred and 
twelve files, or two hundred and twenty-four men, and some 
idea of the strugle of an hour may be gathered from the num- 
ber of casualties. There were ten killed, seventy-two wounded, 
and eighteen missing. Five officers, four of whom were cap- 
tains, were wounded. Most of the wounded were prevented 
from ever taking the field again. 

We have mentioned Captain Grover, who fell on this occa- 
sion. 

Captain Fox, of Company B, a most excellent officer, was 
severely wounded by a ball in the lungs, from which it is 
feared he will never fully recover. His men fairly worshiped 
him, and his fall caused some confusion on the left, occuj)ied 
by his company ; but they were immediately rallied by Major 
Livingston, and remained steady throughout the remainder of 
the battle. 

Captain Sager, of Company G, while bravely leading his 
men, received a terribly severe wound, the ball passing entirely 
through his body. lie was also wounded in the ankle. His 
life was for a long time despaired of; but he finally partially 
recovered — never, however, to join his Regiment for duty. 



124 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Captain Swan, of Company II, was also wounded, but re- 
mained with the Regiment. 

All the officers on this occasion displayed remarkable cool- 
ness, under a severe test, and, in the language of Colonel 
Wainwright in his report of the battle, a I cannot too much 
praise the men who supplied want of previous military prepa- 
ration by their own nerve and resolution." 

When it became too dark longer to continue the battle, the 
Eegiment withdrew in perfect order ; and the rebels, having 
become satiated with their communings with the Seventy-sixth, 
also retreated during the night. 

As soon as the battle was over, a detail was sent out to bring 
off the wounded. Before they had completed the task, the 
rebel skirmishers opened fire upon them and drove them away. 
It being dark, several brought lanterns with them to aid in 
finding and identifying the wounded ; but with skirmishers in 
close proximity, it became necessary to dispense with so good 
a mark, and find the wounded as best they might in the dark- 
ness. 

The wounded were taken to a hospital established about a 
hundred rods in rear of the battle-field. "When our army, 
during the night, retreated, they took all the wounded with 
them that could be carried in their ambulances, but were 
obliged to abandon quite a number. In the morning the rebel 
skirmish line advanced and took prisoners those thus aban- 
doned. 

As soon as the rebels discovered that our troops had fallen 
back from the line they had held so stubbornly the night be- 
fore, they made a general advance. All day the troops poured 
past in a continual stream. 

In one hospital thus captured, were about twenty of the 
men of the Seventy-sixth, most of them severely wounded. 
This day, (twenty-ninth), they were placed in an unpleasant 



Sufferings of Our Wounded. 125 

position. The battle of Bull Run was raging so near that the 
shells from our own guns fell among these wounded men. At 
one time a line of our skirmishers passed through the woods 
within ten rods of our wounded boys, but with no power to 
render them assistance. Both lines kept up a continuous fire, 
but fortunately the wounded escaped any further injuries. 

Eli E. Peck, of Company B, was severely wounded, the ball 
passing nearly through his body at the hips. In the course of 
the afternoon, two surgeons, one belonging to the " Iron 
Brigade," and one a rebel surgeon, came to him and com- 
menced searching for the ball. They found it necessary to 
extract it — a most painful operation, now that nearly twenty- 
four hours had elapsed since the wound was made. They had 
no chloroform, and it was important that he should remain 
perfectly quiet. They told him to show himself a man by 
holding still, and if clenching the teeth and remaining stoical, 
while your devoted self is being cut and mangled by the sur- 
geon's knife, is an evidence of manhood, Eli E. Peck is a model 
man. 

" Take that," said the surgeon, handing him a large-sized 
spherical ball, bruised by his own bones, " and show your 
sweetheart." Peck carries the ball to this day, as a memento 
of Gainesville. 

Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday were passed by our 
wounded men without a mouthful of food. Most of them were 
severely wounded, and yet, though burning with fever, no 
water was given them. Friday and Saturday they heard dis- 
tinctly the roar and rattle of the second Bull Run battle. Sun- 
day they heard the battle of Chantilly, farther in the distance, 
and as the sound receded, came the unpleasant reflection that 
our army was retreating, and they who had fallen were being 
left to die of thirst and starvation in the hands of their 
enemies. 



126 TnE Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

To add to tlieir miseries, the rebels stole everything not ab- 
solutely a fixture to the body of a live soldier. No sooner did 
a soldier die than they stripped him of his clothing. "While 
one of our surgeons was performing an operation upon a rebel, 
they stole several of his instruments. 

Among the dead at the hospital was Colonel O'Connor of 
the Second "Wisconsin. Soon after his Regiment became en- 
gaged he had received a severe wound, but refused to leave 
the field. He was killed shortly after, and taken to the 
hospital and placed upon a stretcher. "While lying there, the 
rebels relieved him of his boots, and, though they were too 
small for any one present, they had a quarrel as to who should 
own the prize. 

On Sunday, September first, Edward Kelley, of Company 
E, was brought to the hospital from the battle-field, having 
lain there since Thursday night, without a mouthful to eat or 
a drop of water to quench his thirst or cool the fever of his 
wound, and to add to his horrors, he had been compelled to lie 
in the rays of a scorching sun, unable to remove to the shade. 
As he thought of his loving wife and six small children at 
home, depending upon him, who was now dying of thirst, 
hunger, fever, a painful wound, and the scorching sun, in rebel 
hands, with balls falling, and shells bursting around him, his 
patriotism was put to a severe test. The surgeon, on exam- 
ining his wound, and finding the bone broken, decided that 
the amputation of his leg was necessary. Those who wit- 
nessed the utter prostration of his very spirit at this 
announcement, will not soon forget it. 

" How can I support my wife and six little children when 
thus crippled ?" the patriot had only strength to ejaculate. 

His leg was amputated, and a short time after, burning with 
fever, and talking of his family, the spirit of the hero departed, 



Parole of Our Wounded Prisoners. 127 

and his family was cast upon the cold charities of the country 
he had died to save ! 

The condition of these wounded heroes will be better ap- 
preciated, perhaps, when it is stated that on the fifth day after 
the battle, Sergeant Wildman, who was severely wounded, 
succeeded in procuring a small piece of meat, which, having 
become tainted, had been thrown away by the rebels. This, 
with the generosity of a true soldier, he divided among his 
companions, and they devoured it with much better relish than 
in better days they would have eaten of the choicest viands. 

To add to their tortures, on Monday it rained severely, and, 
having no tents or other covering except the bushes, these men 
were exposed all through that long night to a drenching storm. 

At length, on "Wednesday morning, the pleasant announce- 
ment was made, that all who could walk might start for 
Centreville, where they would be paroled. Peck, and several 
others, were unable to walk ; but every one who could was 
soon in line and on his way North. 

The rebels had often been requested by the prisoners to fur- 
nish them something to prevent actual starvation, but were 
answered that they had nothing for their own men. It is not, 
therefore, to be wondered at, that every one who could possi- 
bly get along by aid of sticks, or otherwise, joined the company. 
One man, wounded so that he could not touch his foot to the 
ground, hobbled along. Another, Wm. II. Ripley, of Com- 
pany K, shot through the arm, marched all day, though his 
arm was amputated on arriving at Washington. 

It was a sad-looking company, and their spirits were only 
kept alive by the contemplation of the fact that they were 
marching towards Washington instead of Richmond. 

On their way to Centreville they passed the battle-field of 
Bull Run, where, in one place, on less than half an acre, ninety 



128 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

of our dead heroes still lay unbnried, having been stripped of 
their clothing by the rebels. There is no good reason to sup- 
pose that the enemy were compelled by necessity to commit 
this barbarous outrage upon our dead ; and no other excuse in 
the least plausible could be made for such a brutal act. And 
an endless amount of undeniable evidence exists to prove that 
they persisted in the practice all through the war — often not 
waiting for death to seal the remonstrating lips of the suf- 
ferers, before stripping them of every garment upon their 
bodies ; and instances, the truth of which cannot be doubted, 
are furnished, where wounded men, offering a feeble resistance 
to these robberies, were murdered in cold blood. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Fighting Renewed— Second Battle op Bull Run—" Following a Retreating Foe," 
and What Came of It— "Don't Fire on Your Friends "—Major Livingston Ral- 
lies the Second Mississippi— The Colors of the Sevety-sixth—" Confusion 
Worse Confounded "—Death of Lieutenant Williams— Between Two Fires— 
" Be Quiet, Men ! God will do with Us as He Will"— Wading through the 
Mud— Terrible Night Duty— The Regiment Reaches Upton Hill— Forgiving 
Spirit of Mr. Lincoln. 

Friday, Aug. 29£A. — Notwithstanding the severe fighting 
of yesterday, the Regiment was ordered to march at one 
o'clock this morning. 

Fighting till late in the evening, going snpperless to sleep, 
with an enemy within a few rods, and an order to march at 
such an hour, does not greatly conduce to the rest of an army, 
or the fitting of it for a fight the next day ; but in such a 
position as General Pope's army was placed at this time, com- 
fort and ease are not expected. The inarch was, therefore, 
commenced at one o'clock A. M., and continued to Manassas 
Junction, a distance of ten miles. Owing to the circumstance 
that the wagons had been sent on, and did not meet the Regi- 
ment, provisions could not be procured, good water was not to 
be had, and when the Regiment' reached Manassas the men 
were nearly exhausted. At this place a few crackers were 
obtained, when, after a few hours rest, the Regiment was 
ordered toward Bull Run. Here they were scarcely halted 
before orders were given to take a position, and after a short 
i 



130 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

time the Regiment, with others, was hurried some two miles, 
mostly at double-quick, to a point on the brow of a hill, to 
check the advancing enemy. On the way up, the Regiment 
passed General McDowell, who inquired : — 

" What regiment is this ?" 

"The Seventy-sixth New York," was the reply. 

" Well, boys," said he, " you are following a retreating foe ! 
Push 'em like h— 1 !" 

The men gave a shout, and one of those yells of triumph 
which no one can appreciate until he hears it in battle, and on 
they went over the rolling ground, until they came to a hill 
larger than the others, and a mile in advance of the main 
army. They had nearly reached the summit, when they re- 
ceived a destructive volley from the enemy on the other side 
of the ridge. Doubleday's Brigade was in the advance, and 
this unexpected attack by the " retreating foe," produced con- 
siderable confusion for a moment. The Brigade finally swung 
into line and commenced firing. Hatch's Brigade came up on 
the left, and Patrick's on the left of Hatch's. Our line now 
extended from the road on the right, to a piece of woods on 
the left. The rebels were sheltered and hidden from sight by 
the woods, stone walls, and natural rifle pits, from which, 
while protected, they poured a most destructive fire. 

There may be sport, at least there is fair play, in standing 
up and fighting an open enemy equally exposed with yourself; 
but to stand a target, in an open field, for a concealed and 
protected enemy, has more of the disagreeable than the pleas- 
ing. 

The officers stood up bravely with their men, and such cour- 
age in a fair fight could have had no other than a successful 
issue. 

In the hottest of the fight, as the colors of the Seventy- 
sixth fell, they were seized by Colonel Wainwright, who 



Retreat at Bull Run. 131 

rushed to the front, and by his manly and timely exhibition 
of courage, infused new spirit into his men. 

Close to the left flank there was a dense wood, from which 
there had been no tiring. Orders were at length given to fire 
into this wood, to ascertain whether the enemy were there, 
when the cry came, — 

" Don't shoot here ! You are firing on your friends !" 

Supposing our skirmishers had probably entered there, and 
were being fired upon, the firing was ordered to cease. Si- 
lence reigned for a moment, when suddenly a terrific volley 
was poured from the wood, making sad havoc in our ranks. 

Nothing is so demoralizing to troops as an unexpected at- 
tack on the flank and rear. Men who can face a foe without 
an emotion, will often break in confusion when attacked by 
an unseen foe, from an unexpected quarter. It was soon as- 
certained that instead of pursuing a retreating foe, the 
alternative was presented to the Union troops to retreat or be 
annihilated. From every quarter the unseen foe poured the 
deadly volley — front, flank, rear ! ~No army could stand in 
such a death-angle. The enemy must be driven from his 
hiding-place at the point of the bayonet, or the Union forces 
must retreat. General Doubleday, always averse to a retreat, 
was about to order a charge ; but just at this point, Patrick's 
brigade broke and fell back upon Hatch's, which, in turn, broke 
upon Doubleday's. As the surging masses came doubling 
back upon Doubleday's Brigade, one grand effort was made to 
push forward and prevent a stampede. Colonel Wainwright 
requested the officers, by an exhibition of personal courage, to 
inspire their men. Captains Barnard and Young rushed for- 
ward in advance of their men, whom they called upon to 
follow ; but the pressure of the retreating brigades was too 
strong, and soon the whole advance was retreating to the 
main line in wild confusion. 



132 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

It was now dark. The enemy, finding our forces were re- 
treating, sent up a shout, unmasked his forces and rushed 
impetuously forward. Confusion became worse confounded. 
In the darkness, regiments became divided and mixed, and 
even the enemy and the Union men were mingling together 
promiscuously. 

This was pretty well illustrated by the experiences of Major 
Livingston. His horse had been shot, and the Major's hip in- 
jured by the fall. He was very anxious to change the retreat 
into an advance, and thus, on foot, swinging his sword, he or- 
dered everybody to " right about, face !" but his orders were 
unheeded. At length, coming up to a regiment marching in 
tolerable order, in the same direction with the general current, 
and concluding they were sufficiently strong, at least, to cover 
the retreat of the wounded and exhausted, he ordered them to 
halt and face to the front, giving emphasis to the command by 
earnest gesticulations with his sword, and insisting that it was 
a shame to see a whole regiment running away. At this 
juncture, an officer demanded: — 

" Who are you, sir ?" 

" Major Livingston, of the Seventy-sixth." 

" Seventy-sixth what ?" asked the stranger. 

" Seventy-sixth New York," replied the Major. 

" Well, then you are my prisoner, for you are attempting to 
rally the Second Mississippi." 

The Major did not appreciate the obedience to his orders, 
as they faced about and took a southerly direction. There 
was, however, no alternative, and the gallant Major was taken 
to the rebel headcpuarters, in the rear, and there subjected to 
the usual examination as to his identity. The straps of a 
major are the same, except in color, as those of a surgeon, and 
on the examination, the Major, not having his commission 
convenient, seemed to forget his rank, and insisted that he 



Major Livingston as " Doctor." 133 

was a surgeon. The ruse de guerre was so well played that 
he was paroled, put in command of a squad of paroled men, 
and ordered to march them to our lines and give an account of 
them. The Major promptly and cheerfully obeyed the order, 
but took good care to yield the command to another as soon as 
out of sight of the rebel headquarters, taking ' ; French, leave," 
and passing unobserved by the shortest route to our lines. 
The result justified this disobedience of the orders of his cap- 
tors ; for no sooner had he left the command, than it was 
overtaken by a squad in search of the " doctor," with orders 
to bring him back at once. 

While Military Governor, at Fredericksburg, Major Living- 
ston had caused the arrest of a notorious rebel, Colonel 
Slaughter, who, on hearing a description of the " doctor," 
recognized in him an old acquaintance, and had obtained an 
order for the " doctor's " delivery into his hands. The proba- 
bility is, that to the timely escape of the Major from his 
command, he must ever attribute his escape from tortures 
more horrid, if possible, than the Inquisition, and his reunion 
with his comrades in arms, and finally his little family and 
numerous friends in his northern home. He was affection- 
ately welcomed to the Regiment, and the officers did not 
permit him soon to forget the important command which he 
had voluntarily assumed in the Second Mississippi. 

During the retreat, Major Doubleday, of the Brigade 
staff, recognized, in the darkness, the color-bearer of the Sev- 
enty-sixth staggering along under the weight of the colors, 
and unable to carry them, and most thoughtfully took them 
from the staff and buttoning them in the breast of his coat, 
brought them in. 

The retreating force finally came to the main lines. Here 
the men were for the most part asleep, and nothing was astir 
except the sentinel, whose voice was now and then heard 



134 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

challenging some party presented for admittance to the lines. 
This, however, soon changed, and the confusion communicated 
itself to the main line. The regiments were all mixed ; men 
trying to find their comrades, and calling out, " Where is the 
Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania?" "Where is the Seventy-sixth 
New York ?" and the officers endeavoring, in the darkness, to 
get their men together. " Men of the Twenty-third this way !" 
" The Twentieth to the right," all making " confusion worse 
confounded," and tending very slightly, if at all, to the proper 
organization of the respective regiments. 

Nearly exhausted, the men finally sank supperless upon the 
ground and found that relief which nature alone administers 
to the weary and disheartened. 

On the retreat, Captain Barnard, of Company F, becoming too 
much exhausted to accompany the men, Colonel Wainwright, 
with that kindness of heart which ever characterized him, 
kindly insisted upon the Captain's riding his horse ; and thus, 
alternately riding and walking, the two officers reached the 
main lines. 

In this battle the Seventy-sixth had fifteen wounded and 
twenty-four missing. Among the wounded were three officers. 

Lieutenant Richard Williams, of Company I, was severely 
wounded, and died of his wound shortly after. He was a 
brave and efficient officer. As he received the w r ound, he fell 
against Sergeant Martin Edgcomb, and begged to be carried 
off the field ; but the Regiment w r as hastily retreating, and 
he was of necessity left. He was engaged in the first Bull 
Run battle, in the Seventy-first New York volunteers, and 
did himself great credit on that occasion, as one of the few 
who stood their ground to the last. He was often heard to 
say : — " I have come out to fight, and I expect to have plenty 
of it to do ; but I hope and pray I may never be called upon 
to fight on that accursed Bull Run field again ! I have a per- 



Death of Lieutenant Williams. 135 

feet dread and horror of it!" It seemed as though a 
premonition of what was to be his fate continually warned 
him of the dangers of that fated field. It was a strange coin- 
cidence that he fell mortally wounded upon the very spot he 
so much dreaded ! lie was brought to Centreville the next 
day, where he died, and at the hands of a mourning Regi- 
nicnt received a soldier's burial. No officer in the Regiment 
bade fairer to become a shining ornament to the service than 
Lieutenant Richard "Williams. He sleeps in the soil he died 
to consecrate to freedom ; and though the rebel States may be- 
come " reconstructed " and again take their places in the 
glorious constellation of united, free republics, the graves of 
Lieutenant Williams, and the thousands who, with him, 
offered their lives upon the altar of human equality, will be 
silent but eloquent warnings against ever again placing the 
reins of government in the parricidal hands dripping with 
their patriot blood. 

Captain Charles L. Watrous, of Company D, was severely 
wounded in the arm, and did no further duty in the Regiment. 
He received his wound in the first line before the retreat. 

Lieutenant R. W. Carrier, of Company II, was wounded in 
the leg, above the knee. 

Thomas Redmond, of Company I, mentioned in the last 
chapter, here again displa} T ed his soldierly qualities, by seizing 
the colors and carrying them to the front, in the hottest of the 
light, an honor which a little musician, Dorsey D. Case, of 
Company D, formerly Company C, begged the privilege of 
sharing. 

Saturday, August 30th. — Shortly after sunrise, the frag- 
ments of regiments in the Brigade were drawn up in line ; 
and it was truly heart-rending to witness the change which, in 
twenty days, had come over that noble Brigade. When it 
left Fredericksburg on the ninth, it numbered about fifteen 



130 The Seventy-sixth Regbient N. Y. V. 

hundred men, and now there were not to exceed five hundred ! 
So much had twenty days of continuous marching and fight- 
ing done for this one Brigade. 

When we consider the vast amount of severe marching, 
and great number of battles fought during this war, we come 
to understand why so many and such seemingly enormous calls 
were made by the President for men. One vigorous cam- 
paign of fighti/ng scarcely leaves enough for drill sergeants for 
the new levies necessary for the next. 

But the Regiment was not long idle. The order was given 
to move forward across the creek, which, in the confusion of 
last night, had been recrossed, and take a position as reserves. 
The other Brigades of the Division were engaged, but, although 
within range of the artillery, the Seventy-sixth, on this occa- 
sion, did not come under the infantry fire. The grape, shells, 
and solid shot came through the woods like hail ; but being 
fired too high, no casualties occurred in the Seventy-sixth. 
During all the excitement, as the iron hail rattled among the 
trees, Colonel Wainwright sat upon his horse, apparently as 
unconcerned as to his personal safety, as if he were reviewing 
his Regiment on dress parade ; every now and then, as a ball 
came whizzing past, coolly advising his men to lie closer to 
the ground. 

The fighting on the left was terrific, but in this the Seven- 
ty-sixth was not engaged. It had been acting, however, as a 
reserve to a line which had been under heavy fire in the woods 
and repulsed. The Brigade was then withdrawn to a plain. 

At this time, the shattered remains of the Twelfth Massa- 
chusetts which had apparently, in some way, been left behind, 
came up to us. Its Adjutant, De Hone, a fine fellow, who 
was afterwards killed at the storming of the heights near 
Fredericksburg, came up to Colonel Wainwright with the 
colors in his hands, and asked if General Doubleday would 



The Seventy-sixth Between Two Fikes. 137 

permit them to join his command. His request was granted. 

The Brigade had been stationed to secure a deep ravine. 
After some time a man accidentally climbing up one bank, 
reported that the troops supposed to be close by on the bank, 
were gone. Immediately another was sent np the opposite 
bank, and on his return reported none there. It was evident 
the Brigade had been forgotten. Just then, to add to the 
excitement of the position, the enemy opened fire upon them 
with artillery. General Doubleday managed the retreat very 
skillfully, availing himself of the turns in the ravine, and the 
Brigade at last came in sight of our own army in retreat. In- 
stead of security, they now opened upon the Brigade, 
mistaking it for a rebel force, and it was only by signs, and 
presenting the colors, thus showing their political status, under 
some danger to the bearer, that the firing was stopped. This 
gave the rebels a fair mark, and they opened upon it, and for 
a few moments things were slightly mixed. 

These fires from different directions are not pleasant to con- 
template. A shell was thrown by the rebels, striking a few 
feet from the flag, killing one and wounding another, of the 
Ninety-fifth New York. Just at this time, Colonel Wain- 
wright rode up, and, as he saw an indication of uneasiness, 
said, calmly, " Be quiet, men. God will do with us as he 
will," and he had no occasion to say it again. This was 
Colonel "Wainwright's belief — a short, but very encouraging 
and sustaining creed in battle. He firmly believed that God 
would, in his own appointed time, take men to himself, and 
that, whether in the fiercest struggle of battle, or the quiet 
seclusion of home, there was no occasion to fear, for the issues 
of life and death are in His hands who knows when is the lit 
and proper time to call for us. Such men not only never 
indulge in fear, but generally succeed in dispelling the fears of 
those with whom they mingle. 



138 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

From a regimental stand-point, there was very little in this 
day's operations calculated to dispel apprehensions or encourage 
hope. General Pope, however, as, with his generals gathered 
upon a commanding eminence, he looked down upon the 
furious battle, and saw our brave warriors steadily repel the 
rebel hosts, ever and anon sending up the shout of victory, as 
they drove the enemy from some entrenched position, indulged 
the belief that we had really won a victory, and that our 
retreat which had continued from Cedar Mountain, would now 
be changed to an advance. Then it was that his celebrated 
dispatch was sent to "Washington, which, for a brief period, 
lifted the cloud of despair enshrouding the Capital, and per- 
mitted the sunshine of hope to warm the loyal Northern heart. 
But this sense of security and success was not long enter- 
tained. On came the rebel reserves, and, as our brave handful, 
with Spartan courage, stood their ground, mowing down the 
regiments with which they were engaged, each hour expecting 
reinforcements from General McClellan — expectations only 
indulged to be blighted — the rebel hosts were continually 
strengthened by fresh arrivals, until finally the strength of 
numbers and unspent physical force, pressed back the Union 
army, which took up again its line of retreat upon Centreville, 
and Bull Run witnessed the repetition of the retreat of thir- 
teen months before. In this instance, however, owing to 
the good effects of discipline, the retreat was orderly, and 
though the troops were tired and weak, there was none of that 
demoralization witnessed on the former occasion. 

The retreat was continued until late in the night, when the 
Seventy-sixth arrived within about a mile of Centreville, ex- 
hausted and nearly disheartened. As they came to Bull Run, 
they halted to fill their canteens with the muddy water, and 
then waded the stream, at this point about three rods in width, 
with two feet of water, under which was another foot of mud. 



On the Retkeat. 139 

In those three days' of fighting, the Seventy-sixth lost in killed 
and wounded, nine officers and eighty-nine men, with one 
officer and forty-eight men missing. 

August 31«£. — This morning it commenced to rain — one of 
those drizzling rains that gives an unpleasant aspect to every- 
thing, and even in a comfortable house, by a cheerful fire, 
with one's wife and little ones, is well calculated to breed the 
"blues." But retreating from a victorious enemy knows no ob- 
stacles. If the sun shines, all the better ; it helps keep one's 
courage up, and gives us fortitude with which to bear the 
disgrace ; but whether the sun shines or the clouds lower, the 
retreating army must plod its way onward to a place of safety. 
To-day the roads would have seemed impassable for any 
aggressive movement, yet the Seventy-sixth, in common with 
its fellows, waded on until about noon, when the welcome 
order, " stack, arms," was given, and the men were once more, 
at last, in bivouac. 

General Franklin had been stationed in the defenses of 
Centreville, and within those defenses, as the Seventy-sixth 
passed through, was one scene of confusion. Fragments of 
regiments of infantry, mingled with batteries of artillery and 
battalions of cavalry, all conglomerated into one heterogenous 
mass, clearly illustrated the effects of a hasty retreat even of 
disciplined troops. They had retreated to that place in tole- 
rable order ; but now that the necessity of maintaining their 
organization had in some measure passed away, the different 
regiments and arms of the service became commingled until 
one almost felt the loss of his personal identity. 

On arriving in camp, the Regiment was mustered for pay, 
and the hope was fondly cherished that there would be a cessa- 
tion of hostilities for a season, and the troops be permitted to 
recruit their wasted energies. 

September 1st. — All human hopes are evanescent, and cs- 



140 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

pecially is this true with the soldier. Does he meet the foe 
and fight manfully, just at the point where he is to press for- 
ward to victory, the order to retreat is given ; does he 
anticipate a march and change of scenery and experiences, he 
is ordered into camp to endure that routine so much dreaded ; 
does he reach a camp tired and disheartened, and anticipate a 
few days of rest, no sooner does he pitch his tent than the 
order comes to march. This last was verified by the Seventy- 
sixth to-day. The men had pitched their tents, and were 
casting about for those little conveniences which make camp 
life pleasant, when, about three o'clock in the afternoon, 
marching orders were received, and, after the usual prepara- 
tions, the Regiment moved on towards Fairfax, and at night 
encamped just west of the village. Soon after arriving there, 
a heavy musketry and artillery fire commenced about a mile 
to the north, and lasted about an hour. A severe thunder- 
shower in the mean time set in, but it apparently had no effect 
upon the combatants. The flash of the cannon and musket 
answered the forked lightning, and the heavy thunder was 
re-echoed from the cannon's mouth ; and thus on the bloody 
field of Chantilly, amid the thunder and the lightning, the 
roar of cannon and the death-rattle of musketry, many a hero 
sank down to that sleep which knows no waking ! 

A hospital had been established at Chantilly, and several of 
the men of the Seventy-sixth had been placed there for treat- 
ment. Among the number was Jay Webster, who " com- 
manded," as we have seen, in the first armed fight, at 
Washington. When the enemy attempted to flank our army 
to-day, a battalion was organized from the convalescents, 
under Major Sukely. Jay Webster was among the number, 
and on that occasion received a wound in his knee. It was 
here that the noble Generals Kearney and Stevens were killed. 
General Kearney had lost an arm in the Mexican War. He 



Severe Marching and Picket Duty. 141 

was one of those few generals who believed that war means 
fiyht, and it is to this article in his military creed that he owes 
his death. Ordinarily, the higher the command of the officer, 
the farther he is removed from danger. The private goes 
ahead and does the fighting, and the commanding general 
scarcely hears the guns that, are to write his name in charac- 
ters of light, or hand it down to posterity as an ambitious 
humbug. But General Kearney reversed the order. With 
the reins in his mouth, and swinging his sword with his single 
hand, he dashed forward towards the enemy, calling upon the 
men to follow. Then, finding himself several rods in advance, 
he would dash back to his troops, and urge them to greater 
speed, when away he would rush at the enemy again, only to 
repeat the scene again and again. Finding the rebels in a 
cornfield and entrenched behind a stone wall, he ordered a 
charge, and, leading the men, when near the wall, a rebel ball 
pierced the brave General, and he fell lifeless to the ground. 
Our army, however, was victorious, and the enemy, unable to 
flank Pope's little handful of troops, fell back, while the Union 
army held the field. 

The march of this last day of the retreat, was the most 
severe of the campaign. The rain having thoroughly satu- 
rated the soil, the heavy trains had converted the roads into 
streams and lakes of thin mud. Shoes afforded no protection, 
as the mud was, most of the way, knee deep. A more dismal 
scene cannot well be imagined. The men were obliged to 
retreat ten or twelve miles, wading the whole distance, while 
their loads were continually augmented by the storm of rain 
and sleet which continued through the day and night. This 
day's march was truly terrible, but nothing compared with the 
night's work that followed. On reaching what they supposed 
would be their camp for the night, General Doubleday was 
ordered to send out his best regiment to guard an important 



142 The Seventy-sixth [Regiment N. Y. V. 

point. He chose the Seventy-sixth, saying he could rely upon 
that in any emergency. Orders were, therefore, received, for 
the Seventy-sixth to march about four miles to the left, and 
do picket duty during the night. The men had, during the 
hot days, thrown away every garment they could spare, and 
many were now only protected from the weather by a thin 
blouse, not wearing even a shirt. They were so thoroughly 
drenched that there was scarely a dry thread in the Regiment. 
The night was so intensely dark, that an object could scarcely 
1)0 seen five paces distant. The rain and sleet continued una- 
bated, while the north-west wind sent it with almost fatal 
effect against the shivering and nearly paralyzed forms of the 
men ; and to add to and intensify the horrors of the night, no 
fires, not even a match, could be lighted. And thus, through 
that long, dreary night, shivering and almost freezing, did the 
officers and men of the Seventy-sixth watch and wait for the 
enemy. Severer tests of courage may have been made upon 
the Regiment ; but never again did the men suffer as during 
that night. The morning finally came to the relief of the 
suffering heroes, and the Seventy-sixth continued the retreat 
with the Brigade to Upton Hill. 

Thus ended the campaign. It had been short, but more 
than usually severe. Beginning with the retreat from Cedar 
Mountain, and, in the case of the Seventy-sixth, with the 
inarch from Fredericksburg, it is seldom that an army has 
been required to undergo more than our men performed. 
With scarcely a day's intermission, the Third Corps, to which 
this Regiment belonged, was either making forced marches, 
often in the night, and through the hottest days of August, 
frecmently without proper water, much of the time without 
food, or engaged in battles as severe and destructive as have 
taken place during this war. The Regiment had already 
been under fire at five different battles. It left New York 



No Rest for the Army. 143 

with nearly one thousand men. The exposures of camp, and 
those diseases incident to acclimation, had so reduced it that 
when it left Fredericksburg it contained but about four hun- 
dred and fifty officers and men •; and now, after the struggles 
of this campaign, though several had rejoined it from Frede- 
ricksburg and elsewhere, it only numbered about two hundred 
and twenty -five. Of the thirty line officers, only six remained 
— a fearful reduction in both officers and men. The men 
left were so worn out by the long marches and severe priva- 
tions that they were entirely unfit for duty. This report 
was made by Colonel Wainwright, with a request that the 
Regiment be recruited, and supplied with officers, and a little 
rest allowed to put it in condition to take the field. The only 
answer to this request was an order to march, half-equipped, 
to South Mountain, Antietam and elsewhere ! 

All the evidence concurs in proving that had General Pope 
been cordially supported by General McClellan, the enemy 
would have been immediately hurled back upon Richmond , 
or almost totally cut up and destroyed. 

The Army of the Potomac, under General McClellan, was 
comparatively fresh. The Government distinctly understood, 
and early notified him of the critical situation of affairs, 
repeatedly urging him forward. Whenever he sent an excuse 
for delay, the Government immediately removed the difficulty 
or suggested its solution. "When he halted, Government 
urged him to immediate action. But still, knowing that Pope 
was in the very vortex of ruin, overwhelmed by the whole 
rebel army, being literally crushed by the force of numbers, 
he yet persistently withheld any and all support, but stood 
and watched the surging mass of overpowered and disheart- 
ened patriots, as they were driven by their triumphant foe 
into the defences of Washington. 

A terrible reckoning is in store for those generals, who with 



144 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

troops at their command, comparatively fresh — generals and 
troops who had been saved from annihilation by the timely 
aid of General Pope, and yet who, from jealons envy, could 
thus sacrifice their protector upon the shrine of their own un- 
hallowed ambition. That such misplaced confidence was ever 
renewed argues volumes for the forgiving spirit of our mar- 
tyred President ! 



CHAPTER XII. 

A Short Rest— March through Washington— Seventh street— Fort Massachu- 
setts—March through "My Maryland"— Frederick City— Cordial Welcome 
by the People— Battle of South Mountain— Death op Charles E. Stamp- 
Colonel Wainwright Wounded— Rebel Ruse— They are Severely Punished— A 
Union Victory. 

September 2d, 1862. — The armies of the Potomac and of Vir- 
ginia are now united and within the defenses of Washington. 
No one well informed will question the assertion that had they 
been thus united at Gainesville five days ago, there would 
have been no necessity for their occupying defenses. The two 
armies combined could have hurled back the rebel hosts, and 
not only avoided the second defeat at Bull Run, but saved the 
necessity of the Maryland campaign. This war would then 
have terminated in 18G2 instead of 1865. But God had a 
great problem to solve, and, with our finite judgment, we 
must not declare that lie did not make these bickerings and 
jealousies of commanders, which seem to so disgrace them, to 
serve His holy purpose. Great reforms require time. lie 
who can jump astride a hobby, and deem himself able to work 
a wonder in a day, will, on the second day, find himself won- 
derfully mistaken. Slavery was to be abolished. The foul 
cancer was eating the life out of the nation. It was sapping 
the foundation of our national prosperity. Its growth had 
been gradual and slow ; it had struck its roots deep into a 
portion of the national heart ; upon it parties had been reared 



146 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

and nourished, and when it demanded new guaranties, or the 
destruction of the nation, a powerful party was drawing its 
inspiration, if not its very existence from it ; the institutions, 
civil, social, and religious, of nearly half the Union, were 
based upon and shaped to this one institution, and we could 
not reasonably expect its overthrow without an effort, and 
without time for its accomplishment. Had the war ended 
with this campaign, it would be difficult to see how slavery 
would have been abolished, and without that result, the war 
would, indeed, have been a failure. A Union in form we 
might have had ; but a rope of sand would have bound us 
together, and though this is not said with a view to a justifi- 
cation of any narrow-minded general, who would, from 
personal motives, suffer the flag of his country to be disgraced, 
when he had the power to prevent it, yet there is no doubt 
that the very defeat described in the preceding pages, con- 
tributed, in the end, to the advancement of the best interests 
of the country. So little do we know of the use which Prov- 
idence is making of us all in working out the problems of His 
own infinite mind. 

The men were now confident they were to enjoy rest. The 
long marches which they had performed, night after night de- 
prived of sleep, and continually excited by those rumors which 
ever infest a camp, and especially when situated like this 
army on the retreat, were enough to induce a desire for quiet ; 
but, added to this, and the want of provisions — the trains hav- 
ing been frequently far from the troops — was the more 
disheartening fact, that during all those long, sultry days, and 
weary, wakeful nights, they had been on a retreat. To fight 
and retreat, and retreat and fight, in the face of a superior 
force, is a very severe test of the soldier. This they had done 
for the last fifteen days, and, though many broke down under 
the fatigue and exposures, and many straggled from the ranks, 



Again on the March. 147 

the troops, as a general thing, behaved most creditably, and, 
though sadly depleted in numbers, and the remainder tired 
and reduced from marching and fasting, they preserved their 
discipline to a remarkable degree. 

The men had just mustered for pay. A portion had been 
reclothed ; most of them had already the comforts of camp 
life, when, after a short stay of four days, the orders were 
given (September sixth) to march. 

The rebels, appreciating their inability to capture Washing- 
ton from the south, had commenced a flank movement, which 
brought the army into Maryland, across the Upper Potomac, 
with the evident design, either to march into Pennsylvania, 
as they subsequently did in 1863, or attack Washington or 
Baltimore, or both, from the north and west. 

The men had, in these four days, considerably revived in 
body and spirit. For the first time in twenty days, the 
rations were regularly issued, which, with the sense of 
security which pervaded the camp, had brought the men back- 
to nearly their normal condition. 

At six P. M., September sixth, the Division was ordered to 
march through Washington into Maryland. The men had 
seen sufficient fighting to deprive it of all the novelty with 
which it presents itself to the unfledged warrior, and yet it 
was not entirely with regret that the Regiment bade adieu to 
Upton Hill. Before them arose bright visions of the time 
when, with their combined forces, they should meet and van- 
quish the foe which had so severely treated them, and not a 
few anticipated rather than dreaded the trial which was to 
make them conquerors. 

The whole army was now in motion. Many of the same 
guns that flashed in the sunlight, as they crossed the river the 
March before, in pursuit of the enemy, in the direction of 
Richmond, were now in pursuit of the same enemy on the 
northern side of the Potomac. 



148 The Seventy-sixth Eegtment N. Y. V. 

Many thousands of that noble army had Mien in the 
swamps of the Chickahominy, and in the battles of the Pe- 
ninsula ; but their places had been more than filled by the 
battle-scarred veterans of the Army of Virginia, and they 
now felt invincible. 

The strength of an army is measured not only or chiefly by 
its numbers, but by its morale. If it is confident of its 
strength, and of success, a small army will accomplish much 
more than a larger army wanting this confidence. 

As usual, the road was blocked up by troops that had pre- 
ceded. The Regiment, after going a mile or two, stacked 
arms and rested until the roads should be cleared. The ob- 
structions removed, the order was given to forward, and on 
went the Kegiment. The march was continued all night. At 
two o'clock in the morning, the Seventy-sixth stopped for a 
short time in front of the White House, in Washington, and 
the men welcomed the opportunity to throw themselves down 
to rest a few moments upon the stone sidewalk. Then, 
through Washington, up Seventh street, where on their way 
to war, the Seventy-sixth had so forcibly inculcated its doc- 
trines of human rights ; past Fort Massachusetts, where the 
fore part of summer was spent, until a march of about a 
dozen miles had been accomplished. 

The officers and men could not avoid observing the change in 
their condition, as they passed their former headquarters. 
Less than four months had elapsed since they left the fort 
nearly eight hundred strong, with clean, new uniforms ; the 
men in excellent condition, with happy faces, and panting for 
a fight ; now, ragged, gaunt, foot-sore and jaded, with scarcely 
two hundred men fit for duty ! 

The march was continued until September fourteenth, when 
the Kegiment passed through Frederick City, Md. Soon 
after leaving the city, cannonading could be distinctly heard 



Eeception of Loyal Maeyland. 149 

at the front. The march was quickened, and kept up al- 
most at double-quick, until about noon, •when Middletown 
was passed, and South Mountain arose to the view but a mile 
or two in advance. The inspiring intelligence had been con- 
veyed to our men before this, that Burnside had occupied 
Frederick City, and now, as the brigades passed through that 
place they enjoyed an inspiring ovation. The people of Ma- 
ryland, cursed to a less extent by slavery, than had been most 
of the Southern States, had succeeded in retaining its loyalty 
to a greater degree. Loyalty and slavery are directly antago- 
nistic, and by conning the census tables showing the white 
and slave population, one might very nearly arrive at the 
character of the reception that awaited the advent of the 
Union army into any particular city or locality. 

The weather was excellent for marching. Evidences multi- 
plied that the enemy were retreating, and we occupying the 
ground they had just left, and added to this inspiriting fact 
was the cheering reception given by the loyal people, as the 
troops marched along. There were many surly secessionists, 
who illy concealed their rage at this "invasion" of their State 
by the " Yankee horde ;" but all along the march were unmis- 
takable evidences that the people of Maryland were much 
more loyal, as a whole, than those with whom the Seventy- 
sixth had mingled for the last four months. In Frederick 
City, especially, was this loyalty manifested. Flags were 
waving throughout the day, from almost every house ; hand- 
kerchiefs were fluttering, while ever and anon a beautiful 
bouquet would be tossed by the fairest hands of Maryland's 
loyal daughters. These were answered by cheer upon cheer 
from the happy patriots, until they cheered themselves hoarse 
in the attempt to show their appreciation of the reception. 
One can scarcely estimate the value of such a reception, irpon 
the very eve of the terrible battle of South Mountain. The 



150 The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y. Y. 

men not only had friends at home to protect with their lives ; 
but a new inspiration urged them forward, as they thought of 
these loyal daughters of a State around which the monster of 
secession had attempted to wind his deadly coil. They con- 
sidered themselves no longer on an enemy's soil, but as the 
defenders of Maryland's honor, to drive from the soil an 
enemy who had invaded a State, the allegiance of which 
they had vainly attempted to sever. 

"None but a coward will boast that he was never afraid, 1 ' 
once remarked a celebrated officer; and, though the men were 
steady and determined, there were many who gazed upon the 
curling wreaths of smoke, as they arose from the mountain- 
side before them, and as they listened to the roar of cannon 
and the clatter of musketry, and thought of the dear ones in 
their distant homes, saw and heard nothing that would not 
have been gladly silenced and avoided could they as well have 
saved their country without as with a battle. We may talk 
of that patriotism which willingly offers up life and all upon 
the country's altar, and write poetry and sing peans to per- 
petuate the memory of the dying martyr. It all sounds well 
in declamation, and reads well in verse, and is all correct in 
theory ; but the practice of being shot is not only dangerous, 
but painful, and human nature, at its best estate, recoils from 
contact with cold lead, when it comes at a velocity sufficient 
to penetrate the casement, and the truest soldier, in view of 
impending battle, inwardly repeats, "If it be possible, let this 
cup pass from me ; nevertheless, not my will, but thine, be 
done, oh, my country !" 

Up the steep mountain-side rush the long line of skirmish- 
ers, now halting, as if to hear the approach of the enemy, 
with gun in hand, awaiting his advance, and then rushing 
forward to find and uncover his masked position. 



Up the Sides of South Mountain. 151 

The duty of the skirmisher is a very hazardous one, 
especially on such a field as South Mountain. The side of the 
mountain is very steep; so much so that it was almost impos- 
sible to carry the gun at a " charge," as at that angle the 
bayonet •would frequently pierce the ground. The surface, 
except here and there a cornfield, was covered by a dense 
growth of pine and cedar. The summit was skirted with 
forests, and from the wreaths of smoke, and other unmistaka- 
ble signs, it was supposed that the rebels were here in mass. 

General Hooker, the hero who afterwards fought in the 
clouds at Lookout Mountain, was in command of the Corps to 
which was attached the Seventy-sixth, and to him had been 
assigned the task of storming the hill on the right of the pass, 
known as Turner's Gap. While the roar of artillery and the 
puffs of smoke indicate a battle is raging, the hosts are form- 
ing at the foot of the mountain, for the dangerous attempt to 
drive the enemy from the summit, if need be, at the point of 
the bayonet. The column is finally started. The men have 
been severely marched to-day ; it is exceedingly hot, and under 
other circumstances, rest and quiet would be sought ; but now 
that mountain must be cleared of the rebel hosts ; those dark 
woods which bellow and belch forth their fire and iron hail, 
must be carried, and the enemy punished for the deeds of the 
past mouth. Straggling is less frequent than usual. Every 
man owes that rebel army a debt which must now be paid, 
and, regardless of fatigue, up the steep acclivit} r , through the 
corn and wheat fields, up, up goes the grand army. A more 
impressive sight than that witnessed by these troops as they 
ascended the mountain-side, is seldom or never seen. The 
beautiful, quiet and smiling valley behind, as it lay basking in 
that clear September sunset, on that lovely Sabbath eve, and 
in front the smoke and roar of battle. 

As the troops were halted to take breath, and cast their 



152 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

eyes over the quiet loveliness of the valley below, they thought 
of the loved ones at home, who, this beautiful Sabbath after- 
noon, were doubtless penning letters to them — letters which, 
perhaps, might never reach them, and then the order, " for- 
ward," placed before them the contrast, which made them for the 
time forget that this was the Sabbath day, and on they went 
to the deadly conflict. For an hour and a half was the Regi- 
ment thus engaged in ascending this mountain, before it came 
within range of the enemy's musketry fire. As the Brigade 
neared the summit, the firing became more distinct, until the 
troops entered the last skirt of forest that crowned the sum- 
mit. Before entering this wood, a halt was made and 
bayonets fixed, and thus prepared for any emergency, forward 
into the treacherous woods moved the intrepid Corps. 

The Brigade occupied the left of the Division, and the Sev- 
enty-sixth the extreme left of the Brigade ; so that the left 
flank of the Regiment was uncovered. On the right of the 
Seventy-sixth was the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania. Through 
the woods came the rebel bullets, tearing the trees and shriek- 
ing overhead, while just ahead came the cheers and yells of 
the opposing troops, and the awful din of battle in all its fury. 

Hatch's Brigade of King's Division had preceded Double- 
day's Brigade, and was now heavily engaged. As our 
Brigade entered the wood, the Adjutant of the First Brigade 
came rushing out of the noise and confusion, shouting: — 

" Our Brigade cannot sustain itself much longer, as we are 
nearly out of ammunition ! For God's sake, to the front !" 

On rushed Doubleday's Brigade, only impeded by the staff 
officers, who rode in front, and continually along the line gave 
the order, " Steady, boys, steady !" The upper edge of the 
woods was soon gained, and there was witnessed fighting in 
good earnest. The wood was bounded by a fence, close by 
which Hatch's Brigade stood fighting as though the fate of the 



Battle of South Mountain. 153 

country depended upon their heroic conduct. There was an 
open space of a hundred feet beyond the fence, tilled with 
rebels, who, hiding behind rocks, and in depressions of the 
surface, poured volley after volley into Hatch's Brigade, 
which, in turn, fell upon the ground to load, then arose and 
returned the deadly salute. While thus heroically contesting 
the ground, Doubleday's Brigade rushed with a shout to their 
rescue. Hatch's Brigade fell back for rest, while the Seventy- 
sixth and its fellows poured their deadly hail upon theenemy. 
Charge after charge was made by the rebels, to break through 
the Onion lines, but each one was handsomely repulsed, and 
thus for half an hour this Brigade stood its ground against 
vastly superior numbers, conscious that if the line was broken, 
with no reserves on which to rely, the defeat would prove 
annihilation. 

Charles E. Stamp, of Company A, who was promoted to 
color-bearer for gallantry in saving the colors at Gainesville, 
was carrying the colors on this occasion. As the Regiment 
was ordered to advance, not obeying quite as promptly as this 
hero desired, he rushed forward about a rod in advance of the 
Regiment, while the bullets were falling thickly around him, 
and, planting the flag staff firmly in the ground, shouted, 
" There, come up to that !" But he made too good a mark, 
and before the Regiment had time to obey the order, a fatal 
ball pierced his forehead, and "Charley Stamp," one of the 
truest and best men in the Regiment, was mustered out of the 
army militant, and mustered into the army triumphant. 

The Seventy-sixth was probably never engaged in a more 
severe and deadly fight than at South Mountain. During the 
whole battle, the range was so short, and both sides fired with 
such precision, that the volleys told with awful effect. Colo- 
nel Wainwright coolly rode along the line and directed the 
men to fire low ; and never was powder and ball rammed into 



154 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

guns with greater energy, or discharged with greater rapidity, 
or more damaging effect. 

The enemy, finding that bayonet charges on their part 
would be of no avail against the steady lines of the Union 
forces, resorted to .one of those tricks which, in every battle 
thus Jar, had been attempted upon our Regiment. A small 
thicket of bushes ran along parallel with and not more than 
ten or fifteen rods from the fence behind which was posted 
the Seventy-sixth. The order was given to fire into this 
thicket, when the cry came out : — 

" For God's sake, stop firing ! You are killing your own men !" 
General Hatch, now in command of the Division, happened 
to be near by, and ordered the firing to cease, which was obeyed, 
though the men were well satisfied it was a repetition of the ruse 
played at Gainesville and Bull Run. Scarcely had the firing 
ceased when two regiments of the enemy, the Eighteenth and 
Nineteenth Virginia, came out silently and swiftly, marching 
by the left flank, then, suddenly fronting, advanced within 
twenty paces of our left, kneeled down and poured a most ter- 
rific volley into our ranks. Fortunately the dark back ground 
of the woods prevented them from seeing our men clearly, 
and their aim was mostly too high. Eighteen or twenty of 
our men, however, fell, among them Colonel Wainwright, who 
was wounded in the arm. His favorite horse was killed about 
the same time. Quickly risiug and tying a handkerchief 
around his arm where the ball entered, he gave the order to 
fire, at the same time discharging the six barrels of his 
revolver at the enemy. The remnant of those two rebel reg- 
iments will never forget that volley ! They were so near that 
the blaze of our guns almost reached their faces, and when 
the smoke of the volley had cleared away, the sight was truly 
appalling. The rebel dead were literally piled in heaps, and 
among them was Colonel Strange, of the Nineteenth Virginia, 



Gallant Repulse of a Flank Attack. 155 

while the remainder, who had escaped, were rushing in wild 
disorder to their cover in the thicket. 

There was a lull in the battle. By the blunder of a staff 
officer, the Seventy-sixth, and another regiment of the Brigade 
were ordered to fall back about a mile, while they were re- 
lieved by other troops. As they were about obeying, Captain 
Goddard, of Company F, called the attention of Colonel 
Wainwright to something moving in a cornfield on the left. 
It was soon decided to be the enemy, engaged in a flanking 
movement. Changing front to the rear, always a very diffi- 
cult manoeuver during an engagement, the Seventy-sixth New 
York, and a portion of the Seventh Indiana, which was on 
the right, met the rebels with such a fire as completely and 
definitely changed their purpose. So well w T as the effect of 
the gallant repulse of this flank movement understood in the 
army, and by the commanding generals, that General McClel- 
lan honorably mentions the Seventy-sixth in his report of the 
campaign. 

The Seventy-sixth was at this point relieved, though the 
order of the staff officer relieving, was soon after counter- 
manded. The ground was very rough, but the Regiment fell 
back with great steadiness. This was the last determined 
attempt of the enemy at South Mountain. Colonel Wain- 
wright, despite his wound, which was quite severe, was 
almost in ecstacies, as he addressed his fragment of a Regi- 
ment iipon their soldierly bearing and heroic deeds in this 
battle. He seemed at a loss for words to express his gratitude 
to them, and his sense of the value of their services in defeat- 
ing these repeated attempts to flank the army, and which, if 
accomplished, would have lost to us the important battle of 
South Mountain. 

During this battle, General Hatch, in command of the 
Division, was severely wounded, and General Doubleday took 
command of the Division. 



156 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment 1ST. T. V. 

It bad now become so dark that neither side could see the 
other, and our men only aimed at the flashes of the rebel 
muskets, and these soon ceased. The order was given to the 
Brigade to cease firing. Xo one knew the position or strength 
of the enemy in front, so advance would be worse than folly ; 
and there stood our men, silently and grimly, at the fence, 
while several minutes of silence ensued. All was still as though 
no battle had been raging, except now and then a groan from 
the wounded, or the sound of a rammer, as it sent down the 
ball for the next discharge. This silence was of short dura- 
tion. Just as our men were congratulating themselves that 
this battle was over, the rebels, thinking that our troops had 
retreated, rushed forward towards the fence, at the same time 
pouring in a volley of musketry. The fire was too high to 
cause any damage, though the balls tearing through the trees, 
and bringing down a shower of twigs and leaves, plainly told 
what havoc a better aim would have inflicted. Our men 
were prepared to meet them, and they were compelled to fall 
back before the fire of our line. 

The firing had nearly ceased. Our Division, relieved by 
General Kickett's, was drawn up in line, as if for a review, 
and our Brigade ordered to lie down on their arms about a 
hundred feet from the fence, ready for a night attack, which 
seemed probable. For a time the firing was heard on the left, 
now coming nearer, bringing the sad indication that our men 
were being driven, and then receding, showing us to be victo- 
rious, until it finally ceased, and the battle of South 
Mountain was a recorded victory to the Union arms. 

AVe have not the report of the losses of the Seventy-sixth in 
this battle, but something of an idea can be formed of the 
severity of the conflict in which they took so conspicuous a 
part, when we state that in this contest for the possession of 
Turner's Gap, the loss on our part, along the whole line, was 



Patriotism of the Seventy-sixth. 157 

three hundred and twenty-eight killed, and fourteen hundred 
and sixty-three wounded. 

Colonel Wainwright was forced, in consequence of his 
wound, to leave the Regiment, to rejoin it at Warren ton some 
seven weeks afterwards. 

Whatever we may think of General McClellan's course at 
Alexandria, in failing to reinforce General Pope, the people 
will give him credit for the skill with which he handled the 
disorganized troops of both his and Pope's defeated armies, 
and while on the march after the retreating enemy, so organ- 
ized them as to win a victory, at such great disadvantage, over 
the victorious army of Lee. 

For the proper organization of an army, General McClellan 
had few, if any, equals. His chief fault consisted in the kid- 
glove style in which he fought them after they were organized ; 
or, perhaps, more properly speaking, the hesitating manner in 
which he marched them to the fight. 

The Seventy-sixth always enjoyed the proud consciousness 
that the Regiment was composed of the very best material. 
The men, for the most part, went to war from patriotic 
motives ; they were led by gallant and brave officers, and these 
facts gave them self-confidence. But to this had been added 
that drill which, for the last two or three months, had been 
disciplining and giving tone to their naturally patriotic char- 
acters, until no Regiment in the field stood higher in soldierly 
qualities. 

Charles E. Stamp was but a sample. Colonel Wainwright, 
after this heroic fighting, might well afford to say he felt proud 
to command such a regiment. 

It cannot be denied that men who fight for principle arc 
more to be depended upon in circumstances calculated to test 
the heroism of men, than those who are fighting simply for 
pay, or to serve a period of enlistment into which they were 



158 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

induced to enter by large bounties offered, or to avoid conscrip- 
tion. This was well shown by comparison of the Seventy- 
sixth, as a sample, and the regiments that entered the service 
in 1S6J:. Of the latter there were some good regiments ; but 
in the main they consisted of men who could about as easily have 
been bought by a large bounty from the enemy ; and one-half 
of the number enlisted, either deserted before reaching the 
field, or proved " dead beats " after arriving there. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

After the Battle op South Mountain— Decided Union Victory— Appearance of 
tue Battle Field— Pursuing the Rebels— Ben Van Valkenburg Captures 
Nine Prisoners— Battle of Antietam— Terrible Slaugher— Another Victory- 
Description of the Field after the Battle— Failure to Eeap the Golden Ear- 
vest. 

September loth. — This clay has revealed the horrors of last 
night's work. Neither side then knew the extent of the injury 
it was inflicting upon the other ; but to-day, the Union army 
has before it the results of the battle in all their terrible 
reality. When the gray morning broke in the east, and the 
men of the Seventy-sixth arose from their earthy bed, there 
at the rail fence, as though they were statuary, stood Rickett's 
Division, guns loaded, bayonets fixed, ready for a repetition 
of last night's assaults. Thus had they stood all night, mo- 
mentarily expecting the attack, but it came not ; and now, as 
the light revealed the field, no rebel army was to be seen. 
Before them, however, were spread the unmistakable evidences 
of the deadly volleys which the Seventy-sixth and their com- 
rades had poured into the rebel ranks. The dead lay thickly 
scattered, in some instances piled one upon another, over the 
field. So closely had the enemy approached our lines, in their 
desperate charges, that more than thirty of their dead lay 
within ten paces of the fence which had marked the boundary 
of the Union advance. The men were not Ions: in venturing; 
over into this bivouac of rebel dead. Here lay a poor fellow 



160 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. Y. 

with his head upon his arm, and his eyes closed as though in 
sleep ; here another, with gun clenched fast in his hand, and a 
determined look still upon his face ; there, where the fire had 
been more deadly, lay several, the one across the other, as if 
the heat of battle had melted a battalion, and they had all 
fallen. It was a sickening sight, as they lay with their eyes, 
as they were for the most part, open and staring toward 
heaven. All animosity, at such a time, yields to the better 
impulses of our nature, and we wonder how it is that man can 
lift his hand to slay his brother. We forget the cause of the 
strife, and, as we contemplate these faces, and think of their 
darlings who will never again behold them, till they meet on 
the other shore, we involuntarily drop a tear for the misguided 
men we killed but yesterday. 

In the foremost of the fight lay Colonel Strange, of the 
Nineteenth Virginia. Evidently a man of character, he had 
died as any brave man could wish to, if die he must, — in the 
front, with his face to his foes. His death had evidently been 
instantaneous, for he still held in his hand the sword which he 
was swinging at the time when death summoned him to his 
final account, while on his countenance was depicted that 
stern determination to succeed which had brought him so near 
our lines. Xor was he alone in his determination to pierce 
the Union lines, for a few feet to his left lay another officer, 
and still further on, a young lieutenant, whose intelligent and 
even handsome countenance attracted general attention. 

" Poor fellows !" our men could but exclaim. 

What a lesson is this for all future time ! What an awful 
reckoning is in reserve for those who, for ambitious, unholy 
ends, when the country was at peace, and prosperity spread 
her mantle over the whole land, could thus foment discord, 
and, with nothing to settle except the consciousness that they 
were oppressing three million human beings, could call the 



After the Battle of South Mountain. 161 

sword from its scabbard to thus inflict ruin and destruction upon 
themselves ! Surely, " whom the gods destroy, they first make 
mad." These men who now lie with their faces upturned, 
came not here for love of war, nor to redress any real griev- 
ances, but because stimulated and urged forward by the few 
leading spirits, whose custom it had long been to rule the 
South ; controlling the political, social and religious organiza- 
tions, and arrogating to themselves the intelligence and moral 
worth of that section. Those men, and not these slain, are 
responsible for all this havoc. Many of these dead were never 
induced to enter the service ; but were actually conscripted to 
fight for an institution in which they had no interest, and for 
which they had no respect. 

One of our men venturing further than his comrades, dis- 
covered a long, gaunt " gray-back," about seventeen years of 
age, concealed behind a stump, without weapons. On finding 
himself discovered, he leaped forward, exclaiming, "Don't 
shoot ! Don't shoot ! I'm your prisoner." He was taken 
before the General, and there satisfied every one who heard 
his child-like story, that he never voluntarily entered the ser- 
vice. He detailed the manner in which he had been 
conscripted, drilled, and finally brought up this mountain to 
be shot at, and concluded as follows : — 

" I told 'em I was a coward and couldn't fight, but they 
drove me up here, where I came near being killed ; so I 
dropped, and crawled behind a stump and waited there all 
night." 

This was no solitary instance in which the cradle was robbed 
to furnish recruits for the rebel army. 

In the cornfield where the Seventy-sixth repulsed the last 
attempted flank movement, the rebel dead were literally piled 
in heaps. Our loss was much less, but the sight there was 
indeed very sad. The dead heroes were gathered together 



162 Tiie Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

and ranged in rows, side by side, each regiment by itself, that 
so far as possible, their comrades and acquaintances should 
perform for them the simple and sad rites of burial upon the 
battle-field. No sermon was delivered ; no hymn sung ; no 
salute fired, and no coffin, not even the plain box, enclosed 
their remains ; but a trench was dug, the blankets wrapped 
around the dead, and they were covered from the sight of 
their sorrowing comrades. 

This battle was one of the most decisive Union victories of 
the war. The rebels, utterly routed, ran in wild confusion down 
the mountain side, throwing away their guns, knapsacks, and 
whatever tended to impede their progress. Had night been 
delayed two hours longer, the whole rebel army must una- 
voidably have been captured or annihilated; for when 
darkness closed the battle, the Union army had surrounded 
the rebels on three sides, with but one possible way of retreat, 
and that was through a narrow ravine, which the batteries 
could easily have rendered impassable. As it was, night fur- 
nished a means of escape which was well improved. 

Our fragment of a Brigade was now permitted to light 
fires and make coffee. The hard tack and coffee were hardly 
disposed of, before orders were received to march towards 
Boonesborough. The wounded were placed in ambulances 
and sent back to Frederick, while the able-bodied went for- 
ward, this time in search of their retreating foe. 

To follow a retreating foe has a much better effect upon an 
army, than to retreat before a victorious enemy. The last 
month had verified this. While coming from Gainesville and 
Bull Bun, the men attempted to keep cheerful ; but they 
could not rid themselves of the fact that they had been beaten 
and were retreating. Now, as they went forward, their jokes 
and merry laughter plainly told of the change that had come 
over them. Nothing is so exhilarating to the soldier, as an 
occasional victory. 



Ben. Van Valkenbukg's Raid. 1G3 

The country was filled with rebel stragglers, and though 
many were driven in at the point of the sabre, by the rebel 
cavalry, very many fell into our hands. 

An incident connected with one of the men of the Seventy- 
sixth, while it furnishes a sample of the courage and Yankee 
ingenuity prevalent in the Regiment, also illustrates the 
demoralized condition of the rebel army : — Benjamin Van 
Valkenburg, a corporal in Company I, had been detailed as 
orderly at the headquarters of General Doubled ay. As the 
Division moved down the mountain, the day following the 
battle, " Ben." descried a fine farm house a mile or so distant, 
and visions of chickens and other contraband, induced him 
to gallop on ahead of the column, until he found himself in 
advance of the front line of skirmishers. On entering the 
yard, he rode around the house, intent on striking some sort of 
a bargain for as much poultry as would be required by the 
General's mess, including the orderlies, when, instead of the 
smiling face of the housewife, he suddenly confronted seven 
stalwart rebel soldiers sitting on the porch, with rifles danger- 
ously convenient. The rebels stared at Ben., who returned 
the compliment. To use his own expression, he felt " mightily 
scared ;" but to run was to receive seven rebel bullets in the 
back, and that was a portion of Ben.'s body which could not 
with his consent be thus desecrated. Summoning all his 
courage, he drew his revolver, dashed resolutely up to the 
rebels and ordered them to surrender ! All threw down their 
arms save one, who swore he would never surrender for any 
Yankee. Ben. leveled his six-shooter at the head of the diso- 
bedient rebel, and gave him half a minute to make up his 
mind. "With a bitter oath, down went his gun, also. " Fall 
in !" shouted Ben. The first impulse of his undrilled battal- 
ion was to disobey orders ; but all demurring was silenced by 
a flourish of the revolver. Ben. had not failed to observe that 



164 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

officers on horses ride behind their commands, and in this 
particular case it was a safe position. Having formed his line, 
the order was given, "Forward, march I" As they passed out 
through the gate, they met two other rebels, well armed. 
Our commandant ordered them to " fall in !" Supposing the 
squad to be Union skirmishers, they readily obeyed, and a 
short march brought the Corporal, with his nine prisoners, to 
the Division commander. General Doubleday was so pleased 
with this daring act, that he offered Yan Yalkenburg a com- 
mission ; but his reply was as fall of genuine simplicity and 
honesty, as his achievement had been of heroism and cour- 
age:— 

" I am much obliged to you, General," said the Corporal, 
" but I am uneducated and unfitted for an office. I came 
here to light, and that I am willing to do." 

The General declared himself honored by association with 
men of such modest courage, and ever afterwards Ben. was a 
favorite at Division headquarters. 

Nothing occurred to impede the progress of the Union army 
in their hunt for the rebels, until the sixteenth of September. 
Towards evening of that day, the skirmishers reported the 
enemy in the vicinity of Antietam Creek. The Brigade con- 
tinued its march until after dark, when it bivouacked for the 
night. , Pickets were thrown out in advance of the regiments, 
and the remainder lay down for a night's rest. 

In the morning, as it became sufficiently light to clearly 
distinguish objects, the pickets of the Seventy-sixth found the 
rebel pickets so near that they might almost, in some instances, 
shake hands. The position was a delicate one for both sides ; 
but by mutual consent, due deference was paid to their short 
acquaintance as individuals and no picket firing was indulged 
in by either side. The Seventy-sixth lay behind a fence in a 
depression of the earth, on the Hagerstown pike. A state of 



Battle of Antietam. 165 

inaction was not, however, long indulged in. Shortly after 
daylight, a heavy lire was opened by the rebel artillery, occu- 
pying a little eminence about half a mile distant. Our 
artillery was soon brought to a small elevation about forty 
rods in rear of the Seventy-sixth, and from daylight until 
about ten o'clock, a brisk artillery duel was carried on over 
the heads of our men. Usually the balls and shells passed 
harmlessly over their heads ; but now and then a shell with an 
improper fuse would burst in quite too close proximity for the 
enjoyment of the men ; and occasionally a ball fired at too 
small an elevation, and falling short of its intended object, 
would plow up the soil, scattering the dust and stones promis- 
cuously over the Regiment. 

This being placed between the fires of two armies, while it 
is very exciting, is too much like holding an apple upon one's 
head, to be shot off as a target. The marksman may be ordi- 
narily correct in his aim, but the position of the man under 
fire is more a post of honor than enjoyment. 

The Seventy-sixth had, however, proved its courage under 
much more severe tests than this, and to one unaccustomed to 
such scenes, their indifference was truly remarkable. 

About ten o'clock the .Regiment was ordered to the right to 
support a battery. The enemy, at this point, was protected by 
a piece of woods, and a stone wall running along in front, 
while the Union battery and its supports were entirely unpro- 
tected. The Regiment was not under infantry fire at this 
battle. 

About four P. M., Lieutenant Byram was sent about half a 
mile, with Company A, to watch the enemy and check his 
advance from a certain direction. No enemy, however, made 
his appearance. Two of the men visited an adjacent farm- 
house and procured a large quantity of fresh bread and sweet 
butter, and Company A enjoyed a feast near the battle-field, 



166 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

which, for a time, diverted their minds from the dangers 
which surrounded them. That night the men slept upon their 
arms, expecting a renewal of the fight the next morning. The 
men stood by their guns, momentarily expecting the opening 
of the fight, but it came not, and soon it was found that the 
enemy had again retreated during the night. 

By military men, Antietam is considered as one of the most 
scientific battles of the war. Surely, if the destruction of 
your enemy is a mark of science, this battle is held in due 
appreciation. The fighting, as a whole, was truly terrific. 
Standing upon an eminence, and taking in the whole battle- 
field at one view, as we look upon a vast picture, the sight was 
magnificent, if that word may be applied to the awful carnage 
of a closely contested battle, where a stern determination to 
win a victory is displayed on both sides. From every hillock 
in this vast extent of uneven landscape, came the puffs and 
wreaths of smoke, showing the location of the batteries of 
artillery and regiments of infantry. For several miles the 
earth trembled as the battalions belched forth their terrible 
thunders, while an unceasing rattle of musketry filled the in- 
tervals. Soon out from this field of fire, and smoke, and 
thunderings came the sad evidences of the awful work there 
going forward. First, an occasional wounded man, and then 
they became more frequent, until towards noon a continual 
stream of wounded and dying poured to the rear. Some with 
broken arms ; others limping along ; while others, unable to 
move, were brought in on stretchers or in ambulances, or in 
the arms of their companions, covered with blood, and many 
already in the last agonies. The sight was a heart-sickening 
one, and one which, under other circumstances, would have 
been unendurable ; but in war, bloodshed and carnage are ex- 
pected, and one comes to look upon them as a matter of 
course. 



Desolations of War. 167 

On the seventeenth the Regiment was engaged all day sup- 
porting a battery, so that it did not share very largely in the 
fight. Several, however, were wounded. 

During the battle, General Hooker received a painful wound, 
which compelled him to withdraw from the field. This was a 
great loss at this time,' for General Hooker was a fighting man, 
and to him more, perhaps, than any other one man is due the 
honor of the Union victory at Antietam. 

The enemy having retreated, the battle-field, which had 
been so closely contested foot by foot, remained in our posses- 
sion. The enemy carried off all except the more severely 
wounded ; yet the scenes of the battle-field were most sicken- 
ing the next morning. For miles where the battle had raged 
most fiercely, the ground was covered with dead officers, sol- 
diers and horses, while gnus, knapsacks, haversacks, canteens, 
and all the other implements of warfare, were thickly sprinkled 
over the field. In many places, the field had been taken and 
retaken several times, so that with the graybacks were often 
mingled the "boys in blue." 

Before this battle, the neighborhood in which it was fought, 
had been an interesting farming community. But a fortnight 
before, it had been dotted over with farm-houses filled with 
happy families, while the goddess of peace and plenty was 
about to fulfill her golden promises. The barns were already 
stored with hay and the earlier grains, while the large and 
luxuriant cornfields, and fields of later grains, and extensive 
orchards, bending with their rich loads of apples and peaches, 
spoke cheerfully of pleasant evenings around the domestic 
firesides. In the midst of this little Eden valley, was the 
well-attended brick church, from which the light of Christian- 
ity had radiated until meeting the rays of similar influences, 
they had nearly obliterated the last traces of human slavery. 
But how severely had this beautiful valley suffered. The 



168 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

horses and hungry soldiers had eaten up the cornfields and 
cereals. The fruit had been prematurely plucked. Every 
house, barn and outbuilding had been pierced by the shot and 
shells of the contending hosts ; and now, the day after the 
battle, not a family remains in that recently so densely popu- 
lated region. The little church standing by the roadside in 
an important position, seems to have been the focal point 
where the wrath of the contending armies met, for a hundred 
cannon solid-shot have pierced it, while thousands of bullets 
have marred its sacred walls. In this church, lying upon its 
hard benches, are many of the enemy, more severely wounded, 
one of whom, in delirium, is raving like a madman : but for 
the most part they bear their fate with remarkable resignation. 
Can it be they believe they are dying to uphold or perpetuate 
any great moral principle ? Charity compels us to believe it ; 
but the belief impeaches their oft-repeated claims to superior 
intelligence. 

For two days our army was actively engaged in burying the 
dead. Long trenches were dug, into which they were piled, 
and to-day thousands sleep their last sleep on that fated 
field, while those who held them most dear, will visit in vain 
their final resting-place, in hope of finding some mark by 
which they may identify the spot sacred to them as the home 
of their cherished dead. 

Several days' rest was now given to the Union army, to re- 
cruit from the effects of the last two severe struggles. The 
enemy had been severely repulsed — sent headlong down the 
western slope of South Mountain, to be again defeated and 
driven from the field at Antietam, and everybody prophesied, 
both in the army and out of it, that the enemy would be driven 
into the 'Potomac, or captured, and at the lapse of this brief 
period of time, no one can doubt that a vigorous movement 
upon our part would have accomplished the one or the other 



Halting. 169 

of these desirable results. For some reason, the Union army 
halted on the very threshold of its successes, and the disor- 
ganized rebel army was permitted to recross the Potomac, to 
choose again its own field for defensive warfare. 

While the army thus rested, large numbers swarmed from 
the North in search of friends who had fallen in battle. 
Daily funeral processions marched along the Ilagerstown pike, 
bearing, for burial in their Northern cemeteries, the caskets 
that so lately contained those manly spirits which, as fathers, 
sons and brothers, these mourning pilgrims had so highly 
prized. It was, indeed, a mournful sight ; but they had not 
died in vain. The rebel invaders had been hurled from the 
soil of loyal Maryland, and the North was thus protected from 
the ravaging tread of the implacable foe. Over their broken 
caskets will be preached many a patriotic sermon, and at the 
sight of this new evidence of the wickedness of this rebellion, 
many a new resolve will be made, to take form in action on 
future battle-fields. Thus temporarily-successful efforts of 
rebel hands will be the very means of rendering the success 
ephemeral. 

For some unaccountable reason, the successful armies of the 
Potomac and Virginia remained over a whole month of fine 
weather idle. The roads were splendid. The men were 
anxious to end the work they had to do, and return to their 
friends and peaceful avocations, elated with success, and 
anxious to reap the fruits of their late desperate struggles, by 
the capture of the enemy ; daily impatiently inquiring when 
the order to move would come, and yet it was delayed. Sum- 
mer had yielded to autumn, and soon it would be winter, when 
of necessity the campaign must be ended. Privates saw this. 
Non-commissioned, commissioned officers, and even generals 
as high in rank as commanders of divisions, saw it. But 
somehow, further up the scale, on the top of the wheel, or 



170 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment 1ST. Y. V. 

near it, there was a cog gone, or out of shape, or something : 
so the army did not move. We might as well say it. " The 
right man was not in the right place," in command of this 
impatient army. Too much West Point science had weak- 
ened his strategy ; or the film of future expectancy had 
obstructed his vision, so that he could not see the rich harvest 
which he could reap by one day's rapid march, and half a 
day's active fighting on the north side of the Potomac. The 
people became tired of the delay. The newspaper assurances 
that General McClellan was about to capture the whole rebel 
army became stale, so that the ragged news-boys slyly winked 
with one eye, as they cried it out, as much as to say, " It may 
sell the papers, but will sell the people," until the kind and 
forgiving spirit of President Lincoln could bear the delay no 
longer, and General McClellan was ordered forward. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

On the March— John Brovtn— Jeff. Davis— Rainy Experiences— Return or Cloth- 
ing Left at Alexandria— Confiscation in the ARMr— Capture of tub Blue 
Ridge Passes— Fight at Ashbt's Gap— Guarding Rebel Proferty— Foraging— 
IIonet— Chickens— Marching Orders. 

October VMh. — The Division of General Donbleday, was 

to-day ordered to Bakersville, a little village about six miles 
further up the Potomac. The men had been in camp since 
the eighteenth of September, and five weeks of the dull rou- 
tine of camp life usually gives relish to orders to march, 
though it were to march into battle. 

In this instance, so much time had been given the rebels to 
escape, after the demonstrations of our strength, that the idea 
of an immediate fight was by no one indulged. It was to be 
a hunting excursion, the most forbidding feature of which, 
was the probable distance to be traveled before the game 
would be found. Before night the Brigade had reached the 
camp assigned them, and our pickets guarded the Potomac to 
keep the rebels from effecting a crossing, which they would 
have attempted with about the eagerness that an intelligent 
child thrusts its hands into a fire in which it has just been 
severely burned. 

Scarcely had the men encamped for the night, when the 
rain commenced to pour down in torrents, which to the fact 
that the evenings were now getting cool, added the further 



172 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

gloomy prospect of muddy roads and wet camping-grounds. 
Rain in camp is not so much to be dreaded ; but it is ever an 
unwelcome visitor on the march, and especially in changing 
camps, where it becomes necessary to pitch tents upon the 
ground thoroughly saturated with water. 

The stay at this point was to be brief. Orders were given 
for the preparation of three days' cooked rations, which 
usually means a march ; and finally, on the twenty-sixth of 
October, the marching order came. 

The day was exceedingly stormy. The rain poured down 
in torrents ; the roads were universally muddy ; the wagons 
rolled slowly along, nearly to the hubs in the mud ; the men 
waded through it, with the rain dripping from their knapsacks, 
and their shelter tents wrapped about them thoroughly 
soaked ; yet never was army happier. One might well sup- 
pose that their late experiences would have saddened their 
hearts, and deprived them of all feelings of hilarity, while the 
gloominess of their surroundings was enough to weigh down 
their spirits. But, somehow in the army, the more severe the 
rain and the deeper the mud, the more jokes and stories. To- 
day, as they marched so near the spot where John Brown became 
a martyr to the cause of liberty, the whole army struck up the 
song : — 

" John Brown's body lies mouldering in the grave, 
While his soul goes marching on." 

What a desecration of the day, and the very soil, this must 
have seemed to any " F. F. Y.," who, skulkingly, listened to 
the song, and slyly witnessed the marching of this liberty- 
loving army. It may be necessary to distribute whisky rations 
on a hard march ; but to keep the rain out, and revive the 
spirits, experience gives the preference to the loyal inspiration 
of such a song. While there is no depression consequent upon 
it, it lifts the soul to a proper appreciation of the duty to be 



JonN Bkown — Jeff. Davis. 173 

performed, and nerves the soldier in his crusade for the right. 
John Brown was misguided, we may conclude, judging from 
a certain stand-point ; but it is a great pity his spirit did not 
enter more largely into the men high in command of our 
armies at the time of which we write. The hero who, with 
his handful of men and one cow, could frighten the State of 
Virginia, and, in tact, the whole South, would not have sat 
quiet five long weeks, after two decisive victories, to permit 
his vanquished foe to Build bridges over which to escape in 
safety to his home ! Who shall say that the spirit of John 
Brown did not whisper courage and manly resolves in the ears 
of our soldiery, as they approached the place which his daring 
deed has wrenched from oblivion and made historic ? 
" We'll hang Jeff. Davison a sour apple tree !" 

Shouted the " boys in blue," as they plodded along through 
the rain and the mud, and the two quotations were very 
fittingly sung in the same stanza. The spirit that made Jeff. 
Davis President, hung John Brown. The spirit that applaud- 
ed the freedom-loving sacrifice of John Brown, would very 
properly return the hanging compliment to Jeff. Davis. These 
spirits of liberty and slavery are antagonistic, and he was a 
wise and true statesman who declared that they can never 
live at peace in this Government. The one has gone down 
very shortly after it vented its spite upon the defenseless head 
of poor John Brown, while his name will live to be sung in 
the nursery, and the camp of Freedom's sons forever. "We 
could have wished, if that were best — of which we express no 
opinion — that John Brown might not have been so rash as to 
throw himself into the hands of the rebels, nor do we worship 
him above all the other apostles of freedom ; but, as a repre- 
sentative of freedom, we desire to see his disinterested sacrifice 
on the altar of human rights accepted. 

The night of the twenty-seventh of October was passed in 



171 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

bivouac at the western entrance to Crampton's Gap, in the 
South Mountains. The hastily prepared cup of coffee was 
swallowed, and soon the men, wet and tired, had found that 
sleep which they so much needed. 

October 2Sth. — The Division reached Berlin, a small village 
on the Maryland side of the Potomac, which had been chosen 
as the crossing-place into Virginia. The weather had now 
cleared up, and everything wore a more pleasant countenance ; 
though the men suffered considerably from the chilliness of 
the night air. 

The Regiment at four P. M. encamped about a mile out of 
the village. These were, indeed, stirring times. The whole 
army was concentrating here, preparatory to crossing. The 
village is situated on the railroad and canal, and was made 
the depot of supplies for the Avhole army until it reached 
Warren ton. 

Many of the. sick and wounded left by the Regiment at 
Fredericksburg, Gainesville, Bull Run and South Mountain, 
had rejoined the Regiment during the halt, after the battle of 
Antietam, and were illy prepared to endure the severe march 
which had already been made. They had been completely 
saturated, and had marched nearly all night. The wind blew 
bitterly cold, and when they finally went into camp, it was 
only to pass the remainder of the night without sleep, huddled 
about the camp fires in the vain attempt to get warm and dry. 
An instance will tend to illustrate : — 

Captain Swan, of Company II, had recently returned to 
the Regiment, partially recovered from a severe wound in the 
hip, received in battle. He, however, marched with his Com- 
pany from Bakersville. When the Regiment went into camp 
for the remainder of the night, the Captain sought a little 
sleep, by burrowing under a hay-stack. Thus ensconced, with 
his rubber blanket wrapped around him, he fell into an uneasy 



Incidents of the Maech. 175 

cloze, soon, however, waking with a shivering sensation 
throughout his entire body, especially the under side. On 
rising, a torrent of water poured out of his blanket, down 
into his boots, filling them to overflowing ! His position had 
been such, that the water from the stack dripped down upon 
and into the folds of his blanket, which, being water-proof, 
refused egress to the sometimes precious fluid. The Captain 
estimated that he thus secured to himself three or four pails 
full of pure water, uncontaminated by contact with rebel 
soil ! Those who sleep in warm beds, in clean, dry rooms, can 
scarcely be made to appreciate such soldier experiences. 

At Berlin, the Regiment remained two days. Here were 
received the knapsacks that had been left on the march from 
Fredericksburg to Culpepper. It was a sad sight, as they 
were brought up to the Regiment for distribution. The 
names of the owners were printed upon them. Not more 
than half of those owners were here to claim them ! As the 
men looked them over, and read the names, a feeling of 
sadness came over them at this reminder of the terrible havoc 
which the last five months had wrought. 

" That's poor Ed's ; he wants no knapsack now !" 

" This one belonged to Charlie ; he was killed at Gaines- 
ville !" 

" Here is Johnny's ; poor fellow ! He was shot through the 
head at Bull Run !" 

" This is Charley Stamp's ; he died game at South Moun- 
tain !" 

" Here is Bill's ; he was killed at Antietam I" 

Such were the expressions of the men, until the bronzed 
soldier turned away with a heavy heart and tearful eye, from 
those evidences of the awful work in which he was engaged. 
Many garments were packed and sent home, as sad mementoes 
to surviving friends, but many were left, never to be seen by 
the friends of the honored dead again. 



176 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

But camp life is not all gloom. Sad remembrances will 
present themselves in a variety of forms ; but they are so 
quickly succeeded by a counterpart, that, on the whole, camp 
life averages, in point of exciting sport, with most of the avo- 
cations of life. 

There is always a set of men present in camp who make 
a living by selling articles to the soldiers at exorbitant prices. 
At Biker's Island we saw them sell a pistol to a boy for four- 
teen dollars, worth about five. At Camp Brightwood they 
sold " Cal." Totman a bottle of "villainous compound," called 
whiskey, for a dollar, worth, perhaps twenty-five cents. In 
the case now in hand, the man offered boots for sale at exorbi- 
tant prices. The boys had an equitable interpretation of the 
confiscation act, whether it was legal or not, and as this fellow 
mentioned his prices, they concluded it a proper case wherein 
to enforce confiscation. Some one cried out, " Rim ! rim ! 

rim !" This was caught up by others, until the cry went 
through the camp. 

Now, " Rim," in camp, means, " Seize and confiscate." 
" We rimmed that chap beautifully." " Didn't we rim that 
Johnny garden, though !" " Hurra, boys, here's a fellow with 
whisky ; let's rim him." These were the camp phrases ap- 
plied to confiscation. 

" In the case at bar," as the lawyers say, the wagon-load of 
boots was soon " rimmed," and the property that was to extort 
enormous sums from the men proved an unprofitable invest- 
ment. Report was made at headquarters, where these army 
leeches were as thoroughly detested as in the ranks. It was 
necessary, however, to investigate the matter. The Major, a 
Captain and a Lieutenant were appointed a commission to 
examine the tents and bring to trial any man found with the 
confiscated property. Notice was given in due form to the 
orderlies, who in turn promulgated the order to the men to be 



Leaving Maryland. 177 

ready for the inspection of their tents. Of course the men 
were soon ready, and no boots were found, though every tent 
was looked into. A few days after, the men looked much 
better in the new boots they had just " purchased." 

October 2$t/i. — Everything being in readiness, the troops 
commenced moving over the pontoon bridges into Virginia. 
It was with some regret that the army left the loyal, or at 
least semi-loyal, atmosphere of Maryland, for bitter-secession 
Virginia. This State has been called the " Mother of Presi- 
dents ;" but the Seventy-sixth had found her the breeder of 
vile reptiles instead, which hissed and thrust their poisonous 
fangs into the national existence, until the men began to con- 
clude that the fact that her sons had become Presidents was 
attributable more directly to their cunning intrigue in securing 
place, than any royal blood that run in the veins of the now 
disloyal mother. It was not, therefore, without regrets that 
the men again set foot upon her " sacred soil." But soldiers 
have no discretion, and on they went, until they had marched 
ten miles into the State. Here the Regiment remained two 
days. 

On the first day of November, the Brigade was sent about 
fifteen miles to Snicker's Gap, to prevent an attack from the 
enemy in that direction. It was only accompanied by a cav- 
alry force under General Pleasanton, and remained three days 
from six to ten miles in advance of the main army. The 
enemy was at that time on the west side of the Blue Ridge, in 
the V alley of the Shenandoah. 

The Brigade to which the Seventy-sixth was attached, was, 
at this time, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Ilofmann, of 
the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, a most gallant officer. 
During the three days that it was supporting General Pleas- 
anton, it was continually more or less under fire. The cavalry 
would go out and stir up the rebels, as the dog starts up the 

M 



178 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

game, then, retreating to its supports, the infantry would pour 
in such deadly volleys that the rebels would in turn retreat. 

These gaps in the mountains were important points, and no 
good general could be induced to march past them without 
so securing them that the rebels could not come through and 
cut off his supplies. It was for this purpose that General 
Pleasanton and Hofmann's Brigade were sent out. Each of 
these gaps was guarded by rebel skirmishers, with strong re- 
serves, and each was in turn taken and held by General 
Pleasanton. 

At Ashby's Gap, our Brigade did the work nobly. De- 
ployed as skirmishers, they advanced slowly up the well 
wooded sides of the narrow opening, drove in the enemy's 
pickets, rallied on our own reserves, and advanced in line of 
battle, had a sharp fight with the rebel reserves, and finally 
drove them altogether out of this important passage. 

Here, as everywhere else during the war, the negroes ren- 
dered signal service by acting as guides. 

While at Ashby's Gap, an incident occurred, which illus- 
trates the estimation in which the Seventy-sixth Regiment 
was held by the Brigade Commander. 

Colonel Ilofmann had advanced with the Fifty-sixth Penn- 
sylvania, and Ninety-fifth New York to take a battery, leaving 
the Seventy-sixth as a reserve. He failed in the attempt, and 
openly declared that if he had taken the Seventy-sixth, in the 
place of either of the others, he could have taken the battery. 

The enemy were finally driven through Ashby's Gap, and 
thus ended the running fire which had been kept up for three 
days, and extended over from twelve to fifteen miles. 

November 2>d. — The cavalry and Brigade of infantry, hav- 
ing accomplished the object in view in their detail, joined the 
Division near Union. The Seventy-sixth was here detailed to 
guard the rebel property, which they did to the entire satis- 



Guarding Rebel Property. 179 

faction of their loyal selves, whether they satisfied the disloyal 
owners or not. 

A region visited by an army, is generally left in some such 
a plight as Egypt after the locusts had swarmed over it. The 
neighborhood of Union had felt very little of the devastating 
influences of war. Nestled at the foot of the eastern slope of 
the Blue Ridge, in the rich and beautiful valley between that 
range and the Bull Run Mountains, at some distance from any 
public thoroughfare, it had thus far escaped the bitter experi- 
ences of other portions of the "Mother of Presidents. ,, It 
was, therefore, literally " overflowing with milk and honey." 
But, with all its blessings, the inhabitants had forgotten their 
allegiance to the Government that had protected them, and, 
except as policy dictated, made no secret of their sympathy 
for the rebel cause. The privates in the army understood 
that such men were entitled to no particular protection from 
the Union forces ; indeed, they very properly supposed that 
the fat poultry, and pigs, and mutton, which abounded there 
would quite as properly feed the Union soldiery, as its secesh 
owners, while the honey in the neighborhood would add a 
relish to hard tack not to be ignored. 

It was difficult for Union soldiers to stand guard over rebel 
property, while its gouty owner sat on his porch talking dis- 
loyalty, and his daughters turned up their aristocratic noses 
and flirted contemptuously by, as though their protectors were 
"beneath their notice. But poultry and honey furnish an ex- 
cellent panacea for all such insults and wounded feelings, and 
the men of the Seventy -sixth applied the remedy skilfully 
and in allopathic doses. 

One old secessionist had himself stood guard over his swarms 
<>f bees during the day, not quite liking the protection which 
his conscience told him the Union army should give them. 
They stood upon a rack in his yard, and had attracted the at- 



180 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

tention of our men. About four o'clock in the morning, 
fearing the old man might have fallen asleep, and his bees not 
properly guarded, Lieutenant Myers, with a proper guard, 
visited the premises. The rack had disappeared, and with it 
the hives of bees. Fearing that their services might have 
been tendered too late, they visited the wood-house in search 
of the lost property ; but after stumbling over divers boxes, 
casks, and piles of wood, their convictions were strengthened 
that the honey had escaped their guardian care. At last, as 
they were about leaving the premises, they cast a lingering 
look behind, when they discovered the bee rack against the 
window of the bedroom where its owner slept, and on the 
rack was one solitary hive. The window was open, and the 
hive was convenient; but so was the old gentleman. Honey 
is sweet, and so was the sleep which the old man was enjoy- 
ing, so they took the one and left the other to its owner. 
This hive of honey, after the bees were smoked out, sweetened 
many a ration for the Regiment, while the description of its 
capture deprived it of none of its sweetness. 

In the earlier part of the same night, certain poultry yards 
had been guarded in much the same manner. 

" Mister," said Frank F. Pratt, of Company A, accompa- 
nied by a scpiad, " have you any chickens?" 

" I have a few," replied the secessionist, " and will sell them 
to you." 

" Where are they ?" 

" Out in those trees," said "secesh." " There, you climb up 
and get what you want, and then you can go up and do the 
same," pointing first to one and then to another of the boys. 

This was too slow a process; so the boys all climbed up 
together, each taking a separate tree. No sooner had they 
seized those nearest them, than the others flew awa}\ 



Foraging. 1 s l 

" Hallo, there ! here go the chickens," shouted " secesh," 
as he rushed off in pursuit of the wanderers. 

The men descended, but the proprietor was gone, and time 
was precious. They could not wait to pay. 

The boys always justified themselves with the proposition 
that if a man leaves his ninety and nine chickens in the tree, 
to seek the one that Hies away, he has no right to complain at 
the absence of the ninety-nine thus abandoned, when he shall 
again return. 

Similar experiences were not wanting with reference to all 
the delicacies, as well as substantial, necessary to make camp 
life pleasant. 

The men were congratulating themselves upon a little quiet 
camp life in this region of plenty, when, after a stay of twen- 
ty-four hours, the order came to march ! 

The honey was stored in all descriptions of receptacles — 
oyster and milk cans, sardine-boxes, and whatever was at hand 
that was honey-proof, while the supply of chickens packed in 
haversacks and knapsacks precluded the necessity for the usual 
order to distribute three days' rations. Could a vote have 
been taken in the army at this time, there would have been 
very few dissenting voices to General Pope's order to forage 
and subsist on the enemy. 

So bitterly opposed to the Union army and cause were the 
people of this region, that one gouty old land owner, seeing 
the boys drinking and filling their canteens at his well, rushed 
out and took the handle from the pump, and carried it into 
the house, and then, with the effrontery peculiar to Virginians, 
went to headquarters and asked for, and actually obtained, a 
guard to protect his private property ! 

Another incident is related to us by a friend, where a sol- 
dier, at a later period of the war, entered a house and asked 



182 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

for milk, offering to pay for the same. The " daughter of 
A r irginia " refused him, on the ground that she had none. 
This he did not believe, and it was not until he had threat- 
ened to demolish her piano with the butt of his musket, that 
she produced milk in plenty from under her bed. Most people 
will agree with us in saying that he was a generous soldier who 
insisted upon paying for the milk he thus obtained. 



CHAPTER XV. 

March to Warrenton— " What Guns Do You Carry?"— Snow Storm— General 
McClellan Leaves the Army— Colonel Wainwright Returns to the Regiment 
— Warrenton to Falmouth— Continually Changing— Arriye at Fredericksburg 
— Another Battle Imminent. 

Ox the morning of November third, the Regiment took up 
its Hue of march, and continued on until nine o'clock P. M., 
when it arrived at a little village called Upperville, where a 
rest of a three days was given. The weather had now become 
cold, and the men suffered severely. 

Nothing noteworthy occurred, except hard marching, until 
the Regiment reached Warrenton, on the sixth of November. 
The last day before reaching that place, the men marched 
eighteen miles, and were extremely pleased to receive the 
orders to halt and go into camp. Though weary with march- 
ing, the Regiment entered Warrenton with much lighter 
hearts than when two months and a half before, they retreated 
through its streets. The rebels had very lately been here, and 
about four hundred of its wounded were still in its hospital. 

While at a halt in the streets of Warrenton, the Seventy- 
sixth chanced to be directly in front of a building occupied as 
a rebel hospital. The windows were filled with rebels, anx- 
ious to get a view of our troops. 

"What regiment is that?" shouted a "Johnny," from a 
window. 



184 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment 1ST. Y. V. 

" Seventy-sixth New York," was the proud reply. 

" Is that so ? Then you are the cusses that gave it to us so 
at Gainesville. Say, boys, what kind of guns be them you 
carry ?" 

" Come down and look at them, if you would like to know." 

" Wall, I'd like to know, for I reckon they are different 
from any other, for they send a bullet through seven men at 
once if they stand in a row." 

A pause, and then another voice shouts from a different 
window : — 

" Say, you fellers, which of you sp'ilt the leg of General 
Ewell, hey?" 

But no one in the Seventy-sixth could answer. It might 
have been any one in the Regiment, for that volley leaped from 
every gun, as if from one, and General Ewell will never know 
the man, though he must distinctly recollect the Regiment 
which, at Gainesville, deprived him of a leg. 

Passing on, the Regiment went into camp about two miles 
from town, where it remained four days. While here the 
Regiment encountered the first fall of snow. It was not- one 
of your half rain, half snow storms, such as had been wit- 
nessed the winter before in Washington ; but a regular 
Northern snow storm, wherein the snow fell a foot deep. 

Colonel Wainwright here resumed command of the Regi- 
ment, having partially recovered from the effects of the wound 
received at South Mountain. 

At Warren ton, General McClellan was relieved of his com- 
mand of the army. The parting scene was truly affecting. 
General McClellan was a kind-hearted man, and as such, 
endeared himself to the men ; and now, as he rode along 
the lines, the demonstrations of the men must have in some 
measure, quieted his sensitive mind, naturally annoyed at 
being dismissed at such a time as this. He who has the hard- 



General McClellan Believed. 185 

iliood to declare that General McClellan had no good traits of 
character, even for a general, does himself injustice. No gen- 
eral ever exhibited a better faculty for winning the confidence 
and esteem of his men ; none ever took better care of his 
troops; few excelled him in organizing an army; but still, 
the fact was patent that he was an unsuccessful general on the 
march and in the field. Those unacquainted with military 
science, may not be able to point out accurately the defects in 
his military character ; but there certainly was wanting the 
necessary element, success. A general may be an excellent 
draughtsman, and make splendid maps of intended operations ; 
he may be skilled in engineering, and detect in a moment the 
salient points in a given fortification ; he may understand per- 
fectly the science of approaches by parallels ; but if he fails 
when he takes the field ; if he tires the people by his dilatory 
inarches, and fails to reap the results of repeated victories, the 
people will consider him, and history will write him, a failure ! 
With all his good qualities, the halting at Yorktown ; the fail- 
ure at Richmond ; the failure to give support to Pope, and the 
neglect to gather the fruits which the heroism of our gallant 
soldiery placed in his power at South Mountain and Antietam, 
must ever arise to accuse General McClellan. 

November 11th. — The Regiment to-day marched about 
seven miles to Fayetteville. This place consisted of one log 
barn, tottering into dilapidation, one small frame house, two or 
three small whitewashed negro quarters, and four «• five 
aged apple trees ! One of the most striking contrasts be- 
tween the vigorous North and sleepy South is found in the 
villages of the two sections. At the North, wherever a little 
village springs up, there is life and activity, and evidences of 
industry and thrift ; at the South, the villages on the map 
may be as numerous, with more celebrated names; but when 
visited, they are found to be thriftless and, like the western 



186 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. T. 

cities during the rush of speculators, existing chiefly on paper. 
The same remark applies to the Southern cities. What at 
the North would be considered a fair specimen of a broken- 
down manufacturing town, where some visionary speculator 
had spent a fortune in building up a town, and then become 
a bankrupt, while his town resolved itself back to a wilder- 
ness, the Southrons dub " city," mistaking the results of want 
of energy, for evidences of antiquated aristocracy. Slavery 
dragged the South down — freedom built up the North. 
Slavery is dead, and freedom reigns universal, and the South 
will yet thank the " Yankee horde " who overran their terri- 
tory, achieving for the South an inestimable victory over their 
superstitions — a victory which the direful institution of human 
slavery prevented them from achieving for themselves. 

Four days of halting at Fayetteville, and away went the 
troops for Falmouth. The enemy was at this time marching 
down from west of the Blue Ridge to a position south of the 
Rappahannock. 

Two days of hard marching through the rain and mud, a 
bivouac in a swamp for two days, until the water actually 
drove the troops away, and then another day's march brought 
the Regiment to " Brooks's Station," on the railroad from 
Aquia Creek to Fredericksburg. This is the same point at 
which, just six months before, the Seventy-sixth bivouacked 
for the night after its first day's march in Virginia. 

It was now exceedingly cold, and during the few days the 
Regiment remained at Brooks's Station the men were busy in 
the endeavor to make themselves comfortable. This was 
scarcely accomplished, when the Seventy-sixth was ordered to 
Aquia Creek, on guard. Here the effort to be comfortable 
was repeated ; but just as the men began to feel at home, the 
order to march was again given, and away they went to Fred- 
ericksburg. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Crossing tiie Rappahannock— Battle op Fredericksburg— Heroic Charge of 
Doubleday's Division— Lieutenant Crandall Killed— The Rebels Driven from 
a Strono Position— Seventy-sixth Guards the Battery— Night Fight— Inci- 
dents and Instances of Bravery— Skilful Retreat of General Burnbide— 
Tom Sees "De Ole House Agin "—Getting into Camp— Winter Quarters— Gen- 
eral DOUBLEDAY TRANSFERRED TO ANOTHER COMMAND— HlS FAREWELL ADDRESS— 

Corduroying. 

December 11th. — All was bustle and excitement. The pon- 
toons, which should have been here long ago, had at length 
arrived, and were moving toward the river. The movements 
all indicated that the foes who had so often met, with changing 
success, for the past six months, were very soon to renew their 
acquaintance. 

December 12th. — This afternoon the Seventy-sixth crossed 
the Rappahannock with the Brigade, at the lower pontoon 
bridge, which it was detailed to guard. The whole army was 
at this time under command of General Burnside. The First 
Corps, to which the Seventy-sixth was attached, was under 
General Reynolds, afterward killed at Gettysburg. The Sixth 
Corps was under command of General Smith, and, with the 
First Corps, constituted the left Grand Division, under Gene- 
ral Franklin. The place selected for its crossing was about 
three miles below the city, where, after ascending a steep bank 
by the river, the surface spread out into a broad plain toward 
the rebel heights. 



188 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Early on the morning of the eleventh, the pontoons were 
brought clown to the river's brink and laid, one bridge by the 
Fifteenth New York Engineers, and the other by the United 
States Engineers, while the cannon stood, heavily shotted, 
upon commanding eminences, threatening destruction to the 
enemy in case he attempted to interfere with the workmen. 

'No duty requires more real courage than the laying of 
bridges, in the face of the foe. The excitements of the field 
prepare the soldier for the severest charge ; but the engineers, 
without the stimulus of excitement, must march down to the 
stream, though the rebel pickets and sharpshooters threaten on 
the other shore. The bridges were, however, laid, and to-day 
crossed in the face of the enemy. 

Our forces have been shelling the city of Fredericksburg, 
but as yet have elicited no reply. The signs are ominous for 
to-morrow ! 

The Seventy-sixth was ordered to guard the bridge to pre- 
vent any retreat of stragglers or others, even at the point of 
the bayonet, as the General said, because this Regiment could 
be depended upon in any emergency. 

After the experience of the past few months, the glory of 
being shot at was not very highly prized. The men rather 
considered it good fortune when obedience to orders required 
their presence at a point not particularly exposed ; and though 
in all the record of the Sevent}^-sixth, no instance can be found 
where, as a regiment, it sought to avoid the performance of 
its whole duty, yet the truth impels us to do justice to that 
common instinct which there, as elsewhere, preferred safety 
to danger. 

Early in the morning, December thirteenth, firing com- 
menced all along the lines, and it soon became apparent that 
a severe engagement was about to take place. The Seventy- 
sixth was congratulating itself upon its good fortune in 



Death of Lieutenant Crandall. 189 

escaping a participation in the dangers of the light, when, 
about nine o'clock, orders were received to join the Division 
moving to the front, 

The fighting in this battle was mostly done with artillery, 
yet in very few engagements have the casualties been greater 
than in this. The ground was particularly favorable to the 
rebels, and correspondingly unfavorable to us. The Union 
army was obliged to march over a broad plain, without the 
least protection, while the rebels occupied a commanding em- 
inence, from which they could pour their destructive fire over 
the whole plain below. 

Doubleday's Division formed the extreme left of the whole 
army, and our Brigade, commanded by Colonel Cutler, formed 
the right of the Division. 

The battle raged from about nine A. M., until eight P. M., 
without cessation, — our men exposed to a most destructive fire 
for eleven hours, without the power to inflict any adequate 
chastisement upon the enemy. The rebels were posted upon 
a range of hills forming nearly a semi-circle, and in the deadly 
focus was the Division of General Doubleday. The shot and 
shell came from the front and each flank, and some, at times, 
from near the rear, so favorable was the ground to the rebels. 

Shortly after marching into line, the enemy were discovered 
on the left of the Division, in a ravine that ran down to the 
river, which, being skirted by dense wood, was peculiarly well- 
protected. Doubleday's Division was ordered to drive them 
from this strongty-intrenched position. As the Division faced 
to the left, it was subjected to a galling flank fire from the 
rebel batteries on the hill. 

It was at this time that Lieutenant Crandall, of Company 
B, was killed by what, in military language, is called a 
ricochet shot. The ground was frozen, and the enemy fired 
at such an angle that the balls came bounding along over the 
plain, one of which struck Lieutenant Crandall. 



190 The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y. V. 

Previous to crossing the river, an order had been received 
to detail one officer from the Seventy-sixth, to remain on the 
north side of the river, and care for the wounded at the hos- 
pital. Lieutenant Crandall was detailed for this duty. On 
hearing of the order, and that his Company was going forward, 
he went to Colonel Wainwright, and requested, if his men 
were to go into battle, that he might accompany them. His 
gallant conduct at South Mountain, where he was wounded, 
did not make this request necessary to establish his character 
as a soldier. Every one in the Regiment knew him as one of 
the truest men that ever drew a sword in defense of the right. 
Quiet, gentlemanly, educated, conscientious, he possessed just 
those qualities which could not fail to endear him to every one 
with whom lie became acquainted. He had left a lucrative 
business, a beautiful young wife to whom he was just married, 
and all that made life desirable, to march at the call of his 
country to her defense. When he made his request, the 
Colonel at first hesitated, but observing the Lieutenant's anx- 
iety, he finally yielded, and substituted another to remain. 
With those frowning cannon in front, it was not difficult to 
find one who would consent to act as a substitute. The line 
of battle had just been formed, when the bounding ball struck 
the brave Lieutenant, carrying away a large portion of his 
head. He was carried to the rear by Corporal C. V. Fuller, 
who stood near him at the time, and there, on the southern 
bank of the Rappahannock, beneath a wide-spreading oak, 
rests the broken vase that contained one of America's truest 
and best. A species of courage is sometimes found in bad 
men ; but here was an instance of that genuine moral courage 
that dared anything and everything, because by so doing he 
was aiding the right. To Lieutenant Crandall, conscience and 
courage were synonymous. Peace to the memory of Chauncey 
D. Crandall. 



Gallant Charge. 191 

It was a brilliant charge made by General Donbleday's 
Division, at the opening of which Lieutenant Crandall was 
killed. Over that broad plain, with a severe fire of shot and 
shell in front, and from the batteries on the right, which, dis- 
covering the movement, attempted by sharp flank firing to 
prevent it, up the ascent to the thicket, from which poured 
the deadly fire, rushed this tried Division. It was a severe 
test of the soldier ; but they were soon amply rewarded by 
seeing the enemy retreat in haste, leaving General Doubleday 
in possession of this portion of the field. 

Night at last cast her mantle over the scenes of that san 
gninary field, and the men needed, as they anticipated, rest. 
But army anticipations are very unreal. Just as darkness 
came on, two regiments that had been sent to support an im- 
portant battery, returned with a request that General Doub- 
leday send two regiments which could be relied upon in any 
emergency, as it was expected the enemy would attack and 
attempt to capture the battery during the night. The Gene- 
ral honored the Seventy-sixth New York and Second 
Wisconsin with the order to support that battery. To fight 
all day in such a position, has no particular relish in it. After 
eleven hours hard fighting, to stand guard all night, does not 
heighten the relish. 

Scarcely had these regiments stumbled through the darkness 
to their position as supports, when the heavens were lighted 
up, and the grape, canister and solid shot fell like hail about 
them. The enemy had several small pieces, which they would 
load, run up near our lines in the darkness, discharge the vol- 
ley, then retreat hastily to repeat the movement. This was 
kept up for about half an hour, our men only protecting 
themselves by falling flat upon the ground, and even then 
quite a number were wounded. The importance of the po- 
sition having attracted the attention of General Reynolds, he 



192 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. V. 

sent several Regiments to the support of the battery, and the 
Seventy-sixth was withdrawn. 

During the firing, Captain Swan, of Company II, was 
nearly blinded by the dirt thrown by a charge of canister 
falling within a few feet of him. Though he conld see noth- 
ing, he managed to crawl over a ditch and fence, when, getting 
the dirt out of his eyes somewhat, he succeeded in overtaking 
his company, and was led from the field. 

Sergeant-Major (afterwards Adjutant) Hubert Carpenter 
was here wounded by a canister shot in the forehead, and was 
sent to "the hospital over the river. In the morning he 
returned to the Regiment, his head badly swollen, and asked 
the privilege of taking his position in the line ; but Colonel 
Wainwright felt constrained, in view of the wound of the 
young hero, to order him back to the hospital. It is not sur- 
prising that such bravery should promote the private to one 
of the most important positions in the Regiment. 

During this engagement, Henry McFall, of Company F, 
fell mortally wounded in the thigh, by the bursting of a shell. 
Colonel Wainwright says of him : — " He was attended to very 
bravely, under fire, by a little Assistant-Surgeon of the Nine- 
ty-fifth New York. Probably he sank under the shock, for 
he died very shortly. On leaving, the brave fellow called out 
cheerfully, ' Good-bye, Colonel,' evidently, as I thought, with 
the intention of keeping up the spirits of his comrades. I 
have always admired him, and should like to know how his 
family are doing." 

The Seventy-sixth went into this battle with one hundred 
and twelve privates, and of this handful eleven were killed 
and wounded. 

It was expected the next day would witness a renewal of 
this awful carnage; but it passed quietly, with the exception 
of an occasional salute from a solitary Whitworth gun. The 



Retkeat fkom Fredericksburg. 193 

next clay (Monday) was passed in about the same manner. 
The fighting had been terrific alone; the whole line. The 
enemy had witnessed the bravery and strength of the North- 
ern army, and that army respected the position and strength 
of the enemy ; and there, for two days, the opposing armies 
stood, like two giants of equal strength, neither desiring to 
to renew the conflict. 

At length, on Monday night, December 15th, General 
Burnside having decided that the position of the enemy was 
impregnable, ordered a retreat to the north side of the Rap- 
pahannock. History will be searched in vain for the record 
of a more skillful retreat. So well was it executed, that the 
next morning when the rebels awoke expecting to find our 
army in their front, they beheld in amazement the vacant 
field, and the river unbridged by pontoons. 

Whether this failure is chargeable to General Burnside, or 
to the delay of the Quartermaster-General in furnishing pon- 
toons, we, of course, cannot decide ; but time, and impartial 
history will, no doubt, reveal the facts. 

During the stay of the Seventy-sixth at Fredericksburg, 
when first there, many " contrabands " came into our lines 
and claimed food and protection, several of whom remained 
with the Regiment. Among the more notable were " Old 
Archy," "Tom," and "Bill." The latter two were quite 
small boys when they first came, but three years with the 
Regiment worked a wonderful change. Tom belonged to 
a family living in a mansion tln'ee miles below Fredericks- 
burg. This mansion was used as a hospital during the battle. 
Often during the marches, as the Regiment approached Fred- 
ericksburg, Tom, with the same feelings that animate white 
men on nearing home after a long absence, would exclaim : — 

" I'se gwine home to de ole house agin !" 

N 



194 TnE Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

He was laughed at, and assured he would never see home 
again. 

" You '11 see," said Tom. " I'se gwine to see de ole house 
agin ! Wonder if Mas'r '11 be dar ?" 

Tom knew no fear. During the hottest of the artillery fire, 
when the heavens were full of the deadly missiles, he insisted 
on remaining with Captain Swan, his employer. "When sent 
back by the Captain, he would return under some pretense, 
to see if "Massa didn't want suffin." Did the Captain 
scowl at Tom's persistent efforts, his frowns would turn to 
smiles at Tom's bow, and " Cap'n, I thought you might want 
dis coffee, so I brung it." Finally, during the heat of the 
battle, and after Doubleday's Division had driven the enemy 
a mile or more, there appeared an old house between the two 
lines. Tom was missing an hour when he again appeared. 

"Where have you been Tom?" inquired the Captain. 
" The men said you had turned reb., and gone over to them." 

" No, sar. Tom don't do dat ting ! I'se bin down dar to 
de ole house." 

" What have you been there for?" 

" 'Kase, dat 's de ole home ! Tole ye all de time I'se gwine 
to see de ole house agin !" 

Who says that under that dark surface which could thus 
brave the tempest of fire from both armies to obey a human 
instinct, there is not genuine humanity 'I Let the lie that " the 
negro is not human" remain unspoken. 

Tom probably never saw " de ole house agin, " for he re- 
treated with the company, and was taken prisoner the next 
summer, by the rebels, and that was generally equivalent to 
death. 

A day or two after the retreat, the Seventy-sixth marched 
a short distance to a wood, and for the third time commenced 
to erect winter quarters. Before much progress had been 



Winter Quarters. 195 

made, they were marched about ten miles further to the Poto- 
mac, near Belle Plain. Camp was regularly laid out, and 
building again commenced, when another march of two miles 
up the river brought them to a thick, tangled wood. This 
proved to be the real " winter quarters " which the men had 
so much desired. They set briskly at work, and soon a city of 
log houses, surmounted with canvas, rewarded their industry. 

The troops were now hid away in the woods which cover 
the rough and broken grounds lying between Aquia Creek, 
Belle Plain and Fredericksburg. With the exception of now 
and then a " Poor White," who had hidden himself from the 
world in these pineries, it was a howling wilderness. The 
trees were from four to ten inches in diameter, showing that 
some time had elapsed since the " chivalry " overlooked their 
colored brethren — literally speaking — as they grubbed and 
hoed the last crop of corn on this land, and yet the rows of 
corn hills at this day, on removing the forest, are plainly visible. 

A vast change had come over the men since they first went 
into camp at Meridian Hill, less than a year before. Then 
the cloth tents went up awkwardly, the smoke of their sheet 
iron stoves wonderfully disturbed the equanimity of their 
owners, and fresh bread was considered a necessity. Now, 
stoves were not thought of, but the men were evidently as 
much at home, if not as happy, while sitting around their little 
fireplaces in their log huts, as when they used to sit in their 
quiet Northern homes on a winter evening, and hard tack had 
become a fixed institution. 

The men were, for the first fortnight engaged in erecting 
their tents, and clearing the drill grounds, policing and pre- 
paring generally for winter. Then came the drill, interspersed 
with court martials, until the soldiers, even in winter quarters, 
found their time well employed. Leisure hours were passed 
very agreeably in visiting old acquaintances in the Tenth 



196 The Seventy-sixth Kegbient N. Y. V. 

New York Cavalry, Fiftieth New York Engineers, One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-seventh New York Volunteers, and other New 
York regiments. 

While stationed at this point, our Division was pained at 
losing their brave commander. By priority of rank, General 
Doubleday was transferred to another division of the same 
Corps, and General Wadsworth given the command of our 
Division. 

The men were familiar with the principles of General 
Wadsworth, and approved them ; but their first experiences 
in battle were under and with General Doubleday, and they 
parted with him with regret. General Doubleday was one of 
those true men who went to the war from principle; With 
comprehensive views of the questions involved, and the causes 
of the war, and a clear conception of the character of 
the rebel leaders, and the personal motives which actuated 
them, he believed what every one now realizes, that the kid- 
glove style of treating them would never accomplish anything 
for the Union. With him, compromise was disloyalty and 
death to the Government. General Doubleday had fired the 
first gun from Sumter, and there learned lessons which were 
never forgotten. Men of different political views, and look- 
ing at this war from a different stand-point — men who could 
walk the streets at night in deep study whether to espouse the 
cause of the Union or the Confederacy, and the next day, on 
the receipt of a commission or important command, "mouth 
it " for the Union equally with the most ranting politician, 
looked upon General Doubleday as an impolitic radical, and 
threw every possible obstacle in his way. But the officers and 
men who had witnessed his noble daring at Rappahannock, 
Gainesville, Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam and Fred- 
ericksburg, and were most intimately acquainted with him, 
knew but to love him. 



General Dottbleday Transferred. 197 

On taking leave of the Division, the General issued the fol- 
lowing brief address : 

" In taking leave of this command, I desire to say one word of farewell. 
Wherever the service may call me, and whatever may be my future lot, I 
shall never forget the tics which bind me to this Brigade and this Division. 
I shall never cease to remember the brave men who stood by my side in 
some of the most stupendous battles the world ever saw. Men who fought 
against such heavy odds at Gainesville and the first day at Bull Run — who 
stormed the bights at South Mountain, took eight standards from the enemy 
at Antictam, and held their ground so bravely at Fredericksburg, have won 
my admiration and regard. I am happy to have fought by their side, and 
proud of the honor of having commanded them. I wish them now at 
parting, individually and collectively, all honor and success." 

It was natural that the men who had followed him through 
the terrible marches and scenes of difficulty and danger, on 
the retreat saved by his skill, and by the same skill and cour- 
age, led by him to victory, and who had become proud of their 
leader, should experience deep regret at parting. 

Road-making and corduroying were now the order. Vir- 
ginia roads made in the usual method, are very unserviceable 
in the army. Detachments were, therefore, sent out daily 
from the different brigades, to build these corduroy roads, and 
General Wadsworth, who had the idea that honest labor is not 
degrading, frequently personally superintended the work, and 
occasionally gave the men a little aid, to show them how it 
should be done. To see a major-general condescend to assist 
in road-building, was rather gratifying to the democratic ideas 
of the privates, and, out of respect, they christened him "Old 
Corduroy." We have no record of the name they gave him 
when, at the second Fredericksburg fight, he rode across the 
Rappahannock in one of the first boats sent out to drive the 
rebel sharpshooters from the opposite bank, swimming his 
horse acroee the river. However much he prized a good road 
over which to travel, there was the best of evidence that he 



198 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

was by no means particular when the object was to get at the 
rebels. 

The regret at parting with General Doubleday was very 
much alleviated by a more intimate acquaintance with Gene- 
ral Wadsworth. 

Even winter quarters afforded no sure guaranty against 
the inevitable order to march, which always came when the 
men had prepared to stay. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

A Forward Movement— The "Mud March" of Burnside— Incidents and De- 
scriptions— Discipline— Furloughs— The Sick Sergeant General Burnside 

Relieved by General Hooker— Review of the Army bt President Lincoln. 

January 20t/t, 1863. — General Burnside, anxious to retrieve 
his reputation as a General, resolved upon a winter campaign. 
He, therefore, issued the following order, which was joyfully 
received by the troops, now tired of the dull routine of camp 
life:— 

Headquarters Army op the Potomac, { 
Camp Near Falmouth, Va., Jan. 20th, 1863. ) 

General Orders, No. 7. 

The Commanding General announces lo the Army of the Potomac, that 
they are about to meet the enemy once more. The late brilliant actions in 
North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas, have divided and weakened the 
enemy on the Rappahannock, and the auspicious moment seems to have 
arrived to strike a great and mortal blow at the rebellion, and to gain that 
decisive victory which is due to the country. Let the gallant soldiers of so 
many brilliant battle-fields accomplish this achievement, and a fame the 
most glorious awaits them. 

The Commanding General calls for the firm and united action of officers 
and men, and, under the providence of God, the Army of the Potomac will 
have taken the great step towards restoring peace to the country, and the 
Government to its rightful authority. 

By command of 

MAJOR-GENERAL BURNSIDE. 
Lewis Richmond, Assistant Adjutant- General. 



200 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

The Army of the Potomac was again on the march toward 
the enemy. The men were never in better spirits. They felt 
assured that this time they were to cross the Rappahannock in 
the face of the foe, and there attack him ; but the hope of 
success gave elasticity to their steps, and buoyancy to their 
spirits, as they rushed southward. 

The roads were in good condition, but about four P. M. the 
rain began to fall in torrents — not one of those warm, refresh- 
ing rains that the men relish on the dusty march ; but a cold, 
driving rain, that not only saturated the clothing, but cut the 
faces of the soldiers as they staggered forward. The Virginia 
roads were in a few hours converted into quagmires, through 
which it required the greatest energy and perseverance to 
drag the heavy trains of army wagons and artillery, at the 
rate of a mile an hour. It was after dark before the Aquia 
Creek and Fredericksburg Railroad was reached, at Stone- 
man's Switch. Here the brigades went into camp, building 
huge fires around which the troops gathered, eager to warm 
and dry themselves, only to lie down in the mud and rain for 
the night. The rain continued unabated, and the prospect of 
sleep was anything but flattering. 

To add to the horrors of the night, the wind blew a perfect 
gale. All night the creaking of the trees, the flapping of the 
canvas of officers' tents, the orders to the guards to pin down 
the canvas, and the torrents of rain descending, drove sleep 
from the eyes of the weary soldiers. 

The next morning, after a hasty and half-cooked breakfast, 
the men continued their wade to glory. The rain had not 
ceased nor abated. Ordinary mud-holes became little lakes ; 
unpretending ditches were suddenly transformed to large 
creeks, and the men actually waded the whole distance of 
their march. Frequently their shoes would become detached 
from their feet in the mire. Search for them was in vain, and 



The "Mud Makcii." 201 

thus the men plodded on, sometimes with one shoe, and again 
with neither. The supply, artillery, and pontoon trains were 
with great difficulty moved along at all. Now, a horse, from 
sheer exhaustion, lay down in his harness, and could be in- 
duced to go no farther. Then a mule, immersed in mud, 
discouraged and exhausted, unheeding those oaths of mule- 
drivers never equaled in civil life, unmindful alike of 
" ye-ape's " and cruel blows, sank down in the mud and fur- 
nished its body to corduroy the road. 

About three P. M., the Brigade reached the place selected 
for its night bivouac, having waded five miles. The trains 
did not, however, arrive until the next day. The whole 
country in this vicinity was full of troops, and one with half 
the experience of our men, would not be long in concluding 
that a general battle was intended. The supply trains having 
been left behind in their old parks, the men were obliged to 
subsist on the contents of their haversacks, and the country 
around them. They now had time to erect their shelter tents, 
which they did in a beautiful grove, and though the ground 
was wet, and the January weather not very favorable to com- 
fort, the men felt comparatively contented. Here the army 
remained stationary over the twenty-second of January ; not, 
however, unemployed. The arms being in bad condition, 
were cleaned and polished, clothing dried and cleaned, and the 
army put in order for the expected battle of the morrow. 

If it rained on the south side of the Rappahannock as on 
the north, the facetious rebel was not without good reason for 
writing the sign and placing it in sight of our troops : — 
" Burnside Stuck in the Mud 1" 

January 23d. — This day was to have witnessed a forward 
movement to the river, but a short distance, and then a hand 
to hand fight with a foe that hitherto had ever proven too 
strong for our army in Virginia. It seemed that the moment 



202 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

they touched Yirginia, they became possessed of a spell, or 
our army was shorn of its strength. But instead of "forward," 
came the order " about face," and our army, thwarted by the 
elements, was on its way back to the old camping-ground. 

The sights which everywhere presented themselves were 
strange mixtures of the painful and ludicrous. Shipwrecked 
wagons, dead and dying mules and horses, heavy pontoons 
stuck in the mud, guns slowly moving along, hauled by double 
the usual teams, imparted a most desolate and woe-begone ap- 
pearance to the whole affair. 

The army which, but three days before had so cheerfully 
shuffled off the ennui of camp life, now marched as cheerfully 
back from the bitter experiences of those three days. 

Only about thirty men and a few officers of the Seventy- 
sixth, arrived with the Colonel at the old camp, the remainder 
being scattered for miles along the road. They, however, 
arrived during that day and the next. 

The same lawless vandalism which usually attacks a 
deserted camp, had made sad havoc with the camp of the 
Seventy-sixth, carrying away boards, doors, split logs, and 
even log cabins ; but the men were not long in repairing the 
damage. 

Back again in camp, the Regiment continued that drill 
which Colonel Wainwright deemed so essential to the success- 
ful soldier. The recruit may possess true courage, and the 
enthusiasm of the first campaign may carry him through 
creditably ; but when he settles down to the actual life of the 
soldier ; when fighting becomes a business, and enthusiasm 
and thirst for glory have, in a measure, given place to other 
emotions, the value of drill and discipline cannot be over-esti- 
mated. Hence it was that day after day was passed by the 
officers, commissioned and non-commissioned, in studying the 
tactics. A commodious log school-room was erected, and here 



Discipline. 203 

the principles of disciplining, marching and fighting men, 
were studied, recitations heard, suggestions and explanations 
made, etc. These officers thus educated were required to 
communicate the instructions to the men under their imme- 
diate command, and thus the Seventy-sixth became one of the 
best-drilled regiments in the service, and was a source of pride 
and satisfaction to Colonel Wainwright. 

" How is it, Colonel Wainwright," said Colonel Biddle, the 
venerable commander of the Ninety-fifth New York, "when 
I come among your men, they all salute me, and show that 

respect due my rank, while, when I go out among my d d 

hounds, they begin instead to cry, ' Clams ! Clams !' " No 
more gratifying contrast could have been presented to our 
Colonel. 

Though in civil life, all who properly conduct them- 
selves, are equal, yet such familiarity is very destructive to 
discipline in the army. 

This army was made up of fragments of armies which had 
been successful in North Carolina, storming and carrying 
Forts Ilatteras, Clark, Macon, and the defenses of Newbern ; 
fought bravely on the peninsula, and in Pope's retreat, and 
finally hurled the enemy from Maryland, and it felt keenly 
the disgrace of a drawn battle at Fredericksburg, and the 
recent defeat by the elements. Though they had enjoyed 
enough of battle to satisfy their " thirst for the 'fray," they 
chafed under these defeats, and longed to meet the enemy in 
a fair fight. It was necessary, however, to wait for this event 
until Spring. 

Furloughs were now granted to the men, but so few at a 
time, that the chance of seeing home by that red tape process 
was about as uncertain as a lottery ; and Yankee ingenuity 
was often taxed to overcome that hesitation and uncertainty 
which characterized this department. Men grew suddenly 



201 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

sick, and nothing would save their lives but a trip home, 
and the inhalation of Northern air ; and letters from friends 
and family physicians urged the men home immediately, if 
they would see their dying father, or other near relative. 

A Sergeant of Company H, a hale, hearty fellow, became 
dangerously sick. He was sure he would not live unless per- 
mitted to snuff the Northern breezes. Dr. Metcalfe, 
Regimental Surgeon, kindly recommended a furlough, which 
recommend, after being signed by the Colonel, was sent to 
headquarters. Unfortunately for the Sergeant, the Brigade 
Surgeon, whose signature only was wanting, declined signing 
'the petition, until he could see the man. Next morning he 
proceeded to the camp of the Seventy-sixth, and, calling on 
Dr. Metcalfe, went with him to the tent of the sick applicant. 
Coming to the door, they knocked and were bid to come in. 
Opening the door, they beheld the invalid at the table, with 
a pile of wheat pancakes about eight inches high, swimming 
in butter and sugar, steaming before him, while his mouth 
was too full to readily respond to questions as to his physical 
condition. 

" My God, Dr. Metcalfe," exclaimed the surgeon ; " is that 
your sick man ?" 

" I don't think," replied Dr. Metcalfe, as he turned to leave, 
" that is the man. He must be out." 

The doctors enjoyed the joke, but the sergeant recovered 
without the trip North, and immediately on finishing his 
breakfast, reported to Captain Swan for duty, laughingly re- 
marking that he soon got well, after being attended by two 
physicians at once. 

On the return of the army from the " mud march," Gene- 
ral Burnside was relieved by General Hooker, (January 
twenty-sixth, 1863.) 

One of General Hooker's first acts was the issue of an order 



Abraham Lincoln. 205 

that the number of absentees be returned to his headquarters, 
when it was ascertained that the number absent from that 
army was two thousand nine hundred and twenty-two com- 
missioned officers, and eighty-one thousand nine hundred and 
sixty-four non-commissioned officers and privates. Many of 
these were absent from causes unknown. This was followed 
by such action on the part of the new commander, as seemed 
best calculated to prevent desertions — now very prevalent. 
Those arrested on that charge were tried and punished. The 
cavalry, heretofore very inefficient, was consolidated, and ren- 
dered highly useful. Whenever the roads or rivers would 
permit, expeditions were sent out, and thus this hitherto unre- 
liable, though necessary arm, was encouraged and stimulated 
by its successes, however insignificant, until it became one of 
the most important components of the army. 

Early in April, though the roads were heavy and impracti- 
cable for artillery, General Hooker became convinced that the 
army was in a condition to march upon the enemy ; and hav- 
ing about forty thousand nine months and two years men, 
whose terms of service would soon expire, he felt it necessary 
to commence operations at the earliest possible moment. 

The orders to General Hooker were similar to those to Gen- 
eral Pope. lie was required to keep in view the importance 
of covering Washington, either directly, or by so operating as 
to be able to punish any force sent against them; 

Ajji'il 9th. — The First Corps, to which the Seventy-sixth 
was attached, was reviewed by President Lincoln. The elec- 
tion of Mr. Lincoln having been made the pretense for the 
rebellion, and the Northern army having volunteered to 
refute the fallacy at the point of the bayonet, it is not sur- 
prising that of all the men in the country, Abraham Lincoln 
stood highest among the soldiery. His name was, indeed, the 
talisman by which they conquered ; and whether on the march 



206 The Seventy-sixth Kegtment 1ST. Y. V. 

or around the camp-fire, his anecdotes and illustrations fur- 
nished an inexhaustible remedy for all the ills of soldier-life. 
Even the contrabands, ignorant and stupid as centuries of 
oppression had made them, catching a gleam of the effulgence 
of freedom just bursting upon them, in their adorations placed 
" Massa Lincum " next to Deity. No wonder that the " boys 
in blue" cheered lustily, and were happy, as they witnessed 
the approving smile of the President, on this grand review. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Battle of Chancellorsyille— General Wadsworth Crosses the River in a Boat 
ik the Face of the Enemy— A Dead Rebel— Building Breastworks— Between 
Two Fires— Sergeant Baker of Company H— Perilous Position of the Seven- 
ty-sixth— A March of Twenty Miles— Entering the Battle— Shameful Conduct 
of the Eleventh Corps— John Smith Arrests the Dutchman— Inefficiency of 
Undrilled Nine Months Men— A Third Retreat. 

General Hooker having determined to strike a blow at 
the earliest practicable moment, organized a campaign to start 
about the thirteenth of April. The cavalry, under General 
Stoneman, was to proceed up the Rappahannock some distance, 
then cross, and, sweeping down behind General Lee's position, 
sever his communications with Richmond. The infantry was 
to cross below Fredericksburg, and attack or pursue Lee's 
army, as events should render most practicable. The cavalry 
started on its mission ; but a heavy rain storm shortly after 
set in, which rendered the river impassable, and operations 
were suspended until a more favorable opportunity. In the 
meantime the men were drilled, clothed and disciplined, and 
everything betokened an advance as soon as the elements 
would permit. 

All was at length ready. The skies had cleared ; the roads 
had become passable ; the men were well-drilled and equipped, 
and everybody was hopeful. Now was the auspicious time 
when the Army of the Potomac was about to wipe out the 
effects of its late defeat, and all, from the general in command 



208 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

to the private in the rear rank, felt the importance of the 
hour. 

April ZSth — Orders were this day received, to march to 
the Rappahannock. Haversacks and canteens were filled, am- 
munition supplied, tents struck, and soon the whole army was 
in motion. The plan of operations was varied somewhat from 
that adopted at the beginning of the month. The cavalry 
was to perform about the same task as then assigned to it — 
cross the river and by getting behind the rebel army, destroy 
its communication with Richmond. The bulk of the infantry 
was to cross above instead of below Fredericksburg, where it 
was expected the fatal blow would be struck at Lee's army. 

The Fifth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Corps were to move up 
the river, and crossing the Rappahannock and Rapidan rivers, 
establish themselves near Chancellorsville. 

General Sedgwick, with the First, Third and Sixth Corps, 
was to remain in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. 

Two divisions of the Second Corps, under General Couch 
were held in readiness to take a 'position at United States 
Ford, as soon as the movements of the main army should 
render it practicable, and to join the main column at Chan- 
cellorsville, when the line should be established there. 

The force moving upon Chancellorsville, excluding the two 
divisions under General Couch, did not exceed thirty-six 
thousand men, and the movement was conducted with such 
secresy and dispatch that by the night of April thirtieth, they 
had gained the position designated. 

During these operations, the left of the army, in which was 
the Seventy-sixth, under General Sedgwick, performed the 
part assigned them in the programme, by the commanding- 
general. 

The Seventy-sixth broke cam]) on the twenty-eighth of April. 
A march of fifteen miles brought them to what was supposed 



General Wadswortii Crossing the Rappaiianock. 209 

the camp for the night, one mile from the Rappahannock, and 
three miles below Fredericksburg. Scarcely had the weary 
soldiers laid down to rest, when a secret order to march was 
given, and at eleven o'clock at night the Regiment was again 
in motion. Very slow progress was made. The roads were 
completely blockaded with batteries, pontoon and ammunition 
trains, and the night being exceedingly dark, the men were 
forced to pick their way along singly. The river was finally 
reached, four miles below the city. The men of the Seventy- 
sixth were ordered to stack their arms half a mile from the 
river, and assist in laying the pontoon bridges. The rebel 
pickets and sharpshooters lined the opposite bank, watching 
the approach of our men, and prepared to pick off any who 
should attempt to cross or lay the pontoons, while their artil- 
lery stood frowning further up the hill. Our artillery soon, 
however, opened upon the enemy, with the intention of keep- 
ing him out of sight behind his intrenchments. 

It was in this aspect of affairs, that General Wadsworth, 
commanding the Division, crossed on a pontoon, swimming 
his horse beside him, before any bridge was laid, and with the 
Wisconsin Brigade, drove the rebel pickets from their rifle 
pits, killing several. This bold adventure of the General did 
not fail to inspire the men with confidence in their leader, who 
could thus face the most imminent danger. 

So hot was the rebel fire that many of the mules and horses 
employed in drawing the pontoons were killed. It, therefore, 
became necessary to abandon them. Ropes were attached to 
the wagons, which the Seventy-sixth seized and rushed to the 
river bank. 

Without excitement to buoy them up, the men coolly pro- 
ceeded to lay the bridge, while from an embankment, rock or 
tree frequently came the ominous flash, followed by the 
unmusical " ping " of a Minnie ball, yet the work continued, 
o 



210 The Seventy-sixth Begiment N. Y. V. 

and in a very short time the task was completed, and the 
troops crossing to occupy the identical ground occupied by 
our army over four months before. 

gu Aside from the capture of one hundred and thirty prisoners 
in their rifle pits, very little fighting took place the first day. 
In making the capture, a few rebels were killed. On occupy- 
ing the ground, one poor " Johnny " was found in a shed, 
whence he had been carried by his comrades. He was dead, 
and in his bosom was found a small New Testament. From his 
papers, one of which contained an application to be removed 

to the SoTithern'naval service, his name was found to be 

Jasper, of Georgia. Our men kindly buried him close by 
the shed, and placed a head-board at his grave, the men who 
had probably killed him dropping a tear upon his rude grave. 
Such instances but aggravate the crime of treason. Here was 
a " poor white," who had either been forced into the rebel 
army, or induced to lift a parricidal hand against the Govern- 
ment by those to whom he was accustomed to look for advice, 
carrying that chart of right, to guide him through what he may 
have been induced to believe a holy crusade in this life, to a 
higher and holier existence beyond. When the acts of time 
are impartially judged by Him who is unswayed by human 
prejudices and human interests, the instigators of this rebel- 
lion will find an account against them of the magnitude of 
which, even they, with all their knowledge of their own 
corrupt intentions, have now but a feeble conception. 

Feeling certain of a severe battle the next day, our army 
employed most of the night in throwing up long lines of par- 
apets, by the aid of which they would be enabled, at least, to 
hold their ground, if not sufficiently strong to drive the 
enemy from his position. The Seventy-sixth during the night 
demolished two large barns, with the timbers of which they 
erected a very respectable fortification. These works were 



Second Fredericksburg. 211 

placed under charge of Colonel Wainwright, who was active 
the whole night, riding several times the entire length of the 
line. About two o'clock in the morning, as he was inspecting 
the works, he met General Wadsworth, who, quite alone, had 
crossed the river and was making a round of inspection. The 
brave old General had arisen to affluence and social position 
by his untiring energy and attention to business. Unlike the 
other Generals, who were now embracing Morpheus in their 
tents, he brought to the service of his country the same watch- 
ful vigilance which had made him a millionaire, and relin- 
quished sleep and ease, rather than neglect his duty. Had 
the army been wholly commanded by men of the same spirit, 
the war had not lasted four years. 

During the night, Captain Swan, of Company H, received 
a piece of shell in his leg. He retired quietly a few yards in 
rear of his men, where he could be ready in case of need ; 
but taking good care that his men were not disturbed by a 
knowledge of his wound. 

Scarcely had the morning light appeared, when the rebels, 
discovering the position of our forces, opened their batteries 
vigorously with shot and shell. The air was literally filled 
with the iron hail. In every direction the ground was deeply 
furrowed by the solid shot, while the bellowing of the cannon, 
shrieking of shells, and whizzing and groaning of solid shot, 
rendered the scene, even behind breastworks, not a little 
exciting. The excitement was greatly intensified by the firing 
of some of our own batteries. Several of these batteries 
stationed on the heights on the north side of the river now 
opened upon the enemy, firing over the infantry. The range 
was so long that many of the shells burst immediately over 
our own men. They were thus actually receiving the dam- 
airino; effects of the shells of both armies. 

In one instance, several men declare they saw a shell from 



212 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

each army meet and burst, sending the fragments of both 
directly into the ranks of the Seventy-sixth. There are well- 
authenticated instances of balls found by the men of the 
Regiment, firmly imbedded in each other, having met in mid 
air, and fallen to the ground as one ball. 

The troops, at the opening of the fire, were still using the 
spades, which had employed them most of the night ; but 
these were soon relinquished, and the men sought refuge be- 
hind their temporary fortifications. The arms were stacked 
at a distance of forty paces from the embankment, and the 
fire had but just opened when a solid shot sent a whole stack 
of rifles whizzing through the air. 

The good effects of discipline and drill were here again dis- 
played. To save their arms it was necessary that the men 
should leave their refuge and expose themselves to this terrific 
storm, which was done with coolness and deliberation. 
Among the most conspicuous for cool bravery, was Sergeant 
Irving Baker, of Company II. Small in stature, but large in 
patriotic courage, and strong in his determination to do his 
duty, he went back and forth several times, carrying his arms 
full of guns, while his escape seemed each time a miracle. 
He escaped unhurt, to be, however, several times wounded 
afterwards. At Gettysburg, the following July, he displayed 
equal courage. The powder in the cannon tubes had become 
so damp from exposure to the rain of the preceding night, 
that the pieces could not be discharged. In the midst of a 
most terrific fire, Sergeant Baker, with cool and steady nerve, 
actually picked out the damp and primed the guns with dry 
powder, an operation lasting several minutes, until he had 
duly prepared seven or eight guns. This was done in the 
hottest of the fighting, and while our dead and wounded were 
falling around and even against him ! A story is told of Ser- 
geant Baker, while stationed at Fredericksburg in the summer 



Private Baker's Capture. 213 

of 1862, when yet a private. One night, while on guard, a 

strong " six-foot " rebel came toward him, and was about to 
pass the line, as though the slender boy of five feet, and nine- 
ty-five pounds weight, constituted no impediment. 

"Halt ! Who comes there ?" demanded the little private. 

The rebel, deeming no reply necessary, kept on until within 
a rod of the guard, when the ominous click and steady aim of 
the Enfield rifle induced him to pause. 

" About, face !" said the private, with such coolness and de- 
termination that secesh promptly obeyed. "Forward, march !" 
shouted the boy, and through the streets of Fredericksburg 
the little conqueror marched the giant conquered, at each cor- 
ner giving the order to " file right," or " file left," until the 
two appeared before Lieutenant Story, officer of the day, to 
whom the prisoner was given over by his captor. The proud 
and aristocratic rebel will ever have reason to respect the 
manly courage of the little Northern " mudsill," who thus, in 
the middle of the night, alone captured his giant proportions, 
and made him a prisoner of war. Sergeant Baker served his 
time out faithfully, and was well-entitled, both by his courage 
and intelligence, to a commission : yet, though four or five 
times wounded, he saw his merits unheeded, while those who 
were never within hearing of a battle, were given commis- 
sions, in consequence of outside political pressure. 

The shelling lasted about three hours, when darkness put an 
end to the operations of the day. 

The next morning was very foggy. The Seventy-sixth was 
ordered to advance part way across the plain, and do picket 
duty. The fog was so dense that no difficulty was experi- 
enced in securing the required position, though the men were 
liable at any moment to stumble against a rebel picket. Hav- 
ing reached the position, the fog soon after lifted, and there 
stood the Seventy-sixth within a few rods of the rebel army ! 



214 The Seventy-sixth Regement N. Y. V. 

To charge the enemy was not only against orders, but involved 
the sure destruction of the whole Regiment, with no possibil- 
ity of success. They were discovered by the rebels, who were 
taking aim for a destructive volley, when every man fell flat 
upon the ground, and the terrible storm of bullets went safely 
overhead ! Owing to inequalities in the surface, most of the 
men were protected while lying upon the ground. In several 
instances, however, the men were obliged to dig rifle pits with 
their bayonets and knives, and thus hide their bodies from the 
sight of the enemy. To advance was impossible ; to retreat 
across the plain certain destruction. And there, within a few 
rods of the rebels, not daring to lift a head or hand, lay the 
Seventy-sixth throughout that long and perilous day. At 
length the darkness of night permitted a retreat, and the Reg- 
iment gladly escaped "out of the jaws of death !" 

During the day several were wounded. One poor fellow, 
after laying in misery several hours on the field, insisted that 
he had been wounded. lie was examined by two young sur- 
geons, who pronounced him unhurt. He still insisted that he 
had a bullet in his right breast. He was about being thrust 
back into his company as a " dead beat," when a more 
experienced surgeon came up and commenced an examination. 
Not a drop of blood could be seen, nor a wound of any kind, 
and still he complained of a severe pain in the lower part of 
his breast. The surgeon finally discovered on the shoulder, a 
small bullet hole, scarcely perceptible. The ball had struck 
the man on the shoulder, as he lay upon the ground, and pen- 
etrated his body nearly a foot ! 

Nothing is more surprising than the instances of wounds 
and recoveries in the army. Wounds which, in civil life, 
would be considered as surely fatal, are almost as surely cm-a- 
ble in the army. At Gainesville, Eli E. Peck, of Company 
B, received a gunshot wound through the hips, the ball passing 



Remarkable Recoveries from "Wounds. 215 

entirely through his body, and being flattened in the passage. 
He lay several days upon the field, entirely unprotected from 
a severe storm and the rays of the sun, and yet to-day he 
experiences little inconvenience from the wound. 

At the same battle, Captain Fox received a ball in his lungs, 
which still remains there, and yet he is alive and engaged in 
the active duties of life. 

At the same battle, Captain Sager, of Company G, received 
a gun-shot wound, the ball passing entirely through the body, 
yet to-day he performs his accustomed duties with little incon- 
venience. 

At the battle of Gettysburg, Sergeant Cliff, of Company 
F, received a wound which fractured his leg at the knee. 
Unable to stir, he lay upon the field for nearly a week, ex- 
posed to the scorching rays of a July sun, without food or 
water, and when finally taken to the hospital, his leg was 
amputated near the body, and yet Sergeant Cliff plies his 
needle still, and measures his customers as though he had 
never been in sight of the smoke of battle. 

Lieutenant Cahill carries a ball in his head, and numerous 
other instances of remarkable escapes from death are con- 
nected with the Seventy-sixth. Providence seems to shield 
the hero who fights for his country, from many of the dangers 
which surround him. 

During the night the Seventy-sixth was relieved, and joined 
the main body of the Left Grand Division, nearer the banks of 
the river. As they retired, the rebels, thinking it a trap to 
allure them into our breastworks, cried out : — 

" You can't catch us in that way !" at the same time firing 
a parting salute into the darkness. 

The Regiment was soon after drawn up in rear of the 
" Tayloe Ilouse," now occupied as Brigade headquarters, 
when the rebels opened a brisk fire with shells, several of 



216 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. V. 

which struck the building, and others falling among the men, 
frightening the horses, and terrifying the birds, which flew 
from tree to tree in the wildest confusion. None of the men 
were injured. 

The First Corps was now, (May 2), ordered to report to 
General Sedgwick, at Fredericksburg ; but this order was 
changed, and the whole Corps, crossing to the north side of 
the river, was hurried on towards United States Ford, up the 
the Rappahannock a distance of about twenty miles, where 
they bivouacked for the night without crossing. 

The men were awakened about two o'clock on the morning 
of May third, and resumed the march. Sleep had scarcely 
relieved them of the wearisome effects of yesterday's march ; 
but Hooker had been fighting the day before, and in the hope 
that they were to set the seal of victory upon the battle, they 
eagerly pressed forward towards the ford. At daylight the 
river was crossed, and at six o'clock the Regiment arrived at 
the battle-field. The fight soon opened with great fury. As 
the Regiment crossed the river, a staff officer beckoned Colo- 
nel Wainwright from the column, and said : — 

" The men must not know it, but all is up with the troops 
on the south side. Everything now depends upon your 
Corps." 

On reaching the field, the Fifth Corps was found in front, 
behind intrenchments, perfectly cpiiet. The Seventy-sixth 
went into camp behind them. Not far off was an artillery 
battery, and the shouts of the rebels could be distinctly heard, 
as they, with great courage, made several successive charges, 
but were each time mowed down by the pieces, some thirty in 
number, under charge of the gallant Captain Weed, after- 
wards killed as General at Gettysburg, 

Early in the morning, General Hooker made a personal 
examination of his whole line, at Chancellorsville, returning 



Battle of Ciiancelloksville. 217 

about nine o'clock to his headquarters. His right was held 
by the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, under Generals Slocum 
and Howard. Not feeling satisfied with the dispositions 
made by these Corps, he issued the following instructions : 

Headquarters Army op TnE Potomac, ) 
Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863, 9:30 A. M. f 

I am directed by the Major-General commanding, to say that the disposi- 
tion you have made of your Corps has been made -with a view to a front 
attack by the enemy. If he should throw himself upon your flank, he 
wishes you to examine the ground, and determine upon the positions you 
will take in that event, in order that you may be prepared for him in what- 
ever direction he advances. lie suggests that you have heavy reserves well 
in hand to meet this contingency. The right of your line does not appear 
to be strong enough. No artificial defenses worth naming have been 
thrown up, and there appears to be a scarcity of troops at that point, and 
not, in the General's opinion, as favorably posted as might be. 

We have good reason to suppose that the enemy is moving to our right. 
Please advance your pickets, for purposes of observation, as far as may be 
safe, in order to obtain timely information of their approach. 
JAMES H. VAN ALLEN, 

Brigadier-General and A. D. C. 
Maj.-General Slocttm, and Maj.-General Howard. 

Information was soon brought to General Hooker that a 
heavy column of the enemy was moving toward his right, for 
the purpose, as was very evident, of making the flank move- 
ment he had already anticipated. The above instructions 
were immediately sent to the Generals commanding the right, 
and General Sickles, with two divisions of the Third Corps, 
was ordered to follow up the movements of the enemy, now 
concealed from view by the woods in front of our lines. 
General Sickles promptly advanced, but did not reach the line 
of the enemy's movements until the main column had passed. 
He, however, captured a large number of their rear guards. 
From these prisoners he learned that this column of the 
enemy consisted of General Jackson's Corps, numbering 
about twenty-five thousand men, and their route was over a 



218 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

by-road through the forest, passing diagonally across the front 
of the Union lines, and approaching within two or three miles 
of the right of our army, occupied by the Eleventh Corps. 
This Corps, formerly commanded by General Siegel, was com- 
posed chiefly of German regiments. There were in it, 
however, two or three Regiments of Americans, among which 
was the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York. 

About six o'clock in the afternoon, musketry was heard on 
the right, but nothing indicating a very severe engagement. 
Soon, however, without any apparent cause, the Division on 
the extreme right broke and ran, and, flying along the line of 
the Eleventh Corps, threw that whole body into confusion and 
swept it from the field. The Germans, after Pope's retreat, 
had frequently taunted the Yankees with "We fight mit 
Siegel — you run mit Pope !" but now the tables were turned, 
and just when the whole result of the battle depended upon 
their remaining firm, they broke and ran in the most cowardly 
manner. In vain in that surging mass did the brave regi- 
ments attempt to preserve their line of battle. The cowardly 
waves would overwhelm them, until regiment after regiment 
fell back upon the next in the rear, and all was confusion. 
All in the Eleventh Corps were not cowards, and many 
instances of personal bravery are related. 

John Smith, of the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New 
York, saw a large Dutchman running for clear life, towards 
the rear. As he neared Smith he placed his gun between two 
trees, and with one effort, snapped it in twain. On he came, 
until Smith seized him by the collar, and, giving him three or 
four good jerks, put him in the line, placed in his hands the 
gun of a fallen hero, and compelled him to " fight mit " the 
One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York, until that Regi- 
ment was overwhelmed in the surging tide of retreat. 

Steps were taken to arrest the fugitives and prevent the 



Conduct of the Eleventh Conrs. 219 

communication of the panic to the whole army. Berry's Di- 
vision of the Third Corps, and a brigade of the Second Corps, 
were ordered to cover the rear of the Eleventh Corps, and, if 
possible, retake and hold the position. This was, however, 
rendered impossible, by the occupation of it by a large force 
of the enemy, before our troops could reach it. This giving 
way of the right left General Sickles very much exposed, and 
in a critical position. lie, however, learning the situation of 
affairs, very skillfully withdrew without much loss. 

The Seventy-sixth lay as a support to a battery of thirty-six 
guns. The forces under Jackson rushed forward after the 
panic-stricken Eleventh Corps, until they came to this battery, 
which opened a most terrihc fire upon them, mowing them 
down by regiments. Up came the rebel hosts, only to be 
hurled back with thinned and weakened ranks. It was 
during one of these charges that "Stonewall" Jackson fell 
mortally wounded. The enemy being repulsed with severe 
loss, active operations ceased for the night. While this attack 
was being made, General Lee was making an attack upon the 
Twelfth and Second Corps, where he was. promptly repulsed. 
General Hooker says of this conduct of the Eleventh : — 

The bad conduct of the Eleventh Corps had cost me the key of rny posi- 
tion, and embarrassed me by contracting my sphere of action. The position 
Avhich had been held by the left of that Corps was the most commanding 
one in that vicinity. In the possession of the enemy, it would enable him 
with his artillery to enfilade the lines of the Twelfth and Second Corps. 
He could drive from the plain in front of the Chancellorsville House, all the 
artillery posted to command the junction of the plank road and the old 
pike ; and he could drive from the plain all the force that might be upon it. 
To wrest this position from the enemy after his batteries were established 
on it, would have required slender columns of infantry, which he covdd de- 
stroy as last as they were thrown upon it. 

This was the position of affairs on the right at the close of 
the operations of the day. 



220 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

General Hooker, at nine o'clock that night, sent an order to 
General Sedgwick to cross the Rappahannock, and march im- 
mediately on the Chancellorsville road, until he connected 
with him, and to attack and destroy any force he might fall 
in with on the road. He was directed to leave his trains 
behind, except pack-trains of ammunition, and to be in the 
vicinity of General Hooker at daylight, to fall upon the rear 
of General Lee, who, it was expected, would be used up 
between the two Union armies. General Gibbon was to take 
possession of Fredericksburg. At midnight, General Hooker 
sent the following to General Sedgwick : — 

Mat 2d, 1863—12 Midnight. 
Major-General Sedgwick : — 

From the statement brought by General Hooker's aid, it seems to be of 
vital importance that you should fall upon Lee's rear with crushing force. 
He will explain all to you. Give your advance to one who will do all that 
the urgency of the case requires. 

DANIEL BUTTERFIELD, 

Major-General, Chief of Staff. 

General Sedgwick's Corps consisted of from twenty-two 
thousand to twenty-five thousand men, who, with General 
Gibbon to occupy Fredericksburg, were left at liberty to make 
the movement directed by General Hooker. The forces of 
the enemy occupying the defenses of Fredericksburg amounted 
to perhaps ten thousand men. The balance of the rebel army 
was in front of General Hooker, seven or eight miles above 
Fredericksburg. 

The movement directed was commenced by General Sedg- 
wick, but instead of communicating with Hooker by daylight, 
as directed, no demonstration was made upon the heights of 
Fredericksburg until after that time, and the heights were not 
carried until eleven o'clock the third of May. The enemy had 
by that time discovered the movement and sent reinforce- 
ments to Fredericksburg offering much stronger resistance 



General Sedgwick Fails to Connect. 221 

to the advance of General Sedgwick than he would have met 
had General Hooker's orders been obeyed. 

At seven o'clock in the morning of the third, the enemy 
renewed the attack, which was bravely resisted until eleven 
o'clock, when a new line was chosen and taken in good order. 

The position which was thus abandoned had been held at 
great disadvantage, and only for the purpose of hearing of the 
approach of General Sedgwick. 

Shortly after the attack, General Hooker was injured by a 
cannon ball, which knocked him against a pillar of the house 
in which he was. The command then devolved upon General 
Couch as the senior officer. After this, the operations of 
neither army were carried on with much activity. For two 
days assaults were made by the rebels upon exposed portions 
of our line, but they were easily repulsed. 

An amusing incident occurred in the rear and to the left, 
illustrating the danger of relying upon undisciplined troops in 
action, and the utility of persistent drill. A brigade of New 
Jersey nine months men, under General Paul, afterwards shot 
through the head at Gettysburg, had been stationed with one 
of those interminable southern thickets directly in front of 
them, through which no body of troops could possibly ad- 
vance — in fact, as good as a breastwork. These nine months 
men had seen no service, and being near the battle-field, 
every cracking bush was indicative of the advance of a large 
army. "While thus stationed, two or three of their own men, 
having occasion to visit the thicket, chanced to step upon a 
dry limb, when the unfledged warriors of the brigade, officers 
and men, in imagination saw the whole of Lee's army in their 
immediate front. The order to fire was scarcely given, before 
a volley was poured into the thicket by the entire Brigade. 
This was immediately followed by another, when the mistake 
vs^ts fortunately discovered before anything serious resulted, 



222 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

and the firing ceased. To the want of drill be it credited, that 
though the men who caused the alarm were in plain sight, 
few rods distant, neither of them was injured by this firing. 
This will in part explain why nine months men never added to 
the strength or efficiency of the army. 

General Sedgwick had crossed the Rappahannock. Gen- 
eral Stoneman had failed to sever the communications of Lee's 
army with Richmond. General Hooker was incapacitated by 
reason of the accident which had happened to him, and to 
add to the perils of the situation, a severe rain storm set in on 
Tuesday, May fifth, with a fair prospect of rendering the river 
impassable at the fords in a short time. Under these trying 
circumstances, and in view of his instructions to cover Wash- 
ington and Harper's Ferry, General Hooker at length 
determined to recross the river. This was accordingly done, 
and on the morning of May sixth, the whole Union army was 
north of the Rappahannock. 

The retreat was conducted in the midst of a heavy storm. 
The night was very dark. The ground, which was almost 
deluged with water, had become muddy and soft, and 
altogether this third retreat, under the existing circumstances, 
was not well calculated to inspire hopes, or strengthen the 
men's attachments for soldiers' life. 

In the afternoon the Seventy-sixth arrived at Falmouth, 
within a mile of the camp from which they started on the 
previous Saturday, wet, tired, and it will not be wondered at 
if nearly discouraged at these repeated failures to accomplish 
anything really decisive. 

On the ninth the Regiment was moved a short distance to 
a pleasant pine grove, where the men were soon at home in 
buildings of their own erecting, and where, with rest and 
pleasant surroundings, they soon forgot the discouragements 
of the retreat. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Seventy-sixth Recruting— Ann Redmond — Trading Between the Pickets— 
Marcii of Thirty-five Miles in One Dat— Colonel Wainwright Takes His Leave 
of the Seventy-sixth— Heat, Dust and Sun-stroke— Again in Maryland— Camp- 
ing in the Mud— Marcii Past South Mountain— Eeception at Frederick Citt 
—Change of Commanders— Acts of Generosity by the People— Amusing Inci" 
dent— Muster for Pay— The Eolls Never Signed. 

May 13t7i, 1S63. — The Seventy-sixth had now dwindled to 
a mere skeleton of its former self. Honorable service, with 
the diseases incident to change of climate, water and mode of 
life, had sadly thinned its patriotic ranks. At this date the 
first addition of men was made. About fifty were added 
from the Twenth-fourth New York Volunteers. The balance 
of that. regiment had been discharged on expiration of term 
of service. The Regiment was still further increased on the 
twenty-fourth of May, by the addition of five officers and 
about two hundred men from the Thirtieth New York Volun- 
teers. 

A month was spent in this lovely camp. The thermometer 
ranged high ; the air was dry and the roads dusty ; but hidden 
away in the dense pine woods, the soldiers rapidly recruited 
their strength. Colonel "Wainwright could not forego the drill 
which he correctly deemed so essential to the efficiency of the 
army. This, with the picket duty along the Eappahannock 
below Fredericksburg, kept the soldiers sufficiently employed 
to dispel the ennui engendered by camp life. The woods 



224 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

were full of game, especially rabbits. These were so numer- 
ous that often the young were trodden under foot in camp. 
This gave Ann Redmond, of whom we have already spoken, 
occasion for the exercise of the kindlier emotions of her 
nature. For nearly two years she had stood by our sick and 
wounded soldiers, marching with them hundreds of miles, 
washing for them, and when in pain, kindly watching over 
them and administering to their wants, and by her mirthful 
conversation and hearty laugh, driving away many of those 
gloomy forebodings which are the bane of the soldier's life. 
Now that the soldiers no longer needed her care, she sought 
to make herself useful to the brutes. Many of these young 
rabbits were taken into her tent and nursed with all the fond- 
ness of Ann's heart ; but generally her labor was vain, as the 
little pets would die from sheer fright. 

As the month wore away and the pickets of the opposing 
armies lined either side of the river, a friendly feeling grew 
up between them, and quite an active commerce was the 
result. Picket firing — never indulged in by properly disci- 
plined armies of civilized nations — had ceased, and the men 
held daily conversations together. Then came the proposition 
to exchange tobacco for coffee, which was accepted. At first 
little boats of board, with paper sails, were sent across, return- 
ing laden with the promised article. Then the pickets grew 
more familiar, and swimming the river, made visits to the 
" enemy's " side, and indulged in a game of cards, and other 
camp sports. Newspapers were exchanged, and a general 
friendly feeling engendered. How strange that in less than 
one month these trading mends were engaged in a desperate 
struggle on the sanguinary field of Gettysburg, hundreds of 
miles distant ! 

The latter part of May it became apparent from the conduct 
of the rebels, and the reports brought in by our scouts, that 



Orders to March. 225 

General Lee was contemplating some grand movement. Gen- 
eral Hooker became satisfied that it was not a simple raid, but 
an extensive movement of the whole rebel army, similar to 
that of the year previous, which resulted in the battles of 
South Mountain and Antietam. The General, comprehending 
the necessity of vigorous and united effort against Lee, submit- 
ted to President Lincoln a proposition, that all the troops whose 
operations could have any influence on those of Lee's army, 
should be placed under the control of one commander. He at 
the same time signified to the President, that he (General 
Hooker) might not be considered in the way of this arrange- 
ment, as it was a position he did not desire, and only suggested 
it because of the necessity he felt for concert as well as vigor 
of action. In reply, General Hooker received notice that Gen- 
erals Heintzelman and Dix had been instructed to telegraph 
him all the movements which they might ascertain or make. 
Also, that directions had been given to forward military 
information which might be received from General Schenck's 
command. But at the same time, no authority was given 
General Hooker over them nor was any commander appointed. 
For two weeks the Army of the Potomac was in that state of 
unrest and uncertainty which precedes a grand advance. 
Orders to strike tents and prepare to march at one o'clock A. 
M. would be immediately followed by orders to pitch tents, 
and soon the boys were asleep as though nothing had hap- 
pened. This was often repeated until at last, on the twelfth 
of June, the army took up its march toward Warrenton; The 
men had been given rest and were now in excellent spirits, 
and ready for any duty, though it led them to a renewal of 
those severe conflicts, the novelty of which had long since 
passed away. The Regiment was on picket at Pratt's Point 
when the order to march was received, which was at two o'clock 
in the morning. The night was very dark, and the men 
r 



226 The Seventy-sixth Begiment N. T. V. 

stretched over an extent of four miles. It was day-light 
before the last squad had arrived, and the march for camp 
commenced. Before reaching camp, word was received that 
the Brigade had marched. The course of the Regiment was 
changed, and at one P. M., the Brigade, having halted to 
execute a deserter, was overtaken by the Regiment. The Sev- 
enty-sixth arrived just in time to hear the fatal volley, and the 
army was immediately in motion, giving no time for rest to 
our weary men. 

It was nine o'clock that night before the Regiment went 
into bivouac. They had been in motion nineteen hours, and 
traveled thirty-five miles ! !No man who endured that march 
will readily forget it. The weather was hot, the roads dusty, and 
many of the men, with great difficulty, managed to keep with 
the Regiment. Yet with blistered feet and aching shoulders, 
they plodded on. This inarch, unequaled in the history of 
this war, would seem to entitle them to a little rest, but at 
two o'clock the next morning, the men were called from their 
weary bivouac, and marched twenty miles before 6 o'clock P.M. 
The distance in miles will scarcely convey an adequate idea of 
the labor performed. The roads were so blocked with troops 
and trains that for hours little progress was made, the troops 
standing in readiness to march, the wearying effects of stand- 
ing about equaling those of actual marching. 

The Seventy-sixth arrived at Centreville on the sixteenth, 
and remained two days. While here, Colonel Wainwright 
left the Regiment on account of sickness and never returned. It 
could not afford to lose so able and earnest an officer. "With 
him, war meant fight ; and to prepare for fighting, he deemed 
drill and discipline and proper selection of subordinate offi- 
cers absolutely necessary. Upon entering the Regiment he 
commenced a regular military school. The men thought him 
unnecessarily strict in, and tenacious of drill ; but they after- 



Colonel Wainweigiit Leaves the Regiment. 227 

ward, in many a severe battle, while other regiments of as 
good men broke and ran, the Seventy-sixth winning for itself 
laurels by its steadiness and courage, had reason to, and did, 
heartily approve of those drills. To his qualities as a disci- 
plinarian, Colonel Wainwright added attention to the wants 
of his men, their physical, mental and moral developements, 
himself a model, which every man might follow with profit. 
We parted with the Colonel with regret, and trust that the fu- 
ture pages of the history of the Regiment will convince him 
that the precepts and example, the drill and discipline which 
he gave the Regiment, were not given in vain. 

Captain Grover, of Company A, having partially recovered 
from the severe wounds received at Gainesville, and been com- 
missioned Major of the Regiment, now took command, and 
continued such command until his death at Gettysburg. 

The movements and intentions of the enemy were now 
becoming well understood. They had determined upon an 
invasion of Maryland, and probably Pennsylvania, with 
possible ultimate intentions upon Baltimore and Washington. 
The plan of General Hooker was to permit them to advance 
to a favorable point, and then, while covering Washington, to 
strike with the whole force at his command, and fight a decisive 
battle. 

After leaving Centreville, on the seventeenth, the army 
moved toward Leesburg. The day was extremely hot. The 
march was made through a dense forest of pine shrubs, which, 
while furnishing no shade to protect from the scorching rays, 
prevented any good effects from cool breezes, if any existed, 
in that sultry climate. The roads were filled witlr wagons, 
batteries, cavalry, infantry, artillery, all rushing, halting, 
sweating. The dust arose in suffocating clouds, was inhaled 
at every breath, and settling upon faces from which the perspi- 
ration flowed at every pore, soon rendered the face of the most 



228 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

intimate friend indistinguishable in the surging crowd. Many- 
fell down in the ranks from sun-stroke and exhaustion. Even 
officers fell from their horses from the effects of the suffocating 
dust and heat. An open country was finally reached, and the 
Seventy-sixth went into camp near a small creek and the Lees- 
burg railroad. One day of rest was given, during which 
many who had fallen out the day before, came up and re- 
joined their commands. On the nineteenth, marched four miles 
and re-encamped at Goose Creek. 

At two o'clock A. M., on the twentieth, orders were re- 
ceived to inarch. The men were ready, but no order came 
to " fall in," and gradually the excitement passed, and the 
men settled down to camp life. The cavalry engaged the 
rebels at Aldie, and our Brigade was to support the cavalry, 
but that arm of the service behaved with such gallantry and effi- 
ciency that they won the battle and drove the enemy across 
the mountains without any support from the infantry, and the 
orders to our Brigade were countermanded. 

On the twenty-fifth, the Regiment marched eight miles 
and crossed the Potomac at Edward's Ferry. At length, 
out of the secession atmosphere of " the Mother of Presidents" 
of the olden time, and the breeder of traitors of the new, 
and on the soil of at least semi-loyal Maryland, the men could 
not repress a shout of joy. Civilians will scarcely appreciate 
the change. But the soldier who has spent a year in a State 
where even the " poor white trash" feel corrupted by contact 
with the shadow of the old flag, without one smile of recog- 
nition of their heroic sacrifices, continually taunted as a Yan- 
kee horde of invaders, can well understand the kindly smile of 
welcome from the window and door-way, while the " flag of 
our Union" waves from the porch and house-top. No wonder 
that our boys shook off the dust of " old Virginia" against her, 
and sent up a shout for " My Maryland," wayward, erratic, 



Again Out of Virginia. 220 

and hesitating, though at times she had proved herself. The 
men felt the inspiration as of new life, and though weary with 
their march, and the rain had already set in, making the roads 
slippery and heavy, they marched twenty miles, passing 
through Poolesville, and going into camp near Barnesville, 
Maryland. The Regiment was stationed in a cornfield where 
the water stood from three to six inches between the rows of 
corn. Of all the songs and rhymes written to show the beau- 
ties of the different seasons and the multifarious phases of hu- 
man existence, we do not remember of any in which the 
author fell into ecstacies over sleeping in a mud-puddle. A 
strong guard was stationed about camp to prevent any escapes ; 
but to the credit of the guard be it said, that the next morn- 
ing most of the men were found encamped in a piece of woods 
on a dry knoll across the road, where they should have been 
placed by the proper authorities the night before. General 
"Wadsworth, with characteristic kindness, bought a stack of 
straw for his Division to sleep upon. The next morning at 
9 o'clock, the men rolled up their wet blankets, making their 
load about three times its usual weight, and marched sixteen 
miles through the rain and mud. This day passed Sugar Loaf 
Mountain, and went into camp at Jefferson, Maryland. 

June '•llth. — Marched through Middletown and camped 
within a mile and a half of the battle-field of South Moun- 
tain. As the men came in sight of that field where so many 
of their comrades offered up their lives, it is not surprising that 
they inwardly shuddered at the recollection of that awful 
slaughter, and speculated upon the prospect of being again 
called upon to renew it. The next day marched to Frederick 
City, which the patriotic and humane Whittier has made im- 
mortal as the home of the heroic Barbara Frietchie. To-day, 

more than 

" Forty flags with their silver stars, 
Forty flags with their crimson bars, 
Flapped hi the morning wind." 



230 The Seventy-sixth Begiment 1ST. Y. V. 

Old Barbara's heart rejoiced at the sight of the "glorious 
ensign of our republic still full high advanced" from every win- 
dow and house-top as, instead of, as the year before, — 

" Up the street caine the rebel tread, 
Stonewall Jackson riding ahead," 

now came the steady columns of " the boys in blue." What a 
mingling of voices was that, as the thankful maiden's voice, in 
songs and words of welcome, mingled with the coarser but 
patriotic shouts of Maryland's heroic defenders ! 

June *28th. — To-day General Hooker was relieved of his 
command, which was given to General Meade. A difficulty 
had arisen between General Hooker and General Halleck, of 
the latter of whom it has been remarked : — " He proved his 
pen to be mightier than his sword !" There were about ten 
thousand troops at Harper's Ferry. General Hooker thought 
the possession of that place of no practical benefit to our ar- 
my, and requested permission to withdraw those troops and 
unite their strength with that of the army marching against 
Lee. Without the Harper's Ferry troops, the armies were 
about equal in numbers, and the result of a battle under those 
circumstances must, at least, be doubtful. Instead of orders 
to withdraw the troops from Harper's Ferry, General Hooker 
received an order from General Halleck disapproving of the 
withdrawal of the troops, and directing, if necessary, that the 
place be strengthened by an addition of troops from Hooker's 
army. General Hooker says : " On finding that I was not 
allowed to manoeuvre my own army in the presence of the en- 
emy, and conscious that I was standing in the way of the 
accomplishment of its mission, on the same day, the twen- 
ty-seventh of June, I sent General Halleck the following tele- 
graph : — 

June 27th, 1863—1 P. M. 
Major-General Halleck : — 

My original instructions were to cover Harper's Ferry and Washington. 



General Hooker Believed. 231 

I have now imposed on me in addition an enemy in my front of more than 
my numbers. I beg to be understood, respectfully, but firmly, that I am 
unable to comply with these conditions with the means at my disposal, and 
I earnestly recpiest that I may be at once relieved from the position I oc- 
cupy. JOSEPH HOOKER, 

Major-General Commanding." 

The next morning Colonel Hardie arrived with an order 
from General Halleck, relieving General Hooker from com- 
mand and directing him to turn it over to General Meade. 
This terminated the connection of General Hooker with the 
Army of the Potomac. We have seen how well he fought 
while connected with this army, and his subsequent fighting 
above the clouds on Lookout Mountain, will make his name 
shine in the annals of history, when other Generals, pampered 
and petted by the "War Department, will have been buried in 
oblivion. In this refusal of the troops to General Hooker, as 
in many other things connected with the conduct of the Gen- 
eral who fought his battles in the parlor in Washington, there 
is much that has never been satisfactorily explained. Imme- 
diately after General Meade assumed command, not only was 
he authorized to use the troops refused to General Hooker, but 
was given other troops for which General Hooker had not ask- 
ed. It is the opinion of able men with the evidence fully 
before them, that had General Hooker been clothed with the 
power at once conferred upon General Meade, and been given 
the assistance which was so freely accorded to him, the result 
of the campaign might have been far more decisive than it 
was. 

June 29M. — The Seventy-sixth was to-day detailed as wag- 
on guard, and marched thirty miles to Emettsburg. Much 
of the way was through fields, frequently for miles upon the 
double quick, and yet the men felt less weariness than on 
many other marches of half the distance. The crossing of 
the fields w T as made necessary in consequence of the blockade 



232 Tue Seventy-sixth Begiment N. T. V. 

of the road by ambulances, ammunition trains and troops,crowd- 
ing all the main streets, and all tending in the direction of 
Gettysburg. The line of march was through a most fruitful 
region of country. On every side, huge cherry trees, loaded 
with their ripe, delicious fruit, invited the thirsty and fruit- 
hungry boys to the commission of trespasses ; but this was not 
an enemy's country, and so the boys desisted. Had it been 
in Virginia, the owner might have congratulated himself had 
his trees survived the passage of the army. 

As the army neared that line which had heretofore separat- 
ed the free from the slave, the people grew more intensely and 
heartily loyal. The road sides became lined with ladies, old 
and young, — it may be homely, but especially lovely to the 
Union soldiery — as each, with a pail and dipper or cup, dealt 
out the cooling draughts of water, and frequently of milk, to 
the thirsty heroes. Frequently loaves of fresh bread, kneaded 
by loyal hands and tendered with pleasant smiles of welcome, 
and aprons full of ripe cherries, were presented by blushing 
young maidens with words of encouragement, giving to them 
a double relish. " Take a few cherries ; they will strengthen 
you for your march !" said the beautiful maiden. " You 
look weary, sir, have a little milk," said the girl. " Put this 
loaf of bread in your haversack," said the matron. " God 
bless the heroes who defend us 1" shouted the group of thank- 
ful Marylanders. " Three cheers for our friends !" shouted 
the sergeant, and along the whole line the shout of the heroic 
North thanked Maryland's generosity. Is it surprising that 
this day's march of thirty miles passed off as a mere holiday 
parade % God bless the loyal females of Northern Mary- 
land, for the inspiration which they thus poured into the 
heroic bosoms of those patriotic soldiers. Who can estimate 
its influence upon them during the awful carnage of the three 
days at Gettysburg ? Poor fellows ! to many of them it was 



Patriotic Maryland. 233 

the last kind act they received on earth. May we not hope it 
was a harbinger of that " well done, good and faithful," which 
they soon after received on the other shore % 

An amusing incident occurred to-day. An old farmer living 
about a hundred rods from the road, up a private lane, stood a 
perfect picture of wonder and despair because he could not 
convince the men that " Dare ish no road up dis way !" The 
Regiment had turned up this lane for the purpose of taking 
the fields to avoid the crowd in the main road, and there the 
old fellow, unacquainted with the necessities of war, stood ad- 
dressing each officer as he came up and passed, with " My Got, 
you can't go dis way !" " Tare ish no road dis way !" Yet 
on moved the army, convincing even our Dutch friend by the 
time the movement was completed, that there was a very 
wide road that way. 

At length, the Regiment went into camp at Emmettsburg. 
The next morning it was moved about four miles to a creek, 
separating Maryland from Pennsylvania. As the Fifty-sixth 
Pennsylvania, attached to our Brigade, reached the shore of 
their native State, they sent up cheer upon cheer, showing their 
appreciation of " Home, sweet, sweet home." The army 
was now placed in line of battle, and remained thus until 
the next morning. 

The Seventy-sixth was mustered for pay by Major Grover, 
but it being late in the afternoon before it was com- 
pleted, and one company being on picket duty, the certifi- 
cates of muster were not signed that night by the officer. 
Indeed, they were never signed by him, for before another sun 
had set, Major Grover with nearly one-third of the noble men 
who answered to their names at this muster, were mustered into 

that great army from the roll-call of which none will be absent, 
■x- "##*#* ■* 

" Comrades, at roll-call when I shall be sought, 
Say I fought till I fell, and fell where I fought, 
Wounded and faint. 



23-i The Seyenty-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

Oh, that last charge ! « 

Right through that dread lead-storm of shrapnell and shell 

Through without faltering — clear through with a yell. 

Right in their midst in the turmoil and gloom, 

Like heroes they dashed at the mandate of doom ! 

Oh, that last charge ! 
# ** # * # * * * 

They are mustered out ! • 
Oh, God of our fathers, our freedom prolong, 
And tread down rebellion, oppression and wrong ! 
Oh, land of earth's hope, on the blood-reddened sod, 
They died for the Nation, the Union, and God ! 

They are mustered out." 



CHAPTER XX. 

March to Gettysburg— The Seventy-sixth Given the Post op Honor— Major Gro- 
yer's Order— Battle of- Gettysburg— Details and Incidents— IIalf the Seyen- 
ty-sixtu Killed and Wounded in Half an Hour— Instances of Heroism— 
Recruiting from the "Wounded " on the Field— The " Nameless Heroine " of 
gettysburg — the aged volunteer of gettysburg — sergeant cliff, of com- 
PANY F— Union Victory— Old Archie— Ann Eedmond. 

July 1st, 1S63. — The Union Army could now be deemed 
invaders no longer, though viewed from the stand-point of the 
most violent secessionist. It was now upon the soil of a 
State that has never been charged with treason by her bitter- 
est foes. The enemy, in this second attempt, had invaded the 
loyal State of Pennsylvania, and were to be driven from it, or 
march further into the interior of the loyal North. The men 
all felt that they were now called upon to fight, not merely 
for an abstract principle, but for their own hearth-stones, — not 
only to sustain the Government, but for their own families, and 
to preserve their homes from the desolations of war. 

It had rained through the night, and the arms being loaded, 
were in poor condition for fighting ; but the men set briskly 
at work patting them in order, and soon the army was moving 
towards Gettysburg. The Seventy-sixth was placed on the 
right of the Brigade, which was on the right of the Division, 
occupying the right of the First Corps. This brought the 
Seventy-sixth in the extreme front in marching, and on the 
extreme right in line of battle. 



236 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

Our Kegiment, at this time, belonged to the Second Brigade, 
First Division, First Army Corps. The Brigade was com- 
posed of the Seventy-sixth New York, Fourteenth New York, 
(Brooklyn), Seventh Indiana, Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, and 
Ninety-fifth and One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York 
Volunteers, and commanded by Brigadier-General Cutler. 

Before noon the Begiment reached a gentle eminence, from 
which a view was had of Gettysburg. A halt was ordered. 
In front of the Corps were gathered a group of Generals and 
their respective staffs, all intently surveying with their field- 
glasses, the valley and hills beyond. There stood Keynolds, 
the Corps Commander, even now surveying the ground where 
in less than six hours he fell in front of his Corps. There was 
Wadsworth, the brave and intrepid leader of the Division ; 
and Cutler, the commandant of the Brigade. Scouts were 
momentarily coming in with their reports of the position and 
strength of the enemy. Then came the rush of people from 
the town — gray-haired old men tottering along ; women car- 
rying their children, and children leading each other, while on 
the faces of all were depicted the indices of the terror and 
despair which had taken possession of them. 

At the side of the road opposite the Seventy-sixth was a 
long row of cherry trees loaded with ripe fruit. The boys 
looked and wished, yet hesitated. Just at this moment, 
Major Grover rode down from the group of officers, and, 
speaking in a tone audible to all, said : — 

" Boys, the General charges you to be very particular to 
keep strictly within the rules, and not meddle with those 
cherry trees ! Be sure you don't break the trees down !" and 
then turning his horse up the road, he watched intently the 
group of officers beyond. The hint was understood, and the 
cherries proved very palatable, though the trees did not re- 
main quite uninjured. The officers failed to look around 



Major Groyer's Order. 237 

while the trees were being plundered. The cause was fully 
explained afterwards. The owner of the trees occupied a 
house near the Generals, and by his manner and conversation 
had convinced them that, though living in a free and loyal 
State, he was a secessionist ; hence Pope's foraging order was 
applicable to his case. Before night his house was riddled 
with shot and shell, and finally consumed, and not one in the 
Union army who understood his political status, mourned over 
his loss. 

The cherries were hardly disposed of, when the order, 
" Forward !" was given, and off at double-quick, down the 
hill toward the enemy rushed the veteran regiments. The 
Seventy-sixth New York being in advance, was obliged to 
remove fences as they led the army through fields, gardens 
and yards. It was an hour of excitement — this rushing into 
the midst of a large army now plainly visible on the opposite 
hills. 

On aproaching, and when within two miles of the town, 
General Cutler was ordered to move obliquely to the left 
across the fields to the ridge near the Seminary west of the 
town, where the enemy were already engaging our cavalry. 
He moved across the railroad with the Seventy-sixth and One 
Hundred and Forty-seventh New York Volunteers and the 
Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and immediately formed 
in line of battle. He soon found himself engaged with a 
vastly superior force of the enemy, advancing in two lines, at 
short range, in front, and on his right flank. The three regi- 
ments under General Cutler's command, in the lansmaa'e f 
his report, " fought as only brave men can fight, and held 
" their ground until ordered to fall back by General "Wads- 
" worth, to the woods on the next ridge. The Seventy-sixth 
" New York and Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania fell back ; the One 
" Hundred and Forty-seventh New York did not receive the 



238 The Seventy-sixth Kegevient N. T. Y. 

" order, in consequence of Lieutenant Colonel Miller being 
" wounded at the moment of receiving it. Major Harney 
" held the regiment to its position until the enemy were in 
" possession of the railroad-cut on his left, when it was impos- 
" sible for him to retire until relieved by a charge on the ene- 
" my from the left by the Sixth Wisconsin, Ninety-fifth New 
" York Yolunteers, and Fourteenth Brooklyn, which resulted 
" in capturing a large body of the enemy, and enabled Major 
" Harney to bring off the remainder of his Regiment." 

It was near the first of this fighting that General Reynolds 
was killed, and the command of the corps devolved upon 
Major-General Doubleday. About the same time Major 
Grover was struck by a ball and almost instantly killed. 
Major Grover was a good disciplinarian, and was missed in 
the Regiment. General Cutler, in his report of the battle, 
says : — 

"Major Grover, commanding the Seventy-sixth New York Volunteers, a 
brave and efficient officer, was killed early in the action of the first instant, 
and the command devolved upon Captain John E. Cook, and most ably and 
faithfully did he perform the duty." 

About the same time that Major Grover was killed, Lieu- 
tenant Cahill, of Company B, fell, wounded in the thigh. 
Captain Story, of Company B, fell mortally wounded. Lieu- 
tenants Carter and Button, of Company B, were wounded, 
and Sergeant-Major Thomas Martin killed, the ball entering 
his arm and side. 

All the Regiments in this advance Brigade were fearfully 
cut up. The Seventy-sixth went into the fight with three 
hundred and forty-eight men and twenty-seven officers, and in 
half an hour it lost two officers killed, and sixteen wounded ; 
twenty-seven men killed, and one hundred and twenty-four 



Battle of Getttsbukg. 239 

wounded ; making a total killed and wounded in the half 
hour, of eighteen officers and one hundred and fifty-one men, 
or over half the officers, and nearly half the men expended in 
that brief period ! The One Hundred and Forty-seventh 
New York went into the fight with three hundred and eighty 
officers and men, and within the same time lost in killed and 
wounded two hundred and seven. The Fifty-sixth Pennsyl- 
vania went into the battle with seventeen officers and two 
hundred and thirty-five men, and within the same time lost in 
killed and wounded, six officers and seventy-two men. It 
is very seldom that an army suffers in the ratio above indi- 
cated. 

After falling back to the woods, and subsequently further 
back, General Cutler received orders to advance again, aud 
occupy the crest of the ridge. Although reduced by a loss of 
half their numbers, the men bravely and cheerfully moved 
forward to renew the fight. On his way, General Cutler was 
joined by the Ninety-fifth New York, Fourteenth Brooklyn, 
and Sixth Wisconsin. After occupying the old ground from 
half to three-fourths of an hour, the enemy were discovered 
putting a battery into position on the right flank, and moving 
forward large bodies of infantry in the same direction. This 
being reported to General Wadsworth, he directed General 
Cutler to take such a position as he deemed proper. Leaving 
the Fourteenth Brooklyn to assist the Sixth Wisconsin in sup- 
porting the battery, he, with the balance of the Brigade 
present, changed front to the right, and endeavored to hold 
the enemy in check as best he could. lie had no support on 
either the right or left, until about two o'clock, when a brig- 
ade from the Second Division formed on the right, and the 
Eleventh Corps came in on the right of them. Soon after, a 
column of the enemy opened on the' Second Division. Gen- 
eral Cutler immediately pushed his Brigade through the woods 



240 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. V. 

and, coming in on the flank, opened so hot a fire upon them, 
that one regiment threw down their arms and surrendered. 
By this time the enemy were so close on his left flank that lie 
again changed front, and came into line on General Robin- 
son's left, where he remained until out of ammunition, and 
was relieved by other troops. He then fell back under the 
hill and sent for ammunition. 

The Eleventh Corps had now fallen back to, and were 
moving into, the town, and soon the enemy appeared advanc* 
ing in line of battle. After waiting about twenty minutes, 
General Cutler moved the Brigade to the railroad with a view 
to form under cover of its bank and try to hold him in check 
there, when he received an order through Colonel Bankhead, 
to send three regiments to aid in repelling the enemy near the 
Seminary. He immediately sent the Seventy-sixth, the Four- 
teenth Brooklyn, and the One Hundred and Fort} T -seventh 
New York. These regiments remained there until General 
Cutler received orders to move his Brigade to the rear in the 
best order he could. He moved off on the railroad embank- 
ment, and although exposed to the enemy's fire on both flanks, 
the men marched with perfect steadiness and no excitement. 
Their steadiness had the effect to bring the enemy to a halt, 
when he threw out skirmishers, thus relieving our Brigade 
from the fire of his main line on the left. This Brigade thus 
completely covered the troops who were retreating on its 
right from the fire of the enemy on its left. The Brigade 
suffered severely while retiring. General Cutler had one 
horse killed on the railroad, and another wounded going- 
through the town. After the death of General Reynolds, the 
Corps was handled with courage and skill by General Doub- 
leday. In the midst of the fight he was ever-present, giving 
orders to his men, and eVen, in some cases, "sighting" the 
artilleiy. At one time he was nearly surrounded by the 



Instances of Hekoism. 241 

rebels, and only escaped by reason of their ignorance of his 
rank. 

Instances of heroism occurred on this sanguinary field, 
which, had they been witnessed in the olden time, would have 
linked the names of the actors with the worshiped saints. In 
the hottest of the fight, the rebels had killed nearly all the 
gunners attached to Battery B, Fourth U. S. Artillery, and 
were rushing up to take the Battery, when a remaining gun- 
ner, nearly exhausted by his almost superhuman effort to save 
his battery, raised his " swab," and struck the commandant of 
the rebel squad, breaking his neck. The brave gunner fell, 
however, pierced through the body by rebel bayonets. His 
battery was taken, but recaptured by our troops later in the 
day. 

As the Sixth Wisconsin was advancing to the relief of the 
One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York, a fine appearing 
man came deliberately up to Lieut.-Col. Dawes, commanding 
the Regiment, and, taking the position of a soldier, saluted 
the Colonel. Supposing he had some order to communicate, 
the Colonel turned toward him, when the man, standing erect, 
exclaimed : — " Tell my friends at home I died like a man and 
a soldier I" Then, tearing open his coat with both hands, he 
displayed a ghastly wound, and fell dead ! 

In another instance, the rebels had killed nearly all the 
gunners in charge of one piece of our artillery, and were 
advancing to capture it. Observing their movement, one of 
the gunners hastily attached the horses to the gun, and was 
just preparing to mount and ride oft", as the rebel Lieutenant 
placed his hand upon the piece and ordered him to surrender. 
Instead of obeying the order, he put spurs to the horses and 
dashed off. But, as he started, the Lieutenant, who had 
reached the horses' side, presented a cocked pistol at the head 
of the gunner. Determined to save the gun, regardless of the 



242 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

danger, he dashed ahead, when the Lieutenant fired, the ball 
entering the body of the gunner ; he, however, managed to 
stay upon his horse nntil the gun was safe within our lines, 
and then fell to the ground dead ! 

Cases of cowardice, as well as courage, were not wanting. 
As the Regiment was marching near the railroad, they were 
at one time deployed through the lot, along the edge of which 
ran a stone wall. As they were marching along, Captain 
Pierce, of Company A, discovered a man nicely rolled up in 
a blanket, lying behind the wall, his head completely hidden. 
Considering the care with which he was rolled in the blanket 
a little unusual for a dead man, Captain Pierce proceeded to 
investigate. 

" What are you doing here ?" inquired the Captain. " Get 
up !" 

"I can't. I am awfully wounded," replied the "beat." 

" Where V inquired the Captain. 

" Here," answered the coward, pointing to his side. 

An examination discovered no wound. After changing the 
locality of the injury several times, and each time failing to 
discover blood, the Captain shouted, " Get up, you coward ! 
Fall in !" and Company A kept this recruit of the battle-field 
in the front rank the remainder of the day. 

The Brigade was now ordered to fall back through the town 
to Cemetery Ridge on the south. The rebels followed closely, 
so that at one time the town was occupied by portions of both 
armies. 

The people of Gettysburg, like the bulk of the peo- 
ple of the free States, are heartily loyal. At many of 
the doors and windows, the ladies, lads and girls stood through 
that long, hot day, and passed water and food to the Union 
troops. The men of the Seventy-sixth will not soon forget, 
and I should fail in the performance of my duty, did I not 



The "Nameless Heroine." ■ 243 

mention the " nameless heroine," who, with a cup in each 
hand, so busily dealt out water to the thirsty boys, the tears of 
sympathy streaming down her lovely cheeks, as the wounded 
soldiers came hobbling by, until, pierced by a rebel ball, she 
fell dead by the side of her pail ! We regret that we cannot 
hand down her name to posterity, even in these humble pages. 
The memory of her deeds and heroic sacrifice shall remain 
green, though her name is unknown. 

After passing through the town to Cemetery Hill, the Brig- 
ade was joined by the Seventh Indiana, which had come up. 
By order of General Wadsworth the Seventh Indiana was sent, 
to hold the crest of a hill to the right, and the balance of the 
Brigade having been in action from ten o'clock A. M. to four 
o'clock P. M., were allowed to rest for the night. 

At the commencement of this battle, as the Regiment was 
rushing forward toward the enemy, a cannon ball passed be- 
tween the legs of Captain Robert Story, of Company B, 
plowing up the earth beyond, yet he rushed on until, half an 
hour later, he lay mortally wounded, in the enemy's lines. 
He was struck in the left thigh by a Minnie ball, which, on 
reaching and fracturing the bone, divided into three parts. 
He lingered until the sixth of August, receiving all the atten- 
tions which kind hearts and skillful hands could give. No 
man in the Regiment was entitled to more praise than Cap- 
tain Story. 

To the Seventy-sixth New York is due the credit of firing 
the first gun at Gettysburg, except the skirmishing done by 
the cavalry. Next to the Seventy-sixth was the Fifty-sixth 
Pennsylvania, one of the best regiments in the service — a reg- 
iment which ever vied, with the Seventy-sixth in the laudable 
strife to excel in achievements. 

As the regiments were pushing forward, before the fighting 
commenced, a gray-haired man, sixty years of age, rushed 



244 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N". T. V. 

across tlie fields, gun in hand, and attempted to reach the 
front ; but being unable to overtake the Seventy-sixth New 
York, he fell in with the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, and fought 
with that Eegiment all day. Had all the residents of Gettys- 
burg been equally patriotic and courageous, the result of the 
first day's fighting might have been more disheartening to the 
South, and rendered the terrible fighting of the next two days 
unnecessary. 

Early in the first day's fighting, Orderly Sergeant Henry 
Cliff, of Company F, fell severely wounded in his left leg. 
Our troops were retreating, and he was left upon the field. 
The sun was shooting down his hottest July rays. !N"o bush 
protected the brave Sergeant. 

" Please carry me to the shade of that tree," said the Ser- 
geant to a rebel, alluding to a large tree that stood near by. 

" I shan't do it," replied the rebel ; " get some of your 
d — d Yankee horde to help you. If you had been at home, 
where you belonged, instead of fighting for the d — d nigger, 
you would not have needed help !" and there, for five days 
the Sergeant lay with a broken limb, unable to stir, almost 
dying from thirst and hunger, and nearly roasting, while clay 
after day he watched the cool shade in its slow journey around 
the tree, never quite reaching him, but advancing toward him 
and then retreating, as though tantalizing him for his loyalty ! 
He was finally found by our men, his limb amputated, and he 
still lives to tell his story. 

General Pleasanton, commanding cavalry, had become fa- 
miliar with the country around Gettysburg, and had advised 
General Meade that this was the proper place to bring on the 
battle, which every one considered imminent. General Meade, 
however, decided upon making a stand at another point, for 
the purpose of receiving the attack of the enemy. He 
accordingly selected a position on Pipe Creek, the left resting 



Second Day at Gettysburg. 245 

in the neighborhood of Middleburg, and the right at Man- 
chester. He was engaged in making arrangements for 
occupying that position as soon as the enemy should by their 
movements indicate the time for doing so, while the First 
Corps was fighting the battle of Gettysburg, above described. 
In the afternoon of the first of July, General Meade learned 
that the cavalry under Buford had met a large force of the 
enemy at Gettysburg ; that General Reynolds, who had gone 
to his assistance with the First and Eleventh Corps, had been 
hilled, and a battle was then being fought. The attention of 
General Meade seems then, for the first time, to have been 
seriously directed to the position of Gettysburg for meeting 
the enemy. He immediately sent General Hancock to inspect 
and report the condition of our troops, and the character of 
the ground. That night the troops were moved up and took 
position on the hill south of Gettysburg. 

The troops now formed in line of battle in the shape of a 
horse-shoe, with the convexity toward the town. The left 
facing to the northwest, was occupied by the Fifth Corps, 
under General Sykes, the Third Corps, under General Sickles, 
and the Second Corps, under General Hancock. The center 
facing the town, by the First Corps, under General Newton, 
the right by the Eleventh Corps under General Howard, and 
the Twelfth Corps, under General Slocum. 

The fore part of July second was spent by the Union Gen- 
erals in disposing their troops, and arranging for the battle. 
Early in the morning, the Second Brigade was moved to the 
hill and took a position between the First Brigade, and Gene- 
ral Green's Brigade, of the Twelfth Corps. Wasted as was 
the strength of the First Corps, by the fighting of the day 
before, it was not expected that they should bear the burthen 
of what was to follow. 

The enemy now occupied the valley at the base of Ceme- 



240 The Seventy-sixth Begdient N. Y. V. 

tery Hill, and formed nearly parallel with our forces. Early 
in the day skirmishing was commenced by the enemy, and 
continued more or less severe until four o'clock in the after- 
noon, when suddenly he opened a most terrific fire upon 
Cemetery Hill, held by the Eleventh Corps, and upon the 
position held by the Second Corps. Our artillery, posted in 
favorable positions, replied vigorously, and for two hours the 
roar, and flame, and smoke of artillery, and shriek of shells 
so completely filled the air, that everything else seemed for- 
gotten. On the left were soon observed dark masses of troops 
emerging from the woods and advancing in the direction of 
the Third Corps. Skirmishing in that part of the field be- 
came sharper. General Sickles was sent forward to ascertain 
the enemy's intentions. The artillery fire ceased, and with 
yells and cheers, the rattle of musketry and flash of fixed bay- 
onets, Longstreet's and Hill's Corps rushed against the Union 
Army. The Third Corps fought manfully, but were finally 
forcedtogive way beneath the weight of the attacking column. 
Sickles fell severely wounded, his leg being blown off by a 
shell, and his Corps cut to pieces. On came the rebels with 
more fury than before. The Second and Fifth Corps were 
thrown into the breach. The Second Corps suffered terribly. 
The Fifth Corps, including the Pennsylvania Eeserves, fought 
with desperate courage, and a determination to leave the field 
only as conquerors. A division of the Twelfth Corps was now 
called in, and about the same time General Sedgwick arrived 
with the Sixth Corps. They had marched thirty consecutive 
hours, their feet were sore, some without shoes, and they felt 
much more like lying down in the road than fighting. But 
when the situation was understood, these weary patriots 
seemed strengthened by a new inspiration, and even awaited 
with impatience the order to advance. At length the order 
came, and like fresh troops this celebrated Corps went clown 



At the Close of the Second Day. 247 

the hill like an avalanche upon their almost victorious foe. 
The rebel column halted, staggered, and then fell back in eon- 
fusion, leaving their dead and wounded piled across each 
other, and in our hands. About the same time, an equally 
sudden dash was made by Ewell's Corps upon our right. The 
suddenness of the attack, that portion of our army having 
been weakened by the reinforcements sent to Sickles, gave the 
enemy some advantage. Reinforcements were, however, 
promptly sent up, and his advance checked. 

Stung by the defeat on the left, which had sent their col- 
umns back in confusion, the rebels were determined, at all 
hazards, to cany the right, hence the attack upon Slocum 
was furious almost to madness. The First Corps, which had 
covered itself all over with glory the day before, and the Sixth 
Corps, which had just turned the tide so magnificently on the 
left, came promptly to the support of the Twelfth Corps. 
From dark until half-past nine o'clock, the battle raged with 
unabated fury. The lines swayed to and fro, each in turn 
advancing and falling back. At this hour the enemy made 
his last desperate charge on the right wing held by Geary's 
Division. He was repulsed with terrible slaughter, and re- 
fused to renew the attack. At ten o'clock the firing ceased 
and all was quiet the remainder of the night. 

Ewell had been reinforced, and held a position of some 
advantage. As a matter of personal honor, General Meade 
assigned the task to General Slocum of dislodging Ewell 
from the position lately held by Slocum. He accordingly 
made preparations for the work assigned him, 

A division of the Sixth Corps was posted on the right of 
the Twelfth, thus forming the extreme outpost of the right 
wing. The Fifth Corps was sent over as a reserve, and Gen- 
eral "Wadsworth's Division of the First Corps took position to 
strengthen Howard's right, where it joined Slocum's left. 



248 The Seventy-sixth Kegenient N. Y. Y. 

Thus the men lay down to refresh themselves with such sleep 
as comes to him who is convinced that the morning will bring 
him into the midst of a sanguinary battle. At four o'clock 
the next morning, (July third) Slocum's line opened a terrific 
fire on EwelPs forces. This was responded to by one of those 
furious charges for which the rebels were so justly celebrated. 
The charge upon the left the day before, where, with such 
desperation the rebels fought our forces for three hours, and 
the charge of Ewell upon the right the night before, were re- 
garded by the oldest officers in the army as the most obstinate 
and deadly contests of the war. But this charge of the ene- 
my in response to Slocum's opening fire was far more furious. 
With unearthly yells and utter contempt of danger and death, 
for six hours they hurled their solid columns against the Union 
Army. During all this time the Federal troops, firm as the 
rocky foundation on which they stood, hurled the fiery shot, 
and shell, and flame into the thinning ranks of the enemy, 
until he staggered and fell back entirely defeated and ex- 
hausted. 

Enemy though we are to any man or set of men who can lift 
their parricidal hand against this best of Governments, we 
can but admire the courage and determination displayed by 
the rebels in this battle. Nothing else during the war equaled 
this six hours of carnage. In front of General Geary's Di- 
vision were more rebel dead than the entire number of casu- 
alties in the Twelfth Corps. 

At ten o'clock General Slocum had defeated and driven the 
rebels and occupied his original position. 

At two o'clock General Lee opened a terrific fire in front, 
upon the First and Second Corps, from a hundred guns. Our 
batteries promptly~responded, and for two hours a battle with 
artillery was fought such as has never before been heard upon 
this continent. It was fitting that the decisive battle of Get- 



Last Day at Gettysbueg. 249 

tysburg should have such a magnificent termination. The 
Union troops were stationed upon a hill. Much of the sur- 
face was covered with rocks and natural depressions, so that 
our men were in great part protected. The rebel infantry 
was formed on the plain below, and being unprotected, suf- 
fered severely. Their artillery was posted on the north of 
Gettysburg. The shot and shells of both armies, during this 
heavy artillery duel, all passed over the city. There our 
wounded lay all day listening in their pain, to the shrieking 
of the shells from both armies as they passed over them. Fre- 
quently two meeting in the air, or one falling short, would 
drop into the city and there explode. In one of these instances 
a sergeant of the Seventy-sixth, who had been wounded the 
day before and was in the hospital, was struck by the frag- 
ments of a shell, and lost an arm and a leg. 

General Howard's headquarters were in the Cemetery, and 
were raked in a terrible manner. 

At four o'clock, solid columns of rebel infantry were again 
seen moving in the woods in front of the center, held by the 
First and Second Corps. During the cannonading the officers 
and men had been ordered to protect themselves behind the 
rocks and natural fortifications ; but, on seeing the movement 
in the woods, several officers went to General Doubleday, and 
volunteered to carry messages to General Meade asking that 
the center be strengthened. General Doubleday replied that 
they might trust to General Meade ; that he undoubtedly un- 
derstood the condition of affairs. On came the column over 
the fields, but not with the fury which marked the assault the 
night before. The head of the column was directed toward 
the position held by General Webb, commanding a Brigade in 
the Second Corps. This Brigade opened a steady fire upon 
the enemy, and the rebel General Armistead, who led the 
charge, halted at a fence to steady his column. General 



250 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N". Y. V. 

Webb, seeing this, shouted, " Charge ! the enemy is ours !" 
The charge was made, and the Second Corps closing upon the 
right, and the First Corps on the left, General Armistead and 
thirty-five hundred men were captured. The remaining rebels 
were driven back over the fields with great slaughter, and the 
battle of Gettysburg was ended. No more desperate battle 
was fought during the war. Each army seemed to consider 
this the Waterloo of the rebellion, and fought accordingly. 
The result was of the greatest importance to the Union Arms. 

At the commencement of the fight, " Old Archy," of whom 
we have before spoken, left the army and did not again appear 
until after the battle, when he approached Captain By ram, 
whose baggage he had carried, with, — 

" Cap'n, I toted your baggage to de rear, for fear dem rebs 
would capture it." Of course Archy had no eye upon his 
personal safety. 

In this battle the Seventy-sixth and One Hundred and 
Fifty-seventh New York took very nearly the same part, 
except the first day, and both suffered severely, many of their 
best officers being either killed, or wounded and taken pris- 
oners. 

"Have you heard from the battle?" anxiously inquired 
Ann Redmond, of the Quartermaster-Sergeant, on the second 
day of the fight. Ann had accompanied the train, and was 
now thirty miles from Gettysburg. 

" I have not," replied the Sergeant, " except that it has 
been a severe fight." 

" Then I must go and see for nryself," said Ann. " Oh, 
dear ! what will I and our children do if Tommy is killed V 
and away went Ann Redmond thirty miles on foot, to learn 
the fate of her husband — devotion worthy of imitation. 



CHAPTER XXI 



Victory at Gettysburg Answered by Victory at Vicksburg— An Advance Or- 
dered—Crossing South Mountain— Watching the Enemy to See Him Safely 
Across the Potomac— Following the Rebel Army — Guarding Rebel Property 
— General Wadsworth Takes a Temporary Leave— Reminiscences— Picket Duty 
on the RArrAHANNOCK— Night Experience in Camp— March to Culpepper— The 
Paymaster Comes— Flag Presentation in the Second Corps— Drunken Scene- 
Large Profit on Whisky— Execution of Winslow N. Allen, of Company H, for 
Desertion. 



Victory now perched upon our banners ! Heretofore, 
whenever the Army of the Potomac had met the rebel army, 
except at South Mountain and Antietam, the contest had 
failed of good results to the Union cause. Now the battle 
had been fairly won — won at an immense cost of life and 
limb. As the result was made known to the anxious North, 
it was closely followed by the cheering news that General 
Grant, who had long been beseiging Vicksburg, had finally 
compelled its unconditional surrender, and our troops had 
held their Fourth of July celebration within that almost im- 
pregnable position. Even the enemies of " forcible coercion " 
could scarcely refrain from smiling at such a combination of 
grand successes. On the fourth of July, the rebel movements 
indicated a retreat from Gettysburg. General Gregg, twenty- 
two miles from that place, on the road to Chambersburg, re- 
ported at eight o'clock in the morning : " The road is strewn 
with wounded and stragglers, ambulances and caissons, and 



252 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

there is great demoralization and confusion." This was re- 
ported to General Meade, but no advance was ordered. A 
meeting of the corps commanders was held on the evening of 
the fourth, at which General Meade requested the opinion of 
every corps commander, as to the expediency of an advance. 
The first question put to them was : — 
" Shall this army remain here ?" 

Those answering in the affirmative were Generals Birney, 
Sedgwick, Sykes, Hays and Warren. In the negative, Gene- 
rals Newton, Pleasanton and Slocum. Doubtful, General 
Howard ; and so the advance movement was delayed for the 
present. Had the question been submitted to the officers of 
lower grade, even to the Major-Generals commanding divisions, 
where men of such character as Doubleday and "Wadsworth 
could have been heard, the result would undoubtedly have 
been different. For the patriotic determination to crush this 
rebellion, instead of dallying with it, seemed to increase as 
you go downward in the scale of promotions. 

Two such armies could not remain long in ignorance of 
each other's intentions. Our cavalry was continually recon- 
noitering the enemy's positions ; the loyal people aided by 
sending in such information as they possessed, so that during 
the fifth of July General Meade ordered the Sixth Corps to 
advance, and on the sixth and seventh the remainder of the 
army started in pursuit of the enemy. Learning that the 
mountain passes through which the rebels had retreated were 
strongly fortified, General Meade determined to march back 
to Frederick, and thence over the mountain, where our army 
had so signally defeated the rebels the year before. 

July eighth, headquarters were at Middletown, and the 
whole army was concentrated in and about that place and 
South Mountain. Many of the weary soldiers now gazed 
upon that mountain, sacred to the memory of " Charley 



March from Gettysburg. 253 

Stamp," and his noble hero brothers who so bravely fell on its 
summit less than ten months before, and discussed the proba- 
bilities of a renewal of those trying scenes. Such a reflection 
is not the sweetest, even to the patriot. 

July ninth the troops crossed South Mountain, and the Sev- 
enty-sixth encamped on the west side. At night the men 
slept with their accoutrements on, ready at a moment's warn- 
ing, to meet the enemy. But the enemy was too busily 
engaged in seeking the means of escape, to make any attacks. 
The next day marched to near Funkstown, where the First 
Corps was drawn up in line of battle, to prevent the crossing 
of the Potomac by the rebels. Orders had, however, been 
given to bring on no general engagement, and there was no 
firing. 

Instead of attacking and destroying the defeated and de- 
moralized army of Lee, General Meade simply watched his 
crossing, keeping a respectful distance in his rear, and just 
near enough to prevent his comfortable stay on the north 
side of the river. 

The thirteenth of July was spent in reconnoitering the 
enemy's position, and General Meade says he intended to 
attack Lee on the fourteenth ; but during the night of the 
thirteenth the enemy crossed the Potomac in safety, and Gen- 
eral Meade, on advancing the next morning, found the ground 
evacuated, and ready for his peaceable occupation ! Thus 
ended the second Maryland campaign, under Meacle, an exact 
repetition of the first, under McClellan. In both cases, a 
defeated army was permitted to escape through a friendly 
country, across the Potomac, into the hot-bed of secession. 

Our troops now took the same route as on the former occa- 
sion, crossing the Potomac at Berlin. As on the former 
occasion, during the march to Berlin, the rain fell in torrents; 
the roads were almost impassable ; the men had received no 



254 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

clotliing since leaving the camp in Virginia ; hundreds of 
miles had been traveled, and many of the men were barefoot, 
ragged and dirty, and altogether the army presented a sorry- 
looking appearance. But the river-must be crossed, and the 
march resumed, and veterans of so many battle-fields are not 
the men to quarrel with fate, or question orders. 

The Regiment arrived at Middleburg July twentieth, hav- 
ing marched twenty miles that day. 

A marked dinerence was observed between the loyalty of 
Maryland and disloyalty of Virginia. Flags were no longer 
seen floating from the houses. No " Union rag " would be 
possessed by such a people, and discretion forbade the display 
of any other at this particular period. The old traitors and 
young traitoresses all frowned alike bitterly upon our men. 
Yet, even the bitterest secessionist was ready to call for a 
guard to compel our troops to " respect private property." 
One bloated old secessionist, puffed up with that self-conceit 
which is indigenous to the very soil of " the mother of Presi- 
dents," was the owner of a well. The thirsty troops took the 
liberty, in passing, to fill their canteens, seeing which, the 
burly old rebel sprang to his well, took off the pump handle 
and carried it into the house, then, with characteristic impu- 
dence, went to the commanding general and asked for and 
procured a guard to protect his property from destruction ! 
No wonder that narrow-minded treason was not rendered 
odious to itself by such acts of generalship ! 

Here General Wadsworth took his leave, for a time, of the 
First Division. No better or more patriotic man ever shoul- 
dered a musket or carried a sword. On leaving he shook the 
hand of each officer and man in the Seventy-sixth, as though 
they were his brothers. There was a time when a Major-Gen- 
eral could scarcely have found time to shake the hands of the 
thousand men who composed the Regiment. Now it was an 



General Wadswortii Leaves Temporarily. 255 

easier matter ; for, although two hundred and fifty men had 
been put into the Regiment just before marching for Gettys- 
burg, the whole number of officers and men now present did 
not exceed eighty. General Wadsworth stated to the officers 
on leaving, that he had endeavored to get the Seventy-sixth 
sent on detached duty, to enable them to recruit, " Having 
failed in this," said the General, " I cannot bear to see the 
small remnant of the brave old Regiment put up to be shot 
at any more !" 

A story is told showing the kindness of heart possessed by 
General Wadsworth. Just previous to the march upon 
Chancellorsville, an order was issued that no teams should be 
employed, but instead thereof, pack-mules were to be used. 
The order also required each man to carry ten days' rations, 
(thirty pounds,) one hundred rounds of cartridges, (twelve 
pounds,) extra shoes, overcoat, blanket, poncha tent, canteen 
and clothing, (forty-five pounds,) musket, (eight pounds,) in 
all about ninety-five pounds ! On receiving the order Gene- 
ral Wadsworth called his orderly : — 

" Orderly!" said the General, "pack a knapsack, canteen, 
haversack and cartridge-box, and roll the tent and overcoat, 
and place them upon the knapsack, according to orders, and 
put the whole rig on me, and hand me a gun. I am going to 
see if this order can be obeyed by the men ;" and for nearly 
an hour, the General paced his tent carrying the load of a sol- 
dier. At the end of that time, perspiring at every pore, 
he commenced unloading, declaring, as he did so, " No man 
can carry such a load and live ; it is preposterous !" He was 
obliged to promulgate the order, but to the General's credit 
be it said, no inspector came around to see that the order was 
obeyed, and the men did not carry ninety-five pounds each to 
Chancellorsville. 

July 22d. — Having rested a whole day, the Regiment 



256 The Seventy-sixth Regiment !N". T. V. 

moved down to White Plains, a distance of eight miles. The 
next day at sunrise the march was continued until in the 
afternoon, after a march of twenty miles, the Regiment 
reached "Warrenton. Here a rest was given until the first day 
of August. The enemy moving down the west side of the 
mountains, had as yet given no evidence of their intention, 
and the Army of the Potomac was simply watching their 
movements. 

August 1st. — The Seventy-sixth was ordered to advance to 
Beverly Ford on the Rappahannock, near the place where it 
was first under fire in August, 1862. Captain Byram, of 
Company D, was now in command of the Regiment. 

September 12th. — About two hundred and fifty conscripts 
were, at this date, added to the Seventy-sixth. The Regi- 
ment was now, and for a month had been, engaged in doing 
picket duty along the Rappahannock, one half relieving the 
other each consecutive day, watching and waiting for the 
enemy, who seemed anything but anxious to renew the ac- 
quaintance. 

Captain Swan had been home on a furlough, to enable him 
to recover from his Gettysburg wound. He returned in the 
evening of September thirteenth. Being tired, he retired to 
his bunk, made by driving down four crotched stakes, and 
laying two poles in the crotches, and numbers of smaller 
sticks across them. He was scarcely asleep, dreaming of the 
pleasant home so lately left, when his somnambulic entertain- 
ment was unceremoniously intruded upon. On waking he 
found himself lying in the mud, while the rain was pouring in 
torrents upon him. A tremendous shower coming up in the 
night, had softened the ground, when the stakes gave away, 
and, aided by a strong wind, the Captain was launched out- 
side his tent. On becoming conscious of his situation, he 
crawled back into the tent, passing the remainder of the night 
on the wet earth. 



Flag Presentation. 257 

September 16th. — At two o'clock in the morning, orders 
were received to march in one hour. To young soldiers tin's 
would have seemed something of a hardship ; but down came 
the tents, and before daylight the Regiment was on its way to 
Culpepper. After a march of twelve miles a halt was ordered 
and the men went into camp. Here the paymaster's welcome 
face and seductive greenbacks made their appearance, and the 
men were happy again. 

The next day a flag presentation took place in the Second 
Brigade, where a most disgraceful scene transpired. Whisky 
everywhere, and under all circumstances, is a " thing of evil." 
It leaves its slimy track through every lane of life, and hisses 
its seductive falsehoods in the ears of every neighborhood ; 
but never does it rise to the full display of its sickening diabo- 
lism, until it circulates unrestrained in the army. The 
paymaster had been around, and somehow the sutler had man- 
aged, under pretense of celebrating the flag presentation, to 
obtain a permit to sell a certain amount of whisky. When 
once a permit of that kind is given, it amounts practically to 
an unlimited license. The result was, that there was scarcely 
a sober man in the Second Brigade. Nor was the poison con- 
fined to that camp. Money will ever command the services 
of King Alcohol, if he is within commanding distance. The 
First Brigade, therefore, felt the influence of this drunken 
spree. The veterans had become accustomed to sober life ; 
but the conscripts lately from home, had become thirsty, and 
many humorous as well as painful scenes were witnessed: 

In one tent were three conscripts with more money than 
had commonly fallen to their lot, and more raging thirst than 
had ever been experienced before. 

" Say, boys let's have some liquor," said one. 

" How shall we get it ?" was the awkward response. 

Just then, Jim , of Company II, came in. 

R 



258 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

" Say, veteran, can't you get us some liquor ?" inquired the 
conscript. 

" Well, I guess so," said Jim. 

" How much do you want for a bottle ?" said conscript, 
showing the money, his eye brightening at the thought. 

" Well, about three dollars, I guess," replied Jim. 

The money advanced, Jim, after a few moments, returned 
with the coveted bottle. He knew that the three dollars 
bought two bottles, one of which lay back for speculation. 

" Hurrah for the veteran !" shouted the three conscripts, as 
they drank the contents of the bottle. One bottle for three 
empty conscripts was a small ration. 

" Say, vet., can't you get us some more whisky ?" inquired 
the anxious conscripts. 

" No more at that price," said Jim ; " I can get another 
bottle for four dollars." 

" Here is your money ; hurry !" 

Jim went to his tent, poured half the contents of the 
other bottle into this, filled up with water, and returned. 

" Bully for the veteran !" shouted the conscripts, and the 
contents of this bottle followed their late neighbor. 

" Say, old feller, can't you get us another bottle ?" said the 
now slightly intoxicated conscripts. 

"Not for that price," said Jim. " Whisky is getting scarce 
— can't get it short of five dollars." 

" Well, five dollars it is, then ; here, hurry up !" and one 
of them passed over a five dollar greenback. 

Jim repeated the last operation, and they received the last 
bottle of whisky purified with water. 

The two bottles of whisky, though weakened with one of 
water, had, by this time, very much affected the discretion of 
the conscripts, and as their judgments failed, their appetites 
became sharpened. 



Drunkenness. 259 

" Say, veteran, can't you get us some more whisky — we 
must have it — name your price !" shouted the three con- 
scripts in concert. 

" I can get you just two bottles more, and that's all," said 
Jim. " You must give me ten dollars." 

" Here's your (hie) money." 

Jim went to his tent, filled the two bottles with water, 
and returned them to the conscripts, who were, by this time, 
very oblivious. 

" Hurrah (hie) for the (hie) ve'eran !" shouted the three, in 
drunken chorus. " Say, (hie) this tastes (hie) ratherm ild ! 
Wha' d'you think ? I guess (hie) I'm getting el'yed !" 

Jim having become satisfied with his speculation, left with 
his nineteen dollars profit. There was grumbling among the 
conscripts the next morning ; but Jim could not be recog- 
nized, and his sale of water was never punished. 

During the same whisky rule, Captain E. J. Swan was 
walking through camp, when he was accosted with : — 

" I say (hie) Cap'n, I'm (hie) awful sick !" 

" What's the matter, my man ?" 

"O-u-g-h (hie) don'no. O-u-g-h-oo — do git, o-o, doc'or, 
Cap'n." 

" Is there no one in your tent to help you ?" 

" Y-e-s ! o-o-g-h, Bill's there." 

" Why don't you have him go for the doctor, then ?" 

" 'Cause, o-o-o-u-g-h — he's (hie) he's — drunk, too, Cap'n !" 

The Captain did not send for the doctor. 

Drunkenness became general for the time, and Governor 
Curtin, the hero of the occasion, saw little in tins advent to 
the army, to inspire him with confidence in the temperate 
habits of Liberty's defenders. To the honor of the army be 
it said, however, that this development of their worse than 
beastly natures, was exceptional, and not a common occurrence. 



260 The Seventy-sixth Regiment !N\ Y. V. 

September 21s£. — Another addition of one hundred and fifty 
men was made to the Seventy-sixth at this date. The Regi- 
ment now began to bear the proportions of the olden time. 
The veterans began to appreciate their importance as veterans, 
and many a sly joke was perpetrated at the expense of the 
recruits. How strange to these educated soldiers of two years' 
experience seemed the lengthy strides, the awkward gestures, 
and the loose civilian style of the raw recruits ! How their 
arms dangled from their ill-fitting coats ! How they grum- 
bled at sleeping on the ground, and wondered that the 
Government should feed them on hard tack and salt pork. 
For all the world as the veterans talked less than two years 
before, and yet how strange it seemed to them after the lapse 
of that time. 

September 2±th. — Orders were received to march in half an 
hour. At the end of that time the Regiment had struck tents 
and were on the march to the Rapidan. After going about 
six miles they went into camp near Raccoon Ford. Here, 
late at night on the twenty-seventh, another hundred men 
joined the Regiment. They were mostly substitutes and con- 
scripts. Among the number was Winslow N. Allen, formerly 
a private in Company H, who had deserted while the Regi- 
ment was stationed at Washington, in the spring of 1862. 
Eight of these new men were assigned to Company H, and, 
strange as it may appear, Allen was assigned to the same 
Company from which he had deserted. After deserting, he 
had lived under an assumed name, (William Newton,) in Jef- 
ferson county, New York, his residence when he enlisted being 
in Madison county. He was possessed of a beautiful wife and 
one child, but, tempted by the bounty of three hundred 
dollars, he had sold himself as a substitute, trusting to fortune 
to make his escape again. As he was marched by the ser- 
geant down the company street, though dark, his voice was 



"Winslow K. Allen. 261 

recognized by his former comrades. This coming to the ears 
of the officers, he was arrested and placed in confinement to 
await his trial for desertion. He was soon after tried, con- 
victed, and sentenced to be shot to death on the eighteenth of 
December, 1863. 

So many hud been arrested and either returned to duty or 
punished by imprisonment and loss of pay, that he could not 
believe he would be sentenced to death. Others who had 
been sentenced to be shot had been pardoned, so that after the 
decision became known to him he still indulged in hope. As 
the hour drew near, however, Captain Swan, as kindly as pos- 
sible, assured him that all hope was vain, and that he should 
prepare for his awful doom. A day or two before his death 
he began to realize his situation, and to set about making 
preparations to enter 
" The undiscovered country, from whose bourne no traveler returns." 

lie seemed calm and collected, and declared himself ready 
to die, if such must be his fate. So self-possessed was he, that 
an hour before his execution he sat at the table with his Cap- 
tain, and ate a hearty dinner, after which he engaged in 
writing. As the drum beat the signal to march to the place 
of execution, he said : — 

" Captain, you have been kind to me, which I can only 
return by my prayers for your welfare. 1 ' Handing the Cap- 
tain his pocket-book, " Take this, it is all I have, and when I 
am gone, please lay this," (a fervent pra} T er for one in his sit- 
uation, printed on a card), " on my breast." 

The Captain promised to do as requested. As they marched 
to the mournful measure of the death march, and neared the 
fatal spot where the rough coffin and gaping grave were wait- 
ing to receive their victim, he 'seemed suddenly struck with ter- 
ror, and, seizing the Captain's hand with a vice-like grasp, thus 
remained until they arrived at the coffin. Around him were 



262 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

formed his companions whom he had deserted. The grave 
which was to receive him as a loathsome criminal, was fresh 
beside him. It was a severe test of his physical courage. To 
none but the Captain was there the exhibition of the least 
emotion. 

The condemned man was placed upon the foot of his coffin ; 
the bandage placed over his eyes ; his hands pinioned. The 
charges, specifications, findings and order for his execution 
had been read. The Captain bent over him, and, his heart 
almost too full for utterance, whispered : — 

" Winslow, I can go no further with you ; the rest of your 
dark journey is alone. Have you any last word for your wife 
and child?" 

" No, only tell them I love them all !" These were his 
last words. The Captain stepped back a few feet ; the officer 
gave the signal to the executioners ; the report as of a single 
gun rang out, and Winslow E". Allen fell lifeless upon his 
coffin. 

He had, on that clay completed his twenty-sixth year. He 
died without a perceptible movement of a muscle. 

This was the only execution that ever occurred in the Sev- 
enty-sixth Kegiment. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

The Seventy-sixth Recruited to One Thousand Men— Building Winter Quar- 
ters—March and Leave them— Night March— On the Retreat— Marching Thirty 
Miles in Eighteen Hours— Visit to the Battle-Fields of Gainesville and 
Bull Run— Sickening Sights— Retreating and Advancing— Wading Broad Run 
— An Important Capture— John Miner Botts, the Loyalist— Dark and Danger- 
ous Nioht March — Battle op Mine Run— Building Winter Quarters Again — 
Another March— Winter Quarters in Earnest. 

September 2±th. — The idea had become prevalent that the 
army would go into camp on the north bank of the Rapidan. 
The men had accordingly erected a city of log houses, and 
everything began to resemble camp life. At this date, how- 
ever, the order came about twelve o'clock to march, and at 
once these houses were abandoned, and by daylight were left 
about eight miles in the rear. Here again the Regiment went 
into camp, and remained until October eleventh. The time 
was all occupied in drilling the recruits, who had already 
swelled the rolls of the Regiment to one thousand again. 

Captain John E. Cook, of Company I, had been promoted 
to Lieutenant-Colonel, and Colonel Livingston being still on 
duty upon the examining board in "Washington, the command 
of the Regiment devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Cook. 
Captain J. "W". Young, of Company K, had also been pro- 
moted to Major. While lying here, General Rice assumed 
command of the Brigade. 

At midnight, October tenth, the men were called up to re- 



264 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

ceive five days' rations. Every man failing to arise, lost his 
rations. This produced no small amount of grumbling, es- 
pecially among the recruits. Poor fellows ! they had not yet 
learned the elements of soldiering. 

The rebels were reported to have retreated. They had 
certainly called in their pickets, and some move was evidently 
about to be made. Everybody believed the Union army was 
to advance southward. 

Early in the morning, (October eleventh), the Regiment 
was marching back toward the river, on arriving near which 
they lay in battle order behind a slight rise of ground until 
dark, when a retreat was ordered. A night march of ten 
miles was made before stopping. The night was so extremely 
dark that a man could not be seen two paces distant. About 
midnight the Regiment reached an open field near Culpepper 
and rested two hours. The night, if possible, grew darker, 
and at two o'clock the troops were again on the march ; after 
a march of about four miles, the regiment reached Stevens- 
burg, when a halt was made. 

Stevensburg is situated upon an eminence from which a 
splendid view was had of the valley from which the infantry 
had just ascended. Here was presented a fine view of the 
contest going on in the valley below. The enemy were surely 
" retreating towards us," as Paddy would say, and our forces 
were evidently making the best possible time in placing the 
Rappahannock between them and the enemy. The cavalry 
were protecting our rear. From this eminence their splendid 
charges into the enemy's advancing lines, then their retreats, 
could be distinctly seen with the naked eye. Then came the 
white smoke wreaths and the heavy roar of artillery, mingled 
with the rattle of musketry, all speaking unmistakably of the 
heroic conduct and daring of the cavalry and artillery. 
About noon the infantry were hurried off again in the direc- 



Again Retreating. 2G5 

tion of Kelly's Ford, showing conclusively that General 
Meade did not intend to make a stand at this point. After 
a hard march of ten miles, the troops crossed the Rappahan- 
nock and encamped for the night four miles below Rappahan- 
nock Station. Here a rest of one day was given to the men. 

Learning that the enemy were crossing the river farther up 
with the evident intention of flanking our army, General 
Meade ordered the march resumed, and at one o'clock in the 
morning the Seventy-sixth, with the other infantry, started 
northward at a rapid rate, marching thirty miles in eighteen 
hours ! That night they went into camp near Bristow Station 
on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, tired and sleepy. 
Scarcely were their eyes closed, whan they were ordered up to 
receive their rations ! Men cannot live without food, and 
when life is at stake, the soldier, like the civilian, will relin- 
quish sleep to secure his food. The men, therefore, arose, 
drew their rations at midnight, and again laid down ; but only 
to be soon aroused again by the order, " Be ready to march in 
half an hour !" and at daylight, after a night of broken rest, 
the troops were on the march to Centreville, twenty-five miles 
distant ! 

• It was during this clay that General Warren made his cele- 
brated fight at Bristow Station, driving back and capturing 
many of the enemy. 

The next day, (October fifteenth), the Seventy-sixth took 
possession of some old breastworks, and prepared to repel the 
expected attack. Heavy rains were now falling, accompanied 
by high winds, which leveled, the tents, and rendered camp 
life not only unpleasant, but dangerous. 

On the morning of October eighteenth, the men were 
ordered at three o'clock to be in readiness to march at daylight. 
They prepared to obey, but with the daylight came no order 
to march, and they returned again to camp. The following 



260 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

morning at four o'clock, however, in the midst of a terrific 
storm of rain and wind, the march was resumed. 

The enemy was expected through Thoroughfare Gap, and 
the march was in that direction, over the celebrated Stone 
Bridge of first Bull Bun notoriety ; over the whole Bull Bun 
field; past the terrible battle-field of Gainesville the Regi- 
ment marched to Haymarket, where a halt was ordered. 

On passing Gainesville, many of the officers and men could 
not resist the temptation to fall out and view the ground 
whereon they fought their first battle, now sacred to the mem- 
ory of so many heroic comrades. 

On coming upon the field where the battle was fought, the 
sight was indeed sickening. Lying about in every direction 
were the bleaching bones and ghastly skulls of the men who 
fell in that memorable fight. The rebels had but slightly cov- 
ered the dead with earth, which was quickly washed off by 
the heavy rains, leaving the bodies fully exposed to view. A 
detail of men was sent in a few days, and these sacred remains 
properly buried. 

After halting at Haymarket, Lieutenant Edwin J. Swan 
was sent with two companies, as pickets, near the entrance to 
the Gap, to prevent a night surprise. Shortly after arriving 
at their destination, a force of rebel cavalry came dashing 
through the Gap, and attempted to capture the picket line in 
a body. They succeeded in capturing several and wounding 
others from a company from the Second Brigade ; but by care- 
ful manoeuvring the two companies from the Seventy-sixth 
were rescued without the loss of a man. 

The next day, October twentieth, the whole Brigade 
marched into the Gap, where they remained encamped until 
the twenty-fourth, when they marched back through the Gap 
to Gainesville. Leaving .the railroad at this point, the route 
was taken over the hills to Bristow Station, where another 



Maeching Continued. 267 

camp was formed. This" clay's work was very severe. The 
rain of the night before had thoroughly saturated every article 
of the poorly sheltered mien. The mud was deep, and the rain 
continued to fall through the day. The men were forced 
to wade through Broad Run, then nearly to their arms ! The 
weather was very cold. Thus wading through mud and 
streams, and nearly freezing, the men marched about fourteen 
miles ! 

The Seventy-sixth [remained in camp in a pleasant cedar 
grove near Bristow, until November fifth. With cold fingers 
the officers completed the pay rolls of their companies. 

At this date orders were received to march in fifteen min- 
utes. Down went the tents, and the Regiment was soon 
moving southward. A march until late in that very dark 
night, brought the Regiment to Catlett's Station. At ten 
o'clock the next day the Seventy-sixth crossed the railroad 
and went into camp again. A lively cavalry skirmish was 
taking place near by. 

November 7th. — The men were called at four o'clock in the 
morning, and at daylight started for Kelly's Ford, twenty-two 
miles distant. Everything was now very dry. The rebels, to 
prevent the [advance of our troops, had set fire to the grass 
and forests, and for nearly the entire distance, the fire was 
seen burning on every side. The roads were very rough and 
the inarching difficult. 

"While this march was being accomplished by this Division, 
a sharp contest was going forward at Rappahannock Station, 
the result of which was the capture of nineteen hundred and 
fifty rebel prisoners, seven guns, four caissons, nine colors, and 
two thousand stand of arms. It was on this occasion that the 
Sixth Maine and Fifth "Wisconsin so gallantly carried the two 
redoubts at Rappahannock Station. 



268 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment 2ST. Y. V, 

At two o'clock on the morning of the eighth, the Regiment 
started for Kelly's Ford, six miles distant, arriving there 
shortly before daylight. Here it was halted until noon, then 
crossed the river, and marching a short distance, formed in 
line of battle, and reconnoitered. Finding the road clear, the 
march was resumed until sundown, when the Regiment 
arrived at Brandy Station. The Second and Third Corps also 
crossed at Kelly's Ford, the Fifth and Sixth Corps crossing at 
Rappahannock Station. The rebels had fallen back to Cul- 
pepper, fighting all the way. 

The next day the First Corps recrossed the river and occu- 
pied, the trenches about Rappahannock Station. November 
ninth snow fell for the first time in the season. 

The object of the rebels in coming north at this time, seems 
not to have been so much to bring on a decided battle, as to 
destroy the transportation by means of which our forces 
would be able to occupy an advanced position. They accord- 
ingly destroyed the railroad for a distance of twenty-three 
miles. 

While stationed at Rappahannock, the first Corps was 
engaged in repairing the railroad, which, with the picket duty 
and drill of recruits, kept the men actively engaged. 

"While here and at Brandy Station, the officers became 
familiar with the premises of that sterling old patriot, John 
Minor Botts. He lived but a short distance from Brandy 
Station, and his plantation was easily distinguished from those 
of his neighbors. While theirs were fenceless, and general 
ruin prevailed, those of the brave old loyalist were untouched, 
his house, out-houses and barns were uninjured, and about 
him were to be seen very few of those unmistakable indices of 
war. Each army had passed and repassed his premises five 
times, and yet he remained unharmed. The rebels respected, 
and the Union men loved him. He never covered his loyalty, 



John Minoe Botts. 2C9 

and jet he was so timely and proper in his declaration of it 
that even the bitterest rebel could take no offense. For a 
time he was imprisoned in Richmond, in company with other 
loyalists. One clay several of the rebel generals made them a 
visit. He had slept upon the floor and fared anything but 
sumptuously for nearly six months. 

" Mr. Botts, why don't you come over on the side of your 
State ? Tou could have any position you desire," said one of 
the officers, temptingly. 

The old man straightened himself to his fullest extent, and 
showing contempt as well as courage, replied : — 

" I have lived nearly sixty years under the flag of our Union, 
and was never deprived of my liberty. Your rag has been in 
the ascendancy but a few months,, and, without committing 
any offense, witness my condition ! No, sir. I prefer the old 
flag !" 

The old patriot remained true until even Southern tyranny 
yielded, and he was set at liberty. His house was ever open 
to the loyal, and there they felt as much at home as among 
the loyal people of the North. 

November twenty-fourth orders were received to march. 
The men were up at four o'clock and struck tents, and at six 
were in readiness to move. Just then the order was counter- 
manded and the tents put up again. 

November 2Gth. — This day was Thanksgiving. Were 
human experiences foreordained to average with the army's 
experiences this day, a day of humiliation and prayer would 
be much more appropriate. At four o'clock this morning all 
was bustle in camp, and at six the inarch was commenced, and 
continued at a rapid pace until nine o'clock at night. Tired, 
hungry, sleepy — that was the soldier's Thanksgiving ! 
Camped at Ely's Ford on ground passed over by the Regiment 
more than two years ago, on the march from Fredericksburg. 



270 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

What reminiscences of those two years nocked in upon those 
weary heroes ! 

The next morning the men were called at three, and started 
at four o'clock. Before daylight they crossed the Rapidan on 
pontoons, and at half-past seven, after a very rapid march, 
reached the Chancellorsville battle-field. Here a short rest 
was allowed for breakfast, and then off for a long march into 
the wilderness. The woods were full of guerrillas, who, hid- 
den behind trees and ledges, fired upon our men, and then 
escaped by paths unknown to any but themselves. 

On marched the troops in search of something, they knew 
not what. At length, as night set in, the Seventy-sixth was 
ordered to march through the dense forests by a private path. 
Blackness was overhead, and all around ; they knew not but 
this jungle was full of the enemy, yet in they plunged. The 
boys who made that march of six miles through the woods, will 
not fail to recollect it. The file leader, twenty-eight inches in 
advance, was invisible. If one man fell, as they often did, 
half a dozen came down over him ! Mounted officers came 
out so scratched by the limbs, that it was hard to recognize 
them ! It was an occasion on which impulsive " cussin " was 
palliated, if not pardoned. 

The pike was finally reached near Robinson's tavern, Gene- 
ral Meade's headquarters, and the men were permitted to halt 
and rest. A march of twenty miles had been made, notwith- 
standing the difficulties. 

These long and rapid marches always indicate business 
ahead, and the men hurried forward with the firm conviction 
that they were soon to meet the enemy. 

The next morning, (November twenty-seventh), the bugle 
was sounded, and each man arose from his restless slumbers 
to engage in the battle of Mine Run. After advancing about 
three miles, the enemy's skirmishers were met and driven in to 



Mine Run. 271 

their main line. The lines of battle were formed along Mine 
Run, and the fight commenced. The sound of the bugle that 
would send our troops rushing in a bayonet charge upon the 
enemy was now momentarily expected. Every man, recruit 
and veteran, looked his duty manfully in the face, and firmly 
resolved to act his part in the bloody drama ; but, after wait- 
ing for some time, instead of an order to charge there came 
one to support the batteries. 

The rebel sharpshooters were so stationed that from their 
safe retreats they could pour a destructive fire into our ranks. 
Aside from this, there was very little infantry firing. A 
heavy artillery fire was kept up all along the line for some 
time, the infantry acting as supports. This was the first fire 
under which the recruits had been placed, and, to them, it 
was an all-important event. As they hugged the ground, and 
listened to the whizzing of bullets and screeching of shells, 
the roar of artillery, and the quick crack of the sharpshooters' 
rifles, they believed that Mine Run was the decisive battle of 
the war. To the old veterans, the expressions of the recruits 
would have seemed supremely ridiculous, had they not remem- 
bered the time of their initiation. 

" My heavens ! There was a shell burst right over us !" 
" D'ye hear that ? That was a cannon ball !" 
" "Who in h — 1 did that ?" exclaimed a recruit, as his coffee 
cup flew into the air from the coals he was blowing. 

"Guess he didn't see the cannon ball that passed between 
his legs !" said a veteran, with a complacent smile. 

The recruit was not long, however, in learning the facts. 
No fires were allowed, except a few coals. The recruit was 
cooking his coffee, leaning over to blow the fire, when a can- 
non ball passing between his legs, became the author of his 
catastrophe ! This incident was the basis of many a stirring 
letter from the recruits to their Northern friends. 



272 The Seventy-sixth Eegment K". T. Y. 

One regiment of the Brigade, the Seventh Indiana, made a 
gallant charge across the stream, capturing the enemy's rifle 
pits, and several prisoners, but no orders being given for the 
advance of supports, they were compelled to abandon their 
prize and return. During the engagement, several companies 
of the Seventy-sixth were sent to the front on picket. The 
sharpshooters of the enemy rendered the position of these 
men very precarious. The enemy occupied one side of the 
Bun, and our forces were compelled to occupy the other, a 
portion of the distance in the open field, on the slope of the 
hill facing and in plain view of the enemy. Many of our 
men were wounded while occupying this position. It became 
necessary to erect breastworks, and dig rifle pits, behind and 
in which the men would take refuge during the day. "When- 
ever a head appeared above the fortifications it was sure to be 
saluted by a volley of balls. It was during this dangerous 
service that James Jameson, of Company D, showed the true 
courage of which he was possessed. Dissatisfied with his for- 
tification, he continued to run out and seize stones, and bring 
them to his pit, each time receiving a volley, until he had 
erected a respectable fortification, and yet not a bullet touched 
him ! 

" I have no fears of this picket duty," said a private of 
Company D, rather famous for his dislike of the smell of 
powder. 

" Well, I will detail you for that service to-day," replied 
Captain Byram, with a sly twinkle in his eye. 

" But, Captain, I havn't any gun." 

" Never mind ; here is the gun of Ed. Watrous. He is sick 
to-day." 

The matter had gone too far to retreat. The next day, on 
returning, our hero reported to the Captain the result of his 
picketing : — ■ 



TnE Valiant Picket. 273 

" I killed ten and wounded five, Captain." 
" Indeed ! How many times did you fire ?" 
" Just fifteen. I tell you, Captain, I drew a bead on tliem 
and never missed once !" 

Ed. "Watrous heard this conversation. Stepping one side 
he put down the " wormer " and drew out the same piece of 
his pocket handkerchief that he put on top of the cartridge 
before his gun went on picket that morning ! Charity would 
impel the belief that the picket thought he had fired the gun. 

A general engagement was almost momentarily expected. 
But, though skirmishing was continued for three days, with 
occasional heavy cannonading on both sides, and some losses, 
no general engagement took place, and at the end of that 
time, (five o'clock P. M., December first, 1863), suffering from 
the intense cold, and hunger, the Union Army again started 
on the retreat ! It seemed as though some ill-fated star 
controlled the destiny of the Army of the Potomac whenever 
it met the enemy on the soil of Virginia. 

The Seventy-sixth arrived near Germania Ford on the 
Rapidan about eleven o'clock, after a very hard inarch. 

The next morning, (December second), the Regiment 
crossed the Rapidan, and marching ten miles, went into camp 
near Stevensburg. Resting here for the night, the retreat 
was continued the next morning to near Kelly's Ford. Here 
the men were ordered to erect winter quarters The veterans 
had too often heard and obeyed that order, then marched 
away and left them as soon as finished, to place much faith in 
the order. But building tents for others was better than 
idleness in the cold, so they set briskly at work, and in a few 
days the log city was completed, and the men at home again. 

The veterans were correct in supposing their labor in build- 
ing would be lost, for with December twenty-fourth came an 
order to march, and at six o'clock A. M., they bade adieu to 
s 



274 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

their ^'city of ten streets," and, marching twelve miles, went 
into camp a mile southwest of Culpepper. The ground was 
well chosen in a beautiful chestnut grove, and there, after 
three disappointments that winter, they built what proved to 
be their real winter quarters. 

It should have been mentioned that Adolphus Morse, of 
Company F, was tried for desertion, and sentenced to be shot 
on the twenty-seventh of November ; but through the exer- 
tion of Hon. R. H. Duell, and the writer, his sentence was 
suspended by President Lincoln on the twenty-fifth, and after- 
wards commuted to imprisonment at hard labor, in Fort Jef- 
ferson, Florida, where he subsequently died. 

The year 1863 wore away, chronicling long and weary 
marches through broiling suns and dusty roads, then sleet and 
rains, with muddy wadings, then severe frosts and chilling 
night marches. Yet with all this added to much heroic en- 
durance and almost matchless fighting, the Army of the 
Potomac had accomplished little of practical utility. Though 
it had inarched and countermarched over the entire northern 
part of Virginia, across Maryland into Pennsylvania, and 
back again, it passed this winter but a few miles farther 
south than the winter before. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



Winter Quarters— Re-Enlisting— Furloughs— Theater Established— Presenta- 
tion op a New Stand op Colors by the Ladies of Cherry Valley— Parting 
with " The Old Flag "—A March— Engagement at Raccoon Ford— Return to 
Winter Quarters— General Grant Assumes Command— General Wadsworth 
Returns— Re-Organization op the Army— Preparations for a Grand Advance. 



During the stay in winter quarters at Culpepper, the men 
employed their time in drill, picket and police duty, very 
much as during the preceding winter. Several that had been 
absent in hospitals and on detached duty returned, so that 
there were gathered during the winter, about one hundred 
and seventy-five of the original men, about one hundred of 
whom re-enlisted as veterans. In one Company, (IT), thirty- 
two thus re-enlisted. Under a general order, this entitled 
them to a thirty-day furlough, to visit their friends, a favor 
which they joyfully accepted. Many of the men had not 
been home since leaving at first, nearly two years and a half 
before, and the thought, after passing through so many perils, 
of visiting those homes again, sent a thrill of joy through 
every veteran. 

January 5th, 1864. — The Seventy-sixth was, at this date, 
transferred temporarily • to the First Brigade. It remained 
attached to that Brigade but a month, when it was again 
transferred to the Second Brigade. 

During the month of January, General Bice commanding 



276 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N". Y. V. 

the Brigade, organized a theatrical troupe for the amusement 
of his command. A large log house was erected with all the 
necessary appurtenances, and.on the twenty-third day of Jan- 
uary the theater was opened with a " grand entertainment by 
the Star Troupe." It may be that the spirit of Shakspeare 
might have detected mistakes, and directed Hamlet to renew 
his advice to the players, yet nothing was ever instituted in 
the army better calculated to drive away the ennui of camp 
life. At this opening, one of the " boxes " was graced by 
General Rice and lady, while the notables were thickly scat- 
tered through the democratic combination of " parquette," 
" dress " and " family circles." Never was the drama or the 
comedy enacted to a more appreciative auditory than that 
assembled on these cracker-box seats. Gathered in from the 
log huts and canvas tents, the rough and smoky retreats of 
the heroic sons of liberty, these veteran heroes had reason to 
praise in no stinted terms the General whose Yankee inge- 
nuity, and interest in the happiness of his men, had projected 
so philanthropic an enterprise. No wonder that when a few 
months after this the noble General gave up his life on the 
sanguinary field, the whole command was in mourning. 

February 2d. — The splendid stand of colors presented to 
the Regiment at Albany, on behalf of Mrs. Campbell, had 
become riddled by the balls and shells of at least eleven bat- 
tles, in the front ranks of which it had waved. The ladies of 
Cherry Valley had conceived the noble idea of replacing 
them by a new banner. The silken flag was presented on 
behalf of the fair donors, in the following chaste speech for- 
warded by them, and was appropriately replied to by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Cook, on behalf of the Regiment : — 

" Lieutenant- Colonel and Privates of the Seventy-sixth Nexo York Volunteers : 
In behalf of the ladies of Cherry Valley, we testify to the most unsullied 
pleasure in paying this slight tribute to your bravery and worth. Anxious 



Flag Pkesentation. 277 

and admiring eyes have followed you ever since you bade farewell to the 
hills of the Empire State. We have watched your bright career, and 
marked all your tierce struggles with the foe, from Rappahannock Station 
to Gettysburg. We have peculiarly sympathized with you in all your 
hardships and trials, and rejoiced with you when victory has been yours. 
And might we not do so ? Was not the glory ours as well as yours ? Was 
it not won by our friends and brothers of the noble Seventy-sixth ? 

We have looked upon the torn remnants of your old flag, and the sight 
of it has inspired our hearts with a new warmth towards you. It came to 
us like a wounded friend, telling us of blood and carnage which we once 
thought could never desolate our happy country. It told us of noble hearts 
that once beat in unison with yours, but whose manly forms are now 
missing from your number; whose battles of life and country ended 
together ; your brothers and ours, whose work on earth is done, but whose 
memory will ever live in our hearts. It told us, too, of deeds of daring 
that made our hearts thrill with wonder and admiration. 

Tears were shed in memory of those noble-hearted heroes, who, in rear- 
ing that proud standard above the heads of your gallant band, have poured 
out their hearts' blood for their country, and now the folds of that sacred 
relic bear witness to their loyalty, and *his, one of Cherry Valley's sons, 
whose bravery saved it from the hands of the foe. As his familiar name 
was spoken, the prayer, ' God bless him,' arose from many a heart. Thus 
with a knowledge of your achievements still fresh upon us, we present you 
anew with your country's emblem, not hoping, but knowing, that you will 
protect it to the last ; for as one has well said, ' The past history of the 
Seventy-sixth is sufficient guarantee that it will never be disgraced.' 

In asking you to bid adieu to the old flag, we are aware that it is request- 
ing you, as it were, to take leave of an old friend, who has been your 
talisman through many a hard-fought battle. When victory has crowned 
your arms with success, its proud head has been lifted as in defiance of all 
attempts of the foe to tear it from its high position, and many a loyal heart 
has looked upon and blessed it. When dark clouds have hung threaten- 
ingly over it, past successes have cheered your hearts and bade you hope 
against hope. 

But this new friend will hold no second place in your affections. And 
now, as we entrust to your keeping this most sacred emblem of all that is 
most dear to an American heart, we pray you guard it well. Let no star 
be sundered from its sister stars, but with colors undimmed, and its silken 
folds unmarred, let it be borne with a firm and steady hand. 

•Sergeant John Stephens, of Company H. 



278 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

And now let the prayers of us all arise to heaven, that ' this cruel war ' 
may soon be ' over,' and until then may the strong arms of Divine Love, 
encircle you ; stay the hand of the foemen in its deadly work, and bring 
you once more in safety to your homes, where loving hearts are impatiently 
waiting to welcome you. 

MARY STACEY, 
GEORGE P. ENGELL * 
ELOISE CLYDE." 

The old banner, like many of the heroes who welcomed it 
at Albany, and followed it on the field, had been " expended 
in the service," and was to be furled for deposit in the 
archives of the State, as a silent but eloquent eulogist of the 
services of the Regiment it had so long accompanied. What 
wonder that the boys bade it a tearful farewell, as Captain 
Swan bore it away to its final post of honor ! Fourteen bul- 
lets, one shell and three fragments of shell had passed through 
this sacred relic, and their rents will ever bear witness at the 
Capital where it joined us, of the dangerous proximity of the 
Seventy-sixth to the enemy. 

February 6th. — The train was sent to Culpepper, and 
the Seventy-sixth proceeded to Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan. 
On reaching the Ford a sharp engagement took place, the 
enemy being driven across the river. During the day the 
sharpshooters, posted in the buildings about the Ford, seriously 
annoyed our men, while they were themselves protected. In 
the evening a dash was made at those buildings, and they 
were burned, our troops retreating by the aid of their light. 
The object of this movement was not so much to bring on an 
engagement, as to ascertain the strength of the enemy. This 
accomplished, the army returned to its winter quarters. The 
weather was chilly and the roads were very muddy, still the 
men came wading into camp in high glee, singing camp songs, 



*Since died in his country's service. 



Cheistian Commission. 279 

and making the woods and hills echo with their shouts and 
laughter. 

February l±th. — The Chaplain of the Regiment, having 
long since resigned, the first sermon for nearly a year, was 
listened to on this day. This was preached by a member of 
the Christian Commission. This noble organization will 
never be duly appreciated in this life, — the results of its 
labors can only be read in the light of the hereafter. The 
system of army chaplains was exceedingly defective, not to 
use the harsher term, pernicious. Without alluding to specific 
cases, we speak of the whole system as a sad failure — as not 
even an approach to the object in view in its organization. 
Young ministers leaving home with the patriotic intention, of 
rendering spiritual assistance and guidance, very frequently 
became contaminated by the change of life and associations of 
camp, and instead of remaining a beacon light to the wreck- 
ing soldier, became the bad example which bred contempt for 
all saintly pretensions, and thus steeled the hearts of the sol- 
diery against those better convictions which soldiers, of all 
men, most need. The Christian Commission avoided the 
evils resulting from the intimate and familiar associations be- 
tween chaplain and men, sending to the field for short periods 
volunteer ministers, fresh and pure from their christian asso- 
ciations at home — men who went into the work with zeal and 
with the advantage of having their defects, (and who has 
them not ?) unknown, and were thus enabled to impress upon 
the soldiery the truthfulness of their precepts. Many minis- 
ters, by remaining for some time in the army, so lost 
confidence in themselves as to refuse to preach to the men 
with whom they associated, when requested to do so. 

February twenty-third was a proud day for the Seventy- 
sixth. General Newton had a grand review of his Corps, 
comprising about two thousand men. The First Brigade, (to 



280 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

which the Seventy-sixth was still attached), was pronounced 
the best Brigade in the Corps, and Colonel Morrow, com- 
manding the Brigade, tickled the pride of the Seventy-sixth 
by remarking that it was the best Eegiment in the Brigade. 

On the sixth of March, the Seventy-sixth was transferred 
from the First to the Second Brigade, from which it was 
detached in January. Though attached to this Brigade by 
the common dangers and privations of nearly two years, they 
left the celebrated " Iron Brigade " with regret. 

Thursday, March twenty-fourth, 1864, General Grant, the 
hero of the West, arrived at Culpepper Court House, to take 
command of the Army of the Potomac. Now that the clouds 
have lifted, and we read the history of this army, we come to 
understand somewhat the importance of this announcement to 
the country. The halting, hesitating style of fighting which, 
to that time, had characterized the movements of this army 
was now at an end, and we are to record only forward marches 
and an ultimate and glorious triumph ! After this the army 
was to be led by a general who had no idea of his position 
when he was whipped, and when other generals would have 
ordered a retreat behind the Rapidan, Rappahannock, or Po- 
tomac ; but who never failed to follow up a defeat of the 
enemy, and to gather all the laurels won by the bravery of 
his army. To those who had watched his career, the advent 
of General Grant into the Army of the Potomac was surely 
" the gleaming of the dawning of the day." 

To the Seventy-sixth there was the return of another officer 
in whom they had most implicit confidence. General Wads- 
worth now returned to assume command of a Division — alas ! 
too soon to offer up his life on his country's altar ! 

The next day after the appearance of these generals, the 
reorganization of the army commenced. By hard fighting, 
severe marches, and sickly camps, the army [had become 



Eeoeganization of the Aemy. 281 

greatly reduced in numbers, and though recruits had been 
sent forward, many of the regiments were still mere skeletons. 
This, together with some " augurs that would not bore," made 
a change and " weeding out " necessary. In this consolida- 
tion, the First Corps was reduced to two Divisions, and 
transferred to the Fifth Corps, under command of General 
Warren. One Division of the Third Corps was assigned to 
the Sixth, and the other two Divisions to the Second Corps. 
The First and Third Corps, though thus consolidated, and 
thus losing their identity, were permitted to retain their 
badges and marks of honor. The officers and men deeply 
regretted this consolidation. For nearly two years they had 
been identified with the First Division of the First Corps, and 
that " there is something in a name " is no where more fully 
recognized than in the army. 

" To what Corps do you. belong?" 

" To the old First," was ever a proud response, after Gettys- 
burg. 

But the loss of name was fully compensated in the minds 
of the men, by the fact that their Division, (now the Fourth), 
was to be commanded by the heroic and patriotic Wadsworth. 
His disinterested patriotism in leaving his large and lucrative 
business to fight for principle without pay ; his gallant conduct 
in crossing the river at Fredericksburg, in the face of the 
enemy ; his kind care of his t«*>ps, all tended to give him a 
firm lodgment in the heart of each man in his command. 

The Seventy-sixth was now in the Second Brigade, com- 
manded by General Rice, Fourth Division, commanded by 
General Wadsworth, Fifth Corps, commanded by General 
Warren. 

March 2dth. — In the midst of a storm the army was re- 
viewed by Lieutenant-General Grant. Owing to this storm, 
the men were not ordered to march in review, but the com- 



282 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

manding General, accompanied by his staff, General Meade, 
and other distinguished Generals, rode the length of the lines. 

" The old hero looks better than I supposed." 

" His pictures belie him." 

" Where the divil is his pipe V 

" There will be no halting or retreating now." 

These were some of the expressions called forth by the 
presence of General Grant. 

Nothing except ordinary camp experiences transpired until 
the latter part of April, when rumors of a march filled the 
camp. The necessary camp and garrison equipage was dis- 
tributed ; quartermasters' stores turned in ; transportation 
delivered over to the Division Quartermaster, and everything 
betokened an advance of the army. The campaign of 1864, 
under the new commander was about to be inaugurated. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

On the March— Battle of the Wilderness— Three Companies op the Seventy- 
sixth as Skirmishers— Interminable Forests— A Clearing in the Wilderness 
—Falling into an Ambush— The Three Companies Captured by the Rebels- 
Confusion in the Rebel Ranks— Brigade Commanders Opinion op the Seventy- 
sixth— Severe Fighting— Death of General Wadsworth— Death op Adjutant 
Carpenter and Captain Bartholomew— Off for Spottsylvania. 

May fourth, at one o'clock in the morning, the Second Brig- 
ade broke camp at Culpepper, and moved on the Rapidan 
river. It consisted, at that time, of the Seventy-sixth, under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Cook ; the Fourteenth Brook- 
lyn, Colonel Fowler ; the One Hundred and Forty-seventh 
New York, Colonel Miller ; the Ninety-fifth New York, Col- 
onel Pye ; and the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, Colonel Hofmann. 
The Brigade had present a little over two thousand men, and 
was commanded by Brigadier-General J. C. Rice. 

The Brigade crossed the Rapidan over a pontoon bridge, 
at Germania Ford, about noon, and, marching to near the 
Wilderness Tavern, encamped at five o'clock P. M. The 
weather was fine, and men never marched with greater 
alacrity than on this occasion. 

At seven o'clock the next morning, the Second Brigade 
moved on Parker's store about four miles distant. After 
marching about two miles it was halted formed in line of bat- 
tle, and moved through a dense wood for the distance of nearly 
a mile, when it was met by a heavy fire of musketry from an 



284: The Seventy-sixth Kegbient N. Y. Y. 

unseen enemy. Here they halted and returned the fire, when 
a sharp engagement ensued. The Second Brigade at this 
time occupied the left flank of the Division. 

Three companies of the Seventy-sixth, B, F and K, were, 
at this point, thrown out as skirmishers, to cover the left flank, 
Major Young commanding them. They soon reported the 
enemy to be advancing in a line extending far beyond the left 
of our forces. Almost simultaneously with this report, the 
line on the right fell back in disorder, and was followed by 
this Brigade. The underbrush was very dense, and the men 
found great difficulty in making their way through it. The 
enemy, still unseen, continued to pour in a very destructive 
fire. At the end of half a mile the officers succeeded in ral- 
lying about three hundred and fifty men on the crest of a 
slight eminence, and prepared to hold the position. At this 
moment, an aid of General Wadsworth arrived, with instruc- 
tions to move some distance to the rear, where the Division 
was reforming. Shortly after the skirmishers were sent out 
they received orders to advance their line two miles, and on 
arriving at the point indicated, to remain until further orders, 
and avoid bringing on a battle. This whole movement of 
General Grant to the Wilderness was intended as one of his 
remarkable flank movements, and no battle was intended at 
that point. To this end no fires were allowed to be lighted 
on the night the troops left Culpepper, and they were ordered 
to make no noise. 

The skirmishers marched to the required position without 
meeting any opposition. In a few moments, however, heavy 
firing was heard on the right, and a skirmish line at least 
twice as strong as ours appeared in front, and opened a heavy 
fire. Our skirmishers, and especially Company B, were in an 
open field, exposed to the enemy, who were covered by the 
wood. From this wood the balls came like rain, but not a 



OUE SKTRMISnEES AT THE "WlLDEENESS. 2S5 

rebel could be seen. The order was finally given to re- 
treat to another wood about twenty rods to the rear. 

The rebels, seeing our skirmishers retire, and considering it 
a defeat, rushed out into the open field in pursuit. ISTo sooner, 
however, had they reched the open space than they received a 
most destructive fire, which sent them reeling back in disorder 
to the wood again. They soon rallied and came out again 
with a rush and a yell of defiance. Again were they received 
with a galling fire ; but though they fell in great numbers, 
considering the force engaged, they kept on until they reached 
a fence about the middle of the field. A heavy fire was kept 
up on both sides. Our skirmishers occupied a most danger- 
ous position upon the side of a hill sloping toward the 
enemy, and though in the wood, there were no trees of very 
large size, and they were only screened from sight by bushes. 
Our men were, therefore, ordered back about fifteen rods, to a 
point more heavily timbered. The enemy advanced to the 
position thus abandoned. Here our skirmishers met with a 
new difficulty. A portion of the line on the right gave away 
and before the fact became known to the whole line, the ene- 
my had turned our flank. A portion of Company B was sent 
to drive them back, when a severe hand to hand conflict took 
place, resulting in our favor. When it was ascertained that 
our skirmish line was broken, a staff officer, who had accom- 
panied the line, started back to learn the state of affairs in the 
rear. He had not rode over fifty rods, when he found a rebel 
line in rear of our skirmishers, which fired upon, wounded and 
captured him. On learning the condition of affairs, an order 
was silently passed up the line to assemble on the right. Com- 
panies F and K, of the Seventy-sixth, and several companies 
from other regiments, came down and reported the attack 
upon them. The officers, about fifteen in number, now held 
a council to determine what course to pursue. The situation 



286 The Seventy-sixth Eegtment N. Y. V. 

was desperate. Already the horrors of rebel prison pens 
loomed up before them. The rebel skirmishers were in front. 
Retreat was made impossible by a rebel line of battle in the 
rear ! To add to the difficulty, so much shifting and fighting 
had occurred, that the officers had lost the points of compass 
and could not tell the direction of our main force. The forest 
was one dense net work of dwarf pines. It was, indeed, 
properly styled, " the wilderness." The council failed to 
agree, as other councils had done before, and was summarily 
broken up by the appearance at this juncture, of the negro 
servant of an officer, who notified the council that a force of 
rebel cavalry was near. The officer in command of our skir- 
mishers insisted that everything indicated that the Army of 
the Potomac had been defeated, and had retreated toward the 
E-apidan, and that the only way to get out of the dilemma 
was to march in the direction of the sound of battle. The 
order was given to fall in, and the march commenced. 

About this time, as one of our men was marching in with 
a rebel prisoner, a rebel colonel rode up and demanded : — 

" Halt ! Where are you going ?" 

" To the Union Army," replied our captor, somewhat dis- 
comfited at meeting two, and seeing the cocked revolver 
pointing at his head. 

" Give up that gun to the prisoner," said the Colonel ; 
" march him back to our camp !" and away rode the Colonel. 
No sooner had he gone than the rebel handed back the gun, 
remarking : — 

" Take it and march me to your camp. I've done with this 
confederacy !" and thus the two came in. 

The march of the skirmishers now commenced. Homer 
D. Call, with a detachment, marched some distance in the 
rear, to prevent any surprise in that direction. But, unfortu- 
nately, no precautions were taken against a surprise on the 



The Sexrmishees dt Teouble. 287 

flank. The detachment moved on to where two paths crossed 
each other at right angles. A council was held as to the 
proper path to take, which resulted, like the former, in a disa- 
greement. Several of the men climbed the trees, but reported 
that nothing could be seen as far as the eye could reach but 
interminable forests. After marching about half a mile 
further, a path was discovered leading to a small house in a 
clearing not far off. To this several of the men repaired, and 
were informed that no armed troops had been seen about 
there that day. This coming to the ears of the commandant 
of the detachment, he marched his command to the house. 
The Regiment had bivouacked at the Gold Mills the night 
before, and it was desirable that the detachment should be di- 
rected thence, when they would know their whereabouts. 

" Do you know where the Gold Mills are ?" inquired the 
Captain, of the " lord of the manor." 

" Sartinly," was the laconic reply. 

"How far is it?" 

" "Wall, I reckon it is about two miles'" 

" Can you take us to it ?" 

" Could n't think of it, "When I'm gone, who knows who 
might tote off my wife and young uns. Could n't think of it, 
sir." 

" No excuses will do, sir," replied the Captain. " You 
must act as our guide." 

" Oh, sir ! you would not think of taking my father ?" 
pleaded the daughter. " What should we do were some acci- 
dent to befall him ?" 

" No accident will befall him, madam," replied the Captain. 
" We'll send him back safely when he puts us upon the right 
track." 

" Will you permit me to accompany him, then ?" asked the 
daughter, 



288 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. Y. 

" Certainly." And thus with two guides, the detachment 
resumed its march. They shortly reached a path which the 
guides declared to be the direct road, and then asked permis- 
sion to return, which a staff officer mistakingly granted. It 
was soon discovered that the Regiment had passed over this 
road in December, on its way to Mine Run. The guide and 
his daughter had scarcely left, when the detachment came to 
ground which had that day been burned over, and several 
dead bodies were strewn about, showing that they were even 
then upon the battle-field. Advancing a few rods farther the 
detachment fell into an ambush, and received a volley from a 
whole rebel brigade. Being at short range, the execution was 
fearful. Many fell wounded, among whom was Lieutenant 
William Cahill, of Company B, wounded in the shoulder, and 
one arm broken. All the wounded and about half the others 
were captured on the spot. The remainder broke and ran, 
but were pursued by a strong force and mostly captured. 

The battle continued to rage at the front, and our prisoners 
had inarched but a short distance with their captors, when, 
on ascending to the summit of a hill, they discovered the 
Union batteries not a mile distant. These soon opened upon 
the rebels and prisoners, but at such range as to do no mate- 
rial damage to either. It was indeed painful to our men to be 
thus fired upon by their own men. 

It was now nearly dark, and immediately in front of the 
rebels, and not more than fifteen rods distant was the Union 
line of battle. The battle was raging with terrific fury. 
Such fighting is seldom witnessed on any field. Each party 
seemed to consider this the crisis, and fought with desperation. 
In the midst of it a panic seized the rebels. Their wounded 
poured in from the front in great numbers ; the artillery 
rushed to the rear, and for a time all was confusion in that 
portion of the line occupied by our prisoners. Had General 



CAFTtTRE OF OuK SxiEMISnEES. 289 

Grant known what our skirmishers then saw, be would Lave 
followed up the advantage, and taking possession of the Par- 
ker Store road, separated the forces of Lee, and made the 
victory of the "Wilderness complete the first day. Our skir- 
mishers though prisioners were now elated at the thought of a 
Union victory. They anticipated a general panic, during 
which they would escape to our lines. But unfortunately 
at this point night set in and the firing ceased. Two hours 
afterwards our skirmishers were on the march to Lee's head- 
quarters, at Parker's Store. 

The following officers of the Seventy-sixth were captured 
at this time : , 

Company B — Captain J. D. Clyde, First Lieutenant Wil- 
liam Cahill, Second Lieutenant James Casler. 

Company F — First Lieutenant William Buchanan, Second 
Lieutenant William II. Myers. 

Company K — Captain E. J. Swan, First Lieutenant Homer 
D. Call, Second Lieutenant Job Norwood. 

As the Regiment fell back, pursuant to the orders of Gen- 
eral Wadsworth, Major Young not falling back as readily as 
the men, was left in the enemy's lines. He was approached 
by a rebel soldier, who shouted : — 

" Halt ! you are my prisoner." 

The Major, not relishing the order, nor considering it from 
his superior, started in the direction of our lines. 

" Halt ! or I'll blow your d d brains out !" shouted the 

rebel, while the Major heard the click of the lock, as the rebel 
aimed at his head. The Major surrendered, and paid for his 
obedience by nearly a year in the prison pens of the South. 

At the time of the capture of Major Young, he was accom- 
panied by James Cinnamon, of Company D. Seeing the 
Major surrender, Cinnamon started on double-quick for our 
lines. 



290 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

" Halt !" sliouted the Major's captor, but Cinnamon kept 
on. The sharp crack of a rifle was heard ; the ball passed 
through Cinnamon's cap, but he escaped unhurt, and soon 
after joined the Regiment. 

In this battle, Company D was the color company. In 
the sharp engagement previous to falling back, two of the 
color-bearers fell wounded. The colors were then taken by Al- 
bert Hilton, of Company A, who soon fell dead upon them. 
Captain S. M. Byram, commanding Company D, seized the 
colors, and drawing them from beneath poor Hilton, carried 
them safely off the field. As the Captain came into the open 
field, he became an object of special interest to the rebels, 
who fired several volleys at him, but he escaped unharmed. 

The other color was brought off by George Hawley, of 
Company D, who, for his bravery, was immediately desig- 
nated as color-sergeant ; but his office was of short duration, 
for he was killed the next day. After Hawley was killed, 
Rutger B. Marsh took the colors, but fell wounded, when 
James Cinnamon took them and carried them safely through. 

The Regiment had suffered severely in this action. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Cook was wounded in the arm, Major Young 
taken prisoner, and many others killed and wounded. The 
command of the Regiment now devolved upon Captain 
Byram. 

At six o'clock P. M., the Brigade, under command of Gen- 
eral Rice, moved to the support of the Second Corps, then 
engaged with the enemy on the Orange Court House and 
Fredericksburg plank road, about one mile in advance of the 
crossing of the Brock Road, and about three miles distant 
from where the Division had reformed. The route lay 
through a dense wood in many places impenetrable. It was 
nine o'clock in the evening when the Brigade found itself in 
position, about a quarter of a mile from the plank road, and 



The Seventy-sixth N. Y. and'Fifty-sixtii Pa. 291 

facing it. The men were permitted to lie on their arms until 
four o'clock the next morning, when General Rice directed 
the Ninety-fifth New York, and part of the One Hundred 
and Forty-seventh New York to be deployed as skirmishers, 
and moved forward. The position now held by the Brigade 
was the extreme right of our lines. The enemy succeeded in 
bringing a battery to bear, enfilading our forces from the right 
flank. The two right Regiments, the Seventy-sixth New York 
and Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, changed front to the rear on 
the left company, and opened fire upon the skirmishers, now 
advanced to the crest of the hill about three hundred yards 
distant, and drove them back. General Rice directed Colo- 
nel Hofmann, of the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, to select two 
regiments and take the battery. He chose his Regiment, and 
the remains of the Seventy-sixth, saying : — " If any two reg- 
iments can take it, they can." 

These Regiments were then moved forward, and to the right, 
screened by a wood, to a point nearly on a line with the bat- 
tery, with the intention of taking it with the bayonet. They 
captured the skirmishers thrown out to protect the flanks of 
the battery, but when the detachment arrived within one hun- 
dred yards of the edge of the wood, the movement was 
discovered by the enemy, the battery was limbered up and 
hastily driven to the rear about four hundred yards, where 
it again opened with spherical case, and forced the detach- 
ment back. 

The enemy, at eight A. M., came forward in strong force, 
and pressed our lines back for nearly half a mile, but was in 
turn compelled to fall back to his former position. 

At eleven A. M. the Brigade formed in line of battle at a 
right angle with the plank 'Toad. The firing had ceased 
for nearly an hour, except from the enemy's sharpshooters. 

At noon the enemy again came forward in great force on 



292 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

the left of the plank road. General Wadsworth who was 
present with the Second Brigade, ordered it to change front, 
forming the line on the right of the plank road, and parallel 
with it. He stated at the time, that the object of the move- 
ment was to take in flank the enemy as he came forward. 
The right flank of the Brigade was exposed to the fire of the 
enemy's battery, and sharpshooters posted on the hill beyond 
our right, and suffered severely. This, with the impetuosity 
with which the enemy came forward, broke our lines, and the 
troops were forced back in confusion. The ground over which 
they moved offered no favorable opportunity for rallying the 
men for the first half mile. Coming, at length, to a slight 
elevation, an effort was made to rally. This was only 
partially successful, and they retired as far back as the Brock 
Road, and a quarter of a mile north of the plank road. The 
Brigade had again suffered severely in killed, wounded and 
prisoners. 

It was while immediately in rear of the center of this 
Brigade, that General Wadsworth was killed in the act of 
cheering the men on. The loss of no officer in the army 
would have been felt more keenly. Leaving a home of luxury 
and ease for the hardship and privations of camp, and the 
dangers of the field, he died as the true soldier ever desires to 
die — in the line of his duty, in the thickest of the fight, with 
his face to the foe — a worthy offering on the altar of the 
country he died to save. Just previous to his death, General 
"Wadsworth shouted to the men : — 

" Forward, men ! We'll take a thousand prisoners now !" 
Alas ! for the frailty of human hopes ! 

About the time that General "Wadsworth fell, Hubert Car- 
penter, the Adjutant of the Seventy-sixth, fell mortally 
wounded, and died the next day. He was an excellent officer. 



Bold Attack on the Enemy. 293 

During the battle, Captain Norman G. Bartholomew, of 
Company E, fell mortally wounded. He was taken to the 
hospital and soon after died. We have had occasion in a 
former chapter to speak of his soldierly conduct. 

General Eice now directed Colonel Hofmann to reform the 
Brigade, and collecting the officers and men of the Division 
that were in that vicinity, to form the line in rear of the 
Brock Road, the left of the line resting on the plank road; 

At four P. M. the Brigade consisted of detachments from 
the Seventy-sixth, Ninety-fifth, and One Hundred and 
Forty-seventh New York, the Fifty-sixth, One Hundred and 
Forty-second, One Hundred and Forty-third, One Hundred 
and Forty-ninth, and One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania, 
and a company of the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers. Most of 
the detachments had their regimental colors with them, and 
so severe had been the losses that the whole eight regiments 
and one company formed an aggregate, at that hour, of but 
four hundred and eight — less than half a regiment ! 

At half-past five P. M., the enemy again came forward on 
the left of the plank road, and succeeded in forcing a portion 
of our troops back from the line of works erected on the west 
side of the Brock Road, by the Second Corps, and planting 
the rebel colors upon the works. General Hancock, through 
General Rice, directed Colonel Hofmann to move his Brigade 
to the support of the troops at the works. The Brigade was 
moved out rapidly by the right flank, and when the head of 
the column arrived at the point of the works where they had 
been vacated by our troops, it formed in line of battle at 
nearly a right angle with the works, the men firing as fast as 
they came into line. In the course of ten minutes the enemy 
were driven from the works, and back into the woods from 
which they had emerged. Several hundred men now sprang 
over the works, and desired to follow up the enemy. Colonel 



294 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. V. 

Hofmann, being uninformed as to whether they could be sup- 
ported or not, felt it his duty to recall them. He then 
reported his action to General Hancock, who approved it. 

At eight P. M. the Brigade Yvas relieved and ordered into 
the second line of works, and at half-past three A. M., of the 
seventh, again moved into the front line. At seven A. M., it 
was marched three-fourths of a mile to the left, and erected 
new works. At eleven A. M., it was ordered to rejoin the 
Division then on the right, and half a mile beyond the road. 
General Eice, who had had a special command, now returned 
and assumed command of the Brigade. 

At four P. M., the Brigade moved to the Lacy House, and 
at ten P. M. took up the line of march for Spottsylvania. 
The Brigade was now joined by the Fourteenth Brooklyn. 

There is no doubt that the Union Army, at the Wilderness, 
would have been considered by many generals, defeated. Gen- 
eral Grant, however, was possessed of the gift of not seeing, or 
not heeding a Union defeat. Hence the movement continued. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Battle op Spottsylvania— General Rich Killed — "Turn Me with Mt Face to 
the Enemy"— "This is an Unhealthy Country, Captain ["—Continuous Night 
Firing — Terrible Slaughter— Appearance of the Ground thj Next Morning 
— A Camp of Dead Heroes— Battle at the North Anna— On the Plantation 
of Patrick IIenry— Battle Near Bethesda Church— Captain Goddard and 
Lieutenant Baldwin Wounded— Losses in the Seventy-sixth— March to the 
Chickahominy— Deserted Villages. 

May St/i, 1S6A. — After marching all night, the Brigade to 
which the Seventy-sixth was attached, arrived at Todd's 
Tavern. Halting here for breakfast, they again moved for- 
ward and met the enemy at Laurel Hill. 

General Rice directed the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania and 
Ninety-fifth Xew York to move forward and clear the enemy 
from an orchard that he then occupied, about half a mile from 
the road. These Regiments cleared the field, but were found 
inadequate to hold it, and the Seventy-sixth and One Hun- 
dred and Forty-seventy New York Volunteers, and Fourteenth 
Brooklyn were sent up to their support. Subsequently they 
were relieved by troops from another Division, and the Brigade 
moved in rear of a ridge, where it remained until five P. 
M., when it again moved forward, and to the right of the 
orchard. Here breastworks were erected and occupied until 
two P. M. on the tenth. At that time the Brigade under 
General Rice moved forward to attack the works of the 
enemy, then about six hundred yards in front. The attack 



296 The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y. V. 

failed, and the Brigade returned to a position nearly in rear 
of that which they had previously occupied. In this charge 
General Kice was mortally wounded. After his limb was 
amputated he was asked by the attending surgeon which way 
he desired to be turned that he might rest more easy. 

" Turn my face to the enemy," said the dying hero. These 
were his last words, and indicated the true character of the 
man, the soldier and the patriot. General Rice was the third 
general who had been killed in less than a year, while leading 
the Seventy-sixth. Reynolds, AYadsworth, Rice ! They are 
enshrined in the hearts of every remaining member of the 
Regiment. 

Colonel Fowler being the ranking officer, now assumed 
command of the Brigade. 

On the evening of the eleventh, the Brigade again moved 
to the attack on the enemy's works. After having been in 
line of battle half an hour, subjected to a severe flank fire 
from the left, the Brigade was withdrawn, the attack having 
been suspended. A considerable loss was sustained in killed 
and wounded. 

During the fighting, Lieutenant Cochran was lighting his 
pipe when a ball struck the fire brand, knocking it out of his 
hand, then coming in contact with his breast, knocked him 
down. Arising, he coolly remarked to Captain Byrarn : — ■ 

" This is an unhealthy country, Captain. I believe I'll go 
to the rear." 

" Halloa, Cochrane," said the Captain, two days afterward ; 
" I thought you had gone to the rear, wounded." 

" I'm cured, Captain — can't stay there. It is quite too 
lonesome away from the Regiment." 

At eight A. H. on the twelfth, the Brigade again advanced 
to the attack. After moving about four hundred yards, and 
at the front of a ravine, the underbrush was of such a 



Night Fighting. 297 

character that it was found impossible to push the line through 
it, and as the troops upon the right encountered the same dif- 
ficulty, and were unable to move forward, the Brigade was 
withdrawn. At one P. M. it was marched to the left nearly 
two miles to a point where a portion of the Second Corps had 
captured the works of the enemy, but had subsequently aban- 
doned them. The Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, One Hundred 
and Forty-seventh New York, and Fourteenth Brooklyn were 
ordered to form a column to attack the works, but before the 
column was formed the order was suspended. 

The Brigade was then moved to a point of the works where 
they were cleared of the enemy, and formed in line nearly at 
right angles with the works, the left resting on them. In this 
position they were directed to fire continuously to prevent the 
enemy who occupied the opposite side of the breastworks from 
firing or sallying out. The Brigade continued this firing from 
three P. M. until two A. M. on the thirteenth, when they 
were relieved and mo red to the rear. The loss sustained in 
this firing was small, the troops being sheltered by the parapet 
of the enemy's works, and a depression of the ground in front 
of them. 

Some idea may be formed of the severity of this night 
battle, from the ghastly sight presented the next morning. 
While thus engaged, this one Brigade fired about ten thou- 
sand rounds. The enemy made many efforts to fire, but there 
is every reason to believe that those who made the attempt 
were generally killed, as the following morning, (the enemy 
having withdrawn before daylight), the pits were found filled 
with rebel dead. In one pit not over fifty feet in length, were 
counted thirty dead, beneath and mingled with which, were 
several too severely wounded to get off the field. Horses lay 
strewn over the ground, literally cut to pieces by bullets. 
One green oak tree, from fifteen to twenty inches in diameter 



298 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

and standing in range of our guns, was actually cut off by 
bullets, and fell during the night. 

Several caissons in the vicinity of the rebel troops, were left 
on the ground on their retreat, because the spokes of the 
wheels were so cut by our fire that they could not be moved. 

Nor had our army escaped injury. As the Second Brigade 
arrived on the field, they saw the ground covered for some 
distance with men lying upon the ground, and covered with 
tents. 

" "Why are these fellows taking their ease, while we go in ?" 
was asked by more than one of our officers. 

" How cool they take it under this fire," remarked another. 

" I'll learn the cause from them," said Lieutenant Edgcomb, 
stepping in the direction of the men in the supposed bivouac. 

" Get up, here," said Lieutenant "Waterman, kicking one of 
the men. " You can't play 'possum on us. Come, go in with 
us!" 

" I guess you won't raise that man," said Sergeant Miles 
Foster. 

On examination it was found the man was dead, and this 
field of tents but covered a bivouac of heroic dead ! 

At nine A. K. on the thirteenth, the Brigade marched to 
the right a distance of two miles, and at ten o'clock that night 
moved to the left, over a very muddy road. At daylight it 
arrived within three-fourths of a mile of Spottsylvania Court 
House. It was subsequently moved a quarter of a mile 
farther forward, and threw up breastworks. 

The time of service of the Fourteenth Brooklyn, Colonel 
Fowler, having expired, that Regiment was detailed for special 
duty, and Colonel Hofmann, of the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, 
assumed command of the Second Brigade. 

At eight P. M. the Brigade encamped at Catlett's House, 
near Guiness Station on the Richmond and Fredericksburg 



Battle of North Anna. 299 

Railroad. Moved at ten A. M. on the twenty-third, and bivou- 
acked at Bull's Church. 

May twenty-fourth the Brigade moved at five A. M., and 
halted at Campbell's Church. Repassing the church at two 
P. M., it forded the North Anna River at Jericho Bridge. 

As our forces approached the North Anna the rebels were 
retreating, and so near were they that prisoners afterwards 
taken declared they could hear our drums in camp so plainly 
as to distinguish the different tunes played. The rebels under 
Longstreet disputed the passage of the river. A force was 
left at the ford to attract the attention of the enemy, while 
the remainder of the Fifth Corps, including the Seventy-sixth, 
moved to a point about half a mile further up the river. 
Here they came to a piece of wood, through which ran a road 
to the river. A pontoon bridge was laid, but before it 
was*completed the men became so anxious to cross that they 
jumped into the river and waded across. The Brigade was 
formed in line of battle on the heights about half a mile above 
the ford. The Ninety-fifth New York was deployed as skir- 
mishers. 

At half-past six P. M. the enemy attacked our front line of 
troops then occupying the woods. The Second Brigade was 
moved to the front and to the right near the skirmish line, and 
formed in line of battle about one hundred and fifty yards in 
rear of it. The enemy now charged through the woods, send- 
ing up cheer after cheer, accompanied by unearthly yells. 
The brigade in front broke and passed around our left flank. 
The Second Brigade, under a heavy musketry fire, changed 
front to the rear on the left battalion, and formed a new line. 
This was necessary to enable Captain Mink's battery, which 
had been brought up and was occupying the ground between 
our right and the river, to open fire. Another battery was 
brought up on the right of Captain Mink's. The enemy 



300 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

made several attempts to charge from the woods, but failed 
and was each time driven back with severe loss. They kept 
up a heavy fire from their skirmish line for over an hour, when 
the firing on both sides ceased. 

Captain C. A. Watkins, of Company Iv, Seventy-sixth Reg- 
iment, then threw out a line of skirmishers very rapidly, and 
succeeded in capturing over one hundred prisoners, who rep- 
resented that they belonged to Lane's, Cook's, and Scale's 
Brigades of Heath's and Wilcox's Divisions. The line was 
then moved forward, and the works held until five o'clock on the 
morning of May twenty-fifth. In his report of this engage- 
ment, Colonel Hofmann says : — 

" In this action the officers and men behaved splendidly. I think to 
them is due the credit of saving the artillery from being cut off, and in all 
probability saving the army from a terrible disaster." 

The Seventy-sixth was commanded in this battle by Captain 
S. M. Byram, of Company D. 

May twenty-fifth the Brigade moved down the right bank 
of the river several miles, then moving to the right into a wood, 
formed into line of battle and erected breatworks. During 
the day a heavy loss was sustained on the skirmish line, sev- 
eral being killed and many wounded. 

May twenty-sixth at ten o'clock in the evening, the Brigade 
recrossed the North Anna at Quarter's Mills, and moved on 
the Pamunky River. 

May twenty-seventh the march was continued to Mongo- 
luck, where the Brigade bivouacked for the night. At half- 
past seven the next morning the Regiment crossed the 
Pamunkey on pontoons, at Hanover Town, and erected works 
on the heights two miles beyond the river. 

May twenty-ninth, moved to near Tolopotomoy Creek, and 
formed a line of battle on the plantation formerly owned by 
Patrick Henry. A great change had come over the people 



The Plantation of Patrick IIenry. 301 

with whom he was accustomed to mingle, as well as the plan- 
tation which he occupied, since he enunciated those doctrines 
of political faith, to uphold which this visit of the sons of 
Freedom was made. 

This ground was held until the next morning, when the 
Brigade, having been increased by the addition of the Third 
Delaware Volunteers, two hundred and eighty-four men, and 
the Forty-sixth ]New York Volunteers, one hundred and forty- 
nine men, moved to within one mile of Bethesda church, and 
was sent to support a brigade of the Third Division of this 
Corps. Scarcely had the Second Brigade got into position, 
when the enemy made a heavy attack upon our lines, princi- 
pally to the right of this Brigade. He was driven back with 
heavy loss of killed and wounded. 

The ground was held until ten A. M. of the thirty-first, 
when the Brigade moved half a mile forward. At seven P. 
M. it was marched to the right of the Corps line to relieve the 
brigade of General Bartlett. It occupied the works of that 
Brigade, and was engaged with the enemy until midnight, 
when it was relieved and moved to the left of the Mechanics- 
ville road, about half a mile in front of Bethesda church. 
The instructions were to connect with the First Brigade, and 
extend the line to the road. This was found to be a difficult 
task, owing to the dense thicket through which it was 
necessary to move the troops. 

This forming a line between midnight and daylight, in the 
face of the enemy, is not a pleasant task under more favorable 
circumstances ; but orders must be obeyed. 

The One hundred and Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, numbering one hundred and ninety^three men, was here 
added to the Brigade. 

At five o'clock P. M., June second, the enemy attacked 
our right, which wa3 forced back on new works, thrown up at 



302 The Seventy-sixth Regiment IS". Y. V. 

nearly right angles with the former line. A portion of the 
old line of works was occupied by the enemy. In this attack 
Colonel Pye, of the Ninety-fifth ISTew York Volunteers, was 
mortally wounded. The Brigade remained in the new works 
until ten P. M., on the fifth of June, meeting with considera- 
ble loss from the sharpshooters of the enemy. Captain 
Goddard, commanding the Seventy-sixth, was severely 
wounded. Lieutenant Baldwin was also wounded, and Ser- 
geants Comstock, of Company E, and Snow, of Company C, 
killed. As Comstock was borne past the Regiment on a 
stretcher, he shouted : — 

" Good bye, Seventy-sixth — this is the last of Dolph !" 
At ten o'clock on the morning of the fifth of June, the 
Brigade moved toward Cold Harbor, where it arrived at four 
o'clock the next morning. The Fourth Delaware Volunteers, 
numbering four hundred and twenty-five men was assigned to 
the Second Brigade, and reported for duty. 

Here the troops remained in bivouac until eight A. M. on 
the seventh, when they moved to the Chickahominy, halting 
within one mile of Summer's Bridge. Colonel Hofmann, in 
command of the Second Brigade, was then ordered to march 
and take possession of the railroad bridge crossing the Chick- 
ahominy. To screen the movement from the enemy, the 
march was made by a circuitous route through the woods, 
to a point half a mile west of Despatch Station. The 
enemy had works three-fourths of a mile beyond the bridge, 
that commanded the railroad for two miles. A screen of 
brush was constructed across the railroad, and two regiments 
passed in rear of it to the opposite side. A heavy skir- 
mish line was then thrown out on both sides of the railroad, 
the enemy driven across the river, and possession taken of the 
east end of the bridge. A line of battle was formed about a 
quarter of a mile in the rear, and pickets posted on the river. 



Chickaiiominy to the James. 303 

connecting with the First Brigade on the right, the left 
extending down the river. 

In driving the enemy back, the casualties to the Brigade 
were five wounded. 

In the afternoon the enemy opened with shot and shell upon 
the screen across the railroad, supposing our troops were at 
work behind it. No loss was sustained, however, except the 
partial demolition of the brush screen. The Brigade re- 
mained in this position until ten P. M. on the twelfth, then 
moved to the left, and crossed the Chickahominy on pontoons 
at Long Bridge, at four o'clock on the morning of the thir- 
teenth. Here the troops remained until four o'clock P. M., 
when they moved to near Wilcox's landing on the James 
Biver. 

On this day the Begimental Quartermaster, Lieutenant 
Burnham, visited St. Peter's church, where Washington was 
married. Here lie buried the dead of a century and a half 
ago. The Lieutenant has preserved a copy of an inscription 
upon one of the tombstones : 

" Here lyethe the body of Ann Clopton, wife of William Clopton, of the 
County of New Kent. She departed this life on ye 4th day of March, A. 
D. 1716, in the 70th year of her age. She left two sons and four daughters, 
viz :" (naming them). 

The country from the Chickahominy to the James was in- 
deed beautiful, though the fiery hand of war had sadly 
desolated it. Though naturally very productive, so thoroughly 
had it been stripped and despoiled by both armies, that 
scarcely anything was raised, and prices of provisions were 
almost fabulous. 

New Kent Court House, Charles City Court House, and all 
the villages on the route were deserted. Not even a negro, 
who, like the owl, usually clings to the deserted village, was 
seen to cast a shadow of blackness over the solitude. The 



304 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N". Y. V. 

people had taken the sword, and had perished or been driven 
out by it. 

The troops had now passed over the field where, in 1862, 
McClellan met with such disastrous defeat. While the accom- 
plishment of his plan consumed fifty-seven days in marching 
from Fortress Monroe, aided by his gunboats, and all the fa- 
cilities furnished for transportation, General Grant had, in 
forty days, without any of these advantages, marched to the 
same point from the Rappahannock, fighting all the way down. 
History has thus most emphatically vindicated President 
Lincoln's choice of approaches to Richmond. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Crossing the James River— Fighting South of the James— Captain Btram 
Wounded— Battle at the Weldon Railroad— Lieutenants Phenis and Weldon 
Killed— Captain Batch Captures a Rebel Stand of Colors— The Enemy Throw 
Down Their Arms— Refort of the Battle— Death of D. Webster Smith— Dan- 
gerous Service— Consolidation of the First Corfs into One Division— Voting 
in the Army. 

June sixteenth, at ten o'clock A. M., the Seventy-sixth 
crossed the James River on a steamboat, landing about three 
miles below "Windmill Point, where they remained until two 
P. M., when the march was continued toward Petersburg. 
Bivouacked that night two miles beyond Prince George Court 
House. The Army of the Potomac was now mostly south of 
the James. The objective point seemed to be Petersburg, 
with ultimate designs upon Richmond. 

It is doubtful whether more skillful manoeuvring has ever 
characterized the movements of any army, than that of Gen- 
eral Grant in his inarch to this place. Actually beaten at the 
Wilderness, and meeting a foe too strongly entrenched to be 
driven out at different points, by his persistent fighting, and 
those remarkable flank movements, by which he always 
appeared at a point not anticipated, he succeeded in finally 
placing his army in the very position where it could most 
surely ultimately accomplish the object of capturing the rebel 
capital and suppressing the rebellion. 

June seventeenth, the Brigade moved about two miles to the 
u 



306 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

front, and found the enemy posted in rear of a strong line of 
works. Here they formed a line of battle, and threw up 
works on the west side of the Blackwater road. The enemy 
fired upon our troops, and the Brigade sustained a loss of ten 
men wounded. 

At four o'clock on the morning of the eighteenth, the Brig- 
ade moved forward to attack the enemy's works. Captain 
Byram commanded the Seventy-sixth. It was soon ascer- 
tained that the enemy had withdrawn during the night, and 
that he had also abandoned his second line of works. Upon 
moving forward the skirmish line, the enemy was found 
posted in rear of his third line of works, with his skirmishers 
thrown forward to near the railroad. The Brigade moved to 
the west side of the railroad, and formed in line of battle in 
a wood. 

At three o'clock P. M. the Brigade was formed in line of 
battle on the crest of the hill, and moved forward to charge 
the works of the enemy, then about seven hundred yards in 
front of our works. Believing that the final blow to the re- 
bellion was about to be struck, the line moved forward with 
spirit. The enemy immediately opened with musketry and 
spherical case, and as our troops approached nearer, with can- 
ister. When the line had arrived near the ravine, the loss had 
already been very great, for the troops were exposed to a fire 
not only in front, but upon both flanks. During this galling 
fire, Captain Byram fell severely wounded, and never did 
further service. The command of the Regiment now devolved 
upon Captain Hatch. 

As the line was descending into the ravine it broke. Many 
of the men returned, and only about two hundred of the 
Brigade reached the opposite slope, where they found shelter 
by lying on the ground. The horse of Colonel Hofmann, the 
Brigade commander, was killed before the line broke, so that 
he did not reach the opposite side of the ravine. 



Continued Fighting. 307 

The officers now rallied the men in rear of the crest from 
which the line had moved when the charge commenced. 
About four hundred and fifty men were thus formed in line. 
An order was received at four P. M., to prepare for a second 
charge at half-past five P. M. This was, however, subse- 
quently suspended. The troops in the ravine remained until 
dark when they were withdrawn. Pickets were now thrown 
out, a line of battle formed and advanced to the crest of the 
hill, and breastworks thrown up. The wounded were brought 
in and the dead buried. The Brigade and Regiment had suf- 
fered a very heavy loss in killed and wounded. 

These works were occupied by the Brigade until July thirty- 
first, the troops every three days relieved and relieving in turn 
the First Brigade of this Division. 

Colonel Ilofmann, in his report, says : — 

* 

" During the campaign the officers and men of the Brigade have evinced 
great bravery, patriotism and fortitude. From May third to July thirty- 
first, a period of nearly ninety days, not more than five days passed that 
they were not under the fire of the enemy." 

The number of killed and wounded in this Brigade during 
this period, was eighty-four officers, and fifteen hundred and 
fourteen men. 

The men were now permitted to rest until the eighteenth 
day of August. The interim was occupied chiefly in picket- 
ing, writing and receiving letters, and the performance of 
those other duties incident to camp life. 

August eighteenth, at five o'clock in the morning, the 
Brigade left camp near the Jones House, and moved south 
over the Jerusalem plank road. It numbered at this time, 
fifteen hundred and seventy-one officers and men, and arrived 
at the Yellow House, on the Petersburg and Welclon Railroad, 
at noon. The heat was intense, the dust almost suffocating, 
and the march so fatiguing that only about half the men 



308 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. V. 

arrived with the Brigade. By three P. M., however, most of 
the men had reported. At half-past three P. M., the Brigade 
was moved to the front of a wood about half a mile north of 
the Yellow House, and deployed in line of battle, the left 
resting on the Railroad and facing the north. 

At four P. M. the Second Brigade was detached from the 
Fourth Division, and ordered to report to General Ayres, 
commanding the Second Division. The Brigade soon after 
relieved General Dushane's Brigade, stationed on the left of 
the Railroad, opened fire upon the enemy, and in fifteen or 
twenty minutes drove them back. A picket line was then 
established, and breastworks erected. 

August nineteenth, at four P. M., the enemy broke through 
our lines about half a mile to the right of the Brigade, at the 
same time attacking the line in front. The Seventy-sixth, and 
other Regiments of the Brigade, remained in the works, and 
repulsed the enemy in handsome style. During this engage- 
ment, Lieutenant Barnard Phenis, of Company H, was killed. 
He is spoken of in high terms by his fellow officers. 

The Brigade was moved at eight P. M. on the twentieth, 
about half a mile to the rear, to a crest extending south from 
the Blick House, and running parallel with and about a fourth 
of a mile west of the Railroad. Breastworks were erected 
during the night, and at nine o'clock the next morning the 
enemy moved forward to attack our works. Their line of 
battle emerged from the woods about four hundred yards in 
front, and moved steadily through a field of corn to within 
fifty feet of the works, when it broke and the men fled to the 
woods. They had suffered very severely in killed and 
wounded. 

During this engagement, Captain Hatch, of Company C, 
Seventy-sixth Regiment, captured a stand of colors from the 
enemy, displaying great bravery in the act. 



Battle Weldon Railroad. 309 

General IlagoocTs Brigade of the enemy passed over the 
field to the left of our works. They were fired upon until 
they had arrived at a point a little in our rear, when Colonel 
Ilofmann observed that a number of them had thrown away 
their arms, and as they still moved forward he concluded they 
intended to surrender, and ordered the firing to cease. They 
halted a moment in the ravine about one hundred and fifty 
yards in rear, and to the left of our works. At this point 
about half of them attempted to retreat. Fire M'as again 
opened upon them, and many were killed and wounded. Of 
the number that came forward, not more than one-fourth re- 
gained the wood from which they had emerged. 

The Brigade captured two Lieutenant-Colonels, a number 
of line officers, and nearly three hundred prisoners. On the 
following day two hundred stand of arms were collected, and 
fifty of the enemy's dead buried in front of the Brigade. In 
his official report of this battle, Colonel Ilofmann, says : — 

" The Fifty-sixth and Oue Hundred and Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, Seventy-sixth and One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York 
Volunteers, and Fourth Delaware Volunteers, remained in the works and 
repulsed the enemy in handsome style. ****** 

" The following named have received special notice: — 
************* 

" Seventy-sixth New York — Captain Hatch, for gallantry in crossing the 
works and capturing a stand of colors. 

" Lieutenant Wcldon, Seventy-sixth New York, killed on the picket line, 
on the night of the twenty-first, is spoken of as having been ever faithful 
in the discharge of his duties — courteous and kind in his intercourse with 
his brother officers and men. ******** 

" Captain Burritt was obliged to leave the field of battle for the third 
time, on account of wounds received. ****** 

" Captain Watkins, of the Seventy-sixth New York, has since discharged 
the duties of the office, and rendered very efficient services on the twenty- 
first, as an acting aid-de-camp." 

The casualties to this Brigade in this battle, were two offi- 



310 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

cers and twenty-three men killed, eight officers and ninety- 
seven men wounded, and sixty-eight men missing. 

There is so much sameness in camp life, that it is difficult 
to describe the events of each day interestingly. During the 
intervals between the different battles, after reaching the 
south side of the James River, our men were continually in 
the advance, with the enemy confronting them. Scarcely a 
day passed that they were not under fire. Most of the time 
the enemy's sharpshooters were so posted, that it was ex- 
tremely hazardous for our men to appear in sight. Did a man 
leave the breastworks, he was sure to be greeted with a volley 
of bullets. Did he show his head above the works, he imme- 
diately became the target of the enemy. This sort of service 
was much more annoying than actual battle. Lacking 
the enthusiasm and excitement of battle, it was full as dan- 
gerous, and instead of lasting a few hours, continued for 
months. An instance occurring in the Seventy-sixth illus- 
trates : — 

D. "Webster Smith, of Company D, was on picket near 
Petersburg, June twenty-first, 1864. Like the others, he had 
sought in a ditch protection from the rebel bullets. lie had 
just finished a letter to his friends at home and loaded his gun, 
when, on rising, he was fired upon, the ball taking effect in 
his head, killing him instantly. 

An order was received September twelfth, transferring 
all the Regiments in the First and Second Divisions, 
formerly in the First Corps, to the Third Division, to be com- 
manded by General Crawford. The soldier will appreciate 
the pleasant emotions of the men at this reunion of the frag- 
ments of the First Corps into one Division. 

During this lull between the battles, the Seventh Indiana 
Volunteers was mustered out, and the remaining fragments 
of that noble Regiment returned home. They had been so 



VoTLNG IN THE AkMY. 311 

closely identified with the Seventy-sixth that they seemed to 
almost constitute a part of it. Together they had fought side 
by side, emulating but not envying each others success, until 
now they parted like twin brothers. 

Reinforcements were now daily arriving by thousands, and 
everything indicated that General Grant's promise to " tight 
it out on this line " was to be fulfilled. 

October 1st. — The One Hundred and Eighty-fifth Xew York 
Volunteers, commanded by Colonel Jenny, arrived on the 
field. This Regiment was raised in Onondaga and Cortland 
counties, was a full Regiment, and had received no drill. Un- 
accustomed to camp life, their introduction was rather 
discouraging. A severe storm came up ; they were without 
tents, had not } T et learned the science of drawing comfort from 
a storm while lying in the mud, and many of the poor fellows 
began to think seriously of the comforts of home. The Reg- 
iment was assigned to the Fifth Corps with the Seventy-sixth, 
and hereafter their experiences were in common. 

Colonel Livingston, of the Seventy-sixth, who was absent 
some time on special duty, in Washington, returned to the 
Regiment and assumed command October fourteenth. 

October 21«£. — The hosts of civilians at home were prepar- 
ing for the great political contest which should determine 
whether the war should be terminated by a disgraceful com- 
promise, or whether instead thereof, the administration which 
had thus far struggled to suppress the rebellion, should, 
on the eve of success, be permitted to gather in the fruits of 
its patriotic efforts. The vote was taken in the field, and so 
unanimous was that of the Seventy-sixth in favor of continu- 
ing the administration of Abraham Lincoln, that the agent 
sent by the McClellan party to secure votes, was compelled to 
cover his defeat with the false charge that he was driven from 
the field and not permitted to take the votes. One of the 



312 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

proudest evidences of the wisdom and humanity of Abraham 
Lincoln, is the fact that the soldiery, taken from comfortable, 
and many from luxurious homes, transferred to the seat of 
war, making forced marches at night through mud and sleet, 
fighting all day in the broiling sun, frequently on half rations 
and without water, and long periods without pay, would still, 
like the crusaders, almost consider it a pleasure to die for the 
cause, and when the question of perpetuating the rule of their 
noble leader presented itself, they almost unanimously voted 
in the affirmative. With such a leader, and such men to 
execute his commands, no republic need despair. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

On the March— First Hatcher's Run— Distributing Clothing— Sad Reminiscences 
—The Re-Election of Abraham Lincoln in the Army—" Worth More to the 
Country than a Victory Won "—How the Rebels Relished It— Fort Hell— The 
Truce Terminated— Thanksgiving and the Northern Turkeys. 

The troops were not long permitted to rest, even in the 
exposed trenches in front of Petersburg. General Grant had 
a favorite plan of attack by the " smoking-out process." An 
army cannot long retain its position, no matter how strongly 
defended, unless it can procure supplies. General Grant now 
held the Weldon Railroad, and the Railroads to City Point 
and Korfolk, and was continually threatening the Richmond 
and Petersburg road. But one Railroad remained to supply 
the rebel forces at Petersburg with provisions and implements 
of war. This the commanding general determined to destroy, 
and thus accomplish indirectly what might at least be consid- 
ered doubtful if attempted by direct assault. 

At four o'clock on the morning of the twenty-seventh of 
October, the Seventy-sixth, with the other troops of the Fifth 
Corps, broke camp, and marched in the direction of Hatcher's 
Run. The Regiment was at that time attached to the Third 
Brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps. It was commanded by 
Colonel Livingston, and mustered but one hundred and thirty- 
three muskets. The men had been so long in the trenches 
that the change of scenery and the varied incidents of the 
march gave a zest to the movement, so that, though the fasci- 



314 The Seventy-sixth Kegdient N. Y. V. 

nation of fighting had long since passed, the men actually 
anticipated with pleasure anything that presented a change. 
They, therefore, rushed forward with the eagerness of troops 
marching to their first battle. Crossed Hatcher's Run at Arm- 
strong's Mills. The report of Colonel Hofmann, command- 
ing the Third Brigade, thus describes the battle : — 

" The line of battle was then formed, facing southwest, the right of the 
line resting on the creek. The One Hundred and Forty-seventh New 
York was detailed to act as flankers. The instructions were to follow the 
Brigade of General Bragg, then hi our front, to move parallel with and our 
right resting on the creek. After moving a short distance, it was found 
necessary to change the direction of the line of march from southwest to 
northwest. The route was through a veiy dense wood, and it was with 
great difficulty that even an approximation to an alignment could be pre- 
served. Permission was obtained from the General commanding the 
Division, to move by the right flank along the bank of the creek. After 
moving in this manner for about a mile, serious doubts arose whether or no 
General Bragg's Brigade was still in our front. The scouts sent out to find 
it, reported their inability to do so. As it was impossible to see far ahead, 
the head of the column was then covered by a line of skirmishers. After 
moving a short distance, the Brigade was halted and again formed in line 
of battle, and a line of skirmishers thrown forward. Advancing in this 
manner for about two hundred yards, a heavy line of skirmishers of the 
enemy was met. They opened fire upon us, but were driven across the 
creek. The action was short with light loss to us. An aid from General 
Bragg arrived with directions to retire to where his Brigade was then in 
line. This was about five hundred yards in our rear. We had passed his 
Brigade whilst we were marching by the flank. Before the order to retire 
could be executed it was countermanded. Subsequently the order was re- 
newed and the Brigade moved back. It was, however, in the course of an 
hour, again moved forward to the line formerly occupied, and threw up a 
light line of works. At two A. M. on the twenty-eighth, the Brigade was, 
by order of the General commanding the Division, withdrawn and moved 
across the creek, and the line of battle formed facing nearly southwest, 
near the Armstrong House. At ten A. M. the Brigade moved to Fort 
Cummings and thence to camp. "When the direction of the line of march 
was changed, the line of flankers became detached. In his efforts to regain 
his proper position, Colonel Harney became lost ; supposed to have been 



The First Hatcher's Run. 315 

captured by the enemy. * * * The number of prisoners cap- 
tured by my command, was between fifty and sixty. The exact number I 
am unable to give, as they were at once turned over to the Provost Marshal 
of the Division, no receipt taken. The above were brought in by Captain 
E. Smack, Ninety-fifth New York. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. WM. HOFMANN, 
Colonel Commanding Brigade. 

Thus terminated the first Hatcher's Run. The men ex- 
pected and were fully prepared for a battle ; but no general 
engagement took place. The rebels were found in too strong 
force for an attack by the forces employed, and no general 
movement of the army having been made, the troops returned 
to their camps. The Union lines were, however, extended. 
Our forces captured seven loaded teams at Stony Creek, a 
dozen beef cattle, a portable forge, and nine hundred and ten 
men. "We lost no men captured, except a few stragglers. The 
troops were scarcely in camp, when the rebels played one of 
those sharp tricks incident to war. 

As our pickets were on duty, they were approached by a 
body of men, supposed by them to be a relief. They, however, 
proved to be a body of rebels, who, taking advantage of the 
illusion, surrounded our pickets and took them all prisoners. 
Several soon escaped and rushing into camp gave the alarm, 
60 that no disastrous results followed. 

The Seventy-sixth now occupied a lovely camp, and soon 
the men, with that natural instinct which leads every creature 
to erect a home, were busily engaged in building log huts and 
erecting their tents. In a few days what was so lately an 
open field and dense forest, became a compactly built city of 
log houses, with their Virginia chimnies, muddied walls, and 
furnished with fire-places, cracker box tables, cracker box 
seats, cracker box shelves, and beds of poles and green boughs. 
Never since the Regiment entered the service, had it occupied 



316 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

such pleasant quarters, if we exclude from consideration the 
dangerous picket and guard duties which alternately devolved 
upon them. 

The weather had now become cold and rainy, and the 
men who had fought a hundred days in the last one hundred 
and fifty, began very naturally to hope they were now build- 
ing their winter quarters. 

November seventh, the clothing of the Regiment, stored in 
Alexandria last April as the troops were about to advance, 
was brought to camp to be distributed to its owners. What 
painful recollections it awakens ! Three companies now lie 
in southern prisons, while large numbers of the men lie scat- 
tered along in Virginia's accursed soil, from the Wilderness 
to Petersburg. The God of war had rode triumphantly with 
the Union Army over this sanguinary road ; but death and 
bloodshed, and captivity had lurked in every thicket, sadly 
thinning the loyal ranks. These heroes will answer to no 
more roll-calls here ; but there will be a roll-call hereafter 
where they shall muster to receive the never-fading wreaths 
of the true and faithful. 

November 10th, 1864. — The news of the re-election of 
Abraham Lincoln reached the army at this time. Two months 
and a half ago the Union-loving heart was pained to hear 
cheers go up along the rebel lines, as they received the news 
of the adoption of a peace platform by a powerful party at 
the North. Now, that cheer is answered by one along the 
entire Union lines, sending dismay to the rebel hearts, as it 
informed them that their Northern friends had been van- 
quished. Let the Union men cheer. Custom gives that right 
to the victor ! 

General Grant, in behalf of the army, writes the Secretary 
of War: 



Lincoln's Re-Election in the Akmy. 317 

" City Point, Thursday, Nov. 10—10:30 P. M. 
lion. Edwin 3f. Stanton, Secretary of War : — 

Enough seems to be known to say who is to hold the reins of Govern- 
ment for the next four years. 

Congratulate the President for me for the double victory. The election 
having passed otT quietly, no bloodshed or riot throughout the land, is a 
victory worth more to the country than a battle won. Rebeldom and 
Europe will construe it so. 

U. S. GRANT, 

Lieutenant-General." 

" Shall he be buried with christian burial that seeks his own 
damnation ?" shouted a private in allusion to their former 
General. 

" He has so effectually buried himself that the services of a 
grave-digger will be quite unnecessary," replied one of the 
listeners. 

" John Brown's body lies mouldering in the grave, 
"While his soul goes marching on." 

was sung in one part of the camp, while, 

" We now begin to see de gleaming ob de dawning ob de day," 

came up from a bevy of Africa's descendants in the rear. 

General Grant was right. Lincoln's election was better 
than a victory on the field. A sentiment pervaded the whole 
army that the rebels would now see that the loyal people 
North were resolved to srtpjwess the rebellion, not to settle it, 
and with a four years' lease of power, resistance to the author- 
ity of the Government would be worse than useless. 

Near the rebel lines was a Union fort, where for three 
months there had been almost an incessant firing night and 
day. So hot was this vicinity that the fort had been named 
by the soldiers Fort Hell. On Wednesday night, the ninth 
of November, all firing was, by mutual arrangements between 
the pickets suspended, the rebels being extremely anxious to 



318 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

learn the result of the election of the previous day. Enough 
had been learned to justify the belief that the Union cause 
had triumphed. The probable result was shouted across to 
the enemy, whose chagrin was finally vented in laudations of 
" Little Mac," and harsh epithets against his successful rival. 
Thus the discussion which at first was carried on good-na- 
turedly enough, finally degenerated into the free exchange of 
abusive personalities, and the truce was soon brought to a ter- 
mination by a sudden volley from the rebels, whose exaspera- 
tion knew no bounds as from our side three times three were 
sent up for Lincoln and the Union. Our men, knowing the 
treachery of the rebels, were not taken by surprise, and the 
flash of the enemy's guns had scarcely disappeared before an 
answering volley was hurled back, and for nearly an hour the 
rattle of musketry was incessant. Fort Hell also joined in 
the general din, and greeted the enemy with a score or two of 
shells. 

During this cannonade, the novel exhibition of the collision 
of two immense bombs in mid air was witnessed by thousands 
of spectators. 

No sane man will doubt that the re-election of Mr. Lincoln 
was all-powerful in the speedy suppression of the slaveholder's 
rebellion. 

The weather had now become cold, and the time was spent 
very much as though the decree had gone forth that the army 
should remain here for the winter. 

The cheering support of the loyal North at the polls was 
quickly followed by another reminder of their gratitude to 
and sympathy for the soldiery. President Lincoln had set 
apart the twenty -fourth day of November as a day of thanks- 
giving and prayer. The loyal people North had seized upon 
this opportunity to remind the soldiers of their attachment to 



Thanksgiving in the Army. 319 

them and their cause. Boat loads and car loads of fat turkeys, 
chickens, pickles, vegetables, and other edibles, such as, though 
too rare with the soldiers, are wont to grace our tables at 
home, at the annual gathering around the family board, came 
pouring in. 

Nothing could have been devised more encouraging than 
this manifestation. The avalanche of " good things," fresh 
from the hands of loyalty and affection was intensely enjoyed 
by rank and file. Not only did the begri mined soldiers relish 
these delicious viands for the physical gratification afforded, 
but for the associations accompanying them. 

A well-cooked turkey or chicken, under any circumstances 
is much to be preferred to the hard tack and salt junk, min- 
gled with cinders, as it is fried in a half canteen between two 
logs ; but this was sweetened by the recollection that mothers, 
sisters and sweethearts in the far off North-land had prepared 
the dressing, and as they thought of their darling ones in the 
army, had ceased a moment to wipe away a tear. It proved 
to the soldier that he was held in grateful remembrance at 
home — that place where the true soldier cares most to be re- 
membered, and this thanksgiving dinner strengthened the 
armies more morally, if not physically, than the addition of 
thousands of men. 

"We cannot omit recording, however, that many complaints 
were made by some regiments, that they never obtained their 
proper share of these dainties eo kindly sent from home. We 
are credibly informed that the cause of this seeming neglect 
was the greediness and dishonesty of detailed officers and 
men connected with the various brigade and division head- 
quarters. One instance is related of a company in a New 
York regiment, in the Fifth Corps, that received only twelve 
and a half pounds of roast turkey, goose, and chicken for 



320 Tiie Seventy-sixth Kegtment N. Y. V. 

sixty-four men, and that sadly " mushed, and covered with 
Virginia sand." A general remark may not be out of place. 
The soldier is largely indebted to the women of the North for 
the almost numberless mementoes of friendship which they 
forwarded to the soldiery in the field. Yet very many of the 
articles of necessity and luxury never reached those for whom 
they were intended, but fell into unworthy hands. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Another Advance— Hicksford Raid— Report of General Hofmann— March of 
Fiftt Miles— Consolidation of the Seventy-sixth with the One Hundred 
and Forty-seventh New York— Farewell to the Sacred Number. 

Decemher 7th, 18G4. — The original term of enlistment of 
all the members of the Seventy-sixth Regiment expired before 
this date, and had there been no re-enlistments, this history 
had terminated at this point. But so many had re-enlisted 
the preceding winter and spring, that two companies yet 
remained. These were under the command of "W. Earle 
Evans, now Lieutenant, originally a private in Company F. 
The patriotism of these men will continue this narrative to 
the end of the war, and the triumph of the Union arms. 

On the seventh a forward movement was made to the South, 
known as the Ilicksford raid. The following report was made 
by the commandant of the Brigade : — 

" Headquarters Third Brigade, Third Division, ) 
Fifth Army Corps, Before Petersburg, Dec. 16, 18G4. J 

.V"jor E. C. Baird, A. A. G. Third Div. :— 

Major :— I have the honor to report the part taken by this Brigade in the 
recent movement on Ilicksford. 

The Brigade broke camp on the morning of the seventh, and joined the 
Division at the Jerusalem Plank Eoad. The Brigade consisted of the fol- 
lowing Regiments : — Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteers, Major 
Jack commanding ; One Hundred and twenty -first Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, Captain Barlow commanding; One Hundred and Forty-second 
v 



322 The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y. V. 

Pennsylvania Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel H. H. Warren commanding ; 
two Companies of the late* Seventy-sixth New York, Lieutenant Evans 
commanding ; Ninety-fourth New York Volunteers, Captain Fish com- 
manding ; Ninety-fifth New York Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Crency 
commanding; One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York Volunteers, 
Captain Coey commanding, and the headquarters guard. Total 1,328 
muskets. 

The Brigade crossed the Nottoway river at Freeman's Bridge, and moved 
to and bivouacked at Sussex Court House at nine P. M. 

On the eighth at seven A. M., moved toward the Weldon Railroad via 
Coman's well. When about two miles beyond this place — this Brigade 
leading the column — a small force of the enemy's cavalry attempted to cut 
through the column, but were driven off without loss to us. At seven P. M. 
the Brigade commenced destroying the Railroad. By eleven P. M. about 
one mile of it was destroyed. Bivouacked, and at seven A. M. on the ninth 
moved to about four miles below Jarratt's Station. There the Brigade 
destroyed about three-fourths of a mile of the road, then moved to beyond 
Three Creek, where about half a mile of the road was destroyed, then went 
into bivouac. At seven A. M. on the tenth, moved on Sussex Court House. 
Bivouacked at five P. M. when within about five miles of it. 

Resumed the march at eight A. M. on the eleventh, and when within one 
mile of Sussex Court House, formed line of battle and erected breastworks, 
to resist a threatened attack on the rear of the column. 

Subsequently moved on and crossed the Nottaway at Freeman's Bridge, 
and bivouacked at eight P. M., near church. 

Resumed the march at nine P. M. on the twelfth hist., and arrived in 
camp at four P. M. 

The work of destroying the Railroad was done in a very thorough man- 
ner — all the ties burned, and all the rails bent. 

The conduct of the officers and men on this expedition is deserving of 

praise. There was very little straggling. The few who straggled fell into 

the hands of the enemy. A nominal list of them is herewith sent, showing 

the loss of men. I am, Major, Very Respectfully, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

J. W. HOFMANN, 

Brevet Brigadier-General Comd'g Brigade. 
May 27th, 1865. 

[Official.] Harry G. Elder, 

Brevet Major & Acting Brigade Inspector." 

* The Seventy-sixth is here spoken of as the late Seventv-sixtli, though the order consolidat- 
ing it was not made by the War Department until December thirty-first. 



Last Return of the Setenty-sixtii. 323 

The object of the movement was the destruction of the 
Weldon Railroad. The rebels were accustomed to transport 
their supplies to Stony Creek by rail, and reshipping at that 
point in wagons, to convey them by a circuitous route to 
Petersburg. This movement of General Warren to Hicks- 
ford, and his cavalry to Weldon, accomplished the destruction 
of this road, rendering it entirely useless to the rebels. 

The troops marched in all about fifty miles on this raid, 
and destroyed three long railroad bridges, about twenty miles 
of railroad, one hundred barrels of apple jack or cider brandy, 
and a large amount of forage and other stores, and captured 
a score or two of prisoners, sustaining but a trifling loss. The 
weather was intensely cold, and the men suffered severely in 
their nightly bivouacs. 

After the return, the troops remained in camp near Peters- 
burg engaged only in the ordinary routine duties of camp life 
in winter quarters. 

The camp was frequently enlivened by news of the advance 
of Sherman, now on his great march from Atlanta to the sea- 
board, and of the victories of Thomas in the West. But the 
armies of the Potomac and James remained for the most part 
quiet in their camps. 

On the thirtieth of December, 1SG4, the date of the last 
official report previous to the consolidation, the Seventy-sixth 
Regiment contained two commissioned officers and one hun- 
dred and sixty-five non-commissioned officers and men. 

On the thirty-first of December, lSG-i, the following order 
was issued from the War Department : 



War Department, Adjutant General's Office, ) 
Washington, December 31st, ISO! J 

No. 476. {Extract.) 



Special Orders ) 



21. Upon the receipt of this order by the Commanding General Army of 



324 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

the Potomac, the remaining veterans and recruits of the Seventy-sixth New 
York Volunteers will be permanently transferred to and consolidated with 
the One Hundred and Forty-seventh Volunteers, the consolidated force to 
bear the designation of the latter Regiment, 

The Commanding General Army of the Potomac will charge the proper 
Commissary of Musters with the execution of this order. 

The consolidation effected, the Commissary of Musters will forward to 

this office the transfer rolls, as directed in Circular No. 64, August 

eighteenth, 1864, from this office. 

************* 

By Order of the Secretary of "War, 

(Signed,) E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 
Official. 

E. D. Townsend, Ass't Adjutant General. 

Adjutant General's Office, ) 
Albany, Sept. 14, 1866. J 
Official Copy. 

J. B. Stonehouse, Ass't Adjutant-General. 

This order did not reach the Regiment until sometime in 
January, 1865. The last report of the Seventy-sixth was 
made on the fifteenth day of January. At that time the 
Regiment was commanded by Captain Edward B. Cochrane, 
and belonged to the Third Brigade, Third Division, Fifth 
Army Corps. The following from the semi-monthly report 
for February first, 1865, is the last official mention of the 
Seventy-sixth : — 

Seventy-sixth New York Volunteers consolidated with One Hundred and 
Forty-seventh New York Volunteers, January twenty-fifth in compliance 
with Special Orders No. 476,. War Department, 1864. 

D. J. DICKSON, 
Captain and Brigade Inspector. 

It w r as a trying ordeal for these veterans as they witnessed 
the departure of the fragments of company after company of 
their friends ; they had sadly witnessed the exchange of the old 
flag for a new one, but the most trying of all, was the relinquish- 
ment of that name of which they had felt so proud. The 
76th ! With what pride they had welcomed that number at 



Farewell to the Seventy-sixth. 325 

the first which spoke of Bunker Hill, and Bennington, and 
the Declaration of Independence ! 76th ! — the historic 
number to which all Americans ever point with pride. But 
how sacred now it had grown. The men had worn it 
on their caps ; it had been printed on their knapsacks; they 
saw it on the front of the cap of the officers from whom they 
received their orders ; it was written on their letters ; and in 
the midst of the storm and fury of battle, when natural in- 
stincts led them to seek safety in retreat, they had gazed upon 
the dear old flag, and drawing inspiration and courage from 
that freedom's talisman, had pressed forward to victory. No 
wonder that the brave boys of so many battles thus tenaciously 
clung to the cherished number ; aye, as the child clings to its 
mother. Battles may hereafter be fought and won. These 
heroes will do their duty, but in all the lists of Regiments 
covered with glory, the Seventy-sixth, always the foremost, 
will not be there. Our heroes may fall in battle, but their 
names will scarcely be noticed, for opposite them will no 
longer stand the 70 th. When we left Cortland three years 
ago, we sang : — 

Don't stop a moment to think, John, 

Our country calls, then go ; 
Don't fear for me nor the children, John, 

I'll care for them, you know. 
Leave the corn upon the stalk, John, 

The fruit upon the tree, 
And all our little stores, John, 

Yes, leave them all to me. 

Then take your gun and go, 

Yes, take your gun and go ; 
For Ruth can drive the oxen, John, 

And I can use the hoe. 

I've heard my grandsire tell, John, 

He fought at Bunker Hill, 
He counted all his life and wealth, 



326 TnE Seventy-sixth Eeghiext N. Y. V. 

His country's off'ring still. 
"Would I shame the brave old blood, John, 

That flowed on Monmouth plain ? 
No, take your gun and go, John, 

If I ne'er see you again. 

Then take your gun and go, &c. 

The army's short of blankets, John, 

So take this heavy pair, 
I spun and wove them when a girl, 

And worked them with great care. 
A rose in every corner, John, 

And here's my name, you see ; 
On the cold ground they'll warmer feel, 

Because they're made by me. 

Then take your gun and £0, &c. 

And, John, if God has willed it so 

We ne'er shall meet again, 
I'll do my best for the children, John, 

In sorrow, want or pain. 
On winter nights I'll teach them, John, 

All that I learned at school ; 
To love our country, keep her laws, 

Obey the Savior's rule. 

Then take your gun and go, &c. 

And varied it with : — 

" 76 is on our banners." 
jSTow, as the men scatter along, singly and alone, to their long 
deserted homes, it will not be as members of the Seventy- 
sixth ! Farewell, then, venerated number ! Farewell battle- 
battle-scarred banners, that in the fiercest of the fight so 
proudly bore thee ! The men who followed thee on the 
march and the field, have the proud consciousness that 
they have done what they could to make themselves worthy 
of the name, and to preserve the talismanic number un- 
sullied. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

The Akmy in Winter Quarters— Negotiations of President Lincoln for Peace 
—Orders to Advance— Flanking the Enemy— Second Battle of Hatcher's Run 
—The Third Division, Fifth Corps, Buffers Severely— Summary of Casualties 
—Changing Camp— Third "Winter Quarters." 

The troops were now in winter quarters, with no expecta- 
tion of immediate action. Sherman was on his march to the 
seaboard, and the reports of his brilliant achievements in- 
spired the Army of the Potomac no less than his own. The 
troops, with intelligent interest, watched the dying symptoms 
of the rebellion, as slowly but surely the coils of the rightful 
authority tightened about it. The cold might pinch the loyal 
army, and the mud prevent its advance. Yet the men looked 
forward with prophetic eye to a time when, the rebellion sup- 
pressed, they should lay aside the implements of war, and 
hasten to the more congenial walks of civil life. 

The troops were pleasantly situated in their new log huts; 
bat it was not home, and they welcomed the order to advance, 
which came on the fourth day of February. The order 
directed a detail to keep watch of the tents, while the men 
went forward in search of the enemy. This looked like fight- 
ing, and not a mere change of camp. 

The attempt at negotiation made by President Lincoln and 
the rebel authorities had failed, and the army and the country 
were assured that the only road to peace lay through success- 



328 The Seventy-sixth B-egtment N. Y. V. 

ful warfare. The defenses of Petersburg and Eiclnnond were 
nearly impregnable, and General Grant still cherished his 
favorite scheme of saving his men, while he compelled the 
enemy to surrender by cutting off his supplies. Another 
forward movement was, therefore, determined upon in the 
direction of the Southside Railroad. 

At three o'clock P. M. on the fourth of February, orders 
were received directing the Fifth Corps to march the next 
day. All was bustle and confusion in camp. At three 
o'clock the next morning, preceded by Gregg's cavalry, the 
Corps started on the road to Ream's Station. No force of the 
enemy was encountered. The roads at various points were 
picketed by rebel cavalry, all of whom retreated as our col- 
umn advanced. About noon our Corps reached Powanty 
Creek, where it was halted several hours while a bridge of 
considerable length was being constructed. Towards night 
the stream was crossed, and the troops went into bivouac. 
During the afternoon of the fifth, the Second Corps and the 
cavalry were quite sharply engaged, resulting in the advance 
of our lines beyond Hatcher's Pun, the capture of about two 
hundred prisoners, a train of wagons and mules, and quite a 
severe loss to the enemy in killed and wounded. 

About one o'clock P. M. the next day, the Third Division 
of the Fifth Corps, including the One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh New York, was ordered to the front. Crossing the 
Pun they ascended the hills on the west side, and as they 
were descending the opposite slope came suddenly upon the 
enemy. Almost the entire surface of the country was cov- 
ered with a dense growth of pine. Marching through this, 
upon the road to Dabney's Mills, the Division came upon a 
clearing of some ten or fifteen acres. Here they found the 
enemy in force. The fight soon commenced with great fury, 
but was of short duration, when the rebels retreated. Our 



Second Hatcher's Run. 320 

Division retreated across the open field down to the edge of 
the opposite wood at double-quick. The rebels kept up a 
running tire, until about five o'clock, when they made a most 
determined assault all along the line, evidently with the inten- 
tion of breaking through the line, cutting off and capturing 
the Division. At the same time an attack was made in front, 
and part of the Division being out of ammunition, the left 
fell back on the center. Soon after, the right fell back also, 
being hotly pursued by the enemy. In a short time the whole 
line fell back in disorder, until they reached the breastworks 
erected by the Third Division the day before. Ilere they 
were rallied, and pouring a heavy volley into the rebel ranks, 
brought them to a sudden halt. The wagons and artillery 
were on their way back when the retreat commenced, but had 
got fast in a swamp, and though great efforts were made by 
the ordnance officer of the Division to save them, they were 
obliged to abandon two. 

The enemy shortly after made an attack upon the left of 
the Second Corps, near the Armstrong Road, but were re- 
pulsed. The loss in this engagement was quite severe, falling 
mostly upon the Fifth Corps, 

General Morrow, commanding our Brigade, was severely 
wounded in the shoulder. 

Captain Coey, commanding the One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh Regiment, was shot in the nose, the ball coming out 
at the ear. 

The only officers engaged in this battle, who formerly be- 
longed to the Seventy-sixth, were Lieutenants Martin Edg- 
comb and George B. Hill. 

Of the handful of the former men of the Seventy-sixth, 
Lucas F. Lawrence, of Company E, was killed, and Sergeants 
Miles R. Foster and John J. Evans wounded. 

The weather was so intensely cold that whenever the 



330 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

clothing became wet it froze to the men, and many who fell in 
the battle were frozen to death before they could be removed 
from the field. 

February 7th. — It was determined to send a reconnoisance 
over the ground occupied by the Fifth Corps the day before, 
to ascertain the whereabouts of the rebels, and, if possible, 
force them back to their works at Dabney's Mills. General 
Crawford's Division, (the Third), of the Fifth Corps, having 
led the advance the day before, and being best acquainted 
with the nature of the country, was selected for the duty. 
Though they had broken the day before, the cause being 
understood by the commanding General, no blame attached to 
the Division. 

The column moved about noon, taking the Dabney's Mill 
road, and after abvancing about half a mile, struck the rebel 
pickets, who fell back as our men advanced. A line of battle 
was then formed and advanced cautiously through the dense 
woods on each side of the road. Before going far they met 
the rebels in force, when a sharp engagement immediately 
commenced. The rebels were steadily driven back until they 
took refuge behind their works at the mill, where they made a 
determined stand. Fighting was here kept up until dark, 
when our men commenced throwing up light breastworks, 
and repairing those evacuated by the rebels. At twilight the 
Third Division was directed to make a charge upon the ene- 
my's works ; but on arriving near them, the rebels were found 
too strongly entrenched to make the charge practicable, and 
our troops retired behind their works. During the night our 
Division advanced and built a line of works in the immediate 
front, and very near the rebel lines. 

The men were without tents, and to add to their sufferings 
a severe storm of snow and sleet set in, and the weather being 
intensely cold, the troops were soon encased in ice. It was a 



Losses at Second Hatcher's Run. 331 

gloomy time, indeed. So near was the enemy that fires were 
not admissible, and to the clangers of battle were added the 
horrors of freezing. 

The morning of February eighth dawned bright and sunny 
upon the army, cheering the hearts of the brave men who had 
endured and accomplished so much. The spirits of the troops, 
naturally depressed by the hardships of the past three days, 
and the freezing nights, now revived, and the determination 
was universal to hold at all hazards the extended line of five 
miles. 

It had been developed by this movement, that Lee had 
weakened his forces at this point, by sending several divisions 
against Sherman. Thus the double object of the movement 
had been accomplished — the extension of our lines, and the 
development of the enemy's strength. 

The main losses of these engagements were sustained by 
the Third Division of the Fifth Corps. The whole force of 
that Division numbered about four thousand. The losses 
were : — 

Killed, --- - 5 Officers, 6Q Men. 

Wounded, - - - 28 " 491 " 

Missing, - - - 4 " 586 " 



Total, - -.- 37 " 1,143 " 

Of the missing many afterwards returned to their respect- 
ive Regiments. 

This movement extended the Union lines from the James 
River to Hatcher's Run, a distance of about twenty-three 
miles. 

During the ninth the Brigade was engaged in building cor- 
duroy roads, and smoothing the railroad track and converting 
it into a wagon road, preparatory to occupying the grounds 
thus captured as a camp. 



332 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

On the tenth the Brigade returned to the old camp, and 
gathering the tents and other property, moved out to the front 
and for the third time that winter, commenced the erection of 
winter quarters. In a few days the surrounding country was 
thickly covered with tasty log huts, their canvas roofs bleach- 
ing in the alternate storm and sun of a Virginia winter. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Another Advance— Battle of Five Forks— Repulses and Successes— Brilliant 
Charges—Important Captures— A Lull in Battle— Petersburg Evacuated— 
The Rebels Retreat from Richmond— Pursuit of the Rebel Armt— " In at the 
Death "—Lee Surrenders— Rejoicing. 

The armies remained in winter quarters until the latter part 
of March, occupying the time in picket and police duty and 
organizing and drilling, preparatory to the approaching cam- 
paign. The month and a half wore away and the order came to 
move towards the Southside Railroad on the twenty-ninth of 
March. The men were up at three o'clock in the morning, 
and at daylight were on the march. From the Lieutenant- 
General to the private, the whole army entertained the belief 
that this was to prove the death-blow to the rebellion. The 
battle-scanvd veteran, therefore emulated the recruit in enthu- 
siasm, as they rushed forward toward the enemy. The First 
Division of the Fifth Corps, containing the One Hundred and 
Eighty fifth New York, was in the advance, and were soon 
engaged in a sharp fight, in which the One Hundred and 
Eighty-fifth lost heavily. The Third Division first marched 
towards Hatcher's Run, then took a road leading nearly south. 
This they pursued five or six miles, then turning to the right, 
reached the Boydton Plank Road two miles from that point. 
Here the One Hundred and Forty -seventh was under fire, but 
the loss to the Brigade was but one killed and ten wounded. 



334 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 

The Brigade at this point halted and threw up several lines of 
breastworks. Firing was kept np the next day at different 
points along the line ; but owing to a heavy rain storm which 
set in, no general engagement took place. The Brigade ad- 
vanced about a mile on the morning of March thirty-first, 
when they were met with such a galling fire, that they were 
forced back nearly half a mile, losing about one hundred men 
in killed and wounded. Here was terrible fighting. The 
contending forces swayed to and fro. At one time a stampede 
of our whole Brigade seemed imminent ; then by the mere 
force and courage of the men, the rebels were driven back 
and at night our Regiment occupied a position beyond the line 
from which they had been driven in the morning. 

General Sheridan having been repulsed it was seen that a 
change of front of the Fifth Corps would be necessary to 
meet any attack of the enemy on the left and rear. Accord- 
ingly at midnight, the Fifth Corps, leaving an interval to be 
supplied by Miles's Division of the Second Corps, left its 
position, and moving down the Boydtown Road toward Din- 
widdie, and massed at the Butler House for the purpose of 
seizing the White Oak Road. 

Early the next morning, April first, the Fifth Corps moved 
forward, while the Second Corps commenced demonstrating 
its front to mask its real intentions. The charge of the Fifth 
Corps was temporarily successful, the enemy being pushed 
back to a point near the White Oak Road. Here he rallied, 
and in turn violently assaulted the Fifth Corps, which hastily 
retired to the vicinity of the Boydtown Road, where it took 
shelter behind a line of temporary works. 

Miles's Division was now directed to strike the victorious 
enemy on the flank, and massing his brigades, he began mov- 
ing to the left and west from his position on the Boydtown 
Road. The remainder of the Second Corps were skirmishing. 



Battle of Five Forks. 335 

About half-past ten o'clock in the forenoon, the column of 
General Miles struck the rebel left in front of the Fifth Corps, 
surprised it, and moving rapidly forward drove the enemy 
like frightened sheep, capturing a large number of prisoners, 
guns and colors, then wheeling to the right and still pursuing 
the flying enemy, established himself on the White Oak Road. 
Thus, after a severe engagement of several hours, our forces 
had, at the cost of several hundred lives, accomplished what 
was originally intended. During the day, Sheridan, con- 
fronted by superior numbers, was again forced to retire, and 
it became necessary to threaten with larger numbers, the 
masses of the enemy gathered on our left to protect the South- 
side Railroad. 

General Foster of the Twenty-fourth Corps had again 
advanced his pickets so near to the guns of the enemy that 
the gunners were unable to work them, and the two armies 
occupied this position when Friday night put an end to the 
operations. 

On Saturday morning, April first, General Sheridan having 
as yet met with no important success, determined to strike 
the rebels a severe blow. General Warren moved the Fifth 
Corps to the rear of the White Oak Road to report to Sheri- 
dan, and Miles likewise fell back and extended his Division 
along the Boydtown road, facing northwest. Sheridan who 
in the morning was east of Five Forks, now commenced 
moving west and northwest in several columns, and meeting 
the enemy in strong force, a fight was immediately com- 
menced. 

Tne Fifth Corps had, in the meantime, moved southwest 
toward the Five Forks, and the enemy, struck in front and on 
both flanks, soon wavered and fell back. Charges such as 
had never during the war been exceeded for valor and im- 
petuosity, were now made by both the infantry and cavalry. 



336 Tiie Seyenty-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

The rebel hosts were rolled back in confusion, and captured 
by regiments and eYen brigades. 

Sunday, April second, opened bright and glorious. The 
sky was undimmed, except by the battle-smoke of the previous 
four days, and the haze as of an Indian Summer, which for a 
week had hung over the army. To-day the hosts of Sheridan's 
prisoners were sent to City Point, apparently well pleased 
with their change of condition. 

General Grant had determined upon a grand wheel of the 
whole line south of the Appomattox. Petersburg, the key to 
Richmond, was to be attacked by one grand combined assault 
upon the east, southeast, and south, by the Sixth and Ninth 
Corps, while the command of General Orel, on both sides of 
Hatcher's Run, moved to their support, followed by the Sec- 
ond Corps. Early in the morning, Turner's and Foster's 
Divisions of Ord's command moved to the support of the 
Sixth Corps, leaving General Birney, of the Colored Division, 
to charge the enemy simultaneously with the Second Corps on 
its left. The charge was almost a bloodless one. No enemy 
except a few pickets were found in their front, and they con- 
tinued their grand right" wheel until about eleven A. M., they 
were on the line of the Sixth Corps, southwest of Petersburg. 
The gallant Sixth and Ninth Corps had already performed 
the task assigned them. The Sixth, supported by General 
Ord, had advanced two miles, carried a complete line of for- 
midable works, including a number of forts, and seized the 
Southside Railroad, while the Ninth had, by a series of 
assaults, forcibly possessed three important points, and occu- 
pied Fort Mahone in front of Fort Hell. The three Corps 
alone, captured thirty-two guns, nearly three thousand prison- 
ers, and large numbers of colors and small arms. The assault 
was made with such rapidity that more losses were sustained 
during the massing of the troops, than during the assault 



Evacuation of Petersburg. 337 

itself. The rebels made a bold resistance, but it was of no 
avail. Determined men, white and black, with bristling bay- 
onets, and a resolution to "tight it out on this line," had now 
grappled with treason in its stronghold, and the fate of the 
rebellion was sealed. Fort after fort, batteries and rifle pits 
were successively carried, and at eleven o'clock A. M., the 
Southside Road, within three miles of the town, was in our 
possession. 

The headquarters of Generals Grant and Meade, at night, 
were at the Ritchie House, on the Boydtown Road, within 
three miles of the town and in range of the enemy's batteries. 
No one could foretell the glorious results just then in the 
grasp of the loyal soldiery. Night came, and the weary sol- 
diery slept upon their laurels. Bright columns of light arose 
from the city, and until one o'clock on Sunday morning occa- 
sional shots were exchanged between the two lines. Then all 
became still, and so remained until morning. 

At three o'clock Sunday morning, April second, an ad- 
vance was made, and the enemy's works in front of the Sixth 
and Ninth Corps carried, our forces capturing many prisoners 
and a large number of guns. This lasted until about eight 
o'clock A. M., when the fighting ceased, and all remained 
quiet. 

At half-past four o'clock the next morning, (April third), 
four reports of cavalry in front of Birney's colored troops 
were heard, followed in quick succession by four shells as they 
sped with their hollow, rushing sound towards Petersburg. 

The troops were yet in their bivouac, and Avere scarcely 
awakened, before cheer upon cheer rolled up along the line 
until the whole line joined in the jubilee. It required no 
" general orders " to explain the cause. The enemy had 
evacuated Petersburg, that key to the Capital of the " Con- 
federacy,"' and were even now hastily retreating from the loyal 
w 



338 The Seventy-sixth Regiment X. Y. Y. 

army ! It was indeed a jubilee to the battle-scarred veterans. 
Nor were the colored troops of General Birney less joyful 
than their white brethren in arms. As a colored regiment 
marched into the city, they sang : — 

" Say, darkies, hab you seen de rnassa, 

"Wid de niufstash on his face, 
Go down de road sometime dis mornin', 

Like he's gwine to leab de place f 

while in every part of the army the delight of the troops 
knew no bounds. 

Colonel Ely, commanding the Second Brigade, First Di- 
vision, Ninth Corps, was credited with being the first to enter 
the city, and was made Provost Marshal of the town. No 
sooner had his headquarters been established, than it was 
thronged with rebels demanding "guards to protect private 
property.*' 

So thoroughly convinced had President Lincoln become 
that the city must surrender, that he had left "Washington, to 
be " in at the death," and arrived at Petersburg with Admiral 
Porter in the afternoon. 

On the same morning that our troops marched into Peters- 
burg, the Mavor of Richmond surrendered the kevs of the 
public buildings of that city to General "Weitzel, who, with 
his staff led the advance into the town. 

The tactics of General Grant did not permit him to squan- 
der his time in rejoicing over his laurels. The enemy, under 
General Lee had retreated to the southwest along the Danville 
Road, and the whole "Union army, save a small garrison left 
in each city, was, during the afternoon set in motion in that 
direction. 

The thrilling thought of occupying tins objective point of 
four years' struggle, would have caused almost any other 
General than Grant to linger about his prize ; but with him 



Chasing the Enemy. '■'■'■'■'■* 

the object of the war was to suppress the entire rebellioi . 

to rejoice over victor:- -. 

The race between loyalty and treason now became exciting. 

General Lee, with the advantage of nearly a whole "lav's 

march, was striving for a point of safety in the interior, but 

Sheridan, with characteristic energy, was fast gaining npon 

him. On the sixth of April General Sheridan reported 1<j 

General Grant : — 

" Thursday, April G— 11 P. M. 
Lieutenan ■ Irani : — 

I have the honor to report that the enemy made a stand at the intersec- 
tion of the Burke's Station Road in the road upon which they were 
retreating. I attacked them with two Divisions of the Sixth Army Corps, 
and routed them handsomely, making a connection with the cavalry. I am 
still pressing on with both cavalry and infantry. Up to the present time we 
have captured Generals Ewell, Kershaw, Button, Corse, De Barre and 
Custis Lee, several thousand prisoners, fourteen pieces of artillery, with 
:.=>. If the thing is pressed I think Lee will surrender. 

P. H. SIIERIDA>~, 

Major-General Commanding." 

In their flight the enemy threw away everything which 
could impede their progress. General Sheridan pushed 
forward the cavalry and infantry with great energy, captur- 
ing large numbers of prisoners and arms, and destroying vast 
trains which the enemy were compelled to abandon. 

The Fifth C - now under Sheridan in the advance, 

and thus the few remaining members of the old Seventy-sixth 
with happy hearts witnessed the death of the rebellion. 

Almost every day from the second of April, when Rich- 
mond and Peter-burg were evacuated, until Sunday, the ninth, 
when Lee surrendered, the Fifth Corps was under lire from 
the rear of the rebel army, yet they pressed cheerfully 
onward. The march from Petersburg to Appomattox was a 
long one, and from the broken and hilly character of the 
country, would, under ordinary circumstances, have been con- 



340 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

sidered tedious ; bat flushed with success, the men made their 
march of thirty miles a day, with less weariness than they had 
formerly retreated half that distance. At length, on Satur- 
day, the eighth of April, 1865, within a fortnight of four years 
from the surrender of Fort Sumter to the rebels, General 
Grant opened a correspondence with General Robert E. Lee, 
looking to the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
On the following day the whole of that army surrendered 
unconditionally, at Appomattox Court House. General 
Grant immediately telegraphed the glorious news to "Wash- 
ington. 

The excitement and unalloyed and exuberant joy manifested 
in the army at this result of their heroic sacrifices, met a 
hearty response from the people as the joyful news flashed 
over the land. What if the intoxicating bowl did for a mo- 
ment add power to the expression of gladness ! Sober voices 
could scarcely do justice to the long pent up feelings, and we 
pardon alcohol for this intrusion ! 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

The Surrender of Johnston— Murder op President Lincoln— Home-ward Bound- 
March to Petersburg— "On to Richmond"— Fredericksburg— Crossing the Old 
Camp— March to Arlington Heights— The Grand Review— Coming Home— "Ex- 
pended in the Service." 

The surrender of Lee was soon followed by that of Johns- 
ton. The hopes of the South had centered upon General Lee, 
who was undoubtedly their ablest chief, and with his surrender 
all hopes of successful resistance to rightful authority died 
out. This became apparent no less from the tone of the press 
and the people, than from the surrender of all their armies. 
Mr. Lincoln visited Richmond, and was welcomed with appa- 
rent cordiality — a feeling, alas, more apparent than real ! 

The day after the surrender of Lee was extremely rainy 
and disagreeable, but the " boys in blue " were happy, and 
remained busy, gathering up the captured property, and parol- 
ing the rebel troops. 

At length, on "Wednesday, the twelfth, the Fifth Corps 
started on their homeward march ! The mud reminded the 
army of Burnside"s celebrated march, but with different feel- 
ings the men waded on, until the fifteenth, when the 
headquarters of the Corps were established at Burkesville. 
Here was received that news so shocking to loyalty everywhere, 
but pre-eminently so to the army — the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln ! No man ever enjoyed in such an eminent 
degree the entire confidence and admiration of the army, and 



342 The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y. V. 

tlie country, as Mr. Lincoln. His very name was the talis- 
man which gave courage in the fight, and endurance on the 
march. His stories enlivened the camp, and his name was 
was sung on the march and in the bivouac. The army has by 
disloyal men been stigmatized as " Lincoln's hirelings." They 
never despised the name of " Lincoln's admirers." The news 
of his assassination did, indeed, sadly reverse the current of 
universal rejoicings. The display of all the flags at half-mast, 
the draping ot the swords, and cannon, and sleeves with 
crape, the muffled drums, and saddening tones of the death- 
march, but feebly told of the deep, unspeakable sorrow which 
pervaded the camp. Like a clap of thunder from a clear sky, 
the news fell upon the army, and it was overwhelmed with 
sorrow. Men who without an unmanly emotion could march 
to the cannon's mouth ; heroes who had faced death in a hun- 
dred forms with impaled cheek, now wept like children, and 
the army which had crushed the rebellion, felt itself crushed 
by that single bullet of the assassin. Eulogy is powerless. 
The future will do justice to the memory of the Great Libe- 
rator and Defender. 

The army made slow progress, passing through Petersburg 
on the third, and Richmond on the sixth of May. The men 
now became fully aware that they were indeed marching 
homeward. No pen can describe the emotions created by that 
assurance. Llome ! after all the turmoil and dangers, the pri- 
vations and endurances ! A peaceful home of cpiet and 
plenty, after four years of bloody strife. No wonder that the 
boys cheered and joked, and were happy, as they reeled home- 
ward under their heavy knapsacks ! 

Through Hanover Court House and Milford, often meeting 
objects with which they became acquainted the year before, 
while on the great campaign of 1864, the army reached oppo- 
site Fredericksburg, May ninth, and crossed the field where 



"The Old Camp Ground." 343 

they fought bo bravely December thirteenth, 1S62, and April 
twenty-ninth, 1SG3. How the memory of those severe strug- 
gles crowded upon the remaining heroes! Of all that gallant 
Seventy-sixth which then followed the brave Doubleday up 
into " the jaws of death," but about thirty now remained ! 

Crossing the Rappahannock on pontoons a mile below 
Fredericksburg, the veteran heroes soon came in sight of the 
huts they had built in 18G2. How familiar every foot of the 
uneven ground ! 

With home in view, the conquerers could not long dwell 
upon such scenes, but on through Dumfries, Fairfax Court 
House, Bailey's Cross Roads, and Falls Church, a little before 
sundown, May twelfth, went into camp on Arlington Heights, 
on the same grounds occupied by McDowell's Corps in 1861. 

Here the Corps remained until May twenty-third, when it 
crossed the Potomac and took part in the great Presidential 
review. Never before on this continent was there such a mar- 
shaling of the Sons of Freedom. Well may the spirit of 
despotism abroad profit by this parade of the noble army 
which crushed out the spirit of despotism in this country. Its 
steel is burnished for the next conflict, whenever it shall be 
precipitated. Long rows of graves and trenches mark the 
resting place of hundreds of thousands of Freedom's defenders, 
but they are but a tithe of the hosts that will ever rush from 
the hill* and valleys of the North, to " rally round the Hag," 
and uphold the right, whenever endangered from any source. 

Shortly after the grand review, most of the volunteer jbrces 
were mustered out, the veteran regiments being retained until 
the last. As the organizations reached their homes, they met 
with such receptions as returning heroes deserve — processions, 
banquets, speeches, and all the outward tokens of welcome. 
Alas ! no such reception awaited the Seventy-sixth. Its time 
having expired in 1SC4, but few of the men remained in the 



344 TnE Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

service, and they had been absorbed in another organization. 
It had lost its identity, and its few remaining members came 
home singly and- alone. J3nt each member will ever point 
with just pride to those four words which sum up its glorious 
history : — 

" Expended rN the Service !" 

Such a record is more to be desired than all the chaplets an 
admiring crowd can weave about the brows of an unexpended 
organization. Such a record is not only a badge of honor to 
the wounded heroes who survived the storm of battle ; but it 
is a fitting epitaph to the memory of those brave heroes who 
now lie buried in the accursed soil they died to save ! 

This noble Regiment, like its fellows, was not expended in 
vain, if its heroic sacrifices shall conduce to the establishment 
of those eternal principles of justice which are embodied in 
the Declaration of Independence — principles Jo overthrow 
which the rebellion was inaugurated. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



COLONEL NELSON WINCH GREEN. 



The subject of this sketch was 
born in Pike, Allegany, (now Wyo- 
ming), county, New York, July 
thirtieth, 1819. His father, Arnold 
Green, was born in Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts. The ancestors of Col- 
onel Green, on both sides were 
Revolutionary patriots. His grand- 
father on his mother's side (Roberts) 
died in the Revolutionary service. 

The Worcester Greens, and the 
Rhode Island Greenes were origi- 
nally descended from the same 
English family. Five brothers laud- 
ed at Boston at an early day, and purchased lands upon which to settle. But 
differing Irreconcilably upon matters of religion, they agreed to separate amica- 
bly, the three Worcester brothers taking the lands purchased, and dropping the 
final " e," and the other two retaining the final " e." Thus the Greenes went to 
Rhode Island, taking a certain amount of money. From this, the Quaker branch, 
came General Nathaniel Greene. 

The grandmother of Colonel Green, Betsey Winch, afterward Roberts, sent her 
three sons to accompany her husband to the battle of Lexington, and the latter 
never returned. They were living within hearing of the battle-field, and were 
fitted out and rushed to the field after the battle commenced. 

Colonel N. W. Green was trained in the elementary branches at the private 
school of Harley F. Smith, of Pike, N. Y., and entered the military academy at 
West Point, as a cadet, in September, 1830, in the class of Generals U. S. Grant, 




346 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N". Y. V. 

Franklin, Augur, Quinby, Ingalls, Dent and Wheaton. After remaining at the . 
Military Academy over three years, and being remarkably proficient in his studies, 
when within a few months of graduation, he was accidentally injured, and pre- 
vented from entirely completing the course, though he had passed a highly 
satisfactory examination in all the principal branches there taught. At the time 
he received the injury, he was engaged in the light artillery drill introduced about 
that time, by the celebrated Colonel Ringgold. After being thus disabled, Colonel 
Green read law with Senator James R. Doolittle, then in practice in Wyoming 
county. He was afterwards connected editorially with several newspapers, and 
wrote "Fifteen Years Among the Mormons," a work possessing much merit as a 
composition. 

In October, 1S59, Colonel Green removed to Cortland, Cortland county, where 
he has since resided. 

When the rebellion became a fixed fact, Colonel Green evinced a desire to do all 
in his power to aid the authorities. Before the idea of raising a regiment had 
been started, he formed classes for drill at the village hall, and to this begiuning 
may justly be attributed the organization of the Seventy-sixth Regiment. 

While others were doubting the possibility of raising even a Company, Colonel 
Green insisted that by proper effort a Regiment might be organized, and to his 
determination more than to any other one man, is due the formation of the Reg- 
iment. He drew the call, (on pages 20 and 21), except so far as it speaks of 
himself, and immediately set about the work of organization. How well he suc- 
ceeded we have had occasion to witness. A regiment of better men was never 
organized, and no regiment ever improved more rapidly in discipline and the 
elementary drills, than did this Regiment while the Colonel was with it. As we 
marched through New York we enjoyed the proud satisfaction of hearing citizens 
on the street declare that of all the regiments that had passed through the city, 
this was the first in which, in marching by the right flank, the rear files kept step 
with the front. 

The following extracts from the findings of the Military Commission at Wash- 
ington, show the light in which the investigation placed him before the Court : — 

The undersigned beg leave to report:— That they find nothing in the testimony adduced, de- 
rogatory to Colonel Green's character as a gentleman or man of honor. 

This was signed by the two members who decided adversely to the Colonel. 
The report then proceeds : — 

All the members concur in reporting Colonel Green's proficiency in the Tactics and Regula- 
tions. Respectfully submitted. 

JOHN C. CALDWELL, 

Colonel and President. 
Seldbn Hetzel, Major and Recorder. 

The legal effect of this action of the Court in this case, was an acquittal. 

Through all of Colonel Green's troubles, no man has been able to point to a 
corrupt act. On his trial for shooting McNett, he was fully vindicated by the 
evidence of Generals Robinson, Davies and McDougal, as to his abstract right to 
shoot McNett, and the failure to convict was, under the circumstances, equivalent 
to an acquittal. The jury are understood to have been six for acquittal, and six 



Colonel Kelson Winch Gkeen. 347 

for holding him for a technical " assault," being unanimous against finding an in- 
tention to kill, which was the substance of the offense charged. 

The following documents arc annexed to this sketch, without note or comment, 
as matter of history. The last was in the hands of the lamented President Lin- 
coln, and under his consideration, unacted upon, at the time of his assassi- 
nation : — 

Camp Campbell, December 5th, 1861. 
To His Excellency, Governor Morgan-:— 

Honored Sir :— We learn from Captain A. .1. McNett, of the Seventy-sixth Regiment New 
York State Volunteers, now under an c>t ;it this camp for disobedience of orders, that he has 
preferred charges against Colonel N. W. Green, commanding Seventy-sixth Regiment New 
York state Volunteers. 

Your Excellencv— We, the undersigned, commissioned officers in the Seventy-sixth Regiment , 
knowing the charges to be untrue and malicious, take this early opportunity to truly represent 
to you our Colonel, asking your confidence in our statements, which we 'make without any 
solicitation, or hint even, from Colonel Green. Colonel Green, commanding the Seventy-sixth 
Regiment, is an earnest, patriotic and christian man. He is an energetic, thorough and compe- 
tent officer. He has the confidence and love of both his officers and men. We love him as a 
man, respect him as an officer, and will obey Dim as commander of his Regiment. 

Your Excellency— We thank you for the honor you have conferred upon us bv placing him 
in command of our Regiment, and we humbly pray your Honor, that your confidence in Colo- 
nel Green mav not be shaken by these slanderous charges. 

Pardon us, Governor, for expressing frankly our opinion of Captain A. J. McNett in this same 
paper. We have learned thoroughly to distrust both his patriotism and his integrity. We can- 
not, under any circumstances, willingly suffer him to occupy any position over us, and we again 
pray your Excellencv to allow Colonel Green to retain his place in your confidence, and in our 
Regiment. Waiting "your orders to march against our enemies, we remain, 

Very Respectfully, 
J. C. Carmtchael, Acting Lieut.-Colouel, G. I. Foster, 1st Lieut. Co, D. 

.1. < . Nelson, Surgeon, JOHD H. Ballard, 2d Lieut. Co. E. 

H. S. Richardson", Chaplain, Wm. W. Green, 2d Lieut. Co. F, 

Andrkw J. Grover, Capt. Co. A, E. J. Cox, 1st Lieut, Co. E, 

Wm. Lansing, Capt. Co. G, E. R. Weaver, 1st Lieut. Co. C, 

H. F. Robinson, Acfg Adjutant, W. S. Walcott, 2d Lieut. Co. B, 

G. D. Crittenden, Capt. Co. C, A. Sager, 1st Lieut. Co. G, 

W. H. Powell, Capt. Co. E, John Fisher, 1st Lieut. Co. K, 

Oscar C. Fox, Capt. Co. B, A. P. Smith, Lieut. A. Q. M., 

J. II. Barnard, Capt. Co. F, E. D. Van Slyck, Capt. Co. K. 

Adjutant-General's Office, Albany, Dec. 30, 1804. 

I certify this to be a true copy of the original on file in this office. 

J. B. Stonehouse, Ass't Adjutant-General. 

Washington, December 5, 1SG2, 
To Hon. E. M. Staston, Secretary of Wart- 
Dear Sir:— Colonel N. W. Green, of the Seventy-sixth Regiment New York State Volunteers, 
then in the United States Bervlce, alleges that he was cited before a Court of Inquiry, in Feb- 
ruary, 1882, which found nothing against him. Many of the officers were opposed to" his com- 
mand, and he was an ested and suspended from bis command, and be was subsequently, on the 
third day of June, 1882, without further trial, on the recommendation of the Governor of the 
State of NV\v York, by War Department Special Order Xo. 124, discharged the service. 

Believing Colonel Green to be a loyal, brave and competent man, a well educated and effi- 
cient officer, ami that his service may be made useful to the Government and country, 1 
recommend that his case be reviewed, and that the cider discharging him from the service be 
1. if the facts thai shall appear will justify it, and that he be ordered to report for duty 
to General Blunt, of Kansas, or to other duty where his services may be required. 

Very Respectfully, PRESTON KING. 

I have confidence in Colonel Green, and believe he has die capacity, to render valuable ser- 
vice to the Government, as a military officer. If any arrangement can be made by which his 
services can be made available, as indicated by Senator King, 1 shall be much gratified. 

IRA HARRIS. 
I concur in what is said by the Senators from New York. 

J. R. DOOLITTLE. 

1 have confidence in Colonel Green, and concur in the request of the Senators from New 
York. J.H.LANE. 

IN THE MATTER OF COLONEL N. W. GREEN'S CLAIM to be recognized the Colonel of 
the Seventy-sixth Regiment of the New York State Volunteers:— 

statement. 

N. W. Green was commissioned as the Colonel of the Seventy-sixth Regiment, bv a Commis- 
sion under the hand and seal of the Governor of the State of New Forte healing date October 
twenty-ninth, 1881, and duly mustered Into the service of the United States, on the twentieth 

day ol V" ember, 1881, by Major J. T. Sprague, U. B. Mustering Officer at Albany, N. Y.; and 

was In actual command of said Regiment, from its drat organization, September, 1881, nntQ 
about the twenty-fifth day of February, 1882, when he was arrested by order of General Doub- 
leday, near Washington, V. C, without charges or reason assigned, which arrest continued 



348 The Seventy-sixth Regiment X. Y. V. 

until the twelfth day of April, 1S62, at which date he was, by order of the Secretary of War, 
released from arrest, and required to repair to Cortland County, X. Y., there to await further 
orders ; which requirement he obeyed, and has remained at Cortland county until the present 
time ; and no further order has ever been made known to him, except the order in the words 
and figures following, to wit :— 

Wab Depabtmect, ADJTTAST-Gp^rEBAi.'s Office,) 
Washington, June 2, 1S62. { 
SPECIAL ORDER Xo. 124. 

At the recommendation of the Governor of Xew York, Colonel X. W. Green, of the Seventy- 
sixth Regiment Xew York Volunteers, is hereby discharged the service. 
Order of the Secretary of War, 

(Signed), L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General. 

The Regiment named in said order, was mustered Into the service of the United States for 
three years, and their term of service does not expire until about October, 1864. 

I. 

The above order of the Secretary of War Is ajrnxiTT, and without authority of law. 

1st. (llth Article of War). The President alone has authority to make an obdeb discharging 
a Commissioned Officer. 

2d. The President (previous to the act approved July seventeenth, 1862) could make such 
order only :— 

1st. On the expiration of the term of service. 

2d. Resignation. 

3d, Partial disbandment of the army. 

4th. Sentences of Court Martials. 

See DeHarfs Military Law, p. 228 to 243. 

II. 

And even after the passage of the Act, approved July seventeenth, 1862, sec. 17, enabling the 

;:scharge "any officer "fob axy cause," 4c, it is submitted that 

the President cannot arbitrarily discharge without cause ; he must at least know of the 

case, or hear what the charges are, and determine from some basis that the cause renders the 

officer unsuitable for the public service, or that his dismission will promote the public service. 

But this power, after the passage of said Act, is not important in determining the effect or 

...(orders made belure its passage. The order in question is of the date of June third, 

- law cannot be said to attect previous OKi>EES, but only to confer new authority upon 

the President for the future. 

The legal effect of said order, Xo. 121, cannot be determined except by considering the power 
Of the (Secretary of War at the time— and even if such an order were made by the President, 
Its legal effect must be determined by considering his power at the time. 

which led to this order are, of course, of no Importance in determining the ques- 
tion— What is the legal effect of said order? Were those causes deemed important, Colonel 
Green Is ready and willing to vindicate himself against any charge which can be invented 
against him— only asking.il required to do so, that he may be informed what the charges are : 
and that their truth or falsehood may be determined by fair trial, before any legally constituted 
tribunal. Such an investigation he earnestly, but respectfully, solicits, if deemed of any im- 
portance. 

But if 6uch order, Xo. 124, be a nullity, then Colonel Green Is, as he claims to be, the Colonel 
of the Seventy-sixth Regiment ; and as such Colonel, respectfully asks that he be restored to 
his command. 



COLONEL WILLIAM P. WAINWMGHT 

Was born in the city of New York, June tenth, ISIS. lie enjoyed the benefits 
of a liberal education, having graduated from the University of the City of New 
York. After graduating, he studied medicine, but not fancying to practice, he 
never did. Soon after finishing his medical studies, he went to Europe and there 
devoted his attention principally to military studies. He was a long time at Ber- 
lin, which was then the best point for that purpose. Since then these have been 
his favorite pursuit, although some connection with the militia of Dutchess 
county, where he long resided, was his only practical application of them, until 
the war of 1361. The militia is a poor organization for the practical operation of 
military science, so that the Colonel never found much encouragement in his 
favorite vocation until he entered the army. At the commencement of the war, 



Colonel "William P. AVaixweight. 



349 




"-^> 



requested to take the 
Major iu the Twenty-ninth New York 
Volunteers. This was composed 
chiefly of Germans, and Colonel 
Wainwright understanding that lan- 
guage perfectly, and the officers de- 
_ one American, he 'was finally 
induced I iition. The 

had mostly been educated at 
man miliuiry schools, and it 
was always a source of gratification 
to the Colonel that, though fearfully 
cut up, this was one Regiment in the 
Brigade that did not run at Chan- 



cellorsville. Shortly after the battle of Cros= Keys, Colonel Wainwright was 
ordered to Washington to take command of the Seventy-sixth, then at Frede- 
ricksburg. How earnestly he entered upon his work has been already stated in 
the body of this work. The Colonel believes that the beat men will be inefficient 
without discipline and drill, while these aids will make tolerable soldiers of 
poorer material. In a communication to the writer, the Colonel says : — 

" lean now unhesitatingly say tbat there are no men capable of being made sneb good sol- 
diers as oar native American OOUHTET boys ; but they should know their A B C before being 
brought into the field, and their officers should have some idea of what they have a right to 
require, and that neither lazines= nor home associations must interfere with k'eeping each man 
up to his work. 

I believe I mentioned to yon that I consider it a great subject of pride for the Seventv-?ixth, 
that (at have never exhausted their cartridges on the hottest 

battle-field. The action L- hardly conceivable in which a good soldier, who has a full supply at 
the commencement. >houl'i ;ieansare much worse about it than Americans, and 

were it not that the 1'russian needle gun, (being a breech-loader;, never requires the muzzle to 
be raised high ■ .nrected above the enemy's heads, the only consequence from its 

capacity of rapid discharge, would have been to make it impossible to supply the army with 
cartridges." 

The anxiety of the Colonel that his Regiment should have the best officers, 
commissioned and non-commissioned, and be in the best state of drill and disci- 
pline, sometimes induced the men to believe him unnecessarily strict ; but as 
. ew into soldiers, and witnessed their steady ranks as they rushed into the 
jaws of death, whUe other regiments of equally good material, from want of dis- 
cipline, broke and fled, they united in one voice of praise of the ColoneL 

At the battle of South Mountain, the Colonel was wounded in the arm, and his 
hocae killed under him. He rejoined the Regiment near Warrenton, and remained 
in command at Fredericksburg and Chancellors ville ; but on the march to the 
North in June, 1SC3, his health becoming impaired, he was obliged to 
We have failed of our object if, in the preceding pages, we have not shown that 
Colonel Wainwright was an accomplished christian gentleman and officer. 

He has resumed his residence in New York City. 






i * 



cL 



350 



The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. Y. 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN D. SHAUL.* 




Was born'in the town of Stark, Her- 
kimer county, New York, December 
18th, 1814. In 1839 he removed to 
Springfield, where he has since re- 
sided. He was elected Colonel of 
the Thirty-ninth New York State 
Militia in 1850, of which he was in 
command at the breaking out of the 
rebellion. "When the war had actu- 
ally commenced, he used every en- 
deavor to get the consent of his 
Regiment and the permission of the 
Governor to take it out as an organ- 
ization. On the first of October, 
1861, he received an order to place his men in camp at Cherry Valley, and com- 
mence recruiting at that place. This order was promptly and cheerfully complied 
with by the Colonel, and the companies first organized were soon after mustered 
into the United States service. He closed up his large farming business at a great 
pecuniary loss, and immediately directed his entire attention to the reorganization 
and recruiting of his Regiment, and the drill and discipline of the men. In addi- 
tion to the large amount of money he was obliged to advance in recruiting, he 
found it expedient, in connection with the commandant of the depot, to lend his 
credit to a large amount, to secure the payment of the necessary camp expenses, 
rations, &c. A large proportion of the Regiment had signified their desire to 
have the Regiment go out in a body, and some had even, when requested to join 
other organizations, claimed to be waiting for that purpose, and had thus excused 
themselves from entering the service earlier. But now, to the great disappoint- 
ment of the Colonel, he found that only a very few responded to his invitation to 
them to come forward and be mustered into the service. Recruiting proved very 
dull. No large bounties had at that time been offered. 

In January, 1862, the Regiment, only some six hundred and sixty-seven strong, 
were ordered to Albany, where they arrived on the evening of the eighth, and 
were soon after consolidated with the Seventy-sixth New York Volunteers, in 
which Colonel Shaul took the position of Lieutenant-Colonel. There was a 
strong effort made at Albany to prevent the Colonel entering the service, even in 
this capacity, and as he made no pretensions at wire-pulling or political gambling, 
he would have been thanklessly sent home, had not his officers and friends insist- 
ed that he, at least deserved this position, and should by right have it. 
The Seventy-sixth went out with Green as Colonel, and Shaul as Lieutenant- 



•Written by Major John TV. Young. 



Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew J. Grovek. 351 

Colonel. In February, 1862, Green was relieved, the Lieutenant-Colonel lei't in 
command of the Regiment. Colonel Green was soon after discharged, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Shaul remained in command until the last of June, when lie 
was relieved by Colonel William P. Wainwright. 

During the four and a half months Colonel Shaul was in command of the Regi- 
ment, he had, by an honest administration of military rule, and his upright and 
gentlemanly conduct, gained the esteem and good will of hoth his officers and 
men. For about three months he had command of five forts in the defenses of 
Washington, D. C, and in addition to the infantry drill, he was obliged to in- 
struct his Regiment in the artillery drill and practice. 

In May the Regiment was ordered to Fredericksburg, and again divided into 
detachments for guard duty. Here the opportunities for drilling were greatly 
lessened, but in order to keep up the battalion drill, the Colonel would get as 
many of the men together as possible for that purpose. 

While in camp near Fredericksburg, the Colonel was taken sick, and when his 
command was ordered to Culpepper, he was ordered to report to Surgeon Clymer 
at Washington. Ilcre he remained some four weeks, during which time General 
Pope retreated before the enemy, and the Seventy-sixth passed through Washing- 
ton. Knowing this, the Colonel, although he had not fully recovered, hoping by 
prudence to regain his former health, was very desirous of rejoining his Regiment, 
to which the Surgeon, after much objection, consented, and he again took command 
of the Seventy-sixth, in camp at Sharpsburg. But, to the great disappointment of 
the Colonel and his friends, in about two weeks he had a relapse, and was sent to 
the Seminary Hospital at Georgetown. On the twentieth of November, 1862, he 
was honorably discharged, on account of physical disability ; not, however, until 
he had consulted with the surgeon in charge, who gave it as his opinion that he 
would not be able to endure the hardships of the service, and that it was his duty 
to have him discharged on that account. Then the Colonel, feeling that he had 
done all he could for his country in the field, and not wishing to receive remune- 
ration for services he could not render, cheerfully accepted his discharge, and 
returned to his home in Springfield, Otsego county, where he has since resided. 
His post office address is East Springfield, Otsego Co., N. Y. 

He has never fully recovered from the sickness he incurred while in the service, 
but considers himself able to oversee his large farming business, to which he has 
returned. 

John Shaul, the grandfather of the Colonel, served in the Revolutionary war, 
and was captured by the Indians and kept a prisoner live years. The father of 
the Colonel, Daniel Shaul, served in the war of 1812. 



LIEUTEXAXT-COLOXEL AXDEEW J. GROYEK,* 

Was born in West Dryden, Tompkins county, New York, on the twenty-second 
day of December, 1830. His early advantages for an education were limited to 
•Written by Kcv. D. W. Bristol. 



352 



The Seventy-sixth Kegevient N. Y. V. 




the privileges furnished by our com- 
mon schools at that time. At the 
age of seven years, death deprived 
him of both his parents, so he may 
be said to have commenced life al- 
most alone. When sixteen years of 
age, burning with a desire to see the 
■world, and' prompted by a military 
ardor which is so common" to youth 
of that age,}but which in him was a 
development of a peculiar adaptation 
of mind for military art and science, 
he enlisted in the army then being 
raised for the Mexican war. After a 
brief stay in New York, he sailed with the expedition, which eventually landed 
at Vera Cruz, and subsequently, led by General Scott, entered the City of Mexico 
and explored the famed " halls of the Montezumas." Here he had an attack of 
fever peculiar to that climate, which came near carrying him to his grave, and the 
effects of which attended him to the close of his eventful and useful life, it having 
caused a lameness which was often attended with excruciating pain. 

Such was his bearing as a soldier while in the army, that at the close of his term 
of enlistment he was offered an office in the regular service, if he would renew 
his enlistment and remain. This, however, he declined, preferring to return to 
the walks of civil life. At the close of the war with Mexico, each soldier who 
was honorably discharged received a warrant for one hundred and sixty acres of 
land. Colonel Grover sold his, and with the avails commenced a course of edu- 
cation, which he sought in the Groton, then the Ithaca, and finally in the 
Cazenovia Seminaries. In these institutions he attained a fair educational train- 
ing, but what was better, he contracted habits of study which attended him 
during his whole life. He was a keen observer of men and things, and a thor- 
ough student. With a keen perception and a quick apprehension, he was enabled 
to master speedily whatever he undertook. 

In 1852 he entered the christian ministry, in which he continued until the fall 
of 1861. There his success was eminent, he having attained to a high position 
for one of his age, in the church of his choice. He always won the esteem and 
confidence, as well as the affection, of his people. His pulpit efforts were clear, 
logical and forcible, always commanding the admiration, and awakening the con- 
victions of his audience. 

In the autumn of 1861, seeing and feebing the peril of his country, he felt it to 
be his duty to throw himself into the breach, in common with thousands of his 
brave countrymen, for the defense of the Government. He assisted in raising the 
Seventy-sixth Regiment. Some estimate can be made of his energy and popular- 
ity, when it is known that in less than a month his company was full and 



Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew J. Grover. 353 

mustered into the service of the country. His commission as Captain bears date 
January seventeenth, 1863. 

In the spring of 1862 he took the field and participated in the toils and dangers 
of the stirring events which during that summer occurred in Northern Virginia. 
He participated in the battles at Rappahannock Station, August twenty-second, 
Warrenton (Sulphur) Springs, August twenty-sixth, and Gainesville, August 
twenty-eighth. In this last battle he was ordered forward just in the evening twi- 
light, with a detachment of his company, to feel of the enemy, who were known 
to be in the vicinity. On coming within rifle range, he heard the order of the 
enemy to fire. Ever careful of his men, he directed them to lie down, but re- 
mained himself standing. Here he received two severe wounds, which, for a 
time, were thought to be mortal; one in his leg and the other in his back. Here 
for an hour and a half he and his men lay, he suffering from three wounds, while 
a terrific fight was waged between the two armies, the shot from cither side flying 
over them. When the fight was over he was brought off the field and conveyed 
to Washington, where for many weeks he lay, enduring as only our brave sol- 
diers knew how to endure, the suffering arising from wounds received in defense 
of country and great principles. When at the last he so far recovered as to return 
to his home, supposing himself unfitted for further service in the army, he re- 
signed his commission, with the purpose of again entering upon his pastoral 
duties. But he recovered rapidly, and, contrary to the expectations of all, re- 
gained nearly all his former soundness. 

In February, 1863, without his knowledge or solicitation, he was appointed 
Major of his Regiment. This was no small compliment to him from his old com- 
panions in arms who recommended his appointment, and is good evidence of the 
high esteem in which they held him as a companion and a soldier. After much 
anxious thought he concluded to accept this unexpected call as an indication of 
Providence, as to his line of duty. He accordingly bid adieu to his wife and chil- 
dren, and again accepted the fatigues and perils of the field. From May first to 
the sixth he fought at Chancellorsville, winning the confidence of all by his mili- 
tary skill and bravery. 

On the morning of the first of July, 1863, he was in command of his Regiment 
on the eventful field of Gettysburg. He led his men with great gallantry, but, 
following his orders, he led them into the crater of a volcano. Early in the battle 
which opened the terrible but decisive conflict of that field, he was struck by a 
rifle ball near the heart, and lived only a few moments after; but he was com- 
posed and calm, looking death in the face with the same christian heroism with 
which he met the enemies of his country. He gave his watch with the badges of 
his rank to a comrade, requesting that they be given to his wife, and then, on the 
bloody field and amidst the roar of battle, awaited the summons of the Great 
Captain of salvation in the heavens. No doubt his thoughts during those brief 
moments dwelt with his wife and children, whom he so tenderly loved, but whom 
he was to meet no more in this life. Sometime previous to this he had been re- 
commended for the rank of Lieutenaut-Colonel, but for some reason his commission 
was not received until after his death. 



354 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Colonel Grover was a man of superio r mental abilities, of warm attachments, 
and possessed of a most generous disposition. An ardent friend of most court- 
eous manners. Sometimes, when engrossed in a subject which deeply interested 
him, he appeared to those who did not know him well, as impetuous ; but this 
was more in appearance than reality. He had a keen sense of honor, and was a 
man of high integrity. As a soldier, he was patriotic, prompt, strict in discipline, 
and brave. No officer carried with him the confidence of his men in this respect, 
to a greater extent than he did. That he stood high with his superiors, the fol- 
lowing letters to his bereaved family will show. Colonel Wainwright, who had 
formerly commanded the Seventy-sixth, writes : — 

Morristown, N. J., August 11th, 1863. 
My Dear Madam :— 

I am well aware that nothing can add to the comfort which the christian hope for those we 
love always gives ; but it is some gratification to hear that our friends were appreciated by 
those who had opportunity of knowing them thoroughly in their peculiar vocation, and it is 
especially so as to the character of a soldier in these times of active service, which bring every 
point conspicuously to sight. As commanding officer of the Seventy-sixth, I had learned to 
esteem and value very highly your lamented husband, for his distinguished courage on the field, 
and for his knowledge of his duties, as well as his unflinching determination in performing 
them. On leaving the Regiment I felt it was in good hands, and he has proved in the battle In 
which he lost his life, that it was so. Such men are not only a great loss to their regiments, but 
to the service, for there is a quiet influence from their example, which affects every officer 
brought in contact with them. As a man and a soldier, Major Grover always appeared to me 
a model, and in the management of his Company when Captain, in the gallant manner in which 
he led our skirmishers at Gainesville, or more recently as commander of the Regiment at Get- 
tysburg, he has given every reason for those who knew him to lament his loss. With high 
respect, I am, dear madam, 

Very sincerely your friend, WM. P. WAINWRIGHT, 

Late Colonel 76th N". Y. Vols. 

The following is from General L. Cutler, who at the time commanded the Brig- 
age to which the Seventy-sixth was attached : — 

Headquarters Second Brigade, First Division, First Corps, ) 
In the Field, July 13th. 1863. j 
My Dear Madam :— 

It is my painful duty to announce to you the death of your good and brave husband, who fell 
bravely leading his Regiment to the bloody battle of July first, at Gettysburg, Pa. I was with- 
in a few paces of him when he fell. He was among the bravest of the brave, and fell lamented 
bv all who knew him. His Regiment behaved worthv of their leader, and although losing more 
than half their number, fought on through the three bloody days, and are still ready to avenge 
their fallen leader and comrades, and restore the Government of the Union. Allow me to ofter 
you my sincere condolence for your great loss, and to assure you that he died in a glorious 
cause, and without a fear or murmur. 

The body was buried on the field with the men who fell by his side. We could do no more. 
I am very truly yours, L. CUTLER, 

Brig. -General Commanding Brigade. 

Such was the testimony of those who had the best opportunity to know him, 
and who were the most capable of judging of his merits as a man and an officer. 
He probably was not more virtuous or more brave than many others who went 
forth in the great strife for our national existence, but he was as good and as 
brave as any. In October the remains of Colonel Grover were recovered, through 
the exertions of his ever affectionate and faithful wife, and were brought to Cort- 
land by C. P. Cole, Esq., of the Gazette and Banner, for final interment. 

The funeral services at Cortland, were conducted by the Masonic fraternity, to 
which Colonel Grover belonged. Large delegations of brethren were in attend- 
ance from Utica, Syracuse, Homer, Marathon, Dryden, Binghamton, Cortland, 
and other Lodges, and the services of the Knights Templars, under Z. C. Priest, 
of Utica, as well as the Masonic burial service at the grave, under the direction of 



LlKI TK\ \\T-CoL<>.NKL OlIAKI.KS A. WaTKIXS. 



;;:,:, 



Clinton F. Paige, Master of the Grand Lodge of the state of New Fork, were 
solemn and impressive. 

The remains of Colonel Grover now lie in the Cortland Rural Cemeterj an 
early and noble offering upon the altar of an imperiled country. 



LIEUTEXANT-COLONELCIIAKLES A. WATKIXS 




Was born in Onconta, Otsego coun- 
ty, New York, May twenty-sixth, 
1838. Ilis parents were John M. 
and Julia A. Watkins. He was edu- 
cated at the common school At the 
time of his enlistment, Colonel Wat- 
kins was engaged in the hotel at 
Oneonta. Receiving permission of 
General Danforth to raise a company 
for the Thirty-ninth New York Shite 
Hf Militia, then recruiting at Cherry 
Valley, he disposed of his interest in 
the hotel, and on the thirtieth of 
November, 1861, proceeded with 
thirty-two men to Cherry Valley, where they were examined and mustered into 
the service. The Colonel was then unanimously elected Captain of the company, 
with C. M. Qaylord as First Lieutenant. When the Thirty-ninth was ordered to 
Albany, and consolidated with the Seventy-sixth, this company was consolidated 
with the company being raised by Captain Young, and became Company K in the 
Seventy-sixth, with J. W. Young as Captain, aud the subject of this sketch as 
First Lieutenant. 

While at Biker's bland, Lieutenant Watkins was ordered on detached duty at 
Albany, to look after the sick. Here he remained six weeks, when he was, at his 
own request, relieved, and he joined the Regiment at Meridian Hill, D. C. 

On reaching Fredericksburg, Company K was assigned to duty at General 
Doubleday's headquarters. While on this duty, he was sent with despatches 
from General Doubleday to General McDowell's headquarters, at Manassas. On 
the flret of July, L869, he was appointed Regimental Quartermaster, by Colonel 
Wainwright, the duties of which office he performed until the tenth of February, 

1868, When In- was relieved and ordered to Company I for duty. He served suc- 
cessively in Companies I, E. G. and II. At the battle of Gettysburg, Julj Brat, 
1868, he commanded the Color Company until toward night of the first day, 
when, the Adjutant being wounded, he was appointed Acting Adjutant, by Cap- 
tain Cook commanding the Regiment lie continued in that position until the 



356 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Regiment reached Rappahannock Station, when he received orders from Gen- 
eral Rice, commanding the First Division, to report at his headquarters as Acting 
Aid-de-Camp upon his staff. He remained upon the staff of the Division com- 
mandant, acting in the meantime as Provost Marshal, until, the Regiment 
becoming deficient in officers, he was ordered back to his company. He remained 
with his company until May twenty-second, 1864, when he was ordered by Colonel 
Hofmann, commandant of the Brigade, to report to him as Acting Aid-de-Camp 
and Brigade Inspector. He acted in this capacity until he was mustered out with 
his company (C), November eighth, 1864, in front of Petersburg, Va., on expira- 
tion of term of service. 

Lieutenant Watkins was slightly wounded at Gettysburg, July first 1863, and 
the same day promoted to Captain. On the fifteenth day of October, 1864, he 
was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, vice John E. Cook, mustered out on expi- 
ration of term. 

Colonel Watkins was never reported on the sick list while in the service, and 

never absent from duty while the troops were on the march. He was absent from 

duty twenty-five days during the winter of 1862-3. On the twenty-third of May, 

1864, Colonel Watkins was sent out by General Cutler, with thirty picked men 

from the " Iron Brigade." They advanced some four miles beyond our lines, and 

captured a large number of prisoners. The following extract from General 

Orders, shows how well the duty was performed :— 

Headquarters Second Brigade, Fourth Division, Fifth A. C.,) 
In front of Petersburg, Va., August 8th, 1SW. J 
(Extract) General Order No. 24. 

In expressing my thanks to you, I do so not only as an individual, but as commanding officer 
of the Brigade". Had your reputation for skill and bravery as an officer no other basis than the 
services you have rendered in this campaign, it would still rest upon a firm foundation. To the 
prompt and skillful manner in which you advanced the skirmish line at Jericho Ford, on the 
evening of the twenty-third of May last, was due the capture of over two hundred prisoners. 
Trusting that you may safely pass through this yet unended campaign, 

I am truly yours, J. W. HOFMANN, 

Colonel Commanding Brigade. 

At the close of the war Colonel Watkins and his father became proprietors of 
the Exchange Hotel in Albany, N. Y., where he still resides. 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN E. COOK* 

Was born in Hadley, Mass., August twenty-fifth, 1829. His parents still reside 
there. At the age of fifteen, Colonel Cook commenced an apprenticeship at the 
carpenter's trade, which vocation he has since pursued. In 1S48 he removed to 
Middleburg, Otsego Co., N. Y., where he now resides. By a drill of seven years 
in the State Militia, he had acquired a taste for military life, and when the rebel- 
lion broke out, he was an early recruit. Organizing a company in the "Otsego 
Regiment," he with it joined the Seventy-sixth, and was made Captain of Com- 

•Owing to the advanced stage of this work on Colonel Cook's return from the South, his por- 
trait cannot appear, much to the regret of the writer. 



Bkevet Lieutenant-Colonel Amos L. Swan. 357 

pany I. On arriving at Fredericksburg in the summer of 18(1:2, he was, in June, 
made Provost Marshal of that city. He took part in all the battles daring Pope's 
retreat He was commissioned Major, June twenty-fifth, 1868, and after the death 
of Major Grover at Gettysburg, assumed command of the Regiment. lie was 
honorably mentioned by the Brigade Commander, for bravery in that battle, He 
was Blightly wounded at Gettysburg, but did not leave the field. He was after- 
wards commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel, with rank from the third of July, 1863. 
At the battle of the Wilderness, May 5th, 1804, he received a gunshot wound in 
the rii^ht arm, and was thus compelled to leave the Regiment, joining it, however, 
about a month afterward mar Petersburg, Va. 

On the seventh of October, 1864, Colonel Cook was again wounded by a piece 
of shell, depriving him of his command about one week. With these two excep- 
tions, he was in command of the Regiment from July first, 18G3, to the end of his 
term of enlistment, October seventh, 1804, when he was mustered out of service. 
Since leaving the service, he has been engaged in business South, and chiefly in 
the State of Texas. 



BKEVET LIEUT.-COL. AMOS L. SWAN 



Was born in West Cambridge, Mass. At the age of seven years he was left fath- 
erless, and soon after sent to live with a distant relative. In Boston he learned 
the trade of machinist and locksmith, and the manufacture of philosophical and 
chemical apparatus and models. At the age of twenty-one he removed to Utica 
and engaged in a BilverBmith and jewelry establishment. In 1840 he removed to 
Cherry Valley, where he has since resided. In 1842 he married the daughter of 
J. K. Forrester. Since that time he has become extensively known as a manu- 
facturer of melodeons, in which business he is still engaged at Cherry Valley. 

When the rebellion broke out, 
Colonel Swan was in command of 
t lie Union Guards, and as such vol- 
unteered t>> join the army. At the 
consolidation he was the tenth in 
rank, as regarded the date of his 
commission, so that all the other 
Captains stood above him in the 
line of promotion. He remained in 
the Regiment, until from the tenth 
lie became first in rank among the 
line Officers of the Regiment, lie 

was often in command of the Regi- 
ment, and ever ready for duty It 
was generally remarked in the Reg- 




■in ■ im . 



358 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 



iment, that Captain Swan was always in a fight, and always wounded. He 
received five different wounds in the service. At the battle of Gainesville, Au- 
gust twenty-eighth, 1862, he received a severe wound in the hip. At Fredericks- 
burg he was wounded by the bursting of a rebel shell so near him that the powder 
is still to be seen in his face. At second Fredericksburg, he was wounded by a 
fragment of a shell in the thigh, and at Gettysburg, in July, 1863, he was 
wounded twice, in the breast and right arm, by Minnie balls. Notwithstanding 
all these wounds, he was only absent from his Regiment four months during 
nearly three years' service. 

After the campaign of 1S63, while the Regiment was in winter quarters, Captain 
Swan tendered his resignation on account of the wound in his hip, which made it 
impossible to keep with the Regiment on long marches. He could not endure 
the thought of being under pay and a nominal soldier, while he was unable to 
participate in the fighting. His life had been earnest, and with him, shirking 
was a crime. His resignation was reluctantly accepted. He has since been hon- 
ored with a commission as Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, for "faithful and 
meritorious services," and no brevet could be more worthily bestowed. 



MAJOE JOHN W. YOUNG 



Was born in Springfield, Otsego 
county, N. Y. He was reading law 
in that town, when he entered the 
service in September, 1861. One of 
the first companies mustered into 
the Otsego Regiment was from his 
native town. With this company he 
enlisted, and was very active in aid- 
ing its organization, and was after- 
wards chosen its Captain. He had 
no military knowledge, but his pop- 
ularity among the boys secured him 
this honorable and responsible posi- 
tion. In January, 1S62, his company 
was consolidated with the Seventy-sixth New York Volunteers, and he remained 
a member of it until he was mustered out of service, March fourteenth, 1865, hav- 
ing been in the service about three and a half years. The Regiment, as a 
Regiment, had been mustered out previous to this time, but at the time it was 
mustered out, he was a prisoner of war. 

During the three and a half years of his service, he was in every battle in which 




Major John "W. Young. 359 

his Regiment was engaged, np to May fifth, 18G4, when he was wounded ami taken 
prisoner. He was twice wounded, twice captured, and twice hie name appeared 
among the killed At the second Bull Run, when his Division was routed, Au- 
gust twenty-ninth, 1S62, he, with Lieutenant Story, succeeded in bringing off 
about fifty of the men, and a few of the wounded. After an unsuccessful search 
until after midnight for their Regiment, they moved back a short distance from 
the enemy's line, placed out a guard, and, nearly exhausted with two days' and 
two nights' hard marching and desperate fighting, stretched themselves upon the 
ground for a few hours' rest. At break of day, men were sent out to find the 
Brigade, but it had been so badly scattered, that only a few of its men could be 
found together. The Colonel was at last found, and the regimental call sounded, 
and these men formed a nucleus around which the Regiment was soon gathered. 

At the battle of Antietam, September seventeenth, L862, he had command of 
his Regiment, although he was then the eighth ranking Captain, all those out- 
ranking him being absent on account of sickness, wounds or capture. At 
Gettysburg, July first, 1803, he was wounded and taken prisoner. He remained 
a prisoner until the fifth, when he was left by the enemy, on account of the sever- 
ity of his wounds. During the fourth of July, he lay in a house between the two 
opposing picket lines, and within hailing distance of either. Fortunately, how- 
ever, the firing during the day was carried on with small arms only, the balls from 
which could not penetrate the walls of the brick house in which he lay. 

He was unable to rejoin his Regiment until October fifth, at which time his 
wound had become so nearly healed that he was able to resume his command. 
Just after he was wounded, he received the commission of Major, and when he 
rejoined his Regiment, he entered upon the duties of that position. In Novem- 
ber following, he had command of his Regiment at the battle of Mine Run, and, 
as he had previously done at the battle of Antietam, commanded it with great 
skill. At the battle of the Wilderness, May fifth, 1864, he was taken prisoner. 
Colonel Cook had been wounded early in the action, and the Major, at the time 
he was captured, had command of the Regiment, and was at the front trying to 
rally and urge on his men. The capture was a great surprise to him. The enemy 
had forced back the One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York, which was on 
the immediate hit of the Seventy-sixth, and the pine thicket in which they were 
fighting, was so dense he did not discover that the left flank of his Regiment had 
been turned, until the enemy appeared in his rear, in a little ravine. The flght 
had become a hand to hand encounter. Those at the front and left of the ravine 
cut off from the main part of the Regiment, surrounded by the enemy, whose lire 
was concentrated upon them from all points, were compelled to surrender. The 
loss of the Regiment was very heavy. The Major was slightly wounded just be- 
fore he surrendered After he was captured he was first taken to Orange Court 
House, and from there to Gordonsville the next day, and then to Lynchburg 
where he was confined some two weeks. He was afterwards confined in prison 
at Danville, Ainru.^ta, Macon, Charleston, Columbia, Charlotte, Raleigh and Golds- 
boro. lie was also confined in several different jails, the longest period, at one 
time being seventeen days in the Charleston jail. 



360 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 



During the two and a half months he was confined at Charleston, he was with 
the six hundred officers who were placed there under fire. 

At Columbia he succeeded in making an escape, November twenty-eighth, but 
after traveling about three hundred miles in nearly a direct line, he was recap- 
tured and returned to prison December twenty-sixth, having been absent four 
weeks and one day. He was obliged to travel in the night time, to prevent being 
discovered by the rebels. The negroes supplied him with provisions, until he got 
into the mountains, where there were no negroes kept ; then he was obliged to 
go to the house of a white man for food, and was recaptured by him, and conse- 
quently returned to prison. He was eight days returning, during which time he 
w r as frequently placed in jails for safe keeping over night, when the party who had 
him in charge halted.* 

March first, 1865, he was paroled, and the same day arrived at Wilmington, N. 
C, and on the fourteenth was discharged at Annapolis, on account of his Kegi- 
ment having previously been mustered out of service. 

He is now engaged practicing law, in Cooperstown, Otsego county, N. Y. 



SURGEON JUDSON C. NELSON 



;#* 



Was bom in the town of Danby, 
Tompkins county, New York, June 
third, 1834. He was the son of a 
Baptist clergyman, in moderate cir- 
cumstances, with a large family, and 
it was only through his own per- 
sonal efforts, and natural energetic 
character, that he acquired a tolera- 
ble early education, being obliged 
to work on a farm during the sum- 
mer seasons, and going to school or 
teaching in winter. 

In the spring of 1845, he com- 
menced a course of literary and 
medical reading, under the tutelage 
of that eminent physician and surgeon, Professor Thomas Spencer, of Geneva, 
which he continued for a term of three years, and graduated at the Geneva 
Medical College, in January, 1848. In March, 1848, he commenced the practice 
of medicine and surgery in Truxton, Cortland county, N. Y., where he has 
been successful as a practitioner, and highly honored by the community in 
which he lives. 




I *A full account of his escape and recapture is published in "Prison Life in the South," by Lieu- 
tenant A. O. Abbott. Published by Harper & Brothers, New York. 



SUKGEON JUDSON C. NELSON. 361 

Politically, Dr. Nelson has always Identified himself with Che Democratic party, 
and was the candidate of his party for Member of Congress, in the Twenty-third 
Congressional District, in 1860, when he received a very handsome complimentary 
vote in his own locality. On the breaking out of the rebellion, he took decided 
ground in favor of the war for the Union, and as early as April, 1861, commenced 
enlisting men for the volunteer army, and when it was decided by the original 
movers to organize the Seventy-sixth Regiment, he promised that his town should 
raise a company of men for it, and he faithfully redeemed his pledge. He went 
before the State Military Examining Board, at Albany, October eleventh, 1861, 
was passed as full surgeon, and appointed Surgeon of the Regiment then forming 
at Cortland, (not numbered), by the Surgeon-General of the State, and was mus- 
tered iuto the United States service November eleventh, 1861. 

During the first months there was a great amount of sickness in the Regiment, 
due iu a great degree to the sudden change of the men from civil to camp life, and 
change of climate. Hospital stores and conveniences ■were not very abundant, 
and the Surgeons duties were very arduous and perplexing. Nevertheless they 
were discharged with a spirit of fidelity and humanity by the Doctor, that was 
highly commendable, until, in consequence of his own failing health, after a 
severe illness common to the climate, he was obliged on the eleventh of July, 
1862, at Fredericksburg, Va., to resign his position in the Regiment altogether, 
and return to his home, as the medical officers of his Division, and himself be- 
lieved, a confirmed invalid. 

After spending some time, however, at Avon Springs, in the Genesee Valley, 
he so far recovered his lost health that he returned to Washington early in Janu- 
ary, 1863, and by special contract with the Surgeon-General of the United Stabs, 
entered upon the duties of a medical officer in the United States General Hospital 
Department at Washington, in which capacity he occupied several positions of 
trust and responsibility. lie served first as ward physician in Trinity General 
Hospital, until its discontinuance in April, 1863. Then in Mount Pleasant Gene- 
ral Hospital until December, 1863, when he was put ill charge of the Regular 
Army Post Hospital, at Old Fort Washington, on the Potomac, opposite Mount 
Vernon, where he remained until the following April, when he was relieved by 
the regular Burgeon of the Post, who had been assigned to other duty. After 
being relieved at Fort Washington, he was ordered to Finley General Hospital, 
and put in charge of three surgical wards, where a large amount of operative 
surgery devolved upon him, and where he remained (with the exception of two 
weeks on duty with Surgeou Antisell, attending sick and wounded officers), until 
the expiration of his term of service in November, 1861. 

On retiring from the hospital, the Doctor received the public thanks of the 
Surgeon in charge, for his faithful attendance to duty, and from the Inmates of 
his wards a very valuable ease of amputating and general operating instruments, 
as a testimonial of their appreciation of his services in their severe trials and 
afflictions. 



362 The Seventy-sixth Regiment X. Y. Y. 

After leaving the service, the Doctor resumed his old practice in Trnxton, 
Cortland county, N. T., 'where he still remains. 



SURGEON GEORGE TV. METCALFE 

Was born July twenty-second. 1S37. at Owego, Tioga county, New York, hnt at 
the age of two years removed with his parents to Clarkesville. in the same State, 
where he passed the remainder of his childhood. He received a liberal education 
and in 1S54 commenced the study of medicine with his father. Dr. A. E. Metcalfe. 
After thoroughly pursuing the proper preliminary studies, in 1855 he commenced 
a course of lectures at the New York University Medical College, and graduated 
at the age of twenty. But the laws of New York, while they do not prevent the 
practice of medicine by those who never studied it, requires those who do, to at- 
tain the age of twenty-one before commencing practice. He, therefore employed 
the interval before attaining his majority in more thoroughly preparing himself 
for his profession, and attending an additional course of lectures. In 1858 he 
formed a partnership with his father, and commenced the practice of medicine in 
Clarkesville. In the winter of 1861 he was married to Miss Nannie Wickham, of 
that place, and removed to Erie, Pa. He had hardly commenced practice there, 
when the fall of Sumter inaugurated the war, and he felt that his country called 
for him. He passed a favorable examination before the Examining Board at 
Albany, and on the thirteenth of September received the commission of Surgeon, 
and orders to report at Cherry Valley, where a Regiment was being organized, 
with the Thirty-ninth Militia as a nucleus. At the consolidation with the Seven- 
ty-sixth Regiment, Dr. Metcalfe preferred to accept an Assistant-Surgeonship 
with the Regiment, many of whose officers were his personal friends, and whose 
men were the bone and sinew of Otsego, dear to him from his infancy, to Surgeon 
with another Regiment. In this capacity he served until July thirtieth, 1863, 
when Dr. Nelson, whose health had been snch that he was unable to accompany 
the Regiment to the field, resigned, and Dr. Metcalfe was promoted to Surgeon. 
He participated, with his Regiment, in all the important battles of the Army of 
the Potomac, after the return from the Peninsula, with the single exception of the 
first battle of Fredericksburg, he having been left in charge of the wounded after 
the battle of Antietam. He was taken prisoner at Gettysburg, but liberated on 
the retaking of the town by our troops. During the bombardment, a shell ex- 
ploded in the room where he was performing an amputation of the shoulder joint. 
In the winter of 1S63, he was appointed Surgeon in charge of Division Hospital, 
which position he resigned in the spring, ^to accept that of Brigade Surgeon on 
the staff of the lamented General Rice, and remained on that of his successor. 
General Hofmann, until mustered out of service with his Regiment. 

Dr. Metcalfe is a young man of skill and experience. His present residence is 
Owego, N. Y. 



Adjutant II. F. Robinson. 3G3 

CHAPLAIN H. STONE RICHARDSON. 

When the war first broke out, 
this eloquent advocate of human 
rights was engaged as minister at 
New York Mills, Oneida county, N. 
Y. Having formerly preached in 
Cortland county, his preferences 

naturally centered upon B regiment 
including so many of his former 
parishioners and friends. A man of 
indomitable will, burning eloquence, 
and undoubted patriotism, Mr. 
Richardson rendered most efficient 
service in the organization of the 
Regiment. 

The following letter, in response 
to one of inquiry by the writer, gives an idea of the Chaplain's early history :— 

A. P. Smith, Esq. :— 

Dear Sir :— You ask me to give you for publication, a brief biography of my life. I thank you 
for that word, "brief," for at the verj besl [have only time to say, that [ was born in the year 
1828, In the town of Nelson Madison county, H. V. By dint of hard work. I prepared myself 
for college, and was ready to enter at the age of seventeen. At this time I (through the Influ- 
ence of mistaken friends), changed my mind, and, going south, engaged a Bchool in Charleston, 
S. C. Here I did well pecuniarily, and was enabled to gratify mv born l<>ve for sight-seeing and 
travel. Three years 1 -pent in travel, visiting most of the islands of the Atlantic, and spending 

eleven months in the south of France, among the islands of the .Mediterranean, and in Italy. 

I returned to Texas, and while engaged as teacher in Galveston, I volunteered to go out on 
the frontier to tight the Indians and Mexicans, who were committing depredations on the bor- 
der of the State. I was wounded at the battle of Yuno liiver, and was discharged after six 
months' service. 
At this time, lsis, with a company of twelve men, I commenced the difficult enterprise of 

this tlnent on mole back, without a guide or path, to California. Six months found 

me a resident of Mariposa county, and one of the Urst squatters on the claim known as I olonel 
Fremont's. At the expiration of about two years, 1 was elected a member of the Legislature 
from Mariposa county. A I the close Of that session 1 came home to Madison county. 

In 1853 1 united with the M. E. Church, and in 1864 commenced the acth e work of the glorious 
ministry of Christ, In which work I was engaged, when treason stretched out its bloody hand, 
to roll us backward ■ i ho us and years Into abysmal barbarism. 

In relation to iu\ e- ,1 organize the Seventy-flixth Regiment, and tin' amount 

and character ol mj labor as ( baplaln in that Regiment for about two rears, you are well In- 
formed, without any statement from me. Grand old Seventy-sixth! Thy dead are walking 
above the stars ! Thy living have palaces in the hearts of the American people I 

Use as much or m tittle oi this biography (written In twenty minutes), as rou pleas.'. I have 
no fear but 1 shall be JUSTLI named, it named at all, in vour History of the Seventy-sixth. 

Very Truly S H. BTONE Bit HARDSON. 

No one ever connected with the Regiment will forget the genial nature of the 

Chaplain, or his readiness to lend a helping hand to a comrade in distreSB. 




A D.I I TAXT HEMAN F. ROBINSON, 

Son of Ileman and Betsey Robinson, was born on the thirtieth of September, • 
1887, at Bennington, Vermont Descended from Revolutionary sins, and sur- 
rounded by reminiscences and mementoes of the battle of Bennington, his young 



364 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 




mind was early imbued with a pat- 
riotic fervor and love for his country 
and its glorious flag, which caused 
him to be an early and earnest vol- 
unteer in its service, soon after the 
opening of the great rebellion. His 
early education was of the character 
at that time provided in the common 
schools and academies of his native 
town. His mind partaking of the 
roving element,however, he confined 
himself to dry and tedious studies, 
and being an orphan, with no rela- 
tive or guardian to oppose his 
wishes, he embarked, at the age of 
fourteen, as a common sailor, on board the good ship St. Nicholas, bound from 
New York to Havre, France. Too young to bear without disgust the roughness 
and privations of the life'of a common seaman, he returned home at the end of a 
few months, and quietly settled down to the life of a farmer ; not, however, with- 
out making several subsequent attempts to get to China or Valparaiso, which 
were only prevented by promises of an appointment to the United States Military 
Academy, upon the list of applicants for which his name was soon after placed 
by the Hon. Solomon Foot, Senator from Vermont. But, finding the list already 
large, Mr. Foot advised the acceptance of a cadetship at West Point, which was 
gratefully accepted, and at the age of eighteen Mr. Robinson received his appoint- 
ment to that position. By excessive and constant application to his studies, 
preparatory to entering the Military Academy, he brought on a severe, and appa- 
rently incurable, attack of dyspepsia, which obliged him to resign his appointment 
at the expiration of a few months, his family physician having decided, upon 
examination, that Mr. Robinson was not, and never would be, physically able to 
bear the severe mental and physical training of that institution. At "West Point, 
under the daily drill of accomplished officers, Cadet Robinson soon excelled in all 
the duties of a soldier, so far as he had been instructed, frequently calling out the 
marked and public approval of his commander. Here he learned the soldierly 
lessons of obedience and attention to duty, and that those lessons were well 
learned is evidenced by the strictness with which he aimed to perform his duties 
as Adjutant of this Regiment. 

Leaving West Point in the fall of '46, broken in health and spirits, he returned 
to his native village, under the shadow of the Green Mountains, in hopes of re- 
cruiting his failing health, but to no purpose, and it was only after a long and 
distressing course of sea-sickness, on the fishing grounds, off the coast of New 
England, in the year 1849, that he finally mastered his complaint, and became able 
to attend to business. From this time until the breaking out of the rebellion, 
Mr. Robinson was variously engaged in mercantile pursuits, civil engineering, &c, 



Adjutant Hubert Carpenter. 



305 



being located most of the time at Cortland, N. Y. At the breaking out of the 
rebellion, his domestic ailairs precluded the possibility of carrying out his pur- 
pose of joining the army; but in the fall of 1861, his patriotic fervor was not to 
be withstood, and ho entered with his whole soul into the organization of the 
Seventy-sixth Regiment. He acted as Adjutant until the fourth of October, 1861, 
when he was mustered into the service as First Lieutenant of Company A, being 
the first line officer mustered in the Regiment. lie was immediately appointed 
Adjutant of the Regiment, and mustering officer, performing the former duty 
most of the time until the second day of January, 1803, when he resigned his com- 
mission, on account of disability, and left the service. Whilst in the service, 
Adjutant Robinson contracted a chronic affection of the bowels, which will ever 
remain with him, as a reminder of his field service. He was with the Regiment 
during no engagement of any magnitude, except that at Fredericksburg, Va., 
December thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth, 1S62. 

Entering the service purely from patriotic motives, and a sense of duty, 
although through physical disability exempt by law, it is due to him to say, that 
during his connection with the Regiment, he was evidently actuated by no per- 
sonal ambition, and only sought, by precept and example, to instil into the minds 
and hearts of his comrades a due appreciation of the duties and obligations of a 
soldier, and the holiness of the cause in] which the services of the Regiment were 
enlisted. 



ADJUTANT HUBERT CARPENTER* 



then, if 



Was the son of William Carpenter, 
of Drydcn, and was born in DeWitt, 
New York. When the war com- 
menced, our young hero was quietly 
pursuing his studies at the Ithaca 
Academy. Naturally modest and re- 
tiring, but few knew his worth, or 
appreciated his ability. Had he lived 
he would have become a ripe scholar, 
and occupied a prominent place 
among literary men. His love of 
country led him to share the toils 
and perils of a soldier. He resolved 
that his country should first be saved, 
he survived the conflict with treason, he would again return to his favor- 




•Writteu by Key. Mr. McDougall.of Drydcn, N. Y. 



366 The Seventy-sixth Regevient N. Y. V. 

ite studies — Greek, Latin, French and German. He entered the service with 
many of the young men from Dryden, and by his fidelity and talents soon rose 
to share the honors that awaited him. He enlisted the sixteenth of September, 
1861, and in November, 1862, was promoted to Sergeant-Major, and in less than 
one month received a Second Lieutenant's commission. In February, 1863, was 
promoted to First Lieutenant. His commission as Adjutant of the Regiment 
is dated June first, 1863, showing that bravery and meritorious conduct won for 
him the rank to which he was justly entitled. The duties of his last position 
were pleasing to his tastes, and his exact mind, and well and faithfully did he dis- 
charge them all. Strictly temperate iu all his habits, he was a pattern for others, 
both in civil and military life. When a student at McGrawville, Prof. Brockett 
said of him : — " He was the best linguist, and the ablest mind in that institution." 
In that school, (New York Central College), he filled, for a time, the position of 
mathematical teacher, with great credit. Nor was he less honored as a soldier. 
" There," said his Colonel to a friend, in January, 1864, (pointing to the Adjutant), 
" is the head above all others, that runs the Seventy-sixth Regiment. He is 
always at his post." We venture to say the War Department has no clearer or 
more exact monthly reports than those which came from his pen. In addition to 
all his duties on the field and in camp, he kept in phonography,* or "short- 
hand," a condensed history of the Regiment — all its marches, skirmishes and 
battles. 

The Seventy -sixth Regiment has an honorable record, of which its patriotic 
survivors may well be proud. It was our good fortune to mingle with the boys 
while at Rappahannock Station, and to learn how they drove the enemy from the 
forts and into the river, and then encamped on the spot where a Union victory 
had been achieved. Adjutant Carpenter was then in the field on duty, suffering 
from wounds received at the ever-memorable battle of Gettysburg. All praised 
him, for all loved him, and amid the stern realities of war, learned his worth. 
But few young men among us had such bright prospects — few whose future was 
so promising. Still, he placed all on the altar of freedom, and in the battle of 
the Wilderness, May seventh, 1864, he gave his life that his country might live. 
He fell into the hands of the enemy, mortally w r ounded, and died the next day. 
He sleeps with gallant comrades on the field of the nation's greatest conflict, 
and where the fate of the Republic and the freedom of millions were so trium- 
phantly vindicated. Peace to his ashes aud joy to his 60ul ! His horse escaped, 
and by Lieutenant Burnham was brought to his father's house, and will be kindly 
cared for, though every view of the favorite animal will bring before the father 
and mother, and beloved sisters, the fallen rider — the patriot son and brother. 
Many of his letters show that although he made no public profession of religion, 
he had faith in God and the cause for which he freely gave his young life. "Many 
of us," said he, "may fall, but God, who is ever true, is pledged to defend the 
right. Our cause is just aud must prevail." 

* Written out to March, 1863, for this work, by H. Perry Smith, Journal Office, Syaacuse, N. Y. 



Sergeant-Major Thomas Martin. 



307 



LIEUTENANT U. A. BURNHAM, Q. M., 




Saratoga 
farming 1 . 



Was horn in Homer, N. Y., De- 
cember sixteenth, 1837. His fath- 
er's name was Marvin Burnham, and 
his mother's maiden name was Caro- 
line Webster. Hi* great grandfather, 
John Burnham, was wounded in the 
revolutionary war, and his two threat 
grandfathers on his mother's side, 8e- 
lah Baeon and Samuel Webster, were 
both in the revolutionary war. The 
latter, disguised as an Indian, assisted 
in making tea of an English ship-load 
in Boston Harbor, and was with Gen- 
eral Gates at Burgoyne's surrender, at 
At the time of his enlistment, Lieutenant Burnham was engaged in 
He was educated in the common school, with academical training at 
Cortland Academy. He had also taught district school. He spent nearly three 
years west, engaged in teaching. He enlisted as a private in Company D, October 
fourth, 1861, and on the organization of the Regiment, was made First Sergeant. 
He held this position until February, 1863, when he received a commission as First 
Lieutenant, and was soon after appointed Acting Regimental Quartermaster, by 
Colonel Wainwright. Up to this time he had been on every march and in every 
battle with the Regiment, and fortunately escaped unhurt. Of about seventy 
muskets left in the Regiment after the battle of Antietam, he carried one. In 
January, 1864, he was appointed A. C. M. of the Brigade, and occupied the posi- 
tion until March following, when the Regiment was transferred to the Second 
Brigade. He was then, for a short time, Acting Assistant Quartermaster of the 
Second Brigade. < ha the first of December, 1864, he was discharged on expiration 
of enlistment. With the exception of two leaves of absence of ten days each, 
Lieutenant Burnham was never absent from duty but two days during the three 
years, and his attention to business was proverbial. His post-office address is 
Homer, Cortland Co., N. Y. 



SERGEANT-MAJOR THOMAS MARTIN 



Was born at Newbridge, Ireland, November eighteenth, 1842. Enlisted into the 
Seventy-sixth Regiment, from New York Mills, Oneida Co., N. Y., as a private in 
Company B, in November, 1801. He was a young man of energy of character, 



368 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 




and his gentlemanly deportment and 
bravery soon won the esteem of 
both officers and men in the Regi- 
ment. He was promoted at different 
times, until he was made Sergeant- 
Major, and was recommended to a 
Lieutenantcy. He was ever ready 
to perform his duty. At the fearful 
but glorious battle of Gettysburg, 
in the hottest of the fight, after Ma- 
jor Grover had fallen, and when an- 
nihilation was staring the brave 
Regiment in the face, Sergeant-Ma- 
jor Martin was struck by a ball 
which entered his arm and side. 
Our troops soon fell back, and the ground was occupied by the enemy. As some 
of our men, taken prisoners, were passing over the field that night, they heard 
the voice of the Sergeant-Major calling for water. It was given him, but as he 
drank the cooling draught, it flowed from the wound in his side. After lingering 
twenty-four hours he died. He was conscious he could not live ; told his com- 
rades he was willing to die for his country, and requested them to inform his 
parents. He breathed his last towards morning, July second, 1863. His com- 
rades buried him where he fell and died, and then wrote his father, as he requested 
them. John C. Ross, Esq., of Utica, shortly after visited the fated field, and 
removed the body to the rural cemetery at New York Mills, where, amid the 
scenes of his childhood, the brave hero sleeps until the resurrection morning. 
No better record can be left of this young hero, who arose from private to ser- 
geant-major, with a recommend for a commission, than the letter written to his 
parents the spring before his death, of which the following is an extract : — 

Headquarters Seventy-sixth N. Y. S. Vols., March 14th, 1863. 
Deae Parents :— 

I have just received yours of the 9th inst., and was very glad to hear that you were well, and, 
as I suppose, still at work ; but I am not at all pleased with its tone. You seem very uneasy at 
my situation. Perhaps it is my fault for using some words in my last, which I might liave'left 
out, and yet have expressed the same meaning. You seem to think that I am very fearful of my 
destiny, and that I can never see you again ; hut I can very candidly assure you such is not the 
case. I never had any more hope than I have at present. I look at this exactly in this light : — 
Every man was born for some purpose, and if it is my lot to leave earth on the battle-field, I can 
only say, as did Burns:—" Lord, give me grace to endure it." For, should I stay at home and 
see others ii Editing that I might enjoy privileges equal to them, I should be a coward indeed, and 
In after life I should have a conscience more guilty than Cain's. Should I remain at home at 
times like the present, and find security only in the blood of others, I would be a coward, in- 
deed. No, tar rather would I die, or he crippled for life, for in afterlife I will ask no greater 
honor than to have it said of me that I once belonged to the Army of the Potomac. Should it 
be my happy lot to survive this rebellion, my friends and companions can only be the manly 
volunteer. "Think not that I dread a coming battle. Glad would I be could we be a united people 
without again meeting In deadly combat; but such cannot be, so I, at present, await my fate 
very calmly. Be that as it may, I beseech you give yourself as little concern as possible. At- 
tend to your family ; they need all your thoughts, and thinking can do them good— it can do 
very little for me. If you had another son capable of bearing arms, my advice to him would be 
— " Come on ! and if thy brother fall, avenge his enemies; not stand back and hear his blood 
calling for vengeance. 

I am daily growing more rabid, as I think of the rebellion, and of the noble slain. I have long 
since forgot to call the rebel States " wayward sisters ;" it is too mild a term. The only wav I 
can give utterance to my feelings, is, " Traitors, die !" Be not uueasv about me, I say again, for 
I have a duty to perform, and I will endeavor to perform it, come what will. 



Lieutenant William H. Ripley. 369 

CAPTAIN IIERSITEL W. PIERCE 




Was born in Reading, Steuben couu- 
ty, (now Starkcy, Yates county, N. 
Y.,) November fourteenth, 1818. His 
father, Samuel Pierce, was a native (if 
Otsego county, N. Y., and a soldier in 
the war of 1812. His mother's name 
was Sally Maria Wright, and she was 
born in Litchfield county, Connecti- 
cut. The Captain was educated a 
farmer, and followed it until his twen- 
tieth year. He then turned his atten- 
tion to architecture and building, in 
which he has since been engaged. He 
was commissioned First Lieutenant 
of artillery in a company attached to the Two Hundred and Sixth New York State 
Militia, by Silas Wright, when Governor. He has filled several civil offices, and 
at the time of his enlistment was Supervisor of his town. In October, 1861, he 
recruited twenty-five men, and took them to Cortland, and with his men was 
mustered in as private. He was promoted to Second Lieutenant, January thir- 
teenth, 1862, to First Lieutenant March eleventh, 1862, and to Captain, December 
twentieth, 1862. He was on detached duty in the recruiting service from August 
sixteenth to December second, 1862. He was engaged with his Company in the 
following battles :— First and second Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, Mine Run, Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Tolopoto- 
moy, Coal Harbor, Bethcsda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Poplar Grove 
Church, Chapel House. He was mustered out on expiration of term of enlist- 
ment, October tenth, 1864, at the Yellow House, Va. 
Captain Pierce resides at Duudee, Yates county, N. Y. 



LIEUTENANT WILLIAM IT. RIPLEY 



Was a descendant of Revolutionary patriots. At the age of sixteen his great 
grandfather on his mother's side, entered the French war, and subsecpaently the 
war of the Revolution, in which latter his great grandfather on his father's side 
was Chaplain, and a personal friend of General Washington. 

Lieutenant Ripley enlisted as a private in Company K, November first, 1861. 
At the battle of Bull Run, August twenty-ninth, 1862, he received a severe wound 
in the left shoulder, the ball lodging near the shoulder blade. The next morning 



370 



The Seventy-sixth Kegiment !N\ Y. Y. 



he was captured by the Sixth Vir- 
ginia Cavalry. After remaining 
prisoner about a week, with nothing 
to eat, and no attention paid to his 
wound, he was paroled, and in that 
condition walked to Alexandria, a 
distance of twenty-eight miles. — 
From Alexandria he was sent to 
Clifbourne Hospital, D. C, where 
his arm was amputated at the shoul- 
der joint — a most painful and dan- 
gerous operation — seven days having 
elapsed since the receipt of the 
wound. He subsequently received a 
^lP§8S«§itJiIlln^t!P§^- v commission as Second Lieutenant iu 

Company A, to date from September first, 1862. In June, 1863, he resigned this 
commission, and, in the following September, was, on the recommendation of 
General Doubleday, commissioned as Second Lieutenant in Company D, Sixth 
Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps, which position he held until July thirtieth, 
1866. At the time of his enlistment, Lieutenant Ripley was a tinner by occupa- 
tion, with nothing but a common school education; yet, though " expended in 
the service," in less than a year he had, by his soldierly qualities, arisen from 
private to Second Lieutenant. His post-office address is Greene, Chenango 
county, N. Y. 




CAPTAIN OSCAK C. FOX 




Was born at Pitcher Springs, Che- 
nango county, N. Y., August twenty- 
third, 1830. His father, Daniel Fox, 
was a native of Massachusetts, and his 
mother, Harriet A. Chapman, of Con- 
necticut. The Captain attended dis- 
trict school during the winters,working 
at home, and for the neighboring farm- 
ers, summers, until he was sixteen 
years of age, when he engaged in 
teaching district school. Here he suc- 
ceeded admirably for one of his age. 
Iu 1852 he entered the preparatory de- 
partment of Central College at Mc- 



Captain Robert Story. 371 

Grawville, N. Y., where he remained until the fall of 1856, when he went to Ohio 
as Principal of Nelson Academy, in Portage county, lie remained in this posi- 
tion three years, his labors being crowned with excellent success. In 1800 he left 
the Academy and returned home to make arrangements for a tour of Europe ; but 
before his departure, the bombardment of Fort Sumter changed his whole plan. 
He determined to remain and serve his country. In May he proceeded to Bing- 
hamton and enlisted in "Balcom's six foot company," remaining there about a 
month; but as there was little prospect of being mustered into service, he came 
to Cortland and entered a law office temporarily, holding himself in readiness to 
take the held. When the project of raising a regiment in Cortland county was 
started, Captain Fox entered heartily into the work. Proceeding to his native 
town he soon enlisted the minimum of a Company, and on the first day that the 
camp was opened at Cortland, (September twenty-sixth, 1861), he proceeded with 
about forty men to the rendezvous. He remained with the Regiment until he 
received his wound at Gainesville. For several months he commanded at Fort 
Slemmer, D. C, it being occupied by his company (B) only. At the battle of 
Gainesville, August twenty-eighth, 1862, Company B was at the angle where the 
rebel fire was the most severe. While urging his men on, Captain Fox received 
a ball in the breast, which passed through his lung. It was a terrible and danger- 
ous wound — one from which he can never fully recover. The fall of the Captain, 
whom the company idolized, created some unsteadiness for a moment, but they 
immediately recovered, and the rebels paid dearly for the cruel shot they had 
given the Captain. It is no disparagement to other good officers, to say that no 
better combination of talent and moral worth entered the large army of Frecdom'6 
noble defenders. Had he not been crippled at the very outset of his military 
career, there is no position in the army to which he might not have attained. 

When the Regiment left Fredericksburg for Culpepper, Captain Fox was unfit 
to march, but his Lieutenants being away on sick leave, he felt it necessary to 
make the attempt. He was put in command of three companies of skirmishers, 
and thus, regardless of his health, he kept in the advance. With all his heroism 
he was extremely modest. He loved his men, and they would have died for him. 
He says in a communication to the writer : — 

I felt proud of these noble, faithful boys. rneomplaininp:, kind and gentlemanly always. I 
have always fi-lt thai whatever success or popularity I attained In the Regiment Was owing to 
these men"wh<> always seemed to be striving to assist and encourage me— to overlook my faults 
and mistakes, and to sel me right with those who knew me less intimately. * • Lieuten- 
ants Crandall and Wi. iron were noble men— invaluable as men of taste and culture— men of 
principle. Without them I cannot conceive of such a thing as success in Company U. 



CAPTAIN ROBERT STORY 

Son of Robert and Elizabeth Story, was horn October seventeenth, 1888. Until 
he entered the army, he ed in farming. A man of character and ability, 

he had filled many civil offices in his town. He was one of the first to enter 



372 



The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 




heartily into the -work of reorganiz- 
ing the militia regiment at Cherry 
Valley, for active service. He was 
chosen Second Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Swan's company, October twen- 
ty-second, 1861. On the twenty- 
second of February, 1862, he was 
promoted to First Lieutenant, and 
on the nineteenth of February, 1863, 
was commissioned Captain "for 
meritorious conduct at South Moun- 
tain, and bravery at Fredericksburg," 
with rank from December, 1862, 
and assigned to command of Com- 
pany B. These promotions were 
unsought by him, and were won by bravery and good conduct alone. He was 
present in every battle in which his Regiment was engaged from the time he en- 
tered the service, and never shrank from the greatest dangers and most arduous 
duties. As he entered the fight at Gettysburg, July first, 1863, a cannon ball 
passed between his legs, doing no injury. He rushed on toward the enemy, and 
before the Regiment had been engaged half an hour, he was struck in the left 
thigh by a Minnie ball which fractured the bone. The ball was split into three 
pieces, two of which were the same day extracted by Drs. Metcalfe, Preston and 
Barnes. He was soon after removed to the house of Mrs. William Culp, in Get- 
tysburg, (her husband was also in the army), where he was kindly cared for by 
her and Horace Fabian, a member of his company. His wife and sister, (Mrs. 
Bates, of New York), on hearing that he was wounded, hastened to Gettysburg, 
and remained with him, doing all that was possible, until August sixth, when, 
conscious that he was prepared to die, the hero went home to the hero's reward. 
His remains were taken home and, by a sympathizing group of tearful neighbors, 
and the Lodge of Odd Fellows of which he was a member, consigned to their 
resting place in the family burying ground on the farm he had been wont to till. 
His wife soon went to share with him the realities of the blissful hereafter. 



LIEUTENANT CHAUNCEY D. CKANDALL 



Was born in Pitcher, Chenango county, N. Y., where he resided until his enlist- 
ment in the fall of 1861. His life of a little more than twenty-seven years, was 
one of very even course, witnessing few, if any, incidents which might be consid- 
ered in any sense startling or uncommon. It was his chief ambition to make the 



Lieutenant "W". Stuart "Walcott. 



373 




wisest use of a good common 6ense 
and to lead a life of order, industry, 
and virtue. He was a mild, obedient 
child ; a sober, thoughtful boy ; a 
modest, unassuming youth, nobly 
shunning all those trifling and fool- 
ish habits which so often 6ap the 
foundation of an otherwise manly 
character. Nor did he confine him- 
self to mere morality. About two 
years before his seemingly untimely 
j. death, he made a public profession of 
religion, and ever after was a stead- 
fast and consistent christian. When 
the war commenced, he was pursuing his studies at the Cortland Academy. But 
as he said, he could not confine his mind to study, while his country so much 
needed his services. He believed that God would approve his motives, and 
accept the act as service to Him. With this spirit he entered the service. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the summer of 1862, he was disabled by disease, and 
confined to a hospital. Captain Fox having fallen at Gainesville, the Lieutenant, 
scarcely recovered from his sickness, returned to the command of his Company, 
(B). His first experiences under fire were at the battle of South Mountain, Md., 
with reference to which, Colonel Wainwright says : — 

Although for the first time under fire, he faced the long continued and destructive musketry 
of the enemy as if he had been in a dozen battles. And I well remember, (for 1 marked It) the 
coolness with which he bound a handkerchief around my arm to stop the bleeding, thereby 
saving me from what might have been excessive loss of blood. 

In the subsecpaent part of this battle, Lieutenant Crandall took command of the 
Regiment. At Antietam he was wounded in the hand, so as to unlit him for 
service, and soon after he was permitted to visit home on a furlough. But before 
he was so far recovered as to be called to his i">ost, from a sense of duty to his men, 
now without a company officer, he returned to his command, reaching the Regi- 
ment just before it marched to Fredericksburg. 

Before it had been determined to publish these biographies, the facts relating 
to the death of this hero were given at pages 189 and 190, to which the reader is 
referred. 



LIEUTENANT W. STUAKT WALCOTT. 

The subject of this sketch was born at New York Mills, Oneida county, N. Y., 
February eleventh, 1843. His parents were William D. and II. C. Walcott. One 
of his great grandfathers was a General, and the other a Captain in the Revolu- 
tionary war. His father is largely engaged in manufacturing, at New York Mills, 



374 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 



as a partner of Honorable Samuel 
Campbell, mentioned in the fore 
part of this work. When the war 
broke out, Lieutenant Walcott then, 
but eighteen years of age, was pur- 
suing his studies at the high school, 
at Clinton, N. T. Descended from 
such patriotic stock, and surrounded 
by such men as Mr. Campbell and 
his father, the young Walcott could 
scarcely fail to be a patriot. Know- 
ing the Chaplain of the Seventy- 
sixth, Walcott enlisted a number of 
his young comrades and joined that 
Regiment. Possessed of fine per- 
sonal appearance, well bred and educated, he was immediately commissioned Sec- 
ond Lieutenant in Company B. He remained with the Regiment, continually 
gaining friends, until the summer of 1862, while at Fredericksburg, Va., he was 
attacked with camp or typhoid fever. After a severe illness of five months, the 
surgeon giving no encouragements for renewed health for at least a year, and 
being unwilling to deprive the company of the services of an officer they so much 
needed, he reluctantly resigned, and was honorably discharged October thirtieth, 
1862. The merits of many an officer and men are measured, not by what they 
did, but what they wished to do. Had Lieutenant Walcott' s health permitted, no 
one knowing him will doubt that his career would have been brilliant. 

He is at present engaged with his father in manufacturing, at New York Mills, 
Oneida county, N. Y. 




LIEUTENANT WILLIAM CAHILL, 



Son of Thomas I. Cahill, late of Solon, Cortland county, N. Y., was born in the 
city of New York, whence his father moved to Solon, when the Lieutenant was 
yet young. He enlisted in Company B at its organization, as a private, having 
been injured about the time the war broke out, so that he was unable to enter the 
service before, as he desired. Ever present for duty, and prompt to peform it he 
did not long remain in the ranks. When the Regiment left Fredericksburg for 
Culpepper, he was sick and so emaciated that the surgeon directed him to be 
taken to a hospital in Washington, and sent an ambulance to his tent to convey 
him to the cars. But determined to accompany the Regiment and share its first 
dangers, he insisted that he was improving and was able to undertake the march. 



Lieutenant "William Cahill. 



375 




The surgeon finally assented. His 
energy enabled him to keep with his 
company. He took part in the skir- 
mi^lies at Rappahannock Station and 
Warrenton Springs, and the battle of 
Gainesville. At the latter place he 
was struck by a pistol shot 'in the 
head, the ball entering and lodging 
between the right eye and nose, where 
it still remains. It was one of those 
narrow escapes which partake largely 
of the miraculous. He fell, aud was 
reported dead. This fortunately 
proved incorrect. He was taken 
prisoner, but soon after paroled. He was 6ent to the hospital in New York, 
where he was tendered his discharge. The surgeon informed him that he would 
never be fit for service, but this he steadily denied. He returned to the Regiment 
in time to take part in the first battle of Fredericksburg. He was soon after, 
(January fourteenth, 1863), promoted to Sergeant. He remained with the Regi- 
ment, taking part in the " Mud March," Second Fredericksburg, Chancellors ville, 
and Gettysburg. March first, 1863, he was promoted to Orderly Sergeant, and as 
such fought in the battle of Gettysburg. Here he displayed true heroism. In the 
hottest of the fight, next to the colors of the Regiment, he was struck by a piece 
of shell on the hand, which benumbed his arm, and rendered it, for a time, useless. 
He, however, by rubbing, induced a return of sensibility, when the rebels had 
reason to regret the provocation they had given. Immediately before the line fell 
back, he was struck in the thigh by a musket ball, bringing him down. The ball 
struck the bone, and, glancing around, lodged on the other side. He was taken 
to the city and the ball extracted. He was captured by the rebels, and retaken on 
our troops repossessing the city. He was 6ent to Philadelphia, but 60on 
returned to the command of his company, as Second Lieutenant, (July thirty- 
first, 1863), which command he held until March, 1864. He was on the march 
with the Regiment southward through Virginia, and participated in the battle of 
Mine Run. Was promoted to First Lieutenant, February fourteenth, 1863. At 
the battle of the Wilderness, May fifth, 1864, he was with his company when the 
three companies, (B,F and K), were captured. He was on this occasion severely 
wounded. His left arm was broken, and the wrist joint dislocated, He also 
received a Minnie ball In his body, where it still remains. In this condition he 
was compelled the next day to walk twenty miles. Two weeks later, on reaching 
Macon, Ga., having bad no change of clothing, he was obliged to soak himself 
before he could remove his clothes. Here the prisoners were all searched and 
robbed of their money. The bullet hole in the Lieutenant's coat was now not 
without its uses. As the robbing-sergeant approached him, the Lieutenant qui- 
etly slipped his greenbacks through the bullet hole, and thus retained his money. 



876 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. V. 

Here he found Lieutenant Myers, of the Seventy-sixth, and Lieutenants Curtis 
and Coffin, of the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York, all from Cortland. 
What these prisoners suffered in Southern prison pens has been so often related 
that to write the experience of this hero, would he to repeat the same story of 
cruelties, starvation, vermin, heartless disregard of life, and unparalleled diabo- 
lism, which puts to the blush every loyal man, as he considers even the possibility 
of a return of these barbarous savages to the political status of peers to the loyal. 
Sherman's successes before Atlanta, and Stoneman's advance towards Macon, 
rendered this an unsafe depository for prisoners. They were therefore, July thir- 
ty-first, 1864, sent to Savannah and Charleston. At the former place Lieutenant 
Cahill witnessed one of the peculiar attractions of the corner-stone of the South- 
ern Confederacy. It became necessary to cover a trench of rubbish to prevent 
disease. A man with a white skin marched in fourteen colored women, who, with 
spades and bare feet, and arms bare to the shoulder, were compelled to do the 
menial service, while the white traitor looked on with whip in hand ! At the end 
of six weeks, (September thirteenth), Lieutenant Cahill, with other officers, was 
taken to Charleston, S. C, and placed under fire from our batteries on Morris 
Island. Here they were placed in the filthiest of pens, where the shells from our 
guns fell as often as one in twenty minutes, often sending showers of fragments 
among our officers. To add to the horrors of the situation, the yellow fever 
broke out in the prison, and for a time threatened the annihilation of the entire 
company. Of fifty officers attacked, but two recovered, one of whom was Homer 
D. Call, of the Seventy-sixth. Our officers were removed to Columbia, S. C, 
October fifth, 1864. An arrangement was finally made by which a certain number 
of sick and wounded were exchanged. Lieutenant Cahill was examined. The 
surgeon directed his clerk to write, " five gunshot wounds " opposite his name, 
and the next morning he was discharged. December ninth he started on a block- 
ade runner down the harbor for the Union lines. For the first time in many 
mouths these brave boys hailed the " red white and blue," as it floated in front of 
Fort Sumter. Cheer upon cheer rent the air, while " The Star Spangled Banner," 
and " Rally 'Round the Flag, Boys," were sung as never before. No one in the 
army had a more varied experience than Lieutenant Cahill. Five times wounded, 
three times a prisoner, still carrying two balls in his person, he feels proud of 
each scar received in freedom's battles. 

He was discharged March eleventh, 1865, and commenced the study of law. He 
now resides at Minneapolis, Minnesota. 



LIEUTENANT A. LYMAN CARTER 

Was born in Pitcher, Chenango county, N. Y., November fourteenth, 1829. His 
parents' names Thomas and Susan L. Carter. At the time of his enlistment, 



Lieutenant Moses P. Marsh. 



377 



Lieutenant Carter was engaged with 
his father as a blacksmith. He en- 
listed September sixteenth, 1861, as 
Second Sergeant. Was with his 
company at the battles of Rappa- 
hannock Station, Warrenton Springs, 
Gainesville, Bull Run, Second Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville and Get- 
tysburg. October twenty-ninth, 
1862, he was commissioned Second 
Lieutenant in Company B, vice Lieu- 
tenant Walcott, resigned. At the 
battle of Bull Run he was captured 
by the rebels, paroled and sent to 
Annapolis, Md. He remained there until December fourteenth, 1862, when he 
was exchanged, and immediately rejoined his Regiment. At the battle of Get- 
tysburg, Pa., July first, 1863, he was wounded in the foot, the ball passing into 
the ankle joint, where it remained until April thirteenth, 1865, when his lirnb was 
amputated below the knee. He was mustered out in consequence of his wound, 
October ninth, 1863. After his return, and while the Administration favored 
loyal Union soldiers, Lieutenant Carter filled the office of Post-Master in his na- 
tive village. His present post-office address is Pitcher, N. Y. 




LIEUTENANT MOSES PARKER MARSH, 




Eldest son of Daniel B. and Mary 
A. Marsh was born at McLean, 
Tompkins county, N. T., January 
tenth 1 , 1S41. At an early age he be- 
came an earnest student. He at- 
tended the Cortland Academy nearly 
three years. Also New York Cen- 
tral College. At the age of nine- 
teen he entered the Commercial 
College and completed the course 
with credit to himself. A gnat ad- 
mirer of Theodore Parker, Ralph 
W. Emerson, Wendell Phillips and 
Garret Smith, he became most em- 
phatically "radical." 



378 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N". Y. "V. 



He enlisted as a private in Company C, but was elected Second Lieutenant on 
the organization of his Company. "While at Fort Slocum in the Spring of 1862, 
he acted as Adjutant of the post. On the march to Fredericksburg, in May, 1862, 
he received a partial sunstroke. He, however, managed to keep with his com- 
pany, until it reached Fredericksburg. Here, notwithstanding his sunstroke, he 
acted as aid to the Provost Marshal until he was at length sent to Lincoln Hospi- 
tal, Washington D. C. On arriving at the Hospital he was attacked with a fever. 
He continued to write his parents that he was not very sick, except a pain in the 
head, and that he would soon be better. His father finally, in September, 1862, 
sent a physician to Washington to ascertain his condition. The physician imme- 
diately telegraphed the father that his son was in a low condition. The father 
hastened to Washington, and on the twelfth of September, started home with his 
son, arriving there on the twenty-second. Friends vainly hoped the Lieutenant 
had stood his journey well ; but their hopes proved evanescent, for on the twen- 
ty-sixth of September, surrounded by friends, he breathed his last. 



LIEUTENANT MOSES M. WHITNEY 




Was born in Solon, (now Taylor), 
Cortland county, October twenty- 
third, 1840. His parents were Thad- 
deus and Laura Whitney. His grand- 
father was in the war of 1812. When 
enlisted, Lieutenant Whitney was a 
farmer. He enlisted as private in 
Company A, September twenty-sixth 
1861 ; was promoted to Seventh Cor- 
poral October fourth, 1861 ; to Ser- 
geant January ninth, 1863 ; to First 
Sergeant October twenty-first, 1863; 
to Second Lieutenant, Company C, 
March sixteenth, 1864, and command- 
ed the company after crossing the James River to move upon Petersburg. 
He was a most excellent officer. At the battle of the Weldon Railroad, August 
eighteenth, 1864, he received a gunshot wound in the left thigh, fracturing the 
bone. He was carried from the field to a hospital, and was discharged December 
fifth, 1864, having been in the service over three years and three months. Lieu- 
tenant Whitney was in the following battles, besides all the skirmishes in which 
the Regiment was engaged, (some twenty in all) :— Rappahannock Station, 
Gainesville, Bull Run, First and Second Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, Mine Run, Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Coal 



Lieutenant Tiiomas F. Weldon. 



379 



Harbor, Tolopotomoy, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad. At the second battle of 
Bull Run, he was taken prisoner and remained in rebel hands six weeks. He was 
never excused from duty by a surgeon while in the service, until wounded, and 
was always ready for duty. 

At the close of the war he formed a partnership with Captains Vanderbilt and 
Porter, of the Tenth New York Cavalry, and went into business in Baltimore, 
Md., where he now resides. See pages 119 and 120. 



LIEUTENANT CAKLOS BALDWIN 

Was born in Groton, Tompkins 
county, N. T., November second, 
1840. He enlisted October fifth, 
1861, as a Corporal in Company C. 
In July, 1862, while encamped at 
Fredericksburg, Va., he was severe- 
ly attacked with fever, and two 
weeks thereafter still remain a blank 
in his memory. On becoming con- 
scious, he found himself in the hos- 
pital at Falls Church. He was soon 
after removed to the hospital at 
Philadelphia. He rejoined the Reg- 
^^s||^ iment in time to take part in the 

battle of First Fredericksburg, and 
participated in all the battles until the third day of June, 1864. At that time, 
while lying in the woods, he was struck by a ball which entered the right leg at 
the knee, and came out at the thigh sixteen months after. He was taken to Arm- 
ory Scmare Hospital, Washington, where he lay forty-three days, when he was 
removed to his home on a stretcher, by his father. The ball remaining in his leg, 
and there being no prospect of his being able to render further service to his 
country, he resigned in November, 1864, having been in the service over three 
years. He was promoted to Second Lieutenant in his company (C) January thir- 
teenth, 1864. He carries in his pocket the ball that disabled him. His residence 
is Peruville, N. Y. 




LIEUTENANT THOMAS F. WELDON 



Was born at Little Falls, New York, in 1839. His parents were Patrick H. Wel- 
don and Margaret McGirk Weldon. He enlisted as private in the Thirty-ninth 



380 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y.'V. 



New York State Militia October 
twenty-first, 1861, and joined the 
Seventy-sixth New York, at the con- 
solidation at Albany. May first, 
1863, he was promoted to Second 
Lieutenant, and November first, 
1863, to First Lieutenant in Com- 
pany C, which office he held at the 
time of his death. He won his 
straps by his good conduct and 
brave deeds. He was wounded at 
Bull Run, August twenty-ninth, 
1862. At the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, in May, 1863, he was taken pris- 
oner and remained a month in rebel 
hands. He had scarcely time to reach the Regiment, when he took part in the 
battle of Gettysburg, where he was again wounded. When our forces crossed 
the Rapidan in May, 1864, Lieutenant Weldon was at his post, and remained with 
his comrades through all their fiery trials on that unequaled campaign from the 
Rapidan to Petersburg, and until death sealed up his glorious record. He was 
killed instantly, on the Weldon Railroad, August twenty-first, 1864, being pierced 
by two balls. The officers and men, on the same day, appointed a committee 
consisting of Captain H. W. Pierce, and Lieutenants E. B. Cochrane and J. M. 
Waterman, who drafted most flattering resolutions, among which is the fol- 
lowing : — 




Resolved, That in the death of Lieutenant Weldon, we have lost a true friend and a genial 
companion, the service one of its most courageous and thorough soldiers, and the cause of the 
Union one of its most loyal and patriotic adherents. Ever gentlemanly and considerate in his 
hearing towards every one with whom he was Drought in contact, strictly temperate in his 
habits, always ready in the performance of every duty, as well while on the staff of the Brigade 
as while with his Regiment, and receiving, as he invariably did, the highest encomiums of his 
superior officers, we feel his loss to be an irreparable one, as well to his country as to his imme- 
diate associates. 

The following letter was written by his Captain, the day after his death : — 

Headqtjaktees Second Beigade, Fotjkth Division, Fifth Coeps, > 
Neak Petebsbubg, August 22d, 1864. J 

James Davenfobt, Esq. :— 

Sir :— It becomes my painful duty to inform you of the death of the brave and lamented Thom- 
as F. Weldon, of my Company, (C) Seventy-sixth New York Volunteers. He was killed in the 
skirmish line, while observing the movements of the enemy whom we had just repulsed, cap- 
turing a portion of Haygood's Brigade, with their colors. He was hit by two shots, both passing 
through his body, killing him instantly. He never spoke, and scarcely gasped. Lieutenant 
Weldon was one of the best and bravest officers I have ever known— ever ready to do his duty. 
In battle he was always to be found where the leaden hail fell thickest. While he was associ- 
ated with me as a subaltern in my company, he formed a friendship with me as lastingas the 
granite hills, and won my admiration and respect for his brave and soldierly conduct. His loss 
is irreparable to the Regiment, and his comrades mourn his departure from our midst, as they 
would a brother. No larger-souled patriot ever lived. His whole heart was in the cause, and 
he has ever expressed his willingness to die as a soldier wishes to die— "with his face to the foe." 

In the second day's fight in the Wilderness, he captured, by a brilliant movement of his picket 
line, an officer and ten men, and was complimented by the Brigade commander, in his official 
report. 

We deeply sympathize with his family and friends at home, but think the manner in which he 
died while bravely defending his country's flag, will be a consolation to his friends. 

I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

CHARLES A. WATKINS, 

Captain Co. C, Seventy-sixth N. Y. V. 



Captain Samuel M. Bye am. 381 

CAPTAIN CHAKLES L. WATROUS, 

Son of Joseph and Lydia Watrous, was born in Freetown, Cortland county, N. 
Y., January thirteenth, 1837. His ancestors were from Connecticut, and the Cap- 
tain, at an early age, displayed an ardent love for books. At the age of seventeen 
he commenced teaching district school. He taught during the winters in his 
native State, Pennsylvania and Illinois, and during the summer attended school at 
New York Central College. His health failing in 1856, he went West and 
remained nearly three years, returning in 1S59, with improved health. He entered 
Cortland academy as a student, and graduated with honor the following year. In 
the fall of 1860 he entered the Junior class of the University of Michigan, where 
he was pursuing his studies when the war commenced. The disaster at Bull Run 
in July, 1861, determined his future course. Locking up his books he hastened 
home, raised a company, and joined the Seventy-sixth at its organization. As an 
officer, Captain Watrous was prompt and efficient to such an extent as to incur 
the censure of harshness from his undrilled neighbor "boys." He labored zeal- 
ously to make his company well drilled and strictly disciplined. He was in 
command of his company at Rappahannock Station, Warrenton Springs, Gaines- 
ville and Bull Run. In the latter battle, August twenty-ninth, 1862, he received 
two gunshot wounds in his right thigh, and a Minnie ball in his left arm. The 
ball passed entirely through the arm below the elbow, shattering the larger bone, 
and injuring the nerve, making a severe and extremely painful wound. His arm 
being useless, he was, on the nineteenth of December, 1862, mustered out for dis- 
ability. The following February an operation was performed upon the arm, at 
Bellevue Hospital, New York City, and a portion of the bone removed. In the 
autumn of 1863 the Captain returned to his college studies. Graduating soon 
after, he entered the law school, from which he graduated in March, 1863. Soon 
after the fall of Richmond, and collapse of the "man-owners' " confederacy, he 
settled at Winchester, Va., where he now practices his profession. 



CAPTAIN SAMUEL M. BYEAM, 

Son of Josiah and Rhoda Byram, was born at Virgil, Cortland county, N. Y., Au- 
gust thirteenth, 1837. His father commenced business in Virgil in 1825, as 
clothier, and before his death in 1842, became one of the first men of his town. 
He was Colonel of a militia regiment, and filled many important positions. He 
reared a numerous and respectable family of children, of whom the Captain was 
the eighth. 

The subject of this sketch enjoyed the benefits of a common and select school 
education, in his native town, and an academical course at Cortlandville 
Academy. He taught district school for a number of winters ; but hav- 



3§2 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 




ing a love and aptitude for mechan- 
ics, became a carpenter. He enlisted 
as private in Company A, Septemher 
nineteenth, 1861, but on the organi- 
zation of the company was made 
First Sergeant. He was promoted to 
Second Lieutenant March sixteenth, 
1S62 ; to First Lieutenant September 
first, 1862, and to Captain of Com- 
pany D, December nineteenth, 1862. 
In February, 1864, three-fourths of 
his company re-enlisted, and the 
Captain remained as a veteran officer. 
While in the service, Captain Byram 
was in the following engagements : — 
Rappahannock Station, Gainesville, Second Bull Bun, South Mountain, Antietam, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mine Run, "Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, 
Coal Harbor, Tolopotomoy, Petersburg. He was sick in hospital, with typhoid 
fever from shortly after Antietam, until January following. After Lieutenant- 
Colonel Cook was wounded, at the Wilderness, the command of the Regiment 
devolved upon Captain Byram, and he remained in command through the brilliant 
campaign to Petersburg, until the eighteenth day of June, 1864, when he received 
a severe wound in the groin, and was sent to the hospital at Annapolis, Md., from 
which he was honorably discharged by Special Orders from the War Department, 
No. 423, the twenty-ninth day of November, 1864. At the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, Captain Byram distinguished himself by bringing away the colors of the 
Regiment, under a most galling fire. The Captain has requested us to " mention 
"Mr. Hu mm el's family, and Mrs. Riley, of Harrisburg, as my good angels while 
" in hospital there, for I think I should have died but for their care ; and the same 
"of Miss Hall, at Annapolis." 
The Captain resides at Virgil, Cortland county, N. T. 



CAPTAIN JOHN M. WATERMAN 



Was born in the town of Decatur, Otsego county, N. T., September eighth, 1833. 
On his father's side, his great grandfather was in the Revolutionary war, and his 
grandfather in the war of 1812. Lieutenant Waterman enlisted into Company I, 
September twenty-seventh, 1861, under Captain JohnE. Cook. He was promoted 
to Orderly Sergeant of his compauy at Albany, N. Y., January thirteenth, 1862, 
and to Hospital Steward at Fort Massachusetts, D. C, May seventeenth, 1862. 
He served in this capacity for several months, but was subsequently commissioned 
First Lieutenant, with rank from August 6ixth, 1863, and assigned to duty in 



Lieutenant Edward D. Van Sltck. 



383 



Company A. He was present at 
the battle of Mine Run, November, 

1863, and was shortly after detailed 
as Acting Regimental Quartermas- 
ter, during the absence of Lieuten- 
ant Burnham at headquarters. At 
the battle of the Wilderness, May 
fifth, 1864, Captain Pierce, of Com- 
pany A, having become disabled, the 
command devolved upon Lieuten- 
ant Waterman, until the latter part 
of July. He thus had command of 
the company through all the battles 
of Grant's brilliant campaign of 

1864. August nineteenth, 1864, 
Company D being without an officer, Lieutenant Waterman was assigned to the 
command of that company, which he held until he was mustered out on expira- 
tion of term of enlistment, October twelfth, 1864. An idea of his faithfulness 
may be gained from the fact that he was with the Regiment every day alter it 
broke camp at the Wilderness, until he was discharged, except two days, when he 
was sick. At the battle of the Wilderness, a ball passed through his clothes, in- 
flicting a flesh wound in the hip. At the battle of the Weldon Railroad, August 
eighteenth, 1864, a ball passed through his hat. He was subsequently commis- 
sioned Captain, with rank from April thirtieth, 1864, 

Captain Waterman spent about two years in California in 1855-6, having per- 
formed the journey overland. In the latter year he returned, but in 1857 removed 
to Pennsylvania, where he remained three years. From 1860 to the time of his 
enlistment, he was engaged reading medicine with Dr. A. P. Chamberlain, at 
Westfield, Otsego county, N. T. His present post-office address is Decatur, N. Y. 




LIEUTENANT EDWARD D. VAN SLYCK 



Was born at Exeter, Otsego county, N. Y., August eleventh, 1833. His father, 
Phillip Van Slyck, was a descendant of the Kindcrhook family of Van Slycks, and 
a relative of Martin Van Buren. His mother, Abi Rider, was daughter of Stephen 
Rider, a Tolland, Connecticut, Yankee. At an early age Lieutenant Van Slyck 
exhibited a love of letters, and at the age of seventeen commenced teachin g dis- 
trict school. This he followed winters for several years, filling the Intervening 
spaces with labor on the farm. At the age of twenty-three he married Kate 
Fisher, sister of Lieutenant John Fisher. She accompanied the Lieutenant to 
Washington, and many of the men will acknowledge her kindness in camp, and 



384 



The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. Y. 




a 



% 



Hs«^ 



the value of her tuition in cooking. 
In the fall of 1856, Lieutenant Van 
Slyck commenced reading law in the 
office of R. Holland Duell, in Cort- 
land. In 1858, with a fellow law stu- 
dent, P. H. Bateson, of Ohio, 
Lieutenant Van Slyck commenced 
the publication of the "Republican 
Banner, 1 ' in Cortland, a weekly 
sheet devoted to the interests of 
freedom. This publication was con- 
tinued until October fourth, 1861, 
when he sold out to enter the army. 
Not being able to dispose of his paper 
in season, he was delayed in raising his company ; but finally, on the twelfth of 
November, he was mustered as Captain of Company K. Not filling his company 
previous to the receipt of marching orders, the company was broken up at the 
consolidation at Albany, and distributed among the other companies. Captain 
Van Slyck, with a few men, were put into Company D, in which he became First 
Lieutenant. He consented to this rather than be rendered supernumerary. On 
the resignation of Quartermaster Smith, in May, 1862, Lieutenant Van Slyck was 
detailed as Regimental Quartermaster. He was ordered the next day to prepare 
to march. The labor, and a drenching rain which set in while working the train 
from Aquia Creek to Fredericksburg, induced the typhoid fever, from which he 
did not recover until the following August. He marched with the Regiment to 
Cedar Mountain in August, and was with it until the battle of Gainesville. 
Though an invalid, he entered this battle, in the early part of which he was 
wounded by a fragment of shell breaking two of his ribs. He rejoined his Regi- 
ment September eighteenth, and remained several weeks ; but another relapse of 
the fever occurring, and being otherwise physically incapacitated, he tendered his 
resignation, which was accepted by General McClellan, October eighth, 1862. 
Since February, 1863, Lieutenant Van Slyck has been publishing the "Demo- 
cratic Republican," at Hamilton, Madison county, N. Y. 



LIEUTENANT WILLIAM H. TARBELL, 

Son of Samuel and Sally Tarbell, was bom at Freetown, Cortland county, N. Y. , 
February twenty-fourth, 1840. He received an academical education at McGraw- 
ville, N. Y. Enlisted at the organization of the Seventy-sixth, as private in 
Company D. Was promoted to Corporal before leaving Cortland ; to Sergeant in 
the spring of 1863 ; then to Orderly of his company, and finally to Second Lieu- 



Lieutenant Lucius Davis. 



385 



tenant, with rank from February 
twelfth, 1803. He was siek during 
the battles connected with Pope's re- 
treat, but joined the Regiment In 
time to participate in the battle of 
Antietam, and remained with the 
Regiment, taking part in thebattlea 
of Fredericksburg, (first and Becond i, 
Chanccllorsville and Gettysburg. He 
was severely wounded in the hip and 
thigh in the latter battle, and was, in 
consequence, discharged September 
seventh, 1863. No officer more sin- 
cerely regretted being thus early 
"expended in the service." His present residence is McG rawville, N. Y. 




to- 



rn 



LIEUTENANT LUCIUS DAVIS 



Was born at McLean, Tompkins 
county, N. Y., July thirtieth, 1835. 
His parents' names were John L. and 
Mary Boyuton Davis. At the time of 
his enlistment in 1861, Lieutenant 
Davis was a farmer. He enlisted as a 
private in Company C. At first he 
was thrown out as physically incapa- 
ble of military duty ; but with that 
determination which afterwards won 
so many laurels, he again applied and 
was accepted. He felt that the conn- 
try needed his services, and desired 
'^^^§^c^P sSS *'- to make at least an attempt to aid it 

in its life-struggle. The result justified his persistency. He was in every battle 
from the time he enlisted until he was discharged. At the battle of Gainesville, 
he was slightly wounded in the breast. He was, in November, 1862, promoted to 
Orderly Sergeant "for bravery and strict attention to business." In February, 
1863, he was commissioned Second Lieutenant, "for good behavior and bmverj ," 
with rank from November eleventh, 1862. In May, 1863, he was commissi. >n. d 
First Lieutenant. At the sanguinary battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July Brat, IS6S, 
Lieutenant Davis was wounded in the hand, in consequence of which he was dis- 




386 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST Y. Y. 



charged November ninth, 1863. He had in the meantime visited home and 
returned to the hospital at Philadelphia, with the intention to return to the Regi- 
ment ; but the surgeon declared him unfit for duty, and refused to permit him to 
return. Having done what he could for his country, he returned and went into 
business at Marathon, Cortland county, N. T., where he now resides. 

The following extract, from the , published while he was in the service, 

shows the estimation in which he was held at home : — 

HONOR TO THE BRAVE. 

We learn that Lucius Davis, of the Seventy-sixth Regiment, has been commended by Briga- 
dier-General Doubleday, for conduct in battle, which is highly creditable and worthy of emula- 
tion. Mr. Davis enlisted as a private, and has been a true soldier, standing by the Regiment in 
all its difficult marches, and distinguishing himself by coolness and bravery in all its battles. 
At the second battle of Bull Run, Doubleday's Brigade being in the extreme" front, one of our 
batteries opened upon them, through mistake, a terrific fire of shot and shell, doing them great 
injury. General Doubleday himself rode forward and called for some one to go forward and 
inform them of their fatal error. Although it seemed like walking into the jaws of death to 
approach the thundering cannon, Mr. Davis gallantly ofl'ered his services. He delivered his 
orders and returned unharmed. For this brave act he was forthwith promoted to the highest 
non-commissioned office in his company ; and for his conduct at the battles of Antietam and 
Fredericksburg, he has rece|pd a commission as Second Lieutenant, a well-merited reward for 
truly distinguished services. 



LIEUTENANT BARNARD PIIENIS 



Was a native of Cherry Valley, N. 
Y. At an early age he became a 
printer, which trade he pursued un- 
til his enlistment, in 1861, at which 
time he was at work in the office of 
the Cherry Valley Gazette. He 
was unmarried, possessed of a social 
nature, and was always the champion 
of any one who received ill-treat- 
ment. He was a member of the 
Union Guards, and entered the Sev- 
enty-sixth Regiment with the three 
Cherry Valley Companies, as Ser- 
geant of Company H. For many 
months he filled the office of Order- 
ly Sergeant of his company, and was subsequently promoted to Lieutenant. 
When off duty, he was one of the " boys ;" when on duty, he was strictly officer- 
like. This gave him a warm place in the affections of the men, and commanded 
the respect of his superiors. 

At the battle of the Weldon Railroad, August nineteenth, 1864, Lieutenant 
Phenis was shot through the body and killed, (see page 308), as he was jumping 
over a breastwork to secure a rebel flag left by the enemy just driven out by the 




Lieutenant Tiiekon C. Guernsey. 



387 



Seventy-sixth. His remains were buried beneath an oak near when- be fell— an 
oak that, like many others, marks the last resting-place of one of Freedom's no- 
blest defenders. 



LIEUTENANT WILLIAM STRING HAM 




Was born in Scott, Cortland county, 
N. Y., March twenty-sirta, 1841. Bis 
father, Jacob D. Stringham, Berved 
in the war of 1812. His grandfather 

was a Major of militia in the war of 
181:2, anil his great grandfather was a 
Captain in the Revolutionary war, and 
was in the battle, of Fort Montgom- 
ery. Jacob D. Stringham and Commo- 
dore Stringham are cousins. Lieut. 
Stringham was enrolled in Company 
D, September fourteenth, 1861, on the 
muster of which he was made Fourth 
Sergeant. When enlisted he was a 
farmer. Lieutenant Stringham participated in the following battles : — Rappahan- 
nock Station, Warrenton Springs, Gainesville, Bull Run, South Mountain, 
Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. 

On the first day of January, 1864, he enlisted as a veteran volunteer. Man h 
sixteenth, 1864, he was commissioned Second Lieutenant. In March and April, 
1864, he visited home on a thirty day furlough. Returning to the army, he went 
into the Dattle of the Wilderness, Ya., May tilth, 1864, and was killed. His body 
was never recovered, and he lies undistinguishable in the great mass of heroes 
who, on that closely contested field, offered themselves as sacrifices on the altar 
of country. 



LIEUTENANT THEKON C. GUERNSEY 

Was born in Groton, Tompkins county, N. Y., January Becond, 1844. His parent. 
were Amasa C. and LoretU M. Guernsey. His grandfather, Joseph Guernsey, 
was in the war of 1813. Lieutenant Guernsey enlisted as Sixth Corporal in Com- 
pany D, at its organization, and was promoted to First Lieutenant, with rank 
from August twcnty-tirst, 1864; but at the battle of Pecblc's Farm, October tint, 
1864, he was taken prisoner, before being assigned to any company or mustering 



388 



The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 



on his commission. He was in the 
following battles : — First and Second 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Mine Run, Wilderness, 
Laurel Hill, Petersburg, Weldon Rail- 
road and Hatcher's Run. He was 
wounded in the wrist at Laurel Hill, 
Va., May tenth, 1864. After being 
taken prisoner, he was confined in 
rebel prison pens at Pemberton, Rich- 
mond and Salisbury, and was paroled 
February twenty-eighth, 1865. At 
the battle of the Weldon Railroad, 
Lieutenant Guernsey (then Sergeant) 
commanded his Co., (D) the Cap- 
tain and Second Lieutenant having been wounded at the Wilderness, and the First 
Lieiatenant having been killed. On returning to his Regiment, he was discharged 
as a supernumerary, rendered such by the consolidation with the One Hundred 
and Forty-seventh Regiment. His present post-office address is Marathon, N. Y. 



>^3 




CAPTAIN NOEMAN G. BAETHOLOMEW. 

The subject of this sketch imbibed from birth the true spirit of the age in 
which he lived, for, though youth inspired the highest enjoyment of legitimate 
pleasures, manhood brought the grave responsibility of willingness to defend 
principle and good order, even at the cost of life. He was born at Auburn, Cay- 
uga county, N. Y., March twentieth, 1836. His parents were Caleb Bartholomew 
and Loraine Wheeler Gaston, both of whose ancestors were of English extraction. 
His paternal grandsire, Jesse Bartholomew, was a soldier in our American army, 
in the two English wars of 1776 and 1812 ; and also his maternal grandsire, James 
Gaston, in the latter only. The early life of this lamented officer, though attended 
with few incidents of marked significance, was still fraught with characteristics 
which, developed, constituted him a devoted, fearless soldier, a strict disciplina- 
rian as an officer, aud a charitable superior. At the residence of his father, at 
Etna, Tompkins county, N. Y., he enjoyed a liberal English education, adopting 
the occupation of a moulder and machinist. September twenty-sixth, 1860, he 
married Miss Mary L. Houtz, of the above place, which union gave him no chil- 
dren. Generous, but just, in the scale of humanity, the impending war found 
him with no tie too precious to be laid upon the altar of his bleeding country. 
Highly energetic and intensely muscular, of little more than medium height, and 
excellent proportions, without an excess of flesh, his erect, manly form, dark eye, 
dark brown hair, and light complexion, with an easy carriage and ever-buoyant 
air, placed him early among the most active and gallant officers of our patriotic 




Captain Norman G. Bartholomew. :>'.» 

army. Enlisting November eighth, 
1861, as a private in the Seventy- 
sixth Regiment, at Cortland, N. Y., 
he passed speedily through every 
grade of promotion, for meritorious 
conduct, to the flattering position 
which he honored, and in which he 
fell. He fought, unharmed, the sev- 
eral battles at Rappahannock Station, 
Gainesville, Second Bull Run, Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsvillr, and 
Gettysburg successively. The dis- 
tinguishing events in the military 
life of Captain B. occurred at the 
battle near Gainesville, at Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. At the hard-fought, 
but unsuccessful, contest, near Gainesville, in August, 1862, when the enemy 
massed their columns upon the worn-out Corps of McDowell, Colonel Wain- 
Wright bearing the colors upon his own horse, as a means of keeping his Regiment 
together, and rallying his men, observing the coolness, but determination, with 
which Captain B., then invested with a slight command, but acting without a 
commission, executed his orders, personally commended his firmness, warmly 
assuring him, that his example should not pass unrewarded. In accordance there- 
with, a commission as Second Lieutenant was granted him, bearing even date 
with that eventful day. When, in December, 1862, Burnside precipitated his 
powerful army upon Fredericksburg, Lieutenant B. was detached from immediate 
field duty, and placed in command of a posse of convalescents sent forward from 
the different camps around Washington, who arrived too late to be armed for the 
conflict, and was assigned to hospital service with them. In supplying the vacan- 
cies occasioned by this unfortunate fight, Colonel W., impressed with the activity 
and efficiency of Lieutenant B. in that service, deemed it unjust not to promote 
him equally with those other worthy officers and privates who were engaged iu 
duties more dangerous, but not more difficult or important. He, therefore, 
caused his rank to be raised to that of First Lieutenant from that date. 

Again, just at the climax of the war, the three days' fight at Gettysburg, July, 
1863, which hurled back the invading rebel army and saved the trembling nation, 
Lieutenant B. won those laurels which secured the immediate personal commen- 
dation of the commanding officer of his Regiment, and purchased for Mm B 
Captain's commission. In a moment of imminent danger, when their fearfully 
decimated numbers caused them to waver slightly from position, Lieutenant B., 
then in command of his company, seized the national colors, sprang upon the 
earthwork defenses and rallied his hard-pressed men. His commanding officer 
forthwith obtained a Captain's commission for him, as a reward for his bravery 
and success. His fatal change of fortune, however, WBB reserved to the battle of 
the Wilderness, May fifth, 1864, when, having received a severe shot through the 



390 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. V. 



right arm at a moment of so serious reverse to our troops, that hut slight atten- 
tion could he given to his dangerous condition, he died from excessive loss of 
blood ; passing from the carnage of war to an immortal rest, " with armor on," 
just as one imbued with time manliness could wish to die, battling for the triumph 
of his cause. Brigade-Surgeon G. W. Metcalfe, after giving a detailed account of 
his death, says : — 

The Captain was universally beloved and respected by his fellow officers, and his death is 
painfully felt by them all. No truer patriot or braver man ever lived, than N. G. Bartholomew. 
He was particularly distinguished in time of battle, for cool judgment, and, at the proper mo- 
ment, brilliant, dashing courage." 

Temporarily buried by his comrades near the scene of his death, his remains 
were removed in the autumn of 1865, to the place of their final interment, Octo- 
ber twenty-second, with military honors, in the cemetery of his native place, 
overlooked alike by the home of his youth, and that of his well-beloved wife. 



CAPTAIN IRA C. POTTER. 



The subject of this sketch was born 
July twenty-seventh, 1S36, at Carl- 
ton, Orleans county, N. T. His 
parents were Vernon and Noa Kound 
Potter. His great grandfather on his 
mother's side, Bartram Round, was 
an officer in the Revolutionary war. 
His grandfather, George Round, was 
in the war of 1812. His great uncle, 
Chester Carver, was killed in the war 
of 1812. Captain Potter's occupation 
when he enlisted, was that of a car- 
penter. He enlisted in Company A, 
September twenty-fifth, 1861, and 
was mustered as Second Sergeant Oc- 
tober fourth, 1861. April seventh, 1863, he was promoted to First Sergeant 
by Colonel Wainwright. July first, 1863, he was promoted to Sergeant- 
Major, by Major Cook, then commanding the Regiment. July thirty-first, 1863, 
he was commissioned Second Lieutenant, with rank from February twenty-second, 
1863. February seventeenth, 1864, to First Lieutenant, with rank from Novem- 
ber ninth, 1863, and September sixteenth, 1864, to Captain, with rank from May 
fifth, 1864, the date of Captain Bartholomew's death. Captain Potter was Acting 
Adjutant of the Regiment from July thirty-first to about October first, 1863. He 
participated in the following battles : — Both Fredericksburgs, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Mine Run, Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, Coal Harbor, 
North Anna, Tolopotomoy, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Peeble's Farm, Hatch- 




Lieutenant Joiin II. Ballard. 391 

er's Run. Though participating in so many battles, and manfully doing his whole 
duty, Captain Potter was never seriously wounded. At the battle of Gettysburg 
he was slightly wounded in the hip, but was enabled to keep with the Regiment, 
by his knapsack being carried on the wagons. At Laurel Hill he was slightly 
wounded by a ball grazing his neck. He was discharged with hie company i E |, 
November eighteenth, isw, but two other men belonging to tin' company at the 
time, out of two hundred and sixty who had been members of it. At the battle 
of the Wilderness, Captain Potter gained great credit by the hold and skillful 
manner in which he handled our skirmishers. On the sixth of May, his Regiment 
was on the extreme right of the Corps, and very much exposed. General Rice 
ordered a portion to be thrown out as skirmishers. Captain Byram commanding 
the Regiment, directed the two companies on the right, E and II, of about twen- 
ty men each, to deploy as skirmishers, and advance some fifty or sixty rods to the 
crest of a hill, Captain Potter being the ranking officer in the two companies, as- 
sumed command. The country was densely covered with low pines ami 
occasional openings. After advancing a short distance, heavy firing was heard. 
Then, through an opening, the contending armies became risible as they surged 
to and fro in the contest. Our troops were evidently being driven back, and were 
finally routed. Our skirmishers now commenced falling back toward tin- main 
line ; but on reaching an elevation, discovered that the enemy in the distance, had 
very much advanced their liue, and were endeavoring to unite their lines in rear 
of the skirmishers, and thus capture them. The position was a perilous one. 
The horrors of Southern prison pens stared them in the face. At this juncture 
the Captain says : — 

I immediately assembled onr men and prepared to make the best of our almost helpless situ- 
ation, As we laced to the rear we could see the enemy's two lines of battle on our right and 
left rapidly advancing, now almost unopposed, momentarily [tearing each other, and tl 
space through which we must escape, or not at all, rapidly closing up. We had about concluded 
to go to Richmond, and were speculating as to whether Libby or Belle Isle would be • 
ping place; but concluded to see neither until absolutely obliged to. We picked np 111 
twenty men, several nun-commissioned officers, one lieutenant, (rebels) and started to the Fed- 
eral lines. Our prisoners were a squad in charge of the Lieutenant, « ho were in the rear pick- 
ing up stragglers from their lines. One was a Sergeaut-Major who had been Benl bj the General 
on our left to the General on our right, directing him to cover tin' open space, Which order he 
had delivered, and was returning to his command, when lie was Intercepted by us. This order 
was being carried out as last as possible, when we discovered OUT perilous situation. I be B( r- 

feant-Major said to me after we got into our lines, that he was sure We w ere in a trap, as he 
new the contents of the dispatch he had delivered, ami that it w as at thai time being promptly 
obeyed. Immediately on taking the prisoners, we compelled them to break their guns against 
the trees, thus preventing their' pitching in' to us, should their number Increase too much. With 
our prisoners, ami a few Union men who had been captured and sent to the rear, we started 
with the determination to run the gauntlet of these two lines of battle and get Into onr lines, 

as soon as possible. My men had orders, which they would certainly have Obeyed, to - 
first and all the prisoners who should show any sign of resistance or disobedience to orders. 
As we came through we could easily have thrown a stone to either line of the enemy, hut the 
bushes aided us in our escape. 

Such cool courage and strategical ability might have been profitably emulated 
farther up the scale of promotion. Captain Potter's present address is Utica, 
New York. 



LIEUTENANT JOHN II. BALLARD, 

Son of Hon. Horatio Ballard, was born in Cortland, N. Y. His ancestors were 
among the first settlers of the Tioughnioga Valley. Lieutenant Ballard was pos- 



392 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 




sessed of fine natural abilities, to 
which had been added the polish of 
a liberal education. In September, 
1861, he enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany E, Seventy-sixth Regiment. In 
November following he was pro- 
moted to Second Lieutenant, and 
subsequently to First Lieutenant. 
He went with the Regiment as far as 
Fredericksburg, Va., where, in Au- 
gust, 1862, in consequence of a severe 
indisposition, he was forced to re- 
sign. In October, 1862, he was ap- 
pointed to a clerkship in the office of 
the Secretary of State, which position he held until June, 1863, when he again 
entered the army as First Lieutenant of Company B, in the One Hundred and 
Fifty-seventh Regiment N. T. V. He was at Folly Island in the fall and winter 
of 1863-4. On the twenty-second of February, 1864, the Regiment was ordered 
to Florida. Lieutenant Ballard served with the Regiment there until the close of 
June following, when he was obliged to resign in consequence of continued ill 
health. He reached home on the fourth of July, 1864, with the fatal disease fas- 
tened upon him, and lingered until the twenty-third of November, 1864, when he 
died. In the quiet Rural Cemetery, which overlooks his beautiful native village, 
he sleeps the sleep of death. His friends may well mourn his early death ; but 
let them be assured that death never comes too soon, if it finds us in the line of 
duty, and that life is not given in vain which is given for countiy. 



CAPTAIN JOHN H. BAENARD 



Was born in Lee, Oneida county, N. T. His parents were Joel and Sarah Starr 
Barnard. His grandfather, David Starr, was a Captain in the Revolutionary war. 
The Captain received an academical education at the Cortland Academy, where 
he was an earnest student three years. In July, 1855, he joined the Oneida Con- 
ference, and entered upon the sacred duties of the christian ministry, in which 
profession he was engaged when he joined the army. He recruited Company F, 
and was elected its Captain. Shortly after leaving Cortland, he was called back 
to attend his beloved wife in her last illness, and no sooner had he performed the 
last sad duty to her, than he found his way to his company, then stationed at the 
forts north of Washington. He remained with his company, participating in the 
battles of Rappahannock Station, Sulphur Springs, Gainesville and Bull Run. At 



Captain James L. Goddard. 



393 



the latter battle he was conspicuous 
for his bravery. Most of the officers 
had fallen. The troops were demor- 
alized by the retreat of the forces on 
the left, yet Captains Barnard and 
Young, by their personal courage and 
efforts, did much to preserve the line 
of the Seventy-sixth. When forced 
to retreat, the Captain was so ex- 
hausted as to be unable to walk. 
Seeing this, Colonel Walnwright, 
with characteristic kindness, dis- 
mounted and placed the Captain on 
his horse, and thus alternately riding 
and walking, they reached a German 
battery within the main line, where they slept on the same blanket upon the 
ground the remainder of the night. Colonel Wainwright spoke in high terms of 
the conduct of Captain Barnard on this occasion. He continued with his com- 
pany on the march through Washington, D. C, until about ten miles in Maryland, 
when, his health failing, he was ordered by the Colonel to return to Washington, 
where he resigned on account of physical disability, September sixteenth, 1862, 
having been just one year in the service. Much has been said about the demoral- 
izing influence of the army; but Captain Barnard was one, at least, who 
maintained his integrity unsullied. He preaches at present, at Vernon, N. Y. 




CAPTAIN JAMES L. GODDARD 



Was born in Greenfield, Franklin county, Mass., in 1833. His parents, Levi and 
Alice Davis Goddard, removed to Truxton, Cortland county, N. Y., in 1843. His 
father died two years after, leaving six children in limited circumstances. They 
were obliged to rely upon their own exertions for a livelihood, and at the age of 
fourteen, the subject of this sketch commenced to learn the wagon-maker's trade. 
Possessing a roving disposition, at the age of twenty he resolved on a Bea voyage, 
and immediately started for Boston, where he shipped upon a sperm whaler for 
two years. The vessel cruised around the Bermudas and Western Islands, and 
meeting with no success, returned to Boston in eight months. After a voyage to 
Liverpool, and working at his trade in Dumfries, Scotland, about two months, 
Captain Goddard returned to Truxton, where he remained two yean. This 
proved too quiet for him, and he again started for the 6ea. He abtpped al Hew 
Bedford, for three years, in an Arctic Ocean whaler. Leaving New Bedford in 
the fall, he arrived at Honolulu in the spring. Proceeding thence to the Arctic 



394 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment K. Y. V. 




they cruised until fall, suffering in- 
describably, and obtaining no oil. 
They then returned to the Sandwich 
Islands, anchoring in the harbor of 
Helo. He here left the ship and took 
another that was to cruise on the 
coast of Lower California. The 
Captain threatening one day to re- 
turn Goddard and four companions 
to the ship they had left, they re- 
solved to escape. Locking the offi- 
cers in the cabin one night, the five, 
with two others, started in an open 
boat for the shore, twenty-five miles 
distant. They forgot, in their haste, 
to take water, and while exploring the country for it, the others were captured, 
but Goddard escaped. After working for an Englishman about two months, at 
Cape St. Lucas, he started for Mazetlan, Mexico. Here he was pressed aboard a 
Mexican man-of-war, but was soon after discharged, through the influence of the 
American Consul. From there he went to Valparaiso, South America, and from 
thence to Conception, where he resided about a year. While here, in the winter 
of 1861, hearing of the troubles in the United States, he started for home, intend- 
ing to ship on board a man-of-war at New York. Visiting his home in Truxton, 
he learned that the Seventy-sixth was being organized at Cortland. He enlisted 
as a private in Captain Lansing's company (G), but on the election of officers was 
made Second Lieutenant. He was promoted to First Lieutenant February twen- 
ty-second, 1862, and to Captain,- and assigned to Company F, July eleventh, 1862. 
He was subsequently brevetted Major by Governor Fenton. He was in all the 
battles with the Regiment, except the Wilderness, which was fought while he 
was home on a leave of absence. Returning on the twelfth of May, he assumed 
command of the Regiment, which position he held until the third of June, 1864, 
when he was wounded and came home. He was honorably discharged August 
eighteenth, 1864, on account of his wound. During his service he was several 
times wounded, the last time by a piece of shell, which cut his face open, and 
came very near proving fatal. Soon after his discharge he was married to Miss 
Fannie Twentyman, and has now settled down to a farmer's life in Truxton. 



LIEUTENANT WILLIAM WALLACE GREEN. 



The subject of this notice was born at Mixville, Allegany county, N. Y., Au- 
gust fifteenth, 1843. His father, Benjamin T. Green was brought up a merchant, 
and removed to Jersey City in 1856, the better to accommodate himself to his 



Lieutenant William Wallace Green. 



395 




business in New York, which lie 
wished his son to follow. The boy 
was sent, for a time, to the Penning- 
ton Seminary, N. J., and when Che 
rebellion burst apon the astonished 

country, his father bad tmt ju.-t 
placed liim to business in New York. 
But from the firing upon Fort Sum- 
ter, dry goods, accounts and trade 
marks had no further attractions for 
him. Commerce was tame when 
glory was to be won. Eeal once 
embraced every opportunity for mil- 
itary drill, which he seemed to mas- 
ter with an intuition that marked 
him a natural soldier; and when the crushing news of the Bull Run disaster of 
1861 shook the public heart, young Green would no longer delay. He was of rev- 
olutionary blood, and although scarcely eighteen years of age, he comprehended 
the greatness of the cause at stake. The country was in danger, and manhood 
and muscle were wanted. As no other way seemed to open, he was about to 
enlist as a private in one of the volunteer organizations of Jersey City, when he 
heard the welcome call of his uncle, Colonel Nelson W. Green, for volunteers, at 
Cortland, N. T., who was then organizing the Seventy-sixth Regiment. Among 
the very first of the many other mere boys who appeared at Camp Campbell, was 
the youthful subject of this sketch. His kindliness, and the compactness of his 
character, and his peculiar reticence, at once gave him position among his com- 
rades. He took the drill in spirit and in detail as if by instinct, and when the 
permanent organization was made, he was elected, without opposition, Second 
Lieutenant of Company F, upon his own merits. From first to last, the drill and 
discipline of Company F were mainly clue to him ; and it is conceded that he 
opened the skirmish drill in the Regiment, and that his company excelled in this 
important branch of the tactics. It is to the credit of Lieutenant Green that the 
noblemen of Company F were attached to him with no common devotion. The 
company was recruited mostly from Dryden, Tompkins county. They were from 
the farms, and stores, and workshops — superior, representative men, few of « bom 
wanted ability to command, and many afterwards won commissions. Such wire 
the men of Company F, and of such had Lieutenant Green won the confidence 
and command. The survivors of this magnificent Regiment still speab of Lieu- 
tenant Green with enthusiasm ; but his young frame, unused to hardships, mu 
unequal to the unusual strain and exposure of a military campaign, At ( 'ortland, 
at Albany, at Riker's Island, at Meridian Hill, he had never been excused from 
duty, and he was never absent. But at Fort Tottcn, where the headquarters oi 
the Regiment was located in the spring of 1862, he was suddenly strieken down 
with pneumonia, a fearful disease, then prevalent in camp. By careful manage- 



396 



The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. T. V. 



ment, his father was ahle to get him home, and although a vigorous constitution 
at length partially prevailed over the first attack, he did not recover. Once after 
many months, his enthusiasm to join his comrades overruled the remonstrance of 
his physician and friends, and he made his way as far as Washington, to rejoin his 
company, then in front of Fredericksburg. But he was speedily sent home by 
the surgeon, with the crushing assurance that he was permanently disabled. 
Still determined, he clung to the forlorn hope of restoration in time to go to 
battle, until he was finally admonished by the increasing weakness and final fail- 
ure of his lungs, that he must surrender. 

After eighteen months' service, just upon the threshold of a cherished career, 
when ambition, and patriotism, and loyalty alike called him to the front, he was 
honorably discharged November twenty-fifth, 1863, with a broken constitution 
and dissatisfied in spirit ; having unwillingly missed that opportunity from the 
perils of which true genius and patriotism will pray his country may be spared on 
her account ; but which, having come, he will on his own account, not willingly 
let pass unimproved. 

Lieutenant Green has not fully recovered from the effects of this unfortunate 
disability. 



LIEUTENANT WILLIAM H. MYEKS, 



Son of John F. and Maria Myers, was 
born at Cortland, Cortland county, 
N. T., December twenty-fifth, 1840. 
He received an academical education 
at the Cortlandville academy, and at 
the age of sixteen, commenced to 
learn the carpenter's trade of his 
father. The firing upon Fort Sum- 
ter, and the assault upon the Massa- 
chusetts men in Baltimore aroused 
his young spirit, and he determined 
to enter Company H, Twenty-third 
Regiment New York volunteers, 
raised in Cortland in the early sum- 
mer of 1861 ; but from this he was 
dissuaded by his friends. When the attempt was made to raise the Seventy-sixth 
he immediately joined with his companions. He enlisted as private, and at the 
organization of the company, was made Corporal. He was soon after promoted 
to Sergeant, and filled successively the different non-commissioned offices of his 
company, and Sergeant- Major of the Regiment, and was finally commissioned as 




Lieutenant William II. Myees. 397 

Lieutenant, with fair prospects of promotion, had he not been captured and de- 
tained from duty in Southern prisons. He participated in the battlee of Rappa- 
hannock Station, Warrenton Springs, Gainesville, Bull Run, Soutli Mountain, 
Antietam, First and Second Frederisksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and the 
Wilderness. In the latter battle, May fifth, 1*64, he was captured in the skirmish 
line, with his entire company (F) and two other companies of the Seventy-sixth, 
(see pages 284 to 289). The first day of our Lieutenant's captivity was extremely 
sultry ; but he was, with about thirty officers and seven hundred men, marched 
twenty-five miles, suffering severely from fatigue and heat. At two o'clock on 
the morning of the seventh, they were huddled into box cars, and started for 
Gordonsvillc. After being penned in a filthy wood house over night they were 
started for Lynchburg. Traveling through Charlottesville, Lynchburg, Colum- 
bia, &c, the party finally arrived at Macon, Ga. Here they remained, enduring 
all that humanity is capable of, until July thirtieth, when about six hundred, in- 
cluding Lieutenant Myers, were placed in box cars and forwarded, they knew not 
where, but, as it eventually proved, to Savannah. Here they were placed in a 
high brick enclosure, which almost entirely shut out the coveted sea-breezes. 
Many attempts were made at escape, most of which proved unsuccessful. At one 
time, the ditch was completed, except opening the outer end, when, unfortunate- 
ly, a cow grazing stepped upon the grass immediately above the tunnel, and falling 
in, revealed the plot. They remained here until September fifteenth, when they 
were conveyed in cattle cars over a most dangerous road, to Charleston, to be 
placed under fire of our guns, then bearing upon that hot-bed of secession. For 
two weeks the loyal shells came altogether too close for comfort, but they were 
the least source of the annoyances of this prison life. The grounds were filthy 
beyond description — literally covered with vermin ; the rations were poor, and, 
to add to the miseries of the men, the yellow fever broke out, threatening to 
sweep away the entire force of loyal prisoners. Lieutenant Call, of the Seventy- 
sixth Regiment, was severely attacked with this terrible scourge, and for one day 
and night Lieutenant Myers watched over him with the vigilance and anxiety of 
a brother. Call was then removed to the hospital, as every one believed, to die, 
but, fortunately, to survive — the second one out of about fifty who were attacked. 
Starvation now stared these heroes in the face. The rebels finally proposed a 
means of escape from starvation, which, if readily accepted, reflected no dishonor 
upon the imprisoned and famished patriots. It was proposed to give five hun- 
dred dollars in confederate notes for every order drawn by a prisoner upon a 
Northerner for one hundred dollars in gold. No wonder that each prisoner 
readily recalled a Northern banker who held his gold ! Any quantity of drafts 
were given. With the avails they bought fresh beef at four dollars and a half per 
pound ; pork, eight dollars ; butter, fourteen dollars ; beans, a dollar and a half 
t>er pint, and they were thus kept from starvation. None of these drafts were 
ever known to be paid. 

On the fifth of October, the prisoners were conveyed to Columbia, S. C. Thus 
were they relieved of that constant fear of a pestilence second to none in fatality, 



398 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

which had surrounded them at Charleston. October seventeenth they were 
marched about two miles, and placed in a stockade in an open field, without cov- 
ering of any kind with which to shelter them from the inclement storms of the 
season. The wood and water were outside the stockade, and the guard were 
instructed to accompany the squads of prisoners, as, at stated times, they were 
permitted to bring in these necessaries. This was afterwards changed, and a 
guard placed around a piece of woods about forty rods distant, and the officers 
were allowed one and a half hours each day in which to procure wood, when the 
guard would come in, driving the prisoners before them. When it is understood 
that the fifteen himdred prisoners were allowed but sis axes, it will readily be 
seen that their supply of wood was very scanty. For one hundred and thirty- 
three days, no meat or grease of any kind was furnished this camp ! One day a 
wild two year old hog chanced to cross the line. In an instant the whole fifteen 
hundred prisoners were after him with clubs, knives, and such other weapons as 
they possessed, and he was in the frying pans before his muscles ceased to trem- 
ble. A New Hampshire prisoner thus made him immortal : — 

The black hog was seen when running through camp ; 
Each man forgetting starvation and cramp. 
Grunts of the nog and its running were vain ; 
Never '11 he be on that camp ground again. 

Starvation staring the prisoners in the face, they resolved upon desperate meas- 
ures to effect an escape. Lieutenant Myers several times made the attempt, but 
failed. Finally, on Christmas afternoon, with Captain B. B. Porter, of the Tenth 
New York Cavalry, he approached a green guard, and insisted that they had 
orders to go a short distance beyond the guard upon some pretext. In the lan- 
guage of the Lieutenant : — " In short we lied him into a disobedience of orders, 
and, strange to say, gained our point." They had with them two sweet potatoes, 
and two small pieces of corn bread — about enough for a piece-meal for a child. 
This would not have relieved present hunger, but they kept it choicely for future 
use. From four to nine P. M. they lay upon the cold ground, not daring to stir 
lest they should be taken back to camp. From nine until eleven o'clock they 
were looking for the road. That night they gained ten miles, flanking Lexington, 
though traveling more than twenty miles to accomplish it. Before daylight they 
found a swamp which furnished a retreat through the day. Traveling under such 
circumstances, through an enemy's country, where every point was new, was ex- 
tremely precarious. The second night, emboldened by hunger, Captain Porter 
resolved to visit a negro cabin, the only dwelling-places of loyalty at the South. 
He succeeded in reaching the cabin without detection, but as he was turning the 
corner he came upon a huge watch dog, which came at him with great ferocity. 
He beat a hasty retreat, with the dog in uncomfortable proximity as he scaled 
fence after fence. As our two heroes lay trembling in the corner of the fence, 
they learned with satisfaction, that the white inmates of the "big house" were 
charging their " colored brethren " with nightly meetings of " niggers " from ad- 
joining plantations, instead of escaped Union officers. 

Night after night did our heroes travel the strange Southern roads, usually in 
Bingle file, from five to ten rods apart, one reconnoitering ahead, and the other 



Lieutenant William II. Myeks. 399 

watching approaches from the rear, sleeping during the day as well as they could 
in cold, dismal swamps, one keeping watch while the other caught matched of 
sleep, without blankets, and scantily clothed, with only remnant* of shoes Dpon 
their feet. Their sufferings were intense. General Sherman had marched 
through Augusta, and was now several days in advance of our fugitives, and on 
the opposite side of the river. They, therefore turned their steps in the direction 
of the Union army. Ignorant of the country, they were compelled frequently to 
apply to their only friends, the blacks, who never refused to aid them with ^ilt-s 
of provisions, and valuable information. Night after night did they apply to the 
humble shanty for the necessary food and information, and never did they apply 
in vain. History will ever fall short of doing full justice to one element of our 
success— that race which continually, in the very heart of the "confederacy," 
contributed in so eminent a degree to the success of our arms. 

At length, after perilous night marches, encountering hounds, swimming rivers, 
wading swamps, and eluding rebel sentinels, they arrived in sight of Grahams- 
ville, S. C, which, they were informed, was in possession of our forces. The 
night was dark, but they could see troops about their fires, cooking their evening 
meals, though they could not tell whether Union or rebel. They at length re- 
solved to ascertain their political status, but too late found they were rebels. 
Summoning that courage only given by despair, they marched straight through 
the rebel camp in safety ! One rebel, happening to jostle Captain Porter, begged his 
pardon, which was readily granted ! After leaving the rebel camp they proceeded 
to a negro shanty, where they were well fed, when the negro took them in charge 
and started for the Union lines, but ten miles distant. After proceeding five 
miles, the negro, giving them full and minute directions, left them. They found 
every point as he had described it, and at length arrived at the place where he 
said the Union pickets were, but found the post deserted. He had told them in 
case they did not find them here, to go to another point where the road con- 
verged, and here they would surely find the pickets. Buoyed with hope, Lieuten- 
ant Myers having but a portion of one shoe upon his foot, they hurried forward 
to the point where the friendlj' pickets were to be found, and their long weary 
days and perilous night marches were to end. Seeing two horses hitched mar a 
fire, around which stood two pickets with blankets bearing the welcome "U. 8." 
and caps of loyal fashion, they had no doubt that they had at last reached the 
place of safety. Marching rapidly up to the pickets, they were accosted : — 

" Halt ! Who comes there f" 

"Friends, without arms." Thank God, we are safe! thought our heroes, as 
they remarked : — 

" You are Yankee sentinels ?" 

" Not by a d d sight !" was the unwelcome rejoinder. 

The story was a short one. After all their hair-breadth escapes and endurances 
they had fallen in with the outer rebel picket, and were again prisoners. No pen 
can describe their feelings of despair at that moment. Entreaty and expostula- 
tion were alike in vain, and though they touched the sympathies, they could not 



400 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 



overcome the sense of duty of their captors. The next morning they were sent 
to headquarters, and were soon on the road to Charleston. The railroad was 
rough and dangerous, yet on flew the cars at a fearful rate. As they came in 
sight of Pocotaligo Bridge, the hearts of the patriots were cheered at the sight of 
our camp stretched out over the plain, with its " Flag of Our Union " flying from 
numerous headquarters ; but the pleasing sensation was sadly changed as our 
forces opened their batteries upon the rebel train, and the shot and shell came in 
all too close proximity to the friends for whom they were not intended. Arrived 
at Charleston, our Lieutenant was soon after paroled, and the war closing about 
that time, he returned to his home in Cortland, where he now resides. 



LIEUTENANT HENRY CLIFF. 




The subject of this sketch was 
born at Gedney, Lincoln county, 
England, December fourth, 1827. 
He enlisted in the English army 
February fifteenth, 1846, and was 
discharged June eleventh, 1846. The 
following is a copy of his discharge 
from the English army : — 

56th REGIMENT OF FOOT. 

These are to certify that 2706 Henry Cliff , 
private, born in the parish of Gedney, in 
or near the town of Long Sutton, in the 
county of Lincoln, was enlisted at Bury 
for the aforesaid Corps, on the fifteenth of 
February, 1846, at the age of 17 2-12 years. 
That he has served in the army for under 
age. That he is discharged in consequence 
of paying the regulated sum of twenty 
pounds. 
Dated at Bury, Lancashire, June 8, 1846. 

WM. H. EDEN, Lieut.-Col., Commanding Officer Horse Guards, 

llth of June, 1846. 
Discharge of 2706 Private Henry Cliff' confirmed. W. COCHRAN, A. A. G. 

Chaeactek, Good. 

He enlisted in Company F, Seventy-sixth Regiment, as a private, September 
eighteenth, 1861, at Dryden N. Y., but was promoted to Sergeant at the organi- 
zation of the Regiment. He was promoted to First Sergeant December eighth, 
1862, and to First Lieutenant July third, 1863. At the battle of Gainesville he 
had a very narrow escape, a ball passing through his gun-stock, coat sleeve and 
cap-box. At the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July first, 1863, he fell in the hottest 
of the fight, severely wounded in the left leg. (See page 244). He lay upon the 
battle-field unable to stir, with nothing to eat or drink, for fifty-two hours, until 
the rebels retreated, when he was removed to a hospital and his limb amputated. 



Captain A. Sager. 



401 



He was in the following battles :— Rappahannock Station, Warrenton Bnlphnt 
BpringB, Gainesville, Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 

Chanccllorsville, Gettysburg. He was honorably discharged at Cheatnnl Hill 
Hospital, Philadelphia, November twenty-fifth, 18G3. The following certificate 

6hows the light in which he was considered by the officers of the Regiment : — 

Headquarters Seventy-sixth Regiment, N. Y. V., January 25, 1864. 
I hereby certify that Sergeant Henry Cliff, late of Company F, Seventy-sixth Regiment ft. V. 
Volunteers, has served honestly and faithfully In Bald Company until the first day dl' July, lSfiU, 
when he was severely wounded In the action at Gettysburg. Pa., having bet n at ait post daring 
every march, skirmish or battle in which the Regiment lias he up to the first of July, 

above mentioned, excepting a few days after the battle of Hull Bun, August thirtieth, IBS, 
when he was sick, lie was recommended t<> the rank of Second Lieutenant • > 1 1 the eighteenth 
of January, 1863, by Colonel William P. Wainwrlght. then in command of the Regimi 
afterward by Major John E. Cook, about the first of October, 1863, for promotion to the rank of 
First Lieutenant. 

JOHN E. COOK, Lieutenant-Colonel Commajncling Regiment. 

This paper was presented to President Lincoln, who, in his own hand, en- 
dorsed: — 

I am induced to believe that Sergeant Cliffs case is a vervmeritorious one, and I shall be glad 
If such place as he seeks in the Invalid Corps can be given him. A. LINCOLN. 

April 25th, 1864. 

He was never mustered upon his commission, having been discharged before 

its receipt. He now resides at Drydcn, Tompkins county, N. Y. 



CAPTAIN AAEON SAGER 



Was horn November twenty- 
fifth, 1833, in Guilderland, Al- 
bany county, N. T. His ances- 
tors were among the early Dutch 
settlers along the Hudson. About 
1S36 his father, Jacob Sager, 
moved with his family to the city 
of Albany, where the Captain 
spent his boyhood. His educa- 
tional advantages were confined 
to district schools. At the age 
of thirteen he entered the office 
of the Albany Spectator, as an 
apprentice, but failing health 
60on compelled him to abandon 
this occupation. His father, 
about this time, moved to Syracuse. At the age of seventeen the Captain com- 
menced the study of medicine in the office of Drs. Hoyt and Mercer, where lie 
pursued his studies nearly five years. He then changed his residence to Cortland 




402 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

village, where, after a short engagement as salesman, he, with a limited capital, 
opened a drug store of his own. The spirit of the rebellion about this time de- 
veloping into actual war, he determined to abandon the pestle and mortar, and 
take up the sword in behalf of his imperiled country. He was among the first to 
aid in the organization of the Seventy-sixth Regiment. He was mustered in as 
First Lieutenant of Company G, September sixteenth, 1861. Upon the resigna- 
tion of Captain Lansing, at Washington, D. C, the fore part of 1862, he was 
promoted to Captain. He remained in command of his company while at Fred- 
ericksburg, and on Pope's retreat, participating in the battles of Rappahannock 
Station, Warrenton Sulphur Springs and Gainesville. In the latter battle, while 
cheering his men forward against greatly superior numbers, he fell wounded in 
two places. One ball entered near the ankle joint, where it still remains. The 
other passed entirely through his body. He was so severely wounded that word 
several times reached his anxious friends that he was dead, as, through long, 
weary days, he lay writhing in pain, much of the time in a state of wild delirium. 
He finally partially recovered, and was, in 1863, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate of disability. As a soldier, Captain Sager was considered a " duty man." 
He was ever cheerful — on the march and in the bivouac, enlivening and cheering 
the humblest soldier as well as the officer, with his pleasing stories and amusing 
jests. While sharing even the last hard tack with the humblest private, with no 
appearance of authority, he was ever ready to enforce discipline did the occasion 
require it, fearlessly and impartially. Had he not been thus early " expended in 
the service," there is no limit to the position he might have reached in the Regi- 
ment. He deems, however, his wounds, and the blasting of his ambition at the 
very threshold of his experience as a warrior, nothing in view of the mighty re- 
sults which his efforts aided to accomplish. 
He is now the proprietor of a drug store in Cortland village, N. T. 



CAPTAIN J. CHITKCH HATCH 

Was born in Groton, Tompkins county, N. Y., May eleventh, 1834. His grand- 
father on his father's side served in the Revolutionary war, and three of his 
father's brothers in the war of 1812. The only brother of Captain Hatch enlisted 
in the Second Illinois Cavalry in 1861, was captured at Fort Donelson in the 
spring of 1862, and died of starvation and rebel cruelty, at Macon, Georgia, Sep- 
tember first, 1862. The Captain was married in 1855, to Miss Stilson, of Dryden. 
His occupation, previous to his enlistment, was farming. He enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Company C, October twelfth, 1861, but was appointed Sergeant on the 
twenty-fifth of the same month, and promoted to Second Lieutenant October 
sixteenth, 1862, and to First Lieutenant February seventh,^LS63. He was in com- 



Lieutenant John Fisher. 



403 




maud of his company from Novem- 
ber eleventh, 1863, and was r nn- 

mended for promotion toaCaptamcy 
June twenty-fifth, 1868, by Major A. 
J. Grover, commanding the i; gt 
ment, and repeatedly during the KB 
and winter by both Major Young 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Cook, but 
Captain Hatch is a true, out-spoken 
patriot, and the people of the State 
of New York in the dark days' of 
1802, placed in the executive chair 
that bitter partisan, Horatio Sey- 
mour, aud owing to a letter sent by 
some of the pretended democratic 
friexds of the Captain to " Governor Saymour," signed by one H. M. Ball, of 
McLean, he was induced to " spare the feelings of the great democratic party of 
McLean, and withhold his commission." Thus to please this noble band of 
" pat-riots," the commission was withheld until January twenty-sixth, 1804, the 
Lieutenant manfully doing his duty at the front, wondering why his recommend- 
ation was not heeded, and all unmindful of the treachery at home, which thus 
insiduously and cowardly deprived him of his deserved promotion. He was en- 
gaged in all the battles and skirmishes in which the Regiment participated from 
the fifth of September, 1802, to the twentieth of October, 1804, except Mine Run. 
He was in the following battles and skirmishes : — South Mountain, Antietam, 
Fredericksburg, Chauccllorsvillc, Gettysburg, "Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottayl- 
vauia, North Anna, (or Jericho Ford), Coal Harbor, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, 
Poplar Grove. At the Weldon Railroad he captured the battle-flag of the Twenty- 
fifth South Carolina Regiment, nearly losing his life. The flag was hit in a 
cornfield twenty or twenty-five rods in front of the breastworks, lie was bring- 
ing in the flag, with fifteen or twenty rebels, when he imprudently raised tin- 
color and was mistaken for a rebel. The Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, on the right of 
the Seventy-sixth, prepared to open lire, which was prevented by one of the Sev- 
enty-sixth calling out that it was Captain Hatch with prisoners. He was, for this 
brave act, mentioned in the report of the Brigade commander, (sec page 309). 
He was discharged by reason of expiration of time, October twentieth, lsiil, and 
returned to his farm in McLean, N. Y. 



LIEUTEXAOT JOHN FISHER 

Was born at Willett, Cortland county, N. Y., March third, 1S32. He received a 
common school education, attending for a time the Cortlaudvillc academy. When 



404 



The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. T. Y. 



he entered the service, he was en- 
gaged in farming. "With his broth- 
er-in-law, Lieutenant Van Slyck he 
attempted to raise a company, but 
the unexpected march of the Regi- 
ment to Albany, disappointed their 
hopes, and their men were distribu- 
ted among other companies, and the 
subject of this sketch was madeSer- 
geant-Major of the Regiment. He 
was promoted to Second Lieutenant 
of Company I January seventeenth, 
1863, and to First Lieutenant of 
Company G, in July, 1862. At the 
battle of Gettysburg, July first, 1863, 
he fell severely wounded, the ball passing through his arm and into his body, from 
which it was afterwards extracted. While in the service he was engaged, with 
the Regiment, in the following battles: — Rappahannock Station, Warrenton 
Springs, Gainesville, Bull Run, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg. At 
the battle of Bull Run he was taken prisoner, paroled and sent to Annapolis, and 
did not return until after the battle of Antietam. He resigned October twenty- 
ninth, 1863, on account of his wound, which still very much affects his strength 
and ability to labor. There were others who made more pretensions, but there 
were few truer soldiers than Lieutenant Fisher. He has returned to his occupa- 
tion of farming, at Whitney's Point, Broome county, N. T. 




CAPTAIN WARREN EARLE EYANS, 



Son of Clinton and Mary Duel Evans, was born in Dryden, Tompkins county, N. 
Y., April thirtieth, 1843. In 1844, his parents moved to the town of Bath, Steu- 
ben county, N. Y. , where his father was engaged in the mercantile business until 
shortly before his death, in 1854. At the breaking out of the rebellion, Captain 
Evans was attending school at Savana, Steuben county. He resolved to enlist in 
the first company formed in his town, but was dissuaded by the entreaties of his 
widowed mother. Another company was soon after formed, in which he enlisted, 
but it never went to war, and was disbanded for want of the requisite number of 
men. Being on a visit to his friends in Dryden, where efforts were being made to 
recruit for the Seventy-sixth Regiment, he enlisted in Captain Barnard's company 
(F). When the Regiment left Albany, he was left in the hospital sick with 
typhoid pneumonia, but rejoined the Regiment at Washington, D. C, about a 



Lieutenant Rali>ii W. Carrier. 



405 




month after. When the Regiment 
left Washington foi Fredericksburg, 
he was deemed unfit for duty by the 
surgeon, and was left to assist in 
caring for the sick, of which our 

Regiment had a lanjv iiuiiiIm.t. When 
the troops advanced on Culpepper, 
in August, 1862, he accompanied the 
sick to the hospital at Alexandria, 

and then took the cars for Culpep- 
per. Arriving there, in advance of 
the Regiment, h<' was put into the 
hospital to care tor the wounded of 

Cedar Mountain. Be was kepi at 
this employment of hospital Btew- 

ard, until the troops arrived at Alexandria. He then attempted to rejoin his 
Regiment, but it was on the march into Maryland, and he only reached it in time 
for the battle of South Mountain. Here the Color-Sergeant, Charles E. Stamp, 
(see page 153), was killed, when the colors were taken by Evans and carried 
through that battle and the succeeding one at Antietam. He was appointed 
Sergeant November twenty-eighth, 1862, by Colonel Wainwright, for bravery and 
meritorious services at Antietam. He also carried the colors at Fredericksburg, 
and until the " mud march," when he was relieved and returned to his company. 
He acted as First Sergeant of his company from the battle of Gettysburg until 
February, 1864, when he re-enlisted as a veteran. He received a commission as 
Second Lieutenant in March, 1864, and was assigned to Company II, which com- 
pany he commanded until November, 1864, when he was placed in command of 
the Regiment, which position he filled until December fifteenth, 1864. He was 
promoted to First Lieutenant in October, 1864. He was in all the battles 
from September fourteenth, 1862, to the Hicksford Raid in December, 1864. On 
the night of June first, 1864, while lying in line of battle, he received a gunshot 
wound in the head, and went back to the hospital, but returned and took com- 
mand of his company, June fourth. At the battle of the Wilderness, Va., May- 
fifth, 1864, Company H was nearly surrounded, but cut its way through the line, 
capturing a rebel lieutenant and six men. The night before his discharge, he re- 
ceived a commission as Captain, but was never mustered upon it. Since his 
discharge he has vindicated that other " Union," and is now settled at Bath, 
Steuben county, N. Y. 



LIEUTENANT RALPH W. CARRIER, 

Son of Harley and Lavinia S. Carrier, was born in Hamilton, Madison county, 
N. Y., in 1829. He received a common school education, and is a harness maker, 



406 



The Seventy-sixth Regtment N. T. Y. 




He enlisted in the State militia in 
1847, and arose to the position of 
Major, which commission he re- 
signed in 1866. In the summer of 
1861, Major-General S. S. Burnside, 
commanding a Division of militia, 
tendered his Division for active ser- 
vice, on ten days' notice. Colonel 
J. B. "Wheeler, commanding the 
Forty-third Regiment, tendered the 
subject of this sketch an Adjutant's 
commission. This was accepted. 
But waiting until November with no 
prospect of the Regiment seeing 
active service, Lieutenant Carrier, 
with M. B. Cleaveland, a Methodist minister, attempted to raise a company for 
the Thirty-ninth Regiment, then recruiting in Cherry Valley. They had enlisted 
but about thirty men, when they were ordered to join the Regiment, as it had 
been ordered to Albany. At the consolidation at Albany, Carrier was made First 
Sergeant of Company H. He was mustered into service January first, 1862. He 
was promoted to Second Lieutenant in his company, February first, 1862. He 
remained with his company through all its experiences from Albany to Frede- 
ricksburg, and thence to Culpepper, and through the disheartening disasters of 
Pope's retreat, participating in the battles of Rappahannock Station, Warrenton 
Springs, Gainesville and Bull Run. In the latter battle, after retreating and ad- 
vancing twice, and while on the third retreat, he received a gunshot wound in the 
left hip, from which the ball has never yet been extracted. He was taken to 
Washington and Baltimore, where he was examined by the medical board, and 
discharged January thirtieth, 1864. He resides at Sherburne, Chenango county, 
New York. 



LIEUTENANT MARTIN EDGCOMB 



Was born in Groton, Tompkins county, N. Y., in 1836. His grandsires were 
both in the Revolutionary war, When the war broke out, Lieutenant Edgcomb 
was engaged with his brother Isaac in the harness business, in Cortland. He, 
however, left his business and enlisted in Company A, as Sergeant, under his 
minister, Captain Grover. He was promoted to First Sergeant, and on the first 
of December, 1864, to Second Lieutenant, and in January, 1865, to First Lieuten- 
ant and assigned to Company H, which company he commanded about five 
months. He was with his Regiment to the battle of Second Bull Run, at which 



Lieutenant Richard "Williams. 



4<>7 




he was taken prisoner. Paroled 
upon the field, he was sent with 
other paroled prisoners to Camp 
Chase, near Columbus, Ohio, and did 
not return to the Regiment until 
after the battle of Gettysburg. Soon 
after the battle he joined his 1; 
ment and remained with it and the 
j different Regiments with which it 
J was consolidated, until the close of 
the war by the surrender of Lee at 
Appomattox. After rejoining his 
Regiment, he participated in every 
battle in which his Regiment was 
engaged— a long, glorious career. In January, '1864, he re-enlisted as a veteran, 
and served successively in the Seventy-sixth, One Hundred and Forty-seventh 
and was transferred to the Ninety-first New York Volunteers, but there being no 
vacancy of his grade, he was mustered out as supernumerary, near "Washington, 
D. C, on the return of the homeward-bound army, July second, 1805. Lieuten- 
ant Edgcomb was engaged, with his company, in the following battles and skir- 
mishes : — Rappahannock Station, Warrenton Springs, Gainesville, Second Bull 
Run, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Laurel Hill, North Anna, Coal Har- 
bor, Tolopotomoy Creek, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, 
Peeble's Farm, First and Second Hatcher's Run, Hicksford Raid, Five Forks, 
Appomattox Court House. He went into the war from principle, and though 
conspicuous in all the above battles, escaped unharmed. His post-office address 
is Cortland village, Cortland county, N. Y. 



LIEUTENANT EICHAED WILLIAMS 

Joined the Seventy-sixth Regiment with the "Otsego branch," and in the con- 
solidation was reduced from First to Second Lieutenant of Captain Cook's com- 
pany, (I). He had previously served in the Seventy-first New York, and was 
present at the first battle of Bull Run. On receiving his discharge, he came to 
Otsego and commenced recruiting for that Regiment He remained with his 
company, faithfully doing his duty, until the second Bull Run battle, when in the 
midst of the fight he was shot through the body, and lay all night in the lines of 
the enemy. As he fell he begged his comrades to carry him off, bul the retreat 
was so precipitous that they were unable to do so. The next morning, when 
found, he was unconscious. Poor fellow ! He could nut return the friendly and 



! 



408 



The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N Y. Y. 



sympathetic grasp of his companions, as they leaned over his fallen body. He 
died the next day, August thirty-first, 1862, and was buried near Centreville, Va. 
(See pages 134 and 135). 




CAPTAIN EDWIN J. SWAN, 

Son of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 
A. L. Swan, was born at Cherry Val- 
ley, N. T. He was a member of the 
"Union Guards," and enlisted into 
the service as a private in Company 
H, at the age of eighteen. Being 
well educated, he was soon sought 
out and made clerk at headquarters, 
and was soon after appointed mount- 
ed orderly. He was appointed Ser- 
geant of his company about the 
time it left for the front. He was 
pronounced unfit for service when 
the Regiment left Fredericksburg 
for Cedar Moiintain, and was sent to 
the hospital at Alexandria. When he heard the guns at Second Bull Run, he at- 
tempted to procure leave of the surgeon to join his Regiment. Failing in this, 
he left the hospital and marched in search of his Regiment, some ten or fifteen 
miles distant. On arriving at the army, he learned that the Regiment had gone 
on towards "Washington. Turning his weary steps toward Washington, on the 
third day he reached the Seventy-sixth, to find half his comrades killed or 
wounded, and»among the latter his father. He remained with his company, 
which he commanded at South Mountain and Antietam. These battles so wore 
upon him that he was forced to again enter the hospital, where for weeks his re- 
covery was considered doubtful. His youth and good constitution, however, 
prevailed, and he again joined the Regiment. In the winter of 1862-3 he was pro- 
moted to First Lieutenant, and in September, 1863, to Captain and was assigned 
to Company K. He commanded this company until the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, May fifth, 1864, when the whole company, with two others, was captured 
by the rebels on the skirmish line, (see pages 284 to 289). Captain Swan was sent 
to Macon, Ga. After several months in that prison pen, he was sent to Savannah 
and thence to Charleston, S. C, and placed under the fire of the Union batteries. 
Here he was kept until the fall of Charleston became a fixed fact, when he was 
sent to Columbia. The approach of Sherman's army, making this place insecure, 
the prisoners were loaded into freight and cattle cars, and hurried off toward 



Lieutenant Job Norwood. -licj 

Charlottesville, N. C. When about seventy miles on their journey, Captain Swan, 
with two Others, managed to cut a hole through the bottom of the car, and drop 
through to the ground, where, in breathless suspense, they lay for half an hour, 
until the train started on. The night was dark and BO Intensely cold that Che 
drizzling rain froze upon them as it fell. Clothed in the remnants of the uni- 
forms they wore nine months before, when captured, the refugees Buffered beyond 
description. They had hoard that Sherman was approaching, and supposed that 
if they could hold out a few days longer, he would arrive with his army ; but at 
the end of five davs of fasting and freezing, they learned to their utter dismay, 
that Sherman had taken another route, and was receding instead of approaching. 
Nothing could now be done, but to attempt a march to the Union lines. They 
therefore, started for Tennessee. After two months of intense suffering, they 
succeeded in crossing the Blue Ridge, and reached Nashville, Tennessee, alter a 
journey of nearly live hundred miles. Weak, footsore and weary, these three had 
traveled this whole distance through a strange country, traveling nights, resting 
days, frequently one of the company unable to walk, except by the aid of the 
others; one night advancing; the next day learning they had advanced in the 
wrong direction, and the next night retracing their steps ; subsisting upon raw 
corn, and suclf other provisions as they could obtain ; fed all along their journey 
by the blacks, the only class loyal to " Massa Lincum's Gov'meut;" continually 
in suspense and dread of recapture, their condition was indeed pitiable. The 
Captain has never yet recovered from the sufferings and privations of that year of 
imprisonment and escape. It was a rare occurrence for so young a private to 
arise to the rank of Captain in so brief a time. 



LIEUTENANT JOB NORWOOD 

Joined Company E at its organization, at Cortland, and was made Seventh Cor- 
peral. He remained with his company, and on the first day of January, ls<J3, 
was promoted to Orderly Sergeant. lie re-enlisted on the first of January, 1861, 
and March sixteenth, 18t'4, was promoted to Second Lieutenant and transferred 
to Company K. At the battle of the Wilderness, May fifth, 1864, lie was taken 
prisoner with his eompauy, on the skirmMi line, (see pages 384 t>> 289). He re- 
mained a prisoner until March first, 1865, when he was exchanged, and was 
discharged on the fourteenth day of March, 1865. He was in all the principal 
battles and skirmishes in which the Regiment participated, and was ever ready to 
do his duty. His present residence is Slatcrville, Tompkins county, N, Y. 



V 



ROLLS OF FIELD, STAFF & COMPANIES. 



ORIGINAL FIELD AND STAFF. 

Colonel Nelson W. Green, .... See page 345 

Lieutenant-Colonel John D. Shaul, - - - - " 

Major Charles E. Livingston, .... " l :;■.•-:; 

Surgeon Judson C. Nelson, - - - - " r>fW 

Assistant-Surgeon Gbobqb W. Metcalfe, - - " 302 

Chaplain H. S. Richardson, - - - - " 303 

Adjutant H. P. Robinson, .... "363 

Quartermaster A. P. Smith, Resigned May 12th, 1 

Quartermaster-Sergeant A. J. Jarvis, Promoted to Captain and honorably dis- 
charged in 1865. A faithful officer. 
Commissary-Sergeant "William Storrs, Discharged in spring of 1862. 



COMPANY A. 

Andbew J. Grove*, Captain. See paso 861. 

CHARLES II 

Herschel W. I'ikki e. Second Lieutenant. See page Mi 

Samusl M. Byrav ■ :?82. 

Ira C. Pot i i -MO. 

Marti. I ■ 

Thomas II. M int. Wounded In ihlsh at Galnosvllli 

1862; pi" uid to Sergeant-Major April, 1S«>1, and dis- 

charge.; 

Nobkajt G. Habmon, Fifth Sergeant. Promoted to i entenant 

Decern 1 nded and taken prisoner at Gettysburg July 1st, 1888; commissioned 

as Capta 

Marvin If, M iral. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862; discharged 

for di- '1 died at home in l 

David T. Wv nd Corporal. !>■ in led :1 |,,| -,tvo| inambulance corps and as forage 

ter in artillery brigade of Fifth < 

Leaxkei: C. I " kk i k. i hlrd < oi poral. Discharged for disability. 

William M. HYBaa, Fourth Corporal. Bee page 39A. 

POLEMCS H ■ vdisabllltv September 2!>th, 18®. 

Jacob 8 >oraf. Disci 

Mosk- '•' nth Corporal 

I ged for disability, S 

Robert Sot liulclan. Discharged lor disability, July lltli, . 



412 The Seventy-sixth Keglment !N". T. V. 

Charles O. Wood, Musician. Promoted to Drum-Major June 23d, 1863 ; transferred to Invalid 

Corps, discharged for disability and died. 
George Z. Pulling, Wagoner. Discharged for disability January 29tn, 1863. 

PRIVATES. 

Alexander, Irving M. Discharged for disability January 21st, 1S63. 

Arnold, Frank E. Discharged at expiration of term in 1864. 

Arnold, David W. Discharged for disability October 3d, 1863. 

Austin, Caleb R. Discharged for disability January 15th, 1862. 

Alexander, La Grange. Discharged for disability January 13th, 1863. 

Abbey, Thomas J. Wounded at Gainesville. Discharged for disability. 

Allen, George A. Discharged April 7th, 1863. 

Bishop, Watts L. Re-enlisted January 1st, 1864 ; discharged for disability. 

Beeks, David C. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862, and Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps November 15th, 1863. 
Btjrnham, Eugene A. Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps July 1st, 1863. 
Beach, Hector S. Wounded at Gainesville ; discharged for disability January 9th, 1863. 
Bennett, Isaac J. Discharged May 20th, 1862. 

Brown, Alonzo D. Severely wounded at Gainesville, and discharged. 
Bloomer, William H. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, and at the Wilderness May 5th, 

1864; discharged with regiment at expiration of term ; (since died). 
Beach, Theodore. Discharged July 6th, 1862. 
Btington, Marvin. Taken prisoner at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Cole, Delos. Discharged for disability September 26th, 1862. 

Cross, William E. Wounded at Warrenton Springs ; died in hospital. 

Carpenter, Daniel W. Wounded at Bull Run August 30th, 1862 ; re-enlisted February 28th, 
1864 ; transferred to Marine Corps, August 5th, 1864. 

Church, Nathan H. 

Church, Alva B. 

Cowlin, Matthew. Wounded at Gainesville ; discharged on expiration of term. 

Cook, Clark. Wounded at Warrenton Springs ; discharged March 21st, 1863, and died at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Condon, William. 

Culver, Lyman. Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps February 15th, 1864, and discharged 
at expiration of term. 

Carpenter, Benjamin F. Killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Campbell, Martin P. 

Decker, Walter D. Discharged for disability November 25th, 1862, and died soon after. 

Earle, Willie L. Transferred to 14th Veteran Reserve Corps July 1st, 1863, and discharged. 
Elwood, Wilson M. Discharged at expiration of term. 
Edwards, James. Killed at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 

Foster, Miles R. Re-enlisted January 1st, 1864 ; discharged. 
Fox, William C. Killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Gillett, Frank H. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Haight, Leander A. Discharged for disability May 20th, 1862. 

Hutchings, Charles W. Wounded before Petersburg, June 22d, 1864 ; discharged. 

Hall, E. George. Discharged May 22d, 1862. 

Henry, John B. Discharged for disability September 16th, 1862. 

Hutchings, Oscar. Wounded at Bull Run ; taken prisoner at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, and 
died in Libby Prison November 19th, 1863. 

Hutchings, Uriah. Discharged October 22d, 1862. 

Hoyer, Arthur. Discharged for disability September 29th, 1862. 

Hill, George B. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863 ; re-enlisted January 1st, 1864 : pro- 
moted to Lieutenant December, 1864 ; remained to end of war. See page 329. 

Hutchings, Rufus E. Wounded May 1st, 1863 ; transferred to Invalid Corps November, 1863 ; 
discharged on expiration of term, November 14th, 1864. 

Halbert, Lee. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 

Higgins, Samuel. Discharged for disability March 12th, 1S63. 

Harris, Alonzo. Wounded at Gainesville August 2sth, 1862 ; discharged October22d, 1862. 

Hilton, Albert L. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863 ; killed at" the Wilderness. May 5th, 
1864. 

Houghtaling, Jesse. Wounded at Gainesville August 2Sth, 1S62, and discharged for wound 
December 11th, 1862. 

Johnson, Eugene E. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, and transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps January 13th, 1864. 

Keach, George G. Discharged at expiration of temi, October 11th, 1864. 

Loomis, Alexander. 

Maycumber, Charles M. Wounded at Bull Run August 29th, 1862; discharged October 

8th, 1862. 
Mynard, Norman. Died at Fort Schuyler Hospital, N. Y., December 29th, 1862 
Marsh, Rutgar B. Re-enlisted January 1st, 1864 ; wounded at the Wilderness May 5th, 1864 ; 

discharged for disability. 
Moore, George, Jr. Promoted to Sergeant April 12th, 1S64 : discharged on expiration of term 

October 11th, 1864. 
Marsh, Seymour. 

Mott, Daniel. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 
Marikle, Francis. 

Oliver, Orlando. Discharged for disability February 14th, 1862. 



Company B. 413 

Owen, P ■ W. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 18C2. 

Potter, Win. mm li. Died at Meridian Hill,p. C., February 12th. 1 I - page 44. 

Iratt, i toCoporal December 11th, 1863 ; transferred toMarlne Corns. 

Potteb, Cb • ii D, Discharged for disability September 22d 

Potter h, 1862, and discharged Decembei 

Ke-enlist.-ci ;],,■>. . wounded April 9th,l865,and died same daj aear Blchmond. 

Potter, John I . Discharged for disability 
Pratt, Charles F. Kill urg July 1st, 1863. 

Pease, Joseph n. Discharged July 7th, 1862. 
Phtdab, -i 1 1 

Palmer, I ilscbargedKi mber8th, 1862. 

Pumas, Tm wot. Wounded August 19th, 1864, at Weldon Railroad. 
Bt plby, H emaj Transferred to Veteran Besi n ir.ih, 1864. 

i.or.NsvF.Li., Lobxh 8. Taken prisoner al Ami, ■tum and did not return. 
Smith, Hxbmas D Promoted to Corporal February 1.1868; killed al Gettysburg Juli 
Smith, Mi aded at Warrenton S] , 1862, and at Gettysburg July 

1st, 18t>3 ; discharged. 

Stone. Stephi s v Discharged at Albany February 2d, It 

Seeber. J..HN \v. Wounded al Gettysburg July 1st, "1st;:;, and died of wounds August 30th, 1863. 

aarg< '1 al expiratl fterm. 

Stamp, « .., color-bearer September, 1862 ; killed at South Mountain 

September 14th, 1882. bee page 153. 

Taylor, Jam 
Topping, Milk-. 

Williams, William H. Discharged for disability February 22d, 1863. 
WATEOUS, MOBEia £. Discharged February llth, 1868. 



COMPANY B. 

Oscae C. Fox, Captain. See pace 370. 

Chauhoxy l>. < KAHDALL, First Lieutenant. See page 373. 

W. Stuart Waloott, Second Lieutenant. Bee page 874. 

Burlington I'.i tim\. First Sergeant. Promoted to First Lieutenant December 13th, 1862- 

wounded at Gettysburg .Inly 1st, 1S63, and discharged. 
A. Lyman Carter, Second Sergeant. See page 376. 
Samtxl L. Bl.m km an. Third Sergeant. Discharged for disability 1863. 
Balph C. Swan. Fourth Sergeant. Discharged (or disability 1882. 
Henry L. Taylor, Fifth Sergeant. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 

Charles V. Ftller. First Corporal. Promoted to Sergeant; wounded at Gettysburg July 1st. 

1863, and di- iiplratlon of term, 1884. 

Henry H. Ti "poral. Discharged for disability and died soon after. 

Amos B. Miner, Third Corporal. Discharged tor disability; drafted into same company ; taken 

prisoner and died in Florence, S. C, October, 1864. 
George H. Wkkk-. Fourth Corporal. Died in the summer of 1882. 
Joseph MoLxah, Fifth Corporal. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, and transferred to 

Invalid Corp*. 
Joseph i Sixth Corporal. Promoted to First Sergeant: wounded at Bull Kun Au- 

gust 30th. 1862; at Gettysburg July 1st, 1868, and Hatcher's Bun February 6th, 1865; dlsi 

at close of the war, June 20th, I860, having re-enllsl 
Hiram (i. Wi poral. Promoted to First Sergeant: wounded and takcu 

prlso al the Wilderness May 6th, 1864 : discharged at expiratlc f term. 

Albert .1. Wildmaj i rporal. WOundedat Gainesville, Gettysburg, Petersburg and 

Hatcher's Bun ; re-enlisted February 28th, 1864, and discharged at 'the close of war, July 

17th. : 
Stephen Bennett, Jb., Musician. 

GBOB8E W. ■ in I dscbarged at expiration of term. 

Harvey IAT] . A Igoner. Diedlnsci. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, Wili i \m. 

Allen, Chester II. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 1882. 

Arnold, Allen. Detailed in February, 1882, to gunboat, and killed at explosion of the "Mound 

City." 
Bvrnham. Elbrioge R. Died of typhoid pneumonia In splng ol 1862. 
Blackman. ed at expiration of term. 

Bibdlei ' charged at expiration of term. 

Bush, < 11 m. ! at Gettysburg July 1st, 1888; taken prisoner and died at Anderson- 

ville - 1864. 

Bikdleboi bh, Joseph B. Discharged for disability In 1862. 
Bxtbtcih, Jajoh w. \s ounded at Gettysburg. 

Coon Ezra. 

Crozier, Wili.i\m .1. Wounded at Gainesville and the Wilderness, and taken prisoner ; dis- 
charged February, 1S65. 



414 The Seventy-sixth Eegiment N. Y. V. 

Chandler, Lucten. Died at Camp Donbleday, D. C, of typhoid pneumonia, in spring of 1862. 

Crozier, John. Wounded at Gainesville August 28tli, 1863, and discharged for wound. 

Crumb, Reuben. Discharged for disability in spring of 1862. 

Cotton. James L. Killed at South Mountain September 14th, 1862. 

Cotton, Horace. Wounded at the Wilderness, Slay 5th, 1864 ; discharged at expiration of term. 

Cahill, William. See page 3T4. 

Debar, Theodore. Wounded near Petersburg June ISth, 1S64 ; discharged at expiration oi 
term. 

Ellsworth, David J. Discharged for disability April 12th, 1862, and died of such disability. 
Eaton, Benjamin F. Wounded at Gettysburg, and discharged at expiration of term. 

Fox, Daniel. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863 ; taken prisoner at the Wilderness Mav 

5th, 1864. 
Finch, Henry. Died at Fredericksburg July, 1862. 
Follett, Warren H. Died at Fairfax, Va., 1862. 
Fox, Lewis H. Wounded at Gettysburg ; taken prisoner at the Wilderness ; discharged 

March, 1865. 
Fuller, William K. Wounded at South Mountain ; promoted to Sergeant January 14th, 

1863; re-enlisted, came home on furlough, and died January 4th, 1865. 
Fuller, Everett. Wounded at Bull Run and Gettysburg; taken prisoner, and died at Ander- 

souville November 1864. 
Fuller, Burdett. Discharged for disability April 20th, 1864. 
Fuller, Eugene E. Discharged for disability 1862. 
Fuller, Morell. Discharged at expiration of term. 
Frink, Jerome. Wounded at Gettysburg ; taken prisoner at the Wilderness, and died in prison 

at Florence. 

Hyde, Charles A. Killed at Gettysburg July 1, 1863. 

Harvey, Albert. 

Haynes, Nicholas. Discharged 1862. 

Johnson, Anson M. N. Was a waiter, but took a gun and went into the fight, and was killed 

at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 
Justice, Henry. Discharged at expiration of term. 
Jones, Edgar W. Died of disease after battle of Bull Run. 

Lyons, Fayette. 

Lason, George W. Wounded at Gettsburg; re-enlisted: taken prisoner at the Wilderness. 

Lowell, Levi F. Re-enlisted and remained to the end of the war. 

McLean, Peter. Discharged for disability in 1862. 

Messenger, Moses. Wounded at South Mountain ; discharged for disability, and re-enlisted 

in another regiment. 
Marble, Horatio G. Discharged for disability in 1862. 
Miller, George B. Wounded at Bull Run ; taken prisoner at the Wilderness ; discharged 

with the regiment. 
Martin, Thomas. See pages 367-8. 

Moon, Reuben H. Discharged at Albany for non-consent of parents. 
Morgan, Mxlo. Captured at Wilderness and died at Andersonville August, 1864. 

Paroe, Judson E. Wounded at Bull Run, and discharged for wound. 

Peterson DeForrest. Discharged for disability in 1862. 

Phelps, John H. Discharged. 

Parselow, John B. Discharged for disability in 1S62. 

Phillips, James A. Discharged for disability. 

Pender, Theodore G. Captured at Wilderness and died at Andersonville. 

Peck, Eli E. Wounded at Gainesville, (see page 125) ; discharged for wound. 

Pember, Lewis P. Discharged for disability. 

Ruddock, Nathan S. Wounded at Antietam ; discharged at expiration of term. 

Rockwell, Henry G. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Boss, Hugh. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 

Roe, George W. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Scranton, Hiram D. Died at Aquia Creek December Sth, 1862. 

Sutton, Henky C. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 

Swan, Palmer. Died at home on furlough in 1863. 

Sharp, Thomas H. Taken prisoner and enlisted into the regular army. 

Skinner, Luther. Died at Alexandria in 1862. 

Salisbury, David. Died at Mount Pleasant Hospital in 1862. 

Smith, Newton D. Discharged. 

Sperry, Miles. Wounded at Gainesville ; taken prisoner at theWilderness, and discharged. 

Sergent, Arnold S. Discharged for disability October lSth,lS63. 

Sawyer, Isaac N. Transferred to Invalid Corps. 

Stewart, James W. Discharged for disability. 

Spaulding, James M. Wounded. 

Thorington, George E. Wounded on picket at Fredericksburg, December 15th, 1862, and at 

Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 
Wells, Benson w. Lost an arm at Bull Run August 29th, 1862, and discharged in consequence 

October 8th, 1862. 
White, Isaac. Discharged for disability February 27tb,1862. 



Company C. 415 

COMPANY C. 

c.n.Mw- D. Cbii'hmuui .Captain. Honorably discharged. 

R. t Lieutenant. Honorably discharged. 

BitOBxa P. v Lieutenant. Bi 

Henry H Hows, First Sergeant. Discharged for disability March, 

Tvi.kk i int. Discharged for die id en, 1868. 

.1 lhbs ('. H « - ■ n 

RoBXRi Q D I arth Sergeant. Kr-.nii-trd January isi, 1864 ; promoted to FlrstScr- 

geantFebrnai . 864, and ti Sergeant Major February 5tn, If 
Bdwh) K i ~ i i d for disability May, 

Henry A. BROW, First Corporal. Wounded June 3d, IBM, uud died June 19th, 1861, at Alexan- 
dria. 

Carlo> B l< orporal. Beenage 879. 

George N. Shaw, Third Corporal. Transferred to Invalid Corps. 

Byron C. Howej i. Fourth Corporal. Discharged for disability April 18th, 1862. 

Henry K- , Fifth Corporal. Died in 1 

Hallet Maim, Sixth Corporal. Died of disease after Fredericksburg battle. 

William a nth Corporal. Transferred to Invalid Corps. 

Charles How\ki>. Eighth (orporal. 1'roniote d ■ rgeant ; wounded at Gettysburg ; 

killed :it \\ 11 len ->'.l. 

Mil." Lewie red at expiration of term. 

Hknkv B an. Discharged M i 

Askbb Wiboox, Jb., Wagoner. Discharged In 

riavATES. 

Austin, Bf.vumin II. Discharged in 

Aim, \k. .i.>hs i. r r an.- terred to Invalid Corps in 18G3, and discharged at expiration of term. 

Avery, a w * I early in isft>. 

Ait.ak, Mrlvilli B. Discharged December, 1862. 

Andrews. J oiis 1- . Discharged at expiration of term November 8th, 1864. 

Baldwin, New ri ed : taken prisoner at the Wilderness ; discharged. 

Bartholomew , N. G. Bee page 388. 

Bennie, Maki ob B. Promoted to Second Sergeant : discharged January, 1863. 
Bradly, Daniel. Promoted to Corporal, and killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 
Bacon, Gilbert G. 

Chapin, John K. Discharged. 

Casterline, Willi vm. 

Cramer, Mhiukl. Discharged. 

Case, Dorsey D. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Draper, Egbert. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Daboll, John. Discharged; in 1863. 

Davis, Lvcn :t85. 

Dimon, Daniel. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Evan, Shadrack E. Discharged In 1862. 
Edgcomb, Albert. Discharged in 1862. 

Ferguson, Willi vm H. 

Fulkerson, Henry B. Killed at Gainesville August 2fith, 1862. 

Francis, Charles. Wounded at Fredericksburg December 13th, 1862; re-enlisted and dis- 
charged at the close ol war bv General Order 158. 
Frees, Henry J. Promoted to Corporal and discharged at expiration of term. 

Greenfielh. I.i i u k r: . Discharged fordlsability April, 1862. 

Griswolij, Daniel P. Promoted to Corporal ; lost a leg at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, and dis- 
charged. 

Howell, Tappan. Wounded at South Mountain September 14th, 1862, and died of wound Sep- 
tember . 

HOWELL, II umBAl. Killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Heath, As 

Higoins, i barged at expiration of term. 

HtreHXS, i ■ • r.uii Uiin and Cetiv-bnrg, and discharged. 

Habtbt, f'uuii.o R. Died at Fredericksburg, July, 

T.\ Ubany in 1862. 

Hicks, AHOfl A. Discharged at Culpepper in April, 1884. 

Lamberson, Jon \ 

Luther. Mm .. ii.le \. Wounded at South Mountain September 14th, 1862, and discharged. 

Lows, Harlan 1 D ! irged. 

Larabee, Nsl*or 11. 

Morgan ' • 'Mvalry In Perenil., 

Wound.-. I al Gainesville Angus! 28th, 1862, (see page IS), and died soon. 
Mosier, Willi oi A. Wounded at Laurel Hill May 10th, 18M; discharged at expiration of 
term. 

Montobt, ii' Discharged at expiration of term. 

\i, \i i i • Discharged for disability. 

\i ms BnuM l Discharged in 

Miller. Transferred to Invalid Corps. 

McVEA.N, KoUKKT. 

Noeton, William D. Died of measles In Cortland, December 1861. 



4:16 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 



Newton, Burdette. Dischaged for disability in the spring of 1863. 

Obmsbt, Edgar. Promoted to corporal ; wounded at Laurel Hill May, 1864, and discharged at 
expiration of term. 

Patterson, Edward M. Discharged for disability in 1862. 

Patterson, Edward L. Wounded at South Mountain ; discharged at expiration of term. 

Patterson, George F. Discharged for disability in 1862. 

Peck, Stiles. Taken prisoner at Poplar Grove Church December, 1864, and died in Anderson- 

ville prison. 
Post, George M. Discharged at expiration of term. 
Pratt, George F. 

Puteebaugh, Isaac. Discharged for disability September 14th, 1862. 
Peak, William. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Ryan, Henry. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863 ; discharged at expiration of term. 

Rulison, Charles H. 

Smith, Horace H. Discharged for disability; drafted into same company. 

Satterly, Ami. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862 ; re-enlisted, and discharged at close 

of war, bv General Order 158. 
Stout, George W. Wounded at Bull Run August 30th, 1862, and died in 1863. 
Stone, Edward. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Taylor Benjamin. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Teeter, Cicero. Discharged for disability. 

Teeter, Leverne E. Promoted to Sergeant; wounded at Weldon Railroad August 22d, 1864, 

and discharged at expiration of term. 
Tucker, William H. Discharged for disability in 1862. 
Teeter, Edward H. Discharged for disability. 
Topping, Martin. 
Thompson, Geoege R. Killed at Gainesville, August 28th, 1862. 

Wright, Orlan. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Woodmancy, Nathan. Discharged for disability in 1862. 

Wood, William A. Wounded at Bull Run September 30th, 1862, and died of wound. 

Wood, John L. Wounded at Gainesville September 28th, 1862, (see page 122). 

White, John A. Died at Alexandria August, 1862. 

Weaver, Henry D. Promoted to Corporal and killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Wyckoff, Alvin. Wounded at Bull Run August 30th, 1862, and at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, 

and discharged at expiration of term. 
Webber, Samuel S. 
Stllson, Henby C. Discharged at expiration of term. 



COMPANY D. 

Charles L. Watt.otjs, Captain. See page 381. 

Edward D. Van Slyck, First Lieutenant. See pages 383-4. 

George I. Foster, Second Lieutenant. Resigned in fall of 1862. Unable to procure biography. 

TJberto A. Burnham, First Sergeant. See page 367. 

Benjamin F. Watrous, Second Sergeant. Served out his time, and discharged May, 1865. 

Milton D. Allen, Third Sergeant. Discharged in fall of 1862. 

William Stringham, Fourth Sergeant. See page 387. 

George W. Arnold, Fifth Sergeant. Discharged at expiration of term October 24th, 1S64. 

Lavoisure Stebbins, First Corporal. Wounded at Fredericksburg December 13th, 1862, and 
Petersburg June 22d, 1864 ; commissioned Second Lieutenant company I April 20th, 1864, and 
discharged at expiration of term. 

George M. Guernsey, Second Corporal. Died at Fredericksburg August 2d, 1862. 

Lyman C. Galpin, Third Corporal. Discharged from the InvalidCorps at expiration of term. 

William H. Tarbell, Fourth Corporal. See page 384. 

Samuel D. Squires, Fifth Corporal. Died at Fredericksburg August 10th, 1S62. 

Theron C. Guernsey, Sixth Corporal. See page 387. 

Benjamin F. Murray, Seventh Corporal. Sent on detached duty on Mississippi Squadron 
February, 1862. 

Jay Webster, Eighth Corporal. Wounded at Chantilly, and discharged October 22d, 1862 ; 
joined Mth Regiment N. Y. V., and promoted to First Lieutenant, and died at City Point, Au- 
gust, 1864. (See pages 58 and 140) . 

Henry B. Sweatland, Musician. 

George O. Bowen, Musician. Transferred to Brigade Band January 23d, 1S65; re-enlisted; 
discharged at close of war by General Order 158. 

Chables S. Spenceb, Wagoner. Discharged in May 1862. 

PRIVATES. 

Bttedick, Ira W. Discharged in the fall of 1862. 
Benscoten, Edwln S. 

Brown, William H. Wounded at South Mountain September 14th, 1862, and discharged about 
November, 1862. 



Company D. ill 

Bennett, Willum. Discharged October 22d, 1862. 

Barton, James 0. 

Barton, Harvky C. Discharged at expiration of term in 1864. 

Boyce, Lyman DIsi harged for disability. 

Brace, Fran* is. Taken prisoner at the Wilderness May 5th, 1864. 

Bunnell, Aloxzo. Discharged at Frederick city, M<L, Februar: 

Crn-ER, Gkoroe D. Discharged at expiration of term. 

CoiiTDT, Thomas ii. Bhol through the bead and killed at Gettysburg July 1st, I 

Cinnamon-. Jaxm I Color-Sergeant for bravery, In May, 1864, Discharged at ex- 

piration of term, No> ember 12th, 1864. Re-enllsted in Hancock's Veteran < orps. 

Carr, Daniel. Wounded and taken prisoner at Gainesville August 88th, 1863, ami died at 
Annapolis, Mil., in September following. 

Carr, Elijah. 

Carson, James R. Discharged In Beptember. 1863. 

Clark, James 1! Ee-enlisted January 1st, 1864. Promoted to Corporal and discharge. I al ex- 
piration of term by General Order No. 158. 

Chttb ohtxl, Mobtocxb. Discharged In December, 1S62. 

Cbtdkstbb, Wm i vm. Takm |ri„nirr at Gettysburg July 1st, 1868, and afterward discharged. 

CfLVER, Lloyd D. Re-enlisted. Taken prisoner at Wilderness May 5th, 1864, and mlssli 
that time. 

Davenport, Orville. Discharged October 22d, 1862. 

Evans, John J. Wounded in leg at Gettysbnrg July 1, 1863, and In hand at Hatchi 
February f>, 1 BBS ; pi ■< nrporal December, 1863; re-enlisted January 1st, lsivi ; dis- 

charged at end of war, July 1863. 

Farber, JACOB. Taken prisoner at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1883. Did not return. 
Fisher, Evoksk. Re-enlisted January 1st, 1864, and promoted to Corporal August, 1361. Dis- 
charged at the close of war, July 3d, 1865, by General Order IX. 

Grace, Dorm an. 

Grimes, Joseph. Killed at Gainesville August 2Sth, 1S62. 

Goodeli., David. 

Gaelics, Frederick A. Discharged by Secretary of War. 

Haedino, James. Discharged in 1863. 

HrLL, Norma \ A. 

Herron, William. 

Haw-ley, Georoe W. Wounded in leg at Bull Bun August 29th, 1863 : promoted to Corporal ; 
re-enlisted January l-t. lsrt-i ■ killed May 6th,1864, carrying flag at the \\ llderneas. (See p. 390.) 

Holden, Haben. Discharged October, 1862. 

Hopkins. Lyman. Promoted to Corporal December, 1863 ; re-enlisted January 1st, i«;i ; dis- 
charged at close of war, by General Order 158. 

Isaacs, John J. Discharged February, 1S63 ; joined the ISoth X. Y. V., and made Second Lieu- 
tenant. 

James, John L. In all battles to Antietam ; then detailed to Division Headquarters ; in tight 

near Petersburg ; discharged at expiration of term, October, 1864. 
James, Edward. Wounded and taken prisoner at Gainesville ; rc-enllsted January 1st, 1864 ; 

killed at Wilderness May 5th, 1864. 

Knapp, Henry Z. Discharged January 11th, 1863. 

Kellogg, Leander M. Discharged at expiration of term, October, 1864. 

Ltll, James. Wounded at South Mountain September 14th, 1862 ; enlisted into the regular 
army in December, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg. 

Miner, Oscar P. Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 1st, 1861, and discharged April 
18th, 1864, for disability. 

Maxon Gxoaei i». 

Merritt, Willard S. Wounded in thigh at Coal Harbor; also at Petersburg and 
Railroad ; taken it plarGrovi Church ; discharged May 25th, 

Milks, Joseph. Woumted in shoulder at Gainesville, and died In consequence. 

Mantaxye. w i i.i.i am J. Taken prisoner at Gettysburg .inly 1st, 1863 fre-enllsted February 9th, 
lg64; detail'd to Bl igade Headquarters October 8th, lsCl ; discharged at close of war. 
eral Order No. 158. 

Norton, Parmeni-s A. Promoted to Corporal April. 1863; re-enllsted January 1st, 1864: pro- 
moted to 8 \ prlL 1864 ; wounded at Laurel Hill May Sth, 1861 ; lost an arm at Weldou 
Railroad August jm, 1864 Discharged. 

Nortiirip, Maiuin V. Ii. Discharged in January, 1863. 

Newiiey, Floyd. 

Pike, Garret S. Rc-eulisted January 1st, isr>| ; killed at the Wilderness May Oth, 1861. 

Pearkins, Hf.nuv. 

Peckham, Lawton. Died Marcli 1862. 

Reagan. Patri' k. Taken prisoner at null Run August 29th, 1W>. Discharged. 

Robertson, Wm W, Died at Fort Massachusetts April 4tb 

Ryan, William. Shot In neck at Gainesville August 38th, 1883; discharged. 

Roundy, CkabUI W, Discharged at expiration of term, October 1864. 

Saxpord, LaFaI ette. Discharged at Alhanv January. 1862. 

Smith Albkri i Discharged October 27th, 1861 : re-enlisted December 23d, 18fi3; promoted to 

Corporal April, lsi.i , wounded at Wilderness, May Sth, 1864 ; transferred to Veteran II 

Corps ; 1 July 24th, 1865. 

Smith, wi i.i.i i« N Promoted to Corporal June, 1882, and to Sergeant April. 1864; wounded 

and taken prisoner at Gettysburg, July 1st. IsjI! ; re-enllsted January 1st, 1864 ; dlich • 

close of war, July 3d, 1-^15, l>y General Order 158. 



418 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

Smith, D. "Webster. Promoted to Corporal October, 18G3 ; re-eulisted January 1st, ISM ; killed 
at Petersburg Juue '21st, 1864. (See pace 310). 

Stuart, James. Taken prisoner at Gettysburg Julv 1st, 1863; re-eulisted January, 1864; dis- 
charged at the close of war July 3d, 1865, by General Order 15S. 

Spencer, John E, Discharged at expiration of term in 1864. 

Spencer, Samuel G. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, and died of wound soon after. 

Spencer, James B. 

Sweet, William M. Wounded in hip at Bull Run August 30th, 1S02, and taken prisoner ; dis- 
charged at expiration of term, October 4th, 1864. 

Seward, Arthur R. Promoted to Corporal October 1st, 1863 ; taken prisoner at the Wilder- 
ness May 5th, 1S64 ; discharged May, 1865. 

Stalter, Bartholomew. Discharged at Fort Slocum, D. C, May, 1862. 

Stuart David. 

Stuart, Horace G. Killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Tarbell Simon. Wounded in arm at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863; taken prisoner at the Wilder- 
ness Mav 5th, 1864; discharged in spring of 1865. 

Tuttle, James C. Re-enlisted January 1st, 1864 ; promoted to Corporal April 1864; killed at 
Wilderness Mav 6th, 1864. 

Verreau, Francis E. Wounded at Bull Run August 29th, 1862; died of wound in hospital 
September, 1862. 

Van Wormer, David. 

Vosburg, Marion. Discharged at Fort Slocum, D. C, April, 1S62. 

Watrous, George E. Wounded in leg at Gainesville August 28th, 1862; re-enlisted January 
1st, 1864 ; wounded at Laurel Hill May 8th, 1864 ; discharged at close of war, July 3d, 1865, by 
General Order 158. 

Wilson, John. Promoted to Corporal December, 1862, and to Sergeant April, 1S64 ; discharged 
at expiration of term, October, 18(>4. 

Wilcox, Frederick W. Died in Winter of 1861-2. 

Watson, William R. 

AVatson, William W. 

Wedge, Orlando. Taken prisoner at Bull Run Augnst29th, 1862 ; re-enlisted January 1st, 1864 ; 
severely wounded in the leg at the Wilderness May 6th, 1804 ; discharged after close of war in 
1865. 

Wilbur, TnoMAS. Promoted to Corporal December, 1863 ; re-enlisted January 1st, 1S64 ; dis- 
charged at close of war, July 3d. lstu, by General Order 158. 

"Wedge, Oscar. Discharged for disability in fall of 1862. 

Wedge, Alonzo. Discharged April, 1862. 

Way, Harvey D. Wounded at Gainesville ; discharged in fall of 1S62. 

Fisher, John. See page 403. 



COMPANY E.< 



William H. Powell, Captain. Resigned March 28th, 1863. No biography. 

John H. Ballard, First Lieutenant. See page 391. 

Sanfokd M. Powell, Second Lieutenant. Resigned February 14th, 1863. No biography. 

Gideon Prentice, First Sergeant. Wounded. Discharged for disability December Sth, 1S62. 

James Brayman, Second Sergeant. 

Daniel M. Perry, Third Sergeant. Wounded at Gainesville August 2Sth, 1862, and discharged. 

Thomas B. Hewitt, Fourth Sergeant. 

James Wright, Fifth Sergeant. 

Julius W. Bragg, First Corporal. 

George B. Witler, Second Corporal. 

Coetland G. Young, Third Corporal. Deserted in 1862 ; enlisted in 22d N. Y. Cavalry in Jan- 
uary, 18(34 ; taken prisoner June, 1864 ; died at Andersonville September 14th, 1864 ; buried in 

- grave No. 8733. 

Palmer Z. Rice, Fourth Corporal. 

Orlando W. Hutchinson, Fifth Corporal. Died in hospital April 21st, 1S62. 

Charles Kenyon, Sixth Corporal. 

Job Xorwood, Seventh Corporal. See page 409. 

Eli A. Berry Eighth Corporal. Taken prisoner at Gettysburg July 1st, 1S63 ; exchanged De- 
cember 28th, 1S63 "; discharged October 4th, 1864, at expiration of term. 

George W. Northrup, Musician. Discharged for disability. 

Franklin Bliss, Musician. 

James B. Palmeston, Wagoner. Wounded June 18th, 1864, and died of wound June 24th, 1S64. 

PRIVATES. 
Allen, Nelson A. D. 
Boyce, Allen. Discharged for disability May 20th, 1862. 

'Very many of the men of this Company are unaccounted for, because the rolls are not ac- 
cessible, andthe officers have failed to respond to letters of inquiry. Much of the information 
has been derived from Lieutenant Job Norwood. 



Company E. 419 

Botce, Jacob. Discharged for disability November 20th, 1862. 

Barrows, Ebbn E. 

Beibee, Phillip. 

Brazke, Fr.oki.ix. 

Burton, iieev W. 

Bakrmax. Gbobgb H. 

Bisii, J UBS B. Killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Cox, Edwin J. 

(iim'mvn. ii w Discharged April 20th, 1862. 

Couuxa, B ixi n 'i.i mkw . 

ClIEENEY. BBS I IMI3 F. 

('HaFEK. 1 I I viv. 

Corl, Franklin B. 

Chafee. .1 hs C. 1 '.pm 20th, 1862. 

Crapo, Eliakim. Died at Culpepper forepart of 1^61. 

1.. -ii -A. Promoted to First Sergeant March ICth, 1864 ; killed June 3d, 1664. 
(See ; 

Cr.AN'DALL, HkNT.Y. 

Chuboh, iken prisoner on Weldon Railroad In 1861: paroled at Salisbury. X. C, Feb- 

ruar\ . 
Corxford, William H. 

Demarawille, James S. Discharged for disability November 26th, I 

DrGGAX, .IaME*. 
DCRKEE, AltlJAB. 

Dosax, Si: 

Dodge, C. B. Suhstitntefor George Love. Taken prisoner at Wllderno-s Mav 5th, l^A ; dud 
at Andersonvllle. 

Foster, Amos. Discharged. 
Fixcu, Mai-.' ellvs. 

Gowas, Thomas B. 

Gibsox, Oscar. Taken prisoner July 1st, 1863, at Gettysburg, and died on Belle Isle, Vi. 

Hamilton-, James W. 

Hyde, Peter B. 

Hype, Robert II. 

Hayilaxd. Edgar D. Promoted to Sergeant January 1st, 1863; rc-cnlisted January I 

killed at the Wilderness, May . r >th. 1864. 
Harris, George J. Killed at Gainesville, August 28th, 1862. 
Hammond, Ira. 
Hougutaling. Fmmet. 
Howard, Brazilla. 
Hamilton, Charles F. 

Hougiitalixg, Miltox S. Died at Aqnla Creek, December 16th, 1362. 
Holbrook, Warren. Killed near Petersburg June 22d, 1864. 
Hcxgebfobp, Jambs E. 

Iybs, Samvel H. 
Johxsox, Warrex TV. 

Kellogg. Vai.w L. Discharged at expiration of term, October 4th, 1864. 
Kexyox, Henry P. Wounded July 1st, 1868, at Gettysburg; transferred to Invalid Corps De- 
cember 31ht, is»vi ; discharged at expiration of term. November 28th, 
Kelley, Edward. Lost leg at Gainesville, August 28th, 1862, and died of wound. (Seep. 126). 
Kimball, George D. 

Lawben' f. I .' '■ U F. Killed at Hatcher's Run, Va., February 7th, IBM. 
L,usk, William J. 

Madisox. Orlando. Discharged at expiration of term, October 8th, 1861. 
MOBTOB, Boi ire. Killed at Spottsylvania May 12th, 1864. 

MORENTS, WILLIAM. 

Mix, Joel. Died on the road to Cedar Mountain, August, 1862. 

Mabsh, Wasbobq 

Moobb, (iE'ir.GE W. Died in hospital. 

Lb* ts M. 
McLxtyre, KKN--ELAEB. Died In hospital, D. C, March 31st, 1863. 

NoRTHRrr. i.riiri:e I.. Promoted to Corporal ; wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863; dls- 
charu t 11th, 1S63. 

Ourarr, Mann*. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 

Owen. ABJTBB W. 

Obtox, J ames. Discharged for disability November 27th, 1862. 

Stbdwell, Saoass. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 
Sboultus, :-kymoir. 

SBWABD, A: "'• / '. 

Sattk! -.J. Discharged at expiration of term, October 4th, 1864. 

Steele, Byii 

Tarbox, WIN 

■.in. Discharged for disability. .'-3). 

Trim, William Deserted and Joined another regiment. 
Trowbhiim.k. In 01, 

Jl'SBPUI s. 



420 The Seventy-sixth Regiment 1ST. Y. V. 



Webb, Lewis B. 

Wright, William IT. Re-enlisted January, 1864 ; discharged at close of war July 15th, 1865. 

Wilson, Henry. Discharged for disability, June 14th, 1862. 

Wood, Walter. Promoted to Sergeant June 25th, 1863 ; killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Young, Thomas J. Discharged March, 1862. 
Young, David. 

Zeh, Holmes. Discharged in 1863. 
Spitzer, Richard B. 



COMPANY F. 

John H. Barnard, Captain. See page 392. 

Elias A. Mead, First Lieutenant. Wounded at Antietam September 17th, 1862, and discharged. 

Unable to procure his biography. 
William W. Green, Second Lieutenant. Seepage 391. 

Delos V. Caldwell, First Sergeant. Discharged for disability November 22d 1862. 
Lawrence M. Banker, Second Sergeant. Killed at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. (See p. 122). 
Henry Cliff, Third Sergeant. See page 400. 
Hubert Carpenter, Fourth Sergeant. See page 363. 
Orrin H. Ellis, Fifth Sergeant. Died at Fort rotten In spring of 1862. 

Ralph E. Tucker, First Corporal. Promoted to Sergeant ; wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 
1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

James H. Young, Second Corporal. Wounded. 

Marion Wilcox, Third Corporal. Discharged at Wellington in 1862. 

Clinton D. Bouton, Fourth Corporal. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862, and dis- 

Lewis Sweet, Fifth Corporal. Discharged for disability July 9th, 1863. 

John D. Tripp, Sixth Corporal. Discharged for disability April 5th, 1862 ; was afterwards one 

year and three months Medical Cadet in U. S. A. 
Osmer Hill, Seventh Corporal. Discharged lor disability August 12th, 1862. 
Axonzo B. Wagoner, Eighth Corporal. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862, and at the 

Wilderness May 6th, 1864 ; discharged September 6th, 1864. 
Milton B. Hart, Musician. 

John Dart, Musician. „„..-,* „ „ , ,. , ,, ,• , -,* 

Bowne Yates, Wagoner. Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, and discharged for disability. 

PRIVATES. 

Barton, William H. Wounded at Gainesville August 2Sth, 1862 ; died at New York February 

Banker, Isaac W. Wounded at Bull Run August 29th, 1862 ; discharged for disability Febru- 
ary 7th, 1863. (See page 122). 
Bradt, Simon S. Wounded at Gainesville August 2Sth, 1862, and Fredericksburg December 

Brooks, Ira S. Discharged at Washington, D. C, in 1862. 
Benton, William. Discharged for disability. 
Card, Chester P. Taken prisoner at the Wilderness May 5th, 1864. 
Cadogan, Walter. 

Card J obs J. Wounded at Gainesville, August 28th, 1S62, and at Fredericksburg December 

13th', 1862. (See page 122). 
Compton, Silas. Discharged. 

Dewey, Alfred. . 

Dodge, William E. Died of measles, in 1861. 

Dickinson, Orville. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 

Draper, Richard. Discharged in 1862. 

Dunbar, Daniel. Died at Fort Massachusetts April, 1862. 

Edwards, Patterson E. Discharged 1862. 
Evans, Earle. See page 404. 

Fitts, Charles. Discharged in 1862. 

Gee William R. Discharged in 1862. 

Glover, Charles. Taken prisoner at the Wilderness May 5th, 1S64 ; discharged in 1865. 

Gifford, Allen F. Discharged in 1863. 

Hikes James G. Discharged at Fort Totten in spring of 1862. 

Hoy Martin. Wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863, and discharged. 

Hyde, Charles G. Discharged at AVashington, December 1st, 1862. 

Haviland, Myron W. 

Hulbert, Edwin R. 

Hemt, George A. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 

Hyde Norman B. Discharged at Washington September, 1862. 

Henry, Levi S, Taken prisoner at the Wilderness May 5th, 1864, and sent to Andcrsonville 

prison. 
Hawks, William H. 
Holmes, Clark. 



Company Gh 421 

Hoffman-, Thomas ii. Wounded through knees at Gainesville August 28th, 1869, and ■: 

wounds. (See pa 
Holder, Bekj lxqi r. Promoted to Corporal and killed at Gettysburg July lat, 1808. 

.) "i in. son, Jakes. Wounded at Galnesi llle August 88th, 1862, and killed a( Spottsylvanla May 

12th, i 
•Ii'.vks, Leahdss T. Died at New York, October 2d, lxw. 
Judboh, i W ounded at Galnes\ llle August 28th, 1862, and dlschai 

Lasok, Okobsi I.. Discharged for disability November 1 

Lason, Qskbi ]'. Lost an arm at Bull Bun August 29th, 1862 ; discharged October 9tl 

Lindsay, .1. 'un. D i oksburg June 27th, 

i.kw is, Eds » b 9. 

M< Fu t„ Henry. Killed at Fredericksburg December 13th, 1SC2. (Sec page IS 

MoF \i. i., l/l M iv. 

Mi Kcink. 1'a rsioK. Pisrii irged. i See page 54 1. 

McGbbqob, DbWiti C. Wounded twice at Gainesville August 29th. 1862 ; Promoted to Ser- 
geant Jann transferred to Veteran Beserre ( iber 16th. 1863 
listed May 7th, 1864, In veteran Reserve Corps. 

M \sT..N. Bbi *ed at Washington I 

Mili.ki:, Fbanblin. Killed al Bnll Run August 29th 

Matteso W. Promoti It i din 1862; wounded at South Mountain Septem- 

ber mil. 1862 ' iken prisoner at the w llderness Ma] 5th, 1864. 

M t rns. in. 1' i \ ii'. Taken prisoner at the Wilderness, and died a( Andersonvllle prison. 

Mouse, A dolphds. Died al Fori Jefferson. Florida. (See page 274). 

Morse, Hiram. Taken prisoner at the Wilderness May 5th, 1864, and died ;it Andersonvillc 
prison. 

Mi i .iRMH'K. Thomas. 

Manx, El OEMS. 

Montgomxby, Daniel B. Promoted to Sergeant November 28th, 1862 ; wounded at Gettys- 
burg July 1-' 

Norwood, WksI.ky. Discharged for disability, and died at home in Harford. 

Porter, Jonx W. Wounded at South Mountain September 14th, 1862 ; taken prisoner at the 

Wilderness May 5th, 1864. 
Pahgborn, i-.oii bl. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 
Pklham. r.EN.MMix. Discharged In 1862. 
Peters, Gbobgb. Promoted to Corporal July, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg July 1st. i 

charged at expiration of term October 24th, 1864. 
Persons, William h. Transferred to Marine corps February, tsr,;, and killed on the gunboat 

" Mound City." 
Pierce, Dent'dm. 
Peck, Egbert. Wounded at Gainesville August -JSth, ISC', and discharged for disability. 

RrMSEY, Job B. 

Bemmelv. Albert. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1882. 

Hindi; e, SCEPTY. Wounded at Gaines\ die August 28th, 1862, and at Gettysburg duly 1st, 1%",, 

and discharged. 
Bandall, Abxer H. Taken prisoner at Wilderness May 5th, ISM, and died at Andersonvflle 

prison September 20th, 18(>1. 

Snook, David L. 
SCHEBHBBHOBK, HENRY C. 

Smith, Gboboe H t Gettysburg July 1st, 1868, and discharged May 30th, IBM. 

Shbldox, I' i i m Died at Meridian Hill, D. C, March, 1862. 

SHAPLBY, QBOBOB W. Wounded in let; at Second Hull Run August 80tb, 1862: discharged Jan- 
uary 19th, 

Tanner, Daniel. Discharged for disability September 7th, 1882, 

Underwood, George w. Discharged for disability It 

Vaxdki lb, J IBS', Wounded at Bull Bun August 80th, 1 S3. 

Vandei-ooi.k, Sim. .v. 

WllliiXKK, Q VRRET L. 

Weii.er. i.ki'kok F. Proi ant; wounded at South Mountain September 14th, 

1862; killed at Fredericksburg December 18th, 
W w.kki:. Willi \M \ 

w , Fbahcis. Killed at Fredericksburg December 18th, I 

w UN, \ii\-\NDKH E. Discharged for disability. 

Wabhe- i iken prisoner at the \\ llderness May 5 th, 1864, and died at AndersonvlUe. 



COMPANY (J. 



•\Vii.i.i- 'in February. ISO, at Meridian Hill. 

First Lieutenant. Bee p i 
Jambs L. Q ■ • 'tenant. See page 3'.'3. 



' 



4:22 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. V. 

Thomas Simms, First Sergeant. Promoted to Second Lieutenant, and mustered out on certifi- 

Abram H. Sager, 'second Sergeant. Discharged for disability at Washington. 

Freeman Sciiekmerhorn, Third Sergeant. 

RODNEY L. Morse, Fourth Sergeant. 

John W. Roe, Jr., Fifth Sergeant. 

Samuel E. Sanders, First Corporal. Promoted to Second Lieutenant ; wounded at Gettys- 
burg. 

Henry W. Mann, Second Corporal. 

Homer D Call, Third Corporal. 'Wounded at Fredericksburg December 13th, 1862 ; promoted 
to Second Lieutenant April 13th, 1863, and to First Lieutenant March 1864 ; taken prisoner at 
the Wilderness, and had Yellow Fever at Charleston, S. C. Mustered out on expiration of 

William McLean, Fourth Corporal. Wounded at Gainesville, August 28th, 1862, and dis- 
charged in consequence. .„ . ,. , , 
I evi Bullman, Fifth Corporal. Wounded at Gainesville and died of wound. 
f'l'lis Z Smith, Sixth Corporal. Discharged at Fort Slocuin in spring of 1862. 
N mpoleon B. Nelson, Seventh Corporal. Died at Fort Massachusetts April, 1862. 
Amasa Williams, Eighth Corporal. 
Chauncey Seamans, Musician. 

F-)\v\rd B. Goodell, Musician. Discharged for disability June 2ith, 1863. 
Israel Reckard, Wagoner. Discharged for disability May, 1862. A most faithful man. 

PRIVATES. 

Allen, Seymour R. 
Allen, Alfred. 

Acklky DsWlTT C. Injured by a wagon in Philadelphia ; discharged in December, 1862. 
ArPLEBEE, Darius W. Discharged for disability. 

Burlingham, Truman. 

Brewer Edgar. Discharged for disability March, 1862. 

IUcon George H. Killed at Gainesville, August 28th, 1862. 

Briggs, William F. Wounded in thigh at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. Discharged Decem- 

Barnes, John. Lost an arm at Fredericksburg December 13th, 1862, and discharged. 

Bouton, James. Discharged. 

Cowlen, James. Wounded at Gettysburg. July 1, 1863; transferred to Invalid Corps aud dis- 
charged at expiration of term. 

Cushing, Eugene. Discharged from small pox hospital. 

CoBNUE, John. 

Cook, Charles Wesley. Wounded at Petersburg June 18th, 1S64, and discharged by General 
Order 116. 

Cvmmings, William H. Re-enlisted February, 1864, and discharged at close of war. 

Corwin, Polydore B., Jr. Wounded at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862, and subsequently dis- 

Culver, George M. Died on the march from Fredericksburg to Culpepper. 

Crawford Charles H. 

Dodge, Artemas. Killed at South Mountain September 14th, 1862. 

Durr, John. 

Earl, William H. At the battle of Gainesville, since which, not known. 

Elliott, William. Discharged at expiration of term. 

G\lpin, William H. Wounded at Gettysburg ; promoted to Corporal, then to Sergeant, and 

killed 'at Petersburg June 18th, 1864. 
Gaff John Thomas. Died at Fort Slocum in Spring of 1862. 
Gay, Franklin L. Killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 
Galvin, Michael. Killed at the Wilderness May 5th, 1864. 

Hickey, James E. 

Hollenbeck, Albert. Wounded and taken prisoner at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863 ; wounded at 

Laurel Hill May 8th, 1864, and at Petersburg, October, 1864 ; discharged at expiration of term , 

October 22d, 1864. 



Holmes, 
Haggerty, Timothy. 

Jeffrey, Charles J. Discharged. 

Jeffers, Charles W. 

Kibbe, Almon W. Discharged for disability. 

Lomereaux, Andrew. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Lathrop, Warren S. 

Merrick Chapin W. Taken prisoner at Gainesville ; promoted to Corporal, and killed at Get- 
tysburg July 1st, 1863. 

McLean, Daniel. Promoted to Corporal ; wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863; promoted 
to Sergeant May 20th, 1S64; wounded at Spottsylvania ; discharged September 20th, 1864. 

Murray, Oscar. Discharged at expiration of term. 

Miller, William. Promoted to Sergeant ; wounded at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. 

Matthews, David R. 



O.mpany II. ± 23 

H T '..-■ leave after the battles of Gainesville and Bull Bun. 

!£!S^ «r « gswswisESSW (as* - •» «- - 

^ss^:::^.^" -.< - •*- 

^j'u^lB^i8W.* nddlflcharged - 

TKi-.r.Y, F.mvtx M. 

S$ ;.<SK8£tefi*K* >• — — »• 

since which not 

tsyassri: M tetoM,dfl irr 

burg: Bin ' aot known. 

Bl( k. Vvi'..i I 

SS^JST L'w. «< - ■■ « «-■- s "'"" " """ ■""" *"'" 

BmgJ !K5?no<t«m. 

^SSirA M —.*.». 

STONS, I)kN\ I 

Skamahb, Henry C. 

^n , .^ u " "*.-> — «* - »- »— — » ■ " ■ "• 

Williams. BUMAXIX. 

"Wright, -I \- 

Pa-S rsOH, William. 



, oMPAXV H* 

AmosL.Su. I 

&&£& ; — • s 

JKe • — hM -*-■ — " ' " 

JESS > irffi^e^^^ffi ^^ 
Srf ^S«SLS^»S&.- r 

re-enlisted, and ronndea in w«s ui .!,„„•, 

chare. : o.n.oral A good soldier; re-enltoted and Mli< 

Captain Bi 



424 The Seventy-sixth Kegiment N. Y. V. 

William A. Warnep., Musician. A good boy; re-enlisted and served faithfully to the end of 
the war. 

PRIVATES. 

Allen Winslow. See pages 260, 261, 262. 

Busn, Joseph. Served his three years of time as teamster and discharged. 

Billings, Chables H. Served his three years and honorably discharged. 

Baker, Erving. One of the bravest and best of soldiers ; promoted to Sergeant ; wounded at 

Gettysburg in leg and foot and in other leg at Coal Harbor, and honorably discharged. (See 

pages 212, 213.) 
Bronson, Jay. A faithful soldier: detailed with Ambulance Corps; wounded in right arm at 

Weldon Railroad ; re-enlisted and served till end of war. 
Belknap, Lewis H. A shirk ; re-enlisted and discharged at end of war. 
Bolster, Edward. A " dead beat ;" re-enlisted, got sick and put in Invalid Corps. 
Bartlett, Jerome. Discharged for disability in summer of 1862. 
Basworth, George. A good soldier ; killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1S63. 
Babcock, Frank. Died in hospital spring of 1S62. 

Blickman, Lewis. A good soldier; wounded at Bull Run August 29th. 1S62 ; killed at Gettys- 
burg July 1st. 1863. 
Bishop, Marvin P. A good soldier; re-enlisted and killed in front of Petersburg while out as 

skirmisher. 
Brown, William H. Re-enlisted ; promoted to Sergeant ; wounded in leg at Gettysburg. A 

faithful soldier. 
Clark, William. One of the best boys in the Company ; always at his post ; went through to 

the end of the war. 
Clark, Charles L. Served his three years, mostly as teamster, and honorably discharged. 
Crounse, George F. Deserted before the Company left Cherry Valley. 
Conket, Lanson F. Served three years and honorably discharged. 
Chandler Charles. Discharged for disability April, 1862. 
Cole, Jasper C. Deserted from Fort Massachusetts. 
Clark, John A. Died at Fredericksburg in July, 1862. 

Dawson, John. A faithful and trusty soldier ; killed at Gettysburg. 
Decker, Joseph H. Deserted before the Company left Cherry Valley. 
Dingman, Charles R. Wounded in hand at Gainesville and discharged. 
Davis, Charles. A good soldier ; re-enlisted and served to end of war. 

Dutcher, James H. A poor concern j badly scared at Gainesville ; played sick ; got discharged ; 
re-enlisted ; shot his leg to get off, but died from the wound. 

Embridge, Ambrose. A good soldier ; re-enlisted and served to end of the war. 

Fonda, Lorenzo. Always on hand ; re-enlisted ; badly wounded in body at Coal Harbor, but 

stuck through the war. 
Fern, John S. A faithful teamster and wagon-master ; discharged for disability in winter of 

Finnegan, John. Always ready for mischief and usually for duty ; re-enlisted and served to 

end of the war. 
Fenton, Thomas. A " poor stick ;" discharged for pretended disability in fall of 1862. 
Foland, Alfred. A No. 1 soldier ; made Sergeant ; re-enlisted and went through to the end of 

the war. 
Fox, B. J. D. A first-class soldier ; made Sergeant ; killed at the Wilderness May 5, 1864. 

Griggs, John R. Taken prisoner at second Bull Run ; exchanged and deserted from Camp 

Parole, Annapolis. 
Gross, Albert. A No. 1 soldier ; in all battles, if possible ; re-enlisted and served to end of war. 
Greenwood, John. A faithful fellow ; re-enlisted and served to end of war. 
Green, Byron. A good and faithful soldier ; killed at Gainesville. 
Howe, Henry S. Discharged for disability in summer of 1862. 
Howe, Solomon. The banner soldier of the Company ; in every battle the Regiment was in : 

slightly wounded five or six times, but never left his Company ; re-enlisted ; served till end of 

Hudson, John B. A good soldier ; served three years and honorably discharged. 

Hickey. John. A rough little fellow, but a good soldier ; wounded at Gettysburg ; re-enlisted 
and served till end of war. 

Hollick, August. A poor shirk ; discharged in 1863 for disability— sham. 

Herrick, Henry. Discharged in 1862 for disability, (caused by drink.) 

Ho\g, Charles. Served three years, mostly in hospital. 

Hewell, William. Taken prisoner at second Bull Run; deserted from Parole Camp, Colum- 
bus, O., and never returned. 

Harkings, John. Served his time, but much of it in hospital. 

Houston, James A. Full of pluck and fight; lost finger at South Mountain; re-enlisted and 
served to the end of the war. 

Laning, Thomas A. Died in hospital at Washington June, 1862. 

Lake, Henry. A good soldier ; in many battles ; twice a prisoner ; discharged in July, 1865. 

Lewis, John. Deserted from Fort Massachusets April, 1862. 

Marshall, Anthony. One of the best soldiers of the Regiment ; in every battle ; always ready 
for dutv ; re-enlisted and served to the end of the war. 

Mudge, David W. Taken prisoner at second Bull Run and deserted from Parole Camp, Colum- 
bus, O., and never returned. 

McCoy, Martin. Deserted before Company left Cherry Valley. 

Mickel, Harrison. Served three years well and honorablv discharged. 

Mills, John. A faithful soldier ; discharged for disability in 1863, after the battle of Antietam. 

Mahany, Walter. A rough fellow, but one of the best of soldiers; re-enlisted and served to 
the end of the war. 



Company I. 425 

Merry, James. Deserted from Fort Massachusetts 1862. 

'i^brntyV.'^^ IL Wounded :lt Q»lnenrme and pat into invalid Corps, and discharged tor 
MUBFHT, Charles. Deserted before Company left Cherry Valley. 
Newell, John F. Discharged tor disability In 1864, from invalid Corps. 
N SsteTa5dM rngsoldtor; learned to write good hand after enlisting; re** 

Newkirk, John. disability in April, 1S62. 

Ovser, Frederi. K . a poor -htrk : discharged for sham disability 1889 
OHrisn. Hikvm. Killed at the Wlldei I, though simple soldier 

bounty*"" ''""'"' d '" Vm 1 '"' dl - :lbilu - v ' " lul re-enltated tor one year In iM6i fur a lurgc 

Picket, Rohert. Deserted from Fort Massachusetts and never returned 
Polard, James H. mpany left Cherry Valley. 

Rorick, JonN. Kir. ;rg ; a good soldier. 

Stephens, John-. Mo. 1 soldier; saved colore at Gettysburg and made color Sergeant for it • 
re-enlisted and b< rved to end of war. 

Stanton, .i \ , i , Killed at Gainesville : a g 1 soldier. 

ScHXHXBBHOBjr, Fbajtcis. Deserted on furlough In 1882. 

Snow, GxOBOa. No. 1 soldier; wounded in thigh at Gainesville, and finally discharged In con- 
sequence. J " 

Smith, Willi h \ Discharged for disability In 1888. 

Salibbubt, W. C. Discharged for disability June 23d, 1862. 

Swan, Bm) 1 1 J I See page 408..) 

Van- VAi.KENiunr,, John. Deserted Mav, 1862, and not returned. 

Van Buren, .I..HN. A good and brave young soldier j badly wounded in three piaees ■,• i « 
burg ; re-eaUsted and served to the end of the war. 

"Winter*, ffm i wi H. Discharged for disability in summer of 1863. 
Waters, Edwin. Spent most of his time as "hospital beat." 

Wait Willi VM - v * B°od soldier; wounded in thigh at Gettysburg; re-enlisted and 
faithfully to end of war, much of ttie time as Corporal. 

ZEn, Hiram. Deserted forepart of 1862. 

Lyxoii, George. A good soldier ; transferred to Regulars, and afterward killed in battle. 

Yottman, Abram. Discharged for disability June 23d, 1863. 

Matcher, Jonx. A good soldier; badly wounded at Gettysburg and transferred to Invalid 
Corps. 



COMPANY I.* 

John E. Cook, Captain. (See pages 356and 357.) 

Hiram A. Hi ti >. First Lieutenant ; discharged. Appointed AdJ't of Regiment Jan. 2 1863 

Richard William 1 Lieutenant. (See page 407J 

John M. "Watkrm i _ int. (See pages 382 and 383.) 

Peter S.CLABK,8ec Promoted to First Bergeanl May nth, 1862; to Second Lieu- 

tenant Julv 11th. 1863. 

William J. Lioiu.b. Third Serjeant. Appointed Brigade Comr, 
Doubled. u ; killed near Petersburg, Va., June 24th, 1884. 

Lyman Warner, i 

Lewis Uifenui ko, Fifth Sergeant. Promoted to Sergeant October 22d, 1861 ; discharged \t.nl 
22d, 1863. 

Hiram Lawyer, Flrsl Corporal. Appointed Sergeant September 1st, 1863; killed near Peters- 



WELLER Pi i Hi-charged for disability April 24th, 1882, 

William A. Bishop, Third ( orporal. Deserted from hospital June 1862. 

John l > : - Taken prisoner al Bull Bon August *-.nii. 1H62- rejoined 



Compan) t,1863. Killed at Laurel Hill May 13th. 1884. 

Hezekiah' Bmttb, i iftb i orporal. Died In hospital at Bnarpfbnrg, Mil., November I 

Silas Smith. Sixth Corporal. Appointed Sergeant Julv 1st, 1862; appointed First Sergeant and 
then Second Lieutenant and transferred to ( ompany (;. 

Henr\ Spebbi >. • ■ al. Reduced to ranks December 24th, 1882 ; deserted Janua- 

ry 20th and brought back January 30th, ls<>; ; discharged on expiration ol term, December 1st 
1861 

Charles li' ;hth Corporal. Died at Washington^ D. C, Jane 8th, 1862, ol 

Oliver K Bates. Mi I at Baltimore January 23a, 1863. 

Clark i " r. lic-enbsted February 2llh, IBM, 

•The record Of tins Company Is taken from the Company Bookln the possession of Lieutenant 
Lavobure SUbbins, of Homer, N. V. 



426 The Seventy-sixth Regiment N. Y. Y. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, Alvah. Deserted from hospital, in New York, in February, 1862. 
Algek, Charles. Discharged December 1st, 1864, on expiration of term. 

Bartholomew, Charles. Discharged December 1st, 1864, on expiration of term. 

Barton, Darius C. Appointed Corporal November 1st, 1862, and Sergeant September 14th, 
1863 ; killed May 5th, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. 

Barringer, "William L. Transferred to Veteran Reserve C»rps in April, 1863. 

Becker, Edward H. Discharged for disability March 25th, 1862. 

Bice, Henry. Deserted from Fort Massachusetts, D. C, May 21st, 1862. 

Bice, John J. Appointed Sergeant May 17th, 1862 ; Coporal May 25th, 1863. 

Bove, Edwin A. Discharged at Washington August 26th, 1862. 

Boom, William H. H. Discharged. 

Borst, Martin. Deserted May 16th, 1862. 

Borst, Joseph L. Deserted at Albany January 17th, 1862. 

Bouch, Christopher. Deserted on the march into Maryland September 8th, 1862. 

Brayman, Charles. Died at Washington, of typhoid fever, May 30th, 1862 ; buried near "Sol- 
diers' Home," D. C. 

Brezee, Abram. Deserted May 14th, 1862. 

Cater, John D. Re-enlisted March 30th, 1863, at Culpepper, Va. ; missing in action October 

10th, 1864. 
Champenoy, Harrison. Died at Home, (Berne, N. Y.,1 March 8th, 1862. 
Clark, Edward A. Discharged for disability, April 23d, 1862. 
Coons, James E. Deserted on furlough, from Albany, February, 1862. 
Coons, John W. Promoted to Second Lieutenant, and transferred to Company G. 

Dimond, Jottn. Discharged at expiration of term, December 1st, 1864. 

Duel, David H. Wounded at Gainesville, August 28th, 1862 ; discharged November, 1862. 

Dutcher, Tartellas. Deserted January 21st, 1863. 

Eceerson, John. Discharged at expiration of term, December 1st, 1864. 

Edwards, Madison. Deserted at Albany, in February, 1862. 

Efner, Erastus I. Wounded, taken prisoner and paroled at Gainesville, August 28th. 1862 ; 

promoted to Coporal August 1st, 1862, and to Sergeant ; killed at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 
Ellis, Rasselas. Discharged January 8th, 1863, at Washington. 

Field, Samuel L. Taken prisoner and paroled at Bull Run August 29th, 1862 ; deserted Janua- 
ry 20th, 1864. 

Getter, Jerome. Elected Second Lieutenant January 7th, 1862, and thrown out in consolida- 
tion of companies at Albany. 

Hammomd, James H. Appointed Corporal August 1st, 1862 ; killed at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. 

Harvey, John J. Deserted at Cherry Valley, January 5th, 1862. 

Harvey, Matthias. Deserted at Cherrv Valley, January 7th, 1862. 

Hayward, Aaron. Appointed Corporal January 1st 1863, and Sergeant May 5th, 1864; re-en- 
enlisted January 1st, 1864 ; took the colors, after the Color Bearer was shot down, and carried 
them with honor, always being at the front. 

Herron, Daniel. Deserted at Cherry Valley November 25th, 1861 

Hillsley, John J. Died at Fredericksburg, Va., August 9tn, 1862, and buried there. 

Keyser, Abram. Detailed as bass drummer ; discharged December 1st, 1864. 

Lawyer, Nelson. Wounded May 12th, 1864, at Laurel Hill, Va. 

Lawyer, William H. Taken prisoner at Fredericksburg December 16th, 1862, and paroled in 

January. 
Lockwood, Jeeemt An. Died of typhoid fever at Falls Church Hospital August 17th, 1862. 
Lynes, David. Killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1st, 1863. 

Mattison, Charles S. Lost an arm, and discharged October 28th, 1863. 

Mann, George D. Deserted at Cherry Valley December 16th, 1863. 

Mann, Thomas J. Discharged for disability January 24th, 1864. 

Manning, Adam. Deserted May 21st, 1862. 

Manschoeffer, Jacob. Taken prisoner and paroled at Gainesville August 28th, 1862 ; rejoined 

company December 21st, 1862. 
Mattice, Joseph H. Discharged for disability at Philadelphia, October 14th, 1862. 
Merrihue, Leander E. Discharged for disability March 5th, 1862. 
Moon, Lewis. Deserted at Cherry Valley January 8th, 1862. 

Nelson, Holmes H. Taken prisoner and paroled at Bull Run August 29th, 1862 ; discharged for 
disability January 8th, 1863. 

Oliver, Gideon. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862 ; has never been heard from since. 

Parsloe, Jacob. Died at Washington, October 3d, 1862, of wounds received at Gainesville Au- 
gust 28th, 1862. 

Parsloe, William H. For bravery was appointed Sergeant ; discharged at expiration of term, 
December 1st, 1864. 

Picktns,Alvin. Deserted from Hospital at Cherrv Vallev in Februarv, 1862. 

Pierce, Ralph. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862; rejoined Company February 20th, 
1863 ; discharged at expiration of term, December 1st, 1864. 

Proper, Daniel M. Deserted January 19th, 1863. 

Redmond, Thomas. Appointed Corporal August 1st, 1862, and Sergeant of Company E Septenr 

ber 5th, 1862 ; discharged afterwards. (See nage 121). 
Ruland, Amos. Appointed Corporal November 1st, 1862 ; deserted January 21st, 1863. 
Scrambling, John. Died at Hospital in Washington, D. C, May 25th, 1864, of gunshot wound. 
SEcor, Leveritt. Discharged for disability JulylOth, 1862. 
Shufelt, Orison. Died at Harwood Hospital, D. C., April 18th, 1864. 



('"Ml'WY K. 



ll'T 



smith. Andrew h. Appointed Quartermaster at Cherry Valley, October 15th, lsei j r< 

supernun 
Smith, Nei i at Gainesville, 'An 

Parole Camp 
Steven. Abi din battle. 

Ml [.[VAX.. I. .11'. 
SWEET, STEPHEN 

Teater, Henv.v I iken prisoner at Frederic'. '; paroled In January, 

and nut 91 
Tompkins. M ted Corporal September 1st, lNi; ; wounded May 5th, ls»'d ; taken 

prisoner. 
Traver, Calvin Dlacha -;.ltal at expiration of term 

Tygert, Georue V try Valley, December 30th, LBB1, 

Vajt Pat tot, G Fredericksburg, July Bd, 1868, of fever. 

Van Valkkn .ndeR. Taken prisoner and paroled, at Gain '>i-t28tli, 

1862; re- < ulpepper. 

Van Valkkn- expiration of term, December 1st, IBM 

pages 163 ani 

Vosbubgh, Abram. Discharged. 

Waggoner, II' rted May 14th, 

Warner. Ii;v | t,rm, December 1st, 1B64. 

Warner. Job Valley. January 4th, isif.>, ,>r measles. 

Weiumas ! ilnes> llle, An( supposed tohavcbccndlscharged. 

Weidman, Raxpb Ei Isted In Sei , United States Army. 1MB. 

Wheeler, Joes I: ■ ishlngton, February 18th, 1882: bnried at "Soldiers' Home." 

Which r. 1 ai. :■■■•■■■ , N Court Hon 

Weight, i iuki i- h. Discharged for disability, July 7th, I 

Wrioht, Flei< iieh Discharged. 

Yanson, Joseph. Died from gunshot wonnd, at Gainesville, August 29th, 1862. 



I "MTAXV K. 



John W. Toi 
Charles A. 

ClfAlNCKY M. • 

15th, 1862, and was 

Caltern B. Shays, 
sonville ; paroh d 

Thomas F. Wbldo> 

William V. 
hospital at' 

Hiram It. Iv; 

Jefferson 1 

Andress in 
Henry C ra 

deserted from par 
Samuel B. i 
James L. Caslbr, I 

tured at M 

14th, 1885; was In 1 
James P. Avkkkll. 
L'HAVXf'EY I •: 

dlsal.i' 
Willi- S* 
William Q 

ferred to \ 

Habbisos '■■ 

York Volu 
Benjamin A 

to 91st Nca 



Antice, - 
Allen, Dan 1 kl. 

Burton . 

I'.AI.OU 1 ■ 

prison 



m1360). 
- ■ ■ : . i 865 ai 

• to Washington, D. C, on elck leave. July 
• ii-ability, September 12th, 1862. 

. Captured May 5th, 1864, at Wlldernei Ander- 

moer, 1.H64, and honorably dlscharced, his term having expired. 
179 and 380). 
v, "iiii.li ■! at <ottvsburs, July 1st, 1863; sent to the 
'•' ■--. and honorably discharged. 

. Ith the Regii 
;eant. Disci - ddllty, February 8th, 18S4. 

, First Corporal. Deserted May UUl 

: at Bull Run, August 30th, 1862; paroled, and 
. < Ihlo. 
poral. Discharged for disability In Julv, 1862. 

1 nant In Jam: . 

1st, 1885; discharge. 
Kcirlincnt until captnred. 
il. Discharged for disability, May l«ih, 1882. 

'ischarg 1 the B -iment. 

irporal. Wounded at Gainesville, August 28th, 18G2 ; trans- 
Reserve corps, and discharged In summer of 1865. 

ferred to 147th New York Volants* 

in w Ith that Regiment. 

[ lui omnilssary Sergeant to 117th, then 

ad with that Beglmenl mastered out. 

I'RIY.VI! - 

IMarUthJ 

■ 1 1. .ment. 

1. :iment. 
m II. Captured at Wilderness, May 5th, 1864; 
><r and honorably discharged. 



paroled from Andcrsonvillc 



•The Re ; : »nv was made np by Its former Captain, Major John W. Young, to 

whom in . jre due for his Interest In this work. 



428 - The Seventy-sixth Eegevient N. Y. Y. 



Baldwin, Charles. Wounded at South Mountain, September 14th, 1862 ; sent to hospital and 

honorably discharged, for wound, February 13th, 1863. 
Bbows, Albert. Captured at Bull Run, August 30tli, 1862 ; paroled and sent to parole camp, 

Columbus, Ohio j went home and did not return. 
Beetrand, Lewis. "Wounded at South Mountain, September 14th, 1862 ; sent to the hospital 

and honorably discharged for the wound. 
Beazee, Samuel. Wounded in hand September 10th, 1362, and discharged on that account 

December 23d, 1S62. 
Bellinger, John. Detailed February 16th, 1S62, to gunboat service West, and subsequently 

discharged. 
Becker, Levi S. Discharged for disability, June 21st, 1862. 

Cole, Joshua. Discharged for disability, June 23d, 1863 ; came back under assumed name, as 
substitute, October, 1S63 ; deserted a day or two after, and not since heard from. 

CorsE, Hiram. Deserted May 20th 1862. 

Crandall, Burton. Deserted May 20th, 1S62, and killed at home by a tree falling upon him 
while at work. 

Chapman, Alfred. In all the engagements with his Regiment until Gettysburg, July 1st, 1S63, 
when supposed to have been killed. 

Chapman, Francis. "Wounded at Gainesville, August 2Sth, 1862 : paroled and sent to hospital ; 
supposed tohavebeen killed at Gettysburg July 1st, 1863. These two men were brothers, and 
leave a mother in England : no relatives in America. 

Chappel, Elijah. Captured at Bull Run, August 29th, 1S62, and paroled ; captured at Wilder- 
ness, Mav 5th, 1864, and sent to Andersonville, where he died. 

Ceippen, Ezra. Wounded at Gainesville, August 2Sth, 1S62, and died of wound the next day. 

Chapin, Lorenzo. Discharged for disability October 24th, 1862. 

Chase, William H. Promoted to Regimental Quartermaster June 5th, 1862 ; returned to Com- 
pany July 29th, 1862, by order of Colonel Wainwright ; discharged for disability. 

Devoe, Chaeles W. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862, and died next day of the 
wound. 

Devoe, George W. Severely wounded at Gainesville, August 2Sth, 1862 ; severely wounded at 
Wilderness, May 5th, 1864, and taken prisoner ; sent to Andersonville, and there died of star- 
vation in prison. 

Dunn, John. Died in 1861, while home on a furlough. 

Dutcher, Henry C. Deserted while under charges, May 20th, 1862. 

Doty, George W. Was sent to the hospital sick m summer of 1862 ; did not return to the Reg- 
iment. 

Fowler, Adelbeet. Died at Patent Office Hospital, D. C, May 4th, 1862. 

Grant, Seth H. Went home from Cherry Valley on sick leave, and died while at home. 

Hubbabd, William H. S. Deserted January 20th, 1863; had previously been a good soldier, 
and been with the Reeiment in all its actions. 

Hemstbeet, Nathan T. Sent to hospital sick and honorably discharged. 

Hammell, Peter M. Died while home on furlough. 

Hannan, Michael. Wounded at South Mountain, September 14th, 1862 ; discharged for wound ; 
has cork leg ; resides at Cooperstown, N. Y. 

Hagadobn, Nelson. Deserted before leaving the State. 

House, Charles. Transferred to 14Tth New York Yolunteers, and to 91st New York Volun- 
teers, with which he was discharged at close of war, July 18th, 1865. 

Ingallsbee, Silas. Went home from Albany, in January, 1S62, by permission of Colonel 

Green, and did not return. 
Ingalls, George W. Deserted before leaving the State. 

Janes, Elihu O. Deserted before leaving the State. 

Jenks, Ezra G. Captured at Wilderness, Ya.,May5th,lS64, and taken to Andersonville, where 

he died of starvation. 
March, Enoch D. Deserted before leaving the State. 
Marquisee Barney. Wounded at South Mountain, Md., September 14th, 1862 ; discharged in 

consequence, November 22d, 1862. 
McKeever, John. Discharged for disability, July ISth. 1862. 
McGarrity, James. Deserted near Purcellville, Va., November 2d, 1862. 
McDaniels, Alexander. Went home from Albany on sick furlough in January, 1S62, and 

died at Oaksville, Otsego Co., June 25th, 1862. 
Maicos, John. Transferred to Company H. 

Norton, James. Discharged July 22d, 1862, by the Secretary of War, on account of age and 
size ; afterwards joined the 24th Wisconsin Volunteers. 

Olds, Rosweld. Transferred to 3d New York Artillery January 17th, 1862. 

Patterson, Eeastus. Deserted January 20th, 1S63; had previously been a good soldier and 

in all the battles with the Regiment. 
Pixley, Benjamin. Deserted before leaving the State. 
Pendall, Charles W. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862. 
Phelps, Joseph. Wounded at Gainesville August 28th, 1862 ; transferred to the 147th New York 

Volunteers, from which he was honorablv discharged. 
Powell, Willliaji E. Captured at Bull Run August 29th, 1S62 ; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., 

July 1st, 1863. 
Parmer, William H. Honorablv discharged at expiration of term, October, 1S64. 
Prescott, Anthony. Killed at Bull Run, Va., August 29th, 1862. 
Pettie, Harrison. Discharged for disability December 19th 1863, at New York. 

Ripley, William H. (See pages 369 and 370) . 

Roe, Morton. Transferred to 117th New York Volunteers, with which he was discharged in 
1865. 



OOMPAHT K. L29 

Stephen's, Henry II. Would nui a- BOOD U be heard the report of the enemy's Runs ; dishon- 
orably discharged tor cowardice, October 20tb. 1882, by sentence of Court .Martial. 

Bhtjtbs.Ro I before leaving the State. 

Smith, Chabt.tm H. Beverelj wounded a1 Gettysburg July 1st. 1 868,— four balls passed through 
bis body and a ebell tore open his hip ; for several months all bis food named through his 
wounds ; discharged in October, im>», and resides at Decatur, Otsego to. ; wounds still open, 
July 1-1 

Sri: ait, Harrison. Disc irgi d tor disability December 6th, 1S&J, at Alexandria. 

BITT8,] i u • die ibillty Jannarj 16th, 1868. 

' I its, I'll.!. irtci'1 for disability December loth, 

Bhtpkah, Bbi ob. Dl icharged w Ith the Regiment Id 186*. 

Small, EdwjlBD. Transferred to Battery ll, 3d Artillery, and honorably discharged Jane 36tb, 
1865, at Richmond, Vs. ; was in twenty-eight engagements, commencing at Peep Creek, N. C, 
April 2d, 1863, and ending with marching into RichmondVApril Bd, 

SiiEPiiEitn, Rii ill Run. August 29th, 1862. 

shaul, obla.noo. Died of fever, September nth, 1883, at Washington, D. C. 

Thater, Jrurs P. Discharged July 34th, 1888, because too small. 
Vooriiees, John. Killed at Gainesville, V:i„ August 28th, 1862. 

WBrraiT,] Di H. Discharged for disability, at Albany, January 1st. 

Whitney, .1 \m k~ ii. Discharged for disability, at Washington, March lth, 1862. 

Whipple, Jo rted before leaving the Stat.'. 

Wright, Char] H •- ted before leaving the State. 

win.v, Johb R ■ inded at Gainesville, August 28th, 1883. 

Wright, Ebxkbzbb. Wounded at South .Mountain, Beptember llth, 1862, and died of his 
wound the next day ; burled near the Church at that place. 

Waterman, B ibillty, May 17th, 1863, 

Woodcock, George A. Transferred to 117th New York Volunteers, with which he was dis- 
charged. 

Walber, Joiix. Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, from which he was honorably dis- 
charged in the -in imi r of 1865 j resides at Springfield, N. Y. 

Wenslow, Lbstxb N. Killed at Gainesville, August 38U1, 1S62, by the side of his tent mate, 
John Voorhees, fcllh 'I al the same time. 

"Wires, Gilbert. Deserted January 20th, 1868, and Joined another Regiment. 

Wait, Ajubxbt. Was enticed away at Cherry Valley, November 28th, 1861, and Joined the 78th 
New York Volunl 

Waterhouse, Oriun. Died at Fredericksburg, Va., June 10th, 1802, and buried there. 

Yaoer. James. !': rgent; captured at Wilderness, May 5th, 1864 ; taken to Au- 

dersonville ; parol . 1864. 

Yorx.;, Math i -ed for disability, at Pratt's Point, Ya., March 22d, 1863; died on his 

way home. March Mth. 
Young, Ezra. Deserted May 21st, 1862: afterwards Joined the 121st New York Volunteers, 

and was captured in the summer of 1864; taken to Andersonvllle, paroled and honorably 

discharged. 



- I93G