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Full text of "The history of the several towns, manors, and patents of the county of Westchester, from its first settlement to the present time"

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County of Westchester, 





Carefully Revised by its Author. 

By the Late Rev. ROBERT BOLTON, 


Edited by the Rev. C. W. BOLTON, New Rochelle. 


"// is the privilege of History/ to impart the experience of age, 7vithout its infirmi- 
ties ; to bring back things long obscured by time, or sinking into oblivion ; and enable 
us to form some reasonable conjectures of what may happen to posterity" ' — PoULSON's 
Hist, of Holderness. 


CHAS. F. ROPER, 27 Rose Street. 


Vol. II. 



O S S I 2ST-1 1ST a- 

This township is bounded on the East and South by Mount Pleasant, 
(of which it once formed a part, a ) on the West by the Hudson river, 
and on the north by New Castle and the Croton river. Like the 
neighboring townships, it was originally included within the honour and 
fee of Philipsburgh. 

Ossin-ing, the proper Indian orthography of the word variously 
written Sin-sing, Sing Sing, Sin Sinck and Sink Sink, is derived from 
ossin, (a stone) and ing (a place) or "stone upon stone: " L — a name 
exceedingly characteristic of this beautiful town, whose coast is guarded 
by a vast munition of rocks and ancient boulders. At a very early 
period Ossin-ing constituted a part of the possessions of a powerful 
Mohegan clan called the Sint Sings. 

April the 2 2d, 1643, appeared before the Dutch Director General 
Kieft in Fort Amsterdam, Oratatrim, sachem of Ack-kin-kas-hacky, 
who declared he was deputed by those of Tappan, Reekgawanck, 
Kicktawanc and Sint Sinck, to conclude a peace with the Dutch in 
the following manner, viz. : that all the injustices committed by the 
said nations against the Netherlander, or by the Netherlander against 
said nations, shall be forgiven and forgotten for ever; reciprocally 
promising one another to cause no trouble the one to the other; but 
whenever the savages understand that any nation not mentioned in 

a This town wa3 separately organized, May 2d, 1S45. Laws of X. T., 1S45. Also 69 
Session, 1&±6, chap, xxx., 26-5 section. 

b N. T. Hist. Soc. Pro- 1S44. 101. Ossin in the Chippeway denotes "a stone." and Ossineen 
"stones." Trans. Amer. Antiq. Soc. vol. ii., 70. 


this treaty might be plotting mischief against the Christians, then they 
will give to them timely warning, and not admit such a nation within 
their own limits. To secure and confirm this peace, presents were 
given on both sides, while God is prayed that this peace may be duly 
observed by the savages. a 

30 August, 1645. Aepjen, chief sachem of the Mohegans personally 
appeared at Fort Amsterdam, as a delegate to the general council held 
there, in behalf of the Wappinecks, the Weckquaesqueecks, the Sint 
Sings and the Kicktawancks. b 

In the year A. D., 1663, the Sint Sings appear to have been without 
a chief. ° 

Between the Indian village of Sin-sing and the Kitchawanck, (Croton,) 
the early Dutch maps place another Indian settlement, called in Van 
der Donck's map of 1656, Kestaubuiuck ; in that of Nicholaus Johannes 
Visschers, 1659, Kestauboiuck. d 

" Along the East shores of the Tappan, says Mr. Schoolcraft, is the 
village of Kastoniuck, (a term still surviving in the opposite village of 
Niuck or Nyack.) The name of Nyack does not occur, continues the 
same authority, in records of the earliest period for the position of the 
present town. The word is found in an opposite Indian village of 
Kastoniuck. e 

The first grantee, under the Indians of Ossin-ing, was Frederick 
Phillipse to whom on the 24th of August, 1685, they released " all of that 
tract or parcel of land situate, lying, and being by the northermost part 
of the land late purchased by Frederick Phillipse, and so running 
alongst Hudson's river to the creek or river called Ketchawan, and 
called by the Indians Sint Sinck, with the use of half the said creek, 
and from thence running up the country upon a due east line until it 
comes to a creek called Niperan, by the Christians, Yoncker's creek, 
and so running alongst the said creek till it comes to the northerly 
bounds of the said land of Mr. Frederick Phillipse, and from thence 
alongst the said land till it comes to Hudson's river, together with, &c, 
&c. The grantors were 

Weskexaxe, Crawmax, Wappus, 

Keaxarham, Weuxicktanon, Aquaines, 

Mamaxxaxe, Weremenhore. 

a All). Rec. 11. 220. 

allaghan's Hist. x. x. p. 33c. 

c Alb. 1 :•■(•. xxi. 247. 

map attachment to the new series of tho x. Y. nist. Soc. vol. i.; also Dutch map, 
printed by Thomas Btarllng, Wilniiugton Square, London, from the original in the possession 
of S. Converse, publisher, X. Y. 

e Proceedings of X. Y. Hist. Soc. 1844. 


Here followeth the schedule or particular of the goods paid by the 
grantee for the above said lands. 


feet of black wampum, 





white wampum, 


fathom of stroudwater, 

1 1 



1. of powder, 


larger ditto. 


bars of lead, 


fathom of trade cloth, 












pair of stockings, 


stone jugs 


ankers of rum, 


iron chain, 


drawing knives, 


rolls of tobacco, 




pistols. a 

This Indian purchase was confirmed to his son Phillip Philipse by 
royal patent, dated 12th January, 1686, under the hand and seal of 
his Excellency, Thomas Dongan, Governor of the Province. 

" For all that land situate upon Hudson river to the northward of 
land purchased by Frederick Philipse, and reaches to Kitchawan creek, 
(Croton,) and is called by the Indians Sinck Sinckes, which is to run 
upon an east line to Bronx river, the northerly bounds thereof to be 
Kitchawan creek. And whereas the aforesaid Philip Philipse hath by 
virtue of the said license, and by my approbation, according to the law 
and practice of this goverment, for a valuable consideration purchased 
of the natives and Indian owners all their right, title and interest, claim 
and demand, of, in and to a certain tract or parcel of land, being a part 
of the land aforementioned within the aforesaid license, and situate and 
being by the northernmost part of the land purchased by Mr. Frederick 
Phillipse of the city of New York, merchant, and so running alongst 
Hudson's river to a certain creek or river called Kitchawan, and from 
thence running along the said creek two English miles, and from thence 
running up the country upon a due east line till it comes to a creek 
called Niperan, by the Christians Yoncker's creek, and so running 
along the said creek until it comes to the northerly bounds of the said 
land cf Frederick Phillipse, from thence along said land until it comes 
to Hudson river, as by the Indian deed of sale thereof, bearing date 
13th of August, A.D., 1685." 

On the death of Frederick Philipse, A. D., 1700, this portion of the 
Manor of Phillipsburgh passed by will to his second son Adolphe 
Philipse; who dying without issue in 1749, it became vested in his 
nephew, the Hon. Frederick Philipse, son of his eldest brother, Philip 

a Alb. Book of Pat. v. 90. 


Philipse. The last mesne lord was Colonel Frederick Philipse, with 
whose attainder these lands expired in the Philipse family. 

The subsequent proprietors who purchased under the commissioners 
of forfeitures, were the Wards, ! » sers, Cranks, Bazelies, Ackers, Purdys, 
Merritts, McCords, Bishops, Balyeas, Storms, Jones, Millers, Ryders, 
and others. 

The village of Sing Sing, is remarkable for the beauty of its situation j 
in which respect, it is hardly surpassed by any of the river towns. 
Spreading on the delightful banks of the Hudson it rises gradually to a 
height of one hundred and eighty feet above tide water overlooking the 
magnificent scenery of the Tappan Bay, near its confluence with the 
Croton. A beautiful ravine intersects the village, running nearly east 
and west, through which flows a pretty stream called the Sin Sinck run, 
or Kill brook. These waters rise among the hills east of the village, 
and after giving animation to numerous picturesque scenes, empty into 
the Hudson, near the vincinity of the upper dock. The course of this 
brook, a mile above the village, is marked by some singular phenomena. 
Among these are the Devil's stairs, formed in the face of a perpendicular 
rock 60 feet high, consisting of 16 steps. This extraordinary freak of 
nature is best seen from the south-west bank of the ravine. Directly 
beneath the stairs in the rocky bed of the river, are some rude marks 
closely resembling the prints of horses shoes. These, however, are only 
visble at low water. Immediately to the south, and almost close to the 
waters edge, is situated the Indian cave. The rocks of the same region 
abound in copper ores, such as copper pyrites, black sulphuret of copper, 
and green carbonate of copper ; likewise iron pyrites ; but they art- not 
found in such abundance as to warrant any extensive operations. 

North-east of the village is the Dale Cemetery, incoporated January 
17. 1S51, with about fifty acres improved; it has twelve trustees. The 
first president, Aaron Ward ; vice-president, Marlborough Churchill ; 
treasurer, S. Lockwood ; secretary, Geo. E. Stanton. 

The following monuments are to be found there : 

This was the first interment : 

I.v Mf.mokv 



for 27 years Pastor of the 

Presbyterian Church of Bedford, 

Westchester County. 


Private Chaplain of the 

Siug Sing Prison, 

Born Aug. 13. 1790, 

Died Oct. 25, 1851. 

Aged 61 years. 

In the work of the 
Gospel Ministry he spent 
a devoted and useful life 
He endured unto the end 
He fought a good fight 
He finished his course 

with joy 

Mark the perfect man 

and behold the upright 

for the end of that man 

is peace, xxxvii Psalm, xxxvii. 


Heee Repose 

The Mortal Remains 



one of that Band 


Incorruptible Patriots 

who achieved the 

Independence of their Country 

and transmitted 

to their Posterity 

The Fairest Form of Government 

That Human "Wisdom 

can devise. 

West End. 

This ardent and devoted friend of American Independence, entered the army 
in ] 776, as a Second Lieutenant with a Commission from John Hancock : and in 
1779, by a Commission from John Jay ; under these Commissions he was ever 
found at the post of danger, and faithfully served the Country until the close of 
fee Revolutionary struggle. 


South End. 


to the 





ilis surviving children 


Grand children 

A.D. 1857. 

North Side. 

He Departed this Life 

June 30th, 1820, 

Aged 73 years and 13 days. 

' The setting of his evening sun 
Was like the fading of a summer's day 
That sinks through cloudless glory to repose.' 

Here, also, repose 

the mortal remains 



the wife of Abraham Hyatt, 

who died 

June 14th, 1S05, 

aged 55 years, 

3 months and 13 days. 

Wife of Abram Hyatt, 

who departed this life 

April 10th, 1856, 

In the 43d year of her age. 

"Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth ; yea, saith the 
spirit, that they may rest from tin sir labours, and their works do follow them." 

" Lift's Duty done, a ; sink- tbe clay, 
Light from us ! \t<l the Bpirit ilic-.s. 
While heaven and earth combine to say, 
How blest the righteous when he dies." 


I. H. S. 


United States Army. 

Jan)' 5th, 1810, 

October 5, 1867. 


Com. Lieut. 
6th New York Artillery. 
Sept. 20, 1867, 
26 years. 
Act well your part — 
There all the honor lies. 


Born March 26, 1797, 

Died May 5, 1871. 



his wife, 

Born April 20, 1801, 

Died February 11, 1876. 

At Rest. 

Hope, Peace, 



Wife of 

M. L. Cobb, 

Born Feb. 6, 1820, 

Died March 25, 1871. 

"He that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live." 


Wife of 

Haeky Conelly, 

Died October 26, 1878. 

My Darling Wife, 

The Grave of 


And MARY, His Wife. 



WedJany 25, 1853, 

Aged 77. 


Died March 31, 1837, 
Aged 55. 



Feb. 27, 1867, 


76 years 7 months and 22 days, 

,; If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep 
in Jesus, will God briDg with him." 




His Wife. 

MARY L., wife 

Of Aaron Ward, 

Who departed this life 

May 1st, 1853, 

In the 55th year of her age. 

Sacred to the memory of the dead— 

The dead ! Religion answers no ; 
She is not dead, she cannot die, 

A Christian left this vale of woe, 
An angel lives on high. 

Frances died October 10, 1827, aged 3 years and 7 months ; Lotjisa Ootavia 
died in August, 1838, aged 5 months ; Elizabeth Malcolm died September 25th, 
1841, aged 11 months and 16 days ; Charles Watson, January 22, 1850, aged 16 
years and 26 days, children of Aaron and Mary L. Ward. 


Memory of 


Who served during the Revolutionary war in 

Colonel Weisenfel's 

Regiment of Infantry, 



Won for himself the reputation 
Of a brave and gallant 
"He was elected a member of the 
State Legislature, and for several 
years held the office of Surrogate 
Westchester County." 
Born Dec. 4, 1760, 
Died Sept. 12, 1839. 
In the 79th year of his age. 
This monument is erected by 
Major General Aaeox Waed, 
2d Div. of New York S. M., 
In testimony of his high appreciation 
of the services of a brave officer and a 
true patriot. 

The site of the present village of Sing Sing, is supposed to occupy 
partly the ground on which stood the ancient Indian settlement of Sing 
Sing, nearly two hundred years since. The existence of Indian habita- 
tions upon this particular spot, is amply proved by the vast number of 
shell beds, arrow heads and stone axes, still found in the neighborhood. 
Adrian Van der Donck, in his Dutch map before alluded to, styles the 
place Sin Sing; the same name now in use, with the exception of the 
single letter " g." 

At an early period, Sing Sing appears to have been a favorite landing- 
place for shipping the various marketable produce raised in the interior. 

There are several landings, from which numerous steam-boats and 
vessels are constantly plying to and from the City of New York ; a dis- 
tance of thirty-three miles. 

This village was incorporated by an act of the Legislature, passed 
A.D. 1813; afterwards amended May 15, 1837. The population of 
the village of Ossin-ing is (by the last census) about 6,800, without the 
convicts, which number about 1,500 more. It contains one national 
bank — president, C. F. Maurice ; and one savings' bank — president, G. 
B. Hubbel. The village contains, also, several academies and schools. 
Among the former is the Mount Pleasant Academy, situated in State 
Street. This institution was first founded by the inhabitants, A.D. 
181 4, and was incorporated on the 24th of March, 1820, and subse- 


quently received a charter from the Regents of the University. The 
location of the school is beautiful. The couise of study varies, as the 
pupil is intended for commercial or professional life. The Bible is a 
standard class-book of the institution, and is used by every member. 

Belonging to the institution is a well selected and valuable library of 
12.000 volumes; to this the pupils have frequent access. The pupils 
are under the wholesome and effective discipline of a mild but decidedly 
military system. The exercises in this department consist of infantry 
and artillery drills, target practice, and fencing with small and broad 
swords. The Sabbath is strictly regarded as a day of rest ; and the 
pupils are required to attend some place of worship with their teachers. 
The number of the pupils is limited. The principals are Messrs. Benja- 
min and Allen. 

Ossin-ing Institute for Young Ladies stands in a retired part of the 
village, and in the midst of large well shaded grounds. The building 
which is unusually attractive and home-like, commands some of the 
finest river views that can be obtained at any point along the Hudson. 
The institution aims to combine superior educational advantages, with 
the choicest home influences.. A symmetrical development of the physi- 
cal, intellectual and moral powers, is constantly sought as the best pos- 
sible preparation for future usefulness in life ; and the aquisition of that 
wisdom, the beginning of which is "the fear of the Lord," is held to be 
supremely important. The principal is the Rev. C. D. Rice, A.M. 

Occupying a very conspicuous situation, above the rest of the village, 
stands St. John's School. This school for boys succeeded the admirable 
n-ork inaugurated on the same spot, and in the same building, by Mr. 
M. Churchill, a quarter of a century before, and from which he retired 
in 1869. The Rev. I. Breckenridge Gibson, D.D., now rector and 
principal, purchased the property on Mr. Churchill's withdrawal, and 
changed the name. For more than thirty years he has been engaged in 
Christian education ; and by Christian education he means " the whole 
work of fitting body, mind and soul, for the duties of this life, and for 
the happiness of that which is to come." 

The location is about 250 feet above the level of the noble Hudson ; 
commanding one of the finest views of that river, from the Highlands on 
the north, to the Palisades on the south. The advantages of the posi- 
tion, as regards accessibility, beauty and healthfulness, could hardly be 
surpassed. The building is of brick ; ample in its dimensions ; erected 
and arranged with great care and regard for the comfort, convenience 
and safety of his pupils. The grounds (about six acres) afford abundant 
room for those games and sports which are so essential to the happiness 


of boys, and to the development of physical health. Both of the above 
named objects are also attained by a gymnasium, provided for their use, 
and by the neighboring hills and country, over which they are allowed 
to roam under certain necessary restrictions, and within certain limits. 
Near the centre of the village, is situated the Episcopal church of St. 
Paul's, a beautiful Gothic structure of Sing Sing marble. Beneath the 
body of the edifice is an extensive basement, containing lecture, vestry 

St. Paul's Church, Sing Sing. 

and robing rooms. Above the tower entrance, a neat escutcheon bears 
the following inscription : 


The interior is neat and appropriate. The altar and font are of 
polished marble, richly carved ; the latter presented by Miss Ludlow. 

The communion sendee, consisting of a flagon, two chalices and 
paten, were the gift of Mrs. Jacob Arthur. The tower contains a large 
bell manufactured by "A. Meneely, West Troy, N. Y., 1S35," weight. 
15001b. It was purchased by the vestry at a cost of four hundred and 
fifty dollars. The deep tones of this powerful bell can be heard for 
many miles, over the adjoining hills. 

" As wave on wave, the tide of sound 
Fills the bright atmosphere." — Christmas Bells. 


The corner stone of this church was laid by the Right Rev. B. T. 
Onderdonk, November 6th, 1S34, in the presence of a large concourse 
of people ; on which occasion an address was delivered by the Rev. 
Edward N. Mead. Deacon, minister of the parish. The Rev. Peter S. 
Chauncey, A. B., then a Deacon, minister of Christ church, Rye, in this 
county was also present and assisting. In the stone were deposited a 
Bible and Book of Common Prayer, as an evidence that the church is 
spiritually founded upon " apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself 
being the chief corner stone;" also the canons of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States of America, journals of the General 
and Diocesan Conventions, with other journals and pamphlets, together 
with a glass bottle closed and sealed, containing among many other 
things a parchment, on which was the following inscription : 

St. Paul's CnuRcn, Incorporated November Utii, 1S33. 

Rev. Edward Nathaniel Mead, A.M., Hector. 

George "VV. Cartwright and Caleb Bacon. Church icai'dens. 

J<>nx Strang, Peter R. Maison, William Darjue, Jacob C. Arthur. 

John Sing, John Barlow, Joseph Hunt, and Robert Wiltse, Vestrymen. 

John Smith, Qlerkofthe Vestry. 

Samuel C. Nichols, Superintendent of the Sunday School. 

Mrs. John Strang, Superintendent of the Female Department. 

Carman Nichols, Secretary, Robert Wiltse, Treasurer. 

John Barlow, Librarian. 

Jacob C. Arthur, Joseph Hunt, George W. Cartwright. 

John Strang and John Sing, Building Committee. 

Ledyard II. Halsey, Builder. 

Calvin Pollard, Architect. 
Paul McCord, Superintendent. 

On Wednesday, July 6th, 1836, it was consecrated and set apart to 
the worship and service of Almighty God, under the title of St. Paul's 
church, by the Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, Bishop of the Diocese. 

From the church records we extract the following memoranda, 3rd 
October, 1833, "A meeting of Episcopalians residing in this village and 
vicinity, was held at the house of Mr. Caleb Bacon, who resolved to 
form themselves into a society for the purpose, under Divine favor and 
assistance, of forming a church in said village ; and that we will com- 
municate with our Episcopal friends and neighbors on the subject, and 
urge by our best efforts their co-operation in the good work." This is 
signed by George W. Cartwright, William Darjue, John Barlow, C. 



Bacon and John Strang; they also agreed to write to the Rev. Mr. Jel- 
liff of North Salem, who has expressed "a wish to aid in establishing a 
church with us " 

Previous to this date there had been occasional services held at some 
private house, when a clergyman of the Church happened to be in the 
village or vicinity. 

November nth, 1833, the first election of officers took place. 

December 4th and 5th, 1833, "it was resolved to memorialize the 
rector, church-wardens and vestry of Trinity church, New York, for aid 
by funds in the erection of a church edifice. In this memorial, which 
was presented by James Smith, Esq., the petitioners state, among other 
matters, ' ; That some years past an old Episcopal church in this neigh- 
borhood, at New Castle, a (of wood) falling to decay, its congregation 
was broken up, and some of the descendents of its members have be- 
come Quakers, notwithstanding portions of them have until lately ad- 
hered to the forms of the Episcopal Church ; and your memoralists en- 
tertain a hope that with the blessing of Divine Providence, by the means 
of the establishment of a church at Sing Sing, many of the descendants 
of this ancient congregation may be brought back to our Church, &x." 
Trinity church nobly responded to this call by an appropriation of $2000, 
the remainder being raised by public subscription. 

On the first Thursday of October, 1834, this church was admitted in- 
to union with the convention of the diocese. 

In 1864, the rectory was built at a cost of $11,000 of brick. 

In 1870, the spire was built through the instrumentality of M. L. 
Cobb, Esq., and the stained glass windows through the exertion of the 
Rev. James I. Helm, D.D. 



July 7, 1836 Rev. Edward N. Meade, A.M., Presb. 

Dec. 1G, 1839 Rev. Charles Hexey Halsey, Presb. 

Oct. 16, 1846 Rev. Charles Tomes, Presb. 

Dec. 20, 1847 Rev. William F. Halset, Presb. 

March 8. 1S57 Rev. I. Hexry Black, Presb. 

Nov. 1, 1863 Rev. James I. Helm, D.D,, present incumbent. 

In 1868, a secession of a portion of the members of St. Pauls church 
formed a second Episcopal church, known as Trinity church, and pur- 
chased the brick Presbyterian church for their place of worship, at a cost 

a S:. George's church, New Castle. 


of $16,000. They removed the galleries and built a recess chancel, and 
Otherwise improved the church, both internally and externally. 

The Rev. Clarence Buel was called and accepted the rectorship July 
30, 1868. On December 12, 1S71, the Rev. George W. Ferguson was 
called and accepted the rectorship, and is the present incumbent. The 
parish is entirely free from debt ; it has purchased a plot of land on the 
Highland avenue, 130 feet by 200 deep, as a site for a new church edi- 
fice. The cost of this land was $14,500. 

The Methodist Episcopal church is a plain building of wood, fronting 
on Main street, erected A.D. 181 7. The Methodist Society was first 
formed in this town, through the exertions of the Rev. Messrs. Cornelius 
Cook and Peter Moriorty. in 17S7, who occasionally performed services 
here when on their route to the Croton. The earliest class meetings 
were organized in the valley beyond Sand Sutton's, and the vicinity of 
Scrabble street. The first class leader appears to have been Joshua Ry- 
der, who afterwards became a local preacher. Adjoining the church, is a 
neat parsonage and lot. 

A building committee, for a new church, was appointed March 22, 
1S51, and the church was completed in 1853. May 1, 1873, a ^ ot f° r a 
new church was purchased on Highland avenue for $13,500. It was 
commenced in 1877, and is expected to cost $55,000. 

The Baptist Society in this place was .first organized November 12, 
1790; a church was erected AD. 1834, to which is attached a small 
burial ground. The present church edifice was completed in 1874, and 
the parsonage in 1S50. 



date of call. 

JonN Kitchen, 


Ei.i.iaii Wheeler, 


Thomas Stephens, 


Stephen i± Nelson, 


Jacob H. Beouneb, 


P. L. Pi. att, 


T. C. F. Fret, 


John Prunes, 


C. C. Williams, 


Wm. M. DooLITTLE, 


Sidney A. Cory, 


Will C. Locke, 


B. (.'. Mobse, 


Alonzo Wiieelock, 


W. S. MlKELS, 




L. J. Mattison, 


James Boxep., 


A. D. Gilette, D.D., 


N. R. Evekts, 

1879. — present pastor. 


J 5 

At a meeting of the Dutchess County Presbytery, convened at Bed- 
ford, June 28th, 1863, a petition signed by a number of the inhabitants 
of Sing Sing -was laid before that body, requesting the Presbytery to 
supply them with the stated and regular preaching of the Gospel; 
whereupon the Presbytery appointed the Rev. Mr. Smith to supply them 
on the first Sabbath of August and October, and the Rev. Mr. Peck on 
the first Sabbath of September. At various times onward, until the year 
1768, we find the people of Sing Sing making application to the Pres- 
byter}' to provide them with occasional preaching; until, at a meeting of 
Presbyter}', held at Salem on the 30th of August, 1768, we find an ap- 
plication from a joint committee, appointed by the congregations of 
White Plains and Sing Sing, asking advice from the Presbytery as to a 
proper person to preach alternately at the above named places, with a 
view to settling among them as their minister. At this date the Rev. 
Ickbbod Lewis became the successor of the Rev. John Smith, in the 
church at White Plains and Sing Sing.* At or near this time, the first 
Church edifice was erected ; having for its site what is now known as 
the old burying-ground at Sparta, about a mile and a half south of the 
village of Sing Sing. The land was originally given by Col. Phillips, the 
proprietor of the manor. The gift was three acres, set apart and 
donated for the use of a church ; and when, after the war, the whole 
manor property was confiscated and sold, the land held and occupied 
for church and burial purposes was reserved from sale, and the claim of 
the church fully recognized and confirmed. 

The following is the copy of the Act, passed March 18, 1808, con- 
firming the title of the church to the property : — 

"Be it enacted by the people of the State of New York, represented in the 
Senate and Assembly, that all the right, title and interest of the people of this 
State in and to a certain lot of ground heretofore allotted by Frederick Philips to 
the trustees of the Presbyterian church and congregation of the town of Mount 
Pleasant, in the County of Westchester, be and the same is hereby vested in said 
trustees and their successors, to the use of the said church and congregation for- 

The church edifice, which had been much injured during the war, 
was repaired in 1778, and continued to be occupied as a place of wor- 
ship until the year 1800; at which time it was decided to remove the 
church to the village of Sing Sing. In 1798 Col. Moses Ward offered 
the said church a lot on Pleasant Square, upon condition that the church 
be removed to Sing Sing — which was accepted ; and, in 1800, a church 
edifice was built upon the said lot. . . _. 

a Gillet's Ilist., vol. I., p. 379. 



This continued to be the place of worship until the year 1834; at 
which time the building still standing on pleasant Square and occupied 
by Trinity church, was erected. 

In the year 1 866, the trustees were authorized by the congregation to 
purchase a suitable site for a new church edifice ; in obedience to 
which the present site was purchased, and a church built at the cost of 
$100,000. The corner-stone was laid by the pastor, November 5th. 
1S6S, and the building consecrated May 24, 1870. 



3d Aug., 1798, 

Pro. tem. 1S14, 

Pro temp. 1825, 

Pro temp. 1830, 

Novemb'r 1832, 

Ret. Me. Townley, 
Rev. Thomas Jackson, 
Rev. Asa Layman, 
Rev. George Bournh, 

Rev. Johnson, 

Rev. R. W. Dickeeson, 
Rev. Nathaniel S. Prime, 
Rev. James V. Henry, 
Rev. Daniel Teese, 
Rev. JonN P. Lundy, 
Rev. Wilson Phraner, 

vacated by . 

present pastor. 

The burial ground belonging to this church adjoins the site of the old 
church edifice, about one mile and a half south of Sing Sing. One of 
the principal monuments in this yard, is that of the Ladau family. It is 
constructed of brick, and bears on one side four tombstones. Some of 
the inscriptions are nearly obliterated. 

In Memory of 


wife of Abraham Ladau, 

who departed this life 

December 25, 1795, 

Aged 6S years, 11 mo. and 25 days, 

Also, ABRAHAM LADAU, husband 

of Anna Ladau, who departed 
June 21st, years, 4 mo. and 5 days. 


In Memory of 


son of Abraham and Ann Ladat:, 

was Lorn A.D. September the 28th, 1767, 

and departed this life Oct. the 21st, 1774, 

Aged 7 years. 

Here stop awhile ; let pity draw 

The sympathizing tear, it old thou art prepare to die, 

If young — thyself in virtue train. 

Here lies a son, and only son and heir ; 

He lived admired, and while he lived, 

Him good and just we hoped to see, 

But death our hopes deceived. 

Here all our joy and comfort lies; 

Here lies our only darling son — 

He fell to death a sacrifice, 

Scarce had his glass began to run : 

His soul is flown to mansions of the just — 

To that great God in whom we weep and trust. 

Here Lteth the Body of 

SARAH LADAU, born in the year 1750, 

April 26th, 

who departed this life August 15, 1764, 

aged 5 years and 7 mo. and 11 days, 

daughter of Abraham and Anna Ladatj. 

Ix Memory of 

DANIEL LADAU, who was born 

in the year of our Lord, 1694, 

and departed this life Nov. the 5th, aged 73. 

Ix Memory of 

MARY LADAU, who was born 

in the year of our Lord, 1695, 

and departed this life May 11, 1775, aged 78. 

There are also memorials of Moses Ward, William Kemeys, Henry 
Roscoe, Enoch Crosby, and others. The Roman Catholics occupy the 
brick building formerly used as a Reformed Dutch Church, situated 
on the property of Mr Albertus. 

There are several hotels in the village, which afford excellent ac- 
commodation for travellers : 2 File Works ; 1 Cotton-gin Manufactory ; 


i Manufactory of Cotton-gin Saws ; and Brandreth's Pill Factor} - . 
Four weekly newspapers are issued from this place, entitled the The 
Hudson River Chronicle, The Republican, The Standard, and The Reg- 

A number of handsome residences adorn the higher grounds of the 
village. Among others maybe noticed the mansion of the late Maj. Gen. 
Aaron Ward,' 1 who for a number years represented this district in Congress, 
and also that of Mr. H. J. Baker. General Ward holds a part of the patri- 
monial estate which covered nearly the whole southern portion of the 
village, his father the late Moses Ward, Esq., 6 having been one of the 
original purchasers under the commissioners of forfeitures in 1785. At 
this early period there were but three dwelling houses in Sing Sing, one 
of which (an old stone mansion, used as a fortress to defend the settlers 
against the Indians," ) was the residence of Mr. Ward. This family 
descends from Richard Ward of Fairfield, Connecticut.' 3 ' Gen. Ward's 
residence is a fine bnilding of Sing Sing marble, presenting a neat Ionic 
portico to the river, with wings on either side. The interior is embelished 
with several excellent pictures by native artists, viz., Falls of Niagara. 
by Yanderlyn ; St. Nicholas, by Weir ■ Boy hoeing corn, by Mount ; 
Village of Sing Sing, by Havel ; Gipsey Girl, by Freeman ; View in 
New Hampshire, by Doughty ; Girl and Child, by Chapman. The 
family portraits are by Ames, Vanderlyn, and Gilbert. 

One of the most striking features of this hilly region is the romantic 
ravine (already alluded to) intersecting the village ; both sides of it are 
bounded by steep acclivities covered with a luxuriant growth of hemlock 
and spruce, and near its mouth the banks rise to a height of one hun- 
dred feet above the bed of the stream. In the vicinity of Brandreth's 
mill the Croton aqueduct crosses this ravine by means of a handsome 
arch constructed of solid masonry, in the most durable manner. The 
space between the abutments is 88 feet, and the rise from the bottom 
of the creek is about 100 feet. So securely were the foundations of this 
noble structure laid, that upon the removal of the uprights the whole 
work settled but one inch. It was erected under the superintendence 
of Mr. Young, engineer of the works ; commenced May, 1838, and com- 
pleted October, 1S40. 

Near the village landing are situated the green-houses of C. F. Klun- 
der, the florist. In the vicinity of Sing Sing the shores of the Croton 

a During trie last war with Great Britain General Ward held a captain's commission in the 
United - ice, and at the close of it conducted a battalion of TOO British prisoners 

from Pittsfleld, Massachusetts, to Canada. 

urd married a niece of Col. Samuel Drafce of the Continental army. 
c The old stone fortress stood a little cast of Mr. K. K. Forster s dwelling house. 
d Sire Eas'ctiester, p. 159. 


l 9 

bay are decked with numerous country seats. The first property south 
of the Croton in this town is that of the late Col. Joseph Hunt, whose 
family purchased cf the commissioners in 1784. The next place in 
succession is the old McChain estate lately owned by Thomas Oliver, 
Esq., now owned by O. B. Potter. The house is prettily situated on a 
finely wooded point, at the extremity of which lies a great rock, com- 
monly called Frank's rock, near a gigantic tree where a white or bald 
headed eagle has for a long series of years built her nest. 

Adjoining the above on the south is the Albert Orser property, now 
Thos. Hand's. It was in the old Orser residence that a body of Con- 
tinental troops, under the command of Capt. Daniel Williams, were sur- 
prised by a superior force of British cavalry, led by Capt. Bearmore ; 
the circumstances attending the event are thus related by an eye-witness. 
During the winter of 1782, Capt. Daniel Williams (who had been for 
some time stationed at Croton in command of the American guard upon 
the lines,) undertook, with a small party of dragoons, a foraging expedi- 
tion into the neighborhood of Morrisania. Success had attended the 
enterprise, and they were thus fxr on their way homeward when they 
halted to refresh themselves. Not apprehending pursuit, they neglected 
to post guards, and the road leading from the highway being hidden by 
a small knoll which rose directly in front of the windows, they were not 
aware of an enemy's approach until nearly surrounded by Capt. Bear- 
more and his dragoons. 

The confusion that ensued, may be imagined. Some of the Americans 
were cut down within and about the house ; others rushed along the steep 
bank to the river, which was frozen, their enemies following in hot pur- 
suit. Several were slain upon the ice ; among the latter, was George 
McChain. Capt. Williams himself fled down the adjoining bank, closely 
followed by a British dragoon, who was gaining fast upon him, when he 
suddenly checked his horse, and, as his pursuer (unable to stop) dashed 
by him, rose in his stirrups and dealt a back handed blow with his 
sword, which brought the dragoon to the ground. He also succeeded 
in capturing his adversary's horse, with which he arrived safe at head- 

In the same neighborhood are the estates of the late John Strang and 
General Sandford. 

Nearer the village are situated the residences of Benjamin Brandreth 
and Philip van Wyck, both delightfully embosomed in trees, and com- 
manding extensive views of the river. The latter contains some fine 
portraits of the Van Cortlandt family, viz., Philip Van Cortlandt, son of 
Stephanus van Cortlandt, first lord of the manor of Cortlandt, artist un- 


known; Catherine De Peyster, wife of Philip j the Hon. Pierre van 
Cortlandt, by Jarvisj and General Philip van Cortlandt, by the same. 
Philip van Wyck, Esq., is the son of the late Theodosius van Wyck, by 
his wife Catherine, daughter of the Hon. Pierre van Cortlandt. 

A short distance north of Mr. Brandreth's pill manufactory is situated 
Craw-bucky point \ literally, crab-cove point. The adjoining beach was 
once famous for its shad fishery j four thousand have been taken at one, 

On the margin of the river are two deep grooves, apparently chiselled 
in a hard gneiss rock. These marks indicate the commencement of the 
two mile line of the manor of Philipsburg, which, according to the royal 
:.••' extended two miles north from the mouth of the Croton, until it 
struck the southern line of Cortlandt manor. In an old " map of the 
township of Bedford, Stamford, Greenwich, the North river, and Keight- 
awank or Croton's river, by a survey, April the 6th, &c , 1763, by 
Charles Webb, surveyor," two spots are marked. First, "the station 
fixed by Cortlandt at the sand beach to measure up the river." This 
lies nearly mid-way between the Sing Sing brook and the next stream to 
the north. Secondly, a " rock four chains and sixty links north of the 
brook," (the first stream above the Sing Sing brook,) " fixed by Bedford 
committee to begin to measure up the river." 5 

Mining operations were formerly carried on to a considerable extent 
in Sing Sing, under the ilattering idea that silver ore existed here; the 
old shafts sunk for this object are still visible. The following entries in 
the Secretary of State's office, refer to these mines : — 

No. 54.] 

ni:x Lyon, "Westchester County, town of Mt. 
Pleasant, about 100 rods south of 
the discoverers dock, and about SO 

south of the farmers dock 
at Sing Sing landing, upon lands 
of John F. Marsh, (gold and silver.) Nov. 14, 1820. 41 204. 

No. 57.] 

Stephen Lyon, Westchester County, town (if Mt. Pleasant, 

additional vein south of the mine, 

which is now on file, extending 1 mile 

south of suid mine, (gold and silver.) Jan. 30, 1S24. 41 29G. 

Galena has been obtained here in small specimens, as well as several 
ores of copper — one specimen of the latter yielding from fifty to seventy- 

a S •>■ Patent of Phillpstrarg. The same kind of mark is found neaT the division line, be- 
ttae townships of xonfcera and Greenbnrgh; both of them are probably Indian lines. 

I From the orlgiual map m the possession of the ilou. William Jay, Bedford. 


five per cent. ; also iron pyrites. Sulphuret of zinc, and oxide of mang- 
anese occasionally occur in the lime-stone rock. " Sing Sing is also cel- 
ebrated for its marble quarries, which are worked to a great extent by 
the State prison convicts — who have here erected two large prisons, a 
keeper's house, and several ranges of work-shops, from materials found 
on the State farm." The marble found in this vicinity is the dolomitic 
or white coarse grained, of excellent quality, and almost inexhaustible ; 
large quantities are annually quarried and sent to the city of New York 
and other places. 

The Mount Pleasant State Prison, situated about half a mile south 
of the village of Sing Sing, is thirty-three miles north of New York City; 
it contains about 1,500 convicts. The prison grounds used to consist 
of 130 acres of land, lying between the villages of Sparta and Sing Sing, 
bounded on the east by the Highland turnpike, and on the west by the 
Hudson river ; since which time the land has been sold, and but a few 
acres retained. An Act of the Legislature, passed March, 1824, author- 
ized the building of a new State prison in the first and second senatorial 
districts, with commissioners appointed for the purpose; they selected 
the present site, owing to its exhaustless bodies of marble, its healthy 
situation, and its accessibility by water. It was completed in 1S29, 
when it contained eight hundred cells ; it has been enlarged, and now 
contains one thousand cells. In 1828 the convicts then in the old 
State prison, in the city of New York, were removed to Sing Sing ; and 
the old city prison was abandoned. 

Zion Hill, a mile below the prison, the property of Mr. Peter Weath- 
erby. is famous as being the scene of Matthias' impositions ; this was 
the property of Henry R. Runson. 

A few Revolutionary incidents connected with Sing Sing deserve to 
be recorded here. 

In the year 1774, a regiment under the command of Colonel James, 
(director of the silver mines in this place,) was stationed at Sing Sing. 
Upon the breaking out of hostilities it was ordered to Boston. 

Some days previous and subsequent to the memorable battle of 
White Plains, the British vessels of war — consisting of the Tartar, Roe- 
buck and Phoenix — lay off Sing Sing. 

"On the 28th of October, 1799," observes General Heath, "Captain 
Hopkins of the dragoons took the Captain of the Bellona transport, a 
serjeant and corporal of the 64th British regiment, and two seamen who 
had ventured too far on the shore near Sing Sing." a 

a Heath's Mem. 214. 


There is still preserved in the village a small cannon, well known by 
the cognomen of " Old White," which is said to have been the identical 
piece fired at the sloop oi' war / 'allure, as she lay off Teller's Point, on 
the morning o\ September jj, 17S0. 

" No sooner (remarks the biographer of Arnold.) had the parties 

id and Andre) arrived at Smith's house than a cannonade vr°z 

\ down the river. It was discovered to be against the Vu T iure y 

h, although distant several miles, was in full view, and forsorje time 

.ied to be on fire. 

"It had been reported to Colonel Livingston by messengers from 
Teller's Point, that the vessel was so near the shore as to be within 
reach of cannon-shot, and that the inhabitants were likewise apprehen- 
sive boats would land and commit depredations. Colonel Livingston 
accordingly sent from Verplanck's Point a party with canon, who fired 
upon the Vulture and compelled her to remove from the position she 
had held during the night, and drop farther down the river, till she was 
beyond the reach of the shot. Andre beheld the scene from the 
windows of Smith's house with anxious emotion. At length the firing 
ceased, and he then resumed his wonted spirits and composure." He 
was in an upper apartment of Smith's house, on the opposite side of the 

On every anniversary of the Fourth, " Old White " emerges from his 
lurking place, and is paraded through the streets in triumph. 

Mrs. Sussanna Ryder was a God fearing woman. On one occasion 
when a company of soldiers had their quarters at her husbands', Jacob 
Ryders barn, one of them deserted ; he was retaken, tried and con- 
demned to be hung. The gallows was prepared near the house, she 
immediately went to the commanding officer and begged for his life ; 
he became angry, and raised a stick to strike her. She then went into 
her chamber and earnestly prayed God to interfere, and incline the offi- 
cer to mercy ; when she returned she found the soldier had been reprieved 
ed, and the officer came and saluted her. 

Twice she walked from Sing Sing to New York to get pins and 
needles and spelling-books for her own family and for her neighbors, 
passing through the lines of the British without being molested, and 
returning in safety. 

A person by the name of John Arthur bought a farm about three or 
four miles north of Sing Sing, who had been a merchant in the city of 
New York; he removed his family and goods from the city at the 
outbreak of the rebellion for protection, and amongst the various 

a Sparks' Life of Benedict Arnold, 206. 



articles of trade was a quanity of tea and loaf-sugar — at that time a 
great luxury, and very difficult to procure. It was soon noised abroad 
among the neighbors, and many of the old Dutch settlers longed for 
a share ; accordingly a party of fifty women organized themselves into a 
raiding party, and appointed a day when and where to meet, and then 
proceed to the farm, now called the Secor farm. 

The day previous to the one fixed by this party, John Arthur set 
out upon a journey from home on horseback; and when a little below 
Tarrytown he saw a woman riding ahead, and putting spurs to his 
horse soon overtook her, gave her the usual salutation, and entered 
into conversation on general subjects; but the tea and sugar were 
uppermost in her mind, and soon she asked him if he was going to join 
the party. "There is one Arthur, she said, come up in the country above, 
from New York — and has brought a fine lot of tea and sugar — and has 
them in his house, and to morrow a number of us are going to make a 
raid on his place." " Ah ! Ah ! " said Arthur, " is that so ? " He rode freely 
along with her, until she had disappeared. Then he returned and rode 
home, informing his family and consulted as to the best line of action. 
They determined to bury the tea and sugar in the garden, and defend 
themselves. They therefore barricaded the doors and windows, armed 
themselves, and determined to resist all intruders. Early the next 
morning Mr. Arthur dispatched his oldest son on horseback to Jacob 
Ryders, now known as Willett Ryders farm — and from the barn which 
stood near the road he stationed himself, awaiting the advance of the 
raiders ; as soon as they appeared he rode home and gave the alarm. 
They advanced twenty couple, riding two and two, with two men. One, a 
Captain Owen, who lived, it is said, in Sleepy Hollow; the other was said 
to be Abraham Van Tassel. They had their trouble for nothing, as 
they found it impossible to gain admission into the house. There were 
two Abraham Van Tassels that figure to a great extent in this section 
of country ; one was the father of the celebrated Katrina, in the Sleepy 
Hollow legend ; one was called Brim Bones, the other Brom Bounce. 
Others say that Mr. Arthur treated the whole party to plenty of punch 
with abundance of sugar, and they all separated peacefully, without tast- 
ing the tea. 

The small but beautiful stone church, of All Saints, Briar Cliff, is situ- 
ated at the junction of two roads, on a height behind Sing Sing, com- 
manding one of the finest views along the whole length of the noble 
Hudson. That beautiful river lies in the distance like a lake of ten 
miles of extent, while the villages which dot its banks and the high 
rocks which border its western shore and the plains and hills that lie 


still beyond in the back ground, are spread out like a map beneath the 
eye of the spectator, standing by the porch or bell gable of the building. 
It seems, indeed, a house of prayer and praise set where the glorious 
works of God are full in view to stimulate devotion. Struck with the 
beauty of this spot, the late Rev. John Ogilby, D.D., had selected it as 
a retreat for himself and family. Before his dwelling was completed, 
the thought entered his mind, that a humble wayside sanctuary in which 
he might officiate would prove a blessing to the neighborhood ; by the 
help of generous friends in the vicinity and elsewhere, he was enabled to 
carry out the good work near to its completion, when disease interrupted 
him and death stayed his hand. His friends knew that the use of the 
church, if completed, would depend upon the family by whom the place 

All Saints' Church, Briar Cliff. 

was occupied; Henry McFarlan, Esq., of New Jersey, offered to bear 
the whole expense of its completion. The edifice was opened for divine 
service Dec. 13, 1854. All the windows are of stained glass. The chan- 
cel window is intended as a memorial window to Dr. Ogilby, and bears 
most beautifully inscribed upon it those three articles of the Creed, " I 
Believe in the Communion of Saints, the Resurrection of the Body, and 
Life Everlasting." In the centre light of the Triplet are the Cross, the 
emblems of the Communion, and the letters I. H. S.; at the base of the 
window is the inscription, " In Memoriam Funditoris." This was the 
gift of A. Beresford Hope, Esq., a noble layman of the Church of Eng- 
land, and a warm friend of Dr. Ogilby. The font, one of the most 
beautiful ever seen, was given to Dr. Ogilby by a devoted Christian 


lady. The Communion service was presented by a family of St. James' 
church, Philadelphia, through the Rev. Dr. Morton. 

The present rector is Rev. A. H. Gesner. 

The village of Sparta is situated one mile south of Sing Sing. 

The ancient boundary line of 1684, which divided the two colonies 
of New York and Connecticut passed a short distance south of Sparta." 

The " Bishop Rocks," so called from John Bishop, who purchased these 
lands in 17S5, lie one mile south of this place. They constitute a 
portion of the Southern boundary of Ossin-ing. White point is a cele- 
brated fishing place in the same neighborhood. " The surface of this 
town is mostly hilly, soil productive and well cultivated." There is also 
a good proportion of interval and meadow land. The principal streams 
are the Sing Sing brook, and the Mill river or Pocanteco. The latter 
has its source in New Castle, and was particularly described in the 
account of that town. 

The first independent election for town officers took place, April the 
7th, 1 7 S9, upon which occasion the following persons were chosen for 
the ensuing year. 

ELUAn Hunter, Supervisor. 

Daniel Miller, Town Clerk, 

Nathaniel Tucker, Constable. 

John Oaklet, 
Moses Fowler 
Jesse Baker, 
James McCord, J 

Abraham Le Due, } ,. „ ,, „ 

James Requa, \ 0verseer °f the Poor - 

Nathaniel Tucker,") 

John Bishop, > Commissioners. 

Isaac G. Graham, ) 

Thomas Lawrence, Collector. 

Abraham Le Due, ") 

John Shute, 

Isaac Van Wart, ct „. 

James Hammond, > Fence Viewers. 

Jessie Baker, 

TnoMAs Dean, 

Ebenezer Scofield, ~) 

Henry Van Wart, > Pound Masters. 

Richard Garrison, ) 

a Three miles above Frederick Phillipse's mills at Sleepy Hollow. See Boundary Letters, 
S ;oretary of State's office, Hartford, Coan., fol. ii. letter 46. 


Upon the erection of the present towns in 1S45, the following officer 
were chosen : 

Joseph Hunt, Supervisor. 
George Sherwood, Town Clerk. 

Charles Yok, 1 

Henri Hakims, \ t .. ... „ 

Thom ujCatterall, ]*"»*«* of the Pence. 
William Pcgsley, J 

Nicholas J. Greene, Supt. of Common Schools. 

Caleb Smith, ) 

William Orsor, > Assessors. 
Stephen Marshall,) 

John" Ryder, ) 

Edward J. Bayles, > Commissioners of Highways. 

Dayid.C. Codington.) 

Willet Holmes, > n , ., „ 

William Mangan, } Onrseera of the Poor. 

Abraham Miller, Collector. 

Abraham Miller, ) 

James Ryder, > Constables. 

John Romaine, ) 

Fii'.st District. 
George'sSrwood. } '"V"*"' * El <* tion ' 

Second District. 
DA I YID A Mc H BE P T^ , } Rectors of Election. 
Thomas E. Eridger, Town Sealer. 
Leyi Peck, Pound Master. 




This town is enclosed on the East and North by the township of New 
Rochelle, on the West by the Aqueanouncke or Hutchinson's River, 
which separates it from Eastchester, and on the South by the Manun- 
ketesuck or Sound. 

Prior to the Revolution, Pelham formed a portion of the old manor of 
that name, which originally embraced nine thousand one hundred and 
sixty-six acres. 

The name 'itself is of Saxon origin, and compounded of the two words 
$tl (remote) and |j&t$t (mansion or dwelling.)" 
"|E[|fttlt in Germany is written gj£$Jttt and importeth as much as 
^)0itt£ now doth with us. ^JjIIII originally signifieth a coverture or 
place of shelter, and is thence grown to signify one's £J0$H£ (as now 
uncomposed we pronounce it) that is to say one's birth-place or most 
proper habitation. It is one of our greatest terminations of surnames, 
as of Dcnham, for having his home or residence down in a valley. Of 
Highamfor the situation of his gj&tlt or g|0tlt? upon high ground; 
and accordingly of many others, distinguished one from another in like 
manner upon one or other, cause." 

In iroorb, in fiam, in £en, and QTutt, 

The most of English surnames run. 

(A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence in antiquities concerning the most noble 
and renowned English nation. By the study and travel of R. W. (Richard Ver- 
stegan) London, printed by T. Newcomb for Joshua Kirton at the King's arms 
in St. Paul's church yard, 1655.) 

a Pelham, the name conferred upon this town by the Pells "is derived from the lordship of 
Pelham, Herefordshire, England, where anciently stood a castle, the owner of which in 1265, 
wa3 amrrc.d in the then very large sum of forty pounds for a contempt in not coming to an 
inquest to he taken concerning a trespass of the Mint. This lordship of Pelham is recorded 
to be part of the possessions of Walter de Pelham in 1292-3, and it is believed that his ances- 
tors held it prior to the Conquest."— Burke's Peerage. 



" I am inclined," says Camden, " to favour the opinion of those who 
fetch it (Belgoe) from the old Gaulish tongue (which our Welsh in a 
great measure keep entire) and who will have the Belgce so named from 
Pel, i e. remote. For they were the remotest people in Gaul ; and at 
the greatest distance from the Roman province, &c. Brittania, or a 
geographical description of Great Britain and Ireland, Szc, by Will 
Camden, Clarenceux, King at Arms, second edition by Edward Gibson, 
D.D., Rector of Lambeth and now Bishop of Lincoln, &c, London M. 
DCCIL, vol. I, p. 67. 

It is very evident that the Pells were a younger branch of the illustri- 
ous house of Pelham, which is evinced from the unerring testimony of 
their descendants, bearing the same coat armour with additions and 
not plain ; it being a standing rule in ancient times, as is well known to 
all who are acquainted with the differences then used to distinguish the 
Cadets from the principal branch of any family, that they either alter 
their Tinctures or add Bordures, Orles, Bends, Chiefs, Cantons, &c, for 
that purpose ; whence the Pelhams, who bore the coat plain and un- 
altered, is proof that they were chief of the family. The Pelhams bear- 
ing the field azure, three pelicans arg, vulning themselves ppr. The 
Pells by way of difference bearing the field ermine on a canton azure a 
pelican or, vulning itself ppr. 

Like the greater part of Westchester County, it formed originally a 
portion of the Indian territory of JVykagyl, as laid down in the Dutch 
carte of 16 14. Its early inhabitants were a clan of the Mohegans or 
"Enchanted Wolf Tribe" called Siwanoys, whose possessions extended, 
it is well known, from Nor walk to the neighborhood of Hell gate. The 
latter place being their winter quarters. From the Indians this tract of 
land, with others adjacent, passed to the Dutch West India Company 
in 1640, as appears by the following: "In order to maintain the 
charter of this company, Kieft, the Dutch governor, dispatched Secre- 
tary Van Fienhoven, on the 19th day of April, 1640, with instructions 
to purchase the ' Archipelago ' or group of Islands at the mouth of the 
Norwalk River, together with all the adjoining territory on the main 
land," " and to erect thereon the standard and arms of the high and 
mighty Lords States General ; to take the savages under our protection, 
and to prevent effectually any other nation encroaching on our limits." 
These directions, we are assured, were fully executed ; and the West 
India Company thus obtained the Indian title to all the lands between 
Norwalk and the North River." This sale was confirmed on the 14th of 

a Hist. State of N. Y., hv Broadhead, 1st. period. 1G09-1CW. Alb. Rec. ii., TS, 147 ; De Lact 
viii ; ilazard ii., SiZ ; OX'ail , L, 215. 


July. 1649, when the Director General, Peter Styvesant, in behalf of 
the same company, purchased " Wechquaesqueeck " — which, like the 
forme* grant, comprehended much of the present County of West- 
chester — from the three Indian sachems " Megtegichkama, Oteyschgue, 
and Wegtakockken." 

On the day following the above conveyance to the Dutch, on the 
20th of April, 1640, we find an agreement betwixt Daniell Patricke and 
Mahackem, and Naramake and Pemenat. Hewnompom, Indians of 
Norwake and Makentouk, in which the latter conveyed to the former the 
ground called Sacunyte Napucke, also Mecanworth ; thirdly, Asumsowis ; 
fourthly, all the land adjoininge to the afore-mentioned, as farr up in the 
country as an Indian can goe in a day from sun risinge to sun settinge and 
twoe islands neare adjoininge to the sayed Carantenayneck, all bounded 
on the west side with Noewanton, on the east side to the middle of the 
river of Norwake, &c. Norwalk records Book of Deeds in the year 
1672. Only two months prior to these sales Mahachemo, Sachem, 
Tomakergo, Tokaneke, and Prosewamenos, Indians of Nonvalke, con- 
veyed to Roger Ludlow all the lands, &c, "between the two rivers, the 
one called Norwalke the other Soakatuck to the middle of sayed rivers, 
from the sea a dayes walk into the country."* 

In the Summer of 1642, the widowed Anne Hutchinson, her son 
Francis and her son-in-law, Collins, " A young scholar full of zeal," to 
avoid the bitter persecutions of the Puritans, fled here for protection 
and commenced a plantation. b 

This Colony was situated on Pelham Neck formerly called " Annie's 
Hoeck" and was long distinguished as the " Manor of Anne Hoock's 
Neck" and nearly adjoined the Dutch district of " Vredeland" or the 
'' Land of Peace." 'Yet no patent or ground-brief appears on record for 
these lands, and why ? for the simple reason that Mrs. Hutchinson was 
cut off before the purchase had been completed. This is fully confirmed 
by the testimony of Thomas Pell, the subsequent proprietors, given 
before a Court of Assize, held in New York 29th of September 1665, 
wherein he states " that he bought the land (Pelham and Westchester) 
in question in the year 1654 of the natives and paid them for it. He 
pleads his being a free denizen of England, and hath thereby liberty to 
purchase in any of his Majesties dominions within which compass this 
is. He alleges the fifth clause in the Kings treaty, sent over hither to 
make for him, as declaring this land to be within his Majesties do- 

o Norwalk records Book of Deeds in the year 16T2, 75 Alb. Rec. Lib. G. G., 323-507. 

6 Neal, the Puritan Historian says that Anne Hutchinson "removed with her family into 
one of the Dutch Plantations called Hebgate." {Teals' Hist, of New England, vol. i, p. 178. 
Chandler says : "the whole family of the' Hutchinsons removed from beyond New Haven to 
East Chester in the Territory of the Dutch." Chandler's Crim. Trials, vol. i, p. 27. 


minion ; he saith the government and council of Connecticut took 
notice of this land to be un ler their government, and that they ordered 
magestratical power to be exercised at West Chester; and that he had 
license from them to purchase. He pleads that where there is no right 
there can be no dominion ; so no patent could be granted by the Dutch, 
they having no right. Several testimonys were read to prove that ye 
Indians questioned Mr. Cornell's and other plantations there about not 
paying for these lands, which was the occasion of their cutting them off 
and driving away the inhabitants ; but the defendant hath payed a 
valuable consideration to the natives."" 

Here, is a flat denial on the part of Pell, supported by the authorities 
of New England, that the Dutch had any claim whatever on these 
lands; although the latter had discovered the country in 1609, and 
besides had purchased the very territory in question of the Indians, for 
a valuable consideration in 1640, just fourteen years previous to Pell's 
conveyance. Take the whole transaction together with the subsequent 
proceedings, and it looks uncommonly like a collusion between the 
Xew England authorities and the Indians. Let it be remembered, too, 
that the latter, who afterwards murdered Mrs. Hutchinson and her 
family, the Throgmortons, the Cornells, and the Moody's (all refugees 
from New England persecution, and carried off Mrs. Hutchinson's 
youngest daughter into captivity,) belonged to a tribe of Mohegan 
Indians which owned the supreme authority of the Uncas Chief Sachem 
"who had always been the unscrupulous ally of the English." 

It is a little singular that the permission given by the Dutch authori- 
ties to Throgmorton to settle himself, with thirty-five English families 
within twelve miles of Fort Amsterdam, bears the date of 2d of 
October, 1642, only a few months after Mrs. Hutchinson's settlement 
on Pelham Neck. There can be no doubt that the Throgmortons and 
Mrs. Hutchinson, with the Cornells and Moody's, 6 were associated in 
their plans, all coming, as they did almost simultaneously from New 
England to New Netherlands — and besides all this the gallant old 
campaigner, Captain John Underbill, who professed to hold Mrs. 
Hutchinson's doctrines, had established himself two years prior to this, 
at Greenwich only a tew miles to the eastward of Vredeland, the former 
being then under the authority jDf the Dutch. c 

a Alb. Assize Kcc. p. 15. 

/> In 1040. I.udy Deborah Moody a person of noble family and of heroic character, whom 
Winthrop styled "an anciently religous woman came to Massachusetts." Life of Henry 
DuDBton by Chapln, p. vi. 

lerhiU blames the Dutch authorities for the massacres of Mrs. Hutchinson, and the 
Collins rs from the following extract taken from his "Vindication" dated 20th 

of .May 1663. " we have transported ourselves hither at our own cost, and main' ol as have 
purchased their land, from the Indians, the right owners thereof, iiut a great portion of the 


The family of Hutchinson is supposed to be derived from Mitonensis, 
who came over to England from Castle Cronenburgh with Harold Har- 
fager, and settled at or near Bishop Middleham, then a fortified place. 
A family of Hutchinson was settled at Cowlam or Cowland, in York- 
shire, about the middle of the thirteenth century, and from which de- 
scended Hutchison, of Lincoln, who had four sons — William 

Hutchinson, mayor of Lincoln in 1552; Rev. Christopher Hutchinson, 

Hutchinson, and John Hutchinson, mayor of Lincoln in 1556 

and 1565, whose son, Edward Hutchinson was the father of William 
Hutchinson, who emigrated in 1663 to this county from the neighbor- 
hood of Boston, County Lincoln, England. Truly has it been said that 
this family " of the Hutchinsons," up to the day " when Anne Hutchin- 
son commenced her expoundings," had been the most favored of the 
day ; wealth, rank and influence had been the portion of successive gen- 
erations, and had, in truth, been merited by the ability of many of the 
name. "« 

Anne Hutchinson, wife of William, the emigrant and owner of the 
colony called " Anne Hook's Neck," was of gentle descent. Her father 
was the Rev. Francis Marbury, of Gresby, County of Lincoln, of a fam- 
ily in good position there, 6 and her mother was Bridget, daughter of 
John Dryden, of Canon Ashby, County of Northampton. Erasmus Dry- 
den, grandfather of the poet, was the brother of Bridget, and was cre- 
ated a baronet 16th of November, 1619.^ 

One wonders in amazement at the singular elevation of purpose and 
daring heroism that could have induced a woman of such rare mental 
powers and gentle descent as Anne Hutchinson to tear herself away 
from the civilized society of Rhode Island to bury herself and family in 
the wilderness between Connecticut and New Netherland, right in the 

lands which we occupy, being as yet unpaid for, the Indians come daily and complain that 
they have been deceived by the Dutch secretary, called Cornelius, whom they have charac- 
terized even in the presence of Stuvvesant, as a rogue, a nave, and a liar ; asserting that he 
himself hud jnat put their names down in a book, and saying that this was not a just and 
lawful payment but a pretence and fraud similiar to this which occasioned the destruction 
of Joes Huchiusou and Mr. Collins to the number of nine persons." Holland, Doc. ix. relating 
to Col. Hist, of N, Y., vol. li. 151. Underliill's testimony however must be received with some 

a Notes upon ancestry of William nutchinson and Anne Marbury by Joseph Samuel 
Chester of Boston, 1868, 9 to p. 24. The arms of the Hutchinsons of Lincolnshire, and now 
borne by Bingham Hutchinson, Esq., of England, the descendant of William and Anne Hut- 
chinson, are: Per pale gu. and az. seme'e of crosses crosslet or, a lion rampant, grg. armed 
and langued of the third. Crest— a cookatrice az. crested jeloped, and armed gu. issuing out 
of a ducal crown or. 

b The Marburys of Gresby, County of Lmcoln, were of the same family as the Marburys or 
Merbarye of Walton, in the County of Chester, temp. Edward Third as their arms and crest 
prove viz. arg on a f ess engr. gn. three garbs or — crest — a mermaid ppr. holding in the dex- 
ter hand a mirror, and in the sinester a comb or. 

c Notes upon ancestry of William Hutchinson and Anne Marbury by Joseph Samuel Ches- 
ter of Boston, 1868, q. to p. 24. The Baronetcy is now represented by the Kev. Sir Joshua 
Dryden of Canon A.-liiy. "In Canon Ashly, savs Brydges, (Hist, of Northarnpshire,) there is 
one ronrn of thirty feet long, upon twenty feet wide, which is reported to be entirely, floored 
and wainscoted with the timber of a single oak which grew In that lordship.* ; (.Burke's Ex- 
tinct and Dormant Baronetcies.) 


very midst of the favorite haunts of the savage Siwanoys. " She was," 
indeed, " far from human help," and trusted, no doubt, as the historian 
lias well observed, "to the Divine protection" alone; she must, indeed, 
long have relied upon no other power; for among men, she had met 
only bitter persecution and constant injustice."'* 

It appears that scarcely had this noble, generous and tenderhearted 
woman settled down her little colony of sixteen persons, either on Pol- 
ham Neck or somewhere in close vicinity thereto, 6 than Governor Kieft 
aroused the wild fury of the native Indians by his inhumanity and 
treachery. Whereupon they resolved t:> exterminate the Dutch, and all 
connected with them. "An army of fifteen hundred warriors swept 
over Long Island, and ravaged Manhattan Island to the gates of the 
fort at the Battery. Bloomingdale and Corlear's Hook swarmed with 
brazen warriors, and the flames of blazing bonfires, and the shrieks of 
dying men and women spread terror over Manhattan Island. The sav- 
age, for the moment, seemed to have recovered his old domain."^ 

An Indian, it is said, came to Anne Hutchinson's house in the morn- 
ing, professing friendship, ("as was their wont when making their visits") 
but on discovering the defenceless condition of the inmates, returned at 
night killed Mrs. Hutchinson and her son-in-law, Mr. Collins, with her 
son, Francis, and all the other members of her family save the youngest 
daughter, besides a number of other persons in the neighborhood belong- 
ing to the familes of Mr. Throgmorton and Mr. Cornhill. One of Mrs. 
Hutchinson's daughters, while attempting to escape, was dragged through 
a ledge by the hair and carried to a stump where her head was chopped 
off. We are assured that a greater slaughter would have been made at 
this time and place, but for the arrival of a boat while the tragedy was 
enacting — into which several persons, women and children, escaped ; but 
two of the boats' crew were killed, in their humane exertions to save these 
distressed people. " To close the scene, the horses and cattle were 
driven into the barns, the barns were set on fire, and the helpless animals 

a "Anne TTntchiuson : 8 Remarkable Woman/'— Read before New York Hist. Soc. Feb. 5, 
le Lawrence, Esq., Hist. Mag, New Series, Vol. i., N'o. 3, pages 150 158. 
Morrisiana, X. Y., Henry li. Dawson. 

b In the grant of the "Ten Farms" by Thoma3 Pell, to James Eustis and others. La 1664, 
there appears to be a direct allusion to the first house erected in the vicinity of Reed s mill, 
cq the "old planting ground/' viz., "at J. ; tba' is, where f/,<- house stood, at the 

Tneadoicsau' 'stiver." This was just twenty-one years afterthe mas- 

sacre. Close by Reed's mill is a small rivulet, calied "Black Dog Brook," and, sometimes. 
"Hutcl '■:.'' Perhaps the Black Dog had some kind of connection with the massa- 

cre of Mrs. Hutchinson in 1643. Tradition asserts, however, that Anne Hutchinson's resi- 
dence wa3 located on the property of George A. Prevost, Esq., of Pelham, near the road lead- 
ing to the Neck, on the "old Indian Path." Certain it is that the ruins of an old house on the 
U Hutchinson's river, are still to be seen, a little south-west of the " Split 
Rock ; " also, some ancient apple trees and shrubs ; while close by is a fine spring of fresh 
water ; all of which are claimed to have been associated with the history of this remarkable 
woman. — [Editor. 

c - Anne Hutchinson," by Eugene Lawrence. Dawson's nLst. Mag. 


were roasted to death in the flames."" The youngest daughter of Mrs. 
Hutchinson, quite a small child, was taken- prisoner and remained in 
captivity for four years ; after her release had been procured by the Dutch 
Governor at New York, she was restored to her friends ; but she had 
forgotten her native language, and was unwilling to be taken from the 
Indians." 6 " She afterwards married a Mr. Cole of Kingston in the 
Narragansett country, and lived to a considerable age." 

One of the principal Indian proprietors of this territory, who sold to 
Thomas Pell in 1654, just eleven years after the above mentioned mas- 
sacre, assumed Mrs. Hutchinson's Christain name ; for he constantly 
styled himself in the early deeds " Ann-hoock,"' alias Wampage. This 

individual may have taken an active part in the destruction of Anne 
Hutchinson, for nothing was more common among the Indians than for 
a warrior or brave to assume the name of his victim — material traces of 
his existence still linger around the scene of this bloody tragedy, for his 
grave or mound is still pointed out, and there is also a rock upon the 
south side of the neck bearing the same name, which is said to have been 
a favorite fishing place of the above mentioned sachem. Towards the 
extreme point of the neck, sometimes called Rodman's Point (after 
Samuel Rodman who married Mary, grand-daughter of Thomas Pell, 
third proprietor of the manor) quite near the waters' edge is located an 
ancient burying ground, said to have been used by the Indians ; but a 
thorough examination, conducted in the presence of Thomas Pell, fifth 
in descent from John Lord Pell, proved it to be a place of sepulture for 
the white race only — how far back it is impossible to say. The first 
mound opened contained the skull and larger bones of a female skeleton 
in a horizontal position. 

" The heroic Anne Hutchinson, who had so long and so nobly with- 
stood the fiery trials of New England persecution, was worthy of a better 
fate than to fall before the fury of an Indian murderer ; yet death, 
horrible as was the form in which it came to her, did not appease the 
rancor of her Puritan enemies. They rejoiced at the butchery ; and 
afterwards spoke of it in terms of pious exultation, as the judgment of an 

a Hist, of Indians of Conn., by De Forest, 205. 

b Drake's Book of the Indians, 69. 

c Hence Anne's-Hoeck and the Manor of Anne Hook's necfc. 


offended God. The Puritans believed, or affected to believe, that all 
who disagreed with them in their peculiar dogmas were in league with 
t'.-.e devil ; and would surely be visited, sooner or latter, by some terrible 
retribution from on High."' 1 " When the news of her sad fate was told 
in Boston, her clerical enemies rejoiced over it as a new proof of her 
guilt. The ruling faction smiled at the recital, if never before, like 
Philip II. at the news of St. Bartholomew." "The Lord," said Welle, 
"heard our groans to heaven, and freed us from our great and sore 
affliction." 6 "The Indians set upon them and slew her and all her 
children, save one that escaped (her own husband being dead before) a 
dreadful blow. Some write that the Indians did burn her to death with 
lire, her house, and all the rest named that belonged to her; but I am 
not able to affirm by what kind of death they slew her, but slain it is, it 
seems she is, according to all reports. I never heard that the Indians 
in those parts did ever before this commit the like outrage upon 
any one family or families ; and, therefore, God's hand is the more 
apparently seen herein, to pick out this woful woman to make her and 
those belonging to her an unheard oj \ heavy exaj?iple of their cruelty above 
others." c "Heaven, they thought had avenged them of their sharp- 
tongued foe. They even invented shocking calumnies to prove that she 
was Satan's minister. No tales were too gross and shameless, even for 
the wise Winthrop and the haughty Dudley; their hate pursued her to 
her lonely grave, and they sought to hold her up for the execration of 
posterity as the heavenly detested enemy of the church." 

Anne Hutchinson's family did not wholly die out ; one of her sons 
had remained in Boston and was the ancestor of Hutchinson, the Tory 
governor of Massachusetts in the Revolution. A daughter, too, was 
married and settled in Boston ; and the blood of Annie Hutchinson 
still flows in the veins of several New England families."^ 

The next proprietor, as we have had occasion to show previously, 
was Thomas Pell of Fairfield, Connecticut, gentleman, (as he is styled) 
who obtained a grant from the Indians on Tuesday, 14th of November, 
1654 — embracing all that tract of land called West Chester, which is 
bounded on the East by a brook, called Cedar Tree Brook or Gravelly 
Brook, and so running Northward as the said brook runs into the woods 
about eight English miles, thence West to the river Aquebung or 
Bronck's river to a certain bend in the said river, thence by marked 
trees South until it reaches the tide waters of the Sound, which lyeth 

a The Manhattan Papers, No. 10, by .Ian Vogelvanger, Sunday Times, New York. 
6 Anne Hutchinson by Eugene Lawrence, Hist. Mag., March, 'lSGT, p. 15S, by Dawson. 
c Welde's Rise. Reign and Ruin of the Antmomiaiis. 1'r 
d Annie Hutchinson— By Eugene Lawrence, E.-q., Hist. Mag., March 1567, p. 158, 



bet\.cen Long Island and the main land, together with all the Islands, 
at tract of land so bounded as before expressed, and so 
running I ice of beginning, etc., etc. a 

This grant was signed by the Sachems, Maminepoe, Annhoock, Alias 
Wampage, and five other Indians, beneath the spreading limbs of a 
venerable white oak ; this formerly stood a little to the westward of the 
residence of die late Robert Bartow, Esq. This grant was subsequently 
confirmed in Council. 

Thomas Pell stated before a Court of Assize, held in 1665, that he 
had obtained license to make the purchase from the authorities of Con- 
necticut, and that he had paid large sums of money for the same. 2 ' It 
appears from the very beginning of the disputes between Connecticut 
and New Netherlands, concerning their respective boundaries, that the 
former had determined to secure, as far as possible, all the lands within 
the limits of her charter ; while the latter was just as resolute in resisting 
any encroachments on her territory. Just nine days previous to Pell's 
purchase " it was resolved, at a meeting of the Director General and 
Council of New Netherlands," " that, whereas a few English are begin- 
ning a settlement, at a great distance from our out-posts, on lands long 
before bought and paid for, near Vreedlandt, to send their, interdict, 
and the Attorney-General, Cornelius van Tienhoven, and forbid them to 
proceed no farther, but to abandon that spot. Done at Fort Amstel on 
the 5th of November, 1654, in New Netherlands," "on lands purchased 
from the Indians by the Hon. Thomas Pell, of Fairfield, Conn." c On 
the 15th cf March, 1656, the Attorney-General of the New Netherlands 
thus addresses the Director General and Council : — 

Respectful Lords : — It is not only known to your honors, but every one resid- 
ing in this country, that since many years, the district called Vreedlandt was 
cultivated and inhabited in letters patent, granted by your Honors and their pre- 
decessors by the Dutch, under your government, till the period of the general 
war in 1643. Now it has happened that one Mi-. Pell, residing at Onbeneg, in 
New England, has dared, against the rights and usages of Christian countries, to 
pretend that he bought these lands of the natives, (which long since were pur- 
chased of them and paid by your Honors, as evidently appears from the I 

a This Indian conveyance was seen some years since by the late Mr. John Soulice of New 
Rochelle, who kindly furnished the author with the above particulars. One Dyckman occurs 
as a witness to the deed ; uud certain reservations were made by the Indians, for whaling pur- 

b At a session of the General Assembly at Hartford. March 10th 1663, John Winthrop, Esq., 
Governor, '-This Court doth grant liberty to Mr. Thomas Pell to buy all that landoftne 
Indian proprietors between West Chester and Hudson's river (that makes Manhadoes an 
island) and lay it to West C heater, provided that it be not purchased by any before, nor 111 
their possession." Ccl. Rec- of Conn. 1636-1665, by Trumbull, p. 418. Upon the 13th of Oct., 
bomas Pell met the Dutch Deputation scut by the Dutch general at Hartford. Holl. 
Doc, vol. ii., p. 38. 

c Alb. Ilea vol. ix., 275. 


fers in your record?,,) and actually made a beginning of settling and cultivating 
these lands without your Honors previous knowledge or consent, directly con- 
trary to the limits and ȣ 1650, concluded with the United Colonies of 
New England at Eartford, against which usurpation your Attorney General, in 

his quality and in the name of the Lords his masters, had iu due form entered 
his protest," &C. a 

Notwithstanding this and further protestations, made by the Dutch 
authorities, followed by threats to drive him off his plantation, Thomas 
Pell continued to keep watch and ward until the surrender of the Dutch 
in 1664. Upon the 16th of June 1664 the inhabitants of West Chester 
surrendered all their rights to Thomas Pell, as the just and rightful 
owner of a tract of land called West Chester, which he had obtained by 
an agreement made on the 14th of November, 1654," from "divers 

In 1675 the Indians must have been still residing on the neck in con- 
siderable numbers for at a General Court of assize held the same year 
in New York, it was resolved, ,; that the Indyans at Mr. Pell's or Anne 
Hook's Neck, be ordered to remove to their usual winter quarters, with- 
in Hell Gate, upon this island ; and further, that all canoes belonging 
to Christians or Indyans on the north side of Long Island to the east of 
Hell Gate shall be (within three days from the publication of this order) 
brought to the next towns and delivered to the constables to be secured 
near the Hook house ; any canoes found upon the sound after that time 
to be destroyed." " This order is said to have been made to prevent 
the Indians of Long Island joining King Philip against New England." 5 

Near the entrance of Pellam neck, is situated the favorite burying 
ground of the Siwanoy's tribe, to which the Indians were in the habit of 
bringing their dead over from Greenwich for interment. Numerous 
mounds are still visible near the water's edge, on the Rapelyea estate. 
Two of the largest mounds are pointed out as the sepulchres of the 
Siwanoy's sachems. Ann-hook and Nimham ; both of whom are said to 
have lived to advanced ages. f 

The former was opened some years since, and found to contain a 
large sized skeleton, by the side of which lay the stone axe and flint spear 
head of the tenant of the grave. We have carefully examined several 
mounds near the waters edge; one of these held the remains of an 
Indian boy about twelve years old, in a sitting position, together with a 
beautiful specimen of native pottery formed by the hand alone, rudely 
ornamented with zigzag lines, in which we discovered an arrow head of 

a Alb. Rec. \ >t Chester. 

b Dunlap"-! Ili-t. of N. Y., 70L 11.. appendix cxxiii. 

e Nimham, sachem of Miereckacky occurs in 160*J. 


quartz and the bones of a small animal. This practice of burying their 
favorite utensils and weapons with the deceased, is known to be an 
ancient Indian custom. By way of accounting for the numerous mounds 
which occur so close to the waters edge, on the north-east side of the 
neck, it is said that the small-pox was introduced among the Indians 
through the medium of blankets, and that when they applied for a remedy 
they were told to bathe in the salt water which proved almost instant 
death to hundreds. Near the residence of the late L. R. Marshall, the 
remains of an Indian were found in a very perfect state of preservation 
with a gun by his side. On the extreme point of this beautiful neck 
which commands the magnificent scenery of Hutchinson's Bay, lies 
another Indian cemetery. The shores of the " Great Bay of the Island 
of shells" Sewanhacky, shaded with their ancient forests of nut and oak, 
interspersed with grassy glades must have afforded favorite sites for the 
Indian villages. Here the Indians would obtain their supplies of fish, 
which they so much needed, especially in the winter season to eke out 
the scanty subsistence derived from the chase ; and here, too, they found 
an abundant supply of their favorite Quckog from which they manu- 
factured their Seawant or wampum ; well, then, might they call the 
country " Laaphawachkixg." or the place of stringing beads, bordering 
on the " Maminketesuck" or "Broad Flowing River." 

On the property of Mr. Elbert Roosevelt, just west of Pelham Prion-, 
great quantities of Indian arrow heads have been discovered in one 
particular spot ; leading to the supposition, that an extensive manufactory 
of that article once existed here. 

Directly in front of the Priory, on the opposite side of the post-road, 
leading from Pelham through to New Rochelle, is situated a rocky 
knoll covered with cedars overlooking Shoal harbor, the Sound and 
neighboring Islands called the " Haunted Cedar Knoll." There was 
formerly a current belief in the neighborhood, that the forms of many 
headless Indians, might be seen on moonlight nights, in a circle, per- 
forming a kind of war dance on its summit, with heads in their hands, 
and that these apparitions still haunted the cedars and surrounding 
glens and woods. It is more than probable that a severe and sanguinary 
battle had taken place here, in early times between the Matinecocks of 
"Sewanhacky" and the Siwano/s of " Laaphawachking " which re- 
sulted in the defeat of the latter and their subsequent decapitation. 
Hence, the headless apparitions of " Cedar Knoll." 

Nearly opposite the Knoll on a point of Hunter's Island is located a 
mossy rock, or boulder stone, called the ' : Grey Mare." To this piece 
of rude natural sculpture, the Indians invariably paid just respect, be- 


lieving it to have been placed there by the direct interposition of their 
guardian Manito, for their especial benefit or favor. These 
I stones he called Shingaba-wossins — or in general phrase Muz-in- 
in-a-wun, or in 

Fin ns of Indian hatchets, and javelins of chart, quartz and 

horn stone, are constantly found in the neighborhood of these shores. 

I pon the 6th day of October, 1666, a large proportion of the Indian 
grant of 1654, was confirmed to Thomas Pell, Esq., by his excellency, 
Richard X knolls, governor of New York, and erected into a township 
and manor ; the proprietor rendering and paying in fealty therefor 
. unto his royal highness, James, 1 )uke of York, or to such governor 
as should from time to time, be by him appointed, as an acknowledg- 
ment, one lamb upon the first day of May, (the feast of S. S. Philip 
and James} if the same should be demanded. 


Richnrd Nicholls, Esq., governor under his royal highness, the Duke of York, 

of all his territories in America. To all whom these presents shall come, send- 

eth greeting. Whereas: there is a certain tract of land within this government 

upon the main, situate, lying and being to the Eastward of Westchest< r bounds, 

bounded to the Westward with the river called by the Indians, Aqueouncke, 

only known by the English, hy the name of Hutchinson's river, which 

th into the Bay lying between Throckmorton's neck and Ann Hooks neck, 

iODly called Hutchinson's Bay, bounded on the East, by a brook called 

Tree Brook or Gravelly brook, on the South by the sound which lyeth 

a Long Island ami the main land, with all the islands in the Sound, not 

already granted or otherwise disposed of, lying before that tract of land so 

bounded as is before expressed, ami northwards, to run into the woods about 

eight English miles in breadth as the bounds to the Sound, which said tract of 

land hath heretofore been purchased of the Indian proprietors, and due satisfac- 

iven for the same. Now know ye, that by virtue of the commission and 

authority unto me given, by his Royal Highness, James] Duke of York, &c, 

whom by lawful grant and patient from his majesty, the proprietory and 

. tent 01 that part of the main land as well as of Long Island, as all the 

■cent, among other thi ttled, I have thought proper to give, 

confirm and ratify unto* Thomas Pell of Oackway, alias Fairfield, his 

of Connecticut, gentleman, his heirs and assigns, all the said 

:' iand bounded as aforesaid, together with all the lands, islands, scu-bays, 

woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, lakes, waters, creeks, fishing, hawking, hunt- 

: 1 fowling, and all other p c mmodities, emoluments and hcrcdita- 

. to the said tract of land and islands belonging, with their appurtenances, and 

y pari and parcel thereof : and that the said tract of laud and premises, 

shall be forever hereafter held, deemed, reputed, taken and lie an enfranchised 

township, manor and place itself, and shall always from time to time, and all 

times hereafter, have, hold and enjoy, like and equal privileges aud immunities, 


with any town, enfranchised place or manor, within this government ; and shall 
in no manner of way, be subordinate or belonging unto, have any dependency 
upon, or in any wise be under the rules, ordeis or directions of any riding, 
township or townships, place or jurisdiction, either upon the main or upon 
Island, but shall in all cases, things aad matters, be deemed, reputed, taken and 
held, aa an absolute entire, enfranchised township, manor and place of itself in 
this government, and shall be ruled ordered and directed, in all matters as to 
government accordingly, by the governor and his council, and the general court 
of assizes only, always provided that the inhabitants on the said tract of land 
granted as aforesaid, shall be obliged to send forwards to the next tov. 
public packets and letters, or line and Cries, coming to this place or going from it, 
to any oilier of his majesties colonies, to have and to hold the said tract of land 
and giant, with all and singular the appurtenances, premises, together with the 
privileges, immunities, franchises, and advantages herein given and granted, 
unto the said Thomas Pell, his heirs and assigns to the proper use and behoof of 
the said Thomas Pell, forever, firmly, freely and clearly, in so large and ample 
manner and form and with such full and absolute immunities and privileges as 
before is expressed, as if he had held the same immediately from his majesty 
the King of England, &c., etc., &c, &c, &c, his successors, as of the manor of 
East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in free and common socage and by 
fealty only, yielding rendering and paying, yearly and every year, unto his 
royal highness, the duty forever, and his heirs, or to such governor as shall from 
time to time, be by him constituted and appointed, as an acknowledgment, one 
lamb upon the first day of May, if the same shall be demanded. Given under 
my hand and seal at Fort James, in New York, on the island of Manhattan, the 
sixth day of October, in the 18th year of the reign of our sovereign, Lord Charles 
the second, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 
King, Defender of the faith, vice., &c., &a, and in the year of our Lord God, 

Entered and recorded in the Office of New York, \ 
the 8th day of October, 1666. \ 

Matiiias Nicolls, SicVy. 

The Pells, who were formerly lords of the Manor, boast a very remote 
antiquity ; tracing their descent from the ancient family of that name at 
Walter Willingsley and Dymblesbye in Lincolnshire, England. In the 
■visitation of Lincolnshire in 1564, "William Harvey, Clarenceux, King at 
arms, by his deputy. Robert Cooke, Chester Herald, records "William 
Pell as first seated at Walter Willingsley in the year (about) 1368 ; his 
son was Thomas Pell of the same place, whose son Richard was the 
father of John Pell, whose eldest son, William Pell of Walter Willings- 
ley, married Alice, daughter and heiress of Robert Buller of Barkeston, 
by Joane, his wife, daughter and heiress of Robert Wyther of Barkeston, 
whose wife, Joane, was the daughter and heiress of John Pounder. The 
only son of William Pell by Alice Buller was Thomas Pell, of Walter 


Willingsley; who married first, Alice, daughter of Henry Flower, of 
Langer in the County of Nottingham, by whom he had two sons, Ed- 
ward Pell of Walter Willingsley, (the father of Thomas Pell and Thomas 
Pell, "the younger,") and Thomas Pell. "Thomas Pell of Walter Wil- 
lingsley, married, secondly, Alice, daughter of William Thorold, Lord 
of Marston and Blankney in the County of Lincoln and High Sheriff of 
that county in 155S-1559, who died 24th of November, 1569." Their 
son was Sir Richard Pell of Dymblesbye" in the County of Lincoln, 
Knight, one of the executors of his cousin, Sir Anthony Thorold, son 
and heir of William, ancestor of the Thorolds of Marston, now repre- 
sented by Sir John Charles Thorold, Baronet. Sir Anthony Thorold 
died 1594. Sir Richard Pell Knight, by his first wife, Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Edward Tirwhitt — Knight and Baronet of Stanfield, Essex, had two 
daughters — Anne, who died without issue and was buried at St. Giles, 
Criplegate, London ; and Ursula, who married, first, Edward Ellis of 
Chestertown in Cambridge, second, Lewes Cockaine of Cockaine Hatley 
in Bedford. By his second wife, Catharine, daughter of Anthony Meeres 
of Kirton in Holland, Sir Richard Pell had three sons and two daughters. 
The eldest son was Sir Anthony Pell, of Dymblesby, Knight, who by 
his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Willoughby of Carlton 
in the County of Nottingham, had four sons, viz., Richard, William, 
Anthony and John, who were all probably living when the visitation of 
Lincolnshire was made in 1592 by Richard Lee, Richmond Herald, 
deputy of Robert Cooke, Clarenceux King at arms. 5 

A branch of this Lincolnshire family had removed into the County of 
Norfolk, of which was John Pell, gentleman, of Derringham, in that 
county, Lord of the manor of Shouldham Priory/ and Brookhall, who 
married Margaret Cletheron, and died April 4th, 1556, leaving an only 
son, John Pell, Esq., steward or master of the king's cup, and Lord 
Mayor of Lynn Regis, who was born May 5th, 1527 ; married Margaret, 
daughter and heiress of William Overend, Esq., and died May 5th, 
1607. Upon an altar-stone at the east end of the south aisle of St. 

a Sir Richard Pell of Dymblesbye had a grant of arms, Oct. 19th, 1594, from Richard Lee, 
Clarenceux King at arms, of the following: " Ermine on a canton azure a pellioan, or— Crest 
a pellican, or standing on a garland vert, full of roses, or. This coal and vest exactly corres- 
pond with those borne by the Pells of Noifolk, Sussex and Westchester which prove them to 
have been of one and the same family. 

b Sari, MsS. I860 fcil. 137,» 138 and 138," visitations of Lincolnshire, 1564, 1592. British 
Museum. Borke'sJExtlnot and Dormant Baronetcies. Collectanea Typographic et Genealo- 
gica, vol. iv., 373. 

c At the dissolution, Shouldam Priory was granted, May 1544, 36th, nen. VIJI., to John 
Dethick, Esq., who in the 38th. 1646, had license to alien it to John Pell and his heirs. The 
manor of Brookhall, an old hall conveyed by Sir Giles CapeLoon and heir of Sir William 
Capel, Lord Mayor of London, in the thirty-second year of Henry VII., (1641.) to John 
Pell grant by fine, in which family it continued, as in Shouldham Priory Manor, till left to Mr. 
Walpolej the Earl of Oxford being its present Lord. The aforesaid John Pell, gentleman, 
by his will, dated Sept. 16, 1554, requires to be buried in the church of Derrmgham. 

Arms:— Ermine, on a chevron azure, a Pelican vulncd gu. Crest :-On a chaplet vert, flowered cr, a Pelican of the last vulned gules. I Granted October 19th, 1594). 

Walter <1e Pelham 

hcM thP LonltUiln n| 1',-iii.iin, i 

Catharine, da, of Angnstln 
1 '" Antliouy Porter, of Bellon 



7. Stephen S. Pe]l,_Atleline M. Turnlniil 


nat. S9N 

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nat. soth August, 1S18 

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Nicholas' church. Perringham, are engraved the effigies of this John 
Pell and Margaret, his wife, together with the following inscription : — 

Memoria Sacrum. 

Hei jacet Johannis Pell de Dersingham, armiger, quonda major Linnre Regis, 
qui uxoreru duxit Margaretain, filiam, unicam Gulielmi Overend, armigeri, 
annos 61 foeliceiter und vexerunt, sex filias et tres filias inter se habuerunt, Hec 
vers cum annos 80 compleverat quinto die February, Ao Dui 1607, niatura sinec- 
tute, mortem obut et octavo die ejusdem mensis corpus sepulchro condibatur. 

John Pell and Margaret Overend had six sons and three daughters ; 
his eldest son was William Pell, Esq., who married Elizabeth, daughter 


of w'illiam Drury, Esq., of Fincham, and died without issue in 1535. 
Jerfrey Pell, his brother, married Catherine, daughter of Edward Rand, 
of East Bendham, and left issue John Pell, Esq., fourth lord of the 
manor of Shouldharu, whose great-grandson, Valentine Pell, gave 
Shouldhain and Brookhall to Robert Walpole, ancestor of the Earls of 
Oxford ; another son of John and Margaret was Valentine Pell, an at- 
torney at Lynn, who died in 1603; another son was Thomas Pell; 
while a fifth son is said to have been the Rev. John Pell, incumbent of 
Southwyck, in the county of Sussex. Others, however, assert that 
although the latter was descended of the ancient Lincolnshire family, 
yet his branch had removed some time into Sussex. a The Rev. John 
Pell, of Southwyck, 6 was born about 1553, and married Mary Holland, 
of Halden, County of Kent. This accomplished lady was descended 
of the royal family ; her branch being allied to the Hollands, Earls of 
Kent, who flourished in the reigns of Edward III. and Richard II., 
Kings of England. Sir Thomas de Holland, second son of Robert 
de Holland, Knight of the Garter and a Baron of the realm, (who led 
the van of Prince Edward's army at the famous Castle of Cressy.) mar- 
ried Joane Plantagenet, celebrated for her beauty under the name of 
" The Fair Maid of Kent" only daughter of Edmund Plantagenet, sur- 
named "of Woodstock," Earl of Kent, second son of King Edward III. 
This distinguished woman inherited (upon the decease of her brother 
John, the third Earl of Kent,) that dignity, with the Barony of Wood- 
stock, honors of her father, and the Barony of Wake, a dignity of her 
mother's ; from which latter peerage, she styled herself " Lady of 
Wake." c The Rev. John Pell died at Southwycke in 16 16, leaving two 
sons, Thomas Pell, 'gentleman of the bed-chamber" to King Charles 
I., and first Lord and proprietor of the manor of Peiham ; and the Rev. 
John Pell, D.D., rector of Fobbing, in Essex. Thomas Pell, the eldest 
son, appears to have been born at Southwyck, Sussex, about 1608, al- 
though by some he is styled of Norfolk ; the exact period of his arrival 
in America is uncertain ; d that he was one of the first settlers of New 
England, however, there remains no doubt ; for, at a very early period, 

a Biorrvupliia Brittanica. Ir is a little BinguUr that John Poll, .second Lord of the manor of 
Peiham, should be bo frequently styled, in the records, "Sir John pell," which Be ma rather 
to connect hnu with the knighted family of in mbl «by, in Li] 

b This living is a dischurt:- d rectory in tb ,.-. s, and is rained in the King's 

hooks at £'.>, 130, 9#d. Ji is in 'hi' patronage of the crown. The church i.s dedicated to St. 
Michael. The Reg! in 1663. 

c Burke's Extinct and Dormant Peeragi -. Hasted'B Bist .of Kent, vol. ii. 284. The arms 
of Ilolland, of Holland, temp. King John. a/, a lion ramp, guard betn. bix fleurs-de-lis ar.: 
these were als 1 th • arm- of Rol .ad, summoned to Parliament, S. Edward II., and 

his descendants, the ha! is of Kent. 

d Two of this name appear as emigrants to New England inl685.— "6th April :635. These 
pties hereinnnder mencioned are to be transported toNew Englande, im o 
ersXieo Trarice M., bound thither they have brought cjiti:icatj from th Justic . i f Peace 


we find his name associated with Roger Ludlow, a member of the Rev. 
John \Varhams' a company who settles first at Dorchester, Massachusetts, 
June, 1630, and afterwards removed to Windsor Connecticut, in 1635, sub- 
sequently Ludlow, with ten families, commenced a plantation at Unquowa, 
(the Indian name for Fairfield, Conn.,) here we find Mr. Pell, in 1635. His 
name first occurs in the New Haven colonial records, as attorney for the 
executors of Richard Jewell in 1639. 3 In 1642, he was a resident there; 
and on the 10th of March, 1646, his name is recorded as the occupant 
of the first seat, on the cross-benches or pews at the end of the meeting 
house.'* In 1647, he traded to the Delaware and Virgina. The year 
following, he was called upon to take the oath of allegiance to New 
Haven, but he declined compliance with this order, on the ground that he 
had taken the oath in England, " and should not take it here." This 
refusal we think was not prompted by his attachment to the royal cause* 
but from conscientious scruples in taking any oath at all ; for this he 
was pronounced guilty of contempt, and fined. He would not pay the 
fine, however; and, as "his carriage had been full of high contempt." 
he was again summoned before the authorities and again amerced. J In 
1646-7, he married Lucy, widow of Francis Brewster, of New Haven, 
and in June or July of that year removed to Fairfield. 

A.D. 1654 (the same year of his purchase here , Mr. Thomas Yale 
presented to the General Court, held at New Haven, a note under hand of 
Mr. Thomas Pell, wherein he desires the said Mr. Yale to make entry of 
the lands he had sold to Allan Ball, James Russell and William Bradley/ 

and Ministers of ye parish, that they were conformable to the 01 of England, 

and are no subsidy men. Tney have taken the oath of supreniacie and allegience die et an prd. 

A carpenter, Thos. Pell, 26. 

Marie Pell, 26. 

Marie Pell, l. 

These names are said to be crossed out in the original MSS. ii=t of emigrants to America 
160O-1T00. J. W. Bouton, >". Y., " April. 1635, iu the Hopewell, Will. Burdock, master, bound 
to New England ; a tailor, Thos. Pell, aged 22. : ' Mass. Coll. " Founders of New England," 
by Samuel Drake. 

a John Warham was a pious and celebrated preacher at Exeter, England, but was forced 
* / New England for refuge from the storm. Previous to his departure, a congrega- 
tion being gathered at Plymouth, he was after solemn fasting and | none of its 
pastors ; and in tlie year 1636, many pious families out of Devo.. and Somer- 
setshire, accompanied them to New England. Lives of the Pnrita jk. Princes 
Chron Hi>r. . 204. 

b New Haven CoL Kec. vol. i, p. 63. 

c • At a genera] court, held on that day and year were recorded the names of the people as 
: i the meeting house; first middle seat, the Governor ami Deputy Governor, 4c 
the cio- the end, first seat, Air. Pell, Mr. Tuttle and brother Lowler," Ac. New Ha- 

ven Kec., vol. i, p.280. 

d }\ I >'Callighan, vol. ii., p. 2S3 ; see note. 

eln lwr Mr. Pell was attached for .£200, a debt which hi3 wife, late widow of Mr. Francis 
Brew6ter, had contracted before her marriage with h::a. This debt, it appears, Mr. Pell re- 
fused to p \v, notwithstanding the court took the liberty to inform him that his wife's debts 
were his own. on being af tei wa: da brought up to court, he declared " that it was against his 
judgment to take an oath." New Haven Col. Kec.. vol. i.. 315-391. Eighteen pages of the Col. 
Kec. are occupied with the trifling details of a trial of Lucy Brewster for slander: but this 
was before hf r marriage to h.-r second husband, and may have contributed to produce it in 
order to obtain manly protection, lavages' Lis. Lie;. 

/ New llavt-n CoL Kec. 


Upon the 9th of February, 1653, Thomas Pell purchased land in Fair- 
field of Henry Rowland, Philip Pinckney, Alexander Briant and others ; 
also a house which was sometime Nathan Gould' s, in 1654." In 1662 he 
was made a freeman of that town, and chosen its representative to the 
General Court in 1665. 

Thomas Pell's death must have occurred in September, 1669; he is 
said to have died of hasty consumption, and was buried at Fairfield, 
his wife, Lucy, probably died at the same place in 166S. 

In ye name of God, Amen — It hath pleased ye all wise God many years to ex- 
ercise me with much weakness of body, and having lately taken to himselfe my 
beloved wife Lucy, it being ye good pleasure of God to deny me natural issue 
of my owne body, His good hand of mercy continueing unto me to keep me in 
perfect memory and my understanding in a comfortable measure, according to 
proportion of wisdom and knowledge, where he saw meet to proportion to me, 
I desire in faith to give up my soule to God which gave it, my body to a comely 
burial, that I may be decently buryed iu such a comely manner that God may 
not be dishonored. It beinge my desire that peace may be attended iu enjoy- 
ment of what God hath been pleased to give to me — this being my last will and 
testament — I doe make my nephew, John Pell, living in ould England, the only 
sonne of my only brother John Pell, Doctor of Divinity, which he had by his 
first wife, my whole and sole hene of all my lands and houses in any parte of 
New England, or in ye territoryes of ye Duke of Yorke. I also give to my 
nephew John Pell (my whole and sole heire) all my goods, moveable or immove- 
able whatsoever — money, plate, chattells and cattle of all kinde — except such 
parcclls and legacyes which I give and bequeath to persons as followeth, my 
just debts being first paid : and if my nephew, John Pell, be deceased, and hath 
left a sonne or sonnes surviving him, then what I have above given to my 
nephew, John Pell, I give to such issue of his ; and in ye default of such issue, 
it's my will that my brother John Pell's daughter shall enjoy ye above said por- 
tion ; and in case they or any of them be deceased, then it is my will that the 
children of my brother's daughters shall inherit the above said portion, to be 
equally divided amongst them. It is my will, that in case my nephew, John 
Pell, my brother's sonne by his first wife, be deceased, and hath left no male 
issue, if my brother hath a sonne or sonnes by his last wife, he or they shall 
enjoy ye above said portion ; and in ye default of them or their male issue, then 
my brother's daughters, or their children, shall enjoy ye above portion as is above 
expressed. I give to Abigail Burr, ye wife of Daniell Burr, ye best bed in my 
house in Fairfield, and boulstis, with two blancoates, a rug and dormink suit of 
curtains, six cushions, two paire of sheets, six chairs, the brewing kettle in use, 
two new keelers, a brewing tub, six silver spoons, with ye use of all ye plate in 
the house, if she desire of my executors of trust, till my heire or heires come or 
send his or their order how or which way all things shall be disposed of. Item 

a Fairfield Town Rec. 

b Hazard's S;ate Papers, vol. ii, pp. 231-245-342-343. 


—I give to Danicll Burr all my horses and horse colts which have in New Eng- 
land, and in ye territoryes of ye Duke of Yorke : I except my mares and mare 
colts, which I do not give him ; I except my saddle gelding, which my heir is 
to have if he come over — otherwise, Danicll Burr is to have him. Daniell Burr i3 
to take ye horse flesh as they run ; without any further dehinery, lctt the mares 
be disposed of according to ye understanding of my executors of trust. Item — 
I give to my sonne, Francis French, all my tobacco, growing or not growing, in 
casks, or otherways made up in rolls or twist. Item — I give to Nathaniel! 
French two young eowesand one young bull. Item — To Elizabeth White I give 
the worst feather bed and boulster, one iron pott, six porringers, six 'spoons of 
alcamy, six pewter platters, one brass skellet, and fifteene pounds more in goods 
or cattle, current pay, and two comely suits of apparel— one for working days, 
another for Sabbath dayes, with two paire of shoes. Item -to Mary White I give 
six pounds and one suite of aparell of serge, with two shifts, and wool for stock- 
ings. I give to Nathaniell White, an apprentice to some handicraft trade ; and 
if it be for his advantage, to give tenne pounds with him out of my estate, not 
diminishing his twenty pounds, which is to be improved for his use. I give to 
Barbary, my servant — I sett her at liberty to be a free woman a month after my 
burial, except my nephew, John Pell, come in person ; she then to attend his 
occasions whilst he is there, not exceeding three months. Further, I do give to 
Barbary, my servant, one flock bed and boulster, and two blancoats, a pair of 
sheets, and cotton rug, one iron pott, an iron skellett, six trays and chest, with 
a lock and key to it, six porringers, two pewter platters, six pewter spoons or ye 
value of them, two cowes or the value of them. I give to my ancient maid, 
Katherine Rysten, five pounds in cattle or county pay. I make, ordain, con- 
stitute and appoint Daniell Burr and John Bankes to be my executors of trust, 
and order them to pay, after my burial, all just debts and legacyes, and to make 
sale of any utensils which are subject to decay— old cattle — and to be account- 
able to my heire or heires, and to keep up housing and fences upon my heires' 
charge, that the estate may not suffer. I give to my said executors of trust 
twenty pounds apiece, and to be paid what first charge they are at upon any in- 
cumbrances. Item — I give those poor men their debts upon my booke, whose 
names follow — Joseph Pathon, James Evers, Thomas Bassett, Roger Percy ; 
and that this is my last will. In witness whereof, I have hereunto sett my hand 
this twenty and one yeare of the raigne of our sovereigne lord, King Charles, 
and the twenty-first of September, 1669. Me, THOMAS PELL 

Signed in the presence of us, 

Nathan Gould, 

Jonx Cabell. 

John Cabell gives oath that he was witnesse to Mr. Pell signing this will, with 
Mr. Gould, as he hath entered his hand. Taken upon oath before me, 

Nathan Gould, Assistant. 

This 3d of , in his Majestie's 

Colony of Connecticut, September, lG69, tt 

L T pon the 13th of October, A.D. 1669, the Court of Assize issued the 

a This will may be found in the Probate Rec. of Fairfield Co, 1G65 to '75, vol. ii, p. 43-44- 
Also Surrogates office N. Y. Wills and Adm., 16C5 tolW3, vol. 1., p. 83. 

4 6 


following order, authorizing and appointing Mr. John Richbell, Mr. 
William Leyden, and Mr. Samuel Drake, to take an inventory of the 
estate of Thomas Pell, deceased : 

"Whereas, Mr. Thomas Pell, of Ann Hook's Neck, is lately deceased, and 
having left a considerable estate in this government, of which no inventory is as 
yet returned." 

In the inventory, we have a thorough and particular account of the 
whole furniture and household array of a wealthy merchant and gentle- 
man of that early period. 

V -rr^-^-ft^ y IM . 

An inventory of ye estate of Sir Thomas Pell, late deceased, appraised 
by us whose names are underwritten, and yt according to an order or 
commission directed unto us by ye Rt. Hon'ble ye govern'r, and his 
Royal High., ye Duke of Yorke, of all his territories in America. 

Imprimis 1 old feather bed, 2 feather bolsters, 2 pillows, 1 rug, 1 

blankett, 1 covcrlett, 1 bedstead, and 1 pr. of old sheets. 
1 paire of old kitterminster curtains and vallance, 

03 yds. of canvass at 2s. pr. yd. 
36 drest buck and doe skins at 4s pr. piece, . 

1 pr. of wooden scales and weights, 

2 paire of old sheep sheres 
1 table and frame. 
6 silver spoons and 1 dram cup, 
9 pound of tacks, 

1 pr. of brasse scales and pound weights, 
1 piece of girt web and lead lyne, 
1 pound of pepper, 

4 knives, 

14 buckles and 2 bridle bits, . 
2£ yds. of bongala at 3s pr. yd. 
14 yds. of peniston at 2s p. yd. 
G yds. of Holland at 4s. p. yd. 
21 yds. } of Brockram at Is. 6d. p. yd. 
60 lbs. of pewt. at 12d pr. lb. 
8 old napkins, 1 table cloath and towel], 
1 old lynnen wast coate, 1 pr. of drawers and 2 shirts, 
1 ch« ....... 

1 old wast coate. ..... 






























a Assize Rec. AlbaDy, vol. ii. 7S. 



5 pr. of woosted stockings at 4s pr. pair, 

1 pr. of home spun Btockil 

1 pair of serge boot hose and tops, 

4 cushion c ... 

13 yds. of several remnants of several stuffs at 2s pr. yd. 

12 yds. more ye sd stuffs, 

9 yds. of remnants of serge at 3s pr. yd. 

1 piece of serge, . . . 

ll£ yds. of remnants of kersey at 4s. pr. yd. 

24 yds. of flew lynnen at 2s. pr. yd. . 

4 yds. of penistone at 2s. pr. yd. 

5 yds. of cotton at 2s. 6d. p. yd. 
3 lb. of black and browne thread, 
Remnants of gimp, and other laces, . 
1 pair of cotton cards, . 
i4 lb. and I of lead in barres at 3d. p. lb 
1 pair of bridle reines, 
3 quire of paper, 

1 chest with a lock, 

2 joynt stooles, 

3 chaires at '2s. per chair, 
7 lb of powder at Is. per lb. 

1 old neckebth, 5 old bands, 2 hankerchiefs, and old red cap 
3 gunnes, ....... 

1 old patch flock bead, 2 boulsters, 3 old blanketts, 1 old coverlett 
1 chaff e bed being broke, 1 feath. bolster, 1 per of course sheets, 
1 hammock, ...... 

1 old coate, ...... 

2 feather bol. 1 pillow, 2 blanketts and 1 coarse sheet, 
1 dressed boar skin, 
1 very old boat sayle, ..... 

1 old bible, 

Culpeper's dispensatory, wh 3 other small books, 

2 of Cradock*s works in quarto, 
2 brushes, ...... 

18 old fashioned felt hats wh bands . 

2 yds. of bayes and duffets for 1 paire of Indian breeches 
15 bushells of winter wheat at 6s. p. bushell. 

3 bushells of Indian corn at 2s. 6d. p. bushell, 
A parcel 1 of sheep's wool, .... 
A parcell of cotton wool, .... 
A parcell of lumber casks in ye chamber, 
3801b. of naylesatlOd. p. lb., 

7 bolts for dores, ..... 

2 paire of bridle raines, .... 

1 paire of bridle bitts, .... 

1 feth'r bed, 1 boulster, 2 blanketts, 2 rugs, 2 pillows, 1 pr. of sheets 
1 large feather bed, 1 boulster, 2 blanketts, 1 rug, 1 pr. sheets 







2 2 


12 6 


10 o 

















7 G 







2blanketts, ........ 

1 old feather bed, 1 boulster, 1 pillow. 1 paire of sheets, 1 blanket t 
and 1 coverlet t, ....... 

17 yds. of coarse broad-cloth at 7s. p. yd. . . . . 

17 lumber casks, ....... 

1 old chest without a lock, ...... 

4 iron potts, 1 skillett, 3 pair of pot hooks, 

3 brasse kettles, 1 skillett, 2 chafing dishes, 1 pestell and mortar, 
and 1 copper skillett, . . 

2 trammclls, 1 drippiug pan, 1 spitt, 1 frying pan, 1 paire of tongues, 
1 gridiron, 1 smoothing iron, ..... 

2 doz. trayes, 2 boults, 1 cheesplate, 5 wooden bottles, 8 peales, lh 
bushell, 1 peck, 1 quarter cann, 1 old small churn, 

2 ploughs, 2 shares, 2 coulters, bolts, collars and 1 pr. of chaines, 

3 draught . chaines, 1 timber chaine, . 

2 paire of geres for horses ...... 

6 falling axes and 1 hatchett ...... 

2 mattocks, 2 spades, 2 iron crowes, 2 sledges, 6 wedges, 1 drawing 
knife, 1 hedging bill, 1 clapboard hoe, 1 crosse cut saw, 1 hand 
saw, and beetle rings, ..... 

1 piece of an iron barre, 

2 old carts, 3 paire of wheels, 1 paire of them shod with iron, and 
1 cart rope, ....... 

3 old table napkins, 1 table cloth, 6 old towells, 
1 warming pan, &C. ...... 

24 harrow teeth, 1 swivell, 1 horse lock, 1 small chaine, 3 gimbletts 
Showes, ....... 

1 small bag with ginger, ..... 

20 yearling cattle, ...... 

9 two yeare old, ...... 

9 three yeare old, ...... 

6 four yeare old, ...... 

6 milch cows, ...... 

12 oxen, ....... 

5 calfes, ....... 

1 hogsd. and 1 barrell of mollasses, . ; 

4 barrells of salt, ...... 

18 lumber casks, ...... 

All ye tobacco, old and new, ..... 

2 hydes, ....... 

1 parcell of feathers in a pillow case, and 1 pr of old stockens, 

Horses and horse colts as they run in the woods, 

Mares and mare colts, ..... 

53 sheep, ....... 

Swyne, small and greate, ..... 

The howsing, lands, barnes, islands, adjoyning from Hutchinson's 

River westward, and so far eastward as were Mr. Tho. Pell's 
inst. and lawful right, ..... 










































2 small parcells of sugar, 

House and land in Westchester, 

6 new sythes, ..... 

(J unwashed lleeces of wool, 

ti old M'Vthi -, ..... 

In Applebyes keeping, 2 cows and 1 plow chaine 

In Jonathan Burge his keeping, 2 oxen, 3 cowes, 2 yearlings 
4 calfes, 1 timber chaine, 1 plough chaine, 1 colter, 1 share and 
boult. ....... 

1 plough share, colter, boult, coder and yoke irons, in John Holy' 
hands, , 

64 load of hay, 

5 firkins of sope and parcell of tallow, 

h barrell of rum, 

1 paire of stillyards, 

3 yoaks and 2 grind stones, 

1 canow, parcell of beef, and 

4 cowes more, 
4 oxen, 

2 of two years old, 
2 of three years old, 
2 calfes, 

1 bull stag, 

30 bushells of Indian come 
Old wheat, 

2 draught chaines, 1 timber chaine, 1 pr. cart wheels, boxes and ring? 
1 colter, 1 share colter and boult 
1 broad axe, 3 iron wedges, 1 pr. of beetle rings, 1 cart rope, 1 coller 

for a horse, 2 pitchforks, 1 grind stone 
1 ffiock bed and boulster, 1 handsaw, 2 augurs, 2 hamers, and 
paire feli'rs, ...... 

1 iron pott, pot hooks and tramell, 1 brasse kettle, 1 kellett and 
candlestick, 1 pewter pint pott, 2 old pewter platters, 

G alchymy spoons, ..... 

15 old lumber casks. ..... 

^ firkin butter and 2 cheeses, .... 

2 cowe hydes, ..... 

Total sume, 






























1 10 

1 10 


1294 14 4 

This inventory and appraisem't was finished ye 20th of October, 1C69, as 
witness o'r hands, we having according to o'r best knowledge and understanding, 
done as witness o'r hands ye day and yeare aforesaid, we have apprai- 
money of this country, 

Jonx Richbells. 

Wm. a Hotdex. 

his marke. 
SAiir/EL Drake. 


John Bankes one of ye Exec'rs of ye said will entered into bond of £300 
Sterl. to perfourme ye said will. Ye bond was dated ye 13 October, 1G69.» 

During the same year an execution was granted against ye estate of Thomas 
Pell, of Ann Hooks neck, for £16 19 10, of ye goods or chattels belonging and re- 
served by ye executors, in trust, for the use of his heirs, the said sum being due 
for several charges relating to a matter in difference between Charles Bridges and 
Sarah his wife, plaintiffs, and. ye said Thomas Pell defendant, wherein ye said 
defendant was overthrown, and condemned to pay ye costs of suit J> 

[To Mr. Robert Coe,high theriff or his deputy, to cause this execution to be served. Y 

By the will of Mr. Thomas Pell, it will be observed, that he be- 
queathes all his " lands and houses in any part of New England, or in 
ye territory of ye Duke of York," to his nephew John Pell, living in Ould 
England, the only son of his only brother, John Pell, Doctor of Divinity. 

The Rev. John Pell, D.D., second son of Rev. John Pell and Mary 
Holland, was born at South wyck, in Sussex, on the first of March, 1611. 
His father, we are told, died whilst he was only five years old ; but his 
mother, who was of the Holland family, residing in Kent, did not allow 
this loss to be an injury to his education. From her tuition he went to 
that of Mr. John Jefferies, master of the free school at Steyning, and 
made such proficiency that at the age of thirteen he proceeded to Trini- 
ty College, Cambridge. d He was an excellent linguist, understanding 
well Arabic, Italian, French, Dutch and Hebrew, as well as the two clas- 
sical languages. Mathematics, however, were his favorite and distinguish- 
ing study. At the age of nineteen he composed a treatise upon the use 
of sun-dials, and engaged in a correspondence relating to logarithms with 
the learned Mr. H. Briggs. In the year 1636, he took the degree of 
M.A., and the following year proceeded to finish his studies at Oxford, 
where he was greatly esteemed. On the 3d of July, 1632, he married 
Tehamaria, " Tamar or Athamar," second daughter of Mr. Henry Regi- 
nolle, e of London, by whom he had four sons and the same number of 
daughters." John, their only surviving son, as we shall see presently, 
succeeded his uncle as second lord of Pelham. 

" In December, 1643," Dr. Pell "Went to Amsterdam to fill the pro- 
fessorship of mathematics. He succeeded Martin Hortensius. His pub- 

a Probate Rea Fairfield Co., 1665-1675, 2 voL pp. 43, 44. Also Surrogate's Office, N. Y., 
Wills &, Admm, 1665 o 16S3, vol. i, p. 87. 

b Westchester Town Rec. 

c Assize Rec, Albany, 215. 

d Trinity College, Cambridge, was founded by Edward III, and the Black Prince and Pell 
as being of founders kin was entitled to certain privileges attached thereto. 

e Henry Tte^inolles, or Reginalles, was descended of a family of that name resident at Bel- 
sted, ountv of Suffolk. The following guand of arms was made to ReginallB (Belated, coun- 
ty of Suffolk,) in 1584, "Sa. on a chief ar. ttuee mullets pierced of the Held." Burke's Gen. 


lie lectures upon Diophantus were much applauded, as is testified by his 
learned colleague, Gerrard John Yossius, who styles him, in his De 
ScientUs Mathematics, 'a person cf various erudition, and a very acute 
mathematician;' though, as Dr. Pell tells Sir Henry Cavendish, in a let- 
ter, still preserved in the British museum, ' stupidus, stolidus, cani simi/is, 
temerarius, petulans jttvenis* and the like titles, hath Longomontanus 
bestowed upon your honor's most humble servant, John Pell."* " This 
letter is dated from Amsterdam, in February, 1644-5. ^ n 1646, in com- 
pliance with the wishes of the Prince of Orange, Mr. Pell removed to the 
Professorship of Philosophy and Mathematics in Schola Illusiris which 
his Highness founded that year at Breda. In the same year appeared 
his ' Controversia cum Christiano Longomontana de vera circuli mensu- 
ra.' While at Breda he had Lord Brereton 3 under his tuition. In 1651, 
was published his ' Idea Mathematus' which is the best of his works. 
In 1652, he returned to England, and two years subsequently was sent 
by the Protector Oliver Cromwell as his obligatus, or agent, to the Pro- 
testant Cantons of Switzerland, but subsequently he received orders to 
continue there as resident minister. He chiefly resided at Zurich." 1 -' 

The Pell MSS. d in the Landsdowne Collections, in the British Museum, 
are written in an excellent style and afford interesting illustrations of 
Dr. Pell's domestic and literary character. They contain letters to and 
from Dr. Pell. Amongst his correspondents are Mr. Secretary Thurloe, 
Boswell, Monk, Moland, Drury and Hirtzell. To which is appended 
Dr. Pell's diary during his residence at Zurich. The latter commences 

thus : — 


March 1, I was forty-three years old. 

March 2, My Lord Protector sent for me, and first proposed that journey to 
March 3, The Low-Dutch ambassador came. 
March 21, Marcus first waited upon me. 
March 24, I received at Whitehall, £200 sterling advance. 

a Harleian MSS. 6796, 72 c. 

b The son of the second Lord Brereton, of Leaghlia, in Ireland, to whose title he succeed- 
ed, and was member for Cuesfcire in the reign of Charle3ll. He died in 1679. Vaughan's 
Protectorate of Cromwell, vol. ii, 3S3. 

c nistory of Sussex, by Thomaa Walker, vol. ii, 218. Besides the works already mentioned. 
Dr. Pell published— 1. Modus Supputandi Ephemerides Astronomicus, 1630: 2. clef de la Ste- 
ganographic <ie Jean Tretheim, 1631 ; 3. Letter to Edward Wingate upon Logarithms, 1631 ; 4, 
Astronomical Account of Celestial Appearances. &c.,1634 ; 5. The Art of Calculating Eclipses, 
1634; 6. Easter not Mis-timed, 1664 ; 7. Table of 10,000 Square Numbers, &c, 1672; 7. Inaugu- 
ral Oration at Breda. His Demonstration of the 2 and 10 b'ksof Euclid, his alterations and 
additions to Rhomm's Algebra, with many others on miscellaneous subjects, letters, <kc, are 
some of them preserved in MSS. in the library of Lord Brereton, in Cheshire. 

d In th? Lanesdowne MSS. are 11 vols, of Dr. Pells. The first vol. is composed of a vast 
fund of iuteresting information respecting the presecution of the Piedmontose. 


April 5, Dismissed by my Lord Protector. I supped with my wife and bade 
her adieu. 
April 6. We came to gravesend.« 

The first article in his correspondence (as ambassador) opens with a 
letter to Mr. Secretary Thuiioe, dated Utrecht, April 20th, O. S., 1654. 

In a letter from Morland, to the Right Hon. John Pell, dated White- 
hall, January, 15th, 1656-7, he makes the following allusion to the family 
of the latter : " To-morrow, God willing, I shall not fail to go and 
present your five children with five gold angels according to your order, 
as I have this evening sent her ladyship a note, though it were after I 
received the enclosed from her to you, &c, &c." 

August 26th, 1654, Mr. Pell thus writes to his wife concerning his 
children : " Let Mary learn to cut and carve with her right hand. Take 
heed that John rt lose not his Roman with learning secretary, or else get 
a rambling hand writing, neither of them will," &c. 

"To Mrs. Pell, at her house behind six trees, in Gardiner's lane, near 
King street, Westminster. In a letter of August 28th, O- S. 1655, to his 
wife, he writes, ''you have reason to thank the councillor that persuaded 
you to write to me for pearls and jewels. You tell me that you know I 
have rich presents ; you might do well to tell me, who gave them me, 
when, and where, and what they are, for I know none of all these. No- 
body wears pearls or jewels here. If they were to be sold, they cannot 
be sent safely to you in a letter through the hands of many posts; and I 
have no other way to send to you from hence. It would a great deal 
better become you, to advise your daughters to cast off all thoughts of 
such bravery, as would not be fit for them, though their father were 
worth twenty times as much as he is, all his just claims being reckoned 
with that which he hath now in his power. This letter will come to White- 
hall, about the very beginning of the Parliament, so that Mr. Secretary 
and those about him, may be so full of business, that they may forget to 
send you this letter in due time, and then it may miscarry, which is the 
cause that this time I tell you no more of my mind concerning Ma and 
the rest, of whom I cannot think without much sadness. 

God Almighty bless them and direct you." 

Zurich, May 26th. Mr. Pell to Mrs. Pell. "Since my last of April 
20th, &c, &c, L have received two of yours. In them you ask advice 
concerning my son. If he be not fit to get long lessons, by heart, he 
will never be fit for that school ; but you must take heed that you dis- 
please not Mr. B. by taking him away. If our friends can help you to 
find out a good school for him, you may send him thither in the school 

a Dr. Vanphan's Protectorate of Cromwell vol. ii, 485. The journey from Westminister to 
Zurich, says Pell, was forty-three days; "our way was worked, aud at least seven hundred 


vacation ; or else my uncle may help you to an excuse, by pretending a 
desire to see him ; and then (as it it were his humor in my absence to 
have him better grounded before he return to such a great school; he 
may be sent to some other school, where there are fewer boys; for in 
large schools, the masters are forced to ease themselves by laying great 
burdens upon their scholars' memories. But it will be very hard to find 
a good school. God Almighty direct you, and bless him and his sisters."* 

"October 15th, Mr Pell to Mrs. Pell. Since my last of July 16, 1 have 
received seven of yours, &c. The fourth tells me that you like mine of 
July 16th so ill, that you may well content yourself without my letters. 
In it you sent me a Latin letter enquiring whether he that wrote it will 
be a scholar or a 'prentice. That question will be better answered three 
years hence; they that will now judge of him may be very much mis- 
taken in him ; with your next, let him send me the names of the books 
which he now learns in school, &c." 

October 2d, 1656, concerning his daughter Mary's marriage, he writes: 
" I perceive by yours, that M. hath much abated her height of her first 
flight. First a rich husband or none at all, then two hundred pounds a 
year at least ; now, a younger brother, that hath no land, but some mon- 
ey in other men's hands, almost enough to purchase four-score pounds a 
year free land. 

Now she hath found one rich enough for her, you must try whether 
she is rich enough for him ; you may therefore tell him or her that you 
have order to pay him two hundred pounds upon the day of her marriage, 
without promise that she or hers shall receive any more from me, or by 
me, till I am dead, &c. &c. 6 

On May the 6th, 1658, Mr. Pell received the following letter of recall 
from the Protector. 

Oliver Cro?mvell to Mr. Pell. 

Sir : — The state of affairs being much altered in those parts, so that 
your longer abode there seemeth not so necessary, and that your return 
hither may be more serviceable to us, I have thought lit hereby to recall 
you; therefore you will do well, having taken your leave there, in the 
best manner, to repair homewards, that we may receive from you the ac- 
count of your whole negotiation, and you from us the encouragement 
which you have deserved." 

Sir, I rest your loving friend, OLIVER P. 

By his highness's command, 
Jo Thurloe. 

a John Pell here alluded to, was tho second Lord and proprietor of tin; Manor of Pelham 
In Mr. Pell's diary, F' b. 3, 1G34, he remarks my son as eleven years old. 

b Mr. Pell's danghl :r was mar. Nov. 27, 1C56. 

c The tedious n igotiations m Baden, ended in apeace, which left the Swiss Cantons in the 
same relation to each uher and Europe as before. 


On the 23d of June, 165S, he took leave of the Swiss Cantons, in a 
Latin oration, and arrived in England on the 13th of August following, 
just as Cromwell was dying. In his diary Mr. Tell thus records the 
death of the Protector and the proclamation of his son : 

September 3d, 1658, Olivarus Protector obiit alb, aula. 

September 4ih, 1658, Ricardus Westmonasterii et Londiue proclamation. 

The following notes relate to his attendance on the Protector's 
funeral : 

Gardiner's Lane, near King Steeet. 

" I do hereby request that the proportion of cloth allowed unto me by the right 
honorable council as mourning fur his late highness, the lord protector, may be 
delivered unto my neighbor, Mr. Samuel Harthb, the younger. Written with 
my own hand, Sept. 26th, 1658. 


"Whitehall, at TnE Green Cloth, Sept. 27. 165S. 

Mr. Cleeke, Comptroller: — "'I desire you to direct the delivery of nine yards 
of black cloth of twenty-four shillings per yard, and six yards of fifteen shillings 
per yard, for John Pell, Esq. BARRINGTON. 

John Pell, Esq. : — You are desired to attend the funeral of the most serene 
and most renowned Oliver, late Lord Protector, from Somerset House, on Tues- 
day, the 23d of November, instant, at eight of the clock in the morning at the 
furthest, and bring with you this ticket ; and that by Friday next, you send to 
the Herald's office, near Paul's, the names of your servants that are to attend in 
mourning, without which they are not to be admitted ; and also to take notice 
that no coaches are to pass, on that day, in the streets between Somerset House 
and Westminister."* 1 

While abroad Mr. Pell had performed considerable services for King 
Charles II. b and the Church of England for which he was favored by the 
Royalists party. Being ordained Deacon by the Bishop of Lincoln on 
the 31st of March, 1661, and a priest in the June following; the same 
year he obtained from the crown the rectory of Fobbing in Essex, to 
which the Bishop of London added the rectory of Lasingdon or Lain- 
den in 1663. 

a Vaughans Protectorate of Cromwell, vol, il., 341, 342. 

6 In his diary he records the King's birth day thus : " 1657, May 29, Carslus, twenty-seven 
years old." 

c The living is a discharged rectory, in the deanery of Lewes, and is valued in the King's 
books at .£9 13«. 9%d. It is in the patronage of the owner. The church is dedicated to St. 


Among the Pell papers occurs the following letter from his curate, 
the Rev. John Nye, dated: — 

Laindex, Feb. 10, 1677-8. 

Reveeexd Sir: — You expect, I presume, some intimations concerning the 
place and people where, as your substitute, I serve the cure ; after tedious delib- 
eration, I thought togive your worship the following notice, viz. : — As far as the 
winter extremities, the incontiguity of country houses, and private necessities 
do permit, our churches enjoy full congregations, the people being reverent and 
observant, and lovers of the desk as well as pulpit. I know not one perfect dis- 
senter; only Mr. Andrews, of Lainden, once held a conventicle in his house 
since my coming. The appearance at Christmas communion was tolerable — 
about twenty persons ; and we hope Easter will exceed. Our school is occupied 
by a licensed, grave, and good man. All officers for church and town are legal- 
ly qualified, i. e. men honest, able, judicious. All church ornaments and repairs 
are exact, except only Barseldon, where two casualties are fallen, viz. : the bell 
roof is ready to drop, and one side of the church needs shoring ; the total charges 
are pre-estimated about fifty pounds. As for my own acceptance and success, it 
is not wholly in vain, praised be God! I know not one drunkard nor swearer 
amongst us, except only Gaffar Fryer of Lainden — who on many accounts for- 
gets piety, but especially by swearing and miserableness. My Lord Bishop of 
London urges the duty of catechising with much fervor ; I shall begin on the 17th 
of Feb. next, being the first Sunday in Lent; but my lord (when I sued out a 
license,) did profess Lent season too short for such a work, and hardly endured to 
have the matter contested. Our parishes have not observed perambulations for 
several years ; I suppose it will be convenient to stir them thereto against the 5th 
of May next, Rogation Sunday, Reverend sir, I know your minutes are pre- 
cious, your importances constant ; ergo, it is duty and love without rhetorical am- 
bages, to profess myself, as I ought to appear, 

Tour worship's humble servant and ready curate. JOHN ISTE. 

Mr. Andrews (of whom my letter speaketh,) is a constant church- 
man, attentive and observant at the common prayer, and carefully 
avoideth sly reflections against the government ; but, as it seems, best 
satisfied with the Presbyterian discipline. 

The same year of his appointment to Laindon he was made domestic 
chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury. " It was expected he would 
have risen to some of the highest dignities of the Church ; but, careless 
of his interests, and neglectful of his pecuniary resources, he was 
cheated by his tenants, and defrauded by his relatives, and never 
attained to a higher rank than D.D. Finally, he was roused to a sense 
of his imprudence in devoting all his time to study, by actually wanting 
the necessaries of life ; but it was too late, he was committed to the 
King's Bench prison for debt ; and though speedily released by those 
who admired his talents, it seems to have had a fatal influence upon his 


health. He lived for about a year at the College of Physicians with Dr. 
Whistler; and had just removed thence to the house of one of his 
grand-children, residing at Westminster, when death procured him a still 
more friendly removal, on the 1 2th of December, 1 685. He was buried at 
the joint expense of Dr. Busby, a master of Westminster school, and of 
Mr. John Sharp, rector of St. Giles's, in the rector's vault. 

John Pell, the only son of the Rev. John Pell, D.D., by Ilhamarie, 
Tamar or Athamar, Reynolds, was born in London, Middlesex county. 
on the 3d of February, 1643. By the will of his uncle, Thomas Pell, 
he became the next proprietor of the manor of Pellham. He must have 
arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, sometime during the Fall of 1670; 
bearing a letter of introduction to Governor Winthrop by his friend 
Lord Brereton, from London, 23d June, 1670. 6 

The following certificate of recognition was issued by the Governor 
and assistant of Connecticut in 1670: 

"Att a meeting of the governor and assistants in Hartford, December 9th, 
1670, upon the desire of Sir John Pell, the governor and assistants thought good 
hereby to certify whom it may concern, that they are fully satisfied by several 
letters and testimonials that the governor hath received from persons of honor in 
England, that the bearer of them, Sir John Pell, senior, in ordinary to His 
.-, and son of Dr. Pell of London, is the undoubted nephew of Sir. 
is Pell, late of Fairfield, and the person whom lie hath made his heir in his 
last will and testament, to whom the inventory in trust ought to surrender the 
estate bequeathed to him by the said Mr. Thomas Pell, deceased, and the just 
account thereof according to his will. Signed by order of the governor and 
assistants, per me, JOHN ALLEN, 

Secretary of His Majesty's Colony of Connecticut. 

This is a true copy according to the original received the 
loth December, 1670, per me 

William Hill Clarke. f 

The above certificate was confirmed by Governor Lovelace of New 

In the year 1675, John Pell of Ann-hooks Neck, binds and makes 
over unto John Burr of Fairfield, his heirs and assignees, &c, all his 
meadow lying in Fairfield, on the Mill river, &c. Upon the 20th of Oc- 
tober, 1 68 7, the whole territory was erected into one entire enfran- 
chised township, manor, and place of itself, henceforth to be called 

a TILst. y Trios. Walker, vol. ii, 218. See Bothopia Brittanica, vol. v. 

b The original letter waj in the possession of the late James Savage, LL.D. of Boston. 

c Probate Rec. Fairfield ''0., TCGo-To. p. 49. 

d Surrogate's Office, N. Y., Will & Adm., 1665 to 1683. vol. i, page 102. 


"The Lordship axd Manor of Pelham." under the feudal tenure of 
paying yearly, thereupon, twenty shillings at the city of New York, on 
the 25th day of March (Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary). 


Tiiomas Dongan, Captain General and Governor-in-chief in and over the 
province of New Yorke, and the territories depending thereon in America. 
bis most sacred Majesty, James the Second, by the grace of God, Kinge 
of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c — to all 
to whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting: Whereas, Richard 
Nicholls, Esq., late governor of this province, by his certaine deed in writing, 
under his hand and seale. bearing date the sixth day of October, in the eighteenth 
year of the reigne of onr late sovereigne lord, Charles the Second, by the 
grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Kinge. defender of 
the faith, &c, and in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred 
sixty and six— did give, grant, confirm and rattefye, by virtue of the commis- 
sion and authoritye unto him given by his (then) royal highness,' James, Duke 
of Yorke, &c, (his now Majesty,) upon whome, by lawful grant and pattent 
from his (then) Majesty, the propriety and government of that part of the 
maine land, as well of Long Island and all the islands adjacent. Amongst 
other things was settled unto Thomas Pell, of Onkway, alias Fairfield, in his 
Majestye's colony of Connecticut — gentleman— all that certaine tract of land 
upon the maine lying and being to the eastward of "Westchester bounds, 
bounded to the westward with a river called by the Indians Aquaconounck, 
commonly known to the English by the name of Hutchinson's River, which 
runneth into the bay lyeing betweene Throgmorton's Neck and Anne Hooke's 
Neck, commonly called Hutchinson's Bay, bounded on the east by a brooke 
called Cedar Tree Brooke, or Gravelly Brooke ; on the South by the Sound, 
which lyeth between Longe Island and the maine land, with all the islands in the 
Sound not before that time granted or disspossed of. lyeing before that tract of 
land so bounded as is before expresst : and northward to runne into the woods 
about eight English miles, the breadth to be the same, as it is along by the Sound, 
together with all the lands, islands, soyles, woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, 
lakes, waters, creeks, fishing, hawking, hunting and fowling, and all other proff- 
>mmodityes and hcridetaments to the said tract of land and islands belong- 
ing, with their and every of their appurtenances, and every part and parcel there- 
of ; and that the said tract of land and premises should be forever thereafter held, 
deemed, reputed, taken and be an intire infranchised towneshipp, manner and 
place of itself, and should always, from time to time, and at all times thereafter, 
have, hold and enjoy like and equall priviledges and immunities with any towne 
infranchised, place or manner within this government, &c, shall in no manner 
of way be subordinate or belonging unto, have any dependance upon or in any 
wise, bounds or the rules under the direction of any riding, or towne. or towne- 

a Th- vear of oar Lord, until a century ago, was reckoned from the 23th of March because 
with the "miraculous conception, the work of our redemption : and hence the era of Grace 
began. "The clians>- of New Yea'" Day from SStti of March to th" 1st of January was 

tnd a i Ireland at the 
chaag.oi Btyie, 1752." Chambers Mi.scellau ous Questions, by J. C. Lippinoott <fc Co., 1868. 


shipps, place or jurisdiction cither upon the maine or upon Longc Island — but 
should in all cases, things and matters be deemed, leputed, taken and held as an 
absolute, intire, infranchised towneshipp, manner and place of itselfe in this gov- 
ernment, and should be ruled, ordered and directed in all matters as to govern- 
ment, accordingly, by the governour and Counccll, and General Court of Assizes 
— only provided, always, that the inhabitants in said tract of land granted as 
aforesaid, should be obliged to send fforwards to the next to>vnes all publick 
pachquetts and letters, or hew and cryes coming to New Yorke or goeing from 
thence to any other of his Majestic's collonys; to have and to hold the said tract 
of land and islands, with all and singular the appurtenances and premises, to- 
gaither with the privelidges, imuneties, franchises, and advantages therein given 
and granted unto the said Thomas Pell, to the proper use and behoofe of the said 
Thomas Pell, his heires and assignes for ever, ffuly, ffreely, clearely, in as large 
and ample manner and forme, and with such full and absolute immunityes and 
privcledgcs as before is expresst, as if he had held the same immediately ffrom 
his Majesty the Kinge of England, &c, and his suckcessors, as of the manner of 
East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in free and common sockage and by 
fealty, only yealdeing, rendering and payeing ycarely and every j-eare unto his 
then royall highucss, the Duke of Yorke, and his heires, or to such governour or 
governours as from time to time should by him be constituted and appoynted, as 
an acknowledgement, one lambe on the first day of May, if the same shall be de- 
manded as by the said deede in writeing, and the entrey thereof in the bookes of 
records in the secretaire's office for the province aforesaid, may more fully and at 
large appeare. And wliereas, John Pell, gentleman, nephew of the said Thomas 
Pell, to whom the lands, islands and premises, with appurtenances, now by the 
last will and testament of him, the said Thomas Pell, given and bequeathed, now 
is in the actual, peacable and quiett seazeing and possession of all and singular the 
premises, and hath made his humble request to mec, the said Thomas Dongan, 
that I would, in the bchalfe of his sacred Majesty, his heirs and suckcessors, give 
and grant unto him, the said John Pell, a more full and firme grant and confirm- 
ation of the above lands and premises, with the appurtenances, under the scale 
of this his Majestie's province: Now Know Tee, that I, the said Thomas Dongan, 
by virtue of the commission and authority unto me given by his said Majesty, 
and power in me being and residing, in consideration of the quitt rent hereinafter 
reserved, and for divers other good and lawfull considerations me thereunto 
mouving, I have given, rattefied and confirmed, and by these presents doe here- 
by give, grant, ratefie and confirme unto the said John Pell, his heirs and assigns 
for ever, all the before mentioned and rented lands, islands and premises, with 
the heridatements and appurtenances, privcledgcs, imuneties, ffranchises and ad- 
vantages to the same belonging and appertaining, or in the said before mention- 
ed deede in writing expresst, implyed or intended to be given and granted, and 
every part and parcell thereof, together with all that singular messuages, tene- 
ments, barnes, stables, orchards, gardens, lands, islands, meadows, inclosures, 
arable lands, pastures, feedeings, commons, woods, underwoods, soyles, quar- 
reys, mines, minnerally, (royall mines only excepted,) waters, rivers, ponds, 
lakes, hunteing, haucking, ffishing, ffowleing, as alsoe all rents, services, wasts, 
strayes, royaltyes, liberties, priviledges, jurisdictions, rights, members and ap- 
purtenances, and all other immunityes, royalties, power of franchises, profitts, 



conimodcties, and heredatements -whatsoever to the premises, or any part or par- 
cell thereof belonging or appertaining : and further, by vertue of the power and 
authority in mee being and residing, I doe here grant, rattefie and continue, and 
the tract of land, island and premises aforesaid are, by these presents, erected 
and constituted to be one lordship and manner — and the same shall from hence- 
forth be called the lordshipp and manner of Pelham ; and I doe hereby give and 
grant unto the said John Pell, his heirs and assigns, Hull power and authority at 
all times hereafter, in the said lordshipp and manner of Pelham aforcsid, one 
court leete and one court barron, to hold and kecpe at such times and so often 
yearly as he and they shall see meete, and all sines, issues and amerciaments at 
the said court leete and court barron, to be holdcn and kept in the manner and 
lordship aforesaid, that are payable from time to time, shall happen to lie due 
and payable by and from any the inhabitants of or within the said lordshipp and 
manner of Pelham abovesaid ; and also all and every the powers and authorities 
hereinbefore mentioned, for the holding and keepeing of the said court leete and 
court barron, ffrom time to time, and to award and issue forth the customary 
writs to be issued and awarded out of the said court leete and court barron, and 
the same to beare test and to be issued out in the name of the said John Pell, his 
heirs and assignes, and the same court leete and court barron to be kept by the 
said John Pell, his heirs and assignes, or his or their steward, deputed or ap- 
poynted ; and I doe further hereby give and grant unto the said John Pell, his 
heirs and assignes, full power to distraine for all rents and other sums of money 
payable by reason of the premises, and all other lawful remedys and meanes for 
the haveing, receiving, levying and enjoying the said premises and every part 
thereof, and all waif ts, strayes, wrecks of the sease, deodands and goods of fiel- 
ons happening and being within the said manner of Pelham, with the advowson 
and right of patronage of all and every of the church and churches in the said 
manner, erected and to be erected — to have and to hold all and singular the said 
tract of land, islands and manner of Pelham, and all and singular the above grant- 
ed or mentioned to be granted premises, with their rights, members, jurisdictions, 
priviledges, heredaments and appurtenances, to the said John Pell, his heirs and 
assignes, to the only proper use, benefitt and behoofe of the said John Pell, his 
heirs and assignes, for ever; to be holden of his most sacred Majestye, his 
heirs and successors, in free and common soccage, according to the tenure of 
East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in his Majestye's kingdom of England, 
yielding, rendering and paying therefore yearly and every year for ever, unto 
his said Majestye, his heirs and successors, or to such officer or officers as shall 
from time to time be appointed to receive the same — twenty shillings, good and 
lawful money of this province, at the city of New Yorke, on the five and 
twentyth day of the month of March, in lieu and stead of all rents, services and 
demands whatsoever. 

In testimony whereof, I have signed these presents with my handwriting, caus- 
ed the scale of the province to be thereunto affixed, and have ordained that the 
same be entered upon record in the secretary's office, the five and twentyeth day 
of October, in the third yeare of the Kinge Majestye's reigne, and in the year of 
our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty and seven. « THOMAS DONG AN 

a Co. Rec. Lib. A. 240, Alb. Book of Pat. No. il. 306. The original document is in the pos- 
session of Mrs. Maria Fay, of East Chester. 


In 16S4-5 John Pell married Rachel, daughter of Philip Pinckney, 
Esq., one of the first ten proprietors of the town of East Chester, a lineal 
representative of the Pinkney's, of Pinkney's manor, in the county of 
Norfolk, England." 

"On the 20th of September, 1689, John Pell, gentleman, and Rachel 
his wife, for a valuable consideration, conveyed to Jacob Leisler of New 
York, merchant, all that tract of land in the manor of Pelham, (now 
called New Rochelle), containing six thousand acres, and also one hun- 
dred acres of land for the use of the French church erected or to be 
erected thereon." and " The grantees and his heirs yielding as an ac- 
knowledgement therefore unto the said John Pell and his heirs, as lords 
of the manor," one fat calf on the festival of St. John the Baptist. 

By a writ of summons served on the 20th of March, 1691, John Pell 
was returned by the High Sheriff to represent the county of West Chest- 
er, in the Provincial Assembly/' He was also Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for this county, from 16SS until the day of his death. 

The Hon. John Pell is said to have been cast away and drowned in 
his pleasure boat which foundered in a gale oft City Island, sometime 
in the fall of 1702. He died intestate, leaving issue by his wife Rachel, 
two sons and two daughters. 

Thomas Pell, the oldest son, was born at Pelham in 1686, and 
became invested with the inheritance and legal rights of his deceased 

On the 3rd of March, 1729, occurs an indenture between : — 

Thomas Pell of the Manor of Pelham, in the County of West Chester in Colony 
of New York, Esq., and Anna his wife of the first part, and Edward Blagge of 
the City of New York, gent, of the second part, for the consideration of £50, 
"hath granted, bargained, aliened and confirmed unto the said Blagge, his exec- 
utors and administrators all that certain full equal one-fifth of all that large 
Tract of land which is contained in the bounds of the said Manor of Pelham to 
wit : of that part of the said Manor, which lyes on the north side of the Boston 
Boad 01 Highway, which leads from East Chester to New Rochelle, and also 
the one full equal fifth part af all that tract of land within the said manor which 
byes to the eastward of New Rochelle bounds, with all the hereditaments and 
appurtances thereunto belonging, excepting and reserving out of this present 
grant, all those lands which do belong to the Township of New Rochelle, and 
also all that plantation on which Phillip Pell now lives, and also all that land 
formerly conveyed to Isaac Coutine, Daniel Samson, John June, and William 

a The arms of Pinkney or Pinchene (of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Northamptonshire 
townships, Edward 1 1 as given -by Burke, are -r-or four lozenges ia fesaegu: which exactly 

round In the corner stone of the French church at 
New I: chelled poaited in 1697. B r r for Pinckney family. 

/ Smith's History of New York, quarto ulition 73. 


Pinckney, Oi any other person or persons whatsoever, who have any lawful claime 
to any of the said lands by virtue of any Deeds or Conveyances from the said 
Thomas Pell or his father John Pell deceased. To have and to hold, etc., and 
defend said Blagge against all other persons claiming any right to the same, etc. 
Upon the 15th day of March, 1732, Edward Blagge (for the value of £40,) did 
bargain, sell, release and sett over the within recited aud mentioned tract of land 
and premises to Thomas Pell, Jr. " 

<$>: M 

a^«- A f*4^ \ 

The following Indenture from Thomas Pell, Sen., to Thomas Pell, 
Jun., for another fifth part of all his lands in the Manor of Pelham, 
lying and being to the northward of the King's highway or Country road, 
from the city of New York to Boston occurs on 25th of April, 1732. 


This Indenture made the twenty-fifth day of April, in the fifth year 
of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Second, by the Grace 
of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
Faith, &c. Annoq Dom. : Seventeen hundred and thirty-two, between 
Thomas Pell, Senior, of the Mannour of Pelham, in the county of 
Westchester and province of New York, Esq., of the one part, and 
Thomas Pell, Junior, of the Mannour aforesaid, Gent., of the other part, 
Witnesseth, That the said Thomas Pell, Senior, for and in consideration 
of the sum of one hundred pounds current money of New York to him 
paid at and before ye Ensealing and Delivery of these presents by the 

a CopWl from original document in posession of Geo. H. Pell, of New York ; also March 
, an indenture between Thomas Pell, srent, and Anna his wife, and Samuel Clowes ol 
Jamaica, Queen3 County, for one other certain full equal one-fifth part of the same consid- 
ered £50. Witnesses. Edward Blatrge, Thomas Pell, Jr. and Jno Pell, Jr.; also Indenture 
March 23, 1729. from Thomas Pell, Sr. and Anna his wife to Thomas Pell. Jr. for another fifth 

?art of same, considered £50. witnesses, 8 Clowes, Edward Blagge and John Pell, Jr; also 
ndentnr.j March 23, 1T-20, between Thomas Pell and Anna his wife and John Pell for another 
fifth pari of same, considered £50. Witnesses. 8. Clowes, B. Blastr" and Thomas Pell, Jr. 
All the above are in posession of Geo. H. Pell, and have never teen ""«corded. 


said Thomas Pell, Junior, the receipt whereof the said Thomas Pell, 
Senior, doth, hereby acknowledge and himself therewith fully satisfied 
and paid, and thereof doth freely and absolutely exonerate and discharge 
him. the said Thomas Pell, Junior, his heirs, Executors and Adm™' and 
every of them for ever by these presents hath granted, bargained, sold, 
conveyed and assigned, and by these presents Doth freely, fully and 
absolutely grant bargain, sell, convey and assign unto the said Thomas 
Pell, Junior, his heirs and assigns for ever all the right and title which he 
the said Thomas Pell, Senior, hath at the time of executing these 
presents, of in or to any Lands in the Mannour of Pelham, abovesaid, 
lying and being to the Northward of the King's highway or Country 
road from the City of New York to Boston which have not been hereto- 
fore conveyed by the said Thomas Pell, Senior, or his honoured father, 
John Pell, late of the aforesaid Mannour of Pelham, Esq., Deceased, 
to any person or persons whatsoever by Deed of FFeoffment or other- 
wise Together with all and Singular, the Appurtenances, profits and 
advantages thereunto belonging or in any wise appertaining. To have 
and to hold all the right and title of him the said Thomas Pell, Senior, 
of in or to the Lands in the Mannour of Pelham abovesaid, lying and 
being'in the Northward of the King's highway or Country road from the 
City of New York to Boston which have not been heretofore conveyed 
by Deed of FFeoffment or otherwise to any person or persons whatso- 
ever by him the said Thomas Pell, Junior, or his honoured father, John 
Pell abovesaid, late Deceased, and the appurtenances and advantages to 
the said right belonging unto him the said Thomas Pell, Junior, his 
heirs and assigns to the only proper use and behoof of him the said 
Thomas Pell, Junior, his heirs and assigns for Ever. In Witness whereof 
the said parties have to these presents interchangably set their hands 
and Seals the day and year first above written. 

Sealed and Delivered and the 
Consideration Money acknow- 
ledged to be received in the pre- 
sence of 

Will Thompson. 
Joseph Pell. 01 

Thomas Pell, sen., died at the Manor house, Pelham, sometime in 1 739. 
a OBjteflMSrojtt original in possession of Geo. n. Pell, of N. Y. 



In the inline (if God, Amen. This third day of September, in the 13th year of 
the reign of King George ye second Anno Domi, 173'.), I, Thomas Pell, Sen., of 
tin" manor of Pelham, in the County of West Chester and Province of New York, 
being sick and weak in body, but of perfect mind and memory, thanks be given 
unto God therefore, and calling unto mind the mortality of my body, knowing it 
is appointed lor ail men once to die, doe make and ordain this, my last, will etc., 
in manm r and form following, to say : Principally and first of all I give and re- 
commend my soul into the hands of God who gave it, and 1113- body I recommend to 
the earth to bo buried in a Christian like and decent manner att the discretion of 
my executors hereinafter named, and touching such worldly estate as it hath 
pleased God to bless me with all in this life. After my just and lawful debts 
arc first satisfied and paid out of my moveable estate, as also my general charges 
of my executors hereinafter named — I give, Devise and Dispose of the same in 
the following manner and form : Imprimis, I give unto my daughter Ann, 
Broadhurst the use of the room she now lives in, during the time she remains a 
single woman without a husband ; but, if in case after my decease, my son Jo- 
seph Pell doth not like or approve of her living in said room during the time 
aforesaid, that then he shall build her a small house of about sixteen feet square, 
and allow her that and the use of six acres of land out of his land, during the time 
she remains a single woman and without a husband as aforesaid ; and I also give 
unto my said daughter, Ann Broadhurst, the sum of sixty pounds, cm-rent money 
of New York, to be levied and paid her out of my moveable estate by my execu- 
tors after my decease, and to be enjoyed by her, her heirs and assignees forever. 

Item. — It is my further will and mind, that my brother, John Pell, should 
have houseroom, lodging, victuals and cloaths, comfortable for him during his 
lifetime, which I order my son Joseph Pell to provide. 

Item. — I give and bequeath unto my beloved wife, Ann Pell, the use of the best 
room in my house and timber in any part of my land, and the use of sixty acres 
of land and chamber and cellar room in my house, during the time she remains 
my widow ; and I also give unto my said wife, the sum of one-hundred pounds, 
current money of New York, by her if she sees cause to take it in money out of 
my moveable estate after my decease ; to be enjoyed by her, her heirs and assign- 
ees forever ; and also I further give unto my said wife, the best bed and furniture 
in my house. 

Item. — I give and bequeath unto my son John Pell, the sum of five pounds, 
current money of New York, to be levied and paid him out of my moveable es- 
tate, by my executors after my decease ; to him, his heirs and assignees forever, 
he having received the use of his portion already. 

Item. — I give and bequeath unto my son Thomas Pell the eum of three pounds, 
current money of New York, to be levied and paid to him out of my moveable 
estate, by my executors after my decease ; to him, his heirs and assignees forever, 
he having received the use of his portion already. 

Item. — I give and bequeath unto my son Joshua Pell, the sum of three pounds, 
current money of New York, to be levied and paid to him out of my moveable 
estate, by my executors after my decease ; to him, his heirs and assignees forever, 
he having received the use of his portion already. 


Item.— I give and bequeath unto my son Philip Pell, the sum of three pounds, 
current money of New fork, to be levied ;md paid to him out of my moveable 
estate, by my executors after my decease ; to him, his heirs and assignees forever, 
he having received the use of his portion already. 

Itcni.—^ I give and bequeath unto my sou Caleb Pell, the sum of three pounds, 
current money of New York, to be levied and paid to him out of my moveable 
estate, by my executors after my decease ; to him, his heirs and assignees forever, 
he having received the use of his portion already. 

Item. — I give and bequeath unto my son Joseph Pell, ail and singular, my 
lands, meadows, houses, tenements, buildings etc., tfcat now belong unto mee, 
as also the houses, rooms and land, and rooms before reserved for my wile att 
her marriage or decease, to him, his heirs and assignees. To his and their own 
and only proper use, benefit and behoof forever after my decease. 

Item—X give and bequeath unto my daughter, Mary bands, the sum of seventy 
pounds current money of New York, to be levied and paid her out of my 
moveable estate by my executors upon my decease, to her, her heirs and assigns 

Item— I give and bequeath to my daughter, Sarah Palmer, the sum of five 
pouuds current money of New York, to be levied and paid her out of my 
moveable estate, by my executors after my decease ; to her, her heirs and assignees 

Item — I give and bequeath unto my daughter, Bursheba Pell, the sum of one 
hundred and fifty pounds current money of New York, to be levied and paid 
her out of my moveable estate, by my executors after my decease ; to her, her 
heirs and assignees forever. 

Item — It is my will and mind, that all my moveable estate, excepting what I 
have before reserved to my wife, should by my executors be sold and the afore- 
said legacies (after my just and lawful debts and funeral charges are satisfied 
and paid), to be paid out of the overplus thereof. 

I give and bequeath unto my grandson, Samuel Broadhurst, the sum of ten 
pounds current money of New York, to him, his heirs and assignees forever, and 
the remainder thereof it is my will and mind should be equally divided among 
my four daughters, Mary Sands, Ann Broadhurst, Sarah Palmer, and Bathsheba 
Pell, and be enjoyed by them, their heirs and assignees forever; and for executors 
of this my last will and testament, I do hereby nominate, constitute ami appoint 
my two sons, Philip Pell and Joseph Pell, sole executors of this my last will and 
testament ; and I do hereby dissolve, revoke and disannul all and every and other 
1' wills and testaments, legacies and executors whatsoever made by me 
before this time, named, willed or bequeathed. 

Ratifying and confirming this, and no other, to be my last will and testament, 
in testimony whereof, I have hereunto sett my hand and seal, the day and year 
first above written. 


Joseph, his eldest son, died in 1752, aged 31, and was buried at Pel- 

a Surrogates office, N. Y. Rec. of wills. Fol. Xong, pp. 155,156. 1751-54. This will was 



ham. a His eldest son Joseph Pell, the fourth and last lord of the manor, 
died in 1776, leaving issue five sons who all died issueless save John 
Pell who had six sons and four daughters. The last of the six sons, 
who all died without issue, was the late Richard Moore Pell Esq. of 
New York, who died there on 1868, and was inter- 


This gentleman was a tall noble looking person, who well represented 
the manorial lords of Pelham, as their nearest male heir in a direct line 
from John Lord Pell. The present representatives of this branch of 
the family, are the children of Maria Pell, who married 
Amelia Pell ; and the son and two daughters of Caroline Pell, who mar- 
ried Delano. 

The decendants of John Pell, second son of Thomas Pell, and grand- 
son of John Lord Pell, were Thomas, his eldest son, the father of Jos- 

eph, who married his cousin Zipporah Pell, daughter of John Pell, and 
ieft issue : Abner, Peter, Thomas, John and Philena, who married 
Thomas Disbrow, whose children are Joseph, Livingston, Thomas, 
Clara, Louisa wife of George J. Penfield, Libby and Susan the second 
wife of Mr. Penfield, of New Rochelle. John Pell Jr., second son of 
John Pell, Sr., had Josiah and Zipporat, who married Thomas her 
cousin as above. 

Thomas Pell, third son of Thomas Pell and grandson of John Lord 
Pell, by his will dated July 3d, 1739, an d proved 28 bequeathes 

his '■'■silver tankard and silver tumbler that formerly belonged to his 
grandfather, John Pell, to his son David. 



-( Th<; will of Joseph Pell is dated 1 Aug. 1752. Proved 25 Sept. 1752, Surrogates office N.Y. 
.1 burying grouud ou property of late Kobert Bartow of this town, for monuments 
of Jo3eph Pell andwife. 


David Pell, "also tke great Bible." "His executor he empowers to 
execute good and sufficient deeds and Conveyances of his lands and 
remainders of the moneys, which shall be arising from the sale of one- 
half of his farm, lying in East Chester, and the island lying in ye manor 
of Pelharh, and my right in lands lying within ye Patent, at the north 
end of New Rochelle lands, etc., and to dispose of my lands lying in 
Fairfield, Connecticut." a His descendants are Samuel, who died with- 
out issue; James, who married Ann Fowler, daughter of Richard Fowler 
of East Chester, who had Abijah, who married Mary Baldwin, and had 
William James, Abijah, Aaron B., Charles Shute, Stephen, John and 
William; James, the eldest, residing in New Jersey; Abijah, the second, 
deceased, left four sons; Aaron B., the third, died without issue; Charles 
Shute, the fourth son, deceased, is the father of Charles Elliott, and Geo. 
Hamilton of New York. The Hon. Stephen, the fifth son, resides in 
Brooklyn, L. I. John, the sixth and youngest, at Poughkeepsie, N. 
Y. Roger was the third son of Thomas Pell ; John, the fourth son of 
Thomas married Mary Totter, and had issue, John ; Thomas Pell, who 
married Maria, daughter of Thomas Pell, and had two sons : Samuel 
Pell, now living on City Island, and John ; David was the fifth and young- 
est son of Thomas Pell. 

The descendants of Joshua Pell, fourth son of Thomas, el lest son of 
John Lord Pell, were numerous; among others, was Joshua who married 

Palmer, and left Joshua the father of Joshua, Edward (whose son 

Frederick had Elijah Pell of New York) and Joseph. Benjamin, the third 

son of Joshua Pell, and Palmer, married Ann, daughter of John 

Ferris, of the grove farm West Chester, and had among other sons, 
William Ferris Pell the founder of the famous auction firm of Pell & Co. 
of New York. The sons who succeeded him in the business, were all 
New York men by birth, and presented a splendid appearance. 

The theory that city life impairs physical developement might have 
been combatted by the appearance of this family, and it is doubtful if 
this city ever beheld a nobler trio of brothers than Duncan, Walden, and 
Clarence Pell, each of whom stood six feet high and were well propor- 

I well remember attending one of Pell's sales where an individual was 
gazing with admiration on the crier, who, as he turned from time to time 
in that direction, beheld the admiring gaze. At last, suspicious that the 
man was not of a business turn, Mr. Pell exclaimed, " Was that your 
bid?" " No sir," was the reply. " Well, then, please stop looking at me," 
said the Apollo of the red flag. 
a Rec. Surrogate's office, N. Y., No. xviii, 403. 


Duncan Tell was the finest looking man of his day in Wall street, but 
to this he added not only commercial skill, but a love of learning, which 
was shown by the prize which he founded in the Free College in this 
city. Mr. Pell was not afraid to administer reproof, and the writer is 
indebted to him for a very valuable one. I was at that time (which is 
thirty years ago), a clerk in a small retail store in Broadway. One 
morning having swept out, I sat down to read the paper; but soon was 
addressed by some one, whom I answered in an indifferent manner, and 
without lifting my eyes from the paper. In a moment I heard a voice 
of thunder exclaiming, " Look up, young man and mind your business." 
The reproof needed no repetition. I looked up and saw a noble-look- 
ing man, whose frown at once passed away as he saw the effect of his 

These three elegant men are now dead (as well as a fourth brother, 
James K. Pell), but the firm is still in successful existence in Hanover 
Square. a 

Duncan Pell being Lieut. Gov. of Rhode Island, and his son, Duncan 
Archibald. Colonel on Genl. Burnside's staff during the war of i86t. 

The eldest of the five brothers was Archibald Pell, Esq., the father- 
in-law of Edward A. Leroy of New York. The only daughter of Ben- 
jamin Pell, just mentioned (and sister of William Ferris Pell), was Maria, 
a noble and excellent woman, who married at the age of nineteen Jacob 
Treadwell Walden, a leading merchant of New York in the India trade. 
Their two sons, Alfred Pell Walden and Joseph Walden, died unmar- 
ried ; and of four daughters, only one now survives, viz ; Emma Wal- 
den, the wife of Samuel Cooke, D. D., Rector of St. Bartholamew's 
church, New York City. The second son of William Ferris Pell, was 
Alfred Sands Pell, who married Adelia, daughter of Col. James Duane, 
first Mayor of New York after the Revolutionary war, and a Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, whose son is the present Robert 
Livingston Pell, of Pelham, Ulster Co., N. Y. 

The descendants of Philip Pell, Esq., (fifth son of Thomas, the eldest 
son of John Lord Pell), are also numerous and distinguished. His 
eldest son Philip, who married Hannah Mott, 6 died in 1788, and was 
the father, first of the Hon. Philip Pell, Judge Advocate of the Continen- 
tal Army in the revolutionary war, and a member of the Cincinnati 
Society. This illustrious individual had the honor of riding by the side 
of General Washington when he entered New York City upon " Evacu- 

a of some of our old auctioneers. Evening Post, March 3d, 1871. 

l> This marriage took place before the Quaker meeting assembled at Westbury, L. I., 5th of 
March, 1731. The marriage certificate is signed by 20 witnesses ; among these occurs the name 
o! his brother Caleb Pell. 


ation Day," Nov. 25th, 1783. He was a graduate of Kings College 8 (now 
Columbia), in 1766 and is said to have been one of the best Greek schol- 
ars of that day. His only son was Philip Pell of Pelham, the father of 

Philip Pell of San Francisco, Cal. The second son was Major Samuel 
Treadwell Pell of the Second New York Regiment, who greatly dis- 
tinguished himself under General Gates at Saratoga, in October, 1777. 
For his services on this memorable occasion he received from the State, 
three-hundred acres of bounty land. The following epitaph is inscribed 
on his head stone in East Chester church-yard. 


ob. 29 Deer. 1786, 

in the 32nd year of his age. 

" Thus after returning victorious," 

From the Field of Mars, he 

Cheerfully obeys the summons 

Of eternity from whence there 

is no return. 

The third son of Philip Pell was Colonel David Jones Pell, also an 
officer in the Continental army, whose son was the late Stephen Snedan 
Pell, the father of Ogden Philip Pell and Walter Turnbull Pell, both of 
X w York city. 

Caleb Pell, the sixth and youngest son of Thomas Pell, oldest son of 
Tohn Lord Pell, also left a numerous family whose descendants are scat- 
tered throughout the country. 

A beautiful valley, called Swiss Dale, borders the Acqueanouncke or 
Hutchinson's River on the west side of the town. The Acqueanouncke 
or more properly the Acquacknouncke (an Indian name, descriptive of 
the red cedar tree,j rises in the town of Scarsdale, upon the lands of 
Lewis G. Morris. 

Pelham Dale, the property of Hargous, is delightfully situated near the 
junction of the salt and fresh waters of the Acqueanouncke. This estate 

a Philip Pell was admitted to Kings Coll. 1766. 


formerly belonged to Colonel David Pell; and upon the division of his 
property, was purchased by the late- James Hay, Esq;* The dwelling 
house is a handsome structure of stone, and commands a beautiful view 
of Hutchinson's River, together with the distant village and spire of 
Eastchester. The garden contains a choice collection of trees and 
shrubs, and is also enlivened by a running stream. 6 About half a mile 
further up the valley is situated the "Race Field" once famous in the 
annals of the turf, adjoining which is the village of Pelhamville ; here is 
a depot of the New Haven Railroad and a small Episcopal church, called 
the Church of the Redeemer ; at present a chapel of ease to Christ 
church, Pelham. A grand feature in this beautiful valley is an extensive 
range of forests called the Pelham woods. 

On the margin of the East River Creek, or Aqueanouncke, near the 
Boston Boulevard in this town, is situated " The Shrubbery," the residence 
of the Prevost family. George A. Prevost, Esq., the brother of the pres- 
ent owners, is the only surviving son of the late Mayor George William 
Prevost. This place was formerly the property of Joshua Pell, Esq., 
whose son, Joshua, sold it to Colonel Aaron Burr, from whom it passed 
by purchase to his step-son, Augustine James Frederick Prevost. c The 
latter, subsequently conveyed it to Major General Prevost. The Pre- 
vosts were originally from Geneva in Switzerland, being descended 
from Major General Augustine Prevost, of that place, who married 
Anne, daughter of the Chevalier George Grand, of Amsterdam, Hol- 
land. 1 * The father of the late proprietor was Major General Augustine 
Prevost, brother of Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost, Baronet, 
Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the British North Ameri- 
can Colonies now represented by the Rev. Sir George Prev.ost, Baronet 
of Belmont, Hampshire, England. The brothers of the late proprietor 
were Colonel Augustine Prevost, lost at sea, and Capt. Henry Prevost, 
who fell in the storming of Cindad Rodrigo, in Spain. 

a James Hay was a descendant of James Hay, Esq., of Netherinch, Scotland, who joined 
the army of Prince Charles Edward in 1745, and was wounded at the " light of Falkirk. He 
was buried in Kilsyth ciiurch yard, Scotland. .The lamily coat of aims, arg. 3 1 scutch ons, 
go. a e t ) 1. - s en on th; north side of the house at Pelham. 1 he tradition is that these arms 
were granted by Kenneth IIL, King of Scotland, anno. 980 to thj first 1 lay and Ida tw 1 
their bravery at the battle of Lancaster Perth, as they hud proved themselves tb • (copy torn) 

b The old road to Pell's Point, or Neck, from the '-King's highway, or "Westchester 
Path," as it was anciently called, formerly ran south of this house, making almost a circuit 
about the ground. 

c Augustine James Frederick Prevost was the son of Colonel Frederick Prevost by his wife 
Theodosia Bartow, who afterwards married Colonel Aaron Burr. 

d "At t;i - Syno 1 ot L mdoo 1 1 1 '45. forth; Proviucjof Poictou, appeared John Chabroll 
Pastor of thechurcb of 'J houars. accompanied with Sir Peter Prevost, Enght Lord of La 
Javeiiere, Elders in the church of ( hautonnay and Pnybel hard, and Charles Prevost, Esq., 
Lord of La Bimonie, elder in the church of < tiampagne and Monton.'' Quicks Synodic n. voL 
At 5th Colloquy of Alenqon appeared Stephen Le i'revost. Lord or Buisson, Quick's 
Synodicon, vol. ii, 635 The arms and crest of the Prevost family are. az r arm in 

f esse issuing out of clouds from the -se point, the hand grasping a Bword, erect 

ppe. a pommel and hilt, or, in chief, 2 mulletts, or. Crest a domi lion rampant, azure, charg- 
-d with a mural crown, or, on the Crest. 


The following item relates to the old well that formerly stood in this 
vicinity, near the iron suspension bridge : 

"April, i 7 26, Joseph Fowler is permitted to erect a dam or mill on 
the creek that runs between Mr. PeWs and Eastchester, at a certain 
place commonly called and known by the town land, provided he makes 
room for the water to be drawn off the meadows and for the canoes to 
pass.'"' 1 

On the heights of Pelham, overlooking the village of Eastchester, 
stands the residence of the late Remsen Hinman, whose wife, Elizabeth, 
was a daughter of Col. James Pell, son of Roger Fell, fourth so 1 of 
Thomas Pell, grandson of Hon. John Ford Pell. From the records of 
of the Court of Chancery, it appears that Colonel Pe'.l's property orig- 
inally consisted of four hundred and forty acres. His last will is re- 
corded in 1790. Nearly opposite this place, which fronts on the Boston 
Boulevard, a road pursues the eastern side of the heights towards Pel- 
ham. This road passes on the left, Woodside, the residence of J. Co- 
burn. From this place, many pleasant views of the valley and adjacent 
country are obtained, with the meanderings of the Aqueanouncke, on its 
way to the Sound. 

Pelham Neck, a portion of the southern extremity of this town (we have 
seen >, was formerly called Ann Hook's Neck— subsequently Pell Point and 
Rodman's Neck. Before entering the neck, on the high ground to the west, 
stands the residence of the late Richard Morris, Esq., commanding a pretty 
bay on the east, and some fine woodland scenery on the north-west. 
Upon the north-west side of the Neck lies the "Indian burying-ground" 
already alluded to. In fact, the whole of the Neck appears to have 
been used by the Indians for the purpose of sepulture ; in proof of this, 
their remains have been found in almost every part of it. The largest 
proportion of mounds, however, are situated on the grounds of the late 
George Rapelye, Esq. This individual was the son of Rem. Rapelye, a 
noted royalist, who married March 14, 175 1, Ellen, daughter of Abel 
Hardenbrook, and amassed a large fortune in mercantile pursuits in 
New York. He died at Pelham in 1805, in his seventy-seventh year. 
George Rapelye, his son, who was born in New York, August 9, 1 7 7 1, 
and educated at Columbia College, married July 19, 1798, Susan Eliza, 
daughter of the Rt. Rev. Samuel Prevoost, D.D., first Bishop of the 
Diocese of New York. He was not only distinguished for his wealth, 
but for his great public enterprises, and was a warm friend and sup- 
porter of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was a liberal benefactor 
to St. Paul's church, East Chester. He published a book of travels in 

a Eastchester Town Kec 


1834. a The Rapelycs purchased this property of the Rodman family, 
the Rodmans having obtained it through the marriage of Samuel Rod- 
man with Mary Pell, daughter of Caleb Pell, grandson of Hon. John 
Lord Pell. The property is still vested in the heirs of George Rapelye ; 
the house is beautifully situated near the eastern shore of the neck, and 
is justly celebrated for its extensive views of the sound and Long Island. 

Hawkwood, the residence of the late Elisha King, Esq., is i 
owned by the widow of the late Levin R. Marshall, and adjoins the 
property of Captain J. R. Steers, on the south. The house is built of 
stone, in the Grecian style, and presents a fine front of columns to the 
water. The beauty of the scenery in this vicinity is greatly heightened 
by the close proximity of City Island, and the richly wooded shores of 
the Pcint. The grounds, containing a great variety of choice trees, 
were laid out by the celebrated gardener, Andre Parmenteer. Nearly 
adjoining Hawkwood, in the south-west, is Longwood, the residence of 
A. Newbold Morris, Esq. 

Pelham Neck is terminated by the property of the late Gilbert Bowne. 
On the 3ite of the dwelling-house, stood the residence of Thomas Fell, 
Esq., fin,t lord of the manor. Perhaps the finest view of City Island 
and the adjacent waters are to be had from this portion of the Point. 
It deserves to be mentioned, that this district affords a favorite haunt for 
the fish hawk (Falco Halitoetus), whose nests may be seen in the lofty 
summits of the venerable oaks and chestnuts which abound on the neck 
and neighboring shores. These birds are greatly respected, and a kind 
of superstition prevails that it is a lucky omen if one builds on the farm. 
The nest is an immense fabric of rotten sticks — -" Itself a burden for 
the tallest tree." They subsist altogether on the finny tribes that swim 
in the bays and creeks adjacant, procuring their prey by their own active 
skill and industry." 

" The regular arrival of this noted bird at the vernal equinox, when 
the busy season of fishing commences, adds peculiar interest to its first 
appearance, and procures it many a benediction from the fishermen" 

"Soon as the sun, great ruler of the year," 
Iseiids to oar northern climes his bright career, 
And from the caves of ocean calls from sleep 
The finny shoals and myriads of the deep ; 

o "Annals of Newtown James Riker, Junr.'' The Rapelye family is descended from that 
of the de Rapelij, which as early as ihe eleventh Century, possessed large estates in Bretagne 
and ranked among the arriere— born of the French nobility. Jarvis Jansen de Rapelie, from 
Rochelk-, in France, who came t 1 this country in 1623, was the father of Pronimus, whose son 
Tennis, was father of the above George Rapelye. Arms, azure, three bars or, crest — out of a 
ducal coronet a chapena azure, with three bars, or, surmounted with six ostrich feather* of 
blue and gold. 


When freezing tempests back to Greenland ride, 
And day and night the equal hours divide; 
True to the season, o'er our sea-beat shore, 
The sailing Osprey high is seen to soar 
With broad, unmoving wing; and, circling slow, 
Marks each loose straggler in the deep below, 
Sweeps down like lightning ! plunges with a roar ! 
And bears his struggling victim to the shore. 

The long-housed fisherman beholds, with joy, 
The well-known signal of his rough employ ; 
And, as he bears his nets and oars along, 
Thus hails the welcome season with a song: — 


The Osprey sails above the Sound ; 
The geese are gone, the gulls are flying ; 
The herring shoals swarm thick around ; 
The nets are launched, the boats are plying. 
Yo, ho, my hearts! let's seek the deep, 
Raise high the song, and cheerly wish her, 
Still as the bending net we sweep, 
" God bless the fish hawk and the fisher." 

She brings us fish — she brings us Spring, 

Good times, fair weather, warmth, and plenty ; 

Fine store of shad, trout, herrings, ling, 

Sheeps-kcad and drum, and old wives' dainty. 

Yo, ho, my hearts ! let's seek the deep, 

Ply every oar, and cheerly wish her, 

Still as the bending net we sweep, 
"God bless the fish hawk and the fisher." 

She rears her young on yonder tree ; 

She leaves her faithful mate to mind 'em ; 

Like us, for fish, she sails to sea, 

And, plunging, shows us where to find 'em. 

Yo, ho, my hearts ! let's seek the deep, 

Ply every oar, and cheerly wish her. 

While the slow-bending net we sweep, 
"God bless the fish hawk and the fisher."* 

In May, 1755, a public ferry appears to have been established between 
Ann Hooks Neck and Gravelly or Cedar Tree brook, on the north side 
of the East river and Hempstead harbor, and Matagariesons Bay on the 

a Wil~<>n'~ Ornithology, New York Neva, Pennsylvania Gazette, Jane 18th, 1762 

sdaylaal we had a ^ real deal 01 thunder with some rain, which we in a d a large 

1 Ann Hook's Neck ia Westchester county, and an ox, ac »w and a calf, under it, were 
and at New Rochelle, we hear, a house was much damaged. 


opposite shore, under such regulations as had been usual and customary. 
••The patentees were Samuel Rodman, owner and proprietor of a tract 
of land lying on Pell's Neck, in the County of Westchester, adjoining 
upon and extending along the East river about one mile and a half, and 
John Wooley, owner and proprietor of a certain tract of land in the town- 
ship of Hampstead in Queens "County, on Nassau Island, opposite to the 
landing place on the said Samuel Rodman's plantation, adjoining upon 
and extending along the said river about half a mile."' 1 

It was upon Pelham neck that the British forces, consisting of the 
grenadiers and light infantry, landed, October iSth, 1776, ten days pre- 
vious to the battle of White Plains. 6 

Two days prior to the enemies landing, General Heath inform us " that 
the general officers of the American army rode to reconnoitre the ground 
at Pell's neck, &c, and it was determined that the position of the Ameri- 
can army should be immediately changed ; the left flank to be extended 
more northerly, to prevent its being turned by the British, who were at 
this time posted on Throgmor ton's neck." c "On the 18th of October 
the wind was more fresh at southwest, the British urged to the other 
side of Frog's neck, embarked on board their boats, crossed over the 
cove, landed on Pell's neck, and moved briskly upwards. Three or four 
of the American regiments advanced towards them and took a good po- 
sition behind a stone fence. When the British had advanced sufficiently 
near, they gave them a pretty close fire, which checked them, and even 
obliged them to fall back ; but, being immediately supported, they re- 
turned vigorously to the charge. The action was sharp, for a short time ; 
but the Americans were soon obliged to give way to superior force. 
Shepard's, Reid's, Baldwin's, and Glover's regiments had the principal 
share in this action. The Americans had between thirty and forty men 
killed and wounded • among the latter Col. Shepard, in the throat, not 
mortall}', although the ball came well nigh effecting instant death. The 
loss of the British was not known, but must have been considerable. 
They advanced almost to New Rochelle, and halted. The American 
army extended its left." rf 

We copy the following from the diary of President Styles : 

Camp at Mile Square, E. Chester, 23 Oct. 1776. 

"Friday morning last, the 18th, we were alarmed, and the enemy landed at 
Rodman's Point, (a place about four miles from our encampment,) with their 

a Albany lice, lluuk of Patents, No. xvu 
b St dman'a HI .:. of the Rev. 
c n^a'Y.s Mom. p. 71. 
d Heath's Mem. pp. 72, 73. 


whole force, the brigade under the command of Col. Glover consisting of about 
700 men, one regiment being absent for guard. We marched down towards the 
place where the enemy were advancing with a body of 1600, with a very large 
artillery train. The first attack was made by a small party on their advance 
guard. We were effectually routed, and forced to retreat to the main body, who, 
when they came up, were tired upon by two regiments advantageously posted, 
Col. Glover's and Major Lee's, who behaved gallantly; we brought many of 
them to the ground « Thus we continued fighting them and retreating the whole 
afternoon, until they came to a stand, where they now remain, except stretching 
along down toward Connecticut, I suppose for forage. Our men behaved liked 
soldiers, conformed to the orders of their officers, and retreated in grand order. 
Our loss is about nine or ten killed, anil about thirty wounded. People, may 
think what they please of the regular and spirited behavior of the British troops, 
but I that day was an eye witness to the contrary ; I saw as great irregularity, al- 
most, as in a militia regiment. They would run out from the body and fire sin- 
gle guns. As to their conrage, the whole body of the l(3th were forced to return 
by the fire of a single regiment, and many of them old troops. The fourth regi- 
ment was one that ran, and had we been reinforced with half their numbers might 
have totally defeated them. 

"The next day General Lee (under whose command we are), came and pub- 
licly returned his thanks to Colonel Glover and the officers and soldiers under 
his command for their noble-spirited and soldier like conduct during the battle."' 5 

North Castle, October 29th, 177G. 

"We have secured and encamped on every hill and dale, between this and 
New York, last Friday week, (18th.) Our whole brigade that then lay at East- 
chester under command of Colonel Grover, was ordered to oppose the progress of 
a large body of the enemy, then landing at Rodman's Point. Three regiments 
were ordered to pass a causeway (the only passage), and march to oppose them, 
and our regiment with three pieces of artillery was posted on an eminence over- 
looking the causeway, to secure a retreat for the others, and to prevent the ene- 
my from advancing. Col. Glover so posted the three other regiments in the wood 
that they annoyed the enemy greatly. But discovering that they bad determined 
to flank them he ordered a retreat. We had six or seven killed and about eighteen 
wounded. The enemies' loss about one hundred and forty or one hundred and 
fifty. After the skirmish we retreated to Mile Square, where we lay encamped till 
Friday, (25th Oct.) when, with the remainder of General Lee's, we joined the 
main body of the American army at White Plains."^ 

There are several islands, belonging to this town lying opposite the 
southern extremity of Pelham neck, which add much to the beauty of 
the sound scenery, the principal of these is " Great Minniefords," d 

a Balls and brass ornaments are frequently found on the heights of Pelham. Near (he resi- 
dence of the late James Hay, Esq., part of a BOldi ir's belt was discovered, marked lGth 

b Diary of President Styles, Library of Yale College, vol. vi. 

c Diary of President Styles. 

d This word invariably acenra in the genitive, ( Minnefords, Minifers, Minnewies land) 
from which we Infer that it was originally the name of its Iudiau proprietors. 


sometimes styled " Minnewies" or " Minnewits," but, commonly called 
City Island. " Upon the i ith of December, 1685, John Pell, Esq., by 
conveyance made over to John Smith, of the town of bruckland, Great 
Minneford's Island, which lies situated opposite to Ann-hook's Neck, 
formerly in possession of William Pate and Robert Godfrey." The 
principal proprietors of the island in 1700, appear to have been William 
Euerden and Gabriel Umbriel, from whom it passed to Amos Dodge. 
On the 21st and 22nd of June. 1753, Amos Dodge and Sarah, his wife, 
"in consideration of the sum of ^2300, "did by certain indentures of 
lease and release," " sell and convey unto Samuel Rodman, his heirs and 
assigns forever a certain tract of land called Minnefers Island," Szc., a 
upon the 1st of June, 1755. Samuel Rodman sells to John Jones of 
Jamaica, Queens County, Island of Nassau for the sum of 5^, all that 
certain island, commonly called Minneford's Island, &c, containing 
by estimation 230 acres of land and meadow, yielding and paying 
therefor, at the expiration of the said year, one pepper-corn, if the 
same should be lawfully demanded/ The next proprietor of the island 
was Jo.;eph Palmer, who, on the 19th of June, 1761, conveyed the 
whole to his brother Benjamin Palmer, "Upon the 19th of October, 
1761, occurs a deed of covenants, grant and partition from the latter 
individual and twenty-nine others, quit claiming to each other their re- 
spective rights in severalty as designated by a map drawn by Samuel 
Willis of the said island. " c Previous, however, to the above deed of 
covenants, Benjamin Palmer conveyed to the several proprietors their 
respective thirtieth parts. Upon the 27th of May, 1762, Governor 
Robert Monckton laid out for Benjamin Palmer and others the breadth 
of four hundred feet of the ground, round the east side, south, and part 
of the west side of a certain island lying in the Sound or East River, 
in the manor of Pelham, &c, called and known by the name of Minne- 
ford's Island. The petitioners on this occasion were David Hunt, 
Jonathan Fowler, Caleb Hunt, Edmund Ward, Samuel Ward, John 
Wooley, Isaac Barnes, Enoch Hunt, Joseph Mullineux, James Lewis, 
Aaron Hunt, Benjamin Palmer, Joseph Palmer, Samuel Le Roux, and 
many other proprietors of Minneford's Island, &c." d " Sept. 3d, 1762, 

a On the Oth of Aug., 1755. Amos Dodge, was firmly bound unto Samuel Rodman, yeoman, in 
the full sum of £2300 for the purchase of the Island. Co. Kec. Lib. G. 465 and 467. Sae orig- 
inal djc. presented by Richard E. Mount, Esq., to Xew York Hist. Society. 

b Co. Rec. Lib. G. 467. 

c Copied from original MSS., presented by Richard E. Mount, Esq., to N. T. Hist. Society. 
" The map of City Island," says Aaron Burr, " was drawn between the 17th of A ugust and 
the 29th of October, 1761." See Mount Rogers, a map of a portion of Minniford's Island, 
made by Alexander Colden, surveyor general, May 5th, 1763, is preserved in Sec. of State 
Office, Albany, No. 159. 

d See docket on file in Sue. State Office, Albany. 


Benjamin Palmer, Joseph Palmer, and Samuel Le Roux prayed for 
letters patent to be granted for the land under water, six-hundred feet 
from common high water mark, surrounding Minefors or Minneford's 
Island in the Sound, being part of the manor of Pelham in the 
County of Westchester, &c." rt A second petition occurs on the 27th of 
November, 1762, from David Hunt and fourteen other persons named 
in behalf of themselves and associates to the number of one-hundred 
proprietors of Minneford's Island, praying letters patent for four-hundred 
feet of the soil under water, from common high water mark into the 
Sound, beginning at that part of the island, which in a due east line is 
opposite the house of Samuel Rodman, and holding the same distance 
westward into the Sound, in every part round the island, and so running 
along the east end of said island with that part thereof which is opposite 
to the most southerly point of an island in said Sound, commonly called 
High Island, the property of Capt. John Wooley."* 

The prayer of the petition, however, was not granted until the 27th 
of May, 1763, when letters patent were issued by Cadwallader Colden, 
Captain General and Governor of the Province, to Benjamin Palmer, 
for four hundred feet of land under water from high water mark round 
Mineford's Island, which patent recognizes the plan of the island and 
that it was made by the surveyor general." 

Upon the 3d of October, 1763, a deed of Covenant and Division for 
the water lands was made between the proprietors of the Island. d 

In a letter addressed to His Excellency, General Maunsell, by Benja- 
min Palmer, dated New York, June 1st, 1790, the letter says that: — 

"In the year 1761, 1 bought an island in the Minor of Pelham, in the County 
Westchester and the Province of New York in North America, commonly called 
Mineford's Island, for £2,730 and divided it into thirty equal parts ; sold twenty- 
six parts to one gentleman in order to make a trading town of it, because it lay 
very advantageous for Foreign Trade. Four-thirtieth parts I preserved to myself, 
which were six hundred house lots, twenty-five feet front and rear and one hun- 
dred feet in length, except some of the lots against the Market place (and some 
of the slips were shortened to make room for the Market place and for vessels) as 
by a map of said island will appear. The whole number of house lots on said 
island, forty-five hundred besides two squares of thirty lots each reserved for pub- 
lic use for building of churches, meeting-house, &c. I have sold and otherwise 
disposed of one hundred and eighty-seven of my lots, so that I had still remaining 

a Land papers, Albany, vol. xvi, p. 313; also pp. 115, 11G and 119. 

b Land Pap srs, Albany, vol.xvi. p. 316, p. 13G of original. 

c Copi id from MSS. in the Mount collection in possession of N. Y. Hist Sic, entitled " A 
Case," in the Supreme Court, Beuj. Palmer vs. Geo. Berrian, supposed to be iu Aaron Burr'a 
hand writing. 

d Ditto. 


four hundred and thirteen lots on said island in the time of the war between 
England and these states. I sold many of my lots for £10 each, and bought some 
for that price, and so have the other proprietors; for £10 was the stated price for 
each lot. I was offered £300 for one square by Mr. Gomez, a Jew that lived in 
Hanover Square in the City of New York, containing thirty house lots. I also 
was offered £1000 for one right, that is one thirtieth part of said Island contain- 
ing thirty house lots, &c." a 

The water rights on the island were supposed to be principally invested 
in the estate of the late John Hunter. Esq., the State having sold them 
some years ago for querent to an individual from whom Mr. Hunter 

In the possession of the New York Historical Society, is an ancient 
MSS. entitled, "Number one, Book of Laws, ordered by the Community 
of Minniford's Island, made the tenth day of May, one thousand, seven 
hundred and sixty-three." From which we take the following : 

'•May 10th, 1763, this day, we, the Community of Mineford's Island, have 
thought proper to apoint a stated ferry acroost from Mr. Samuel Rodman's Neck 
to said Island, in manner and form as foiloweth : The ferryman to keep a good 
sufficient craft to ferry a man or men acroost from Mr. Rodman's Neck to said 
Island, and from said Island to the neck, at all times and from Day Light to Day 
Light, and shall not fail to give good attendance Durering and for the ensuing 
year from the date hereof, and likewise to keep a sufficient craft to take in a 
horse and chair, or two horses in manner and form as abovesaid, and the ferry 
man shall receve for each chair and horse not to exceed the sum of one Bh 
and sixpence, and for each person the said ferry man not to exceed the sum of 
four coppers for each time crossing said ferry, &e." 

The same year the ferry at the north end of said island was disposed 
of to the best and fairest bidder, viz : Mrs. Deborah Hicks. On the 13th 
of May, 1766, Jeremiah Fowler was ferryman ; nth of June, 1776, the 
ferry was sold to John Bridgewater. 

The ferry across from the.south end of Minneford's Island, to the op- 
posite shore of Long Island, was established 13th of May, 1766, and let 
to John Barnes for the term of five years. 

"On the 14th day of June, 1763, Isaac Barnes, Benjamin Palmer, John 
Bames, Enock Hunt, Joseph Mullinix and Joseph Palmer were chosen by the 
proprietors trustees of the island." The year following, "8th of May, Capt. John 
Wooley, Israel Pinckney, Aaron Hunt, Benjamin Palmer, Isaac Barnes and Caleb 
Hunt were appointed the committee, and Benjamin Palmer, clerk and treasurer, 
to the proprietors of the Island for one year." 

a Copy of original due, endorsed on the back, "sent to England," among Richard E. Mount's 
papers, N. Y. Hist. Soc. 


"At a meeting of the committee of the Proprietors of Miniford's Island, as- 
sembled at the house of Isaac Barnes, the llth day of May, 1765, 

"Present : 


l>' max Cami'bki.l, i (Josepb Palmer." 

"The committer ordered that no owner or proprietor of the said Island, not 
residing thereon, shall put or caus to be put on more than twoo creatures of any 
land; liki \. .vner or inhabitant living and residing upon the said Island 

may bring on twoo eows, if a twoo wheld carriage, one horse, and if a waggon 
two horses p'r. each right; any person, proprietor, owner or inhabitant disobey 
these orders and putingon more than the No. above written, must expect to have 
them put in common pound and dealt with according to law, &c."« 

The last election recorded in the "Book of Laws," (No. i) took place 
May ioth, 1791, when Joseph Mullinex, clerk, and Aaron Hunt, Joseph 
Mullinex, Thomas Baxter, Augustus Drake, Jr., Brusted Barnes and 
James Lewis were chosen trustees. 

It appears that upon the first settlement of the island, the proprietors 
had conceived the idea of erecting thereon a large commercial city, un- 
der the supposition that an extensive East India trade could be advan- 
tageously carried on with the States of Holland. Its agreeable and beau- 
tiful situation on the Sound, lying over against the broad side of Long 
Island, its close vicinage to New York, besides its healthiness, oyster- 
ing and fishing conspiring to render it, as its projectors vainly imagined, 
the best place, for the aforesaid trade in the United States. The Revo- 
lution, however, breaking out, suspended operations for a time ; but 
soon after the closing of hostilities the project was again revived, as ap- 
pears from the following document signed by some of the proprietors : 

"Whereas, the thirteen United States of North America is become Free, Inde- 
pendent and Sovereign States, and have the Like Liberty to Carry on Their 
Trade an 1 Commers To Foreign Nations as well as other States, Nations and 

. Excepting the East india Trade, and some others, which are fi 
in Like Companyes ; and. Whereas, the Seven United States of Holland are also 
Free, Independent and Sovereign States and they Have great Possessions in 
the E 3 and Carry on an Extensive Trade To and from it, and 

have plenty of Cash Sniping and Sailors To make the Trade To that part of 
the World much more greater Than it now is ; and. Whereas, they have been 
Frier,' Jting the American States To their Independancy ; therefore, We 

Do Earnestly Recommend To the State of New York To give and grant Liberty 
To the merchants in Holland to bring over Some of their East india produce To 

a In May, 1T70, I - 1 ic Barnes had two cows, 2 yearlings ami 1 colt, no 5 head; 

Benjamin 1'armer, .'; Joseph Muleux, 1; Uukin Campble, 5; Minor HlUard, 10 ; John I'mk- 
ney, 4; John Barnes, 2 ; Markos Baxter, 4; Deborah 1 licks, :>; Widow Bracks, 4. 



this State and to set up some of their manufactory's in some Convenant place for 
such purpose which Would be a groat advantage to both Countries. For the Amer- 
ican States are New and have no Possessions in the East Indians nor can they have 
any unless they purchase it with money or Conquer it in War, but some of the 
Merchants of these States might join the Holland Merchant s and Trade with them 
as occasion might serve ; and Whereas there is an Island lying abont 25 milesfrom 
New York in a very agreeable and Beautiful Situation and is Counted as Healthy 
a place as any in the World; it Lyes off against the broad side of Long Island and 
almost joins the main Land on the Manor of Pellham in Westchester Ceunti 
State of New York, and Round it is a great plenty of Oysters. Fishing and Fowl- 
ing in their season, a Ferry has been keept From thence to Long Island for many 
years; Liberty has been granted by the Legislature to Build a Bridge over the 
Narrows from the Island to the Main, it is imagined that when the Bridge is Built 
that it will be one of the greatest Fisherries in the Sound, for the greatest part of 
the Fish that comes Down the East River is thought to go through these Narrows. 
This Island is laid out in a Regular form for a Town, it contains about forty -five 
Hundred House Lotts, each Lott contains one hundred feet in length and twenty- 
five feet in Breadth. The Pilots that is acquainted with the Sound says that the 
largest ships can come Down the Sound with the greatest safety to said Island, 
therefore we the Subscribers Do Earnestly Recommend this Island to be the best 
place for carrying on the aforesaid Business of an) r in the States. The plan of 
said Island niay be seen in the Bowery Lane, No. 38, New York. 

"Samuel Leeue, Surveyor. 

Bamp Ayes, James Sedikeb, 

Daxiel Teie, Jeremiah Fowlee, 

John Hawkins, Benj. Palmee." 

It is almost needless to say, however, that its projectors failed in their 
plans, and were compelled to seek a less exposed and more eligible site. 
From this circumstance the place acquired its present name, " City 

Benjamin Palmer, one of the principal proprietors, appears to have 
been a great sufferer during the Revolutionary War, losing almost every 
thing f^r his attachment to the American cause; upon the 29th of Sep- 
tember, 1789, we find him petitioning His Excellency, General Washing- 
ton, President of the United States, for redress under his grievances. 
He complains " that himself and his family were taken prisoners by the 
British, who used us very ill, and then ordered us off my plantation, 
which I then had on said Island, to New York, where I have continued 
with my family ever since." The reason he assigns for their using him so 
cruelly, was on account of his sending a letter to General Howe, the 
commander of the British army, in vindicaton of, and setting forth the just 
cause the people of this country had to oppose the King's orders. " a In 

a Copied from original document, presented by Richard E. Mount, Esq., to N. Y. Historical 


his humble petition for damages, to His Excellency, George Clinton, Esq., 
Governor in and over the State of New York, Vice- Admiral of the Navy 
of the same, ebruary 2Sth, 1 7SS, he sets forth " that your petitioner 

in the beginning of the late war between Great Britain and America, 
employed Minor HiUiard to hire for him a plantation in New England, 
which he said he did for £2$ per annum. The British fleet then lay at 
Staten Island ; it was expected the first invasion would have been at 
New York, which prevented your petitioner moving on the said planta- 
tion. He waited to see how the contest would go between the fleet and 
city; but instead of attacking New York, the Admiral sent three armed 
ships up the Sound early one morning, and came to anchor off City 
Island, where your petitioner then lived; they sent three of their boats on 
shore with about one hundred men, who took your petitioner and all 
his family prisoners ; killed and destroyed his creatures, and plundered 
many things, all of which they carried off and never paid for, &c." " He 
then complains of Capt. Brown, of the guard ship Scorpion, who, in the 
beginning of the year 1779, ordered him to cut his wood on Jesse Hunt's 
Island, and at no other place — threatening to burn down his house in 
case of refusal, as the men-of-war and refugees cut their wood there. 
The island being then in the possession of the British, and Col. Benja- 
min Hunt had a protection for the island from General Howe and Gov- 
ernor Tryon, the British commanders refusing him permission to supply 
himself with necessaries from New York for his family use; neither 
would they permit him to ship his produce for that place, threatening to 
sink his boats if he dared to go to the rebels. He thereupon came to 
New York and purchased property of Nicholas Bayard, Esq." 

Benjamin Palmer, one of the principal proprietors of the island, was 
the second son of William Palmer, of Westchester, who died sometime 

in April, 1676/ Benjamin Palmer married daughter of Under- 

hill Barnes, of Philipsburgh, in this county, by whom he had a daughter, 
who married Ware Branson. The latter married secondly a daughter 
of Henry Ritter, who was the grand mother of Richard E. Mount, Esq., 
of New York. 

In 181 8, Nicholas Haight and Joshua Huested owned nearly the 
whole island, together with Rodman's Neck and the Marshall estate. 
Upon the 1st of January, 1819, Nicholas Haight and Mary, his wife, 

a From original MSS. presented by Richard E. Mount, Esq., to the N. T. Eistorical Society, 
b Will dated June 2, 1670. Will and adraint. Surrogate's office, X. V. Inventory, April 
26th, lt>76. No. l. ut. supra. His other children were Joseph, Samuel, Obadiah, Thomas, 
Spicher, and a daughter Martha. Palmer complains that he n as 1 itrusti ii by ail the pro- 
prietors to keep the plan and boots and other papers concerning said Island, and had them 
iu hie possession all the time of the war between England and . and had never lost 

the plan, the books or the papers, in all the troubles, although himself and family were driven 
from one place to another like fugitives on earth. 


sold to George W. Horton forty-two acres of land on the lower, or south- 
erly part of City Island. Most of this property is still held by his two 
sons — Capt. Stephen Decatur Horton, and Capt. George Washington 
Horton. The former owns the extreme point of this beautiful island, 
overlooking Hutchinson's bay, Throgmorton's Neck, the Stepping Stone 
light, the great necks upon Long Island, besides the most extensive 
views of the Sound, Hart Island and neighboring shores. a 

Among the earliest projects of the first proprietors of the island was 
the construction of a bridge across the narrows, to connect with the 
main. To enable them to effect this the State Legislature passed an 
act allowing the erection of the bridge ; and upon the 7 th of September, 
1S04, a subsciption list was opened for this object, but the attempt then 
failed for want of support. About six years ago, another effort was at- 
tended with better success; and a bridge erected by a joint stock com- 
pany,- connecting the island with the main, and was thrown open to the 
public on the 1st of December, 1873. It is a singular fact that the pres- 
ent structure stands within a few rods of the bridge laid down on the 
map of 1 761. The bridge, which is one thousand feet long, is constructed 
of nineteen abutments, of heavy wooden cribs filled with stone ; these are 
ninety-six feet long, by twenty-four feet wide, finished with a draw one 
hundred and twenty feet long. The greater part of the materials used in 
its erection were taken from the old United States frigate of war, North 

The navigation of the Sound, which is considered exceedingly danger- 
ous for the larger class of vessels, has given employment to some sixteen 
or twenty resident pilots at an income of $70,000; but since the last Avar, 
tug or tow boats have almost superseded the occupation of the pilots on 
the Sound. At the present time, more vessels actually pass through Hell 
Gate than through the Narrows. It is estimated that one hundred and 
fifty vessels pass through the former, daily. 

About seventy-five to one hundred oystermen, heads of families on 
the island, are engaged in doing a lucrative business in the surrounding 
waters, under a capital of over $200,000. 

On the eastern side of the island, Mr. David Carll has a fine dock 
yard. Here are three marine bridges, and the largest marine railway out 
of the city of New York. Quite a number of yachts have been con- 
structed in this yard — among which may be noticed the Atlanta, fox 
William Astor ; the Resolute, for Ayres S. Hatch ; the Henrietta, for 
James G. Bennett; the Magic, which won the Queen's cup in 18 — , for 

a In a prove, upon this point, the celebrated Italian arfisf, Pietro Vaini, shot himself, in the 
summer of 1775. One of bis small cabinet pictures is iu the possession oi Capt. Stephen L>. 


Frank Osgood, and the Vesta, for Pierre Lorillard. Mr. Carll has al- 
tered the Wanderer for Mr. Stillman, the Sappho for William Douglass, 
and is now engaged in lengthening the Vesta twelve feet for her present 
owner, Mr. Samuel H. Mills, of New York city. Four yachts are now 
on the stocks. To these may be added a large floating light-house for 
the United States Government, furnished with steam whistle. 

The island contains two churches, a Protestant Episcopal and a 
Methodist Episcopal. The former called Grace church, situated at the 
corner of Main street and Pilot avenue (not far from the site originally 
designed by the proprietors in 1761 for the erection of a church* ) was 
organized in 1862. First services were held in May, 1861. On the 
1 2th of October, 1863, George W. Horton and Margaret A., his wife, 
conveyed to the Rector, Church-wardens and Vestrymen of Christ 
church, Pelham, a lot of land, 50 feet by 100 feet, situated on Main 
street and Pilot avenue, for the site of a church. A release of the pro- 
ceeding to the Rectors, Church -ward ens and Vestrymen of Grace church, 
City Island, took place 1st of December, 1868. 

A church edifice was commenced in 1863, and consecrated the same 
year. It continued for a time as a part of Christ church, Pelham, Rev. 
Samuel S. Chevers acting as assistant to the Rector of Christ church, 
but residing on the island and officiating as pastor. Under the Rector- 
ship of the Rev, E. W. Syle, it was set apart as an independent parish. 

The church building is of wood, built in the gothic style, containing 
a small chancel window of three stained lights representing the trial of 
Christ before Pontius Pilate, by the Rev. William J. Bolton. The 
edifice will seat over two hundred. It deserves to be recorded here 
that the Miss Boltons, of Pelham Priory, from the first, have been the 
unfailing friends and supporters of the Island church. Without their aid 
in the beginning, the parish would never have been formed ; and without 
their liberal contributions to the support of the Rector, the parish would 
have been deprived of the services of the church ; they have done a quiet, 
but a blesssed work." 

Attached to the church is a rectory on Main street valued at $2,500. 
Upon the 5th of March, 187 1, Stephen Decatur Horton and Caroline 
L., his wife, conveyed to the Rector, Church-wardens and Vestrymen of 
Grace church, City Island, a lot for a rectory, 100 feet square, for the 
above mentioned object. 

A communion service was presented by Miss Catharine Lorillard Wolf. 
The service books, by Isaac O. Barker. Esq. 

a Nos. 62 and 90 of the Public Squares on the island were set apart for churches and meet- 
ing houses. 


Inst, or Call. Rectors. Vacated. 

A. D. 1868, Rey. William V. Feltwell, per resig. 

Jan., 15, 1871, Ret. George Howell, " 

Oct., 1, 1S74, Ret. Joshua Moebeix, D.D., present rector. 

Upon the island are five stores, three blacksmiths, small town house 
for Justice's Courts, and three hotels, viz : Cunningham Villa, kept by 
Mr. Cunnigham; City Island Hotel, kept byCapt. Joshua Leviness, and 
the Minnieford Shore House, by Charles McClennon, at the steam boat 
landing, well known for its clam bakes and refreshments. Boats, tack- 
ling, &zc, can be easily obtained at Captain C. H. Stringham's or Philip 
Flynn's, two well known fishermen. Three lines of stages are in constant 
service running to and from the island to the Harlem River Railroad, a 
distance of only two miles. 

During the ReTolutionary war, the island was greatly exposed to the 
enemy's shipping. 

"On the 27th of August, 1776, early in the morning (says General 
Heath), two ships and a brig came to anchor a little aboTe Frog Point. 
Our General immediately detached Col. Graham with his regiment, to 
preTent their landing to plunder or burn. Before he arriTed seTeral 
barges full of men landed on New City Island, and killed a number of 
cattle. Two companies of the regiment, immediately on their arrival, 
ferried OYer to the island. The enemy carried off one man and fourteen 
cattle ; the remainder of the cattle were secured."* 

" 30th of January, 1777 (observes the same authority), the storm clear- 
ed up, when fifteen ships, one brig, two schooners and two sloops came 
too, between Hart and City Is/and. They were from the eastward, and 
w r ere supposed to have troops on board."'' 

In 1777, a party from Darien, Connecticut, consisting of John Dibble, 

Isaac Quintard, Mead and eight others, captured the British armed 

vessel of war, called the Shuldam, off City Island. They carried their 
whale boats across Pell's Neck, where they seized a market boat, which 
had just returned from New York, laden with three hundred bushels of 
salt and twelve ten-gallon kegs of brandy. With this vessel they bore 
down, aided by a fair wind, upon the guard ship Shuldam, as she lay di- 
rectly off the north side of City Island ; as they neared, her captain, 
Roney, who was at the helm, and the watch, cried out : " What sloop is 
that ?" They answered, " the little Stanton ! " " Take care ! take care ! 

a (Copy torn.) 

i item. p. 113. 


you will be foul of us ! " was the reply. " Never fear, never fear," they re- 
joined; and coolly added: ''The whale boats are out on the sound to- 
night, and we wish to get under your lee." Another moment and their 
bow-sprit was in the S/iu/dam's net ting ; it took but a short time to cut the 
ropes with their broad swords, when all sprang on deck and drove the 
watch below. During this affray, the British were firing upon them fierce- 
ly from City Island. As they did not understand the management of so 
large a vessel, they were compelled to use two of their prisoners, whom 
they afterwards released, to navigate her into port. This was immediately 
followed by the capture of six other vessels, laden with wood ; two of 
which were ransomed, while the other four were taken into Stamford. It 
appears that the original intention of the captors, on this occasion, was 
to have seized the fort at Whitestone Ferry, upon Long Island; but 
that the unexpected sight of the guard-ship induced them to alter their 
plans.* A large force of whale-boat men afterwards landed on the island, 
and arrested all the inhabitants ; but paroled them immediately. ^ At 
one time there seems to have been a tacit understanding between the 
British and Americans, that the former should hold the island in the day- 
time, while the latter at night occupied it. 

Hart Island lies to the east of the former. Here is a Hospital under 
charge of the Department of Charities and Correction of New York 
city, accommodating between eight and nine hundred patients. In con- 
nection with the Hospital is also a work-house at the north end of the 
island. The present Protestant chaplain is the Rev. Marinus Willett. 
In 1774. Oliver De Lancey was seized in demesne as of fee of all that 
certain island, situate and being in Long Island Sound, commonly called 
Spectacle, or Hart Island, or one of the Minneford Islands, containing 
eighty-five acres. From Oliver de Lancey it passed to the Rodmans and 
Haights. The latter sold it to the late proprietor, John Hunter, Esq. 
The south-west end of the island affords a safe anchorage for the river 
shipping, during the prevalence of South-easterly storms. High Islmd 
is situated near the south shore of Pelham Neck. The Narrows between 
Hart and City Island and the Blauyes are much frequented by vast flocks 
of wild ducks. The varieties consist principally of the old wive, broad 
bill, coot, black duck and whistler. In the Fall of 1846, one thousand 
ducks are said to have been shot here, in the course of six hours. 

The Pelham Bridge, sometimes called the Eastchester Creek Bridge, 
communicates with the neck and the Westchester shore. This place is 

a McDonald MSS., in possession of G. N. Moore, of New York. 

b Jessie .Mullinex, of New Rochelle, remembered Colonel Thomas' attempt to take the 
island, when he, with others, armed with long duck guns, helped to drive him off. McDonald 


well known as a favorite resort for anglers, when the tide serves, fish of 
various kinds, and particularly the largest sized bass are taken. On the 
3d of June, 1S4.], Mr. Benjamin Fowler captured a striped bass, weigh- 
ing sixty-three pounds ; when measured, it was found to be four feet six 
inches long. A single steak of this fish weighed eight pounds. The late 
Des Brosses Hunter, Esq., also caught a bass here weighing fifty pounds. 

During the summer, 1841, a bass drifted on the neighboring beach, 
weighing forty-three pounds j and Mr. George Cox Furman, with a reel, 
caught another weighing twenty pounds. In the Fall of 1S38, a former 
proprietor of the bridge informed me that seven hundred and sixty-nine 
bass of various sizes were taken at this place by angling. September 
and October are considered the best fishing months. Sheepshead are, 
also, occasionally taken here. A few years since a monstrous seal was 
shot in the bay, opposite the bridge, weighing eight hundred pounds. 

Pelham Bridge was originally commenced by a company of gentlemen 
in the immediate neighborhood, who after sustaining severe losses, were 
compelled to relinquish the enterprize, which was reserved for the late 
George Rapelye, Esq., to complete. The bridge was afterwards pur- 
chased of his heirs and rented out annually, until the present iron struc- 
ture was erected a few years since at a cost of $60,000. It is said to re- 
quire three men and a boy to open the draw. A little west of this structure 
is the bridge and draw of the New Haven and Harlem River Railroad. 

From the Pelham Bridge there is a most extensive view of Hutchin- 
son's Bay, terminated only by the shores of Long Island, the fertile val- 
ley through which the Aqueanounck winds on its passage to the former, 
and the heights of Westchester. On the south-east shore of Pelham is 
situated the estate of the late Robert Bartow, Esq. This property was 
once a portion of the estate of Thomas Pell, third Lord of the Manor, 
eldest son and heir of John Lord Pell. In March, 1790, Thomas Pell, 
grandson of the above Thomas and Phcebe, his wife, conveyed the same 
to John Bartow, a and Ann Pell, his wife, third daughter of Joseph Pell, 
grand-parents of the late Robert Bartow, Esq. The dwelling house 
which is constructed of native stone, presents a fine Grecian front to the 
road, with wings on the east and west. The old manor house which was 
pulled down, not many years ago, stood near the summer house in the 
garden a little south-west of the present stone mansion. Here the 
manor courts were held and tenants came to do suit and service from 
time to time to the Mesne Lord. 

In a small cemetery south of the site of the old manor-house, repose 

a The father of John Bartow was Theophilus Bartow, who married Bathsheba, daughter of 
Thomas Pell, eldest son of John Lord Pell. 


the mortal remains of the Pell family. The oldest monument, legible, 
bears the following inscription : 


Another, surmounted with the figure of a rude cherub, bears this epi- 
taph : 


This individual was the third Lord of the manor, and son of Thomas 
Pell, the eldest son of John Lord Pell. 
The inscription to his wife, is as follows : 

In Memory of 


the widow of JosEPn Pell. 

She departed this life 

On the 22d day of March, 1790, 

In the 70th j r ear of her age. 

This lady, together with the executors of her husband, confirmed to 
Trinity church, New Rochelle, in 1763, the one hundred acres of land 
given by John Lord Pell for the use of the French church in 1689. An- 
other stone is inscribed : 

Here Lyes the Body of 

SALOME PELL, BORN JAN. 13th, 1759, 

and Departed This Life 

Oct. ye 10th, 1760, Aged 1 year, 

8 months and 27 Days. 

The following records the death of Sussannah, the second daughter of 
the before mentioned Joseph and Phoebe Pell. 

In Memory 

of SUSSANNAH, wife 

of Benjamin Drake, who 

Died March 4th, 1763 ; 

Aged 22 years. 


The last legible inscription is : 

Is Memory 

of JOHN, son of 

James and Pikebe Besnett, 

who died Augt 6, 1763, 

Aged 21 months. 

In 1 86 2 a white marble slab was erected on the spot, by the late James 
K. Pell, Esq., of New York, with the following inscription : 

This Stone 

is placed here in token of 

respect for the 


of, and to mark the spot where 

lie buried the mortal remains of 

several of the descendants of 


who was born in the year 1643. 
and died in the year 1700. 

The son of 

the Rev. John Pell, D.D., 

of Essex, in England, 

and nephew of 

Thomas Pell, 

the first proprietor 

of the 

Lordship and Manor of Pelham. 

born in the year 1603. 

Not very far west of the site of the old manor house stood, a few years 
ago, one of the largest and finest oak trees in the country ; interesting as 
the very tree beneath which the Indian sachems ceded these lands to 
Thomas Pell, on the 14th of November, 1654. 

On what was once the Bartow estate is located the Bartow station of 
the Harlem River branch of the New York and New Haven Railroad. 
The distance is computed to be seven miles from New York centre, and 
fifty-three minutes from business centres. From this station are daily 
lines of stages connecting with Yonkers, Mount Vernon and City Island. 



The ground, on which lias been commenced the new village of Bar- 
tow, rises gently from Hutchinson's River, and commands fine views 
of the Sound, Mount Vernon, and an extensive landscape. The Town 
Hall of Pelham township is adjacent, and likewise the Pelham bridge, 
which affords the finest fishing and boating along that side of the River. 
West Neck, the estate of the late Philip Schuyler, Esq., joins the vil- 
i >n the north, originally belonged to John Pell, a grandson of John 
Lord Pell. The old mansion, which formerly occupied the site of the 
Schuyler residence, was removed in 1850 and is now used as a carriage 
house and stable. Here, during the Revolutionary war, the daughters 
of John Pell and Mary Totten were frequently in the habit of entertain- 
ing the British officers, who would drive up from New York. The ad- 

joining estate to the Bartows on the east is Oakshade, the property of 
Richard Lewis Morris, M. D., son of James Morris, and grandson of 
General Lewis Morris of Morrisania, one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. The house is a very beautiful specimen of the 
Italian villa style. The south front commands a fine view of the Pelham 
Neck and the Sound. The old Le Roy mansion, now the estate of the 
Rodgers' family, is also finely situated, and embraces every variety of 
water view. But the most to be admired in this situation is the good 
taste with which art has added her charms to those of nature, the grounds 
being tastefully laid out to the water's edge, and embellished with ex- 
tensive green and fruit houses. 

Hunter's Island, sometimes denominated Henderson's or Appleby Is- 
land, now owned by Alvah Higgins, Esq., is connected with the main by 
a stone causeway and bridge. The mansion which is situated about the 
centre of the Island, has the most commanding views of the vicinity. 
It is constructed of stone, with wings on the east and west. The south 
front presents a collonade of the Ionic order, from which an extensive 
and delightful prospect presents itself to the eye. Before you is a fine 
belt of woods, to the east a boundless expanse of water, while on the 

to face page 88, vol u. PEDIGREE OF SCHUYLER, OF PELHAM. 

Philip Pieterse Van Schuyler = Margaret Van Slechtenhorst 
came to Albany in 1650, from Holland, 
married 16th December, 1650 

Johannes ^Elizabeth Staats, widow of John Wendell 

Philip, shot by Canadians In 1745, at Schnylervllle, Saratoga Co. N. Y. John = Cornelia Van Cortlandt 

General Philip, of the Revolution ^Catharine Van Rensselaer 

John Bradstreet = Elizabeth Van Rensselaer Philip Jeremiah, of Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

Philip, (only child) = Grace nunter, daughter of Robert Hunter, Esq., and sister of John Hunter, of Hunter's Island, Pelham. 

Ruth^T. W. Ogden Elizabeth^R. H. Ogden Grace Catharine = Rev. John Bolton Harriet Letitia = C. H. de Luze Fanny John Mary 

(The family now residing in Pelham.) 


south-west a lovely bay stretches towards Pelham Neck and Throgmor- 
ton's Point. These features render it one of the most beautiful spots on 
the sound or East River. The north front of the house overlooks the 
winding creek and distant woods of Pelham. In 1743 this island, and 
twenty acres on the main, were in possession of Joshua Pell, Esq., son of 
Thomas and grandson of John Lord Pell, from whom the former passed 
to the Hunts and Hendersons. The latter sold it to the late John 
Hunter, Esq.* The Island embraces an area of 250 acres. Large quan- 
tities of fish are constantly taken in the waters south of the island. A 
thousand weight have been captured in one morning with a fyke-net. 

The no nation reefs and green flats, lying nearly south of the island, 
are also well-known fishing places. On the south-east end of the island 
is situated the great Indian Rock " Mishow," while on the east lies the 
well known boulder, called the " Gray Mare." 

On the main, nearly fronting the causeway leading to the Island, is 
situated the residence of Mrs. Elizabeth DeLancey, eldest daughter of 
the late Elias DesBrosses Hunter, (who died on the 22dof March, 1865, 
aged 65.; son of John Hunter, Esq., the former proprietor of those lands 
and the adjoining Island. The building is of native granite, and com- 
mands beautiful views of the Sound and adjacent creeks and islands. 
Here is the orignal portrait of the Hon. Caleb Heath cote, Esq., Lord of 
the Manor of Scarsdale in this County. Surveyor General of H. M. Cus- 
toms, and Judge of the Court of admiralty, and one of H. M. Council 
for the Province of New York. " On the day of his death, Feb. 28, 172 1, 
this excellent man went about doing good in procuring a charitable sub- 
scription" b Adjoining this estate on the south, is the residence of John 
Munro, Esq., son of the late Peter Jay Munro, and grandson of Rev. 
Harry Munro, first Rector of St. John's church, Yonkers. 

The residence of the late Elbert Roosevelt, Esq., now occupied by his 
sons, is pleasantly located directly on the banks of the Sound, and has fine 
views of Long Island and the surrounding shore. The Roosevelt family, 
which have settled here since 1802, is of Dutch extraction; and claim 
descent from Claus Martens ze van Roosevelt, i. e. Nicholas the son of 
Martin of the Rose-field, a native of Holland, and first of the name who 
came to America. His son was Nicholas, whose son Johannas was the 
grandfather of Cornelius, father of the late Elbert Roosevelt, Esq., of 

In this vicinity is the Prion-, the former residence of the late Rev. 
Robert Bolton, a native cf Savannah, Georgia, whose father, Robert 

a Many yt ar- Bgo Peter Jay Maune levied a fine and recovery in behalf of John Hunter, 
Esq. for the entire Inland. 
b A. . N. Y. -larch C:h 1721. 



Bolton, was a well known merchant of that city, the only son of Robert 
Bolton, Esq., the first post-master of Savannah, in 1764, who removed 
from Philadelphia, Pa., into Georgia about one hundred and thirty-two 
years ago, whose father was Robert Bolton, Gent., merchant of Phila- 
delphia and senior warden of Christ church in that city, A.D., 1727, 
born at Wales in Yorkshire, 26th of July, 1688, and a lineal descendant 
of the Bolton's, of Bolton, in Lancashire. A collateral branch of this 
family gave to the Church of England, the well known author and divine, 
Robert Bolton, B. D., (great grand uncle of the last mentioned Robert 
Bolton of Philadelphia,) rector of Broughton, North Hamptonshire, who 
died in 163 1, and penned the recently republished edition of " Bolton's 
Four Last Things." 


The Residence of the Rev. Robert 

The mansion house, which is of stone, affords a good specimen of the 
old English style, and accords well with its romantic situation. The 
building has two towers, affording splended views in which wood and 
water are beautifully blended. The interior arrangements correspond 
with the style of the house, and carry the mind back to days of old. The 
armor)- is decorated with a mantle-piece brought from Venice, two or 
three suits of ancient armor, besides helmets, morions, breast plates, 
chain armor, &c, and a curiously carved chair of oak, found at Dorches- 
ter near Oxford, bearing the date of 1639. There are paintings here of 
members of the Bolton family, and among them a portrait of Robert Bol- 
ton, merchant of Savannah, Ga., whose great wealth gained for him the 
sobriquet of " King;" he died in 1S02. He is represented, dressed in 



dark blue coat, with yellow vest, and cocked hat; also the portrait of 
his wife, Sarah McClean, in high cap, stiff cambric handkerchief and 
tight brown silk bodice. They are copies of the originals, by Walter 
Robertson, in 1797 ; also the portraits of the late Rev. Robert Bolton, 
and his wife, Anne Jay, daughter of the Rev. William Jay, of Bath, 
England, with her two children, Robert and Anne, painted by the cele- 
brated William Etty, of the Royal Academy of England ; also an original 
portrait of Bunyan, formerly in the possession of the Rev. George White- 
field. There is in the library a good collection of autographs, the oldest 
of which is that of Henry VII., of England. The signatures of Queen 
Mary and Queen Elizabeth, with her council, are worthy of notice; also 
those of Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell, presented by the late 
Oliver Cromwell, of Chestnut Park, England, their last direct male 
representative ; letters of Lord Fairfax, Pope, Cowper, Chatterton, Lord 
Nelson ; signatures of Napoleon, Sir Christopher Wren, Percy, author 
of the ballad, Bishop Burnet, Kosciusko, &c, &c. Among the American 
autographs are those of William Penn and his sons, the proprietors of 
Pennsylvania, Francis Lovelace, Governor of New York in 167 1, Jona- 
than Edwards, Increase and Cotton Mather, Washington, La Fayette, 
Franklin, Jefferson, Schuyler, Sterling, Arnold, the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, and various other eminent characters. 

The terrace in front of the house forms a fine promenade. A beautiful 
flower garden on the west end of the house is laid out in geometrical 
plots, in which the plants are well disposed for the display of the flowers. 
The grounds are ornamented with natural walks leading to various ob- 
jects of interest, among which deserves to be noticed the "rocking 
stone."' 1 This natural curiosity is a rock supposed to weigh about twenty 


"A rock, chance poised and balanced, lay 
So that a stripling arm might sway 
A mass no host could raise. 

" In Nature's rage at random thrown, 
Yet trembling like the Druid's stone 
On its precarious base." 

Rocking stones, used in ancient Druidical worship, are found both in 
Great Britain and America. They were consulted in various ways by 
the Druids; sometimes as an oracle through which Jehovah spoke, for 
they believed one Supreme God although they adored lesser objects. It 
seems that these stones originated in the time of Moses, as mentioned in 

a Rocking stones were called " rogan stones " by the Saxons, from the old Saxon principal of 
the verb "rogtr.'' to shake, which is used by the poet Chaucer. "And him Bhe roggetu auJ 
awaketh soft.'— Legend of Good Women. 


Joshua xxiv : 17 — ' And Joshua took a great stone, and set it up there 
under an oak, and he said unto all the people, ; Behold this stone shall 
be a witness unto us ; for it hath heard all the words of the Lord, which 
He spake unto us j it shall be therefore a witness unto you, lest ye deny 
your God." Ancient history mentions their existence in various places; 
and, without doubt, from ancient Britain their use was introduced into 
this country, where they are numerous, but I shall only mention a few. 
In Sili'unau' s Journal, O. Mason notices two rocking Stones in the neigh- 
borhood of Providence, N. E., a and Dr. J. Porter, two in Massachusetts; 
another writer, speaks of several near Roxbury in the same State; one 
at Andover,and another at Duxham. in New Hampshire. Putnam's 
Rock, thrown by some soldiers during the Revolutionary war from a cliff 
into the Hudson river, where it is now visible, was a Druidical Rocking 
stone. According to American history, it " was so adroitly poised and 
easily moved that it attracted general attention." Speaking of the usages 
of the ancient British Druids, an English writer says: '• They erected 
also great stones, called by moderns '■Rocking Stones' so cunningly fitted 
one upon another, that if the upper one were touched in a certain place, 
though only with a finger, it would rock ; whereas no strength of man 
could avail to move it, if applied to any other part. Hither they led 
those accused of any other crime, and — under pretence that the gods, 
would, by this form of trial, show the guilt or innocence of the party — di- 
rects 1 him where to touch, and make the proof; and thus, at their direc- 
tion, (how like the priest-craft of every age,) they either absolved the ac- 
cused, or made them appear guilty — knowing where the laving of the fin- 
ger would move the rock, and where no human power could effect it." 
The author of " Mexican and American Antiquities," published in 
France, mentions the existence of Rocking Stones among South Ameri- 
can ruins ; he terms them " balancing rocks, similiar to the Celtic monu- 
3 of France and of England." The Spanish historian Fuentes, speak- 
ing of the customs of the Aborigines of Gautimala, South America, al- 
luding to their mode of trying criminals, says: "After the sentences of the 
criminals were given, it was necessary to have them comfirmed by the 
oracle, for which purpose three of the judges left their seats and proceed- 
ed to a deep ravine, where there was a place of worship containing a 
sacred stone, on the surface of which the Diety was supposed to indicate 
the fate of the criminal. If the decision was approved, the sentence was 
executed immediately — if nothing appeared on the stone, the accused 
was set at liberty." Juarros, in his history of Guatimala, speaking of 

a T'n - I "Drum Bock,'' within two miles of Wlckford, North Kings- 

ton. Th • Bound r :rum: it can be heard a gre^t distance off, some say to tne 

next stone : near it is a burying gruuu'i. — [Ed.] 



a Rocking Stone among the ruins in Copan, says : " Astonishment is 
forcibly excited on viewing the structure; because, large as it is, and al- 
though entirely of stone and of enormous weight, it may be set in mo- 
tion by the slightest impulse of the hand.*' Among the Greek's, Rock- 
ing Stones occur as funeral monuments ; and frequently on cliffs over- 
hanging the sea. Fosbroke, an English writer, in his i; Antiquities," 
speaking on the subject, says : " There is a singular conformity to the 
Greek custom in the following passages of Ossian : ' A rock bends along 
the coast, with all its echoing wood. On the top is the circle of Loda : 
the mossy stone of power ; ' and again — ' The king of Lora is my 
son ; he bends at the stone of my power.' It appears that the bards 
walked around the stone singing. That at Staunton, England, evidently 
in order to be conspicuous, is placed on the nose of a promontory loft- 
ier than the neighboring heights." The North American Mandan In- 
dians have a sacred stone, and so vivid is the similarity, that I can al- 
most say it originated with the Druids, the ceremonies only being modi- 
fied by the varying ages and circumstances through which they have 
passed. The " Book of the United States " says : " The "Mandans have 
their medicine stone, which is their great oracle ; and they believe with 
implicit confidence whatever it announces. Every spring, and occasion- 
ally during the summer, a deputation, accompanied by jugglers, magi- 
cians, or conjurors, visits the sacred spot where there is a large stone, 
about twenty feet in circumference, with a smooth surface. There 
the deputies smoke, taking a few whiffs themselves and then cere- 
moniously offering the pipe to the stone, they leave there their presents 
and withdraw to some distance during the night. Before morning (Druid- 
ical priest-craft again) the presents have disappeared — the Great Spirit, 
according to their belief, having taken them away; and they read the 
destinies of their nation on some marks on the stone, which the juggling 
priests, who have made them, and secretly manage the whole transaction, 
can easily decipher. The "Minnatree Indians have, also, a stone of the 
same kind." Bradford in his " American Antiquities," speaks thus of a 
rocking stone, near Caxamatca, South America, which, from the accu- 
mulation of dirt around it, had lost its rocking character — " It is a large 
block of free-stone. It has two grooves cut across it, near to the centre, 
four inches deep and five wide. The site of this stone commands a 
most beautiful prospect of the valley of Caxamatca. Doubless in that 
groove the Uruidical priest sat administering unjust justice. a 

At a short distance from the priory near the angle formed by the in- 

a Correspondence of the Baltimore Sim, Iverton Letters on Antiquities by Robert n. Llver^ 
ing, Lancaster, Onio, 1844. 


tersection of Pelhamdale avenue with the sea-side boulevard, stands the 
parochial edifice called Christ church. 

It may be as well to state here the progress of religious affairs in Pel- 
ham prior to the erection of this church in 1S43. Under the royal char- 
ter of 16S7, the Pelis were possessed of the " impropriation and the pat- 
ronage of the church or churches erected or to be erected within the 
manor." In 16S9, John Pell did give and grant to Jacob Leisler for 
the French Refugees at New Rochelle ' one hundred acres of land for 
the use of the French church erected or to be erected by the inhabitants.' 
This glebe, which was situated only a short distance from Christ church 
was held for nearly one hundred and fifteen years by Trinity church, 
New Rochelle; upon the rgth of March, 1697, John Pell, Esq., as impro- 
priator laid the corner stone of the French church at New Rochelle, which 
instituted the only edifice within the Manorial limits for one-hundred and 
forty-six years. 

By the act of Assembly passed 24th March, 1693, the Manor of 
Pelham had been made of the four precincts of West Chester Parish ; 
and the first vestryman elected under it, in 1702, was the said impro- 
priator John Pell, Sen., Esq.; in May. 1703, the quota contributed by Pel- 
ham Manor toward the rector's support and poor of the parish was 
P^":.i3S. "At a meeting of ye church-wardens, vestrymen, freeholders 
and parishoners of ye Borough of West Chester, etc., held in West 
Chester the 10th day of January A. D. 1709-10." etc. "Mr. Thomas 
Pell was chosen and appointed ye vestryman of ye Manor of Pelham." 
The quota for the precinct the same year was ^3.0.0; in 1720 the 
quota furnished by Pelham Manor had increased to ^4-4S. i^d. 

As early as 1 695 a clergyman of the Church of England was settled in 
the manor of Pelham ; but as the freeholders were obliged to pay towards 
the rector's support at West Chester appointed to him by act of Assem- 
bly, they were rendered incapable of doing anything for their own minis- 
ter; so that the principal support which the three French ministers of 
the Manor of Pelham, residing at New Rochelle, received prior to 
the Revolution, was derived from the Venerable Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

In 1 7SS, New Rochelle was separated from the Manor of Pelham, but 
the latter still remained united, for all eclesiastical purposes with the 
former until 1S40, when the late Rev. Robert Bolton, the rector of the 
parish of East Chester, first extended his ministerial labors to this town, 
which was as yet, destitute of the sen-ices of the Church. At this time, 
Mr. Bolton, besides his stated duties in East Chester, held a Sunday ser- 
vice at his residence in Pelham, accomodating in the ample hall a neigh- 


borhood peculiarly destitute of spiritual culture. Through his instrument- 
ality, a parish was finally organized ; and the corner stone of a church 
was laid on his own estate, Friday, the 28th of April, 1S43 — being the 
first building devoted to religious worship and instruction ever com- 
menced in Pelham. The good seed has spread since then, for there are 
now no less than three Episcopal churches in this town, viz : Grace 
church, City Island ; the Church of the Redeemer, Pelhamville ; and the 
Parish church. The edifice thus happily begun was finished the same year, 
and consecrated the 15th of September by the name of ' ; Christ church, 
Pelham." Prior to this event, the Reverend Founder prepared a deed 
transferring the church, and a quarter of an acre of land on which it is 
situated, to a parochial corporation, when one should be there formed — 
reserving, however, six free seats, the southeast and northwest transepts, 

Christ Church, Pelham. 

and two vaults beneath the floor of the church ; and, further, it provides 
that no rector or minister can be called or employed to officiate in the 
said church without the written consent of a majority of his heirs resid- 
ing in America be given thereto." The act of incorporation bears date 
25th of September, 1843. Richard Morris and Henry Grenzabach, 
church- ward ens ; Isaac Roosevelt, George F. Mills, John Bolton. William 
J. Bolton, Peter V. King, Jacob LeRoy, Cornelius Winter Bolton, and 
Robert Bolton, Jun., vestrymen. a 

Upon the organization of the parish the Rev. Robert Bolton became 
its rector Ke was born at the family residence in Oglethorpe Square, 
Savannah, Georgia, 10th of September, 1788. His father has already 

a County Rec Eel. Soc. Lib. B, p. S5. Day of annual election, ilonday in Easter week. 


been referred to as Robert Bolton, merchant of Savannah. He was 
ordained deacon by the Bishop of New York, 25th July, 1S37 ; and Priest 
by the same on the 1 2th of November following. In 1 S5 2 he resigned the 
rectorship, and died at Cheltenham, England, 19th of November, 1857. 

The parish church comprises a nave, sixty-five feet by twenty-two, 
with two small transeptal buildings, east porch and a bell turret over 
the eastern gable. It is constructed of common granite, in a very solid 
manner. In the rear, is a small wooden school and vestry-room out of 
all keeping with the main edifice. 

The style is gothic, and may be called the transitional second pointed. 
The chancel window, of three lights, is filled with stained glass of ex- 
quisite coloring, representing the adoration of the magi; over this is 
a circular light bearing the Agnus Dei with the appropriate legend, "Be- 
hold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world." This 
window, and several of the nave, were executed and presented to the 
church by the Rev. William Jay Bolton, A. M., vicar of Stratford East, 
near London, England. The two windows, on either side of the chancel, 
are after patterns in Salisbury cathedral ; and were executed and pre- 
sented by the Rev. John Bolton, rector of Trinity church, Westchester, 
Penn. The northern window of the transept bears the arms of the old 
Manorial Lords, Ermine, on a canton azure, a pelican or, vulned gules, 
while the southern is charged with those of the Reverend Founder : 
sable, a label for difference, a falcon argent, beaked, jessed, membered 
and belled or, charged on the breast with a trefoil, slipped ppr. The 
open rafters of the church rest on half length figures of angels projecting 
from the wall. The interior contains the following monumental inscrip- 
tions : 


to the memory of 


who slept in peace, 

June 16th, 1849. 

She was the fifth daughter of the 

Rev. PiObekt Bolton, 

Founder and first Rector 

of this Church. 

Loving purity from principle, 

she courted the shade. 

Her religion dwelt upon the Spirit, 


and was sweetly exhibited 

in the every-day duties of life. 

This is pure and undefiled religion 

" Her God sustained her in her final hour, 
Her final hour brought glory to her God." 

This tablet is erected by her friends. 



eldest son of 

Robert Bolton, Esq., merchant, of Savannah, Georgia. 

He was born in that city Sept. 10, 1778. He died in Cheltenham, 

England, Nov. 19, 1857. He was founder and first rector of this church. 


his tenderly beloved wife, 

who fell asleep in Jesus at Brighton, England, Sept. 27, 1859. 

She was the eldest daughter of the Rev. William Jay, of Bath, England, 

Author of "The Morning and Evening Exercises." 

Their children here record in gratitude to God their tender 

affection, prevailing prayers and pure example. 


our beloved nurse, 


who after twenty-four years of devoted service, fell asleep in Pelham, 

August 29th, 1854, aged 54. 

" Well done thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord " (8t. Matt. 
xxv : 21.) 


to the memory of 


who fell asleep in Jesus, 
March 24th, 1849, aged 36 years. 

Her dying words were : — 
" There is a reality in religion? 




who died in Pelham, Sept. 30th, A.D. 1856, aged 43 years. 
An honest man : a sincere friend, and humble Christian. 

" He was an early promoter and constant friend of this church, 
serving as vestryman and treasurer fpom the time of its forma- 
tion to his death. Possessed of a sound mind, a kind heart, and 
a generous hand, he labored to promote the welfare and happi- 
ness of the neighborhood in 'which he lived. He died respected, 
beloved and universally lamented." 



of Savannah, Georgia, 

who died in Pelham. on the 15th of July, 1845, 

aged 17 years. 

"Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth."— (Eccles. xii chap. 1 Verse.) 

This tablet is erected by her affectionate young friends. 



who died in Pelham, 

Feb'y 6,1858, 

aged three years and three months. 

'« Is it well with the child ? " And she answered : " It is welL" 

In a vault, beneath the pulpit, repose the mortal remains of William 
Matthew Evans, Esq., of Savannah, Georgia, son of William Evans, and 
Sarah (second daughter of Robert Bolton, Esq., of Savannah, Ga , and 
Sussannah Mauve, of Vivay, Switzerland.) who departed this life in East- 
chester, on the iSth of November, 1837, aged sixty-three; also Abby 
Bolton, fifth daughter of the Rev. Robert Bolton, and Anne Jay, his 
wife, who was born at Henley upon Thames, Oxfordshire, England, 
Feb. 3d, 1827, and died in Pelham, June the 16th, 1849 ; also her sister- 
in-law, Elizabeth Rebecca, first wife of Rev. Robert Bolton, and second 
daughter of James Brenton, Esq., of Newport, Rhode Island, who was 

a This individual was the son of Benjamin Brenton and grandson of Jahlee Brenron of 
Newport, R, I., (a son of Ebenezer,)and grandson of William Brenton, Governor of Rhode 
Island in 1663, by bis wife, Frances, daughter of Samuel Cranston, Governor of Rhode Is- 
land, son of John Cranston, Governor of the same, ><>n of James Cranston. Chaplain to King 
• harlea I., who was the son of John Cranston by his wife, Christian, daughter of sir Robert 
t, predecessor to the Earls of Traqnair, who was son of James Cranston (brother of 
John Lord Cranston) by his wife, Lady Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Stewart, Earl of Both- 
well. Mary Clarke, wife of S.unu>l Cranston, Governor of Rhode Island, was the da lighter of 
Governor Walter Clarke by his wife, Freeborn, daughter of the celebrated Roger Williams 


born at Pittstown, in this State, on the 2d of August, 18 14, and died in 
New Rochelle on the 12th of March, 1852; also Richard Woodhull, 
sixtli son of Rev. Robert Bolton, and Josephine Woodhull, born at Bed- 
ford, Nov. 10th, 1864, died there, April 19th, 1868. 

In the Schuyler family vault are the following : Philip Schuyler, Esq., 
born October 26th, 1788, died Feb. 12, 1865 \ Grace Hunter Schuyler, 
born April 10, 1790, died Dec. 23, 1855 ; Harriet Schuyler, daughter ©f 
the above, born Oct. 26, 1823, died Nov. 22, 1877. 

The organ was built in June, 1872, by Jardine & Sons, of New York ; 
it has two banks of keys, twenty stops, two octaves of foot pedals, with 
the modern improvement of swell and coupler, and cost $2,500. 

The bell, weighing one hundred and eighty-four pounds, was presented 
to the church by Lydig Suydam, Esq. The communion plate, which was 
the gift of Mrs. C. L. Spencer, daughter of Peter Lorillard, Esq., bears 
the following inscription: "Christ church, Pelham, May nth, 1844." 
A chalice was also presented by the late Miss Georgiana C. Pell, daugh- 
ter of Governor Duncan C. Pell, inscribed with the appropriate motto : 
" This do in rememberance of Me." This lovely young lady, who was 
a pupil of the Priory, and died 15th of November, 1S51, aged sixteen, 
was a lineal descendant of John Lord Pell. The service books were 
presented by the late Gerardus Clark, Esq. ; and a set of beautifully il- 
luminated tablets, by the Rev. John Bolton. 

To Christ church, Pelham, is attached a small stone rectory, in the 
Norman style, erected in 1843. 

By an indenture bearing date 4th of May, 1867, Nanette Anne Bolton 01 the 
tosvn of Pelham, County of West Chester and State of New York, conveyed to 
the Rector, Church-wardens and Vestrymen of Christ church, Pelham, parties of 
the second part "a certain parcel of land situated in the town of New Rochelle ; 
begining at the south-westerly corner of a road running past Christ church, Pelhani 
and the Pelham road, 226 feet thence north-westerly, parallel with the road leading 
past Christ church, Pelham, 75 feet, thence north-easterly, parallel with said Pel- 
ham road, 226 feet to the aforesaid road running past Christ church ; thence 
south-easter ly along the last mentioned 75 feet to the point or place of beginning. 
To have and to hold the said premises hereby conveyed to the said parties of the 
second part and their successors in office for parish purposes forever ; subject nev- 
ertheless, to the following reservation, viz : that in case the said parties of the 
second part should ever abandon the use of said premises for parish purposes, 
then and in that case the said premises shall revert to the party of the first part, 
her heirs and assigns forever, &c. NANETTE ANNE BOLTON. 

In presence of 
Chablhs W. Roosevelt. « 

a Copied from the orignal document in the possession of the vestry. 



Inst, or Call. Incumbents. 

28 April, 1843, Rev. Robert Bolton, Presb. 

Rev. Alexander Siiiras, D.D., Presb., 
Rev. M. M. Dillon, Presb., 
Rev. Edward "W. Syle, Presb., 
Rev. J. Mt Alpine Harding, Presb., 
Rev. Charles Higbee, 

Vacated Br. 

present incumbent. 

Near to the entrance of the Priory, on the grounds of Miss Lydia Em- 
met, daughter of the late Hon. Robert Emmet, Judge of the Supreme 
Court of the State, son of Thomas Addis Emmet, the celebrated Irish 
jurist, is another large boulder, weighing several tons. 

Parochial School of Christ church, Pelham. 

Deveau town is a small scattered hamlet in this vicinity, so named af- 
ter Abel Deveau, an old whig of the Revolution, and proprietor of a 
small estate. This individual was proud of relating how he and others 
were deployed as skirmishes to way-lay the British near the causeway, 
after their landing on Pelham Neck, in 1776, firing behind the rock 
near Rapelye's, and retiring, as they advanced, towards Eastchester. The 
late Abel Deveau, of Pelham, was his son ; and one of his grandsons is 
the present Richard Deveau, of New Rochelle. 

From the town records we take the following extracts : — 

" At a town meeting held at the school house in the town- of Pelham, on Tues- 
day the seventh day of April, 1801, for the purpose of electing town officers for 


the said town to serve the ensuing year, the following persons were appointed to 
Uie following offices and places," viz: 

Philip Pell, Supervisor. 
David J. Pell, Town Clerk. 

David J. Pell, ) 

William Batley, V Assessors. 

Joshua Huestis, ) 

Philip Pell, ") 

John Bartow, > Commissioners of High vvays. 

William Bayley,) 

Joshua Huestis, overseer of highways, for the within district of the town, to 
extend as far north till it come to the gate between the farms of Mr. John Bar- 
tow and Charles Turnbull deceased ; and Elijah Horton, overseer of the highways 
of the northern district of the town, as far north till it comes to the before men- 
tioned gate : 

Elijah Horton, ) 0verseers of the Poor 
George Crawford,) uverseers 0I wieroor. 

Jesse Mullinex, 1 

Joshua Huestis, I p y iewers . 

Elijah Hokton, [ 

Esaie Guion, J 

%2&££*. \ p °- d *"*»■ 

Philip Pell, ~) 

John Bartow, 

Alexander Anderson, I 

William Bayley, } Commissioners of Schools. 

Isaie Guion, 

Bem Rapalje, 

John Williams, 

Joseph Bayley, Constable and Collector. 

In 1875, was commenced the Huguenot Forest Memorial chapel, a 
pretty wooden structure, facing the Boston boulevard, at its junction 
with the Pelham Dale avenue. It was opened for public worship, Sun- 
day, July 9th, 1876. The Rev. Charles E. Lord having assumed the 

In this portion of the town has been organized and legally incorpor- 
ated, a company styling themselves, " The Pelham Manor and Hugue- 
not Heights Association" a for the purpose of combining capital and skill 
in the control and improvement of land for villa or cottage residences. 
This company own about five hundred acres, stretching from the New 

a S. II. Witherbee, President, C. J. Stevens. Secretary, office, 1ST Broadway. 


Haven Railroad on the north, to the beautifully winding shores of the 
Sound on the south. On the southerly portion of these lands, facing on 
Pelhamdale avenue, nearly opposite the Priory grounds, is situated ''All- 
wood,'' the residence of Mr. C. J. Stevens, and this avenue leads to the 
Pelham Manor Station, a depot of the Harlem River branch of the New 
Haven R. R., ten miles from North New York, where the boats connect 
for Fulton or Peck Slip. Fourteen trains run daily, and the time is 
estimated at twenty-one minutes. 


ii, IIS 




Poundridge is situated fifteen miles north-east of the village of White 
Plains, and distant one hundred and thirty-nine miles from Albany ; 
bounded north and east by Lewisboro, south-east by the State of Con- 
necticut, and west by Bedford and North Castle ; and was organized on 
the 7th of March, 1788. 

The name of this town is, undoubtedly, derived from the ancient 
" Indian Pound," which formerly stood at the foot of a " high ridge " a 
little south of the present village of that name. On Account of its 
natural boundaries, this section of country was peculiarly adapted for 
the favorite Indian practice of entrapping wild game. Upon the north, 
stony mountains formed an impassible rampart ; whilst the long chain 
of ponds and streams on the east line of the town, closes up all avenues 
of escape in that direction. The Indians, therefore, availing themselves 
of these natural barriers, constructed a palisaded pound at the southern 
extremity of the ponds, into which they drove the wild game from the 

Van der Donck, the historian, informs us " that the Indians frequently 
united in companies of from one to two hundred, when they have rare 
sport. On these occasions they drive over a large district of land, and 
kill much game. They also make extensive fikes with palisadoes, which 
are narrow at the terminating angles, wherein they drive multitudes of 
animals and take great numbers ; at a word, they are expert hunters for 
every kind of game, and know how to practise the best methods to 
insure success."* The shouts and yells of these savage huntsmen must 
a Van der Donck'a Hist, of N. N. New York Hist. Soc. Coll. New Series, voL L 103 


have often reverberated in frightful echoes from the neighboring woods 
and hills, serving no doubt much to bewilder their timid prey. 

Poundridge was originally included in the Indian grant of Toquams, 
made to John Turner of Quinnipiacke or New Haven, on the istof July, 
1640. The sale is thus recorded in the town book of Stamford : 


"Bought of Ponus, sagamore of Toquams," (Stamford,) "and Wasoussue, 
sagamore of Skippan, by me Nathaniel Turner of Quinnipiacke,"'* (New Ha- 
ven,) "all the ground that belongs to both the above-named sagamores, ex- 
cept a piece of ground which the aforesaid sagamore of Toquams reserved for 
his and the rest of the said Indians to plant on ; all which ground being ex- 
pressed by meadows, uplands, grass, with the rivers and trees ; and in consid- 
eration hereof, I, the said Nathaniel Turner, am to give and bring or send to 
the above said sagamores within the space of one month, twelve coats, twelve 
hoes, twelve hatchets, twelve glasses, twelve knives, four kettles, and four 
fathoms of white wampum ; all which land both we the said sagamores do pro- 
mise faithfully to perform both for ourselves, our heirs, executors or assigns to 
the above said Nathaniel Turner of Quinnipiacke, his heirs, executors or assigns, 
and hereunto we have set our marks in the presence of many of the said Indians, 
they fully consenting thereto. b 

Witnessed by us, Ye marke of j>\ Poxes, sagamore. 

William Wilkes, Ye marke of © Wasodssue, sagamore. 

James, &o. The marke of 02 Owenoke, the son of Ponus. 

Eec'd in part payment, 

12 glasses, 

12 knives, 

6 coats. 

Besides Poundridge the above sale also embraced the present town- 
ships of Darien, Stamford, New Canaan, and the greater part of Bedford 
and Greenwich. 

The planting grounds reserved by the sachem Ponus, were situated 
four miles south of Poundridge, in the vicinity of the street still bearing 
his name. In 1644, "the western Indians being at war with the Dutch, 
had communicated their hostile feelings to those around Stamford, who 
at this period numbered one thousand warriors ; but the firmness and 
courage of Capt. John Underhill compelled the whole of them to sue for 
peace. Upon occasion of its ratification the Wappings of Stamford pre- 

a Capt. Nathaniel Turner purchased In behalf of the people of New Haven. 
b See Bedford. 


sented themselves with others at Fort Amsterdam, April 6th, 1644.* In 
1655, occurs the following agreement between the inhabitants of Stam- 
ford and the Indian Sachem Ponus, &c. : — 

"Our agreement made with Ponus, Sagamore of Toquams, and with Onox, his 
eldest son. Although there was an agreement made before with the said Indians 
and Captain Turner, and the purchases paid for, yet the things not being clear, 
and being very unsatisfied, we come to another agreement with Onox and Ponus 
for their land from the town plot of Stamford north about sixteen miles, and 
then to a marked white oak tree with ST, and from that tree we went towards 
the Mill river side, we marked another white oak tree with ST, and from that tree 
west we were to run four miles eastward, and from this east and west line we were 
to have further to the north, for our cattle to feed, full two miles further, the full 
breadth only, the said Indians reserve for themselves liberty for their planting 
ground, and the above said Indians, Ponus and Onox, with all other Indians that 
be concerned in it, have surrendered all the said land, &c, for and in consideration 
hereof, the said town of Stamford is to give the said Indians four coats which the 
Indians accept of as full satisfaction for the aforesaid lands although it was paid 
before. Hereby all Ponus's posterity is cut off from making any claim or hav- 
ing any right to any part of the aforesaid land, «fcc, the said Ponus and Onox his 
son, having this day received of Richard Lane, four coats, acknowledging them- 
selves fully satisfied for the aforesaid land. 

Witness the said Indians hands this fifteenth day of August, A.D. 1655. 
Witness William Newman, Ponus j^ his mark, 

Richard Lewis. Onox o his mark." 

Upon the 7th of January, 1667, Taphance, son of Ponus, and Pow- 
hag or Pinaghag, son of Onox, confirmed to the people of Stamford the 
agreement of 1655. By these sales Poundridge became a part of Stam- 
ford township, within Fairfield county. 

On the 26th of May, 1685, the General Court of Connecticut, issued 
the following patent to the inhabitants of Stamford, embracing all those 

' ' Bounded on the south west by ye five mile brook, between Stamford afore- 
said and Norwalk, from the mouth of the said brook, till it meet with the cross- 
path, that is, where the county road crosses the said river, and from thence to 
run up into ye country till twelve miles be run out upon the same line, that is be- 
tween Stamford and Fairfield, and upon the west, to Totomak brook, where the 
lowermost path or road that now is to Greenwich, east by ye said brook, and 
from thence to run in a straight line to the west end of a line drawn from the falls 
of Stamford mill river, which line is to run a due west point towards Greenwich 
bounds, a short mile, and from the west end at the said fine, to run due north, to 

a The Wappinga were probably engaged "in the great battle fought between the Dutch and 
Indiana in that part of Uorseneck called Strickland's plain, now included in the town of 
Greenwich, Connecticut." O'Callahan s Hint. N. N., 302. 


the north of ye present country road to Rye, and from thence run up into the 
country, the same line that is between Norwalk and Stamford, to the ends of the 
bounds, the said land having been by purchase or otherwise, lawfully obtained 
of the Indians, native proprietors. Ami whereas, the proprietors the aforesaid in- 
habitants of Stamford, in the colony of Connecticut, have made application to 
the Gov. and company of said colony of Connecticut, assembled in court, 25th 
May, 1685, that they may have a patent for confirmation of the aforesaid land, so 
purchased and granted to them as aforesaid, and which they have stood seized 
and quietly possessed of for many years late past, without interruption. Now, for 
a more full confirmation of the aforesaid lands, as it is butted and bounded afore- 
said, unto ye present proprietors of the said town of Stamford, &c, &c. Know 
ye, that the said Gov. and company aforesaid, in general court, according to the 
conditions granted to them by his majesty in his charter, have given and granted 
and by these presents, do give, grant, ratify and confirm, unto Mr. John Bishop, 
Mr. Richard Lowe, Capt. Jonathan Silleck, Capt. John Silleck, Lt. Francis Bill, 
Lt. Jonathan Bull, Ensign John Bales, Mr. Abraham Ambler. Mr. Peter Ferris 
and Mr. Joshua Hoyt, and the rest of the said present proprietors of the town- 
ship of Stamford, their heirs, successors and assignees forever, the aforesaid par- 
cel of land as it is butted and bounded together, with, &c. &c, that the afore- 
said tract of land, shall be forever hereafter deemed, reputed, and he an entire 
township of itself, to have and to hold the said tract of land, premises, etc. &c, 
yielding rendering and paying therefore to our sovereign Lord the king, his heirs 
and successors, his dues according to charter. In witness whereof we have caus- 
ed the seal of the colony to be hereunto affixed, this 26th of May, 1685, in ye first 
year of the reign of our Lord King James the second, etc. &c. 


This patent included the southern portion of Poundridgc ; for, until 
the final arrangement of the boundary lines in 1731, Stamford extended 
over the greater part of the present town. 

Upon the temporary settlement of the colonial lines, A.D. 1701, we 
find the Indian sachem Catonah, confirming Robert Walters and others 
in these lands. 

"This indenture, made the 25th of February, 1701, betwixt Robert Walters 
John Chollwell, Leigh Atwood, Cornelius Depeyster, Richard Slater, Barne 
Cosens, Lancaster Symes, Matthew Clarkson, Robert Lurting, Peter Matthews, 
and Caleb Ileathcotc, of the one part, and Sagamore, Katonah, Wakcmane and 
Wcewanessege, Indians, of the other, for the consideration of a certain sum in 
hand paid by the said Robert Walters, &c, at and before the ensealing and de- 
livering of these presents. The receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge, 
&c, «fcc., have given, granted, bargained and sold, aliened, enfeoffed, released 
and confirmed, and do by these presents, clearly and absolutely give, grant, bargain, 
and sell, alien, enfeoff, release and confirm, unto the said Robert Walters, &C, a 
certain parcel or tract of land, lying and being in the County of Westchester, in 
the province of New York, butted and bounded as followeth, viz., westward by 


Bedford and by the patent granted to Caleb Heathcote and others, northerly by 
Col. Cortlandt's purchase and Croton's run, southerly and easterly hij colon// lines, 
to have and to hold, &C, &C.« The mark of a! Catonaii." 

On the 2d day of March. 1701, William the Third, by his royal let- 
ters patent, under the great seal of the colony of New York, did grant 
and confirm unto Robert Walters, John Cholwell, Leigh Atwood, Cor- 
nelius Depeyster, Richard Slater, Barne Cosens, Lancaster Symes, Mat- 
thew Clarkson, Robert Lurting, Peter Matthews and Caleb Heathcote, 
a certain tract of land in the County of Westchester. 

"Bounded to the south by the east division line between the province of New 
York and the colony of Connecticut, and on the east by the other division line ; 
and so along the said line, until it meet with the patent of Adolph Philips, and 
so along his southern boundaries, till it meet the patent of the manor of Cortlandt, 
and from thence by a line that shall run upon a direct course, until it meet with 
the end of the first easterly line of twenty miles of the said manor of Cortlandt, 
and from thence, along the said line westerly, until it meet with the patent 
granted, to Robert Walters and others ; then, southerly, along the said patent, 
until it meet with the bounds of the township of Bedford, and thence along the 
said bounds, till it meet with the patent granted to Col. Caleb Heathcote and 
others ; anrl, along the bounds of the said patent, unto the colony line, which 
said tract of laud, on the 2oth day of February, was by the said Robert Walters, 
in his aforesaid company purchased of the native Indian proprietors, &c, &c" 

This grant, which not only embraced the whole of Poundridge but a 
portion of Lewisboro, was subsequently known by the name of the East 

The same year occurs the following confirmation from the Indian 
sagamore Catonah to the " inhabitants of Stamford, in their former sales 
under ye hands of Taphance, son of Ponus, and Penaghag, son of On- 


"We the said Catonah and other Indians do by these presents sell and fix 
bounds as followeth. that is to say westward as far as ye west bounds of Bed- 
ford purchase, bounded north by ye south side of Bedford purchase and by ye 
Stone hills, upon a straight line eastward unto ye upper end of ye Long Pond, 
and from thence an east line until it meets with a line drawn north from ye 

a Indian deeds, Alb. Rec. warrant for Survey, Lib. i. 100. 



upper end of Five Mile river, which is ye east line of our several purchases, and 
we, ye said Catanoh and other Indians, give, grant, and quit claim all ye mead- 
ows, trees, feeding grounds, rivers, pools, and other privileges that doth belong 
to ye said lands and meadows within to ye southwards of ye north bounds above 
mentioned unto ye said inhabitants of Stamford, &c. Also we do acknowledge 
by these presents to have received of ye said inhabitants a considerable and val- 
uable sum of money for all ye said lands, &c. It is to be understood that ye 
above said Catonah and other Indians doth by these presents confirm all ye said 
old deeds of Taphauce, Ponus and Penaghag, and old Onox, also young Onox, 
also that deed made to Capt. Turner in behalf of ye town of Stamford, also that 
deed of Nonatomonoa, that is to say, a quit-claim to any parte or parcel of lauds 
and meadows within ye said bounds above mentioned. In witness of truth, we 
win 'sc names arc underwritten have hereunto set our marks and seals, at Stam- 
ford, this eight day of July, 1701. 

Signed, sealed and 
delivered in the presence 

of John O 
The marke of KExnocTAM ^ 
The marke of Ramhoenb t -1 
The marke of Syxgo S3 
The marke of Aectak O 

The marke of Catonah j& sagamore. 

The marke of Maxinus £> 

The marke of Wequacumoee. X 

The marke of Pepiamab > 

The marke of Wokea S 

The marke of Papafmema &2 

The marke of Temon < 

The marke of Pouokus O 

The marke of Mockea X 

By the final settlement of the boundary lines on May 14th, 173 1, 
Poundridge was transferred to the province of New York. 

In 1744, John Crawford was appointed assessor for the East Patents 
The following items are from the town records. 

Old Poundridge, April ye first day, 1760. 

■■ At a town meeting held at the house of Ebenezer Lockwood, in said 
Old Poimd, in Westchester county, under ye Province of New York, 
we the freeholders, inhabitants and residents proceeded as follows : 
first, by major vote, Joseph Lockwood to be town clerk, and by Major 
vote, William Forster to be constable, &c, &c. 

••January 14th 1762. It was voted that Joseph Lockwood be clerk of 
said meeting and Lieutenant John Gauspur be moderator. 

•• April 20th, 1776. Voted Ebenzer Lockwood as moderator, Joseph 
Lockwood as clerk, Lieut. William Jones, constable. 

Upon the 7 th day of August, 1766, the East Patent formerly granted 
to Robert "Walters and others, was sold, in pursuance of a certain act of 
the Lieutenant Governor, the Council, and General Assembly of this 
colony, entitled : " An act for the more effectual collecting of his 

a North Castlj lite. la 1746, Joseph Lockwood was assessor for the East Patent. 


Majesties quit rents in the colony of New York, and for the partition of 
lands in order thereto," <Scc. The principal purchasers under the act, 
appear to have been the Lockwoods, Amblers, Forshers, Bishops, Fer- 
rises, Hoyts, Hollys, Browns, Sillicks and Scofields, &c, &c. a In 1826, 
the Legislature of this State claimed, as successor of the Crown, the sum 
of $243.71, due as quit rent on the East Patent. b To satisfy this claim 
nine hundred acres of land were sold in the southern part of the 

The village of Poundridge occupies an elevated situation near the 
centre of the town, and contains two churches, two stores, a school 
house, a post office and 15 or 20 dwellings. As early as the year 1744, 
a settlement was commenced on this spot by Captain Joseph Lock- 
wood, and a few associatesd from Stamford Connecticut. At this early 
period the surrounding country was one vast wilderness heavily cov- 
ered with timber. Upon a commanding eminence which rises above 
the rest of the village stands the Presbyterian church. This building 
which was erected in 1786, occupies the site of the old church destroyed 
by the British troops, A. D. 1779. The Presbyterian Society of Pound- 
ridge was first organized in 1760/ The first church edifice, however, was 
not erected till 1770. Its incorporation occurs on the 28th of April, 
1788. Nathaniel Bouton, William Fancher, John Hoyt, Benaiah Brown, 
Thaddeus Seymour and Ebenezer Seymour, trustees. " The said 
church to be governed according to the Directory of the now Establish- 
ed Church of Scotland. / From this date to 1822, it remained in con- 
nection with the Westchester presbytery. Upon the 8th of May, 1822, 
it was received into communion with the General Assembly. 

At a meeting of the congregation held the 22d of April, 1828, it was 
resolved, that whereas "some doubt existed with regard to the due legal 
organization of the Presbyterian church and congregation in Pound- 
ridge, they hereby declare themselves to be a Presbyterian congregation 
under the style of the " Presbyterian Congregation of Poundridge, be- 
longing to the Presbytery of the North River, under the care of the 

a The Wetmores also appear to have been among the early proprietors ; for, at a late 
period James Wetmore, attorney at law, (then residing in ?\ovia Scotia,) served a writ of 
ejectment upon the Lockwood Family to recover certain lands in Poundridge. 

b Sjc Revised Statutes for 1S13. 

c " Soccage lands were not deemed discharged of any rents, certain or other services inci- 
dent or belonging ro tenure in soccage, due to the people of the State, (who are considered to 
Etand in the place of the Crown.) Therefore, on the 1st day of April, 178(3, the Legislature of 
this State passed an Act, entitled an Act for the eollection and commutation of quit rents." 

d The descendants of the original settlers are numerous, and some of them still reside in 
the village. 

e At the first meeting of the congregation, Captain Joseph Loctwood was unanimously 
chosen chairman, and Mr. Jarvis, secretary. 

/ Co. Rec. Religious Soc. Lib. A. 21. 


General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States." 
On this occasion Horatio Lockwood, Joseph St. John and Samuel Weed, 
were elected trustees.* 

This church and congregation are now in connection with the Bed- 
ford Presbytery. 





Vacated by. 


Rev. Mr. Strong, 



Rev. Blackleach Bureitt, 



Rev. Benjamin Judd, 



Rev. Samuel Blatciiford, D.D. 

t b 



Rev. RicnAPD Andrews, 



Rev. John Lowe, 



Rev. Mr. Crocker, 



Rev. Mr. Bronson, 



Rev. John Whiter 



Rev. CnARLES G. Thompson, 



Rev. William Patterson, 
cnrRcn memoranda. 

present minister. 


members 46, baptisms 


ditto 62 : ditto 



ditto 90; ditto 



ditto — ditto 


a Co. Rec. Religious Sjc. Lib. A. 197. 

/> The Rev. Samuel Blatchford. ;m Englishman, succeeded Dr. Dwight, at Greenfield, Conn, 
when the latter was called to the presidency of Yale Coll 

c This individual was a native of Scotland and a classmate of Robert Pollock, author of the 
Course of Time. 


A considerable eminence rises a little to the east of the Presbyterian 
church, from the summit of which is an extensive prospect of the beauti- 
ful country bordering the Sound and the distant shores of Long Island, 

Prior to 1775, Poundridge constituted one of the precincts of Rye 
parish. In 181 6 Episcopal services were performed here by the Rev. 
George Weller, and subsequently by the Rev. Alfred H. Partridge. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of this place was first incorporated 
in 1S22 ; James Brown, John Haws and Samuel K. Olmstead, trustees.* 
The present church edifice was erected in 1833. Parsonage on Bedford 
road, $1,500. 

The village grave-yard is pleasantly situated about a quarter of a mile 
south of Poundridge upon a gentle aclivity. The head stones record 
the names of Thaddeus H. Lockwood who died in 1774; Ebenezer 
Lockwood, Esq., who died July 29th, 1821, set. 84; John Ferris who died 
A.D. 178 >; and Captain John Grinnell, born in Nantucket, Mass., De- 
cember 7th, 1795, an d died in Cronstad, Russia, June 3d, 183 1, set. 34, 
&c,, &c. Others are simply inscribed with the initials of the deceased, 
A. B., 1771 ; I. M. L., 1787, &c. 

On the south side of the village, and near the Methodist church, for- 
merly stood the old mansion house of the Lockwood family. The Lock- 
woods are originally derived from a place of that name in Staffordshire, 

This place was settled by Joseph Lockwood, son of Jonathan and 
grand-son of Robert Lockwood, who came from England in 1630 and 
settled in Watertown, Mass. 

About the year 1646 he removed from Watertown to Fairfield. Conn., 
where he died, and his will was probated. FL_. son Jonathan, born in 
Watertown, Sept. 10, 1634, settled in Stamford, Ccnn., and afterwards 
removed to Greenwich, where he became a prominent citizen. Jona- 
than's son, Joseph, was born in Stamford in 1666. He married Eliza- 
beth Ayres and a second wife, Margery Webb. The removal of the 
family to Poundridge occurred in the Spring of 1743, and consisted of 
three generations, namely : Joseph Lockwood, first, seventy-seven years 
of age, a widower, (having buried his second wife, Margery Webb;) 
his son, Joseph Lockwood, second, with his wife, Sarah Hoyt Lock- 
wood ; and their two sons, Joseph third, aged twelve years, and Eben- 
ezer, aged six years. It was Joseph, third, who was afterwards known as 

a Co. Rec. Religions Soc. Lib. A. 170 A second incorporation occurs on the 21st of Decem- 
ber. 1832 The M'-tli idist Protestant Church and Society in Poundridge. were incorporated 
od i!i" 1 6th of March, 1833. Selby Fancher, William Brown and Joseph Waterbury, trustees 
Co. Rec. Religious 80c Lib. B, 12. 


Captain Joseph Lockwood ; and who married Hannah, daughter of Sol- 
omon Close of North Salem, N. Y. Ebenezer was known as Major 
Lockwood through the Revolutionary war, and afterwards as Judge 
Lockwood. Hons. Ezra and Horatio were sons of Ebenezer. Captain 
Joseph, third, was father of Joseph, fourth, and Solomon. Joseph, fourth, 
was father of Hon. Saml. Drake Lockwood, who was born in Poundridge 
and removed to Illinois in early life, where he became one of the moit 
prominent men in the State, and filled many honorable positions, among 
which were those of Attorney General and Judge of the Supreme Court. 
One of the oldest grave stones in the burial ground in Poundridge is 
that of Captain Joseph Lockwood, the third. It is of slate-colored stone 
and lies horizontally on the ground, bearing the inscription — 

Died March 15, 1792." 

His brother's is an upright marble slab, inscribed: — 


died July 29, 1821, 

M. 84 years." 

Then his two sons — 


died Nov. 5, 1853, 
aged 74 years." 



died May 29, 1853, 
aged 75 years, 11 mo. 2 days." 

Another is that of — 


died March 9, 1841, 
aged 74 years, G mo. 9 days." 




Ebenezcr Lockwood, late of Poundridge in Westchester County, de- 
ceased, was born in Stamford, Conn., on the 31st of March, 1737, and 
was the fourth son of Joseph Lockwood, who emigrated to Poundridge 
in the spring of the year 1743, and settled in the central part of the 
town (now village) on a right of land belonging to one of the original 
proprietors of the Stamford Patent, so called, and which fell within the 
jurisdiction of New York. 

He continued on the farm with his father engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, during his minority ; but soon after engaged in various other pur- 
suits of extensive usefulness. 

Soon after the demise of his father, which occurred June 15, 1757, the 
paternal patrimony consisting of some four or five hundred acres, was 
divided between his older brother and himself, being the only surviving 
sons, which still remains in the possession of the descendants after the 
lapse of a century. It was the circumstance of a pound being erected 
on that handsome ridge of land now owned by one of his sons, that 
gave to the town the name of Poundridge. At the age of twenty-five 
he was engaged in merchandise and was appointed one of his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace, and one of the Quorum, which office he held 
until the commencement of the Revolutionary war. At the breaking 
out of hostilities, to wit, on the 19th October, 1775, he was commissioned 
a major in the regiment of Westchester County Militia, commanded by 
Col. Thomas Thomas ; and was in active service during most of the 
campaign of '76, when the enemy took possession of the lower part of 
Westchester County. 

In the month of May, '76, he attended the Provincial Congress, then 
sitting in New York, having been elected to that office on the third 
Tuesday in April previous, for one year ; and was in continued service 
from that period until the close of the war, either as Major, Member of 
the Provincial Congress, or Committee of Safety and other posts of active 
duty in favor of American Independence until its final acknowledgement 
by Great Britain in 1783. 

After the Declaration of Independence he was elected a member of 
the Provincial Convention for forming a Constitution of Government for 
the State, and as such, aided in the formation and adoption of the first 
Constitution, and was returned as a Member of the Legislature for 
several years after the close of the war. 

Other stations of public employment also engaged much of his time 
and called him from the domestic circle at considerable sacrifice of in- 
terest and comfort. His unwearied zeal and activity in the American 
cause, also was accompained with much pecuniary loss and sacrifice of 

In the year 1779, when the whole county of Westchester was the 
theatre of blood, rapine and plunder, and life and property, endangered 
from foes without and traitors within, his hospitable dwelling was opened 


as a military cantonment and rendezvous of Col. Sheldon's Regiment of 
Light Dragoons. The regiment was engaged in frequent skirmishes 
with the enemy and served as a protection to the Northern frontier from 
the incursions of the Tories and British from below the lines in the 
neighborhood of North Castle. It was for the capture of this regiment 
that Sir Henry Clinton resolved on sending Col. B. Tarleton with a de- 
tachment of the Royal Dragoons of the Seventeenth Regiment and a de- 
tachment of about thiee hundred men on the night of July 2, 1779. 

The precaution of the Committee of Safety had placed a spy by the 
name of Luther Kinnicut in the enemy's camp below the lines, who on 
the day previous gave notice to Col. Sheldon of the intended attack in 
a short time but did not know the precise day. The night proved stormy, 
and the torrents of rain which fell would have retarded the progress of a 
commander of less intrepidity than Tarleton. Sheldon apprehended no 
danger on account of the storm. 

Col. Moylan's regiment was daily expected to join Sheldon ; and, 
had the junction been effected before Tarleton's arrival — from the well 
known bravery and courage of Moylan and his troops — the fate of 
Tarleton would not have been less disastrous than he received from the 
old Wagoner at the Cowpens. 

Sentinels were placed about a mile from the Major's, on the north and 
the south roads leading to Bedford. The sentinels on the north road, 
at early dawn descried a large body of dragoons under rapid move- 
ment, who passed the junction of the road leading from Bedford to 
Poundridge, and continued on toward Ridgefield. This mistake of the 
enemy, in pursuing the Ridgefield road for half a mile or more, gave 
time for the vedette to return and give the notice. 

Sheldon supposing it might have been Col. Moylan's regiment, who 
were expected, dispatched Major Benjamin Tallmadge with a small 
detachment to reconnoiter and bring back intelligence of the true state 
of thii 

About halfway to the junction of the road, as Tallmadge ascended a 
hill where the road turned to the right, from the uneveness of the ground 
an object could not be seen, except at a very short distance ahead; and 
at this place Tallmadge met Tarleton under full charge — wheeled and 
returned at full speed with Tarleton at his heels ; while Sheldon, with 
his command, were preparing to mount their horses, which were tied to 
the fence on the east side of the road by the meeting-house. A general 
rout ensued, while Sheldon's regiment moved off down the road leading 
to Stamford for about three-fourths of a mile ; then separated at the 
junction of the road leading to New Canaan, with Tarleton's dragoons 
harrassing his rear — killing, wounding and taking prisoners some eighteen 
or twenty. The enemy lost one killed, four prisoners, and wounded un- 
certain ; one horse killed, and four taken. 

Among the prisoners captured by Tarleton, was Alsop Hunt, a son- 
in-law of Major Lockwood ; who, after being rifled of a gold watch, 
money, and other things of value about his person, was carried to New 
York and lodged in the Provost prison. 

The pursuit lasted about four or five hours, when Tarleton, being un- 


able to overtake Sheldon, returned, burnt the Major's house with most 
of its contents, permitting one of his soldiers cruelly to cut and maltreat 
his wife; drove off his valuable stock of sixteen cows; burnt the meet- 
ing-house, and were about committing further outrages when the ma- 
litia under command of Major Leavensworth began to approach, and 
Tarleton fled with all the precipitation he came. 

Mr. Hunt, from religious scruples, was a non-combatant ; yet a true 
friend to his ' country, and in vain appealed to the honor of a British 
soldier for protection against robbery and insult. 

It may seem an unpardonable digression at this place, to notice some 
thrilling incidents that occurred on this occasion ; but justice to the 
bravery of some individuals in Sheldon's command, demands a passing 

John Buckhout who happened to be in the rear of Sheldon's regiment, 
during the retreat and closely pursued, was accosted in the imperative 
tone of a British dragoon : " Surrender, you d — rebel, or I'll blow your 
brains out ! " John, not heeding the threat, was saluted with a pistol 
shot, which hit his cap and perforated the scalp on the side of his head 
without further injury. "There, (says the dragoon,) you d — d rebel, a 
little more and I should have blown your brains out." 

"Yes, d — n you, (replied John,) and a little more you wouldn't have 
touched me ! " John continued his speed and escaped without further 

Jared Hoyt, a brave soldier, also in the rear of Sheldon's command, 
was hard pressed by Tarleton's advance, and within striking distance of 
his assailant received a blow from the heavy cutlass of his pursuer on the 
head. The blow only cleft the skin and hair from the side of his head ; 
Hoyt instantly returned the blow back-handed, which struck his assailant 
directly in the mouth, nearly separating the top of his head from his 
body, which stopped his bawling. 

One of the largest proprietors in the southeast section of this town 
was Elnathan Weed, Esq., who, in 1799, erected the old mansiona now 
occupied by Aaron Fancher, Esq., near the banks of the Rippowarrus, 
or Mill river. He is said to have held at one time seven hundred acres 
of land in Poundridge. His son, Elnathan Weed, was the father of Levi 
and George Weed. His daughter, Sarah, married Stephen Hoyt, of 
South Salem, whose sons are William Hoyt and Stephen L. Hoyt of 

The Fanchers were also extensive owners of land in the southeast cor- 
ner of the town and the vicinity of Trinity Lake. This family were orig- 
inally from Stamford, Conn., and probably descended of the Fanshaws, 
of Fanshawgate, county of Derby, England. 5 John Fancher was living in 

a The old iroia door latch Is still preserved and bears the initials and date, " E. W., 1799." 
f Fan-hiw (Fanshawgate, County Derby, Parsloes and Barking, County Essex, and West 

Park, County Stratford; from the lastnaihe derived the Lord Fanshavre) anus— or, a chev. 

betw. 3 fleur-de-lis sa. Crest, a dragon's head erased vert, flames of Ore issuing from the 

mouth, cole, ppr. 


Stamford. A.D. 1734, and bought lands of John Jacklin in 1747. In 
1750, his name is on the official list of that town. He married Eunice 
Bouton. November 19, 1736, and must have removed to Poundridge 
sometime after 1750. William Fancher, Esq., of Poundridge, son of 
John Fancher, was a judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Westches- 
ter count}", a justice of the peace and captain of the minute men during 
the Revolutionary war. He was born 13th of November, 1739, and died 
August, 1S20. His remains repose in the Presbyterian grave yard, 
Poundridge. By his wife, Sarah Smith, who was born 15 Oct., 1744, he 
had two sons — Dr. Nehemiah Fancher, the father of Henry Fancher, of 
Poundridge, and Thaddeus Fancher, the father of Alanson Decatur Fan- 
cher, who now owns the site of the old mansion, a little east of the Mill 
river. It was in the immediate vicinity of the old Fancher homestead 
that one of Col. Tarleton's hussars of the Legion calvary was shot in the 
summer of 1779, under the following circumstances : " Nearly one hun- 
dred Legion cavalry, after the skirmish at Poundridge village, had pur- 
sued the retreating Continentals down the Stamford road, at the junction 
of which, with the New Canaan road, they divided — about one half of 
them taking the road to William Fanchers, the other half going south; 
the latter captured Thaddeus Seymour, whom they carried off a prisoner 
to the sugar house in New York. The hussars pursuing east halted on 
the hill just above the site of the new school house, near Alanson D. Fan- 
cher's, and turned their horses into a field of oats, sending three of their 
mounted companies to search the house of William Fancher, which 
stood a little south of the present homestead. After rummaging around 
for some time they discovered an old wooden chest, which they insisted 
on Mr?. Fancher's opening ; this, she resolutely refused to do; whereupon 
they broke it open by force. One of them immediately stuffed his bosom 
and pockets with the family papers, and both remounting started for the 
hill. Just as the robbers were crossing the brook, about fifty rods dis- 
tant, up rose William Brown,' 1 with his father, who had stationed him- 
self behind the wall, and levelled his fowling piece. Seeing him in the 
act of firing, they both yelled out lustily for quarter. " Yes," shouted the 
patriot. '• I'll quarter you ! " And suiting the action to the word, fired. 
An empty saddle and a lifeless corpse soon told the story. The survivor 
started up the hill at full gallop, followed by the riderless horse. Mrs. 
Fancher ran out and recognized in the dead corpse the very man who 
had just robbed her. The papers were thus wonderfully rescued. Just 
at this moment the bugle sounded a recall on the hill, and the whole 

a This William was the father of William whose son is the present Bcdj. W. Brown. 


party remounted and rode off. Only fifteen minutes had elapsed when 
Leavenworth appeared with a strong force of American militiamen, who 
immediately followed the retreating Legion to Dan Town. Ere this, 
word had been sent all around; and but for their hasty retreat, the ene- 
my would soon have been surrounded. 

James Raymond in former times owned considerable landed property 
in and around what is now denominated Raymond Hill, once included 
in the East Patent, and bordering on the west side of the oblong ; some 
of his descendants still reside in that vicinity. 

In the south-west corner of this town is located the Searles property, 
which formerly belonged to Major Samuel Lewis, who was living here 
in 1777. James Searles subsequently purchased the estate of his heirs. 
The father of James Searles, also named James, died in 1776 at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, of small pox. This individual was once taken. prisoner 
by the British, and confined in the New York provost. Xehemiah, his 
grandson, is now residing at Armonk in this county. The Searles 
cemetery is located one mile south of "Great Hill" on the Bedford and 
Stamford road. Among the oldest settlers of Poundridge was Nathan 
Slawson, son of Eleazar of New Canaan, and grandson of Jonathan, who 
is said to have removed from Holland to Norwalk, Conn. Nathan 
married Hannah, daughter of James Ferris, and left a son Nathan who 
died here in 1821; the latter by his wife Mary, daughter of Daniel 
Stephens, had two sons and two daughters, Eleanor of Poundridge, and 
Levi, of Columbia County ; Eleanor married George Caldwell, of Stam- 
ford, Conn.; and Nannet married Charles Hoyt, of Stamford, east corner 
of Poundridge bordering on Lewisboro. 

During the contest between England and the colonies, the in- 
habitants of Poundridge, generally appear to have taken a decided 
stand in favor of liberty and independence. The following letter from 
the committee of public safety, to the Hon. Provincial Congress, is 
found in the acts of the latter body. 

PorxDr.iDGE, 15th of October, 1776. 

Honored Sip.: — "We the sub-committee of Poundridge, in Westchester County, 
beg leave to inform your Honors, that we are apprehenshe that there is danger 
of our prisoners leaving us and joining the ministerial army, as we are not above 
nine or ten miles from the water, where the sound is full of the ministerial ships 
and tenders. One of our number is already gone to Long Island, and numbers 
have gone from other places, who are no doubt now in the ministerial army. 
There are disaffected persons daily going over to them, which gives much trouble. 

a Lois Raymond, a daughrerof James was baptized in the old Dantaonae which occupied the 
site of Samuel Caufield's residence, and married Daniel Coggeshull, son of Lyman Coggeshall 


Therefore, -we humbly beg your Honors would give us some directions concerning 
them, that they may be speedily removed at some further distance. We would 
also inform you that for the misdemeanors of one of them and our own safely, 
we have been obliged to commit him to jail at the White Plains. These with all 
proper respects, from yours to serve. JOSEPH AMBLER," 

Chairman of Committee. 

In July, 1779, a skirmish took place in this village between the 
Americans and a strong force of the enemy, under Lieutenant Colonel 

" About three hundred and sixty of the enemy's light-horse, and light-infantry 
(says General Heath,) came out from Mile-Square, and attacked Colonel Shel- 
don's light-horse, who were posted at Poundridge, about ninety iu number. 
The superior force of the enemy obliged our horse at first, to retreat ; but being 
reinforced by the militia, they in turn, pursued the enemy. Our loss was one 
corporal, one trumpeter and eight privates, wounded; three sergeants, one cor- 
poral, and four privates missing ; and twelve horses missing. The standard of 
the regiment being left in the house when the dragoons suddenly turned out, was 
lost. Of the enemy, one was killed, four taken prisoners, four horses taken, 
and one horse killed. The enemy set fire to and burned the meeting house, and 
Maj. Lockwood's house ; b They also burnt Mr. Hay's house, at Bedford." c 

It appears that one of the principal objects in this sudden foray of the 
enemy, was the surprisal of Major Ebenezer Lockwood, before men- 
tioned, for whose head forty guineas had been offered. The day 
previous, however Luther Kinnicut, a spy in the employ of the commit- 
tee of public safety, gave notice of the intended attack, and advised the 
major to be on his guard. The night being very dark and stormy, 
Colonel Sheldon did not expect the enemy ; he nevertheless ordered the 
horses to be tied up in readiness. 

Major Lockwood, thus being destitute of a house or home, and appre- 
hending further visits from the enemy, found an asylum for his family in 
the house of a friend in Ridgefield, while he continued in active service 
to his country in various stations of civil and military duty to the close 
of the war. Nothing disheartened by this reverse of fortune, he soon 
returned to his farm, converted a barn into a dwelling, was honored with 
the appointment of first Judge of the County Court, frequently elected 
to the Legislature from Westchester County, and was intrusted with 
loaning the moneys of the State in the county, and appointed to other 
responsible offices. 

a The descendants of this Individual still reside in the vicinity. 

b The British would not '• suffer the family to take anything away." See New York 
Journal, for Holts account of the action. 
c Heath's Mem. 208. 


When peace was established with Great Britain, the country, through 
the villainy of Col. Austin, was destitute of a county court house and 
jail. The location of a public building is always calculated to excite the 
interested feelings of different sections of the territory to be accommo- 
dated, and it was so with Westchester county. Judge L. was one of the 
committee to settle this vexed question of locality and ; through his in- 
fluence principally, the present arrangement of court houses was effected, 
which has proved to give general satisfaction for more than half a cen- 

About the year 1795, he retired from all public employment ; and spent 
the remainder of his days in the circle of his family and friends, until his 
death, July 29, 182 1, beloved and esteemed by all who knew him. 

From "Civil List," Ebenezer Lockwood, member of Second Provin- 
cial Congress, 1775-6; Third Provincial Congress, 1776; Fourth Pro- 
vfncial Congress, 1777, and Representative Convention; member of 
Assembly, 1778-9, 1784-5, 1786, 1787 and 1788; first Judge Common 
Pleas, March 15, 1791. 


The pastor of the Presbyterian church is Rev. William Patterson, who 
came to Poundridge and was installed in 1835. He married February 
16, 1836, Sarah, daughter of Partridge Thatcher, and grand daughter of 
Major Ebenezer Lockwood. 

Hon. Samuel Drake Lockwood. 

{From Batavia (Til.) Weekly News.) 

Hon Samuel Drake Lockwood was born in Poundridge on the 2d day 
of August, 1789. 

When he was ten years old his father died, and his mother was left 
with three small children, and with but slender means for their support. 
By this event his plans for a liberal education were broken up, and he 
was thrown very much upon his own resources. 

In 1S03, he went to Waterford, N. Y., to live with his uncle, Francis 
Drake, a lawyer in that place, and remained in his family as errand boy 
and law student until February, 181 1, when he was licensed to practise 
law, and opened an office in Batavia, N. Y. The next year he removed 
to Auburn and continued in the practise of law there until the Fall of 
1818, holding during a part of. that time the office of Master in Chancery. 
* * * # # * * 

On the 19th of October, of that year he started for the West, and 
reached Shawneetown, Illinois, December 15th, and afterwards removed 
to Carmi, as a more favorable point for the practice of his profession. 


At the second session of the Illinois Legislature, which was held in 
lalia in 182.1, Mr. Lockwood was elected Attorney General of the 
State, and his acceptance of this office rendering another change of 
residence necessary, he chose Edwardsville for his future home. 

In 1823 he was, very unexpectedly to himself, nominated by Governor 
Cole to the office of Secretary of State ; but soon after accepting that 
office, he was greatly surprised by receiving from President Monroe a 
oission appointing him receiver of public moneys at the land office 
in Edwardsville. This commission was, in itself, as undesired as it was 
unsought j but the salary of Secretary of State was small and payable in 
depreciated currency, where the salary of receiver was liberal and pay- 
able in gold, and had attached to it a percentage on receipts. These 
considerations induced him to resign the office of Secretary and accept 
that of receiver. 

At the next session of the State Legislature, 1824-5, nc was > against 
his expressed wishes, elected Judge of the Supreme Court, which office 
he accepted and held until the State Constitution of 1848 went into 
operation, under which new judges were elected by the people. 

****** * 

In 1829 he removed from Edwardsville to Jacksonville, and in 1S53 
from that place to Batavia, Kane county, where he died. He was sent 
from Morgan county as delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 
1848, and in that Convention was chairman of the Committee on the 

In 1 85 1 he was appointed by the Legislature trustee of the Land De- 
partment of the Illinois Central Railroad, which office he held at the time 
of his death. 

The position which he has held in the history of our State, is indicated 
by the offices which have been conferred upon him. Having a natural 
distate for everything like office-seeking, and never putting himself for 
ward for any official position, he has still been kept in offices of high po- 
sition and trust for over fifty years. 

■?$f vfc 4? v 4|r 9 w 

In Governor Fcrd's History of Illinois, are found the following notices 
of Judge Lockwood: " In 1820 was fought the first and last duel in 
Illinois. One of the parties fell mortally wounded, the other was tried 
1 invicted of murder, and suffered the extreme penalty of the law 
by hanging. Judge Lockwood was then the Attorney of the State, and 
prosecuted in the case. To his talents and success as a Prosecutor, the 
people are indebted for this early precedent and example, which did 
more than is generally known to prevent the barbarous practice of 
dueling from being introduced into this State * * * Judge Lock- 
wood was an excellent lawyer, a man of sound judgment, and his face 
indicated uncommon purity, modesty, and intelligence, together with 
energy and strong determination. His face was the true index of his 

Any account of Judge Lockwood's services to the State which should 
fail to notice his connection with the educational, benevolent and 


religious interests, would come far short of doing him justice. As early 
as his residence in Auburn, he was so identified with the religious 
interests there as to be appointed one of the trustees of the Presbyterian 

In 1815 was formed the Cayuga County Bible Society, the first 
nized in the State of New York, two years before the organization 
o( the American Bible Society ; and Judge I ,ockwood's name also appears 
as one of the originators and directors of that organization. 

Of the twenty four first directors of that society, he was the last sur- 
vivor. The stand he thus took, as indicated by these incidents, he 
maintained through life. 

Judge Lockwood, with others, started in this State the movement 
which resulted in the establishment of the Illinois College. His influence 
and liberality secured it location in Jacksonville ; and while able to 
attend to the duties, he held the position of President of its board of 

He took an active part in the planning and organizing each of the 
three State institutions now located in Jacksonville — the Asylum for the 
Deaf and Dumb, the Blind and the Insane, and was on the first board 
of trustees of each of these institutions. And in e^ery place where he 
has resided in the State, his influence has been a strong, steady, and 
reliable power for good, always on the side of freedom, temperance, 
morality, and Christianity. 

For the last twenty-one years, Judge Lockwood has had his residence 
in Batavia, in an honored old age enjoying his quiet home on the pleasant 
bank of our river, and rejoicing in every thing that tended to advance 
the material or moral prosperity of the State he had loved so long, and 
served so faithfully. On the 23d of April, 1874, he passed away from 
us in a death as quiet and peaceful as his life with us has been. 

The following account of the action is thus given by Lieut.-Col. Tar- 
leton in his report to Sir Henry Clinton : 

Dated, Camp on the Bronx, July 2, 1779, eleven P. M. 

Sip. :— I have the honor to inform your excellency, that I moved with the de- 
tachment you were pleased to entrust me with, consisting of seventy of the 17th 
light dragoons, part of the legion infantry and cavalry, Queen's rangers, Hussars 
and some mounted yagers, in all about two hundred, at half past 11 o'clock last 
night. The weather being remarkably bad, prevented my making North Castle 
church before 4 o'clock next morning, where I received confirmation of my in- 
telligence relative to the numbers and situation of Sheldon's regiment and one 
hundred Continental foot, but no tidings of Mot/land's regiment of dragoons. I 
pursued my route through Bedford to Poundridge, without any material occur- 
rence, in the district of the ridge, and within three hundred yards of the enemy, 
who were not alarmed. My guide in front, mistook the road ; another guide in- 
formed me of the error, and it was rectified as soon as possible." The enemy's 
te had noticed our passing their front. The whole regiment was mounted 
and formed behind the meeting house. An attack was instantly made by the 


advanced guard, consisting of the Seventeenth light dragoons, the ground not 
allowing more than sewn or eight in trout. The enemy did not stand the charge; 

ral route ensued. The difficulties of the eountiy, and there being no pos- 
sibility of obtaining their rear, enabled the greatest partof the regiment to escape. 
The pursuit o ntinued for four miles on the Stamford and Salem roads. The loss 
of men in Sheldon's dragoons, upon enquiry and comparison of accounts, I esti- 
mate at twenty-six or twenty-seven killed, wounded and prisoners.* But their dis- 
grace in the loss of the standard of the regiment and of hemlets, arms and accout- 
rements, was great. A part of the officers and regimental baggage fell into our 
hands. I have hitherto omitted mentioning the militia to the amount of one hun- 
dred and twenty, who, together with the Continental foot, broke and dispersed 
at the appearance of the king's troops. The militia* assembled again on emin- 
ences and in swamps, and before we quitted the ground on which the first charge 
was made, they tired at great distances. We were successful in killing, wound- 
ing and taking fifteen of them ; the rest hovered almost out of our sight. The 
inveteracy of the inhabitants of Poundridge and near Bedford, in firing from 
houses and out of houses, obliged (us; to burn some of their meeting and some of 
their dwelling houses, with stores. I proposed to the militia, terms, that if they 
would not fire shots from buildings, I would not burn. They interpreted my 
mild proposal wrong, imputing it to fear. They persisted in firing till the torch 
stopped their progress, after which not a shot was fired." 

With pleasure I relate to your excellency, that the loss sustained by his majes- 
ties troops is trifling— one hussar of the legion killed, one wounded, one horse of 
the Seventeenth dragoons killed. The whole of the detachment, except the 
above, being returned to camp. The infantry of the legion, mounted on horses, 
were extremely fatigued by a march of sixty-four miles, in twenty-three hours. 

I have the honor to be, &c., [Signed,] BANASTRE TARLEToX. 

Lt. Col. British Legion. 

The following additional particulars respecting this engagement, are 
contained in a letter from an officer (of Col. Sheldon's regiment as sup- 
posed) dated at Salem, July 3rd , 1779. 

''Yesterday morning about sunrise, a detachment of the second regiment of 
tight dragoons, consisting of ninety men, commanded by Col. Sheldon, posted 
near Poundrige meeting house, was notified of the advance of the enemy by our 
videttes. Our horses being previously saddled and bridled, the men were or- 
dered immediately to mount. As soon as we were paraded, the enemy's horse 
were discovered rapidly advancing, about three or four hundred in number. 

The enemy having driven in our advanced parties, they began the charge on 
the detachment, which, from the great superiority of the enemy, was obliged to 
move off. The enemy pushed hard on our rear for more than two miles, in the 
course of which, a scattering fire was kept up between their advance and our 
rear, and a constant charge with the sword ; the country through which we passed 
being very mountainous and rocky, caused many of our horses to blunder and 

a The prisoners he sneaks of, were mostly the neighboring inhabitants who took no part 
In the affair. 
6 Major Leavenworth commanded the militia. 


fall, which occasioned some to fail into the hands of the enemy. We immediately 
collected some of the militia, and begun to pursue the enemy, following them be- 
low North Castle church. They moved off with such greal precipitation, that 
we could ii"t comeup with them. Before the enemy moved off, they burnt the 
meeting house at Poundridge, and the dwelling house of Benjamin Hays, at 
Bedford. They (as usual) plundered most of the houses they came to, and set 
fire to several houses which were fortunately extinguished. Our loss on this 
occasion, was ten wounded, eight missing and twelve horses missing. The 
enemy's loss, one killed, wounded uncertain, four prisioners four horses taken, 
and one ditto killed." 

The general surface of Poundridge, is uneven, and much cf it stony; 
but having a due admixture of arable, with pasture and meadow lands, 
it forms a tolerably productive agricultural township. The soil consists 
principally of a gravelly loam, and is well adapted to grass and pastur- 
age. It is also excellent for orchards and fruit trees of all kinds. The 
growth of wood consists of white, red and black oak, hickory and chest- 
nut. See. The northern portion of the town is occupied by a steep and 
lofty ridge of mountains, called the " Stoney Hills," which runs princi- 
pally in a northeast direction for the space of three or four miles. The 
sides of these craggy mountains, intermixed with stunted trees and 
bushes, exhibit a variety of fantastic forms, presenting one of the wildest 
scenes in Westchester county. Here was a fine cover for the wild game 
that once abounded in these solitudes. At the base of these steep and 
rocky hills are luxuriant valleys, clothed in verdure and watered with nu- 
merous streams — the principal one of which is denominated " Stoney Hill 
brook," having its rise in Marshall's swamp. In the rear of N. B. Adam's 
residence, on the South Salem road, is a precipitous declivity in the 
mountains, nearly two hundred feet high, called the " Raven's Rock ; " 
where, amid the stony ledges, the ravens used to build their nests of 
yore. The racks here form almost a semi-circle, and bid defiance to the 
most daring climber, or trapper. This gloomy spot is still the favorite 
resort of the screech owl and crow. " These birds, but especially the 
owl, occupies places of honor and importance in the religions of Greece 
and Rome. Every note of the hideous and dismal owl, were invested 
with significance. The screech of this creature was regarded as a fatal 

presage : 

•• When screech owls croak upon the chimney top, 
It's certain then you of a corse shall hear." 

The raven was also supposed to feel the shadow of coming calamity. 
The croak of this bird portended death. It is stated that one of these 
gloomy birds premonished Cicero of his approaching death. Crows were 


also accounted prophetical birds. When Hying in flocks, they were watch- 
ed by the Romans in trembling; for if they passed on the right hand, 
they boded good; if on the left, evil. The flight of a crow over a house 
three limes in succession, with a croak each time, was sure to be followed 
by a death in the family. An old writer was so profoundly convinced of 
the prophetical powers of this lover of corn, that he expresses the belief 
"that God showeth his privy counsayjes to crowes." The ravens have 
long ago disappeared from their favorite haunts, amid the rocky ledges, 
and gone west in quest of more abundant game. The " Devil's den " is a 
dark cavern at the base of the " Raven's rock," while below is a placid 
stream called " Stillwater." Stony Hill brook (which rises in Marshall's 
swamp) unites with the Cisqua, or Beaver Dam river, near the residence 
of Phineas Lounsbury. 

The Stony Hill lands, soon after the Revolution, were divided into 
so-called wood lots, and granted by the State to Generals Philip Van 
Cortlandt and Van Renssellaer, for services rendered during the war. 
rnor John Jay and Dr. Peter Fleming, both of Bedford, also pur- 
chased some of them. The mountains are now occupied with charcoal 
pits and forsaken huts, and frequented by occasional trappers. About 
seventy years ago one Samuel Brown was killed by a large fox trap. 

On the property of Lewis Green, and almost under the shadow of the 
Stony Hills, is an ancient burying ground, where the native Indians are 
said to have interred their dead long before it was used by the white set- 
tlers, more than one hundred years ago. Nothing, however, but the 
rudest kind of stones serve to mark the dwellings of the dead for two or 
three generations. 

The Indians were in the habit of visiting this part of Poundridge, 
down to a period as late as 1800. 

The late Jonathan Dibble, whose father David Dibble resided near 
the farm of Mr. William Barnes, (on the South Salem road) when a boy 
of ten years old fed twelve Indians who were " going down to salt " 
(salt water) under the black walnut tree, still standing just above the 
Brie) House. 

Boutonville is a hamlet in the north corner of Poundridge, near the 
outlet and junction of the Peppeneghak, or Cross River, with the 
Waccabuc Stream. Here is a Post Office, Grist Mill, and several 

Upon the north-east side of the town was formerly a singular chain 
of ponds, the h: which was Lake Peppeneghak or Cross Pond, 

(supplied by several springs from the hills) and has its outlet in Cross 
River. The others were RowidPond, the Middle- Pond, and the Low- 


er-JPtmd, now formed into one grand sheet of water, and called " Trinity 
Lake," which a little below the dam empties into the Rippowarus or 
Mill River. At North Stamford the waters are discharged into the 
reservoir which forms the supply from Stamford. The whole town is 
richly interspersed with hills and valleys, and much running water; 
having as we have seen the Peppenighak or Cross River, flowing through 
the extreme north corner, Rippowarus or Mill River flowing through the 
east part, and Myanas River forming part of the south-western boun- 




This township, named after old Rye," in the County of Sussex, 
England, formerly comprehended the present towns of Harrison and 
White Plains, and was separately organized upon the 27th of March, 
1788.^ It is situated directly in the south-east angle of West Chester 
County, bordering the sound; bounded on the east by the State of 
Connecticut and the Byram River, on the south by the sound, and on 
the west and north by the townships of Harrison and Northcastle. 

In the year 1660, the lands of Rye were in the possession of Shan- 
arockwell or Shanarocke, as he subsequently signed his name, an 
independent sagamore or chieftain of the Siwanoy's, whose clan formed 
a portion, if not one of the Mohegan tribes itself of the " sea coast." 

Peningoe, Peninggoe or Poningoe, the Indian name of Rye, is 
apparently derived from Ponus, the title of the aboriginal proprietor of 
this territory, A. D. 1640. The final termination oe or o?ig, denoting 
locality. Thus the whole word may emphatically express the place, or 
locality, of that sachems residence. Nothing however remains at this 

a Yeafce deduces this name, (Rye) from the British word 'rhy,' it signifying a ford, or, as 
some say, a bay, &c, Allen's History of Surrey and Sassex, vol. II, p. 621. Camden, speaking 
of Rye, says : ' But as to it's name, whether it took it from Rive, a Norman word, which sig- 
nifies a Bank, I cannot say ; yet since, in the Records, it is very often called in Latin, Ripa, 
and they who bring fish from thence are called Ripui-n ; I rather incline to this original, aud 
should incline yet more, if the French used this word for a skvre, as Pliny does Ripa.' Cam- 
d u, Brittannia, Bishop Gibson; edition vol. 1. p. 212. Hastings and Rye, whose names were 
successively bestowed upon this place, are two neighboring towns on the south-east coast of 
England, both of great antiquity, aud both numbered among the Cinqui Ports, or five privi- 
leged seaport towns on that coast. Chronicle of a border town : History of Rye, West- 
chester county, New York: 1660-1870; including Harrison and the White Plains till 17S8. By 
Charles W. Baird— New York: A. D. P. Randolph & Co; 1871, Pp. i— xviii; 1—570— P. 35. 
Laws of New York by Thomas Greenleaf , M. D. CO. XC : ii, Vol. II ; p. p. 153, 1 54. 

c From annotations by the late Henry R. Schoolcraft, in 1S40, upon the Indian names in 
West Chester County, made for the author. 127 


late period, to establish the connections with any degree of certainty. 
Ponus himself, was one of the ruling sagamores of Rippowams, (Stam- 
ford) in 1640. This individual left issue three sons, Onenoke, a Tap- 
hance, and Onox ; the latter had one son, Powhag. 

The ruling sagamore of Peningoe or Poningoe in 1681, appears to 
have been, Maramaking commonly known as "Lame Will" His suc- 
cessor was Pathung or Pathunck, who with his son Wappetoe Path- 
unck,'' granted to Joseph Horton in 1694, lands bordering the Mama- 
roneck River. 

For the various localities within Poningoe, the Indians had other 
names. The meadows bordering the Armonck (Byram) were called 
Haseco and Mioschassaky, besides which there was a place named Ra- 
howaness. The high ridge east of the Mockquams (Blind brook) Euke- 
tampucuson, and the territory bordering the Pockcotessewake (Stony 
brook or Beaver Meadow brook) Apawamis or Epawainos. c 

The former existence of Indian habitations on the great necks of Po- 
ningoe is amply proved by the number of hunting and warlike weapons 
found in that neighborhood. The site of the principal Mohegan village 
was on or near Parsonage Point. In the same vicinity is situated Bury- 
ing Hill, their place of sepulture. The remains of six Indians were dis- 
covered on excavating the present foundations for the Halstead man- 
sion, which stands near the entrance of the great neck. " The level 
grounds along the shores of the creek, north of the present village of 
Milton, were cultivated as Indian fields. Here and there clusters of 
wigwams occurred on the western bank of the creek, overlooking the 
salt meadows, through which the Mockquams winds, to the great Man- 
unketesuck, or Broad flowing river." Some Indian families, too, it 
would appear, had their homes on Manussing, or Mennewies island, "off 
the eastern shore of the neck," d " while near by was the ' Indian path,' 
which formed the rude thoroughfare connecting the native settlements, 
which was early designated by the English as ' The Old Westchester 

The first grantees under the Indians of Poningoe, were the Dutch 
West India Company, who obtained a grant of the lands extending from 
Norwalk, in Conn., to the North river, on the 19th of April, 1640. Thus 

a Owaueco was a son of Uncas, whose name anil totem, both signify Oooee, Honck, softened 
by the insertion of vowels, becomes Oh-won-ek-ka, Chapins Hist, of Glastonbury, Conn. 

b Raresquash was the second son of the sagamore Pathunck. 

c Apwonnah is the Indian term for an oyster. (Colton's Indian Vocabulary.) Along the 
valley oJ the Apawamis Indian arrow-heads have been found in great abundance. 

d Baird*s Hist, of Rye. 

e Ditto. 



the Dutch had full possession of most of the present county of West- 
chester, anterior to English purchase and settlement. 

By the provisional treaty of Hartford, in 1650, the boundary line be- 
tween New England and New Netherlands was to commence upon Long 
Island, from the westernmost part of the Oyster bay, so, and in a straight 
and direct line to the sea ; and upon the main land, a line to begin upon 
the west side of Greenwich bay, being about four miles from Stamford, 
and so to run a northerly line twenty miles up into the country, and af- 
ter as it shall be agreed by the two Governments, of the Dutch and of 
New Haven, provided the said line come not within ten miles of Hud- 
son river." 

The successors of the Dutch West India Company in 1660, were Pe- 
ter Disbrow, John Coe, and Thomas Studwell ; " a fourth, John Budd, 
was associated with them in some of their purchases, and several others 
joined them in the actual settlement of the place; but the earliest nego- 
tiations appear to have been conducted in behalf of the three persons 
we have first named. They were all residents of Greenwich at the time 
when the first Indian treaty was signed. Their leader was Peter Dis- 
brow, a young, intelligent, self-reliant man, who seems to have enjoyed 
the thorough confidence and esteem of his associates. His name inva- 
riably heads the list of the proprietors. Whenever there was a treaty to 
be formed or a declaration to be made, Disbrow's services were re- 

On the third day of January, 1660, we find Peter Disbrow in treaty 
with the Indians of Poningoe Neck for the purchase of that tract of land 
described as follows, " Lyeing on the maine between a certaine place 
then called Rahonaness to the East and Westchester path to the north 
and up to a river then called Moaquanes to the west, that is to say all 
that land lying betweene the aforesaid two rivers then called Penningoe 
extending from the said path to the north and south to the sea or 

This first purchase on Poningoe Neck comprised the lower part of 
the present town of Rye, on the east side of Blind Brook, 

The next purchase of the Indians was for the island they called JlJanus- 
sing, or Mennewies d about a mile in length, which lies east of Poningoe 

a Hazard's State Papers, vol. ii., 218. 
b Baird's Hist, of Rye. 

c Land Papers Sec. of States office, Albany, vol. vii., p. 171. "The deed of this purchase 
has long since disappeared," says Baird. "Itwaslost during thelifetime of Disbrow himself." 
Town Rec. vol. B. " We have, however, an account of this purchase written some sixty years 
later that embodies facts relative to it which had doubtless been preserved by tradition." 
Baird's Hist, of Rye, p 9, note. 

d Minnis denotes an island in the Algonquin. 


Neck and separated from it only by a narrow channel. This sale was 
effected on the twenty-ninth day of June, 1660, by Peter Disbrow, with 
John Coe and Thomas Stepwell in the following manner : 


"Be it knowen unto all men whom it may concern both Indians and English, 
that we Shamirockwell Sagamore, Maowhobo and Cokensekoo have sold uuto 
Peter Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas Studwell, all living at this present at Gren- 
wige. to say a certain parcel of land, (the parcel of land which these Indians above 
mentioned have sold is called in the Indian name Manusing Island) and is near 
unto the main laud which is called in the Indian name PeningO. This said 
island we above mentioned doe here by virtue of this bill doe sell all our right 
and title unto John Coe, Peter Disbrow, Thomas Studwell, quietly to enjoy 
from any molestation of us or any other Indians to them and their heirs, assigns, 
and executors forever ; and farther, we have given unto Peter Disbro, John Coe 
and Thomas Studwell feed for their cattle upon the main called by the Indians 
Peningo, and timbers or trees that is for their use and not to be molested by us 
or other Indians ; and we doe hereby acknowledge to have received full satis- 
faction for this purchase of land above mentioned, to say we have received eight 
cotes and seven shirts, fiftene fathom of wampone which is the full satisfaction 
for the parcel of land above mentioned, and for the witness we have hereto set 
our hands. 

Witness. Joshta Kxap, Ipawahtn, Shaxarockwell, 

Henry Disbrow, Aramapoe, Aeanaqub, 

Feb. 23. 1678. Wonanao, Cokow, 

Topogone, Wawatanmant. 

Matishes, Cokixseco, 

Richard, Maowbert, 

By another deed bearing date the 2 2d May, 1661, Cokoe and other 
Indians sold another tract of land lying farther north, between the Blind 
Brook and Byram streams to Peter Disbrow. 


11 Be it known to all men whom it may concerne, bothe English and Indians, 
that I, Cokoe, and Marrmeukhong, and Aifawauwone, and Nahtimeman, and 
Shocoke, and Wauwhowarnt, doe acknowledge to have sold to Peter Disbrow, 
his heirs and assigns, a certain tract of land lying between Byram River and the 
Blind Brook, which tract of land is bounded as followeth, viz : with the river 
called in English Byram River, beginning at the mouth of the above said river on 
the east, and the bounds of Hasting on the south and southwest, to the marked 
trees, and northward up to the marked trees j which may contain six or seven 
miles from the sea along the said Byram River side northward, and so from the 
said river cross the neck northwest and west to the river called Blind Brook, 
bounded north with marked trees which leads down to little brook, which runs 


into Blind Brook. The which tract of land I, Cokoe, and the above said Indians, 
our fellows, ii ira and assigns, do here promise and make good to the said Peter 
Disbrow, his heirs or assigns, peaceable and quiet possession forever, without 
any molestation either from Dutch, Indians, or English. We the above said In- 
dians have also sold this tract of land above mentioned, with all the trees, grass, 
springs, and minerals, with feed range and timber northward twenty English 
miles at) >ve the said purchase of land and do acknowledge to have received full 
satisfaction of the said land. In witness hereof we the above said Indians have 
set to our hands this present day and date above written. 

Witness John Coe, Majbemedkhong, his mark. 

John" Jagsox, Affawauwoxe, his mark. 

Nahtimemax, his mark. 
Cokoe, his mark. 

" These three purchases completed," says Baird, " the territory of Rye 
on the east side of Blind brook. Indeed, they took in also a part of the 
town of Greenwich, the tract of land between the present State line and 
Byram river; and we shall see that the claims of Rye to this tract, found- 
ed upon the Indian purchase just related, gave rise to not a little trouble 
in the subsequent relations of the two towns."* 

Another purchase was made on the 2d day of June, 1662, by Peter 
Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas Studwell and John Budd, for a tract of land 
above Westchester Path, and west of Blind Brook, or directly north of 
Budd's Neck. This was the territory of the present town of Harrison. 


"Know all men whom this may concern that we, Peter Disbrow, John Coe, 
Thomas Studwell, and John Eudd, have bargained, bought, and payd for, to the 
satisfaction of Showaunorocot, Roksohtohkor, and Pewataham and other In- 
dians, whose hands are underwritten, a certain tract of land above Westchester 
Path, to the marked trees, bounded with the above said river, Blind brook, which 
tract of land, with all the privileges, of wood, trees, grass, springs, mines and min- 
erals, to the said Peter Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas Studwell, to them and their 
heirs forever, with warrant against all persons, English, Dutch or Indians. To 
this bargain and sale we the above said Indians do bind ourselves, our heirs and 
assigns, to the above said Peter Disbrow, John Coe, and the rest abovesaid, to 
them, their heirs and assigns, for ever ; as witness our hands this present day 
and date, June 2, 1662. Shuwannorocot, 3 mark. 

Romkque, his mark. 

April the 28th, 1663, Peter Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas Studwell 
and John Budd, by a deed of sale conveyed the island-and main land to 
the following planters, Samuel Allen, Richard Vowl, Philip Galpin, 

a Baird'a Hist, of Rye, p. 12. 


Thomas Applebe, William Odell, John Brondig and John Coe, for which 
the latter were to pay forty shillings a lot in cattle or corn, between the 
above date and January next ensuing.' 1 

Peter Disbrow by a declaration of trust, dated June 16, 1676, assigned 
all his right, title and interest in the Indian purchase to the rest of the 
proprietors of Rye then living between the two rivers, viz : the Byram 
river to the east, and a river called the Blind brook to the west. The 
original division of Rye consisted of ten acres to each individual plant- 
er, besides a privilege in the undivided lands. 

1 • m a note appended to this deed of trust it appears that John 
Horton had selected a spot of land not within the bounds of the Rye 

•'But lyeth considerably to the northward of the head of the Blind Brook, 
and consequently to the north of the north-west bounds, except they do claim 
it as comprehended within the twenty English miles range, whereof was granted 
to them, viz. the proprietors. 

In 1662, the thirteen proprietors of the salt meadows within Hastings were, 

Thomas Studwell, William Odell, 

John Bhoxdig, Peter Disbkow, 

William Odell, Jonx Coe, 

Thomas Applbbe, Samcel Allex, 

Philip Galpix, Johx Coe, 

Richakd Vowl, Thomas Studwell. 
Johx Bcdd. 

At this period Connecticut regardless of the Hartford treaty made in 
1650, obtained from the native Indians a further grant of territory 
extending from the east line of that colony, to the present village of 
Westchester. Upon this purchase she claimed the lands of Rye, and 
required the submission of the inhabitants to her authority. 

During the year 1633, King Charles the Second, by letters patent 
under the great seal, conveyed the province of New Netherlands, and 
that part of Connecticut lying westward of Connecticut River, to his 
brother James, Duke of York and Albany. Thus, by a wholesale 
usurpation excluding forever the rightful proprietors, utterly regardless 
of their just rights as discoverers; and in the face, too, of all existing 

As early as 1641, it appears to have been the British policy as one 
means of counteracting the Dutch in America, " that the English put 
forth their plantations, and crowd on, crowding the Dutch out of those 

a Rye Rec Lib. A. 


places where they have settled ; " a this continued to be the principle 
upon which the former acted until the subjugation of the latter, which 
happened 5th of September, 1664, when the Province of New Neth- 
erlands surrendered to Colonel Richard Nicholls, the Duke's governor. 

The same year the commissioners appointed for settling the bounds 
of his Royal Highness the Duke of York's patent and the colony of 
Connecticut, did order and declare " that the creek or river, called 
Mamaroneck, which is reputed to be about twelve miles to the east 
of Westchester, and a line drawn from ye east point or side, where the 
fresh waters fall into the salt at high water mark, north north-west to the 
line of Massachusetts, shall be the western bounds of ye said colony of 
Connecticut. 6 

By this division Rye became annexed to the colony of Connecticut, 
and constituted a portion of Fairfield county. 

The following bill of sale occurs December 8th, 1666, from John 
Coe, one of the original proprietors of Rye to Hachaliah Brown : — 

"Know all ye men to whom it may concern, that I, John Coe, purchaser of the 
town of Rye, being one of the four men that bought this place in the colony of 
Connecticut, in New England, do sell and bind over unto Hachaliah Brown in 
the same town, one half of a 12th lot with all the privileges thereunto belonging ; 
namely : one half of the upland and one half of the meadow, both fresh and 
salt, both divided and undivided, with four acres of upland lying in the neck 
called the Oxpasture neck, or otherwise called Scotch cap neck, of which two of 
the aforesaid four acres belong to the half lot. This four acres is bounded thus : 
with George Kniffen on theN. E. and front ; with the Blind Brook towards the 
N. W. and Thomas Brown toward the S. "W. and the waste land is the bounds 
to the S. E. This seven acres of land more or less, is thus bounded as is above 
mentioned. The aforesaid land I have purchased of the Indians, as doth appear 
by deed under the Indians hands. I saj', I have sold with all privileges thereunto 
belonging, namely : trees, grass, rocks, minerals, and springs, with the fence or 
fencing which are or shall be belonging thereunto, and I do here bind myself, by 
promise, to make good the sale hereof from me, my heirs, assignees, or admin- 
istrators to the said Hachaliah Brown, him, his heirs, assignees or administrators, 
quietly and peaceably to possess as his own forever, without any molestation 
either by or under me, &c, &c. And I do acknowledge to have received full 
satisfaction of the abovesaid Hachaliah Brown for this aforesaid land, as witness 
my hand this day and date, Dec. 8th 1866." JOHN COE." 


Thomas Brown, 
Geoege Lane. 

a Col. Boundaries, Hart. Rec. fol. ii. letter L 
b Col. Boundaries, foL ii. letter xxii. 
c Rye Rec. 


May ii, 167 1. the general court of Connecticut granted that the town 
of Rye bounds should extend up into ye country northward twelve 
miles.' 1 

At first the pretences of Connecticut to the westward were unlimited, 
till the year 16S3, and consequently so to the northward of Rye ; hence 
the grant to extend twelve miles to the north, as being less exposed to 
be opposed by New York, leaving their bounds unlimited to the west- 
ward of Byram river, thus giving them an opportunity of extending their 
bounds twelve miles in that direction, so as to form a tract of twelve 
miles square ; as they had already granted one of six miles square to 
Bedford. This grant, had it been allowed by New York, would have cov- 
ered Harrison's purchase, the White Plains, Mamaroneck, the Mile 
Square, Tuckahoe, New Rochelle, and Eastchester, besides other places. 

The twelve proprietors of the salt meadows in this town, A.D. 1672, 
were as follows : 

William Udell, 1 ; John Coe, 5 ; John Coe, 9. 

John" Beoxdij, 2 ; Thomas Applebe, 6 ; Richard Fowler, 10. 

Peter Di^brow, 3 : Thomas Allex, 7 ; Thomas Studwell, 11 ; 

William Odelle, 4 ; Philip Galpex, 8 ; Johx Bcde, 12 ; 

" At a town meeting held March, 1672, it was agreed that the first of 
April following should be taxed of all persons and young cattle and 
horses, unless it be such as are wrought, and that they henceforward 
should goe out on the first of April, and whatsoever person hath not his 
fence up by that time shall forfeit five shillings a rod." 

"2Sth January, 1673, the general court ordered that the bounds be- 
tween Greenwich and Rye is to be from the mouth of Byram river, to 
run up the river one quarter of a mile above the great stone lying on the 
cross path by the said river ; and from thence the sayd commons up- 
wards, between Stamford bounds and the colony line, is to be equally 
divided between them by a parallel line with Stamford, and to Norwalk 
to the end of their bounds up in the country, &c." 

This settlement was confirmed June 21st, 1696, by the general court 
sitting in Hartford, May 8th, 1693. 

'•Upon the 28th November, 16S0, the town made choice of Peter 
Disbrow, Hachaliah Brown, Robert Bloomer, and Thomas Merritt, for 
to go with the Indians to view some land lying between the Blind brook 
and Biram river, and to make a thorow bargain with them if they shall 
see it best." 

The result of this interview was a sale of land under the Indian sachem 
Maramaking, " of all that certain tract of land lying by a brook common- 
ly called Blind brook, which tract of land is called by the Indians Euke- 
taupucuson, and by the English Hogg Pen Ridge." 
a Hart Rec. vol. viii, p. 13. 



J 35 

"To all Christian peopelle to whom these shall come greeting, know yee, that 
I, Marrmaakiug, commonly called by ,the English, Will, have for a valuabelle 
consideration by me Allradi Recaifed of Robart blomer, haccaliah Drown and 
thomas merrit, alinated and sould unto them the said Robt. blomer, Haccaliah 
brown aud thomas merit, them their heirs, executors, adminstrators, or assignes 
a certain trackt of Land Lyeing by a brooke commonly called blind brook whicli 
tract of Land is called by the Indians Eauketaupacuson bounded as followeth : 
beginning at the southermost and which is betwene the above said brook and a 
branch thereof, and from thence to the great swamp at the oulld marked tree 
which is now new marked with these Letters RBH T M, and from thence by 
marked trees to a small Runn which Runns into the above said brook and there 
is markt-d wiih a mark, the which tract of Land is called by the English name 
the hogg penn Ridge, to have and howlld the above said trackt of land for 
ever, and 1 the said Mararnaking alice Will doe bind by sellfe my heirs, executors 
and administrators firmly by these presents to warrant and make good the above 
said saile unto the above said Robart blomer, Brown and merit, their heirs, ex- 
ecutors, administrators, or asignes without any Lett hindrance, molistation or 
trouble from or by any person or persons whatsoever that shall from or after the 
date hereof make or lay any claim or claims theareunto. In witness hereof I 
have set my hand this 4th day of September in the yere 1680. 

Witness the mark of Cottko, The mark of MARAMAKIXG 

the mark of Owrowwoahas, Alis Will. 

John Ogden, 
John Stokiiam. 
Mararnaking alise Will, hath acknliged this bill 
of sale before me in Rye this 28 of november, 
1680. Joseph Horton, Commoner. 

" Know all men by these presents that wee, Robert Bloomer, Hacaiiah 
Brown and thomas merit doe asigne over all our Right, titel and Intrust of this 
within written bill of salle to the propriatars of peningo neck, as witness our 
hands this second day of march, in the year sixtene hundred eighti one, we three 
above said Reserving our equall portions with the other propriatars above said. 
Delivered in peresence of us. Robert Blomer, 

John Gee his marke Hackaliah Brown, 

Joseph Gaxlpen. Thomas Merit. * 

" Lame Will's purchase commenced at a point where the ' branch' of 
Blind Brook joins the main stream. From thence the southern bound- 
ary ran eastward to ' the old marked trees,' at ' the Great Swamp,' 6 
northward, it extended along Blind Brook to certain other marked trees, 
where the line now divides the town of Rye from that of North Castle." 

a Town Rec. vol. B, p. xiii. 

b "'The Great Swamp extended over a considerable part of the region bounded on the east 
by King Sheep, and on the west by the Ridge road, north by the present Roman Catholic 
cemetery." Baird'a Hist, of Rye, p. 57, [see note.] 

c Baird's Hist, of Rye, p. 57. 


" The second purchase from Maramaking was effected on the 8th of 
October, 16S1. For the valuable consideration of 'three coats received' 
Lame Will sold to the inhabitants of Rye a tract of land ; between By- 
ram river and the Blind Brook, or Honge ; '* apparently lying north of 
the preceding purchases and within the present limits of North Castle." 


Know all Christian People to -whom these shall come, greeting, know ye that 
I, Maramaking, Comonly called by the english will, have for a valuable consid- 
eration by the inhabitance of the towne of Rye allradi Kesaived namely, three 
cotse In hand of the inhabitants of Rye by me Resaived, I, Maramaking, doe ac- 
knowlidg that I have aLinated, covinanted, soulld and delivered unto them, the 
inhabitants of Rye, to them, theare heirs, Execetars, administratars, or asignes a 
sartain tract of Land Liing betwene Biram river and the blind brooke or honge ; 
acording as it is allradi marked by the Indians and bounded ; to have and holld 
the above said trackt of Land forever ; and I, the said Maramaking, or else Will, 
doe bind my sellfe, my heires, execetars and administratars firmly by these pres- 
ents to warant and make good the above said salle unto the above named Inhabi- 
tants of Rye to them, thaire heires, execetars, asignes or administratars without 
any Let, hindrance, moListation or trouble from or by any person or persons 
what so ever that shall from or after the date here of make or Lay any claim or 
claims theare unto. 

In witness here of I have set to my hand this 8th of Octobar, in the year 1681. 

Witness the mark of Wessaconow, The marke of MARAMAKING, 

The mark of Cowwows, or elce Will 

The mark of Pcmmetum, 

Joshua. Knap, 
Jacob Pairs. 

Maramaking, or else Will, both acknowleged this bill of salle before me in 
Rye, this 8 of October, 1681. Joseph Hoeton, Commissioner. 

Recorded decern. 20, 1682." 

The above sales were long known and distinguished as " Lame Will's 
two purchases? and "do not appear to have been divided and improved 
until long after those on Byram ridge." 

" Twenty years after the first division on Byram ridge, we find the fol- 
lowing entry in the town records : " 

"At a town meeting in Rye, February 14,1699-1700, the town both made 
choice of Lieutenant Horton, Benjamin Horton, Joseph Purdy, Justice Brown, 
Sergeant Merritt and John Stoakham, who are to survey and lay out the three 
Purchases of land ; that is to say, the White Plaine's purchase, and Lame Will's 

a "The name Ilonge may have been applied to the upper part of Blind Brook, or to the 
branch already referred to." Baird'3 Hist, of Rye, p. 57, see note. 

b Baird's nist. of Rye, p. 5". 

c Town Rec. vol. B, p. 15. 


two purchases: and the town doth give them full power to call out such person 
or persons whom they shall sec cause to have occasion of." a 

•Nothing, however, seems to have been done under this order. Will's 
Purchase was not actually laid out till ten years later.' The first division 
took place in 1709. ' This 1 ith day of April, 1709, the lots laid out in 
Will's purchases were drawn for.' ' Each allotment being thirty-eight 
acres.' 'February 18, 17 n,' 'the second division of lots laid out in 
Lame Will's two purchases occurred. These were situated higher up, 
and on the east side of the colony line. A third draught of seven acre 
lots followed.' 6 'The proprietors of these purchases numbered thirty- 
four. The list comprises the names of nearly all the proprietors of Pe- 
ningo Neck.' 

In 16S1, Peter Disbrow sells his Indian purchase on Poningoe Neck 
to the rest of the proprietors. In 1683, Colonel Dongan arrived at New 
York as governor of the province. Soon afterwards the Governor and 
Council of Connecticut, in a letter to Dongan, dated October 5th, 1683, 
complain of a warrant having been issued to the constables of Rye, 
Greenwich and Stamford, which towns they claim are in Connecticut, 
by charter and agreement of 1664.° Dongan, in reply, October 9th, 
1683,** asserts that the Duke's patent extends to Connecticut river, and 
refers to the former agreement, twenty miles east of Hudson's river, 
which he is by no means compelled to confirm, only refers to the old 
claim for the purpose of extending as far as he can eastward of Hudson's 

In return the Governor and general court of Connecticut, October 16, 
1684, refer Governor Dongan to the agreement of the King's Commis- 
sioners, A.D. 1664, as settling the boundary. 6 

Governor Dongan in reply, November 5, 1683, states, "that he must 
not be unmindful of his master's interest, thinks it not wrong to claim 
twenty miles from Hudson's river, eastward ; " and also mentions " that the 
commissioners were assured by Connecticut people, that ATammaroneck 
river was twenty miles from Hudson 's river, and concludes by assuring 
them he will have all twenty miles eastward of that river, or he wall claim 
by Connecticut River; and further, wishes the matter settled."-'' 

On the 28th of November of the same year the agents (appointed by 
the two governments,) came to an agreement that the line of partition 

a S ■'■ Buird's Hist. Rye. Also Town and Proprietors Meeting Book, No. C, p. 6, 

b Baird'a Hist, of Rye, pp. 59, CO. S 'e Rye Rec. vol. B, p. 160 (back.) 

c CoL Bound nart. Rec. Lib. ii., Letter 42. 

d Col. B. Hart. Rec. Lib. ii., Letter 4?.. 

e Col. B. Hart. Rec. Lib. ii., Letter 44. 

/ Col. B. Hart Rec. Lib. iL, Letter 45. 


should begin at Byram River at a point called Lyon's Point, where that 
river falls into the Sound, and run northerly at not less than twenty miles 
distance from the Hudson to the south line of Massachusetts.* 

Upon the occasion of this change in 1683, we find the following letter 
addressed to Lieutenant Horton and selectmen of the town of Rye. 

Fairfield, Deo. 3, 1683. 

Loving Friends : — We had purposed in our passage toYorkto have called upon 
you, but the badness of the weather and taking our passage by water we missed 
the opportunity of seeing you in our going thither, and in our return. And 
therefore we take this rirst opportunity to acquaint you that though we were 
loath to have parted with you, and would have been glad to have continued you 
in this government, yet the providence of God hath so disposed that by our 
ment with Governor Dongan, we are forced to part with you, and could not 
help it, and the Governor promised us that he would not by this change alter any 
man's property or propriety ; and therefore we thought it necessary to acquaint 
E this change, and also to advise you speedily to apply him to grant j T ou 
confirmation of your hounds and proprieties, which we doubt not but he will do 
also. We must acquaint you that you must by our agreement, pay to this colony 
this year's rates, which the treasurer will appoint you, to whom you shall pay it 
speedily it is one penny half penny upon the pound, according to the list pre- 
sented to the general court, in October last, by the agreement with the Governor 
Dongan. The west b< unds of our colon}' is now by Byram River, and it runs 
as the river till it comes to the road, and from thence it runs north, north-west, 
till it hath run eight miles from the east point of said Byram River. 

Gentlemen, we do request you to be satisfied and content with this change, and 
to carry it suitably to the government under which you are now seated, and 
apply yourselves to the Honorable Govornor, who is a noble gentleman and will 
do what you shall desire in a regular maimer to promote your welfare, which with 
best respects is all the needful from your assured friends. 

ROBERT T-;EAT, Governor, 
XathanGocld,) AssistanU _ 
John Allen, J 

Endorsed. These for Lieut. Joseph Horton, 
the selectmen of the town of Rye. These in Rye. 

Notwithstanding this agreement, the towns of Rye and Bedford were 
again received into the colony of Connecticut, June 21, 1696-7/ 

Governor Fletcher of New York justly complained of this treatment, 
and issued his proclamation, requiring Rye and Bedford to return to 
their allegiance, April 15, i6o7. c 

The whole matter was now referred to the king, who in council, 
March 28th, 1700, confirmed the former agreement made 16S3, and 

a Webster'B Letters, p. 20". 

b Col Bound. Hart. Kec. vol. ii. letter 138. 

c Col. Bound. Hart. Rec vol. ii. letters 140, 141. 



ordered ' ; that the high sheriff of die County of Westchester, accom- 
panied with two justices of the said county, do repair to the said towns 
of Rye and Bedford, and publish the said proclamation, requiring the 
inhabitants of the said towns, to give obedience to this government 
pursuant to his majesties royal will and pleasure, at their peril. 

Per order of Council, D. Cosixs, 

L. Coventry." 3 

Oct. 10, 1700, the General Assembly of Hartford ordered the significa- 
tion of the settlement to be sent to the inhabitants of Rye and Bedford. 

The matter was not completed until May 14, 1731, when the lines 
were established as they now exist. The inhabitants of Rye in 1683- 
were the following : 

Hachaliah Brown-, 
Timothy Knapp, 
Jonathan Vowles, 
Jonas Stevens, 
John Brondig, 
Isaac Sherwood, 
Thomas Lyon, 
John Sillick, 
Caleb IIiatt, 
George Knison, 
John Purdy, 
Thomas Meeeitt, 
Francis Purdy, 
Joseph Ogden, 
Isaac Sheewood, 
John Boyd, 


James Travis, 
Robeet Blener, 
Jacob Paree, 
Deliverance Brown, 
Peter Disbrow, 
Thomas Lyon, 
George Knison, 
John Boyd, 
Thomas Slatham, 
William Odell, 
Thomas Slatham, 
Richard Beatte, 
John Boyd, 
Samuel Jenkins, 
James Wright, 

a Webster's Letters, p. 207 

John Sellickes, 
James Wright, 
Stehhen Sherwood, 
Stephen Sherwood, Jun 
Hamet Galpen, 
Samuel Odell, 
John Meeeitt, 
Samuel Jenkins, 
Joost Paldin, 
Timothy Knapp, 
William Odell, 
John Disbrow, 
Arnold Basset, 
Robert Bloomee, 
Simon Robard, 
Joseph Hobton, 
JosEPn Sheewood, 
John Disbrow, 
Robert Bloomer, 
John Horton, 
Francis Purdy, 
Daniel Brondige, 
John Church, 
Stephen Sherwood, 
Joseph Gurney, 
Jonathan Kniffin, 
Ciniamon Horton, 
Stephen Sherwood, 
Francis Purdy, 
Peter Brown, 
The draft of the swamp, 
James Travis, 

Isaac Dehham, 
The town grants from 
. Isaac Denham, 
Abraham Brush, 
Abraham Smith, 
John Ogden, 
Samuel Bank-, 
Joseph Studwell, 
Philip Travis, 
John Merbitt, 
Stephen Sherwood, 
Joseph Merritt, 
John Feast, 
Jonathan Kxiffex, 
Humphrey Underbill, 
John Turner, 
Robert Bloomee, 
Hachaliah Brown, 
Jonathan Hart, 
Ebenezer Kniffen, 
John Boyd, 
Roger Paek, 
Joost Pauldinok, 
Thomas Merritt, 
Joseph Banks, 
Ruhamah Bishop, 
Francis Purdy". 
John Vail, 
John Vail, 
Isaac Anderson, 
John Meeeitt, 

I 4° 


JonN Hoeton, 
Riohakd Waters, 
John Stockham, 
John Hoeton, 
Thomas Mbeeitt, 
Joseph Sherwood, 
John Meeeitt, 
Haciialiah Brown, 
Caleb Hi.ytt, 
John Boddegai:et, 
John Beondig, 

Joseph Sherwood, 

The draught of lots by 

Biram River, 
David Ogden, 
Robert Bloomer, 
The draught of Biraui's 

Thomas Mebritt, 
Maet Ogden, 
John Brondig, 
Jonathan Kniffen, 
David Hoeton. « 

A draught of Will's pur- 
Joseph Purdy, 
Richard Ogden, 
IIknry Hi att, 
Poud field draught, 
The three draughts in 
Will's purchase, 
Joseph Robinson, 
David Hoeton, 
John Hi att, 

In 1694, we find the Indian Sachem Patthunck, with the full consent 
of his son and heir Wappetoe Patthunck, conveying to Joseph Hortom 
a parcel of land beginning at certain marked trees, &c, with turf and 
twigg taken off the said ground and delivered to the said grantee, in 
peaceable and quiet possession by the said Patthunck, sen., and Pat- 
thunck, jr. The above tract of land was situated: — 

" On the east side of the Mamaroneck river, and ran with a line of mark trees 
until it came to the said river, and again to a red oak tree, close by the river 
marked III, together with all the woods, &c, &c, to the said Joseph Horton, 
&c. Dated this 29th day of Dec. A. D. 1694. 

Signed, sealed and delivered, 
in presence of us. 

The mark of 
Captain Robin, Indian, 
William Coaxes, 
The mark of R. P. Miller. 

The mark of Patthunck, sen. 
The mark of Wappetoe Patthunck. 
The mark of Betty Patthunck, 
The mark of Ackanum Patthunck. 
daughter of the above named 
Patthunck, sen." 

"As early as 1686, we find the inhabitants of Rye applying for a 
Patent, doubtless in view of an order which the general court had issued 
the year before to all the towns within its jurisdiction, relative to the oc- 
curring of charters for their lands." 6 November 23d, 1686, the town 
empowered Benjamin Colyer and John Brondige to treat with the Gov- 
ernor for a general patent for the township of Rye." c The proprietors of 

a " The envestiture ' by turf and twig.' This was a relic of feudal times; it consisted in 
the delivery of a turf, a stone, a branch : or some other object, as a symbol of the transfer of 
. Anciently, this had been practiced by the feudal lord. In conferlng a lief upon 
/i?'h vassal. We find it observed on Manussing Island in 169^. with all formality, and on 
Budd's Neck as late as 1768." Baird'aHist of Itye; p. 132, see llallam's iliddle Ages, vol 1, p. 

b Baird's nist. of Rye, p. 92. 

c Town Rec. Lib. B, now lost. 


Poningoe Neck also authorized the same individuals to obtain a particu- 
lar patent for said neck. " The court, it appears, however well inclined, 
did not see lit just then to grant either of those applications. Again, in 
1692, at the October session of the General Court,' Mr. Underhill, of 
Rye, and Zachary Robert's of Bedford, were in attendance, and the 
court granted them an allowance for their expenses in coming; 'to be 
payd at Stamford out of the county rate.' a But the time for this step did 
not arrive until five years later. At a meeting of the Governor and 
Council, January 19, 1697, Thomas Merritt and Deliverance Brown ap- 
peared in behalf of ' the town of Rie,' with the request that this planta- 
tion may be owned as included within the colony, and that a charter 
may be granted to them for their lands. The petition is granted, and a 
patent for the town is ordered to be prepared forthwith/ It is as fol- 
lows : 


" Whereas the Hon" 1 Gen 11 Court of the Colonie of Connecticut have, on May 
the fourteenth day, 1685, ordered and declared that every town within the said 
Colonie should take out Pattents or Charters for their severall grants of Lands 
Given them by the said Gen 11 Court, or derived by purchase or otherwise obtain- 
ed, which Pattents they did order should be made and Given to them under the 
seal of the Colonie and hands of the Gov r and Secretary. And that such Pattents 
shall be a sufficient Evidence for all and every township that hath the same to all 
Intents and purposes for the holding the Baid lands firnie to them, their heirs, suc- 
cessors and assignes forever, according to the Tenor given by his Majestie Charles 
the second In his Charter bearing date the three and twentieth day of April], in 
the fourteenth year of his Reign. And the said Gen 11 Court having granted and 
assigned to severall persons a certain township to be known by the Kame of Rie; 
bounded westward eight Miles upon the Dividing Line between the Province of 
of New york and the Colonie of Connecticutt, according as it was settled by his 
Majesties Commissioners, as appears by their act or Report thereupon ; and East- 
ward on a line beginning at the mouth of Byram River and Running up the said 
River one quarter of a mile above the Great Stone lying in the path by the said 
River, and from thence Continued by a parralel Line eight miles into the Coun- 
trey, and bounded southward upon the sea and northward upon the Wildernesse. 
Now know all men by these presents, that I, Robert Treat, Esq 1 " Govern 1 " of his 
Majesties Colonie of Connecticutt, have given, granted, bargained, enfeoffed and 
Confirmed, and by these presents doe give, grant, bargain, enfeoffe and continue 
unto Joseph Theale, Thomas Merritt, Deliverance Brown, John Horton, Joseph 
Horton, Francis Purdie, Hackaliah Brown, Timothie Knap, George Lane and 
John Merritt, their heirs, assignes and their associates forever, all that part or 
parcell of Land which lies and is contained within the bounds above-mentioned, 
With all and singular the Lands, hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever 
are thereunto belonging or any way appertaining to the same or any part thereof. 

a Public Rec. of Conn., vol. iv, p. 83. 
6 Baird's Eist. of Rye, p. 93. 



As of his Majesties mannor of East Greenwich [in Kent] to Have and to hoid in 
free and Common Soccage, And not in Capite nor by Knight Service. Except- 
ing and reserving for his Majestic his heirs and successors the fin. part of all the 
Oar of Gold and Silver which shall he found therein from time to time. In wit- 
nesse whereof the said Kohert Treat with the Secretary of theColonie have here- 
unto annexed our hands and afixed Our Colonic Seal, this two and twentieth day 
of January Anno Domini 1696. a And in the eighth year of the reign of our Sov- 
ereign Lord William by the Grace of God of England Scotland Fiance and Ire- 
land, King Fidci Defensor. Always provided that nothing herein Contained shall 
Extend or he understood or taken to Impeach or prejudice any Right, title, In- 
terest or demand, which any person or persons hath or have or claim to have, of 
into or out of any part of the said township situated within the Limits above- 
mentioned according to the Laws and Gen" Customes of this Colonic hut that 
all and every such person and persons May and shall have hold, and enjoy the 
same in such manner as if these presents had not been Made. 

R. TREAT. Oovr KlMI'.ERLY, Sec7'et r y"b 


October, 1664, Lo : John Budd, 

ber, 1665, Ricn.u:D Yowle?, 
October, 1666, Lt. Dm, 
May, 1667, Mr. Jn° Bcd, 
October, 1668, Mr. John Budd, 

Richard Vowlbs, 
May, 1669, Richard Fowels, 
May, 1670, Mb. John Basks, 

Peter Disbroe, 
October, 1670, Timothy Kxap, 
May, 107*. Me. John Banokks, 

Peter Disbroe, 
May, 1672, Mr. John Banees, 

Mr. Jos. Orton, 
June, 1G72. Mr. John Bahgks, 
October, 1672, Mr. John Baxkes, 
May, 1673, Peter Disbroe, 
October, 1674, Mr. John Ogden, 
May, 1675, Mr. Johx Baxkes, 
July, 1675. Mr. Johx Bankes, 

May, 1676, Peter Disbroe, 
October, 1676, Timothy Knap, 
May, 1677, John Bixxdige, 
October, 1677, Mr. Johx Baxkes, 
May, 1678, Mr. John Baxcks, 
October, 1678, Timothy Kxap, 
October, 1679, Peter Disbrough, 
May, 16S0, Mr. Johx Baxkes, 
May, 1681, Jonx Braxdige, 
October, 16sl, Peter Disbroe, 
October, IG'32, Timothy Napp, 
October, 16S3, Timothy Kxap, 
May, 1697, Yxdepjiill 
Mr. Deliverance Brown 
May, 1698, Mb. Joseph IIortox, 
October, 1698, Capt n Vxder. 


October. 1699, Mr. Tho' Mereit, 
Lieu- Jn' j Hoeton. 

13 April, 1705. The Indian chiefs Wapeto, Rarequash, and Mek- 
eran, granted to Capt. Joseph Theall, Capt. John Clapp, and Capt. John 
Horton all of ye town of Rye. 

a MOT, New Style. 

■:iy Book of Deeds, Patents, Ac. MS., Hartford, vol. Ii, p. 2ol. 
primed for the first time by Baird ia hi* Hist, of live, pp. 'jj, 94. 

This document was 


■■ A certain parcel of land lying and being within ye township of Rye, bound- 
ed by a certain beach tree standing upon the brink of Byram River, marked 
with J. G. J., and J. H. and J. 0. running up ye said river northerly to a great 
swamp, where standeth an ash tree marked with the above said letters, and from 
thence in a direct course to au oak tree with stones laid at ye root, and from 
thence with a range of marked trees of the northermost corner of ye great pond- 
bo running down by ye said pond till it meeteth with a white oak sapling marked 
with ye above said letters, and from thence by certain marked trees to the above 
said marked beach tree by ye brink of Byram River." 

Signed, sealed and delivered The true mark of WAPETOE 

in the presence of The true mark of RARESQUASH, 

Dasiel Strang. The true mark of MEKERAN. 

JOSEI'H Pfkdy. 
The marke of Pare. 

A further grant and confirmation was obtained of the Indian pro- 
prietors, Seringoe, Raresquash, and Wapeto Patthunck, by John Clapp 
and others, 20 July, 1705. 

'■ Of all that said tract of land which is butted and bounded as follows, viz : 
beginning at a beach tree standing by Byram river near a great rock, marked 
with letters J. H. J. P. J. C. then running up the said river north-west to a cer- 
tain ash tree in the upper end of a place commonly called Pond Pound neck, 
marked with the letters aforesaid, &e., &c., to the Colony line, and thence by 
the said Colony line westwardly to the eight mile stake standing between three 
white oak trees, marked viz : one of the said trees is marked with the letters C. 
C. R. on the north side, and on ye south side J. D. and from said tree in a direct 
line runs to ye northermost corner of Rye Pond, and thence south 10 degrees 
westerdly to a white oak sapling, marked by the Pond side with the letters J. P. 
thence by a range of marked trees south 64 degrees east to an ash tree standing 
by Blind brook on the east side thereof, and thence by another range of marked 
trees to a certain chestnut tree marked with the letters J. J. on ye north side, on 
the west side with the letters J. P. on the south-west side with letters J. H. and 
thence by a range of marked trees to ye place where it began. 6 

The mark of SERRINGOE, 
Signed, sealed, and delivered Seep.inooe's mark in behalf WAPETO, 

in the presence of PATTHUNCK, 

James Mott, and of his brother RARESQUASH. 


Joost Paldisck. 

The above sales were again confirmed by the Indians, 13 September, 

a See Warrant for Survey. Alb. Rec. Lib. i. 127, S 

b Warrant for Survey, Indian Deeds ; Alb. Rec. Lib. 1, 129, 

c County Records, Lib. E, 40. 


At a Court of General Assembly holden at New Haven, 12th October, 
1710, '• Captain John Clapp of the town of Rye, in the province of 
New York, presented a petition to this assembly on the behalf of him- 
self and partners, praying for a patent to be granted to them of a certain 
piece or parcel of land lying in this Colony, and within the bounds of 
the said town of Rye, which they had purchased (with lycense) of the 
native Indians." 

"Upon consideration whereof, this assembly do resolve that no patent 
shall be granted to them, forasmuch as the said land, hath been for- 
merly granted by this government to the inhabitants of the said town of 
Rye, and also a patent given them for the same."" 

Queen Anne the same year issued her royal letters patent "to Anne 
Bridges, John Clapp, Augustine Graham, John Horton, and Thomas 
Hyatt, for lands in Rye : — 

Beginning at a beach tree standing by Byam river, near a great rock marked 
witli ye letters J. H. J. P. J. C, thence running up by ye said river, north north- 
west to a certain ash tree in ye upper end of a place commonly called ye Pond 
Pound neck, marked with ye letters aforesaid, and to ye Colony line, and from 
thence by ye said Colony line westerdly to ye eight mile stake standing be- 
tween three white oak trees, marked viz: one of ye said trees is marked with 
the letters C. C. R. on }-e north side, and on ye south side J. D. and from ye said 
tree on a direct line, it runs to ye northermost corner of Rye Pond, and thence 
so to the westerdly to a white oak sapling marked by j r e pond side with the let- 
ters J. J. P. thence by a range of marked trees, so by ye east to an ash tree 
standing by Blind brook on ye east side thereof, and thence by another range of 
marked trees to a certain chestnut tree marked with ye letters I. T. on ye north 
side, and on j-e west side with ye letters I. P. on ye north-west side with ye let- 
ters I. H. and thence by a range of marked trees to ye place, where it began- 
&c, &c. To the above said patentees, &c, &c b 

The proprietors of Poningoe Neck in 1 7 15 were as follows : 

HAcnALiAn Brown, Joseph Seerwood, 

Deliverance Brown, Isaac Anderson, 

JonN (Stoakuam, JonN Mereitt, Sen. 

Robert Bloomer, John Brondige, Lane, George S. Kniffen, 

Timothy Knapp, JonN Dibbeow, 

Richard Ogobn, Thomas Mep.ritt, 

Daniel Puedt, Ebenezee Kniffen, 
Peter Brown." 

a Hartford Records, vol. IV. 121. 
b Co. Kec. LP). E, 2. 

c A Town Rec. At a meeting of the proprietors of Poningoe Neck, Dec. llta, 1699, a grant 
was made to iticnard Ogden, of an island commonly called Fox Island. 


Upon the ist of July 17 15, Robert Hunter, Captain General and 
Commander-in-chief, set out for patent to Christopher Bridge, clerk, 
rector of the parish of Rye, and his heirs and assigns, twenty small par- 
cels of land situate, Sec, in the precinct and parish of Rye, Sec, not 
heretofore granted under the seal of the Province; all which certain tracts 
of land, purchased by Christopher Bridge, contained two hundred and 
eighty-one acres.* 

On the 20th of June, 1720, Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown and Benja- 
min Brown, inhabitants of the township of Rye, petitioned for a Patent 
for the tract of land between Blind brook and Byram river, in behalf of 
themselves and divers other inhabitants of the said township of Rye, in 
the following manner : 

To the Hon hle Peter Schuyler ye President of Jus Majesties C'ounsill of the 
Province of New York and Territories tJiereon depending in America 
In CounsiU: 

The Humble Petition of Daniell Purdy Son of John Purdy Deceased Samuell 
Brown and Benjamin Brown Inhabitants of the Township of Rye in the County 
of West Chester in behalfe of themselves and diverse other Inhabitants of the 
said Township of Rye. 

Sheweth That one Peter Disbrow many yeares since by authority from the 
Colony of Connecticut (under whose Government the Township of Rye then lay) 
on the third of January 1660 purchased from the then Native Indian Proprietors 
a Certaine Tract of Laud lyeing on the maine Betweene a sertaine plane then 
called Rahonaness to the East and to the West Chester Path to the North and up 
to a river then called Moaquanes to the West. That is to say all the Land lyeing 
betweene the aforesaid Two Rivers then called Pennigoe Extending from the 
said Path to the North and South to the Sea or Sound. . 

That the said Peter Disbrow also purchased of the said Native Indian Propri- 
etors by authority as aforesaid a Certaine other Tract of Land lyeing Betweene 
Byram River and the Blind Brook which was bounded as followeth viz' with the 
Byram River Beginning at the Mouth of the aforesaid River on the East and the 
Bounds of Hasting (then soe called) on the south, and southwest to the marked 
Trees, and northward up to the marked Trees, abt six or seven miles from the 
sea alorg the said Byram River northward and soe from the said River a Cross 
the North Northwest and west to the said River called the blind Brook bounded 
northward with marked Trees which lead down to a little Brook runing into the 
Blind brook as by the said Two Indian Purchases may more fully appeare. 

That the said Peter Disbrow having made such purchases afterward sold and 
Disposed of the same to many of the Inhabitants of the said Township of Rye 
who settled and Improved the same Lands 6 and were ffirst under the Township 
of Rye under the Collony of Connecticut and Great part thereof hath since falen 
under the Government of the Province of New York : 

a Alb. Rec, Book of Patents ; Lib. viz. 1S5. The Patent appears to have been granted in 
b Words [erased] and were first as a township. 


That yo r Petitioners and other Inhabitants of the Town of Rye aforesaid and 
those under whom they Claime have beene ever since in the quiet and peaceable 
possession of the said Lands and premises and Cultivated and Improved the 

But inasmuch as such Parts of the aforesaid Two severall Tracts of Land now 
Claimed by yo 1 Petitioners and those whom they Represent aa aforesaid lyes now 
within the said Township of Rye under the Government of the said Province of 
New York and there having been as yet noe Grant from the Crown for the same 
under this Government Your Petitioners and those whom they Represent being 
willing and Desirous to have his majesties most Gracious Letters Patent for 
such part of the aforesaid Tracts of Land now in their quiet and peaceable pos- 
session under this Government viz' Beginning at the Southernmost part of Pinnin- 
goe Neck and Runs along the sound Easterly until it comes to the mouth of By- 
ram River and Runing up the said River and the Land Betvvecne the Colony of 
Connecticut and the Province of New York Northward to the Antient marked 
Trees of Limping Wills purchase and soe with the said marked Trees a Cross the 
said purchase north west to the River called the Blind brook, and soe Runing 
down to the said River, and brook called Mill Creek to the Sound. 

Yo' Petitioners therefore on behalf of themselves and the said other Inhabitants 
(who have fully authorized and Impowered yo 1 Petitioners to this Purpose) most 
humbly pray yo 1 honours will be pleased to Grant to yo'' Petitioners his majesties 
mosl Gracious Letters Patent for the aforesaid Tract within the Limittsand 
Boundaries last above Described, In Trust for themselves and the aforesaid In- 
habitants according to their respective rights and Interest in the same under such 
Reservation and Restrictions as are appointed for that purpose. 

And yoLPetitioners shall ever pray etc. SAMUEL BROWN, 


20 th June 1720. 

Upon the nth of August, 1720, the following Royal Letters Patent 
were issued to Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown and Benjamin Brown in 
behalf of themselves and others, freeholders and inhabitants of the town- 
ship of Rye. The patentees yielding and paying therefore yearly to the 
King, his heirs and successors at the Custom House in New York, unto 
the Receiver-general of the Province, on the Feast of the Annunciation 
of Blessed Virgin Mary (commonly called Lady Day) the annual rent of 
two shillings and six pence "for every hundred acres thereof for the 
same four thousand, five hundred acres of land, island and premises so 
granted, See." 


George by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, De- 
fender of the faith, &c. To all To whom these presents shall come sendeth greet- 
ing : Whereat our Loving Subjects Daniel Purdy, son of John Purdy deceased, 
Samuel Brovn and Benjamin Brown in behalf of themselves and others Free- 

st Land Papers, Albany, vol. vii, p. 171. See Bainl's nist. of Kye. 


holders and Inhabitants of the Torcnship of Rye in the County of Westchester in 
the Province of Neic Yorkby their Humble Petition presented to our trusty and 
well-beloved Colonel Peter Schuyler, President of our Couucill for our Province 
of New York aforesaid, Have set forth that they and their ancestors and prede- 
cessors under whom they hold have held and improved at their great charge with 
their labour and industry, a Certain Tract of land bordering upon the line of 
Division between this Province and Connecticut Colony for which they nor their 
ancestors and predecessors hitherto have had no patent under the Seal of the 
province of New York, Which said Tract of land is situate and being between 
Byra/m River and Blind Brook and Begins at a Certain rock being the ending of 
a point of land commonly known by the Name of Town Neck Point and in the 
Southermost point of the said Tract of land, thence running Easterly by the 
Sound to a point near the mouth of said Byrams River called Byrams Point in- 
cluding a certain Island called Mounsons Island and from the said Byram Point 
Northerly up Byram River on the East side of the said River as the Colony line 
is at present supposed to be run by the inhabitants of the Neighborhood to a 
rock standing on the East side of the said River by the wadeing place and the 
high road leading to Connecticut, then North twenty-four degrees, thirty minutes, 
West three hundred and forty-eight chains as the line which divides this Province 
from Connecticut is supposed to run by the said inhabitants to a Wallnut tree 
marked with three knotches on three sides being twelve chains on a straight 
line to an Ash Tree Marked with three knotches on three sides standing near 
blind Brook then down the said Brook untill it emptys it self into a Creek called 
Mill Creek and then by the said Creek to the place where it Begun, Containing 
Four Thousand and Five Hundred acres of Land or thereabout, after eighteen 
small Tracts of land which lye within the said bounds and are part of twenty 
small Tracts formerly granted the Reverend Christopher Bridge in his life time 
are deducted and allowance being made for the Kings Highways and prayed to 
have our Grant and Letters Patent for the same under the Great Seal of the 
Province of New York in the manner following that is to say. To Hold to them 
and their heirs and assigns for ever but to and for the use and uses following and 
to no other use whatsoever (that is to say) As for and concerning such Tracts of 
Land and hereditaments parts of the before receited Four Thousand Five Hun- 
dred Acres of Land and Island whereof they the said Daniel Purdy, Samuel 
Brown and Benjamin Brown are and stand Lawfully and Rightfully seized and 
possessed in their own severall and respective rights interests and Estate to and 
for the sole and only proper use Benefit and Behoofe of the aforesaid Daniel 
Purdy, Samuel Brown and Benjamin Brown severally and respectively and of 
their severall and respective heirs and assigns forever. And as for and concern- 
ing such other Tracts of Land and hereditaments parts of the before recited Four 
Thousand Five Hundred Acres of Land and Island which are belonging and Ap- 
pertaining to severall other persons Freeholders and Inhabitants within the 
bounds and limits of the same Four Thousand Five Hundred Acres of Land and 
Island some of more some of less according to their several seperate and particu- 
lar interest in trust to and for the sole and only proper use benefit and behoofe 
of each particular Freeholder and Inhabitant particularly and respectively and of 
each their particular and respective heirs and assigns forever in as full and ample 
manner as if their particular Names and their particular and severall Freeholds 


and Inheritances were particularly and severally Expressed Mentioned and De- 
acribed under the usual Quitt Kent, Clauses, provisions conditions limitations 
and restrictions as are limited and appointed liyourRoyall Instructions for the 
Granting of Lands in our Province of New York, for that purpose. Which re- 
quest wee being willing to grant Know Yee that of our Especial Grace certain 
knowledge and meer Motion Wee have given, granted, ratified and confirmed and 
do by these presents for us our heirs and successors for ever Give, Grai t, Ratifie 
and Confirm unto the aforesaid Daniel Pwrty, Samuel Brown and Benjamin 
Brown and to their heirs and assigns for ever. All that the aforesaid Tract of 
Land and Island Containing as before is set forth Four Thousand Five Hundred 
Acres together with all and singular Woods, Underwoods, Houses, Edifices, 
Buildings, Barns, Fences, Orchards, Fields, Fielding, Pastures, Meadows, Mar- 
shes, Swamps, Ponds, Pools, Waters, Watercourses, Rivers, Rivoletts, Runs and 
Streams of Water, Fishing, Fowling, Hunting and Hawking, Quarrys, Mines, 
Mineralls, Standing Growing Lying and being or to be had used or enjoyed with- 
in the limits and bounds aforesaid and all other profits benefits libertys privil- 
edges, Hereditaments and appurtenances to the same belonging or any ways ap- 
pertaining. And all that our Estate, Right, Title, Interest, Claim and Demand 
whatsoever of in or to the same. And the Revertion and Revertions, Remainder 
and Remainders and the Yearly Rents and Profits of the same (Excepting and 
always reserving out of this our present Grant unto us our heirs and successors 
for ever all such Fir Trees and Pine Trees of the Diameter of Twenty-four 
inches at Twelve inches from the ground or root as are or shall be fit to make 
Masts for the use of our said their Royall Navy. As also all such other Trees, 
as are or shall be fit to make planks and Knees for the use of our said their said 
Royall Navy only which now are standing growing or being in and upon any of 
the said Tract of Land and Island with Free Lycence and Liberty for any per- 
son or persons whomsoever by us our heirs and successors or any of them to be 
thereunto authorized and appointed under our and their sign Manual with Work- 
men Horses Waggons Carts and Carriages and without to enter upon and come 
into the same Tract of Land and Island and there to fell cut down root up hiew 
saw rive splitt have take cart and carry away the same Masts, Trees, Planks and 
Knees for the use aforesaid and also Except all Gold and Silver Mines, saving also 
and reserving unto the heirs and assigns for ever of the aforesaid Christopher 
Bridge Eighteen small Tracts of Land which Lye within the said bounds and are 
part of Twenty small Tracts formerly granted to him in his life time by Letters 
Patent under the Great Seal of our said Province of New York bearing Date the 
Nineteenth day of July in the Fourth Year of our Reign saving also and reserv- 
ing unto Lemuel Rogers and Roger Parks, and to their several and respective 
heirs and assigns respectively for ever their Respective Rights Title Interest and 
Equity which they and either of them respectively do shall or may have or claim 
to the Southermost part of the said Island any thing in these Presents to the 
contrary thereof in any ways notwithstanding.) To have and To hold all that the 
aforesaid Tract of Land and Island containing in the whole Four Thousand Five 
Hundred Acres of Land and all other the above granted premises with the 
hereditaments and appurtenances (Saving and Excepting only as before is Excepted 
and Reserved) unto the aforesaid Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown and Benjamin 
Brown, their heirs and assigns for ever, but to and for the uses following and to and 


for no other use whatsoever (that is to say) As for and concerning such Tracts of 
land and hereditaments parts of the before recited Four Thousand Five Hundred 
Acres of Land and Island whereof they the said Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brawn and 
Benjamin Brown arc and stand Lawfully and Rightfully seized and possessed in 
their own several] and respective rights interests and Estate to and for the sole and 
only proper use benefit and behoofe of the aforesaid Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown 
and Benjamin Brown severally aud respectively and of their severally and respec- 
tive heirs and assigns for ever. And as for and concerning such other Tracts of Land 
and hereditaments parts of the before recited Four Thousand, Five Hundred Acres 
of Land and Island which are belonging and apertaining to several other persons 
Freeholders and Inhabitants within the bounds and limits of the same Four 
Thousand Five Hundred Acres of Land and Island some of more, some of less 
according to their severall separate and particular interest in Trust to and for the 
sole and only proper use benefit and behoofe of each particular Freeholder and 
Inhabitants particularly and respectively and of each of their particular and 
respective heirs and assigns for ever in as full and ample manner as if their 
particular Names and their particular and several Freeholds and Inheritances 
were particularly and severally Expressed Mentioned and described in these 
presents. To bee Holden of us our heirs and successors for ever in free and com- 
mon soccage as of our Mannor of East Greenwich in the County of Kent within 
our Realm of Great Brittain Yeilding rendering and paying therefore yearly and 
every year unto us our heirs and successors at our Custom House in New York 
unto our and their Receiver Generall of our said Province for the time being on 
the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary commonly called Lady 
Day the Annual Rent of Two Shillings and six pence Lawful Money of New York 
for every Hundred Acres thereof in Lieu and stead of all other rents services 
Dues Duties and Demands whatsoever for the same Four Thousand Five Hun- 
dred Acres of Land Island and Premises, so granted as aforesaid Provided al- 
ways and these presents are upon this condition that the same Daniel Purdy, 
Samuel Brown and Benjamin Brown and the other Freeholders and Inhabitants 
of the same Tract of Land and Island so granted as aforesaid and their heirs and 
assigns some or one of them have already or shall within the Term and Space of 
three Years next Ensuing the Date hereof settle clear and make improvement of 
three acres of land for every fifty acres of land at least for the same tract of land 
and Island so granted as aforesaid and so proportionably for a larger or smaller 
Tract or parcel thereof and in Default thereof or if the aforesaid Daniel Purdy 
Samuel Brown and Benjamin Brown and the other Inhabitants and Freeholders 
of any part or parts of the same Tract of land and Island or their heirs or assigns 
or any of them or any other person or persons whatsoever by their or any other 
of their privy consent or procurement shall set on fire and burn the Woods on 
the same Tract of land and Island or any part thereof to clear the same that then 
and there and in either of these Two cases this our present Grant and every 
Article and Clause therein or thereof shall cease determine and become utterly 
Void anything in these presents to the contrary thereof in any ways notwith- 
standing. And "Wee do hereby Will and Grant that these our Letters be made 
Patent and that they and the Record of them in our Secretary's Office of our 
Province of New York shall be good and effectuall in the Law of all Intents and 
Purposes Notwithstanding the not true and well reciting of the premises or of 


the limits and bounds thereof or any former or other Grant or Letters Patent for 
the same made or granted to any other person or persons or persons body poli- 
tick or corporate whatsoever, any Laws or other restraint incertainty or imper- 
fection whatsoever to the contrary hereof in anyways Notwithstanding. 

In Testimony whereof "Wee have caused the great Seal of our Province of New 
York to be affixed to these presents and the same to be Eutred on the Record in 
one of the Books of Patents in our said Secretary's Office remaining. Witness our 
said trusty and well beloved Colonel Peter Schuyler President of our C'ouncill 
for our Province of New York in Councill at Fort George iu New York the 
Eleventh day of August in the Seventh Year of our Reign Annoque Domini 
1720. Js. Bolin. Dept. Secy.* 

In 1786 the people of the State, (as successors of the Crown,) claimed 
the arrears of quit rent due upon the tract of four thousand five hundred 
acres, granted to Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown and Benjamin Brown, 
on the nth of August, 1720. 

The lands west of the Blind brook, called by the Indians Apawamis, 
are to be distinguished from the rest of the township of Rye as consti- 
tuting a distinct Patent, called Budd's Neck Patent. This territory, 
which was ' bounded on the east by Blind brook, on the west by the little 
stream whose Indian name was Pockcotessewake, since known as Stony 
brook, or Beaver Meadow brook, and extending northward as far as 
Westchester Path, and southward to the sea,' was purchased of the na- 
tive sachem Shanarocke and other Indians by John Budd, of Southhold, 
Long Island, who now takes the lead instead of Peter Disbrow, the first 
English grantee, under the sachems of Poningoe. 


To all Christian people, Ingains and others whom it may concern, that we, 
whose names are hereunto subscribed, living upon Hudson's river, in America, 
that we, Shanarocke, sagamore, and Rackceate, Napockheast, Tawwheare, Nan- 
derwhere, Tomepawcon, Rawmaquaie, Pawaytahem, Mawmawytom, Howho- 
ranes, Cockkencco, Tawwayco, Attoemacke, Heattomeas, all Ingains, for divers 
good causes and considerations us hereunto moving, have fully and absolutely 
bargained, and doe for ever sell unto John Budd, senior, of Southhole, his heires, 
executors, &c, all our real right, tittell and interest we or eather of us have in 
one track of land lying on the mayn, called Apawammeis, buted and bounded on 
the east with Mockquams river, and on the south with the sea against Long 
Island, and on the west with Pockcotessewake river, and at the north up to the 
marke trees nyeer Westchester Path, all the lands, trees to fell at his pleasure, 
with all the grounds, and meadow grounds and planting grounds, moynes and 
minerals, springs and rivers, or what else lying or being within the said track of 
land, and also range, feeding and grasse for cattell, twenty English miles north- 
ward into the country, and trees to fell at his or their pleasure, and to their pro- 
per use and improvements of the said John Budd, his heirs, executors, &c, for 

a Book of Patents, (Albany) No. vili. 40T 



ever to enjoy, possess and keep as their real right, as also peaceably to inherite 
the sayd track of land with all thereon, and we, the before named Ingains, doe 
acknowledge and confesse to have leceived in hand of the said John Budd, the 
juste sum of eightie pounds sterling in full satisfaction for the aforesaid land 
with all the limits, bounds and privileges with hegrece and regrece, without lett 
or molestation of any one. Now for the more true and reall enjoyment and pos- 
session of the said John Budd, his heirs, &a, we doe jointly and severally, us 
and either of us, or any by and under us, for ever assign and make over by vir- 
tue of this, our deed and bill of sale, disclayme any further right in the sa}'d 
tract of land from the day of the date hereof, and all and each of us do promise 
to put the said John Budd or his into quiet, peaceable possession, and him to keep 
and defend and mayntaine against all person or persons whatsoever that shall di- 
rectly or indirectly lay any clayme or former grant, or shall trouble or molest 
the said John Budd or his, be they English or Dutch, or Ingains, or whatsoever. 
We the aforenamed Ingains doe engage ourselves, heirs, executors, &c, to make 
good this our obligations as aforesaid. I Shanarocke, Rackeate, Mepockheast, 
Tawwahc-are, Xanderwhere, Tomepawcon, Rawmaquaie, Pawwaytahem, Maw- 
ma wytom, Howhoranes, Cockkeneco, Taw r wayen, Attoemacke, Heattomees, have 
hereunto set our hands at time and times, and we doe approve of each of our 
hands to this deed to be good and firm. Witness this our hands this day, being 

the 8th of November, 1661. 
Signed, sealed and delivered, 
Thomas Revell, 
John Coe, 
Thomas Close, 
Humphbey Hughes, 

The mark of Shanorocke, 








Know all men, English and Ingains. that whereas Shanorock sold John Budd 
all the land from the sea to Westchester path, I Shenorock marked trees by Pen- 
ning path do hereby give and grant and acknowledge that I have received full 
satisfaction of him, and according to the true intent of these bounds, he the sayd 
John Budd is to have and enjoy all the land by the Blind brook, to Westchester 
path, witness my hand. 

Witness the 
mark of Ph Cokeo. 
Peter Disbrow. 

The mark of Shanoeocke, <C. 
The mark of Remaquaie. 

Another deed executed eleventh month, fifth day, 1661, related to the 
islands in the Sound near the southern extremity of the territory of Ap- 
awamis. These were Hen and Pine islands, and the Scotch caps. 

Know all men whom this may concern, that I Shenerock, sachem have bar- 
gained sold and delivered unto John Budd the islands lying south from the neck 
of land the sayd John Budd bought of me and other Ingains, and have received 


full satisfaction of Thomas Close for the said John's use, and doc warrant the 
sale above written in the presence of Thomas Close and William Jones. 

The mark of Siienokock, sachem. 
Witnesse Thomas Close, SHENOROCK. 

William Jones, his marke, 

This transaction was followed, in a few days, by the purchase of the 
West Neck, or the tract of land adjoining Budd's Neck, proper, and ly- 
ing between Stony Brook and Mamaroneck river. 

"11 MONTn, TWELFTH DAY, 1661. 

' Know all men whom this may concern, that I Shenorock, Rawmaqua, Rack- 
eatt, Pawwaytahan, Mawmatoe, Howins, have bargained sold and delivered 
unto John Budd a neck of land, bounded by a neck of land he bought of me and 
other Ingana on the south, and with Merremack river on the west, and with 
marked trees to the north, with twenty miles for feeding ground for cattle with 
all the woods, trees, manrodes, meadows and rivers and have received full satis- 
faction in coats and three score fathom of wompom of Thomas Close for the 
said John's use, and to engage myself to warrant the sale thereof against all men, 
English, Dutch and Ingans, and for the faithful performance hereof, I have set 
my hand in the presence of Thomas Close and William Jones, the day and year 
above written. The mark of SHENEROCKE, 

Witnesse Thomas Close, RAWMAQUA, his mark. 

William Jones, his marcke, HOWNIS, 

PRAM, his mark, 
RAZI, his mark.'** 

On the second day of June 1662, we found John Budd in company 
with Peter Disbrow, John Coe and Thomas Studwell, purchasing of the 
Indians Showannorocot, Romkque and others, a tract of land above the 
West Chester Path, and west of Blind Brook, or directly north of Budd's 
Neck. This was the territory of the present town oL Harrison, and 
taken from Rye in 1702. 

' Know all men whom this may concern that we Peter Disbrow, John Coc and 
Thomas Studwell and John Budd have bargained and bought and paid fur to 
the satisfaction of Showannorocot and Roksohtohkor and Powataham and other 
Indians whose names are underwritten a certain tract of land above Westchester 
Path to the marked trees bounded with the above said river Blind Brook ; which 
tract of land with all the privileges of wood, trees, grass, springs, mines and 
minerals, to the said Peter Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas Studwell, to them and 
their heirs for ever ; with warrants against all persons, English, Dutch or Indians. 
To this bargain and sale we the above said Indians do bind ourselves, heirs, and 
assigns to the above said Peter Disbrow, John and the rest above said, to them, 

a Col. Rcc. Hartford, vol. i, pp. 333, 334. 


their heirs and assigns for ever; as witness our hands this present day and date, 
June the 2: 1662. Showannobooot, his mark 

Romkqob, his mark'* 

In 1665 John Budd, sen., grants to John Morgan and John Concklin 
of Flushing, lands situate in Rye upon the south-eastern neck, "bounded 
west by Mamaroneck River, east by great rock in a bottom, south with 
the creek, and north by marked Trees." 

The next year John Budd obtains a confirmation of the Indian grant 
of November 8th 1661, of a tract of land extending northward into the 
country sixteen miles from Westchester Path from the Indian Sachems 
Shanarocke, Romackqua and Pathung : 


To all Christian people, Indians and others whom it may concern that wee who's 
names are hereunto subscribed living upon Hudson's River in America, Shona- 
rocke Sagemore, and Romackqua and Pathung, whereas wee have formerly sold 
a tract of land unto Mr. John Budd, senior, bounded ou the sea by the South, on 
the North by Westchester path and the name of the tract of land is commonly 
called Apauamiss, and whereas wee have sold unto the sayd Mr. John Budd 
twenty English miles northwards from the above said tract of land, which is 
called by Apauamis the above said twenty English miles wee doe acknowledge 
that wee have sold unto Mr. John Budd for range, for feed, for timber, for gras- 
ing, to him and his heirs forever, and now wee doe acknowledge that wee have 
bargained, sold and delivered, wee and every one of us from our Heirs, Executors, 
or assignes jointly and severally unto John Budd, his Heirs, Executors or As- 
signs a tract of land lying within the compass of the above sayd twenty English 
miles bounded on the south by Westchester path and on the East by the Blind 
Brook and on the West by Mamaraneck River and the north bounds is sixteen 
miles (English miles) from Westchester path up into the country, for which land 
we have received already in hand a certaine sume to the value of twenty pounds 
sterling for the above sayd track of land, for which land we are fully satisfied by 
the sayd John Budd for the above sayd track of land for the which wee doe ac- 
knowledge wee have bargained, sold and delivered unto John Budd and His 
Heirs forever with warrantie against all men, English, Dutch, and Indians and 
doe give him full possession and promise so to keep him to the which bargaine 
and agreement wee have hereunto set our hands this day, being the 29th of April, 
Witness, Joseph Hoetou, The mark of SHANAROCKE, 

Witness, John Rawls, The mark of ROMACKQUA, 

a sachems Son, 
The mark of Cokoe the Indian, The mark of PATHUNG. 

Recorded May 10, 1673, in the public records of ye book ffol 32, pme, Jno. 
Allyn, Secretry - A true copie compared by Edward Colier. b 

a Baird's Hist, of Rye, p. 15. 

b New York Col. MSS. Land papers. 1W2-1631, vol. I. p. 10, OOL Rec. of Conn., vol. (MS.) p. 


" By the several purchases now recorded," says Baird, " the founders 
of this town acquired the title to a very considerable territory. The 
southern part of it alone comprised the tract of land between Byrani 
River and Mamaroneck River, while to tiie north it extended twenty 
miles, and to the northwest an indefinite distance. These boundaries, 
so far as they were stated with any degree of clearness, included, be- 
sides the area now covered by the towns of Rye and Harrison, much of 
the towns of North Castle and Bedford in New York, and of Green- 
wich in Connecticut ; whilst in a northwesterly direction the territory 
claimed was absolutely without a fixed limit. Indeed, we shall see that 
as the frontier town of Connecticut, Rye long cherished pretensions to 
the whole region beyond, as far as the Hudson." 

Yet as ambitious as the proprietors of this town appear to have been 
in general, they viewed with great suspicion the progress of individual 
enterprise, especially in selling or disposing of any of the lands in ques- 
tion. In consequence the extensive purchases and subsequent sales of 
John Budd gave them no little degree of anxiety; for we find the follow- 
ing petition dispatched to the General Court at Hartford by the inhabit- 
ants of Rye, on the 2d of October, 1668 : 

The humble petition of the inhabitants of the town of Rye, to the Right Honorable the Governor 
and the rest of the gentlemen of the General Court at Hartford : 

May it please your Honor, with the gentlemen of the General Courte, to under- 
stand that about four years since, that John Budd did present a paper with 
several names to it, of inhabitants on his neck or island, so called and patented. 
It was for the settling of himself and children ; on which we conceived had it 
been performed it had done noe great injury to the towne ; but he noe ways pre- 
tended it, as aoth agree, but hath and doth dayley let it and settle people upon 
it, extreamely prejuditiall to the towne, without the towne's approbation, which 
wee humbly conceave may be our iujury if not speedily prevented ; Doe bumbly 
request that neck of land may be delivered up to the town, we paying him by 
Indian purchases with interest, he abating for what land he hath sold, if not pre- 
juditiall to the towne. And them that are prejuditiall, may be removed, and 
that you would be pleased to depute two or three persones whom you shall think 
meet, to come and settell amongst us with what speed may be. Soe we rest your 
humble petitioners. 

Peter Disbeow, William Woodhull, Robert Bloomer, ' 
Richard Vowles, John Brondig, Stephen Sherwood, 

Timothy Knapp, Thomas Browxb, George Lane. 

"On the 15th of October, 1672, the general courte assembled at 
Hartford, ordered that Mr. Budd and those of Rye, that have appropri- 
ated the lands of Rye to themselves shall appear at general court in 
a Baird's Hisu of Rye, pp. IT, is. 


May next, to make appear their right. For the general court intends 
to settle those lands according to righteousness, that no plantation may 
be discouraged, and plantation work may goe forward to better satisfac- 
tion than formerly."" 

The court must subsequently have confirmed John Budd, in his rights 
as proprietor, (while at the same time they showed the neck to be incor- 
porated into the town of Rye,) for we find him in 16S1-2, granting a 
piece of meadow land lying westward of John Ogden, to John Hor- 
ton. b 

In 16S5, John Budd, of Southhold, in New England, sold to Joseph 
Purdy a certain tract of land in Rye, lying and being upon the neck 
called Epawainos, bounded on the east by Blind Brook, &c, &c. Also 
a parcel of land upon the same to Judith Brown and Joseph Ogden, 
April 29, 1685. c 

The following orders were issued to the surveyor general, by his Ex- 
cellency the governor in council, the 20th of February, 1695-6 : 

" You are hereby required to survey and lay out for Joseph Budd in 
order to a patent, all the land contained in an Indian purchase in West- 
chester Co., made A. D. 1661 ; from the Sound to the marked trees near 
Westchester path, bounded on the west by the Mamaroneck River, on 
the east by parte of Blind Brook," and this shall be to you a sufficient 

To Anthony Graham, Surveyor General, By order of Council. 

In consequence of the unsettled state of the boundary lines between 
the two colonies of New York and Connecticut, Joseph Budd failed in 
obtaining his patent at this time. 

The general court also refused him a patent for his paternal lands in 
1 7 10, upon the ground that the former patent granted was sufficient. 6 It 
was not until the year 1720 that the Crown confirmed the Budd pur- 
chase by royal letters patent under the great seal of the province of New 
York, to Joseph Budd, John Hoight and Daniel Purdy ; the patentees 
yielding and rendering therefor yearly, to the Governor, on the feast day 
of the blessed Virgin Mary, commonly called Lady Day, the annual rent 
of one pound nineteen shillings : — 

a Hartford Rec. vol. III. 29. 

b County Rec. Lib. B. 84. 

c County Rec. Lib. A. p. 14. 

d Indian Deeds, Alb. Rec. warrant for survey, Lib. 39. 

e Hartford, Rec. vol. IV, 121. 1. Local officers were sometimes appointed specifically by 
the town for the ' east side of Blind Brook : — ' 2d of Aug., 1700, the town in general doth grant 
unto the inhabitanc? of the neck of appoquamas, the liberty to have pound and pounders and 
fenci viewers.' Baird's Hist, of Kve. 


George, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, De- 
fend* r of the faith, Sue To all to whom these presents shall conic, mndvih greet- 
ing, whereas our loving Bubjects Joseph Budd, John Hoight and Daniel Purdy, in- 
habitants of the Toicib of Rye, in the County of West Cluster, by their petition 
presented to our trusty and well beloved Colonel Peter Schuyler, President of the 
I \ for our Province of New York, Have set forth that in Virtue of a pur 

chase made by John Budd in his life time, the Father of the aforesaid Joseph 
Budd by Lycence from the Government of Connecticut Colony, bearing Date the 
Eighth Day of November, One Thousand Six Hundred and Sixty, of a certain 
Tract or pureed of land in the Bounds of the Township of R je, in the County of 
Westchi stei; then call:' 1 Apawguamvmis, bounded East by a River then called 
Maekguams River, Southerly by the Sea or Sound against Long Island, now 
called th • island of Nassau. Westerly by a River then called Pochoteswake Ricer, 
and Northerly by .Marked Trees near "West Chester Path, that the said petitioners 
"with Diverse others of our Loving subjects, inhabitants of the same Township of 
Eye, who have and do hold and enjoy the same Tract of Land by from or under 
the same John Budd, and his heirs and assigns have cultivated and improved the 
same at their great charge, and \* ith great labor and industry, and have been and 
are now hitherto peaceable and Quietly possessed thereof, praying to have the 
same confirmed to them by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Province 
of New York, in the manner as is hereafter Described (that is to say; all that 
Tract or Neck of Land in the Township of Bye, in the County of Westcliester, in 
the Province of New York now called Budd's purcliase, Beginning at a certain 
grist Mill, called Joseyh Lyon's Mill, standing on a Brook called Blind Brook, 
thence up the stream of said Brook including the said Mill until it meets withal 
small Brook called or known by the name of Bound Brook, thence on a North 
W( St course until it meets with Westchester Old Road, then Southwesterly 
along the said Road as it runs to a White Oak Tree Marked on two sides stand- 
ing on the West side of a certain brook known by the name of Stony Brook 
which White Oak Tree is the South West corner of a certain patent called LTur- 
Patent thence from said White Oak Tree on a North West course to an 
Ash Tree Marked on two sides standing on the East side of Mamarroneck River 
close by the edge of said River as it runs to the place where the said Mamarron- 
eck River emptys itself into Mamarroneck Harbour or Creek thence Southerly 
to where said Mamarroneck Harbour or Creek falls into the Sound thence East- 
erly along the Sound untill it meets with a certain Creek called Mill Creek on the 
head whereof the aforesaid Grist Mill of Joseph Byon is standing thence up the 
channell of said Creek as it runs until it meets the aforesaid Grist Mill where it 
first begun, Bounded Easterly by Blind Brook and Mill Creek Northerly by 
Westchester Road and Harrisons Patent Westerly by Mamarroneck River and 
Harbour and Southerly by the Sound together with a small Island called Hen 
Island lying in the Sound over against the said lands about a quarter of a Mile 
from the Main containing in the whole Main land and Island fifteen hundred and 
sixty acres, To Hold to them and their heirs and assigns forever, but to and for 
the use and uses following and to no other use whatsoever (that is to say) as for 
and concerning such Tracts of land and hereditaments part of the afore recited 
Tract of land and Island whereof they the said Joseph Budd, John Hoight and 



Daniel Purdy are and stand Lawfully raid Rightfully seized and possessed in 
tluir own several! and respective rights interest and estate to and for the sole 
and only proper use benefit and behoof of the aforesaid Joseph Budd, John 
Uoiglit and Daniel Purdy severally and respectively and of their severall and re- 
spective heirs and assigns for ever, And OS for and concerning such other Tracts 
of Lands parts of the before recited Tract of Land and Island which belonging 
and appertaining to severall other persons Freeholders and Inhabitants within 
the bounds of the same Tract of Land and Island some more and some less ac- 
cording to their severall separate and particular interest and for the sole and only 
proper use benefit anil behoof of each particular Freeholder and Inhabitant par- 
ticularly and respectively and of each of their particular and respective heirs and 
assigns for ever in as full and ample manner as if their names were particularly and 
severally mentioned and expressed and their particular and severall Freeholds 
were particularly and severally mentioned and Described under the usual Quit 
Reut with the usual Clauses provisions conditions limitations and restrictions as 
are limited and appointed by our Royall Instructions for Granting of land in our 
said province. Which request Wee being willing to Grant, Knmo Fee that of our, 
Especial Grace Certain Knowledge and Meer Motion Wee have given granted 
ratifyed and confirmed and do by these presents for us our heirs and successors 
give grant ratifie and confirm unto the said Joseph Budd, John Hoight, and 
Daniel Purely, and to their heirs and assigns for ever, Ail that the aforesaid 
Tract of land and Island before it containing in the whole Fifteen Hundred and 
Sixty Acres in manner and form as last mentioned aud Described together with 
all and singular Woods, Under woods, Houses, Edifices, Buildings Barns Fences 
Orchards Fields Feedings, Pastures, Meadows, Marshes, Swamps, Ponds, Pools, 
Waters Water Courses Rivers, Rivoletts, Runs and Streams of Water, Fishing, 
Fowling, Hunting and Hawking Quarries Mines Mineralls, standing growing ly- 
ing and being or to be had used and enjoyed within the limits and bounds afore- 
said and all other profits benefits libertys privileges hereditaments and appurte- 
nances to the same belonging or any ways appertaining, And all that our Estate 
Right Title Interest Benefit Claim and Demand whatsoever of in or to the same 
and the Revertion and Revertions Remainder and Remainders and the Yearly 
Rents and profits of the same Excepting and always Reserving out of this our 
present Grant unto us our heirs and successors for ever all such Fir Trees and Pine 
Trees of the Diameter of twenty-four Inches at twelve Inches from the Ground 
or Root as are or shall be fit to make Masts for our Royall Navy as also all such 
other Trees as are or shall be fit to make Planks or Knees for the use of our said 
Royall Navy only which now are standing growing or being which for ever 
hereafter shall be standing growing or being in and upon any of the said Tract of 
Land and Island with Free Lycence and Liberty for any person and persons 
whomsoever by us our heirs and successors or any of them to be thereunto au- 
thorized and appointed under our or their Sign Manual with Workmen Horses 
Waggons Carts and Carnages, and without to enter upon and come into the same 
Tract of Land and Island and there to fell cut down root up hiew saw rive split 
have take cart and carry away the same Trees Planks Masts and Knees for the 
use aforesaid and also Except all Gold and Silver Mines To have and to hold all 
that the aforesaid Tract of Land and Island before it containing in the whole 
Fifteen Hundred and Sixty Acres and all other the above Granted Premisses 


with the hereditaments and appurtenances (Excepting only as before is Excepted 
and Reserved) unto the aforesaid Joseph Budd, John Jloight and Daniel Purdy 
their heirs and assigns lor ever, but to and for the uses following and to and for 
no other use whatsoever (that is to sa}') as for and concerning such Tracts 
of Land and Hereditaments part or parts of the before recited Tract of 
Land and Island herein and hereby Granted whereof they the said Joseph 
Budd, John IIuigM, and Daniel Purdy are and stand Lawfully and Rightfully 
Beized and possessed in their own and severall and Respective Rights Interest 
and Estate to and for the sole and only proper use benefit and behoof of the said 
Joseph Budd, John Jloight and Daniel Purdy severally and respectively and their 
severall and respective Heirs and assigns forever, And as for and concerning 
such other Tracts of Land and hereditaments part or parts of the before recited 
Tract of Laud and Island herein and hereby Granted Avliieh are or shall be be- 
longing and appertaining to severall other persons Freeholders and Inhabitants 
within the bounds of the same Tract of land and Island some more and some less 
according to their severall seperate and particular Estate and Interest in trust to 
and for the sole and only proper use benefit and behoof of each particular Free- 
holder and Inhabitant particularly and respectively and of each of their particu- 
lar and respective heirs and assigns for ever in as full and ample manner as if 
their severall Karnes and their severall and respective Freeholds and Inheritances 
were particularly and severally Described and Exprest in these presents To Bee 
Holden of us our heirs and successors in free and common soccage as of our Man- 
nor of East Greenwich in the County of Kent within the Realm of Great Brittain 
Teilding rendring and paying therefore uuto us our heirs and successors unto our 
and their Receiver Generall for the Province of New York for the time being at 
our Custom House in the City of New York Yearly and every Year for ever on 
the Feast Day of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary commonly called 
Lady Day the annual rent of Two Shillings and Six pence for every hundred 
acres of the said Tract of Land and Island and so proportionably for a smaller 
quant it}- (that is to say) the sum of One Pound Nineteen shillings for the whole 
Tnut of Land and Island in Lieu and Stead of all other Rents services Dues 
Duties and Demands whatsoever for the same Tract of Land Island and Premisses 
so Granted as aforesaid, Provided always and these presents are upon this Con- 
dition that the same Joseph Budd, JohnLToight and Daniel Purdy, and the other 
Free-holders and Inhabitants of the same Tract of Land and Island so Granted as 
aforesaid and their heirs and assigns some or One of them have or shall within 
the Term and Space of three Years next ensuing the Date hereof settle clear and 
make improvement of three acres of Land at least for every Fifty Acres of the 
said Tract of Land and Island and so proportionably for a larger or smaller Tract 
or parcell thereof ; and in Default thereof the said Joseph Budd, JohnHoight and 
Dai, id Purdy, and the other Inhabitants and Freeholders of any part or parts of 
the said Tract of Land and Island or their heirs or assigns or any of them or any 
other person or persons by their or any of their privity consent or procurement 
shall set on fire and bum the Woods on the same Tract of Land and Island or 
any part thereof to clear the same that then and in either of these cases this our 
present Grant and every article and clause thereof shall become Void, cease and 
Determine any thing in these presents to the contrary thereof in any ways Not- 
withstanding ; and wee do hereby Will and Grant that these our Letters be made 


Patent and that ( hey and the Record of them in onr Secretary's office of o«r 
Province of New Fork, shall be good and Effectual in the Law Notwithstanding 
the not true and well reciting of the premises or of the bounds thereof or of any 
former or other Letteis Patent or Grant for the same made or granted to any 
other person or persons Body Corporate or Politick whatsoever by us or any of 
our Royal! ancestors or predecessors any Lav,* or other restraint uncertainity or 
imperfect ion whatsoever to the contrary hereof in any ways Notwithstanding. In 
Testimony whereat wee have caused the great seal of our Province of New York 
aforesaid to be affixed to these presents and the same to be Entered of Record in 
one of the Books of Patents in our said Secretary's office remaining Witness our 
said Trusty and well-beloved Colonel Peter Schuyler President of our Councill 
for our Province of New York in Councill at Fort George in New York the 
twenty-eight Day of July in the sixth year of our Reign Annoq Domini 1720. 

JS. BOLIN, Deptv Sec-y-a 

The Budd or Rye neck patent was subsequently divided among the 
following proprietors, viz. James Gedney, 102 acres; Daniel Purdy, 
drummer of Rye, 40 acres; John Carpenter, a portion joining Mama- 
roneck river ; Mr. William Bowness, of Rye, 2 acres ; that portion 
called the Gusset to Joseph Ogden ; a second of 30 acres to Joseph 
Lyon; Daniel Purdy, 3 acres; Monmouth Hart, 15 acres; James 
Wood, 5 acres; Archibald Tilford, iS acres; The residue to John 

25 March, 1745. Peter Jay leased of John Budd 250 acres, and ob- 
tained a release for the same the succeeding day. & 

The name of John Roome occurs as lessee for the whole patent, of 
1560 acres, the same year. 

4 September, 1746. Peter Jay purchased four acres of meadow on 
Hen Island of Monmouth Hart. c 

The partition deed between Sir James Jay, Peter Jay, John Jay and 
Frederick Jay, sons of Peter deceased, recites "that Peter Jay deceased 
devised all his real estate to his four sons, and conveyed in severalty to 
Peter Jay the Rye farm, as conveyed by John Budd to Peter Jay de- 
ceased by lease and release of 25th and 26th of March, 1745.-- 

The Jays have since added to their original grant by other purchases 
from the families of the Harts, Gedneys, Guions, and Haines, &c. 

Peter Jay by will bearing date, 1st September, 1797, devised all his 
real estate to his brother John Jay, who thereupon became seized of the 
whole premises in severalty. The Hon. John Jay by a deed, dated 16th 

a Albany Book of Patents, Lib. via, p, 375 and 3S7, 461, 

6 County riec. Lib. K, 132, 133, 128. 

c Co. Rec. Lib. R, 138. 

d Extract from <1 (taction of title, in possession of John C Jay, Esq. 


September, 1822, conveyed them in fee to the late Peter Augustus, Esq., 
father of the present proprietor, making the fourth generation that has 
occupied this spot. 

The Guions are also owners of a large portion of the Budd or Rye 
neck patent. 

The village of Rye is pleasantly situated upon the New York and 
Boston turnpike, one mile and a half north of Long Island Sound. The 
Mockquams or Blind Brook, a perennial stream, flows through the place, 
and adds much to the beauty of the surrounding scenery. It derives its 
source from the romantic hills north of the village. The principal spring 
is located on the lands of the late Edwin Keeler. In its progress south, 
this stream, fed by numerous tributaries, affords excellent mill seats.* 

The first settlement in the town was made near the ford, at the south- 
ern end of Manussing Island, in 1660; while other habitations, which 
were subsequently erected on the bank, overlooking the beach, and on 
or near " Burying Hill," formed a kind of suburb to the island village. 
To the latter place the first proprietors gave the name of Hastings, after 
the famous seaport of that name in Sussex, England. Part of the main 
land received this appellation, together with the island. ' The bounds of 
Hastings ' extended, as we have seen, about as far north, on Peningoe 
Neck, as the present village of Port Chester. But some time elapsed be- 
fore any improvements were attempted in this direction. For two or 
three years, certainly, the planters confined themselves to their insular 

The three purchasers of the island — Disbrow, Coe and Studwell — 
were soon joined by other adventurers, if, indeed, they were not accom- 
panied by them at the outset. The following are the names of all the 
planters of whom we have any record, as belonging to the island settle- 
ment : — 

a In the town records occurs the following entry :— "March 3d, 169C. Samuel Lane and Jo- 
seph Lyon are, or either of them, permitted to build a fulling or grist mill xtpon Blind Brook, 
above the town, provided they choose their location in three weeks, and build the fulling mill 
iu three years. This mill is supposed to have occupied the site of the present grist and saw 
mill of Mr. James E. Beers, so that a mill has stood upon this stream for one hundred and 
forty years at least. The ancient Budd mill, the first building erected on the river land, was 
located on the west side of Blind Brook, south of the present stone bridge at the entrance of 
the village. The following extracts relate to the erection of other mills on the Mamaroneck 
and Byram rivers: In 1705, the town granted unto Samuel nunt, of Rye, the stream of Mam- 
aroneck river at the falls of the said river, off Humphery Underbills, to erect and build a 
gristmill or mills upon the said stream ; and the said Samuel Hunt is to grind 1 he town's corn 
for the fourteenth part.' In 1712, the town 'granted unto Richard Ogdin the privilege of the 
Btream in Byram river, between the lower going over and the country road to erect and build a 
miil or mills, &c. 



Peter Disbrow, 
John Coe, 
Thomas Studwell, 
Jons Bcdd, 
William Odell, 

Richard Vowles, 
Samuel Alling, 
Robert Hudson, 
JonN Broxdish, 
Frederick Harminson, 

Jatfrey Lokwood and 

Making seventeen in all."* 

Thomas Applebe, 
Philip Galpix, 
George Clere, 
John Jackson*, 
Walter Lancaster, 


From the island village the early settlers issued their declaration of 
allegiance to their sovereign Lord, King Charles, the Second, dated — 

"Hastings, July 26, 1662. 

" Know all men whom this may concern that [we the] inhabitants of Minnus- 
sing Island whose n[ames are here] vuder writtne, do declare vnto all the true 
[th] we came not hither to live without government as pr [etended] and therfore 
doe proclayme Charles the Second ovr lawful lord and king : and doe volunta- 
ryly submit our selves and all ovr lands that we have bought of the English and 
Indians, under his gratious protection : and doe expect according to his gratious 
declaration ; unto all his subjects which we are and desire to be subject to his 
holsom laws that are jvst and Righteous according to God and our capableness 
to receive, where unto we doe subscribe. 
Which aid yee. 

Jatfrey Lokwood, 

The mark of Mosier, 

The mark of Samuel Alling, 

The mark of Robert Hutsone, 
John Beondish, 

The mark of Frederick Harminsonb, 

The mark of Thomas Applebe. 6 

Peter Disbrow, 

John Coe, 
The mark of Thomas Stcdwell, 
The mark of William Odellb, 

To this declaration is appended the following compact and orders, 
(showing the bounds of the future Township of Hastings?) 

u We do agree that for our land bought on the mayn land, called in the Indian 
Poningoe, and in English the Biaram land, lying between the aforesaid Biaram 
river and the Blind Brook, bounded east and west with these two rivers, and on 
the north with Westchester path, and on the south with the sea, for a plantation, 
and the name of the town to be called Hastings. 

And now, lastly, we have jointly agreed that he that will subscribe to these or- 

a Baird's Hist, of Rye, p. 21. 

b The original of this interesting document is unfortunately lost. The author of this work 
made » careful tracing, fr on the lir-r volume of the town records of R>e, which has since 
disappeared. A lithographed facsimile copv of this declaration will be found in Baird's His- 
tory of Rye, pp. 22, 23. 


ders, here is land for him, and he that doth refuse to subscribe hereunto, we have 

no land for him." Hastings, July 26, 1622. The planters hands to these orders, 

Benjamin Waypen, RobEet Hutson, 

John May, John Beondish, 

Samuel Allin, Frederick Harminson. 

Thomas Apflebe." 

Aug. 11, 1662. These orders made by the purchasers of the land with our 

Peter Disbrow, John Coe, 

Thomas Stud well. William Odell.& 

Under the royal charter obtained by the celebrated John Winthrop, 
of King Charles, 2d May, 30th, 1662, Hastings was included in the lim- 
its of the colony of Connecticut, and its inhabitants were required there- 
fore to send deputies to the next meeting of the General Court, to be 
held at Hartford ; a meeting was called, and Richard Vowles was chosen 
by the inhabitants of Hastings ' to go to Fairfield, and there be qualified 
as constable for the plantation ; shortly after, the settlers addressed the 
following letter to the General Court : ' c 

From Hasting, the 1st mth. 26 : 1663. 
Much Honored Sires: — Wee, the inhabitance of the towne of Hasting, whose 
names are heer underwritne : being seted upon a small tract of land lying be- 
twixt Greenwich and Westchester: which land wee have bought with our mon- 
ey : the which : wee understand doth lye within your patent : and where as you 
have allredy required our subjection : as his maiesties subjects, which we did will- 
ingly and redily embrace and according to your desiouer : we sent a man to Fair- 
field who have there taken the oathe of a Constable : we have now made choyse 
of our nayghbar John Bud foradeputi, and sent him up to your Corte to act for 
us, as hee shall see good : it is our desiouer: to have [some] settled way of Gov- 
ernment amongst us : and therefore we do crave so much favor at the hands of 
the honorable Cort : that whether they do make us a constable oraney other offe- 
sere that they would give him povr to grant a warrant in case of need, because 
we be som what at remote from other places : thus leaving it to your wise and 
judicious consideration, we remayn yours to command : 

Peter Disbrow, William Odell, 

Richard Ffowls, John Brondig, 

This is ouer desier George Clere, John Jagson, 

In the name of the Philip Galpine, Thomas Studwell, his mark, 

Rest. John Coe, Walter Lancaster his mark. v ' 

a Rye Rec. Lib. A, lost since 1848. 

i Ditto. 

c Baird's, nist of Rye. 

</ Hartford Rec. vol. I, No. 66, on towns and lands. See Baird's Hist, of Rye, p. 25. 


" The modest request of the men of Hastings was granted after some 
delay. At the session of the General Court in Hartford, on the eighth 
of October, 1663." 

' Lnt. John Budd ' makes his appearance, and ' is appoynted Commis- 
sioner for the town of Hastings, and is invested with Magistraticall 
power within the limits of that town ' Moreover, ' Rich. Vowles is ap- 
poynted Constable for the Town of Hastings, and Mr. Bud is to give 
him oath.' a 

On the twenty-eight of April, 1663, the four purchasers, Disbrow, Coe, 
Studwell and Budd, by a deed of sale conveyed the island, together with 
the land on the main, to the following planters : Samuel Allen, Richard 
Fowles, Philip Galpin, Thomas Applebe, William Odell, John Brondig, 
and John Coe. According to the terms of this transfer, the planters 
were to pay forty shillings a lot, in cattle or corn, between the above 
date and the month of January ensuing. 6 

The merging of the two villages of Hastings and Rye into one planta- 
tion was ordered by an act of the General Court of Assembly, holdenat 
Hartford, May nth, 1665 : " That the villages of Hastings and Rye 
shall be for the future conjoined and made one plantation, and that it 
shall be called by the appellation of Rye ; and Mr. Gold, Mr. Lawes and 
John Banks are appointed to go and settle the differences between the 
inhabitants of Hastings and Rye, and also see the line between Stam- 
ford and Greenwich run."" 

At the following session of the General Court " Mr. Lowes and Lt. 
Richard Olmstead are desired and appointed to view the lands apper- 
teineing to Hastings and Rye to see what there is that may be suitable 
for a plantation and to m*.ke returne to the Court the next session."* 4 

" Within the next five or six years, the village on Manussing Island 
ceased to be. Most of the planters who had remained there till now, 
came over and united with their new associates in building upon the 
present site of the village." 6 

"A. D. 1666, John Budd, Sen., of Rye, for and in consideration of 
thirty-seven pounds, ten shillings, sells his lands, divided by agreement 
of the men of Hastings now called Rye, to George Kniffer of Stratford ; 
the house being situated in the town formerly called Hastings. 

In presence of us, Francis Brown 

and Daniel Simkins."^ 

a Public Records, etc., 1678-1689. p. 5. 

b Rye Records, vol. A., lost since 1848. 

c Hartford Records, vol. ii., 208. _..„..... T „ im ».->« 

d Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, 1665-1678. Edited by J. Hammond TrumbaU, 

e Baird'a Hist, of Rye, p. 30. Traces of several dwellings have been found on the Southern 
end of the island where they appear to have formed a cluster, a few rods apart. The sum- 
mer house on the late Mr. Wm. P. Van Rensselaer's grounds, indicates about the spot where 
this little village stood."— Baird's Hist, of Rye. See note, p. 20. 

/ Probate Rec. of Fairfield Co., from 1665 to 1675. 


" In 166S, John Coe sold to Stephen Sherwood his 'house and hous- 
ing and home lot, upon the north end of Manussing Island. The Goes, 
Sherwoods and Vowles were the principal owners in 1707, when Jon- 
athan Vowles conveyed his share of lands in this locality to his son-in- 
law, Roger Park.' 'As late as the year 1720, the island had a popula- 
tion sufficiently large to claim the right to erect a pound.' ' About the 
middle of the last century, the families of Fowler, Carpenter, Dusen- 
berry and Haviland appear as the owners.' The island is now owned 
by Mrs. William P. Van Rensselaer, Charles T. Cromwell, Esq., and 
John Erring, Esq. 

In the main street of the village of Rye there tormerly stood an ancient 
stone tavern, known as Van Sicklen's. This building had been erected 
in the early days of the settlement, when it served the double purpose of 
a residence and a fortification. It was built of rough stone and clay; 
its walls was thirty inches in thickness, and one story high, with an old 
fashioned pitched roof. The dimensions being forty feet in width, and 
twenty-four in depth. It faced the south, with one of its gable ends 
fronting on the Turnpike road. In the upper portion of the westerly 
end of the wall there was an embrasure or port-hole, which, from having 
always been there had given the house the name of " The Old Stone 
Fort." The following order is presumed to relate to this edifice ; which 
was torn down in May, 1868: 

"March 5th, 1676, at a town meeting, Thomas Lyon and Thomas 
Brown are appointed to choose a house or a place to be fortified for the 
safety of the town. Also the young men who come into the fortification 
and remain during the troubles'* are to have an equal proportion of the 
undivided lands, provided they be such as the town approve." 6 

Upon the 13th of July, 1681, "the town authorized John Ogden and 
George Kniffen to purchase a barrel of powder and three hundred 
weight of lead of Mr. Budd of Fairfield, or wherever it can be obtained 
the cheapest. These are to be kept for the use of the town." 

At this early period, the Indians were very numerous, and the sur- 
rounding country was infested with wolves. On the 15th of Decem- 
ber, 1689, a bounty of fifteen shillings was ordered to be raised by a 
town rate, for the killing of wolves. 

a King Philip's war with New England. On the lbth of March, 16T6, (eight days after the 
date of the above order,) the entire town of Groton, Conn., consisting of forty houses, was 
burned by the Indians. Mr. Bainl thinks that for a time the old stone fort or tavern was the 
homestead of Peter Disbrow. " Mr. Isaac Denham, son of the first minister of Kye, lived here 
afterwards. The piece of ground upon which the house stood is perhaps the only one of the 
original ' town lo*s; ' the size and shape of which can be distinctly traced. It measured two 
acres and a half when bought in 186$ by the Methodist Episcopal congregation."— liaird's 
Rye, p. 34. 

b Town Rec. voL i, p. 73. 


By an act of Assembly of the Province of New York, passed in 1692, 
Rye was erected into a market town, and was entitled to the extraordi- 
nary privilege of holding and keeping a yearly fair, on the second Tues- 
day in October, to end on the Friday next, following, being in all four 
days, " for selling of all country produce and other effects whatsoever." 
It appears, however, that the inhabitants had not chosen to avail them- 
selves of this great privilege until 1771, when they petitioned his Excel- 
lency, the Right Honorable John Ead, of Dunmore, Commander in 
Chief in and over the Province of New York, to " appoint Doctor 
Ebenezer Haviland, of said Rye, to be Governor, and to have full 
power, according to said Act of Assembly, to keep and hold a fair in 
said Rye, in the month of October next." This petition was signed by 
fifty-seven inhabitants, and was presented to Governor Dunmore in 
April, 1 771. His Excellency graciously appointed Dr. Haviland to be 
Governor of such a fair, to be kept at Rye on the second Tuesday in 
October, yearly, and to end the Friday next following, being in all four 
days, and no longer. 41 

Courts of Special Sessions were also held in Rye during the Colonial 

"A great event for Rye," says Baird, "was the establishment of a 
Ferry in 1739, between this town and Oyster Bay, Long Island. The 
charter issued in that year for this purpose, sets forth that ' the principal 
freeholders and proprietors of the lands in the two patents called Budd's 
Neck and Penning's Neck, have made application for it/ The inhabi- 
tants generally seem to have taken a deep interest in the enterprise. 
Messrs. John Budd, Hachaliah Brown and Jonathan Brown were at the 
head of it. The list of subscribers, towards the expense of obtaining the 
patent, embraces twenty-six names. Those who thus contributed were 
to ' enjoy a share of the privileges and emoluments of the ferry in pro- 
portion to the sums ' subscribed." 

"This ferry continued in use till the latter part of the century. In 
1786, Mr. Isaac Brown, of Rye, purchased the rights of the proprietors 
of Rye Ferry."<* 

Many handsome villas and country residences adorn the village of 
Rye. The Kingsland Place, now owned by Jasper E. Corning, Esq., is 
a beautiful specimen of the old English style. The gables are enriched 
with elaborately carved scroll work, and surmounted by finials. The 

a See Baird's Hist, of Rye, p. 212. 
b Baird's Hist of Rye, p. 78. 
c Ditto do do. 
d Ditto do do. 


oriel windows present a light and airy effect. The whole structure is ele- 
gantly furnished, internally as well as externally. The residence of Wil- 
liam H. Parsons is beautifully situated upon the margin of Blind brook. 
South of the former is the residence of the late Hachaliah Brown, whose 
family had, for five generations, occupied the estate. The Browns were 
descended from Thomas Brown, Esq., of Rye, County of Sussex, Eng- 
land, who emigrated to Concord, Mass , circ. 1632, from whence he re- 
moved to Cambridge, where he lived some time. His sons were Thomas, 
of Rye, who died 1694, and Hachaliah, of Rye." a who died about 1720. 
In 1756, Major Hachaliah, fourth son of Hachaliah Brown, of Rye, 
commanded the Westchester Levies, under General Lord Amherst in the 
French war, and was Justice of the Peace for many years. 

Rye station, on the New Haven Railroad, is situated on Purchase 
street. The building is a light iron structure, containing telegraph 
office, passenger, and freight rooms. Distant twenty-four miles from 
New York ; upwards of twenty-three trains running daily, and running 
time — fifty-one minutes. 

The drives about Rye are proverbially beautiful. The Boston turnpike, 
or post-road, traverses the entire length of the town — a distance of six 
miles and a half, from Mamaroneck to Byram river. It is a wide avenue, 
lately graded and macadamized, and lined on either side, entire distance, 
by valuable country seats and stately mansions, with here and there a 
superb glimpse of the Sound and the Long Island shore. 

The village contains, besides a pest office, several stores and three 
churches. Among the private educational institutions may be mentioned 
a seminary for young ladies, and one for boys (Park Institute), while the 
facilities for public instruction are also excellent. For a number of 
years Mr. Samuel U. Berrian had charge of the well-known Chresto- 
mathic Institute of Rye, and met with great success in his professional 
labors — both as a teacher and a disciplinarian. 

North-east of the village, bordering on Purchase street, is the property 
of the late Josiah Purdy. The Purdy family were among the early set- 
tlers of Hartford and Fairfield, Connecticut. Francis Purdy, 6 the first 
of the family or whom we have any account, died in 1658, at Fairfield. 
His three sons — John, Joseph and Francis — came early to Rye ; John 
in the year 1670, Joseph by 1677, and Francis by 1679. Their de 
scendants are now quite numerous throughout the country. 

a Baird's nist, of Rye, p. 399. 

b An Inventory of the goods, chattels, kc, of Francis Purdy and his estate, H Oct., 165S 
Prob. Rec. of Fairiield, 1648-165C., p. 89. Burke in hit General Armory gives the coats of two 
families of the name of Pnrdj or Purdie: " Or, on a chev. az. betw. three mullets sa. pierced 
of the field. Crest, a peacock head erased gu. ; another crest, a dexter head holding a roll 
of parchment, ppr. Motto, Fidelitas." 


The first religious society of Rye was Congregational, at that time the 
established religion of the colony of Connecticut. By authority it had 
been enacted that " no person within the colony should embody them- 
selves in church estate, without the consent of the General Court." The 
law also prohibited any ministry being attended by the inhabitants in 
any plantation district, and separate from that which was established 
in the place, except by the approbation of the General Court and the 
neighboring churches. 

" One object of these laws was, doubtless, to prevent Baptists, Epis- 
copalians and others from gaining a foothold."" 

"As early as 1660," says the historian Trumbull, " Rye paid taxes for 
the support of religion, although no church was formed nor pastors or- 
dained " "Greenwich and Rye," continues the same authority, "were 
but just come under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, and not in circum- 
stances for the support of ministers ; they had occasional preaching only 
for a considerable time." 3 

In October, 1669, the General Court are 'informed that the people of 
Rye are yet destitute of an orthodox minister.' It appears, too, that 
' they doe not take due care to procure such a one as might carry on the 
work of the Lord on the Sabbath.' This is not owing solely to the 
weakness of settlement. Rye now numbers some fifty families, and is 
considerably stronger than Greenwich, its neighbor. 

In some of the new plantations, says Trumbull, thirty families sup- 
ported a minister, and commonly there were not more than forty when 
they called and settled one." What is the matter with the planters at 
Rye ? They do not show an utter indifference to religion, but they are 
getting into loose and disorderly ways. 'John Coe and Marmaduke 
Smith,' persons who are ' represented to this Court as unsound and het- 
erodox in their judgments, if not scandalous in their lines,' are under- 
taking to teach or to conduct religious services among them. Their 
labors, too, are acceptable, it would appear ; for the people ' seem to 
rest satisfyed without ' a lawful pastor, ' in the approuement ' of these 
teachers; who are thus 'put in a capacity more to prejudice then farther 
the edification of the people there.' The Court, therefore, ' upon these 
considerations, doe authorize and impower Mr. Nathan Gold, and any 
three of the Commissioners,' of Fairfield county, 'to require the afore- 
said persons, John Coe and Marmaduke Smith, or any others of that 
towne, to appeare before them, and if, upon examination, things doe 

a Lambert's Hist. New Haven, p. 189. 

b Trumbull's Hist, of Connecticut, p. 300. 

c Trumbull's Hist, of Connecticut, vol. i, p. 287. 


appeare to them as they are represented to this Court, they are desired 
to take etlectuall course that the persons afoarsayd may have no opper- 
tunety affoarded them to sowe the seeds of error among the people there ; 
and allso they are to informe the people of Rye that this Court are re- 
solued, if the sayd people's prudent considerations do not moue them, 
to make such provisions of a suitable person, sownd and orthodox in his 
principles and apt to teach, (so approued by Mr. Bishop, Mr. Handford, 
Mr. Wakeman and Mr. Eliphalet Joanes.) the Court will, themselves, 
procure and setle a preaching minister amongst them, and take sufficient 
order that he may be mayntained by them, at their next session."' 

Mr. Baird thinks it possible that the persons above mentioned, Coe 
and Smith, ' may have been of the Quaker persuasion ; and that for want 
of a settled pastor, the inhabitants may have listened with favor to their 

' ; Rye and Westchester," says Humphreys, "as soon as they had fixed 
the civil magistracy, they did establish a public worship of God ; and 
suitable to this prudent, as well as religious procedure, the colony throve 
apace, and hath now far outstripped all the others. But when the Inde- 
pendents found themselves fixed in power, they began to exact a rigid 
conformity to their manner of worship. Men of all persuasions, but 
their own, were styled opprobriously sectaries ; and though they had de- 
clared at first for moderation and a general liberty of conscience, they, 
notwithstanding, banished and drove out of the country the Quakers, 
the Antinomean and Familistical parties. However, there are many cir- 
cumstances which alleviate and soften some particulars, which might 
seem rigorous in their administration. New England was, at the begin- 
ning, harrassed with various sectaries; who, under the umbrage of liberty 
of conscience, took a great licentiousness in all religious and civil 
matters."' 5 Among these he mentions the Antinomeans, Familist. Con- 
formitants or Formalists, Seekers, Arians, Arminians, Quakers ; and the 
most impudent of all, the Gortonists — so named from their vile ring- 
leader, one Gorton — who set up to live in a more brutal manner than 
then the wild Indian savages, &c." " After these sectaries had rose and 
fallen, another sort of people appeared, professing themselves members 
of the Church of England. These, too, were looked upon as sectaries, 
with what degree of modesty or truth the reader must judge. It is true, 
indeed, at the settling of the country, as hath been before observed, In- 
dependents were the first planters, who removed from England, from 
what they thought persecution; but since that time great numbers of 

a Public Rec. of Conn,, vol. ii, pp. 120, 121. Baird s Hist, of Rye, p. 273. 
b Humphrey's Hist, of the Propagation Society, <Scc, p. 21. 


people, members of the Church of England, have at different times settled 
there who thought themselves surely entitled, by the very New England 
Charter, to a liberty of conscience, in the worshipping of Go J after their 
own way. Yet the Independents (it seems) were not of this sentiment, 
but acted as an establishment. The members of the Church of England 
met with obstructions in setting up that form of worship ; and therefore 
a great number of the inhabitants of Boston, got an humble petition to 
be laid before His Majesty, King Charles the Second, by Dr. Compton, 
the Bishop of London — praying that they might be allowed to build a 
church at Boston, and to perform divine worship according to the 
Church of England. This petition was granted, a church was soon after 
built, and frequented by a numerous congregation ; upon this occasion, 
the members of the Church of England in many other towns in New 
England, declared their desire of the like advantage of worshiping God 
after that way ; wrote very zealous lettters to Bishop Compton for min- 
isters, and now it appeared they were a very considerable body of 

The order of the General Court in October, 1669, appears to have 
produced but little effect in settling a minister at Rye ; as it was followed 
by another " on the 13th of October, 1670, more stringent and defin- 
ite. The matter of the religious destitution at Rye is referred to the 
County Court of Fairfield. The magistrates there are recommended 
' to take an effectual course to setde an able and orthodox minister in the 
towne of Rye, and to order due and competent mayntenance for such 
minister in a proportionable way among all the inhabitants, with coertion 
of payment according to laws, upon complaynt and evidence against 
any that shall neglect, and the will affected of the sayd towne to a settle- 
ment of such a mercy among them, are appoynted to adres themselues 
to themselues to the sayd County Court at Fairfield to that end."' 5 

This action on the part of the General Court appears to have pro- 
duced the desired effect ; for " at a town meeting held in Rye, Novem- 
ber, 17th, 1670, the inhabitants made choice of Joseph Horton, Thomas 
Biown and John Brondig, who are to do their endeavour to procure a 
minister." It was also agreed for to allow " two pence in the pound for 
the maintenance of a minister amongst us ; that is to say an orthodox 

From the following document, however, it appears that the inhabit- 
ants had not yet succeeded in procuring a minister but were dependent 
on neighboring churches for occasional supplies : 

a Humphrey's Hist, of the Propagation Society, &c, p. 22. 

b Public Kec. of Conn., voi. ii, pp. 142, 143. Baird's Uist. of Rye, p. 274, 

c Town Rec. of Rye, voL A. (now lost.) 


"May the nth, 1671, at a Court of Assembly holden at Hartford, 
Captain Nathan Gold, Thomas Fitch, Mr. Holly, Lieut. Richard Olm- 
stead, and Mr. John Burr, they, or three of them, are desired to repair 
to the said Rye, as soon as may be, and to endeavour a comfortable com- 
posure and issue of such differences as are among the people there, and 
to use their endeavours in procuring a minister, and comfortably settling 
of him in the plantation of Rye. Then the Court doth empower the 
aforesaid committee to agree with a suitable man for that work in that 
place, and to agree with him for maintenance to the value of ^40 per 
annum, which the Treeasurer, by warrant to the Consable of said Rye, 
shall order for the gathering and payment thereof with the county 

"On the i^th of May, 1674, the General Court desires Mr. Elipha- 
let Joanes" (one of the ministers of Fairfield) "to take the paynes to 
dispence the word of God to the people of Rye once a fortnight on the 
Lord's Day, till the Court, October next, and then this Court will take 
further order concerning them and for Mr. Joanes' satisfaction. " b 

This gentleman was the first who is known to have officiated for any 
length of time in the ministry of the Gospel at Rye. And it so happens 
that we are able to glean further information concerning him than about 
any of his immediate successors. Eliphalet Jones was the son cf the 
Rev. John Jones, a man of some note in the early history of the New 
England churches. He came to this country' from England, in 1635, 
a clergyman of the Established Church; and was first settled at Concord, 
Massachusetts, and afterwards at Fairfield, Connecticut, where he be- 
came pastor of the church organized there by his efforts. Eliphalet was 
born at Concord in 1641. He received his education under the care of 
the learned and pious Peter Bulkley, who had been his father's colleague 
at Concord, and studied at Harvard College, but did not graduate. In 
1669, we find him admitted to the privileges of a freeman of Connecti- 
cut. c He was at Greenwich in 1674, when the above order was given; 
not however as the settled pastor of that town, but as a missionary or 
evangelist. It would seem that he continued in this neighborhood for 
about three years, preaching at Rye, probably, from time to time, as oc- 
casion appeared. 4 In 1677, Mr. Jones accepted a call to Huntington, 
Long Island, where he remained and labored for more than fifty years ; 
dying in 1 731, at the good old age of ninety. He was never married. 
He is said to have been ' a man of great purity and simplicity of life and 
manners, and a faithful and successful preacher. ' e 

o Hartford Col. Rec. vol. UL, p. 12. 

b Public Kec. of Conn., vol. it p. 232, Baird3 Hist, of Rye, p. 2T6. 
e Public Rec of Conn , vol. ii. p. 106. 

d .Mr. Savage (Gin. Jnct of th>> First Settlers of X. E.) speaks of him as ' having preached at 
Rye some years,' (voL ii. p. 50!). I lind no confirmation of this statement. 
e Thompson's History of Long Island, vol. i. p. 481, Baird's Hist, of Rye, p. 276. 


The General Court took further order on the ist of October 1674, for 
the securing of a regular pastor, empowering Captain John Allyn, Mr. 
James Bishop, Mayor Robert Treat, with Mr. Gold, " to endeavour 
also the obliging and settling of a minister at Rye." a 

This lead to the call of the Rev. Peter Prudden, 6 as the General 
Court strongly endorsed him : — " At a court, holden at Hartford, May 
17th, 1675, Major Nathan Gold, Major Robert Treat, and Mr. John 
Burr, were nominated and appointed a committee to treat with the in- 
habitants of Rye and those concerned in lands there, and labour to ac- 
commodate matters, as that there may be suitable encouragement for 
Mr. Prudden to settle in the ministry, and such other suitable inhabitants 
with them as may promote the settlement of said town of Rye and the 
ministry therein ; and if they shall find any averseness or difficulty with 
the inhabitants or proprietors, in so just and necessary publique good of 
the towne, they are empowered to do what they see meet for the end 
aforesaid, and make report to the court in October next, for approba- 
tion ; and for the encouragement of the ministry at Rye, this Court, for 
this year, grants them a penny of the pound upon all the ratable estate 
of their town, to be pay'd out of their county rate, and shall be ready 
as need requires to continue such necessary encouragement as they shall 
judge suitable.- 

Upon the 27th May, 1675, the town orders that the home lot of Peter 
Disbrow, adjoining Timothy Knapp, be taken by the town in exchange 
for the land by the Blind brook, south of Jacob Bridge's, The above 
lot to be for Mr. Peter Prudden for a parsonage lot ; if not thus disposed 
of, this agreement to be void. 

February 26, 1676. The town releases Peter Disbrow's lot, and can- 
cels the above agreement. 

February 26th, 1677. John Brundige and John Purdy are empowered 
to sell the frame intended for a parsonage house. 

The same year the Rev. Thomas Denham appears to have been min- 
ister here ; for, June 15, a house lot is ordered for Mr. Thomas Denham, 
and on November the 2 2d, we find the same individual admitted an in- 
habitant of the town of Rye. June 21, 1678, Mr. Thomas Denham is 
to have all the grass on the highway at the old town, besides an equal 
share with the proprietors of Poningoe Neck. 

March 5th, 1679. Fifty poles of land lying before his door, toward the 

a Hartford Ccl. Rec. vol. iii. p. 53. 

6 Ditto vol. iii. p. 59. 

c It is Mr. Baird's impression that his name should be John, not Peter. That the Rev. John 
was pastor of the church in Jamaica, L. I., iu 16T0 to 74, he was called in 1681 to Bedford. It 
13 probably the same person who wa3 invited to the church in Bedford. 


brook, are granted to Air. Thomas Denham, and the ensuing year he is 
to have all the grass in the highway at the first of the old town lots ; 
also ^30 allowed for his maintenance. The General Court of Connec- 
ticut, October 14th, 1680, ordered that thirty pounds per annum agreed 
by Rye to be paid to the minister, Mr. Denham, shall be gathered by 
the constable with the county rate, in the same specie and prices as the 
county rate, and by him to be paid to the said minister. * A.D. 1682, 
the town confirms the sum of ^30 as salary to Mr. Denham, and orders 
the same to be paid in provisions. 

The historian, Trumbull, informs us that about the year 1688 the Rev. 
John Bowers removed from Derby and settled at Rye. 

April 2 2(1, 1690, Captain Horton, Joseph Theall, and John Brondig 
are chosen by the town to procure a minister, and, if possible, a school- 

27th June, 1693. Hachaliah Brown, George Lane and Timothy Knapp 
were added to the above committee to procure a minister as soon as 

February 26th, 1694, it is ordered that the townsman make a rate to 
defray the expense of repairing the parsonage house. 2 2d July, 1697, 
Captain Theal, Hachaliah Brown, George Lane and Thomas Merritt 
are chosen by a vote for the procuring of a minister for the town of Rye. 

Colonel Caleb Heathcote, writing to the secretary of the Propagation 
Society in 1705, observes, "that there is no parish in the Government 
but what is able to pay twice as much as they do. For Rye parish, 
which is not by one-half so large as the least parish established by law 
in the Government here, since my living here, maintained two dissent- 
ing ministers, viz : one at Rye and Mamaroneck, and one at Bedford ; 
and gave the former ^50, and the latter ^£40 a year."* 


Isist. os Call. Ministers. 

1675, Rev. Peter Pkudden, 

1677, Rev. Thomas Denham, 

circ. 16S4, Rev. John Woodbridge, 

1697, Rev. Nathaniel Bowers. 

On the 15th of May, 1729, they secured a building spot. The deed 
for which is entered upon the town records. This plot of ground was 

a Tlart. Col. Rec. vol. iii, 59. 

b S.'e Scarsdale, for Heathcote's letter. 



situated on Pulpit Piain, as it was called, at the north-west corner of the 
post road and the road to the Cedars, subsequently opened. Here the 
church was built, and here it stood until the Revolutionary war. Tradi- 
tion states that it was a plain frame building, without belfry or spire but 
tolerably capacious. 

The church at White Plains, which blonged to the same society, was 
built two or three years earlier. 

The village of Rye now had two separate places of worship. The con- 
gregations were about equal in size, numbering about sixty families in 
each. As there was no bell in either church, the roll of the drum an- 
nounced the hour of service probably to both. 

The Rev. Edmund Ward who had ministered to them for over two 
years, left them in 1729 ; and they remained without any stated minister 
for nearly thirteen years. 

On the 30th of December, 1742, a council of the Eastern Association 
of Fairfield County, Connecticut, met at Rye and ordained Mr. John 
Smith as minister of that place. He seems to have been a man of rare 
excellence, able, earnest, consistant and godly. He was a native of 
Newport, Pagnell Bucks, England; and born May 5th, 1702. His father 
settled in the city of New York. The celebrated Jonathan Edwards, 
when preaching in New York, made Mr. Smith's house his home. John 
Smith and Edwards were about of an age, Smith a little the oldest ; and 
there sprang up between them a warm friendship, which lasted through 

A few weeks after his settlement, Mr. Smith secured a house for his 
family in the village of Rye. On the 20th of February, 1743, he pur- 
chased of John Abrahamson a house and six acres of land for ^"180, 
afterwards he bought another house with eight acres and a quarter of 
land situated in the northern part of the village and in the neighborhood 
of his church. Some years after Mr. Smith removed his residence from 
Rye to White Plains, but continued to preach here alternate Sabbaths, 
riding to and fro on horseback. The house in which he lived, at White 
Plains, is still pointed out near the come* of the cross road leading to 
the Purchase. In his later years he owned a farm of about one hundred 
acres; in 1763 he added the church at Sing Sing to his charge, where 
he occasionally preached for the next five years, but he was growing old 
and not so active as he had been. Mr. Ichabod Lewis, a cousin of the 
Rev. Isaac Lewis of Greenwich, was therefore invited by the Presbytery 
to help him; and on the nth of October, 1769, he was ordained at 
White Plains. Mr. Smith continued to do what he could up to the time 
of his death, which took place at White Plains February 26th, 177 1. His 


remains lie in the church yard, and on the tomb it says : " First or- 
dained minister of the Presbyterian persuasion in Rye and the White 
Plains;" adding, that '"worn out with various labors he fell asleep in 

In the Revolutionary war, which began shortly after the death of Mr. 
Smith, the Presbyterian church of Rye was destroyed by fire. The con- 
gregation, owing to the times, was very much scattered. 

At the close of the Revolution, the Presbyterians of Rye were very 
few and feeble. 

The efforts to resuscitate the congregation was due to the Rev. Dr. Lewis 
of Greenwich. The first step towards rebuilding the church was taken 
in 1792. On the 22d of November in that year, Jesse Park and Phrebe 
his wife, of the town of Harrison, conveyed to Joseph Theale, Ezekiel 
Halsted, Junior, and John Merrit, of Rye, as trustees of the Presbyterian 
society, a tract of land comprising half an acre. The church was buiU" 
in the following spring. It was dedicated to the worship of God in 1793 
by the Rev. Isaac Lewis, D.D., who preached here for some months 
every Sunday after service in his own church at Greenwich ; his son, the 
Rev. Isaac Lewis, succeeded him for a short time. But after this they 
remained along while without a stated minister, from 1793 to 1812. 

It had been incorporated on the 5th of June, 1795, under the name 
of the Presbyterian church of Rye. 

The old church, built in 1793, was a very plain and unpretending 
structure. There were two doors on the front. The interior remained 
unfinished for many years. The walls were not plastered; an I instead 
of pews there were planks, the ends of which rested upon logs for seats. 
In or about 1S11 the Methodists obtained possession of the church and 
occupied it for a period of sixte&n years, from 181 2 to 1828. 

It was by the efforts of Mr. Ebenezer Clark, a merchant of New York 
who came to Rye in 182 1, that the building was restored to its original 
use ; he claimed the building, on behalf of the few Presbyterians of the 
place. This claim was not admitted without some discussion. The 
Methodist congregation had worshipped there unmolested for many 
years, and they conceived that so long a possession gave them a right 
o the property. Mr. Clark showed clearly that the land had been given 
for a Presbyterian church, and that a society of that denomination had 
been incorporated under the law of the State, and that the building had 
been appropriated from the first to their use. 

A service was held by the Presbyterian congregation on the 7th of 
Dec, 1828, in the district school houseof Rye, preparatory to the resump- 
tion of public worship in the church. Soon after the occupation of the 


11, 175. 


building, the Rev. Noah C. Saxton began his ministry here as stated 
supply, and continued until May, 1829 ; meanwhile, on the 4th of March- 
the formal organization of a church took place by order of the Presby- 
ter}' of New York. 

In 1869, the congregation bought land adjoining the church lot, with 
a view to the erection of a new church, Sunday-shool building, and part 
sonage. Upon this tract, which comprises 3 acres, the Sunday-school 
buiding has been erected at the sole expense of Wm. Matthews, Esq. 

The corner stone of the new church was laid Nov. 29, 1870, Mr. R, 
M. Upjohn, Architect. The church is built of the native stone, with 
dressings of red and yellow stone. The style of architecture adopted 
for the building, is the 13th century gothic. Connected with the church, 
and arranged for convenience of both buildings, and also for external 
architectural effect, Mr. Wm. Mathews has erected a memorial chapel 
— to his infant daughter Bessie — which he gives to the church to be used 
for Sunday-school and other parochial purposes. It is upwards of fifty 
feet square. The mam room will accomodate two hundred persons. In 
connection with this, there is a Bible and infant class room, and a room 
for the Sunday-school library. 

The tower and spire of the church, stand at the west end of the south 
aisle. The tower is 25 feet square. The tower and spire together are 
150 feet high, and entirely built of stone. a 


List of Pastors. 



Rev. Stephen Buckingham, 



Rev. John Walton, 


Rev. Edmund Ward, 



Rev. John Smith, 



Rev. Ichabod Lewis, 


Rev. Williams H. Whittemoee, 



Rev. David Remington, 



Rev. Tnos. Payne, 


Rev. Jas. R. Davenpoet, 


Rev. Edwaed D. Bryan, 



Rev. Chables W. Baled, 



The Presbytery of Rye appear to have maintained their existeno as 
a congregation for a number of years, without a stated ministry or he isc 
of worship. They were supplied with occasional preaching by the neigh- 
boring ministers of Connecticut. 

Christs church, Rye, is agreeably situated upon rising ground, over- 
looking the village and vale of Blind brook. 

a Baird'a History of Rye. 


The old building was a plain edifice of wood, surmounted with an em- 
battled tower, and a small vestry-room attached to the rear. 

Its interior consisted of a nave, two aisles, gallery and chancel. On 
the north side of the latter there was a neat monumental tablet, erected 

In* Memory of 



of Christs church at Rye 

A native of Enniskillen, 


Ordained April, 1820. 

Appointed to the charge of this Parish, 

September, 1823, 

Died August 26, 1830. 

" Mark the perfect man, and behold the upris'p.t, 
for the end of that mau is peace."— Psalm xxxvii : 27. 

Erected by his affectionate Widow. 

Christ's Church, Rye, Erected in 17SS. 

His remains are interred in the village cemetery. Beneath the floor 
of the church lie, pillowed in the darkness of the grave, several of the 
early rectors. 

This building was erected at a cost of $5,500, in the year 17SS, upon 
the site of the old stone edifice called Grace church. 

It was designed at first to have erected a steeple in place of the pres- 



ent tower, as appears by an act of the vestry, dated September 17, 1791. 
"Wherein it was ordered to remove the work projected for a steeple 
on the top of the roof, at the west end." 

Belonging to this church is a silver paten 
and chalice presented by her Majesty, Queen 
Anne, A.D. 1706. 

These articles have been used in the admin- 
istration of the holy sacrament nearly one cen- 
tury and a half. The royal donation originally 
consisted (together with the above), of a large 
Church Bible, Common Prayer Book, Book of 
Homilies, cloth for the pulpit, and a commu- 
nion table. 

Upon two copper alms bowls are inscribed, 
"Presented to Christ church at Rye, by James 
Meadows, 1769." 

Besides a fine toned bell, the church con- 
tains a neat organ. 
Tie Queen's paten and chalice. The first notice of this parish occurs in two 
acts passed by the Assembly of Xew York, in 1693 and 1697. 

The first entitled " An Act for settling a ministry and raising a main- 
tenance for them in the city of New York, and counties of Richmond, 
WestcJiester and Queens." 

The second ordered, " That there shall be called, inducted and estab- 
lished a good sufficient Protestant minister to officiate and have the cure 
of souls within one year next ensuing, and after the publication hereof. 
In the county of Westchester, two ; one to have the cure of souls within 
Westchester, &c. ; the other to have the cure of Rye, Mamaroneck and 
Bedford." 3 

Pursuant to these acts of Assembly a town meeting was held. Februa- 
ry 28, 1695, by virtue of a warrant granted by Justice Theal, when 
George Lane and John Brondig were elected churchwardens ; and Jona- 
than Hart, Joseph Horton. Joseph Purdy, Timothy Knapp, Hachaliah 
Brown, Thomas Merritt, Deliverance Brown and Isaac Denham, vestry- 
men ; the two last, being chosen for Bedford. 

The whole number of the appropriated precincts, belonging to the par- 
ish of Rye in 1725, were as follows; Bedford, Scarsdale. Mamaroneck 
and North Castle, to which were subsequently added White Plains and! 

a Acts of Assembly; Pro. of N. Y. 1531 to 1723, p. 23. 


For collecting the minister's maintenance, writs of mandamus were is- 
sued to the justices and vestries, empowering them to make a rate for 
raising the rector's tax. 

The following are specimens of the original taxation rolls of this ben- 
ifice, in 1725. 

Bedford, jQ\6 2 o. Mamaroneck, ,£iS o o. Scarsdale, ^5 3 o. 
North Castle, £2 9 o. Total with Rye, ^67 180. 

The first inducted rector of the parish was the Rev. Thomas Pritch- 
ard. In a summary account of the state of the Church in the Province 
of New York, as it was laid before the clergy, convened October 5th, 
1704, at New York, &c, it was stated, that "at Rye, of which the Rev. 
Thomas Pritchard is rector, there is no church, but the minister preach- 
es in the town house; the parish is divided into three districts, viz. Rye, 
Bedford and Mamaroneck. ,;■ 

"There is a salary of ^50 per annum, established by act of Assem- 
bly ; the number of communicants are considerably increased, since tie 
first celebration of the sacraments, &c." a 

In a letter addressed to the Propagation Society, dated Rye, Novem- 
ber 1st, 1704, Mr. Pritchard proposes to that body the Rev. Mr. Stew- 
art, then missionary at Bedford, as a most suitable person to fill the va- 
cant parish of Hempstead, Long Island. 

The Rev. Thomas Pritchard married Anna Stuyvesant, daughter of 
Nicholas William, and grand-daughter of the illustrious Peter Stuyves- 
ant. 6 Mr. Pritchard appears to have been inducted in 1702. He died 
A. D. 1706. 

His successor was the Rev. George Muirson. Of this gentlemen the 
Rev. Mr. Evans thus writes in a letter to the Bishop of London, under 
the date of October 17th, 1704. " This comes by the hands of the in- 
genious Mr. George Muirson to receive holy orders from your Lordship, 
by the approbation of his Excellency my Lord Cornbury. I find that he 
is very well beloved and esteemed by all sorts of people, a man of a very 
sober and blameless conversation. He seems to be indued with great 
humility of mind, and has the character of being very prudent in his con- 
duct. I give him this recommendation, not to gratify himself, nor any 
body else — but because I sincerely believe he may be very instrumental 
of doing much good in the Church." c 

Mr. Muirson having been ordained, was appointed to the mission of 
Rye. In his first report to the Society he states "that he had a very 

a Church Rec. Vol. i. No. 16. Franci3 L. nawk-. ]j. L)., editor, 

b R -p. of Propagation Soc. 

c N. Y. Hist. Collections, New Sjries, vol. i. 455. 


I 79 

great congregation every Sunday, and that those were his hearers who 
never were in a Church of England congregation before. Though the 
people were of almost all persuasions, he had admitted into the Church, 
by baptism, eighty persons, young and old ; hundreds, however, in the 
parish remain unbaptized. a 

He further remarks to the Society, " I have lately been in the Gov- 
ernment of Connecticut, where I observe some people well affected to 
the Church, for those that are near come to my parish on Sabbath days ; 
so that I am assured, an itinerant missionary might do great service in 
that province. Some of their ministers have privately told me that had 
we a Bishop among us, they would conform and receive holy orders ; from 
which as well as on all the continent, the necessity of a Bishop will plain- 
ly appear. 6 

" In these visits and in every effort for the good of the Church, Mr. 
Muirson was heartily supported by Colonel Caleb Heathcote, who also 
wrote to the society on the subject, confirming the account of the oppo- 
sition which the missionary had encountered; and stating that the jus- 
tices had forbidden him to preach, and even threatened to put him and 
all his hearers in jail. 

Of his own parish, Mr. Muirson reports, " I have baptized about two 
hundred, young and old, but most adult persons ; and am in hopes of in- 
itiating many more into the Church, after I have examined, taught and 
find them qualified. This is a large parish ; the towns are far distant ; 
the people were some Quakers, some Anabaptists, but chiefly Presbyte- 
rians and Independents ; they were violently set against our Church, but 
now (blessed be God !) they comply heartily ; for I have now about forty 
communicants, and had only six when I first administered that holy sac- 
rament. I find that catechising on the week days in the remote towns, 
and frequent visiting is of great service ; and I am sure that I have made 
twice more proselytes by procaeding after that method, than by public 

Mr. Muirson, besides his salary of ^50 from the society, was entitled 
to £50 currency, as settled by Act of Assembly on Rye parish ; but, as 
his people were poor and for the most part recent converts, he consider- 
ately forbore to press his legal claim — and during the first two years of 
his ministry, had only received about ten or twelve pounds currency — 
thus plainly showing he sought not theirs, but them. 

The following account of the Indians, written in the year 1708, will 

a Ilawkins' Hist, Not. of Col. Church, vol. ii. MS. letters, No. 34. 
b Ilawkins' Hist. Not. of Col. Church, p. 277. 
c Hawkins' Hist. Not. of Col. Church, p. 279. 


be thought interesting : "As to the Indians, the natives of the country, 
they are a decaying people. We have not now in all the parish twenty 
families, whereas not many years ago there were several hundreds. I 
have frequently conversed with some of them, and been at their great 
meetings of ' pawawing,' as they call it. I have taken some pains to 
teach some of them, but to no purpose ; for they seem regardless cf in- 
struction. And when I have told them of the evil consequences of their 
hard drinking. Sec, they replied that Englishmen do the same; and that 
it is not so great a sin in an Indian as in an Englishman, because the 
Englishman's religion forbids it, but an Indian's does not. They further 
say that they will not be Christians, nor do they see the necessity for so 
being, because we do not live according to the precepts of our holy re- 
ligion. In such ways do most of the Indians that I have conversed 
with, either here or elsewhere, express themselves. I am heartily sorry 
that we should give them such a bad example, and fill their mouths with 
such objections to our blessed religion." 

He mentions in this letter " that they had completed the house of God 
at Rye, by the subscription of the inhabitants ; a stately structure in- 

•• Mr. Muirson, after a short but a most useful service in the ministry 
of the church, died in October, 1708, much lamented by his friends, and 
missed by his parishioners.' 1 

The last will of George Muirson, clerk, bears date September, 1708. 
By his wife. Gloriana, daughter of the Hon. Colonel William Smith/ he 
left one son, George Muirson, M.D., C of Setaukett, L. I., the father of 
Heathcote Muirson. The latter was a graduate of Yale College in 1776, 
and died from wounds received in the attack upon Lloyd's Neck, Long 
Island, July, 1781. 

Mr. Muirson was succeeded in January, 1709, by the Rev. Christo- 
pher Bridges. 

•• Upon the 9th of January, 17 10, at a meeting of the parishioners, at 
the parish church in Rye, the following churchwardens and vestrymen- 
were elected for the year ensuing : 

Clt urch-wardens. 

C apt. Joseph Tiieale, Capt. Jonathan Hap.t, 

Cornelius Seely. 

a Hist. Not. of the Ch. of England in the N- A. Colonist, 231. 

b The Hon. William Smith was Chief Justice and President of the Council of the Province 
of New York. 

c Anna, the eldest daughter of Dr. George Muirson, married Cyrus Punderson, D.D. Their 
till residing upon Long Island. Mary, the youngest, married William Wick- 
ham Wills. 



Andrew Coe, George Lane, Jun., 

John Mekeitt, Sex., JosEru Lyon, 

Daniel Pcrdy, George Kxiffex, 

Thomas Pukdy, Jonx Disbeow, Mamaroneck, 

Thomas Meeritt, Jux., Johx Miller, Bedford. 

At a meeting of the vestry, held on the 29th of July, 171 2, the Rev. 
Mr. Bridges presented the following communication from his Excellency 
Robert Hunter: 

"You are to give order forthwith, (if the same be not already done) that every 
orthodox minister wilhin your government be one of the vestry in his respective 
parish; and that no vestry be held without him, except in case of sickness, or 
that after notice of vestry summoned he omit to come." 

Rev. Sir, the above copy of Her Majesty's instructions to me, I have thought 
fit to direct to the several ministers within this Province, that their respective 
vestries may regulate themselves accordingly ; and if there be any practice con- 
trary thereunto, I desire you may duly inform me, that effectual care may be 
taken therein. I remain, Reverend Sir, Your assured Friend and Servant, 


In 17 1 2, "one hundred and fifty prayer books and five pounds worth 
of tracts, were voted to Mr. Bridges of Rye. He was also allowed for 
the services of two school-masters in the parish v ^5 per annum each, 
on a certificate, that they have taught thirty children the Bible, the cate- 
chism and the use of the liturgy." 6 

In 1 7 15, ' ; Mr. Bridges at Rye had reduce many who were brought up 
in a very dissolute way of living and total neglect of public worship, to 
a more sober conversation and a constant attendance on the worship 
of God, using his utmost endeavors to put a stop to many disorderly 

The same year the Propagation Society " presented to Mr. Huddle- 
stone, school-master in Rye, ^5 additional salary, and to Mr. Bridges 
some Common Prayer Books and devotional tracts, of which the people 
were very desirous before he wrote, and heartly thankful for them since. 
To these donations the Society added two dozen Prayer Books, with the 
old version of the singing, and as many of Lewis's Church Catechism for 
exercise in his school, or in mornings of the Lord's days, (when not only 
his own scholars, but several of the young people of the town of both 
sexes come willingly to be informed,) one dozen Bibles with the Com- 

a C -lurch Rec. 

b Report3 of Propagation Soc. 

« Report3 of Propagation Soc 


raon Prayer, and the new version of psalms, twenty-five psalters and fifty- 
one primers, all which he requested as contributing mightily to the 
spreading the good work he has in hand, having taught besides British 
children, six hundred Dutch and French to read and write English."* 

The Rev. Christopher Bridges died on the 22dof May, 1719, having 
been ten years minister of this church. 

A.D. 1720, "The Rev. Mr. Barclay formerly missionary to Albany 
was missionary of Rye with a salary of ^50." The same year the Society 
"gave Mr. Barclay ^10 in consideration of the hard circumstances he 
lies under."^ 

In 1 72 1, the Rev. Thomas Poyer officiated here.* 

Upon the 4th of June, 1722, the church-wardens and vestrymen ad- 
dressed the following letter to the venerable Propagation Society : 

" We the church-wardens and vestrymen of ye parish of Rye, in }*e province 
of New York, in America, having taken ye liberty soon after ye death of our late 
incumbent, the Rev. Mr. Christopher Bridges, humbly to pray that your honours 
would continue your usual bounty to our poor church, and supply us in our desti- 
tute condition with a Church of England minister in ye room of our late incum- 
bent, do take this opportunity to return your honours our hearty thanks, as well 
for the constant supply which by your honours' favorable recommendation we 
had from the clergy of this province, as for your resolution, appearing in print, 
to supply us with a minister to reside among us, as soon as one whom your hon- 
ours can approve of shall offer. We have been, to our great detriment, destitute 
about three years ; and now having the opportunity of one whom we are univer- 
sally pleased with, 3-e Rev. Mr. Robert Jenney, chaplain of the forces of this 
province, who is willing to relinquish his place in the forces to settle amongst us 
and become our minister, provided he can have your honours' favor and bounty 
for his encouragement. We have taken ye liberty to give him a call, as ye act 
of assembly of this province empowers us, (which is enclosed to } r our honours,) 
humbly praying for your approbation, of what we have done, and that you will 
please tp grant unto him as our minister, ye favour and bounty ; being a person 
whose conversation, preaching, and diligence in his holy function we are well 
acquainted and satisfied with. We are confident that his residence amongst us 
will effectually reconcile all our differences, and heal all our breaches, occasioned 
by our being so long in want of a faithful and prudent pastor to guide and in- 
struct us. That God Almighty will prosper your honours' pious and charitable 
endeavours for the service of His Church in this wilderness, and that He will 
grant unto every one of you the choicest blessings, temporal and eternal, is the 
hearty prayer of 

' ' May it please your honours, your honours' most dutiful and most obedient 
humble servants. Signed by order, JOHN CARHART, Clerk."* 

a Reports of Propagation Soc. 
e Reports of Propagation 8oc. 

c The Propagation Society voted £50 to the clergy of New York for supplying the church of 
Rye, vacant by the death of the Rev. Mr. Bridges. 
d Church Rec. 


The Rev. Robert Jenney, minister of Rye, writing to the Propagation 
Society in 1723, observes, "that he has several other townships under 
his charge, and that since his admission in 1722, he has baptized ten 
adults and fifty children j number of communicants twenty-six. " a In 
1724 Mr. Jenney reported "the baptism of two adults and several chil- 
dren; communicants twenty-eight.' 5 A. D. 1725/ the quotas of the vari- 
ous districts stood thus : 

Eye, £34 4 0; Bedford, £16 2 0; Mamaroneck, £18 0; 

Scarsdale, £530; North Castle, £290; 

Mr. Jenney was removed by the Society to Hempstead, Long Island, 
in 1726. The vacancy created by the removal, the Society proceeded 
immediately to fill by appointing the Rev. Mr. Colgan. Upon which 
we find the vestry addressing the secretary of the Society as follows : 

"Rev. Sik: — We, the church- wardens and vestry of the parish of Rye, re- 
turn our humble thanks to ye honorable Society for their pious and charitable 
care of this parish in providing so speedily to fill this vacancy by appointing ye 
Rev. Mr. Colgan for us. We conclude they have before this time been acquainted 
by our letters how far we had proceeded to obtain a minister, fearing the ill 
consequences of being left destitute ; and we hope ye honorable Society will put 
a favorable construction upon our proceedings, though we have given our call to 
the Rev. Mr. Wetmore, and he received induction immediately upon it, yet he 
always declared that he should submit to ye resolutions of the honorable Society, 
and not in any degree interfere with their determination, and though we find ye 
inclinations of ye people very much to have Mr. Wetmore appointed for us ; on 
which account we can't but desire that ye honorable Society would be pleased to 
favor it ; yet we shall always pay ye greatest difference to their pleasure, and if 
they finally determine that Mr. Colgan shall be for us, against whom we have 
no exceptions, as, being a stranger to us, we shall give him the best welcome we 
are capable of ; but inasmuch as ye Rev. Mr. Colgan is willing, by exchange with 
Mr. Wetmore, to continue at New York, and that vestry has signified their ap- 
probation, we heartily join with them in requesting of ye honorable Society that 
they would confirm that agreement, and give liberty for Mr. Wetmore to come 
to this parish, who, by being born in the county and acquainted with the dis- 
positions and customs of ye people here, will be acceptable to us, and we hope 
do much service for religion. But all this with submission to that venerable 
body, whose pleasure we shall most cheerfully submit to ; and we pray ye con- 
tinuance of their favour and charity to us, and that God would prosper their 
pious designs. We are, reverend sir, the Hon'ble Society's and your most hum- 
ble and obedient servants. Signed by order. « JOHN CARHART, Clerk. 

To the Rev. Mr. David Humphreys, 

Secretary to ye Hon'ble Society for Propagating ye Gospel, &c, 
at ye Archbishop's Library at St. Martins in ye Fields, London." 

a Rep. of Propagation Soc. 
b Ibid. 

c At a vestry meeting held in Rye, January isth, 1725, " it was voted that money be raised 
to purchase a drum for the church. 
a Church Rec. 


In accordance with this request, the Society were pleased to confirm 
the appointment of Mr. Wetmore. 

We take the subjoined extract from a letter sent to the secretary of 
the society, in 1 726-7 : 

••And now we are once more peaceably settled, we hope by the blessing of 
God to gee religion revive among us, which by contentions and divisions is sunk 
to a very low ebb. As the Rev. Mr. Wetmore has been born in the county, and 
long known among us, who has had his conversation becoming his sacred char- 
acter and profession, we doubt not but ye people of this parish will continue 
their affection to him, and hope to see this good fruit of it, viz : that they be 
lit to a proper sense of religion, and more general and constant attendance, 
in ye public worship and sacraments which for a long time have been very much 
neglected among us; we earnestly pray for the blessing of almighty God upon 
that venerable society whose extensive charity (under God), finds food for so 
many souls famishing in ignorance and error, and shall always look upon our- 
selves strictly bound to pay it, the greatest honor and most cheerful obedience to 
all their commands and directions, and beg leave to subscribe with all dutiful 

Rev'd Sir, your and ye Honorable Society's most humble and obedient servants. 
Signed by order of the Vestry, * JOHN CARHART, Clerk. 

The Rev. James Wetmore writes, A.D. 1728, that his congregation is 
considerably increased ; he has added nine new communicants, and bap- 
tized nineteen. In 1779 he acquaints the society " that he meets with 
good success in his mission, that his numbers increase, and that several 
of the Independents have quitted that persuasion and very regularly at- 
tend divine service at his church." 6 July 1st, 1738, he says, " I have 
baptized the last half year five adults besides several children. About 
fifty families in the adjoining parish have requested assistance. Mr. 
Purdy," c (schoolmaster at Rye) " teaches twenty-one children of Church 
parents and fourteen dissenters, as likewise two Dutch, two Jewish and 
one colored child, in all forty-one. Mr. Dwight, of White Plains, six 
miles from Ryt, teaches twenty-seven children, in all forty-six." 

"And adds, July 15, 1740, that besides his regular duty at Rye, he 
officiates once a month at Stamford and Greenwich. He had also spent 
some days last winter in visiting sundry families in the woods. Since the 
3d day of May, 1739, ^ e nac ^ baptized one hundred and eleven children, 
and twenty-seven adults ; his communicants number fifty." d 

Under date of September 28th, 1741, he observes "that by God's 
help the Church maintains her ground, notwithstanding the efforts of the 

a Church Rec. 

!, Prorogation 80c. ™ep. 

c Mr. l'unly died in I7F8, and was buried on Ash Wednesday. Rep. of Propagation Soc. 

d Keports of Propagation Soc. 


sectaries in new Methodism. He had baptized within a year sixty-nine 
children and six adults, &c." a 

In 1745 Mr. Wetmore writes ''that he is fully occupied in performing 
duty at Rye. Scarsdale and the White Plains, and begs for an assistant 
to officiate under him. At Bedford and North Castle there are four 
hundred families, &zc."* 

The same year Mr. Joseph Lamson was appointed assistant to Mr. 
Wetmore with a salary of jQ2o ; a gratuity of ^20 was also made by the 
society, '"out of compassion to Mr. Lamson's sufferings and necessities, 
who was taken prisoner, shipped and carried into France on his voyage 
towards England ; and afterwards, on his way from Port Louis in France, 
to London, was detained seven months by a fever at Salisbury. Mr 
Lamson undertook the voyage to England for the purpose of obtaining 
Episcopal ordination. c In his first reports dated May 12th, 1746. Mr. 
Lamson writes, <; that he officiates by turns at Bedford and North Castle 
to full congregations, and had then baptized eleven children and three 
adults."'' At a vestry meeting of this parish, held at Mr. Benjamin 
Brown's, Sen., in Rye, January 16th, 1749, the Rev. James Wetmore de- 
livered the following letter, from the Rev. Philip Bearcroft, D.D., secre- 
tary to the Honorable Propagation Society: 

London, Charter HorsE, June 27, 1749. 
Gents : — It is with much concern that the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts are informed that your church and the parsonage house 
are very much out of repair, and that even the possession of the glebe is disputed 
against your very worth}* pastor "Sir. Wetmore, whose great pains and abilities 
in the cause of God's church, cannot hut recommend him to every worthy mem- 
ber of it. Therefore the Society hope and expect that upon due consideration 
you will give orders for the full repair of the church and the parsonage house, 
and defend Mr. Wetmore in the maintenance of all his just rights, as you desire 
his longer continuance among you. 
I am, Gentlemen, 

Your very humble servant, 

To the Churchwardens and Vestry of the 
Church of Rye, New York. 

Mr. Wetmore, in his report of 175 1, mentions "that the church had 
lately been repaired, and is made neat and beautiful." 

a Reports of Propagation Soc. 

b Reports of Propagation !>oc, 

c Some idea (says the Rev. ML Ft. Henderson) of the great disadvantages trader which the 
Church labored during our colonial existence, may be formed from the fact that beside the 
great expense of the voyage (£100). an expense which candidates for holy orders could ill af- 
ford to bear, nearly one-fifth of all that went to England for ordination died, either from 
small-pox, or the dangers of the deep. "The number who had gone to England for ordination 
from the northern colon! « up to 1 tot, was fifty-two ; of these forty-two only returned safely. 
— Heri'l arse. 

d Rep. of Propagation Sjc. 


In a letter of April 7th, 1759, Mr. Wetmore acquaints the Society 
" that a very worthy person, a native of England," but now being in New 
York, had put into his hands ^600 currency, of which he reserves to 
himself the interest during life, and hath left by his will ^400 more to 
be added after his death, to purchase a convenient glebe, and other lib- 
eral legacies." 6 

The Rev. James Wetmore died on the 15th of May, 1760,° having 
been nearly thirty-four years minister of this church. His remains re- 
pose in the old parish burial ground, on the northwest side of Blind 
brook. A plain monumental tablet marks the spot, and bears the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

Sacred to TnE Memory 

of the 


The late, worthy, learned and faithful 

Minister of the Parish of Rye, 

for about thirty years, 

who having strenuously defended the Church 

with his pen, and adorned it by his life 

and doctrine, at length being seized 

of the small pox, departed this 

life, May 15, 1760. ^Etatis, 65. 

Cujus memoriae sit in 
Benedictione sempiterna. 

Mr. Wetmore left issue two sons — Timothy, afterwards Attorney- 
General of the Province of New Brunswick, and James, of Rye — descen- 
dants of the latter are still living in the town. Also four daughters — 
Alethea, wife of the Rev. Joseph Lamson ; Anna, wife of Gilbert Brund- 
age ; Charity, wife of Josiah Purdy, from whom descend the Purdys, of 
Rye ; and Esther, who married first David Brown, and secondly Jesse 
Hunt, Esq., high sheriff of this county in 1780. 

In a letter or May 6th, 1761, Mr. Timothy Wetmore complains to the 
Society, ; ' that since the death of his father they had not been favored 
with a sermon, or either of the sacraments, for six or eight months." 6 * 

a St. George Talbot, Esq., see vol. i, 25. 
b Reports of Propagation Soc. 

c The last will of Jame.s Wetmore, clerk, bears date Nov., 1759. Surrogate's office, N. Y., 
Lib. xxii, 123. 
d Reports of Propagation Soc. 


I8 7 

After a vacancy of nearly two years the mission was again filled by 
the appointment of the Rev. Ebenezer Punderson." In 1763, this 
gentleman informs the Society " that since writing his last letter, besides 
two-thirds of the Sundays at Rye, and the other third at White Plains, 
North Castle and Bedford, he had been twice to Crumpond and once 
to Croton ; he had also baptized nineteen adults, and ninety-two chil- 

Mr. Punderson died in 1764. The following inscription is taken from 
his monument in the grave yard. 

Sacred to the Memory 

of the 


late Missionary to the Ven. Society for 

Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 

who died 22d Sept., A. D. 17G4, 

being GO years of age. 

" With pure religion was his spirit fraught, 
Practiced himself what he to others taught." 

Upon the 19th day of December, 1764, Grace church Rye, received 
the following charter from King George the Third : 


George the Third, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland 
King, Defender of the Faith, and so forth, To all to whom these presents shall 
come, greeting : Whereas our loving subjects, Peter Jay, Elisha Budd, Christo- 
pher Isinghart, Timothy Wetmore, Caleb Purdy, Joshua Purdy, John Guion, 
Joseph Purdy, Gilbert Willet, John Carhart, Thomas Sawyer, Gilbert Brundige, 
John Thomas, William Sutton, Anthony Miller and John Adee, inhabitants of 
the parish of Rye, in the County of Westchester, in our Province of New York, 
in communion of the Church of England as by law established, by their humble 
petition presented on the sixteenth day of November last past, to our trusty and 
well beloved Cadwallader Colden, Esquire, our Lieutenant Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of our Province of New York and the territories depending 
thereon in America, in Couucil did set forth that the inhabitants of the said 
parish of Rye, in communion of the Church of England as by law established, 
have by voluntary contributions erected and finished a decent and convenient 
church in the town of Rye, in the said parish, for the celebration of divine service 
according to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England ; but that from a 
want of some persons legally authorized to superintend the same and manage 
the affairs and interests thereof, the said church is greatly decayed, and the peti- 

a For the induction of Mr. Punderson, see Surrogate's office, N. Y. Book of Commissions, 
Fol. v. 


tioners discouraged from contributing to the repair thereof, least the moneys 
given for that purpose may be misapplied ; and that on that accoimt also charit- 
able and well disposed people are discouraged iu their design of establishing 
proper funds for the future support of the said church and the better mainten- 
ance of the ministry, and therefore humbly prayed iu behalf of themselves and 
the rest of the inhabitants of the said parish iu communion of the Church of 
England as by law established, our letters patent incorporating them and the 

and inhabitants of the said parish in communion of the Church of England 
;;< by law established, for the time being a body corporate and politick, with 
such rights, privileges, and immunities, as should appear proper and expedient to 
answer the purposes aforesaid, Now We being willing to encourage the pious 
intentions of our said loving subjects and to grant this their reasonable request, 

Ye that of our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, we have 
ordained, given, granted and declared, and by these presents for us, our heirs, 
and successors, do ordain, give, grant and declare, that tiny the said petitioners 
and the rest of the inhabitants of the said parish of Eye in Communion of the 
Church of England as by law established, and their successors the inhabitants of 
the said parish of Rye in communion of the Church of England as by law estab- 
lished, with the rector of the said parish of Rye for the time being, for ever, shall 

r hereafter be one body corporate and politick in deed, fact and name, 
by the name, stile and title of the rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye, 
in communion of the Church of England as by law established, and them and 
their successors by the same name, we do by these presents for us our heirs and 
successors really and fully make, erect, create and constitute one body politick 
and corporate in deed, fact and name for ever ; and will, give, grant and ordain, 
that they and their successors the rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in 
communion of the Church of England as by law established, by the same name 
shall and may have perpetual succession, and shall and may be capable in law to 
sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded, answer and be answered unto, de- 
fend and be defended in all courts and elsewhere, in all manner of actions, suits, 
complaints, pleas, causes, matters and demands whatsoever, as fully and amply 
as any other our liege subjects of our said Province of New York may or can sue 
or be sued, implead or be impleaded, defend or be defended, by any lawful 
ways or means whatsoever; and that they and their successors by the same name 
shall be for ever hereafter capable and able in the law to purchase, take, hold, re- 
ceive, and enjoy any messuages, tenements, houses, and real estate whatsoever, 
in fee simple for term of life or lives, or in any other manner howsoever, for the 
use of the said church, and also any goods, chattels, or personal estate whatso- 
Provided always that the clear yearly value of the said real estate (exclusive 
of the said church and the ground whereon the same is built and the cemetery 
belonging to the same) doth not at any time exceed the sum of five hundred 
pounds current money of our said province, and that they and their successors by 

ae name shall have full power and authority to give, grant, sell, lease and 
dispose of the same real estate for life or lives, or years, or for ever, under cer- 
tain yearly rents; ami all goods, chattels and personal estate whatsoever at their 
will and pleasure, and that it shall and may be lawful for them and their succes- 
sors to have and use a common seal ; and our will and pleasure further is, and we 
do hereby for us, our heirs and successors, ordain and appoint that there shall be 


for ever hereafter belonging to the said church one rector of the Church of Eng- 
land as by law established, duly qualified for the cure of souls, two church- 
wardens, and eight vestrymen, who shall conduct and manage the affairs and bus- 
iness of the said church and corporation in manner as hereafter is declared and 
appointed. And for the more immediate carrying into execution our royal will and 
pleasure herein, we do hereby assign, constitute and appoint Peter Jay and Elisha 
Budd to be the present church wardens; and John Thomas, Joshua Purdy, Chris- 
topher Isinghart, William Sutton, John Adee, Caleb Purdy, Anthony Miller and 
Timothy Wetmore to be the present vestrymen of the said church, who shall hold, 
possess, and enjoy their said respective offices until Tuesday in Easter week, 
which shall come and be in the year of our Lord one thousand, seven hundred 
and sixty-six ; and for the keeping up the succession in the said offices, our royal 
will and pleasure is, and we do hereby establish, direct and require that on the 
said Tuesday in Easter week in the said year of our Lord one thousand, seven 
hundred and sixty -six, and yearly and every year thereafter for ever, on Tuesday 
in Easter week in every 3'ear, the rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in 
communion of the Church of England as by law established, shall meet at the 
said church, and there by the majority of voices of such of them as shall so meet, 
elect and choose two of their members to be church-wardens and eight others of 
their members to be vestrymen of the said church for the ensuing year, which 
said church-wardens and vestrymen so elected and chosen shall immediately enter 
upon their respective offices, and hold, exercise and enjoy the same respectively 
from the time of such elections for and during the space of one year, and until 
other fit persons shall be elected and chosen in their respective places — and in case 
the church-wardens or vestrymen, or either of them, by these presents named and 
appointed or which shall be hereafter elected and chosen by virtue of these pres- 
ents, shall die or remove from the said parish of Rye before the time of their re- 
spective appointed services shall be expired, or refuse or neglect to act in the office 
of which he or they is or are herein nominated and appointed, or whereunto he 
or they shall or may be so elected and chosen, then our royal will and pleasure is 
and we do hereby direct, ordain and require the rector and inhabitants of the par- 
ish of Rye in communion as aforesaid for the time being to meet at the said " 
church, and choose other or others of their members in the place or stead of him 
or them so dying, removing or refusing to act within thirty days next after such 
contingency ; and in this case for the more due and orderly conducting the said 
elections and to prevent any undue procedings therein, we do hereby give full 
power and authority to, and ordain and require that the rector and the said church- 
wardens of the said church for the time being, or any two of them, shall appoint 
the time for such election and elections, and that the rector of the said church, 
or in his absence one of the said church-wardens for the time being, shall give 
public notice thereof by publishing the same at the said church, immediately af- 
ter divine service on the Sunday next preceeding the da}- appointed for such elec- 
tion, hereby giving and granting that such person or persons as shall be so chos- 
en from time to time by.the rector and inhabitants of the said parish of Rye in 
communion as aforesaid, or the majority of such of them as shall in such case 
meet in manner hereby directed, shall have, hold, exercise and enjoy such the 
office or offices to which he or they shall be so elected and chosen from the time 
of such election until the Tuesday in Easter week thence next ensuing, and until 


other or others be legally chosen in his or their place or stead, as fully and amply 
as the person or persons in whose place he or they shall he chosen might or could 
have done by virtue of these presents ; and we do hereby will and direct that this 
method shall for ever hereafter be used for the filling up all vacancies that shall 
happen in either the said offices between the annual elections above directed ; 
and our royal will anil pleasure further is, and we do hereby for us, our heirs and 
successors, give and grant that as well the church-wardens and vestrymen in these 
presents nominated and appointed, as such as shall from time to time be hereaf- 
ter elected and chosen as is herein directed, shall have and they are hereby in- 
vested with full power and authority to execute their several and respective offi- 
ces in as full and ample maimer as any church-wardens or vestrymen in that part 
of our kingdom of Great Britain called England, or in this our province of New 
York, can or lawfully may execute their said respective offices ; and further our 
royal will and pleasure is, and we do by these presents, for us, our heirs and succes- 
sors ,give, grant, ordain and appoint that the rector and the said church-wardens 
of the said church for the time being, or any two of them, shall and may from time 
to time as occasion shall require, summon and call together, at such day and place 
as they shall think proper, the said rector, church-wardens and vestrymen for the 
time being, to meet in vestry, giving them at the least one day's notice thereof, 
and we hereby require them to meet accordingly ; and we do hereby give, grant 
and ordain, that the said rector and one of the said church-wardens for the time be- 
ing at least, together with the majority of the said vestrymen of the said church 
for the time being, being met in vestry as above directed, shall for ever hereafter 
have, and they are hereby invested with full power and authority by majority of 
their voices, to do and execute in the name of the rector and inhabitants of the 
parish of Rye in communion of the Church of England as by law established, 
all and singular the powers and authorities hereinbefore given and granted to the 
said rector and inhabitants of the parish of Eye in communion of the Church of 
England as by law established, any wise touching or relating to such lands, mes- 
suages and tenements, real and personal estate whatsoever, as they the said rec- 
tor and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in communion as aforesaid, shall or may 
acquire for the use of the said church ; and also in like manner to order, direct, 
manage and transact the general interest, business and affairs of our said corpor- 
ation ; and also shall have full p»wer and authority in like manner to make and 
ordain such rules, orders and ordinances as they shall judge convenient for the 
good government and the discipline of the members of the said church — provided 
such rules, orders and ordinances be not repugnant to the laws of that part of 
our kingdom of Great Britain called England, or of this our province of New 
York, but as near as may be agreeable thereto, and that the same be fairly 
entered in a book or books to be kept for that purpose. And also in like manner 
to appoint the form of the common seal hereinbefore granted and the same to 
alter, break and new make at their discretion ; and also, in like manner, to ap- 
point such officer or officers as they shall stand in need of ; always provided that 
the rector of the said church for the time being shall have the sole power of nomi- 
nating and appointing the clerk to assist him in performing divine service, as also 
the sexton — anything hereinbefore contained to the contrary in any wise not- 
withstanding — which clerk and sexton shall hold and enjoy their respective offices 
during the will and pleasure of the rector of said church for the time being. And 


whereas by the death of the late minister of the said church the same is now in 
avoidance, our royal will and pleasure is that in this case, and also in case of every 
future avoidance of the said church, either by the death of the rector thereof or 
otherwise, that the powers and authorities hereby vested in the rector, church- 
wardens and vestrymen in vestry met as above mentioned, shall, until the said 
church be legally supplied with another incumbent, vest in and be executed by 
the said church- wardens of the said church for the time being ; provided always 
the} - have the concurrence and consent of the major number of the whole vestry- 
men of the said church appointed by these presents, or chosen by virtue hereof, 
for the time being, in every thing they shall in such case do by virtue hereof. 
And further we do by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, give and 
grant unto the rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in communion of the 
Church of England as by law established, and their successors for ever, that this 
our present grant shall be deemed, adjudged and construed in all cases most fa- 
vorably and for the best benefit and advantage of the said rector and inhabitants 
of the parish of Rye in communion of the Church of England as by law estab- 
lished : and that this our present grant being entered on record as is hereinafter 
particularly expressed, shall be good and effectual in the law to all intents, con- 
structions and purposes whatsoever, against us, our heirs and successors, accord- 
ing to our true intent and meaning hereinbefore declared, notwithstanding the 
not reciting or misreciting, not naming or misnaming of any of the aforesaid 
franchises, privileges, immunities, offices or other the premises, or any of them ; 
and although no writ of ad quod damnum, or other "writs, inquisitions or pre- 
cepts hath or have been upon this accouut had, made, issued or prosecuted, to 
have and to hold all and singular the privileges, liberties, advantages and im- 
munities hereby granted or meant, mentioned or intended so to be, unto 
them the said rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye, in communion of the 
Church of England as by law established, and to their successors for ever. In 
testimony whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patent and the 
great seal of our said province to be hereunto affixed, and the same to be entered 
on record in our secretary's office in our city of New York, in one of the books 
of patents there remaining. Witness our trusty and well beloved Cadwallarler 
Colden, Esquire, our Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-Chief of our 
Province of New York, and territories thereon in America, at our Fort in our 
city of New York, by and with the advice and consent of our Council for our 
said province, the nineteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and sixty-four, and of our reign the fifth. First skin, 
line the fortieth, the words or with and second skin, line the twenty-seventh, the 
word is are interlined. CLARKE. 

August 27, 1765. The Rev. Ephraim Avery was appointed to the 
mission of Rye. 

In 1773, Mr. Avery's notitia parochialis stood thus: Baptized, ninety 
infants, adults, six ; colored infants, five ; marriages, five ; burials, ten. 

On the 5th of June, 1776, he informs the Society "that he has lost 
the use of his right hand, and therefore is incapable of writing and send- 
ing an account of his parish." 


" The persecutions and privations to which the clergy were exposed 
(says Dr. Hawkins) in the war, whether from the Royalist or American 
armies, proved fatal to several of them. At Rye. Mr. Avery was a princi- 
pal sufferer; his horses were seized, his cattle driven off, and his property 
plundered. His death, by some supposed to have been occasioned by 
these losses, happened soon afterwards."' 1 

The Rev. Isaac Hunt succeeded Mr. Avery in the rectorship, having 
been appointed by the Propagation Society in 1777, with a salary of 

During the subsequent years the parish of Rye suffered considerably 
from the confusion that attended the Revolutionary war. The church 
was burned, the glebe lands hired out on terms which produced but a 
small income, and the parishioners scattered. 

After the close of the war, the congregation received a letter from the 
Rev. Samuel Provoost, rector of Trinity church, New York, Abraham 
Beach and Benjamin Moore, dated April 17, 1786, inclosing the jour- 
nals of the Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, held in 
Philadelphia, September, 1785. 

Upon the reception of this letter, a meeting of the congregation was 
called, which assembled at the house of Mrs. Haviland, in Rye, on the 
5th of May, 1786. 

Mr. Joshua Purdy was unanimously elected president of the meeting. 
On motion, it was resolved to take the sense of the congregation, whether 
they would comply with the request of the letter, and send delegates to 
meet in convention at St. Paul's church, in New York, upon the third 
Tuesday in May next. 

The sense being taken, it was unanimously agreed to send delegates. 
William Miller and Alexander Hunt, Esqs., were chosen delegates to the 
General Convention. 

September, 1787. The Rev. Richard Channing Moore (afterwards 
Bishop of Virginia) was elected to the rectorship, the first since the close 
of the war. 

At a vestry meeting held 5 th of March, 1788, it was determined by 
that body to erect a new church on or near the place where the old ruins 

Upon the resignation of Mr. Moore, in 1788, the Rev. David Foote 
accepted an invitation to the rectorship. This individual was called away 
whilst in the morning of life from the field of his earthly labors to reap 
an eternal reward, A.D. 1793. 

a Hawkins' ni-t. Not. Col. Chnrch, 281. Mr. Avery was a step-son of the celebrated Gen- 
eral Putnam.— Editor. 


ii, 193. 



His tombstone bears the following simple inscription : 

Ix Memory 

of the 


late Pastor of Rye and "White Plains, 

who departed this life the first of August, 


aged 32 years. 

Blessed are the dead who 
die in the Lord. 

The Rev. John J. Sands was called to, and accepted, the rectorship in 

1793. For the successors of Mr. Sands, see the list of rectors. 
Another important event occurred about this time, in the winter of 

1794, The parsonage house, on the west side of Blind brook, was 
burnt. This house had been the residence of the rector since Mr. Wet- 
morels time. The vestry at first inclined to rebuild the parsonage on its 
former site, but afterwards concluded to purchase the house and land of 
Isaac Doughty, near the church; and May 24, 1794, this purchase was 
made for ,£400. Thus they acquired the beautiful and spacious rectory 
grounds which they now possess. 

In 1S52, steps were taken to replace the old wooden church built in 
1788; and in 1855, Bishop Wainwright consecrated the new church. In 
1864, a neat and convenient Sunday-school room was erected near the 
church, and soon afterwards the church was enlarged and embellished. 
But on the evening of December 21, 1866, this beautiful church was de- 
stroyed by fire, and within two years a new and larger edifice arose on 
the same site. The present church was consecrated on the 19th of 
June, 1869, by Bishop Potter. 

At a meeting of the rector, wardens and vestrymen, held in 1794. it 
was resolved to substitute the title Christ's instead of Grace, by which 
the church had heretofore been distinguished. 

The principal benefactors to this parish have been the Hon. Caleb 
Heathcote, St. George Talbot, Esq., Ann Jay, a sister of the Hon. John 
Jay, and the wardens and vestry of Trinity church, New York/ 

Christ's church, Rye, was incorporated on the 12th of March, 1796. 
Peter Jay and John Barker, church- wardens ; Joshua Purdy, Sen., Roger 
Purdy, John Haight, Thomas Carhart, Gilbert Hatfield, Roger Purdy, 
Jonathan Horton and Jonathan Purdy, vestrymen. A second incorpo- 

a This lady left a legacy of $250 to the church. 

b In 1800, Trinity church contributed $750 for a parsonage at Eye ; to which was added in 
1813, the sum of $500. 
c Co. Rec. Religious Soo. Lib. A- 



ration occurs on the iSth of June following. 

The present glebe was purchased by the vestry in 1794. Upon it a 
neat parsonage has been erected. 

The first delegates from this parish to the Diocesan Convention in 
1785, were Mr. William Miller and Mr. Alexander Hunt. 

Instit. or Call, 


Vacated By, 

A.D. 1702, 


A.D. 1704, 


January, 1709, 






4 June 1722, 






1 July, 1763, 


27 Au?. 1765, 




Sept. 1787, 


Nov. 1790, 




Nov. 1796, 


An-. 1797, 


April, 1801, 










Aug., 1S34, 


May, 1849, 


May, 1859, 


Nov. 1864, 


June 1873, 


Thomas Pritcuard, Clericus, 

George Muirson, Clericus, 

CnRisTOPnER Bridge, M.A., Cler.« 

Me. Barclay, Clericus, 

Thomas Poyer, Clericus, 

Robert Jenney, Clericus, b 

James Wetmore, Clericus, 

JosEPn Lamson, Clericus, 

Ebenezer Puxderson, Clericus. 

Ephraim Avery, Clericus, 

Isaac Hunt, Clerius, 

Richard C. Moore, Presb., 

David Foote, Presb., 

John J. Sands, Presb. 

George Ogilvie, Presb., 

Samuel Haskell, Presb., 

Evan Rogers, Presb., 

Samuel Haskell, Presb., 

William Thompson, Presb., 

John M. Forbes, Presb., 

William M. Carmichael, Presb., 

Peter S. Chauncey, Presb., 

Ed. C. Bull, 

John Campbell White, 

Reese F. Alsop, 

Chauncey B. Brewster, present 













a The following obituary notice of Mr. Bridge, is from the Boston newspaper of June 1st 
to 8th, 1719 : " We have au account from Rye, in the government of New York, of the death 
of the Bev. Mr. liridge. M. A , a Presbyter of the Church of England, and minister of the 
gospel at that place, who died on Saturday, the 23d of May, last. He was formerly, for many 
years together, one of the ministers of the Church of England, in Boston, a religious and 
worthy man, a very good scholar, aud a fine grave preacher. His performances in the pulpit 
were solid, judicious and profitable ; his conversation was agreeable and improving, and 
though a strict Churchman in his principles, yet of great respect and charity to dissenters, 
and much esteemed by them. lie was bred at the University of Cambridge, in England, and 
was about forty-eight years of age when he died, very much lamented.'' Extracted from 
Greenwood's History 01 King's Chapel. 

b This gentleman was the son of Archdeacon Jenny, of Wanney town, in the north of Ire- 
laud. See BJflt of Narraganset church by Wilkins Updike. 

c Mr. Punderson graduated at Yale College in 1726, and was afterwards ordained 0. Congre- 
ga'ional minister over the second church in Groton. In 1732 he rune into the KHscopal 
church, and crossed the Atlantic to be ordained. On his return. he reorganized a cliurcl: at the 
village of Poquetannuc,in North Groton, in 173S, which has ever Bince existed, Ac. Mr. Pun- 
derson was for some years an Itinerant missionary of the "Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel," from 1710 to 1750. In 1753-4 he was settled missionary in the towns of Guilford. 
>ew Haven and Bradford." Ibid. 


The old church was erected in 1788, and has since been sold ; and 
now stands on the Milton road, and is used as a private residence. 

A new parsonage was commenced in 1878, and finished in the Fall of 
the same year. It is built of stone, in Queen Anne's style, directly op- 
posite, on the south side of the church. 

There is Grace chapel at Milton, where services are held regularly by 
the rector of Christ's church, Rye. 


According to report, Methodism was introduced into this part of Rye 
about 1802. The marriage of Esther, widow of John Griffen, of Mam- 
aroneck, to Ezekiel Halsted, of Rye, in that year, was the occasion of it. 
Mrs, Griffen had united with the Methodist Episcopal church before her 
marriage to Mr. Halsted. Whilst Mr. E. Halstead was a member of the 
Congregational church in Greenwich, soon after his marriage he identi- 
fied himself with the Methodist. 

The Methodists for many years occupied the Presbyterian church in 
connection with that body ; but differences springing up between them 
in 1832, they ceased to use the church ; and the same year a lot, com- 
prising half an acre, was bought and a church erected. 

In 1853 a house and four acres of land, situated on the turnpike, 
about half a mile from the church, were bought for a parsonage. In 
1855, the trustees bought eight acres of land for a cemetery; to this, 
nearly seven acres have been added. 

In 1855, the trustees sold the parsonage; and in i860 bought land di- 
rectly opposite the church and built a parsonage. In March, 1864, the 
church was remodelled at an expense of $4,000. Lately the property 
adjoining the church, consisting of two and a half acres, was bought for 
$10,000. A Sunday-school room was built, a house on the premises 
was altered for a parsonage, and other improvements made at a cost of 
about $5,000, and the old parsonage was sold." 

South of the village lies Peningoe Neck, commonly called Brown's 
Point, one mile and a half in extent. The extremity of the point in the 
neighborhood of the Scotch Caps, has been considerably undermined by 
the constant action of the waves. The eastern shore of the neck has 
also receded, before the same destructive element. The beach, on Rye 
flats, is a well-known and favorite bathing place. It also commands an 
extensive view of the Sound. The name of Parsonage Point has been 
conferred on the south-east projection. At present the principal propri- 

a Baird's History of Eye. 


etors are Gideon Reynolds and Hachaliah Brown, Esq. The latter in- 
dividual holds 250 acres of the lower portion. 

Upon the western shore of Peningoe neck, or Brown's Point, stands 
the small hamlet of Milton, overlooking the mouth of the Blind brook 
(Mockquams), the beautiful scenery of the Mill creek and the wooded 
shores of Budd's Neck. Here are several stores and a tide mill; the 
latter is situated at the head of the navigable waters of Mill creek. In 
the immediate vicinity of Milton, is the residence of Ne wberry Halstead, 
Esq., which, from its elevated position, commands splendid prospects of 
the river and surrounding country. The Halsteads have been long resi- 
dents of Rye, and descend from a common ancestor of that name, who 
originally came from Huntington, Long Island. The adjoining propri- 
etors are Underhill Halstead, Joseph Parker and -Gideon Reynolds. 

Near the entrance of the Neck proper, is located the ancient village 
burying ground. Here the frail memorials — 

"With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture decked, 
Implore the passing tribute of a sigh." — Gray's Elegy. 

The following inscription is taken from one of the oldest tombstones: 
Mar}-, daughter to Samuel and Mary Kniffen, deceased January ye 12, 
1707. Upon another richly carved stone surmounted by a winged 
cherub, are these words : In memory of Mr. Joseph Lyon, who deceased 
February the 21st, A. D. 1761, in the 84th year of his age. Here are 
also interred the bodies of the Rev. William Thompson* and the Rev. 
Evan Rogers. The tombstone of the latter is inscribed as follows : 


Masonic Society in the town of Rye, 

have erected this monument sacred to the memory 

of their beloved brother, the 


Pastor of Christ Church in this town, 

who departed this life January 25th, 1809, 

in the 42d year, of his life. 

My flesh shall slumber in the ground, 
Till the last trumpet's joyful sound, 
Then burst these chains with sweet surprise, 
And in my Saviour's image rise. 

Also memorials to Stephen Roe, M. D., and Dr. Charles McDonald, 
a soldier of the Revolution. The Union Cemetery is situated in North 

a The inscription on the tombstone 01 Mr. Thompson, is an exact copy of that upon his 
tablet in the church. 

To face page 197, vol. 11. 


Anns: — Borne by the Huguenot. D'azur. 

au chevron d'or, en chef demi soleil splendant, cntre deux ctoilcs de meirie en point, a roe propre surnionte paroiseaux. Crest : 

three graces, or steps. Motto : — Deo Duee Per sever andum. 

-Deux occurs unis. Present crest :— A cross mounted upon 

Pierre Jay, Ecuyer of the house of Le Jay, of Poictou = Judith Francoiae, aa. of Mons. Francoise, of La Rochelle 

Francis Jay, died during the voyage 
from Fiance to England 

Isaac Jay, 1C90, died of wounds re- 
ceived at the battle of Boyno 

Augustus Jay, nat. at La Rochelle, 13 March, 1665, = Anna Maria Bayard, license of mar- 
ob. 10 March, 1751 ; came to New York, 1C97 I riage dated 27th October, 1697 

Frances, = IIon. Mr. Poloquin, Mayor of 
ob. 1742 Bristol, England 

Peter Jay, of Kye, nat. 3d Nov., = Mary, da. of Jacobus Van Cort- 

170.1, ob. Hth April, 1782; in. 
20th Jan.. 1728. Buried at 

landt, of the old Yonkers, ob. 
17th April, 1T77 

Judith, nat. 29th = Cornelius Van Home 
Aug. 1G9S, ob. ob. May, 1752 ; mar. 
August, 1757 6th April, 1735 

Mary, nat. 31st Aug., = Peter Vallette, ob. 
1700 ; ob. 5th June, 9th Dec , 1752 

Frances, nat. 2i5th Feb., = Frederick Van 
1701; mar. 19th Jan., Cortlandt, ob, 
1724; ob. 2d August, 13th February, 
1780 1750 

Ann, nat. 6th March, 

1706 ; ob. 24th Pec- 
ember, 1707 

Augustus, nat. 
15th April, 1730 
ob. 23d Dec, 

1801. B. p. 

James, nat. 27th 
April, 1731; ob. 
16th Oct , 1751 ; 
s. p. 

Sir James, Knight, 
nat. 27th Oct. .1732; 
ob. 20th Oct., 1815. 

Burled a! Kv 

Peter, nat. l9th = Mary Duyck- 
Oct., 1734; ob. inck, mar. 
8th July, 1813 1789 

Frederick, nat. 10 
May, 1744 ; ob. 
July 5th, 1T41 

Hon. John Jay, of Bedford, = Sarah, da. of Hon. Wm. 

nat. 12th December, 1745 ; 
m. 28th April, 1774; ob. 17 
May, 1829 Buried at Rye 

Livingston, Gov. of N. J., 
nat. Aug., 175G; ob. at 
Bedford, 28th May, 1S02 

Frederick, = 1. Margaret, da. of Andrew Barclay, m. 7th 
nat. 19 Apr., Sept., 1773 ; ob. 23 Oct., 1791. 
1747 ; ob. s.p. = 2 Euphemia Dunscomb, ob. 26th Feb., 
14 Dec, 1799 1817 

Hun. ivtcr Augustus Jay, of Rye Mary Ruthcrfurd, 

Neck, nat. 24th Jan., 177f ; mar 
July £9th, 1807, at Liberty Hull, 
N.J ; oli. 20th Feb., 1843 

da. of Gen. Mat- 
thew Clarkson 

Susan, nat. at Mardrid, July 
9th, KSO; ob. 1st August, 17S0; 
Interred iu the vault of the 
Flemish Chapel, at Madrid 

I I 

Maria, mar. 22d April, 1801,_Goldsborough Banyar, Ann, nat. at Passy, 

nat. at Madrid, February Esq., ob. June, 1806. near Paris, August 

20th, 178!; ob. at N. Y., Buried at Rye 13th, 1783; ob. at 

21st November, 1S50 N.Y., 13 Nov., 1850 

Eva, nat. 9th ^Rev. Harry Munro, Anna Maria, nat. 
Nov., 1828; M.A , Rector of St. 20th Oct., 1787 ; 
ob. April 7, John's Church, ob. 4th Sept., 

1810 Philipsborough 1791 

Mary, nat. Nov. 
10th. 1718; ob. 
18th May, 1752 

Hon. Judge William Jay, of Bedford, = Augusta McVicker, da. of 

nat. ICth June, 1789 ; ob. October 
14, 18:8. Buried with his wife in St. 
Matthew's Church-yard, Bedford 

John McVickar, Esq., of 
Bloomingdale,N.Y. ; nat. 11 
Nov , 1790; ob. Apr. 26, 1S57 

Sarah Louisa, nat. 
1792; ob. 22d April, 

John ciarkson, M.D., Laura Prime, da. 

Mary KuMicrfurd,. -.Frederick Sarah, nat. Dec. 19th, „Wm. Dawson, Catharine Helena = Henry Aug. DuBois Anna Maria, = nenry Evelyn Pierre 

of Rye Neck ; nat. 
Sept. 11th, 1808; mar. 
Nov. 8th, 1831 

of Nathaniel 
Prime, Bat)., ol 

New York 

nat. April lfith, 1810: 
mar. April 30th, 1889; 
ob. Sept. 9th, 1835 

Prime, Esq. 
of N. Y. 

1811 ; mar. Feb. 11th, 
1S36; ob. 9th Jan, 

Esq., of Eng- 

mar. Dec. 7th, 

LL.D.,of New 

m. Dec. 1st, 

pont, Esq., of 

Peter Augustus = Joscphine, da. of Jos. 
nat. Oct. 23d, 1821 ; I Pearson, Esq., of 
mar. Jan. 13, 1848; | Washington, D. C. 
ob. 1856 r 


Susan Matilda, Jlathew Clarkson 
mar. Aprii 1 1, 

Mary Ruthcrfurd 

Harriett, m. 
1S67, Thomas 1'. 
(libbons, M. D. 

Helen Jay, m. 
Francis T. Gar- 
retson, Esq. 


W ££ g> y> 

"as PI it 

Mary Rutherfurd = Ruthcrfiird 
nat. Aug. 24, ls42 Stuyvcsant, 
ob. I860 Esq., ofN.Y. 

& £ f & 

• • • s> a 

u o« a-so 
*3 ' e:?""* 


f S 


ko fa 

-►.3 CZ 9, _ va 

Augastus, =Emily, da. of 
nat. Oct. 17, De Lancey 
1850 Kane, Esq. 

Augustus Jay, 
nat. August, 1877 

Banyer Clarkson, nnt. Kith 
March, IBM 

Laura, nat. . Chas. Pcmber- 
I'Vb. s, 1851 | lull Wurl/. 

i i i u j 

- '< > Q W SS^Pi 1 
8 E S f? S ycS-Sg- 
3 a- to • £ B c- 

Augustus, nat. 
ob. 188(1 

John. nat. 

ob. 1S41 

Mary,_Jnnathan Edward, Esq., 
m. 1861 | of Hie New York Bar 

Rev. Peter Ang.,_Jnlia, da. of Alfred C. Post, 
nat June.1841; ob.1875 | M. D., of New York 

Anna Maria, nat. 
1S43; ob. 1859 

John Clarkson, ^Harriet', da. of Alice 
nat. 1844 | Gen Vinton 

Sariih Matilda, ob. young 

Pierre, nat. 1870 Mary Ruthcrfurd Laura Prime John, nat. Dec. 1875 

Maria Arnold, ob. young 

Edith Van Cortlandt 

Anna, nat 17 Aug.,_Rev, L P W. Balch, D.D, Maria Banyer. nat ^John F. But- 
1818; ob 5t hot Jan., I Reotor of StBartholomew'B 28 April, 1815; ob. i terwortluEsq 
1S49 Church, New York 17 Nov., 1881 OfN.Y. 

John, Esq., nat June 23d, = Eleanor Kingsland, 

1817; Minister to Vienna, 

'? o § % Augusta Elizabeth Lewis, L. P. W., M.D.of Albany Augusta Jay, = Wm. Leonard Smith Eliza Jay 

da. of H. W. Field, 
of New York 

Sarah Louisa, = Alex. M. Bruen , Eliza, nat. 23 May, = nenry E. Pellew, Esq. 
m. Aug. 1st, I M.D., of Bruen 1S23 ; ob. Dec, I of England 
1848 Place, Scarsdale 18C9 

William, nat. 2ii, June, 
1828; ob. ICth March, 

Augusta, = n. E. Pellew, Esq. 
mar, 187 , I 
at Vienna 


Augusta McVickar, nat. 13 April, Alexandrine Alexander William 
1S51 ; ob. 13th April, 1863 Louise Jay Livingston 

Wm. Henry Edwin Geo., 
nat. loth June, 1S59 

Chas. Ernest, nat. 
Mar. 1863 

Eleanor, in. _. Henry Q. Chapman, Esq., 
June '2:;, 1869 | ol New York 

Wlllian, Esq., of the NY. Bar,— Lucie, da of nenry 
LUCol. U.S.A., nat. Feb. 12 1841 ; I Oelrichs, Esq., of ' 
m. June. 1'2, 18T8 New York 

John. nat. 26 Aug ,1842: 
ob. July 18th, 1843 

nenry Grafton, nat 
.Iitue 7th, I860 

John Jay, nat. 
liar. 2d, is62 

Eleanor Jay 

Moncure, nat. 
Feb. 3, iS76 

Augusta, nat. Aug. 9th. = Edmund Randolph Mary, = William nenrv 

1844 ; m. Oct. 3, 1S67. at i Robinson, Esq , of Oct. is, l Shieffclin. Esq., 

Bedford House; ob. Mar. New York Bar 1863 of New York 

20th, I8TS | 


Augusta Frances 

Anna, m. IS Oct., 1872 = H. E. Lt. Gen. Lothar von Schweinitz, German Ambassador 
I at Vienna, afterwards at St. Petersburg 

Eleanor Jay 

William Jay, nat. 
l lth April, i860 

Samuel Bradhurst, 
nat. 9th Aug. 1870 

John Jay, nat, 
1st Sept., 1876 

nuns Wilhelm, 
nat. lfi Nov. 1878 

Emilia Maria 

nans Friedrich nubert, 
n it. 80th Nov. is?: 

nans Lothar 

nat Aug. 17, 1880 


street. It contains monuments to the families of Budd, Nelson, Kniffen, 
Osborne, Bulkley, Brooks, Merritt, Yeoman, Halstead, Barker, Brown, 
Prevoost, Andrews, Berrian, Haviland, Russel, Mount, Fisher, and 
Ferguson, «S:c. 

On the west shore of the Mill creek, extends the ancient territory of 
Apawquammis, afterwards named Budd's neck,* from John Budd, the 
first grantee of these lands under the Indians, A. D. 1661. In 1639, 
the name of John Budd occurs in the New Haven records, as one of the 
first planters of that place. 6 He subsequently removed to Southhold, 
Long Island, from whence he came to Rye in 1661. In 1663, John 
Budd was deputy from Rye to the general court of Connecticut. 

John Budd, proprietor of Budd's neck, by his last will dated the 13th of 
Oct., 1669, bequeathed to his son John, all his part of the Mill on Blind 
Brook, and to his son, Joseph, the Epawquammis lands. Joseph Budd 
was the first patentee of Budd's or Rye neck, under the crown, in 1720.^ 
From the Budds, the neck went by purchase, into the families of the 
Purdys, Gedneys, Guions and Jays, &c. The property of the latter 
family, contains a large proportion of the old patent. 

We have previously shown, that John Budd released this portion of 
his patrimonial estate, including Pine Is/and, Marees neck and Hen Is- 
land, to Peter Jay, A.D. 1745. 

The Jay family who have been seated here for four generations, are of 
French origin, and descendants of Pierre Jay, Ecuyer, a wealthy mer- 
chant of La Rochelle, in 1684. Pierre Jay is presumed to have been 
of the house of Le Jay, of Poitou. There was also an ancient French 
family in Paris of the name of Le Jay, which formerly distinguished it- 
self in the civil department of the State, many of whom bore the same 
Christian name, as many of the Jays have since done — amongst whom 
is found, a John le Jay, in the early part of the sixteenth century; 
a Nicolas le Jay, Baron de Tilley de la Maison Rouge, et de St. Far- 
geau, Seigneur de Villiers, was first President to the Parliament of Paris, 
in 1636. This individual was the son of Nicolas le Jay, styled " correc- 
teur des Comptes a Paris." e 

a Sometimes called Rye Neck. 

b New Haven Col. Rec. vol. i. 7. 

c New Haven Col. Rec. vol. i, 425. 

d In the town records of Westchester, occurs the following entry : " Baptised bv Mr. 
John Bartow, rector of Westchester parish, in the parish church in the town aforesaid, the 
eighth of August, 1703, Sarah Budd, the wife of Joseph Budd of Rye, in the County of West- 
. and their son Joseph Budd, aged eleven months, also. 

< Hist. Genealogiqae et Chronologique par le P. Anselme, 1731, vol. ix. :;04. The arms 
borne by Nicolas Jay, were: " D'azur au chevron d'or, accompagne en chef de deux etoile3 
de meme en point, d'un mouton passant d'argent. The arms of Pierre le Jay the Huguenot, 
closely resemble the former, viz. : li d'azur au chevron d'or, en chef deini s'oleil splendant, 
entre deux etoiles de meme en point, a roc propre surmonte par oiseaux. Crest, deux cceurs 


Of Pierre Jay, Mr. Renwick in his life of John Jay, remarks : " He 
was a native of France, and resided in the city of La Rochelle, his busi- 
ness was that of a merchant ; and from collateral facts, we have reason 
to believe that he was both wealthy and enterprising. Like many of the 
most industrious and most respectable inhabitants in that part of the 
country, he was a Protestant; and doomed as we shall see, to undergo 
much trouble and persecution on account of his religion. He seems to 
have had a sort of presentiment — probably derived from the growing dis- 
favor of the Protestants in the sight of the government — that it would at 
some time or other be necessary for him to sacrifice both country and 
property, on account of his religion. On this account, he determined 
to send one of his sons to England to acquire a knowledge of that lan- 
guage, and be educated there. His eldest son was the one chosen for 
this purpose, but he unfortunately died on the voyage. With great 
promptness, the father sent his second son, Augustus, who was then 
barely twelve years old, to take his place; this happened A. D. 1677. 
The troubles and persecutions which Mr. Jay seemed to have foreseen, 
and which preceded the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, now com- 
menced; and in January, 1685, the Protestant Church at Rochelle was 
pulled down, pursuant to a decree passed at that time. Finding that the 
Protestants still continued the exercise of their religion, and were not to 
be forced to change it by any ordinary means, a regiment of dragoons 
was despatched to that portion of the country, and quartered upon the 
Protestant inhabitants. We have full evidence that these armed mis- 
sionaries had free license to make their hosts as uncomfortable as pos- 
sible, and were encouraged to practice upon them those insults so easily 
perpetrated by unrestrained and licentious soldiery." 

We can easily imagine what must have been the situation of a pious 
family, and what the feelings of a husband and a father under such cir- 
cumstances. Mr. Jay determined that those nearest and dearest to him 
should no longer be exposed to insult and contamination; and, find- 
ing a safe opportunity, he secretly sent his family, together with several 
articles of value, on board a vessel bound for England. This vessel ar- 
rived in safety. The departure of his family did not long remain un- 
discovered; and, causing suspicion of his own intentions, he was 
arrested and thrown into prison. From thence, by the intervention of 
some worthy Catholic friends, he was rescued ; when, foreseeing that 
France was no longer a residence for him, he determined to leave it for 
ever. But first, it was necessary to raise funds for the support of him- 
self and family in a strange land ; this he dared not do by turning any 
of his French property into money lest his motives should be surmised, 



and a second arrest should follow. At this time, several of his ships 
were expected to arrive. He gave secret orders to one of the pilots of 
the port, to bring the first of his ships that should arrive to anchor at 
some distance, and not come up to the town. The first of his vessels 
that made its appearance was from a Spanish port, laden chiefly with 
iron ; and fortunately, both for his honor and his future means of living, 
both ship and cargo belonged entirely to himself. The pilot, faithful to 
his instructions, anchored the vessel in the place determined on. With 
his assistance, Mr. Jay embarked and sailed immediately for England. 
He arrived in safety, and happy must have been the meeting between 
him and his family. They were now out of danger, free from persecu- 
tion, and in the enjoyment of their chosen religion; and, although their 
means were not so great as formerly, yet they still had a sufficiency. 

On his escape from France being made public, all his property was con- 
fiscated, and never was returned — so as to be of any use either to him or 
to his children. But one thing marred their happiness ; this was their un- 
certainty as what would be the fate of their second, now their eldest son, 
who was at that time probably in Africa, on commercial business of his 
father's. This son, Augustus, the grandfather of John Jay, returned (not 
knowing of his parent's escape) to Rochelle. Thence, facilitated by the 
kindness of his friends, he managed to procure a passage to Charleston, 
S. C.j for he also, like his parents, was resolute in sacrificing everything 
for his religion. From Charleston, driven by a climate unhealthy even to 
natives, and doubly so to foreigners, he travelled to Philadelphia ; but, 
finding in that city, then an infant State, no field for the exercise of com- 
merce, to which he had been brought up, he made his way to New 
York. Here he not only found occupation, but friends — driven like him- 
self, by persecution, to carry the arts and industry of France to other 
shores. Here also he found churches built and attended by French re- 
fugees, and a service performed in his own language. Finding that his 
succcess in life must wholly depend upon his own exertions, he applied 
himself with diligence and skill to business, and followed for many years 
the calling of a supercargo. During this time, he both heard from his 
parents and made them acquainted with his weliare. a 

Leaving his fortunes for a while, we turn to those of his younger 
brother, Isaac. At this time, the war between William of Orange and 
James II of England was in progress, and a regiment of French refu- 

a On the 4th of March, 1686, letters of denization were granted to Augustus Jay. Upon the 
29th of September, 1698, King William III, by his royal letters patent, granted to Augustus 
Jay, " all the rights and privileges of a native born English subject." Augustus Jay was ad- 
mitted to the freedom of the city of New York, by the Mayor and Aldermen, on the 27th Jan- 
uary, 1700. From the original documents in possession of the Hon. William Jay. 


gees was enrolled by the former to assist in driving from Ireland his 
catholic competitor for the throne. Into this regiment Isaac entered, 
impelled by the ardor of youth, and no doubt not a little by the recol- 
lection of the many insults and injuries he and his family had received 
at the hands of those who professed the Romish religion. He sealed 
his conviction of the justice of his own cause with his blood, and died 
not long after the battle of the Boyne, from the effects of wounds re- 
ceived in that engagement. 

In the year 1692, Augustus, while pursuing his commercial avoca- 
tions, started on a voyage from New York to Hamburg ; on the passage 
the vessel was captured by a French privateer, and carried into St. Ma- 
loes. He, with other prisoners, was confined, not very closely as it ap- 
pears by subsequent events, in a fortress about fifteen miles from , that 
place. While there, news arrived of the battle of La Hogue, and the 
prisoners were ordered into closer confinement. They, in some way, re- 
ceived news of this order ; and determined, before it was put in force, to 
effect their escape. Accordingly, on the evening that was to precede their 
imprisonment, Augustus and some of his companions succeeded in scaling 
the wall and dropping into the ditch. Whether his friends were 
stunned by the fall, or re-captured, he had no means of ascertaining. He 
himself, however, got out of the ditch, took the road and arrived at Ro- 
chelle. Here he was secreted and protected by his aunt, until she found 
means to send him to the isle of Aux Rhe, whence he got passage to 
Denmark. On hir. way home he passed through Holland, performed 
his business there, and then crossed over to England, where he saw his 
father and sister for the first time since their separation so many years 
before. There was one drawback to their joy, one cause of grief; the 
mother who had gone through so many trials with them, was no more. 
The calls of business soon separated this happy party, and Augustus took 
a last farewell, and returnned to his business in America. 

A few years after his return he married Anna Maria, daughter of Mr. 
Balthazar Bayard. She, like himself, was descended from a family who 
had suffered from religious persecution. Her great grand-father was a 
Frenchman, a Protestant professor of theology in one of the colleges at 
Paris, who was forced either to give up his religion or leave his country, 
during the reign of Louis XIII. He chose the latter alternative, and 
fled to Holland, whence his grand-son emigrated to this country. 

By this marriage, Augustus Jay found himself surrounded by a num- 
erous and influential Dutch connection. In the colony of New York, 
the descendants of the Dutch were the most numerous class of the pop- 
ulation ; and they were remarkable for the liberal manner in which they 


befriended and assisted their countrymen, or those connected with them. 

Soon after his marriage, finding himself in comfortable and respect- 
able circumstances, Mr. Jay sent out for his father and sister : but the 
father felt that his declining years would not permit such a voyage, and 
the sister would on no account leave him. Augustus Jay went on for 
many years increasing his wealth and influence ; and, after having had 
three children, all of whom were daughters, he was at last made happy 
by the birth of a son in the year 1704. This son, the father of John Jay, 
he named Peter. No other children were born ; and Peter, therefore, at 
his father's death, which did not take place until he had reached the 
age of eighty-four, found himself sole bearer of the name of Jay. 

Peter Jay, like his father and grand-father, was a merchant and fol- 
lowed his business with such success, that at the age of forty he was able 
to retire and live on the proceeds of his industry. At the age of twenty- 
four, he married Mary van Cortlandt. This lady was the daughter of 
Jacobus van Cortlandt of the Lower Yonckers, by his wife Eva Philipse, 
daughter of the Hon. Frederick Philipse, lord of the manor of Philips- 
burgh. Through this lady, the Jays subsequently became possessed of 
the Bedford estates. 

Peter Jay, Esq., by his wife Mary van Cortlandt, had ten children. 

Their eighth child, John Jay, was born on the 12th of December, 
1745, the same year that his father purchased the Rye estate. 3 At the 
age of eight years, John Jay was sent to a grammar school at New Ro- 
chelle ; his instructor being the Rev. Pierre Stouppe, minister of the 
French Episcopal church. " Here he continued for three years, and 
was then placed by his father under the care of a private tutor, who pre- 
pared him for college. The one selected was King's, now Columbia 
College, an institution that boasts of many celebrated men among its 

" In his fourth collegiate year he decided upon the law as his future 
profession. 6 At the commencement held at St. George's chapel, May, 
1764, General Gage and his Majesty's council, &c, being present, Rich- 
ard Harrison, seventeen years of age, delivered the salutatory oration ; 
John Jay, a dissertation on the blessings of peace." Upon this occasion 
he received his degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

The annexed sketch of Mr. Jay's subsequent life is from Blake's Bi- 
ographical Dictionary. 

" John Jay, LL. D., first Chief Justice of the United States under 
the constitution of 1789, graduated at King's (now Columbia) College, 

a Here John Jay spent his boyhood. 

b Compiled and abridged f:om the life of John Jay by Henry B. Renwick, 


A.D. 1764; and in 1768 was admitted to the bar. He was appointed 
to the first American Congress, in 1774. Being on the committee 
with Lee and Livingston to draft and address the people of Great 
Britain, he was the writer of that eloquent production. In the Congress 
of 1775, he was on various important committees, performing more 
service perhaps than any other member except Franklin and John 
Adams. In May, 1776, he was recalled to assist in framing the govern- 
ment of New York, and in consequence his name is not attached to the 
Declaration of Independence ; but July 9th, he reported resolutions in 
the Provincial Convention in favor of the declaration. After the fall of 
New York, and the removal of the Provincial Assembly to Poughkeep- 
sie, Mr. Jay retained his resolute patriotism. The very eloquent ad- 
dress of the convention to the people of New York, dated Fishkill, De- 
cember 23, 1776, and signed by A. Ten Broeck, as president, was 
written by him. March 12, 1777, he reported to the convention of New 
York the draft of a form of government, which was adopted ; and many 
of the provisions of which, were introduced into the constitution of other 
States. From May 3, 1777, to August 18, 1779. he was Chief Justice of 
the State, but resigned that office in consequence of his duties as presi- 
dent of Congress. The glowing address of that body to their constitu- 
ents, dated September 8, 1779, was prepared by him. On the 29th of 
September he was appointed minister plenipotentiary to the court of 
Spain. He was one of the commissioners to negotiate peace with Great 
Britain, and signed the definitive treaty of peace at Paris, September 3, 
1783. He returned to America in 1784. Congress had previously ap- 
pointed him Secretary of State for foreign affairs. In the difficult cir- 
cumstances of the country, the secretary was in effect the head of the 
government. Mr. Jay's services were of great importance. He drew 
up, October 13, 1776, an elaborate report on the relations between the 
United States and Great Britain. Though not a member of the conven- 
tion which formed the Constitution of the United States, he was present 
at Annapolis, and aided by his advice. He also assisted Madison and 
Hamilton, in writing the Federalist. In the convention of New York, 
he contributed to the adoption of the Constitution. He was appointed 
Chief Justice, by Washington, Septemper 26, 1789. In 1794 he was ap- 
pointed minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain, and succeeded in nego- 
tiating the treaty which still goes by his name. He was governor of the 
State of New York from 1795 to 1801. The remainder of his life he 
passed in retirement at Bedford, in this county. He died 17th May, 
1829. His remains are deposited in the family burying ground. 
By his wife, Sarah Vanburgh, daughter of the Hon. William Livings- 


ton, Governor of New Jersey, he left issue two sons, viz. : the late Hon. 
Peter Augustus Jay, member of the State Assembly in 1813, recorder of 
New York in 181 9, and delegate to the convention which framed the 
late constitution of the State of New York ; and the Hon. William Jay 
of Bedford, for several years a Judge of the late Court of Common 
Pleas in this county ; besides four daughters. 

The family residence is situated near the post road leading to Rye at 
no great distance from the river. The building is a handsome structure 
of wood, presenting a lofty portico on the north. The south front com- 
mands a beautiful lawn, and charming views of the Sound and Long 
Island. Some highly interesting family portraits adorn the walls of the 
hall and dining-room ; amongst them are the following : Hon. John Jay, 
first Chief Justice of the United States, and Governor of the State of 
New York. Head by Stewart, figure by Trumbull. The Hon. John 
Jay sat to Colonel Trumbull (his secretary) for this picture, whilst resi- 
dent ambassador at the Court of St. James, London. The artist sub- 
sequently presented it to Mr. Jay. a Augustus Jay, who emigrated to 
this country in 1686, a copy from the original, by Waldo ; Anna Maria 
Bayard, wife of Augustus Jay, by ditto ; Peter Augustus Jay, as a boy, 
artist unknown ; an old painting upon oak panel, supposed to represent 
Catharine, wife of the Hon. Stephen Van Cortlandt, South Holland. 
This lady appears habited in a plain black dress, wearing a high neck 
ruffle, and in her right hand holds a clasped book. In one corner of the 
picture is inscribed "^Etat. 64, i63o." b 

The library contains a large and valuable collection of shells amount- 
ing to between three or four thousand specimens. John C. Jay, M.D., 
has published several catalogues of the new and rare shells contained in 
his cabinet. 

Among other family relics, we noticed the gold snuff box presented by 
the corporation of New York, with the freedom of the city, to his Excel- 
lency John Jay, on the 4th of October, 1784. Also a French Bible, d 
containing the following memoranda : Auguste Jay est ne a la Rochelle 
dans le Royaume de France le " Mars, 1665. Laus Deo. N. York. 
July ye 10th, 1733, this day at 4 o'clock in ye morning dyed Eva Van 

aThis picture has been engraved for Herring's National Portrait Gallery. In the possession 
of Henry Muuro, Esq., is another portrait of the Hon. John Jay, by Stewart, in his robes as 
Chief Justice of the United states. 

b This piciure was found in one of the old city residences of th2 Van Cortlandts. 

c See " Catalogue of recent shells in the cabinet of John C. Jay," 8vo. New York, 1835, pp. 
56. " Description of new and rare shells with four plates," 8vo. N. Y. 1836, 2d ed. pp. 78. "A 
catalogue of the shells arranged according to the Larnarckian system, together with descrip- 
tions of new and rare species contained in the collection of John ' :. Jay, M. D.' 3d ed. 4to. 
New York, pp. 125, with ten plates. 

d The title runs thus, " La Sainte Bible qui conrient le Vieux et le Nouveau Testament, par 
David Martin, pasteur de l'Eglise Wallone d'Utrecht. Amsterdam, MDCCVIL" 


Cortlandt, was buried ye next day ye 12 en ye voute at Mr. Stuyvesant's 
about six and seven o'clock." 

The situation of the Jay property is very fine, embracing some of the 
most graceful undulations of a hilly district, highly diversified with rocks, 
woods and river scenery. Contiguous to the southern portion of the 
estate, and bordering the Sound, is Maree's neck, and the neighboring 
islands of Pine and Hen-hawk, the latter consisting of seventy-seven 
acres. A curious phenomenon, called Mirage, is frequently seen from 
these shores, when the land on the opposite coast of Long Island appears 
to rise above the waters of the Sound, while the intermediate portions 
seem to be sunk beneath the waves. This illusion is caused by a cer- 
tain state of the atmosphere, depending chiefly upon its humidity and 
warmth which changes considerably its ordinary refractive power. In 
days of ignorance and superstition, such appearances occasionally ex- 
cited a strange interest. 

In an opening of the woods on the south-east side of the mansion, is 
the family cemetery. 


are interred 
the remains of the 


which were removed from 

the family vault 

Xew York, 

the 28th of October, 




Eminent among those who asserted the liberty 
and established the Independence 

of his country, 
which be long served in the most 
important offices, 
Legislative, Executive, Judicial and Diplomatic, 
and distinguished in them all, by bis 
ability, firmness, patriotism and integrity- 
He waa in his life and in his death, 
an example of the virtues, 
the faith and the hopes 

of a Christian. 
Born Dec. 12th, 1745, 
Died May 17th, 1829. 


j N memory PET]'. R JAY MUNEO 

who died 
SIR JAMES J A T, Ks't. 22 Sept. , 1S33, 

born 27 October, 1732, aged 66 years, 

died 20 October, 1815. 8 months and 12 days. 

In memory of 


relict of John W. Watkins, Esq. , 

and last surviving daughter of 

William Livingston, 

Governor of New Jersey, 

who departed this life 

July 7th, 1843, 

in the 83d year of her age. 

Anchored safe, the weary soul 

Shall find eternal rest, 
Nor storms shall beat nor billows roll 

Across my peaceful breast. 

Besides other appropriate memorials to Peter Jay, Peter Augustus 
Jay, Esq., Mary Rutherford Jay, Margaret Munro, Goldsborough Ban- 
yar, Eva Munro, Harriet Van Cortlandt and Mary Jay, wife of Fred- 
erick Prime, Esq. 

The adjoining territory upon the west, constitutes what was form- 
erly called Guion's neck. From a branch of the Guion family descended 
from Isaac Guion of New Rochelle, the son of Louis Guion, who emi- 
grated from England about 1687. The beautiful beaver stream 01 called 
by the Indians, Pockeotessen, rises north of Guion neck, and forms its 
western boundary. 

The Purdy estate is situated upon the eastern shore of Rye neck 
bordering the Blind Brook, (Mockquams). A short distance from the 
house is the burial place of the Purdy family, Among other memorials 
is the following : 


ob. March 4, 1800, 

iEtat, 79. 

On the west bank of the Byram River, which here forms the boundary 
between New York and Connecticut, is situated the village of Port 

a sometimes styled Stony Brook. 


Cluster* This place has grown rapidly within a few years, and bids 
fair to rival any on the Sound ; among other causes, its manufactories 
have contributed greatly to promote this prosperity. The Byram or 
Armonck river, which waters this beautiful section of Westchester County 
takes its rise from the Byram lake — an extensive sheet of water, fed by 
the springs of the Comonck or Armonck hills in Bedford. During its 
downward course, it winds between lofty hills, fringed with copse wood, 
and abounding with bold projections which here and there break the 
course of its rapid current. In other places it forms romantic glens, 
shaded with the wild hemlock and fir. The wooded shores of Byram 
point, rise directly opposite the village, forming a fine contrast to the 
western side of the river. The Byram is navigable nearly two miles from 
its mouth, affording an easy transit from this place for the marketable 
productions of the interior. 

The site of the ancient ferry across the Sound to Matinecock, upon 
Long Island, was the Horse Rock in the vicinity of Rye Port. 

Upon the 18th of July, 1739, King George the Second, by his royal 
letters patent, regulated and established a ferry at this place, to be kept 
and attended for the convenience of passing and repassing to and from 
the land in the two patents called Budd 's neck and Peningoe fieck, lying 
and being in Rye, to the island of Nassau, over against the township of 
Oyster Bay, in the said island. 

Which ferry our loving subjects John Budd, Hachaliah Brown and Jonathan 
Brown, Esqs. , propose to undertake and to provide and keep at their own charge 
and expense, a sufficient number of good and able boats and servants for the due 
attendance on such ferry, &c, &c,and have free liberty to ask, demand and 
take for ferriage at and for such ferry, <kc, the several and respective fees here- 
inafter mentioned, &c. , viz : for ever}' person one shilling and sixpence, for every 
man and horse three shillings, for all horned cattle from two years old and up- 
wards each two shillings, for all colts and horned cattle under two years old each 
one shilling, for every score of sheep, lambs, hogs and sows five shillings, and so 
in proportion f r any greater or lesser number, for every full barrel one shilling, 
for every empty barrel four pence, for every full pipe or hogshead six shillings, 
for every empty pipe or hogshead two shillings, for every firkin or tub of butter 
four pence, for every bushel of wheat, salt, grain, seeds or any other thing fully 
measured and sold by the bushel one penny ; for every waggon, cart or carriage 
seven shillings and sixpence, for every pair of wheels two shillings, for every 
cupboard, press for clothes or writing desk four shillings and sixpence, for eveiy 
full trunk or chest two shillings and sixpence, for every empty trunk or chest 
one shilling, for every full half barrel sixpence, for every gammon, flitch of bacon 
or piece of smoked beef one penny, for every hundred weight of gunpowder, iron, 
steel, sheet pewter or lead and iron or iron, copper or brass kettles or pots one 

a Formerly called BawpUs. 


shilling and sixpence, and so in proportion for any greater or less quantity, for 
every such one penny, for every corn fan five pence, for every hundred of shingles 
one shilling, for every bed, bedstead and bedding together three shillings, for 
every chair two pence, for every table eight pence, for every saddle without 
horse three pence, for every gun two pence, for every case with bottles nine 
pence, for every frying pan or warming pan two pence, for every looking glass 
of one foot sixpence, and so in proportion for all other goods for which no pro- 
vision is heieby made, and also all manner of privileges, &c, &c. For which the 
patentees and their heirs are to pay to the collector general of the town being, on 
the 25th day of March, commonly called Lady-day, the yearly rent of two shil- 
lings and sixpence, &c, &c. FREDERICK MORRIS, Secretary. 

The ancient ferry now exists only in name, the present rapid commu- 
nications with the island having superseded this dangerous mode of navi- 
gation. The property is vested in the Provoost family. Directly oppo- 
site the port lies Minnevvies or Manursing Island, separated from the 
main by a narrow creek on the southwest side. It consists of one hun- 
dred acres, divided between the three proprietors, Joseph Bartam, Mr. 
Beale and Thomas Theall. Upon the main is situated the tide mill of 
Mr. Kirby. 

A dock appears to have been commenced at or near Rye port as early 
as 1679, for in this year we find a grant made by the town to "John 
Ogden of forty-eight or fifty acres of land by the water side at the Fish- 
ing rock, for the purpose of building a house and wharf. The inhabitants 
of Peningoe Neck to have wharfage free." From Rye port a steamboat 
runs daily to and from the city of New York. There is also a neat board- 
ing house established here for the accommodation of summer visitors to 
this delightful spot. 

The islands — called the Great, Middle and Little Captains — east of 
Manursing, belong to this town. 


It was the first place or worship built in the village of Portchester — 
commenced in 1830 and completed in 1833. The congregations of Rye 
and Portchester remained united for twenty-three years. In 1852 it be- 
came a distinct church. 

Called. List of Pastors. Resigned. 

1853, Rev. Hexey Benedict, 18G3. 

1864, Rev. Yalextixe A. Lewis, 1867. 

1868, Rev. Ezra F. Mlndy, 1878. * 

1877, Rev. "Willis W. Dowel, present. 

At the foot of King street stands the 

a Baird's History of Rye. 



It was built in 1S31 j it was dedicated by Bishop Janes in 1858, and cost 
about $10,000. This church took the name of Summertield church, from 
regard for the memory of the sainted John Summerfield, and two of 
whose surviving sisters were members — Mrs. James Elackstock and Miss 

The King street Methodist Episcopal church was built about the 
same year. 


was dedicated on the 2d of February, 1865. 

Rev. E. S. Raymond, Rev. Dr. Byrne, 

Rev. Lawson Stewart, Rev. Jonathan Bastow, 

Rev. A. C. Ferguson. <* 

At the southern end of the village of Portchester stands the 


About 1846, they purchased a small frame building on Main street, 
which they used as a church, until 1852, when the Rev. E. J. O'Reilly be- 
came its pastor. In 1852, the old church was sold, and the present, 
Our Lady of Mercy, was built on the same site. Connected with this 
church is a school for boys and girls, and a convent occupied by the Sis- 
ters of Charity, who have charge of the female department. 

Appointed. Pastors. Removed. 

Rev. E. J. O'Reilly, 1853. 

1853, Rev. Thomas MoLocGnuN, 1854. 

1S54, Rev. Matthew Dowling, present incumbent. & 

Near the eastern end of the village stands the 


Rev. P. S. Chauncey, rector, of Rye, commenced services in 1836, in 
this village. They were often held in the old school house, at the 
foot of King street hill, and sometimes in the Methodist church, and 
again in Armonck hall, then known as Burger's chapel. 

The corner stone of the present church was laid on the 25th of July, 
1843, by Bishop Onderdonk. The land was given by the late William 
Adee, and completed at a cost of about $6,000. It was consecrated on 
the 15th of July, 1844, and called St. Peter's chapel, in connection with 

a Baird's History of Rye. 
b Baird's History of Rye. 


Christ church, Rye. Rev. Mr. Chauncey continued to discharge the du- 
ties of this part of his charge, until January 30, 1848, when he resigned 
the rectorship of Rye. During the ministry of Rev. Ed. C. Bull, steps 
were taken to form a distinct parish at Portchester; and on April 12, 
1852, St. Peter's church was organized as a separate parish. The rec- 
tory of St. Peter's church was built in 1S60; the ground, two acres and 
three-eighths, was given by Read Peck, Esq. The church was enlarged 
in 1855, and a fine Sunday-school and lecture-room was erected." 

Called. Rectors. Removed. 

1852, Rev. Isaac Peck, 1858. 

L858, Rev. George Pennell, 1859. 

1860, Rev. Samuel Hollingsworth, 

1872, Rev. Brockhol&t Morgan, 1S79. 

1880, Rev. J. Gardener Rosenorantz, 

On the same side of the main street is situated the Presbyterian church. 

Near the western entrance of the village stands the residence of the 
Merritt family. Mr. Merritt, the present occupant, is a lineal descend- 
ant of John Merritt, one of the original proprietors of Rye. Of this family 
was " Thomas Merritt, a cornet of cavalry in the Queen's Rangers, A.D. 
1780. This gentleman subsequently settled in Upper Canada, and held 
the offices of sheriff of the District of Niagara, and surveyor of the 
King's forests, tie died at St. Catharine's, May, 1842, aged eighty- 

King street extends nearly seven miles north of Portchester, and finally 
terminates in the north-west corner of Greenwich township, Connecticut. 
The surrounding country is a fine agricultural district, embracing some 
of the finest farms in the county. 

This congregation existed before the Revolution. The church was 
completed in 17 73, with a membership of fifty-four. It was supplied 
for eleven years by the ministers of Tarrytown, Danbury, Long Island, 
and New York. After this the Rev. Nathaniel Finch was settled as 
Pastor, and continued in office until 1826; he died ki 1829, in the 
eighty-fifth year of his age. 

Call. Pastors. Removed. 

Rev. Nathaniel Finch, 1826. 

1S26, Rev. E. S. Raymond, 1836. 

1836, Rev. Mb. Brewer, 1S40. 

1840, Rev. E. S. Raymond (returned), 1862. 

1862, Rev. O. C. Kirkham, 1862. 

Since then, the congregation has had no settled pastor. 6 

a Baird's Flistory of Rye. 
b Baird's Hist, of Rye. 


During the Revolutionary war the Continental forces appear to have 
been frequently quartered in this town. On the 8th of January, General 
Parson's brigade were posted in King street. The same year, General 
Wooster's division retreated as far as Rye Neck. Lieutenant Colonel 
Van Rensselaer also received orders from Congress to maintain his 
station until obliged to retreat upon Rye Neck. Subsequently the enemy 
occupied this portion of Westchester County, where the soldiers did 
much wanton mischief and plundered most of the houses. Their prin- 
cipal encampment seems to have been on the high ground between the 
villages of Rye and Portchester. 

The earliest record of town officers occurs on the 25th of April, 167 1. 
Upon this occasion, " George Kniffen and Francis Purdy were appointed 

" Upon the 3d of October, Joseph Horton, Thomas Brown and John 
Brondig were chosen town and selectmen for the year ensuing." " 28th 
of September, George Lane was elected constable" " 13th of June, 
1 69 1. Mr. Joseph Theall, supervisor." "June 26th, 1696, Deliverance 
Brown was chosen constable for the town of Rye, and Mr. John Hoit, 

The general surface of the town is uneven and stoney." The land, 
however, is under good cultivation. The soil consists of a clay loam. 
The natural growth of wood is oak, chestnut, walnut, hickory, &c, on 
the higher lands ; and in the low lands, ash, birch, and maple. We have 
already shown that it is drained on the east by Byram River, and on the 
west by Blind Brook, both flowing into Long Island Sound. Upon these 
streams are numerous mill seats. Among the principal mineral produc- 
tions of the town may be noticed Chlorite/ " a soft greenish substance, 
composed of minute scales, closely compacted together. It differs very 
little from soapstone," also Tourmaline, in long slender crystals." 

a Disturnell's Gazetteer of N. Y. 

b Rocks containing it are 6aid to be Chlorltie. 

e See geological surveyof the State, 18*0. 




This town is bounded on the north by White Plains and Greenburgh, 
east by Mamaroneck, west by Greenburgh, and south by Eastchester and 
Rochelle. Under the Colonial Government it constituted a portion of 
the manor of Scarsdale, which also embraced the greater part of White 
Plains and the townships of North and New Castle. a 

The place acquired its name from the Heathcote family, who origin- 
ally came from Scarsdale, Derbyshire, England. " More onward," says 
the learned Camden (describing that part of Derbyshire), " we see Ches- 
terfield in Scarsdale — that is, in a dale enclosed with rocks. For crags 
were call'd scarrs by the Saxons." Under the Mohegan Indians Scars- 
dale is believed to have formed a portion of the Indian territory of Qua- 
roppas, which was ceded to John Richbell by the Indian proprietors in 

A.D. 1696, Col. Caleb Heathcote obtained of Anne Richbell, relict 
of John Richbell deceased, a full patent right to purchase lands, "which 
are already included in her husbands sale of 1660." 6 

Upon the 30th of March, 1701, occurs the following indenture "be- 
tween Col. Caleb Heathcote on the one part, of Mamaroneck, gentle- 
man, and the Indian proprietors, Patthunck, Beaupo, Kohawney and 
Wapetuck, on the other part : 

" "Witnesseth that the said Patthunck, Beaupo, Kohawney and Wapetuck, &c, 
for and in consideration of a certain sum of good and lawful money to them in 
hand paid, and secured to be paid, at or before the ensealing and delivery of 

a The present township was organized on the 7th of March, 1788. 

b See Mamaroneck, New Castle, &c. 211 


those presents, by the Baid Caleb Heathcote, the receipt whereof the said Pat. 
tlumek. Beaup », Kohawney, Wapetuck, &c., doth hereby acknowledge them- 
selves therewith to be fully satisfied and contented and paid and thereof and 

therefrom do acquit, exonerate and discharge the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs, 
executors and administrators, have given, granted, sold, bargained, alienated, en- 
feoffed, and confirmed, and do by these presents give, grant, bargain, sell, alien- 
ate, enfeoffe and confirm unto the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assignees 
forever, all our rights, title, and interest in a certain tract of land lying andbe- 
ing in the county of Westchester, bounded as follows: To begin on the west side 
at the southermost end of a ridge known by the name of Richbell's or Horse 
ridge, at a gnat rock, and so to run a north-north-west line to Broncks's river, 
and on the eastermost side with Mamaroneck river, and from the head thereof to 
Bronchi's river, to have and to hold the said bargained premises, with every of 
the appurtenances thereunto belonging, to the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and 
es, forever; and that the said Caleb Heathcote. his heirs, executors, ad- 
ministrators, and assignees, shall and may at all times hereafter, and from time 
to time, peaceably and quietly have, hold, use. occupy, and enjoy, all and singu- 
lar the herein before mentioned bargained premises, with their and ever} 7 appur- 
tenances, without the let, hindrance or molestation of them the said proprietors, 
their heirs or assignees. In witness whereof they have hereunto set their hands 
and seals, the day above written." PATTHUNCK, 

Signed sealed and delivered in presence of us. BEAUPO, 

Ahk Millixgiox, COHAWXEY, 

Besj. Collier, WAPETUCK. 

John Cooke, 
The mark of 

Kaokqeeiux Womatera. 

Upon the 21st of March, 1 701, the extensive purchases of Colonel 
Caleb Heathcote in Westchester county were erected into the lordship 
and manor of Scarsdale, to be holden of the king in free and common 
soccage, its lord yielding and rendering therefor annually, upon the fes- 
tival of the Nativity, five pounds current money of New York, &c. 


William the Third, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ire- 
land, King. Defender of the Faith, &c, to all to whom these presents shad come, 
sendeth greeting: Whereas our loving subject Caleb Heathcote, Esquire, hath 
petitioned the Honorable John Nanfan, our Lieutenant-Governor and Comman- 
der-in-chief of the Province of New York in America, and our Council of the 
said Province, for a confirmation of a tract of land in the county of Westchester, 
beginning at a marked tree by Mamaroneck river, which is the eastermost side 
of the norihern bounds of Mamaroneck township, being about two miles from 
the country road, and to run along the said river to the head thereof, and thence 
in a north line until eighteen miles from said marked tree is completed, westerly 
at the marked tree or a great rock, being the westermost part of the said north- 

o From the original, In the possession of Edward F. DeLancey, Esq. 


era bounds of the aforesaid township being about two miles from the county road, 
and thence to run northerly eighteen miles as ye line on ye eastermost side of the 
said land runneth, including in ye said manor his eighth part of the two miles 
laid out for ye town of Mamaroneck, with ye lott he now liveth on, and ye lott 
bought of Alice Hatfield, with the lands and meadows below, westerly to a path 
to him belonging by virtue of his deeds and conveyances, part of which land 
within the bounds aforesaid was purchased by John Richbell from ye native In- 
dian proprietors, which said John Richbell had a grant and confirmation for ye 
same from Francis Lovelace, late Governor of our said Province, and ye right of 
ye said John Richbell therein is legally vested in ye said Caleb Heathcote, and 
other parts have been purchased by ye said Caleb Heathcote of ye native Indian 
proprietors ; and whereas the said Caleb Heathcote hath further petitioned our 
said Lieutenant Governor and Council that the said tract of land may be erected 
into a manor by ye name of ye manor of Scarsdale, whereupon our said Lieuten- 
ant Governor, by and with the advice of our Council, directed a writ to the high 
sheriff of the said county of Westchester to inquire to what damage such patent 
would be, which, writ issued accordingly with a proviso that it should not give 
the said Caleb Heathcote any further title than which he already hath to the land 
called White Plains, which is in dispute between ye said Caleb Heathcote and 
some of ye inhabitants of ye town of Rye, whereupon ye said sheriff returned that 
ye jurors found that there is no damage to ye King or his subjects in erecting the 
manor aforesaid, except ye said White Plains which are in dispute and contest 
between ye said Caleb Heathcote and ye town of Rye, and excepting James Mott 
and ye rest of ye purchasers of Mamaroneck which have deed within ye patent 
of Richbell, Know ye that of our special grace, certain knowledge and mere mo- 
tion, we have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents do 
for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant, ratify and confirm unto ye said Ca- 
leb Heathcote, his heirs and assignees, all and every ye aforesaid tracts and par- 
cels of land aaci meadow within ye respective limits and bounds before mentioned 
and expressed, together with all and every the messuages, tenements, buildings, 
barns, houses, out-houses, fences, orchards, gardens, pastures, meadows, marshes, 
swamps, pools, ponds, waters, water-courses, woods, under-woods, trees, tim- 
bers, quarries, runs, rivers, rivulets, brooks, lakes, streams, creeks, harbours, 
beeches, bays, islands, ferries, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, mines, 
minerals (royal mines only excepted), and all the rights, members, liberties, 
privileges, jurisdictions, royalties, hereditaments, profits, benefits, advantages 
and appurtenances whatsoever to aforesaid several and respective tracts and par- 
cels of lands and meadow belonging or in any ways appertaining or accepted, re- 
puted, taken, known or occupied as part, parcel, or member thereof to have and 
to hold all the aforesaid several and respective tracts, parcels of land and meadow 
and premises within the respective limits and bounds aforesaid, with all and 
every of the appurtenances unto him the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and as- 
signs, to the only proper use and behoof of him the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs 
and assigns for ever, provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed, 
deemed or taken to give the said Caleb Heathcote any further title than what he 
now by virtue of these our letters patent lawfully hath to ye said White Plains in 
dispute as aforesaid, nor any jurisdiction withiu the said White Plains until the 
same shall happen to belong to the said Caleb Heathcote ; and moreover Know ye 


that of further our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, we have 
thought fit to erect all the afore recited tracts and parcels of land and meadow 
witliin the limits and bounds aforesaid into a lordship and manor except as before 
excepted ; and therefore by these presents we do for us, our heirs and successors, 
erect, make and constitute all the afore-recited tracts and parcels of land and 
meadow within the limits and bounds before mentioned (except as before except- 
ed) together with all and every the above granted premises, with all and every 
of Iheir appurtenances into one lordship or manor, to all intents and purposes, 
and it is our royal will and pleasure, that the said lordship and manor shall from 
henceforth be called the lordship and manor cf Scarsdale ; and Knoic ye that we 
reposing especial trust and confidence in the loyalty, wisdom, justice, prudence 
and circumspection of our said loving subject, do for us, our heirs aud suc- 
cessors, give and grant unto the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns, full 
power and authority at all times forever hereafter within the said lordship or 
manor one court leet and one court baron, to hold and keep at such time and 
times, and so often yearly as he or they shall think meet, and we do further give 
and grant to the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns, all fines and issues 
and amercements at the said court leet and court baron to be holden within our 
said lordship or manor, to be sett, forfeited or imposed, or payable or happening 
at any time to be payable by any of the inhabitants of or within the said lordship 
or manor of Scarsdale, or the limits and bounds thereof, and also all and every 
power and powers, authority and authorities for holding and keeping the said 
court leet and court baron from time to time and to award to and issue out the ac- 
customed writs to be issued and awarded out of courts leet and courts baron, and 
also that the said court leet and court baron be kept by the said Caleb Heathcote, 
his heirs and assigns for ever, his or their or any of their stewards and deputies, 
and appointed with full and ample power and authority to distrain for the rents, 
services and other sums of money payable by virtue of the premises, and all other 
lawful remedies and means for the having, possessing, levying and enjoying the 
premises and every part and parcel of the same, and all waifs and estrays, deod- 
ands and goods of felons happening or to be happening, being or to be forfeited 
within the said lordship or manor of Scarsdale ; and we do further give and grant 
unto the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns, that all and singular ye ten- 
ants of him ye said Caleb Heathcote within ye said manor shall and may at all 
times hereafter meet together and choose assessors witliin ye manor aforesaid, 
according to such rules, ways and methods as are prescribed for cities, towns and 
counties, within our said Province by ye acts of General Assembly for defraying 
the public charge of each respective city, town and county aforesaid, and all such 
sums of money so assessed and levied to collect and dispose of for such usa as 
any act or acts as the said General Assembly shall establish and appoint, to have, 
hold, possess or enjoy all and singular the said lordship or manor of Scarsdale 
and premises, with all and every of their appurtenances unto the said Caleb 
Heathcote, his heirs and assigns for ever, aud that the said lordship or manor 
aforesaid shall be and for ever continue free and exempt from the jurisdiction of 
every town, township or manor whatsoever, to be holden of us, our heirs and 
successors in free and common soccage according to the tenure of our manor 
of East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, within our kingdom of England, 
yielding, rendering and paying therefor yearly and every year forever at our city 


of New York unto us, our heirs and successors, or to such office or officers as 
shall from time to time be impowered to receive ye same, five pounds current 
money of New York, upon the Nativity of our Lord, in lieu and stead of all ser- 
vices, dues, duties or demands whatsoever. Iu testimony whereof we have caus- 
ed the great seal of our province of New York to be hereunto affixed. 

Witness John Nanfan, Esq., our Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-chief 
of our Province of New York and territories depending thereon in America. 
Given at Fort William Henry in our city of New York, this twenty-first day ot 
March, in the fourteenth year of our reign. Anno Domini 1701. a 


The Heathcote family, according to Lyson, " were originally of Heath- 
cote in the parish of Hartington, County of Derby, England. The first 
mention we find of them is in the tenth reign of Edward IV, (1470- 
147 1,) when they were engaged in mercantile pursuits at Chesterfield^ 
in the same county. George Heathcote, who is said to have descended 
of an ancient and worthy family of that name in Derbyshire, possessed 
of a large estate, c was of Brampton near Chesterfield in that county, and 

Hundred of Scarsdale. He married Beatrice , and died in 1596, 

leaving issue George Heathcote of Lodes, and of " the Lodge," also near 
Chesterfield. " He was very intimate with Gilbert 'Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, Knight of the most noble order of the Garter, one of the 
chief noblemen in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. By means of this ac- 
quaintance he was drawn into great engagements for the aforesaid Earl 
which did diminish his estate. The Earl stood god-father to his son, and 
gave him the name of Gilbert. d He died in 1601, leaving, by his wife, 
Agnes, who died in 1609, first — George Heathcote, ancestor of the 
Heathcotes of Culthrope Hall, Brampton, whose line became extinct in 
1825 ; second, the before mentioned Gilbert Heathcote of Chesterfield. 
This individual "had large interests in the lead mines by which, together 
with other sources, he received an income of ^5,000 per annum clear 
of all expenses ; but venturing too deeply in other projects, he was forced 
to dispose of the greater part of his estate." 6 He died in 1636, leaving 
— by his wife, Elizabeth Owtum — only one son, Gilbert Heathcote, Esq., 
of Chesterfield, who was bora May 22d, 1625. " He was left with but 
a small estate, in consequence of the losses sustained by his grandfather 
and father." On the breaking out of the civil wars, during the reign of 

a Book of Patents, Albany Rec, No. vii., 226. 

b Lyson's Mag. Brit. Derbyshire. 

c Extract from a MSS. Book of Sir William Heathcote. 

d Extract from a MSS. Book of Sir William Heathcote. 

e Extract from Samuel Heathcote's MSS. ; account of his family in possession of Sir Wm. 
Heathcotej Bart of Hursley. 
/ Ditto. 



Charles the First, " he entered the Parliament army and there behaved 
himself with great courage and bravery in several engagements for the 
Rights and Liberty of his country."* 1 At one time he was Mayor of the 
ancient city of Chesterfield. He died April 24th, 1690. By his wife, 
Anne, daughter of George Dickins, of Weststoke, County of Sussex, he 
had eight sons ("seven of whom he brought upas merchant adventurer:; 
whereby with God's blessing they obtained good estates,") and one 
daughter, viz. : First, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Knight and Baronet, an- 
cestor of the " Heathcotes Barons Aveland of Normanton Park, County 
Rutland; second, John Heathcote who died unmarried in 17 10; third, 
Samuel Heathcote of Hackney, Middlesex, ancestor of the " Heathcotes, 
Baronets of Hursley Park, Hampshire ; fourth, Josiah Heathcote, father 
of George Heathcote, Alderman and Lord Mayor of London in 1744, 

Hon. Caleb Heathcote. 

whose son was Josiah Eyles Heathcote of Southbroom House, who died 
August, 181 1, aged sixty-two; fifth, William Heathcote, who died in 
1 7 19 ; and sixth, Caleb Heathcote/ first Lord of the Manor of Scarsdale, 
Westchester County, New York. This gentleman was born at Chester- 
field, Derbyshire, England, 6th of March, 1665. He adopted the mer- 
cantile profession and soon acquired considerable wealth. " The cause 
of his emigration was very different from that which brought most Eng- 
lishmen to America. He was engaged to a very beautiful lady, to whom 

a Ditto. 

b The two other sons of Gilbert were George, who died unmarried on his voyage home from 
Jamaica in 1690, and Thomas who died young. The daughter, Elizabeth, died young in 1658. 

To face page 216, vol. 11. 


Arms :— Ermine, three pomeis, each charged with a cross, or. And for Crest :— On a wreath argent and vert, a mural coronet azure, surmounted with a pomeis charged with a cross, or, between two wings displayed ermine. 

Motto — Hitbcre el IKmperUri, 

George Heathcote, ^Beatrice , admin, granted at LictiQckl In 1596, to Beatrice, widow 

he was dead In 1590 | of George Heathcote, of Brampton 

George _ A penes 
of Lodes and of » The Lodge," in Brompton, Yeoman, liviDg 1594-98-90, Ad- 
min, was granted at LUchrield, on the death of George II. of Brampton, 1G01 

of Lodee in Brampton ; will dated 1C09, mentions her eons, 
George, Godfrey ami Gilbert, daus. Dorothy and Katharine 


of Cutthorpe, in Brampton ; will dated Improved IftSSL nrentianB I was living in 

1)1 > HI MUM |tl. 111 I 'I ,1111 | , n 111 11,111:11 IIW, |II1PHU ..!_.,-, 1111 nui.iia 

his late father George, brother Gilbert, of chesterfield, Cousins, 
Godfrey II. and Anthonv ; senior sons, Georpe, Thomas, Joseph, 
Gilbert ; danghtera, Dorothy, Ann, Alice, Mir 

C, J HUUlilH, .M'-M |>|l, 

and wife Dorothy 

Godfrey, named in 
will of Agnes, um. 
Godfrey II., and 
Esther Turner, m. 
at Smvelv, 15S2 

of Chesterfield, Yeoman, names wife Elizabeth, son Gilbert, 
5 daughters, in his will, proved at London, and dated 1634. 
Named in will of nephew George, as being dead in 1636, 

ami as of chesterfield 

Gilbert ^Elizabeth Owtrem. 

had two brothers, Francis 
ami Koheri, named in will 
of husband Gilbert. 16!U 
Sole Kx. to will of Gilbert. 

Dorothy nam- 
ed In will of 
Agnes H.,— 

named in 
will of Ag- 
nes II., — 

]. Dorothy. Mr. .John Shawe, 

d. 1061 1>. iww, mar. 1692. 

f Mr. Shawe was a") 

J celebrated nonoon-> 

(formist minister. ) 

i. George Heathooteu Grace da. 
of Cutthorpo Hall, I of Thos. 
in Brampton; will Smith, of 
dated 1086, and Derby 
proved 1P3M 

2. Thomas, named 
in will of father 
George, he left 

Joseph, father 4.0ilhert, his father left Mm lands at 2.Ann R.Alice, named In 

Brampton Brlgg close and Lochenfort 
Close, in Tapston, late the inheritance 
of his gram l-f;it her, lie^rge, and other 
lands, named in will of Pro. Geo., 163fl 

4. Ma 

Vevers'of Hull, 
living 1657 

1 will of 
bro. George, 

Gilhcrt = Anne Chase, 
of Chesterfield, b. Aiur. '22. 1625, d. April 24, ( of Mr. George Dlck- 
1690. He wen! into the Parliament's army oris, of Chesterfield, 
and behaved wit It great courage and bravery died November 29th, 
iu the civil wars in the time of Charles I. | 1705, aged 75 

Elizabeth-Jeter AHce^narding Dorothy Frances Ann Rosamond 

OI l.UUIIU|JC II. til, 

admin granted at 
Lichfield, m 16T8, 
b. at Brampton, 

ila. 0/ Ralph Clarke, of Chesterfield, and 

Norton and Aatgate, m. Rev. Thomas 

Ogle, Dissenting minister at Culthorpe. 

ifhe Clarke's were a wealthy Pres-1 

\ byterian family. ]__ 

John, named 
in will of fa- 
ther George, 

Grace, named 
in will oi fa- 
ther George, 

Sir Gilbert Heathcote, ^Heater, John, 2*1 

Knt. and Bart, of Loudon, Mer- I da of Mr. Chris- sou, d. un- 

chant. Born 1654, died 1733, topher Rayner, married, 

Lord Mayor and M. P. for the | of London, Mer- 1710,1k 1663 
city in four Parliaments | ehant ; born 1055, 
I died 1X14 

Samuel, 3d son, c= Mary, 

da. and Coth. of 4th son, iuefi» 

Mr. William d. 1766, 

Dawsonne, of proved 

, b. London 


Hackney, b 
1670, d. 1720. 

of the Islan.l 
of Jamaica 

William, 5th eon, b.1605, d. 1719 
aged 57 

Kli'/abcth, I). 1657, d. 

Thomas, d. young 

bapt. at Bramp- 
ton, Nov. 21th, 
1669, bar. Ihero 
Sept, 6, 1686 

Gilbert, ^.Frances, 
of Cntthorpe 
Hall, M.D., bapt. 

1664. d. 1719, <A 


„\Vm. Sloane, 
of Chelsea, 

\nn , u sir Jacob Frances, GiltX'i't, 

b.1683 Jacobson, b. 16S5 b. 1687, u. i«w 

ofLomlou, d. young in. 172t 

Knt d. 1751 

Sir John,. -Bridget, 

!>. 1080, I da. of Thomas 

isq., of 

I Tusford and Wat- 
I lingswells. Notts 

Elizabeth, m. Rigls- 
nionrt Traf f ord, 
Ksq , of Dunston 
Hall, Lincolnshire 


r-> Sir William- Ladv Elizabeth Samuel, 
Jg Heathoote, I Parker, only ila. b. 1099 
- BarL.b.lC'ja of Thomas, m 
J3 m. 1720, d. | Earl (if Mac- 
°~1751 I clesflelil 

ICC5, carao to 
N.Y.. 1C91;iI. 
Mar. 21,1721 

Martha, George, 7th son, 

da. of William Smith, d. unmarried, 

(iov. of Tangiers. and aired 30. about 

Chief .Justice of N. Y., HOT 
b. at Tangiers, 11 Sept. 
1681, d. atN.Y , 1757 

Eliz. da. of Mat- 
thew Holwor- 
thy, Esq., d. 

George = Marln, 
h. 1700, d. 17iis 
alderman and 

da. or John Fyles, 
Esq., of South. 

br< i House, d. 


Cornelius ^Elizabeth, 

ul < 'iiltlioi|.c, [ dauirltlcr and heir of Hobert 
M. 1). : Mi.l.]lrhr..nkolThoniC...,\ork 

Sir Gilbert Ileatheote, tilth llaronet, was elevated to the Peerage In lflr.n, as P.aron 
\veland, of Avelaii'lonnit v, Lincoln. See Peerage for descendants, under litle'Aveland.' 
The present Peer, Sir Gilbert llcnrv lleallleote, l.ord Aveland ; was born 1st Oct., 1S30. 

I See Peerage and Karotielajiv, -Ileal note, .if Hue. Icy, r.aronel " for de- 1 
Fcendanls. Present Itarmiet is the Kighl lion. Sir William llcatliente,Bart.D 
C.L.,lateM.P for oxford University; horn 17th Mai, lsnl. The lleatheotes 
of Ilursley a'e iu remainder to the Earldom of Macclesfield. 

Marr^Mr. Tfyley 

Josiah Kyles Ileatheote Augustal'tlca ileal henle,m,_Rcv.Thoma3 
of Sout hi. room Mouse, lsti:{, d. s.p.; a minor at tin' Nc.lgwyck 

d. Aug. mil, ict. 02 date of her father's will, 1750 Whalley 

John, d. Oct. 2S,- 

Mllllceiit Satcrthwalte Martha, m. 17*»_BenJamln llartlett, of Bradford Elizabeth, m. 174f.„Peter Aeklorn of nomsey County, York 

Cornelius lloaUloote Koiles, d, unmarried, 1K'2T>, rot. TO 

John, d. unmarried 

Elizabeth „Hev. I'hlllp Ackloni Peast.m; they had n son, 
The Rev, Cornelius lleallleote uo.les l married 
Maria Gossip, and .1. E 

, M 

I a da. Ma 

irles, H.N., 

ob. UMO, s.p. I.t. Col. .lames de ban, ey, R.A„ob.l859, s. p. Margaret, 00,1803, s.p. _Slr J. Clifton, Bart. Anne, ob. s.p. Susan, ob. 180(1, a p 

Thomaa .lames _Mury J. Ellison 
mil. 1789, ob. I 


William Ileatheote 11 D... Frances Munro. 
Bishop of the Diocese of Weslern New York, itat. Slh October, | nat, !t Jan., 1707, 
1797, ob. 5lh April, I sib. Yule Mainaroiieek | ob. IKT.'.l 

Gilbert, eldest son, 
in 1707, d. in Poll. lo 
Scpt.^7,Jlge.l '211 


oi incw i otk ami oi mini, rtfini- Alien, oa. 
erset, member of Assembly of | eh Wm Al- 
N. Y , 1764 to 1716, for the city I l«n,of IVnn. 
nat 1731, oil. lNou 

William, Klizabeth, 

Anne Heathcote,, 
en-heiress with her sister 
Manha, nat, lTn5ob. 177t» 

John Peter de Lancer, Elizabeth Floyd, 
nat. Mli August, 
1768,0b 7th .May, 

Hun. .rallies lie l.ancey, 
I.t. Gov. of the Province of N V . eldest son of 
Ktienncde l.iuiee.v nat 17<>:c, ob. .Iiih %u, 1760 

Martha Heathcote, ^LcwIh Johnston' M.D., 

)-lielrcss wild her nisttr I of Perth AnilKW, nat- 1704,0b, 

" "ill dat. assept. 1773 

Anne, ob. about ] ;i;r, 

Anne ^.William Pnrnet, 
I Him of Gov. Bnr- 
| net, and grand- 
son of Bishop 

Heathcote died 

In London, 
1796, fi.p. 

Thomas .Tames, Vraiicls 
proprietor of west Augusta 
part of do Laneev's Bibb] 

I'M ward Flovd,, ,.Tosephin^ Matilda, 
.,.,..:"! 0.1., 1 s-j 1 s pro- daoi William s. de 

j.rietor of Heathcote Zenn, of Ceneva, N. 
Y„ nat, B8 Jan., 
18% ob. Gth June, 

Frauces Mnnro, ob.s.p. 1S35 Elizabeth Floyd, ob.sp. 1836 ^ ' 

JohnL. Johnston, ^Sarah Montjromery, Heathc^to. Mary 
nat. Nov. 22d, 
1771, ob. cir. 

I I I I I I 

£ 3 a ^ o '4 


rr: -r . - t - * R k-» 


Maria _Joslah Mcllvaln 


- Z, 


■ i 



T 3 




Charles Pet 

late Hishop 


eese of OUU 

i ' 

su;;iiiii.ili Jiev. John Ward 

W ill llealhcotc.b. 1'fvi, ob. M.p.tSGO, 
Kdward Ktienne,'b. iyth May. isra 
.loscphlne Mutdihi, b.21 O. 1 -> ..h. - 

JoaepbAuo de Zoug, b. it Jane, 1W8 

1 II 



he introduced his eldest brother, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, (afterwards M. 
P. for London and Lord Mayor of that city in 171 1, at the very time his 
brother was Mayor of New York, and one of the chief founders and the 
first Governor of the Bank of England); a circumstance most unfortu- 
nate for him — for the lady soon found she preferred the elder brother, 
and broke her engagement with the younger, who at once left England 
and came to New York, where he arrived in 1692.* As we have already 
seen, he was negotiating for the purchase of lands in Westchester County, 
at least as early as 1646 ; and on the 21st of March, 1701, the Royal 
Patent erected the whole into the Lordship and Manor of Scarsdale. 
From the time of his arrival " he became a leading man in the colony, 
was Judge of Westchester and Colonel of its militia all his life, first 
Mayor of the borough of Westchester, a Councillor and Surveyor Gen- 
eral of the province, Mayor of New York for three years ; for a time 
Commander of the colony's forces, and from 1715 to his death, in 1721, 
Receiver General of the customs for all North America. 5 He was also 


a member of the Venerable Propagation Society as early as 1705, and a 
vestryman of Trinity church from 1697 to 17 14; senior warden of West- 
chester parish from 1695 to 1702, and likewise senior warden of the 
parish of Rye from 1703 to 17 10. He was, indeed, a sincere Churchman; 
and seconded from principle, the views which Governor Fletcher advo- 
cated from interest and in obedience to his orders. " In his military 
capacity he had command not only of Westchester County but also of 
the West Riding, on Long Island ; and in one of his letters to the Vener- 
able Propagation Society, gives this account of his method of convert- 
ing military into religious exercises " : — 

a Doc. Hist. X. T., vol. ii., p. 1039. 

b Doc. Hist. N. Y. Governor Fletcher, writing to the Lords of Trade in 1697, says : Mr. 
Caleb Heathcote is not to leave this province and hath given directions for the taking out of 
the warrant, he is a gentleman, hath been very useful, and has advanced his private fortune 
for His Majesties service, to answer an emergency when money was not in the Treasury, 
and zealously affected to His Majesties government and interest.'* N. Y. Col. MSS. London 
Doc. X., vol. iv., p. 275. 


" I shall begin the history of the church from the time I first came 
among them, which was about twelve years ago. I found it the most 
rude and heathenish country I ever saw in my whole life, which called 
themselves Christians — there not being so much as the least marks or 
footsteps of religion of any sort. Sundays were only the times set apart 
by them for all manner of vain sports and lewd diversion, and they were 
grown to such a degree cf rudeness, that it was intolerable. I having then 
command of the militia, sent an order to all the captains, requiring them 
to call their men under arms, and to acquaint them, that in case they would 
not in every town agree among themselves to appoint readers, and to 
pass the Sabbath in the best manner they could, till such times as they 
should be better provided, that the captains should, every Sunday, call 
their companies under arms, and spend the day in exercise. Whereupon, 
it was unanimously agreed on throughout the country, to make choice 
of readers ; which they accordingly did, and continued in those methods 
for some time." 

The following letter is extracted from the MSS. of the Venerable So- 
ciety for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 


Manor of ScarsdaU, Nov. 9, 1705. 

Sir : — I am indebted to ycu for yours of the 11th Jan. and 9th of April, and am 
wonderfully surprised that the Society should make choice of me for one of their 
members. It was a very great satisfaction to me, that any thing 1 could offer was 
acceptable to them ; and should very joyfully embrace any opportunity of doing 
service to the Church, and I bless God for it, I am not conscious to myself of ever 
having slipt one fair occasion therein, when goverment would give me leave. I 
beg of you, sir, to present my most humble duty to that honorable body, and 
thank them for the honor they have been pleased to do me ; and may assure them 
that I shall not only endeavor to give them satisfaction as to any thing they shall 
desire of me, but if any new matter occurs, which I believe may be of service to 
the Church, I will not fail laying it before them for their consideration. If I mis- 
take not, the several heads you desire satisfaction of in both your letters now be- 
fore me, are, first, an exact and impartial account of all your Ministers, Second- 
ly, what fruit may be expected from Mr. Moor's mission. Thirdly, what my 
thoughts are of sending Mr. Dellius into those parts again. Fourthly, my opin- 
ion of the Society's having appointed that good man, Mr. Elias Neau, as Cate- 
chist to the Negroes and Indians, and the cause of misunderstanding betwixt him 
and Mr. Yesey. 

As to the first, I must do all the gentlemen which you have sent to this Prov- 
ince that justice as to declare that a better clergy were never in any place— there 
being not one amongst them that has the least stain or blemish as to his life or 
conversation; and though I am not an eye witness to the actions of any, save those 
in this county, yet I omit no opportunity of inquiring into their behavior, both 
of the friends and enemies of the Church, and they all agree as to the character 
of the gentlemen : and that they use their best endeavors to gain over the people. 
And as to their diligence in the faithful discharge of their trust, the Society, I 


hope, will, in their instructions, have laid down such rules as they won't fail 
coming at it without being imposed on. Mr. Urquhart, minister of Jamaica, has 
the most difficult task of any missionary in this government ; for although he has 
not only the character of a very good man, but of being extraordinary industrious 
in the discharge of his duty, yet he having a Presbyterian meeting house on the 
one hand, and the Quakers on the other, and very little assistance in his Parish, 
except from those who have no interest with the people, that his work can't but 
go on very heavily, as I understand it does : but Mr. Thomas, of Hempstead, 
having better assistance, the leading men in his parish not being disgusted, are 
helpful in the work ; and having no other sectaries to oppose him by their meet- 
ings but the Quakers, makes very considerable progress, as I have been told by 
some of the most sensible of his parish. As for Mr. Mackenzie, he has a very 
good report from the people of Staten Island ; and I shall not fail making further 
inquiry concerning him, and let you know it in my next. 

But when all is done, what I can tell j r ou concerning any minister, except in 
this county, is only by information from others, which is often very uncertain ; 
for some gentlemen may many times, and very deservingly, have a fair and good 
character by the generality of their neighbors — and yet at the same time, by one 
misfortune or other, not perform much of the service of the Church, in which I 
will give you this plain instance. 

There is not any gentleman whom the Society have sent over, that is clothed 
■with a fairer character than Mr. Bartow, of Westchester, and truly he is a very 
good and sober man, and is extremely well liked and spoken of by his parishion- 
ers in general ; yet, although he has been three years in that parish, not many are 
added to the communion, nor baptized, and few catechised; and if he is directed 
to send an account how he has advanced on each of these heads, annually since 
his coming there, it will be found accordingly. For this and many other reasons, 
I can't help still to be pressing that the Society should lay the gentlemen which 
are sent over under exact rules ; and methinks it is no difficult matter to have it 
ordered, so as to know almost as well what is done as if the} r were present in 
\every parish. 

The people of Westchester were very angry with me because I was for having 
this county divided into three parishes, and every minister to have 70?. instead of 
50Z. ; and I had brought the county, except that place, to a willingness to have it 
so, as I formerly acquainted you — and had they permitted that projection to have 
taken place, it would have been a great ease to the Society ; for first, what Mr. 
Bartow had more than the 507. he now hath, might reasonably have been deduct- 
ed at home. Secondly, Mr. Bondet would have been provided' for. And third- 
ly, one Mr. Morgan, who was minister of Eastchester, promised me to conform ; 
that there would not have been occasion of another being sent to us, and by that 
means have saved 50?. a year more at home, and wholly out of all hopes of any 
dissenting minister getting footing amongst us, and it will never be well until we 
are in three parishes ; and I shall not fail, when I have a fair opportunity, to push 
for it again. And to satisfy you of the reasonableness in what I offer, I believe 
there has not six public taxes been laid out on this county by the Assembly this 
fifteen years past ; but I have been at the proportioning of, and when the places 
in Rye parish pay 50?. the towns in Westchester parish were allotted 120? ; and 
there are two places more, which, both together, are one third part as big as Rye 


parish, which are not in neither of them. And now I am on this suhject, it comes 
in course to make out what I told 3-ou in my former letters, viz : that there is no 
parish in the government but what is able to pay twice as much as they do. For 
irish which is not by one half so large as the least parish established bylaw 
in the government here, Bince my living here, maintained two dissenting minis- 
ministers, viz : one at live ami Blamaroneck, and one at Bedford — and gave the 
former 60i and the latter 407. a year — which I think makes it out very plain what 
1 have offered on that head ; and you may he assured, I shall omit uo opportunity 
of serving the Society therein. But the work must be done, in a great measure 
by the minister's taking pains, and bringing the people into a good opinion of the 
Church ; for though the reason hereof is very plain, it must be a business of time 
to effect it. We have had it reported that the Queen would be at the charge of 
maintaining a Suffragan Bishop in these parts. If that was granted, I question 
not but a great many who have had their education in Boston College would con- 
form, and would be content with the benefices as settled by Assembly, without 
being very burthensome to the Society. 

I have beeuso long wandering from one subject to another, that I had almost 
forgot to give you my thoughts of Mr. Muirsou whom my Lord of London has 
sent for this parish. He has been here about three months, in which time he hath 
by much outdone my expectation; having very fully retrieved all that unfortun- 
ate gentlemen, Mr. Pritchard lost ; and if he continues so faithful in the discharge 
of his trust, of which I have not the least doubt he will, he'll be able to give as 
large account of his services as any that has been sent over to this Province. 
And I must do him the justice to own, that he is as deserving of the Society's fa- 
vors. For. as some of his parishioners told me, and which I know in a great 
measure to be true, that although they have had a great many ministers amongst 
them since the settlement of their town ; yet Mr. Muirsou did more good amongst 
them the first six weeks after bis coming, than all they ever had before. And I 
question not but when you have the particulars of his proceedings transmitted, 
you will find what I have said of him to be true. As for Mr. Brooks, whom the 
Society have sent to the Jerseys he has an uncommon good character given him 
from those parts ; and it is reported of him that he makes wonderful advances for 
the service of the Church, and I question not but Col. Morris will be very partic- 
ular c »ncerning him — that being properly his watch. For though that Province 
is not above 50 miles from my house, and Staten Island about forty, yet by rea- 
son of the difficulty of water passages, I have never been at either of them above 
twice since my coming to America. And I am now more lied at home with a 
family, and my private affairs than formerly, for which I humbly crave an allow- 
ance. My principles and natural temper lead me to do the Church all the service 
I can every where, but I dare not promise for more than this county at present; 
and my best endeavors in the westernmost towuis in Connecticut colony, when 
the Church is well rooted here. And it has always been my opinion, and is so 
still, that there is no part of this Province, or even America, that would be of 
greater use or service to have the Church thoroughly settled in ; for it is not only 
large in extent, and the land very good, and near the city ; so, consequently, will 
in time be a great settlement. But bordering on Connecticut there is no part of 
the continent from whence the Church can have so fair an opportunity to make 
impressions upon the dissenters in that government, who are settled by their laws 


from Rye parish to Boston colony, which is about S~> leagues, in which there are 
abundance ind places. As for Boston colony. I never was in it, so can 

say little to it. But for Connecticut, I am and have been pretty conversant ; and 
always was as much in all their good graces as any man. And now I am upon 
that subject, I will give you the best account I can of that colony. It contains, 
in length, about 1-10 miles, and has in it about 40 towns, in each of which there 
is a Pi M >r Independent minister settled by their law ; to whom the peo- 

ple are obliged to pay. notwithstanding mam* times they are not ordained; of 
which I have known several examples. The number of people there, are, I be- 
lieve about 2,400 souls. They have abundance of odd kind of laws to prevent 
any dissenting from their church, and endeavor to keep the people in as much 
blindness and unacquaintedness with any other religion as possible ; but in a more 
particular manner the Church, looking upon her as the most dangerous enemy 
they have to grapple withal. And abundance of pains is taken to make the ig- 
norant think as bad as possible of her. And I really believe that more than half 
the people in that goverment, think our Church to be little better than the Papist. 
And they fail not to improve every little thing against us : but I bless God for it, 
the Society have robbed them of their best argument, which was the ill lives of 
our clergy that came into these parts. And the truth is, I have not seen many 
good men but of the Society's sending. 

And no sooner was that honorable body settled, and those prudent measures 
taken for carrying on of that great work, but the people of Connecticut, doubting 
of maintaining their ground without some further support, they with great indus- 
try went through their colony for subscriptions to build a college at a place called 
Seabrook. And the ministers who are as absolute in their respective parishes, as 
the Pope of Rome, argued, prayed, and preached up the necessity of it ; and the 
passive obedience of people, who dare not do otherwise than obey, gave even 
beyond their ability. A thing which they call a college was prepared accordingly, 
wherein, as I am informed, a commencement was made about three or four months 
ago. But notwithstanding their new college here, and an old one in Boston, and 
that every town in that colony has one, and some two ministers, and have not 
only heard them say, but seen it in their prints, that there was no place in the 
world where the gospel shone so brightly, nor that the people lived so religiously 
and well as they ; j*et I dare aver, that there is not a much greater necessity 
of having the Christian religion in its true light preached any where than amongst 
them. Man}*, if not the greatest number of them, being little better than in a 
state of heathenism : having never been baptized nor admitted to the communion. 
And that you may be satisfied what I tell you herein is not spoken at random, 
nor grounded on careless observation. Mr. Muirsou's parish is more than three- 
fourths of it composed of two towns, viz : Rye and Bedford, which were first 
settled under the colony of Connecticut, and of people bred and born under that 
government ; and sometime before my coming, had a minister, one Mr. Denham, 
and had afterwards two more, "Woodbridge and Bowers, at Eye, and one Mr. 
Jones, at Bedford. And the people of Rye only had of this county the care to 
provide a parsonage house. And notwithstanding all those great shows of relig- 
ion, and that at such times as they were destitute of a minister. 

Greenwich and Stamford, the bounds of the former of which places join upon 
theirs, and the other is not above ten miles distant, where they were always sup- 


plied. But they could not be said to want the opportunity of having the sacra- 
ments ad minis! i to! i > their. ; yet 1 believe 20 of them had never received the com- 
munion, nor half of them been baptized, as Mr. Muirson will more fully inform 
you. And now i have given you an account of the state of that colony, what 
will in the next place be naturally expected from me, is to know my opinion of 
the best and most probable way of doing good amongst them. 

There is nothing more certain, than that it is the most difficult task the society 
have to wade through. For the people are not only not of the Church, but have 
been and are trained up with all the care imaginable to be its enemies. That to 
make an impression under all those disadvantages is very difficult, though I hope 
not impossible. And though, at first view, the prospect of doing any good upon 
them is very little, yet no doubt but the most proper measures ought to be taken, 
leaving the event to Almighty God. 

Now, to give you my thoughts in what way this great work may best be en- 
deavored at, so as it may be done with little expense. I believe, for the first step, 
the most proper way would be, that one of the ministers in this country were di- 
rected by my Lord of London to inform himself where there are any in that gov- 
ernment who profess themselves to be of the Church, and to know if they or any 
of their neighbors have any children to baptize, or desire to partake of the sacra- 
ment : and that he will come to the towns where they live, and after having giv- 
en them a sermon, will perform those holy rites. There need, I think, no more 
be done in this matter for the present. But the society may, if they please, leave 
the rest to me ; and I w r on't only give him the best advice and directions I can 
herein, but will, God willing, wait upon him in his progress, and persuade some 
useful friends along with me. And when this essay has been made, I shall be 
much better able to guess at the state of that government, and what is fitting to 
be done next. Now the person that I would advise them to pitch upon by all 
means for this expedition, is Mr. Muirson ; he being not only posted next those 
parts, and so will look less like design, but he has a very happy w r ay of delivery, 
and makes little use of his notes in preaching, which is extremely taking amongst 
those people — and for argument, few of his years exceed him. 

The chief end I have in this projection, is to have the people of that govern- 
ment undeceived in their notions concerning our Church ; there being, I believe, 
fifteen thousand in that colony who have never heard, nor scarce seen a Church 
of England minister. And I have the charity to believe, that after having heard 
one of our ministers preach, they will not look upon our Church to be such a 
monster as she is represented. And being convinced of some of the cheats, many 
of them may duly consider of the sin of scliism. However, let the success be 
what it will, to me the duty seems plain. I have not only mentioned this to you, 
but in my letter to my Lord of London, and shall patiently wait for his and the 
society's commands therein. 

I will now proceed in giving direct answers to the several queries mentioned 
in yours. Having as yet, only spoke to the first, so shall now take the rest in 
course. As for Mr. Moor's mission, you will undoubtedly have the account there- 
of very fully by Mr. Talbot, whose place he supplies, having not thought it worth 
the while to stay at Albany. As for my opinion in that matter, I thiuk it is too 
heavy for the society to meddle with at present ; and would properly lie as a bur- 
then upon the crown, to be defrayed out of the revenue here. For their being 


brought over to our holy faith, will at the same time, secure them in their fideli- 
ty to the Government. And not only that, but the society will . I believe, find em- 
ployment enough for their money in sending of missionaries amongst those who 
call themselves Christians, on the coast of America ; which, I find to be their res- 
olution. And it is certainly the greatest charity in the world, to have the best re- 
ligion planted in these parts, which with time will, in all probability, be so vast a 
country and people. But whether the charge of missionaries for converting the In- 
dians fall to the share of the crown or the society, to effect that matter well and thor- 
oughly th se Bent over on that errand, must be such as can endure hardships, and 
are able and willing to live with the Indians in their own country, and according to 
their way and manner, which are the methods the French take. And I believe some 
of those gentlemen who have had their education in the colleges of the north parts of 
Scotland, being in orders from my Lord of London, may be the likeliest to undergo 
it. As for Mr. Dellius, I don't think it worth while in being at any extraordinary 
charge in Bendicgof him ; because, I believe no consideration would make him lh$e 
in the Indian country. And if he did, he has not the language ; and one that goes 
on that mis-ion must be a young man, who is able to grapple with fatigues, and 
will not only take pains, but is capable of learning the language ; and it is a gen- 
eral observation, that none are so apt to gain foreign tongues as the Scotch. 

As for my thoughts of this society's having appointed that good man, Mr. Xeau, 
as catechist to the negroes and Indians, it is undoubtedly a very good work ; and 
he is wonderfully industrious in the discharge of his duty, and the truth is takes 
more pains than he needs, by going from house to house to perform that office. 
And I believe he would find it as effectual to gain the end, and not the fourth 
part of the trouble to himself, to appoint set times in having them together at the 
English church, or at least so many at once as may be proper, and catechise and 
instruct them. And Mr. Vesey assures me that he shall be very free and willing 
to let him have the use of the church for that purpose. And now I am on this 
subject, it will be very proper that the society direct Mr. Cleator, if he comes 
over, or any school-master whom they appoint in their respective places to cate- 
chise and instruct the negroes and Indians ; and that the ministers in their 
several parishes were desired to send a list of all the slaves or free negroes and 
Indians, the society would then see how that matter was further worth their 

I did, in my former letters, make mention of one Mr. Bondet, a French Pro- 
testant minister, who is in orders from the Bishop of London. He is a good 
man, and preaches very intelligibly in English — which he does every third Sun- 
day, in his French congregation, when he uses the liturgy of the Church. He 
has done a great deal of service since his first coming into this country, and is 
well worth the thoughts of the Society. The town he lives in is called New Ro- 
chelle, a place settled by French Protestauts ; it is comprehended in Mr. Bar- 
tow's parish, and contributes toward his maintenance, which disables them, in a 
great measure, to pay toward Mr. Bondet's, who is in very great want. It is 
true, besides twenty pounds a year, which the people of New Rochelle promise 
him, and is very ill paid, he has thirty pounds a year settled on him out of the 
public revenue here, as the French minister in York hath ; but that is paid with 
so much uncertainty, that he starves under the prospect of it. 

Now for a remedy for this poor gentleman, and that he may be made as useful 


to the Church as possible ; if the society would use their interest that he might 
have an order from the court that he may not only forthwith bo paid his arrears, 
but that he should afterwards have his money by quarterly payments: and that, 
at the same time, he be directed by the Bishop of London, to consult with aud 
be helpful to Mr. Bartow and Mr. Muirson in taking care of the scattering towns 
of the parishes ; especially Mr. Bartow's, where it is impossible for any one to 
manage it. And whereas, he has been obliged for his bread, to use the French 
prayers in his French congregation, according to the orders of the Protestant 
churches of France, and had that liberty granted him (as he tells me) upon his 
receiving of orders, it is his earnest request, that he might have directions relat- 
ing thereunto, wherein he might be required not to use otherwise than the liturgy 
of our Church in any congregations where he preacheth, whether English or 
French. Audit would be well that some French Common Prayer Books and 
Catechisms were sent over for that purpose. The reason of desiring an order of 
that nature is, that it would put the matter out of dispute. Mr. Bondet and I 
have gone as far as we can in that affair, and it would spend too much time to 
tell you what tempests we waded through in attempting it ; hut if directions came 
from England about it, none, I believe, would be found to oppose it. The chief 
cause of its being hindered with so much heat was, that the French congregation 
in York were apprehensive that it might be a precedent for them ; and for that 
reason fired the most ignorant of Mr. Bondet's people, and persuaded them to 
recant from what they had agreed to. But I must do the most sensible of them 
the justice, that they hold fast their integrity, and are willing to receive the 

If this matter goes forward, I expect that the greatest part of the people of 
New Roehelle will cease their contributions to Mr. Bondet ; so I must desire the 
Society to consider him with some allowance in England. And if effectual care 
could be taken that 30?. is paid him, 151. sterling more, with the small helps 
he will have from those who will continue steady to the Church, will enable him 
to maintain himself and family. 

If care is not already taken therein in the instructions which are preparing, it 
will he of absolute necessity, that the clergy of this county be directed to meet 
twice at least, annually, and taking to their assistance the best and most sensible 
of their parishes, to consult of the most effectual ways for settling the church, 
and to give you an impartial account how the parishes are settled in point of 
oiency, and which way it may be better done, not only to make it easy for 
themselves, hut so as the bread of life may be fairly and equally divided amongst 
their people, that proper measures might be taken, in having it regulated by act 
of assembly. For if something of this nature is not done, one-half the people of 
the county won't have much benefit by all the cost that is laid out upon them. 
In the conclusion of your last letter, you tell me that you had sent some Com- 
mon Prayers and Catechisms, by Mr. Mackenzy, but do not understand he has 
brought any ; so beg of you to inquire into that mistake. And in case you send 
any other books to be disposed, pray let them only be Dr. Beveridge's (new 
Bishop of St. Asaph,) sermon concerning the common prayers, a little 
book entitled "A Christian's Way to Heaven," and one of the lawful- 
ness of the common prayer. No books can be more serviceable than they; 
and I would take care to have them scattered through Connecticut colo- 


ny to both minister and people, and am apt to believe they -would do ser- 
vice. As for the deputation the society now pleased to send me. I am ex- 
ceeding sorry I can do them no service therein. For the people of this county, 
having generally land of their own, although they don't want, few or none of 
them very much abound. There being besides, a settlement belonging to Col. 
Morris, and another to Mr. Phillips, and mine, not any that belong to particular 
men of any great value in the county ; nor are there ten in the whole county but 
what have been brought over to the Church since I came into the province, that 
truly sir, if we can persuade them to build and finish their churches and schools, 
help to maintain their ministers and schoolmasters, and fit conveniences for them, 
it is the most that can be expected till things are better settled, and the Church a 
more firm footing among them. I have not had the happiness to be in company 
with Col. Morris since I received the deputation : but shall discourse with him 
concerning that matter when I see him next. I could offer some few things more 
to the consideration of the Society, but time won't permit me to enlarge, so I 
shall reserve it to the next opportunity. So with my humble duty to the Society, 
begging their pardon for the trouble I have given them therewith, I desire to re- 
main, sir, &c, &c. CALEB HEATHCOTE." 

No wonder that St. George Talbot, writing to the Venerable Society, 
should say : " I wish the report were true that he, Col. Caleb Heathcote, 
were appointed Governor; it would be the best news, next to that of the 
gospel, that ever came over." 6 

In 1693, Col. Heathcote received the following appointment as Presi- 
dent Judge Advocate of a court martial, to be holden in Westchester 
county, for the trial of all offending officers and men under his com- 
mand : — 

' ' Whereas I am informed that several disorders and misdemeanors are daily com- 
mitted by the regiment under your command, and no obedience paid to my sev- 
eral orders for prevention thereof ; for the future, reposing special trust and con- 
fidence in your prudence and conduct by virtue of the power and authority to me 
given by virtue of their majesties' letters patent under their great seal of England- 
I have thought fit and do hereby erect, constitute and appoint a court martial in 
Westchester county aforesaid, and hereby I empower and authorize you, the said 
Caleb Heathcote, from henceforth and all times, when so often it shall it be 
found needful to call the said court martial, which shall consist of you, the said 
Caleb Heathcote, as president judge advocate, and six at least of the commission- 
ed officers under your command, whereof four to be captains, with full power and 
authority to hear, judge and determine all crimes and offences committed by any 
officer or soldier under your command, and sentence to pronounce so far as fine or 
imprisonment or other corporal punishment, as the merits of the crime or offenre 
shall deserve, according to an act of Assembly, made and provided against such 
offenders and criminals, and to cause each sentence to be put into execution ac- 
cording to the rules, articles, and laws of war and arms ; provided always that 

a riawk's MSS. from N. Y. archives at Fullham. 
b Kew York MSS. General Convention, vol. i, p. 176. 


this condition shall continue in force during this war, or till my pleasure be fur- 
ther known, and no longer. 

Given under my hand and seal at amies, at Fort William Henry, New York, 
tin- 12th day of September, 1693, iu the fifth year of his majesty's reign, by his 
excellency's command. BENJ FLETCHER. 

Among other wealthy relations Col. Heathcote had, it appears, a " rich 
cousin. George Heathcote, who was born in Middlesex county, England, 
and who came to this country as captain of a merchant ship, about the 
year 167S. This individual acquired a large property, and being a bach- 
elor, invited his nephew, Caleb, to take up his residence in this country; 
and upon his death, at his last residence, in Buck's county, Perm., in 
1 7 10. bequeathed his large property to his cousin, who became one of 
the most considerable men in this Province."'* 

In the will of George Heathcote, of Buck's county, Province of Penn- 
sylvania, among other items occurs the following: " I give and bequeath 
unto my cousin, Caleb Heathcote, of the Province of New York, the 
residue of my estate, and nominate him executor of this, my last will and 
testament." 6 

Among the archieves of the Wyllys family, in Boston, Mass., there is 
still preserved a Latin order from George I., to Col. Caleb Heathcote, 
dated London, August 4th, 1719. The manor house of Scarsdale was 
a fine brick mansion, that occupied the site of the present building, on 
Heathcote Hill, Mamaroneck. It was from this place that Col. Heath- 
cote addressed all his letters to the Honorable Propagation Society, the 
Lords of Trade and the Provincial Government. This edifice, which 
was erected sometime prior to 1704,/was destroyed by fire during the 
Revolutionary war. 

Col. Caleb Heathcote married Martha, daughter of the Hon. Col. 
William Smith, Chief Justice and President of the Council of the Prov- 
ince of New York, and former Governor of Tangier. By his wife 
Martha, daughter of Henry Tunstall, Esq., of Surrey county, England. 
The monuments to the Hon. "William Smith and wife are still to be 
seen at St. George's manor, Brookhaven, Suffolk county, L. I. : — 

Here Lyes 

Interred ye body of ye 


Chief Justice and President of ye Council of ye Province of New York. 

Born in England, at Highani Ferrers, 

in Northamptonshire, Feb. ye 2d, 1654-5, 

u i feorge must have at one time resided iu Savannah, Ga., for there is a ward in that city 
named after him. 

rogate'fl offlce (N. Y.) of wills, vol. vii, p. 3. 


and Died at ye Manour of St. George, Feb. ye iSth, 1704-5, 

in yo fifty -first year of his age, 

being grandson of Max. Constammet, &c.« 

Here Lyes 

interred ye body of 


daughter of Henry Titxstaix, Esq.,& 

bora at Putney, 

in the county of Surrey, in England, 1659, 

and died at ye manour of St. George, Sept. 1st, 1709, 

aged fifty years. 

Mrs. Heathcote bore her husband six children — namely, Gilbert, 
William, Anne, Mary, Martha and Elizabeth. Col. Heathcote died while 
in the performance of his duty as a Christian philantrophist, in the cky 
of New York, on Tuesday, 28th day of February, 1721. 

The following notice of his death appeared in the American weekly 
Mercury, of March 6th, 17 14 : 

• ' On the 28th day of February last, died the Honorable Caleb Heathcote, Esq., 
Surveyor General of his Majesty's customs, for the Eastern District of North 
America, Judge of the Court of Admiralty for the Provinces of New York and 
New Jersey, and the Colony of Connecticut, one of his Majesty's Council for the 
Province of New York, and brother of Sir Gilbert Heathcote, of London. 

" He was a gentleman of rare qualities, excellent temper and virtuous life and 
conversation, and his loss lamented by all that knew him. which, on the day of 
his death, went about doing good, in procuring a charitable subscription, in 
which he made a very great progress."'" 

On the 29th of February, 17 19, Col. Caleb Heathcote- executed his 
last will and testament, as follows : 


In the name of God, Amen. I, Caleb Heathcote of the Province of New York, 
in America, gentlemen, being at this present time in perfect health of body and of 
firm and sound mind and memory, thanks therefore be given to Almighty God ; 
but well knowing that it is appointed for all men once to dye, and that the time 
of the approach of Death is uncertain, Do make this my last will and Testament 
in manner and form following ; my Soul I Recommend to my Gracious God who 

o The Smith family had been long seated in the counties of Leicester and Northampton ; 
arms : Or, on a chev. betw. three crosses, pattee litchee, gu, as many bezants. 

b The Tunstalls were formerly seated at Agacombe, Surrey county. Arms: Sa. three combs 
in fesae ar. 

c Sie American weekly Mercury from Wednesday, March 9th, to Thursday, March 16, 1721. 
"1721, Feb. '2s, died at New York. Col. Caleb Heathcote, member of the 'touncil and Judge of 
the Admiralty, Surveyor General of his Majesty's Customs for the North District of Amer- 
ica/' Gleanings from the annual register of ttie lire office, London. Ilist. Mag. vol. iv, 2d 
series, No. 3, p. 137. 


gave it. ; my Bod}- to the earth, from whence it came to be Decently interred at 
the discretion of my Executors hereinafter named in certain hopes of the Remis- 
sion of all my sins through the sole Merits of my Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ 
and of a Joyful Ressurreclion and Reunion of my Body and Soul at his second 
coming to Judgement — and as for what worldly Estate it hath pleased God to 
Bestow upon me, and which shall any ways belong to me at the time of my de- 
1 Give, Devise and Dispose of and Bequeath the same in manner follow- 
ing — Imprimis my will and Desire and I do hereby order that my Dear and well 
beloved wife Martha Heathcote, shall have the sole care and keeping and manage- 
ment of all my children during their Minority and her widdowhood, and for the 
Handsome Maintenance of herself and the Handsome Maintenance and good and 
liberal education of my children I do hereby order, that she my said well beloved 
wife, shall have and Receive all such Annuities and Interests of money due pay- 
able or to beo ime due and payable and belonging to me in England and also that 
she shall have the sole possession, use and Management of all my Estate, both 
real and p< rsonall ia America, and have and receive for the uses aforesaid all the 
Rents, Interests and Profits thereof during the Minority of my children and her 
widowhood as aforesaid, but no longer, and if there happens to be any overplus 
of the said proceeds in her hands after her having made use of the same as afore- 
said, I hereby Impower my said wife to Dispose of and Distribute the same 
amongst my children either by her Last will and Testament or otherwise and in 
such proportion as she in her Discretion shall see fit, and I do hereby further Give, 
Devise and Bequeath unto my said well beloved wife Martha Heathcote, and her 
executors and assigns the sum of one hundred Pounds annually to be paid unto 
her yearly and every year during the term of her natural life, in New York mon- 
ey ; fifty pounds thereof to be paid yearly out of that part of my estate which 1 
shall hereby give unto my son Gilbert Heathcote, and fifty pounds yearly out of 
that part of my estate which I shall hereby give unto the rest of my children re- 
spectively in a due proportion all which Bequests so as aforesaid ordered to my 
wife shall be in Lieu of her Dower and all other her Pretentions to my estate 
whatsoever. Item, I Give, Devise and Bequeath unto my Eldest son, Gilbert 
Heathcote, my Dwelling House at Mamaroneck within the County of West-Ches- 
ter, within the Colony of New York, Together with the Home Lott of laud 
there : my Barns and other edifices with the Neck of Land called Mamaroneck, 
East Neck, and my Mills, Mill Dams, Streams and Rights of Streams, and allmy 
lands within the Limits of Mamaroneck Township, known by the name of the 
Two Mile Bounds, and also all my Lands lying on the East of Mamaroneck 
Rivei, Contiguous thereto which I bought of David Jamison. And whereas, 
the lands which I bought from Anne Richbell, within the County of West 
Chester aforesaid, Runs eighteen miles in Length into the woods, I hereby 
give and Bequeath unto my said son Gilbert Heathcote, one thousand acres 
thereof to be taken up and laid out unto him conveniently by my wife, by such 
persons as she shall appoint (if it shall so happen that I do not settle and ascer- 
tain it myself in my life time) in this manner to witt, Two Hundred acres 
of the said Lands to lye next adjacent to the Township of Mamaroneck to the 
Northward thereof one hundred acres more to lye Two Miles from the place 
where the said Two Hundred acres shall end, and in like manner the Quantity of 
one hundred acres at the end of every two miles till the said one Thousand acres 


be completed. To Have and To Hold the said Dwelling house, Mills, Lands, 
premises with every their appurtenances unto Him the said Gilbert Ileathcote 
and his heirs ; to his and their use and behoofe forever; to have the possession 
thereof when he arrives to the age of twenty-one years, he always observing to 
Pay unto his mother the moneys by this my will ordered to be paid out of his 
share unto her. Item, out of the Legacy lately left unto me by my Brother Wil- 
liam Ileathcote in England, I hereby give and Devise unto my said son Gilbert 
Heathcote Two thousand five hundred pounds sterling ; to my son William Heath- 
cote, the same sum of Two thousand five hundred pounds ; and to my four 
daughters, Anne Ileathcote, Mary Heathcote, Martha Heathcote and Elizabeth 
Heathcote four thousand pounds sterling ; that is to say to each of them one 
thousand pounds to be paid to my children when they arrive at the age of 
twenty-one years respectively. And all such moneys as shall at that, the time of 
my decease, belong unto me in England besides what I have as aforesaid Dis- 
posed of I hereby give and Bequeath unto my said children to be Divided 
amongst them in the like proportion as aforesaid and all the rest of my Estate 
both Real and Personal of what Nature or kind so ever it be in America. I 
give, Devise and Bequeath the same as f olloweth, That is to say, one full equal 
sixth part thereof I give, Devise and Bequeath unto my Daughter Anne Heath- 
cote — one other full Equall sixth part, to my daughter Mary Heathcote— one 
other sixth part to my daughter Martha Heathcote — Two full sixth parts thereof 
unto my son William Heathcote, and one sixth part thereof to my Daughter Eliz- 
abeth Heathcote. To Have and To Hold the same unto them their heirs and 
executors and assigns Respectively and separately forever to be Delivered to 
them and either of them Respectively as they come of age of twenty-one years 
and in case my son William Heathcote should happen to Dye before he arriving 
to the said age of twenty-one years and without lawful issue then I will and 
order that the one Moiety or Equall half part of that share of my estate hereby 
given to him, shall be given and remain to my son Gilbert Heathcote and the 
other moiety to be equally divided amongst my Daughters which shall then be 
alive. To Have and To Hold to them and their heirs and executors and assigns 
separately and respectively forever, and if any of my said daughters shall happen 
to Dye before they come to age of twenty-one years or have lawful issue then I 
will that the share of my said daughters so dying as aforesaid shall be equally 
divided and the one half or moiety shall be given to my son William and his heirs, 
executors and assigns ; and the other half part to be equally divided amongst such 
of my daughters as shall then be alive, and to Remaine to them and their re- 
spective Heirs, executors and assigns in severalty forever. And it is my de- 
sire and strict order that every one of my chddren as they shall arrive at the 
age of twenty-one years shall be immediately put into the possession of their 
respective parts and shares of my estate hereby given unto them, and this 
is to be done by my wife if she then be my widdow in whose Discretion 
and Justice I Intirely Confide ; and therefore do order that my said children 
shall be content and rest satisfied with the Distribution she shall make to them 
pursuant to this my last will and Testament hereby Impowering her to be sole 
Judge of what is their true shares. But if it shall happen that my wife should Dye 
or Marry again during the nonage of any of my said children then I will, Devise 
and order that their well beloved Cousins, William Heathcote the son of my brother 


Samuel Hcathcote deceased and John Ileathcote the sou of my brother Sir Gilbert 
Heathcote do demand and take into their possession all such Moneys or other estate 
which shall belong to me in England, and Improve and Distribute the same accord- 
ing to the Direction of this my last will and Testament. And as to my estate Real 
and Personal in America I hereby will and order iu case of my wife marrying 
again or Death as aforesaid that the same, Excepting such part thereof as before 
that time shall be in the possession of any of my children already come of age 
shall be taken into possession by my Two Beloved Brothers-in-Law Coll. Henry 
Smith and Major William Smith, and my two beloved friends Coll. William Wil- 
let and Mr. Samuel Clowes or the major part of them who shall then be alive and 
Residing in the Colony of New York to secure and improve the same according 
to their discretion for the bringing up, Education, Benefit and advantage of my 
children and be Delivered by them to my said children when they shall come to 
age or Marry Respectively according to their respective shares and proportions 
pursuant to this my last will and testament ; and I will that my said children shall 
be content and satified with such Distribution of my said estate amongst them as 
by the said persons or major part of them as aforesaid shall be made, which per- 
sons as aforesaid shall be the sole judges and arbitrators of all differences arising 
amongst my said children concerning the division of my said estate. Lastly, I 
do hereby nominate Constitute and appoint my said well beloved wife, Martha 
Heathcote, to be my sole and whole executrix of this my last will and testament to 
be execuUd by her so long as she shall remain my Aviddow, but no longer. And I 
hereby Revoke Disannull and utterly make void all other wills Testaments and 
codicills by me at any time heretofore made by mee, and I do declare this only to 
be my last will and Testament. In witness whereoff I have hereunto put my 
hand and seal at Jamaica, in the Colony of New York, this twenty-ninth Day of 
February, in the year of our Lord seventeen hundred and nineteen. 

Signed, sealed, declared and published by the 
within named Caleb Heathcote as his last will 
and Testament iu presence of us. 
David Jones, 
S. Clowes, Jun., 
Joun Clowes.* 

The last will of his wife, Martha Heathcote, bears date 13th of 
August, 1736, by which she bequeaths " to her daughter Anne, the wife 
of James De Lancey, the sum of ;£ 1,000, also a pair of silver candle- 
sticks, silver snuffers and snuff dish, together with my silver teapot, silver 
tankard and my large coffer. To her daughter Martha, wife of Lewis 
Johnston, she bequeaths the like sum of ^1,000, and to her daughters 
Anne and Martha all her wearing apparel, &c." 

All the children of Col. Caleb Heathcote died in their minority, ex- 
cept his daughters Anne and Martha, upon which the manor of Scars- 

a The above will was proved 19th of April, 1721, Rec. of Wills, Surrogate's office, No. is, 
1718 10 1725, pp. 234,235, 236. 237. 


dale, with other possessions, descended to Anne and Martha, then sur- 
viving sisters and heiresses. Anne Heathcote, the eldest, married the 
Honorable James De Lancey, lieutenant-Governor of the province of 
New York; their children were, first, Captain James De Lancey, who 
greatly distinguished himself as the aide of General Abercombie at the 
celebrated siege of Fort Ticonderoga, father of the late Lieutenant- 
Colonel James De Lancey of Bath, Somerset County, England, the 
eldest heir male of the De Lancey family ; second, Major John Peter De 
Lancey of Heathcote Hill, Mamaroneck, who married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Richard Floyd, of Floyd's Neck, Brookhaven, Suffolk 
County, Long Island. This individual alternately became possessor of 
the Scarsdale estates. 

John Peter De Lancey by his last will and testament, bearing date 
28th January, 1823, bequeathed his property amongst his surviving chil- 
dren, namely — William Heathcote De Lancey, Elizabeth Caroline, 
Martha Arabella, Ann Charlotte and Sussanah Augusta De Lancey. 

Third, Stephen De Lancey, of North Salem, who died January ist, 
1795, leaving no issue. 

Under the Heathcotes and De Lanceys the Anjevines held the large 
farm bearing their name (now owned by Alexander M. Bruen, M. D.,) 
for four generations. The Anjevin's or Anjevine's were among those of 
the French Protestant refugees who fled from France about the year 
1694. They were spoken of in a history of French families as living in 
the ancient province of Poitou (" a province foremost in its opposition 
to the religious oppression exercised by the Government, led by the 
principal families therein. The royal government had more difficulty in 
opposing the religious uprising here than almost any other part of the 
kingdom,") in the Marches of Anjevin. In 1708, Zacharie Anjevin, who 
.was born in France, A.D. 1664, appears as one of the freeholders of the 
town of New Rochelle. Sometime in September, 17 10, among a list of 
the inhabitants of the latter place occur the names of Zachariah and 
Peter Anjevin, brothers, and a sister, Sussanna. Zachariah Anjevin and 
his wife, Mary, had four children, namely — Zachariah, Daniel, Margaret 
Mary and Mary, junior. Peter Anjevin, who was born in France, A.D. 
1666, and Deborah, his wife, had three children — Louis or Lewis, Pierre 
or Peter and Mary. The eldest, Lewis, born in 1702, settled on the 
Anjevin farm and lies burried there; Jean, his son, became heir to the 
estate and left seven sons, viz : David, Peter, John, Louis, Elijah, Wil- 
liam and Solomon ; and four daughters, the youngest of whom, Mary, 
married Thomas Truslow, Esq., of New York City and Portchester. 

The Secor family rented the Scarsdale manor farm called the Hie- 


kories. The Secors, Sicards, or Sycars were among the French Protest- 
ant refugees who fled from France in 1681. The name occurs freqently 
on the records of the French church Du St. Esprit in New York between 
the years 16S0 and 1770. In 1708 the name of Ambroise Sycar appears 
among the freeholders of New Rochelle. Two years later there was re- 
siding in that town James Sycar, Sen., born in France, A.D. 1635; 
Daniel Sycar, born in France, 1660; Sussannah Sycar, aged thirty; 
James Sycar, born in France, 1676, Mary, his wife and their children — 
John, Elizabeth, Mary and Sussanah; Daniel Sycar had Daniel, Jun., 
John, Peter, Andrew and Mary. The sons of Ambroise Sycar, the 
Refugee, were — Ambroise and James, the latter by his wife, Catharine, 
had first James, the owner of the late Richard Secor's property, upper 
Rochelle, secondly, Peter, owner of the property lately held by Philip 
Carpenter, and thirdly, Daniel, owner of the estate of Benjamin Secor; 
of this family was Israel Secor of Upper New Rochelle, who formerly 
owned the property held by the late Richard Secor ; his sons were 
Richard, William, Abraham, Benjamin, Samuel and Peter. The fourth 
son, Benjamin, who married Jane, daughter of John Renaud, is the father 
of the present Darius Secor of New Rochelle. 

By a survey and division of Heathcote's lands lying in Scarsdale 
manor on the nth of August, A.D. 1774, in the county of Westchester, 
the property of Caleb Heathcote in his lifetime, and which remain unsold 
by his descendants since his death, &c. No. 1, in north division, contain- 
ed twenty-one lots, and likewise two small lots in the possession of Wil- 
liam Barker. Lots Nos. 1 6 and 1 7 were controverted lands in this division. 

Upon the west side of the manor the proprietors appear to have been 
the Crawfords, Devauxs, Vailes, Gedneys, Anjevines, Tompkinses and 
Townsends. On the east side, the Griffens, Fishers, Vails, Underhills, 
Gedneys and Cromwells. On the south west, the Griffens and Barkers.- 

The surface of this town is undulating and hilly ; soil, sandy and clay 
loam ; drained, south by the Bronx river, which bounds it on the west. 
Two small streams called the Hutchinson and Sheldrake, rise in Scars- 
dale and flow southerly into the Sound. The latter is a tributary of 
the Mamaroneck river. They are well supplied with all kinds of fresh 
water fish. 

The most prominent features of Scarsdale, however, are the extensive 
tract of woodland which completely cover its wild and romantic hills on 
the west, displaying themselves to great advantage from every part of 
the surrounding country. The Saxton forest which forms a large por- 
tion of this woody district, abounds with foxes, rabbits and other wild 
game, and retains much of its ancient grandeur. 


Arms, az. on achev. betw. three moor cocks, close, or, as many cross crosslets sa. Crest, a unicorn's head, erased, per fesse, ar. and or, armed and maned of the last, gorged with a chaplet of laurel vei 


Concord, moved to Fairfield ; subsequently settled at Eastchester, nat, 1642, living in 1672. Ruth Tompkins, nat. 1640. 

l John of Mercy 2.N8bP-_Oak- 3. Nath- 4.Thom- = lIed- l.Mary,mar- 
EasichuH- i Jmiea miah ley, of anlel an i dy ried Joseph 

tt-r, reino- | da. of West- Appleby 

pd to 

2 Anne, mar 
ried Anna 
Ledew of 

S.Ruth l.Ste- = 

2. Edmund, to whom 
his f'r bequea'ed liis 
dwelling house and 
lands in E'chester. 

S.John to whom ** <n a* -* &> ~ to li 
his f'r beq'd His ^2£"oe "p 

11 J. 



nnn Sarah 2Moses = Polly 8.Nath».PoUy 4.Absa =a I>ehor- 5Isaac_Abi- H 

I i I J, I 

EM S) H b James, nf_ Elizabeth Nehe- = Quel]_v 

? E 5 rr ■-<! Phottof. I'mlir. mi ah Imrnhnn 

I I 111 ' 1 ' „ J 

&r*F*f*r f° F° r- Pctei 


to ia 4- Ot o» — fa — — wcoA 



8 B H 


Under- m 

1 £sV« 




*OiB j 

;u ?lq 8 

Jonathan G. of_ Sarah Sylvanus, of Stephen, 
Si-arsdale, I Hyate, Croton 
nat. Juue 8tli, ob. 


;■§ ?1 

Jacob Peter 

■.' X;i!lianiPl = 
of Green- I 
burgh | 


2 i EX'S BBS's 

SThos. 6.Elljah 

• & 

Abraham_l. Charity ,T«lin_Zepporah James_Mary 

1. Caleb, nat 
Dec. 22, 

2. Joshua nat. 

4. Eli] ah, nat 

-Sarah e.John. nat. 


April 3, 1762, 

19th July, 

Barter Nov. 8th, 

1763, ob. 

1767. ob. 

Dec. 19, 

Jan. 7th. 



Hon. Daniel D. = da of Geo. W.. 
Vice President 
of the United 
States, nat. 
June 21, 1774, 



Gilbert Augustus Elijah 

J> i 

Jonathan ci Varlan Elizabeth Mary Deborah, wife Sarah Augellue 

• The D after Daniel, was added to distinguish him from another Daniel TompMns, who attended 
the same school an,, college. (Helen T, Tompkins, Sinners, Westchester County, a giaud-daugliter|. 


At t!ie/<\v meadows, Scarsdale, was born on the 21st of June, 1774, 
that distinguished individual Daniel D. Tompkins, Vice-President of the 
United States. He was the seventh son of the Hon. Jonathan G. 
Tompkins, by his wife Sarah Hyatt ; and grandson of Stephen Tompkins, 
whose ancestors emigrated originally from the north of England, (during 
the time of the religious persecution in that country.) and landed at 
Plymouth, in the colony of Massachusetts ; b from Plymouth they removed 
to Concord. John Tompkins of that place, had John born there in 
1642, and a daughter, Ruth, in 1640. The Tompkins family subse- 
quently emigrated to Fairfield, in Connecticut." In 1649, we find John 
Tompkins proprietor of lands in Fairfield. 

From Fairfield, the family removed to Eastchester, Westchester Co. 
The name of Nathaniel Tompkins occurs among a list of the first pro- 
prietors of Eastchester, in 1665. Of this family was Micah Tompkins 
of Milford, Connecticut, who secreted King Charles' judges when they 
fled to Milford. " The regicides Whalley and Goffe, (says Mr. Lam- 
bert) lived in the town from the 20th of August, 1661, for more than 
two years, till they went to Hadley. Here they were secreted by Mr. 
Tompkins, in the basement story of a shop standing near his dwelling. 
It is related that Mr. Tompkins's daughters often spun in the shop, and 
sometimes would sing some poetry which was composed about that time, 
concerning the martyrdom of King Charles, (in which they are mention- 
ed) which much amused the judges. The girls were, of course, acquaint- 
ed with their concealment. d After remaining in Eastchester a short 
time, the sons of Nathaniel and John Tompkins removed to Scarsdale 
and Greenburgh, where they purchased lands and permanently settled. 

'• The father of Daniel D. Tompkins" was a member of the State con- 
vention, which adopted the Declaration of Independence and the first 
constitution of the State. He was a member of the Legislature during 
whole period of the Revolution, also for many years first judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas for this county ; and on the institution of the uni- 
versity, was appointed one of the Regents — which situation he held until 
his resignation of it, in 1808. He died after seeing his son elevated to 
the second office in the gift of his country. 

Governor Tompkins was educated at Columbia college in the city of 

a The fox meadow estate originally belonged to the Griffin family, and passed from Jona- 
tban Griiliu to bis adopted son, Jonathan Griffin Tompkins. 

b Herring's Nat Portrait Gallery. 

c Shattucks' Hist, of Concord. 

(I Lambert's Hist, of New Haven, 144. 

c The D was added to his name merely to distinguish him from another Daniel Tompkins 
who attend- d the same school or college with him. From his grand-daughter, Helene T. 
tcbester Co. 


New Yojk, and received the first honors of his class in 1795. He was 
admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court in the capacity cf attorney, 5th 
Aug., 1797." In 1S01, he was elected a representative of the city, in the 
convention to revise the constitution of the State; in 1802, was chosen 
to the State Legislature; and in 1S04, was appointed a Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of the State, to supply the vacancy occasioned by the elec- 
tion of Chief Justice Lewis to the Gubernatorial chair. In the same year 
he was elected a member of Congress for the city, as a colleague of the 
late Dr. Mitchell. Gov. Tompkins (continues his biographer) seemed 
to embody within himself — the peculiar characteristics of the citizens of 
his native State — activity, energy and perseverance ; and his talents con- 
stantly and variously as they were tried, were always found equal to any 
emergency. At the bar in the city of New York, during the early part 
of his life, he sustained an honorable rank ; on the bench of the Supreme 
Court of the State — amid the bright constellation of judicial talent, learn- 
ing and eloquence which then adorned it — he was conspicuously distin- 
guished while yet a comparative youth ; and we venture to say, that no 
judge since the formation of our government, ever presided at nisi prius, 
or travelled the circuit with more popularity. Dignified in his person, 
peaceful and conciliating in his address, and thoroughly amiable in his 
character, he won the respect and confidence of the bar, and the admir- 
ation of the public. The distinction which he gained in his judicial ca- 
pacity, soon elevated him to a different theatre of action, the gubernato- 
rial chair of his native State. (In 1807, when not thirty-three years of 
age,) he was put forward as a candidate by the most influential of the 
Republicans of that day ; and in the mode in which he administered the 
government, he did'not disappoint their choice. Those were turbulent 
times in politics ; but like a skillful pilot, he safely and triumphantly 
weathered the storm — .not only that which was raging within our bounds 
and among ourselves, but a more painful one which was pouring in upon 
us from a foreign foe. By his unwearied efforts in repeatedly press- 
ing the subject upon the attention of the Legislature, slavery was finally 
abolished in the State of New York. 

The subject of public education and morals, was always near his heart. 
The benevolent feelings of Gov. Tompkins, prompted him to call the at- 
tention of the Legislature on repeated occasions, to the abolition of cor- 
poral punishment ; and he at length happily effected that of the former, 

o As attorney in the court of Common Pleas in N. Y., and Westchester Co., 86 Sept. 1797; 
counsellor in Court of Common Pleas, 36th Bent. !T:<7; counsellor in Mayor's Court, Feb. 24, 
1801 ; counsellor In Supreme Court, 9 May, 1801 ; solicitor In Court of < hanoery, 5 June, 1801 ; 
elected representan I 'invention on Revision of constitution, 7June, 1802; solicitor 

in Circuit court of the tJ. 8., 1804; Just ice of Supreme court, 2 July, 1S04, Member of Congress 
for >'. V., 1804; Judguof District Court, March, lsu5.— Editor. 


but the latter still remains. So early as 181 1, we find him raising his voice 
in favor of the encouragement of manufactures. In 1S1 2, he prorogued 
the Senate and Assembly of the State. In this brief sketch, it is not to 
be expected that even all the most prominent measures of Gov. Tomp- 
kins' administration can be noticed."* 

We come now (continues his biographer), to the part which he bore 
in our late war with Great Britain, which embraces a most interesting 
period of his life. Whenever the history of that war shall be written for 
posterity, his name will fill an ample space. 

As Governor of the State of New York, he had the direction of all 
her energies, and many and arduous were the duties which he was or- 
dered upon to perform ; but those who were conversant with the scenes 
of that period, will recollect the universal confidence which he inspired 
in every lover of his country. The following letter, dated a few days 
after the declaration of war, will show the perilous situation of the State 
of New York at that time, the condition of the army, and the respon- 
sibility he assumed to meet the exigency : — 

Albany, June 28, 1812. 
To Major General Dearborn : 

Sir : — Your letter of the 22 inst. has been received. I had anticipated your 
request by ordering the detachments from Washington, Essex, Clinton and 
Franklin counties into service, and have fixed the days and places of their ren- 
dezvous. Upon application to the Quartermaster General, I find there are but 
139 tents and 60 camp kettles at this place ; and even those I take by a kind of 
stealth, the Deputy Quartermaster General declines giving an order for their de- 
livery, until he shall have a written order from the Quartermaster General ; and 
the latter is willing I shall take them, but will not give the deputy a written or- 
des for that purpose, under such circumstances. I shall avail myself of the rule 
of possession; and by virtue of the eleven points of the law, send them off to-mor- 
row morning without a written order from any one. You may remember, that 
when you were Secretary of the War Department, I invited you to forward and 
deposit in our frontier arsenals, arms, ammunition and camp equippage, for self- 
defence— to be ready for defence in case of war— and the same invitation to the 
War Department has been repeated four times since. The United States have 
now from five to six hundred regular troops at Plattsburgh, Rome, Canandaigua, 
&c. And yet those recruits are now and must be for weeks to come, unarmed, 
and in every respect unequipped, although within musket shot of arsenals. The 
recruits at Plattsburgh, are within fifty miles of two tribes of Canadian Indians. 
In case of an attack upon the frontiers, that portion of the United States army 
would be as inefficient and as unable to defend the inhabitants or themselves 
even, as so many women. As to cannon, muskets, and ammunition, I can find 
no one here who will exercise any authority over them, or deliver a single article 

a Herring's Nat. Portrait Gallery, vol. ii. 


upon my requisition ; neither can I find any officer of the army who feels himself 
authorized 1 > exercise any authority, or do any act which will aid me in the all 

important object of protecting the inhabitants of our extended frontier exposed 
to the cruelty of savages, and the depredations of the enemy. If I must rely 
upon the militia solely for such protection, I entreat you to give orders to your- 
officers lure, to furnish upon my order — for the use of militia detachments, 
all needful weapons and articles with which the United States are furnished, and 
of which we are destitute. 

"You may rely upon the assistance which my talents, influence and authority 
can furnish, in the active prosecution of the just and necessary war, which has 
been declared by the constituted authority of our beloved country." 

From the da}- of the declaration of war, the Governor entered heart 
and soul into the prosecution of it ; and so continued until its close. 
Most of the frontier troops, the first campaign, were militia ; and many of 
them were marched several hundred miles. The Quarter Master General 
of that da)-, refused to make any advances to them ; the Governor was, 
therefore, placed in the dilemma of providing as well as he could for 
them, and expenses of every kind — or of permitting then\ to return home 
for want of accommodation, disgusted both with the war and the Govern- 
ment ; he issued orders for raising a brjgade of volunteers upon his own 
responsibility, which greatly distinguished itself on the Niagara frontier, 
and particularly at the memorable sortie from Fort Erie. 

The officers were all selected by Gov. Tompkins, and their gallant con- 
duct in the field showed his admirable discrimination in this respect. He 
had previously recommended to the Legislature to raise volunteer regi- 
ments for the defence of our frontiers and the city of New York ; but, by 
a perversity that seems strange to us at the present day, his patriotic 
recommendation was rejected. A man of less firmness than Governor 
Tompkins would have quailed beneath the storm which was raised 
against him in Albany, in the winter of 1813-14, and the consequence 
would probably have been that the State would have been over-run by 
the foe. Not only was the whole western frontier in danger of invasion, 
but Sacketts Harbor, Plattsburgh, and the city of New York. But re- 
gardless of censure or disapprobation he called into the field large bodies 
of militia, and organized a corps of new fencibles for the protection of 
the city of New York, consisting of one thousand men. In September, 
1814, the militia in service for the defence of the city amounted to 17,- 
500 men. He was even ready to dispatch a force, under the lamented 
Decatur, for the assistance of Baltimore, which was then menaced with 
an attack ; and had not the news of the enemy's retreat been received, the 
succor would have been upon the march to the relief of a sister State. In 
1 8 1 4, from information received and corroborated by the movements of the 


enemy, there are sufficient grounds of belief that one great object of his 
campaign was to penetrate with his northern army by the waters of Lake 
Champlain and the Hudson; and by a simultaneous attack with his mar- 
itime forces on New York, to form a junction which would sever the 
communication of the States. The exigency of the time, while it sub- 
jected the Executive to great resposibility, admitted of no delay. To 
defeat his arrogant design, and save the State from inroad, it was neces- 
sary immediately to exercise full powers and more ample resources than 
had been placed in his hands by the Legislature. He proceeded, there- 
fore, to make such dispositions as were deemed indispensable to secure 
the exposed points against menaced invasion. To effect these objects 
he found it necessary to transcend the authority and means vested in 
him by law, perfectly satisfied that the Legislature would approve and 
sanction what he had done. 

In October of this year, Governor Tompkins was appointed by the 
President to the command of the third military district. He acquitted 
himself of the command with great ability, and on the disbanding of the 
troops he received from every quarter letters of compliment and grati- 
tude and this was the only recompense for his services, in this command, 
which he ever obtained. 

During the Fall of this year the general government was desirous of 
fitting out an expedition to dislodge the enemy from Castine in the 
Province of Maine. They had applied to the Governor of Massa- 
chusetts to raise the necessary funds for this purpose, but without effect. 
In this dilemma the situation of the general government was hinted to 
Governor Tompkins, who, with his individual credit and upon his own 
responsibilities, immediately raised the money, $300,000 — which he 
placed at the orders of General Dearborn, then commanding in Massa- 
chusetts. This noble act of patriotism speaks for itself, and comment 
would be superfluous." 

" He contributed (remarks the Hon. G. Rathbun) more than any one 
man in the Union to the success of our arms in repelling the invaders of 
our soil. Mr. Tompkins disbursed for the United States very nearly 
two millions of dollars. This sum was charged to him. Further, he 
borrowed for the use of the general government more than one million, 
three hundred thousand dollars ; some of it partly upon the credit of the 
Government, and some of it upon his own responsibility." 6 

"In looking over his military correspondence, it is surprising to see 
how watchful he was to foster a delicate and punctilious regard to the 

a Herring's Nat. Portrait Gallery, vol. ii. 

b Extracts from speech of Bon. G. Rathbun of New York, in favor of an appropriation for 
the heirs of D. D. Tompkins, delivered in the House of Representatives, Fe b. 4, 1847. 


relative rank of the officers of the militia, so as preclude any cause of 
jealousy or complaint. The officers were appointed by the council of 
appointment, which in the winter of 17 13-14, was, together with one 
branch of the Legislature, opposed to the administration of the general 
government, and to the prosecution of the war ; and it is evident from his 
correspondence at this period that attempts were constantly made to 
create discontents, by the recommending of persons for promotion over 
the heads of those who were entitled to it by their previous military 
rank. And turning back to his private correspondence from 1808 to 
181 1, we are struck with the continual annoyance experienced by him 
from the intrigues and slanders of political opponents, and at the same 
time with the indefatigable industry and noble frankness with which he 
counteracted and exposed them. In the Fall of 1814, Mr. Monroe hav- 
ing just been appointed Secretary of War, President Madison requested 
permission to name Governor Tompkins to the Senate as his successor. 
This oiler, of what is considered the highest office in the gift of the 
President of the United States, was declined. In the spring of 18 15, 
after peace had been proclaimed, he resigned the command of the third 
military district ; and the President addressed to him a letter of thanks, 
for his " patriotic action and able support given to the Government 
during the war." 

; ' In February, 181 7, having received official information of his elec- 
tion to the office of Vice President of the United States, he surrendered 
that of chief Magistrate of the State of New York." He was also 
Chancellor of the University; and in June, 1820, was elected grand 
master cf masons in the State of New York. In 1821, he was chosen 
a delegate for the county of Richmond to the convention for framing a 
new constitution for the State ; and he was afterwards appointed presi- 
dent of this body. This was the last public situation which he held."** 

" Years having rolled away (remarks Mr. John W. Edmunds) he 
played so prominent and active a part on the stage, and the party 
rancor with which he was sometimes beset having been long since buried 
in the grave of the past, ample justice may now without offence be done 
to him — who was, in every sense cf the word, 

" A statesman lofty and a patriot pure." 

The task, however, of doing full justice to his memory belongs to an 
abler pen; but no one is too feeble to admire the elevated patriotism which 
induced him, at a most trying crisis, to forego the honor intended for 
him by the President — to sacrifice his own health and the comfort of his 

a Herring's National Portrait Gallery, vol. ii. 


family to the paramount duty of serving his country in that sphere where 
he could be most useful, and to offer himself a victim for its safety if it 
should be necessary; and the indomitable energy which enabled him in 
less than forty days, without assistance in money from the national gov- 
ernment, to bring into the field at various points of danger nearly 50,000 
men, organized, armed and equipped, to endure the toil, expense and 
embarrassment of commanding 20,000 of them in person, and at the 
same time to administer the government of the State ; and in less than 
sixty days when the national credit was at its lowest point of depression, 
when the payment of even the interest of its notes could not be provided 
for, to raise for the public service upwards of $ 1,000, 000. a 

If it should be asked what was his reward, for his great services to his 
country, and where stands his monument ? the veneration in which his 
memory is yet regarded by the whole nation, answers that it is erected 
in the hearts of his countrymen. 

"Such honors Ilion to her here paid, 
And peaceful slept the mighty Hector's shade." 6 

The Hon. Daniel D. Tompkins died at his residence, Tompkinsville, 
Staten Island, June n, 1825, aged fifty-one, and was buried in the vault 
of Mr. Minthorne, at St. Mark's church, New York. His wife was a. 
daughter of Mangle Minthorne, Esq., of New York. His sons were 
Minthorne. Ray, Daniel, Clinton and Griffin Tompkins. The youngest 
brother of the Governor was George Washington Tompkins, father of 
the late Joseph Warren Tompkins, of White Plains. 

The Fox Meadow Estate in Scarsdale, passed to the Hon. Caleb 
Tompkins, the eldest brother of the Governor; and was afterwards 
occupied by his son, the late Jonathan G. Tompkins. The property is 
now owned by Charles Butler, Esq., whose taste and liberality has done 
so much to add to the natural beauties of this charming spot. The 
grounds are beautifully laid out and embellished with gardens, and ex- 
tensive fruit houses. 

The neighboring property on the south formerly belonged to Hon. 
Richard Morris, son of the Hon. Lewis Morris, of Morrisania, for many 
years Chief Justice of the Province of New York, from whom it passed 
to his son-in-law, the late Brigadier Major William Popham. The man- 
sion erected in 1790, is a spacious wooden structure, and occupies a 

a In consequence of the death of Governor Tompkins in 1325. and of Mrs. Tompkins a few 
years after, the claim of what was due him in 1S24, slept until February 4. 1847, when Con- 
gress vol i-<1 its appropriation to the heirs of Daniel D. Tompkins— Editor. See speech of tne 
Hon. G. Ratubura. 

b 8ome passages in the life of Governor Tompkins, by Mr. John W„ Edmonds. S^e pro- 
ceedings of N. Y. Hist. Soc , 1S44. 


very secluded position in a pasturage hollow, surrounded by groves of 
locust trees, bordering the old Boston turnpike, the Bronx enlivening 
the estate upon the west. Here is situated a valuable mill seat, once 
occupied by an extensive beaver dam. The calm solitude of this beau- 
tiful spot is increased by the overhanging woods and the low murmur- 
ing of the river in passing over its stony bed. The graceful hemlock, 
fitly entitled by Coleridge "The Lady of the Woods," appears to luxu- 
riate in this romantic position of Scarsdale. 

The Popham family were originally from Popham, in the county of 
Hampshire, England; and spring from Gilbert Popham, of Popham, who, 
in the year 1200, married Joan, daughter and heiress of Robert Clarke, 
a feofee in trust for the manor of Popham. They were greatly distin- 
guished by the favor of the Empress Maud, A.D. n 40, and held high 
and honorable stations in the reign of Henry the Third. To Hampshire 
county they gave several sheriffs — Robertus de Popham in 1227, and 
Stephanus de Popham, circ, 1428. Sixth in descent from Gilbert Pop- 
ham was Sir John Popham, Knight of the Bath, Lord Chief Justice of 
the Queen's Bench, purchaser of the Littlecot estate, Wiltshire county, 
England. This individual died A. D. 1607, and his remains repose 
under a magnificent tomb in the church of Wellington, surrounded by a 
palisade of wood and iron. On a tablet are the effigies of himself and 
Lady Popham. His only son was Sir Francis Popham, Knt. of Little- 
cot, Wilts. This gentleman, together with his son, Alexander, became 
so obnoxious to King Charles the First that he excepted them both out 
of the general pardon.* John Popham, eldest son of Sir Francis, who 
married, it is said, a daughter of the celebrated President, John Brad- 
shaw, 6 was, for many years, a gentleman of the household to King 
James the First. Upon the restoration of King Charles II. he removed 
to Ireland, and there purchased the Bandon estates, county of Cork. 
His only son he significantly named Icabod — " the glory is departed." 
Icabod left one son, named after his grandfather, John, who was the 
father of James, and grandfather of William Popham, of Bandon, whose 
son was the late Brigadier Major William Popham, of Scarsdale. This 
truly good man, who was one of the last of Washington's illustrious 
compatriots, "was born in the town of Bandon, Cork county, Ireland, on 
the 19th of September, 1752. He was brought to this country at the 

a "Col. Edward Popham was made Admiral of the fleet, and Alexander Popham was sum- 

i •(. Oliver Cromwell's Boose "f Lords." " With them were joined some of the ancient 

nobility, together with .some of the gentry who had considerable estates derived from their 

.'■a as Mr. Alexander Popham and others.'"— Mem. of Edmund Ludlow, pp. 113 

and 227. 

/. "President Bradahaw was of the family of Rradshaw, of Marple county, Chester, Eng- 
land ; Its representatives now rests in the Isherwood. "—Burke's Extinct Baronetage, Owne- 
roda, Cheshire. 

To face page 240, vol i. PEDIGREE OF POPHAM, OF SCARSDALE. 

Robert Popham, of Popham, Knt. r 

John Popham, "l Popham, = Sir Hugh Popham, Knt.^Toan, da. and sole heiress of Sir Stephen 

This branch of the family ended in four one of King Edward I.'s commissioners for llxingthe bound- I De Uentisbury, Knt., of Huntsworth, 

daughters, heiresses in the 15th century aries of the Luyal Forests in Somersetshire Somerset 

John Popham, of Huntsworth, fith in descent from Sir Hugh .Isabella Knoyie, or 
being the son nf William, who died, ur.5, bv his wife Agnes, da of William Ed- I Kuowl, da of Thomas 
monds, son of Thomas of Huntsworth. of,. 1419, son of John, ob. 1375, son of 
Hugh, the son of John, son of the above Sir Hugh 

Alexander Popham = Jane, da. of Sir Edward Stradling, Knt., of St. Donats Castle, (Glamorgan 

Sir John Popham, Km., purchaser of the Lltflecott estate, Wilts Lord = Ann. da. and heiress of Elizabeth = I{ichanl 
Chief Justice of England, ob, 16U"; his remains repose under a magma- , Robert Gomes, Esq., Mltcbel Of 

cent tomb in the ehun-h <<\ Wellington, surrounded bv a palisade of wood and : of Castle Glamorgan ('annington 

iron; in a tablet are the effigies of himself and Ladv Popham | 

Sir Francis Popham, Knt., of Littlecott, Co. Wilts, member of the last Parliament of = Ann. da. and heiress of John Dudley, of Stoke Elizabeth = Richard Eleanor = RogerWarre, Jane = Thomaa Penelope JThos. Hanham Mary „Slr John Katharine _Edward 

Queen Elizabeth, and m all of tlnise nf James I. and Charles I., and excepted out of I Newingtun,|.. grand-sun of Thomas, son of Champernoun Esq.. of Hester- Horner Sergeant at Law Matlett. of Rogers of Crtii- 

tlie general pardon of the latter Prince Edward Lord Dudley comhe Kvmore nlngton Somer- 

[ set County 

John Popham, Gent, of the Privy Chamber to James I. = da, of Sir Sabastian navey. Lord Mayor of London Alexander Popham. of Littlecott. M.P., for Thomas, Hugh, ob. s. p. Col. Edward Popham, an officer in the Parliamentary 

who afterwards emigrated to Ireland and became proprietor I others sav a da. of John Uradshaw, President of the Somerset, one of the protectors upper house, ob. s. p. slam in the service of the service, ob. Aug. ItiW, buried in Westminster , the 

of Bandon estates, County Cork | Court for the trial of Charles I., ob. 1659 and a Col. In the Parliament Service Parliament at Shelborne Court of the I*rotcctor assisted at. the funeral obsequies 

Ichabod Popham, of Bandon, Co. Cork, Ireland = 

James Popham „. 

Major Gen. William Popham. of Scarsdale, Aide-de-camp to Baron stnbens, President-General of the Cincinnati Society =Mary da. of the Hon. Richard Morris, Chief Justice of N. Y.,ob. 1S3C, set. 73 

Richard Popham William John Popham „Mary Thompson Charles Popham Sarah ^Leonard Bleecker 


early age of nine years, and his parents having settled in the town of 
Newark, State of Delaware, it was in that place that he spent his youth, 
and where he received a finished education. It was his intention to en- 
ter upon the holy office of the ministry ; but on the breaking out of the 
Revolutionary war, he was fired with military zeal, and accepted a com- 
mission in the army, and immediately raised a company in defence of 
his country. 

" His first engagement was at the battle of Long Island, where he 
greatly distinguished himself by taking prisoner the famous Capt. Ragg, 
with eighteen more of the enemy. He was then appointed a captain in 
the army, and having followed the American arms to White Plains, he 
there again distinguished himself as an accomplished soldier and a brave 
man. As a captain he took part in the battle of Brandywine, and also 
acted as aid to Gen. Clinton in the northern division of the army ; and 
was also the aid of Gen. Sullivan, in the western expedition among the 

" After the war he resided a few years in the city of Albany in this 
State, where he entered upon the study of the law, and practised his 
profession. Subsequently to that time he came to New York, and prac- 
tised his profession for a few years. In the year 1787 he purchased a 
farm in Westchester county, upon which he resided for many years; 
during the whole of which time, he held the office of clerk of the Court of 
Exchequer. He held this office until it was abolished. In 1804, he 
again took up his abode in New York, where he remained until 1S11, 
attending to his profession, and paying particular attention to the edu- 
cation of his children. He then returned to his farm, and lived there 
until the year 1836, when the death of his wife occured; and he then re- 
turned to New York, and resided there until his own death. 

" He was ever a remarkably religious man, and died September 1847, 
aged ninety-five, the peaceful and happy death of a firm Christian, and 
a member of the Episcopal Church. He was not, as has been stated, a 
man of property, though he was always blessed with an abundance. He 
was a friend to the poor and needy, and derived much of his happiness-. 
by doing good. He was the friend and companion of Washington, and: 
claimed as his intimates many of the most remarkable men of his day.. 
He belonged to the old school of American gentlemen, and in mind and- 
body was distinguished for activity and sprightliness. He was an ac- 
complished scholar, and, in every particular, a thoroughbred gentleman. * 
His remains now repose in peace in the Popham family vault near SL 

a New York Ezjjress, Sept. 27th, 1S47 


James church Scarsdale. " He lived the life of a noble man and died 
the death of a happy Christian " 

The following general order was issued by the New York State So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, dated New York, Sept. 27th, 1847. 



New York, Sept. 27th, 1S47. It has become the painful duty of the Vice 
President to announce to the society the death of their venerable President, 
Major William Popham, at the advanced age of 95 years. Major Popham was 
also President General of the General Society of the Cincinnati of the United 

He was a native of Ireland, and came to this country previous to our Revolu- 
tion, and was at its commencement, appointed a lieutenant in the army ; and at 
the battle of Long Island, with a detachment of troops under his command, cap- 
tured and brought to head quarters in this city, a British guard with its com- 
manding officer, and was highly complimented by General Washington on the 
occasion ; he was afterwards appointed an aide-de-camp to General James Clin- 
ton, and subsequently to Baron Steuben, by whom he was much beloved ; he con- 
tinued in the service till the termination of the war, was a brave and accom- 
plished officer, and a gentleman of considerable legal and literary acquirements. 
He held for a long time an important cival office connected with our courts of 
justice. He always sustained the character of the most exemplary punctuality 
in the execution of his official duties. In private live he was respected and 
beloved by all who- knew him ; his mental faculties were retained with great 
vigor until the hist moment of his life, and died as a Christian soldier — with the 
confident hope, that his piety and faithfulness would entitle him to the reward 
in the life to come, promised to those who continue faithful to the end. 

" Sweet sleep the brave who sink to rest, 
With all their country's honor blest." 

The members of the society are requested to wear the usual badge of mourning 
for thirtv davs. By order. 

Edward P. MaboBLLOT, Sec'y. 

Major Popham was President of the New York State Society of Cin- 
cinnati, and as the oldest member, President General of the General So- 
ciety of the United States — an office first held by General Washington, 
in 1 7 S3 ; secondly, by Alexander Hamilton; thirdly, by Charles Coles- 
worth Pinckney ; fourthly, by Thomas Pinckney ; fifthly, by Aaron Og- 
den; sixthly, by Morgan Lewis, and seventhly, by Major Popham. As 
President General he had in his possession the golden eagle of the or- 
der, most splendidly set in diamonds. It bears the following inscription : 
" Presented in the name of the French sailors, to his Excellency, General 


Washington." This precious relic of the Society, upon the death of 
Major Popham, went to Henry A. S. Dearborn, Esq., his successor in 

By his wife, Mary, daughter of the Hon. Richard Morris, Chief Jus- 
tice of New York, Major Popham had issue Richard , William S., 

who now occupies the Popham mansion, John , and Charles Pop- 
ham, who resides in the old Morris homestead. The daughters were 
Sarah, who married Leonard Bleecker, Esq. ; Mary and Elizabeth Pop- 

Under the Provincial Government, Scarsdale constituted one of the 
seven districts of Rye parish. In 1763, Scarsdale contributed to the 
rector's tax and poor of the parish, the sum of ^25 4s 6d. The paro- 
chial clergy appear to have officiated here at a very early period ; as the 
Rev. Robert Jenney writing to the Bishop of London, 1724, says: "I 
officiate eight times per annum at Mamaroneck, for that place, and 
Scarsdale and Fox's Meadows." In 1727, there were thirty persons in 
Scarsdale upon whom the parochial tax was levied. Mr. Wetmore in 
writing to the Society in 1744 observes : " I have a considerable congre- 
gation at the White and Scarsdale, above seven miles west of the parish 
church, which I also attend once in two months." 

Religious services were, for a long time, confined to White Plains. 
In August, 1849, the Rev. Henry J. Morton, D.D., of Philadelphia, first 
held services in the farm house (formerly the residence of Chief Justice 
Morris), after which the late Rev. H. L. Storr, of Yonkers, officiated 
with other clergy for nearly six months prior to the call of a permanent 

Through the zealous efforts of William S. Popham, Esq., a parish was 
finally organized, and the corner-stone of a church laid on Saturday, the 
29th of June, 1850, by the Right Rev. W. R. Whittingham, D.D., Bishop 
of Maryland, being the first structure devoted to religious worship 
ever erected in the town of Scarsdale. The church was incorporated on 
the 3d day of September, 1849, by the name and style " of the Rector, 
Church- wardens and Vestrymen of the Church of St. James the Less, in 
the township of Scarsdale." William S. Popham and Mark Spencer, 
church-wardens ; Charles W. Carmer, William H. Popham, Francis 
McFarlan, Joshua Underhill, Edmund Ludlow, Samuel E. Lyon, Au- 
gustus Bleecker, and Orrin Weed, vestrymen. Upon the 31st of Janu- 
ary. 1S50, the Rev. James F. Le Baron, was called as rector and resign- 
ed the next year. For his successor, see list of rectors. 

In June, 1850, the grounds adjoining the church were conveyed to 
the vestry, in the form of a lease, by William H. Popham. 


This indenture, made the 2Sth day of June, eighteen hundred and fifty-one, be- 
twecn William H. Popham in the town of Scarsdale, county of Westchester, 
State of New York, party of the first part, and the rector, church-wardens and 
vestrymen of the Church of St. Janus the Less, in the town of Scarsdale, in the 
county of Westchester, State of New York, of the second part, witnesseth: that 
the said party of the first part, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants, 
agreements and conditions hereinafter mentioned, reserved and contained on the 
part and behalf of the said parties of the second part and their successors, to be 
paid, kept and performed as granted, demised and to farm let, and by these pres- 
ents doth grant, devise, and to farm-let unto the said parties of the second part 
and their successors, all that certain lot, piece or p .reel of laud, on which the 
church edifice of St. James the Less is now erected in the town aforesaid, bound- 
ed and containing as follows : — commencing at a bound mark on the south fence 
of the old Scarsdale farm road, being the northerly corner of a lot of land de- 
signed for a cemetery marked A on the annexed diagram, running thence south 
fifteen degrees, west six chains two links, along a line of pegs, and east of the 
church edifice as shown by a dotted line in diagram to a ground mark in the op- 
posite fence at B, thence along the south fence north seventj'-five degrees, thirty 
minutes, west five chains and sixty links to a point in diagram marked C, thence 
north seventeen degrees, thirteen minutes, east six chains and eighty links, fifty 
links east of and parallel to the western fence of said lot as shown by a dotted 
hue to a point marked D in diagram, thence south sixty-seven degrees, forty min- 
utes, cast forty chains and ninety-two links along the south fence of the old 
Scarsdale farm road aforesaid, to the place of commencing at A. The lot is 
bounded on all sides by lands of the said William H. Popham, and contains 
three acres one rood and twenty-six perches, as designated in a diagram hereun- 
to annexed, surveyed by R. Henwood, October, eighteen hundred and fifty-one. 
To have and to hold the above mentioned and described premises with the ap- 
purtenances, unto the said parties of the second part and their successors in office 
from the day of the date hereof, for and during the full end and time of one 
thousand years next ensuing, and fully to be completed and ended, yielding and 
paying therefor unto the said party of the first part, and his heirs yearly and 
every yi ar during the said term hereby granted the yearly rent or sum of one 
silver dime, lawful money of the United States of America, on the Festival of St. 
Philip and St. James in each and every year ; and, also, the parties of the sec- 
ond part or their successors in office, shall not at any time during the continuance 
$)f the term hereby granted let, underlet, assign, sell or convey the whole or any 
part of said premises to any person or persons, sole or corporate whatever, ex- 
cept the right or privilege of burial in said ground ; and upon the further condition 
that religious services in said church during said term shall be performed accord- 
ing to the form prescribed by the book of Common Prayer, or the administration of 
the Sacraments and other rites and ceremonies as prescribed in said book for the 
use of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America, and 
of the doctrine and discipline therein set forth, and the canons of said Church 
by a duly and regularly ordained minister of said Protestant Episcopal Church, 
or by one allowed bv the canons of said Church so to officiate, or by a duly 
ordained minister of the Church of England, as now by law established, and 


none other ; provided always, nevertheless, that if the rent above reserved shall 
not be demanded by, or paid to the said party of the first part or his heirs on or 
before the Feast of St. Andrew in every year, after the same shall have been 
due, that then said parties of the second part shall forever thereafter be dis- 
charged from the payment of the same. And provided further, that in case any 
form or mode of worship shall be used or celebrated in said church, or in any 
other building that may hereafter be erected thereon, or upon any portion of said 
grounds in the open air, other than as above mentioned; orif said church orany 
portion of said land shall be used or converted to secular use, then and thencefor- 
ward it shall and ma}' be lawful for said party of the first part, his heirs and as- 
signs into and upon the said described premises, and every part thereof, wholly 
to re-enter and remove therefrom all persons found violating the aforesaid con- 
ditions, and the same shall remain vacant until a new incumbent be appointed 
by the Bishop of the said Church then administering the Diocese ; anything 
herein before contained to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. And the said 
parties of the second part and their successors in office, do covenant and agree 
to and with the said party of the first part and his heirs, by these presents, that 
they the said parties of the second part and their successors in office shall, and 
will yearly and every year during the said term hereby granted, well and truly 
pay the said rent in manner aforesaid, reserved, if demanded, within the time 
aforesaid : and that they will not celebrate nor allow to be celebrated in said 
church or other buildings that may be hereafter erected on said land, or upon any 
open space thereof in the open air, any other form or mode of worship than that 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America aforesaid or 
by any other person not duly ordained according to the forms prescribed in the 
said Book of Common Prayer or allowed by the Canons of the said Church, or by 
a duly ordained minister of the Church of England, as now by law established in 
England, and in good standing therein. And the said parties of the second part 
further covenant and agree to and with the said party of the first part and his 
heirs, that they will not during said term hereby granted, let, underlet, assign, 
sell, convey or in any way or manner dispose of the whole or any part or portion 
of said premises above mentioned, except the right or privilege of burying there- 
in as aforesaid ; and that they will faithfully keep and perform all the covenants 
herein, on their part and behalf to be kept and performed. And the said party 
of the first part for himself, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns, doth 
covenant and agree to and with the said parties of the second part and their suc- 
cessors in office, by these presents, that the said parties of the second part keep- 
ing and performing the conditions, covenants and agreements aforesaid on their 
part and behalf, the said parties of the second part and their successors in office 
shall and may at all times hereafter, during the said term hereby granted, peace- 
fully and quietly have, hold and enjoy the said described premises without any 
manner of let, suit, trouble or hindrance of or from the said party of the first 
part, his heirs or assigus or any other person or persons whomsoever. In witness 
whereof the parties hereto have interchangeably set their hands and seals, the 
day and year first above written. WILLIAM H. POPHAM, [l. s.] 

By order of the Corporation of the church of St. James the Less, Scarsdale.a 

a County Rea Liber. ISO of Deeds, p. 400. 


The parish church is well situated on an eminence commanding a fine 
view of the Greenburgh hills, under which flows the river Bronx, adding 
greatly to the beauty of the picture. It was built, as before stated, by 
William S. Popham, Esq,, in conjunction with several members of his 
family and personal friends, The style of the building is early English 
or first pointed, according to Rickman's nomenclature. It is constructed 
of native stone, with dressings of the white dolomitic marble, and con- 
sists of a nave, chancel, with sacristy attached, and porch. The nave, 
which is 56 feet by 24 feet in the clear, with sittings for about 211, is 
divided into four bays, the flank walls of which are pierced with couplets, 
excepting the first bay from the west end on south side, which contains 
a door leading to the porch. The roof is open, with rafters diagonally 
braced. The pulpit is in the north-east corner of the nave. A font of 
the largest size (2 feet 6 inches across the bowl stands in the south-east 
.corner of the nave. It is circular, supported on a central octagonal stem, 
surrounded by four detached pillars of white marble, and was presented 
by the sisters of the first rector of the parish. The seats are open, and 
entirely free of any charge for rent or use — the church being supported 
by voluntary contributors at the offertory. The organ, presented by a 
member of the vestry, is situated at the west end of the nave. The 
chancel 20 ft. by 16 ft. in the clear, is separated from the nave by the 
chancel arch. The choir is raised two steps above the nave, and has 
two stalls on the south side. On the north it opens by a door into the 
sacristy. The sanctuary, elevated above the choir by two steps, is about 
eight feet in depth, containing an altar 6 feet by 3 feet, on a foot pace, a 
credence shelf on the south side, and Bishop's seat on the north. The 
chancel is lighted by a triplet of richly stained glass, the middle lancet 
of which contains a cross within the vesica piscis; the south, a dove and 
font; and the north, a paten and chalice. The rest of the glass, except- 
ing the west end of the nave, which is rich grisailed, and the southern 
windows of the chancel, which have colored borders, is plain enameled. 
The whole of the stained glass was manufactured by Mr. John Bolton, 
of Pelham. Over the central lancet in the chancel, and in the middle 
of the west gable are triangular trifoliated lights, with colored glass. 

The west end of the nave, supporting bell gable, has flank window 
couplets. Taken as a whole, we think that this simple church, in pro- 
portion and general arrangement, might well serve as a model for a 
country parish. The entire cost, including the glass and furnace cham- 
ber, was $5,000. It was designed and carried out by Frank Wills, Esq., 
of New York. 

This church was consecrated on the 28th of June, 1851, by Rt. Rev. 


William Heathcote De Lancey (a great grandson of the first Lord of the 
manor, Col. Caleb Heathcote) who preached the sermon and adminis- 
tered the Holy Communion; he was assisted in the services by the 
Right Rev. Bishop Whittingham, of Maryland. 

The communion service, presented on the day of consecration, con- 
sists^of the following articles : a flagon inscribed : — " The blood of Jesus 
Christ cleanseth us from all sin." Two silver chalices, each having the 
following inscription: — "I will receive the cup of salvation." A paten 
with the legend : — " I will offer unto Thee the sacrifice of thanksgiv- 
ing j " and a silver alms basin, which was presented by an aged female 
friend on the day of consecration. The altar cloth is of rich crimson 
velvet, presented by the rector's father, having the sacred monogram 
I. H. S., worked in gold and blue by a lady of the parish. The church 
linen is also richly embroidered, and bears numerous inscriptions, like- 
wise the work of various ladies of the parish. The service books were 
presented by individuals interested in the church, and the Bishop's chair 

by the builder, Mr. Henry Cornell. The bell weighing -lbs., was 

cast by Meneely of West Troy, and was presented by . To St. 

James' is attached a parochial school and a rectory. 


Temp. Inst. 




31 Jan., 1850, 


James F. Le Baron, 

per resig. 

Ward, and Vest, 

1 April,1851, 


"William "W. Olssen, 

ti ( * 

" " 

July, 1872, 


Henry Webbe, 

■ 4 11 

it a ft 

Immediately north of the Popham residence is situated the former 
estate of the Varian family, now belonging to the late Col. Jonathan 
Varian who greatly distinguished himself in the last war with Great 
Britain ; and who was the eldest son of Michael Varian, who occupied 
the homestead in 1775. Michael, as well as his brothers, Richard and 
Isaac, took an active part in their country's service during the Revolu- 
tionary war. Of this family was Isaac Varian, Esq., Mayor of the city 
of New York. 

A little west of the church is the Scarsdale railroad station (on the 
Harlem R. R., twenty-two miles from New York) and Post-Office. 

Directly opposite the former residence of the Hon. Richard Morris, a 
tragical event took place during the Revolution, the circumstances are 
thus related. An officer belonging to Col. Armand's, that is, Monsieur 
Le Marquis de la Rouerie's cavalry of the French legion, went down 
accompanied by a new party to the village of East Chester on a Sun- 
day morning to have his horse shod. " It appears that Gilbert Vin- 


cent Jr., was the only member of his family at home (his father Gilbert 
having gone below) when the party arrived at the Smithy ; and he pos- 
itively declined to shoe the horse — not only as a matter of conscience, but 
on the ground that he was out of coal. This was considered, by his un- 
reasonable foes, an insufficient excuse ; and some of the West Chester 
guides who accompanied the French officer, knowing that Gilbert's father 
and brother were strong Tories, determined that the want of coal was 
a mere pretext to avoid doing a service for the upper party (as the 
Americans and their allies were termed) and so they endeavored to 
compel the young man to do the work by force ; resistance was nat- 
urally offered, whereupon a scuffle ensued, and at length one of the 
dragoons drew a pistol and shot Vincent dead on the spot ; while others 
say that the officer himself becoming enraged at the reply, drew his 
sword and struck the unoffending blacksmith to the ground — when his 
brother Elijah Vincent, who belonged to De Lancey's Refugee corps, 
heard of the outrage, he vowed revenge on the murderer; and the bet- 
ter to accomplish his purpose, determined to lay in wait and watch the 
French scouting parties as they passed to and fro from Scarsdale to 
their encampment on the Greenburgh hills. For several nights, he 
watched in vain ; but at length the opportune moment for revenge ar- 
rived. It so happened that a party of the Duke of Lauzune's patrols 
were passing the very spot where Vincent lay, concealed behind the 
bushes ; he immediately rose and fired upon the unsuspecting company, 
and a captain of the Hussars fell from his horse mortally wounded. 
Favored by the darkness of the night Vincent fled into the woods and 
made the rest of his way to West Farms, where he arrived early the 
following morning; after the war, he removed to Canada and died 

It was along the high ridge of Scarsdale, north-west of the post road, 
that the British forces, led by Generals Clinton and De Heister, march- 
ed on the very day of the battle of While Plains, 28th of October, 1776. 
The late Francis Secor, of Scarsdale, was in the habit of telling, " how 
that he had often heard his father describe the march of the British army 
on the day of the Battle at White Plains. He stood, as they passed, un- 
der the great tree in front of their house ; marching along the ridge which 
runs north of the post road, he suspected them to be the right column of 
the British army. As they moved steadily forward, they drove before them 
a force which constituted the advanced guard of Washington's army. 
The enemy were preceded by a strong body of pioneers, who tore down 

a Mac DoiiaM MSS. in posession of Geo. II. Moore, Lib. N. Y.,IIist Soc. Conversation 
of William Barker of White Plains, Oct. 23-25, 1S44-5; also John Williams of the County House, 
agedSK;, Oct. 17, 1S14-5. , 


the fences and made bridges therewith for crossing brooks and low 
swampy grounds. They crossed the road on the west side of where it 
forks, /. <\, at the Fox meadows"" junction of the Mamaroneck and 
Hartford post roads. 

Near the centre of the town, upon what is still called the Angevine 
farm, once stood the residence of the world-renowned Fennimore Cooper, 
Esq., whose wife, Susan, was the daughter of John Peter de Lancey, of 
Heathcote Hill, Mamaroneck, the grandson of Colonel Caleb Heath- 
cote. The old mansion, which has long since disappeared, was con- 
structed in the French chateau style, and commanded splendid views of 
the surrounding country. The property, after Mr. Cooper's death, was 
sold by Mr. Cooper's children to Alexander McWhorter Bruen, M.D., 
who married Sarah Louisa Jay, third daughter of the Hon. William Jay, 
of Bedford. The Bruens descend from a family of that name, formerly 
seated at Bruen, Stapleford, Cheshire, England. Robert Le Bruen, of that 
place, in 1230, was the ancestor of the celebrated John Bruen, Esquire, 6 
of Bruen, Stapleford, who was born in 1560, and died 1625. His son, 
Obadiah Bruen, was entered a freeman of Plymouth Colony, Massachu- 
setts, in 1640. Before 1650, he was chosen seven times deputy to the 
General Court, from Gloucester. From the latter place he removed to New 
London. In the charter of Connecticut, granted by Charles II., his name 
appears as one of the patentees of the Colony. From New London he 
removed in 1667, with his son John to Milford (now the city of Newark, 
New Jersey). John, his son, left Eleazer the father of Eleazer the 
grandfather of Matthias Bruen, Esq., father of the present Alexander 
M. Bruen, M.D., of Scarsdale. 

In this vicinity formerly resided Captain De Kay, the father of the 
late James E. De Kay, M.D., one of the Geological Commissioners of 
the State. 

In the old church of Tarvin, near Stapleford, is recorded the follow- 
ing memorial of John Bruen : — 

Bueials 25 Jan't, 1625, 

of Stapleford, Esquire. 
Nulli pictate secundm 

" An Israelite in whom no guyle 
Or fraud was ever found ; 
A Phoenix rare 
Whose virtues fair, 
Through all our coasts do sound." 

aMadDouald's MbS. in possession of George n. Moore, Lib, of N. Y. Hist. Soc. Conversa- 
tion of Francis Secor. Nov. 5, 1844-5. 

b "Ttie very singular life of John Bruen, Esq., of Bruen, Stapleford," Cheshire, repub- 
lished by A. H. Bruen. M.D., 1S57.— Edward O. Jenkins, New York. 


On the south-eastern side of Scarsdale is situated the Quaker meeting- 
ing house, which occupies the site of a much older structure, erected 
prior to the Revolution. 

The first independent election for officers of the manor of Scarsdale, 
took place on the 22c! of December, 1783. In pursuance of an act of 
the Legislature passed October 23d, 1779, entitled "an Act to provide 
for the temporal Government of the southern part of this State, when- 
ever the enemy shall abandon or be dispossessed of the same, and until 
the Legislature can be convened," &c 

The town met on the aforesaid day, at the house of Jonathan Griffin, 
near the usual place of holding said meetings ; then and there the in- 
habitants proceeded to choose town officers by a majority of votes. 

Jonathan Tompkins, Supervisor. 

Benjamin Cornell, Clerk. 

Stephen Cornell. \ A ™> ssor „ 
Thomas Cornell. \ Asse8 sors. 

Israel Herriott, Constable and Collector. 

Ferris Cornell, > -. ,., n . , 

Samuel Fisher, \ Overseers of the Highway. 

Ferris Cornell, Pounder. 

John Crompton, > -r, , -,-. 

Thomas Cornell. / Fence and Sewa S e ^ iewer3 " 

At a town meeting held in the manor of Scarsdale, at the school- 
house, in said manor, near Captain Jonathan Griffin's, on the 6th of 
April, 1784, and in the eighth year of the independency of America, ac- 
cording to an Act of Assembly made in that case for each town, manor, 
province and district, to choose all necessary town officers for the ben- 
efit of the towns, for the ensuing year. 

Jonathan Tompkins,) 

John Barker, - Inspectors of said Meeting. 

Israel Herriott, ) 

Jonathan G. Tompkins, Supervisor. 

Benjamin Cornell, Clerk. 

Israel Herriott, Constable and Collector. 

John Barker, ) 

John ( *■ m r 1 1 >n. - Assessors. 

Stephen Cornell,) 

William Griffin,* r\ t tj- v. 

Bamojl Hioheb, , Overseers of Highways. 

&£■£££, ; *- -0 Damage Overseer.. 
Bamcel Higher., Pounder. 



Somers is situated twenty miles North of the village of White Plains, 
distant fifty miles from New York, and one hundred and twenty from 
Albany — bounded north by Dutchess County, east by North Salem and 
Lewisborough, south by Bedford and New Castle, and west by York- 

Prior to the year 1788 Somers formed a part of the township of Han- 
over, within Cortlandt's manor. Upon the 7th of March, 1788, it was 
independently organized under the title of Stephentoznn, a name adopted 
out of compliment to Stephen Van Cortlandt, one of its principal pro- 
prietors. The present name was bestowed, A.D. 1808, in honor, it is 
said, of Captain Somers, one of the gallant heroes of the Tripolitan 
war. This individual terminated a short but brilliant career in the bay 
of Tripoli. 

The name of Somers, (says Mr. Silliman,) the twin brother in arms of 
Decatur, shines brightly in the history of American warfare ; and the 
last desperate action which terminated his short and brilliant career, with 
his life, is stamped in colors so indelible, that nothing but the destroy- 
ing finger of time can efface it from its pages. After a severe and con- 
tinued fighting before Tripoli, the Turkish flotilla withdrew within the 
mole, and could not be induced to venture themselves beyond the guns 
of the Tripolitan battery. The 'ketch Intrepid ' was fitted out as a fire- 
ship, filled to the decks with barrels of gunpowder, shells, pitch, and 
other combustible materials; and Captain Somers, with a volunteer 
crew, undertook the hazardous, almost desperate, task of navigating her 
in the darkness of the night into the middle of the Turkish flotilla — when 


the train was to be fired, and they were to make their escape as they best 
could in her boats. Lieutenants Wadsworth and Israel were the only 
officers allowed to join the expedition, which was composed of a small 
crew of picked men. The ' Intrepid' was escorted as far as prudent by 
three vessels of the squadron, who hove to, to avoid suspicion, and to 
be ready to pick up the boats upon their return ; the ' Constitution,' un- 
der easy sail in the offing 

Many a brave heart could almost hear its own pulsations in those ves- 
sels, as she became more and more indistinct and gradually disappeared 
in the distance. They watched for some time with intense anxiety, when 
a heavy cannonade was opened from the Turkish batteries, which, by 
its flashes, discovered the ' ketch ' determinedly progressing on her deadly 
errand. She was slowly and surely making for the entrance of the mole, 
when the whole atmosphere suddenly blazed as if into open day. The 
masts with all its sails shot high up in the air; shells wizzed, rocket-like, 
exploding in every direction ; a deafening roar followed, and all sunk 
again into the deepest pitchy darkness. The Americans waited — wait- 
ed — in anxious — at last sickening suspense. Their companions came 
not — the hours rolled on — no boat hailed — no oar splashed in the sur- 
rounding darkness. The east grew gray with the dawn — the sun shone 
brightly above the horizon, nought but a few shattered vessels lying near 
the shore — the flotilla — the batteries — and the minarets of Tripoli gild- 
ed by the morning sunbeams, met their gaze. Those noble spirits had 
written their history. Whether consigned to eternity by a shot of the 
enemy, prematurely exploding the magazine, or from the firing of the 
train by their own hands, must always remain untold and unknown."* 

The United States brig 'Somers,' lost in a gale off Vera Cruz, 
January, 1S47, was also named after this young hero. 

Under the Mohegan Indians, Somerstown formed an appendage to 
the great territory of Amaghpogh or Ammawalk. In 1699, a deed for 
this tract was executed by Sachima "Wicker, the chief of the Kightawonck 
tribe, (within whose limits Amaghpogh was comprehended, ) to Stephanus 
van Cortlandt. 

The principal Indian settlement appears to have stood upon the sum- 
mit of a rocky ridge bordering the Croton river, on the lands of Gerard 
Crane, Esq. Indian lodges also occupied the higher grounds and adorned 
the romantic banks of the numerous streams intersecting this town. 
In the woods of Ray Tompkins, Esq., situated upon the east side of 
Angle Fly brook, are yet visible the remains of Indian habitations. The 
Indian burying ground lies near Wood's bridge, at the junction of Plum 
o SUliman'd Gali'Ji> among American Scenery. 


brook and Croton river. This beautiful portion of Westchester county, 
so highly diversified with hills and dales was once covered with extensive 
forests, abounding with every species of wild game. Deer were numer- 
ous here, as late as 1780; and wolves, though rare, were not extinct at 
that period. The Indians, for the better purpose of hunting the large 
herds of deer that roamed through these forests, annually burnt the 
higher grounds. " This practice (says Vanderdonck.) is named by us 
and the Indians, ' bush-burning' which is done for several reasons ; first, 
to render hunting easier — as the bush and vegetable growth renders the 
walking difficult for the hunter, and the crackling of the dry substances 
betrays him and frightens away the game. Secondly, to thin out and 
clear the woods of all dead substances and grass, which grow better the 
ensuing spring. Thirdly, to circumscribe and enclose the game within 
the lines of the fire, when it is more easily taken, and also because the 
game is more easily tracked over the burned parts of the woods. The 
bush burning presents a grand and sublime appearance. On seeing it 
from without, we would imagine that not only the dry leaves, vegetables 
and limbs would be burnt, but that the whole woods would be consumed 
where the fire passes ; for it frequently spreads and rages with such vio- 
lence, that it is awful to behold," &c. a The last burning, remembered 
by the oldest inhabitant, took place on the high ridge east of Primrose 

By the royal patent to Stephanus van Cortlandt in 1697, it will be 
seen that he enjoyed the sole right of hunting deer within the forests of 
Cortlandt, a privilege usually conceded to the Ranger of the county. 6 

The deep seclusion of the woods, bordering Plum brook, afforded an 
agreeable haunt to the beaver ■ and here these industrious animals had 
constructed an extensive dam, which long survived their existence. 

Upon the partition of the manor of Cortlandt among the heirs of the 
Hon. Stephanus van Cortlandt, in the year 1734, the following allot- 
ments were made in this town : North lot, No. 5, Mrs. Margaret Bay- 
ard ; ditto, No. 6, Philip van Cortlandt ; ditto, No. 7, Andrew Johnston ; 
part of north lot No. S. Mr. Miller; south lot, No. 5, Stephen De Lancey ; 
ditto, No. 6, Stephen van Cortlandt; ditto, half of lot No. 7, Stephen 
van Cortlandt ; part of south lot No. 9, Mrs. Susannah Warren ; ditto, • 
No. 10, Stephen De Lancey — this lot has since been annexed to the 
town cf New Castle, by an Act of the Legislature, passed 1846. Subse- 
quent to the above division, we find the heirs of Stephanus van Cort- 
landt disposing of their respective rights in the same. On the 4th cf 

a y. Y. Hist Collect. 2.1 series, vol. i. 
6 See. Cortlandt town, vol. 1. 46. 


June. 1760. Samuel Bayard granted to Hachaliah Brown, gentleman, of 
the town of Rye, " all that tract of land being in the northernmost part 
of the manor of Cortlandt, bounded north by the dividing line of Dutch- 
ess and Westchester, to the line of Philip's upper patent, west by lot of 
Andrew Johnston, south by bounds of Samuel Brown and east by Croton 
river. '' a 

In the year 1762, Andrew Johnston conveyed to Hachaliah Brown 
"all that lot of land, situate, lying and being in lot No. 6, east range, 
and being part of north lot No. 7, at Plum brook, consisting of two 
hundred and thirty acres." 6 

It appears that Andrew Johnston did also in his lifetime, by a certain 
indenture, bearing date 20th March, 1762, lease to John Hampstead a 
certain lot of land, lying and being at Plum brook, in the manor of 
Cortlandt, known by the name of farm No. 4, west range, and is part of 
great lot No. 7. The same was again leased to John Hampstead by the 
heirs of Andrew Johnston, 24th of June, 1772. 

John Hampstead, the above lessee, was one of the first settlers of this 
town. From his tombstone, in the Union burying ground, we learn that 
he departed this life the 26th of April, 1801, at the advanced age of 107 
years, 5 months and 2 1 days. 

How few can reach those years of time, 

Which here are numbered to our view, 
Since death calls most while in their prime, 

And leaves behind so ased few. 

Upon the 3d of December, 1772, the devisees of Andrew Johnston 
conveyed to Lewis Bailey, farm No. 9, in the west range of great north 
lot No. 7/ In the year 1775, the executors and heirs of Andrew John- 
ston deceased, conveyed to Abraham Theale, certain land situate on 
Plum brook. 

A. D. 1793, John Johnston, executor of Andrew Johnston, conveyed 
to Benjamin Green, of Stephentown, a farm in the north-east corner of 
lot No. 4, west range, being part of Andrew Johnston's great north lot, 
No. 7. 

These sales clearly show that the great lots were again sub-divided by 
the devisees of Stephanus van Cortlandt. Many of the descendants of 
the above-mentioned grantees still occupy the patrimonial estates in fee 

o Co. Rec. Lib. I, 66. 

i> Co. Rec. Lib. I, 61. Upon the 17th of June, 1760, nachaUah Brown, of Rye, conveyed the 
same to his eldest son, llachaliah Brown, Jr. The property is still rested 1:1 their descend- 

c Co. Rec. Lib. 1, 179. 


The oldest record relating to town officers occurs in a small manu- 
script volume, entitled as follows : 

" Book of the records of the proceedings from the first town meeting of the 
people of Stepheutown, being the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred 
aud eighty-eight, whereof William Horton, Esq. , was chosen town clerk. 

" The first Tuesday in April, iu the year above written, the people of Stephen- 
town met at the house of Benjamin Green, for choosing town officers aud other 
necessary business of the town for the year ensuing. 
Hachaliah Brown*. Supervisor, 
William Horton, Esq., Town Clerk. 


Nathaniel Wright, I »_„_„__, 
Herman Hillikee, \ Assessors - 
Samuel Green, j 

John StedwelO r\ t *i n 

J acob Lent, \ Overseers of the Poor, 

Benjamin Green, Constable and Collector. 

The village of Somers is pleasantly situated on a beautful plain almost 
surrounded by romantic hills, the tops of which are clothed with a 
profusion of green verdure. The air of this delightful region is said to 
be uncommonly mild and salubrious. To the south of the village lies the 
delightful vale of Phnn Brook, through which passes the road to Pine's 
Bridge. On the north-east, Prospect Hill rises in a grand picturesque 
manner. The village of Somers Plain, commonly so-called, "is the 
principal market of lean cattle and sheep, brought hither from various 
and distant parts of the country to supply the wants occasioned by the 
sales of fattened cattle and sheep to the butchers of New York. The 
farmers of this county carry on an extensive traffic in this way, and 
droves are annually and almost constantly arriving from the inland 
regions — some from ioo, 220 and 300 miles — to replace the consump- 
tion."" 1 It is computed that over 5,000 head of horned stock are 
annually fatted in this district alone. 

A bank has been for many years established in this village, under the 
name of " Tke Famers and Drovers Bank of Somers." This institution 
was first organized under the general banking law of 1839, with a capital 
of $111,000. First president, Horace Bailey. Esq. It deserves notice 
that the money of the Farmers and Drovers Bank has always been re- 
deemable at par. The present board of directors, consist of : 

Horace Bailey, Esq., Lewis Doane, Leonard D. Clift, 

Epeneits Howe, Edwin Crosby, Stephen Brown, 

John Titcs, Charles Wright. Gerard Crank, 

Daniel Kenx, Thaddeus Crane, Lewis Brown, 

Officers, Solomon Bailey. 

Horace Bailey, Esq., President, Egbert Howland, Cashier. 

a New York Gazetteer. 



Near the centre of the village, and directly opposite the junction of 
the Pines Bridge and Peek skill turnpike road, stands the Elephant Hotel, 
a very commodious and handsome brick edifice, under the superintend- 
ence of Horace Bailey, Esq. 

The large zoological exhibitions which annually visit this State, orig- 
inated in Somerstown, through the enterprise of Hachaliah Bailey ; who 
imported about 181 5, the celebrated elephant " Old Bet''' the first ever 
brought to the United States. Other importations of animals quickly 
followed, but subsequently the smaller companies became absorbed into 
one grand traveling menagerie. The present proprietors are Messrs. 
Thaddeus and Gerard Crane. These gentlemen are associated with 
the great lion-tamer, Van Amburgh : and in the adjoining town of North 
Salem, with Lewis Titus and John June. 

St. Luke's Church, Somers. 

The Episcopal church of St. Luke, occupies a fine situation, on the 
Plain, at no great distance from the hotel. It is a very handsome edifice 
of wood, in the Grecian style, with a stone basement beneath. The front 
presents a lofty portico, supported by Ionic columns ; the roof is sur- 
mounted with a low tower. 

Previous to the erection of this church in 1842, Episcopal services 
were occasionally performed in the town, by the neighboring clergy. 
They were held usually in an edifice erected by the liberality of persons 
belonging to the various religious societies, and others possessing no de- 
nominational connection, under the name of the Union Meeting House. 
Here the Churchmen of this section of country were favored with the 


occasional ministrations of the Rev. R. C. Moore, the late pious and 
beloved Bishop of Virginia, and many other respectable and laborious 
clergymen. As early as 1808, we find the Rev. Evan Rogers officiat- 
ing here. Before the 26th or January, in the year 1835, the present 
parish was organized under the rectorship of the Rev. Alexander Fraser; 
about this time, arrangements were made for disposing of the interest 
which the Episcopal party held in the Union Meeting House and par- 
sonage, and building a church for themselves. This was quickly effected 
through the active and zealous exertions of the vestry, to whose liberal- 
ity, together with that of several other individuals of the neighborhood, 
friendly to the undertaking, the parish is indebted for its present com- 
modious and beautiful church. 

This building was consecrated to the service of Almighty God, on the 
19th of January, A.D. 1842, by the Right Rev. Benjamin Tredwell On- 
derdonk. It had been previously incorporated upon the 28th of Febru- 
ary, 1835. 

Isaac Purdy and Frederick J. Coffin, church-wardens ; Thaddeus Bar- 
low, Aaron Brown, William Marshall, Gerard Crane, Edwin Finch, 
Charles Wright, William Clock and Ray Tompkins, vestrymen. a 


[tuted or Call. 


Vacated By 

A.D. 1835, 

Rev. Alexander Fraser, Presb. 


A.D. 1842, 

Rev. David H. Short, Presb. 


A.D. 1844, 

Rev. Samuel Chalmers Davis, Presb. 


A.D. 1846, 

Rev. Alfred H. Partridge, 


A.D. 1851, 

Rev. John Wills Moore, 


A.D. 1S56, 

Rev. George S. Gordon, 


A.D. 1861, 

Rev. Charles Douglass, 


A.D. 1862. 

Rev. William Murphy, 


A.D. 18G4, 

Rev. Benjamin Webb, 


A.D. 18G8, 

Rev. Jacob Moore, 


A.D. 1869, Rev. R. Condit Russell, present incumbent. 

The Presbyterian church is very pleasantly situated on the north side 
of the main street, near the foot of Prospect Hill. 

Its front presents a neat portico of the Doric order. The Presbyterian 
society was first incorporated on the 10th of January, 181 1, under the 
name of the " Union Presbyterian Church, of Somerstown ; " Darius 
Crosby, Lewis Brown, Amaziah Mead, Joseph Owens, Jr., James Bailey, 
and Ebenezer White, Jr , trustees. b In the year 1832, a mutual division 

a Co. Rec. Religiotf3 Soc, Lib. B, 33. 
b Ibid. Lib, A, 45. 


took place, which led to the erection of the Presbyterian church at Cro- 
ton Falls, whose pastor is the Rev. Joseph Nimmo. The present church 
edifice was erected A.D. 1799. 

Ixstal ob Call. Pastor or Supply. Vacated By. 

A.D. 1S01, Rev. Jonx McNiece, resignation. 

A.D. 1S05, Rev. Mi:. Perkins, do. 

A.D. 1823, Rev. Sylvants Haight, do. 

A.D. 1824, Rev. Abraham PtJBDY, by death. 

A.D. 1825, Mi:. Abxer Brttsdige, > T . ,• too 

A.D. 1820, Mr. James Austin, } Licentiates. 

A.D. 1S2T, Rev. Ezra Dat, resignation. 

A.D. 1S31, Rev. Griffith R. Griffith, do. 

A.D. 1S34, Rev. Henry Benedict, do. 

A.D. 1S35, Rev. Alexander Leadbither, do. 

A.D. 1845, Rev. George Mexelavs, 

AD. 1S48, Rev. D. D. Tompkins McLaughlin. 

A.D. 1857, Rev. "W. R. Platt. 

AD, 1865, Rev. P. H. Birghardt. 

A.D. 1869, Rev. C. B. Wiiitcomb, Licentiate. 

A.D. 1S72, Rev. Joseph Beers, resigned. 

No minister at present. 

The first Methodist Episcopal society in this town, was incorporated 
on the 10th of May, 1794. Joseph Hadden, Thomas Bailey, John Sted- 
well, Abraham Golding, Samuel Wilson, Jun., and Benjamin Huestis, 
trustees. a A second incorporation of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
occurs upon the 20th of December, 1808.& The incorporation of the 
Methodist brick church, took place on the 20th of Sept. 1836. This 
building is still standing on the Mahopack road, a little north-east of the 

In the rear of the Presbyterian church is situated the Union burying 
ground. Here are memorials to the Browns, Owens, Wrights, Crosbys. 
Cranes, Finchs, Baileys, Turks and Whites, &c, &zc. The oldest inter- 
ment appears to be a member of the Roof family, 1770. A plain head- 
stone bears the following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory 



who died Nov. 13, 1826, 

aged 79 years 1 mo. and 16 days. 

a Go. Rec. Religious Soc. Lib. A. 4?. 
b IbkL 


" ! death thy ensigns here display, 
Another mortal snatched away. 
From life, from friends, from every tie 
That binds to earth, yet called to die, 
Such is our lot, like him here laid, 
We must be numbered with the dead, 
And yield our life a transient day, 
To mingle with our mother clay." 

In this yard lie also the remains of Mary, wife of Luther Kinnicut, 
who departed this life Nov. 13, 1S11, aged 56 years. 

In the immediate vicinity of the village, are situated the farms and 
residences of Gerard Crane, Edward Finch, Charles Wright, 6 Thaddeus 
Crane, Caleb Green, Robert Halleck, John Titus c and others. 

A charming valley opens to the east of the plains through which flows 
the Croton. Rapidity seems to be the principal characteristic of this fine 
stream ; its Indian name Kitchawan, denoting the general swiftness of 
its current. South of Dean's bridge, the banks are highly diversified with 
romantic and picturesque scenery ; below Dean's bridge are Golding's, 
Woods' and the Muscoota bridges. 

The village of Croton Falls, formerly Owenville, occupies the north- 
east corner of Somers, bordering on the south line of Putnam county. 
At this place, the Croton river " affords hydraulic power to a great ex- 
tent, but little of which is as yet occupied for manufacturing purposes." 
The stream is said to average three hundred horse power. Here are lo- 
cated a Presbyterian church, a paper mill, a saw and grist mill, a cloth- 
ier's works, a post-office, two stores and several dwellings, besides a rail- 
road depot for the accommodation of travellers and for merchandise. 
There is also a convenient hotel, under the management of Messrs. Smith 
and Mead. Stages during the summer months, leave this place daily for 
Lake Mahopack, d a distance of five miles. Nearly opposite the depot, 
the two main branches of the Croton river unite. 

The Presbyterian Society was first organized here, in 1833, under the 
pastoral charge of the Rev. Joseph Nimmo. A neat and oommodious 

a Luther Kinnicut served in the capacity of a spy to General Washington during the Revo- 
lution. See page 12. 

6 Mr. Wright occupies the estate formerly owned by James Bailey. 

c This gentleman is the son of John Titus, and great grandson of Samuel Titus, whose 
father, Edmund, was born in England, in 1630, and came from Massachusetts to Long Islandt 
in 1650— See Thompson's Long Island, vol. ii. 54. 

d "Lake Mahopack is a beautiful sheet of water, lying in the town of Carmel, Putnam Co.; 
it is about one mile in diameter, in which are embosomed two or three small islands. The 
waters abound with various kinds of fish of fine flavor, which are taken in great quantities." 
— Disturnell'.s Gazetteer of N. Y. Lake Mahopack is situated 150 feet above Croton falls— Edi- 


church edifice has been recently erected, to which is attached a small 
parsonage and grave yard.* 

Bordering the Croton River, are the estates and residences of Mr. 
Silas Finch, Mr. Edwin Crosby and Thomas R. Lee, Esq. The latter 
gentleman represented (in 1842) this county in Assembly. 

Within a short distance of the village, is situated the property of the 
late Lewis Brown, Esq., whose grandfather, Hachaliah Brown, of Rye, 
purchased these lands under the heirs of Stephanus Van Cortlandt, in 
1760. His son, Elbert, at present, resides on the estate. 

West So i/ters, as its name imports, is situated to the west of Somers- 
town Plains. It is a scattered hamlet, containing a store, a post-office, 
and a commodious hotel belonging to the Messrs. Charles and William 

The neighborhood of West Somers is exceedingly beautiful, command- 
ing a rich view of the Plains and Plum Brook Valley. 

To the west of this place lies the valley of the Muscoota, through 
which meanders the Muscoota River. The margins of this lovely stream 
are adorned in many places with thick woodland and bold hills, which 
constrain it into an endless variety of windings, at every turn present- 
ing new features. South of Bedell's mill pond its waters form a succes- 
sion of rapids, which enter the Croton a little below Woodsbridge, near 
the junction of Cross and Croton Rivers. The running supply of the 
Muscoota is said to be, at a fair calculation, 3,628,800 gallons per diem. 

Upon this stream are placed the grist and saw mill of W. S. Tomp- 
kins ; the cloth dressing establishment of Reuben C. Varnall ; the grist, 
saw and fulling mill of Munson Perry; and the grist and saw mill of Isaac 

On the Mill Brook, a branch of the Muscoota, are situated the paper 
mills of William Wallace and Abraham H. Miller. 

Angle Fly Brook, a celebrated trout stream, which rises on the lands 
of Mr. Tompkins, is a tributary of the Muscoota river. 

On the east side of Primrose street are situated the residences of Sam- 
uel Teed, William Marshall and Ray Tompkins, Esqs. The latter in- 
dividual is the second son of the Hon. Daniel F>. Tompkins. In his 
possession is an excellent portrait of the Governor, by Waldo and Jew- 

Mount Zion Methodist Episcopal Church, in Primrose street, was erect- 
ed, cir. 1 794, and appears to have been incorporated on the 20th of May, 
1828. Henry Clift, Aaron Brown, James Phillips, Samuel S. Ferguson 
and Samuel Pedwick trustees. 

a Tnis church is at present connected with the Bedford Presbytery. 


ii, 851. 


In the grave yard are interred the remains of 


wife of 

Enoch Crosby, Esq., 

formerly the wife of 

Colonel Benjamin Green, deceased, 

Died March 22, 1825, 

Aged 64 years, 3 months, 

and 20 days. 

The above mentioned lady was the second wife of the well-known 
" Westchester Spy." By her side is a plain marble monument inscribed, 


Memory of 


who died 

October 6, 1812, 

Aged fifty -six years and two months. 

Upon Plum Brook are situated the saw mills of Messrs. Sylvanus 
Kniffen and Jacob Ruxer ; also the saw and grist mill of Robert Halleck. 
This stream has its source in the northern part of the town, and running 
through the town passes into the Croton at Woodsbridge. There ai^s few 
historical notes of importance in connection with Somers ; except, that 
during the Revolution, General Washington lay encamped for some time 
on the high hills east of the village, in the vicinity of Mr. Reuben 
Wright's house. 

" The surface of Somers is uneven in parts, with some extensive plains ; 
soil, various — but mostly well adapted to grass and grain. ""■ "The 

a See Disturaell's Gazetteer of New York. 

farms are large, and the inhabitants industrious and wealthy. The 
growth of wood is similar to that in the neighboring towns." The high 
land in the north-eastern part of the town are said to abound with iron 
ore of good quality. 




The township of Westchester* is situated sixteen miles south of the 
village of White Plains, distant twelve miles from New York, and one 
hundred and fifty from Albany ; bounded on the north by Eastchester, 
east, by the Eastchester Bay or Long Island Sound, south by the East 
River and west by the Bronx. " Its form is defined by water on three 
sides, and of course irregular — but its medial extent North and South 
may be four miles, and East and West about two and a half; with an 
area of nearly ten square miles." Prior to 1846, this town embraced 
West Farms and the manors of Morrisania and Fordham ; the three lat- 
ter, have recently been attached to New York county. 

Like the adjoining lands, Westchester was originally purchased by the 
Dutch West India Company, of the Mohegan sachems and other Indians, 
who claimed it in 1640/ 

Upon the 14th of November, 1654, Thomas Pell of Fairfield. Connec- 
ticut, obtained a second grant from the aboriginal proprietors, which also 
embraced the present town. Thirty years later we find the sachems 
Maminepoe and Wampage conveying to the inhabitants of Westchester 
all that tract of land lying on the east side of Bronckses river." 

a This name is probably derived from the city of the same title in Cheshire, England. "Not 
terfrornthernoutiioftheDeeinChesire, (says Camden,) stands the noble city, which Ptolemy 
calls Dennana and Antonius, Deva, from the river; the Brit ms Caer-Legion, ft c. and by way 
of pre-emineDce Caer; as our ancestors the Saxons called it Legeacerca, from the legion there, 
and we more contractly Wentehester from its westerly situation, and simtily Chester according 
to that verse, 

Cestria de Castris nomen quasi Castria sumpsit. 

Chester from Caster (or the camp) was named. 

A more appropriate name could not have been selected, as it was situated west of the New 
England settlements. 

b Alb. Kec. voL ii. 147. 263 


The principal Indian settlements in this town, were located upon Cas- 
tle Hill neck and about Bear swamp.' 1 The former is said to have been 
the site of an Indian castle. On the south-east side of Spicer's neck is 
situated " Burying Paint" their place of sepulture: Cornell's neck or 
Black Rock, they denominated " Snakapins." The extensive " shell 
banks" on the shores of the East river, afford evidence that the aborigi- 
nal population must at one time have been very considerable. 

Westchester "was probably first settled in 1642, by a Mr. John 
Throckmorton and thirty-five associates, who came from New England, 
with the approbation of the Dutch authorities."^ By the Dutch it was 
denominated " Vredeland" or the " Land of Peace" " a meet appella- 
tion (says the historian of the New Netherlands,") for the spot selected as 
a place of refuge by those who were bruised and broken down by relig- 
ious persecution."" 

In reply to John Throckmorton's petition, soliciting permission to 
settle down within the limits of the New Netherlands, is the following li- 
cense, dated 2d October, 1642: — 

"Whereas Mr. Throckmorton, with his associates, solicits to settle with thirty, 
five families within the limits of the jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses, to 
reside there in peace and enjoy the same privileges as our other subjects, and be 
favored with the free exercise of their religion ; having seen the petition of the 
aforesaid Throckmorton, and consulted with the interests of the Company, as this 
request can by no meaus be injurious to the country — more so as the English are 
to settle at a distance of three miles from us — so it is granted. Mr. Throckmor- 
ton, with thirty-five English families, are permitted to settle within three miles 
of Amsterdam. " d 

Upon the 6th of July, 1643, the following " land brief '" was granted 
to Jan Throckmorton, &c. 


" We, William Kieft. director general, and the council, in behalf of their high 
mighty lords, the States General of the United Netherlands, his highness the 
Prince of Orange, and the noble lords, the managers of the General Incorporated 
West India Company in New Netherlands residing, by these presents, do pub- 

« The aborigines maintained possession here as late as 1789. The site of their wigwams is 
now owned by Mr. Jesse Kyer. In this vicinity isa small excavation cut out of a granite rock, 
in the form of a mortar, used by the Indians in pounding their corn. 

6 Hist Collections of N. Y. by John Barber and Henry Howe. 

e O'Caliaghan's Hist. X. >r. 25s. "In July 1661, the La Montagne family, who were heirs to 
afarmcall-d Vredendai,'' granted to the councillor La M ontagne on the flats, made applica- 
tion t > the Director General and Council, in which they set forth that they were desirous of 
talcing possess if their lands situat' -1 abont a mile from New Harlem, and wished the priv- 
ilege of establishing an hamlet or concentration of S or 10 families, near the place whereon 
the water-mill 1- abont to be erected on the wck, for the benefltofUie village of New Harlem, 
Ac. ; the application was refused." Valentine's Manual, 1863, p. 15. 

d Alb. Rec. from 1GSS to 1C42. 


lish and declare thatwe, on this day the date under written, have given and grant- 
ed unto Jan Throckmorton a piece of land, (being a portion of Yredeland, ) con- 
taining as follows, along the East river of New Netherlands, extending from the 
point half a mile, which piece of land aforesaid is surrounded on one side by a 
little river, and on the other side by a great kill, which river and kill on high 
water running, meet each other, surround the said land, as will more clearly ap- 
pear by a map of the same which has been made and marked off by the surve}'- 
or, with the express conditions and terms that the said Jan Throckmorton, or 
they who by virtue of these presents shall succeed to his action, the noble lords, 
the managers aforesaid, shall acknowledge as their lords and patroons, under the 
sovereignty of the high and mighty lords, the States General, and unto their di- 
rector and council here, shall in all things be confirmed as all good citizens are in 
duty bound ; provided also that the said Jan Throckmorton and his company 
(associates) shall furthermore be subject to all such burdens and imposts, as al- 
ready have been enacted by the noble lords, and hereafter may yet be enacted. 
It is furthermore made an express condition that the aforesaid Jan Throckmor- 
ton, according to promise, shall settle on the aforesaid lands as many families as 
may offer in the same manner, constituting over the said Throckmorton and his 
company, in our stead, in the real and actual possession of the aforesaid piece of 
land, lying on the East river aforesaid, giving them by these presents the full and 
irrevocable might, authority, and special permission the aforesaid parcel of land 
to enter, cultivate, inhabit, and occupy, in like manner as he may lawfully 
do with other his patrimonial lands and effects, without our, the grantors 
in quality aforesaid, thereunto any longer having, reserving or saving any 
part, action, or control whatever, but to the behoof as aforesaid, from all as- 
sisting from this time forth and forever, promising moreover this transport 
firmly, invariably, and irrevocably to maintain, fulfil, and execute, and to do 
all that in equity we are bound to do. Done in Fort Amsterdam in New 
Netherlands, this 6th day of July, 1643. 

' ' By order of the noble lords, the directors and 
council of the New Netherlands. 

"Cobkelis Tiexhoven, Secretary. "« 

This grant, subsequently called Throckmorton's Neck, embraced the 
eastern part of the present town. It was bounded on the north by 
Eastchester Neck, on the east by Eastchester Bay and Long Island 
Sound, on the south by the East River, and on the west by the West- 
chester Creek. 

John Throckmorton, the patentee, originally emigrated from England 
to Nantaskett, Massachussetts, 5th February, 1631, in the ship Lyon; 
from this place he removed to Salem in 1639 ; he afterwards became a 
Baptist, and a resident of Rhode Island/ From Rhode Island he fled 
to Vredeland that he might enjoy here (among the Dutch) the free ex- 
ercise of his religious principles. 

a Alb. Bee G. < :. 9a Ibid. 173, 4. 
b Farmer's Regi&ter. 


The Throckmorton family derive their name from Throckemertona, 
(Throckmorton) or the Rockmoor town, which is situated in the vale of 
Evesham, Worcester county, England. John Throckmorton was Lord 
of the manor of Throckmorton, about sixty years after the Norman 
conquest. The etemology of the name is either British or Saxon, 
which shows that they held this property before that period. Eighth in 
descent from John Throckmorton, Lord of Throckmorton in 1130, was 
John Throckmorton, Lord of Throckmorton's Neck, Vredeland, who 
left issue John Throckmorton. The patentee is now represented by the 
Throckmortons, of Middletown, New Jersey." Several members of the 
Throckmorton family appear to have fallen in the Indian massacre in 
and around Vredeland, which took place on the 6th of October, 1643. 3 
Upon the 29th of April, 1652, John Throckmorton petitioned the Direc- 
tor General for leave to transport Throckmorton's Neck. In October 
following permission was granted, whereon he conveyed the same to 
Augustine Hermans. 6 

On the 5th of December, 1656, Governor Stuyvesant ordered that 
Throckmorton's and Cornell's Neck might come into their jurisdiction 
if they please. d 

Augustine Hermans, soon after his purchase, conveyed fifty morgen of 
land situated on Throckmorton's Neck, to Thomas Hunt. In 1665 the 
town of Westchester asserted "that she had always enjoyed Throckmor- 
ton's Neck." 6 

March 23, 1677, I, John Wile, of Madman's Neck belonging to Hempstead on 
Long Island, doe sel, alinate and make over from myself and my heirs, execu- 
tors, administrators and assignes forever unto Thomas Molener of Westchester in 
Yorkshire in New England, to him, his heirs, executors, administrators and as- 
signes six acres of upland, lying and being upon Frogs Neck (so-called) in ye 
general field, belonging to ye aforesaid Westchester, upon ye place called Quin- 
be's Neck and adjoining to ye lott that was Thomas Baxter's. 
Witnesses, JOHN WELE, |xj his mark. 

John Palmer, 

Nicole Bayle. / 

The following abstract is taken from a cause in the Court of Assize, 
September, 1666, wherein Augustine Hermans was plaintiff, for usurpa- 

o Joseph Throckmorton divises his lands, 2d Dec, 16S9, to the lieir male of his brother 
John Throckmorton, of East Jersey, viz. : Joseph Throckmorton, Rec. of Wills Surrogates 
Office, >'. V., No. 8, 1684, 1686, p. 189. Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was oue of the Secretaryg 
of State in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 1559. 

b See page 614. The war between the Dutch and tha Indians of Westchester continued 
throughout 1644.— Alb. Bee. vol. xx. 56. 

e Rec. of Assize, vol. li. SB. 

d Alb. Rec. Court of Assize, vol. 1. CO. 

e Alb. Rec. Courts of Assize, vol. iL 60. 

/ Westchester Kec. 


tion of rights ; and the inhabitants of the town of Westchester, defend- 
ants : — 

MR. RIDER, ) Attorneys for ye 
— SHARPE, \ PUintiff, &c. 

"They produce the patent to Throckmorton transported to Augustinus Her- 

" A mappe of ye neck of land is viewed. 

"Thomas Hunt, Sen., his disposition read, and his deed from Augustinus 

1 ' A copy of an order is produced by the defendant, made by the Dutch Gov- 
ernor, bearing date July 9th, 1657, wherein its exprest that Westchester shall 
have four English, or one Dutch mile square of land for the townc, which must 
be taken of this neck. There is also mention made on ye said order of a reserva- 
tion of one hunched or fifty morgen for Throckmorton's and Cornell's Neck, for 
a farme upon each. 

Another order brought in by them, dated 1660, viz., that all persons shall re- 
move from their out farmes, which were at a distance, and settle in towncs. 

Another writing, acknowledged before Mr. Van Ruy ven, of ye plaintiff's mak- 
ing over his interest in ye land in question to Thomas Hunt, Sen. 

The court adjudge in lieu of all ye plaintiff's pretences to Throckmorton's 
Neck, hec shall only have fifty morgen of land thereupon, with meadow propor- 
conable : thirty-four morgen whereof, with a due proporcou of meadow, being 
that which was heretofore sold by the plaintiff to Thomas Hunt, Sen., who is in 
possession thereof. The other fifteen morgen at the sale reserved by the plaintiff, 
and making up the complement of the fifty, is to be sett out upon the said neck, 
with its proporcon of meadow, by the Governor's order, and not otherwise, sav- 
ing the right which Mr. Spicer shall hereafter make appeare to have therein, and 
the remainder of Throckmorton's Neck is to bee at ye Governor's disposall. It 
appearing not to this Court that ye towne of Westchester hath any lawful pre- 
tence thereunto, the defendants are likewise to pay the charge of suite. "« 

Upon the 12th of September, 1666, a warrant was granted unto Mr. 
Augustine Hermans against the inhabitants of Westchester, by Gover- 
nor Richard Nicolls.' 5 

On the 7th of January, 1667, Richard Nicolls granted to Roger 
Townsend " a certain parcel of land within the limits of Westchester, 
upon the maine, situate, lying, and being on ye back side of Throck- 
morton's Neck, at ye south-east end thereof, commonly called New 
Found Passage, containing fifteen acres ; as also a small neck near there- 
to adjoining, commonly called Horseneck, being about the same quantity 
of land, which is not in occupation." 

In 1669, thirty acres of land on Throckmorton's neck were granted to 
Mrs. Micah Spicer. 

a Alb. Assize Rec. vol. i. 129. 

b Alb. Assize Eeo vol. i. 46. 

c The Bplcera and Brockets were doubtless some of the associates of John Throckmorton. 
At a Court of Assizes held November 5th, 1669, Mrs. Micah Spicer sued for thirty acres of 
land on Throckmorton's Neck.— Assize Kec. 225, 


Upon the 12th of January, 16S6, Spicer's and Brockett's Necks (com- 
monly called the Grove Farm,) were confirmed by letters patent, under 
the great seal of the province, to Thomas Hunt, in the following man- 


Thomas Dongan, Captain General, Governor-in-Chief and Vice Admiral in and 
over the Province of New York and territories depending thereon in America, 
under his Majesty James the Second, by the grace of God, King of England, 
Scotland, France and Ireland, &c, &c, &c, Defender of the Faith, &c, to all 
to whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : Whereas Thomas Hunt of 
the Westchester in the Co. of W. C. stands seized of an estate in fee simple, or 
one messuage or tenement, and a certain tract or parcel of land and meadow 
ground, lying, situate and being within the limits or bounds of the town of West- 
chester aforesaid, on two certain necks of land called by the name and names of 
Spicer's Neck and Brockett's Neck, w h said messuage or tenements and parcel of 
land and premises is now called and distinguished and known by name of the 
Grove Farm of Westchester, being bounded on the east by a certain cove or bay 
which runs up to the north part of Spicer's Neck,on the south by the Sound, on 
the west by the harbour and river that runs up to the sd town of Westchester, 
and on the north by a swamp and a certain creek w& runs into the s (1 river and 
divides the lands called Throgmorton's Neck from Spicer's Neck aforesaid ; 
Know yee, That by virtue of the commission and authority from his most sacred 
Majesty and power in me being and residing, in consideration of the quit rent 
herein after reserved, and other good and lawful considerations me thereunto 
moving, I have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents do 
give, grant, ratify and etc., &c, &c, confirmed unto the said Thomas Hunt, his 
heirs and assigns, for ever, all the before recited messuages or tenements and tract 
or parcel of land and premises with their and every of their appurtenances to- 
gether with all and singular houses, out-houses, barns, stables, orchards, gardens, 
yards, lands, meadows, meadow grounds, marshes, pastures, fields, woods, wood 
lands, under-woods, waters, lakes, creeks, coves, hunting, hawking, fishing and 
fowling, and all other proffits and commodity, easements, emoluments, heredita- 
ments and appurtenances, to the above granted messuage, lands and premises 
belonging or in any wise. &c, &c, appertaining, as also liberty and the freedom 
of commonage for all sorts of cattle, cutting of timber and firewood in the com- 
mons and common wood lauds of Westchester aforesaid, as other the inhabitants 
of the said town of Westchester do or may enjoy, to hate and to hold the said 
messuage or tenement, tract or parcel of land and premises, with all and singular 
the hereditaments and appurtenances thereunto belonging or appertaining, and 
herein before granted and confirmed unto the said Thomas Hunt, his heirs aud 
assigns forever, unto the sole and only proper use, benefit and behoof of him the said 
Thomas Hunt, his heirs and assigns for ever : and I the said Thomas Dongan do 
further will, declare and grant to the said Thomas Hunt, his heirs and assigns, 
that the messuage lands and premises herein above granted and confirmed, shall 
and may at all time and times, &c, &e., hereafter for ever hold, use, retain and 
keep the name of the Grove Farm of Westchester, and by that name, style, to be 
known, called and distinguished in all bargains, sales, escripts, deeds, records and 


writing ; the said messuage or tenements, lands and premises to bee Jioldtn of his 
most sacred .Majesty, his heirs and successors, in free and common soccage, ac- 
cording to the tenure of East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in his Majesty's 
kingdom of England, yielding, rendering and paying therefor yearly and every 
year unto his said most sacred Majesty, his heirs and successors, or to such officer 
or offie> ra as shall from time to time be empowered to receive the same, viz. one 
bushell of good winter wheat as a quit rent, on or before the five and twentieth 
day of March, at the city of Hew York, in lieu and stead of all services, dues and 
demands whatsoever. In testimony of the premises I have caused these presents 
to be recorded in the secretary's office, and the seal of the Province to be here- 
unto affixed, the etc., &c, &c, twelfth day of January, in the second year of his 
Majesty's reigu, in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty 
and six. THOMAS DONGAN. 

By his Majesty's command. 

G. S. Bwinton. 

In 16SS, William Barnes and Martha, his wife, conveyed lands on 
Throckmorton's Neck (situate near those of Robert Huestis), to Thomas 

Thomas Hunt, Sr., by his will, bearing date 1694, " bequeathed to his 
grandson, Josiah Hunt, eldest son of my son, Josiah Hunt, the Grove 
farm, to him and his heirs male, which was patented to me by Governor 
Nicolls, 4t/i December, 1667, and further entails the same to the said 
Josiah and his heirs male, lawfully begotten, from generation to genera- 

The Grove farm was sold at public vendue on the 6th of May, 1760, 
to Josiah Causten for ^3,400, who subsequently disposed of it in Octo- 
ber, 1775, to John Ferris; from whom it descended to his son, Elijah 
Ferris, a large portion of which estate has continued in the family to the 
present day, 

At an early period James Rivington (the celebrated printer and book- 
seller of New York ), held considerable property on Throckmorton's 
Neck. The successors of the Rivingtons were the Bayards, a family of 
considerable opulence and distinction. 

A portion of Col. Bayard's estate was subsequently purchased by his 
brother William Bayard. The whole property is now divided among 
numerous individuals. 

The second grantee under the Dutch (in this town), was Thomas Cor- 
nell (some of whose family were killed by the Indians under the pretence 

a From the original in the possession of the family of the late Mr. Charlton Ferri . 

b No. Kec. Lib. A. 250. 

c Rivington "was possessed of fine talents, polir.- maimers, and was well informed. This 
is apparent from the correspondence of several of rh" leaders on the popular -i«ie. as well as 
from what has been here said, that his tact and ability in conducting a newspaper w»3 
much feared, and that his press had more influence over tfie public mind than any other inthe 
royal interest in the country Rivington died in 1S02, a?t. TS."— See Sabine's American Lovai- 


that they had not paid for their lands, on the 6th of October, 1643), 
who obtained the following "grond brief," or grant, in 1646 : — 


"We William Kieft, Director General, and the Council on the behalf of the 
High and Mighty Lords, the (States General of the United Netherlands, the Prince 
of Orange and the noble Lords, the Managers of the incorporated West India 
Company in New Netherlands residing, by these presents do publish and declare 
that we, on this day the date underwritten, have given and granted unto Thomas 
Cornell a certain piece of land lying on the East River, beginning from the kill 
of Bronck*s land cast south-east along the river, extending about half a Dutch 
mile from the river till to a little creek over the valley (marsh) which runs back 
around this land ; with the express condition and terms that the said Thomas 
Cornell, or they who to his action hereafter may succeed, the noble Lords the 
Managers aforesaid, shall acknowledge as their Lords and Patroons under the 
sovereignty of the High and Mighty Lords the States General, and unto their Di- 
rector and Council here shall in all things be confirmed as all good citizens are in 
duty bound, provided also that he shall be furthermore subject to all such bur- 
dens and imposts as by their noble Lords already have been enacted, or such as 
hereafter may jx»t be enacted, constituting over the same the aforesaid Thomas 
Cornell in our stead in the real and actual possession of the aforesaid piece of 
land, giving him by these presents the full might, authority and special license, 
the aforesaid piece to enter, cultivate, inhabit and occupy in like manner as he 
may lawfully do with other his patrimonial lands and effects, without our the 
grantors in the quality as aforesaid thereunto any longer having, reserving or 
saving any part, action or control whatever, but to the behoof as aforesaid for 
all destiny, for this time and for ever more, promising furthermore this their 
transport firmly, inviolably and irrevocably to maintain, fulfil and execute, and 
furthermore to do all that in equity we are bound to do without fraud or deceit, 
these presents only as undersigned and confirmed with our seal of red wax here 
underneath suspended. 

Done in the Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands, this 26th of July, 1646, un- 
dersigned. WILLIAM KIEFT. 

By order of the noble Lords, the Director General and the Council of New 
Netherlands. Cornelius van Tieniioven., Secretary." 

Of this family was probably Richard Cornell, who emigrated from 
England to Long Island, during the early Dutch Colonial Government, 
and purchased the estate of Little Neck. He afterwards removed to 
Rockaway, where he became possessed, by patent from the British Co- 
lonial Government, dated 1686, of a tract of land, part of which he sold 
in 1 69 1, to John Sands. He died circ. 1693, leaving five sons, viz: 
William, Thomas, Jacob, John and Richard, and two daughters — Mary 
and Sarah. 

Upon the death of Thomas Cornell, the neck became vested in his 
a Alb. Rec. G. G. 206 also 351. 


widow, who conveyed the same to her eldest daughter, Sarah, the wife 
of Charles Bridges. 

In the book of general entries, at Albany, occurs the following order, 
addressed to the schout, burgomeesters, and schepens of New York : 

"Upon the complaint of Charles Bridges and Sarah his wife against William 
Newman and Thomas Senequam, an Indian, now in custody, you are hereby re- 
quired to summon a court to meet to-morrow, to examine, hear and determine 
the matters in controversie between the said partyes., and to proceed therein ac- 
cording to equity and good conscience. Given under my hand at Fort James, in 
New York, the 24th of March, 1664. »<* RICHARD NICOLLS. 

The cause appears to have been decided in favor of Mr. Bridges and 
his wife; for on the 27th day of March, 1665, the constable of Westches- 
ter was required (by the Governor) " to deliver unto Mr. Bridges and his 
wife, or their assignees, the goods that lye attached in your hands as of 
right belonging to them, for doing whereof this shall be your warrant. 
Given under my hand at Fort James, in New York, &c." b 

Richard Nicolls. 

In 1664, Thomas Pell, of Onkway, Connecticut, laid claim to Cornell's 

Upon the 26th of October, 1664, " Charles Bridges and Sarah, his wife 
entered a protest before and against all bargains, deeds and sales of 
Thomas Pell, of Onkway, or any from or under him, of or concerning a 
parcel of land situated on the East River, beginning from the kill of 
Bronx land, east south-east, likewise alongst the river bounded almost 
half a Dutch mile, a copy of the original grant whereof unto Thomas 
Cornell, father of the said Sarah Bridges they have also registered, until 
such time as the cause can be tried." 

The following particulars are taken from the assize records, in relation 
to a trial between the two parties, held on the 29th of September, 1665 : 

Charles Bridges > p/^w.-yr,. Names of Jurors. 

and Sarah, his wife, j ruxmu&a. JoHN TuCKKE F orema n, 

Thomas Pell, Defendant William Wilki> t s, John Emaks, 

Charles Morgan, John Forster, 
Joseph Batlet, Robert Terry. 

1 ' The attorney for the plaintiffs produced a copy of the heads of the trial at the 
Court of Sessions held in June last, at Hampstead ; he likewise puts in a declara- 
tion alledging the defendant's unjust molestation of the plaintiffs in their posses- 

o Alb. Book of Gen. Entries, from 1664 to 1665. p. 101. 
b Alb. Book of Gen. Entries, p. 102. 
e Alb. Rec. Gen. Entries, vol. i, p. 14. 


sion of a certain parcel of land called Cornell's Neck, lying and being near West- 
chester, which of right belongs unto them, &c. 

To prove their title, a grant and patent from the Dutch governor, Kieft, to 
Thomas Cornell, deceased, lather of Sarah, one of the plaintiffs, is produced and 
read in e turt, that apon the said grant, Thomas Cornell was in lawful possession 
of the said lands, and that he was at considerable charges in building, manuring 
and planting ye same ; that after some years the said Thomas Cornell was driven 
off his said lands by the barbarous violence of the Indians who burnt his house 
and goods, and destroyed his cattle, which was made appeare by sufficient testi- 
mony. That widow Cornell's conveyance of the said neck of land to Sarah 
Bridges, one of the plaintiffs, and her sister, was likewise given in, under which 
the plaintiffs claime. a That the said widow Cornell was left sole executrix of 
the last will and testament of her husband, Thomas Cornell, deceased, and so had 
power to convey the premises; this was allowed of (although neither the will nor 
a copy thereof was produced), there being no exceptions made against it. There 
was likewise an act from the late Dutch governor, Stuyvesant, produced, where 
he buyes the same lands of the Indians again (although alleged to be bought long 
before), and confirms it to Thomas Cornell, his heires and assigns. 

Mr. Pell, the defendant, makes answer for himself, that he bought the land 
in question in the yearlG54, of the natives, and paid them for it. He pleads his 
being a free denizen of England, and hath thereby liberty to purchase lands in 
any of his majesties dominions, within which compass this is. He alleges the 
fifth clause in the King's treaty, sent over hither to make for him, as declar- 
ing this land to be within his majesties dominions ; he saith the governor and 
Council of Connecticut took notice of this land to be under their govern- 
ment,^ and that they ordered magistratical power to be exercised at Westches- 
ter, and that he had license from them to purchase. He pleads that where there 
is no right there can be no dominion, so no patent could be granted by the 
Dutch, they having no right. Several testimonys were read to prove that ye 
Indians questioned Mr. Cornell's and other plantations there, about ?i"t paying 
for those lands, which teas the occasion of their cutting them off and dri .'ng atruy 
the inhabitants, but the defendant hath paid a valuable consideration to the 
nativ s. 

The attorney for the plaintiffs alledges ye articles of surrender, and the King's 
instructions, wherein any grant or conveyance from the Dutch is confirmed; and 
plead the antiquity of Mr. Cornell's grant and possession, together with his great 
losse. After a full hearing of the case it was referred to the jury, who brought 
in their verdict for the plaintiffs, the defendant to pay costs and charges of suite, 
and six pence damage." 

Judgment was accordingly granted by the Court, and the following 
order issued : — 

a Sarah Cornell, alias Bribes, conveyed her interest to William Wlllet,her eldest Ron, who 
obtains a patent therefore, as we shall see presently, on the 13th of April, 16CT.— Albany Book 
of Patents, vol. ii, p. i'>3. 

b The Legislature of Connecticut, (says the historian Trumbull.) determining to secure as 
far as possible the lands within the limits of their charter, authorized one Thomas Pell to 
purchase of the Indian proprietors all that tract between Westchester and Hudson's River, 
and the waters which made the Manhadoes an Island; and resolved that it should be added 
to Westchester, 1603.— Trumbull's Hiet. of Connecticut , 273. 


"The court having heard the case in difference between the plaintiffs and de- 
fendant debated at large concerning their title to a certaine parcell of land, com- 
monly called Cornell's Neck, adjoining to Bronx land, near Westchester, and 
having also seen and perused their writings and evidences, it was committed to 
a jury, who brought in their verdict for the plaintiffs, viz: that the land in 
question doth of right belong to the plaintiffs, and that the defendant shall pay 
the eosts and charges of suit, and sixpence damage. The court doth give 
their judgment accordingly, and do likewise order that the high sheriff or 
the under sheriff of ye north riding of YorKshire, upon Long Island, do put the 
plaintiffs in possession of the said lands and premises, and all persons are re- 
quired to forbear the giving the said plaintiffs, or 'their assigns, any moleslation 
i* their peaceable and quiet enjoyment thereof.'' 

The following Patent was issued by Governor Nicolls in 1667 to 
William Willett. 


Richard NicnoLLS, Esqe., Governor General! under his Royal Highnesse 
James Duke of Torke and Albany, &c, of all his territoyes in America: to all 
to whom these presents shall come sendeth greeting, whereas there is a certaine 
Parcell of Land contained within a neck, commonly called and knowne by the 
name of Cornell's Neck, lying and being on the Maine, towards the Sound or 
East River being bounded to the West by a certain Rivolett which runs to 
the Black Rock and so into Broukse Creeke or Kill. Then the Neck stretching 
itselfe East, South East into the Sound it is bounded to the East with another 
Rivolett which divides it from the limits of West Chester and a line being run 
from the head of each Rivolett wherewith a narrow slip, the said Neck is joined 
to the Maine land, it closes up the Neck and makes the North Bounds thereof, 
and whereas there was heretofore a Patent or ground Kiefe granted by the 
Dutch governour William Kiefe unto Thomas Cornell for the said Neck wherein 
(among other things) its mentioned to bee Bounded alongst the River about 
half a Dutch mile which said Patent or ground Kiefe so granted as aforesaid 
bears date the 26th day of June 1646 now the Right Title and Interest in the 
premises, being devolved upon Sarah Bridges the daughter of the said Thomas 
Cornell deceased who having made proof of her Title at law hath by Deed of 
gift made over the same with all her Interest therein unto William Willett 
her eldest Sonne for a confirmation therefore unto him the said WilUam 
Willett hi his possession and enjoyment of the premises, Know yee, that by 
virtue of the Commission and authority unto me given by his Royalle Highnesse 
I have given, Ratifyed, Confirmed and granted and by these presents, do give, 
Ratify Confirme and grant unto the said William Willett his heirs and assignes all 
the afore mentioned Parcell and Neck of Land so Bounded as afore said, Together 
with all woods, Marshes, Meadows, Pastures, waters, lakes, creekes, Rivoletts, 
Boshing, hunting and ffowling and all other Proffitts, Commodities and emolu- 
ments to the said Parcell and Neck of Land belonging and in any wise appur- 
taining with their and every of their appurtenances, and of every part and Par- 

as Alb. Assize Eec p. 15. 


cell (hereof, To have and to hold the said Parcel! and neck of land and premises 
Paying such dutyes and acknowledgements as now are, or, hereafter shall bee 
unto the said William Willett his heirs and assignee unto the proper use and 
behaffi' of the said William Willett his heirs and assignee for ever Rendering and 
constituted and estahlisht by the laws of this government, under the obedience 
of uis Royalle Highnesse, his heires and successors. Given nnder my hand and 
seale at Fort James in New Yorke on the Island of Manhattans the 15th day of 
April in the 19 yeare of his Majesties' Reigne annoqD'ni 1667. 


Recorded by order of the Goveno r the day and yeare above written, 
endorsed a patent granted unto Mr. William Willett for Cornell's Xeck.« 

Mathias Nicolls, Sec'\ 

In 1709 Colonel Thomas Willett, of Flushing, Long Island, son of 
the Hon. Thomas Willett of New York, conveyed to his eldest son, 
William Willett, " all that certaine parcell of land contained within a 
neck, commonly called and known by the name of ComelFs Neck, 
bounded on the west by a certain rivulet that runs to the " black rock," 
and so into Bronx's River. 6 In 1731 William Willett, by will, &c, con- 
veyed the same to his heirs, &c. In 1745 Isaac Willett devised the 
whole neck to his nephew, Isaac Willett and Lewis Graham. c On the 
1st of June, 1784. the two divisers made an equal partition of the same. 
Upon the 15th of October, 1793, Egbert Benson and Thomas Hunt 
executors of Lewis Graham conveyed the west half of Cornell's Neck 
to Dominick Lynch. On the 16th of April, 1830, the executors of 
Dominick Lynch conveyed the west half of the neck to the Ludlow 
familv. The share of Isaac Willett to the east half of Cornell's Neck 
was conveyed to Isaac Clason, Cire, 1793.^ Cornell's Neck is now 
owned by the families of Ludlow, and Beach, the Roman Catholic 
rs and others. 

The Willets descend from the Rev. Thomas Willett, Subalmoner to 
King Edward VI., Rector of Barley, Herts and Prebend of Ely Cathe- 
dral who died in 1597. His son, the Rev. Andrew Willett was born at 
Ely in 1562, was Proctor of Cambridge Uuniversity in 1558, Prebend of 
Ely Cathedial in 1597, Rector of Childerby, Grantesden, and Chaplain 
to Prince Henry. He died in 162 1, leaving by his wife, Jane, eleven 
sons and seven daughters. His youngest son was the Hon. Thomas 
Willett, first Mayor of New York, who was born in 161 1, went to Ley- 
den, thence came to Plymouth, Mass., in 1630, where he succeeded 

o Copied from the original, Doc. in possession of Robert IT. Ludlow, Esq. 
b Omuty Rec. Lib. D. 3a, From this family it obtained the name of Willett's Point. 
c Thi» individual married Isabella Mo: : r 1 1 Lewis Morris of Moxrisania. 

d From 3ISS. in possesion of R» U. Ludlow, Esq. 


Myles Standish, as Commander of Plymouth Colony in 1647, Magistrate 
of that place 1651-1664, and Mayor of New York 1664 to 1673. He 
died at Rehoboth, Mass., Angust 4. 1674. By his first wife, Mary, 
daughter of John Brown of Plymouth, who he married July 6th, 1636, 
he had eight sons and five daughters. His second son was Colonel 
Thomas Willett, before mentioned, High Sheriff of Flushing in 1670, 
who married Sarah, heir at law of her father. Thomas Cornell, of Cor- 
nell's Neck, left two sons ; William, who died without issue, and Hon. 
Thomas, Judge of Queens County from 17 10 to 1730. The latter left 
a son, William Willett of Cornell's Neck, who died in 1733, father of 
four sons who all died without male issue, viz. : William, Hon. Isaac 
Willett, High Sheriff of Westchester County in 1738, Thomas, of Flush- 
ing, and Cornelius of Cornell's Neck. Of the daughters of William one 
married a Rodman, and the other a Jones. Samuel, the youngest son 
of Hon. Thomas Willett, first Mayor of New York, was born October 
27th, 1658, settled on Long Island and became Sheriff of Queens 
County. His eldest son, Edward, of Queens County, was born in 1701 
and died in 1794, leaving by his wife, Aleta Clowes, a son, Col. Marinus 
Willett, who was born July 31, 1740, Mayor of New York in 1807 and 
a member of the Cincinnati Society. His son was Marinus, the father 
of the Rev. Marinus Willet of Rye. 

Prior to 1647 we have seen that "Vredeland," (Westchester) was 
settled under grants from the Dutch. But, about this period, a number 
of Puritans from Connecticut must have commenced a settlement ; for, at 
a meeting of the New England commissioners, and Governor Stuyvesant, 
on the 19th of September, 1650, the latter complained of the English en- 
croachments upon Westchester. And asserted that the " West India Com- 
pany of Amsterdam, had bought and paid for the lands in question, of 
the right proprietors — the native A?nericans — before any other nation 
either bought or pretended right thereunto ; he also affirmed he had 
proof of the first Dutch purchase."* Under the apprehension that the 
English settlements might be connected with the claim of jurisdiction, 
it was determined (by the Dutch) to remonstrate against it. In 1654, 
it was resolved at a meeting of the Director General and Council, "that 
whereas a few English are beginning a settlement at a great distance 
from our outposts, on lands long bought and paid for near Vreedtant, 
to send there an interdict, and the Attorney General, Cornelius van Tien- 
hoven, and forbid them to proceed no futher, and to abandon that 
spot. Done at Fort Amstel, 5th November, 1654." 6 

a Dunlap's Hist. N. T. vol. i. 95. 
i> Alb. Rec. vol. ix. 275. 


We have already seen that the principal intruder was Thomas Pell,* 
This individual on the 14th of November, 1654, purchased a tract of 
land called " Westchester" of the sachem Ann-hock, alias Wampage, and 
other Indians. 

m the twenty-second of April, 1655, we find the following ac- 
count of an interview between the Dutch officer Claes van Elslandt and 
the English intruders : — ■ 

" Clacs Van Elslandt went to protest against those of Yreedlant. Four armed 
men came to meet them on the creek, asking what he willed ? lie answered, 
he wished to land near the house. They told him he should not land. lie 
rejoined, allow me to go ashore, I am cold ; whereupon he sprang ashore, where 
he and Albert the trumpeter were warned not to come a font higher. The com- 
mander came up to us with a pistol in hand with eight or ten armed men, to 
whom he read the protest and handed it to him. He answered, I cannot under- 
stand Dutch : why did not the fiscal or sheriff send English? when he sends 
English, then I will answer. We expect the determination on the boundaries, 
the next vessel. Time will tell whether we shall be under Dutch government 
or the Parliament ; until then we remain here under the state of England. Van 
Elslandt saw their houses and settlements, also the English arms hanging from a 
tree; they were carved on a board (plank.) Van Elslandt was left in a house 
on the shore, Avell guarded with men." c 

The continued encroachments of the English upon " Oostdorp" {East 
town) "which they called Westchester " d dX last awakened the most vig- 
orous opposition on the part of the Dutch authorities ; for soon after 
Pell's purchase occurs the following resolution : — 

"The Director General and Council are informed by creditable witnesses that 
the English in the village which they call Westcliester, situated in Vreedlant, 
about two miles from this city, not only encourage and shelter the fugitives from 
this province, out as plainly appears by a copj r from a certain letter, that the 
high BherifE Lieutenant Weyler kept — in and about the time of our late dismal en- 
gagements, with the savages — a constant correspondence with these barbarians.* 
Wherefore to promote the welfare of the country, and defend the rights of the 
Lords Patroons. against such usurpations, it was unanimously resolved by the 
Director General and Council to arrest as secretly and easily as it can be per- 
formed, said Englishmen or at least their leaders, to compel the remaining to 
remove from there with their property, and the execution of this expedition to 

a See trial between Thomas Pell and Charles Bridges, page 2',l. 

b Bee Pelbam, page 88. This grant embraced the present townships of New Rochelle, 
Pelh.. :erand Westchester, 

e Alb. Rec. Hoi. <loc. ix. 2C1, 2C3, 4. See Document, relating to the Col. Hist. Holland, Doc. 

. li. p. 163, 4. 

Mch appears from the letters of the Burgomeesters, dated 23d Nov. 1C54, icth April and 
M of May, 1666. 

e Tli«- - ! vnnekek and Oratang were very troublesome to the Westchester settle- 

ments in 1055.— Editor . 



be intrusted to the valiant Captain Frederick de Coninck, Captain Lieutenant 
Brian Naton, and with them the Attorney General, Cornelius Tienhoven, to exe- 
cute his commission and apprehend the fugitives and thieves. 
Done in Fort Amsterdam, 6th of March, 1656. Peter Stuyvesaxt, 


La Montagne, 

Cornelius tan Tiehhovbht.* 

In accordance with the above order, the valiant Captain Frederick de 
Coninck embarked in the ship " Weigh-scales" and proceeded to West- 
chester: where he succeeded in arresting several of the English thieves. 
Upon their arrival in the city, the following order appears in Council : — 

' • "With regard to the English prisoners, lately brought hither from Vreedlandt, 
from the village which they call Westclmter, who remain yet in confinement in 
the ship the •' Weigh-scales" it is unanimously concluded and resolved, that all 
those who before were on oath and allegiance of this government, and who there- 
fore either for debts or other causes did run away, or against whom the Attorney 
General supposes to have a just cause for indictment, these the aforesaid Attorney 
General is authorized to secure in close confinement, and prosecute them agreea- 
bly to law. The remainder who either from New England or from other places 
have been lured and decoyed by Mr. Pell or any other person to settle within 
our limits, of which district this city had a grant, to keep them in a civil arrest, 
either in the court house or any proper and convenient place, till a further ex- 
amination shall be instituted and our orders issued in conformity with these. 

Done in Council, in our fort at New Amsterdam, 

in New Netherland, 14 March, 1656. Peter Stuyyesant, 


La Montagne. j 

On the 15th of March, 1656, the Attorney General presented his de- 
mand to the Director General and Council as plaintiff in the case : — 

PiEspectftl Lords : — It is not only known to your Honors, but every one re- 
siding in this country, that since many years the district called Vreedlandt was 
cultivated and inhabited in letters patent granted by your Honors, and their pre- 
decessors by the Dutch, under your government, till the period of the general war, 
in 1G43. Now it has happened that one Mr. Pell, residing inOnkeneg, in New 
England, has dared, against the rights and usages of Christian countries, to pre- 
tend that he bought these lands of the natives (which long since were purchased 
of them and paid by your Honors as evidently appears from the tranfers in your 
records), and actually made a beginning of settling and culvating these lands, 
without your Honors previous knowledge or consent, directly contrary to the 
limits and decisions of 1650, concluded with the United Colonies of New Eng- 

a Alb. Rec. vol. i , p. 315. 
b Alb. Bee, vol. ii. 89L 


land at Hartford, 8 against winch usurpation your Attorney General, in his quality 
and in the name of the Lords his masters, had in due form entered his protest, 
which the Lieutenant Wheeler, who there commands, not at all respecting, con- 
tinues to remain there with his associates in planting and building, luring and ac- 
commodating our run-away inhabitants, vagrants and thieves, and others who 
for their bad conduct find there a refuge. As it has pleased your Honors in con- 
formity to the instructions and letters of the Lords majors, and in preservation of 
the convention made at Hartford, to keep it inviolated, to send thither a body of 
armed men to secure said Wheeler and his associates, who, as appears from their 
own declaration of the 11th of March liad met there tlce Director General tliere 
present on the spot with an armed force, and declined to move from thence, say- 
ing that it was their land, on which said Englishmen were disarmed and twenty- 
three of them conducted as prisoners to the ship " Weigh-scales" leaving a few 
to protect their wives, children and property. All of which the Attorney General 
demands that your Honors would send one or two of the oldest to Vreedlandt to 
inform the remainder of the English that they must leave that spot, taking with 
them all that they brought thither, under the penalty that if they acted otherwise, 
that then other measures shall be adopted accordingto law ; and further that the 
aforesaid Lieutenant Wheeler and his associates shall not be set at liberty before 
they have paid all the expenses which your Honors have been compelled to, 
through their conduct and disobedience, in that expedition in going thither with 
an armed force in boats. Besides this they shall sign an act, and promise under 
oath, that they never more will inhabit any of the lands of our Lords and princi- 
pals situated in Vreedlandt, now lately by them called Westchester, or any other 
lands within the limits finally concluded at Hartford ; neither settle, or build, or 
plant, or sow, or mow there, without a special order and consent of your Honors 
— under the penalty, that if they acted contrary to it, of corporal punishment as 
the case might require, &c."& 

The Council sustained this demand of the Attorney General (as plain- 
tiff ). the same day. 

Upon the 16th of March, 1656, Lieut. Thomas Wheeler and his Eng- 
lish associate at Vreedlandt, voluntarily submitted themselves to the 
government of the New Netherlands. Their names were as follows : — 

TnoMAS N. Newman, Thomas Wheeler, 

robbbt bassett, isaac iiolbert, 

John Gloes, Robert Roes, 

Sherrood Damis, James Bill, 

William H. Fenfall, John S. Gexxee, 

Richard C. Meares, Richard Osbort, 

Samuel Harelt. William Ward. 

The following prisoners were released on the 25th of March, 1656 : — ■ 
Captain R. Ponton, William Elet Black, merchant; John Gray and 

a s .- negotiations between New England aud Peter Si uyvesant concerning limits.— Haz- 
ard - * HlSt Coll. vol. ii, 156, 173, 549. 
b Alb. Rec. vol. ii. 301. 


Roger Wheeler. They were "commanded to depart the limits of the 
New Netherlands, except some of the inhabitants of Vreelandt would 
adopt them and become bail for their good behaviour." " In 1656, the 
inhabitants of Westchester dispatched five of their number, viz : Lieut. 
Thomas Wheeler, Thomas Newman, John Lord, Jonah Wilbert, Wil- 
liam Ward and Nicolas Hurler, to the Governor and Council that they 
might confirm and establish them, and praying that they may in future 
appoint their civil officers." 6 

Having executed a settlement of the difficulties at " Oost-dorp" we 
find the Director and his Council ordering a supply of arms and ammu- 
nition for its protection. 

" Being presented to the Hon'ble Director General and Council in New Neth- 
erland, a report of Brian Norton, captain lieut., Cornelius van Rnyven, secretary, 
and Carel van Brugge, commissary, appointed to go to Oost-dorp, the director 
general and council did approve it, upon which they resolved that they would 
send by the first opportunity to the magistrates of Oost-dorp the following am- 
munitions of war, to be preserved there for the use of the aforesaid village, and 
to be employed when necessity might require it, viz : 

12 muskets, 12 lb. of powder, 

12 ft>. of lead, 2 bundles of matches. 

And further, a writing book for the magistrates. Done in Fort Amsterdam, 
N. N., 3d June, 1657. Peter Stuyyesant, 


Peter Tonxeman."c 

Upon the 28th of June, 1660, Governor Stuyvesant addressed the fol- 
lowing letter to the inhabitants of Oost-dorp, (East town) : — 

Loving Friends : — Out of your nomination presented unto us we have made 
choice, as you may know by these presents, of 

J osiah Gilbert, 

Nicolas Bayly, 

Thomas Wall. 
The which we, for the year following, do confirm and establish for magistrates 
of the towne called East town, requiring all and every one whom these may con- 
cerne, to esteem them as our elected and confirmed magistrates for the said town. 
So, after my respects, I rest 

Tour loving friend and Governor, 


Amsterdam, N. N., 28th June, 1660. 

a Arrested for taking up arms at Vreedlandt. 
b Alb. Rec. p. 318. 
e Alb. Bee. VOL xv. 8. 
d Alb. Rec. vol. xxiv. 33. 


In 1662, Governor Stuyvesant granted to the English towns the right 
to nominate their own magistrates, and to have their own courts, '-but in 
dark and dubious matters, especially in witchcraft, the party aggrieved 
might appeal to the Governor and council."' 1 

Upon the nomination of town officers, the same year, the inhabitants 
addressed the Governor, as follows : — 

Right Hon'ble Lord Governor of the New Netherlands, Lord Stevensone : — 
We, the inhabitants of the towne, do heare present our choice unto j r our honor, 
for the establishing of magistrates for the ensuing yeare ; these may give your 
honor for to understand what the towne choyce is, as followeth, namely: 
William Betts. Robert Hiestis, John Quimby, 

Edward Waters, Nicolas Bayly, Thomas Vaille. 

East Towne, Feb. 11, 1662.* 

About this period Connecticut claimed Westchester as lying within 
her jurisdiction; in support of which she issued the following orders: — 

A1 a court of general assembly, held at Hartford, October 9th, 1G62, "This as- 
sembly doth hereby declare and inform the inhabitants of Westchester, that the 
plantation is included in ye bounds of our charter, granted to this colony of Con- 
necticut.' 1 ^ 

Hartford, this 13th of Oct., 1552. 

To the. Inhabitants of Westchester : 

You are required in his majesties name to appear (or by your deputies), at 
Hartford, the second Thursday in May next, to attend your duty according to 
his majesties grants. By letters patent hereof. You may not fail at your peril. 

JOHN MASON, Deputy Governor. 

To the Inhabitants of Westchester : 

[Connecticut seal.] 25Tn of Oct., 1662. 

Mr. Gold, Mr. Clark, chairman, Mr. Campfield, and Jehu Burr are hereby ap- 
pointed to keep a court at Fairfield, when they see cause for the issuing and de- 
termining such causes and cases as shall then be presented. Stamford, Greenwich 
and Westchester, have hereby liberty to take the benefit of the Court of Fairfield, 
as shall be in controversy amongst them for the future. 

This is a true copy of the order of the Hon. Genl. Assembly held at Hartford 
the 9th of October last past, under the seal of the colony, and under the hand of 

Transcribed for me, Will Hill, 
Clerk of the courts to be held at Fairfield. 

Copia scriptum per me, The absolute seal came not to the 

Richard Mills. inhabitants of Westchester, only the 

sign as above, with the word seal 
above it. Richard Mills, e 

a Alb. Hoc. vol. xxi. 233-S. 

b Alb Kec. vol. xx. 51. 

e Jolj ' 'onnecticut now laid claim to Westchester (says Trumbull), and sent one 

of her i i" bend the Inhabitants to the choice of their officers, and to administer 

the proper oaths to rach as they mi^ht elect. — Ti Hist, 0/ Conn. '16S. 

■i Hartford Rec Boundary Letters, vol. ii. 168. 
1. ttec. vol. XXI. VJ. 


Another letter from Hartford, entitled an order of the General As- 
sembly at Hartford about Oost dorp : 

" This assembly cloth hereby declare and inform the inhabitants of Westchester 
that that plantation is included within the bounds of the charter granted to the 
y of Connecticut ; and as it hath pleased his majesty, our gracious sovereign 
lord, Charles II., thus to dispose of them, we cannot but declare, that we con- 
ceive it most conducible to their tranquility and future peace, that they do de- 
mean themselves in all things as may declare and manifest their readiness to 
subject to his royal will and pleasure herein. 

The next Assembly is appointed and ordered to be held at Hartford on the 
second Thursday in May next. 

Copia scriptum per me, 


Extracted from the records of the Colony Court at Connecticut, 
and certified with the seal of the said court per Daxiel Clark, Secretary. 

The signal of the seal above is come 
to the inhabitants of Westchester, abso- 
lute made in red wax, the motto I sup- 
pose to be the arborated craggy wilder- 
ness and the flying cloudes. 

Richard Mills. 

In this dilemma, we find the inhabitants of Westchester addressing 
Governor Stuyvesant in a letter which they sent by their two magis- 
trates, William Betts and Edward Waters. 

Westchester, the 30th of April, 1663. 
Hox. Lord Stevenson : —We humbly beseech you to understand, that wee the 
inhabitants of this place, have not plotted nor conspired against your Honour. 
The original of the writing here enclosed, were not in any measure sought for 
by us, but were by the said court sent unto us when we expected them not. How 
to resist them we know not, they being as you see, in his majesties name of Eng- 
land. This was a reason why we choose not magistrates at present as formerly, 
and that wee hope that your honour will be herewith satisfied. 
Your honour's loving friend, 

Richard Mills. 
In the name, and by the appointment, of the 
inhabitants of Westchester." 

Governor Stuyvesant having ascertained, that the inhabitants of West- 
chester were about to send two delegates to Hartford, despatched 
Sheriff Waldron with this letter : 

Loving Friends: — We were much wondered, that you according to order and 
your duty, have not presented unto us your nomination of your new magistrates 
for this present year, being now four months past that this thing should be done; 
the reason wherefore being unknown to us, we have purposely sent and ordered 


the bearer, Resolve Waldron our substitute sheriff, (schout) for to inquire after 
the grounds and reasons thereof, which you arc to give unto him iu writing, and 
send either of }-our present Magistrates to give us more fully information. So 
after our love, I shall rest. Your loving friend and Governor, inscribed, 
Done in Fort Amsterdam, 

N. Nbtiiekland, 9 May, 1663. P. STUrVESANT.a 

The same day Sheriff Waldron conducted the two Magistrates,William 
Betts and Edward Waters, to Governor Stuyvesant, " who were asked, 
why they neglected to present to the Director General and Council in 
conformity to custom and orders, a new nomination of magistrates? 
Their answer was, that they in due time, when the nomination ought to 
have been made, called the inhabitants together, and requested them to 
nominate new magistrates for the ensuing year, who declined to do so at 
two different times, because they had been summoned by those of Hart- 
ford in Connecticut colony, as clearly appears by the following English 
documents 6 conveyed to them for this purpose, by the aforesaid colony, 
with the declaration of the aforesaid village, in the form of a letter to 
the Director General. Being further questioned why they did not com- 
municate the aforesaid orders and letters of Connecticut colony, so as 
they ought to have done, and as other English villages actually did at 
the past instance, now more than half a year past, and now above it, 
had actually, de novo, appointed two of their village to go and assist in 
the aforesaid order, on the stated day, at Hartford. They answer in the 
first, that they as magistrates, solicited an order to present to us the nom- 
ination, but that they could not obtain it while it was refused by us ; 
Mr. Richard Mills who had it in his possession, or by an order of the 
people of that village, or in his own authority unknown to them. At last, 
they acknowledged and declared, that they through ignorance to main- 
tain the peace and tranquility in said village, had committed a fault, and 
solicited with submission and prayed to be excused for the present time. 
The Director General and Council having heard the submission and con- 
fession of guilt of the aforesaid persons, together with the promises made 
by them, to dispose if possible, the inhabitants to make a new nomina- 
tion of magistrates, and due obedience, resolved to let them return for 
the present time ; and the following letter to the inhabitants was de- 
livered to them. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, 12th of May, 1663.' 
The letter delivered to the magistrates by Governor Stuyvesant : 

a Alb. Rec. vol. xxl SO. 
t> See preceding documents, 
c Alb. Rec. vol. xxL 93-4. 


Loving Friexds :— "Whereas, wee by the bearers, your present magistrates 
were informed, which in pait your letters (subscribed by one Richard Mills) doe 
confirm, that the nomination for new magistrates at due time by them, were pro- 
pounded at a town meeting, but hitherto differed through some unacceptable 
orders of Hart ford's Assembly, this, therefore, are to require and to order you 
and every one that are inhabitants of your towne, that I shall not attend any of 
their orders, nor that you shall not send any deputies thither; but that you shall, 
according to oath and duty upon sight of this presents, make nomination of mag- 
istrates for this present year, and present them upon Monday sennit before us, 
and if any should be unwillfully so to doe, we have ordered the bearers, that the 
names of such disobedient and troublesome persons shall be sent unto us, that we 
may act, and proceed against them according to law and judgment j so, after my 
love, I shall rest, your loving friend and Governor, 

Done in Fort Amsterdam, P. STUYVESANT, 

N. N-, 12 May, 1G63. 

On the 14th day of May, 1663, the General Assembly of Connecti- 
cut, choose " Mr. Willys, Mr. Gould, Capt. Tallcote and Capt. Young, as 
a committee to consider and give up their thoughts and apprehensions 
concerning the settlement of Westchester and Stamford, and to make 
return to the court."* 

The same court also ordered, " that the letter drawne up by the com- 
mittee to the ManhadoeS) be drawn out fair and sent to the Lord 
Stephenson, &c, as also the letter to Westchester."^ 

For the purpose of answering these pretensions and claims on West- 
chester, Governor Stuyvesant repaired in person to Boston, and entered 
his complaints. In his interview with the commissioners (of the New 
England colonies) on the 21st of September, 1663, he stated, "that he 
wished a friendly and neighborly settlement of differences concerning 
Eastdorpe, by the English called Westchester, and all other disputes, that 
the parties may live in peace in the wilderness where many barbarous 
Indians dwell." He requested of the commissioners a categorical an- 
swer, whether the treaty of Hartford made in 1650, remained "firm and 
binding;" and whether the patent of Hartford, newly obtained, should ex- 
tend westward. In conclusion, he expressed his willingness to abide by 
the treaty of Hartford." c 

Governor Stuyvesant was unsuccessful in his negotiations with the 
commissioners, for he " found their demands in no way answerable to 
the rights of his superiors." 1 * 

While these negotiations were pending, Richard Mills (the leading 

a Hartford Rec. Bound. Letters, vol. ii. 183. 
I Hartford Rec. Bound Letters, vol. ii. 
c Dunlap's nist. N. Y. vol. i. 113, 
d Dunlap'9 Hist. N. Y vol. i. 113. 


magistrate of Westchester) appears to have been languishing in the 
dungeons of Fort Amsterdam; for, on the 16th of May, 1663, occurs 
the following petition from the prisoner : — 

•• Right Hon. Gov. Lord Peter Stevenson, thy dejected prisoner Richard Mills, 
doe humbly supplicate for your favor and commiseration towards me, iu admit- 
ting of me unto your honor's presence, there to indicate my free and ready mind 
'sfy your honor wherein I am able, for any indignity done unto your lord- 
ship by me in any way, and if possible to release me or confine me to some more 
wholesome place than where I am. I have been tenderly bred from my cradle, 
and now antient and weakly, and at this time, and ever since I came into this 
unwholesome place, I have been very ill, and lame with pains in my back, hips 
and joints, and I doubt not, in a few days, will perdite (endanger or destroy) my 
life, if not prevented by removal or release ; will hope of your honor's gracious 
admittance and reception, and craving these my poor humble requests and pray- 
ers to God for your honor, I remain, your lordship, at your pleasure, 

From the gaol in " RICHARD MILLS. 

Fort Amsterdam, 16 Ma}-, 1663" 

Alarmed at the summary manner in which the director had treated 
their leader, we find the inhabitants of Westchester hastening to nomi- 
nate officers for the ensuing year. 

Loving Feiexds:— Out of your nominations this day presented, we have 
made choice, as you may know by these presents, of 


John Baekee, 
Nicholas Batley. 
The which we for the year following, doe confirm for magistrates of the towne, 
called East-towne, requiring all and every one whom these may concerne, to es- 
teem them as our elected and confirmed magistrates for the said town ; so, after 

my love, I shall rest, 

Your loving friend and Governor, 

Amsterdam. N.X., P. STTTYVESANT.* 

24 May, 1663 

The humble petition of Richard Mills, to the Hon. High Court of the 
Manhattas, held 9th of June, 1663, showeth: — 

That whereas, your honors have continued anger against me about some writ- 
ings that were in my custody, I owne unto your honors that I did not well to 
embrace the receipt of, though thereunto importuned, my proper calling being to 
act in another sphere, and doe see cause to blame myself for undertaking to keep 
them ; and as for Richard Ponton, his carrying them away, I assure your honors 
that I never gave order to him or any others, measure aoe to do ; neither did I 

o Aio. Rec. vol. xxi. 
b Alb. Rec, vol. xxi. 115. 


acquaint him directly or indirectly where I should hide them. I so doing, pre- 
pared that I might be sure to have them -when forced to send for them, which I 
can freely take my oath unto when called hereunto, wherefore I humbly beseech 
your honor's wrath towards me may be purified, and freedom to me granted, soe 
as that I may proceed in my lawful calling, the short time I have to stay in these 
par?, being bound for Virginia in September next, humbly crave pardon for 
what I have done amiss. I remain your honor's petitioner and prisoner, 


The preceding submission and confession of guilt of the prisoner, 
Richard Mills, made by him verbally and in writing, being heard and 
read, so is he discharged upon his humble petition, under the express 
promise, sanctioned by his oath, that he never will undertake any thing 
either within or out of this government, to the injury of this province, 
either directly or indirectly. Done in Fort Amsterdam, N. N., iSth of 
June, 1663. 

By a court of General Assembly, (held at Hartford, 8th of Oct., 1663), 
it was ordered, that, "this court doth accept of the town of Westchester 
as a member of this corporation, being received and accepted as such, 
by a council formerly. 

This court moreover declares, that all the land between the Westches- 
ter and Stamford, doth also belong to the colony of Connecticut,"" 

In 1664, the inhabitants of Westchester addressed the following peti- 
tion to the honorable his majesty's commissioners for the affairs of New 
England, which, 

"Humbly showeth 

1st. That the said tract of land called Westchester, was purchased for large 
eummes, under the title of England, by Mr. Thomas Pell of the known ancient 
proprietors, in the year 1654. 

2d. The pretended power of the Manhatoes, did therefore continue protesting 
: and threatening of the said plantation, keeping the inhabitants at contin- 
ual watch and ward, until at length the persons of twenty-three inhabitants of 
Westchester aforesaid, were seized under commission from the said powers, and 
committed prisoners into the hould of a vessel, where they continued in restraint 
from all friends, for the space of thirteen days, fed with rotten provisions creep- 
.h. worms, whereby some of them remained diseased to this day, after 
v.hich, they were carried away in chains and laid in their dungeon at Manhatoes. 

2d. That the said inhabitants had perished with famine in the said imprison- 
ment, but for the relief obtained at other hands. 

4th. That all this suffering was inflicted on them, under noe other pretence, 
but that they were opposers to the Dutch title to the lands aforesaid 

5th. That when the said pretended powers had freed the said prisioners, and 

a Eartford CoL Eec. voL ii. 158. 


introduced their own government over the said plantation, they drove away such 
as would not submit to their pretended authority, to their great endangerment, 
and the enslaving of such as remained. 

6th. That when in May, 1663, the said plantation was reduced to the king's 
authority, by virtue of his letters patent to Connecticut, the pretended powers 
aforesaid, sent in hos f ile manner for certain inhabitants of Westchester, whom 
they confined in Manhatoes, and the next day sent for one Mr. Richard Mills, 
whom they cast into their dungeon, and afterwards so used him for thirty dayes 
space, as there are yet strong and crying presumptions they caused his death, 
which followed soone after. 

7th. That the unreasonable damage of the purchaser, and the low estate of the 
plantation occasioned by the premises, hath had no other recompense to this day, 
but new threatening-;, and thereby an utter obstruction from the peopling and 
improveing of a hopeful country, all which is an insuperable abuse to his royal 
majestie's, and our English nation, is humbly offered to the consideration of the 
hon. commissioners, "a 

The difficulties between Connecticut and the New Netherlands con- 
tinued to increase, until the subjugation of the latter by the British forces 
under Governor Richard Nicolls, on the 27th of August, 1664. 

" When Governor Nicolls visited Westchester, shortly after the sur- 
render, the inhabitants complained to him, and, as a matter of course, 
were adjudged to belong to New York." Subsequently the towns of 
Westchester, Hampstead and Oyster Bay constituted the north riding of 

Upon the 16th of June, 1664, we find the inhabitants of Westchester 
surrendering all their rights to Thomas Pell, in the following manner : — 

'•Know ail men by these presents, that whereas there was an agreement made 
on the fourteenth of November, 1654, between Thomas Pell and divers persons, 
i..d called Westchester, c which was and is Thomas Pell's, bound- 
an instrument bearing date as above expressed, wherein the un- 
dertakers engaged the payment of a certaine summe of money, present pay, for 
the said land expressed in the covenant, by reason of some troubles which hin- 
dered the underwriters possession, the agreement was not attended, the present 
inhabitants considering the justnessc and right of the above said title of Thomas 
Pell, doe surrender all their rights, titles, and claimes, to all the tract of land 
aforesaid, to bee at the disposal of the said Thomas Pell, as being the true and 
proper owner thereof. 

Witness our hande, this 15th day of June in the yeere of Lord one thousand 
six hundred and sixty -four. 

Jons QviMBiE, John Winter, 


ii.\- Halle, bis )A mark. 

a Alb. Rec. Gen. Entries, p. 11. Also Alb. Rec. vol. 1. 120, 121. 

b Westchester continued to form a portion of the nortti riding until 1CS3, when the present 
county was ei 
c At this period Westchester embraced the present town of Eastchester. See vol. i. 122. 


John Babkeb, William Jones, 
Robkbt IItestis, his > mark. 

Edward Jessop, John Acer,« 

Will Beet, John Wiliiams, 
John Labens, hisr -1 mark. 

Samuel Babbett, Samuel Pitches, 

his B mark his EH mark. 

Thomas Vaille, Thomas Milleneb. 

his >' mark/' 

The same day Thomas Pell issued the following order to the inhabi- 
tants of Westchester : — 

•The major part of the inhabitants of "West Chester having surrendered up all 
their rightes, titles and claimes, of ye land, wch they pr tended, to possesse, to 
Thomas Pell, the owner thereof (as appeareth by writing under their hande, in 
the foregoing page), That The inhabitants might enjoy the present improvements 
of Their labors. Their home Lotts, and planting groundes with what meadowes 
were in times past laid out to each man's particular to mow for this yeere I have 
desired Mr. Jessop, with the Townsmen and freemen, That it may bee orderly 
attended. And in case men want meadow to supply Their pr esent necessity, 
they make Their addresses to the aforesaid persons, for Their order, where to 
mow, to supply Their present occasions. 

Witness my hande This sixteenth day of June, in the jeer of our Lord one 
thousand, six hundred, sixty-four. p. me, THOMAS PELL. C 

On the 15th of February, 1667, occurs the following patent from 
Governor Xicolls : — 

Richard Xicolls, Esq., Governor General under his Royal Highness James, 
Duke of York and Albany, &c., of all his territories in America, to all to whom 
these presents shall come, sendeth greeting: Whereas there is a certain town 
within this Government, situate, lying and being upon the main to the east of 
Harlem river, commonly called and known by the name of Westchester, which 
said town belongs to the north riding of Yorkshire, upon Long Island, and is 
now in the tenure and occupation of several freeholders and inhabitants who 
having heretofore been seated there by authority, have been at considerable 
charge in manuring and planting parts of the lands belonging thereunto, and 
have likewise settled a competent number of families thereupon for a township, 
now for a confirmation unto the said freeholders and inhabitants in their posses- 
sion and enjoyment of the premises, as also for an encouragement to them in 
their further improvements of their said lands and premises, Know pee, that by 
virtue of ye commission and authority unto me given by his Royal Highness, I 
have given, ratified, confirmed and granted, and by these presents do give, ratify, 

a Doubtless Jan or Joan Archer, first lord of the manor of Forrlham. 
b Westchester Town court Rec. Conn., A.D. 1605, p, 17. 
c Westchester Town Court Rec. Coming. A.D. 1665, p. 10. 


confirm and i John Quimby, John Ferris, Nicholas Bayley, William 

Betts and Edward Waters, as patentees for and on behalf of themselves and 
their associates, ye freeholders and inhabitants of ye said town, their heirs, sue- 
all that tract of land together with the several parcels not 
otherwise by patent disposed of, which already have or hereafter shall be pur- 
chased or procured for and on the behalf of ye said town whether from the 
native Indian proprietors or others, within the bounds and limits hereafter set 
forth and expressed (viz.), that is to say, ye western bounds of ye lands lying 
within ye limits of ye said town, beginning at the western part of the lands com- 
monly called Bronks' land, near or adjoining unto Harlem river, from whence 
they extend eastward to the west part of a certain neck of land, commonly call- 
ed Ami-hook's neck or Mr. Pell's purchase, southward they are bounded by ye 
Sound or East River, and so runne upon a parallel line from the cast and west 
limits north into ye woods without limitation for range of cattle or other im- 
provements, together with all ye lands, soyles. necks and lands, river, creeks, 
harbours, quarries, woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, waters, lakes, fishing, 
hawking, hunting and fowling, and all other profits, commodities, endowments, 
and heredaments to ye said land and premises within ye said bounds and lymits, 
described and set forth belonging or in any ways appertaining, to have and to 
holdall and singular j-c said tract and parcellsof land, heredaments and premises, 
with their and every of their appurtenances and of every part and parcel thereof 
to ye saixl patentees and their associates, their heirs and assignees, to the proper 
id behoof of ye said patentees and their associates, their heirs and assignees 
for ever. Moreover, I do hereby give, ratify confirm and grant unto the said 
patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and assignees, all ye rights 
and privileges belonging to a town within this government, and that ye place of 
their present habitation shall continue and retain the name of Westchester by 
which name and style it shall be distinguished and known in all bargains and 
sales, deeds, writings and records, they ye said patentees and their associates, 
their heirs, successors and assignees, rendering and paying such duties and ac- 
knowledgements as now arc or hereafter shall be constituted and established by 
the laws of this government, under the obedience of his Royal Highness, his 
heirs and suoces 

Given uude- my hand and seal, at Fort James, in New York, on the isle of 
Manhattans, .13 February, in the l ( ,»th year of his Majesty's reign, Anno Domini, 

In the Assize Records at Albany, appears the following entry: — 

; Wnereas Mr. Thomas Pell, of Ann-hookes Neck, (Pelham Neck ) late de- 
ceased, upon pretence of purchase of several tracts of land of the Indian proprie- 
tors within the then government and jurisdiction of the Dutch, made claims unto 
the same as namely, the lands belonging to Westchester, East Chester and Cornell's 
Neck, and that, after said land together with a larger tract formerly belonging to 
the said Dutch, were by his Majesty's Letters Patent granted unto his Royal 
Highness the Duke of York, and by the said Dutch surrendfi <ment unto 

his Royal Highness's Deputy Col. Richard Nicolls before whom said Pell did 
personally appear the first assizes held in New York, and then to make good his 


claim to the lands aforesaid, and where it being sufficiently and lawfully proved 
that the aforesaid lauds, together with a large tract as far as Greenwich, was be- 
fore purchased by the late Dutch government, and whatsoever part thereof was 
not by him granted out, was of right property belonging unto his Royal High- 
ness, some of which was granted to Thomas Richbell, &c, &c." 

In 1673, the province of New York, surrendered to the Dutch. Up- 
on this occasion we find the inhabitants of Oost-dorp tendering their 
submission : — 

"The deputies of Oost-dorp, alias Westchester, and adjacent hamlet of East- 
chester, delivering their credentials, offered to submit themselves to the govern- 
ment of their high mightinesses, and the Prince of Orange, and were commanded 
to nominate by their inhabitants a double number of magistrates for the aforesaid 
villages, by a majority of votes, and to present it to the Council by the first 
opportunity, from which we shall elect three for their magistrates, viz. : two for 
the village of Westchester, and one for Eastchester, who in his village may 
decide all differences to the value of thirty shillings; those of higher value shall 
be determined by the whole college, in the village of Westchester aforesaid. " a 

On the 28th of August, 1673, the lords commanders of the New 
Netherlands, made choice of Joseph Palmer and Edward Waters as 
Magistrates for Westchester. 6 

In 1 636, Governor Dongan issued the following letters patent under 
the great seal of the province : 


Thomas Dongan. Captain General, Governor-in-Chief and Vice- Admiral in all 
the province of New York, and territories depending thereon in America, under 
his majesty James Second, by the grace of God, king of England, Scotland, 
France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, <fcc. to all whom these presents shall 
come sendeth greeting: Whereas Richard Nicolls, Esq., Governor General under 
his then royal highness, James, Duke of York and Albany, &c, now his present 
majesty, of all his territories in America did, by a certain writing or patent, un- 
der his hand and seal, bearing date the fifteenth day of February, In the nine- 
teenth year of the reign of our late sovereign lord, King Charles the Second of 
blessed memory, and in the year of our Lord God 1667, by virtue of the power 
and authority unto him given by him, the said royal highness, now his present 
majesty as aforesaid. Give, ratify, confirm and grant unto John Quimby, John 
Ferris, Nicholas Bailey, William Betts, and Edward Waters as patentees for and 
in the behalf of themselves and their associates, the freeholders and inhabitants 
of the town of Westchester, within this government, situate, lying, and being 
upon the main, to the east of Harlem River, which said town belongs to the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, upon Long Island, then in the tenure and occupation 
of several freeholders and inhabitants who had heretofore been seated on them 

a Alb. Roc. vol. xxliL 273. 
6 Bastchester Ree. 


by authority, and at considerable charge in manuring and planting part of the 
laud belonging thereunto, and likewise have settled a competent number of 
families thereupon for a township, all that tract of land together with the several 
parcels not otherwise by patent disposed of, which already had or thereafter 
should lie purchased or procured, for and in the behalf of the said town, whether 
from the native Indian proprietors or others with the bounds and limits hereafter 

rth and expressed, viz., the eastern bounds of the lands lying within the 
limits of the said town, beginning at the west part of the land commonly called 
Bronk'sland, near or adjoining unto Harlem River, from whence they extend 
eastward to the west part of a certain neck of land, commonly called Ann-hooks 
neck, or Mr. Pell's purchase ; southward they are bounded by the Sound or East 

and so run upon a paralel line, for the east and west limits, north into the 
- without limitation, for range of cattle or other improvements, together 
with all the lands, soyles, neck, &e., &c. William Richardson, John Hunt, Ed- 
ward Waters. Robert Huestis, Richard Ponton, William Barnes, John Bugbie, 

Bailey, John Tudor, John Ferris, Joseph Palmer, Thcmas Baxter, free- 
holders of the commonality of the town of Westchester. 

6th January, 1636. THOMAS DONGAN . 

October, 1687, "it was voted, and agreed upon, by the major part of 
the trustees, that John Ferris, Sen., and Joseph Palmer, should go on 
Monday next^ &a, and run the north-west line, from the head of 
Hutchinson's, fo Bronck's River; it was also voted that Joseph Palmer 
and Edward Waters shdJl go with the Indians and show them the line 
as near as they can, that runs between Mr. Pell' and our town, as also 
the line which runs betwixt this town and Eastchester." a 

n the 27th of May, 1692, we find the Indian proprietors, Mami- 
nepoe and Wampage, conveying the following tract of land, to the 
trustees of Westchester. 


all Christian people to whom this deed of sale shall come, greeting: 
ye, that wee, Maminepoe and Wampage alias Ann-hook, Indian proprie- 
tors of a certain tract of land lying within the limits and bounds of the patent of 
inty town of Westchester, in the province of New York, fur a valuable 
ration, and other considerations us thereunto moving, and having taken 
the advice and approbation of several native Indians here underwritten, to us in 
hand paid by John Palmer, William Barnes, William Richardson, Joseph Palmer, 
Samuel Palmer. Robert Huestis, Jjohn Ferris, John Hunt, Joseph Hunt, Josiah 
Hunt. Thomas Baxter, and Edward Collier, trustees of the freehold and common- 
ality of the town of Westchester aforesaid, the receipt whereof we do hereby ac- 
knowledge and therewith to be lawfully satisfied, contented, and paid, and thereof 
do acquit, exonerate, and release, and discharge the said trustees, their heirs, 
successors, and assignees forever, have given, granted, bargained, sold, enfeoffed, 

a Westchester Rec. 


released, and confirmed, and by these presents do fully, clearly, absolutely, give, 
graut, bargain, sell, enfeof, release, and confirm unto the said trustees, their 
heirs, successors and assignees forever, all that tract of land lying on the east 
side of Betjnxs's river, beginning at the pine trees and so compassing all the 
laud which we the said Maminepoe and Wampage layes claim to, until they 
come to the head of Rattle Snake brook, and from thence north-east to Mr. 
Pell's land, so north by said Pell's marked trees by Brunxs's river, together with 
the woods, underwoods, timber, trees, waters, rivers, runs, brooks, and all and 
singular the emolluments, hereditaments, rights, privileges, and appurtenances, 
thereunto belonging or appertaining, (only reserving to ourselves the privelege 
of making use of white wood trees for our particular use,) to have and to 
hold the before recited premises, with all and every of its appurtenances, unto 
the said trusteed, their heirs, successors, and asssignees to the only proper use 
and benefit and behoof of them the said trustees, their heirs, successors and 
assignees forever ; and it shall and may be lawful for the said trustees, their 
heirs, successois, and assignees, from henceforth and forever, to have and to 
hold, use, occupy, and enjoy the said tract of land, free from all incumbr- 
ances whatsoever, unto the said trustees, their successors and assignees 
for earr, without any manner of claime, challenge, or demand of us, our 
heirs, executors or administrators, or any other native Indians or Christian 
people, b\ _ , from, or under us, or any person or persons whatsoever ; and we 
the said Maminepoe and Wqnipage, alias Ann-hook, shall and will forever 
warrant and defend the said tract of land unto the said freeholders of the 
corporation of Westchester, their heirs and assignees forever. In witness 
whereof we the said Maminepoe and Wampage, alias Ann-hook, have put to 
our hands and scales this 27th of May, the fourth year of their majesties reign, 
and A. D. 1692. " The mark of < MAMENEPOE, 

The mark of > WAMPAGE, 

alias Axn-hook. 
The mark of y CROHAMANTHENSE, 
The mark of ^ MAMERTEKOH. 
Signed, sealed, and deliver in presence of us, 
Abraham IIAvker, 
Isaac LaeeNS, 
The mark of -3 JonN Gaeretson, 

Native Indians witnesses to the above deed. 

The mark of *D Weenetox aji, 
The mark of <, Taxaxcot, 
The mark of (^ Cosuehoa, 
The mark of f> Rato Couwixd, 
The mark of q Tom. 

The following entry in the town books refers to this sale : — 

"At a meeting of the inhabitants held the 27th of May, 1692, this day, the 


laud on the east side of Broncks's river, till we come to Mr. Pell's line, was 
purchased of Maminepoe and Auu-hook for : — 

2 guuns, 2 coats, 2 shirts, 

2 kettles, 9 adzes, 1 barrel of cider, 

G bitts of money. 


William Barnes, 1 kettle, - - £2 2 

To expences to ye Indians, 060 

John Hint, 1 coate, 0120 

For money, 16 

To Indian supper and other expences, 3 

William Richardson, 2 shirts, 12 

John Ferris, sen, 1 coate, - 12 

To one day with the Indians, 3 

Joseph Hunt, 2 adzes, and 3s. 8d. in money, 15 

Samuel Palmer, 1 gun, 100 

Thomas Baxter, 1 gun, 120 

Joseph Hunt, 1 barrel of cider, 3 

£8 4 6 
Robert Huestis and Thomas Baxter, 1 gun,« 

At a meeting held by the trustees of Westchester the 6th day of Feb- 
ruary, i6of, — "Present, William Barnes, John Ferris, Joseph Palmer, 
Samuel Palmer, Thomas Baxter, John Bayley, John Hunt, Robert Huestis 
and Edward Collier. It was voted and agreed upon, that John Ferris, 
Sen., and Joseph Palmer should go to Mr. Pell's and proceed to have 
the line run between the town and him, &c., and report of their doings 
next Tuesday." 

Fourth of September, 1694, it was agreed upon at a lawful town 
meeting that Richardson shall havt free liberty to build or to erect a 
mill or mills upon the stream on the great creek of the town, for and in 
consideration of grinding of the inhabitants' corn, for the fourteenth 
part, also liberty of cutting timber for a saw mill. Done in behalf of 
the town, &c. 

In 1700 it was resolved at a meeting of the inhabitants, "That the 
line between" "Thomas Pell's patent and the town of Westchester, 
(pursuant to the grants made by Governor Nicolls,) shall be run by the 
Surveyor General of the province of New York ; and that the standard 
for running said line shall be pitched and placed and set in the middle 
of Hutchinson's river at the going over of the road as far up as the tide 

o Albi Rec. gen. entries. See also Town Rec. 27th of March, 1704, Joseph Hunt was direc- 
ted to go to the clerk of the county and see the Indian deed recorded. 


flows, and so to run upon a north line to Bronck's river, and northward 
down said river in the middle of the channel to the Sound, which said 
bounds or lines to continue forever between the said Thomas Pell's 
patent and the said town of Westchester."* 

The same year a grant of land appears to have been made by the 
inhabitants to John Pell, Esq. 6 

At a meeting of the trustees held 23d day of January, A. D., 1720, 
present, Miles Oakley, Preside?! t ; John Oakley, Thomas Hadden, 
Thomas Baxter, Israel Honeywell, John Ferris, Peter Ferris, Joshua 
Hunt, Nathaniel Underhill, lrustees. 

"Whereas several persons have come with boats, canoes, &c, a fishing, and 
have broke up our ground, and taken away ye oysters from within ye limits of 
our patent, in an unlawful manner, therefore, it is voted and agreed upon by the 
trustees aforesaid, that any person or persons who shall at any time hereafter 
trespass upon us by fishing, breaking our ground, and taking our oysters in ye 
manner aforesaid, shall be immediately prosecuted according to law for such tres- 
pass or trespasses ; and it is also voted and agreed upon by ye trustees aforesaid, 
that John Fen-is, Thomas Baxter, Joshua Hunt, of Westchester, Capt. Joseph 
Drake, Mathaniel Tompkins, and Moses Fowler, of Eastchester, do immediately 
put this into execution; and it is also agreed that if any freeholder of Westches- 
ter do take any oysters to transport out of our township to make sale thereof, 
such freeholder or freeholders shall be esteemed as trespassers, &c. Provided 
that the freeholders in general of Eastchester shall not be esteemed trespassers 
according to this act, excepting such of them as shall take oysters within ye 
limits of West and Eastchester to transport them out of ye said townships to 
make sale thereof, "&c/ 

In the reign of George the First, a charter was granted to the trustees 
of this town, entitled, "An act to prevent the fencing in or enclosing the 
sheep pasture, or any part thereof, in the borough town of Westchester, 
&c." Dated 28th of February, in the eighth year of his reign, and of 
our Lord God, 1721. 

May the 6th, Anno Dom 1729, at a meeting of the Mayor, Alder- 
men, Common Council and Trustees, of the town of Westchester, it 
was resolved : — 

"That they who have rights in the sheep pasture, may by themselves or as- 
signs for every twenty-five pounds priviledge turn on twenty-five sheep, the 
lambs exclusive being to run with their dams, no more or in lieu of three sheep 

a Town K' . <•, 

b Town Rec. 

c Town Rec. fol. ix. 120, 121.— At a Cornt of Common ConncTl held 1740, it was ordained " that 
no person not belonging to this corporation do take and carry away our clams or oysters, but 
that all boats, canoes, or other craft belonging to persons who shall presume to take the same 
not inhabiting within this county, shall be seized; and further no person belonging to this 
corporation shall have power to give leave to any person not living in this corporation to get 
oysters or clams." 


out of that number to each priviledge ; a cow in lieu of five sheep, a horse, mare 
or an ox ; iu lieu of a sheep a calf, in lieu of two sheep a yearling. If any person 
who have a right or rights shall turn on above the abovesaid regulation, or if any 
person not having a right shall turn ou any sheep, cattle, or horse kind they 
shall be liable to such fines and forefeitures as this body or their successors shall 
from time to time according to their power by charter be established, &c."« 

The " sheep pasture " embraced what was subsequently known as the 
*' Commons" upon this extensive water, consisting of four hundred 
acres ; the freeholders of the town enjoyed the free use of pasturage, 
under the before mentioned regulations. Attached to the "sheep pas- 
ture " was a small quantity of salt meadow opposite to Bridge Hill near 
the causeway leading from West Chester to Throckmorton's Neck which 
has been for some time fenced and closed up near the railroad station ; 
at Tompson's was also a small gore of land attached to the " sheep pas- 
tures " consisting of one and a half acres lying on both sides of Stony 
Brook where the freeholders of the town were in the habit of folding and 
washing their sheep. 

'• The trustees gave land to the town of Westchester for their minis- 
ters. They also gave the landing place to said town that lays adjoining 
to the creek and crossway which goes from Westchester to Frog's Neck, 
and they also gave the town what is called Bridge Hill adjoining the 
said bridge for the support and keeping the bridge in good order. I 
suppose there is about three acres of land on said hill. All these above- 
mentioned lands and privileges was given to said town by the trustees, and 
those trustees gave to their proprietors, whose names are herein men- 
tioned in a tract of land called the Sheep Pasture unto forty and five 
men ; some purchased five, twenty-five pound Rights ; the number of 
Rights is one hundred and six granted to the said proprietor ; and they 
sold their Rights to others and bought Rights of other men who had a 
mind to sell. The trustees had no Right to sell any of their land at 
all. neither had they right to fence or to lease any of said land, &c." 6 

The " Commons " were purchased by Martin Wilkins, Esq., of the 
trustees in 1825, and after passing through other hands were again pur- 
chased by his grandson, the late Governcur M. Wilkins, Esq., of Castle 
Hill Neck for $30,000, who sold them to an association called Union 
Port for the location of a village. 

The village of Westchester is situated at the head of navigation on West- 
chester Creek, twelve miles from the city of New York, contains three 
taverns, a post office, several stores, and a depot embracing the new and 

a Minutes of Mayor's Court, formerly in possession of the late William II. LeggBtt, Esq. 
b Extract from original document, signed Benjamin Palmer New York, 29 July, 1S02, in 
pOBBeastan of New York IILst. Society. 


grand air-line extension, or Harlem River branch of the New Haven 
Railroad — accommodated by the daily stoppage of twenty passenger 
trains, connecting at North New York with the spacious swift, and 
elegant boats of the Morrisania or Harlem Steamboat Companies, which, 
starting about. every quarter of an hour in thirty minutes transport their 
passengers by the East River to their landing at Fulton Slip, the south- 
ern and business end of the great metropolis. At Westchester village is 
a convenient landing for three or four sloops to the New York market. 
The Westchester Creek, at high water, admits vessels of three hundred 
tons to the landing. The bridge connecting Throckmorton's Neck with 
the main, was erected at a very early period ; and maintained, as the 
following document shows, by a rate levied on all taxable inhabitants 
of the town : — 

" Att a town court held by the constable and overseers this, 9th of July, 1G7S. 


Justice Pell, 

John Palmer, Const ible, 

Ckw. Ponton, ) 

Me. Muliner, - Overseers. 

Mk. Whitlock. ) 

" It is ordered that ye bridge betwixt Froggs Necke and the Towne be main- 
tained and upheld by a rate to be levied and assissed upon all persons and estates 
that are putt in the county rate belonging to the Township of Westchester, East 
Chester excepted."** 

There are, also, several manufacturies and formerly two grist-mills ; 
one of which, a tide mill, was destroyed by fire some years ago. The latter 
was erected at a very early period, and was held by Col. Caleb Heath- 
cote, one of the prominent officials under the Colonial Government, and 
the first Mayor of the Borough. There are three school districts in the 
town, namely : Westchester Village, Throckmorton's Neck, and Bear 

Westchester is by several years the oldest village in the county, its first 
settlement (by the Puritans) having commenced in 1650. At this early 
period, it formed a part of the Dutch district of Vrede-land (or land of 
peace) and was, therefore, within the limits and jurisdiction of the New 
Netherland. By the Dutch it was named Oosi-dorp, (East town) from 
its situation east of the Manhattans. So early as 1657, Gov. Stuvvesant 
ordered that Westchester should have four English or one Dutch mile 
square of land for the town. 

During the Dutch dynasty, courts appear to have been holden regu- 

a Westchester Town Rec. 


larly at Oost dorp; for, among the town records, is a small volume, 
entitle Book of Court Acts, from 1657 to 1662," from which ft 

extract the following memoranda : — 

Feb. 1st, 1657, Wiliarn Benfield for contempt of athority is bound over to 
it coarte." 

"Febraythel, 1657. — Esttowne — the sentence of eoarte upon "Wiliam Ben- 
field for contempt of athority is fine — twenty guilders, besid's other charges that 
amounts to eleven guilders three stivers." 

On the same occasion, " John Archer, plaintiff against Roger Wiles, 
in an action of debt for the value of seventy-four guilders, principal." 

East town, the 13th of September, 1662, at a court held before 
Edward Walters, Robert Huestis and William Bett, by order and power 
of the Governor General, Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of the province of 
New Netherland, and the high council, etc. 

Thomas Higgins, plaintiff, complains of Lawrence Turner, in an action 
of slander done by his wife, &c, ended by arbitration. 

When Richard Nicolls, the Duke of York's Governor, convened an 
Assembly from the towns of Long Island and Westchester, to meet ak 
Hempstead, March 1st, 1665, there appeared the following deputies 
from this place — Edward Jessup, John Quimby." 

Acgfst 6tii, 1665. — We whose names are underwritten, doe jointly agree to 
set to our hands to send the eight townsmen to Governor Nicolls, to stand by 
them in what they doe in that particular, for the settlement of the towne. 

William Qctmbt, Thomas Miller, 

John Febbis, John Smith, 

Robert Pixcexey, C. Wood, 

Edward Waters. Edwaed Jbssdfe, 


:tel, Thomas Hunt, Je., 

Thomas Vaile. 

At this early period, a portion of the judicial power appears to have 
lodged in the hands of the constable ; for in the town records, this 
entry occurs : — 

Westchester, Sept. 3. 1665. 

At a town court holden by the constable and the commissioners appointed, 

is Hunt complained against an Indian called Pomoqucee, that the said 

Indian took his canoe from the shore, where it was safe, and carried it quite 

away. Upon examination, the Indian confessed that he took the canoe from the 

shore, but said it was not secured. 

a Alb. Bee. Gen. Entries, 16&1-5, page %.— See Duulap Hist., N. Y. 


The inhabitants of Westchester (like their New England forefathers) 
appear to have been greatly troubled with the plague of witchcraft ; for, 
in 1670, Katharine Harryson of England who had lived nineteen years 
at Weathersfield, in Connecticut, where she had been tried for witchcraft, 
found guilty by the jury, acquitted by the bench, and released out of 
prison, on consideration that she would remove, appeared before the 
council on the accusation of Thomas Hunt and Edward Waters, in be- 
half of the town of Westchester, they praying that she might be driven 
from the town. This affair was adjourned to the 4th of August, when 
being heard, it was referred to the General Court of assizes. The wo- 
man being ordered to give security for good behavior. The following 
sentence was recorded by the Court, Oct., 1670 : " In the case of Catha- 
rine Harryson, widow, who was bound to her good behavior, upon com 
plaint of some of the inhabitants of Westchester, whilst ye holding of 
this court : It is ordered, that in regard there is nothing appears against 
her deserving the continuance of that obligation, she is to be released 
from it, and hath liberty to remove from the town of Westchester were 
she now resides, or any where else in the Government during her pleas- 

The humane efforts, however, of the court to protect the poor widow, 
appear to have been ineffectual ; for soon after, an order was given for 
Catharine Harryson, charged with witchcraft, to leave Westchester, " as 
the inhabitants are uneasy at her residing there, and she is ordered to 
go off."* 

Catharine Harryson was returned to Weathersfield, as the people of 
Westchester were unwilling to keep a pauper belonging to the former 
place. The following receipt, in her name, is recorded in the town 
court records : — 

"Know all men by these presents, that I Katharen Harryson, doe own that 
b Pallmar, hath fully and absolutely satisfied the said Katharen Harryson, 
sarten bill of thirteen pounds and so used mony; and I the said 
Katharen Harryson doe acquit the said Joseph Pallmar of all bills, books, dues 
and demands from the beginning of the world to this present day. Given under 
my hand, the fifth of September in the yeare one thousand six hundred and 
seventy. The O mark of 

Witness, the R. P. marke of KATHAREX HARRYSON. Ponton, 
\xci3 Yeats. 

In 1679, wolves appear to have been very numerous and destructive 

■. Albany. 


in this portion of Westchester county, as appears in the following order 
of the town court records : — 

"West Chester January ye 9th, 1G79. Att a Towne Meeting at ye house of 
Thomas Wlttlock being Constable: Itt is ordered that Win. Barnes, John 
Hum and Samuel] Well are to make and maintaine two woulf pitts and to main- 
taine the same for the space of three whole yeares from the day of the date hereof, 
and in consideration hereof the Towne is to allow the said persons for the making 
said woulf pilts the sume of twenty shillings : and for each woulf that the}' shall 
catch, in said pitt, and presented to the Constable of the Town : They shall also 
have of every such woulf soe caute the sume of tenn shillings : it is conditioned 
that the said two woulf e pitts are to be finished and compleated at or before the 
31st day of May next ensuing the date hereof and to be kept in repair the whole 
tearme of three yeares." 

The subjoined document, would appear to be the first tavern license 
granted in this county : — 

"At a town meeting in Westchester, the 27th of June, 1681, Justice Pell pre- 
sent. The town made choice of John Hunt for an ordinary keeper, lor one year 
ensuing, for the town of Westchester, and desired him the said John Hunt, may 
be licensed by the justices of the riding. The said Hunt is to sell his biere at 
two pence per quart, and rum at three pence per gill, which he shall not exceed; 
and to take his come at price current, according to the current rate, and that 
none else to retaile againe in rum in the said towne of Westchester, during the 
said tearme of one year, without the approbation of the said Hunt." 

We have already shown that Westchester sent representatives to the 
Governor's assembly, in 1665. The following relates to the election of 
representatives, in 1683 : — 

Westchestek, the 29th of Sept. 1683. 
"At a town meeting held in obedience to a warrant from the high sheriff con- 
cerning the choice of four men out of the township to goe to Jamaica upon Long 
Island the first day of October next ensuing, there to joyne with a committee 
chosen out of each towne in the north riding, and this said committee to choose 
two out of the riding, able men as representatives for the north riding. The 
town hath made choice of William Richardson, Richard Ponton, Thomas Hunt, 
sen., and John Palmer, to be the four men to goe to Jamaica. 
Recorded in town meetin_ r , 

per FRANCIS FRENCH, Recorder." 

Upon the division of the province into shires and counties, the follow- 
ing act was passed by the Colonial Assembly for the regulating and settling 
of Courts of Justices, entitled "an act for the more orderly hearing 
and determining of matters and cases of controversy, &c." Two Courts 
of Sessions for the County of Westchester, the first Tuesday in June and 
the first Tuesday in December yearly and every year, the one to be held 


at Westchester, and the other at Eastc /tester. Also a Court of Oyer and 
Terminer and general jail delivery in the same county on the first 
Wednesday in December. Passed 29th of October, iGSj.^ 

Westchester formed the shire town of the county from 1683 to 1759. 
The following notice of the destruction of the Court-House occurs in the 
New York Post Boy, February 13th, 17 58: — 

"New York, Feb. 13TH. — We hear from Westchester that on Satur- 
day night the 4th inst. the Court-house at that place was unfortunately 
burnt to the ground. We have not yet heard bow it happened." 

This building occupied the site of the present parochial school-house 
of St. Peter's. 

The last court held here was on the 6th of November, 1759/' A few 
extracts are selected from the early records, to show the manner in which 
the County Courts were conducted : — 

"At a Court of Sessions held at Westchester, for the County of Westchester, 
by their Majesties authority, present John Pell, Justice and quorum, President of 
the court ; John Palmer, Justice of the Peace and Quorum ; Daniel Sharpe and 
William Barnes, Esquires, Justices of ye Peace. December ye 1st, 1691. 

The Court opened. 
The Grand Jury called and appeared, viz. : 

robert hustead, john furgeson, 

John Feekis, Sen.. Robert Hustead, Jun,. 

John Mollinex, John Hadden, Sen., c 

Joseph Hunt, Edward Hadden, 

John Hunt, John Winter, 

JonN Quimbt, Jun., Thomas Bedient, 

John Baly, Samuel Palmee, 

William Chaddeeton. 
The court adjourned till Thursday morning. 

constables called. 
Westchester, Joseph Hunt. Eastchester, Henry Fowler. New Rochelle, Cor- 
nelius Scely. Mamaroneek, Richard Ward. Rye, Samuel Kniffen. Upper 

Yonckers, Matthias Brookes. Bedford, . Benjamin Collier, 

High Sheriff of tlie County. d 

"At a court of sessions held at Westchester by his Majesty's authority, June 
6th and 7th, 1693, before the Honorable Caleb Heathcote, Esq., Judge of the 

a Acts of Assembly, passed A, D. 16S3. Upon the 29th of October, 16S4, the period was 
changed for holding the above courts from the first Tuesday in December to the third Tues- 
day in November. In 1691 the courts were held as first ordered. 

b Rec. of Court of Common Pleas, Lib. B. The old Court Ilouse at Westchester was burnt 
at an early period of the Revolution. 

e A.D. 1749.— Died, John Hadden and Abigail, his wife, within a few hours of each other, 
having lived loveingly together seventy years. lie died aged 96, and his wife 90. 

d First Rec. of Court of Sessions. 


Court of Common Picas, justice and quorum, &c., the following curious testimony 

ni a suit between Richard Ponton, defendant, and Gabriel Leggett, 
plaintiff. Captain Thomas Williams," aged 62 years, deposed, saith, the first 
reason of tins difficulty was a big look violently from nice. Afterwards Captain 
Leisler& sent, an order to Captain Ponton to send him some men to go to Albany 
for their assistance against the French, and also the said Williams to assist the 
said Ponton in taking and sending the said men up. When the townes company 
ailed together and Captain Ponton asked them who was willing to go vol- 
unteers upon the said expedition, and Gabriel Leggett answered they was fooles 
if any them did aid who would give them a leg or an arm if they lest 

them. Upon which, Captain Ponton commanded him to hold his peaec, but he 
still continued abusing the defendant and said here comes the father of rogues, 
and many other scurrilous words, upon which I got a warrant against him, &c." 

At a general Court of Sessions, held in 1695 : — 

"The jury for our Bovi reign Lord the King, upon their oaths do present 
Thomas Furguson of the county town of Westchester, laborer, for selling of a 
certain hora >/ue of a brown culler at Westchester aforesaid, at or 

about the first day of May last, &c." 

By an act of Assembly passed on the nth of May, 1693, " a public 
and open market was appointed to be held on every Wednesday of the 
week at Westchester, " to which market it was lawful for all and every 
of the inhabitants and sojourners to go, frequent and resort, and thither 
to carry all sorts of cattle, grain, victuals, provisions and. other necces- 
saries from eight in the morning to sunset."' 

It was also enacted by General Assembly the same year, " that there 
shall likewise be held and kept twice yearly and every year, a fair, to 
which fair it shall and may be likewise lawful for all and every person 
to go and frequent, &c, two fairs yearly for the county of Westchester; 
the first to be kept at the town of W r estchester in the said county on the 
second Tuesday of May and to and on the Friday following, being in 
all four days, exclusive and no longer ; and the second fair to be kept at 
Rye in the said county, on the second Tuesday in October yearly, and 
to end the Friday following, &c, &c." d These privileges were subse- 
quently confirmed and enlarged.* 

The following charter, incorporating the ancient settlement of West- 
chester as a borough town, was granted on the 16th of April, 1696 : — 

. Thomas Williams, freeholder of Westchester, was elected member of the 

• r's Council. 
b Goti nor Jacob Leisler, who assumed the government of the Province In 1GS9. 
c Th inflrmed in 10'jT.— See Aots of Assembly, p. 17. 

••< of Assembly, confirmed the 11th of May, 1C9T. 
e See Charter. 



Gulielmus Tertius D;i Gratia, Augliffi Scotia, Gallise et Hibernige, Rex 
defensor, &c, &C. 

"To all whome these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : 

Whereas, Richard Nicolls, Esq., sometime Governor General of our province 
of New York, in America, by a certain writing or patent under his hand and 
seal, bearing date on or about ye 15th day of February, in the year of our 
Lord God, 1667, by virtue of the power and authority unto him given, did give, 
ratify, confirm and grant, unto John Quimby, John Ferris, Nicholas Bailey, 
William Betts, and Edward Walters, as. pattentees for and on the behalf of 
themselves and their associates, the freeholds and inhabitants of the town of 
Westchester, within our sJ province of New York, all that tract of land scituate, 
lying and being upon the main to the east of Harlem river then in the tenure and 
occupation of the above said patentees, and several other freeholders and inhabi- 
tants, of the said town, who, before that time by authority, had been settled 
there, and had been at considerable charges in manuring and planting part of the 
lauds belonging thereunto, and likewise had settled a competent number of fam- 
ilies thereupon for a township, the boundaries and limits whereof, were therin 
set forth and exprest as follows : (viz.) the western bounds of the s d land, then 
lying within the limits of the said town, did begin at the laud commonly called 
Brunk's land, near or adjoining to Harlem river afores'd, from whence they ex- 
tend eastward to the west part of a certain neck of land, commonly called Ann 
Hook's neck or Mr. Pell's purch'e , southward they are bounded by the Sound or 
East river, and so to run up a parellel line from the east and west limits, north, 
into the woods without limitation, for range of cattle, and other improvements, 
together with all the lands, soiles, necks of land, rivers, creeks, harbours, quarry's, 
woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, waters, fishing, hawkings, huntings, and 
ffowlings, and all other profits, commodities, emoluments and hereditaments, to 
the sd lands and premises, within the said bounds and limits described and set 
forth belonging or in any manner of wayes appertaining, to Jiave and to 7iold, all 
and singular the said tracts and parcels of land, hereditaments and appurtenan- 
ces, and every part and parcel thereof to the said pattentees and their associates, 
their heirs, successors and assigns, forever. 

And moreover, the said Richard Nicholls, Esq., as Govr. Genl. as afores'd did 
thereby ratify, confirm and grant unto the said patentees, their associates, their 
heirs, successors and assigns, all the rights and privileges belonging to a town 
within this government, and that the place of their then present habitation should 
continue and retain the name of Westchester, by which name and stile it was to 
be distinguished and known in all bargains, sales, deeds, writings and records, 
they the s<* patentees and their associates, heirs, successors and assigns, render- 
ing and paying such duties and acknowledgments, as then were or hereafter 
should be constituted or established by the laws of the said province, as by the 
said writing or patent now remaining upon the records of the secretaries office, 
relation being thereunto had, may more at large appear. And whereas, after- 
wards, on or about the sixth day of Janry ., in the year of our Lord, 16S6, upon 
the petition of several of the freeholders of the said town of Westchester, in 
behalf of themselves and the rest of the freeholders and inhabitants of the said 
town, directed to Coll. Thomas Dungan, then Capn- Genl- and Go v - in Chief of 


our s'l province. The sd Coll. Thomas Dungan, by virtue of the power and 
authority to him derived, in and by a certaiu instrument in writing, under his 
hand and seal of mir sd. prov'e of New York, whose date is the day and year 
last abovesd, for the consideration therein mentioned, did give, grant, ratify, 
release and confirm, unto twelve of the freeholders and inhabitants of the sd town 
of Westchester, and thereby made them one body corporate and politick, and 
willed and determined them to be known and called by the name of the Trus, 
tees of the Ffreeholders and Commonality of the Town of Westchester and their 
Successors, all the aforesd tracts and parcels of land, within the limits and bounds 
aforesd together with all and singular the houses, mesuages, tenements, building, 
mills, milldams, ffences, inclosureSj gardens, orchards, fields, pastures, woods, 
underwoods, common or pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, creeks, harbors 
and all other profits and commodities and hereditaments whatsoever, to the sd 
tracts of land, and premises belonging, or in any manner of ways appertaining, 
to have and to hold unto them the s d trustees of the ffreeholders and commonallity 
of the s J town of Westchester, and their successors forever, to and for the sev- 
eral and respective use therein mentioned, (viz. ) as for and concerning all and 
singular the several and respective parcels of land and meadows, part of the 
abovesd granted premises, then in any wise taken up and appropriated, either by 
patent under the hand of any of his majesties governors in this province, and 
sealed with the seal thereof, or by particular divisions, settlements, allottments and 
grants, by town orders, either for the planting of land or erecting of saw mills, 
with all and every the priviledges of cutting of timber, and pasture for cattle, 
before the day of the date thereof, unto the several and respective then present- 
freeholders and inhabitants of the said town of Westchester, by virtue of the 
before recited deeds or pattent, to the use, benefit and behoof of the s d ffree- 
holders and inhabitants respectively, and their several and respective heirs and 
assigns forever, and as for and concerning all and every such tracts and parcels 
of land, remainder of the granted premises not then taken up and appropriated 
to any particular person or persons, by virtue of the before recited deed or pat- 
tent, to the use, benefit and behoof of the then present ffreeholders ar.d inhabi- 
tants, their heirs, successors and assignes for ever, in proportion to their several 
and respective settlements, divisions and allotments 01 tenents in common, with- 
out any lett, hindrance or molestation, to be had upon pretence of jointanacy or 
survivorship therein saveing to his then majestic, his heirs and successors, the 
several rents and quit-rents reserved due, and payable from several persons, in- 
habiting within the limitts and bounds aforesd by virtue of former grants to them 
made and given, always provided, that all and every such person and persons 
that hold any land within the limits and bounds afores'i, by virtue of the particu- 
lar grants, patents, are forever to be excluded from having any rights or com- 
monage or particular division of any of the lands within the limits and bounds 
aforesd that then remained unappropriated to be holden of us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors in free and common socage according to the manner of East Greenwich, 
in the county of Kent, wdthin our realm of England, under a certain yearly quit- 
rent therein reserved, due and payable unto us, our heirs and successors ; and 
whereas, the northerly bounds of the first recited pattent, extends into the woods 
without limitation, the said Coll. Thomas Dongan did, in and by the last above- 
mentioned pattent and confirmation, declare and determine, that the northerly 


north-east and north-west bounds of the s (l town of Westchester, should for ever 
hereafter lie concluded and ascertained by ye southerly line of the pattent of 
Onsal and the south and west line of Thos. Pell, as by ye last above recited pat- 
ent, relation being thereunto had, may more at large appear; and fforasmzieh as 
the present trustees and other the freeholders and inhabitants of the s'l town of 
Westchester, have lately, by their humble petition to our trusty and well beloved 
Benjan Ffletcher, our Capn Geni and Govcrnr-in-chicf of our said province of 
Xew York, iu America, pray'd our charter or pattent of confirmation of all those 
several tracts and parcels of land, and other the premises to them granted as 
aforesd, and that the said town of Westchester, and all and singular the lands 
and tenements thereunto belonging and appertaining, may forever hereafter, be 
a free borough and town corporate ; now knowe ye, that we do by this our royal 
pattent or charter of confirmation, for us, our heirs and successors grant ratify 
and approve and confirm unto the s'l trustees of the freeholders and inhabitants 
of our s'l town of Westchester, and to their successors and assignes forever, 
all the SL'veial tracts and parcels of land hereinbefore recited, whose meets 
and bounds are forever hereafter to be taken, and esteemed to be and re- 
main as follows : (viz.) the western bounds thereof are to begin at the west part 
of the land commonly call'd Brunks land, near or adjoining to Harlem river from 
whence they are to extend eastward to the west part of a neck of land, common- 
ly call'cl Ann-hook's neck, or the westermost bounds of Mr. Pell's pattent, 
southard by the Sound and East river, and so to run up a parrallell line from 
the east and west limits, north into the woods, until it meet the southerly line of 
the pattent of Ousal and the south aud west line of Thomas Pell's patent, togeth- 
er with all and singular the houses, mesuages, tenements, erections and build- 
ings, mil!*, mill dams, fences, inclosures, gardens, orchards, fields, pastures, com- 
mon of pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, plains, woods, underwoods, tim- 
ber, trees, rivers, rivulets, runs, streams, water, lakes, ponds, pools, pits, brackes, 
quarries, mines, minerals, (half of gold and silver mines excepted) creeks, har- 
bours, highways, easements, fishing, hunting and fowling, and all other franchises, 
profits, commodities, hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever, to the same 
belonging, or in any manner of ways appertaining or therewithal us'd and en- 
joy'd, as part, parcel or member thereof, or accepted, requited or taken, to belong 
or in any wise to appertain thereunto, to have and to hold and enjov all and sing- 
ular the aboves 1 -! tracts and parcels of land, hereditaments and premises, with 
theii and every of their appurtenances unto the sd trustees of the ffreeholders 
and inhabitants of the said borough and town of Westchester, and their succes- 
sors forever, to and for the several and respective uses following, and to no other 
use, intent or purpose whatsoever, (viz.) as for and concerning all and singular 
the several and respective parcels of upland and meadow ground, part of the 
above granted premises, in any wise taken up and appropriated, either by patt't 
under the hand of any of our former govers of this our province, and sealed with 
the seal thereof, or by grant from the above mentioned trustees, or by particular 
divisions, settlements and grants, by town orders, either for planting of land, or 
erecting of saw mills, with all and every the privileges of cutting of timber, and 
pastures for cattle, before the date of these presents, and that by virtue of auy the 
hereinbefore recited grants or pattents or any of them, shall be and remain to the 
use and behoof of such of the several and respective ffresholders and inhabitants 


respectively, and their several and respective heirs and assigns for ever, and par- 
ticularly by one agreement made by the trustees of the sd town, bearing date the 
_ 1 day ' 1 694, with one Richard Ward, relating to the Btream of the 

Great en ek within the s l l town, on which Coll. Caleb Heathcott and the sd Rich- 
ard Ward, who are now equally concerned therein, are erecting of sundry nulls, 
and is for and concerning all and every other the tracts and parcels of upland 
and meadow ground, remainder of the above granted premises not yet taken up 
or appropriated by any particular person or persons as aforesaid, to be and remain 
to the only prop* r use and behoof of the s^ trustees and the freeholders and in- 
habitants of the sd borrough and town of Westchester, and to their successors 

. .-ignes forever, and to no other use, intent, or purpose whatsoever, To be 
holden of us, our heirs, and successors, according to the manner of East Green- 
wich in the county of Kent, within our realm of England, in free and common 
socage, rendering and paying unto us, our heirs, and successors, or to the hands 
of our receiver gen* of our s d province of New York for the time being or to such 
other officer or officers as shall be appointed to receive the same for and out of 
the s d tracts and parcels of land and other the premises the sum of thirty shil- 
lings current money of N. York, upon every 25th day of March forever hereaf- 
ter. And we do farther give and grant unto the /Freeholders and inhabitants of 
the sd town of W. Chester, and to their heirs and assigns forever, full power and 
authority annually and once every year, uud that upon the first Monday in the 
month of May, that they the said ffreeholders and inhabitants shall and may as 
formerly hath been accustomed in the s d town, to elect and choose twelve free- 
holders for their trustees, who shall have full power and authority, or the major 
part of them, to order and dispose of all or any part of \he undivided land with- 
in s a town limits and precincts thereof, as fully and amply to all intents, con- 
structions, and purposess as formerly they have used and been accustomed to do. 
And farther of our especial grace certain knowledge, and meer motion, we do, 
for us, our heirs, and successors grant, constitute, ordain, and appoint, by this 
our present charter, that all and singular the lands, tenements, and hereditaments 
herein before in this our s d royal charter and grant granted and confirmed, ruen- 

I or intended to be granted and confirmed, shall from henceforth forever be 
a free borough and corporation, excepting and always reserving out of the s 1 * 

:h or corporation all that tract of land scituate and being upon the east side 
of Harlem river afores'i, and which did formerly belong to Coll. Lewis Morris, 

. and wliich now is in the tenure and occupation of James Graham, Esqr., 
a d to be and remain out of the jurisdiction of the s ( l corporation. And farther 
of our especial grace, certain knowledge, and meer motion, do, for us, our heirs, 
and BUi .rant, constitute, ordain, and appoint, by this our present char- 

ter, that the s' 1 town of W. Chester and all and singular the lands and tenements 
1 ^-longing and appertaining may forever hereafter be a free borough 
and town corporate, and shall be called the borough and town of W. Chester, 
and that in the s' 1 town corporate there shall be a body politick consisting or a 
mayor, six aldermen, and six assistants, or common council of the 6 d borough 
and town of W. Chester, to continue in succession forever, and for the more 
full and perfect erection of the s fl corporation and body politick to consist, 
continue, and be of a mayor, six aldermen, and six a < anion 

council of the s<l borough or town to be called and known by the name of 



the mayor, aldermen, and commonay of the borough and town of W. Chester. 
We of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, do by these 
presents for us, our heirs and successors, create, make, ordain, constitute, nom- 
inate and appoint our trusty and well-beloved Coll. Caleb Heathccote, Esq., one 
of our Couucellors of our s ( l province of N. York, to be the first and now Mayor 
of the s^ town and borough of W. Chester, and to continue in the said office un- 
til the first Monday in the month of May, which shall be in the ninth year of our 
reign. And we do likewise create, make, ordain, constitute, nominate and appoint 
Win. Bams, Jno. Stuert, William Willett, Thos. Baxter, Josiah Stuert and Jno. 
Baily, gents., to be first Aldermen of the s d borough and town of Westchester, 
and Israel Honeywell, Robert Hustis, Sam'l Hustis, Sam'l Ferris, Daniel Turner 
and Miles Oakley, gents., the First Assistants and Common Council of the s d 
borough and town, and that the s d Mayor, Ald'n and Common Council and their 
successors, shall for ever hereafter be in name and in deed a body corporate and 
politick, and shall forever hereafter be called and known in all courts whatsoever, 
plead and be impleaded by the name of the Mayor, Ald' Q and Commonalty of the 
Borough and Town of W. Chester. And of our further grace, certain knowledge 
and meer motion, and to the intent that the s^ corporation and body politick by 
these presents created and began af ores' 1 , may have perpetual succession and 
continue forever, we do by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, grant 
unto the s d Mayor, Ald' n and Common Council and their successors for ever, 
that the sd Mayor and Ald' Q of the s d borough and Town of W. Chester, for the 
time being, shall and may from time to time, whensoever and as often as they 
shall think meet, admit and receive under the common seal of the s<i corporation 
to be of the commonalty of the sd borough and town, such and so many persons 
as the said Mayor and Alder'n, or the Mayor for the time being and the greatest 
part of the s d Alder' 11 shall think meet, and every such person and persons and by 
them the s d Mayor and Alder'a or the greater part of them as afores'd to be 
admitted and received as af ores' d, shall immediately after such admission be free 
men of the s d borough and town and members of the sd body politick, and have 
and enjoy all such the same and so many priviledges, franchises and immunities, 
as if the said persons so to be admitted had been specially and particularly named 
in this our s d royal charter to be of the s'l commonality. And further we of our 
especial grace, certain knowledge, and meer motion, do by these presents, for us, 
our heirs, and successors, give and grant unto the s<l Mayor, Alder'n and Com- 
mon Council of the s d borough and town of W. Chester, that they and their suc- 
cessors shall from henceforth for ever be a body politick and incorporate in 
deed and in name, and by these presents fully and absolutely make, create, con- 
stitute, establish and unite the s ( t Mayor, Alder'n and Common Council into one 
body politick and incorporate to endure and continue for ever, and them and 
their successors do declare, accept and allow for a perfect corporation and body 
politick for ever, and that the s^ body politick and corporate shall be called and 
known for ever by the name of the Mayor, Alder'n and Commonalty of the 
Borough and Town of of W. Chester, and that by that name they and their suc- 
cessors shall be able persons in law to make all manner of contracts and grants, 
and to make, receive and take all manner of gifts, grants and purchases as any 
other natural person or body politick is able to make, receive and take by the 
laws of our realm of England and this our province, and that they and their sue- 


cesser* shall and may by that name implead any other person or persons, or be 
impleaded in any court or courts, in all and ail manners of causes and actions, 
real ami pers >nal or mixt of what, kind or nature soever, and claim and demand 
their liberties and franchesscs before any judge or judges, ecclesiastical or secular, 
and otherwise do and execute all and every act and acts, thing and things what- 
soever, which any other liege, men which are enabled and made capable of the 
fit of our laws within our realm of England or this our province of N. York, 
can or may lawfully do or execute. And farther of our especial grace, certain 
knowledge, and meer motion, we do by these presents for us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, give and grant unto the s d mayor, aider' and common council, that the 
s fl Col. Caleb Ileathcott and his successors, mayors of the s d town and borough 
of W. Chester af ores' 11 for the time being, shall have the charge of free governing 
of the s<-' borough and town of W. Chester during the time of his and their bear- 
ing the s'i office, in as absolute and ample maimer as is usual and customary with 
other mayors in the like corporations in our realm of England. And further because 
the s 1 ' mayor for the time being may many times haye just occasion to be absent 
from the s d town, either of the puhlic affairs thereof or for his own private re- 
spects, wee do therefore for us, our heirs and successors, by these presents give 
and grant unto the s l1 mayor, aid' 11 and common council and their successors, 
that the s'l Coll. Caleb Ileathcott and his successors, may r s of the s (1 borough and 
town of W. Chester, and every of them, shall have full power and authority from 
time to time during his year of government, with the consent of the said alder- 
men of the s d town for the time being or the greater part of them, to substitute 
in his absence some discreet and substantial person being one of the members of 
the s ( l aldermen inhabiting in the s d town or borough, to be his deputy mayor 
during the absence of the said mayor, and each deputy mayor for the time being, 
we do by these presents fully and absolutely authorize to do and execute all 
whatsoever belonging to the s (1 office or place of mayor in as large and 
ample manner as if the s* mayor himself was personally present. And we do 
farl 1 1' r by these presents give and grant unto the s el mayor, aldermen and common 
councel of the s e * borough and town of Westchester and their successors forever, 
that the s (1 mayor for the time being or lawful deputy and any two or more of the 
-i ,! 1" of the s d town shall and may lawfully hold and keep upon the first Tues- 
day in every month*throughout the year a court within ye s'l town of W. Chester, 
erein shall have full power and authority to hold plea of all manner of 
, covenants, trespasses, accomp ts , detinues, demands, and all other actions 
aal of what kind or nature soever the same be, arising and growing only 
within the s d borough or town of W. Chester and the limits thereof, so as ye same 
doth not exceed in debt or damages the sum of twenty pounds current money of 
this our province, who shall have power to hear and determine the same pleas 
and accomp ts according to the rules of the common law of our realm of England 
and the acts of General Assembly of this our province of N. York. And farther 
of our like especial grace, certain knowledge and meer motion, we do by these 
presents for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said mayor, 
aldern and common council of the s <l borough and town of W. Chester and their 
successors for ever, that they and their successors for ever shall have a common 
seal under which they shall pass all grants, warrants, deeds and specialties, and 
other the affairs and business of or concerning the s'l corporation, which shall be 


engraven with such form and inscription as shall be devised by the mayor, alder- 
men and common council of the sd borough and town ; that the sd mayor, 
alder" and common council shall and may build, or cause to be built in some 
convenient place of the sd town a common hall or town house to be called by the 
naniL- of the town hull of the borough and town of W. Chester, where the sd 
mayor, alder ami cuminon council shall and may from henceforth for ever law- 
fully assemble themselves to deliberate and consult touching the publick welfare 
of the sd borough and town of Westchester, and that they their successors shall 
and may from henceforth be a free guild mercaturie, and that they or the greater 
part of them and their successors of which the mayor to be one, shall and may 
from time to time in their publick councels freely and lawfully make and estab- 
lish all such ordinance's, statutes, orders or by-laws as may tend to the good and 
wholesome government of the said borough and town and to ye public benefit of 
the inhabitants of the same, not being repugnant to the common laws and statues 
of our realm of England, and this our province of X. York, and such ordinances, 
by-laws, statuses, orders, and decrees as shall be made by them as aforesaid, we 
do by these presents, for us our heirs and successors, ratify, confirm and allow 
as good and effectual to bind all the inhabitants of the sd borough and town, and 
do expressly will and command by these presents that the same be duly put in 
execution, and that the sd mayor, alder 11 and common council shall at any time 
or times hereafter have full power to establish a ferry over the Sound, between 
the said corporation and the island of Nassau, in such convenient place or places 
as to the sd mayor and to the greater part of the said alder 11 shall seem meet and 
convenient, and to take such fees and perquisites for the same for the use of the 
sd corporation, as is now paid for the fferidge between N. York and the sd island. 
And farther, for the more orderly government of the said borough and town, 
according to the form of the best governed towns and corporations of our realm 
of England, Wee do by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, give and 
grant unto the B d mayor, alder' 11 , and common council of the s a borough and 
town of Westchester, full power to elect and nominate one discreet and sufficient 
person, learned in ye law, to be recorder and town clerk of the sd borough and 
town of W. Chester, during the pleasure of the sd mayor, alder'n, and common 
council, and such person or persons as they the sd mayor, aider' 11 , and common 
council shall choose to be recorder and town clerk of the sd borough and town, 
Wee do, for us, our heirs and successes, make, ordain, and constitute recorder 
and town clerk of the sd borough and town, and that the sd person or persons 
may execute their s d offices, b}- themselves or lawful deputy or deputies, so that 
the same be first approved of by the sd mayor and the major part of the said 
alder'", and wee do hereby authorize the said recorder and town clerk, his or 
their lawful deputy or deputies, to use and exercise such jurisdictions and au- 
thority as the recorder and town clerk doth or ought to do in the like corpora- 
tions iu our realm of England. And further, we do by these presents, for us, 
our heirs and successors, make ordain and constitute the sd mayor and aldermen 
of the sd borough and town of W. Chester to be justices of the peace within the 
sd bounds and limits of the sd town, and do hereby give them full power and 
authority to do and execute all and every act and acts, thing and things whatso- 
ever, within the sd bounds and limits of the s d borough and town, in as absolute 
and ample manner as any justice of the peace within the sd county of W. 


Chester may or ought to do, by the laws and statutes of our realm of Eng- 
land and this our province of N. York. And we do further, for us, our heirs, 
and successors, give and grant unto the s f l mayor, aldermen, and common coun- 
cil of ye s 1 ' borough for the time being, and to their successes forever, full power 
and authority to nominate and appoint, from time to time, one Serjeant of the 
mace, and all other inferior officers and ministers which they shall think to be 
convenient and neccessar}', and which are customary in any of our corpora- 
tions in our realm of England, for ye service of the s ( l borough and town ; all 
which officers being from time to time appoint by the s d mayor and alderman 
as afores'di we do, for us, our heirs and successors, by these presents, constitute 
and establish in their several offices, and do give them and every of them full 
power and authority to use and exercise ye same within sd borough and town, 
and within the limits and franchises thereof during ye will and pleasure of the 
s d mayor and alderman as fully and freely as any other the like officers in or of 
any of the like corporations in our realm of England lawfully may or ought to 
do, and the s d office of mayor shall from thenceforth forever be annual, and 
that the s' 1 mayor, alder", and common council shall from henceforth forever 
have frank and free election of the s d mayor, to be chosen yearly out of the 
number of the s' 1 aldermen, and that by the votes of the greatest number of the 
said freeholders and inhabitants of the said corporation, and all other the said 
officers and ministers out of the rest of the number of the s f l freeholders and 
inhal litants by ye greater number of the s d mayor, alderman, and common council, 
and when and so often as any of the aforesa'd* alderman and common council 
who are hereby nominated and created for their limetime, or until they or any 
of them shall be lawfully removed, or volluntarily remove themselves from the 
s d corporation ; ye said aldermen to be elected and chosen out of the number of 
the s d common council, and the number of the common council t"> be chosen 
and made up out of the freemen of the s d corporation by the grater vote of the 
s cl freeholders and inhabitants thereof, and that always within fourteen days 
after the death or removal of any of them as afors'd. And farther our will and 
pleasure is that the first Monday in the month of May, yearly, shall be forever 
the day of election of the s d mayor and all other s d officers and ministers which 
shall yearly succeed in the s'l borough, unless the s cl mayor for the time being 
happen to die or be lawfully remov d within the year, in which case our pleasure 
is that the afores'd freeholders and inhabitants shall within fourteen days after 
the death or removal of any such mayor for the time being, as afores'd. proceed 
to election to some other of the s d aldermen to supply the place of the s<i mayor, 
being void as afores ,f i ; and that Coll. Caleb Heathcott, the present mayor, shall 
immediately, before he take upon him the said office and place, take the oaths 
lately appointed by act of Parliament instead of the oaths of alliegiance and 
supremacy, and that the same be administered to him in the presence of our s d 
cap' n and gener'l and govor'r in chief of our s d province of New York ; and the 
s d Coll. Caleb Heathcott having taken ye said oaths, shall cause the same to be 
given in his presence as well to such persons as ye s' 1 Coll. Caleb Heathcott, shall 
at any time during his mayoralty leave to be his deputy in his absence as afores'd* 
as to the aldermen and common council created as afores' d > and to the recorder 
and all such other officers and ministers as shall be chosen in the said borough 
for the better government of the same, and that before they or any of them shall 


take upon them to execute any office or place by virtue of this our royal charter 
and pattent, and after the end of the mayoralty of the s d Coll. Caleb Heathcote, 
our will and pleasure is that every mayor of the sd town that shall be hereafter 
elected in manner afores'd shall immediately take the aboves'd oaths before three 
at the least of the aldermen of the s (1 borough ; and that upon election of any 
other alder' 11 or comuiom council, in case of death or removal as afores'd, or such 
other officers as shall be annually chosen to take the aboves'd oaths before the 
mayor for the time being, and any two of the sd aldermen, whom we do by 
these presents fully authorize to administer and give the s d several oaths. And 
farther, of our especial grace certain knowledge and meer motion, do by these 
presents, for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the sd mayor, 
alder'n , and common council of the borough and town of Westchester, and their 
successors forever, that they the sd mayor and aldermen shall and may from 
henceforth forever, have, hold and keep, one free market within the sd borough 
and town upon every Wednesday in every week, and two fairs within the sd 
borough and town at two several times in the year, (viz.) the one to begin and to 
be holden within the said borough and town upon the second Tuesday in May, 
yearly forever, and to continue for three days and no longer ; and the other of 
the s<l fairs to begin upon the last Tuesday in October yearly, forever, and to 
continue also for three days and no longer, with power to erect several courts of 
pipowder, aud the office of clerk of entries, and all other things thereunto be- 
longing, with all and singular the perquisites and profits, issues, customs, tolls, 
fees, amerciaments, commodities, jurisdictions and emoluments, to the sd courts, 
fairs, and markets, in any wise belonging and appertaining ; and that the mayor 
of the said borough and town of W. Chester for the time being, and no other, 
have power and authority to give and to grant license annually, under the pub- 
lic seal of the said corporation, to all tavern keepers, inn keepers, ordinary keep- 
ers, vicktuallers, and all publick sellers of wine, strong waters, rum, cyder, beer, 
or any other sort of strong liquors by retail, within the s d corporation or the lib- 
erties and precincts thereof ; and it shall and may be lawful to and for the sd 
mayor of the sd borough for the time being, or his lawful deputy, to ask, de- 
mand, and receive for such license by him to be given and granted as afores'd, 
such sum or sums of money as he and the person to whom such licence shall be 
given and granted shall agree for, not exceeding the sum of 20s. for such licence ; 
all which money as by ye said mayor shall be so received, shall be usd and ap- 
ply'd to the public use of the mayor, aldermen and common council of the s d 
borough and their successors. And also we do, of our like especial grace, cer- 
tain knowledg, and meer motion, by these presents, for us, our heirs and suc- 
cess' 3 grant unto the said mayor, aldermen and common council of the s d bor- 
ough and town of W. Chester and their successors forever, that the mayor with 
two or more of the aldermen for the time being, shall have full power to enquire, 
hear, and determine, of all frays and bloodsheds whatsoever, happening within 
the sd borough and town of W. Chester, and the offenders therein to correct 
and punish according to the laws or our realm of England and this our province 
of N. York. And we do farther by these presents, for us, our heirs, and suc- 
cessors, give and grant unto the sd mayor aldern , and common council of the 
s d borough and town of W. Chester, and to their success's forever that the 
mayor, or in his absence his deputy mayor of the sd borough and town for the 


time being, shall be coroner and clerk of the market within ye sd borough and 
town and the liberties thereof, giving and hereby granting unto sd mayor and 
deputy mayor for the time being full power and authority to exercise and exe- 
cute the said office and offices of coroner and clerk of the market in the s d 
borough and town and the liberties thereof in as large and ample manner as any 
other coroner or clerk of the market doth or may lawfully execute the like office 
or offices in any other town or liberties within this our province of N. York. 
And farther, of our especial grace, certain knowledg, and meer motion, wee do 
by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, give and grant unto the s a 
mayor, aldermen and common ci tuncil of the sd borough and town of Westches- 
ter afores'd. and their success' 3 forever, that they and their successors shall and 
may from time to time return and send one discreet burgess of the s' 1 town and 
borough into every general assembly hereafter to be summoned oi'holdcn within 
this our province of N. York, which burgess so returnd and sent shall be receivd 
into the house of deputies or members of the sd house and have and enjoy such 
priviledges as any other of the sd members have or ought to have. And lastly our 
express will and pleasure is, and we do by these presents for us, our heirs and 
successors, give and grant unto sd mayor, aldermen, and common council of the 
s d borough, and their successors forever, that these our letters patent or the inrol- 
ment thereof in our secretaire's office of our sd province, shall be good, available, 
and effectual in the law to all intents, constructions and purposes, against us, 
our heirs, and successors, without any other. licence, grant, or confirmation from 
us, our heirs, or successors hereafter, by the sd mayor, aldermen, and common 
council, or their successors, or any of them, to be had and obtained notwith- 
standing the not recitall or miss-recitall, not nameing or miss-nameing of the 
s J offices, ffranchises, lands, tenements, or hereditaments, and other the prem- 
ises or any of them : and notwithstanding that no writ of ad quod damnum hath 
issued forth to enquire of the premises or any of them before the sealing of these 
presents, any statute, act, ordinance, or provision, or any matter or tiling what- 
soever to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding. In witness whereof we 
have caused these our Letters to be made pattent. Witness our trusty and well 
beloved Benjamin Fletcher our cap n gen 1 and govenor in chief of our sd prov- 
ince of New T York and the territories and tracts of land depending thereon in 
America, and vice admiral of the same, our lieutenant and commander-in-chief 
of the militia and of all the fforsses by sea and land within our Colony of Con- 
necticut, and of all the fforts and places of strength within the same. At our ffort 
at New York, this sixteenth day of April, in the eighth year of our reign. « 

Yivaxt Rex et Regina." 

Another entry relates to the swearing in of the first Aldermen and 
Common Council of the borough. 

''Be it remembered that upon the sixth day of June in the 8th year of his 
Majestie's reign, 1696, appeared before me Caleb Heathcote, Mayor of the 
borough town of Westchester ; William Barnes, John Hunt and John Bayley, 
gentlemen, Aldermen of the said corporation ; and Robert Huestis, Samuel Huestis, 

a From a certified copy of the original, in the possession of the late Ogden Hammond, Esq. 


Samuel Ferris, Miles Oakley and Daniel Turner, gentlemen, Common Council of 
said corporation, and did take the oaths appointed by act of Parliament, entitled 
"of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy." Recorded, coram me, 


Upon the nth of June, 1696, at a meeting of the Mayor, Aldermen 
and Common Conncil, " it was ordered, that a seal shall be devised and 
made for the use of the corporation, and that in the mean time the seal 5 
formerly used by the trustees shall be made use of. It was further 
ordered, that Mr. James Emott shall be Recorder, and Edward Collier 
his deputy; also that Joseph Hunt, Jun., should be Serjeant of the mace, 
if he would accept of it, and if not John Williams should be serjeant of 
the mace. 

" At a court held in the borough town of Westchester by' the Mayor 
and Aldermen of said town on the 6th of October, 1696, Col. Heathcote 
brought the seal for the corporation, and did give it gratis to the town, 
and left it in the hands of the Recorder." 

At a meeting; of the trustees of this town, held on the 8th of Tune. 
1700, it was resolved: — 

" That whereas at a former meeting held by the inhabitants of the borough 
town and precincts, on the 3d day of Ma}', 1697, it was voted and agreed upon 
that there should be a town, hill built to hold courts in and for the public worship 
of God, &c.; but it being then neglected, the mayor, aldermen and justices at 
this meeting, did order with a joynt consent to build a house for the uses of a 
court and prison. The dimensions of the house is to be twenty-six feet square, 
sixteen feet joynts, a square roof, six window cases five feet square, <£c. The 
trustees agreed with Richard Ward to build said house for £33, and with Eras- 
mus Orton to build the prison for £5. It is to be twenty feet long, 16 feet wide, 
seven feet high, two feet thick with a good chimney. The town to find attend- 
ance. "Which work is to be done by the 31st. '' c 

The following certificate refers to the services of Lewis Morris as 
representative to the Provincial Assembly: — 

General Assembly for the Colony of New York : 

Die Sabbati, 6 Jul}-. 1723. 
These are to certifie that Lewis Morris, Esq., one of the persons duly elected 
for ye borough of Westchester to serve in General Assembly for ye Colon}- of 
New York, hath attended the service of this house in General Assembly, the full 
term of sixty-one days. By order of ye General Assembly, 
R. LIVINGSTON, Speaker. 

a Town Rtc. 

b Several impressions of 1 his seal are attached to papers in the town clerk's office. 
c Westchester Rec. On the 4th of September, 1T0U, Joseph Haviland and John Hunt were 
directed to agree for the timber work of the prison. 


Jii.y 6th, 1723. 
Received ye lull payment of this certificate from ye borough of Westchester. 

I say received by me. ,.„„„ ,, _ 


Peter De Lancey, Esq., represented the borough in 1756, for which 
he received ten shillings per diem.'' 

One of the most important privileges conferred upon this town by the 
royal charter, was that of holding a Mayor s court, the first Tuesday in 
every month. This court had full power to hear and determine all 
causes " not exceeding in debt or damages the sum of twenty pounds." 
From the town records it appears, that " at a Mayor's Court holden in 
Westchester, 6th of July, 1697, the court did order that Capt. William 
Barnes shall see out for a workman to make a pair of stocks and the 
prison sufficient for the securing of prisoners, until such time as a way 
may be found for the building of a new one, &c." c 

As a proof that liberty was not yet clearly understood by our ancient 
judges, we subjoin an extract from the records of the Mayors Court in 

" Present, Miles Oakley, Mayor ; Thomas Hunt, Joshua Hunt, James 
Cromwell, Nathaniel Underhill and William Leggett, Aldermen. 

The jury being called over said they could not agree, and James 
Dangly and Gabriel Leggett who dissented from the others gave their 
reasons to the court; which being judged insufficient, they were fined 
40s. each, and to stand committed till paid. The jury were then dis- 
charged." d 

•• At a Mayor's Court held in Westchester, December, 1734, Present, 
William Leggett, Esq., Mayor ; William Forster, Recorder ; Nathaniel 
Underhill, Thomas Hunt, Joshua Hunt and Gabriel Leggett, Alder- 
men. &c. The Recorder presented the freedom of the town to the Hon. 
James De Lancey, Esq., and John Chambers, attorney-at-law, which 
was read and approved : and thereupon it was ordered that the Mayor, 
Recorder and Aldermen do forthwith wait on the said James De 
Lancey, Esq., and John Chambers, at the house of William Burnett, 
and deliver the same unto them, and desire their acceptance of the 
same. Accordingly the court adjourned. " e 

In 1746, the small pox prevailing in Greenwich, New York, the house 
of Assembly adjourned to Westchester. 

The following letter of the Westchester sub-committee, dated borough 
and town of Westchester, August 24, 1775, to the Honorable Provin- 
cial Congress, is copied from the military returns : — 

a Town Bee . B ■•'- 9, 153. 

b Smith's lfi-t. <;f N. Y. The daily wages of the representatives, were regulated by sundry 
acta 'if Assembly. 
c Town Etec. 
d Town Rec. 

e Town Rec. On the 21 of July, 1737, Lewis Morris, .Tun., and Frederick Philipse were ad- 
: .eeraen of the borough under the common seal of the corporation. 



We the subscribers appointed a sub-committee to inspect the election of mili- 
tia officers for the said town, do most humbly certify, that the following persons 
weir chosen tins 24th day of August, 1775, by a majority of voices duly qualified 
for that purpose, agreeable to the resolutions of the honorable Congress above- 
said, (viz. :) 

John Oakley, Captain, 
Nicholas Bebkian, 1st Lieutenant, 
Isaac Leggett, 2d Lieutenant, 
Feedeeick Philipss Stevenson, Ensign. 
(Thomas Hunt, 
Committee. - James Feeeis, 
(Lewis Gkaham. 

By an act of the State Legislature, passed iSth of April, 1785, enti- 
tled, '"An act authorizing the freeholders and inhabitants of the town- 
ship of West Chester, to choose Trustees for the purposes therein men- 
tioned • " the name and style of the old borough and town of West 
Chester, was changed for that of the Township of West Chester. Time 
of meeting, first Tuesday in May, and on the first Tuesday in April, in 
every year thereafter to choose six freeholders, who shall be resident in 
the said Township for Trustees, etc. a 

Second, "And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the 
district formerly called and known by the style of the Borough and Town 
of West Chester, shall henceforth be called and known by the name of 
the Township of West Chester." 

At a meeting of the freeholders and inhabitants of the town of West- 
chester, held 1 st day of April, 1788, being the first Tuesday in April, 
and the annual day of electing town officers, pursuant to an act of the 
Legislature, passed the 14th Feb., 1787. Present, Joseph Bowne, etc. 

The following persons were chosen for the ensuing year : — 

Iseael Undeehtll, Supervisor. 

John Bartow, Je.,") 
Michael Ryee, > Assessors. 
Augustus Deake, ) 

JonN Bartow, Je.,"| 
Israel Undebhill, 
Josiah Quimby. ! T t 
Edward Briggs, > 1}US ™ es - 
Joseph Bowne, 
Samuel Bayard, 

Coenelius Hunt, Constable. 
The following act was passed by the Legislature of this State, on the 

a Laws of N. T. Sth session, vol. i , p. 180. Greenleaf, N. Y., M.D.CC, xcii. 


19th of March, 1813, entitled, "An act relative to the duties and priv- 
ileges of towns."* The 28th section of which directs : — 

"That the freeholders and inhabitants of the town of Westchester, in the 
county of Westchester, may, on the day of their annual town meeting, under the 
usual manner of electing town officers, choose six freeholders resident in this 
town for trustees ; and the said trustees or a majority of them, shall and may 
order and dispose of all or any part of the undivided lands within the said town, 
as fully to every purpose, as trustees have been used to do, under any patent or 
diarter to the said town, and may continue to lease out the right and privilege of 
setting and keeping a ferry across the East river from the said town of Westches 
ter to the town of Flushing, in Queens county, in like manner, at the same rates 
of ferriage, under the same rules and regulations, and for the like purposes, as 
they have lawfully been accustomed to do, since the eighteenth day of April, one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-five."'' 

The first settlers of this town, who were Puritan emigrants from New 
England, and chiefly from Connecticut, appear to have made early pro- 
vision for the establishment of religion, according to the Independent or 
Congregational order. Mr. John Throckmorton and his thirty-five 
associates, were mostly the friends and associates of Roger Williams, or 
Anne Hutchinson ; who, tired of the turmoils of Old England and New, 
obtained leave of the Dutch to settle here in 1642, on a tract of land 
they were pleased to call " Vrede-land; or, Land of Peace." In 1650, 
a body of Puritans settled near the same place, being favored by the 
Dutch, " with the free exercise of their religion," calling it " Oost dorp," 
(East Town). These, too, were Puritans or Independents ; but, they 
had no minister until 1674, and then only for a short period; indeed, 
they seem to have been without a settled minister for most of the time 
to the end of the century, of their mode of worship. The Dutch Commis- 
sioners, who visited Oost-dorp in 1656, give in the journal of their 
expedition, the following account : — 

"31 Dec. after dinner, Cornelius van Ruyven went to the house where 
they held their Sunday meeting, to see their mode of worship ; as they 
had, as yet, no preacher. There I found a gathering of about fifteen 
men, and ten or twelve women. Mr. Paly said the prayer, after which, 
one Robert Basset read from a printed book a sermon, composed by an 
English clergyman, in England ; after the reading, Mr. Baly gave out 
another prayer and sang a psalm, and they all separated."" 

a ThetOWQ property prior to its division, ia 1846, amounted to sixteen or twenty thousand 
dollars, (arising from the .sale of the common lands) the interest of whicli was appropriated 
to the common schools. 

b Laws of New York, 1S13. The above confirm* a former Act of Legislature, passed lSth 
AprlL 1785, in whicn tin- freeholders of \h>- town were authorized to choose six trustees, who 
should have the right to order and dispose of the undivided lauds, etc. 

c O'Callaghan's Hist of X. Neth., vol. ii.. 310. 


The Rev. John Megapolensis, in a letter to the Classis of Amsterdam, 
dated New Netherland, 5th of August, 1657, says: — 

'• On the west side of the East River, about one mile through Hell- 
gate, (as we call it), opposite Flushing, on the main, another English 
village has been begun over two years. It was named Oost-dorp. The 
inhabitants of this place are also Puritans, alias Independents. They, 
also, have no preacher. They hold Sunday meetings, reading from an 
English book a sermon, and making a prayer."* 

As " all ecclesiastical business, at this time, was conducted by the 
town, assembled in town meeting ; and as a meeting of the town was a 
meeting of the congregation, which, after having disposed of matters 
secular, could attend to the Church ; " therefore, the early history of 
religion is to be found principally in the town records. 

Under date of July 29th, 1674, twenty-four years after the settle- 
ment of the village, appears the name of the Rev. Ezekiel Fogge ; prob- 
ably the first Independent or Congregational minister that officiated 

The following entries are taken from the town books : — 

"On the 11th of February, 18S0, there was sprinkled with water by Morgan 
Jones, (what they call baptizing,) William Hunt, son of John Hunt, of Westches- 
ter; witnesses present, Joseph Hunt and Bridget Waters." 

"Westchester, Oct. 7tu, 1680. — Morgan Jones married Isaac Dickerman, 
of this towne, to Bethia, the daughter of Henry Gardener. 

Recorded per me, Francis French, Clerk." 

At a town-meeting, held in Westchester, April 2nd, T684, it was re- 
solved : — 

"That the Justices and Vestrymen of Westchester, Eastchester and Yonckers, 
do accept of Mr. Warham Mather, as our minister for one whole year ; and that 
he shall have sixty pound, in country produce at money price, for his salary, and 
that he shall be paid every quarter. Done in behalf of the justices aforesaid. 

Signed by us, John Qcimbt, John Baylet, 

Joseph Hunt, John Burkbee.- 5 

At a lawful town-meeting held in Westchester, by the freeholders and 
inhabitants, and residents of said place, the 2nd day of January, 1692, 
m order to consult, conclude, and agree, about procuring an orthodox 
minister in said town, — It is voted and agreed upon, " that there shall be 

a Doc. nist. of New York, vol. lii., 107. 

& West Chester Town Bee, commencing A.D. 1665, p, 42. 


an orthodox minister in the town aforesaid, as soon as possible may be; 
and to allow him forty or fifty pound per annum, equivalent to money, 
for his maintainance. It is also voted and agreed upon, that a man shall 
go to the Honorable Colonel Heathcote, and see if he can prevail with 
him for to procure us a minister, in his travels in New England, other- 
wise, that Captain William Barnes shall go and procure us a minister."* 1 

Upon the 21st of September, 1693, the Act of Assembly for settling 
a Ministry, was passed. By this Act, Westchester County was divided 
into two parishes, viz., Westchester and Rye. Tne parish of Westches- 
ter included the town or precincts of Westchester, Eastchester, Yonckers, 
and the Manor of Pelham ; and was required to raise ^50 per annum 
for the support of the minister, and to elect on 2d Tuesday in January, 
ten vestrymen and two church-wardens. There was also to be called, 
inducted, and established, a good sufficient Protestant minister, to 
officiate and have the care of souls within one year next, and after the 
publication hereof. In Westchester two ; one to have the care of West- 
chester, Eastchester, Yonckers and the Manor of Pelham, &rc. 3 

But so few persons were properly qualified at this time, to accept the 
call of the vestry, that the act remained dormant in Westchester nearly 
two years. An attempt, however, was made by some of the vestry to 
have Warham Mather inducted, as appears by the following extract from 
the town records : 

"At a meeting held in Westchester, the 7th of Ma}', 1695, present, Justice 
Barnes and Justice Hunt. Capt. William Barnes, President of the trustees: 
"Whereas, the freeholders and inhabitants of this town of Westchester and 
precincts, att this meeting have exprest their desires for the settling of Mr. War- 
ham Mather amongst us as our minister for one whole year or longer ; its there- 
fore voated and agreed upon, that Mr. Justice Barnes, and Mr. Justice Hunt, and 
Mr. Edward Waters, church-wardens, with as many of the vestrymen as con- 
veniently can be gott together, should agree with the said Mr. Warham Mather, 
and settle him with all expedition. Endorsed, 


The Rev. John Miller, describing the Province of New York, in 1695, 
says : " There is a meeting house at Westchester, and a young man 
coming to settle there without orders. There are two or three hundred 
English and Dissenters, a few Dutch.' v 

Mather's call appears to have been confirmed, with all due expedition 
by the Dissenters, probably in 1695; but, after Col. Caleb Heathcote 

.1 Town Rec 

b Acts of i'mv. Assembly, N. Y., from 1591 to 1726. 
r Town Rec, Lib. 

Province of New York, by Rev. John Miller. 


had been chosen as one of the church-wardens of the parish, he positively 
refused to use his influence with Gov. Fletcher to have Mather inducted 
to that living," as we shall have occasion to show presently, which finally 
led to his removal in 1701. 

Mr. Warham Mather, who was born at Northampton, Mass , in 1666, 
and graduated at Harvard College in 1685,^ was the son of Eleazer, and 
grandson of Richard, who was the son of Thomas and Margaret Math- 
er, and was born at Lowton, in the parish of Winwick, in Lancashire, in 
1596 ; was sometime a student at Brazennose College, Oxford, ordained 
by Bishop Morton, of Chester, in 16 18, afterwards was chosen minister 
and school-master at Toxtath park, near Liverpool, where he continued 
for fifteen years. He was suspended for non-conformity, and removed 
with his family to New England, in 1635; settled over the church of 
Dorchester, Mass., 23d of August, 1636, and died 22d of April, 1669. 
Wood denominates him " a pious man, and a zealous and laborious 
preacher ; " and adds, "that he was much followed by the precise party; 
but that he was a severe Calvinist, and no friend to the Church of Eng- 
land." He was twice married. His first wife was the pious daughter of 
Edward Holt, Esq., of Bury, in Lancashire ; and his second wife, the 
widow of Mr. John Cotton. He had four sons employed in the minis- 
try, all eminent in their day. Nathaniel, Samuel and Increase, were 
preachers in England, and all ejected by the fatal Act of Uniformity, in 
1662. d His son, Eleazer Mather, was pastor of the Church at North- 
ampton, in New England, and was born at Dorchester, 13th of May, 
1637 ; graduated at Harvard College, 1656 ; ordained 23d of June, 1661, 
and died 24th of July, 1669, aged thirty-two; leaving by his wife, (who 
was a daughter of the Rev. John Warham), the before mentioned War- 
ham Mather. "On the 29th of May, 1697, John Yeats, of the city of 
New York, sold several tracts of land in Westchester, to Warham Math- 
er, of Northampton, in the county of Hampshire, in his Majesty's Pro- 
vince of Massachusetts Bay, in America, (student in Divinity), now re- 
siding in the town of Westchester." 

"In 1703, Warham Mather, of New Haven, student in Divinity, sold 
his lands in Westchester to Daniel Clark. "S He died in 1745.^ 

a Such was the law at this period tliat if any unqualified person was presented to a living 
he that presented him could not afterwards present another, on the ground that no person 
that has the presentation to a benefice can do it twice. 

b i:< v. mas. W. Baird. Tbere is a Letter of his among the Mather papers. It is addressed 
from Boston, July 6, 1688, to his uncle Increase, who was then in England. Warham asked his 
advice about going to England himself. 

c Lives of the Puritans, by Brook, vol. iii., pp. 440-445. Palmer's Xoncon. Mem. vol. ii., pp. 
245-355.— Mather's Magnalia Farmers Register 

d Lives of the Puritan.-, by Brook, 445. 

e Town Rec. of Westchester. Lib. v. 73. / Town Bee. of Westchester, Lib. vi. 30. 

n The date of his death is given in the Catalogue of the Prince Library, in connection with 
the mention of a printed sermon attributed to Warham Mather— Rev. C'has. W. Baird. 


The old meeting house having fallen to decay, the following resolu- 
tion was passed at a town meeting, held the 5th day of May, 1696: — 

"It is voated and agreed upon that the meeting house shall be re- 
paired forthwith, and that two men shall be chosen to see it done — 
Gabriel Legat and Josiah Hunt, is chosen to agree with a carpenter to 
repair the said meeting house, and to bring an account to the town of 
the cost and expence thereof whereby a rate may be made to defraye 
the charge in so doing." 01 

On the 3rd day of May, 1697, at a meeting of the freeholders and 
inhabitants of the town and precincts of Westchester : — " It was voted 
and agreed upon, that there should be a Town House built, to keep 
courts in, and for the pud/ick worship of God." h 

Soon after this vote of the town, in the year 1699, an act of General 
Assembly was made to enable the respective towns within the whole 
province to build and repair their meeting houses, &c. c Whereupon 
the inhabitants of Westchester laid aside the prosecution of building the 
town house above, according to the said town vote, and took hold of 
the said act, by virtue whereof a new Parish church was erected in 
1700, and a rate laid and levied on all the inhabitants, without any dis- 
tinction, towards defraying the expenses. 

The following resolutions were passed at a meeting of the trustees, 
held on the 8th of June, 1700: — 

" It is voted aud agreed upon by the trustees aforesaid, that the rate shall be 
made up forthwith, and delivered to the constable, who shall have for collecting 
the same, six pence per pound : 

" Whereas att a general meeting held in the Borough town of Westchester, by 
the freeholders and inhabitants of said town and precincts, on the 3rd day of 
May, 1G97, it was voted and agreed upon that there should be a town hall built 
to keep courts in, and for the publick worship of God &c. ; but it being then ne- 
glected, the Mayor and Aldermen, and trustees at this meeting did order with a 
joynt consent, to build a house for the uses aforesaid and a prison. The dimen- 
sions of the house is to be twenty-six feet square, 16 feet joj'nts, a square roof, 
6 window cases 5 feet square, &c. The trustees agreed with Richard Ward to 
build said house for £33, and with Erasmus Orton to build the prison for £5, 
which work is to be done by the 31st of October next." d 

The subjoined order relates to the cartage of timber and other mate- 
rial for the church &c. : — 

a Westchester Town Rec. Liber, v. 59. 

h Westchester Town Rec, Liber, v. 141. "It had been previously voted and agreed upon 
that there should be 1 prison built with a town house upon it, according to the dimensions 
made by Col. lleathcote, Lib. v. p. 77, 

c Laws of N. Y. vol. I. chapter lxxxiii. 37. 

d Westchester Town Rec. Lib. v. 141. 


3 l 9 

"At a meeting held by the trustees the 14th of of September, 1700, 
present, Josiah Hunt, President, Edward Waters, Joseph Haviland, John 
Hunt, Joseph Bayley, John Ferris, senr., and Richard Panton. 'Tis 
voted and agreed upon that all that shall cart timber and stuff for the 
meeting house, shall have six shillings per diem ; and that Joseph Havi- 
land and Tohn Hunt shall agree with a carpenter for the timber work 
and the prison, as they shall see cause, 8zc. Done in behalf of the 
Freeholders and Commonality of the town."* 

At a subsequent meeting of the trustees, held on the 26th day of 
October, A. D , 1700, " It was resolved that Richard Ward shall build 
the meeting house twenty-eight feet square, with a terret on the top, for 
forty pounds."* 

In an address of the Venerable Propagation Society, the following 
account is given of the building of this church : — 

" We whose names are subscribed do hereby certify that the church of 
Westchester was built by a rate laid and levied on the inhabitants of the 
said town in proportion to their estates, in the year of our Lord 1700; 
and that Mr. Morgan, a Presbyterian minister of Eastchester did some- 
times come to preach in it, until such time as Mr. Bartow came and took 
possession of it in the year 1702, since which time it has been supplied 
by him, &c." a >• 

This building stood on the site of the present church, upon what was 
then styled the Town Green, d adjoining the old County Court-house 6 
and jail. It was built of wood, quadrangular in form/ with a pyrami- 

ds Westchester Town Rec. Lib. v. 145. 

b Westchester Town Rec. Lib. v. 145. 

c Hawks' New York MSS. from archives at Fulham. vol. i. 463. 

d On the 5th of June, lOim, the trustees grantee) unto the Mayor and Alderman of the Bor- 
ough, for the use of the Corporation, part of the Greed in said town, to erect a market house 
and settle the market —Lib. v. 63. 

e The following extract U copied from the New York Post Boy, for Feb. 13, 1758:— "We 
hear from Weschester that on Saturday night, the 4th instant, the court house at that place 
was unfortunately burnt to ttie ground. We have not heard yet how it happened." 

/The Venerable IV'de informs us, that in his time, tue English churches were square. 
S i ik ng oi the building of St. Peter's church, at York. mfi-2r, by I 

' Per quadrum coepit osdificare basilicam.' 

King Edwin, he says :- 
-Vide Bedoe Hist Eccles, Lib. ii. chap. 14. 



dal roof and bell turret in the centre; and was used for the worship of 
Almighty God until the year 1788, when it was removed, and the 
present edifice erected. It now stands near the church yard, on the 
property of the late Capt. Elnathan Hawkins, having been sold to Mrs. 
Sarah Ferris, the grand-mother of the late Mrs. Eliza Hawkins, by order 
of the vestry, in 17S8. 

The following extracts relates to the election of church-wardens and 
vestrymen for this parish, in pursuance of the Act of 1693 : — 

At a meeting held by the Parishioners of Westchester Division, in the borough 
and town of Westchester, pursuant to an act of General Assembly, entitled an 
"Act for the settling a ministry and raising of a maintenance for them," this 
second Tuesday of January, 1701-2 JJJJ resent, Me. Justice Barnes, 

Mb. Justice Baxter. 

Pampsford Churcti. 

Church-wardens clwsen at said time: 
Cm,. Caleb Hkatiioote, 
Ald'x. Josiaii Hint. 

T 'tstri/men Chosen : 
Mb. Jonx Pell, Senb., for the Manor of Pelham, 
Mb. Joseph Drake, f or Eastchester, 
Mb. Charles Vincent, for Yonckers. 

f Mu. William Willett, 

I Mb. Thomas Hunt, Juxr., of the West Farms, 

I Mr. Joseph Haviland, 
For Westchester, { Ald'm. John Batley, 

j Mr. Richard Ward, 

I Mr. John Buckbee, 

[ Edward Collier, 

Entered by order, EDWARD COLLIER, Recorder* 

a Westchester Town Rec. Lib. v. 145. 


In the year 1702, came from England, the Rev. John Bartow, A. M., 
who was the first regularly inducted rector of this parish, elected by the 
vestry under the act of 1693. He was the son of Thomas Bartow, M.D., 

of Crediton,in Devonshire; by his wife, Grace , (who was buried 

in the church yard of the Holy Cross, Crediton, Jan. 25th, 1676.) Mr. 
Bartow at an early age was instructed by one Mr. Gregory, entered 
Christ College, Cambridge, January 31st, 1689, where he was admitted 


%\h;\ ■ l ::^Hjip 



R^OTOH GhURQh, E>€V(m. 

a sizer under the tuition of Mr. Lovett, and graduated in 1692." Soon 
after his ordination he was inducted to the vicarage of Pampsford, in 
Cambridgeshire, May the 28th, 1698, and removed to the Province 01 
New York, by the leave of the Right Rev. Simon Patrick, the then Lord 
Bishop of Ely. The first known ancestor of John was General Bertaut, 
of Bretagne or Brittany, in France ; a Huguenot, who fled after the Mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, A.D., 1572, into Holland and came thence to 
England, when the name was anglicised to Bartow. Of this family was 
John Bertaut Siegneur de Freaville and de Courcelles and Counseiller 
of the Parliament of Paris, who married Marie de la Garde, and had 

a Matriculation Books of Christ College, Cambridge, MSS. of Rev. Evelyn Bartow. 
b Pampsford la in the hundred of Childrod and Deanery of Camps, lies seven miles south of 


issue Francis Bertaut Ecuyer Signeur de Freaville et de Courcelles, 
whose daughter, Marie Frances married in 1696 Frank Toussant de 
K.eakoeut ; and Anne, who married Philippe de Delley Ecuyer, who was 
born in 1632." 




"Henry, b} r divine permission, Lord Bishop of London, to all whom these 
presents shall or may concern, health in our Lord God everlasting. Whereas hy 
virtue of an act of Parliament, made in ye : first year of j'e : Reign of our Sov- 
ereign Lord and Lady, King William and Queen Mary, entitled, an act for ye : 
abrogation of ye oaths of supremity and allegiance, and appointing other oaths, 
it is provided and enacted, that every person, at his, or their respective admis- 
sion to be incumbent in any ecclesiastical promotion or dignity in ye Church of 
England, shall subscribe and declare before his ordinary, in manner and form as 
in ye : said act as contained ; now know ye, that on ye : day of ye : date hereof 
did personally appear before us, John Bartow, Clerk, to be admitted to ye: 
Ministerial Function in ye : Province of New York, in America, and subscribed 
as followeth, as by ye: said act is required, I, John Bartow, Clerk, do declare, 
that I will conforme to ye : Liturgy of the Church of England, as it is now by 
law established. Iu witness whereof, we have caused our seal manual to be 
affixed to these presents. Dated, the twenty-second day of the month of June, iu 
ye year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and two, and in ye twenty- 
seaventh year of our translation." & 



• ' Henricus, permissione divina, Londonensis episcopus, dilecto nobis in 
Christo Johanni Bartow, clerico, salutem et gratiam, ad peragendum officium 
ministeriale intra provinciam de Novo Eboraco, in America, in precious coni- 
munibus aliisque ministeriis ecclesiasticis ad officium ministeriale pertinentibus 
iuxta formam descriptam in libro publicaruui precum, auctoritate parliament 
hujus inclyti regni angliae, in ea parte edita, et provisa, et canones, et constitu- 
tionis, in ea parte legitime stabilitas, et publicatas, et non aliter nequcalio modo; 
tibi de cujusfidelitate morum integritate literarum scientia suinma doctrina et 
diiigentia plurimum confidemus, (praestituta penitus parte juramus totam de 

a Another branch of this family was Frances Bertaut of Donnai. whose sons were John 

Bertaut. Hishop of Seez, lf.Oti. horn at Caen, 1669, died .Tune 8th, 1611, and Francis Bertaut, 

aan ol the King's bi dchamber, whose daughter, Frances, born at (Jaen, 1614, was train 

■ > Queen Kaae of Austria, and died in 1689. she married, in 1639, Nicholas Langlola, 

Lord of Moltevtlle, who died 1641. The arms of the Bertautes or Bertau.ics, Da Hertraj, Du 

Hamel, Dn Polntplerre, de la Polssoniere, Du Freaville and Du courcelles, were: d'or a 

hand'- de sable, chargee detrois berant-i d'argent accoinpague de six auuelets de geules, suis 

en orle. 

b Surrogate's Office, N. Y. Rec. of Wills, vol. v, p. 79. 


agnoscendo regiaui supremaui majestatam, juxta vim forrnam et eff ectum statuti 
parliamenti dicti regni anglkv, in ea parte editi et provisi, quam de canonica obe- 
dicntia nobis et snccessoribus nostris in omnibus recitis et honestis perte praes- 
tanda et exhibenda subscriptisque pertiuentibus illis articulis mentionatis in 
tricesimo sexto capitulo libri constitutorum, sive canonum ecclesiastieomm, 
anno Domini, 1604, regia auctoritate editorum et propulgatorum licentiam facul- 
tatum nostram concedimus et impertamur per precedentes, ad nostrum benepla- 
citum dum tanat duraturas, iu cujus rei testimonium sigillam nostram, (quam in 
similibus plerumque utiinur,) praesentibus apponi fecimus decimus dat vicesimo 
secundo die mensia Junii, anno Domini millesimo septengentesimo, secundo 
nastra translatioue vicesimo septimo."* 

The following documents relate to his induction : — 


"Ed ward us illustrissim Vice comes Cornbury Provincial Novi Eboraciin 
America Strategus et Imperator et ejusdem ; Vice-Thalassiarcba, etc. 

Universis et Singulis Rectorib Vicar : CapelkXnis : Curat : Clericis et Ministris 
quibuscumq in et per totam prcedict provinciam ubilibet constitutis ac etiam 
Honorab Caleb Heathcote aruiig et Josia Hunt Eccsia Paroch'lis de Westchester, 
East Chester, Yonkers et Man de Pellham, in dicta Provincia in pro hoc tempore 
Adilibus, Salutem. 

Cum Dilectum in Christo John5m Bartow clericum ad Rectoriam sive Ecclam 
proalem Prcedict de Westchester, Eastchester, Yonkers et Man de Pel ham in 
America jam vacantem prcesentata Rectorem ejusdem Rectorioe Sive Eccla; 
proalis in et de eadem instTtus vobis coujunctim et divisim comitto et fermiter 
injungendo mando, quatenus euadem Johiiem Bartow clericum sive procurat 
suum legitlm ejus nomine et pro se in realem actualem et corporalem posses- 
sionem ipsius Rectorioe sive Ecclce proalis de Westchester, Eastchester, Yonkers 
et Man de Pellham prcedict. Glebarum, Jureumq et pertinentiu suor universe* 
conferatis inducatis inducive faciatis : et defendatis inductum, et quid in pre- 
missis feceritis me aut alium Judicem in hac parte competentum quemcunq 
debite (cum ad id congrue fuentis requisite) certificetis seu sic certiflcet ille ves- 
trum qui proesens hoc mandatum fuerit executus. Dat sub sigillo progat diet 
Provincial decimo nono die Novembris ano salutis millesimo septengentessimo 



"Virtute infra scripti mandati Prcesentia Hugh Farquhar & Thomas Hunt, 
Joseph Haviland, Daniel Clark and Edward Collier nos Guielmus Vesey Clericus 
& Josias Hunt adelis Parochial's De Westchester & Eastchester &c induximus 
Reverandu Johanem Bartow Clericii in Ecclesiam Parochial em De Eastchester 
& Westchester, Yonkers et Man de Pellham et in realem actualem et corpoi atem 
possessionem ipsius Rectorill sive Ecclesice Parochialis et prcedict Glebara juriu. 

a Surrogate's Oflice, N. Y., Lib. vi. 


et pertinentiO suora universone" ejusdum movilus et consuctri divibus solity ano 

Domini 1702 in cujus rei testimonial presentibua Bubscripsimus Die 6to Decem- 

bris Anno supra dicto." GULIELMUS VESEY, neo Eboraci Hector. 

JOSIAII HUNT, Churchwarden. 
Hugh Fakquhab, 

Joseph Haviland, 

Timmas Hunt, 

Dam.. Clakk, 

Edwaed Collieb. 

" We whose names are underwritten doe certifie & declare That on Sunday 
the Oth day of December Anno Dom. 1702, John Bartow, Clerk, after his induc- 
tion, did in the Parish Church of Westchester Read morning and evening service 
according to the exact form by act of Parliament prescribed & immediately after 
the reading of ye aforesaid service did declare his unfeigned assent and consent 
to all and everything contained and prescribed in the book of common prayer as 
the Law in that case directs, before ye congregation on the said day assembled: 
and also did read ye book of ye 39 articles of the Church of England with the 
Ratification, & immediately after ye reading of ye aforesaid articles & Ratifica- 
tion before the Congregation ; did declare at the abovesaid time and place, his 
unfeigned assent & consent to them and to all things therein contained. In testy- 
mouy whereof we who where present have hereunto subscribed our names this 
6th day of December. Annoq Dom 1702 : 

Joseph Haviland, William Vesey, 

H. Collieb, Thomas Hunt, 

Hugh Fabqtjhae, Wiiliam Wii.lett, 

Josiah Hunt, John Williams."-* 

It appears that Mr. Bartow was at first appointed to the parish of 
Rye ; for in a letter to him from the Secretary of the society, the latter 
says : " That the society were displeased for his settling at Westches- 
ter, being by my Lord of London sent for Rye." 6 

" I did, in October last," observes Colonel Heathcote, "give my Lord 
of London my reasons for the necessity of his being settled at Westches- 
ter, the people in that place having been the first in this county who 
desired a minister of the church, etc." c To this Mr. Bartow alludes in 
his first letter to the society: — 


in New Tobk Province, 
4th Nov. 1702. 
Sir: — "My LordCornbury is pleased to fix my abode at Westchester, at the request 
of the vestry, and I suppose I shall enjoy the fifty pound per annum, which is 

a Surrogate's office, X. Y. Rec. of Wills, vol. v. p. 79. SO. 
l> Ilawk3' Xew York MSS. from archives at FulUam. 
c See Col. Heathcote'3 letter, April 10, 1T04. 


settled upon the ministry by act of assembly, though there has been great en- 
deavors made this session to annul that act ; but we are safe, as long as my Lord 
Cornbury is Governor. There is also fifty pounds settled upon the ministry at 
Rye, sixty pounds at Jamaica, sixty pounds at Hempstead, and forty pounds 
per annum at Richmond ; all which places I hope the Reverend and Honorable 
Society wUl take some speedy care to supply with ministers of the Church of 
England. The hundred acres of glebe my Lord of London obtained of her 
Majesty for Westchester, is all a wilderness ; there never was any house upon it, 
nor any part of it cultivated ; the meanest laborer here has three shillings per 
deim wages, so that it will be a vast charge to make it habitable ; what I can 
bestow upon it in my time I will, but I cannot expect the assistance of the 
Society, there being such pressing occasions for ministers. As I had not time to 
furnish myself with books in England, I hope the society will bestow some upon 
me ; or I beg you would be so kind as to send me these following, and let the 
booksellers be paid out of my allowance ; and you will ever oblige, Worthy Sir, 
Your most humble and devoted servant," 

-rU* yht^h? 


" P.S. I have been at great expenses, but I do not grudge it in the service of 
that God who I trust will bless me in my endeavours. We have a small house 
built here for public worship, of boards; but there is neither desk, pulpit, nor 
bell in it. The inhabitants indeed live all upon their own, but are generally 
poor ; my best friend is the gentleman, my Lord of London recommended me 
unto, Col. Graham, who is a very worthy and ingeniuous Gentleman, and a great 
lover of the Church. I have neither Church Bible nor Common Prayer Book, 
which I hope the Society will send me, unto whom I desire you would give my 
humble duty. 

"Mr. Keith, Mr. Ennis, Mr. Vesey, Mr. Mott, Mr. Talbot, and myself, met 
last week at York, to contrive the most proper methods of settling the church, 
at the request of the worthy Col. Nicholson, who gave .£25 towards bearing our 
charges, an account of which you will have."« 

The following letter from Mr. Bartow to the Secretary of the Vener- 
able Society, was probably written in 1702, or the year after; although I 
have given the date as it is in the manuscript, from which it was copied : — 


New York, 1st Dec, 1707: 
Sir: — "After a voyage of eleven weeks, we arrived at New York, Sept. 29th, 
1702, where we found a very mourful town — there dying near twenty persons 
a Hawks' New York MSS from archives at Fulham, voL i . 10, 11. 


daily for some months." I lodged one night in the town, and next day went to 
Col. Grahams*8 in Westchester, and lodged also one night j and the next day 
some of the town of Westchester came for me, and desired me to go along with 
them and give them a sermon the next Sabbath day 6 which I readily consented 
to do, it being in my way to Rye, to which I was designed. Col. Heathcote 
and some of the chief inhabitants being at church, the latter with his approba- 
tion, invited me to stay amongst them ; in regard, it was the County Town, and 
reasonably ought to be supply ed first, which I referred to the determination of 
my Lord Cbrnbury; my goods being on board still, (as 1 remember.) On 
-Monday I returned to York, and Mr. Vesey engaged me to preach for him on an 
appointed fast, that week; after which I returned to Westchester, and preached 
either there or at York every Sunday, until my Lord Cornbury returned from 
Albany, when, with some of Westchester, who were very desirous I should stay 
with them, I went to Jamaica to wait on his Lordship, (who went there by 
reason of the sickness at New York,) to deliver him my credentials and receive 
his commands, which were to continue in Westchester, to which place I was 
soon after called by the vestry, and received instruments of induction from his 
Lordship ; but the troubles that soon followed to separate Eastchestcr and .New 
Rochelle from belonging to Westchester (of which I have given you an account; 
were not inconsiderable." 

"Westchester was not wholly free from the mortal distemper at New York, 
and such as were sick I visited, and baptized one man, (aged forty years) a few 
hours before he died, who seemed thankful that he had at last such a blessed 
opportunity after so long neglect. The first half year being winter, I lodged at 
a public house, preaching once every Sunday, and upon occasion, visiting the 
sick. After Winter was over, I lived at Col. Graham's, six miles from the 
church, and all the summer preach't twice every Sunday — sometimes at West- 
chester and sometimes at Jamaica, on Long Island, about two miles distant from 
Mr. Graham's, at my own charge; nor have I had any board given me since I 
. and once I met with great disturbance at Jamaica. Mr. Hobbart, their 
Presbyterian minister, having been for some time at Boston, returned to Jamaica 
the Saturday night as I came to it, and sent to me at my lodgings (being then 
in company with our Chief Justice, Mr. Mumpesson, and Mr. Carter, her 
Majesty's comptroller,) to know if I intended to preach on the morrow ; I sent 
him answer I did intend it. The next morning the bell rung as usual, but 
before the las: time ringing, Mr. Hoi bait was got into the church, and had began 
his service, of which notice was given me, whereupon I went into the church, 
and walked straightway to the pew, expecting Mr. Hobbart would desist, being, 
he knew, I had orders from the Governor to officiate there— but he persisted, and 
I forbore to make any interruption. In the afternoon I prevented him, beginn- 
ing the service of the Church of England before he came ; who was so surprised, 
when after he came to the church door and saw me performing divine service, 
that he suddenly started back, and went aside to an orchard hard by, and sent in 
to give the word that Mr. Hobbart would preach under a tree. Then I 
perceived a whispering through the church, and an uneasiness of many people— 

a Ttiis is supposed to have been the yellow (ever, although it was not bo called in 1702. 

brought from St. Thomas's, and proved very ratal in New York. 
l> Thi3 wason the 3rd of Oct. 1T02. 


some going out, some seemed amazed, not yet determined to go or stay ; in the 
meantime, some that were gone out returned again for their seats, and then we 
had a Bhameful disturbance, bawling and tugging of seats, shoving one the other 
off, carrying them out and returning again fur more ; so that I was fain to leave 
off till irba nee was over, and a separation made, by which time I had 

lost about half of the congregation, the rest remaining devout and attentive the 
whole time of service ; after which we lock't the church door, and committed 
the key into the hands of the sheriff. We were no sooner got into an adjoining 
house, but some persons came to demand the key of their meeting house, which 
being denye-d, they went and broke the glass window, and put a bo} r in to open 
the door, and so put in their seats and took away the pew cushion, saying they 
would keep that, however, for their own minister ; the scolding and wrangling 
that ensued are by me ineffable. The next time I saw my Lord Cornbury, he 
thanked me, and said he would do the church and me justice : accordingly, he 
summoned Mr. Hobbart and the head of the faction before him, and forbade Mr. 
Ilobbart evermore to preach in that church ; for in regard, it was built by a 
publick tax, it did appertain to the established church, (which it has quietly re- 
mained ever since, and is now in possession of our Rev. Brother, Mr. Urquhart). 
My Lord Cornbury threatened them all with the penalty of the statute, for dis- 
turbing divine service ; but upon their submission and promise of future quiet- 
ness and peace, he pardoned the offence. Not long after this, my Lord requested 
me to go and preach at Eastchester : accordingly, I went, (^ though some there 
had given out threatening words should I dare to come), but though I was there 
very early, and the people had notice of my coming, their Presbyterian minister, 
Mr. Morgan, had begun service in the meeting-house, to which I went straight- 
way and continued the whole time of service without interruption, and in the 
afternoon I was permitted to perform the Church of England service; Mr. M r- 
gan being present, and neither he nor the people seemed to be dissatisfied, and 
after some time of preaching there afterwards, they desired me to come oftener; 
and I concluded to minister there occe a month, which now I have done for about 
three years, and Mr. Morgan is retired into New England. The winter drawing 
on, and finding it too hard for me to ride from Mr. Graham's to attend on my 
ministry on all occasions, I returned to Westchester ; and there being no very 
suitable place for me to board at, I hired a house for a half a year, where I lived 
alone, and had my victuals dressed at a neighboring house ; and at the end of 
half a year, being not permitted to renew my lease, I bought a house of my own, 
and five acres of land, at £100, where (I bless God) I have inhabited ever since 
in the conscientious discharge of my duty, hardly ever missing to officiate on the 
Lord's Day in my parish, and there have dischargee! that duty either in the Jerseys, 
at Rye, or at some other place, excepting thrice by reason of sickness, and twice 
for coldness anel foulness of the weather, wanting a congregation; always 
preaching twice a day in the summer, and once in the winter. I have 
always ready to visit the sick when sent for, and before frequently, if I k;: 
it, not refusing in the time of very mortal diseases, which we have frequently had 
since I came here, few houses escaping either sickness or death, being by night 
and by day, frequently riding more than ten miles a day, I may any twenty. I 
have administered the sacrament of Baptism to a great number of people, young 
and old, and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper publickly, three times a year 


at the three usual feasts, Christmas, Easter, and Whitsunday; to partake of 
which I must confess, I have a - rally about twelve communicants, but 

have administered it to many on their sick and dying beds, who never received 

it before. I take care to catachise the children in the church; and to make 
amends for an omission of that duty at any time, I allow a schoolmaster twenty 
shillings per annum to encourage him to instruct the children in the Church cate- 
chism. I can't repeat to yon the many janglings and contentions I have had 
with Quakers and Dissenters ; nay. I may say with Atheists and Deists, but beg 
you will believe the whole course of our ministry has been very onerous and dif- 
ficult ; and if I have failed in any part of my duty, (as it seems you are in- 
formed,) let me know it in your next, that I may amend. Perhaps there is more 
my duty than I know of, especially if a minister may not be allowed judgment 
of discretion in things that do not respect canonical obedience, but be obliged to 
please singular fancies and humors repugnant to general reason and usage. 

I must also tell you that our church is wainscotted, and in a short time will be 
ceiled over head, and more decently seated, and the communion table enclosed 
with rails and bannisters ■ and am very sorry for that great loss we have had at 
sea of church ornament, not knowing how it may be repaired but by the same 
gracious donors. 

Since my last I have received some old arrears, and hope to have my salary 
here better paid ; when we are well settled, we may inform the remis that they 
must pay their dues. I have obtained of the town of Westchester (on a time 
when it lay in my way to do them service with the Governor) a grant of twenty 
acres of glebe, and three acres of meadow within half a mile of the church; 
which, in time, will be a convenient residence for a minister, and also a small 
share in some undivided land, which will be to the quantity of about thirty acres 
more, but about four miles distant. I shall only add humble thanks and duty 
to the society, and that I remain, &c., &c. TOH\ B YRTOW a 

Colonel James Graham, to whom Mr. Bartow alludes in the above 
letter, was a native of Scotland, and a near relation of James Graham, 
Marquis of Montrose.'' In 1691 he was returned as one of the four 
members of the Provincial Assembly for the City and County of New 
York, and in 1699 was chosen speaker of that body. He was the author 
of the law for the maintenance of the clergy, and settlement of the Church 
in 1693. He was also Recorder of the city of New York from 1693 to 
1700, and subsequently received the appointment of Attorney General 
of the Province. He was elected Senior Warden of the parish in 1703, 

a Hawks New Tori MSS. from archives at Fulham vol. i. 171 i. 175. 

b "The ancient and powerful family of Graham," says Sir Walter Scott, in the Lady of the 
"held extensl ions ta the counties of Dumbarton and Stirling. Few families 

can boast of more historical renown, having claim to three of the most remarkable characters 
In the Scottish annals ; sir John <;: Bine, the faithful and undaunted partaker of the labours 
and patriotic warfare of Wallace, fell in the unfortunate field of Falkirk, in 1898. The cele- 
1 sa of Montrose, in whom )><■ Retz saw realized his absl raci Ideas ofthe heroes 
of antiquity, was the second of these worthies; ami notwithstanding the severity of his tem- 
per, and the vigour with which he executed the oppressive mandates of the Panics, whom he 
serverl,Ido DOthestitate to name, as the third, John Graham, of Claverhouse, Viscount of 
Dundee, whose heroic death, in the arms of victory, may be allowed to cancel the memory of 
his cruelty to the non-conformists, during the reigns of Charles II. and James II." 


and for a time was one of its principal supporters. His residence stood 
on the spot oceupied by the farm house of the late William H. Leg 
I- . of West Farms. He died in 1767, and left several children. 
Augustine was Surveyor General of the Province, and Isabella married 
the Hon. Lewis Morris, of Morrisania. a 

In the vestry book of this parish occurs the following election for 
church officers, about three months after Mr. Bartow's arrival : — 

' ■ Att a meeting held in the Borrough town of Westchester, by the parishioners 
of said parish, pursuant to an Act of General Assembly, entitled an act for the 
settling a Ministry and raising a maintainance for them, and Mr. John Bartow 
being settled minister of said parish, and his maintainance ought to be taken care 
for, do voluntary])- make choice of the Yestry and Church-wardens this 12th day 
of January, in the first year of the Queens Majesties Raigne 1702-3, as fol- 
loweth : — 


Me. Justice Pell, Mb. Justice John Hunt, 

Mi:. Justice Willett, Mr. Justice Graham, 

Me. Justice Josiah Hunt, Mr. Justice Batley. 

Lieutenant Col. Graham, Justice Josiaii Hunt. 


Thomas Baxter, Sen., Joseph Haviland, 

Joseph Drake, Thomas Pell, 

John Archer, Miles Oaklet, 

John Buckbee, Daniel Clark, 

Thomas Hunt, Sen., of West Panne, Peter Le Rot, 

Edward Collier, Clerk Erasmus Allen, Messengerfi 

At a meeting of the vestry, "held this 3rd day of June, 1703, by 

reason of the County Courte, this day its agreed upon by ye Justices and 

ry that they will meet at 12 o'clock on the 5th day of this instant 

month, in order to regulate matters concerning the parish and the main 

tenance of the minister." 

■• Att a meeting held by the Justices & Vestrymen of Westchester, 

a Surrogates Office, 2sew York, Lib, xxvi 13. 
h v.v.-uchester Vestry Book. 
' -rchester Vestry Book. 


Eastchester, Yonckers & the Manor of Pelham, being in one parish or 
division this 5th of June. 1703 : — 


Mi:. Justice Pell, Mb. Justice Drake, 

Mb. Justice Pinkney, Mr. Justice Bayley. 

Me. Justice Hunt. 

Mr. Joseph Drake, Mr. Josepii Havxland, 

Mr. Miles Oaklky, Mr. John Archer, 

Me. Daniel Clark, Mr. Johx Buckbee, 

Mr. Thomas Hint, Jr. 

" It is agreed upon by the said Justices & Vestrymen, that there shall 
be raised fifty-five pounds for the Ministers maintenance & poor of the 
parish. The Quotas for each place is as followeth : — 

Westchester, £27 18 

Morris Anna, 

3 7 


7 13 


1 13 


7 3 


7 G 

To be paid unto the Church-wardens att or before the 15th of December next 
ensuing. EDWARD COLLIER, Clerk."* 

The next letter from Br. Bartow, to the Secretary, bears date : — 

in tlis Province of New York in America, 
May 25th, 1703. 
Sir: — • ■ My Lord Cornbury is very kind in countenancing the settlement of 
the Church of England, and to preserve that maintenance which lias been pro- 
vided bv act of Assembly for orthodox ministers, altho' there have been great 
endeavours to annul] that act since they saw the Church pouring in upon them, 
which endeavours have been chiefly showed, in my parish of Westchester, as 
vs: The act of Assembly doth unite Westchester, Eastchester, Yonckers, 
and the Manor of Pelham, into one parish, who are obliged to contribute the 
sura of -£."0 per annum for the maintenance of an orthodox minister. 

Xow Eastchester, having an independent minister, endeavours at my coming, 
to make themselves a distinct parish, and used many means to prevent and dis- 
turb my settlement at Westchester; but all their attempts were frustrated by my 
Lord Cornbury ; and now they begin to come into better temper, many of them 
having left their minister are joyned with us; nay, the minister himself talk9 
of coming to England for Episcopal orders. 

. Id. 


Another obstruction has been in the manor of Pelham, the inhabitants of which 
are French Protestants, -who have Mr. Bondctt for their minister; a gent in 
Episcopal orders, (but not using the liturgy of the Church of England) and there- 
fore they have the greater plea to sue for an exemption ; but the Quota, West- 
chester, intends to lay annually upon them (viz., £5) is so inconsiderable, and 
the people many and wealth}', that my Lord Cornbury would not hear of any 
alteration; and my Lord has prevailed with Mr. Bondett to cease from any 
further endeavours. 

That land which my Lord of London obtained of her Majestic for the church 
at Westchester, is now claimed by an heir ; the case iu short is thus : — 

John Richardson, of the parish of Westchester, married his daughter Mary to 
Joseph Hadley ; the said John Richardson some time time after in his sickness 
whereof he tiled, makes a will and bequeaths to his said daughter Mary, one 
hundred acres of land. The said daughter dyes also soon after her father, but 
left issue by the said Joseph Hadley, her husbaud. After her death, she dying 
without a will, Joseph Hadley, the husband of the deceased, sells this land to 
Thomas Williams ; and the said Thomas Williams dyes in the possession of the 
said land, intestate, and without heirs, and by that means the land by the judge 
and the jury, was determined to be escheated to the crown. But now George 
Hadley. the son and heir of the said Jos. Hadley, which he begot of the said 
Mary, the daughter of John Richardson, puts in his claim for this land as his 
mother's heir ; alledging that his father could not dispose of his mother's in- 
heritance, (altho' it was not settled upon her by deed of jointure, nor yet be- 
queathed to her and her heirs,) and the heir who was also his father's exect 1 ". 
& admi 1 '., has (as I am informed) received part of the said purchase money 
of the said Williams. I humbly beg you would lay this matter before the 
Society, that they may assist us with timely advice yt ye Church may not loose 
any of her rights. I have been at great charges since I left England, but doubt 
not God Avill provide things necessary for my subsistence ; my earnest desire is 
to answer the glorious ends of my mission, and my greatest circumspection is 
to behave myself so as becometh one employed by so many great and good men, 
that I may never give a reason to reflect ; I have been upon duty ever since I 
came out of England, but as for the proportion and commencement of my salary, 
I thankfully submit it to the pleasure of the Society, for whose health and pros- 
perity 1 shall ever pray, who am worthy sir.« 

Your most humble and obliged servant, JOHN BARTOW." 

The subjoined letter, from Colonel Heathcote to the Secretary, will 
serve to throw additional light upon the early history of this parish : — 


Maxok of Scarsdale, New York, lOTn April, 1704. 
Sir: — "Mr. Bartow showed me the copy of a letter (the original, as he told 
me, being sent to my Lord Cornbury) wherein you acquaint him that the Society 

a Hawks' New York MSS from archives at Fulham, vol. i. 18, 19. 20. In 1704 Mr. Bartow 
received from tho Society £50 per annum, and a benevolence of £30 —see Urst report of Ven- 
erable Propagation Society, issued in 1704. 


were displeased for his settling at Westchester, being by my Lord of London, 
sent for Rye, and that he should get a line or two either from my Lord Corn- 
bury, or, at least, from me, to satisfy him in that matter. I, did in October last, 
give my Lord of London my reasons for the necessity of his being settled at 
Westchester, the people in that place having been the first in this county who 
desired a minister of the Church ; and, being disappointed, might have been of 
ill consequence ; for no sooner was Mr. Bartow arrived, but ye vestry immedi- 
ately came to mc and gave me no rest until I consented to use my interest with 
my Lord Cornbury to have him inducted there ; and the inhabitants of Rye, sup- 
posing Westchester was first to be supply'* 1 , were easy in that matter ; there 
being on one hand, no fear of disobliging the people of Rye, and on the other, 
great danger of hurting the interest of the Church at Westchester, I desired my 
Lord Cornbury to induct him there ; and what I did therein, being intended for 
the best, I beg that the Society would not take amiss. Sir, being favor'd with 
this opportunity, I cannot omitt giving you the state of this county in relation 
to the Church, and shall begin the history thereof from the time I first came 
amongst them, which was about twelve years ago, when I found it the most 
rude and heathenish country I ever saw in my whole life, which called them- 
selves Christians— there being not so much as the least marks or footsteps of 
religion of any sort. Sundays being the only time sett apart by them for all 
manner, of vain sports and lewd diversions, and they were grown to such a 
degree of rudeness, that it was intolerable ; and, having then the command of 
the militia, I sent an order to all the captains, requiring them to call their men. 
under arms, and to acquaint them that in case they would not, in every town, 
agree amongst themselves to appoint readers and pass the Sabbath in the best 
manner they could, till such times as they could be better provided : that they 
should every Sunday call their companies under arms, and spend the day in ex- 
ercise, whereupon it was unanimously agreed on thro' the county, to make 
choice of readers ; which they accordingly did, and continued in those methods 
some time. After which the people of Westchester, Eastchester, and a place 
called Lower Yonkers, agreed with one Warren Mather, and the people of Rye, 
with one Mr. Woodbridge, both of New England, there being at that time scarce 
six in the whole county who so much as inclined to ye Church. After Mr. 
Mather had been with them for some time, Westchester Parish made choice of 
me for one of their church-wardens, in hopes of using my interest with Colonel 
Fletcher to have Mather inducted to ye living. I told them it was altogether 
impossible for me to comply with their desire, it being wholly repugnant to the 
laws of England to compell the subject to pay for the maintenance of any min- 
ister who was not of the national Church, and that it lay not in any governor's 
power to help them ; but since they were so zealous for having religion and 
good order settled amongst them, I would propose a medium in that matter; 
which was, that there being at Boston a French Protestant minister, one Mr. 
Bondett, a very good man, who was in orders by my Lord of London, and 
could preach both in English and French; and the people of New Rochelle 
being destitute of a minister, we would call Mr. Bondett to the living, and the 
parish being large enough to maintain two, we would likewise continue Mr. 
Mather, and support him by subscriptions. The vestry seemed to be extremely 
well pleased with this proposal, and desired me to send for Mr. Bondett, which 



I immediately did, hoping by that means to bring them over to the Church ; 
but Mather, apprehending what 1 aimed at, persuaded the vestry to alter their 
resolutions, and when he came, they refused to call him ; so, that projection fail- 
ing, and finding that it was impossible to make any progress towards settling the 
Church, so long as Mather continued amongst us, I made it my business, in the 
next place, to devise ways to get him out of the county, which I was not long iu 
contriving, which being effected, and having gained some few proselytes iu every 
town, and those who were of the best esteem amongst them, aud being assisted 
by Mr. Vesey and Mr. Bondett, who very often preached in several parts of the 
country, baptizing their children. By these easy methods, the people were 
soon wrought into a good opinion of the Church, aud indeed, much beyond my 
expectation ; and the truth is, nothing is so agreeable to my natural temper, nor 
do I like any way iu making converts so well, as by soft and easy means, in 
convincing men's minds, and satisfying them in all their foolish notions against 
the best of churches ; for as those are not only most agreeable to religion, so 
thej' likewise do the work most effectually ; for when anything of that nature is 
carried on with heat, loose and irreligious men immediately own the faith, and 
turn violent persecutors ; being overjoyed of any opportunity to gratify their 
natural temper, and by the rigour of their proceedings, as well as their vicious 
lives, not only bring a scaudal upon the Church, but prevent its growth ; for all 
men who have any sense of virtue or honor, and might be a means of their con- 
version to bring over many more, abhor to be directed by such guides ; and, 
indeed to do a work of this nature effectually, it ought to be managed with a 
more than ordiuary care, and those on whom the conversion is to be wrought, 
in their infancy must be dealt with as much tenderness as children ; for before 
they are well fixed and rooted, the denying them a rattle or some indifferent 
trifle, very often makes them start, but much more so when anything very mate- 
rial and reasonable in itself is withheld them. A mischief of this nature had 
like to have attended in this county for Westchester parish, which contains about 
sixteen miles in length, wherein there are three towns, in each of which there is 
a small church (viz.) Westchester, Eastchester and New Rochelle, besides a 
place called Lower Yonkers ; and, it being impossible that my one minister 
could take due care of all those places, and then consequently very hard that 
any people should pay to a minister, it was morally impossible for them to have 
any benefit from ; and Rye Parish being under the like misfortune, I brought 
the towns in both parishes, except Westchester, to this result : that they 
should petition the Governor's Council and Assembly, that instead of two 
ministers of the Church, there should be three appointed for the county, and that 
they should live at the most convenient places for the service of the whole 
county, dividing the bread of life so equally, that every town might have their 
fair and equal proportion ; and when, with a great deal of pains, I had brought 
this matter to pass, aud even whilst I was hugging myself with a satisfaction of 
having finished my task in this county, to my wonderful surprise, I met with a 
violent opposition from six or eight warm men of Westchester ; this storm, by 
degrees, run to that height that we were obliged to decline the matter ; however, 
with the blessing of God, nothing shall discourage me, for I neither have nor 
shall he wanting in my best endeavors to preserve this people in a temper to re- 
ceive the Church among them ; and, was I worthy to give my advice in these 


matters, it should be that every minister sent over by the Society should be re- 
quired to send a list of all the inhabitants of their parish, with the towns and 
places of their abodes, dividing the list of each town and place into three dis- 
tinct parts ; in the first, who are the communicants ; in the second, those who 
come to hear them, but do not communicate ; and in the third, which are Quak- 
ers and others who are Dissenters, and that they should be strictly directed con- 
stantly to visit ye Quakers and those who dissent from the Church, and use 
their best endeavors to persuade those who are reconciled to the Church and reg- 
ular in their lives, and do not communicate to receive the sacrament, and to give 
the Society an exact account every six months, at least, what progress they make 
therein ; and further, they should be ordered not to fail preaching in every town 
within their respective parishes, according to the proportion of the inhabitants; 
by this means the Society will have a true account of the growth of the Church, 
and what service is done by those they send over, and the bread of life will be 
equally dealt among the people ; and in case the ministers find that their duty is 
too hard, that they jointly solicit the government that this country might be di- 
vided into three parishes, for one of which there cannot be a better man than 
Mr. Bondett, whom I mentioned in the former part of my letter, whose character 
I have alreadj' very often and fully given to my Lord of London, and will lie 
altogether needless to insert here. We have in this count}- six small towns, viz. 
Westchester, Eastchester, New Rochelle, Mamoroneck, Rye and Bedford— be- 
sides a place called Lower Yonkers, containing about twenty families; and an- 
other, the Manor of Philipsburgh, about forty families. Now, were those three 
ministers appointed for the county, viz. one at Westchester, which is the west- 
ermost part of the county ; another at Rye, which is the eastermost ; and another 
at New Rochelle. which is pretty near the centre ; those dividing their duty 
fairly and equally, the whole county might be taken care of, and the ministers 
not over-burthened. Upon my word, sir, it gives me a great deal of concern, 
when I consider what pains and charge the Society have been and are at to prop- 
agate the Gospel in these parts of the world, and that a gent (I mean Mr. Bar- 
tow, who is a very good man,) should be sent over on that errand to this 
county, which consists of about four hundred families, of which not above forty 
or fifty have any benefit of him ; and should the minister of Rye serve us in like 
manner, not above one-third of the county would be better for all the cost and 
labor bestowed upon us ; and notwithstanding the arguments which are used by 
the men of heat— that the congregation ought to follow the minister, and not he 
the people — it will be time enough to preach up that doctrine twelve or fifteen 
years hence, when perhaps the county won't only be much more willing, but 
more able to maintain six ministers that they can three now ; besides those who 
live some three or four, others seven to fourteen miles from Westchester and 
Rye, tho' once in a great while they might come, I mean the masters and mis- 
tresses of families, yet it will be morally impossible for them to move their chil- 
dren so far, of whom the greatest hopes are, and with whom, by catechising and 
other ways, the most pains ought to be taken. I had once formed a projection 
for fixing schools in this county for the benefit of all the youths therein, in order 
to their being trained up, not only in learning, but in their tender years to 
ingraft them in the Church ; but the storm which was lately raised upon me con- 
cerning Church affairs, made me lay the thought of it aside for a while. How- 


ever, if God is pleased to spare my life a little longer, I will, with His assistance, 
set it on foot, aud hope it will be blessed with its desired effect. I am told it is 
with a great deal of difficulty that any gentlemen are prevailed upon from any 
of the colleges to come over to these parts, and it is no wonder to me that it is 
so; for those who are ingenious men and regular in their lives, and qualified for 
doing any service here, cannot want preferment at home — that for a reined}" 
therein, if it could be so ordered that such of the New England ministers as 
should lie willing to conform, could be ordained here ; it would not be by much 
so great a charge, aud one of them would do as much or more service in bringing 
home the people to the Church, as the best divine which could be sent from 
home. If I am not misinformed, the Society allows those gentlemen which 
come over £60 sterling per annum, and her Majesty is pleased to give every one 
of 'em £20 to buy necessarys for their voyage. Now, was there only £20 laid 
out in proper goods for these parts, it would make £50 this country money, and 
pay for the extraordinary charge of insurance to prevent any risque in permit- 
ting it that way, which, with the allowance of the parishes here, would amount 
to £100 per annum, and would be a handsome benefice ; enough for any who has 
had their education in Boston College, by which means these ministers might 
be supported, with the charge of one as it is now ; nor do I believe there can be 
a more effectual way to do the work than by that method. 

"Since writing the above, and whilst it was waiting for a passage, Mr. Prit- 
chard is arrived, whom my Lord of London has directed to officiate in Rye par- 
ish ; he is a promising young gent, and I question not but will, with God's assis- 
tance, do great service to the Church : he shall not want anything I can do for 
him to make his pilgrimage easy, nor any advice which I can give him to 
answer the end of his coming; and be pleased to present my most humble duty 
to the Society, and most hearty thanks for their favors, and may assure them 
that so long as it shall please God to spare my life, I won't cease ruy best en- 
deavours for the service of the Church, and should with the greatest satisfaction 
imaginable, receive any commands from them on that account. I fear I have 
been already too troublesome, so shall not enlarge further at present, but 
remain, Sir, Your most obedient humble servant, 


The following extracts from the town records relate to the twenty 
acres of land given by Westchester division for a glebe : — 

"At a meeting held by the trustees, and the freeholders and commonality of 
the town of Westchester, the 3rd of August, 1703, &c." 


Josiah Hunt, senb., John* Feeius, jrxE., 

John Fep.eis, Miles Oakley, 

John HrxT, Daxiel Tukxkb, 

Thomas Baxteb, senb., Tnos. II ad en, 

Joseph HrxT, june., John Oakley, 

Joseph Havlland, Robt. Heustis, jxtnb. 

a Hawk's New York 3ISS. from archives at Fulham, voL i, 33 to 39. 


" Whereas motion being made to the trustees, that it would be very necessary 
that BOme land near the town should be laid out for parsonage lands ; and be for 
the use and behoof of such minister as from time to time should be settled 
amongst us: it is therefore voted and agreed upon, by the major part of the 
trustees aforesaid, that there shall be laid out for the use aforesaid, sixteen acres 
of land, that is to say, four acres where Edward Collier's old lott was, and that 
twelve acre division which was laid out to Samuel Palmer and exchanged with 
the town by Israel Honeywell, and that John Hunt, Miles Oakley and Joseph 
Hunt, Junr., shall lay it out."« 

At a subsequent meeting of the trustees, etc., held the third day of 
November, 1703, the minutes are as follows: — 

' • Whereas at a meeting of the trustees, held the 3rd of August last past, it 
•ted, that four acres of Edward Collier's old lott should be laid out in part 
of the parsonage lands ; and the trustees at this meeting, having considered the 
inconveniency at distance from the other part of the land intended for y* pur- 
pose; it is therefore voted and agreed upon by the major part of the trustees 
aforesaid, that the eight acre division of land in the lott fronting to the sheep 

pasture, formerly adjoining to that lott of twelve acres which was Sam P , 

and did belong to Miles Oakley's orphauts, and the aforesaid twenty acres of 
land shall be counted, deemed, and taken for Parsonage lands for ever; any vote, 
agreement, or record of the trustees to the contrary in any wise notwithstand- 
ing, &c," & 

At a meeting held by the Trustees of the Freehold and Commonality of the 
Town of Westchester, the 3rd of May, Annoq Dom. 1704. 

Present : 
John Ferris, senr., Jonx Bayly, 

Thomas Baxter, senr., John Oakley, 

Robt. Huestis, Junr., Thomas Had en, 

Miles Oakley. 

'•It is voted and agreed upon by the trustees aforesaid, that for a further en- 
couragement given to Mr. John Bartow, Rector of Westchester, and his suc- 
cessors, besides the 20 acres of land within the town, already laid out for a 
raage land forever, yet, nevertheless, for the better establishing of the 
Church of England, and benefit of the said Mr. John Bartow and his successors, 
the trustees aforesaid do give and grant three acres of salt meadow, be it more or 
less, lying situate in the town aforesaid, and is butted and bounded asfclloweth : 
— that is to say, on the west side of the great creek between Robert Huestis' mead- 
ow and Edward Ilarden's meadow. Together with a twenty-five pound privilege 
of commonage on the east side of Brunks's River, of all the land which hereafter 
shall be laid out, which said land has been for many years past known by the 
name of the Long Reach. 

Done in behalf of the rest of the trustees, and signed by us." 


a Town Rec, of Westchester, Liber vi. 17. 
b Ibid. Liber, vi. 18, 

c Westchester Town Rec. Lib. vi. p. 44. 


The following extract is taken from a " summary account of the state 
of the Church, in the Province, as it was laid before the clergy, Oct. 5th, 
1704, at New York, &c. 


" Here is a church built, but not finished, being neither glazed nor ceiled. The 
parish of "Westchester is divided into four several districts, viz., Westchester, 
Eastchester, Tankers, and the Manor of Pelham. 

There is £50 settled on the ministers by act of Asssembly. 

There is twenty acres of land given by Westchester division for a glebe. 

There is one Independant Congregation at East Chester, whose minister de- 
signs to leave there, whose congregation upon departure, are resolved to join 
with the Church."" 

Mr. Bartow, writing to the Secretary upon the 24th of May, 1704, 
says : — . 

"The affairs of the Church in this province (thank God) are very prosperous, 
which are greatly owing to the influence of my Lord Cornbury. I have received 
yours, together with the opinion upon the case of the land escheated to the 
Crown, but can give no answer till I have directions from the Governor. Mr. 
Lockier is dead and much lamented. The town of Hempstead, upon Long 
Island, having long expected a missionary from the society, I hope they will 
soon be answered. I beg you would give my most bounden duty and thanks to 
that Revd. and Honorable body, and excuse my abrupt subscription of myself. 
Sir, Your most humble and obliged servant, 


On the 4th of August, 1705, another act of General Assembly was 
passed, entitled: — 

"An act for the better explaining and more effectual putting in exe- 
cution, an act of General Assembly ; entitled, an act for settling a minis- 
try and raising a maintenance for them, in the city of New York, 
Counties of Richmond, Westchester and Queens' County." 

This act, which was ratified by Queen Anne, on the nth of April, 
1706,° fully confirmed Mr. Bartow in all the rights appertaining to his 
own benefice. 

The following extract, from a letter of Mr. Bartow to the Secretary, 
shows what kind of difficulties the former had to contend with, in the 
discharge of his duties : — 

a Hawks' New York, MSS., from archives at Fulham. 

b Hawks' MSS.. from archives at Fulhaui, vol. i. 29. On the 19th of April, 1704, the tnmteea 
of Westchester voted Mr. John Bartow, as a free gift of the town, "a certain piece of 
land at the rear of his house lot, from the corner of his lot next to John Williams, his lot on 
the south-west, and straight upon a line until it comes to the west corner."— Lib. vL Tovw. 
Eec. p. 2'2. 

c Laws of X Y., Ed. by Hugh Gaines, vol. i. 64. 

jjo history of the county of westchester. 

in Hew York, in America, 

Aug. 14, 1706. 
Sir : — " My great business is to plant the Church of England amongst preju- 
diced poor and irreligous people, who are more apt to receive than to give, who 
think it a hardship to pay their dues ; and we dare not use the law for fear of 
bringing an odium on the Church, and on all occasions expect to be civilly 
treated by the minister. My task is greater than I can bear ; I will hold out as 
long as lean with submission to the divine will, who feedeth the fowls of the 
air: trusting He will still feed me, by your means, wh. n you come to be sen- 
sible of our wants. Worthy Sir, Your most devoted and obliged servant, 


The following items are taken from the vestry minutes : — 

"At a meeting of the justices of the vestry, the 6th of March, 1704-5, 
John Williams, late constable for the year 1703, appeared with a receipt 
from Mr. John Bartow, bearing the date 5th of March, 1704, for the 
sum of ^26.10, which is the full quota for the minister's rate in West- 

At a meeting of the justices, church-wardens, and vestry of the parish 
of Westchester, Eastchester, Yonkers, and the Manor of Pelham, this 
1 2th of December, 1706, in obedience to his Excellency, the Governor's 
order, <Scc : — 

• • It is voted and agreed upon by the justices and vestry aforesaid, that the 
parish church in Westchester shall be finished — that is to say, to seal the sides 
up to the wall plates, and lay a board floor, and make two new door cases, with 
doors and window shuts for the windows in said church, the upper windows ex- 
cepted : and whereas, Jeremiah Fowler and Isaac Underbill, presenting them- 
selves to do said work ; the justices and vestry have agreed with them to do said 
work for £17, in good current money of New York, provided that as soon as 
they have laid the under floor and made the doors, and door cases and window 
shuts, they shall be paid to the value of said work, and the remainder of said 
£17, at the finishing thereof: the justices and vestry to find boards, and nails 
and hinges. EDWARD COLLIER, ClerkV 

" At a subsequent meeting held by ye justices, church-wardens and 
vestry, &c, this 23d day of December, 1707, they found it necessary to 
raise ye sumes, which followeth, viz. : — 

To ye minister's rate and collecting, - - - £52 100 

To ye poor, etc. 29 S 

To boards for Eastchester church, .... 500 

To ye clerk of ye vestry, 100 

a Hawks' New York 21SS., from Archives at Fulham, vol. L 120. 







To yc bell ringer. ------- 

To ye collecting of, 

To ye belfry roof of Westchester church, 

To ye sacrament and collection, « ... 

At this period of Mr. Bartow's labors, the Society appear to have 
withdrawn their annual salary of ^50 • whereupon, we find the clergy 
of the Province addressing the Secretary in his behalf: — 


Sir: — "We are informed that the Honorable Society have withdrawn their 
allowance from our Reverend brother, Mr. Bartow, at which we are heartily 
concerned, and think ourselves obliged to recommend him to your favor, as a 
person truly deserving the continuance of your bounty. He has, in short, be- 
haved himself soberly and prudently to the satisfaction of all his people, diligent 
for the good of his Church, and pious and exemplary in his life and conversa- 
tion : we hope his piety and goodness will merit } r our allowance, especially when 
you have considered the necessity ; it being impossible to subsist in the discharge 
of his office, without an established salary from the Corporation. We shall not 
offer any further trouble at present, only pray you to look upon our worthy 
brother to be a sincere good man, and therein you shall oblige, Sir, yours, &c, 

Evan Evans, William Vesey, 

New York, 17 April, 1707. Wit UEQrHART, Elias Neau, 

John Thomas, George Murison." 

The next annual report of Mr. Bartow to the Society, shows that he 
was still laboring with great diligence and success : — 



From Westchester, 
in New York, in America, 
10th June, 1709. 
Sn?: — ctj jj ave p a i,j my vistsin the Jerseys, and preached there three Sun- 
days : 1st, at Topenamus ; 2nd, at Shrewsbury ; 3rd, at Amboy ; and Mr. Sharp 
preached for me once at Westchester. Mr. Evans was at York one Sunday, in 
my absence, and designed to go up and preach for me, at Westchester ; but the 
arrival of the Kinsale from cruising, obliged him to preach on board, so that my 
parish was two Sundays without any ecclesiastical ministration, which they never 
tvere, so near together, since I came. In my way home, I had the honour to be 
in the company of Col. Nicholson, and to receive of him a letter from his Grace 
the Archbishop of Canterbury ; and the same had all the other missionaries, of 
which I shall always retain a grateful sense, as well for the subject matter there- 
in contained as for his Grace's great condescension in casting so favorable an eye 
upon us. I have likewise to tell you that I have this day received yours, dated 

a Westchester Vestry Book. 


1st Feb., 1708-9, with some enclosed rules of the Society, for which I return you 

I find there might be a great many congregations made in the Jerseys, if there 
were Episcopal ministers — but rind no inclinatiou to contribute towards their 
maintenance ; however. I hope yon will not leave them destitute of your assist- 
ance. I know when those who are of the Church can be most prevalent in their 
assemblies, (or if I may so say, Parliament,) they will make some legal provision 
for ministers : but at present the number of the Quakers, Anabaptists, Liber- 
alists, &c, is so great that it cannot be obtained ; but good missionaries will in- 
crease the number of the one. and lessen the other. 

Friday next we have an appointed fast, to supplicate God's blessing on the 
expedition to Canada, which with preparation for Sunday following, when I am 
to administer the sacrament, will not suffer me to add ; but that I shall always 
pray for the success and prosperity of the Society, and remain, 

Sir, your most devoted and obliged servant, JOHN BARTOW. "« 

At the end of two years, Mr. Bartow speaks with thankfulness, of 
having, " by the blessing of Almighty God, been instrumental in making 
many proselytes to our holy religion, who are very constant and devout 
in and at their attendance on divine service ; and, those who were 
enemies at my first coming, are now zealous professors of the ordinances 
of our Church. The inhabitants of our parish live scattered and dis- 
persed up and down in the woods, so that many cannot repair constantly 
to the church, by reason of their great distance from it." Mr. Bartow 
appears, by his letter, to have been in the habit of making collections 
in his church for any very urgent cases of distress. Thus, we have the 
following notices : — 

"Sept. 5th, 1708, came a distressed woman, widow of Maynard, 
through Westchester, who had nine children murdered by the Indians. 
Collected for her in the church, eleven shillings and six pence. The 
following Sunday he made a similar collection for a poor man." 

Upon the 30th of October, 1709, he thus writes : — 

" We want very much a fixed school at Westchester; if Mr. Daniel Clark, my 
neighbour, now in England, should wait upon you, desirous of that employment, 
I recommend him as a person worthy of it; being of good report, a constant com- 
municant, and being a clergyman's son, has had a pious and learned education. 
I pray you would accept my most bounded thanks for your constant favors to me 
and your other missionaries ; we know you expect no returns but our constant 
labours in the Church, which that God would give usability to perforin, and you 
to support, shall be ever the prayer of, Sir, yours, &c, 


a Hawks' New York MSS., from archives at Fulham, vol. L pp. 193 to 195. 
b nawks' New York MSS. from archives at Fulham, vol. i. p. 207. Edward FitZfyeraKl was. 
school-master of Westchester in 1709 ; he was a soldier iuoue of the independent companies, 


At a meeting of the church-wardens, vestrymen, freeholders and 
parishioners of the borough of Westchester, held the ioth day of 
January, A.D. 1709, present: — 

Josefh Hunt, Major William Willbtt, 

Thomas Pinckney, John Hunt. 

The church-wardens chosen and appointed were : 

Joseph Hunt, June., and Jeremiah Fowler. 

For the borough of "Westchester. For Eastchester. 

Miles Oaklet, Isaac Tatlor, 

Thomas Baxter, sen. John Lancaster. 

Thomas Hunt, Nathaniel Tompkins. 

For Tonckers Precinct. For the Manor of Pelham. 

John Archer, Thomas Pell, 

Noah Barton. 

For New Rochelle. 
Anthony Lispenard. 

Collected for the minister, £50 ; for the clerk of vestry, £5 ; for collecting, 
£2 13. The quotas for the different precincts were : 

Westchester, £25 New Rochelle, £8 15 

Eastchester, 9 Pelham, 3 

Tonckers, 8 Morrisania. 3 

"Att a meeting held by ye justices, vestrymen and church- wardens on ye 18th 
of Jany., 1708-9, it was ordered, j l the two church- wardens for this ensueing 
year, shall goe to Mr. Morris to know if yt he will pay his arrearidges, or other 
ways to knowe if y* he will joyne issue with ye parrish to try ye title whether 
his man nor be in ye parrish or not, and make return att ye next meeting."* 

Mr. Bartow writing to the Secretary on the 5th of July, 1710, says: 

Sir : — "Our church at Westchester increases ; that at Eastchester continues 
constant ; we have sometimes Negroes and Indians come to our assembly, and 
behave themselves orderly ; but the slight and contempt of baptism by Quakers 
and many others, I am persuaded keeps them from it ; for when they see so 
many that call themselves Christians, allowed in the disuse of it, and the im- 
morality of many that are baptized, they contentedly remaine unbaptized. I 
have baptized in the year 1709, 42 ; 14 of which were grown persons. I have re- 
ceived a parcel of books writ by the late Rev. Dr. Beveridge, on public praver, 
and the communion, &c M and though there is no advice from whom, I suppose 

a Westchester Vestry Boofc. 


they come from that fountain of piety and charity, the renowned Society, for 
whose gracious assistance in the works of Christ's ministry I remain their debtor, 
and can only desire that God would abundantly reward their pious labours in His 
Church, who am, Sir, yours, &c, JOHN BARTOW." 

Westchester, New York, 5th July, 1710." 

Mr. Elias Neau, a vestryman of Trinity church, N. Y., writing the 
same day to the Secretary, bears the following testimony to Mr. Bar- 
tow's services : — 

" Most honored sir — Mr. Bartow has done a great deal of good here 
these six years, for he preaches about in places where there are no 
ministers, &c." b 

The following is Mr. Bartow's second report for this year : — 


Westciiestek, 30tii Nov., 1710. 

Sir: — "The Rev. Mr. Bondett's conformity has been of good effect; anew 
church is budt in New Rochelle for the service of the Church of England, by 
voluntary contributions : there is some of that place do yet dissent, but the major 
and better part do conform and are zealous. 

I want very much some Common Prayer Books, and Church catechisms : if the 
society will be pleased to bestow any upon us, I pray they may be diiected to 

I have lately baptized a free Negro man and three children, «aU » Negro 
woman servant; but 'tis very rare that these people can be brougfe to have 
any true sense of the Christian religion. 

We have many elderly people that will not be brought to have any concern 
about the necessity of public worship, and yet not withholding their children 
from coming to church : we hope they will not follow the example of their 
parents, many of which have been baptized, and in sobriety, piety, do promise 
zeal and constancy in the Church established. 

I can say no more at present, but that I pray for the success and prosperity of 
the Society, And remain, Worthy Sir, Yours, &c. 


In answer to this letter, the Honorable Society sent the next year, 
■to the Rev. Mr. Bartow, fifty Common Prayer Books, and ^5 worth 
more of small tracts, tending to promote piety and virtue amongst his 
people. " d 

Five months later, he thus communicates the state of his parish : — 

a Hawks' New York MSS., from archives at Fulham, vol, i. 218, 219. 
6 [MO. vol. i. 216, 217. 

c Hawks' New York MSS., from archives at Fulhani, vol. i. 229. 
a Printed abstracts of Veil. Sue. 



Westchester, 31st April, 1711. 

Worthy Sir : — I hope you have had by this time an account of the state of the 
Church at Jamaica, and the troubles Mr. Poyer has met with-all since his coming 
to that place, from more certain information than I can give you. The vestry are 
dissenters from the Church, and refuse still to call him, as the act of Assembly 
directs ; and on that pretence still withold his salary, upon which I only presume 
to observe, that as long as the inhabitants of the parishes here have the power 
of choosing the vestry, the major part of which are Dissenters (by which the 
vestrymen are constituted Patrons to elect, call and present a minister) the set- 
tlement of our churches here is very precarious, and on every vacancy may 
occasion a disturbance ; for should a dissenting minister appear, whom the people 
approved — as it has happened now in the case of Jamaica — I question whether 
any of our parishes, excepting York, would not call him and reject the clergy- 
man. We cannot hope here for a better regulation of the act by our Assemblys, 
who are also generally Disseaters ; but hope that you will think of some methods 
to establish the Church of England in this Province. 

I thank God my own parish are very well affected to our Church at present, 
but we know not how soon the old leaven may work again ; prejudice and 
education are mighty tyrants upon men's manners ; we have very few but what 
have been educated Dissenters, and have imbibed prejudices therein, and we 
cannot be secure when they will be thoroughly worn out : therefore, should 
be extremely glad if my Lord Bishop of London, or the Society, were the patrons 
of our churches. 

I have baptized, in the year 1710, 36 persons. Our church is pretty well 
finished, with seats and rails, and bannisters about the altar. Our congregation 
rather increases both in hearers and communicants, but our vestr} r aie the major 
part Dissenters ; they will part with no money but barely what the Assembly 
has allowed for the maintenance of the ministers and poor, so that we are un- 
provided of a clerk — none being willing to atend constantly without rare allow- 
ances ; formerly the vestry would allow something, but now they wholly refuse 
it, being encouraged by the success of Jamaica. It would add to the regularity 
and decency of our worship, if the society would allow £40 or £50 per annum, 
to a church clerk, and leave it at the discretion of a minister to choose him, and 
to have power to turn one out and choose another, as he saw cause; and the 
society order the salary to be paid him by the minister, that no opposition may 
be made when a better may be gotten. « Sir, yours, &c. 


The Venerable Society's abstracts for 17 13, say: — 

" Mr. Charles Glover is appointed schoolmaster at Westchester, with 
a salary of j£i& per annum, as he is recommended under the character 
of a person sober and diligent, well affected to the Church of England, 
and competently skilled in reading, writing, arithmetic, psalmody and 

a Hawks' New-York MSS., from archives at Fulham, vol. i. p. 249, 250, 251. 


the Latin tongue, provided he comply with the society's rules, in send- 
ing certificates of the number of his scholars."* 1 

The next year, Mr. Bartow writes as follows :— 


Westchester, April 14, 1714. 

Sir :— "I have sent you enclosed, an account of the building of our churches, 
and how they have been supplied, signed by those who were yesterday at our 
vestry meeting, and have not leisure to get more hands: the ship (as we hear) 
being ready to sail. 

I have had some old arrears, £ 9 6 9, due to me, which I have been often try- 
ing to get, but could not ; until our present governor, upon my complaint, was 
pleased to send a threatening letter to our vestry, which made those readily com- 
ply to annex it to the church rate for this year, which said sum I have given to 
the Church at Eastchester and Westchester, towards making and rectifying of 
pews and seats. 

The present of books the Society has sent, was very gratefully received by me 
and by those to whom they are given. 

The Common Prayer Books are the most acceptable to those who love the 
Church ; and I could not avoid giving offence, having not enough for all. 

The measles have been epidemical throughout the whole county this winter — 
and having not had them myself, nor one in the family, and the distemper prov- 
ing very mortal, I declined visiting and baptizing a dying child ; if complaint be 
made, I hope the society will not be offended. The parent said he would not 
defer baptizing a child so long again. He is one in the scheme, in number, of the 
half Quakers. Sir, in the last clause of the certificate of the vestrymen, you will 
find that Eastchester was made a distinct parish from Westchester, in 1700 ; the 
reason whereof, I understand, was this, (viz.) the people of Eastchester being 
general^ Presbyterians, and wishing to have a minister of their own, petitioned 
the Assembly that they might be made a distinct parish from Westchester, (to 
which they were before annexed by act of Assembly,) and obtained an act of 
separation ; but when I came among them, they were so well satisfied with the 
liturgy and doctrines of the Church, that they forsook their minister, and have 
ever since professed themselves members of the Church of England, (excepting 
a very few who are rigid Independents,) and they pay their proportion of the 
fifty pounds per annum, as was allotted them by the first act of Assembly. 

If the Society would be pleased to send over one of the few youths of the 
Hospital, with an allowance of five pounds per annum, to teach the children, 
sometimes at Yonckers, and sometimes at Eastchester, I know the inhabitants 
would allow him j£20 per annum more of this country money ; and it would be 
of excellent use, if he proved sober and diligent and well affectioned to our 

I most gratefully acknowledge the piety, zeal, and generosity of the illustrious 
Society, for their repeated and continued instances of sincere love unto Christ 
Jesus, in spreading and supporting His religion with indefatigable care and im- 
mense charges. And remain, Sir, &c., b JOHN BARTOW." 

a Printed abstracts of Yen. Soc. 

b Hawks' New York MS3., from Archives at Fulham vol. i, pp. 473, 474. 


From the society's abstracts we learn, that "in 1714, by the blessing 
of God on Mr. Bartow's ministry at Westchester, Eastchester, Yonckers 
and the Manor of Pelham, where there were formerly very few of the 
Church communion, there was visibly a very great reformation of man- 
ners."" 1 



Westchester, Feb. 9th, 1716. 
Worthy Sir : — "I have preached several funeral sermons since I came here, 
and have not received anything, save once, a table for the communion was given 
me by a joiner, having preached a sermon at his child's funeral."'' 

In answer to certain enquiries, Mr. Bartow again addressed the Sec- 

retarv : 



Westchester, Sept. 12th, 1717- 
Worthy Sir : — '"The church at Eastchester was built about twenty-two years 
since, aud supplied always by a Presbyterian minister till about one year after 
my coming here, when they embraced the Church of England, and accepted of 
me for their minister ; and though they had obtained an Act of Assembly under 
the government of Lord Bellamont, to make them a distinct parish, yet they 
pay their quota of fifty pound per annum to me, according to the first establish- 
ment. This conformity I acknowledge, greatly owing the measures of my 
Lord Clarendon, then our Governour. 

2. There is no parsonage house nor glebe. The church at Westchester was 
built about twenty years since, and supplied about two years with a Presbyterian 
minister, who had left them before I came. There is no parsonage house, but 
twenty-three acres of glebe given to me and my successors, of the Church of 
England, which is now well worth one hundred pounds, as improved by me; 
scarce worth thirty pound, when I had it first. I have likewise obtained for the 
church a twenty-five pound share of an undivided tract of land called Long 
Reach, the title of which has been long controverted between the towns of East 
and Westchester, which will be about thirty acres more if Westchester be pos- 
sessed ; but the dispute holds still, without signs of a determination. 

3. Yonkers has no church ; but we assemble for divine worship sometimes in a 
house of Joseph Betts, deceased, and sometimes in a barn, when empty — but the 
people begin to be in a disposition to build a church. 

The other of your letters was dated 14th of May, 1716, wherein you say the 
Society have ordered you to acquaint me, and the rest of the brethren, the clergy, 
that at our next meeting we should inform them if any of our brethren are dis- 
affected to the government of King George ; and having had a meeting since, 
not long before, can only say, that 1 am well assured there is not one clergyman 
in this Province, but what is well affected to the government of his Majesty, 
King George, whom God bless. " c 

a Printed abstracts of Ven. Prop. Soc. 

6 Hawk.-;' New York XSS., from archives at Fulham, vol. i. 519. 

e Hawks' New York MSS , from archives at Fulham, vol. i. p. 245, 525. 


Mr. Bartow baptized (in the year 17 18) "thirty-two persons; two of 
whom were grown persons, and one negro man."' 1 
The Society's abstracts for 17 19 say: — 

" To Mr. William Forster, schoolmaster at Westchester, who has been 
recommended as a person very well qualified to instruct the youth in 
the principles of religion and virtue, ten pounds per annum is allowed ; 
and a gratuity of ^10 has been given him, in consideration of his past 
services and his present circumstances." 6 

From the Rev. Mr. Bartow, minister of Westchester, in the same 
Province, "that, in the year 17 19, he had baptized twenty-two, one of 
which was an ancient woman." 

From Mr. Forster, schoolmaster at the same place, " that he has at 
present thirty-five scholars, whom he catechises every Saturday, and 
also every Sunday that Mr. Bartow goes to another part of the parish. 
together with all others who will attend, and has good success ; which is 
also attested by the minister and chief inhabitants of Westchester."^ 

In 1720 the different quotas for the Church and poor of the Parish 
stood thus : — 

Westchester, £37 



Eastchester. £12 14 


Yonckers, 1 1 



Newliochelle, 12 14 


Pelham, 4 



Morrisania, 4 10 

The Society's abstracts, for 1720, say: — 

" That letters have been received from the Rev. Mr. Bartow, minis- 
ter at Westchester, in the Province of New York, that the number of 
his Communicants increases, though some are dead or removed to other 
towns; and that he baptized in the year 1720, twenty-five — five whereof 
were grown persons." 

Also, "from Mr. Forster, schoolmaster at Westchester, in the Prov- 
ince of New York, that he takes all the care he can of the children which 
are sent to him, and has upwards of thirty scholars, which he instructs 
in the Church Catechism." 6 

In 1 72 1, Mr. Bartow informs the Society: — 

"That, since the death of Mr. Bondett, he preaches at four towns: 
Eastchester, Westchester, Yonckers and New Rochelle, and does other 
occasional offices ; and that the number of the baptized, in the year 
172 1, was twenty-eight — two whereof were grown persons."-^ 

a Printed abstracts of Ven. P. Soc. for 1718. 

b Ibid. 1719. 

c Ibid. 

d Printed abstracts of Von. P. Soc. 

e Printed abstracts of Ven Prop. Soc. 

/ Ibid. 


The next year the Society allowed " Mr. Bartow, for his service 
at New Rochelle, ten pounds." In his report for 1722, Mr. Bartow 
says : — 

" That they are repairing the church there (Westchester) with the vol- 
untary contributions of the people, procured chiefly by the zeal and 
care of Mr. Forster, the schoolmaster there; that in the year 1722, he 
baptized twenty-one persons, four whereof were adults, one a Negro 

"In the year 1723, he baptized forty-five, four whereof were grown 
persons. 6 

Mr. Forster reports : — 

" That the number of his scholars is as usual, and that he has very 
good success in his teaching, and that they are this summer building a 
new school- house; and that he is raising an annual subscription for re- 
pairing and finishing the church."' 7 



[quebies to be answebed by eveet ministee.] 


in the Province of New York, in America^ 

July 13, 1724. 

Q. How long is it since you went over to the plantations as a missionary ? 

A. Twenty-two years. 

Q. Have you had any other church before you came to that which you now 
possess ; and if you had, what church was it, and how long have you been 
removed ? 

A. No other here ; but I was inducted to the vicarage of Pampsford, in Cam- 
bridge, May 28th, 1697, and removed here by leave of Dr. Patrick, then Bishop 
of Ely. 

Q. Have you been licensed by the Bishop of London to officiate as a mission- 
ary, in the government where you now are? 

A. I was licensed by the Right Rev. Father in God, Henry, Lord Bishop of 
London, June 22d, 1702, to officiate as a missionary. 

Q. How long have you been inducted into your living? 

A. I was inducted to my living here, Nov. 19, 1702, Lord Cornbmy being then 

Q. Are you ordinarily resident in the parish to which you have been inducted? 

A. I have been resident in Westchester ever since I came. 

Q. Of what extent is your parish, and how many families in it ? 

A. My parish is in length about twelve miles, in breadth about seventy : about 
two hundred families. 

a Printed abstracts of Venerable P. Soc. 

6 Ibid. 

e Printed abstracts of Ven. P. Soc. for 1723. 


Q. Are there any Infidels, bond or free, within your parish, and what means 
are used for tlu'ir conversion? 

.1. We have Infidels, bond and free, who have liberty to come to the churches, 
and are not denied baptism when fit and desirous of it ; some of which I have 

Q. How oft is divine service performed in your church, and what proportion 
of the parishioners attend it ? 

A. Divine service is performed in one of our churches every Sunday, when 
I have about seventy auditors in the afternoon — there being not quite so many 
in the morning, by reason that those who live at a distance seldom come in the 

Q. How oft is the sacrament of the Lord's supper administered ; and what is 
the usual number of communicants ? 

A. The Lord's supper is administered by me, in the church at Westchester, on 
Christmas day, Easter and Whitsunday, and at other times, occasionally in other 
places of the parish, and we have usually eighteen communicants, more or less. 

Q. At what time do you catechize the youth of j'our parish? 

-1. I have been wont to catechize the youth on Sundays in the afternoon, be- 
fore we had a settled school ; but now I leave that office to Mr. Forster, the 
Society's schoolmaster, who not only catechizes in the school, but in the church, 
when I am absent, all that will come. 

Q. Are all things duly disposed and provided in the church, for the decent and 
orderly performance of divine service ? 

A. We have all things decent, excepting the surplice. 

Q. Of what value is your living in sterling money, and how does it arise ? 

A. The value of my living is £50 sterling of New York money; which is 
almost £32 10, sterling, paid not without some difficulty and loss. 

Q. Have you a house and glebe ; is your glebe in lease or let by the year, or 
is it occupied by j-ourself ? 

^4. I have twenty-three acres of glebe in my occupation, but no parsonage 
house. I lived at my first coming in an hired house, in expectation of a par- 
sonage house ; though talk't of to be built, but finding it would not be effected 
two years ago I purchased one. 

Q. Is due care taken to preserve your house in good repair, and at whose ex- 
pense is it done ? 

A. I live in my own house adjoining the glebe, and have always repaired it 
at my own expense. 

Q. Have you more cures than one; if you have, what are they, and in what 
manner are they served ? 

-1. I have four towns under my cure — Westchester, Eastchester, Yonkers, and 
the Manor of Pelham, (of which New Rochelle is a part) — in whose churches I 
officiate on Sundays, according to their several quotas, on the payment of £50 
per annum. I preach at Westchester every Lord's day, excepting every fourth 
Sunday at Eastchester, three times in the year at Yonkers, and so often as I can 
at New Rochelle. 

Q. Have you in your parish any public school for the instruction of youth ; if 
you have, is it endowed, and who is the master? 

A. We have a pubiic school in Westchester, of which Mr. Forster is the soci- 


ety's schoolmaster, and we have private schools in other places; no endowment ; 
some families of the Town of Pelharn that are adjacent, come to Eastchester 

Q. Have you a parochial library: if yon have, are the books preserved and 
kept in good condition ? Have you any particular rules and orders for the pre- 
serving of them ? Are those rules and orders duly observed ? 

A. We have no parochial library. 



Rector, dec, of WesicJiester.^ 
In his report to the Secretary, Mr. Bartow observes : — 

" That the church is much in the same condition as when he wrote 
last; and that in the year 1724, he baptized thirty- nine, two whereof 
were grown persons.' 


The subjoined extract is from a letter of his to the Secretary. The 
Rev. Mr. Talbot mentioned in the beginning of it, was dismissed from 
the society's sendee for alledged Jacobitism : — 


Province of New Yoke. 
May 4th 1725. 
Sib: — " I am creditably informed that the Society have discharged the Rev. 
Mr. Talbot from being any longer their missionary : whereby the fruits of the 
pious bequest of the late Archbishop of Canterbury do descend to me, as being 
the next oldest in their service, of that province, till by the providence of God 
we have bishops here lawfully established. Nothing is too great for God to give, 
even to the undeserving, andtherefore I humbly and thankfully should accept 
it of His gracious providence ; but be it at the disposal of the most Rev. and 
Honorable Society, as seems by an abstract of their proceedings, Anno 1714—1 
should not presume to ask it of them, nay, scarce desire it in my private thoughts 
being conscious of my unworthiness, and enjoined to be content in my condition, 
in which I remain, still praying to God for His blessings on their Christian labors. 
Sir, Y'our most obedient. &c, 


Probably the last communication the Society ever received from Mr. 
Bartow, is the following : — 

a Hawks' New York MSS. from archives at Fulham, vol. i. 635. 

b Printed abstracts of Yen. Soc. 

« Hawks' New York MSS., from archives at Fulham, vol i. p. 64. 



Westchester, October 6th, 1725. 
"Worthy Sir : — "There being nothing happened extraordinary here, relating 
to the Church siucc I writ last ; (saving the death of the late Rev. Mr. Thomas, 
of Hempstead, which church with that at Rye, are supplyed by the zealous 
labours of the Rev. Mr. Jenny) I can only, as in duty bound, repeat my thank- 
ful acknowledgment for the Society's allowance, which is always duly paid by 
their treasurer, and informing you that the pulpit and waiuscoat of the church at 
Eastchester, was since decently paintc and a new gallery built, and the Presby- 
terian minister when he comes, not permitted to officiate therein. That God 
would bless the labours of the most Rev. and Honorable Society, is &c. 

Sir, Your most obedient, etc. 


This excellent minister died at Westchester, in 1726. Nothing now 
remains to mark the site of his tomb ; but one thing is certain, ' : that he 
who was with him in his last hour, and made his bed in his sickness, 
will watch over the precious dust till He shall bid it rise." 

"So pious, just, and even, as if he meant' 
His name should be his marble monument." 

"Mr. Bartow," says Dr. Hawkins, "continued in the discharge of his 
important duties for the long period of a quarter of a century. He was 
the instrument of bringing many separatists bac*. to the Church, and ad- 
mitting into it many hitherto careless adults. He likewise gave much of 
his time to the instruction of the poor negroes. By such long and faith- 
ful services, he secured the general esteem of his people." 6 

In 1705 he married Helena, second daughter of John Reid, Esq., of 
Middrew Castle, parish of Kirkleston, Scotland • by this lady he left 
issue six sons. Theophilus his second son, was the father of the Rev. 
Theodosius Bartow, of New Rochelle, whose grandsons, were the late 
Rev. Theodore B. Bartow, chaplain in the U. S. Navy, and the late 
Rev. Henry B. Bartow. John Bartow, the eldest son of Theophilus, 
and brother of Theodosius, was the grandfather of the late Robert 
Bartow of Pclham, and the late Edgar J. Bartow, the founder of Holy 
Trinity church, Brooklyn Heights, L. I., who died at Morristown, New 
Jersey, Sept. 6th, 1S64, leaving by his wife, Henrietta C. Pierrepont, 
Henrietta Pierrepont, and the Rev. Evelyn Bartow, of Baltimore, Md.. a 
grand-daughter of Theodosius. Fanny L., married the late Rev. George 
A. Shelton, of Newtown, L. I. 

The Rev. John Bartow purchased, April 6th, 1722, of John Mash 

a Ibid, voi. 1, pp. 86 . 

b Hawkins' Hist. Xotic-s of the Missions of the Church of England, p. 27 

To face page 350. vol. 11. 

Arms : — Dor, a la bande de sable, charges dc trois bezants (Urgent, accompaquec dc six anuelets dc gules, sais en orle. 

Doctor Thomas Bartow, a physician of Croiliton,_Grace burled in the churchyard of the 

Devonshire, England, 1G72, of thu Bertants of I Holy Cross, Credlton, 167G 

Rev. John Bartow, A.M. , Vicar of Pampisford, = Heleua, daughter of Hon. John Reid, of 

England, founder and first rector of St. Peter's 
church, Westchester. Born at Crediton, 1673; 
died in Westchester. 17-:5 

Niddey Castle, Scotland and one of the 
early settlers, of Freehold, N. J. 

Anthony Bartow, bant, in the ciiuveh 
of the Holy Cross, Crediton, 1673; 
died young 

Mary Bartow, bapt. in thc_I)octm- Raskins 
church of the Holy of Unglaud 

Cross, 1675 

ThomiiH Bartow, bapt. In the 
church of Hie Holy Cross, 

Thomas, of Amboy, = 
a lawyer, b. 1709- I 
d. 1732 

Theophilus, of West- = Bathsheba 
Chester, b. Aug. 17, 
1711, buried in the 
Bartow ground 

Thomas, of Philadelphia, ^Sarah 
only child, born 1736 Benezet 

Theodosius, of Shrews-_Ann Stillwell, who John, lawyer, of West- 
bury, a lawyer, b. 1712; I married secondly, Chester, born 1715; 
died 1746 Pierre deVismes died unmarried, 1802 

Anthony, of West- ^Charity, da. of 

Col. James Marcus = Theudusia, only child, „Col. Aaron 
Prevost, d. 1779 born 1746 Burr 

Mary -. John Bartow, of_Ann Euphemia, mar. Margaret, 

Rev. Theodosius, Rector = Jemima Theophilus, 

1 Pell 

Daniel White, 


Hon. Eben- o 

M. D. 


ezer White R 

Mary _Ilasd, of Wesl . I'larlna, da. of 

Tarau Bom 
died in 

IMl. III. '\ 


Basil, I'liinlii miii, nl Mary Clarlna, mar. Helena, Ella A.„Biisll John 
\\ I'Htell, ■sum. j Km luw linn. Anthony d. y. Honey- I of West- 
L. Underlilll well Chester, 

b. 1770 


and Rosamond his wife, the farm now owned by the late Alderman 
Abraham Hatfield, where he resided until his death in 1726; a small 
spot was reserved by Mr. Bartow for the interment of his family." Here 
rest the remains of his sons, Theophilus, George, John, Anthony, Basil, 
and four infants ; other members of the family were interred here down 
to 1 8 16, when the last interment was made viz. : John Bartow of Pel- 
ham. At the time the late proprietor purchased the farm, the cemetery 
was enclosed by a fence with several mounds and tombstones in it, this 
was disturbed, the land ploughed and the tombstqnes thrown aside. 

The Society's abstracts for 1725, says: — "That among other sums 
granted, was a gratuity of fifty pounds which the Society have made to 
Mrs. Bartow, the widow of the late Rev. Mr. Bartow, a missionary of the 
Society at Westchester, in the province of New York, in consideration 
of her husband's good behaviour and dilligence in the Society's mission, 
for twenty-three years and upwards, and having six sons and a wife un- 
provided for." 2 ' 

Mr. Bartow's last will and testament was made on the 24th of Janu- 
ury, 1725, but not proved until the 1st of April, 1727 : — 


Is the name of God Amen, the twenty-fourth of January, in ye twelvth year 
of the reign of our Sovereign Lord, King George, Annoq Dom, one thousand seven 
hundred and twenty-five. I, John Bartow, of the Burrough Town of Westches- 
ter, in the County of Westchester, and Province of New York, Clerk, being sick 
and weak in body, but of sound and perfect memory, praise be given to God 
therefore, and considering the uncertainty of this transitory life, do make this 
my last Will & Testament in manner and form following, that is to say : First, 
and principally, I commend my soul to Almighty God my creator, assuredly 
believing that ffly sins will be remitted, and that I shall be saved by the precious 
death and merits of my blessed Saviour and Redeemer, Christ Jesus ; and my 
body to the earth, to be buried at the discretion of my ex'tors, hereafter named : 
and touching such worldly estate as God hath been pleased to bestow upon me, 1 
do hereby give and dispose of the same in manner and form following, that is to 
say : First, I hereby give and bequeath unto my beloved wife, Helena, one 

a In a warrantee deed bearing date May 8th, 1S06, Basil J. Bartow and Eliza Ann, his 
wife, diil convey to Levi Caib, all those certain pieces or parcels of land situated, <fcc, in the 
Town of Westchester containing 130 acres of land, more or less, excepting three English 
square rods of ground, which has heretofore been used as funeral ground ; and reserving 
nevertheless to the said Basil J. Bartow and his representatives, and the family in general, 
of the Bartows, the free right to pass and repass, in, by, and through the premises hereby 
granted from the above mentioned highway, for the use" and enjoyment of the same three 
rods of ground.— County Kec. Liber, N. J , p. 443. 

b Printed abstracts of Venerable Propagation S >cit-ty, from ISth Feb., 1725, to 17th Feb., 
1726, •• At a meeting of the Trustees fortheBorongh of Westchester &c, the 6th day of March, 
1726-7, the committee appoinied to make report of the persons who had made encroach- 
ments upon the sheep pastures, gave in the name of Mr. Bartow and others, whereupon, 
Mr. Forster appeared in behalf of ye orphants of Mr. John Bartow, yt what they have taken 
in upon ye Bheep pasture, yt they will leave out when they rectify ye fences."— Westchester 
Town Kec. Lib. ix. 187-188. 


equal third part of all my personal estate for the use of her, her heirs, and assigns 
for ever. Item, I hereby will and order that my funeral charges, and all my just 
debts be paid out of the remainder of my personal estate within convenient time 
after my decease, by my executors hereafter named. Only it is hereby provided, 
that whereas, John Mash, of Westchester abovesaid, boatman, for and in consid- 
eration of my becoming bound together with the said John Mash, at his special 
instance and request, and for the proper debt of the said John Mash, by a certain 
obligation in the penal sum of four score pounds, current money of New York, 
with condition for the payment of forty pounds of like current money, at a 
certain day in the said condition exprest, and for other considerations, did by a 
certain deed, indented under his hand and seal and the hand and seal of Rosa- 
mond, his wife, dated the sixth day of April, anno dom. one thousand seven 
hundred and twenty-two, convey unto me a certain Home Lot, scituate in said 
Westchester, with its appurtenances, and a twenty-five pounds priviledge of 
commonage in said town. If the said John Mash, his heirs, executors, or ad- 
ministrators, do not well and truly discharge and pay off the said obligation and 
all sums of money due thereon, within one year next after my decease, I hereby 
order my executors to sell the said lott and priviledge, and to apply the money 
arising by the said sale towards discharging of my debt. Item, I give unto my 
beloved wife, the use of all the remaining part of my personal estate, except what 
is herein afterwards expressly disposed of, during her widowhood. And if my 
said wife shall many again, (if her husband shall immediately, upon their mar- 
riage, give good security to my children or their guardians, that all such part of 
my personal estate as shall remain in my wi