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The Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument, Manila. 
















Copyright, igo5, igo8, igi4, by 








Ten years have passed since this work was 
adopted for the pubHc schools of the Phihp- 
pines. These years, sown with fresh events, new 
ideals, and many changes in the administration of 
the government of the Philippines, make necessary 
a new and completely revised edition of this book. 
It has been necessary to omit and condense some 
of the material contained in the former editions, 
in order to make room for a chapter covering the 
past decade. The long service which this book has 
rendered seems to justify the selection of material 
and method of presentation employed in the former 
edition. The lapse of years, however, has brought 
changes which make it desirable to readjust the 
emphasis placed on both the more remote and the 
nearer past. The following remarks from the 
preface to the first edition are still an appropriate 
introduction to this l:)ook. 

"The period to 1660 occupies nearly one-half 


viii PREFACE. 

of the book. For two centuries after that date 

there is httle in Phihppine history that was not 

present, in principle, in the foundations laid by the 
Spanish conquerors. The chapters relating to this 

epoch discuss the material topically rather than 

chronologically, in the conviction that themes such 

as 'the galleon trade,' the 'encomienda' system, 

and the like gain in clearness and interest by this 

method of treatment. 

"Necessarily, in so short a work, there are many 
omissions. The principle which has governed in 
the selection of events has been the growth of the 
Filipinos toward civilization and self-government. 
An effort has been made to explain in an elementary 
way the origin and results of the more important 
revolts against Spanish rule. Along with this 
is given some account of the agricultural and 
commercial development of the Islands. Thus 
the struggle to live and the strife for free- 
dom are the two underlying themes of the 

"Many of the questions with which Philippine 
history is concerned are darkened by bitter con- 
troversies, religious and political, extending to the 
present day. It is quite possible, therefore, that 
errors of fact or judgment have crept into these 


pages. Ill a land jarred by the shock of many 
conflicting nationaHties. where a new poHtical 
structure is rearing itself from the ashes of the 
old, it cannot be expected that the past will have 
the same message for all. 

"In large measure this book has been based on 
original sources. The author is particularly in- 
debted to Blair and Robertson's The Philippine 
Islands,' that invaluable collection of original docu- 
ments relating to the Philippines. Most of the 
quotations relating to the period 1493- 1600 
have been taken from this work; in a few cases 
with a modification of the phraseology of the 
translations, for the sake of simplicity of 

The Author desires to renew his expressions of 
obligation to those who have assisted him in the 
preparation of this work, in particular Mr. Emer- 
son Christie, of the Ethnological Survey for the 
Philippine Islands; Mr. Jesse George, formerly 
prosecuting attorney of the City of Manila; Dr. 
David P. Barrows, of the University of Califor- 
nia ; as well as many others. 

Finally, he would extend from the shores of 
these other islands of the Pacific his felicitations 
to those who teach and those who study these 


pages. Time and distance will never lessen his 
kindly recollection of the Filipinos and the Philip- 

Prescott F. Jernegan. 
HiLo High School, 

HiLO, Hawaii, April i, 1914. 





Resources of the Philippines — The Study of History — 
Geography and History — Luzon — The Visayas — 
Mindanao — The First Inhabitants — The Malayans — 
The Igorots — Head-hunting — The Place of Woman 
— The Christian Peoples — The Moros — The Sulu 
Archipelago — Summary I 



Village Government — Life in Ancient Times — War and 
Robbery — The Headmen — The Freemen — Slaves — 
Causes of Enslavement — Crimes — Discovery of a 
Thief — Dress and Ornaments — Tattooing — Weapons 
— Commerce — Writing — Civilization — Amusements — 
Marriage Customs — Religion — The Great God — The 
Worship of Anitos — Household Gods — Nature Spir- 
its — Prayers — Good and Bad Anitos — Heaven — The 
Soul — Priests and Priestesses — Religious Customs of 
the Cebuans — Conclusions — Summary 20 



European Trade with the East — A Sea-route from Eu- 
rope to India — Ferdinand Magellan — The Demarca- 
tion Lines — Magellan and Charles I — Magellan Sails 
— Wreck and Desertion — The Pacific — Discovery of 




the Philippines — First Mass in the Philippines — Ma- 
gellan at Cebu — Baptism of the Cebuans — Death of 
Magellan — Massacre of Spaniards at Cebu — Elcano 
Sails Around the Globe — Demarcation Line of 1529 
— Expedition of Villalobos — Summary 39 



The King's Command — Andres de Urdaneta — Legazpi — 
1 he V^oyage of Legazpi — Arrival in the Philip- 
pines — The Settlement of Cebu — Legazpi's Treat- 
ment of the Cebuans — Legazpi "Adelantado" — First 
Expedition to Luzon — Juan de Salcedo — Second Ex- 
pedition to Luzon — Legazpi Founds Manila — Death 
of Legazpi — Conquest of Luzon by Salcedo — Sum- 
mary 52 



Poverty of the Victors — The Encomiendas and Enco- 
nifuderos — The Tribute — Injustices of the Enco- 
menderos — Early Revolts — The Protest of Rada — 
Answer of Lavezaris — King Philip Forbids En- 
comiendas — Progress of Religion — The Encomien- 
das in 1591 — The Pope Forbids Slavery — The Ar- 
rival of the Friars — Character of the Early Friars — 
What the Friars Taught — The First Spanish 
Schools — Reasons for the Rapid Conversion of the 
Filipinos — Summary 62 



Lavezaris, Governor — Distress of the Spaniards — De 
Sande, Governor — Conquest of Brunei — Dreams of 
Conquest — Better Days — Ronquillo de Penalosa, 



Governor — The "Residencia" — Union of Portugal 
with Spain — Expeditions to Borneo and Ternate — 
Japanese Pirates — The Fihpinos' Part in Spanish 
Conquests — Summary 76 



The First Bishop of Manila — De \'era, Acting Gov- 
ernor — Scarcity of Food — Insurrection in Pampanga 
—Deeds of De \'era— Cost of the Conquest — Aims 
of Spain in the Conquest — Reply of Philip II— 
Philip III and Moraga — The Memorial to the King 
— Reform Decree of 1589 — Summary 84 



Gomez Perez Das Marinas — Salazar's Opinion of the 
Governors — Neglect of Religious Instruction — Resti- 
tution to the Filipinos by the Conquerors — Building 
of the Walls of Manila— Decay of the Cotton Indus- 
try — A Change for the Worse — Conquest of Zam- 
balcs— Tlie Great Fleet— Death of Das Marinas— 
:SIanila in Das Mariiias' Time — Summary .... 93 



Arrival of the Chinese— Limahong— The First Attack- 
Repulse of the Chinese — The Second Attack — Re- 
volt of the Filipinos— Limahong in Pangasinan — 
Salcedo Expels Limahong— The Alcayceria and the 
Parian — Chinese Christians— The Three Mandarins 
—Chinese Revolt of 1603— Defeat of the Chinese- 
Revolt of 1639 — The Chinese Question— Summary . 103 





The Chinese Trade — Commerce with Mexico — The Gal- 
leons — The Voyage Across the Pacific — Arrival of 
the Galleons — Loss of the Galleons — The Royal 
Subsidy — Summary 113 



The Dutch Conquer the Moluccas — Antonio de Morga — 
The Defeat of Van Noort — Silva's Great Fleet — 
Attack on Cavite — Massacre of Abiicay — Defeat of 
the Dutch — Filipino Loyalty — Summary 120 



Introductory — The Moro Pirates — Spaniards Fail to 
Destroy Piracy — A Raid on the Visayans — Acuna 
and the Pirates — Battle of Punta de Flechas — 
Treaties with the Moros — Concentration of Villages 
— Arming the Filipinos — Brave Defenders — The 
Coast-Guard Towers — The Story of .'Mi-Mudin — 
Conversion of the Sultan — Treachery of Ali-Mudin 
— Lessons of This Story — The High Tide of Piracy 
— Summary 126 



The Dark Century — The Labor Tax — Alonson Fajardo 
— Insurrection in Bohol and Leyte — Bancao — Death 
of Fajardo — Tabora, Governor — Diego Fajardo — 
Earthquake of 1645 — Insurrection of 1660 — Revolt 
in Ilocos — Summary 14Q 





Introductory — Two Kinds of Courts — The Case of Nava 
— The Law of Refuge — The Pope's Pardon — The 
Inquisition in the Philippines — Diego de Salcedo — 
De Vargas and Pardo — The Friars' Lands — Busta- 
mante and the Friars — Bustamante Fortifies Zam- 
boanga — Arrest of the Archbishop — Death of Bus- 
tamante — Archbishop Cuesta, Governor — Summary . 148 



Fausto Cruzat y Gongora. Governor — Ordinances of 
Good Government — Evil Days — Manila and the 
Provinces — "The Laws of the Indies'' — What the 
Filipinos Did— Summary 160 



The Mysterious Fleet — Landing of the British — The 
Capture of Manila — The Surrender — The Sack of 
the City — Simon de Anda y Salazar — Restoration of 
Spanish Rule — Effects of the Invasion — Revolt in 
Pangasinan — Diego Silan — Silan in Power — Alliance 
with the British — Death of Silan — A Fresh Outbreak 
— Why the Revolts Failed — Summary . . . . . 167 



Governorship of Anda — Anda a Modern Man — The 
Teaching of Spanish — Death of Anda — Vargas and 
Agriculture — Why Java Prospered — The Tobacco 
Monopoly — Abuses of the Tobacco Monopoly — End 
of the Tobacco Monopoly — "Royal Company of the 



Philippines" — Sociedad Economica de Amigos del 
Pais — Vargas Resigns — Industry Better Than Con- 
quest — Rafael de Aguilar, Governor — Aguilar and 
Foreigners — Progress of the Filipinos — Summary . 177 



Filipinos in the Cortes — The Constitution of 1812 — Res- 
toration of Fernando VII — Revolt in Ilocos Norte — 
Oppression of the Poor — The Constitution Renewed 
— The School of Freedom — End of Representation 
in the Cortes — Mariano Ricafort, Governor — The 
Rebellion of Dagohoy — .-\n Independent People — 
The New Pueblos — Pascual Enrile. Governor — Ad- 
vantages of Good Roads — Kinds of Rebellion — The 
Revolt of the Cofradia — Destruction of the Cof- 
radia — Summary 189 



Changes of Governors — The Friars and the Governors — 
Effect of Travel and Commerce — Narciso Claveria, 
Governor — Reformation of the Calendar — Surnames 
of Filipinos — First Steamers in the Philippine.s — The 
Governors — Gains of the Governors — L'rbistondo; 
Conquest of Jolo — Treaty with the Sultan — First 
Philippine Bank — The Next Ten Years — Return of 
the Jesuits — Reforms in Education — Educational De- 
cree of 1863 — Earthquake of 1863 — Summary . . . 202 



Revolution in Spain — Carlos de la Torre, Governor — 
"Guias de Torre" — The Red Ribbon — Spread of Re- 
publicanism — The Meaning of Freedom — Rafael de 



Izquierdo, Governor — The Cavite Insurrection — 
Cause of the Insurrection— Burgos, Zamora, and 
Gomez— The Execution— The :\lailed Hand— Peace 
— Commercial Growtli — Municipal Councils — Prog- 
ress in Education — Summary 216 



New Leaders — The Secret Societies — Jose Rizal — Ca- 
lamba Lands Trouble — Banishment of Rizal — Death 
of Rizal — Discovery of the Plot — The Rise of Agui- 
naldo — The Rebellion in the North — Campaign of 
Polavieja — Spread of the Insurrection — The Right 
to Revolt — Rivera's Campaign — Katipunan Procla- 
mation of 1897 — Pact of Biac-na-Bato — Departure of 
i\guinaldo — Broken Promises — Renewal of the In- 
surrection — Summary 231 



Cuba and the United States — The Cuban Rebellion — The 
Battle of Manila Bay — Effect in Manila of Dewey's 
Victory — Renewal of the Insurrection — \\'hy Dewey 
Remained in the Philippines — Aguinaldo Dictator — 
The Revolutionary Government — The Taking of 
Manila — The Treaty of Paris — The Effect of Dis- 
tance — Monarchy or Republic — Possibility of a Fili- 
pino Republic — Unity First Necessary — Summary . 244 



Why Aguinaldo's Army Did Not Enter Manila — The 
Malolos Government — Instructions of McKinley — 
The Revolutionary Constitution — The First Shot — 
Periods of the War — Battle of February 5th — Fight- 

xviii CONTENTS. 


ing the Flames — The Advance North — The Battle of 
Zapote Bridge — The Flight of Aguinaldo — The 
Taking of Tila Pass — Aguinaldo's Escape — The 
Period of Guerilla Warfare — The Occupation of the 
Visayas — The Republic of Negros — Results of the 
War — Martial Law — Summary 255 



William H. Taft, Governor — The Policy of AIcKinley — 
"The Philippines for the Filipinos" — The Educa- 
tional System — Filipino Students in America — Agri- 
culture — Commerce — Summary 272 



Taft's Successors — General Observations — The Philip- 
pine Currency — New Banks — The Saint Louis Expo- 
sition — Commercial Growth — Annual Trade — Road 
Building — Railways — Sanitary Improvements — Prog- 
ress in Education — The Philippine Assembly — Fili- 
pino Self-government — Changes in the Philippine 
Commission — Message of President Wilson — Sig- 
nificance of President Wilson's Message 284 



The Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument, Manila . Frontispiece 

Mayon Volcano 4 

A Negrito Hunter 7 

Negritos of Northern Tayabas 8 

Salt Springs, Northern Luzon 9 

Igorots with Head-axes n 

Ilongotes of Northern Tayabas 13 

A Group of Moros i5 

Pearl-fishing boats, Sulu I7 

A Moro Warrior in Coat of Mail 26 

Alphabets in Use at the Time of the Spanish Discovery . 28 

An Igorot Dance 30 

Taal Volcano ' 33 

Ferdinand INIagellan 40 

Charles I. of Spain • 4^ 

jNIagellan Planting the Cross in the Philippines . . .47 

The Magellan Monument, Manila 48 

Old Fort at Cebii 55 

The Harbor of Cebu 56 

A Church at Cebu . 63 

Luzon (Map) Opposite page 65 

Lake Taal 68 

St. Augustine Convent, Manila 71 

Philip H. of Spain 80 




Augustinian Church, Manila 88 

Fort Santiago 95 

The Oldest Part of the Wall of Manila .... 97 

The Cathedral, Manila 100 

Dominican Church, Manila 108 

Spanish Galleons 115 

The Coast of Romblon 127 

A Moro Pirate Boat 131 

A Moro Warrior 136 

The "Bridge of Spain," Manila 1^3 

Church at Laoag, Ilocos Norte 149 

Fort Pilar, Zamboanga 154 

Plaza" de Goiti, Manila 164 

Lighthouse at Entrance to the Pasig River . . . 168 

Spanish Guns, Fort Santiago 169 

The Malecon Drive, Manila 171 

The Anda Monument, Manila 178 

Tobacco Growing i8r 

The Santa Lucia Gate, Manila, Built by Vargas . . 186 

Fernando VII. of Spain 190 

Bell Tower and Theater, Laoag 192 

Parian Redoubt 195 

The Sultan of J0I6 with Datos 207 

A Gateway at J0I6 209 

Isabella II. of Spain 216 

The Governor's Palace (2^Ialacanan), Manila. . . 218 

The Ayuntamiento (City Hall), Manila .... 220 

Fort, Cavite 222 

The Luneta, Manila 224 

The Manila-Dagupan Railroad 226 

Jose Rizal 232 

A Waterfall near Calamba 22,2, 



Tondo Church, Manila 241 

The Spanish Warship "Reina Christina" after Five Years 

under Water 245 

Manila Bay from the Luneta 247 

A View of Manila 249 

The Philippine Commission in 1904 252 

William McKinley 258 

Emilio Aguinaldo 260 

San Juan Bridge '2-(i2 

Tila Pass 263 

An Insurgent Stockade 266 

The Insular Ice-Plant, Manila 268 

William H. Taft, First Civil Governor of the Philippines 273 

The New City Hall, Manila 274 

Chief Justice Arellano 275 

The Old Philippine Normal School, Central Recitation 

Hall 276 

A Group of Filipino Governors 278 

Making New Land, Manila 280 

The Inauguration of Governor Wright .... 281 




Resources of the Philippines. — Nature has made / 
it easy to live in the Philippine Islands. There is 
plenty of rich land for all who are willing to culti- 
vate it. There is no month when some fruit does 
not ripen. There is no season when one may not 
sow or reap some crop. Thousands of horses and 
cattle could feed on rich pastures that now lie un- 
used. The seas and rivers of the Philippines are 
full of fish. There are few lands where food is 
more easily obtained. 

Yet after all the centuries that have passed since 
men first lived in these Islands, their people are 
poor. Most of their rich soil the plow has never 
turned. The wealth of their forests and mines 
waits for a hand to gather it. In other lands, 
whose soil is stiff with frost half the year, the barns 
are filled with the harvest. In countries where men 
must hew their houses from the rocks and dig 
their fuel from the earth, men have built fair 


cities. In the Philippines most of the towns are 
groups of frail huts, the prey of fire and storm. 

The Study of History. — The study of history 
explains why the lands of the Filipinos lie uncul- 
tivated. It tells why the people struggle with pov- 
erty. It points out the mistakes of the past and 
shows the path to follow in the future. Since 
1898 there have been many changes in the Philij> 
pines. Government, church, education, commerce, 
and many other things are different from the days 
of our fathers. History helps us to understand 
why these changes were made. We can compare 
the past with the present and see which is the bet- 
ter. The history of the Philippines begins with the 
study of the first men who made this land their 

Geography and History. — \Ye cannot fully un- 
derstand the history of a country unless we know 
its geography. The forms of the mountains and 
rivers, the extent of the plains, the kind of soil, 
and the climate help decide where the cities shall 
be built. They explain why the people raise cer- 
tain products. They tell how their commerce 
arose. They have a great effect upon the language 
and customs. They help show why some of the 
people became civilized and others remained wild. 
We shall therefore study a little of the geography 
of the Philippines to see what it may teach us about 
their history. 

Luzon. — The great valley of the Cagayan is the 


most important part of northern Luzon. It is the 
home of the Cagayans or Ibanags. Most of the 
people live along the river banks, because for a 
century the Spaniards compelled them to plant to- 
bacco there. Four hundred years ago there was no 
tobacco in the Philippines. Thousands of carabao 
roamed in the mountains. The rivers were the 
home of the crocodile ; the people lived largely by 
hunting. Then, as now, many wild tribes lived in 
the mountains. It is difficult to reach the Cagayan 
Valley from Manila by land. By sea it is a long 
voyage; therefore civilization has advanced slowly 

The central part of Luzon is very mountainous. 
It looks much the same as when the Spaniards first 
arrived. The people have changed but little in 
religion and customs. This is because it was diffi- 
cult for the Spaniards to reach them. So the few 
thousand people who lived here when Legazpi 
came to Manila now number a third of a million 
uncivilized pagans. 

The coastal plain of northwest Luzon has 
changed much more than the Cagayan Valley, be- 
cause it is easily reached from Manila by sea or 
land. Its people, the Ilocanos, were united and 
industrious, so they have made the wilderness a 

A great plain and a great lake fill most of cen- 
tral Luzon. No part of the Philippines is so much 
changed from ancient times as this. The railroad 


through the great plain has made it a land of 
peaceful farms. Industries and manufactures 
flourish because they are near great markets. 

On the east of the Tayabas Range and in all the 
country south of the narrow isthmus of Tayabas 

4, live the Bicols. 

The habits and language of this 

Ma YON Volcano. 

"^ people in ancient times were much like those of 
the Visay'ans. Can you tell why? 

The lofty mountains and broken ranges of this 
peninsula made a refuge for several Negrito and 
other wild tribes who still live there. This re- 
gion has but one large river, the Bicol. Vast hemp 
fields now cover the once barren slopes of ancient 
volcanoes. Many boats are built in this part of 


The Visayas.— In the Visayas, though there are 
many islands, the people are more alike than in 
the one island of Luzon. This is because it is 
easier to cross the narrow straits that divide them 
than it is to pass the lofty ranges of Luzon. It is 
easy to see why the Visayans have always been 
famous fishermen and sailors. Each of these 
islands has had its own kind of history because of 
some of its geographical features. Bohol is an 
island of barren mountains and coral reefs. Its 
scanty soil has compelled its people to become fish- 
ermen and traders. They became warlike, because 
in the olden days they, fought pirates from neigh- 
boring Mindanao. Their soil and their situation 
have made them one of the most industrious of the 
people of the Philippines. 

Cebu is thickly populated and advanced in civili- 
zation. There are several reasons for this. Its 
long coast line and low mountains made it easy 
for the Spaniards to settle there and subdue and 
convert the people. Cebu is the oldest Spanish 
town in the Philippines. It is in the central part of 
the Archipelago, with a fine harbor. In ancient 
days its chief was one of the most powerful in 
the Philippines. For all these reasons it is now 
among the most important cities of the Philippines. 
Mindanao.^ — The island of Mindanao is the sec- 
ond largest island in the Philippines. It produces 
all that the other islands raise, also the spices and 
gutta-percha. Mindanao has the largest rivers and 


forests and the greatest area of rich, uncultivated 
land of any of the PhiHppines. \\'hy, then, has it 
less people than little Cebu and only one town of 
importance? Mindanao is large enough and rich 
enough to supjXDrt the entire present population of 
the Philippines. Probably this island was one of 
the first settled of the Philippines because it is near 
the great Malayan Islands from which the Fili- 
pinos are believed to have come. Yet it is thinly 

One reason is because it has been the home of 
too many different tribes. Everything great in 
this world has been done by the united efforts of 
people who spoke the same language and believed 
the same things. In Mindanao there are more wild 
tribes and different religions than in any other 
island of the Philippines. Let us see why this is so. 

The many mountain ranges running in different 
directions and the trackless forests kept the people 
from mingling easily. One can get farther from 
the sea in Mindanao than in any other of the 
islands. There are many people in the interior who 
have never seen the ocean or met people of other 
islands. This has kept them ignorant and uncivil- 

The First Inhabitants. — The first people who 
lived in these Islands were the Negritos. These 
are the little black savages who now dwell in the 
mountains. Most of them are less than five feet 
tall. They have woolly hair, thick lips, and broad 


noses. Clad in little or no clothing, they wander 
from place to place. A mat of grass thrown over 
a few poles makes them a house. They hunt deer 

A Negrito Hunter. 

and wild pigs, catch birds and fish, and raise moun- 
'tain rice. 

Most of the Negritos live in the mountains of 
Luzon, Negros, Panay. and Mindanao. They do 
not love towns, churches, or any of the ways of 
Christian Filipinos. Once an archbishop of Man- 


ila reared a Negrito boy, and taught him to read. 
He was nearly ready to become a priest. One day 
he could not be found. He had fled to the rocks 
and woods of his babyhood to live with the birds 
and the beasts. 

No one knows when or how the Negritos came 

'^- '". . -^'.-^ ^nT;- .<^^ 

Negritos of Northern Tayabas. 

here. The traditions of the Filipinos say that 
when the lowland tribes arrived the Negritos were 
the only dwellers in the Islands. At that time they 
lived on the plains. Because these Negritos re- 
fused to become the friends of the new arrivals, 
they were driven to the mountains. When the 
wilderness is cleared away and the game gone from 
the forests, the Negritos will become civilized or 


perish. Every race which lives beside a wiser and 
stronger race must learn to live wisely and well, or 
it dies out. 

The Malayans. — While the little Negritos were 
still living in the valleys and plains a strange people 

Salt Springs, Northern Luzon. 

4 landed on their shores. They came sailing up from 
the south. 

■At first the Negritos fought the strangers. Then 
more of the boats and the brown men came till the 
timid blacks climbed into the mountains to hide and 

The men from the south were jMalayans. They 
probably came from Sumatra or the Malay Penin- 


sula. These early comers were not much more 
civihzed than the Negritos. Sometimes they mar- 
ried with these, and Hved in peace. There are wild 
tribes in Mindoro and Paragna which are thought 
to be a mixture of Malayans and Negritos. 

There are many of these half -savage peoples in 
the Philippines. They speak different dialects. 
They do not dress the same. Their customs are not 
all alike. Yet the wild Malayan tribes are more 
like each other than they are like the Christian 

The Malayans did not all arrive at the same time. 
They were like the waves of the sea, alike, but 
coming one after the other. Among the strongest 
and most numerous of these tribes were the fol- 
lowing : 

The Igorots. — Nearly all of these live to-day in 
the mountains of northern Luzon. Most of them 
dwell in houses built of boards cut from great pine 
trees. They cultivate their fields carefully, bring- 
ing the water in long canals and pipes from the 
mountains. The men are strong and well formed. 
They carry heavy loads on their backs all day over 
the mountains. They have many savage customs. 

Head-hunting. — Until recently, an old custom of 
the Igorots was to cut off the heads of their ene- 
mies. They did this not only in war but also at 
other times. When one of their number fell ill, 
or died, they sometimes slew the first wayfarer 
from a strange town. They believed that the 



strength of the murdered person passed into the 
body of the sick. They thought, also, that the 
death of the stranger pleased the spirit of their 
dead companion. This practice of the Igorots has 


almost entirely disappeared within the past few 
years. In the old days it was very common among 
all the wild tribes. The people of the coast feared 
the savage mountaineers, and paid them rice every 
year, as a tribute, that they might not be attacked. 
\Miat has been said here of the Igorots is for 
the most part also true of the Ifugaos, Ilongots, 


Tingians, and Kalingas of northern Luzon. The 
Tingians have a measure of civihzation and wealth 
in some places, while all of these peoples have been 
docile in their acceptance of the rule of America. 
In spite of their barbaric customs, they possess 
many domestic and patriotic virtues. 

The Mangyans of Mindoro still use one of the 
ancient Filipino alphabets. Like some others of 
the wild tribes, they are in part Negrito. 

In Panay, Negros, a part of Mindanao, and else- 
where, the term Monfeses or Bukidnon is used to 
designate certain wild Malayan tribes. A large 
number of tribes inhabit Mindanao, some of whom 
have seldom seen civilized people. The chief of 
these are the Bagobos, the Mandayas, the Mano- 
bos, and the Subanun. These various peoples dif- 
fer in dress, speech, and habits, but belong to the 
same grade of advancement; they are all more or 
less barbaric, though welcoming education, and 
obedient to the government. 

The Place of Woman. — Woman has a very low 
])lace among these wild tribes. She does most of 
the hard work in the fields. Her lot is sad and 
humble compared with that of woman among the 
Christian Filipinos. She is often sold in marriage 
for a few pesos. She lives like the cattle, and 
serves her husband like a slave. In this and other 
ways these people have changed but little in the 
last few centuries. 

The Christian Peoples. — After the Malayans had 



Ilongotes of Northern Tayabas. 

driven the Negritos from their homes, other 
Malayan tribes came saiHng up from the south, and 
drove the first conquerors from the homes they had 


made. These last tribes were more civilized than 
the ones who came before. They had better weap- 
ons and clothes. Some of them had a new and 
better religion. To-day they compose the eight 
Christian peoples. Tlie Christians are the Visay- 
ans, Tagalos, Ilocanos, Bicols, Pampangans, Pan- 
gasinans, Cagayans, and Zambalans. 

The Christian tribes have always been the ene- 
mies of the wild tribes. They are the peoples to 
whom most of the history of the Philippines re- 
lates. We shall learn from the pens of those who 
saw them four hundred years ago what they 
were like when the Spaniards first reached these 

The Moros.- — In IMindanao, Palawan, and the 
Sulu Archii)elago live many tribes of Filipinos 
whom the Spaniards called Moros. The religion 
of these natives is Mahometanism. The Mahomet- 
ans whom the Spaniards knew in Europe were 
called by this name. So when Magellan found that 
some Filipinos had this same religion he called 
them Moros. 

Mahomet li\-ed in Arabia in the sixth century 
after the birth of Christ. He said there was but 
one God, and that he was the prophet of that God. 
Mecca was and is the holy city of Mahometanism. 
Some of the Moros go there to w^orship. Such a 
journey is called a pilgrimage. Mahomet wrote a 
book called the Koran. This is the Bible of the 










About six hundred years ago the priests of 
Mahomet came to the IMalay Peninsula. Xext they 
taught their rehgion in the islands of Malaysia. 
About the fifteenth century they reached the Philip- 
pines. ]Many Filipinos accepted the new religion. 
\\'hen the Spaniards arrived, the ]\Ioros were teach- 
ing this religion in ^^lindanao, Paragua, the Jolo 
Archipelago, and Luzon. 

Mindanao, because of its position at the south of 
the Archipelago, was one of the first islands to 
receive the Aloros with their new religion. The 
Moros have always been at war with the mountain 
tribes. This has prevented the increase of popula- 
tion and commerce. The ^Moros have enslaved 
many of the people. No country can become great 
or civilized through slavery. 

The Spaniards were a long time in the Philip- 
pines before they settled in Mindanao. This island 
is so far from Manila that to conquer and convert 
the people was expensive and difficult. When the 
Spaniards at different times were threatened by 
the Chinese and the Dutch, they took away their 
soldiers from ^Mindanao. Then the people fell 
back into their old ways. Therefore Mindanao has 
made slow progress. 

The Sulu Archipelago. — ^^'hen we look at the sea- 
girt islands that stretch from Alindanao to Borneo 
we can easily guess how the people have always 
lived. These little islands are mountain peaks of 
coral rock. They are too small for agriculture. 



The people for centuries were the traders and pir- 
ates of the PhiHppines. They caught fish and dived 
for pearls and pearl shells. Their boats visited dis- 
tant lands, capturing and bartering slaves. 

When the followers of the religion of Mahomet 

Pearl-fishing Boats, Sulu. 

came from the south they made an easy conquest 
of these islands. There were no mountains or vast 
forests to which the people might flee. They must 
accept the new religion or die. Thus it is that near- 
ly all the dwellers of this archipelago are Moros. 
The nature and position of their islands have 
made the Sulus sailors and warriors. They build 
the best native boats and make the finest weapons 


of any Filipinos. They are different in religion, 
customs, dress, and language from the Filipinos of 
the northern and the central islands, but they are 
of the same blood. Thus we see what wide differ- 
ences the land that a people inhabit may make in 

Summary. — The mountains and forests of the 
Philippines are the home of wild tribes, speaking 
many tongues and worshiping the ancient gods of 
the Filipinos. The coasts and larger valleys are 
inhabited by the civilized Filipinos. The islands 
with the best harbors and nearest the routes of 
commerce are most populous and prosperous. Four 
hundred years ago there were no great cities, nor 
railroads, or even wagon roads. Pirates sailed the 
seas and wild animals roamed the woods. No one 
in Europe had heard of the Philippines. All the 
people in the Islands were fewer than those who 
now live in Cebu. They numbered only about half 
a million. Their languages, religions, and customs 
were learned in hundreds of different islands and 
coasts of the Malay Archipelago. They were like 
flocks of wild birds of different colors and plumage, 
driven by the storm upon a strange shore. From 
Luzon to the north it is a long sail to new lands, 
but to the south one can see from island to island 
for hundreds of miles. Driven from home by war, 
by desire for adventure, by hope of gain, or by a 
chance wind, these races drifted for centuries to 
the Philippines. 


They drove the first inhabitants, the Negritos, 
from the plains to the mountains. Later comers 
drove the primitive Malayans to the mountains. 
There they have kept to the present day their an- 
cient customs, like head-hunting, with little change. 
They are divided into many tribes; the chief of 
these are the Igorots, Ifugaos, Ilongots, Tingians, 
and Kalingas, of Luzon: the ]\Iangyans of Min- 
doro; the Bukidnon of Panay, Negros and Min- 
danao; the Tagbanuas of Palawan; and the Bago- 
bos, ]\Iandayas, ]\lanobos, and Subanun of Min- 
danao. The eight Christian peoples are the Vis- 
ayans, Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Bicols, Pampangans, 
Pangasinans, Cagayans, and Zambalans. 

The l^loros are Filipinos in race, but Mahometan 
in religion. They were once pirates and are now 
fishermen, pearl divers, and traders. They are 
backward in civilization but superior to the wild 



Village Government — Among the ancient Fili- 
pinos the village was the unit of government. There 
was no king over all the people. There was not 
even a chief for each tribe. Each little town was 
a kingdom in itself. The population was divided 
into many hostile groups. Each village chose its 
own ruler. We shall see why this kept the Fili- 
pinos from becoming numerous and rich. 

Life in Ancient Times. — The people of these little 
villages did not respect or obey any chief other 
than their own headman. Men were born, lived, 
and died in the same village without ever visiting 
the people who lived on the other side of the hill. 
Sometimes they could not understand the language 
of members of their own tribe a few miles distant. 
This is so to-day among some mountain tribes. 
There were no roads and traveling was dangerous. 
When men went to the fields to plant or reap, they 
carried the bow and spear with them. Thus they 
grew up in ignorance of the great world. They 
cared nothing for the sorrows or joys of any but 
their own townspeople. They married their near 
relatives, and so became weak in body and mind. 



War and Robbery. — The Filipinos of those times 
were constantly at war. Robbery and murder were 
common. If a person was killed by some one from 
another village, his friends and townspeople at- 
tacked that village. For these reasons, the popula- 
tion was kept from increasing rapidly. In time of 
famine or pestilence one town would not assist an- 
other. Commerce was difficult when each man 
feared his neighbor. In such a state of society no 
people could become great or happy. 

The Headmen.- — There w^ere three classes of so- 
ciety : the headmen, the freemen, and the slaves. 

The headman obtained his position because he 
was the best fighter, or the richest man, or because 
his father was headman. Every one must obey the 
headman. He was paid a tribute of rice from all 
except his relatives and the most powerful of the 
freemen. It was his duty to act as judge in dis- 
putes between the members of his village. A coun- 
cil of old men advised him.. They decided what 
punishment must be given to evildoers. The head- 
man also led his people to war. 

In later days these headmen were called cahezas 
de baraugav. "Barangay" formerly meant a boat. 
Now it means the group of people that live in a 
small village. Perhaps the people that came in the 
same boat settled in one village with their captain 
as headman. 

The headmen of some of the larger villages com- 
pelled smaller villages to submit to them. This 


was usually the case where the Moros ruled. The 
chief of Cebu, when Alagellan arrived, was accus- 
tomed to receive tribute from several villages. 
Sometimes the chiefs of these subject towns met in 
a council with the greater chief. Chirino, who 
came to the Philippines in 1590, said: 

"It is customary for these villages to be divided into dis- 
tricts which they call barangayes. Each one of these is 
under the command of a chief, who governs it and ap- 
points those who are to do all that is necessary. The 
latter are called datos. At this time Taytay (in Laguna) 
had four hundred families and was divided into four 
barangayes ; therefore there were four datos. Each of the 
datos had charge of one barangay." 

The Freemen. — The freemen, called among the 
Tagalogs timaiias or maharlica, were subject to the 
headman, but were not slaves. Usually they did 
not pay tribute, but the headman could ask their 
help in time of need, such as house-building, or 
harvest. They could have their own land and 
houses, and possess slaves. 

Slaves. — Slaves were of two classes. The first, 
called by the Tagalogs aliping nanianiahay, were 
only partly slaves. They usually planted land which 
their master rented to them, and did not live in his 
house. These people owed debts of service to their 
masters. They had to work without pay at seed- 
time, harvest, house- or boat-building; in fact, 
whenever their owners called for them. If they 
had children, these children became slaves. 


The second class of slaves, called sagigilid, lived 
in their master's house and served him without 
pay. These persons were absolute slaves. Their 
master could kill them for any offense. 

Yet slaves were not treated so harshly among the 
Filipinos as in some other countries. Sometimes 
they did so little work that their masters found it 
hard to get food for them. Favorite slaves were 
treated like members of the family. 

Causes of Enslavement. — Slaves were made such 
by birth, captivity, adoption, on account of debt, as 
a punishment, and for other reasons. 

Captivity was the chief of these causes. When 
a hostile village was captured, those who were not 
killed in battle were offered in sacrifice to the gods, 
held for ransom, or enslaved. Children and the 
aeed were usually sacrificed or held for ransom. 
The young and strong were kept as slaves. Mem- 
bers of the same tribe enslaved each other in these 
village wars. 

Many fell into slavery through debt. So small 
a debt as five pesos caused enslavement for life. 
Children sold themselves into slavery to pay the 
debts of their parents. Evil as the practice was, it 
shows us how faithful the Filipinos were in guard- 
ing the honor of their parents. 

A very small offense against a headman or free- 
man was punished by enslavement. For passing 
under the house of a headman, crossing his fields, 
breaking a tool or dish, letting dust fall on him 


when he passed under a house, people were made 
slaves for life. When a man committed a great 
crime, his relatives were also enslaved. All these 
practices made the hearts of the people very hard 
and cruel. 

Crimes. — Crimes were punished by fines, enslave- 
ment, or death. There were no prisons, as now. 
where men were shut up and made to work. If 
the punishment was the loss of liberty, the criminal 
became the slave of the person he had wronged or 
of the headman. Theft and robbery were usually 
punished by enslavement: in serious cases by 

Discovery of a Thief. — When it was desired to 
find out who had stolen something, the suspected 
thieves were given a piece of cloth or a large leaf. 
If one of them returned the stolen object wrapped 
in this covering, he was pardoned. If the object 
was not returned, the suspected persons were jnit 
under water, and the one who came to the surface 
first was considered guilty. There were other tests 
like these. The different tribes had different cus- 

Dress and Ornaments. — Legazpi said, in 1565, of 
the people of Cibabao, one of the Visayas : 

"These people wear clothes but they go barefooted. 
Their dress is made of cotton, or of a kind of grass like 
raw silk. . . . The people wear gold earrings, bracelets, 
and necklets. Wherever we went we found a great show 
of these things." 


The natives of Luzon wore a blue or black spot- 
ted jacket. The head. legs, and feet were bare. 
A narrow strip of cloth was bound about the head. 
The chiefs wore a red jacket. Necklaces of gold, 
heavy gold bracelets set with precious stones, and 
anklets made of strings of agates were worn by the 

Tattooing. — The Visayans and the inhabitants of 
Albay and Camarines practiced tattooing, that is, 
they marked pictures in their skin with blue ink. 
Frequently they blackened their teeth. Often they 
made holes in them and filled these holes with gold. 
Slaves were not allowed to tattoo themselves. 

Tattoo marks were signs that the owner had done 
brave deeds. IMany of the wild tribes still follow 
this practice. 

Weapons. — Legazpi said : 

"The weapons generally used in the Philippines are 
swords and daggers ; lances with iron points, one and one- 
half palms in length ; and a few bows and arrows. When- 
ever the natives leave their houses, even if it is only to 
go to the house of a neighbor, they carry these weapons; 
for they are always watchful and distrustful of one an- 

Besides the weapons mentioned by Legazpi, the 
blow-gun and throwing-sticks were used. Among 
the Tagalogs and Moros a few firearms and small 
cannon were in use at the arrival of the Spaniards. 
Legazpi says the natives obtained these from the 


For defensive armor the Filipinos used thick 
coverings of cotton, reaching to the feet, corselets 

A MoRO Warrior in Coat of Mail. 

of wood or buffalo-hide, long wooden shields, and 
leather helmets. 

Commerce. — The Filipinos of the sixteenth cen- 
tury traded mainly with Borneo, Japan, and China. 
From Nagasaki, in Japan, came silks, cotton, and 


iron utensils. No money was in use, but gold-dust 
was often used in exchange for goods. The natives 
carried little balances to weigh this gold. 
Legazpi, in a letter to Philip II, said : 

"Farther north than our settlement are some large 
islands called Luzon and Yindoro where the Chinese and 
Japanese come every year to trade. They bring silks, 
woolens, bells, porcelains, perfumes, iron, tin, colored cot- 
ton cloths, and other small wares. In return they take 
away gold and wax. The people of these two islands are 
Moros, and having bought what the Chinese and Japanese 
bring, they trade these same goods throughout this archi- 
pelago of islands." 

Writing. — The principal Filipino tribes had writ- 
ten alphabets, but no books. They wrote from the 
bottom of the page to the top in columns, and from 
the left to the right side of the page. There were 
fourteen to seventeen letters in their alphabets. It 
is said that many of the people knew how to write. 
Their records were ver}^ simple. They kept ac- 
counts of the number of their animals and of other 
business matters, and wrote letters. 

The natives used a sharp point of iron or wood 
with which they wrote on banana-leaves or bamboo 
joints, ^^^ith such frail paper, and houses which 
burned so easily, it is not strange that no old Fili- 
pino books have been preserved. The Moros have 
old family records that tell the names of their an- 
cestors for a few generations past. 







«|SoGoO(3oj)GoG"y S>« 


• d Si 's ° 

II -s 1 1 « I s § d _. ..• g .• .-■ ! 


S a -^ «: g S. i a 5 d . •-• S c -S; S 


Civilization. — The simple natives whom the Span- 
iards found here knew nothing of their past but a 
few traditions which were passed from parent to 
child by speech. In their wanderings from island 
to island they had forgotten the past. They had 
not been here long enough to build up a good civili- 
zation. They were pioneers, fighting battles with 
many enemies. Without books, roads, temples, or 
fine houses, they were not what we now call a 
civilized people. But if the early Filipinos were 
far behind China, Japan. India, and Europe, they 
have since shown themselves willing to learn. The 
ancestors of all the great nations of to-day were 
once ignorant savages. It is no more disgrace for 
a people to be young than it is for a child to be 
young. The Filipinos need not be ashamed that 
their ancestors four hundred years ago were not 
highly civilized. The real glory of any people is 
not in its past, but in the use it makes of the pres- 

Amusements. — The amusements of the ancient 
Filipinos were few and simple. They were fond of 
music, singing, and dancing. Their musical instru- 
ments were very simple, and their dances such as 
those of the wild tribes to-day. They were fond of 
feasting and of wine. Cock-fighting was seen in 
Palawan by Magellan's men. Some of their amuse- 
ments were such as we would not think permissible 

Marriage Customs. — Marriages were arranged as 


the parents wished. The children were promised 
in marriage at an early age ; sometimes before they 
were born. This custom still exists among the wild 

An Igorot Dance. 

Marriage was not a matter of love, but of pur- 
chase. The bridegroom paid the parents of the 
bride a price in slaves, jewelry, furniture, land, or 
whatever else he had. The mother of the bride 
received a part of this, called by the Tagalogs hig- 
aysusu. The other part was to pay the expenses of 
the wedding celebration, and to provide for the 
rearing of a family. This was called the big- 


The bridegroom was also required to work for 
the parents of the bride during several years after 
marriage. He must assist them at seed-time and 
harvest, and on other occasions. Many laws were 
made by the Spaniards to stop this practice, but it 
lasted long after they came. The Filipinos of that 
day wanted their children to be girls because of 
the goods and labor for which they could be sold. 

The ceremony of marriage was begun by killing 
a pig. This was done by a priestess. She then 
blessed the bridal couple. Old women fed them 
from the same plate. After this followed a great 
feast. At this feast they ate and drank for many 

In return for the payment he made and the 
labor he gave for his wife, the man made the 
woman work like a slave. 

Among the poor, and in the wilder tribes, mar- 
riage was very simple. Sometimes there was no 
ceremony. In some islands polygamy was prac- 

Religion. — To understand the Filipino fore- 
fathers we must not only know about their wars 
and laws, their dress and commerce. The most im- 
portant fact about any people is its religion. The 
religion of a people tells us what they value most, 
and how well they can think. So we shall next 
study the ancient religion of the Filipinos. 

The Filipinos of the sixteenth century had no 
sacred book like the Bible or the Koran. The par- 


ents told the story of the gods to their children. 
Many of their songs were religious chants. These 
songs told of the birth, relationships, and great 
deeds of their gods. They sang these chants while 
rowing boats, at feasts, funerals, and while work- 
ing in the fields. 

There were no regular forms of prayer used by 
all alike. They had no regular day and hour for 
worship. There was not in all the Islands a church 
or temple. Sometimes they built huts, where some 
one of their many gods was worshiped. Usually 
they prayed under the open sky. 

The Great God — The Filipinos believed that there 
was one great God over many lesser gods. This 
great God was called Bathdla, Creator, by the Tag- 
alogs ; Laon, Antiquity, by the Visayans ; and 
Kabiinidn, the Sun, by the Ilocanos and the Igor- 
ots. Some writers say that the rainbow was 
thought to be the home of this God. It was con- 
sidered a sin to point at the rainbow. Some thought 
that those who were killed by lightning or the 
sword traveled to Bathdla by the path of the rain- 

The Worship of Anitos. — ]\Iost of the prayers of 
the Filipinos were offered to the lesser gods. They 
believed that when any one died, his soul entered 
into some object, such as a tree, rock, or river. 
Certain birds and other animals, especially the 
crocodile, were thought to be the home of the de- 
parted spirit. These spirits of their dead ances- 



tors were called anitos, or nonos, by the Tagalogs; 
diiiata by the Visayans ; and by other names. 

Household Gods. — The anitos of a family were 
often represented by little idols made of wood or 
metal to show the dead parent in his new form. 
Thus they would set the tooth of a crocodile in 
gold, and crown it with a head of gold. This 

Taal Volcano. 

showed that the anito was living in the body of a 
crocodile. These family anitos were their house- 
hold gods. 

Nature Spirits.— The anitos of the trees, the 
rocks, and the fields were not represented by idols. 
Many of these were not the spirits of dead ances- 
tors, but nature spirits. There was nothing which 


might not be worshiped as an anito. Useful ob- 
jects, such as salt, rice, gold, silver, anything in 
fact that interested the ancient Filipino, might seem 
to him the home or sign of a god. 

Wherever the Filipino turned, the gods were with 
him. Nine hundred gods and superstitious beliefs 
of the early Filipinos have been counted. 

Prayers. — ^Though the Filipinos had no true re- 
ligion, they were full of fears and hopes about the 
unseen gods. They asked the help of the anitos in 
various undertakings. From the anito they sought 
freedom from famine, sickness, and other evils. 
Before doing the following acts they asked per- 
mission of the anitos, clasping their hands and 
bowing while they prayed : picking a fruit or a 
flower, passing by or cutting down a big tree, cross- 
ing a valley, river, or plowed field. 

Good and Bad Anitos.- — Some anitos were be- 
lieved to be good and friendly, others evil. Most 
of the Filipinos did not think that the anitos pro- 
tected them because they were good men and 
women, but because they gave the anitos offerings 
of food and human sacrifices. The tribes on the 
coast thought that the evil anitos were the spirits 
of their Negrito enemies, and the good anitos the 
spirits of their Malayan ancestors who drove the 
Negritos to the mountains. 

Heaven. — The ancient Filipinos believed in a life 
after death. Some thought that at death the soul 
crossed a river or lake in a boat rowed by an aged 


ferryman. Then the soul dwelt in flowery fields, 
eating, drinking, and idling till it returned to earth. 
It was believed that the brave, the just, and the 
good entered heaven, and the bad a place of pun- 

The Soul — They fancied that the soul was easily 
separated from the body and lost during sleep, or 
while one was walking in the woods. If a man 
became insane, it was believed that his soul had 
strayed. Friends took the insane person to the 
place where his reason had left him. There cries 
were made to the soul, calling it back to the 

Priests and Priestesses. — More women acted as 
ministers of religion than men. They were usually 
old, and said that they were led by the anitos. 
These old women directed the ceremonies at mar- 
riages and funerals. They tried to cure the sick. 
At the religious feasts they offered the prayers over 
the sacrifices. Some of them gained wealth, but 
they were not beloved by the people. There were 
about twelve kinds of priests and priestesses among 
the Tagalogs. The most important was called the 
sonat. Only people of importance could be sonat. 
They claimed the power to forgive sins, or to con- 
demn people. They could also appoint other 
priests. The poor usually could not get their ser- 

Religious Customs of the Cebuans. — A writer who 
was with Legazpi said of the Cebuans : 


"They worship their ancestors as gods. When they are 
ill, or have any other necessity, they go to their graves 
with great weeping and prayer to beg their ancestors for 
health, protection, and aid. They make certain alms and 
prayers there. And in the same manner they call upon 
the devil, and they say that they cause him to appear in 
a hollow reed, and that there he talks with their priest- 
esses. Their priests are, as a general rule, women who 
make this prayer and talk with the devil, and then give 
his answer to the people, telling them what offerings of 
birds and other things they must make. When any chief 
dies, they kill some of his slaves ; a greater or less number 
according to his rank and wealth. They are all buried in 
coffins made out of two boards, and they bury with them 
their finest clothes, porcelain ware, and gold jewels. 
Some are buried in the ground, and others of the chief 
men are placed in lofty houses." 

Conclusions — The ancient Filipino knew how to 
govern a village, but not a tribe or a nation. The 
ancestors of the Christian Filipinos of to-day were 
not savages four hundred years ago. Many of 
their laws were just and wise. They had learned 
the first lesson of governtnent, but only the first. 
No people can become great who depend upon the 
labor of slaves. The great nations of the world 
have become great because their citizens built their 
fortunes by their own industry and intelligence. 
They did not despise labor. In Mindanao and Jolo 
the Moros lived by piracy and slavery throughout 
the period of Spanish rule. But their country has 
not become fruitful and rich like Luzon and the 
Visayas, where slavery was stopped. The ancient 


Filipino was not in the path of progress four hun- 
dred years ago. The Igorot, left almost alone in his 
mountains by the Spaniard, is very little different 
from what he was centuries ago. The ancient 
civilization of the Tagalog and the Visayan was 
not much different from that of the wild tribes 
now. Had no people come from Europe or Asia 
with new light for the Philippines, the Islands 
would be far less prosperous and happy than they 
now are. 

There were many priests speaking for many 
gods. They were not like the priests of the Chris- 
tian religion, who believe and teach nearly alike. 
The ancient Filipino priests were like the headmen, 
divided against themselves. Any one who could 
persuade the ignorant that he had the favor of 
some strong anito could become a pries-t. Just as 
there was no one government for all islands, so 
there was no united body of priests. The priests 
were like an army without leaders. This is one 
reason why Mahometanism and Christianity made 
such easy and rapid progress in the Philippines. 

Summary. — The village was the unit of govern- 
ment. Towns were hostile to each other. Robbery 
was common, and commerce was small. The three 
classes of society were : the headmen, the freemen, 
and the slaves. Councils of old men advised the 
headman. Some chiefs ruled over several villages. 
Slaves were of two classes, absolute slaves and 
slaves who owed services in time of need. Slaves 


became such by birth, captivity, debt, and other 
reasons. Slavery was mild in form. There were 
no prisons. There were peculiar "tests" for dis- 
covering criminals. People wore many ornaments. 
Some were tattooed. Daggers, spears, and bows 
were the chief weapons. Commerce was chiefly 
with China and Japan. The Moros were the prin- 
cipal traders. There were several ancient Filipino 
alphabets. Many knew how to write. There were 
no books. They had the beginnings of civilization. 
Music, singing, and dancing were their chief amuse- 
ments. Marriage was by purchase, a part for the 
mother of the bride, a part for the new family. 
They worshiped the spirits of their ancestors and 
of natural objects. They believed in a great god 
over lesser gods. The crocodile was especially re- 
vered. They believed in good and evil anitos. 
There were several kinds of priests. Women were 
often priests. There were no temples or sacred 



European Trade with the East. — Before the year 
1500 the people of Europe brought goods from the 
East across Asia by caravans. The silks, spices, 
gems, and other luxuries of India and China were 
carried on the backs of camels to the Black and the 
Mediterranean seas. There they were put into 
ships and sent to Venice and Genoa. This was a 
long, dangerous, and expensive route. In 1453 the 
Turks captured Constantinople. They were the 
enemies of the Christians of Europe, and they 
would no longer allow this traffic between the east 
and the west. So it was now necessary to find 
another route to the east. The search for this 
route led to the discovery of the Philippines. 

A Sea-route from Europe to India.— The Portu- 
guese were the best sailors in those days. Under 
the protection of the brave and wise "Prince Henry 
the Navigator," they made voyage after voyage 
down the west coast of Africa. At that time people 
thought that the ocean toward the south grew hot- 
ter and hotter till the water boiled. It was a great 




surprise to them to find that south of the equator 
the water began to grow cooler. Finally Vasco da 
Gama reached India by sea in 1498. Albuquerque 
conquered Malacca in 151 1. He saw there two 
large boats from Luzon, but he did not know where 
that island was. The next year the Portuguese 
discovered the Moluccas, or Spice Islands. From 
these islands came the pepper, cinnamon, cloves, 
and other spices so much liked in Europe. 

Ferdinand Magellan. 

Ferdinand Magellan.^ — Magellan was a Portu- 
guese nobleman and naval officer. He was a brave, 


ambitions sailor. Serrano, one of the captains who 
discovered the Spice Islands, wrote to his friend, 
Magellan, an acconnt of them. 

Magellan believed that he could find a western 
sea-route to these islands. The lands which Colum- 
bus had discovered a few years before were thought 
to be a part of Asia. Magellan thought that the 
newly discovered Spice Islands lay in the sea a 
short distance west of Mexico. He told his plan 
to the King of Portugal, but the king would not 
give him ships for his voyage. 

The Demarcation Lines. — Aftei" the discoveries 
of Columbus, the Spanish and the Portuguese quar- 
reled about the possession of the new lands. So in 
1493 Pope Alexander VI. drew a line through the 
Atlantic Ocean from north to south, one hundred 
leagues west of the Azores Islands. New lands 
west of this line were to belong to Spain; those to 
the east of it to Portugal. The next year the kings 
of Spain and Portugal moved this line to a point 
three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape 
Verde Islands. The Spice Islands had been dis- 
covered by sailing east, but Magellan thought that 
they were nearer by a western route. If so, they 
would be on the western side of the demarcation 
line, and belong to Spain. 

Magellan and Charles I.- — Refused aid by his 
own king, Magellan went to Spain. He told King 
Charles I. that the rich islands which the Portu- 
guese had discovered lay within the part of the 


world set aside for Spanish discovery. He offered 
-to find a western route to these islands, and to con- 
quer and settle them for Spain. 

King Charles gave Magellan a fleet of five small 
ships for his voyage of discovery and conquest. 

Charles I. of Spain. 

The largest of them was only one hundred and 
thirty-two tons in size. That is about half as large 
as one of our little coast-guard steamers. Several 
fleets like Magellan's could l)e put into one of the 
big steamships that come to Manila from America. 


The king gave Magellan the sole right to make 
discoveries for Spain in the South Sea for ten years. 
No one else might do this. INIagellan was to have 
a share of the profits from trading with the natives. 
He was to become governor of the new lands. It 
took much patience and skill to make this contract 
with the king; for Magellan had many enemies. 

Magellan Sails.- — The fleet sailed from Spain. 
August 10, 1 5 19. There were two hundred and 
thirty-five men. The ships were filled with every- 
thing necessary for a long voyage over unknown 
seas. The names of these famous ships were : Vic- 
toria, La Trinidad, Concepcion, San Antonio, and 

Stopping a few days at the Canary Islands, they 
reached Brazil in December. The sailors became 
discourap-ed as thev sailed for months toward the 
south in search of a passage. At the mouth of the 
broad Rio de la Plata they thought they had found 
the desired opening to the west. Again disap- 
pointed, a mutiny broke out. Magellan was obliged 
to punish several men with death. One of his cap- 
tains and a priest he abandoned on the desert coast 
of Patagonia. 

Wreck and Desertion, — In April, 1520, th*e fleet 
stopped for the southern winter at Port St. Julian, 
south of the Rio de la Plata. The Santiago, which 
had gone ahead, was now wrecked. This misfor- 
tune greatly disheartened all. Still Magellan sailed 
on. November i, 1520, he entered the strait which 


now bears his name. He himself called it "Strait 
of all Saints." The San Antonio sailed ahead of 
the other ships to explore the strait. When she was 
out of sight of Magellan, her captain turned his 
ship toward Spain, and deserted his comrades. 

The Pacific. — After a month's anxious battling 
with the currents and winds, Magellan entered the 
greatest of oceans. He called it the "Pacific" be- 
cause of its quiet waters. No one then knew how 
broad it was. Had they known, they might not 
have dared to cross it. Their voyage across the 
Pacific, of three months and twenty days, was one 
of terrible suffering. Nineteen men died. They 
boiled their food in the salt sea-water. They ate 
rats and gnawed leather. In this long journey they 
passed two desolate, rocky islands, which in their 
grief they called "The Unfortunates." 

Discovery of the Philippines. — March 6, 1 52 1, 
they sighted some small islands. Many boats sailed 
to meet them from the shore. So they called these 
islands the "Isles of Sails." The natives were such 
thieves that they also called the islands the La- 
drones, or "thieves." 

Refreshed by the fruits and vegetables which 
they obtained here, they sailed westward till March 
1 6th. On this day they saw a lofty island called 
Zainal (Samar). This was probably near Cape 
Guiuan. The next day they landed on the island 
of Homonhon, or Malhon, then called Hnmiuiu. 
Here thev built two huts for the sick, whom Ma- 


gellan tended with his own hands. A canoe with 
nine natives visited them here. These were the 
first Fihpinos the Spaniards saw. 

After a few days the Spaniards sailed to the 
islands the "Isles of Sails." The natives were such 
traded and feasted with two Moro chiefs from 
Mindanao. They helped the natives harvest their 
rice, exchanged presents with them, and treated 
them as friends. 

First Mass in the Philippines. — On the last day of 
March, 1521, they celebrated on the island of Lima- 
saua the first mass said in the Philippines. Here 
]\Iagellan erected a cross and took possession of the 
Islands. He plucked grass and broke off branches 
of trees. By this ceremony he claimed the land 
for the King of Spain. He named the islands 
the Archipiciago dc San Lazaro. For many 
years, however, they were called the "Western 

Magellan at Cebu. — From Limasaua Magellan 
sailed to Cebu, taking with him one of the chiefs 
and several other natives. The chief of Cebu was 
Raja Humabon. With him Magellan made a blood 
compact after the custom of those times. Each 
drank blood taken from the veins of the other and 
mixed with his own blood. Several days were used 
in making a treaty of peace. At first the chief of 
Cebu wished to make Magellan pay tribute. Ma- 
gellan refused to do this. He told Humabon that 
he would destroy his towns if he did not submit to 


the Spaniards. The chief had heard of the Portu- 
guese, who had taken the Spice Islands, and knew 
how terrible the weapons of the Spaniards were. 
So he yielded. 

Magellan landed many goods for trade with the 
natives. He told his men not to let the Cebuans 
know how much the Spaniards valued gold, for the 
natives were willing to give a great price for the 
trifles, like mirrors and bells, which the Spaniards 

Baptism of the Cebuans. — The Spaniards at once 
taught Humabon the Catholic faith. The chief and 
800 of his subjects were baptized in one day. An 
early writer says that within eight days all the 
people of Cebu and the near-by islands were bap- 
tized. All of the towns on Cebu now submitted 
to Magellan, who promised to help them fight their 

Death of Magellan.— The chief of the island of 
IMactan, just east of Cebu, was the sworn enemy of 
Humabon. He refused to accept the rule of the 
white conquerors. Magellan with sixty soldiers in 
armor sailed over to Mactan in the night. At day- 
light he was attacked by hundreds of natives. 
Twenty boat-loads of Cebuans went with Magellan, 
but he would not let them assist him, for he wished 
to show them how well the Spaniards could fight. 
His pride cost him his life. He was soon wounded 
in the leg with an arrow, and then in the face and 
arm with a lance. Then his left leg was cut with a 

Magellan Planting the Cross in the Philippines. 



bolo and he fell. Eight other Spaniards were 
killed. Only fifteen of the natives fell. 

So perished the bravest sailor of his day. A 
monument marks the spot in Mactan where he was 
killed. If lie had been a man of the tact and pru- 

The Magellan Monument, Manila. 

dence of Legazpi, Spanish rule in the Philippines 
would have begun forty years sooner than it did. 

Massacre of Spaniards at Cebu. — The fame of 
the Spaniards was destroyed by this defeat. The 
Cebuans no longer thought it impossible to resist 
them. A former slave of Magellan told Humabon 
that, if he did not kill the Spaniards, they would 


make slaves of him and his people. The chief 
therefore planned to kill them. He invited the 
Spaniards to a banquet. He forgot the blood com- 
pact, his baptism, and the fact that Magellan died 
fighting the enemies of Cebu. ^^'hile the Spaniards 
were enjoying the feast, twenty-three of them were 
suddenly massacred. Juan Serrano escaped to the 
beach. He called to his companions in the ships 
and begged them to rescue him. They refused to 
offer a ransom for him, and sailed away. We can 
not admire the treachery of the natives or the 
heartlessness of the Spaniards. 

Elcano Sails Around the Globe. — The Victoria, in 
command of Juan Sebastian de Elcano, sailed on 
around the world to Spain, by way of the Cape of 
Good Hope. She was the first ship to encircle the 
globe. Her voyage was the most daring and inter- 
esting ever made. The vast Pacific had been 
crossed, a strait found connecting it with the At- 
lantic, and a new archipelago discovered. All Eu- 
rope now knew that the world was round. This 
was the greatest discovery, perhaps, that man ever 

Demarcation Line of 1529.- — Loaisa and Saavedra 
followed Magellan to the Philippines within a few 
years. Both of their expeditions were failures. 
The value of the Philippines was not yet under- 
stood. They produced few spices. The Moluccas 
were considered much more valuable. Portuguese 
and Spanish both claimed these islands. To end 


the quarrel, Charles I., in 1529, gave up his claim 
to the Moluccas to the King of Portugal for 350,- 
000 ducats. Really, Spain had no right to the 
Philippines, because they were on the eastern half 
of the globe, in Portuguese territory. A new line 
was now established 297 leagues east of the Moluc- 
cas. This left the Philippines on the Portuguese 
side of the line. Still Spain continued her attempts 
to conquer them. Thus she sold what she did not 
own, and took by force what she had already sold. 

Expedition .of Vill'alobos — This leader left Mex- 
ico in 1542. King Charles sent him "For the dis- 
covery, conquest, and colonization of the islands 
and provinces of the southern sea toward the west." 
Villalobos partly explored Mindanao. After strug- 
gling with hunger and hostile natives for two years, 
he gave up the attempt to make a settlement in the 
Philippines, dying at Amboina, in the Spice Islands. 

It was Villalobos who gave the name "Felipinas" 
to Leyte and some smaller islands in 1543. This 
was in honor of Prince Felipe, son of Charles I., 
who later, as Philip II., sent Legazpi to the Philip- 

Summary. — The Portuguese Vasco da Gama 
reached India via the Cape of Good Hope in 1498. 
Albuquerque conquered Malacca in 1 5 1 1 . This 
diverted the trade with the East, which the con- 
quest of Constantinople in 1453 had checked. Ma- 
gellan tried to find a western route to the Spice 
Islands. Charles I. of Spain fitted out his expe- 


dition. \Mth five ships he sailed through the 
Straits of Magellan, across the Pacific and dis- 
covered the Philippines, ]\Iarch 6, 1521. He first 
landed on Homonhon, celebrated the first mass in 
the Philippines on Limasaua, then settled in Cebu, 
and was killed at Alactan. Juan de Elcano com- 
pleted the voyage around the globe in the Victoria. 
Many natives were Christianized at this time, but 
they massacred some Spaniards at Cebu and drove 
them away. Charles I and the King of Portugal 
established a line 297 leagues east of the Moluccas. 
Islands west of this line were to belong to Portu- 
gal. This gave them the Philippines. Neverthe- 
less, Spain later on sent Villalobos to conquer them. 
Villalobos named the islands "Felipinas" in 1543, 
in honor of Prince Felipe, son of Charles I. 



The King's Command. — Philip II., in whose 
honor the Phihppines had been named, came to his 
throne in 1556. He desired to conquer the Islands 
Avhich bore his name. Nearly forty years had 
passed since their discovery by Magellan. Still, 
there was no Spanish settlement in the Philippines. 
So in 1559 Philip wrote to the Viceroy of Mexico 
and commanded him to send ships 

"for the discovery of the western islands toward the Malu- 
cos such as the Phelipinas and others which lie within our 
demarcation and are said likewise to contain spice." 

The viceroy replied: 

"It is impossible to go to the Filipinas Islands without 
breaking the treaty, because the latter are no less within 
the treaty than the Malucos." 

He meant that Philip would break the promise his 
father, Charles I., made to the King of Portugal 
in 1529, if he should send ships to the Philippines. 


Philip now sought the opinion of the famous friar, 

Andres de Urdaneta. — This Augustinian friar 
was chosen by Phihp as the spiritual leader and 
chief navigator of the expedition of Legazpi. Ur- 
daneta was born in 1498. He was formerly an 
army captain. He was with Loaisa's expedition, 
and had spent ten years in and near the Spice 
Islands. In 1552 he became an Augustinian friar 
in the city of Mexico. He was a brave soldier, the 
greatest geographer of his time, and a worthy 
priest. Urdaneta was a friend and relative of 

In reply to the king's request that he go with the 
new expedition, Urdaneta said that the Philippines 
were not on Spain's side of the demarcation line 
of 1529. He wrote : 

"Therefore it would not be right for your majesty to 
order the said vessels to the Fijipina Island without show- 
ing some lawful or pious reason therefor." 

In spite of the opinions of the viceroy and Ur- 
daneta, Philip determined to send the expedition. 

Legazpi. — Aliguel Lopez de Legazpi was chosen 
commander of the fleet. He was born in 1502 in 
Spain. He came to ]\Iexico when a young man, 
and became secretary of the couiicil of the city of 
Mexico. He was at this time a wealthy land- 
owner. He spent much of his own money in the 


preparation of this expedition. Legazpi was a wise, 
just, and generous man. He deserves the fame he 
has gained in history. 

The Voyage of Legazpi. — Legazpi's fleet sailed 
from Navidad, Mexico, November 21, 1564. There 
were five ships and 380 men. Four Augustinian 
friars accompanied Urdaneta. At first the fleet 
sailed toward New Guinea, as Urdaneta wished. 
When five days from port the course of the ships 
was changed to the direction of the Philippines. 
Legazpi did this because sealed letters which he 
carried from the Supreme Court ordered this 
change. He said : 

"The religious in the fleet were very sorry at this, say- 
ing that they had been deceived ; and had they known 
while yet ashore that such a route was to be sailed, they 
would not have gone with the expedition, for the reasons 
that Fray Andres de Urdaneta had given in Mexico." 

Arrival in the Philippines. — Legazpi reached Cebu 
February 13, 1565. He did not land at this time, as 
the natives were unfriendly, and brought him little 
food. For two months he sent boats from island 
to island to get provisions and find the best place 
to settle. Negros, Panay, Leyte, and Mindanao 
were visited. The Spaniards had several sea-fights 
with Moros. In Butuan they traded with Luzon 
boats for gold and wax. Finally it was decided, 
against Urdaneta's wish, to settle in Cebu. This 
brave and just friar was so sure it was wrong to 



do this that he would not even talk about the 

The Settlement of Cebu.— April 27th the fleet 
appeared before Cebu. The natives were hostile, so 

Old Eokt at Cebu. 

Legazpi landed soldiers to capture the town. The 
Cebuans fled. One hundred houses were burned, 
either by a shot from the vessels, or because the 
Cebuans set fire to them. 

May 8th the fort was begun, and Legazpi took 
formal possession of the town in the name of Spain. 
He called it "San Miguel." A palisade of stakes 
was built, enclosing a triangular village. A church 
was erected. Tupas. the chief of Cebu, was much 
alarmed when reminded of the massacre of Magel- 


lan's men. He was promised forgiveness if he re- 
mained peaceable. 

Legazpi's Treatment of the Cebuans. — Legazpi 
treated the natives kindly and justly. He was not so 
rash a man as Magellan, and he expected to live all 

The Harbor of Cebu. 

his life in the Philippines; so he was very patient. 
The natives were not allowed to bring weapons into 
San ]\Iiguel. They were required to sell their goods 
at a fair price. Legazpi made his men pay for 
everything they took from the natives. Gradually 
he won the friendship of many villages. Martin 
de Goiti, his maestre de campo, or field marshal, 
spent most of his time sailing about looking for 
food. Sometimes the soldiers had to eat rats. 
Legazpi's men drank too much wine. He had to 


hang several to suppress a mutiny. He also for- 
bade them to open the graves of the natives and 
steal the gold jewels and ornaments which they 
buried with their dead. In all things he tried to 
deal justly. 

Legazpi, "Adelantado." — In June, 1569, Juan de 
la Isla arrived at Cebii from Cadiz with three ships. 
He brought a letter from King Philip for Legazpi, 
ordering him to take possession of the Philippines 
for Spain. Legazpi was made governor of all the 
Philippines with the title of Adelantado. He im- 
mediately went to Cebu and organized a city gov- 
ernment. He appointed Guido de Lavezaris gov- 
ernor of the city, and gave lands to the Spaniards 
who settled there. He named the town the "City 
of the Holy Name of God." 

First Expedition to Luzon. — The Spaniards now 
had few guns and little ammunition. One-third of 
their men were without arms. They sent cannon 
to Mexico as ballast for ships, because there was no 
powder for them. The natives of Panay often re- 
fused to plant their fields, hoping thus to starve 
out the Spaniards. Four years of tribute-paying 
and the new religion had not taught them to love 
their masters. Boats had often come with stories 
of the richer island of Luzon to the north. So 
Legazpi now determined to send an expedition to 
explore it. 

On the 8th of ]\Iay, 1570, one hundred and 
twenty Spaniards and fifteen paraos manned by 


Visayans left the River of Panay for Luzon. Mar- 
tin de Goiti commanded. 

Juan de Salcedo. — With De Goiti went Juan de 
Salcedo. Salcedo was a grandson of Legazpi. He 
was born in Mexico in 1549. He reached Cebu in 
1567, at eighteen years of age. He was a brave 
and noble young man. Already he had fought 
successfully the pirates of IMindoro, who had been 
killing and burning along the coasts of Panay. 

On the way to Manila, Salcedo went up the Pan- 
sipit River to Bombon Lake. Here he was wounded 
in the leg by a poisoned arrow in a fight with the 
Moros. He went back to De Goiti and they sailed 
into ]\Ianila Bay. 

At ten in the morning. May 19th, they entered 
the Pasig River. The town was defended by a 
palisade of stakes, and small cannon were at the 
gates. Hundreds of warriors waited at the water's 
edge. De Goiti landed, and first met Lacandola, 
the chief of Tondo, uncle of Soliman. De Goiti 
and the two chiefs pledged their faith to each other 
in a blood compact. A few days later the natives 
fired upon the Spanish boats without warning. It 
is said that Soliman fired the first cannon-shot with 
his own hand. The Spaniards landed at once and 
captured the fort. They burned the town, killing 
one hundred natives and capturing eighty. They 
found the clay and wax mold for a cannon over five 
meters long. The inhabitants fled up the Pasig in 
boats, and left Manila deserted. De Goiti, fearing 


that the winds would become contrary, returned at 
once to Panay. The battle of Manila and the for- 
mal taking possession of Luzon occurred June 6, 

Second Expedition to Luzon. — The day after 

Easter, 1571, Legazpi with twenty-seven boats and 
280 men again sailed for Luzon. \Mien the people 
of j\Ianila saw another Spanish fleet coming, they 
burned the town, which had been rebuilt since its 
destruction the year before. Then they crossed 
the river to Tondo, and sent back the chief Alcan- 
dora to make terms with Legazpi. The Adelantado 
promised forgiveness and friendship. The next 
day Soliman and Lacandola met Legazpi and prom- 
ised to be subjects of the King of Spain. 

Legazpi Founds Manila. — June 3, 157 1, Legazpi 
gave the title "Distinguished and ever loyal city" 
to Manila. June 24th he appointed the officials of 
the new city. The Filipinos called the town "May- 
nila." This means in Tagalog, "There is nilad." 
The nilad is a small tree bearing white flowers, that 
grew abundantly about ]\Ianila. 

Death of Legazpi. — \\'orn out by the hardships 
and anxieties of his life, the great Adelantado 
passed away, August 20, 1572. He died in debt 
because he had spent all his money in the king's 
service and in helping needy soldiers. His fame is 
without stain. Of ah the monuments in the Philip- 
pines, none is more deserved than that to Legazpi 
and his friend, the wise and good Urdaneta. 


Conquest of Luzon by Salcedo. — Soon after Leg- 
azpi founded Manila, he sent Salcedo to subdue 
Cainta and Taytay in La Laguna. They had re- 
fused to pay tribute. After a fierce battle, Salcedo 
captured these towns. Then he continued around 
the south shore of the lake, going as far south as 
the gold-mines of Paracali in Camarines. 

Returning to Manila, his love of adventure led 
him to make another expedition at his own ex- 
pense. With forty-five men he sailed up the west 
coast of Luzon, around the north end of the island, 
and then down the east coast to the island of 
Polillo. From here he returned to Manila by land 
across La Laguna. This journey took a year. Lie 
arrived at Manila a few weeks after the death of 

On this trip of conquest, Salcedo landed at every 
important town. He told the natives that they must 
accept Philip IL for their king and pay tribute. If 
they resisted him, he fought. Generally he per- 
suaded them by kindness. In several places he 
left a few of his soldiers to govern the towns. He 
went up the Cagayan River with thirteen men, but 
was obliged to return quickly. The people of Vi- 
gan received him kindly. Later he was given 
charge of this district. 

The following year (1573) he took a larger ex- 
pedition by sea to Camarines and the island of 
Catanduanes. He was very successful in making 
friends with the people. 


Salcedo died of fever, near Vigan, in 1576. He 
left most of his property to the natives whom he 
ruled. He did more than any other man to sub- 
ject Luzon to the Spaniards. Yet there were many 
who were unwilling to submit to Spanish rule. The 
mountain tribes were never fully conquered. 

•Summary. — Philip II. of Spain sent Legazpi and 
Urdaneta to the Philippines in 1564. Legazpi was 
a wealthy landowner and official in Mexico. Ur- 
daneta was an Augustinian friar, who had for- 
merly been in the Moluccas and was a geographer. 
Legazpi 's expedition reached Cebii February 13, 
1565. Later he captured the town. Here he made 
the first permanent Spanish settlement in the Phil- 
ippines. He treated the Filipinos kindly and 
justly. The soldiers often abused the natives. The 
Spaniards had many hardships. Legazpi was made 
governor of the Philippines in 1569. In 1570 he 
sent the first expedition to Manila. After captur- 
ing the town it returned to Cebu. In 1571 Legazpi 
moved his capital to Manila. He built a palace, 
church, and many houses. Urdaneta returned to 
Mexico soon after his arrival in the Philippines. 
He discovered the northern return route. Legazpi 
died in Manila in 1572. Juan de Salcedo con- 
quered most of Luzon in 1572-3. He left garri- 
sons in a few towns. The mountain tribes were 
never conquered. 



Poverty of the Victors — When the Spaniards de- 
cided to settle permanently in the Philippines, they 
had to find some way for so many officials and sol- 
diers to live. At times the soldiers were without 
pay for years. King Philip had hoped that his men 
would find much gold and spices in the Philippines. 
One-fifth of this was for himself. But Legazpi 
had been able to send the king only a few tons of 
cinnamon, some wax, and a few gold ornaments. 
The soldiers had become so desperate that they 
sometimes robbed the natives. 

The Encomiendas and Encomenderos. — There- 
fore when Legazpi founded the city of Cebu in 
1570, he divided the Cebuans among the Spanish 
citizens. Each of these groups of natives must 
support a Spaniard. He thought this better than 
to let the soldiers steal from the natives. Each of 
these groups was called an encomienda, or reparti- 
micnto. There were usually from 300 to 1,000 
natives in an encomienda. 

The Spaniard who ruled them was called an 


encomendcro. It was his duty to care for the na- 
tives under his control. He must keep order, see 
that the laws were obeyed, and protect the people 
from their enemies. It was also his duty to sup- 
port a priest for the religious instruction of the 

A Church at Cebu. 

natives, and to build churches. His support came 
entirely from the natives, who were taxed for his 

The Tribute. — Every male Filipino between the 
ages of sixteen and sixty was compelled to pay an 
annual tax, or tribute, to the encomendero. When 
Legazpi settled in Alanila he fixed the amount of 


this tribute at a caz'an of rice and a piece of col- 
ored cloth two varas long and one wide. Instead 
of this, the native could pay his tax with six sil- 
ver reals. In other parts of the Islands the tribute 
was four varas of cloth, seventy gantas of rice, 
and one hen. In Ilocos the tribute was often col- 
lected in gold-dust. The natives washed this out 
of the sands of the rivers, or got it by trading 
wnth the Igorots. The Cebuans later were freed 
from the tribute because of their loyalty to the 

In the early days of the encomiendas all this tax 
belonged to the encomendero. If his encomienda 
was small, or the tax hard to collect, he sometimes 
found it difficult to live. In other encomiendas the 
encomenderos became rich. The tribute was in- 
creased to ten reals in 1590. In addition the tribute- 
payer gave one real for the support of the church 
and one real for the support of the government of 
his town. A single man paid one-half the tax that 
a married man paid. 

This tax seems small, but it was difficult for the 
Filipinos of that day to pay it. They were not used 
to laying up goods for the future. Their custom 
was to get just enough food to live upon from day 
to day. They could not see why they should work 
for these strangers. So their hearts were bitter 
toward the encomenderos. 

Injustices of the Encomenderos. — Many of the 
encomenderos tried to get rich as quickly as pos- 







Showing the 




■2i 30 100 



121 Lonrimde East 122 fiom Greenirich 123° 


sible. Few of them cared for the good of the 
natives. Once a year they went through their en- 
comiendas with soldiers, collecting the tribute. The 
rest of the time they usually left the natives to 
themselves. There were a few just and kindly 
men, like Juan de Salcedo, who were loved by the 
natives they ruled. IMany of the encomenderos, 
however, made the Filipinos pay a tax not only 
for themselves, but also for each of their children, 
and even for their slaves. Some natives did not 
marry on account of the burden of the tribute. 
Others killed their children to avoid the tax on 
them. Some burned their houses and fled to the 
mountains when the tax-collector came. 

Often the tax-collectors deceived the natives. 
The collector of Dagami, in Leyte, used a scale 
that required double the proper weight to weigh 
the tribute of wax. At times, instead of collecting 
the tax when rice or wax was plentiful and cheap, 
the encomendero waited till these articles were dear 
so he could sell them at a high price. 

Early Revolts — The first insurrections against 
Spanish rule were caused by the hardships of the 
tribute which the encomenderos forced from the 
natives. In 1589 there were revolts in the Caga- 
yan Valley and in Ilocos Xorte, in which tax-col- 
lectors were killed. 

The Protest of Rada. — Father Rada, the pro- 
vincial of the Augustinians, wrote to Governor 
Lavezaris, in 1574, to say that he and other friars 


thought it wrong to ask so much tribute of the 
natives. He said : 

"Most of the owners of encomiendas have stocks in 
which they keep as prisoners the chiefs or freemen who 
do not supply the amount of tribute from their slaves 
when they themselves can not obtain it from the latter." 

He said that the reason the friars consented to 
the encomienda system was, "To avoid greater in- 
juries and robberies which are done without any 
remedy when there are no encomiendas." 

Answer of Lavezaris. — The governor answered 
this protest by saying that the natives who did not 
pay the tax were too lazy to work, or that they spent 
their time in drunkenness and feasting. He also 
said that the increase of trade which the Span- 
iards brought had made the encomiendas a benefit 
to the natives. Above all, he said the encomien- 
das were necessary, because without them the sol- 
diers would rob the natives. This shows us why 
one Filipino said he did not wish to become a 
Christian because there were Spanish soldiers in 

King Philip Forbids Encomiendas. — In 1574 
Philip wrote to Governor Lavezaris : 

"As for what you ask concerning encomiendas of In- 
dians — namely, that you have them because you were dis- 
coverers of these Islands — such a thing has appeared to 
me unsuitable." 


Governor De Sande in 1576 ordered the encom- 
enderos to 

"hold those encomiendas as the royal property, make col- 
lections, and have the natives instructed in the teachings 
of our holy Catholic faith." 

In spite of this decree the encomenderos continued 
their rule for fifty years longer. Only a portion of 
the encomiendas were transferred to the king. 

It was the duty of the encomenderos to see that 
their natives had religious instruction. Yet some of 
them let the people of their encomiendas live for 
twenty years without priests. 

Progress of Religion.- — By 1586 over two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand Filipinos had become 
Christians, about one-half the total population of 
the Islands then. The friars had established mon- 
asteries in forty different places. Yet there were in 
this same year one hundred encomiendas. So it can 
be seen that there were many who did not have 
religious teachers. The Council wrote to King 
Philip : 

"Many who are already baptized are yet without instruc- 
tion or ministers. Many others pacified, and yet to be 
baptized, are daily asking for baptism. There are an in- 
finite number of others to be pacified who have no knowl- 
edge of God." 

The Encomiendas in 1591. — By 1591 there were 
267 encomiendas of Filipinos. Thirty-one of these 


were for the king. The others were to support 
officers and favorites of the king or the governor. 
The entire Cagayan Valley was divided among the 
soldiers who had conquered it. 

Lake Taal. 

The encomenderos made the cabcaas de harangay 
collect the tribute for them when possible. In re- 
turn for this service the cabezas and their families 
were free from the tribute. 

The Pope Forbids Slavery. — ]\Iany of the en- 
comenderos had slaves. Early in the conquest when 
the Spaniards were in Cebii, they used as slaves 
Negritos who had been captured in battle. Shortly 


after Legazpi took Manila, Martin de Goiti cap- 
tured several hundred natives in Butas, near Manila. 
These captives were made slaves of the Spanish 
soldiers. The Spaniards bought slaves whom the 
Portuguese brought from India. They also allowed 
the Filipinos to keep their old slaves, but not to take 
new ones. 

When the Pope heard of these things, he forbade 
the Spaniards in the Philippines to have Filipinos as 
slaves. They were still allowed to have Negro and 
Kaffir slaves. The Kaffirs came from India. It was 
Pope Gregory XIV. who forbade slavery in 1591. 
He said: 

"We order all persons dwelling in those islands to set 
wholly free, without any craft or deceit, whatever Indian 
slaves or serfs they may have; nor for the future shall 
they, in any manner contrary to the edict of the said King 
Philip, take or keep captives or slaves." 

This order was very poorly obeyed. 

The Arrival of the Friars. — The Augustinians, in 
1565, were the first friars who settled in the Philip- 
pines. They had charge of the mission in Cebu, 
Manila, and in the districts now known as Pam- 
panga, Pangasinan, Bulacan, and Ilocos. 

The Franciscans came next, in 1577. They 
labored in La Laguna and southern Luzon. The 
Jesuits arrived in 1581, and were given charge of 
the central and southern islands; also a few towns 
in La Laguna. Then came the Dominicans, 1587, 


to whom a part of Pangasinan and all of Cagayan 
were given. The Recollects were the last of the 
great orders to arrive, in 1606. They worked in 
Zambales, IMindanao, and the smaller Visayas. A 
few friars of other orders came in later times, but 
these five are the chief religious orders that have 
worked in the Philippines. 

Character of the Early Friars. — The friars who 
came to the Philippines with the conquerors were 
not rich and powerful. They did not have great 
haciendas and fine houses. Some of them begged 
their food from the Filipinos. The Franciscans did 
not, like the others, receive money from the taxes 
the government raised. They lived with the natives, 
who supported them by gifts. 

These first missionaries were brave, self-sacrific- 
ing men. They labored patiently and lovingly with 
the poor, ignorant, warring natives. They studied 
the native dialects diligently so that they might un- 
derstand the people and preach to them. Often 
after three to six months' study of Tagalog or 
Visayan they were able to write and speak these 
tongues. One young Jesuit learned to read, write, 
and talk Tagalog in seventy-four days. 

What the Friars Taught. — Besides the Catholic 
religion, the friars of those days taught the Fili- 
pinos many things that are necessary to civilization. 
They showed them how to make brick, to burn lime 
from shells and coral rock, to build houses of stone, 
to make roads, and to do many other things. 


At times the convents were turned into work- 
shops to teach various handicrafts, like carpentry. 

St. Augustine Convent, Manila. 

The friars took great interest in agriculture. They 
preached sermons on the best ways of planting. 
They brought new garden-seeds from Mexico and 


Spain. The anona, ate, chico, and papaya, also 
corn, cacao, tobacco, and maguey were all brought 
from Mexico. 

One of the hardest and most useful of their tasks 
was to get the people to move into towns from their 
little villages in the woods and mountains. In these 
larger villages they were safer. They could hear the 
gospel. They could see how other people lived. 
Their children could learn more, and have a better 
chance in life. 

The First Spanish Schools. — The friars did what 
they could to teach the natives to read and write. 
They changed the old Filipino alphabets for the 
Roman alphabet that the nations of the West nearly 
all use. They wrote books for the Filipinos in the 
native dialects. These books were almost all about 
religion, but they opened a new world to people who 
had never seen a book. Juan de Placencia estab- 
lished many primary schools in La Laguna before 
1590. These schools were not like the schools of 
to-day. Very little besides religion was taught in 
them, but they were a good beginning. 

That the friars were good and "earnest men, liked 
by the natives, is shown also by the rapid acceptance 
of Christianity by the Filipinos. 

Reasons for the Rapid Conversion of the Fili- 
pinos. — By 1586 half of the inhabitants of the Phil- 
ippines had been baptized. Among the reasons for 
this rapid change of faith were these : 

( I ) The ancient religion of the Filipinos was one 


of fear. They did not love their gods. Their rehg- 
ion was not one of thought, but of foohsh dreams. 
They thought the God of the Christians must be bet- 
ter than their own because they saw the Christians 
were wiser and stronger than they. People are very 
slow to give up a religion which they love. We can 
see from the readiness of the Filipinos to accept a 
new religion that they had little love for their old 

(2) The Filipinos had no books of religion, or 
churches to abandon. They liked the wonderful 
buildings and beautiful clothing of the friars, the 
decorations of the altar, and the images of the 

(3) They did not have a society of priests who 
worked together to keep out the new religion. 
There was no union among their priests. ]\Iost of 
them were old women who gained their living by 
deceiving the natives. Their medicines did not heal 
diseases so well as the medicines the new teachers 

(4) It did not cost so much to become a Chris- 
tian as to worship the old gods. The friar would 
make long journeys over the mountains to visit the 
sick and the dying, yet, in those days, not ask for 
money. He was not afraid of the demons that the 
natives thought were in the trees and rocks. They 
no longer had to pay to have these spirits driven 
away from their houses. 

Summary. — An encomienda was a group of na- 


tives ruled by a Spaniard, called an encomendero. 
He kept order, collected taxes, maintained religion, 
and gained his fortune. Males between sixteen and 
sixty paid him an annual tax, equal to about six 
reals. Many encomenderos were harsh and unjust. 
The first insurrections were caused by the hardships 
of the forced tribute. The friars complained of the 
injustice of this system. King Philip forbade this 
practice in 1574, but it w'as continued for fifty 
years. By 1586 half the population of the Philip- 
pines was Christianized. In 1591 there were 267 
encomiendas, 31 belonging to the King. The Pope 
forbade the Spaniards to keep Filipinos as slaves. 
The Augustinians settled in the Philippines in 1565. 
The other principal orders which worked in the 
Philippines were the Franciscans, the Jesuits, the 
Dominicans, and the Recollects. The early friars 
were as a rule poor, brave, self-sacrificing, and dili- 
gent. They showed the natives many things about 
industries and agriculture. They organized many 
towns. The friars changed the old Filipino alpha- 
bets for the Roman, wrote books in the native dia- 
lects, and established schools. 

The rapid conversion of the Filipinos was due to 
the inferior character of their religion, their love 
for the ceremonies of the friars, their lack of a 
united body of priests, and the benefits of Chris- 

The encomenderos and the friars were the two 
classes from whom the Filipinos got their first ideas 


of the Spaniards. They endured the rule of the 
former, and cheerfully accepted the religion of the 
latter. They still had their headmen, only these had 
become tax-collectors for the encomenderos. There 
was less war among themselves and less slavery. 
The tribute was disliked, but taxes are necessary for 
any people who wish to rise above barbarism. Their 
commerce was increasing, and they were learning 
better ways of cultivating the soil. Yet they were 
far from satisfied. 



Lavezaris, Governor — 1572-1575. — Guide de 
Lavezaris had been the treasurer of Legazpi's expe- 
dition, and later the Governor of Cebu. He fol- 
lowed Legazpi as Governor of the Philippines. His 
time was mainly spent in settling quarrels about en- 
comiendas. He gave encomiendas in places that 
had never been conquered, or even seen, by the 
Spaniards. Lavezaris was not a strong governor. 
He was easily flattered and influenced by those 
about him. 

Distress of the Spaniards — The Spanish colony 
was now in great distress. Many were sick. Food 
was scarce. The Filipinos were suspicious and hos- 
tile. They paid the tribute very reluctantly. Mean- 
time Lavezaris took large encomiendas for himself. 

During his rule Manila was nearly lost to the 
Spaniards by the attack of Limahong, about which 
we shall study in a chapter farther on. A strong 
governor was now sent to the Islands. 

De Sande, Governor — 1575- 1580. — De Sande was 
a judge of the Supreme Court of JNIexico. From 


the time of Legazpi, the Phihppines were ruled 
from Mexico as a colony till that country separated 
from Spain in 1819. From Mexico came most of 
the governors, soldiers, and officials of the Philip- 
pines. There many of the laws for these Islands 
were made, and by its Supreme Court most impor- 
tant matters were settled. 

De Sande made every one obey the law, but the 
country was so poor that he could not keep crimi- 
nals in prison long, because their labor was needed 
to obtain food. In his time the first horses were 
sent to the Philippines, from China. They were 
thirteen in number, brought as presents and to sell. 
It was difficult for De Sande to get servants, be- 
cause they were afraid of the horses. De Sande 
had many slaves, and lived in greater luxury than 
Legazpi and Lavezaris. 

Conquest of Brunei — In 1578 De Sande went 
with a fleet of forty ships, several hundred Span- 
iards, and about fifteen hundred Filipino soldiers 
and sailors to the city of Brunei, capital of Borneo. 
After a short battle, De Sande captured the city. He 
did this at the recjuest of the sultan, Sirela, whose 
brother had driven him from the throne. He took 
twenty-seven ships and one hundred and seventy 
cannon. Then his men fell ill and he was obliged to 
return to Manila. 

During this expedition he sent some of his ships 
to J0I6 and the Rio Grande de Mindanao. They 
collected some tribute, but most of the natives fled 


to the mountains. The next year the collector 
found them so poor that he returned the tribute. 

Dreams of Conquest. — De Sande was very proud 
of his conquest in Borneo. He had really done very 
little for the Philippines. It was a great task for 
the Filipinos to build him a fleet, and go so far 
away to fight people they had never seen. Then, 
after all the expense of conquest, Borneo was not 
kept. Most of the early governors thought of little 
but fleets and armies with which they hoped to con- 
quer new countries. They thought the business of 
the government was to raise money by taxes for 
the king and themselves. They did not understand 
that they could do this best by teaching the people 
agriculture and other useful things. The victories 
of peace are greater than those of war, but war 
seemed to them more glorious. 

Better Days. — With all its faults the Government 
of Spain in those days was much better than the 
condition of things before the conquest. Then 
every man was afraid of his neighbor ; a man's own 
brother was his slave. Men feared the evil anitos 
of the earth, the sea, and the air. Life was hard and 
very uncertain. After the Spaniards came, life was 
still hard, but it was much safer. Trade was bet- 
ter; people were growing richer in spite of the 
taxes; the population was increasing faster, and 
the Filipinos were becoming more united. 

Ronquillo de Penalosa, Governor — 1580-1583. — 
Ronquillo brought six hundred soldiers to the Phil- 


ippines at his own expense. In return for this he 
was to receive the governorship of the Islands for 
Hfe. The king gave Ronquillo this honor because 
Spain had received very Httle return for the treasure 
spent in conquering the Islands. 

One of Ronquillo's first acts was to examine what 
Governor De Sande had done. He took away all 
royal office from De Sande by what was called the 

The "Residencia."^ — The Governor of the Philip- 
pines in the old days was very powerful. It was so 
far to Mexico and Spain that he was allowed to do 
what he thought best, like a king. No one might 
disobey him while he held office. At the close of 
his rule, however, he must stay in the Islands till the 
governor who followed him had examined all he 
had done. This examination was called the "resi- 
dencia." At this time all the governor's accounts 
were searched to see if he had spent the public 
money honestly. Any one who thought the old 
governor had treated him unjustly might come be- 
fore the new governor and make a complaint. If it 
was found that the old governor had not ruled 
justly, he was punished. Sometimes they took 
away all the property of a governor and put him 
in prison. 

Union of Portugal with Spain. — In 1580 Philip 
II, conquered Portugal. With this conquest all the 
Portuguese colonies in the East Indies came under 
the rule of the Governor of the Philippines. This 


union of the two kingdoms lasted till 1640. During 
this period the Government of the Philippines 
stretched from India to Japan. It was a great task 
for the Filipinos to find the ships and men to rule so 
many different and widely separated lands. From 
this time the governors began to try to make the 

Philip II. of Spain. 

name of Spain respected in the islands south of the 

Expeditions to Borneo and Ternate, — In 1582 
Philip II. ordered the conquest of the Moluccas. 
They had been given to him with Portugal, but actu- 


ally were in the power of the native Malayan tribes. 
Ronquillo sent an expedition to Borneo in 1581, 
when he replaced the sultan Sirela on his throne. 

A second expedition under his son, Sebastian 
Ronquillo, besieged Ternate, but could not capture 
it because disease broke out. This little island was 
taken in later years by the Dutch. Its people re- 
mained faithful to Spain. A few emigrated to 
Cavite, and made their home in Ternate. Their 
descendants still live in this town. 

Japanese Pirates. — The northern coast of Luzon 
was often attacked by Chinese and Japanese pirates. 
They would land, burn and rob a town, and then 
sail away. During Ronquillo's rule a strong force 
of Japanese pirates captured and held the village at 
the mouth of the Cagayan River. They were under 
a leader called Tayfusa, who severely oppressed 
the natives. Ronquillo sent a force which, after 
heroic fighting, drove them away. He deposed the 
native rulers, who were holding the people in 

Near the mouth of the Sagayan he founded the 
city of Nueva Segovia, now called Lal-loc. It was 
also in Ronquillo's time that Iloilo was founded. 

Sorrow and sickness ended Ronquillo's life in 
1583. Neither he nor De Sande had won the glory 
they sought. 

The Filipinos' Part in Spanish Conquests. — In all 
those expeditions the Filipinos toiled to add glory 
to the flag of Spain. They built the ships, rowed or 


sailed them, did all the hard work, and often shared 
in the fighting. Thousands of them perished from 
disease and the sword in the various expeditions of 
the Spanish. They did not like this. They were 
not accustomed to the labor of ship-building. They 
objected to the long, weary hours spent at the oars, 
and felt little interest in conquering the people of 
far-off islands. Most of the king's tribute was 
spent on war. Many of these wars were for glory 
and plunder. The expeditions, however, usually 
cost more than the result was worth. 

Summary. — Lavezaris was governor from 1572 
to 1575- Tn his time the Spaniards suffered 
from poverty and sickness, and the natives were 

From the time of Legazpi the Philippines were 
ruled as a colony of Mexico till 18 19. Governor 
De Sande ruled from 1575 to 1580. In 1578 he 
captured Brunei and made an expedition to J0I6 
and Mindanao. His conquests were a heavy bur- 

Ronquillo de Penalosa was governor from 1580 
to 1583. The king made him governor for life. 
The residencia was an examination of the deeds of 
the last governor by the incoming governor. De 
Sande was deprived of all royal office by the resi- 

In 1 580 Spain conquered Portugal and the Portu- 
guese East Indies came under the rule of the Philip- 
pines. This lasted until 1640. In Ronquillo's time 


several expeditions of conquest went to the Moluc- 
cas. The Japanese pirates, who raided northern 
Luzon, were suppressed. Ronquillo founded Nueva 
Segovia and Iloilo. IMost of the tribute in these 
days was spent on war. 



The First Bishop of Manila. — Domingo de Sala- 
zar, the first bishop of Manila, arrived in March, 
1 581. He was a good and earnest man, but not 
greatly beloved, because he was very stern. In his 
time the quarrels between Church and State began 
to be serious. There was an encomendero in Min- 
danao who treated the natives with great harshness. 
The friar there reproved him and excommunicated 
him, but the encomendero laughed at him. When 
Salazar heard of this quarrel, he persuaded Ron- 
quillo to call the encomendero to Manila. Here 
he felt the disgrace of excommunication. This 
event made the other encomenderos very angry, 
for they feared their own evil lives would be pun- 
ished in the same way. So they complained to the 
governor. This was the beginning of a strife be- 
tween bishop and governor that lasted till the end 
of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Under the pres- 
ent form of government such quarrels are impos- 
sible, because the duties of the governor and the 


bishop are separate. Neither can interfere with the 

De Vera, Acting Governor — 1584- 1590. — Ron- 
quillo and Salazar had asked the king to establish a 
Supreme Court in the PhiHppines. It was hoped 
that the disputes between Church and State could 
be settled by such a court. In 1584 three judges 
arrived and set up the Supreme Court of the Phil- 
ippines. De Vera, the chief justice, became acting 
governor, because Ronquillo had died the year be- 
fore. It was long the custom in the Philippines for 
the chief justice of the Supreme Court to fill a 
vacancy in the governorship. 

Scarcity of Food. — Ronquillo had brought so 
many soldiers to the Philippines that it was difficult 
to feed them. The population of Manila was only 
a few thousand in those days. Many had died in 
the expeditions of conquest; others were employed 
in the ship-yards and upon other public works. 

IMeantime, in 1584, twenty-five Chinese ships ar- 
rived at Manila bringing four thousand Chinese. 
These new settlers were merchants and mechanics. 
They ate a great deal and of the best kind of food. 
The prices of all provisions rose. In 1577 one 
could buy in IManila three hens for one real. A 
buffalo could be bought for four reals, and a hog 
for six. By 1585 one hen cost two or three reals, 
and a hog six or seven pesos. Both Spaniards and 
Filipinos suffered hardships. 

Insurrection in Pampanga. — In 1585, while the 


soldiers were sick and hungry and many of them 
without weapons, a revolt broke out in Pampanga. 
Certain men conspired with some Moros from Bor- 
neo, who were trading in ]\lanila, to burn the city 
and kill all the Spaniards. The plot was betrayed 
by a woman, and the disaster averted. 

Deeds of De Vera. — De Vera was a wiser and 
stronger man than most of the governors who came 
before him. He did some useful things for the 
Islands. In his rule the first stone houses were 
built in Manila. He found that stone could easily 
be cut from the ledges near the banks of the Pasig 
and brought to Manila in boats. So he had twenty 
stone houses built that there might be less danger 
from fire. He also built the first stone fort, near 
where Fort Santiago now stands. It was called 
"Nuestra Senora de Guia." The artillery for this 
fort was cast by a Pampangan native called Panda- 
pira. De Vera also began to dig the moat which 
surrounded the city. He built a stone breastwork 
along the river-front. The great wall was not be- 
gun till later. 

Cost of the Conquest. — All these military works 
cost a great deal for those days. The fort and moat 
were paid for by a tax of one real on each married 
man and half a real on each single man. The total 
cost of conquering and holding the Philippines from 
the time of Legazpi till 1586 had been 3,000,000 
pesos. This was equal in value to at least 15,000,- 
000 pesos to-day, because money would buy much 


more then than now. Only a small part of this 
sum was paid by the tribute from the natives. The 
Islands were a heavy tax upon the treasury of 

Aims of Spain in the Conquest.- — The old Spanish 
kings who conquered and held these Islands had 
three aims in so doing. First, they desired to make 
money by trade and taxes. The rare and costly 
goods brought from the East filled their minds with 
visions of wealth. Charles I. expected that Magel- 
lan's ships would return laden with riches. The 
letters between the kings and the leaders of the 
expeditions say a great deal about trade, spices, and 
gold-mines. The conquerors hurried from island 
to island, hoping for new treasures from each newly 
discovered land. They were bitterly disappointed 
to get so small a reward. Yet when they had once 
taken the new lands, it was hard to give them up. 

A second aim in the conquest was the glory of 
empire. Spain was one of the richest and proudest 
of the kingdoms of Europe in those days. The 
sailors and soldiers who raised the banner of Spain 
in new lands were richly rewarded. The king gave 
them pensions and titles of nobility. Both monarch 
and subjects delighted to boast of the wide dominion 
of the crown of Spain. There is a feeling which 
every great people has that where its flag is once 
raised it should never be lowered. So while gain 
was one of the first thoughts of the Spanish con- 
querors, it M'as not the only one. 


The Spanish monarchs were CathoHc kings. They 
thought that the cross must always go with the flag. 
Side by side with the soldier went the missionary. 
The king felt that he was conquering for God as 

AuGUSTiNiAN Church, Manila. 

well as for himself. This was why he did not ask 
the inhabitants of new lands if they wished to serve 
him. He believed he had the only true religion. 
He was given by the Pope the right to teach pagan 
nations and induce them to be baptized. So even if 


it cost vastly more to conquer these lands than they 
returned to his treasury, he could not give them up. 
He believed this would mean the loss of many souls. 
Reply of Philip II. — ^Vhen urged by some of the 
conquerors of the Philippines to give them up be- 
cause "the cost of keeping them would be greater 
than the gain," Philip II. said : 

"For the conversion of only a single soul I would give 
all the treasures of the Indies ; and should that not be 
enough, I would give all that I have most precious in 
Spain. On no account would I cease to send preachers 
and ministers to give the light of the holy gospel to all 
newly discovered lands, however poor, uncultivated, and 
barren they might be, because to me and my heirs the holy 
Apostolic See has given the task which the apostles had 
of publishing and preaching the gospel. This must be 
done there and in infinite other kingdoms, rescuing them 
from the rule of demons, and giving them knowledge of 
the true God without any hope of gaining riches." 

The reason given by Philip III. for holding the 
Philippines told of pride in his empire. 

Philip III. and Moraga. — About the year 1619 
some of the counsellors of the king were advising 
him to give up the Philippines. Some thought they 
were too expensive ; others said it was not right to 
compel a people to accept a new religion by the 
power of the sword. The Franciscan, Moraga, now 
arrived at the court of Philip III. When he heard 
that the Philippines might be abandoned by Spain 
he was full of grief; for he thought all the work of 


the Catholic missionaries there would be lost. He 
threw himself at the feet of the king, and begged 
him not to give up the Islands. Philip III. replied : 
"Depart with God, Father Moraga. certain that it 
shall not be said of me that I abandoned what my 
father conquered and left to me." 

The Memorial to the King. — In 1586 the General 
Council of Manila, composed of all the leading men, 
sent a long letter to the king asking for many re- 
forms. The governor, the bishop, and all civil and 
military officials united in the choice of the Jesuit, 
Alonso Sanchez, to take this memorial to the king. 
Sanchez went to Spain. After much talking, the 
king finally decided to change many things in the 
Philippines. The decree ordering these changes is 
called the reform decree of 1589. 

Reform Decree of 1589. — The principal things in 
this decree were the following: 

( 1 ) Twelve thousand ducats were to be spent in 
repairing and ornamenting the cathedral and con- 
vents. The cathedral at that time was built of 
"wood and straw, poor and weather-beaten and de- 
prived of necessities." 

(2) ]Many friars were to be sent to the Islands. 
Thev must stav for life unless excused bv the 
bishop. This was ordered because the friars had 
been going to Japan and China instead of staying 
in the Philippines. Like the governors, they wanted 
to make new conquests before the first ones were 


(3) Native girls who should marry poor Span- 
iards were to receive dowries. 

(4) The governor was forbidden to give an en- 
comienda to any one who had not worked in it for 
three years. It was desired to give the natives an 
example of industry. Nor could the governor give 
encomiendas to his friends, relatives, or servants, 
unless they were worthy. Some worthless people 
from ]\Iexico were getting encomiendas, while men 
who had lived and fought for years in the Philip- 
pines had none. 

(5) No new slaves w^ere to be made. Those 
born of slave parents were to be free. 

(6) The Supreme Court was to be taken away. 
It had not succeeded in settling the difficulties be- 
tween Church and State. The king now sent a 
governor of his own choice, in whom he had full 

Summary, — Domingo de Salazar was the first 
bishop of ]\Ianila. Troubles between church and 
state date from his arrival in 1581. 

In 1584 the Supreme Court of the Philippines 
was established. De Vera, chief justice, became 
acting governor after Ronquillo's death. In 1584 
four thousand Chinese came to Manila to live. Pro- 
visions became scarce and high. In 1585 there was 
a revolt in Pampanga. De Vera built the first stone 
houses in ]\Ianila. 

The conquest of the Philippines up to 1586 cost 
3,000,000 pesos. The Spanish conquerors had 



three aims : to make money, to spread the power of 
Spain, and to make Christian converts. Philip II, 
said he would give all the treasures of the Indies 
for the conversion of a single soul. Moraga, a 
friar, -went to Spain in 1619 to beg Philip III. not 
to give up the Philippines. The king said he would 
not abandon his father's conquests. In 1586 the 
Council of Manila sent a request for reforms to the 
king. This resulted in the reform decree of 1589- 
Among the reforms were the spending of money 
on the cathedral, sending more friars, giving dow- 
ries to native girls, reforming the encomienda sys- 
tem, checking slavery, and taking away the Supreme 



Gomez Perez Das Marinas — i590-i593- This 
man was the wisest and strongest of the early gov- 
ernors. Phihp II. trusted Das Marinas fully. The 
king desired to treat the Filipinos justly and kindly; 
but he was a long distance from the Philippines. 
The officials of Mexico did not always tell him the 
truth about these Islands. The governors and the 
bishop had written him different stories about the 
treatment of the Filipinos by the Spaniards. So 
he sent Das Marifias from Spain to find out the 
truth. The governors before Das Marifias had been 
chosen by the Viceroy or the Supreme Court of 
Mexico. Das Marinas was a royal governor. The 
king gave him more power than any governor be- 
fore him. 

Das Marinas worked very hard for the good of 
the Philippines, but he received little help from 
Mexico, because the rulers there were jealous of 
him. Nor did he and Bishop Salazar agree. The 
new governor did not think the friars had treated 
the natives of the Philippines justly. On the other 



hand, Bishop Salazar did not think the governors 
and soldiers had done right. Each tried to prove 
to the king that he was the best friend of the na- 

Salazar's Opinion of the Governors. — Salazar 
wrote to the king: "The natives are so harassed 
with public and private undertakings that they are 
not able to take breath." He said also : "The 
Spaniards came to this country in name as con- 
querors but in fact as destroyers." 

Neglect of Religious Instruction.- — It was the duty 
of the encomenderos to give one-fourth of the 
tribute for the support of churches and friars in 
their districts. Salazar said : 

"Of ten divisions of this bishopric, eight have no in- 

The bishop said the fault for this was the neglect 
of the governor to make the encomenderos do their 
duty. He wrote to Das Marinas : 

"Who doubts that the preaching of the gospel is the 
most important thing for which we have come here? But 
yet I see that we care least for this. If you do not think 
so look at the progress of the natives. I know very well 
that there is plenty of care about temporal things. As 
long as these are present, religious instruction must stop, 
or the Indians must support it even if they never under- 
stand it. So we all say that the gospel is the principal 
thing, but our works show what it is that we care most 



Das Marinas wrote the king about the friars. 
Each was trying to tell the best story possible. 
Probably neither the bishop nor the governor was 

Fort Santiago. 

so much at fault as each painted the other to the 

Das Mariiias said that the friars and Bishop Sala- 
zar interfered with the governor, and took away 
the respect of the Filipinos for the king. Of the 
natives he said : ''They recognize no other king or 
superior than the father of the doctrina and are 


more attentive to his demands than to those of the 

Restitution to the Filipinos by the Conquerors. — 
It was the opinion of Salazar and of nearly all the 
friars that the early conquerors of the Philippines 
did wrong. They thought that it was unjust to 
conquer people without teaching them the Christian 
religion. They said that the natives ought to re- 
ceive Christian instruction in return for the taxes 
they paid. King Philip II., when he heard that 
some of the natives had been paying taxes for many 
years without religious teaching, was deeply 
grieved. He ordered in the decree of 1589 that the 
early conquerors pay back to the Filipinos the taxes 
which they had collected from them at the time 
when they had no priests of Christianity. 

Salazar refused to confess and absolve the Span- 
ish encomenderos who did not do this. Some 
money had been collected to restore to the Filipinos. 
The bishop expended this money for the benefit of 
the church and the people. 

Das Marinas wrote to the king that it would take 
150,000 pesos to make proper restitution to the Fili- 
pinos for taxing them without teaching them relig- 
ion. Very little of this money was ever paid to 
the Filipinos. The Philippines were so far away 
that the rulers did not always obey the king's de- 
crees. So the restitution was never made. There 
were, however, juster laws made about taxes. Das 
Marinas ordered that in encomiendas where there 



were judges but no priests only three-fourths of 
the tribute should be collected. If there was neither 
judge nor priest in an encomienda no tax was to 
be collected. 

Building of the Walls of Manila. — Das Marinas 
found the Philippines threatened by the Moros, the 

The Oldest Part of the Wall of Manila. 

Chinese, and the Japanese. He determined to build 
a fort and a wall at Manila as a protection against 
these enemies. It was difficult to get money for 
these works. He taxed playing cards for this pur- 
pose, also the goods of all merchants. The bishop 
and friars opposed this because they were trading. 
They said that the natives did not ask for the wall. 
But Das Marinas was determined to build it. He 

wrote to the king : 

T have begun the walls at the 


point where the fort was being built. It is nine 
feet above ground and the foundation is of the 
same depth. It is from sixteen to twelve and eight 
feet wide on top, according to the plan." It took 
many years to make the walls as we see them now. 
Many different governors added to them, so that 
they grew wide and thick. Das Mariiias also built 
Fort Santiago. 

Decay of the Cotton Industry. — Before the Span- 
iards came, the Filipinos grew their own cotton and 
made their own cloth. When they began to earn 
money from the Spaniards, they bought their cloth 
of the Chinese. They still raised cotton, but they 
sold it to the Chinese. This cotton was taken to 
China, woven into cloth, then brought back to 
Manila and sold to the Filipinos. By and by the 
Filipinos did not even raise the cotton. Then the 
price of cloth was put higher and higher by the 
Chinese. Thus an industry was lost which was of 
great benefit to the Philippines. Cotton grows very 
well in these Islands. It is best for a country to 
make all that it needs for itself. At this time the 
Filipinos were spending on Chinese goods, chiefly 
cottons and silks, about 200,000 pesos a year. 

A Change for the Worse. — In the time of Das 
Marinas an inquiry was made about the former hab- 
its of the Filipinos. Several Filipinos said, under 
oath, that, before the Spaniards came, the natives 
lived in villages and worked upon their crops. The 
chiefs were obeyed and respected, and there was 


plenty to eat. But after they found they could get 
money by working for Spaniards, they left their 
villages and gave themselves up to vice and wander- 
ing. The}' found it easy to buy what they needed 
after working awhile. Then they spent their spare 
time in evil ways. Before the conquest they 
had to work all the time. But now, since so many 
had left the fields, food had become scarce and 
dear. Civilization always brings some evils with 
it. Those who are not strong can not stand the 
freedom and the changes that it brings. Whatever 
losses the Filipinos suffered, there was much that 
they gained. 

Conquest of Zambales. — The Negritos of the 
Zambales mountains had for centuries robbed and 
killed the Pampangans, their neighbors. So Das 
]\Iarinas resolved to make war on them. The wav 
he did it shows how the Spaniards used the Filipinos 
to help them. 

In 1 591 he sent six Spanish captains against the 
Negritos. Each captain led twenty Spanish sol- 
diers and five or six hundred Pampangans. They 
entered the Zambales mountains by six different 
roads. Then they burned the houses and crops of 
the Negritos. They captured 2,500 men and wom- 
en. Of most of these they made slaves. Four hun- 
dred of them were put as rowers into four new 
boats which Das Marifias had built. These boats 
were propelled by fifty or sixty long oars each. It 
was very hard work to pull these oars all day. The 


Filipinos never liked this work. Yet they did a 
great deal of it for the Spaniards. A slave who was 
used in rowing by the Spaniards was given freedom 
after three years of this work. 

The Great Fleet. — Like the governors before him, 
Das Marinas wanted to conquer the Moluccas. The 

The Cathedral, Manila. 

king had given a special order that this be done. So 
Das Marinas made many natives cut trees in the 
forests of Bulacan. This timber was taken to Cav- 
ite and made into ships. By 1593 Das Mariiias had 
two hundred ships, large and small. To build and 
equip these ships was a great task for the Filipinos. 


It would have been much better for them to culti- 
vate the fields, and learn to make the things they 
were buying of the Chinese. 

Das Mariiias sent the fleet ahead to Iloilo. It 
carried one thousand Spaniards, four hundred Tag- 
alog and Pampangan arquebusiers, one thousand 
Visayans, armed with lances and bows, and five 
hundred Chinese rowers. 

Death of Das Marinas. — Das Marifias with forty 
companions, among them several captains and 
friars, sailed a few days later in a boat propelled 
by one hundred and fifty Chinese rowers. At the 
island of Maricaban, near the coast of Batangas, 
the Chinese killed twenty-one of the Spaniards, in- 
cluding the governor. So perished one of the best 
governors the Philippines ever had. 

Manila in Das Marifias' Time — Das Marinas left 
Manila a different city from what he had found it. 
He had surrounded it with a wall. He had built 
barracks, storehouses, hospitals, public markets, and 
the college of Santa Potenciana. The cathedral was 
completed by him. His rule was a time of great 
activity. Manila became a city of stone instead of 
bamboo. The foundations of Spanish rule were for 
the first time firmly laid. 

Summary, — Gomez Perez Das Marinas was gov- 
ernor from 1590 to 1593. He was appointed di- 
rectly by the king instead of by the Supreme Court 
of Mexico, as was then the custom. Bishop Sala- 
zar said that Das Marinas oppressed the natives. 


Das Marinas said that the friars made the natives 
disloyal to the governor. Salazar also said that 
the religious instruction was neglected by the en- 
comenderos. King Philip ordered the early con- 
querors to pay back to the natives the taxes col- 
lected when they had no religious instruction. One 
hundred and fifty thousand pesos were needed for 
this purpose. A small amount was restored to the 

Das Marinas built Fort Santiago and the first 
wall of Manila. This wall with later additions still 

Before the Spanish conquest the cotton industry 
was large. It passed away and the Filipinos bought 
their cottons and silks from the Chinese. The in- 
troduction of money into the Philippines led many 
to wander for work and to fall into vice. 

Das Marinas subdued the Negritos of Zambales, 
capturing 2,500, most of whom he enslaved. He 
built 200 ships and in 1593 started for a conquest 
of the Moluccas. He was killed by his Chinese 
crew. He built many public buildings and laid 
firmly the foundations of Spanish rule. 



Arrival of the Chinese. — Long before the Span- 
iards came to the PhiHppines, the people of China 
traded with the Filipinos. Only a few Chinese 
made their homes in the Philippines in those early- 
days. The country was not safe for strangers. 
When Legazpi came to Manila, there were about 
one hundred and fifty Chinese living in the town. 
The Spaniards in those days encouraged the Chi- 
nese to come to Manila and settle. They wanted 
them to build houses, row in the boats, and make 
and sell the things which the Filipinos did not use. 
Morga said : "It is true the town can not exist 
without the Chinese, as they are workers in all 
trades and occupations, very industrious, and work 
for small pay." 

In the time of Lavezaris (see Chapter VI), a 
danger threatened Manila that alarmed the Span- 
iards. A Chinese boat from Manila fell into the 
power of a noted Chinese corsair. This was Lima- 
hong. He decided to attack Manila when he 
learned of its wealth and defenselessness. 



Limahong. — Limahong had defeated the fleets of 
the Chinese emperor, and burned cities on the coast 
of China. Thousands of soldiers and many ships 
were his. At length he was driven away by the 
rulers of China. With a fleet of sixty ships and 
three thousand soldiers and sailors, besides work- 
men and women, he sailed to the Philippines to 
found a kingdom. 

Near the coast of Ilocos he captured a boat, and 
killed its crew of Spaniards and Filipinos. An offi- 
cer of Salcedo's saw the fight from the shore. He 
hastened to Vigan and told Salcedo. The young 
captain sent three natives in a boat to tell the people 
of Manila of the coming of the pirate. This party 
was nearly captured by Limahong. It reached Ma- 
nila too late to warn the Spaniards. Salcedo with 
fifty men set out for Manila in boats as soon as 
Limahong sailed south. 

The First Attack. — The pirate ships reached 
Mariveles November 29, 1574. The same night 
Limahong sent his Japanese captain, Sioco, with 
about seven hundred men to take Alanila. They 
landed near Paranaque, and marched toward the 
city about ten o'clock the next morning. 

De Sande describes the appearance of the Chi- 
nese soldiers thus : 

"There were seven hundred men, among whom were a 
few arquebusiers and many pikemen, besides men armed 
with battle-axes. They were clad in corselets, which are 
coats lined with exceedingly thick cotton. They had dur- 


able bamboo hats, which served as hehnets. They car- 
ried cutlasses and several daggers in their belts; and all 
were barefoot. One out of every ten men carried a ban- 
ner fastened to his shoulders and reaching two palms 
above his head. There were other and larger banners 

Repulse of the Chinese. — Then the Httle force of 
forty Spanish soldiers came out of the wooden fort 
that stood near where Fort Santiago now stands. 
They killed eighty of the Chinese, losing fourteen 
of their own men. Sioco retreated to Cavite, where 
Limahong had now moved with his fleet. This was 
St. Andrew's day, November 30, 1574. Manila had 
no great stone wall then. The fort was small, with- 
out a moat, and surrounded by a palisade of stakes. 

The city was filled with terror. Every one was 
obliged to work day and night on the fortifi- 

The Second Attack.^ — The next day Limahong 
prepared for a second attack, but he was too slow. 
On the evening of that day Juan de Salcedo sailed 
into Manila Bay, with six boats and fifty men, to the 
rescue of Manila. All were overjoyed to see him. 
At daybreak the next morning Limahong's fleet 
sailed from Cavite to Manila, and began to fire its 
cannon. Then the pirates landed near the city and 
attacked it in three columns, of about five hundred 
men each. Those on the seashore forced their way 
into the fort. About eighty of them were killed 
within its walls. Then the Chinese were driven to 


their ships. They had burned the Augustinian 
church and killed only half a dozen Spaniards. 

Revolt of the Filipinos. — The Filipinos were glad 
to see the Chinese attack the Spaniards. They did 
not stop to think that the Chinese might prove to be 
worse masters than the Spaniards. On the day of 
the second attack they gathered in thousands before 
Manila in their baiicas, ready to avenge themselves 
on the Spaniards if the Chinese should win. The 
Moros around Manila captured and robbed the 
friars who were outside of the city. They killed 
goats in the churches to show their contempt for 
the new religion. Several Spaniards and their 
slaves were slain. But when the Moros saw that 
the Spaniards were victorious they set the captured 
friars free and asked pardon for revolting. Sev- 
eral of their chiefs were executed as a punishment. 

Limahong in Pangasinan. — Limahong now sailed 
to the mouth of the Agno River in Pangasinan. He 
built a town, and conquered the surrounding coun- 
try. What he did shows how foolish it was for the 
Filipinos to support him against the Spaniards. He 
seized several headmen and kept them as hostages. 
He compelled the natives to bring him food for his 
army. He robbed them and treated them badly. 

Salcedo Expels Limahong. — Juan de Salcedo was 
now appointed field marshal. The Spaniards were 
called together from all over the Islands to repel the 
Chinese. In March, 1575, Salcedo set out for Pan- 
gasinan with a large fleet. He led two hundred 


and fifty Spaniards and twenty-five hundred na- 
tives, mostly Visayans. At the mouth of the Agno 
he was fortunate enough to surprise and burn the 
Chinese fleet. 

Instead of attacking the fort of the Chinese, 
Salcedo besieged it for four months. The Chinese 
built thirty boats during this time, and escaped on 
the 4th of August. Thus the Filipinos were freed 
from the tyranny of a people who would have 
treated them cruelly. 

For a while after the repulse of Limahong, the 
Chinese did not come in large numbers. But the 
great public works undertaken by Vera and Das 
Marinas brought many of them to the Philippines. 
They came so rapidly that by 1600 there were more 
Chinese than Filipinos in Manila. It was necessary 
to make them live in one place when they became 
numerous. Then they could be more easily 
watched. Therefore a building was made for them. 

The Alcayceria and the Parian. — The Alcayceria 
was a huge house built by Ronquillo in 1581 for the 
Chinese. Its first site was on Calle San Fernando, 
Binondo. There the Chinese merchants who came 
to Manila lived and traded. In 1582 this building 
was burned to the ground. The following year a 
new Alcayceria, called the Parian, was built where 
the Botanical Gardens now are. It consisted of 
four long rows of buildings. These structures were 
built on the four sides of a square. In the middle 
was a small lake, long since filled with earth. A 


creek led from this lake to the River Pasig. The 
Chinese boats laden with merchandise would come 
to this lake and unload silks, cottons, and other 
wares. In these great buildings lived thousands of 

■' ■ * mmmmmammm ^ 

Dominican Church, IManila. 

Chinese. Here they carried on all kinds of trades 
and sold many things the Filipinos had never before 
seen. The Parian had one hundred and fifty shops 
and six hundred merchants. The Chinese were 
rapidly becoming rich and powerful. 

Chinese Christians. - 

-Das Marinas thought it was 


not well to let the Chinese do all the useful things 
and get all the money. He wished to expel them 
from the country. But Bishop Salazar and the 
friars did not want him to send away the Chinese, 
because many of them had become Christians. The 
Dominicans had done a great deal for the conver- 
sion of the Chinese. More would have been con- 
verted, had not the old bishop made every Christian 
Chinaman cut off his hair. After this he could not 
return to his native land. So the Chinese remained 
in Manila. 

The Three Mandarins. — A strange thing hap- 
pened in the year 1603, when Acufia was governor. 
Three Chinese mandarins, as the great men of 
China are called, arrived in Manila. They wished 
to see if a mountain of gold existed in Cavite, as 
they had been told was the case. Acuna showed 
them that this was an idle tale, so they went away. 
The Spaniards could not believe that the search for 
a mountain of gold was the real purpose of the 
mandarins. They thought these men wished to see 
if jManila could be captured. The Chinese in Ma- 
nila now began to act strangely. Many of them 
went back and forth between the city and the coun- 
try. The Spaniards, fearing a plot, began to 
threaten them. Then the Chinese became alarmed 
and planned to kill off the Spaniards. 

Chinese Revolt of 1603. — On the night of October 
3, 1603, the entire Chinese population of Manila, 
nearly 25,000 in number, rose in revolt. They 


burned many houses in Quiapo, and killed many- 
natives. There were few Spaniards in Manila. A 
force of one hundred and fifty men attacked the 
Chinese. All but four of the Spaniards were killed. 

At dawn, October 5th, the rebels attacked the 
walled city. The fight lasted several days. Every 
Spaniard, including the friars, armed himself and 
fought. It is said that Father Flores sat all day in 
a boat near the wall, firing two arquebuses, and 
killed many Chinese. 

Defeat of the Chinese. — Finally the Spaniards, 
with the aid of some Japanese and Pampangans, 
drove away the Chinese. They fled to the moun- 
tains of San Pablo. Here a large force of Span- 
iards and Filipinos surrounded and besieged them. 
Hunger and attacks of the natives, who hated the 
Chinese, caused the death of about 23,000. 

In the case of Limahong, the Spaniards saved the 
Filipinos, but in the insurrection of 1603 the Span- 
iards would all have been destroyed without the 
help of the Filipinos. 

Revolt of 1639. — Two galleons were wrecked off 
the coast of Cagayan in 1639. This ruined the 
business of the Chinese. The Spaniards and Filipi- 
nos had no money to buy their goods, because it had 
sunk with the galleons. Hunger forced the Chinese 
to revolt. There were by this time 33,000 of them 
in the Islands, and they were living in the provinces, 
as they had not done in earlier times. They com- 
mitted many outrages in La Laguna and near Ma- 


nila. But they did not attack the walled city again. 
They remembered 1603. An edict was published 
ordering all the Chinese in the provinces to be 
killed. For a year the battles lasted. In all, 20,000 
of the Chinese were slain. 

The Chinese Question. — Many times after this 
there was trouble with the Chinese. They were 
taxed more heavily than the Filipinos. They were 
sometimes compelled to become Christians or leave 
the country. But although both Spaniards and Fili- 
pinos hated the Chinese they always had to allow 
them to return to the Islands. The Chinese are 
the most numerous people in the world. They have 
learned by centuries of practice the virtues of in- 
dustry, perseverance and economy. No people can 
become great without these qualities. In the four 
centuries just past, the Filipinos have made great 
progress in learning these things. They are now 
engaged in many callings requiring skill and pa- 
tience. No more Chinese laborers are allowed to 
come to this country. The door of opportunity is 
wide open for the Filipino. He may learn any 
trade and there is plenty of work. It is the duty 
of the children of to-day to show that they can do 
as good work of all kinds for their country as the 
people of any other nation. This is a better vic- 
tory than fire and sword can win. 

Summary. — The Chinese traded with the Philip- 
pines centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards. 
The latter encouraged the Chinese to settle in the 


Philippines. Limahong, a Chinese pirate, attacked 
Manila in 1574 with sixty ships and three thousand 
men. With the aid of Juan de Salcedo, the Span- 
iards drove them away. Limahong settled in Pan- 
gasinan near the mouth of the Agno. He op- 
pressed the people, but was driven away by Salcedo 

in 1575- 

By 1600 there were more Chinese than Filipinos 
in Manila. The Alcayceria was built for them in 
1 58 1. Here the Chinese merchants lived and 
traded. The Parian had 150 shops and six hun- 
dred merchants. 

In 1603 the Chinese of [Manila revolted. They 
burned houses and killed many Filipinos. Finally 
the Chinese rebels were driven to the mountains 
and over 20,000 were killed. 

The wreck of two galleons in 1639 ruined the 
business of the Chinese, so many of them revolted. 
At this time there were 33,000 Chinese in the 
Islands. For a year there were battles around 
Manila, and 20,000 Chinese were slain. The Chi- 
nese were heavily taxed. They were at times com- 
pelled to become Christians or to leave the coun- 
try. They are industrious, economical, and perse- 
vering. Xo more Chinese laborers are allowed to 
come to the Philippines. 



The Chinese Trade. — It is impossible to under- 
stand the history of the Philippines unless we know 
something of the early trade with Chiria. In the 
time of Das Marinas, twenty or thirty Chinese 
junks came to Manila every year. They brought 
porcelain, silks, cottons, cloths ornamented with 
gold and silver, jewels, copper and iron vases, curi- 
ous ornaments of ivory and wood, besides many 
kinds of food, and buffaloes, horses, and cows. 

Commerce with Mexico. — Most of the goods that 
the Chinese brought were bought by merchants who 
sent them to Mexico. Here they were sold at a 
very high price. The profits of this trade were so 
tempting that everybody engaged in it. The gover- 
nor, the judges, the army officers, in fact all classes 
tried to get rich from the commerce with Mexico. 
There were only one to four ships a year to Mex- 
ico from Manila. There was not room in the ships 
for the cargoes of all who wished to engage in this 
trade. So only the rich and powerful could send 
their goods. Therefore the Filipinos did not get 



much advantage from it. They helped load and 
unload the ships, and received some of the money 
the Spaniards spent ; but very few became rich mer- 
chants. The proper business of the Islands was 
neglected. Manila became the place where the 
goods of one foreign country were bought and sent 
to another foreign country. 

Yet the galleon trade was the foundation of the 
wealth of Manila. The money was made by work- 
insr for three months. Then the merchants lived in 
ease and luxury the rest of the year. The people 
who made money from this trade often spent it fool- 
ishly, or else went away to Mexico or Spain. No 
attention was given to agriculture and the native 
industries. IManila grew rich and powerful, while 
the rest of the Philippines was neglected. 

The Galleons. — This trade was so profitable that 
the king allowed no ships but his own to carry goods 
to Mexico. Private merchants could not send ships 
of their own. The ships, built for the trade between 
Manila and Mexico, were called naos de Acapulco, 
or galleons. They were owned and sailed by the 
government. In fact, they were royal trading and 
treasure ships. They carried also the goods of a 
few private merchants. These ships sailed first 
from Navidad, but after 1602 from Acapulco. The 
last galleon left IManila in 181 1. The last to come 
from IVIexico was in 181 5. 

The galleons were short, broad ships with very 
high bow and stern. For those days they were 

Spanish Galleons. 



large ships. Now they would seem small. They 
were about the size of the steamers which run from 
Manila to Iloilo and Vigan. Usually they were 
built in Cavite. Although small, they had four 
decks, and carried sometimes forty cannon to pro- 
tect them from enemies. 

The Voyage Across the Pacific. — The galleon 
sailed from Manila in July. The voyage across the 
Pacific to Acapulco was long and dangerous. It 
took from four to six months. Often, in the early 
days, one-fourth of the passengers died from the 
hardships of the voyage. Nearly every one who 
traveled from Spain to the Philippines came on the 
galleons. Sometimes four or five hundred persons 
were crowded into the ship. They were soldiers, 
friars, government officials, merchants, and travel- 
ers. It cost from five hundred to one thousand 
pesos each way for a private person to cross the 
ocean in a galleon. Often the food became scarce. 
The water, kept so many months in wooden casks, 
became hot and foul. Many galleons were wrecked, 
while others were captured by English or Dutch cor- 
sairs. It was so difficult and dangerous a voyage 
that many persons spent their lives in the Philip- 
pines because they could not get the money or had 
not the courage to return to Spain. 

Arrival of the Galleon. — The voyage from Mex- 
ico to Manila was much easier. It was made in from 
forty to sixty days. The galleon stopped at Guam 
for water. It entered by the Strait of San Bernar- 


dino. A watchman on Mi. Bulusan, when he saw 
the ship on the horizon, sent the news to ^Manila as 
quickly as possible. Then the bells rang for joy, 
and all was excitement. The merchants were ex- 
pecting the money for the cargo they had sent the 
year before to Mexico. The church looked for new 
priests to take the places of those who had died. 
The army awaited fresh soldiers. The governor 
looked for replies from the king to his requests, or 
perhaps for the arrival of his successor. Friends 
watched for those who were coming for the first 
time to the Philippines. 

In short, there was no one in ]\Ianila who did not 
feel an interest in the arrival of the galleon. In 
years when the galleon did not arrive, many articles 
became scarce and high in price. The wrecking or 
capture of the galleon meant a hard year for many 
poor people. 

Loss of the Galleons. — The officers of the gal- 
leons received very high salaries. The commander 
was called "General." His salary was 40,000 pesos 
a year. The pilot received 20,000 pesos. These 
positions were filled by the governor. Too often 
he appointed favorites. These men were not always 
good sailors. About ten galleons were wrecked at 
different times in the Strait of San Bernardino, 
upon its dangerous rocks and shoals. Several sailed 
from ]\Ianila and were never seen again. Hundreds 
of lives and millions of pesos were thus lost to the 
Philippines. It would have been better to have 


smaller vessels and more of them. Then in case of 
loss, the Islands could have borne it more easily. 

The Royal Subsidy. — The Philippines for many 
years received annually a sum of money from the 
royal treasury in Mexico to help pay the expenses 
of the government here. This was called the real 
situado, or royal subsidy. The taxes collected from 
the Filipinos were used to buy Chinese goods. 
These were shipped to Mexico in the galleons. 
There they were sold, and the money sent back to 
the Philippines. Enough money or goods was 
added to pay the expenses of the government here. 
In 1665 the subsidy was fixed at 250,000 pesos. 
Sometimes it was more ; sometimes less. On the 
whole these Islands cost the treasury of Spain much 
more than she ever received from them. There 
were merchants and officials who made large for- 
tunes in the Philippines. Often they did this by 
dishonesty to the government and injustice to the 
Filipinos. But the Islands never paid a lasting 
profit to the king. 

Summary. — In the time of Das Marinas twenty 
or thirty Chinese junks came to Manila every year, 
loaded with silks, cottons, provisions, etc. Most 
of these goods were reshipped to Mexico. One to 
four ships a year sailed from Manila to Mexico. 
They were called galle^ ins. The galleon trade was 
very profitable but only the rich and powerful could 
engage in it. The king owned the galleons. The 
last galleon to come to Manila was in 18 15. The 


galleons sailed from Manila in July, taking four to 
six months for the journey across the Pacific to 
Acapulco. Many were wrecked; others were cap- 
tured by corsairs. From Mexico to Manila the 
voyage was by way of Guam and the Strait of San 
Bernardino, and occupied forty to sixty days. 

The annual sum of money sent from Mexico to 
aid the Philippine government was called the real 
situado. In 1665 it was fixed at 250,000 pesos. 
The Philippines never paid a lasting profit to the 
treasury of Spain; many officials became rich; some 
by dishonesty. 



The Dutch Conquer the Moluccas. — When Philip 
II. annexed Portugal in 1580, he forbade the Dutch 
to buy Eastern goods there. There was no country 
in Europe except Portugal where such goods could 
be bought. Therefore the Dutch began to conquer 
the Moluccas. In 1598 they defeated the combined 
fleets of Portugal and Spain, and established trad- 
ing posts in Java and Johore. Then they grew 
bold and sent a strong fleet under Admiral Van 
Noort to attack Manila. With four large ships the 
Dutch admiral appeared in ^Manila Bay in Decem- 
ber, 1600. His was the first fleet to attack Manila 
since the days of Limahong. Antonio de Morga 
led the defense. 

Antonio de Morga. — Morga had come to the 
Philippines a few years before. He served as 
judge and lieutenant-governor from 1595 to 1596. 
He is best known by his book, Siicesos de las Fili- 
pinas (Events in the Philippines). This book was 
published in Mexico in 1609. It was the first full 
history of the early days of the Spanish rule in the 


Philippines. Jose Rizal, the Fihpino patriot, re- 
printed Morga's work in Paris, 1890. He added 
notes of his own. In these notes Rizal explains the 
customs of the Filipinos of the sixteenth century. 
He shows that they could make cannon, build large 
boats well, carry on foreign commerce and do other 
things that place them above the condition of sav- 
ages. We must not think that all the Filipinos of 
those days were entirely without culture. Some of 
the things which make civilization had been brought 
to the Philippines from China and India even at that 
time, but in the first few years of Spanish rule 
more progress was made toward civilization than 
in centuries before. 

The Defeat of Van Noort.- — Morga was made 
commander of the force that was chosen to defend 
Manila against the Dutch. There were two old 
ships at Cavite, the San Diego and the San Bar- 
tolome. They were hastily prepared for battle. 
The cannon were too heavy for the ships, and there 
were few sailors. Several hundred Spaniards and 
Filipinos sailed from Cavite in these ships to meet 
the enemy. 

Morga with his flag-ship, the San Diego, fought 
the Dutch flag-ship near Fortun Island. He sailed 
up to the Dutch ship and both were fastened to- 
gether with chains. The Dutch were driven to one 
end of their ship. Then for several hours both 
forces waited, not daring to attack each other. 
Morga hid behind a breastwork of mattresses and 


refused to allow his men to finish the battle. Then 
the Dutch ship escaped. Morga's flag-ship was de- 
stroyed. Over one hundred Spaniards and one 
hundred and fifty Filipinos lost their lives. Morga 
and many others after several hours in the water 
landed on the island of Fortun. 

Meantime two Dutch ships escaped and one was 
captured, with thirteen men and some boys. The 
friars persuaded all but one of the men to give up 
their Protestantism and become Catholics. Then 
they were executed as pirates. Their captain, an 
Englishman, was "hanged and thrown into the sea." 
The bovs were released. 

Silva's Great Fleet. — Governor Juan de Silva now 
determined to build a fleet which should drive the 
Dutch from the seas. For years the natives of Pam- 
panga and Bulacan toiled in the forests cutting 
trees for ship-building. In the Cavite shipyard 
Filipino mechanics shaped the boats and cast the 
cannon that were to bring victory to Spain. In 
1616 Silva sailed in search of the Dutch fleet. He 
had fourteen large ships and many small ones, car- 
rying three hundred cannon. Two thousand Span- 
iards and three thousand Filipinos manned this fleet. 
The flag-ship Salvadora was two thousand tons in 
size, perhaps the largest ship ever built in the Phil- 

The Dutch had heard of the great preparations 
to break their power. They were careful to keep 
out of reach of this mighty squadron. Silva hunted 


the Dutch for two months in vain. Then he died 
in Malacca of fever. His ships returned to Manila, 
to the joy of its anxious inhabitants. 

Attack on Cavite — 1647. — The last great sea-fight 
with the Dutch took place in 1647. That year 
twelve large ships sailed into Manila Bay. The 
flag-ship went ahead to Cavite and fired at Fort San 
Felipe. The fort was wholly unprepared for an 
attack. Had the Dutch admiral fought that day, 
Cavite would have fallen. General Corcuera was a 
prisoner in the fort. When he saw the Dutch ship 
sail back to Mariveles, he cried out, "Wretched 
soldier, to-day you have lost the victory." Three 
days later when the Dutch fleet attacked the fort, 
all was ready. Their fleet fired more than two 
thousand cannon-balls at the fort, but was driven 
away. Their flag-ship was wrecked, and the ad- 
miral killed. 

Massacre of Abucay.— The Dutch now retreated 
to Mariveles and tried their fortune on land. They 
attacked the pueblo of Abucay, in Bataan. The 
governor had six hundred Filipino soldiers. He 
shut himself up with them in the convent. The 
Dutch surrounded the building, and demanded the 
surrender of the force. On the advice of some 
friends, the governor yielded without fighting. The 
Dutch had promised to spare the lives of the sol- 
diers. But when they entered the convent they mas- 
sacred over four hundred of them. War was very 
cruel in those days, and often carried on without 


honor. The Dutch acted little better than pirates. 

Defeat of the Dutch. — After this massacre the 
Dutch grew very bold and plundered the country- 
near their camp. Captain Chaves with three com- 
panies of troops, mostly Pampangans, attacked 
them in the pueblo of Abucay. He slew the Dutch 
without mercy at the same place where they had 
shown no mercy to the Filipinos. Then an epi- 
demic fell upon the Dutch and they sailed away. 
After this defeat they gave up the attempt to con- 
quer the Philippines. Fifty years of war with these 
cruel and greedy conquerors had cost the Filipinos 
many lives and ships. Spaniards and Filipinos 
had fought bravely together against the common 

Filipino Loyalty. — In those days there were many 
Filipinos who were very loyal to Spain and proud 
of the Spanish flag. They had never seen Spain 
defeated. They believed she was the greatest na- 
tion on the face of the earth. Pirates of many na- 
tions sailed the seas then, and the Filipinos were 
glad of the protection of a strong hand. The peo- 
ple were simple and ignorant. They knew nothing 
of such words as "republic," "equality," "reform." 
When they rebelled, as they sometimes did, it was 
because of some particular hardship in one locality. 
They had no thought of uniting all the islands under 
a free, equal, and just government by all the people. 
Those who took refuge from the Spaniards in the 
mountains had no hesitation in robbing and killing 


their fellow countrymen as in the days before the 

Summary. — In 1 580 Philip II. forbade the Dutch 
to buy eastern goods of Portugal. So they tried to 
conquer the Moluccas. In 1600 they attacked Man- 
ila but were driven off by Antonio de Morga. 

Governor Silva built a great fleet and in 1616 
sailed in search of the Dutch fleet. He died in 
Malacca. In 1647 the Dutch again attacked Man- 
ila. They were defeated at Cavite, and at Abucay 
in Bataan. 

Many Filipinos were loyal to Spain in the seven- 
teenth century. The revolts were not attempts to 
gain independence for all the i'slands, but to avenge 
local grievances. 



Introductory. — We have studied the peoples of 
the Philippines as they were before the Spaniards 
came. We have read how these Islands were dis- 
covered and conquered by Europeans. We have 
learned how the early governors laid the founda- 
tions of a new rule in the Philippines. We have 
seen how America and Asia were connected by the 
galleon service, which began the commerce of the 
Pacific. We followed the story of battles with 
foreigners, the Dutch and the Chinese. We shall 
now study the struggles of the islanders with one 

The Moro Pirates. — The pirates of Borneo, Jolo, 
and Mindanao had for many years put terror into 
the hearts of the Visayans and the people of Lu- 
zon. Their boats were large and swift. A hundred 
slaves sometimes rowed them swiftly over the sea 
at the stroke of the master's lash. 

When the southwest wind began to blow, they 
would come out from their pirate refuges in the 
south. Along the shores of Mindoro, Masbate, and 



Other islands they would hide among the nipa 
swamps. Concealed in the forest-fringed bays and 
estuaries, they would cross in a night to the shores 

The Coast of Romblon. 

of Panay, Cebu, or Luzon. Then, while the fisher- 
men and farmers slept, the fierce cries of the sea- 
rovers would ring out. People ran out of their 
houses and found the villages in flames. Dazed by 
fire and fright, they were slain if they resisted and 


enslaved if they submitted. All their goods of value 
were taken by the pirates. Then by the light of 
their burning homes they were hurried into the boats 
and rowed across the sea to the retreat of the 
Moros. There they remained till the camp was full 
of plunder. 

With the coming of the northeast wind they 
sailed away to the south and slavery. If they were 
aged and weak, the Moros took them to Sandakan 
on the coast of Borneo. Here they were sold to 
the heathen tribes, who offered them as sacrifices to 
their gods. The strong were sold as slaves or kept 
by their captors. Families were separated in this 
way, never to meet again. For centuries the camps 
of the Moros were the prisons of thousands of 
Christian Filipinos whose friends and relatives wept 
for them in the northern islands. 

Spaniards Fail to Destroy Piracy — After the 
Spaniards came the Filipinos became richer. 
There was more wealth to plunder. Therefore 
the Moros came oftener than before. The Span- 
iards fought these pirates many times. Usually 
the Moros escaped because their boats were 
very swift. Often the Spaniards failed to pursue 

When the great fleets sailed away to the Moluc- 
cas with every man and gun they could get, the 
pirates came north to rob and capture the defense- 
less Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have 
suffered many times as much from the pirates of 


their own race as from all the invaders that have 
come from China, Japan, and Europe. 

Had the Philippines never been conquered by for- 
eigners, the Islands would now be thinly populated 
by a poor and timid people. Civilization brings its 
terrible wars, but they are often wars of progress. 
The wars of the pirates were unjust. They did not 
lead to a better government. Wc shall now study 
some of these piratical attacks and the attempts of 
the Spaniards to stop them. 

A Raid on the Visayans.— In the summer of 1599 
one of the most terrible of the Moro raids occurred. 
Two chiefs with fifty boats from Mindanao and 
J0I6 and three thousand armed men ravaged the 
coasts of Cebu, Negros, and Panay. They captured 
1 .400 natives in Bantayan and Panay, burned many 
villages and loaded their boats with plunder. The 
inhabitants of the coast fled to the mountains. An 
aged priestess, called Dupufigay, told them that the 
Spaniards were helping the Moros to destroy the 
peaceful Filipinos. With great difficulty they were 
persuaded to come back to their villages on the 

The following year the pirates returned with 
eight thousand men in seventy boats. This time 
they boldly attacked Iloilo. The Governor of Panay 
with seventy Spaniards and one thousand Visayan 
bowmen built a fort to resist the Moros. A fierce 
battle followed in which the Moros were defeated. 
The governor pursued them. Then the cunning 


Moros- surrounded his boat and killed him. Tello 
de Guzman. Governor of the Philippines at the time, 
sent two hundred Spaniards to Jolo to punish the 
pirates. They killed many Moros, but could not 
capture the fort. Then the pirates were as bad as 

Acufia and the Pirates; — In Governor Acuna's 
time a large fleet of Moros sailed along the coast of 
southwest Luzon. They burned the church and 
convent of Calibaya, and captured the friar and 
many natives. They took away the bells of the 
churches to melt them into cannon. Next they went 
to Balayan, now Batangas Province. Here the na- 
tives repulsed them bravely. Finally they sailed 
away with their booty to a desert island. Acufia 
heard of all this, but instead of crushing the pirates 
he sent an ambassador to make peace with them. 
Then he sailed away with his great fleet to conquer 
the Moluccas. Thus, while the Spaniards were busy 
with their dreams of conc[uest. the pirates were 
growing bolder. In 1616 they came even to Cavite. 
Here they were defeated and for some years gave 
little trouble. 

Battle of Punta de Flechas. — In 1636, Tagal, a 
Moro chief, brother of the Sultan of Mindanao, at- 
tacked the islands of Cuyo and Mindoro. He cap- 
tured three Recollect friars, for each of whom he 
asked a ransom of two thousand pesos and thirty 
taels of gold. With six hundred and fifty captives 
he sailed for Punta de Flechas. This is a lofty 







promontory about one hundred miles east of Zam- 
boanga. The Moros believed that in this cliff lived 
a diuata, or god of war. On departing for a pirati- 
cal trip, and on returning, they were accustomed to 
shoot arrows at the cliff in honor of the god. The 
governor of Zamboanga sent a fleet against Tagal, 
who was killed with three hundred of his men. 
Many captives were set free. 

In a letter to the king, the archbishop said that 
in the last thirty years the Moros had carried into 
captivity over twenty thousand Filipinos. 

Treaties with the Moros.- — For a century the 
strife went on. At length, in 1725, the Sultan of 
J0I6 sent a request for peace to Manila. A treaty 
was made. By this treaty it was agreed that Fili- 
pinos and Moros should trade freely with each 
other. All Christian captives were to be set free. 
The sultan did not keep his promise. The Moros 
never kept their promises to the Spaniards. 

Concentration of Villages. — In 1734 it was de- 
cided by the Council of War at Manila to build 
little forts on the coasts of the Islands, as a defense 
against the pirates. It was ordered that the little 
fishing villages unite to form large towns. No 
coast town could have less than five hundred tax- 
payers, or about two thousand persons. It was a 
great hardship to make this change, but it pro- 
tected the people, because the Moros did not often 
attack large towns. 

Arming the Filipinos.- — The Filipinos were now 


given arms to defend themselves. They were al- 
lowed to make expeditions against the Moros, and 
to make slaves of all they captured. There was 
quiet for a few years, then the pirates again began 
their attacks. Like many other Spanish decrees, 
the order to unite the small villages with the large 
ones was not fully carried out. So the raids of 
the pirates began again. 

The governors of Cebu, Leyte, Iloilo, and Negros 
were now commanded to build thirty-six boats that 
could carry one hundred men each. The govern- 
ment paid for the food of the men who built these 
boats, but the towns furnished the wood and labor 
free. To encourage the natives to fight the pirates, 
it was decided that Filipinos who won victories over 
the Moros should not have to pay tribute. This 
plan showed that the Spaniards did not feel strong 
enough to defeat the pirates with their own forces. 
But the Moro boats had little of value in them, so 
the Filipinos did not wish to risk their lives in the 
attempt to capture them. 

Another reason why this plan failed was because 
the governors used these boats for their private 
trade. The soldiers in the forts acted as servants 
for them. So when the Moros came, there were 
neither boats nor men to oppose them. Sometimes 
an expedition would go out to attack the pirates, 
and return laden with merchandise, without pur- 
suing the enemy. 

Brave Defenders. — There were times when the 


pirates met their match. In 1753 the islands of 
Tablas, Banton, the Calamianes and others lost 
much b)^ the attacks of the Moros. The same Moros 
who made these attacks were driven away by the 
people of Camiguin. Romblon, Culion, and Capiz. 
The people of Batangas were very brave. Several 
times they repulsed the pirates from their shores. 

The Coast-Guard Towers. — On many of the 
beaches of the Philippines, round stone towers may 
be seen. Most of these were built in the middle of 
the eighteenth century to serve as watch-towers and 
forts for a defense against the Moros. The parish 
priests had charge of this work. To their persever- 
ance and skill in building these towers the Filipinos 
owe much. Unfortunately the governors took these 
towers away from the command of the priests and 
put lazy officials in charge of them. These men 
used the guards for their own work as servants. 

The Story of Ali-Mudin.— Philip V. was per- 
suaded by the Jesuits to write a letter to Ali-Mudin, 
Sultan of J0I6, asking his friendship. The sultan 
received the messengers of the king peaceably. He 
decided to visit Manila. 

When he went on board of the Spanish ship, his 
brother seized the throne and put a price of six 
slaves and one thousand pesos on the head of Ali- 
Mudin. The sultan sailed away to ^Manila, where 
he was received with the honors of a king. He and 
his seventy followers were given a house in Bi- 


Conversion of the Sultan.^Governor Arreche- 
derra, who was formerly bishop of Nueva Segovia, 
became greatly interested in the conversion of the 
Mahometan ruler. He ate with him. walked with 
him, made him presents of gold, emeralds, and 
rubies, and tried in every way to make a Christian 
of him. He used to say to the sultan : "Sultan, if 
you wish to return to your kingdom and conquer 
your enemies, become a Christian, be converted to 
Jesus Christ, and you shall be master of your sub- 

At length the sultan became a Catholic. The 
Jesuits did not think he was sincere; but the gov- 
ernor, proud of his success, determined to have the 
sultan baptized. The ceremony was performed and 
Ali-]\Iudin was christened "Fernando I. of J0I6." 
The governor had little money and few men, so 
he could not place Ali-]\Iudin upon the throne of 

Treachery of Ali-Mudin. — Governor Obando, 
who followed Arrechederra. sent a fleet to replace 
Ali-Mudin on his throne. This fleet was driven 
away from J0I6. On the return to Zamboanga the 
Spaniards decided that Ali-^Iudin was a traitor. 
He had written a letter for the Spaniards to the 
Sultan of ^Mindanao which proved to be against the 
Spaniards instead of to their advantage. So Ali- 
Mudin and two hundred and seventeen of his fol- 
lowers were brought to Manila and put in prison. 

Lessons of This Story. — The treatment of Ali- 


Mudin shows how feebly the Spaniards dealt with 
the Moros. It was pitiful that the ruler of the once 
powerful kingdom of Spain should beg the friend- 
ship of a pirate chief. It shows also that the Span- 

A MoRo Warrior. 

iards were slow to learn the treachery of the Moros. 
\\'^ith all their faults, the Spaniards were usually 
honorable in their treaties. So it was difficult for 
them to believe that the Moro chiefs were deceiving 

When the Americans came to the Philippines, 


they made an agreement with the Sultan of J0I6. 
The sultan agreed to keep his men from making 
war on the Americans. For this he was paid a 
pension. The sultan failed to keep his part of the 
treaty. In time of peace the Americans were at- 
tacked, in J0I6, in 1903. So they had to punish the 
Joloans. In 1904 America declared the treaty 
ended. In 1906 and in 191 3 the Aloros of J0I6 
were again punished for repeated breaches of the 
peace and for serious crimes and 'disturbances of 
the public welfare. 

The High Tide of Piracy. — The year 1754 was 
the high tide of ]\Ioro piracy. The defeat of the 
Spaniards at J0I6 when they tried to put Ali-]\Iudin 
on the throne had destroyed all respect for their 
power. j\Ioro fleets attacked the towns of the 
Christian Filipinos from jMindanao to Batangas, and 
from Mindoro to Samar. Hundreds of villages 
were burned in that year. Thousands were killed 
and enslaved. The savings of years were carried 
away by the dreaded sea-robbers. The Islands lay 
under a pall of ashes and grief. Ten thousand 
Christian Filipinos toiled in slavery among the 
bloodthirsty Moros. Yet the rulers were so weak 
that they could think of nothing better than to send 
Ali-Mudin's daughter to J0I6 to try to make peace. 
Finally Governor Arandia sent a strong expe- 
dition against the Moros. Some battles were won 
by the Spaniards, many forts were built in the 
Visayas, and more treaties were made with the pi- 


rate chiefs. But the Moro raids continued for an- 
other century. 

Summary. — Until the middle of the nineteenth 
century Moro pirates yearly raided the Filipino 
coast towns of the Visayas and Luzon. They car- 
ried thousands of captives away, and burned many 
villages. In 1599 fifty boats and three thousand 
Moros ravaged the coasts of Cebu, Negros, and 
Panay. The next year they returned with eight 
thousand men and attacked Iloilo. They were de- 
feated. Governor de Guzman sent an expedition 
to J0I6, but it could not capture the town. Gov- 
ernor Acuna sent an ambassador to make terms 
with the pirates while he sailed to conquer the 
Moluccas. In 1636 Tagal captured three friars and 
six hundred and fifty other prisoners. The gov- 
ernor of Zamboanga sent a fleet against Tagal and 
killed him. In the thirty years the Moros took cap- 
tive twenty thousand Filipinos. In 1725 the Span- 
iards made a treaty with the Moros. The Moros 
did not keep their promises to free Christian cap- 
tives. In 1734 villages were concentrated and the 
Filipinos were armed. Boats were fitted out to 
fight Moros, but the provincial governors used them 
for private trade. Stone coastguard towers were 
built in many places as a defense against the 

Ali-Mudin, sultan of J0I6, visited Manila and 
was converted to Christianity. The Spaniards sent 
him to J0I6 with a fleet, but were unable to place 


him on the throne. Finally they decided that he 
was a traitor and imprisoned him in Manila. The 
Americans made an agreement with the sultan 
when they came to the Philippines, but as the sul- 
tan did not keep it they ended the agreement in 

Seventeen hundred and fifty-four was the high 
tide of Moro piracy. Hundreds of villages were 
burned by the Moros. Governor Arandia sent a 
strong expedition against the Moros, built forts and 
made treaties. 



The Dark Century, — On the stage of Philippine 
history there were many years of darkness and dul- 
ness in the seventeenth century. We shall raise the 
curtain only now and then to view the scenes that 
teach us most. 

The Filipinos had suffered from the toil and 
losses of war for half a century. Much of their 
time had been spent in building fleets and fighting 
battles against the Moros, the Chinese, and the 
Dutch. These fleets were built by forced labor. 
The hardships of this labor brought on many re- 
volts against Spanish rule. 

The Labor Tax.^ — Besides the tribute, the Filipi- 
nos had to pay a labor tax. During most of the 
period of Spanish rule this forced labor was forty 
days each year for every man. This labor was used 
to build churches, convents, roads, bridges, and all 
kinds of public works. By this forced and unpaid 
service the timber was cut from which the galleons 
were built. There was a force of Filipinos em- 
ployed in the shipyard at Cavite who received rice 


and about twenty pesos a year each for their skilled 
labor as carpenters and smiths. But most of the 
heavy work was done by the peasants, who were 
taken from their fields to build ships and forts. 
The long succession of wars with the Moros, the 
Dutch, and the Chinese had nearly worn out the 
patience of the Filipinos. At length a governor 
came whose rule was not disturbed by foreign 


Alonso Fajardo.— This was Alonso Fajardo, who 
governed the Philippines from 1618 to 1624. Fa- 
jardo saw that the people were overworked. He 
therefore lessened the labor tax. He said that for 
a while they need not work without pay, except at 
making cannon and ships. In -this way he won the 
favor of the Filipinos. He was the first governor 
for a long time whom they had liked. Still the 
burden was heavy, and the reform came too late 
to prevent revolt. 

Insurrection in Bohol and Leytc — In i62i,W'hile 
the Jesuit fathers of Bohol were in Cebu at a fes- 
tival, the natives of Bohol revolted. This revolt 
was led by the chiefs. They told the common 
people that a diiiata ordered the expulsion of the 
Spanish. The real reason for this revoU was the 
desire to escape taxes and labor. Often the leaders 
of the Fihpinos have taken advantage of the igno- 
rance of the people to get them to rebel for religious 
reasons, when the chiefs themselves had some other 


Four towns were jjurned by the revolters. Im- 
ages of the Virgin were pierced with lances. Nearly 
all the natives joined the revolt, and fled to the 
mountains. Fifty Spanish lancers and one thou- 
sand Cebuans followed them into the mountains for 
five days. Then they came to a village of one thou- 
sand houses which the rebels had built. Here fifteen 
hundred rebels were defeated, but it was six months 
before they were all driven from their mountain 

Bancao. — Now the insurrection spread to Leyte, 
led by the aged chief Bancao, of Limasaua. Philip 
IT. had given a letter to this old chief thanking him 
for the services he had done for Legazpi. But Ban- 
cao longed for his okl power, and joined the rebel- 
lion. He was beheaded. The revolt was soon sup- 

Death of Fajardo. — The last days of Fajardo's 
life were filled with sorrow. Finding his wife un- 
faithful, he killed her in public with his sword. The 
power of a governor of the Philippines in those 
days may be seen from the fact that no one tried to 
punish him for this deed. A few months later he 
died broken hearted, and was buried beside his wife 
in the Church of the Recollects. 

Tabora, Governor — 1626-1632 — Juan Nino de 
Tabora came to the Philippines from the wars in 
Flanders. He brought six hundred soldiers with 
him. This large force kept the country peaceful 
for a time. The Philippines were now prosperous. 


The former age, with its independent villages and 
its neighborhood wars, was fast passing away. The 
Islands and their people were now a part of the 
great world, sending their products across the seas. 
Shells and gold-dust were no longer their money. 

The "Bridge of Spain," Manila. 

There were rich men among the Filipinos. For- 
tunes were being made in the trade with China and 

Many public works were undertaken by Tabora. 
Within six months he built ten large ships and sev- 
eral small ones. It was Tabora who built the 
"Bridge of Spain" in 163 1, called at first the 
"Puente Grande." This bridge lasted for nearly 


two centuries, till it was destroyed by an earth- 
quake in 1824. 

Diego Fajardo/ — This governor (1644-1653) was 
a stern and warlike man. He tried to establish a 
shipyard in the Visayas like those in Tondo and 
Pampanga. This caused an insurrection in Samar. 
Sumoroy, the leader, was beheaded. There were 
other revolts caused by the oppressions of the trib- 
ute and forced labor during the following year. 
The principal ones were in Camarines, Pampanga, 
Ilocos and Mindanao. The Filipinos always showed 
themselves willing to endure a great deal from gov- 
ernors who tried to understand and benefit them. 
But their lives were so full of hardship that when 
harshly treated the fire of revolt burned. 
. Earthquake of 1645.- — In the year 1645, on St. 
Andrew's day, November 30th, there was a terrible 
earthquake in Manila. Fire, it is said, burst through 
cracks in the ground. The Pasig River was thrown 
out of its channel. Nearly all the churches, con- 
vents, and other large buildings of Manila fell in 
ruins. Six hundred persons were killed. 

After this earthquake they built no more great 
houses of stone in ]\Ianila for many years. The 
large and beautiful houses which stood before the 
earthquake had gained for Manila the name 'Tearl 
of the Orient." 

Insurrection of 1660. — ]Manrique de Lara was 
now governor. During his rule many calamities 
had come upon the Philippines. Locusts, famine, 


smallpox, pirate attacks, shipwrecks, and earth- 
quakes had made the lot of the Filipinos a hard 

In addition to all these troubles the natives were 
worked like slaves at ship-building. In 1660 one 
thousand Filipinos were cutting timber for the gov- 
ernment in the forests of Pampanga. Sometimes 
they were whipped to make them work harder. 
These woodmen now rebelled. A Mexican, Man- 
ago, was their leader. They wrote to their fellow 
countrymen in Pangasinan, Ilocos, and Cagayan to 
get their aid. But before it could come they were 
betrayed by their leader. They went with arms to 
the pueblo of Lubao. Manrique de Lara hurried 
to Macabebe with a few soldiers. Instead of fight- 
ing, he won over Mafiago by making him com- 
mander of the Mexicans in Manila. Then he built 
forts in Arayat and Lubao. He promised better 
treatment to the rebels. Deprived of their leader, 
they went back to work, without bloodshed. 

Revolt in Ilocos. — In Ilocos the revolt had more 
strength. Juan Manzano was the leader. A fierce 
battle occurred at Bantay, near Vigan. Eight hun- 
dred loyal natives were slain. But the rebels were 
soon put to flight. They were driven to Ilocos 
Norte. From here they crossed the mountains to 
Cagayan. The Governor of Cagayan, with three 
hundred royal troops, drove the rebels back to Ilo- 
cos. Then he marched through Ilocos to Pan- 
gasinan. Here he joined the Spanish forces, and 


greatly assisted them in putting down the rebellion. 
As had often happened before, the weakness of the 
Filipinos was the lack of union between the different 
tribes. The Spaniards held these Islands largely by 
setting one tribe against another. 

Summary. — The first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury was largely occupied with wars. The hard- 
ships of forced labor brought on revolts. During 
most of the period of Spanish rule the labor tax was 
forty days a year for each man. Tiiis labor was 
used to build churches, roads, and other public 

Alonso Fajardo was governor from 1618 to 
1624. He lessened the labor tax. In 1621 there 
was a revolt in Bohol. Four towns were burned. 
A force from Cebu pursued the rebels into the 
mountains and defeated them. Bancao in Leyte 
led a revolt at this time. 

Juan Nino de Tabora was governor from 1626 
to 1632. He brought six hundred soldiers. Tabora 
built many ships and the first Bridge of Spain in 

Diego Fajardo, governor 1644-53, caused a re- 
volt in Samar by trying to establish a shipyard in 
the Visayas like those in Tondo and Fampanga. 
Forced labor caused revolts in Ilocos, Mindanao, 
and elsewhere in his time. 

In 1645 there was a great earthquake in Manila; 
six hundred persons were killed. In 1660, when 
Manrique de Lara was governor, many calamities 


came, such as famine, locusts, pirate attacks, and 
earthquakes. A revolt of woodmen cutting timber 
for ships occurred in Pampanga. A similar re- 
volt occurred in Ilocos. The lack of union between 
the different peoples of the Philippines made it easy 
for Spain to put down revolts. 



Introductory. — We have seen earlier in this book 
that the governors ami the friars did not always 
agree. Although the governors were Catholics, 
they usually supported the king, while the friars, 
though Spaniards, looked rather to the Pope. Be- 
sides this, on the whole, the governors cared less 
for the good of the Filipinos than did the friars. 
Perhaps but few Filipinos understand what their 
lot would have been had the friars not been here to 
protect them from the selfishness of the governors 
and the encomenderos. 

The fifty years following the insurrection of 
1660 are filled with this strife. It lasted to the very 
close of Spanish rule. But we shall not study all of 
these struggles. There is no longer any quarrel- 
ing between church and state in the Philippines. 
The bitterness of recent years should be forgotten. 
Yet it is impossible to understand the history of the 
Philippines without some knowledge of those events. 
The things we shall study in this chapter happened 
long ago. We can think of them now without 


anger and read them for the light they throw upon 
the past. 

Two Kinds of Courts.- — In those days there were 
two kinds of courts; that of the state and that of 
the church. The roval court tried those who had 

Church at Laoag, Ilocos Norte. 

broken the laws of the king. The church court 
tried those who broke the laws of religion. Some- 
times crimes against religion are the same as those 
against the state. Therefore there were times when 
it was difficult to know which court ought to pun- 
ish the wrongdoer. 

The Case of Nava. — In the governorship of Se- 
bastian Hurtado de Corcuera (1635-1644) such a 
case happened. Corcuera was a man of great en- 


ergy, warlike and firm. One of his soldiers, called 
Nava, had a female slave. Later another man ob- 
tained the woman. One day Nava saw her riding 
along the street with her new master. He rushed 
to the carriage and killed her. Then he fled into 
the convent of St. Augustine for refuge. 

The Law of Refuge.- — It was the law of those 
days that a criminal who took refuge in a church 
or other sacred place could not be taken away by 
the civil rulers. This was called ''the right of sanc- 
tuary," or refuge. When Governor Corcuera heard 
what had happened he ordered the archbishop to 
give up Xava. The archbishop thought that Xava 
ought to be tried by the church court, so he refused 
to obey the governor. 

Then the governor fell into a rage. He did what 
was at that time thought a terrible thing. He 
marched his soldiers to the convent and took away 
Nava by force. Then he punished him at once with 
death. The archbishop closed the churches, re-'' 
proved the governor severely, and fined the artillery 
officer who arrested Nava. For a long time the 
courts and the bishops quarreled over this case. 
Such things were very bad for the country, for the 
people lost respect for both governor and bishop. 
They did not know which to obey. These quarrels 
grew in number. Finally the Islands were left for 
years without an archbishop. Then a governor 
and an archbishop arrived who were friends. 

The Pope's Pardon. — Manrique de Lara ruled 


from 1653 to 1663. With him came Archbishop 
Miguel Poblete. the first archbishop the Islands had 
seen for twelve years. Poblete found great distress 
in Manila. The quarrels of the few years preced- 
ing had filled the dungeons of Fort Santiago and 
the convents with many prisoners. Some of these 
had been unjustly condemned. The city had not 
recovered from the losses caused by the earthquake 
of 1645. 

The condition of things was so bad that the Pope 
in 1654 ordered that all who had been imprisoned 
should be pardoned and have his blessing. There 
was great joy in Manila when the dungeon doors 
opened and friends were again united. To show 
their gratitude all set to work to rebuild the cathe- 
dral, which had been destroyed by the great earth- 

The Inquisition in the Philippines. — The Inquisi- 
tion was a church court. It was founded several 
centuries ago to discover and punish those who be- 
lieved and taught ideas contrary to the doctrines of 
the Church. 

The Inquisition was introduced into the Philip- 
pines in 1583. The head of it was called "the Com- 
missary of the Inquisition." Sometimes no one 
knew who that man was. Yet the secret hand of the 
Inquisition was always at work reaching out after 
those who were unfaithful to the king or the 
Church. The Jesuit, Sanchez, recommended that 
it be taken away from the Philippines. This was 


not done. The Inquisition was not so cruel here 
as in other countries. No one was burned at the 
stake, as was the case in Spain. Yet it had great 
power, as we shall see. 

Diego de Salcedo. — Salcedo was governor from 
1663 to 1668. He brought the hatred of all the 
merchants and friars upon him by his selfishness. 
He wanted to be the only one to send goods in the 
galleon to Mexico. After the king's goods were 
put into the ship he filled the rest of the space with 
his private merchandise. Although many hated 
him, it seemed impossible to take away his power. 
Salcedo quarreled with Poblete. When the arch- 
bishop died, the governor forbade the church bells 
to be tolled, and would not allow the body to be 

The enemies of Salcedo then conspired with the 
Commissary of the Inquisition. This man threat- 
ened the old Filipina who guarded the door of Sal- 
cedo's room when he slept. She allowed the com- 
missary and others to enter. They seized and bound 
the sleeping governor, and locked him in a cell in 
the Augustinian convent. They then sent him to 
Mexico to be tried, but he died in mid ocean. 

When the Supreme Court of Mexico heard of 
this, it ordered the commissary to Mexico for im- 
prisonment, but he, too, died on the ocean at nearly 
the same place where Salcedo had died. 

De Vargas and Pardo. — When De Vargas was 
governor (1678- 1684) it was the State and not the 


Church that triumphed. According to the histori- 
ans of the rehgious orders, those were dark days 
for Manila. There were many lawsuits and impris- 
onments. Felipe Pardo was archbishop. He and 
the governor were bitter enemies. The archbishop 
disobeyed twenty different royal decrees. Then the 
governor did what no governor had before dared 
to do. He sent soldiers to the palace of the arch- 
bishop, and in the early dawn led the old man out of 
the city. As the archbishop passed out of the gate 
he shook the dust from his feet and threw a hand- 
ful of stones at the wall to show that he rejected 
the city. He was sent to Lingayen, where the Do- 
minicans cared for him. The next governor re- 
stored Pardo to power. The archbishop had De 
Vargas put on an island in the Pasig, where he was 
kept for four years while his rcsidencia was held. 
Thus the high officials of Spain wasted their time 
and the money of the Philippines in this unhappy 

The Friars' Lands.^The friars grew more and 
more powerful. We have seen how they overcame 
the governor. Now we shall see how they were 
stronger than the governor and the archbishop to- 
gether. In 1697 Archbishop Camacho and Gov- 
ernor Cruzat tried to make the friars show the titles 
to their lands. They were now in possession of 
large estates. In those times people were not care- 
ful about the papers which prove the ownership of 
lands. Some of these lands had been bought by the 


friars; some had been given to them by the State, 
and other lands were gifts of those who, dying, left 
their property to the Church. The growing wealth 
of the friars made it difficult for the archbishop and 
the governor to make them obey. 

Fort Pilar, Zamboanga. 

A judge was appointed to examine the titles of 
these lands. In some cases the friars refused to 
show the titles. Then the governor embargoed the 
lands; that is, he took possession of the lands till 
the question could be settled. Then all the friars 
closed their churches and refused to obey Arch- 
bishop Camacho. The governor sent the soldiers 
to open the churches by force. The opposition of 


the friars was so strong that a rebelhon was feared. 
So the governor and the archbishop had to yield 
and allow the friars to keep their lands. Thus 
the strife continued, sometimes the governor and 
sometimes the friars winning. Finally occurred a 
contest which is one of the darkest blots upon the 
pages of Philippine history. 

Bustamante and the Friars. — Fernando Manuel 
de Bustamante (171 7-17 19) was a stern and des- 
potic governor. Yet he was honest and able. He 
found the treasury empty. This was not because 
the country was poor. Many of the citizens of 
Manila were in debt to the treasury. To avoid pay- 
ing these debts they had the money due them from 
the sale of goods in Mexico come to their friends. 
These friends secretly gave it to them. Then the 
Sfovernment could not collect its debts from them. 
Bustamante made these people pay their debts. In 
this way he added three hundred thousand pesos to 
the treasury in one year. 

Bustamante Fortifies Zamboanga. — Bustamante 
also imprisoned Torralba, a former governor. It 
was said that, through the neglect of Torralba, 
seven hundred thousand pesos had been lost to 
the treasury. With the money he obtained by these 
just deeds he established a garrison in Zamboanga. 
For half a century the government had abandoned 
the Christian population of Mindanao and the Vi- 
sayas to the attacks of the Moro pirates. With their 
own efforts the Visayans had built a fleet called the 


"fleet of the Pintados" to defend their homes. The 
Jesuits had for a long time urged that a garrison 
be placed in Zamboanga. The other orders were 
opposed to this plan. But Bustamante had the cour- 
age to do whatever he thought was right. So he 
built forts for the defenseless Filipinos of the south. 
All these acts made him many enemies. These 
enemies now plotted his destruction. 

Arrest of the Archbishop, — A galleon was about 
to sail for Mexico. Bustamante feared that this gal- 
leon was carrying letters with charges against him. 
He sent an officer to bring the captain of the gal- 
leon ashore. The captain threw overboard the offi- 
cer and his men and sailed away. The governor 
sent ships to overtake the galleon. He now was 
sure that there was a conspiracy against him. 

Bustamante then put every one in prison that he 
believed to be his enemy. The churches and con- 
vents were filled with persons seeking refuge from 
the governor. Bustamante demanded one of these 
refugees from the archbishop. The archbishop re- 
fused to give up the refugee. Then the governor 
arrested the archbishop, and imprisoned him in Fort 
Santiago. The church bells tolled when this was 
done. The friars were filled with horror and anger. 
Now the governor called on the citizens of Manila 
to defend the rights of the king. At the signal of a 
cannon-shot all were to present themselves with 
arms and aid the governor. Manila was filled with 
noise, terror, and tumult. 


Death of Bustamante — October 11, 1719, was a 
day long to be remembered in Philippine history. 
The friars resolved to rescue the archbishop by 
force. They went through the streets in proces- 
sion holding aloft crucifixes in their hands. Behind 
them came the refugees, bearing arms, ready to fight 
for their lives. Then followed a crowd of citizens 
and the Jesuits. All were giving vivas for "the 
faith, religion, and the king." Never before was 
there such a scene in the Philippines. The crowd 
rushed into the palace. They attacked Bustamante. 
He defended himself bravely, but fell wounded. His 
son came to his rescue, but was dragged from his 
horse and killed. The governor was thrown into 
prison, where he died the same day. 

Archbishop Cuesta, Governor. — The archbishop 
and other prisoners were released. The judges of 
the Supreme Court, who had supported Bustamante, 
were put in chains. Many army captains were ar- 
rested and the royal standard of Spain was torn 
down. It was a dramatic moment in the history of 
these Islands. It meant that after one hundred and 
fifty years of strife the Church had triumphed over 
the king. The archbishop, Cuesta, now took pos- 
session of the palace as Governor-General of the 

The religious orders gave a great funeral to Bus- 
tamante and a pension to his six sons. They denied 
that they had planned the death of the governor. 
The king was very angry when he heard of the 


overthrow of the royal power in the Philippines. 
The slayers of Bustamante were arrested and taken 
to Mexico for trial. They were then returned to 
the Philippines to be tried and punished there. This 
was not done, because the confessor of Governor 
Torre Campo advised him to disobey the order of 
Philip V. to punish these men. 

Summary. — There were many quarrels between 
church and state in the Philippines in the last half 
of the seventeenth century. There were state courts 
and church courts. Some cases belonged to one 
court, others to the other. A soldier, Nava, had a 
slave ; he killed a man who took this slave. Then 
Xava took refuge in the Augustinian convent. The 
archbishop refused to deliver Nava to the governor, 
who took him by force and executed him. For 
some years the Islands were left without an arch- 

In 1654 the Pope ordered that all who had been 
imprisoned should be set free and receive his par- 
don. ■Miguel Poblete was archbishop then. 

The Inquisition was a church court whose pur- 
pose was to discover and punish those who believed 
doctrines contrary to those of the Church. In Spain 
the Inquisition burned thousands at the stake. In 
the Philippines it was mild. Diego de Salcedo, 
governor 1663- 1668, was seized by the authorities 
of the Inquisition and shipped to Mexico for trial. 
He died at sea. 

De Vargas was governor 1678- 1684. The arch- 


bishop, Felipe Pardo, was opposed to him. He 
disobeyed twenty royal decrees. The governor ex- 
pelled the archbishop from Manila. The next gov- 
ernor restored him and imprisoned Vargas. 

In 1697 the archbishop and the governor tried to 
make the friars show title to their lands. In some 
cases the friars refused to show their titles. Then 
the governor seized the lands. The friars closed 
their churches and the archbishop and governor had 
to yield. 

Fernando Manuel de Bustamante was governor 
from 17 1 7 to 1 7 19. He collected back taxes, for- 
tified Zamboanga and by stern but honest methods 
made many enemies. He imprisoned his enemies, 
including the archbishop, who refused to give up 
a refugee. The friars marched through the streets 
leading a rebellious procession. Bustamante was 
killed by the mob. The archbishop, Cuesta, then be- 
came governor-general. 



Fausto Cruzat y Gongora, Governor — 1 690-1 701. 
— Cruzat found the treasury empty. He was a 
courageous and honest governor. He collected 
large sums due the treasury from citizens of Man- 
ila. With this money he repaired the palace and 
other public buildings. Cruzat found many abuses 
in the system of governing the Philippines. In or- 
der to correct these he published the "Ordinances 
of Good Government." A study of these reform 
laws will show us much about the condition of the 
Philippines two centuries ago. 

"Ordinances of Good Government." — The prin- 
cipal matters of which these ordinances spoke were 
the following: 

I. — Taxes. It was the practice to make the poor 
pay the same tax as the rich. Cruzat ordered that 
the rich pay more than the poor. This was ah ex- 
cellent law, but it was not obeyed. Instead of this, 
the poor were made to pay more than the rich. The 
reason for this was that the rich could bribe the tax- 
collector to take less than the just tax, while the 


poor, who could not offer such a bribe, were forced 
to pay more than they ought. 

2. — The governors and commerce. The govern- 
ors were accustomed to engage in commerce. They 
occupied their time more with private business than 
with their duties as governors. Cruzat forbade 
them to engage in any kind of commerce. He com- 
manded them to visit each pueblo six days and the 
large pueblos twelve days each year. The object of 
this was to give the natives an opportunity to make 
their complaints and get justice. 

3. — Industry. Cruzat ordered that the Filipino 
farmers be obliged to work. They must cultivate a 
certain amount of ground each year and raise a cer- 
tain number of animals. No one was to be allowed 
to lend more than five pesos to a Filipino. This 
shows that the people were contented with just 
enough to eat, and had little ambition to provide for 
the future. 

4. — Prisons. It was decreed that separate rooms 
be given to women in the prisons. In case of a light 
charge they must be shut up in private houses, and 
not put in prison. The prisons of those times were 
filthy, and full of evil practices. This was so even 
in Europe. Many of the faults of the Spanish Gov- 
ernment were common to most governments in those 
days. It is easy to see the mistakes of those who 
lived centuries ago. We should remember that if 
we had lived then we might have made the same 


5. — Spaniards. Spaniards were not to be allowed 
to live in the pueblos without permission from the 
government. This was because the governors 
wanted all the commerce for themselves. Besides, 
the Spanish planters did not always treat the Filipi- 
nos justly when they were far away from the reach 
of the law. 

6. — Wild tribes. One ordinance forbade the 
Christian natives to speak with or trade with the 
people of the wild tribes. The reason given was 
"because this makes their pacification impossible." 
There were goods the wild tribes wished to get 
from the Christians. It was thought that they would 
come down from the mountains and live in the 
pueblos as Christians if they were forbidden to 
trade while living in a wild state. But the Chris- 
tian natives wished to trade with these people, 
so sometimes they would leave their goods at cer- 
tain places in the mountains. When they went 
away the savages would come and get these 
things, leaving some of their own products in ex- 

Evil Days.-These laws and others like them show 
that two hundred years ago there were oppres- 
sion and injustice in the Philippines. They -show 
that the Spaniards did not trust each other; that 
slavery still existed; that there were still encomen- 
deros; that many Filipinos were idle and in debt; 
that the prisons were a disgrace, and the roads and 
bridges in a bad state. After seeing how the rulers 


in Manila had been acting for half a century we 
can see why these things were so. 

Manila and the Provinces. — In spite of all the bad 
government from which the Philippines sufTered at 
this time, the country prospered. The rulers and 
people of Manila have been accustomed to think that 
city all-important. Manila is more important to 
the Philippines than many capitals are to their coun- 
try. It is the only large commercial city in the 
Islands. But most of the people in the Philippines 
live and die without ever seeing Manila. Most of 
the wealth of the Philippines was won from her 
fields and forests by the farmers. They knew little 
of their rulers in the capital, and most of their 
rulers knew little of them. Two hundred years ago 
there were no steamers or railroads. Many of the 
Islands saw no Spaniards, except once a year. Then 
the tax collector came, took his piece of cloth, or 
the peso of tribute, and departed. For another 
year all lived in the country villages very much 
as they used to live before the Spaniards came to 
the Philippines. There was less war between the 
villages. There was less practice of the old religion. 
Still, the Filipinos of the barrios were governed by 
their headmen, and saw little of their Spanish rulers. 

The "Laws of the Indies." — The "Laws of the 
Indies" were made for the natives of Mexico and 
the West Indies by Spain. After this, when the 
Spaniards conquered the Philippines, they gave them 
these same laws. But the customs of the Filipinos 



were different from those of the Mexicans, so the 
laws of the Indies were not always good for this 
land. Therefore the Filipinos were allowed to use 
their old laws and customs when these were not 
contrary to Christianity. So they continued to gov- 
ern themselves in all small matters. There are more 
Filipinos to-day ruled by ancient Filipino laws and 
customs than there were when Legazpi settled the 

Most of the Filipinos were little influenced by 
their rulers compared with those who lived in Man- 
ila. Therefore much of the growth and prosperity 
of the Philippines must have come from the indus- 
try and intelligence of the Filipinos themselves. 

What the Filipinos Did, — In spite of war and bad 
government the Filipinos multiplied. They broad- 
ened their fields. They increased their herds of 
cattle and horses. They sent their children to the 
primary schools that the friars established from 
early times. They were taught many useful things 
by the friars. Had they been bad pupils they 
would not have learned these lessons. But the Fili- 
pinos learned as rapidly and as well as any primi- 
tive people could learn from such teachers as the 
Spaniards. Some of the American Indians refuse 
to accept the teachings of civilization. The Ha- 
waiian Islanders are dying out, although every ad- 
vantage has been offered them. But most of the 
Filipinos have accepted civilization. The pupil who 
learns deserves praise as much as his teacher. To 


the Filipinos belongs great credit for the steady 
growth of their country in population, wealth, and 
civilization. It was their loyalty that enabled Spain 
to hold the Islands. They built ships for the trade 
and wars of their conquerors. They fought by 
their side against the Chinese, the Dutch, the Eng- 
lish, and against rebellious Filipinos. The Philip- 
pines grew greater and richer by their efforts. 

Summary. — Fausto Cruzat y Gongora was gov- 
ernor from 1690 to 1 70 1. He issued the "Ordinan- 
ces of Good Government." These provided for 
equalizing the taxes, stopping the provincial gover- 
nors from engaging in private commerce, compelling 
farmers to cultivate a certain amount of ground 
each year, reforming the conduct of the prisons, 
forbidding Spaniards to live in the pueblos, and 
stopping intercourse between the Christians and the 
wild tribes. 

Manila was long considered more important than 
the provinces. During much of Spanish rule, the 
country people saw little of their rulers and lived 
nearly as before the conquest. 

The "Laws of the Indies" were made by Spain 
for her colonies in America. Later they were ap- 
plied to the Philippines. But when ancient Filipino 
laws and customs were not contrary to the Laws of 
the Indies, the Filipinos were allowed to use them. 
The Philippines gained greatly in wealth and impor- 
tance under Spanish rule. This was largely due to 
the industry and good qualities of the Filipinos. 



The Mysterious Fleet. — In the year 1762 Arch- 
bishop Rojo was acting governor of the Phihppines. 
He was a good man, but not fitted for the great 
trials that were to come upon the Phihppines. For 
nearly one hundred years Manila had not been 
threatened by a foreign fleet. There was a small 
garrison, and no readiness for the attack of a pow- 
erful enemy. 

One day in September, 1762, thirteen large ships 
anchored in Manila Bay. No one knew of what 
nation they were, or why they had come. An offi- 
cial was sent out to them to make inquiries. He 
came back with the startling news that the ships 
were British, and that they demanded the surrender 
of Manila. Eight months before the British fleet 
sailed into Manila Bay, England had declared war 
on Spain. To-day news of such an event is flashed 
over the telegraph wires around the world in a few 
minutes. At that time sometimes one ship and some- 
times none in a year brought tidings of Europe. 
Some American merchants had told the archbishop- 



governor that the British in India were preparing 
a fleet to attack the PhiHppines, But Governor Rojo 
was a man whose thoughts were not of war. No 
preparations had been made for defense. 

Lighthouse at Entrance to the Pasig Rivee. 

Landing of the British. — The next day the Brit- 
ish landed at Malate. Their troops occupied the 
churches and convents of Malate, Ermita, San Juan 
de Bagumbayan, and Santiago. Not a shot was 
fired at them from the walls and forts of Manila. 
The city was dumb with surprise and fear. There 
were nearly seven thousand British troops, includ- 


insf three thousand of their Indian alHes. In Manila 
there were only six hundred soldiers. With great 
courage they refused to surrender. Messages for 
help were sent to the provinces. In a few days_ 
seven thousand natives, armed with bows and 
spears, had come to the help of the Spaniards. 

The Capture of Manila.- — On the 5th of October, 
1762, the British entered the city through a breach 
which their guns had made in the wall on the east 
side of the city. General Draper led a column 

Spanish Guns, Fort Santiago. 

through the streets to the plaza, two cannon preced- 
ing him firing constantly. The officials of the 
Church and the government had taken refuge in 
Fort Santiago. The palace guard was cut down 
while fighting bravely. The inhabitants of Manila 
were fleeing across the Pasig in boats. The British 
turned the guns of the wall upon them, and killed 
many of the fugitives. 


The Surrender. — Colonel Mtinson now went to 
Fort Santiago, and demanded its surrender. Gov- 
ernor Rojo was so terrified that he wished to get 
down on his knees before the officer. The victors 
promised, in return for the surrender of the forts: 

1. Security for the life and property of all. 

2. The free exercise of the Catholic faith. 

3. Freedom for commerce and industry. 

4. The preservation of the Supreme Court. 

5. Military honors for the soldiers on their surrender. 

Later the governor and the judges signed a paper 
giving up the entire Philippine Archipelago to the 

Governor Rojo was completely in the hands of 
the British. General Draper compelled him to raise 
five hundred and forty-six thousand pesos in money, 
jewels, and silver plate. The British demanded four 
million pesos, but could get no more. 

The Sack of the City. — A cruel practice of war in 
those days was the permission given to soldiers to 
rob and abuse the inhabitants of a conquered city. 
Manila was given over for three hours to be sacked. 
The robbery and murder went on for forty hours. 
Across the Pasig in Binondo the natives did as 
wicked deeds as the British. Finally Draper hanged 
several Chinese and stopped his soldiers. About 
one thousand lives were lost on each side in the tak- 
ing of Manila. 

Simon de Anda y Salazar — On the Malecon 


Drive in Alanila stands a tall monument to a brave 
Spaniard who would not surrender to the British. 
Anda was a judge of the Supreme Court. The 
night before the British entered jManila he left the 
city in a canoe for Bulacan. Here he proclaimed 

The Malecon Drive, Manila. 

himself governor. The Augustinians supported 

Anda soon had a small army. With this he tried 
to keep order in the provinces and besiege the Brit- 
ish in Manila. Anda and Rojo each sent proclama- 
tions through the provinces calling the other a 

Restoration of Spanish Rule. — January 30, 1 764, 
Governor Rojo died. Shortly after his death, news 
of peace between England and Spain arrived. A 


new governor, La Torre, was sent to the Philip- 
pines. The British gave up Manila to the Spaniards 
after holding it nearly a year and a half. La Torre 
generously allowed Anda to make a triumphal entry 
into ]\Ianila. March 31, 1764. 

Effects of the Invasion. — When the fall of Manila 
became known in the provinces many revolts broke 
out. Taxes were not collected. Property and life 
were not safe. Bands of robbers roamed through 
the provinces. During the period of British occupa- 
tion the Philippines suffered great distress. No one 
knew who was the real governor — Rojo or Anda. 
Outside of Pampanga and Bulacan. where Anda 
ruled, there was little law and order of any kind. 
In Batangas, Laguna, Tondo, and Cavite provinces 
homeless and starving people wandered from village 
to village. The wild tribes of Negritos and Igo- 
rots descended boldly from the hills and killed the 

Revolt in Pangasinan. — Throughout the British 
occupation there was a revolt in Pangasinan. Ten 
thousand natives perished in battle. The popula- 
tion of the province fell from sixty thousand to 
thirty-six thousand in less than four years. Many 
had gone to other provinces, died of hunger, or been 
killed by savages. Finally Anda's troops aided by 
some Cagayan soldiers put down the revolt and 
hanged the leaders. 

Diego Silan.— One of the fugitives from Manila 
when the British took the city was Diego Silan. He 


was a native of Vigan, Ilocos Sur. This man was 
one of the most remarkable leaders the Filipinos 
ever had. At first he took the side of the Spaniards, 
saying that he wished to arm the natives against the 
British. The Spaniards became suspicious and im- 
prisoned him. Some persons of influence to whom 
he promised to give good positions released him 
from prison. Now Silan boldly said he would drive 
the Spaniards and mestisos irom the country, and 
then the British. 

Silan in Power.- — ]\Iany joined the cause of Silan 
As in previous insurrections, the oppression of the 
local governor was the main reason for the revolt. 
This man had abused the natives of Ilocos. He had 
made them sell him all their wax and buy of him all 
their candles. Silan drove him from Vigan. Then 
the new leader set up a shrine and claimed the 
special favor of God. He proclaimed Jesus Christ 
as the head of his rebellion. Thousands came to 
his support. 

The bishop of Nueva Segovia and some of his 
priests led a force of natives from Ilocos Norte 
against Silan. This force was defeated by treach- 
ery. While they laid down their arms to talk, the 
Tinguian allies of Silan attacked them. They were 
driven back to Ilocos Norte. Silan sent a force to 
Ilocos Norte and captured a number of the leading 
men and friars. He raised large sums of money 
by setting these men free for a ransom. This 
created great hatred for him in that province. 


Alliance with the British. — When the English 
general heard of the success of this revolution he 
offered to make Silan his ally. The Ilocano leader 
did not dare to refuse. He feared that Anda would 
soon send a strong force against him. The people 
of Ilocos Norte were hostile to him also. So he was 
between two fires. He accepted the offer of the 
British. They sent him a cannon and appointed 
him Governor of Ilocos. This was a great surprise 
to the followers of Silan, but their faith in him 
was great. 

Death of Silan. — The bishop of Nueva Segovia 
and his friars were now shut up in the convent of 
Bantay, near Vigan. Silan could not persuade his 
followers to kill them. So he was about to allow 
some of the savage Tinguians to massacre the 
priests. At this time a mesti::o, named Vicos, 
planned to assassinate Silan. He went to Silan's 
house and shot him in the back. The friars now re- 
turned to their parishes, for the death of Silan ter- 
rified his followers for a time. A general pardon 
and a remission of taxes was proclaimed. 

A Fresh Outbreak. — Anda sent new officials to 
Vigan. By this time the followers of Silan had re- 
covered their courage. They rebelled, making an 
uncle of Silan governor. Now was the opportunity 
for Ilocos Norte to take revenge. A force of six 
thousand from that province invaded Ilocos Sur and 
defeated the rebels. Silan's wife fled with the 
wealth he had collected to the mountains of Abra. 


She was a brave, determined woman. She meant to 
avenge the death of her husband. So she hired the 
wild Tingiiians to attack Vigan for her, but the 
bowmen of Piddig drove her Httle army back to the 

Anda now made the Cagayan leader, Arza, gov- 
ernor of all of Luzon north of Pangasinan. Arza 
pursued Silan's wife till he captured her. She and 
ninety other leaders of the revolt were hanged. 

Why the Revolts Failed. — It is easy to see that 
all these revolts failed because the Filipinos were 
not agreed as to what they wanted and how they 
wanted to get it. Each was working for his own 
good, not for the good of all Filipinos. The old 
hostile spirit of the different tribes toward each 
other was still alive. It takes a long time to make 
one people out of so many different branches of the 
Malayan race. The Filipinos of that day were 
struggling for a freedom which they did not know 
how to get; or to use, if they had obtained it. 

Summary. — In 1762 a British fleet from India at- 
tacked Manila. War had been declared between 
England and Spain, but no one in the Philippines 
knew this. Seven thousand British landed and laid 
siege to the city. Thousands of Filipinos came from 
the country to help save Manila. After a few days 
the British took the city and sacked it. The gov- 
ernor and supreme court judges gave up the whole 
Archipelago to the British. General Draper com- 
pelled the Spaniards to pay an indemnity of 546,000 


pesos. Anda proclaimed himself governor in the 
provinces and resisted the British. After a year 
and a half the British gave Manila back to the 
Spaniards. The new governor, La Torre, allowed 
Anda to make a triumphal entry into Manila. 

The capture of Manila caused many evils in the 
provinces. Bands of robbers roamed about. Re- 
volts against Spanish rule broke out and thousands 
were killed in battle or perished of hunger and hard- 
ships. Diego Silan, an Ilocano, was a noted leader. 
He subdued Ilocos and captured many friars. Then 
Silan allied himself with the British. Finally he 
was assassinated. 



Governorship of Anda — 1770-1776. — Shortly after 
the departure of the British, Anda had returned to 
Spain. The governors who followed Rojo did not 
repair the ruin caused by the war. The old quar- 
rels between Church and State were renewed. The 
Jesuits were expelled from the Philippines. A 
strong hand and a clear head were needed. Several 
times the king asked Anda to take the governor- 
ship of the Islands. He was weary of strife, but 
finally yielded to the repeated requests of the king. 
Anda was a brave and honest man. Dliring his 
fight against the British he had spent only 600,000 
of the 3,000,000 pesos which he had received from 
the Philipino. As governor he was economical and 
honest. Although he repaired the walls of Manila 
and built many ships, the public revenue increased 
to one and one-half million pesos a year. He did 
all he could to bring the Philippines out of the 
wretched state into which a century of folly had 
plunged them. 

Anda a Modern Man.' — Anda was different from 



the governors who preceded him. At the time of 
his return to the Phihppines, Europe and America 
were feeHng their way toward Hberty and progress. 
The revokitionary spirit was stirring France and 
the North American colonies. New ideas filled 
men's minds. The Church was losing control of 

The Anda Monument. Manila. 

the State. Anda, like Das Marinas, was a royal 
governor. He was not liked by the friars, because 
he sent a report to the king charging them with 
disloyalty and crimes of oppression. Anda was not 
a republican, but he believed that the government 
should study to make the country prosperous. He 
therefore encouraged agriculture, believing that the 
future prosperity of the Islands depended upon this. 
From his time the governors began to develop the 
unused riches of the Philippines. The galleon trade 


was nearing its end, and a new era was beginning 

for the Filipinos. 

The Teaching of Spanish.- — During Anda's rule a 
royal decree ordered that Spanish be taught instead 
of the native dialects of the Philippines. In a great 
church council of 1590, the friars had decided to 
teach the Filipino tongues instead of Spanish. This 
was because they believed it necessary to teach re- 
ligion to every one as soon as possible. The friars 
could learn the languages of the natives much 
quicker than the natives could learn Spanish. Very 
old people and little children might die ignorant of 
the gospel if it were not quickly taught them in 
their own tongue. 

Many times the rulers of Spain ordered that 
Spanish be taught to the Filipinos. Most of the 
friars were willing to have this done. But they 
did not believe it would ever be possible to make 
Spanish the language of the common people. In 
later days there were some who did not wish the 
Filipinos to learn Spanish because they were afraid 
the Filipinos would become wise enough to rule 

Death of Anda. — Anda made many enemies by his 
stern, just ways. These enemies fought against 
him at the court of Spain. He was fined and some 
of his acts condemned. \\'earied with work and 
the ingratitude of his country, he fell ill, dying at 
Cavite in 1776. His remains were placed behind 
the high altar of the cathedral in Manila. His 


fame is secure to-day as one of the most upright 
governors that Spain ever sent to the Phihppines. 

Vargas and Agriculture. — Jose de Vasco y Var- 
gas (1778- 1 787) was an intelhgent and industrious 
man. Under him a serious attempt was made to 
improve agriculture. He pubhshed a proclamation, 
offering prizes to those who excelled in agriculture 
and industry. He encouraged the production of 
silk. IMulberry trees, on which the silkwomi feeds, 
were planted in large numbers. For some years 
silk was made in the Philippines. The mulberry 
and the silkworm flourish in these Islands. In the 
end, however, the culture of silk did not pay. The 
plantations were abandoned. The silk of China and 
Japan was produced and sold cheaper than that of 
the Philippines. This was because wages were less 
in those countries and men were willing to work 
more steadily than in the Philippines. Many things 
have failed in the Islands because Filipino laborers 
have beem satisfied with earning a little money. 
Then they have abandoned their work to spend or 
gamble away what they have earned. No country 
can have great industries till it raises up an army of 
steady workers who will work for months at a 
time at the same rate of wages. 

Why Java Prospered. — It is true that one reason 
for lack of labor was because the Spaniards did not 
always give the Filipinos a fair share of the prod- 
ucts of their labor. In Java the Dutch compelled 
the natives of the Island to work; but in all their 


business dealings they treated the natives justly and 
fulfilled all promise's. Thus Java grew industrious 
and prosperous while the Philippines advanced 
slowly. We shall see an example of this in the way 
the Spanish managed the tobacco industry. 

Tobacco Growing. 

The Tobacco Monopoly — For centuries the Phil- 
ippines had cost the treasury of Mexico a large sum 
yearly. The burden of the royal subsidy was a 
heavy drain on the Mexican treasury. Vargas now 
thought of a plan to make the Philippine Govern- 
ment pay its own expenses. He decided that all the 
tobacco must be raised, manufactured, and sold by 


the government. This plan was called the Tobacco 
Monopoly. In 1781 the Filipino farmers were for- 
bidden to grow and sell tobacco, except at the order 
of the government. The following year the gov- 
ernment began the business of growing, manufac- 
turing, and selling tobacco. This monopoly con- 
tinued for exactly one hundred years. The revenues 
of the government increased rapidly. There were 
some years now when it was not necessary to send 
a subsidy from Mexico. But the treasury was 
filled by means of oppression and injustice. 

Abuses of the Tobacco Monopoly. — The govern- 
ment told the farmer just how much land he should 
plant each year with tobacco. He was ordered to 
raise a certain amount from this land. He could 
not keep one leaf for his own use. His house was 
searched for hidden tobacco. If the farmer did not 
raise the required amount the land was given to 
another. He was heavily fined if he hid any away. 

When the government bought the tobacco of the 
farmer it fixed its own price. Then it made this 
tobacco into cigars and sold them to the farmer, 
again at its own price. The government inspectors 
were often dishonest and cruel. They accepted 
bribes from some natives who broke the laws. They 
undervalued the tobacco of others. They treated 
harshly the families of those whose houses they 
searched. As time passed, the government paid 
less and less for the tobacco, and the payments were 
slow in coming. After planting most of his land 


with tobacco, and working hard and long to secure 
the crop, the farmer often waited longer still for 
his pay. Finally the government began to pay in 
written promises instead of money. Men went 
through the country and bought these pieces of 
paper of the natives, giving them less money than 
they were worth. 

End of the Tobacco Monopoly. — Under Governor 
Primo de Rivera in 1881 the government ceased to 
raise and sell tobacco. This monopoly had become 
a disgrace. Large sums were due the farmers for 
the tobacco they had raised for the government. 
Since this monopoly has ceased, many Filipinos 
have succeeded in making a good living by raising 
tobacco for themselves. It is said that since the 
semislavery days of compulsory tobacco raising 
ended the farmers have not grown as good tobacco, 
or cured it so carefully as before. But the bribery 
and abuses of the old days are ended. Free indus- 
try and an honest government are worth more than 

"Royal Company of the Philippines." — The great- 
est commercial enterprise that Spain started in the 
Philippines was the "Royal Company of the Philip- 
pines," in 1785. The king, Charles III., was an 
investor in this company. He and his governor, 
Vargas, did all they could to make it succeed. The 
capital of the company was six million pesos. It 
had the sole right to trade between the Philippines 
and Spain, but not with Mexico. The company en- 


couraged the cultivation of silk, indigo, sugar, and 
cotton. Pepper was planted by it in Luzon, the 
Visayas, and JMindanao. It paid a higher price for 
Philippine pepper than for that of Java and Su- 
matra. But the Philippines were not so fit to grow 
pepper as these other islands. The governors wanted 
all the trade of their provinces. They were jeal- 
ous of the company and would not assist it. So 
this great enterprise which cost so much and prom- 
ised so well failed. A further reason for its fail- 
ure was the unwillingness of the natives to work 

"Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais," — One 
of the best acts of \^argas was to establish the 
"Economic Society of Friends of the Countr3^'' 
Pie did this in obedience to a royal decree. The 
king ordered the formation of a "society of select 
persons capable of producing useful thoughts." 
This society was founded in 1781. In his speech 
at the first meeting of the society Vargas said that 
the backward condition of the Philippines was on 
account of too great attention to the galleon trade. 
The society included some of the most distinguished 
people of that day. It lasted till the close of Span- 
ish rule. At times it was dead for years, but it was 
of some help to Philippine agriculture and industry. 

Vargas Resigns,- — \^argas did many other things, 
such as the suppression of highway robbery, the es- 
tablishment of a hospice, or house of refuge, and the 
creation of militia regiments of Filipinos. Like 


many other good governors, Vargas made enemies. 
Wearied with the opposition of the judges, mer- 
chants, and others, he resigned in 1787. Some think 
he was the most useful governor the Phihppines 
have ever had. 

Industry Better Than Conquest. — AUhough the 

Tobacco Monopoly was oppressive and the Royal 
Company a failure, such efforts did more for the 
Philippines than did the old expeditions of conquest 
to the Moluccas. They did more for the permanent 
prosperity of the country than the galleon trade. 
The Filipinos learned much about industry. The 
country grew in numbers and wealth. So rich a 
land, with every variety of soil and climate, needed 
but little encouragement. 

Rafael de Aguilar, Governor — 1 793-1 806. — Agui- 
lar was a governor of intelligence and energy. He 
continued the plans of Vargas. The Tobacco Mon- 
opoly was bringing large sums of money to the gov- 
ernment. By royal order in his rule encouragement 
was given to the cultivation of the mulberry tree, 
and of cinnamon, pepper, cotton, and cacao. 

Aguilar built a road from Cavite to Manila. He 
was the first to light the streets of Manila. The 
iron mines of Angat received his help. His rule 
was marked by only one backward step, the exclu- 
sion of foreigners. 

Aguilar and Foreigners. — In 1800 Aguilar for- 
bade foreigners to settle in the Philippines. This 
policy was a great loss to the country. In a rich 


country, with so small a population as the Philip- 
pines then had, merchants of other lands, with capi- 
tal and energy, are a benefit. The United States, 
for example, has become great and powerful in a 


The Santa Lucia Gate, Manila, Built by Vargas. 

short time by freely admitting industrious immi- 
grants of practically all nationalities. 

Progress of the Filipinos. — Manila was no longer 
a village of nipa huts. Many of its inhabitants 
lived in luxury. The governor loved display. He 
spent upon his household 60,000 pesos a year. This 
was three times his salary. The Islands were en- 
tering upon a long period of prosperity. The popu- 
lation was about one and one-half millions. The 
Philippines were coming into better days. They 
still suffered from pirates and other evils, but their 
condition was steadily growing better. The Fili- 


pinos were learning their rights. From this time 
forward their protests had more weight with their 
rulers. Instead of the barbaric chiefs of Legazpi's 
day their leaders were industrious, successful farm- 
ers and merchants. They had learned much from 
Spain. It was they who were now building her 
ships, churches, and forts. Filipino soldiers were 
the larger part of Spain's army in the Philippines. 
Filipino priests were serving side by side with the 
Spanish friars. Filipinos were soon to share in the 
councils of Spain. 

Summary. — Anda (1770- 1776) was an able and 
honest governor. He repaired the walls of Manila 
and increased the revenue to one and one-half mil- 
lion pesos a year. He charged the friars with dis- 
loyalty, encouraged agriculture, but was eventually 
fined for some acts and died in 1776. In Anda's 
time it was ordered that Spanish be taught in the 
schools instead of the Philippine dialects. 

Jose de Vasco y Vargas (1778- 1787) offered 
prizes to those who excelled in agriculture. The 
production of silk flourished in his administration. 
In the end it failed because labor was cheaper in 
China and Chinese silk sold cheaper than Philippine 

In 1 78 1 the Philippine government took over the 
sole right to raise, manufacture, and sell tobacco. 
This was called the Tobacco Monopoly. It lasted 
for a hundred years and brought large sums to the 
treasury. There were many abuses by government 


inspectors. The culture of tobacco was greatly ex- 
tended and improved. 

The Royal Company of the Philippines was 
started in 1785. King Charles III. was an investor. 
It encouraged the cultivation of silk, indigo, sugar, 
and cotton. The jealousy of the provincial gover- 
nors injured it and it failed. 

Vargas established the Economic Society of 
Friends of the Country in 178 1. It was an agricul- 
tural society and did much good. 

Rafael de Aguilar (1793- 1806) also encouraged 
agriculture and industry. He forbade foreigners to 
settle in the Philippines. The population was about 
one and one-half millions in 1800 and commercial 
prosperity was increasing. 



Filipinos in the Cortes — The Cortes was the body 
of men which made laws for Spain and her colonies. 
In 1810 two natives of the Philippines were chosen 
to represent the Islands in the Cortes. In 1809 the 
Filipinos had been given by Spain the right to send 
forty deputies to the Cortes, but the cost of sending 
them was so great that as a rule only two or three 
were sent. Ventura de los Reyes, of Manila, was 
one of the first deputies. He recommended that 
the galleon trade be stopped. This was done in 

Another Filipino deputy, liiigo, in 18 15, recom- 
mended that the taxes upon the poor people be de- 
creased. He advised that the government monopo- 
lies of tobacco, wine, and other products be stopped, 
and that every person be allowed to raise what he 
wished. He called the attention of the Cortes to the 
many false land titles in the Philippines. He asked 
that the missions of the friars to China be stopped. 
These missions were costing the government about 
fifty thousand pesos a year. He advised that a 



college be started in which Filipino boys might 
learn various native languages, so that they might 
be fitted to hold government positions in the 

These were some of the things the Filipinos 

Fernando VII. of Spain. 

wanted. They did not get them. The reason was 
because Spain did not give the Filipinos representa- 
tion in the Cortes in order to learn how to govern 


them better, but to gain their friendship in time of 

The Constitution of 1812. — A new constitution 
was proclaimed in Spain in 18 12. When this con- 
stitution was published in the Philippines the follow- 
ing year, the people thought they would now be free 
from the labor tax and tribute. The governor had 
to send out a proclamation to the provinces explain- 
ing that no government could exist without taxes. 

Restoration of Fernando VII.. — In 1814 Fernando 
VII. was restored to the throne of Spain. He 
began his new rule like a tyrant. He abolished the 
constitution, and began again the Inquisition, which 
had been stopped the year before. All who opposed 
him were killed or driven out of the country. 

Revolt in Ilocos Norte. — ^^'hen the natives of the 
Philippines were told of these changes, they thought 
the officials in IManila were lying to them. They 
believed they were being robbed of the new liberties 
which the constitution had given them. Fifteen 
hundred Ilocanos revolted in Ilocos Norte. Their 
attacks were directed mainly against the rich princi- 
pales. They killed and robbed a number of these. 
Convents and churches were burned and sacked. 
The books and papers in town records were de- 

Oppression of the Poor. — One cause of this revolt 
was the oppression of the poorer natives by the rich.. 
The latter used to give raw silk or cotton to the com- 
mon people, and require them to make it into cloth. 


When the cloth was deHvered the rich would com- 
plain of its poor quality. They would say it weighed 
less than it did. Then they would pay the makers 
less than they ought. 

If the Filipinos had stopped oppressing each other 

Bell Tower and Theater, Laoag. 

they might have thrown off the yoke of Spain. 
But as soon as a few of them got more power 
than the rest, they began to oppress those under 
them instead of helping them to be free. They 
had not learned the great fact that no people can 
ever be free unless they are willing to treat each 
other justly. 

The Constitution Renewed. — The revolts in 
Spain compelled the king to set up the constitution 
again in 1820. The next year it was proclaimed all 


over the Philippines. That year four deputies were 
elected to the Cortes. The people did not rejoice 
much over the renewal of the constitution; for they 
had learned that it made little improvement in their 
lot. The governor and the church officials did not 
want many deputies from Manila in the Cortes. 
They had always done as they thought best in the 
Philippines. They did not wish to have their plans 
and acts exposed and criticised in Spain. As for 
the Filipinos, they had not received much benefit 
from the deputies, so they did not care. 

The School of Freedom — These events show that 
it is very difficult for a people who have never been 
free to learn what freedom means. \\'hen the 
United States became a free nation she had already 
spent centuries in learning, little by little, how to 
use freedom. France, who tried to free herself 
about the same time, soon lost her freedom be- 
cause her past history had not taught her people 
how to use liberty. She had to go to school nearly 
a century longer before she established a strong 

End of Representation in the Cortes.- — In 1837, 
in a secret session of the Cortes, it was decided not 
to let the Filipinos send any more deputies to Spain. 
The reasons given for this were four — -the distance 
of the Philippines, the expense, the difference of cus- 
toms, and the lack of enough Filipinos sufficiently 
well educated for so high an office. 

News of this action nearly created a revolution in 


Manila. The governor, however, agreed to make 
no changes till the Cortes decreed them. It really 
made little difference at that time whether there were 
Filipino deputies or not. The Filipino deputies were 
so few in number that they could not secure re- 
forms to which the officials in the Philippines were 

Mariano Ricafort, Governor — 1825-1830 Rica- 
fort was an intelligent and active governor. Manila 
in his day was full of beggars and bad men. He 
caused a house-to-house visit to be made, and drove 
away many of these. He also punished those who 
sang evil songs, gambled, blasphemed, worked on 
feast days, or did not bring up their children prop- 

Ricafort gave much attention to agriculture. A 
great evil in the Philippines had been the taking of 
all that a man had to pay a debt. Ricafort ordered 
that laborers should not be put in prison for private 
debts. If a man could not pay his debts, his creditor 
could not take away his tools, animals, or land. The 
object of this law was to give a man time to pay 
his debts. He ordered that laborers who worked 
steadily for many years should be free from tribute. 
These reforms were good. The difficulty was that 
the governors of the Philippines did not hold their 
positions long enough to carry out their reforms. 
When a new governor came to the Philippines he 
did just as he pleased. If he did not agree with the 
governor who came before him, he did not compel 



the people to obey the laws that the former governor 

had made. 

The Rebellion of Dagohoy.- — Ricafort suppressed 
a rebellion that had begun one hundred years before. 
A century before his time a Jesuit priest in Bohol 

Parian Redoubt. 

ordered the capture of a man who had abandoned 
the Catholic faith. The native who tried to capture 
him was killed. The brother of the dead man 
brought the body to the priest for burial. The priest 
demanded the usual fee. The brother, who was 
named Dagohoy, refused to pay a fee, saying that 
as his brother had died in the service of the priest 
he ought to be buried without charge. For three 


days the body lay unburied while they quarreled. 
Then Dagohoy, exerting his influence on the na- 
tives, started a rebellion. The people of Bohol had 
always loved war. Three thousand people joined 
Dagohoy. Then they killed the priest who refused 
to bury the body without pay, and in other ways 
wreaked their vengeance on the priests. 

An Independent People. — For nearly a hundred 
years these people and their descendants remained 
unsubdued in the mountains of Bohol. It was the 
most successful rebellion the Filipinos ever made. 
It is a mistake to think that the real cause of this re- 
bellion was the refusal of the priest to bury the dead 
body. Many times in the history of the Philippines 
a few Filipinos have become weary of the life of 
civilization and left it to live the wild life of the 
mountains. Sometimes they have done it because 
they were oppressed ; at other times simply because 
they loved a wild life. 

To-day the Filipinos have far more freedom than 
they ever had under Spanish rule. All but a few of 
the governors of the thirty-eight provinces are Fili- 
pinos. All the officers of the more than six 
hundred municipalities of the Philippines are Fili- 
pinos. There is plenty of work for all. No one 
needs to flee to the mountains and live a wild life. 
Yet there are still those who do this. The real 
reason for this is not because they are oppressed, 
or because they desire to help their brother Filipinos. 
It is often because they do not love civilization. The 


life of a civilized man is a life where each respects 
the rights of others. It is a life where each obeys 
the laws that are made for the good of all. 

But these people of Bohol that withdrew to the 
mountains pre3'ed upon other Filipinos. They at- 
tacked the villages on the coast. If they had gained 
their living by agriculture and industry we might 
admire them. But they robbed and killed their 
neighbors. No man is obliged to live in a country 
if he does not like the government. He may go to 
some other country. But if most of the people in 
a country desire to obey the law, nothing can be 
worse than for a few men to rebel and live like 
savages. It was therefore a good thing that Rica- 
fort finally suppressed this rebellion. 

The New Pueblos. — Ricafort determined to com- 
pel these rebellious mountaineers to live among and 
like the civilized Filipinos. They had increased to 
twenty thousand in number. Under governor Raon 
pardon had been offered to all who would return to 
,a civilized life. But the leaders threatened to kill 
any who accepted this pardon. Ricafort therefore 
sent the Governor of Cebu with a large force to 
bring back the rebels to a civilized life. The loyal 
Cebuans and Boholans of this force penetrated to 
the heart of the mountains of Bohol. It required 
over six thousand men and more than a year of 
fighting to do this. In the end five new pueblos 
were formed on the coast of Bohol and in these and 
other pueblos the mountaineers were made to live. 


Had this not been done, Bohol to-day would be a 
wilderness populated with savage tribes. 

Pascual Enrile, Governor — 1830-1835 Enrile 

was another governor whose rule did much for the 
progress of the Islands. IMany of the governors 
knew little of the Islands outside of IManila, Enrile 
was a great observer. He traveled over the prov- 
inces of northern Luzon. The maps of the Islands 
were very imperfect. Enrile had in his service a 
very intelligent young engineer called Penaranda. 
The governor caused new maps and charts to be 
made by Penaranda. At this time the great north 
and south highways of Luzon were begun. Penar- 
anda made surveys for the post-roads. Later he 
was Governor of Albay. Here he greatly improved 
the roads and encouraged agriculture. 

Advantages of Good Roads.- — No country can be 
civilized, or in any degree prosperous, without roads. 
With good roads there are fewer bandits, because it 
is easier to pursue and capture them. Crops can be 
transported more cheaply. Land that is rich but 
useless, because its products can not be carried to 
market, becomes valuable. With good roads it is 
easy to reach schools and churches, two of the great- 
est helps to civilization. Without good roads the 
people of the Philippines never can understand each 
other. As long as the Filipinos live in the villages 
where they were born, and never see or talk with 
the people of other tov/ns and provinces, they will 
never become a nation. 


Enrile should therefore be long remembered as a 
wise and useful governor because of the efforts he 
made to cover Luzon with good highways. 

Kinds of Rebellion. — We have studied all the im- 
portant rebellions in the Philippines for nearly three 
centuries of Spanish rule. We have learned that 
most of them were due to the abuse of the tribute 
system and the forced labor law. We have seen 
how the government monopolies were the cause of 
others. Still others came from the desire to return 
to the free, savage life of the mountains and forests. 
One or two were begun by soldiers in revenge for 
wrongs or to satisfy ambition. We are now to read 
of a rebellion that had religion for its cloak and in- 
dependence from Spain for its aim. 

The Revolt of the Cofradia — 1 840-1 841. — Apoli- 
nario de la Cruz was a donado, or helper, in the 
Hospital of San Juan de Dios. He was a young 
Tagalog, slight in figure, silent, and religious. He 
organized the "Cofradia de San Jose." This was a 
religious brotherhood in honor of St. Joseph. None 
but Filipinos were allowed to join this brotherhood. 
It soon had several thousand members in La La- 
guna, Tayabas, and Batangas. Each member paid a 
tax of one real a month. Secret meetings were 
held. The authorities of Church and State sus- 
pected that the real purpose of the brotherhood was 
to start a revolution. Therefore they refused the 
request for permission to hold a novena in Tayabas. 
At the same time they tried to arrest the young 


leader. But Apolinaria fled from Manila to La 

Destruction of the Cofradia. — Apolinario called 
his people together, and took refuge in Igsaban. He 
enlisted the aid of the Negritos to fight the Span- 
iards. Governor Ortega, of Tayabas, attacked him 
with a force of three hundred. This force was de- 
feated and Ortega was killed. 

The Spanish authorities now realized that a seri- 
ous rebellion had arisen. A large force of soldiers 
was sent from Manila to destroy the Cofradia. 
Apolinario had encamped on the peninsula of Ali- 
tao near the city of Tayabas. The river was on two 
sides of his camp and a mountain in the rear. Here 
he had built a church. Strange ceremonies were 
held there. Apolinario claimed to have the special 
protection of the Virgin Mary. He told his fol- 
lowers that when their enemies attacked them the 
earth would open and swallow their foes. 

In the battle that followed five hundred of the 
Cofradia were killed, after a brave fight. Apoli- 
nario's own men. filled with rage at being deceived, 
tried to find and kill him. But he had fled. A few 
days later he was captured, tried, and executed. His 
followers called Apolinario "King of the Taga- 
logs." Most of them were poor, ignorant peasants. 
We shall see how in the next revolt Filipinos of a 
different class, with new ideas, were the leaders. 

Summary. — In i8io two Filipinos were chosen to 
represent the Philippines in the Cortes. The gal- 


leon trade ended in 181 5. Deputy Inigo advised 
that the government monopolies be ended, the Chi- 
nese missions stopped and a Fihpino college started. 
The new constitution of Spain was proclaimed in 
18 1 3 in the Philippines. The next year it was abol- 
ished and a revolt in Ilocos Norte followed. One 
cause of this revolt was the oppression of the poor 
Filipinos by the rich. 

The constitution was renewed in 1820. It made 
little improvement in the Philippines. The deputies 
in the Cortes were of small benefit to the Filipinos. 
In 1837 Philippine representation in the Cortes 

Manuel Ricafort (1825-1830) improved the mor- 
als of Manila. He forbade imprisonment for debt, 
encouraged agriculture and suppressed a rebellion 
in Bohol. This revolt was led by Dagohoy. The 
rebels had established a new town in the mountains 
and remained independent nearly one hundred years. 
Ricafort compelled these rebellious mountaineers 
to live on the plains. They had increased to twenty 
thousand. After a year of fighting, these people 
were gathered into five new towns. 

Pascual Enrile, governor 1830- 183 5, had new 
maps and highways made. Apolinario de la Cruz 
was a Tagalog religious leader who in 1840 organ- 
ized the Cofradia de San Jose with several thousand 
members. They held secret meetings with strange 
ceremonies. After a severe battle his followers 
were subdued and Apolinario was executed. 



Changes of Governors. — Beginning with Claveria, 
twenty different governors ruled the Phihppines in 
twenty-five years. In a country where each gov- 
ernor had the power to change the plans of his 
predecessor, frequent changes were made. Many 
reforms were begun by these governors, but few of 
them were made efTfective. Montero, the greatest of 
modern Spanish historians of the Philippines, said : 

"As hell, according to a vulgar proverb, is paved with 
good intentions, so Spanish legislation appears full of wise 
laws and beautiful theories which are never enforced. 
The very men who proclaim the soundest principles of 
government and thunder against the existing political and 
social evils are the first to commit them." 

The Friars and the Governors. — A further reason 
was the ignorance of the governors of the real needs 
of the Filipinos, and how to .satisfy them. The peo- 
ple who really understood the country were the par- 
ish priests. These men as a rule spent their lives in 
the Philippines. Many of them spoke the Filipino 



tongues fluently. On the whole, they had the good 
of the natives at heart. When they saw laws pro- 
posed by men who knew little of the Philippines and 
the Filipinos, they fought against these laws. If 
they could not influence a governor, they persuaded 
his successor to change the laws. Oftentimes they 
were in the right. But right or wrong, no coun- 
try can prosper with two ruling classes who do 
not agree. Therefore, though the governors dur- 
ing this period were intelligent and active men, 
they accomplished very little by their numerous 


Effect of Travel and Commerce.- — The world ad- 
vanced so rapidly during the nineteenth century that 
it was impossible that some light should not reach 
the Philippines. In the middle of that century the 
world began to be girdled wnth steamers and tele- 
graph-lines. People traveled more, and commerce 
brought all countries closer together. So in spite 
of the weakness of the Philippine Government a few 
of her rulers who had learned modern methods suc- 
ceeded in helping the country. Among these are 
two whose names are most worthy to be remem- 
bered — Claveria and Urbistondo. 

Narciso Claveria, Governor — 1844-1849. — Claveria 
was a man of "culture, probity, and industry." He 
traveled through many provinces trying to learn the 
needs of the Filipinos. He encouraged agriculture, 
improved the streets and suburbs of Manila, and 
tried to give the Islands a government as good as 


that of modern Spain. We shall study a few of his 

Reformation of the Calendar. — The Philippines 
till 1845 were one day behind the calendar of Fai- 
rope. When Magellan sailed west around the world, 
he lost a few minutes every day. He was going the 
same way the sun seems to go, so his day ended later 
than that of the people who remained in Europe. 
Therefore he was later in beginning the next day. 
By the time he reached the Philippines, he was a 
day behind Europe in his date. This error had been 
known for centuries. That it was not corrected 
shows how slow the rulers of the Philippines in 
those days were to change a custom. Finally Cla- 
veria and the archbishop agreed to drop December 
31, 1844, from the Philippine calendar. So the day 
that followed December 30, 1844, in the Philippines 
was called January i, 1845. 

Surnames of the Filipinos. — From the days of the 
Spanish conquest some Filipinos had received Span- 
ish surnames. Most of the people, however, had 
no surnames. This caused much confusion. So 
in 1849 Claveria sent to the chiefs of the provinces 
long lists of Spanish surnames. These were sent 
out to the different towns, and given to the natives 
who had no surnames. In many towns all these 
names began with the same letter of the alphabet. 

First Steamers in the Philippines.- — The first 
steamers to sail regularly in Philippine waters were 
the Magallanes, Elcano, and Rcina de Castilla. 


They were brought from London in 1848. These 
steamers were of great vakie, because now it was 
possible to chase and capture the swift boats of the 
Moro pirates. 

The Governors — From the earhest days the chief 
of a province had acted both as governor and judge. 
He also engaged in trade, of which he had a monop- 
oly. With the duties of three men to perform, it 
was not strange that the governors were often poor 
rulers. They knew little of the law. Therefore 
they sent all the important cases to Manila. For 
this reason there were often long delays in deciding 
cases. Sometimes it required years to get justice. 
This encouraged the strong to oppress the weak. 
Claveria therefore ordered that the governors be 
men of two years' experience in the law. 

Gains of the Governors. — Claveria also ordered 
that the governors should not engage in trade. 
This wise decree was not fully obeyed for many 
years after the time of Claveria. At that time there 
were thirty-one provinces. The governor received 
a salary of from three hundred to two thousand 
pesos a year. The most common salary was six 
hundred pesos. In return for the privilege of con- 
trolling the trade of the provinces, the governors 
paid the government as high as three thousand pesos 
a year. Yet they usually became rich. Men of high 
position tried to get these places. Sometimes they 
returned to Spain with fortunes, after a few years 
as governor. Too often these fortunes were made 


by dealing unjustly with the Filipinos. From the 
days of the first encomenderos, the Spanish officials 
looked upon the Filipino as a mine out of which to 
dig a fortune. They did not see that if the rulers 
of a country are to be prosperous they must make 
all the people prosperous. 

Urbistondo ; Conquest of Jolo. — Antonio de Urbis- 
tondo, governor from 1850 to 1853, demanded of 
the Sultan of Jolo the punishment of some pirates 
who had attacked Samar. The sultan refused the 
request and fired upon the ships of Urbistondo. 
Then the Spanish Government aroused itself to 
strike a death blow at the old enemy of the Fili- 
pinos. The merchants of ]\Ianila gave eighty thou- 
sand pesos toward the expenses of an expedition, 
and lent several ships to Urbistondo. A great force 
of Cebuans and Boholans, under the brave Father 
Ibaiiez, joined the fleet which sailed from Manila. 
Urbistondo collected all his forces at Zamboanga. 
He had three thousand Spanish troops and one thou- 
sand Filipinos. The fleet sailed to Jolo. The city 
was filled with thousands of Moro warriors, and 
strongly fortified. The two days' battle that fol- 
lowed was one of the bravest and bloodiest ever 
fought on Philippine soil. Father Ibanez fell, flag 
in hand, on the walls of Fort Daniel. Several hun- 
dred of the loyal forces were killed or wounded. 
Many Moros were slain, and the city of Jolo cap- 

Treaty with the Sultan. — The sultan was com- 



pelled to make a treaty with Spain. He agreed to 
use the Spanish flag, and to allow freedom of com- 
merce and religion. But the promises of these 
pirates were never worth anything. The Spaniards 
agreed to pay the sultan a pension of fifteen hun- 
dred pesos a year and smaller pensions to several 
of his datos. Tn reality the sultan had made a good 
bargain. Spain showed her inability to conquer and 
keep Jolo. Still, the pirates long remembered their 
defeat. From that day they did less harm to the 
people of the northern islands. 

The First Philippine Bank. — ^Commerce is one of 
the pillars of modern civilization. To carry on a 
srreat commerce, banks are necessarv. The first 
bank in the Philippines was due to the energy of 
Urbistondo. He furnished half the money to start 
it from the Obras Pias and other public funds. The 
bank opened in 1852. It was called the Banco 
EspaSiol-Filipino. Few Spaniards or Filipinos had 
the money or the courage to deal with it. The peo- 
ple of Manila were always slow to make changes in 
their way of doing business. Foreign merchants 
had been shut out of the Philippines till very recent 
years. The merchants here had no competitors to 
show them and make them use better methods. 
Finally it became necessary to allow foreigners to do 
business with the bank. Then commerce and indus- 
try began to flourish. Merchants could get capital 
to purchase large and fresh stocks of goods. The 
great commercial houses now began to do a large 



business. Manila was waking from the sleep of 
centuries. ' 

The Next Ten Years. — In the nine years succeed- 
ing Urbistondo, eight governors ruled the Philip- 
pines. They attempted many things but with little 
success. It was impossible for the country to flour- 
ish when governors were changed so often. Each 
man was ambitious to become famous. So he tried 
to do something different from the governor who 
came before him. Some of the governors were sent 
to the Philippines against their will because the king 
did not want them in Spain. All this was very bad 
for the Filipinos. 

We shall study only two or three important events 
of these ten years. 

Return of the Jesuits.- — -The Jesuits had been ex- 
pelled from the Philippines, by order of the king, in 
1/68. For nearly one hundred years there had been 
none of this famous religious order in the Islands. 
In 1859 they began to return. They were not al- 
lowed to become parish priests in the civilized towns 
or to hold haciendas. They could organize and 
teach schools, and serve as missionaries among the 
wild tribes. The special field for their missionary 
work was to be Mindanao. Here they taught many 
savages to live in towns, and instructed them in 
religion. Their work since their return has been 
very useful. 

The Recollects had to leave Mindanao to make 
room for the Jesuits. Then they were given par- 


ishes in Cavite and Manila which the FiHpino 
priests held. The native clergy felt that this was un- 
just, and ajDpealed to the king. But the plan was 
carried out in spite of their protest. From this 
time hatred for the friars increased rapidly among 
certain classes of Filipinos. 

Reforms in Education.- — For three hundred years 
the schools of the Philippines had been in charge 
of the Friars. Antonio Sedeno, a Jesuit, established 
the first true Spanish school in the Philippines. The 
friars decided what should be taught. They selected 
and trained the teachers. They gave as much at- 
tention to education as their other duties would al- 
low. In doing this they did a great deal for the 
Filipinos. In the early days the Spanish govern- 
ment was too poor to establish a good system of 
secular public schools. Besides, it was long thought 
in Europe that the charge of the schools belonged 
to the Church, and that religion should be the chief 
matter of instruction. But .by the middle of the 
nineteenth century, education had become a science 
in Europe. It was now thought by many to be the 
duty of the State to educate all its children. 

Educational Decree of 1863.- — Therefore a royal 
decree in 1863 placed the Governor of the Philip- 
pines in charge of all the schools. He was assisted 
by the archbishop and others. The chief school- 
inspector of each province was its governor, who 
was also assisted by a church official. The town 
inspector of schools was the parish priest. 


It was ordered that every town should have at 
least one school for boys and one for girls. Instruc- 
tion was free for all, and all were obliged to attend. 
Many schoolhouses were built and new studies were 
introduced into the schools. 

In 1865 the Jesuit Normal School was opened in 
Manila to educate teachers for the primary schools. 
The government tried to have Spanish taught in the 
schools. Text-books in the Philippine languages 
were ordered translated into Spanish. Teachers 
were to be free from the labor tax. Other wise 
regulations were made, but these reforms were 
poorly carried out because Church and State did 
not work in harmony. But we should not judge the 
past by the standards of the present. Spain did 
more for the education of the Filipinos than some 
of the other nations have done for their colonies. 
Small as the results seem, they were of great value 
and were one of the greatest benefits that the Fili- 
pinos received from the Spanish government. 

Earthquake of 1863.-^ — In 1863 and the following 
year, many calamities befell the Philippines. The 
locusts destroyed the crops in the southern islands. 
Cholera caused many deaths. Great fires burned 
thousands of houses in Manila, Batangas, and else- 
where. Among the losses was a government store- 
house containing two million pesos' worth of to- 

Most terrible of all was the earthquake of 1863 in 
Manila. On June 3d, at 7.21 p. m., the earth began 


to tremble. Rents opened in the ground. A cloud 
of flame and dust arose above the falling city. The 
bells of the churches clanged wildly with the first 
shock ; at the second they fell to the ground. More 
than six hundred of the largest and finest buildings 
of Manila were destroyed. A cry of grief and ter- 
ror went up from the stricken city. Six hundred 
persons were killed and injured. All who were 
able fled outside the walls and lived for days in the 
native huts, afraid to return to their homes. Five 
days later another shock completed the ruin of the 
buildings. The Augustinian convent was the only 
public building that was uninjured. 

Large sums of money were collected in Spain and 
the Spanish colonies for the relief of the suf- 
ferers from the earthquake. It was many years 
before this money was distributed. Much of it 
never reached the people for whom it was in- 

Summary. — Beginning with Claveria, twenty dif- 
ferent governors ruled the Philippines in twenty-five 
years. The priests understood the needs of the 
Filipinos better than the governors. In the middle 
of the nineteenth century the Philippines shared in 
the growing commerce of the world. 

Claveria was a man of "culture, probity, and in- 
dustry." He improved Manila, encouraged agri- 
culture and industry, reformed the calendar, which 
was one day behind that of Europe, and gave Span- 
ish surnames to many thousands of Filipinos. The 


first steamers to sail regularly in Philippine waters 
were brought from London in 1848. 

The provincial governors from early times had 
acted as governor, judge, and private trader. Cla- 
veria forbade them to engage in trade. The gover- 
nors received very small salaries, yet they usually 
became rich. Often they were unjust. 

Urbistondo (1850-1853) conducted a campaign 
against the Moros and captured the city of J0I6. 
The sultan made a treaty, agreeing to allow freedom 
of commerce and religion. From this time ]Moro 
piracy practically ceased. The first Philippine bank, 
the Banco Espanol-Filipino. was established in 
1852. In the nine years after Urbistondo, eight 
governors ruled the Philippines. In 1859, the Jes- 
uits returned to the Philippines. They had been 
expelled in 1768. They were not allowed after 
their return to become parish priests, or to hold 
haciendas. They conducted schools and served as 
missionaries to the wild tribes, particularly in ]\Iin- 
danao. The Recollects who were removed from 
Mindanao took the parishes of Filipino priests in 
Cavite and ]>klanila. This caused much bad feeling. 

A royal decree of 1863 placed the schools of the 
Philippines under the direction of the governor- 
general, instead of the church. The governor of 
each province assisted by a church official inspected 
the schools. A free public school was ordered for 
each town. In 1865 the Jesuit Normal School was 
opened in ^Manila. The reforms were poorly carried 


out, but Spain did more for the education of the 
Fihpino than any other nation did for its colonies. 
In 1863 a terrible earthquake visited Manila. 
Six hundred were killed. Large funds were col- 
lected for the sufferers. 



Revolution in Spain. — In 1868 Isabella IT. was 
dethroned. Many of the revolutionists wanted a 

Isabella II. of Spain. 

republic. Instead, a constitutional monarchy was 
formed which lasted two years. The event was of 


the greatest importance to the Phihppines. A gov- 
ernor-general with ideas of equahty, freedom, and 
democracy was now sent to the Islands. The Fili- 
pinos now began to learn the meaning of a republic; 
of the rule of the people. 

Carlos de la Torre, Governor — 1869-1871.- — No 
governor had ever come to the Philippines with such 
ideas as La Torre brought. Philip II. had given 
to Das Marinas a body-guard of halberdiers. The 
governors-general were accustomed to appear in 
public with the pomp and display of monarchs. La 
Torre changed this custom. He dressed simply, 
wore a straw hat, and went about the city without 
an escort. He treated the Filipinos as fellow citi- 
zens, not as beings far beneath him. 

La Torre's wife was an invalid, so the wife of 
Colonel Sanchez received the guests of the governor 
at the palace. She was a woman of culture and 
ability. At the receptions at Malacanan she received 
the Filipinos so courteously and cordially that the 
Spaniards w^ithdrew. The Filipinos called her "la 
madre de los Filipinos" 

"Guias de Torre." — The provinces near ^Manila 
w^ere full of robbers in those days. Torre was weak 
in dealing with these bandits. He pardoned one of 
their leaders, Camerino, and gave him command of 
the "Guias de Torre." This was a police force 
whose object was to destroy brigandage. Some of 
its members had themselves been bandits. They 
were now taken, fresh from robbery and murder, 


and given "safe conducts." Often they aided the 
robbers instead of attacking them. It soon became 
necessar}^ to put several provinces under martial 
law. Experience has shown in the Philippines that 
it is unwise to pardon men who have gone about the 
country for years as bandits. 

The Governor's Palace (Malacanan), Manila. 

The Red Ribbon. — September 21, 1869, the new 
constitution was sworn in Manila. To celebrate the 
revolution of 1868 the governor held a reception. 
Many Filipinos attended. A procession with flags 
and music, led by Father Burgos, Joaquin Pardo de 
Tavera, and Maximo Paterno, marched to the pal- 
ace. Such a procession, in honor of such an event, 
would have been impossible under former gover- 

At the reception Senora Sanchez was conspicu- 
ous, with a red ribbon about her hair upon which 


appeared the words, "Viva cl pueblo sohcrano." 
About her neck was a red tie bearing at one end the 
words, "Viva la lihertad," and at the other, "Viva 
el General Torre/' These were strange scenes for 
the Phihppines. The new governor was fulfilHng 
the hopes of the revokitionary leader who said of 
him, "We hope that under his rule individual rights 
may be proclaimed in the Philippines." 

Spread of Republicanism.- — By the close of La 
Torre's rule everything was in confusion. The 
revolutionary government had sent new officials to 
the Philippines. These men were full of democratic 
ideas. They spread these ideas among the Filipinos. 
For the first time, many began to understand the dif- 
ference between the rule of a king and the rule of 
the people. Filipinos were allowed to read papers 
and magazines full of republican ideas. 

The revenues of the government grew smaller be- 
cause collected by inexperienced men. La Torre, 
therefore, was recalled to Spain. He left the Fili- 
pinos full of hopes and ambitions, but with no 
knowledge of how to realize them. 

The Meaning of Freedom. — The Filipinos 
thought, and many still think, that good laws would 
make the people free. But no people is made free 
merely by changing the laws. . In order to use fre- 
dom properly, the citizens of a country must be intel- 
ligent, industrious, respectful of the rights of others, 
and obedient to the laws. Not until a nation is com- 
posed of such people is it ready for political free- 


dom. Spain had far more citizens of this sort than 
the Philippines had, yet it was impossible to estab- 
lish a republic in Spain. Peoples who have lived in 
oppression and ignorance for centuries need a very 
long preparation for freedom. 

The Ayuntamiento (City Hall), Manila. 

Rafael de Izquierdo, Governor — 1871-1873.- — A 
stern and firm governor of the old style succeeded 
La Torre. Republican ideas were losing ground in 
Spain. Amadeo I. had been proclaimed king. The 
ceremony of taking the oath of obedience to the new 
monarch was held in the Ayuntamiento. In the old 
days this event was a time of enthusiasm and fes- 
tivity. But on this occasion the spirit of loyalty 


was missing. New thoughts had come to the FiH- 
pinos. Respect for kings was passing away. 

The hopes raised under the Hberal rule of La 
Torre were crushed by Izquierdo. He had the 
proud ways of the former governors. He Hstened to 
the advice of the enemies of free institutions. The 
people felt that there was no chance to get their 
liberty by peaceful means. Therefore they secretly 
planned an insurrection against Spain. 

The Cavite Insurrection. — The night of January 
20, 1872, was set by the conspirators for the destruc- 
tion of the Spaniards in Cavite and ]\Ianila. Rock- 
ets were to be fired from the walls of },Ianila as a 
signal to the rebels in Cavite that the revolt had be- 
gun in Manila. Toward evening a native woman in 
Manila told a Spanish officer that all the Spaniards 
would be killed that night. The officer at once noti- 
fied Governor Izquierdo. The governor immedi- 
ately visited all the barracks and warned the officers 
to be on their guard. The native soldiers who were 
in the plot saw that their plans were discovered. 
Therefore they did not rebel. 

Meantime the conspirators at Cavite were watch- 
ing the horizon toward Manila for the sign of the 
rockets. In Sampaloc that evening, the fiesta of the 
Virgin of Loreto was being celebrated. The fire- 
works in honor of this event were mistaken for the 
promised signal. Several hundred soldiers of the 
Cavite Arsenal and of Fort San Felipe seized their 
guns and revolted with the cry, "Death to Spain." 


They killed the commander of the fort and some 
other officers. The colonel of the seventh infantry 
prevented his soldiers from rebelling. These were 
fired on from the fort by the rebels. The latter 
now held the fort, besieged by the loyal natives. 

Fort, C.^wite. 

That night the news of the revolt reached Manila 
by boat. There was surprise and fear among the 
Spaniards. Manila was garrisoned by Filipino regi- 
ments with Spanish ofiicers. These regiments were 
faithful to Spain. They were carried to Cavite in 
boats. The rebels refused to surrender. The fort 
was taken by storm on the second day, and most of 
the rebels were put to the sword. 

Cause of the Insurrection. — The Spaniards 


thought that the native priests, jealous of the friars, 
planned this insurrection. Others say that the friars 
secretly stirred up the insurrection so that they 
might accuse the native clergy of a crime that would 
prevent their advancement. This seems unlikely. 
Whether the revolt was planned by the Filipino 
priests or not, the object of the insurrection was 
freedom from what the Filipinos considered the 
tyranny of Spain. To some, this freedom meant 
the expulsion of the friars. Many would have been 
satisfied with reform, without independence of 
Spain. Others wished independence and the estab- 
lishment of a Filipino republic. 

The importance of this insurrection was great, 
though it had small success. x-\ more intelligent 
class of Filipinos planned it than the leaders of 
previous insurrections. It was the first revolt of 
importance in which hatred of the friars strongly 

Burgos, Zamora, and Gomez.- — These three men 
were Filipino priests. Burgos and Zamora were 
curates of the Cathedral of Manila. Gomez was 
parish priest of the pueblo of Bacoor, Cavite. All 
had long been suspected of treachery to 5pain. They 
had striven for the rise of the Filipino clergy. Their 
ability and influence had aroused jealousy. The 
Spaniards arrested them, and charged them with 
being the authors of the insurrection. Some of the 
captured rebels said they were urged by these priests 
to revolt. On the 15th of February, the Council of 


War condemned them to die by the garrote. The 
unhappy trio declared their innocence to the last. 
No proofs of their guilt have ever been published. 
Most Filipinos believe they were martyrs to the 
cause of freedom. 

The Execution. — At sunrise, on the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, 1872, the three priests were led out to the 

The Luneta, Manila. 

Bagumbayan Field to receive the death penalty. 
Clad in humble suits of black, they walked between 
files of soldiers to meet their fate. 

Gomez was possessed of property valued at two 
hundred thousand pesos. Just before he went forth 
to death he calmly dictated his will, leaving most 
of his wealth to a young man. On his knees, about 
to die, he said to the officer of police at his side that 
he had forgotten a bag of money which lay under 
his pillow. He asked that this be given to the poor. 

The large field of Bagumbayan and the Luneta 


were filled with an immense and solemn throng. 
Batteries of artillery faced the crowd, ready to fire 
at the least sign of revolt. Gomez met death 
calmly. Burgos and Zamora are said to have wept. 
The multitude went quietly to their homes. The 
threat of the cannon had stilled their hands, but 
not their hearts. 

The "Mailed Hand." — Many others were con- 
demned to death or imprisonment. The trials were 
swift and secret; the sentences promptly executed. 
Fear and rage filled the hearts of the rulers. Iz- 
quierdo sent to Spain for a regiment. Henceforth 
the Philippines felt the weight of the "mailed 
hand." There was peace in the land for years after 
this, but beneath the surface a deeper and more ter- 
rible revolt than the Islands had ever known be- 
fore was forming. 

Peace. — In the years from 1872 to 1896 there was 
no serious insurrection in the Philippines. Gradu- 
ally the Filipino soldiers were replaced with Span- 
iards. The rulers no longer had confidence in the 
loyalty of the native troops. For centuries the Fili- 
pinos had fought the battles of their conquerors 
against both natives and foreigners. If the rule of 
Spain had been just and generous, the Philippines 
might still be hers. But she had abused the faith 
and disappointed the hopes of the Filipinos. They 
no longer had confidence in promises of reform 
which never came true. Peace during these years 
was therefore kept at the cannon's mouth. 


Commercial Growth. — Peace, even of this sort, 
was better for the commerce and industry of the 
country than war. The Suez Canal was opened in 
1868. Steam navigation was rapidly growing. A 
direct mail service between the Philippines and 
Spain was begun in 1874. At the same time Le- 

The Manila-Dagupan Railroad. 

gazpi, Tacloban, and other ports were opened to 
foreign commerce. Telegraph lines were construc- 
ted in some parts of the Islands in 1873. The 
Manila-Dagupan railroad was opened in 1891. 
Capital from other countries was invested in busi- 
ness undertakings. All these changes brought the 
Philippines nearer the great markets of Europe and 
America. The governors no longer monopolized the 
trade of the provinces. Wealth began to be dis- 
tributed among many instead of remaining in the 


hands of a few. With a wise government, this pros- 
perity would have been much greater. The reason 
the Philippines advanced in this period was because 
the commerce of the great world outside grew so 
fast that the riches of the Philippines could no 
longer be hidden. Small credit is due to the gov- 

Municipal Councils.- — In 1893 a change was made 
in the way of governing towns. For a long time 
the head of the government in each town was the 
gohcrnadorcillo. This man was the only official 
with much power. He did what the alcalde-mayor 
ordered him to do. But the alcaldes seldom visited 
the pueblos, and in all small matters the gohernador- 
cillo acted like a little king. He was chosen by thir- 
teen men only. One of these was the last gobcrna- 
dorcillo. Six were men who had been in the past 
gohcrnadorcillos. The remaining six were cabccas 
dc baraiigay. The gohernadorcillo must be a native, 
or a Chinese mestizo. The alcaldes-mayor were 
Spaniards. So the power to choose the gohernador- 
cillo was in the hands of a very few. This was a 
poor school in which to learn self-government. 

The new law of 1893 was an improvement. In- 
stead of thirteen men, all the principalia were al- 
lowed to choose the head of the town. This head 
was now called the capitan-mnnicipal. Four tenien- 
tes, or lieutenants, were elected to assist him in his 
duties. But there were not many who belonged to 
the principalia. To be a principal a man must have 


been a cahcza de barangay, capitan-miinicipal, te- 
niente, or rich enough to pay an annual land tax 
of fifty pesos. These men elected from themselves 
twelve delegates. The delegates chose the capitan 
and his four assistants. Some things were decided 
by this council of five alone; others by the council 
and the delegates together. The capitan was not 
obliged to follow their advice. 

Small as this increase of the power of the people 
was, it taught them a little about self-government. 

Progress in Education. — During this period the 
schools were slowly becoming secular instead of 
religious. The administration of the schools was 
passing from the hands of the friars to that of the 
Filipino officials. At first the schools were not so 
well managed in some ways as before. It requires 
great education and experience to conduct schools 
wisely. The officials of the government were not so 
well qualified to teach as the friars, and had not 
always the same interest in the schools. But it was 
better that the Filipinos should learn to have a share 
in the conduct of their schools. The things that a 
people learns to do for itself are worth the most to 
it. To-day the American Government is making 
every possible eff^ort to train the Filipinos to carry 
on their system of education by their own efforts. 
They are put into positions of importance in the 
schools as soon as they qualify for the duties of 
those positions. It is only just to say that they have 
made and are making rapid progress in the knowl- 


edge of what makes a good school, and of proper 
methods of teaching. 

Summary. — A constitutional monarchy was 
formed in Spain in 1868. Carlos de la Torre was 
governor 1 869-1 871. He was animated by revolu- 
tionary ideas. He formed the Guias de Torre, com- 
posed of ex-bandits. In 1869, at a palace reception, 
democratic ideas were encouraged. Filipinos were 
allowed to read revolutionary books. La Torre 
stimulated the ambitions of the Filipinos but gave 
them no means of satisfying them. Political free- 
dom is of no value to people who have not learned 
self-control, industry, and consideration of the 
rights of others. 

Izquierdo (1871-1873) listened to the advice of 
enemies of free institutions. He crushed the hopes 
which La Torre had raised. This led to a secretly 
planned revolt. In 1872, the Cavite insurrection 
broke out. The Filipino soldiers in the Cavite ar- 
senal and fort mutinied. Filipino regiments brought 
from Manila put down this revolt. 

The Spanish authorities accused three Filipino 
priests of fomenting this rebellion and executed 
them. They were Burgos, Zamora, and Gomez. 
The Spanish army in the Philippines was increased 
and from 1872 to 1896 there was no serious revolt. 

In 1874 direct mail service between Spain and 
the Philippines via the Suez canal was begun, and 
several ports were opened to foreign commerce. 
The first railroad was opened in 1891. 


In 1893 the new municipal law went into effect. 
All members of the principalia shared in electing 
the head of the town, who was called capitan- 
mnnicipal. He had four assistants. The schools 
were placed more under government control in this 



New Leaders. — In most of the revolts that we 
have studied, the ignorant classes were the actors. 
The leaders were usually religious fanatics, or men 
who selfishly deceived the people for their own gain. 
Such men knew nothing of the principles of repub- 
lican government. Had they succeeded in their 
plans, the Filipinos would have been the losers. 
Often their revolts were just, but they were always 
poorly planned and feebly carried out. 

In the entire history of the Philippines up to 
1896, the power of Spain was never in real danger 
of destruction from revolution. But in the years 
since the Cavite insurrection, a new class of men 
had joined the struggle for freedom. The educated, 
the rich, and the powerful were secretly enrolled 
'under the banner of rebellion. 

The Secret Societies. — In many places secret so- 
cieties were formed to teach and prepare for revo- 
lution. Blood-compacts were made and solemn 
oaths taken to fight for the liberty of the Filipinos. 
The best known of these societies was the Katipii- 




nan. The founder and director of this was Andres 
Bonifacio. The members of the Katipunan were 
nearly all Tagalogs. They believed themselves to 
be patriots. Cruel and wicked deeds have often 
been done under the name of libertv, and the meth- 

JoSli RlZAL. 

ods of the Katipunan were not those of honorable 
foes. No people ever found the way to freedom 
by means of assassination and massacre. The cause 
of freedom is so high and holy that even those who 
seek it by secret revolution should employ honorable 
means. The first blood shed by the katipiineros was 
that of some helpless Chinese in Caloocan, who had 
nothing to do with the wrongs from which the 
Filipinos suffered. 


Jose Rizal. — Rizal, whom so many Filipinos love 
to honor, was a man of a different sort from Andres 

^^^K j^f'-; 

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t»V- Tit; , ^ 

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A Waterfall Near Calamba. 

Bonifacio. He was born in 1861, at Calamba, on 
the south shore of Laguna de Bay. From early 
youth he was a brilliant scholar. He obtained his 
bachelor's degree at the Ateneo Municipal, of Ma- 


nila. Then he studied medicine at the University 
of Santo Tomas. After this he went to Spain and 
graduated at the University of Madrid. Later he 
studied and traveled in France, Germany, and other 
parts of Europe. Rizal was a fine hnguist and a 
good physician. He wrote two novels against the 
friars. Noli mc Tangcre and El Filihusterismo. 

Calamba Lands Trouble.- — Rizal's family lived on 
lands held by the Dominicans, in Calamba. His 
people, with others, believed that the friars did not 
possess a good title to this land. They were de- 
feated in the courts of law by the friars. Governor 
Weyler sent soldiers who drove the Filipinos from 
the lands, burning some of their houses. This event 
fanned the flame of insurrection. 

Banishment of Rizal. — Rizal returned to Manila 
from Hongkong in 1892. It was said by the Span- 
ish authorities that seditious papers were found in 
his trunk. He was therefore banished to Dapitan, 
in northern Mindanao, where he lived four years. 

Meantime the plot of the Katipunan was ripening. 
Valenzuela, one of the leaders, visited Rizal at 
Dapitan. Rizal advised him not to begin the insur- 
rection at that time. He did not think the Filipinos 
were prepared to win. He believed that it was bet- 
ter to try to secure reforms before using force. 

Death of Rizal.— Wearied with his lonely life in 
Dapitan, Rizal asked permission to go to Cuba as 
an army surgeon to the Spanish forces then fighting 
against the Cuban rebels. Governor-General Blanco 


granted this request. Rizal received from him let- 
ters of recommendation to the authorities in Spain, 
saying that he was not connected with the insurrec- 
tion which had just broken out. 

During the voyage his enemies cabled to Spain, 
and on his arrival there he was imprisoned for a 
time, then sent back to the Philippines. A new 
governor, Polavieja, was in power. Rizal was tried 
by a court-martial for "sedition and rebellion," and 
condemned to die. He was shot on the Luneta, 
Manila, at six in the morning, December 30, 1896. 
A favorite saying of his was : "What is death to 
me? I have sown the seed; others are left to 

Discovery of the Plot — During Rizal's captivity, 
the secret societies had completed their plans for 
revolution. The night set for the attack was Au- 
gust 20, 1896. At the last moment a woman be- 
trayed the plot to Father Gil, of Tondo. The pris- 
ons were soon crowded with suspected persons. 
The leaders of the revolution fled from the city 
and prepared to begin the rebellion. 

There were only seven hundred European troops 
in Manila. Blanco at once telegraphed for more. 
After that every steamer brought soldiers. Within 
a few months there were ten thousand Spanish 
soldiers in the Islands. 

The Rise of Aguinaldo.— The insurrection soon 
centered in Cavite, at Silan, among the mountains. 
Emilio Aguinaldo, former capitan-municipal of the 


town of Cavite Viejo, soon became the leader, An- 
dres Bonifacio having been killed a short time be- 
fore. August 31st, Aguinaldo issued the first rebel 

The rebels took possession of the friars' estate at 
Imus, fourteen miles south of Manila. Here they 
captured thirteen friars. Some of these were put 
to death in a most cruel manner. The whole prov- 
ince of Cavite, except the town of Cavite, was in 
the power of the insurgents for several months. 
At Noveleta, trenches were made and several at- 
tacks of the Spaniards were repulsed. 

The Rebellion in the North. — In Pampanga and 
Bulacan, a mestizo Llanera commanded. When- 
ever the Filipinos were pursued by the Spanish 
troops, they retired to San ]\Iateo or Angat for 
refuge in the mountains. By December, thousands 
of men were fighting on the rebel side. They were 
masters of the provinces around ]\Ianila. 

Campaign of Polavieja.- — In December, 1896, the 
new governor-general, Polavieja, took command. 
He soon had 28,000 troops ready for the field. His 
army fought several battles with Aguinaldo's forces 
in Cavite. \\'ithin three months the revolutionists 
were driven out of Cavite. Their army was broken 
into small bands. 

Spread of the Insurrection. — After Aguinaldo 
was driven out of Cavite, he joined Llanera in the 
north. The rebellion now spread to Zambales, Pan- 
gasinan. Ilocos, Nueva Ecija, and Tarlac. The 


country people suffered terribly. Towns and crops 
were burned to make the peaceful inhabitants join 
the insurrection. The Filipinos were robbed and ill- 
treated by their own people. Many had become so 
dulled by oppression that they had not the heart to 
fight against tyranny. The rebels felt that these 
people were traitors. Therefore they treated them 
harshly. This was a great wrong. 

The Right to Revolt. — Those who claim the right 
to revolt should remember that their neighbors have 
the right to keep the peace. War should be carried 
on against people in arms, not against those who 
wnsh to live in peace. 

The insurrection of 1896 was a Tagalog rebeUion. 
There were few who belonged to the Katipunan out- 
side of the Tagalog provinces. As the Tagalogs 
went among other tribes, they tried to make them 
join the rebellion. Many did not wish to do this, 
yet they were compelled to assist the revolutionists, 
under penalty of death for refusing. Some cruel 
wrongs were committed by the rebels; and it is 
doubtful that people who did such things would have 
made good rulers had they gained control of the 

Rivera's Campaign.^ — Early in 1897 Primo de 
Rivera became governor. Spain at this time felt 
the burden of supporting 200,000 soldiers in Cuba. 
The Filipino forces were also suffering from the 
hardships of war. Rivera therefore tried to make 
peace. He offered pardon to all who would sur- 


render. Many Filipinos gave up the fight. Others 
fought on desperately. 

Rivera now continued the war with energy. Gen- 
eral Monet marched through Zambales and Pangasi- 
nan. It is said that the Spanish soldiers killed men, 
women and children, whether guilty of rebellion or 
not. His native troops and even some of the Span- 
iards deserted him by the time he reached Ilocos. 

General Nunez succeeded in driving the rebels out 
of Nueva Ecija, though they fought very bravely. 
The Spaniards suffered heavy losses. Their best 
soldiers were in Cuba. The troops that fought the 
Filipinos were mostly boys. They were poorly fed 
and clad, and had little knowledge of war. 

Katipunan Proclamation of 1897.- — There were 
still many bands of revolutionists. Rivera now is- 
sued a proclamation forbidding any one to leave his 
town except with a pass. Unfortunately the corrupt 
officials made the Filipinos pay for these passes, and 
in other ways oppressed them. Many went over to 
the rebels. 

The Katipunan in July published an answer to 
this proclamation. This document, addressed "to 
the brave sons of the Philippines," demanded the 
expulsion of the friars, the restoration to the natives 
of the friars' lands, and equality of treatment for 
all classes. The revolutionists did not at this time 
ask to be separated from Spain. Some wished for 
independence, while others believed that the Fili- 
pinos were not yet strong enough to stand alone 


as an independent nation. Yet a little later, Aguin- 
aldo said : "We aspire to the glory of obtaining the 
liberty, independence, and honor of the country." 
So the leaders were divided against themselves. 

Pact of Biac-na-bato; — In August, 1897, Gov- 
ernor Rivera sent Pedro Paterno, a distinguished 
citizen of Manila, to make peace with Aguinaldo. 
The peace commissioner and the insurgent leader 
met in Biac-na-bato, a rocky cave in Bulacan. Here 
an agreement was made. It was settled that the 
war should stop on certain conditions. 

The Filipino leaders promised : 

1. To surrender to the Spaniards 1,000 rifles and 
their forts. 

2. To stop fighting and plotting against Spain. 

3. That Aguinaldo and his leading officers should 
leave the Philippines. 

Governor Rivera promised : 

1. To pay Aguinaldo 800,000 pesos. This sum 
was to be divided among the revolutionary leaders. 
Later, 900,000 pesos were to be paid to Filipino citi- 
zens who had lost property through the war. 

2. To send away the friars from the Philippines, 
or else make them live in the convents. 

3. To give the Filipinos representation in the 

4. To judge Filipinos and Spaniards by the same 
laws, and give Filipinos high positions in the civil 

Rivera had received authority from the Spanish 


government to make the payments of money. The 
promised reforms were not written down in the 
agreement. It is claimed that Rivera gave his word 
of honor that they should be granted. It is certain 
that Spain gav^, him no authority to make these 

Departure of Aguinaldo. — On the 27th of Decem- 
ber, 1897, Aguinaldo and thirty-four other leaders, 
including eight of his generals, sailed from Sual. 
a port of Pangasinan, for Hongkong. Aguinaldo 
was paid 400,000 pesos. Two Spanish generals 
were kept in the cave of Biac-na-bato as hostages 
until Aguinaldo arrived in Hongkong. Other Fili- 
pino officers remained to fulfil the promises that had 
been made. 

Broken Promises.— The Filipinos kept their part 
of the agreement of Biac-na-bato. The 1,000 rifles 
were delivered to the Spaniards. The attacks on 
the Spanish forces ceased. The insurrection was 
ended. January 23, 1898, peace was proclaimed in 
Manila with great rejoicings. The Filipinos be- 
lieved that they had obtained the reforms for which 
so many of their countrymen had died. Their joy 
was soon turned into sorrow. 

The Spanish government failed to pay the re- 
mainder of the promised money. It had offered 
pardon to all who had taken part in the rebellion. 
Instead of keeping this promise it imprisoned and 
executed many. These acts showed that the govern- 
ment did not intend to keep its promises. The 


Filipinos believed that they had been tricked. There- 
fore they renewed the insurrection. 

Renewal of the Insurrection.' — March 25th sev- 
enty Visayan sailors v^ere killed in Manila by Span- 
ish soldiers. The Visayans had been accused of con- 
spiracy, but without any trial they were shot down 

^^ A _^ 





WL m 


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ToNDo Church, Manila. 

in cold blood. This was nothing less than a mas- 
sacre. Nine days later five thousand rebels attacked 
the Spanish garrison in Cebu. Troops were hur- 
ried to Cebii from Manila and serious fighting fol- 
lowed. With the aid of the Seventy-third Native 
Regiment the Spaniards defeated the rebels. The 
latter fought bravely, but lost over a thousand men. 
If ever a country had lost its right to govern a col- 
ony, Spain had lost all claim on the Philippines. 


A few weeks later the power which she had misused 
for centuries was to be taken from her. Great 
events were happening on the other side of the 
globe. A country whose people hardly knew where 
the Philippines were was preparing to break forever 
the rule of Spain in these Islands. 

Summary. — Until 1896 the revolts in the Philip- 
pines were local. Spain's rule over the Islands was 
in no danger of destruction till then. Since the 
Cavite insurrection the rich, educated and powerful 
had joined the standard of revolt. Secret societies 
were formed to organize a revolution. The Kafipii- 
nan was the chief of these. Its founder and direc- 
tor was Andres Bonifacio, a Tagalog. Assassina- 
tion was one of its chief weapons. 

Jose Rizal was born in 1861. He was a brilliant 
scholar, knew many languages, graduated from the 
University of Madrid, and traveled over Europe. 
He was a physician. He wrote two novels against 
the friars, N^oli me Tangere and El Filihiistcrismo. 
His family contested the title to the friars' lands in 
Calamba. Governor Weyler drove them from their 
homes. In 1892 Rizal was banished to Dapitan on 
the charge of being a revolutionist. Rizal believed 
in securing reforms by education and agitation 
rather than by forcible revolution. Governor Pola- 
vieja tried him by court-martial and he was exe- 
cuted December 30, 1896. His favorite motto was, 
"What is death to me? I have sown the seed; 
others are left to reap." 


The revolutionary plot was betrayed to a priest 
by a woman. Many were imprisoned, but the revo- 
lution went on. In a short time there were ten 
thousand Spanish soldiers brought to the Philip- 
pines. Emilio Aguinaldo became the chief. He 
gained control of Cavite province. By December, 
1896, the rebels were masters of the provinces 
around Manila. Polavieja drove the rebels to the 
mountains. The common people suffered greatly. 

Governor de Rivera offered pardon to all who 
would surrender. In 1897 he made with Aguinaldo 
the pact of Biac-na-bato. The rebels agreed to sur- 
render their arms, stop fighting, and that Aguinaldo 
and his leading officers should leave the Philippines. 
The Spaniards promised to give Aguinaldo and his 
leaders 800,000 pesos and to give the citizens who 
had suffered losses 900,000 pesos. Also to send 
the friars away or to make them live in convents, 
and to give the Filipinos representation in the Cor- 
tes. Also to judge all equally and to give Filipinos 
high positions in the government. 

Aguinaldo was paid 400,000 pesos and, with 
thirty-four of his officers, went to Hongkong. The 
Spanish government failed to keep the promises of 



Cuba and the United States, — For many years 
the United States had been watching the rule of 
Spain in Cuba, a fertile and beautiful island lying 
but a day's sail from the shores of the Great Re- 
public. Not only were there millions of dollars of 
American capital invested in Cuban industries, but 
many Cubans were living and working in the United 
States. Therefore the people of the United States 
felt great interest in the prosperity of the people of 
that island. 

The Cuban Rebellion. — The rule of Spain in Cuba 
had been severe; and in 1894 the Cubans began the 
last of a long series of rebellions against their 
mother country. The methods employed by Spain 
in trying to put down the rebellion were greatly 
displeasing to the United States. They were con- 
sidered cruel and unjustifiable. Early in 1898, 
President IMcKinley sent the following message to 
Congress : *Tn the name of humanity, in the name 
of civilization, in behalf of endangered American 
interests which give us the right and duty to speak 



and act, the war in Cuba must stop." Congress 
then passed a resolution saying that "the people of 
Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent." The President was instructed to demand 
that Spain free Cuba or face war with the United 

The Spanish War-ship "Reina Cristina" After Five 
Years Under Water. 

States. Spain refused to free Cuba and war be- 
tween Spain and the United States began April 21, 

The Battle of Manila Bay. — When the war be- 
gan, Commodore Dewey was at Hongkong with 
several American war-ships. When two nations go 
to war, each attacks the other in every place where 
the ships or soldiers of the enemy are to be found. 
So the President ordered Dewey to "capture or 
destroy" the Spanish fleet at Manila. With six war- 
ships Dewey steamed past Corregidor Island, Ma- 
nila Bay, May i, 1898. Within a few hours he 


destroyed ten Spanish ships near Cavite. Six hun- 
dred Spaniards were killed, but no Americans. This 
brilliant and easy victory altered the history of the 
Philippines and the United States. 

Effect in Manila of Dewey's Victory.^— When the 
inhabitants of Manila saw how easily the Spanish 
fleet was destroyed, the city was filled with terror. 
Many fled to the provinces or to Hongkong. The 
governor-general, Basilio Augustin, and the Arch- 
bishop, Nozaleda, published proclamations asking 
the Filipinos to help Spain ; but the broken promises 
of Biac-na-bato were fresh in their minds. 

Renewal of the Insurrection. — The revolution 
against Spain now broke out again. Admiral 
Dewey allowed Aguinaldo to return from Hong- 
kong, and assisted him to secure arms. At that time 
the Filipinos were glad to see the Americans. 

The proclamation of the Hongkong junta of Fili- 
pinos, May, 1898, said: "Let us all fight together; 
let us support the avenging and humane action of 
the United States. Let us learn by accepting her 
advice and rules how to live in order, peace, and^ 
liberty." Aguinaldo said : "Wherever you see the 
American flag, there flock in numbers ; they are our 

. redeemers." 

Why Dewey Remained in the Philippines.— After 

Dewey had destroyed the Spanish fleet, he might 
have sailed away. He had not come to the Philip- 
pines to conquer them. Why, then, did he stay? 
There were at least three reasons : 



( 1 ) There was a Spanish army in Manila. He 
had to blockade Manila to keep that army from es- 
caping. He might have bombarded the city and 
compelled an immediate surrender, but he did not 
desire to injure the innocent. Therefore he awaited 
the arrival of troops from America. 

(2) He feared the insurgents might capture the 

Manila Bay from the Luneta. 

city and massacre the Spanish inhabitants. This 
would have been a disgrace both to the Americans 
and the Filipinos. Therefore he remained to pre- 
vent anything of this sort. 

(3) At that time it was not known how weak the 
power of Spain was. Therefore it was decided to 
send troops to the Philippines to capture Manila. 
The purpose of this was not conquest, but to hasten 
the close of the war with Spain. Dewey stayed to 
assist in this. 


Aguinaldo Dictator — \Miile American soldiers 
were crossing the Pacific to take Manila, Aguinaldo 
proclaimed himself Dictator. His forces fought 
many successful battles with the Spaniards. Ma- 
nila was closely surrounded by the insurgents. 
Many provinces fell into their power. The govern- 
ment of Aguinaldo made laws and collected taxes in 
these provinces. 

The Revolutionary Government. — In June, 1898, 
Aguinaldo called a congress at Cavite to form a gov- 
ernment. June 23d the constitution of the "Revo- 
lutionary Government" was proclaimed. Aguinaldo 
was chosen President of the new government. Its 
object was : "To struggle for the independence of 
the Philippines, and to prepare the country for the 
establishment of a real republic." 

In August an appeal was sent to the great nations 
of the world asking them to recognize the inde- 
pendence of the Philippines. No answer was re- 
ceived from any nation. 

The Taking of Manila. — Ten thousand American 
soldiers had now reached the Philippines. August 
13, 1898, the American army attacked and entered 
Manila. Very few Americans were killed and 
•wounded in this attack. The Spanish fought only 
to save their honor, not with the hope of keeping 
the Americans out of the city. Fifteen thousand 
Filipino troops were at hand ready to assist. Their 
aid was not accepted, because it was not necessary. 
Captain-General Augustin fled in a German ship- 



of -war before the city was captured. General Fer- 
min Jaudenes. the last Spanish governor-general 
of the Philippines, surrendered the city. Spain's 
power in the Philippines was forever ended. The 
stars and stripes floated from old Fort Santiago. 
The Philippine archipelago was surrendered to the 
United States of America. 

A View of AFantla. 

The Treaty of Paris. — The day before Manila was 
taken a protocol of peace was signed between the 
United States and Spain. News did not reach Ma- 
nila till after the city was captured. American and 
Spanish commissioners met in Paris and for several 
months talked about the terms of peace. It was 
difficult to decide what to do about the Philippines. 
Spain did not wish to give them up. Yet her power 
there had been broken by America. But the pur- 


pose of America was not conquest. America was 
not seeking more glory or new lands. Yet she de- 
cided to take the Philippines from Spain. By the 
treaty signed in Paris, December lo, 1898, Spain 
ceded the Philippines to the United States. Spain 
was paid $20,000,000 for the Islands. She would 
not willingly have sold them for many times that 
sum, but the United States did not desire to accept 
the Islands as a right of conquest, since she had not 
waged the war for that purpose. Therefore she 
compensated Spain for their loss. 

Even then it was not decided by the people of the 
United States to keep the Philippines and estab- 
lish American government there. The Americans 
knew very little about these Islands. Most of them 
thought that the Philippines were like Cuba. With 
Cuba they were acquainted. They believed her 
capable of self-government. They were perfectly 
willing to allow the Filipinos also to govern them- 
selves, if that were possible. It was only after ex- 
perience in the Philippines taught the United States 
that the country was unlike Cuba that she decided to 
withhold independence from the Filipinos for a 
time. It is very important to understand why she 
treated these two Spanish colonies differently. 

The Effect of Distance. — Cuba was near the 
United States ; the Philippines were on the other 
side of the globe. Many great events of history are 
decided by the geographical position of countries. 
It was easy for the United States to protect Cuba. 


Long before any European nation could send sol- 
diers across the sea, the United States could place 
an army in Cuba. But Manila Bay was dotted with 
the war-ships of several nations when Dewey de- 
feated the Spanish fleet. All the great European 
nations have lands in Asia, and want more. Had 
the United States left the Philippines free, some of 
these nations would probably have seized the 
Islands. Yet unless the United States raised her 
flag there, she could not have forbidden other na- 
tions to take the Philippines. Had she done so, she 
must have fought a terrible war. 

Monarchy or Republic. — The other powers that 
might have seized the Philippines are monarchies. 
The United States is a republic. It believes its 
government is the best and freest on earth. It 
fought to get that kind of a government for Cuba. 
It could not honorably allow any other kind of gov- 
ernment to be established in the Philippines. 

If no other nation had taken the Philippines, 
Spain would have reconquered them. When her 
large army returned from Cuba she would have 
sent it to the Philippines. Then the sufferings of 
the Filipinos would have been worse than before. 
The United States could not consent to this. 

Possibility of a Filipino Republic. — The strongest 
of all the reasons why the United States did not 
assist the Filipinos to form and maintain an inde- 
pendent republic was because she did not believe 
they were ready for self-government. The people 

Jose Luzuriaga. 

Cameron Forbes. 

James F. 





^^^^R -^i 



Benito Legardo. 

Henry C. Ide. 

Dean C. Worcester. Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera. 

The Philippine Commission, in 1904. 


of Cuba are not superior to those of the Philippines. 
The Fihpinos are as good and as inteUigent as the 
Cubans, but they are not so united. There must be 
unity among a people who would found a republic. 
The people of Cuba spoke one language; they lived 
on one island ; they had the same religion ; they had 
never fought each other; they were united. It was 
different in the Philippines. 

In the Philippines the population is distributed 
among many islands, with different languages, cus- 
toms, and religions. Some of the tribes have hated 
and fought each other for centuries. If the United 
States had left the Philippines to form a govern- 
ment of its own, the Moros would have become 
pirates again. They did this in Mindanao between 
the end of Spanish and the beginning of American 
rule. The Igorots would have attacked the people 
on the coast. The Tagalogs. the Visayans, the Ilo- 
canos, the Bicols, would each have wished to rule 
their own part of the Islands. 

Unity First Necessary. — People of the same blood, 
language, and religion are often torn apart by civil 
war. How much more difficult for a people of a 
hundred different tongues, living on hundreds of 
scattered islands, to remain at peace. 

Summary.^ — Cuba lies near the United States. 
Much American capital was invested there. Many 
Cubans lived in the United States. In the Cuban 
rebellion of 1894-8 American trade suffered and 
the severe treatment of the Cubans by the Spaniards 


displeased the Americans. These facts led the 
United States to begin war with Spain. 

Commodore Dewey attacked and destroyed the 
Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, May i, 1898. Many 
fled from Manila to Hong Kong and the provinces. 
Dewey allowed Aguinaldo to return to the Philip- 
pines and assisted him to secure arms. The rebels 
welcomed the Americans as friends. Dewey re- 
mained in Manila Bay to keep the Spanish army in 
check and to save Manila from sack by the in- 
surgents. Aguinaldo proclaimed himself Dictator 
and won control of the provinces from the Span- 
iards. In June, 1898, the constitution of the Revo- 
lutionary Government was proclaimed. Foreign 
nations were asked to recognize it, but none did. 

August 13, 1898, the American army captured 
Manila. The protocol of peace between America 
and Spain was signed the day before the Battle of 
Manila. The Treaty of Paris was signed Dec. 10, 
1898. Spain ceded the Philippines to the United 
States and was paid $20,000,000. Had America 
not taken the Philippines some other power would 
have done so. Cuba was set free because the 
United States could easily protect her, and it was 
believed that Cuba was capable of self-government. 
In the Philippines the number of Islands and the 
hostility of the different tribes made the establish- 
ment of a free republic much more difficult. These 
conditions require time to adjust them. 



Why Aguinaldo's Army did not Enter Manila. — 
On the day Manila was taken, the Filipino army 
tried to march into the city with the Americans. 
This was not permitted. It was natural that the 
Filipino leaders were disappointed because they 
could not receive the surrender of Manila side by 
side with the American troops. Up to the 13th of 
August, they had looked upon the Americans as 
their allies. It now seemed to them that they were 
to be robbed of the fruits of victory. They feared 
that America meant to keep the Philippines. There 
were good reasons why both armies should not enter 

It is not the custom of the world to admit a new 
member into the family of nations till the govern- 
ment that applies for admission has shown that it 
is wise enough and strong enough to rule well. The 
Revolutionary Government was established by only 
a part of the Filipino peoples. Some of the leading 
men in other parts of the Philippines than central 
Luzon, for example in Ilocos and Negros, would 



have nothing to do with the revokition. For these 
and other reasons which seemed good and sufficient, 
the United States did not wish to recognize the 
Revolutionary Government; but to admit the 
army of Aguinaldo to Manila on equal terms 
with the American army would have been to recog- 
nize that government. This would not have been 
just to the Filipinos. These reasons made it 
impossible to admit the Filipino army to a share 
in the control of the government. Disappointed in 
his hope of sharing the occupation of Manila, 
Aguinaldo resolved to establish a capital of his 

The Malolos Government. —Aguinaldo now made 
Malolos, twenty miles north of Manila, his capital. 
He took the title of "President of the Filipino Re- 
public." At Malolos he gathered a congress. This 
congress was not elected, as should be the case in a 
republic, by the votes of all the people. It repre- 
sented a small part of the population of the Philip- 
pines. From Malolos Aguinaldo issued proclama- 
tions and sent expeditions to various parts of Luzon 
and the Visayas. His officers collected taxes and 
carried on the government of most of the provinces 
of Luzon. Thousands of Spanish prisoners, includ- 
ing several hundred friars, were captured and held 
by him. The Spanish forces scattered through the 
Islands were captured or besieged by his troops. 
Young, ambitious, and often ill-advised, he pre- 
pared to plunge his unhappy country into a terrible 


war against a nation that desired only the good of 
the FiHpinos. 

The Instructions of McKinley. — By December, 
1898, 6,500 additional troops had arrived from 
America. These soldiers were not brought for the 
conquest of the Philippines. They were for the 
protection of Manila. Aguinaldo had surrounded 
the city with thirty thousand troops. It was the 
duty of America to maintain the government of 
Manila till the Treaty of Paris was finished ; because 
while a treaty is being made, everything must re- 
main as it was when the fighting stopped. This is 
the custom of nations. It was for this reason that 
the American army made no attempt to interfere 
with the government which Aguinaldo had estab- 
lished at Malolos. 

At last the Treaty of Paris was finished. Al- 
though it was now known that Spain had given up 
the Philippines to America, it remained for the 
Congress of the United States to decide what should 
be done with the Islands. The Filipinos, after 
watching the conquests of Spain for three centuries, 
could not believe that the United States might peace- 
fully give up what she had won. Yet if the leaders 
of the revolution had ruled wisely and justly in the 
provinces, if they had used patience and reason in- 
stead of war, America might have given indepen- 
dence at an early day. After their experience of 
the oppressions of Spain it is not strange that the 
Filipinos did not believe in the good intentions of 



America. Yet it was a mistake not to believe the 
words of President McKinley, which follow. 

January 4, 1899, General Otis, the military gov- 
ernor of the Philippines, issued a proclamation ex- 
plaining the instructions of McKinley for the 

William McKinley. 

temporary government of the Philippines. This 
proclamation declared the purpose of America to 
be "to give the blessings of peace and individual 
freedom to the Philippine people" and to prove to 
the Filipinos "that the mission of the United States 
is one of benevolent assimilation, which will sub- 
stitute the mild sway of justice and right for arbi- 
trary rule." A little later President ]\IcKinley told 


the first Philippine Commission to go to the Fili- 
pinos "as bearers of the good-will, the protection, 
and the richest blessings of a liberating rather than 
a conquering nation." 

The Revolutionary Constitution. — A few days 
after the proclamation of General Otis, Aguinaldo 
published his decision to enforce his own rule and 
reject the control of America. He threatened war 
in case the American army should seize more Phil- 
ippine territory. Secret clubs were established in 
Manila to plot against American rule. Arms were 
secretly distributed. Many natives of Manila now 
fled with their goods to the country. Spaniards in 
the suburbs took refuge in the walled city. 

On the 2 1st of January the Filipino congress at 
Malolos proclaimed a constitution for the Filipino 
republic. This constitution contained many good 
points, but our study of Philippine history has 
shown that good laws need wise and good men to 
enforce them. Many of the Filipino leaders were 
brave and patriotic, but they were mistaken in their 
judgment of America, and they had not consulted 
all the people of the Philippines. 

The first article of the constitution read : "The 
political association of all the Filipinos constitutes 
a nation." At this time very few Filipinos were 
truly associated. Most of the people of the Philip- 
pines had never even heard the names of the mem- 
bers of the Malolos congress. They could not read 
the language in which the constitution was written. 


They knew neither by experience nor by study what 
a free repubhc means. Such was the situation on 
the eve of the war. 

The First Shot. — During the last days of Janu- 
ary, 1899. the two armies drew closer together. 

Emilio Aguinaldo. 


Several Americans who crossed the Filipino lines 
were captured and held as prisoners. At night there 
were frequent attempts to cross the American lines. 
Finally on the night of February 4, one of Agui- 
naldo's lieutenants tried to cross the San Juan 
bridge with several of his soldiers. The American 


sentry ordered him three times to halt. As the 
Heutenant refused, the sentry shot and killed him. 
A few minutes later an insurgent signal gun 
sounded a general attack. Both armies were ready. 
A battle began all along the line. 

Periods of the War.- — The war may be divided 
into two periods. The first lasted till about January 
I, 1900. This was the period of war between or- 
ganized armies. During this time large bodies of 
troops faced each other in the field. 

Then followed the period of guerilla warfare 
which lasted till the capture of Aguinaldo. March 
23, 190 1, and the surrender of nearly all his gen- 
erals within a few weeks after. This really ended 
the war. From this time till April 20, 1902, when 
General Zamora surrendered in Samar, the war was 
the pursuit of a few bands of men who fought on 
when there was no more hope of defeating the 

The Battle of February 5th — When the gun was 
fired that began the war, General Luna, who com- 
manded the Filipino forces before Manila, tele- 
graphed the news to Aguinaldo at Malolos. There 
was great rejoicing in the capital. At midnight, 
February 4th, a general declaration of war against 
America was sent to the insurgent army. Many of 
the leaders were at Malolos. They hurried to the 
scene of battle. At dawn, fighting began along a 
semicircular line about ten miles in length. At 
many points the Filipinos fought with great brav- 



Although three times the number of the 
Americans, they lacked artillery and discipline. At 
the end of the day the American troops had taken 
the intrenchments of Aguinaldo's army. The head- 
quarters of General Luna at La Loma were cap- 
tured. His chief of staff fell mortally wounded 
while trying to rally the Filipino troops. 

San Juan Bridge. 

Fighting the Flames. — On the night of February 
22, 1899, [Manila was set on fire by the secret bands 
which had been organized to destroy the city. The 
revolutionary leaders planned the massacre of the 
American troops and of all Europeans during this 
fire. Assassins clad in citizens' clothes burned the 
homes of their own countrymen. 

The Advance North. — During the next three 
months the American army advanced northward. 
Several battles were fought. The retreating revo- 
lutionary army burned towns behind it. Malolos 



was taken March 25th. Aguinaldo moved his capi- 
tal to San Fernando, then to San Isidro and finally 
to Tarlac. The coming of the rainy season made it 
impossible to transport the supplies of a large army. 
There was therefore little fighting till November. 

TiLA Pass. 

In the three months' campaign the power of the 
revolutionary army had been broken. AVisdom 
would have seemed to indicate that further resist- 
ance was useless. 

The Battle of Zapote Bridge. — Early in June, 
1899, occurred the battle of Zapote Bridge. This 
was the only serious battle fought south of Manila. 
The American forces numbered about four thou- 
sand. Zapote bridge was a strong position where 
in 1896 the insurgents had made a successful stand 
against the Spanish. About three thousand Fili- 
pinos gathered for the defense. Their intrenchments 
on the south bank of the river were very strong. 


With the aid of the navy the bridge was crossed 
and the works taken. Nearly a third of the FiH- 
pino force was lost. So brave a defense would be 
a credit to any people. 

The Flight of Aguinaldo. — In November, Agui- 
naldo was driven from Tarlac, which was captured 
November 12th. The next day he fled north 
through the mountains with a small force. An 
army had landed at San Fabian, Pangasinan, to cut 
off his retreat north. Another army on the east 
prevented his escape in that direction. Traveling 
night and day, narrowly escaping the pursuing 
troops, he reached Candon, Tlocos Sur, in safety. 
Then he crossed the mountains and settled for a 
short time at Cervantes, the capital of Lepanto. 

The Taking of Tila Pass. — Tila Pass is the gate- 
way through the west coast range to Cervantes. A 
narrow trail winds steeply around precipices to a 
height of 4,400 feet. Here the rear-guard of Agui- 
naldo made as heroic a defense as men could make. 
December 8, 1899, two companies of American 
soldiers climbed this trail and attacked a stone barri- 
cade across the narrowest part of the path. The 
barricade was defended by General Gregorio del 
Pilar and about fifty men. Here he stayed and met 
certain death, firing till the last. On his person was 
found a small pocket diary in which half an hour 
before his death he had written, "I am surrounded 
by fearful odds that will overcome me and my gal- 
lant men, but I am well pleased with the thought 


that I die fighting for my beloved country." It is 
said that only eight of his men escaped. 

Aguinaldo's Escape. — Aguinaldo now fled to the 
central mountains of Luzon. Here for many 
months he wandered among the wild Igorot tribes 
by whom he was several times attacked. He was 
accompanied by several of his officers and about one 
hundred men. 

At length Aguinaldo secreted himself in a lonely 
town called Palanan on the northeast coast of Lu- 
zon. Here he remained, sending letters and 
commands to his leaders in different parts of 
Luzon, till he was captured March 23, 1901. 
Aguinaldo then took the oath of allegiance to 
the United States. He has been faithful to that 

The Period of Guerilla Warfare.— After the flight 
of Aguinaldo, the insurgents no longer faced the 
Americans with organized armies. They decided to 
carry on the war by guerilla methods ; that is, to 
fight in small bodies, retreat when attacked, and 
resort to raids and ambushes. A number of com- 
manders were appointed in different provinces. 
Each of these worked independently of the others, 
gathering about him a body of men who assembled 
and dispersed at his bidding, leading a life half rob- 
bery and half war. They compelled the peaceful 
population to give them money and food. Fire, 
torture, and assassination were freely used to force 
their countrymen to support a hopeless war. The 


deeds of some of the guerilla chiefs make one of 
the saddest pages of Filipino history. 

The Occupation of the Visayas.- — The island of 
Panay was the scene of the only serious fighting in 
the Visayan group. Iloilo was taken by the Ameri- 









i- V ■ 


An Insurgent Stockade. 

cans February ii, 1899, the insurgents burning and 
looting the city as they fled. During the year all 
the larger \^isayan islands were occupied by the 
American troops. Bands of outlaws and fanatics 
.furnished most of the resistance to American occu- 

The Republic of Negros.- — In the island of Ne- 
gros, soon after the Americans took ^Manila, an in- 
dependent republic was organized. The leaders 
were as capable and honorable men as could be 


found in the island. The Tagalog insurgents were 
refused a landing in this island. After a short ex- 
perience with their own government, commissioners 
were sent to Manila in February, 1899, inviting the 
protection of American troops. 

The requested protection was given to Negros. 
Under the oversight of General James F. Smith, an 
opportunity was given to show what could be done 
by a government, wholly planned and conducted by 
Filipinos. But the experiment was not a success, 
and the Republic of Negros was a republic in name 
only. With the full consent of the people them- 
selves, the Americans then took entire control. 

Results of the War. — Every Filipino and every 
American should regret the unhappy war of 1899- 
1902. There was much true patriotism and bravery 
on the side of the insurgents. There were some 
among them whose sincerity and courage Americans 
gladly honor. These brave men fought in a mis- 
taken and hopeless cause. 

There were only two or three real battles in the 
war, though there were over two thousand minor en- 
gagements. The only really difficult task for the 
American army was to transport and feed its sol- 

America has no resentment toward a brave but 
defeated foe. Seven thousand of her sons were 
killed, wounded, or died of disease in the war. She 
spent hundreds of millions of dollars to bring peace 
and good government to the Philippines. She has 


put into positions of power many of those who 
fought against her and opposed her poHcies. Truth 
and justice demand that we think of the war with- 
out bitterness and work together in peace for the 
good of all. 

Martial Law.' — From 1898 to 1901, there was 
military rule in the Philippines. The commanding 

The Insular Ice-Plant, AIanila. 

general of the army acted as governor. Besides 
fighting battles, the army made and enforced all 
laws. It organized and carried on the custom- 
house, the post-office and other public establish- 
ments, performing the duties of peace as well as of 
war. The army established the American public 
school system in the Philippines. History does not 
tell of any other army which waged war and taughi 
school at the same time. Yet in this case army 


officers became superintendents of schools, and sol- 
diers became teachers. 

Military rule is hard to l)ear. Changes in gov- 
ernment are made slowly in time of peace, under 
civil rule. Under martial law the customs and 
wishes of the people have little weight. What the 
general thinks is best for the country must be done 
at once. It was a great trial to the patience of the 
Filipinos to see old laws and customs changed so 
rapidly. But methods of government in the Philip- 
pines were in great need of change. The rule of 
the military made (juick reforms possible. Methods 
of government advanced a century in the Philip- 
pines during the three years of American military 


Summary. — Aguinaldo's army was not allowed to 
enter Manila because this would have been a recog- 
nition of the authority and independence of his 
government. Aguinaldo made iMalolos his capital 
and gathered a congress there elected in name but 
in fact appointed by him. He established his gov- 
ernment, collected taxes, and took thousands of 
Spanish prisoners. General Otis published the dec- 
laration of McKinley that the purpose of America 
was "to give the blessings of peace and individual 
freedom to the Philippine people." Then Agui- 
naldo threatened war in case the American army 
should seize more territory. Jan. 21, 1899, the 
congress at Malolos proclaimed a constitution for 
the Filipino Republic. The laws were good, but 


the leaders were not representative of the majority 
of the people. 

February 4. 1899, the first shot of the war was 
fired at San Juan Bridge, near Alanila. Until Jan. 

I, 1900, the war was between organized armies. 
After this time it was guerilla warfare till the cap- 
ture of Aguinaldo, ]^Iarch 23, 1901. After this 
there was pursuit of scattering bands of armed 
rebels till the surrender of Zamora in Samar, April 
20, 1902. 

The battle around Manila. Feb. 5, 1S99. was won 
by the Americans. General Luna was killed. Secret 
bands of assassins and incendiaries fired the City of 
Manila Feb. 22. Aguinaldo moved his capital north 
from town to town. In June. 1899, occurred the 
battle of Zapote Bridge. It was bravely defended 
by the Filipinos. 

Aguinaldo took refuge in the mountains of north- 
ern Luzon. General Gregorio del Pilar defended 
Tila Pass, where he was killed. After Aguinaldo 
was captured he took the oath of allegiance to the 
United States. 

Iloilo' was taken by the Americans February 

II, 1899. An independent republic was organ- 
ized in Negros soon after the Americans took 
Manila. This government was a failure. \\Tth the 
consent of the people, the Americans took over the 

There were over two thousand small engagements 
during the war, but only two or three pitched bat- 


ties. From 1898 to 1901 there was martial law in 
the Philippines. The commanding general of the 
army acted as governor of the Islands. Public in- 
stitutions, such as the post-office and the schools, 
were administered by the army. 



William H. Taft, Governor, 1901-1904. — July 4, 
1 90 1, the Hon. William H. Taft became the first 
American civil governor of the Philippines. 

More than one hundred different men have filled 
the chair of Governor of the Philippine Islands. 
Xone ever did more for the Filipinos than Governor 
Taft. An entirely new system of government was 
created for the Islands. A thousand new laws were 
made. Unlike many laws in the past, these were 
enforced. They were not made to fill the coffers of 
king or encomendero. They provided peace, pro- 
tection, justice, education, and industrial prosperity 
for the Filipinos. It will be well to study the prin- 
ciples of government followed during Mr. Taft's 

The Policy of McKinley.— President AIcKinley 
marked out the path of American rule in the Philip- 
pines. What he said was, and is to-day, the wish of 
the American people for the Filipinos. At the be- 
ginning of America's occupation of the Philippines 
he said to General Otis and Admiral Dewev : "We 
272 • 


want to improve the condition of the inhabitants, 
securing them peace, hberty, and the pursuit of their 
highest good." He told the first Phihppine Com- 
mission to have "due respect for all the ideas, cus- 


First Civil Governor of the Philippines. 

toms, and institutions of the tribes which compose 
the population." This commission said : "The 
aim and object of the American Government is the 
prosperity and happiness of the Philippine people 
and their elevation and advancement to a position 
among the most civilized people of the world." 
Prosperity, happiness, and a high civilization are the 


very things for which the Filipino revohitionists 
fought. Under the direction of Governor Taft, the 
Filipinos made more rapid progress toward this goal 
than ever before. 

"The Philippines for the Filipinos." — Governor 
Taft said that the policy of McKinley meant "The 

The New City Hall, Manila. 

Philippines for the Filipinos." His administration 
was an attempt to carry out this motto. His ex- 
planation of these words is that every law made for 
these Islands must be for "the welfare of the 
Filipino people." Governor Taft and the Philip- 
pine Commission, under the direction of the 
Government at Washington, worked for four great 
ends : 

( I ) To keep the natural riches of the Islands 
for the Filipinos. There are millions of acres of 
uncultivated public lands in the Philippines. It is 


to be divided into small farms for Filipinos. The 
land laws, the forestry laws, the mining laws, are 
all made for the benefit of the Filipino. He is to 
have the first share of the riches of his father- 

To encourage the Filipino farmer to own his land 

Chief Justice Arellano. 

the government bought the great estates of the 
friars. These estates comprised half a million acres 
of the best lands in the Islands. 

The government paid more than $7,000,000 gold 

for this property. It will be divided into many 

small farms which the Filipino farmer may pur- 

, chase little by little for sums about equal to what 


he used to pay as rent. It is hoped that within a 
few years a generation may grow up which will own 
its native soil, and live upon it in peace. 

(2) To girc goi'cnimcvA positions to Filipinos 
as fast as fit persons could be found for this service. 
More Filipinos than Americans are holding posi- 

The Old Philippine Normal School, Centk.^l kEcixATiox 


tions as government officials. Some of these posi- 
tions are among the highest in the land. Most of 
the Philippine Commissioners are Filipinos, as are 
also the chief justice of the Supreme Court and 
several of his associates. 

Alodern government needs highh' trained officials. 
Besides an education in the schools, a high official 
must have years of practice in order to learn the 
business of these high offices. As fast as this train- 


ing can be given, more and higher positions are 
opened to FiHpinos. 

(3) To allow the Filipinos as much sclf-gov- 
crmnent as possible. Under the Hberal rule of Gov- 
ernor Taft the Fihpino people were granted the 
power of choosing their own municipal officers. 
Most of the provincial officials also are Filipinos. 
The governors of all the Christian provinces are 

(4) To give speedy and equal justice to all 
classes. Nothing is more important than this. 
Formerly it took many years in some cases to secure 
justice. Now the judges often settle scores of 
cases in one week. The poor man is heard as 
quickly as the rich. Men used to be kept years in 
jail before they were tried. Now there are able 
judges who hear quickly any complaint. In some 
towns there were separate courts for Filipinos and 
foreigners. Now all races are heard before the 
same judges and tried under the same laws. 

The Educational System.- — Thus four gates of 
opportunity are opened to the Filipino. It has been 
made easy for him to acquire land, to get a govern- 
ment position, to govern himself, and to secure jus- 
tice. In order to train Filipinos to use these privi- 
leges a system of public schools was established. 
By 1905, nearly one thousand American and three 
thousand Filipino teachers were preparing the Fili- 
pinos to use the freedom and opportunity that 
America brought to these Islands. Half a million 





children were attending the pubHc primary schools. 
In many provinces intermediate, high, industrial, 
and agricultural schools had been established. The 
number of American teachers in the islands to-day 
is somewhat less than at first, because of the ever- 
increasing capacity of Filipino teachers for carry- 
ing along the work begun by the Americans. 

Filipino Students in America. — In October, 1903, 
one hundred Filipino students sailed from Manila 
for America. These students were selected from 
all parts of the Philippines. They represented all 
the civilized races of the Islands. When they met 
upon the steamer, the only language that all of them 
knew was English. This tie of language and their 
common education and aims bound them together 
as no other bond has ever united Filipinos of dif- 
ferent islands and tongues. They were the first 
division of a young and noble army of Filipinos 
who are now bringing to their fatherland a knowl- 
edge of principles which have placed the United 
States of America in the front rank of great na- 
tions. These students spent from four to five years 
in the schools of America. They were chos.en for 
their scholarship and character. They were not 
selected by favor because their parents were rich 
and influential. Many of them were poor boys. 
This is true freedom — the freedom to win place 
and power by one's own work and fidelity. 

Agriculture.— The same wise policy that in so few 
years gave justice, education, and equal opportunity 


to the Filipino did much for the farmer and the 
merchant. Before and during the governorship of 
Mr. Taft the PhiHppines suffered from war, famine, 
and pestilence. Deadly diseases struck down man 
and beast ; the locusts destroyed the crops, and the 
rains refused to fall. It was difficult to fight such 

Making New Land, AIanila. 

enemies, but much was accomplished. Hundreds 
of miles of good roads were made. Cattle were 
brought from other countries to plow the idle fields. 
War was waged against the locusts. Disease in 
man and beast was fought by an army of doctors. 
The forests and plants were studied. New seeds 
were tried, and better methods of cultiyation were 


Commerce. — The commerce of the PhiHppines be- 
came greater than ever before. The revenues of 
the government greatly increased. The plans begun 
by Governor Taft looked to the future. His time 
was spent in laying foundations. Only the future 
will show how well that task was done. 

Among the many far-seeing plans of Governor 
Taft was the improvement of the port of Manila. 

The Inauguration of Governor Wright. 

One may now look at a tract of land larger than 
the walled city of Manila, which was pumped from 
the bottom of the bay in the three years from 
1901 to 1904. Large steamers now tie up to 
the big steel docks, protected behind a great 
sea-wall, instead of lying at anchor one or 
two miles out in the open bay. Great ware- 


houses now cover a considerable portion of these 
broad acres. 

Mr. Taft continued as civil governor until Feb- 
ruary I, 1904. Then he became Secretary of War 
for the United States. As Secretary of War, he 
continued to exercise a great influence over the 
course of affairs in the Philippines. In the next 
chapter we shall see how the plans of government 
laid out by him as governor were followed up and 
developed by his successors in office. 

Summary. — William H. Taft was Governor of 
the Philippines from July 4, 1901, to February i, 
1904. More than one hundred men have filled the . 
chair of governor of the Philippines. Under Taft 
the entire system of government was reorganized 
and many new laws were made. McKinley said, 
"We want to improve the condition of the inhabi- 
tants, securing them peace, liberty, and the pursuit 
of their highest good." Taft's policy was "The 
Philippines for the Filipinos." This means : to keep 
the natural riches of the Islands for the Filipinos, 
to give government positions to Filipinos as fast 
as possible, to allow the Filipinos as much self-gov- 
ernment as possible, and to give speedy and equal 
justice to all classes. An elaborate system of public 
schools was organized, including primary, inter- 
mediate, high, industrial, agricultural, and collegi- 
ate. From 1903 to 1907 one hundred Filipino 
students were educated in ^^he colleges of the United 
States at the expense of the Philippine Government. 


Much attention was given to agricultural develop- 
ment. Cattle diseases were fought. Hundreds of 
miles of new roads were built. The commerce of 
the Philippines grew greater than ever before. A 
large tract of new land was made at Manila by 
pumping earth from the bay. 



Taft's Successors. — Since Air. Taft's time, five 
men have occupied the post of Governor-General of 
the Phihppines.* They are: Luke E. Wright, from 
February i, 1904, to April i, 1906; Henry C. Ide, 
from April 2, 1906, to September 19, 1906; James 
E. Smith, from September 20, 1906, to November 
10, 1909; W. Cameron Forbes, from N^ovember 11, 
1909, to September i, 191 3. On the date last men- 
tioned Francis Burton Harrison, the present Gov- 
ernor-General, was appointed to the position. 

General The history of the ten years from 

1904 to 1914 is a story of peace and progress. There 
were some conflicts with Moro rebels and with ban- 
dits ; but taking the Philippines over, life and prop- 
erty have been safe for a decade. Large sums of 
foreign and home capital have been invested in 
Philippine industries, and many public improve- 
ments made. Increased powers of self-government 
have been given to the Filipinos and great advances 

* On February 5, 1905, the title "Civil Governor" was 
changed by law to "Governor-General." 


made in education. The story of peace is not so 
thrilling as that of war, but history is shaped by "the 
victories of peace" as much as those of war. The 
most important facts in history are those which tell 
how a people grows in health, wealth, wisdom, and 
political capacity. 

The Philippine Currency.- — In 1903 the new Phil- 
ippine currency was introduced to take the place of 
the Mexican silver pesos and Spanish-Filipino 
money, formerly the principal money of the Philip- 
pines. The value of this money was constantly 
changing; its price at the money changer's rose or 
fell almost daily. One borrowed money when it 
was low and paid when it was high, or in other 
ways suffered loss and inconvenience. The new 
Philippine currency has a fixed value in gold, be- 
cause a "reserve" of gold coin is kept to redeem 
the silver. The Philippine currency is one of the 
safest and most convenient in the world. 

New Banks. — In 1906 the Postal Savings Bank 
was established. In 1914 it had about 40,000 de- 
positors, three-fourths of whom were Filipinos. 
The Agricultural Bank of the Philippine Govern- 
ment was established in 1908. The purpose of this 
bank is to make loans to individuals and companies 
engaged in farming. Its work has grown slowly 
because of the difficulty of securing perfect titles to 
lands upon which loans were to be made. 

The Saint Louis Exposition. — In 1904, an inter- 
national world's fair at Saint Louis celebrated the 


four hundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase. An extensive exhibition of Philippine prod- 
ucts and industries was made. Several villages 
were built there, representing both the Christian 
and non-Christian peoples. ]\lany diplomas and 
medals were awarded to Filipinos for the excellence 
of their exhibits. Knowledge of the Philippines 
was greatly extended in the United States. 

Commercial Growth.— The Commerce of the Phil- 
ippines greatly increased from 1904 to 1914. A 
very large trade was built up with America. The 
duties on the importation of sugar and tobacco into 
the United States were removed and these indus- 
tries were made much more prosperous. Modern 
sugar machinery was introduced in various parts of 
the Islands and the production increased. The 
planting of cocoanut groves was widely extended, 
and the exports of copra increased by several mil- 

Annual Trade. — The exports of the Philippines 
increased from $30,250,627 in 1904 to $53,683,326 
in 19 1 3. These figures may be compared with the 
total exports of the Philippines in 1894, which 
amounted to $16,500,000. 

The value of imports increased from $33,220,761 
in 1904 to $56,327,583 in 1913. Exports to the 
United States amounted to $10,848,885 in 1913, 
and the imports from the United States to $25,- 

The four leading exports of the Philippines are 


hemp, copra, sugar and tobacco. Hemp exports 
increased from $21,794,960 in 1904 to $23,044,744 
in 1913; copra from $2,527,019 to $11,647,898, 
sugar from $2,688,507 to $9,491,540, and tobacco 
from $1,099,818 to $5,362,415. 

These dry figures mean that agriculture and in- 
dustry, the foundation on which all civilization and 
government are built, made tremendous advances in 
the Philippines from 1904 to 1914. The increased 
wealth of the Philippines has been shared by a 
larger number of the middle and poorer classes than 
in some countries, because the farms and industries 
of the Philippines are small and numerous, the pos- 
session of many people rather than of a few great 

Road Building. — The material progress of the 
Philippines was greatly increased by the numerous 
roads and bridges constructed during this decade. 
Over 4,000 miles of modern roads were constructed. 
More than 5,000 permanent bridges and culverts, 
most of them made of concrete, were built. In 
mountainous districts 1,500 miles of cart roads and 
horse trails were built, as well as numerous wooden 
bridges and aerial ferries constructed of cables. 
INIany thousands of small farmers were thus en- 
abled to bring their produce to market. 

Railways. — During the past ten years the number 
of kilometers of steam railway in the Philippines 
has increased to five or six times what it was before. 
The plan in the construction of these railways is to 


connect up the important agricultural centers with 
the seaport towns. 

Sanitary Improvements.- — The scourges of small- 
pox, plague, and cholera have been almost entirely 
wiped out. In 1907 not a single one of seven 
provinces reported a death from smallpox, al- 
though during the years before the campaign of 
vaccination about 6,000 deaths annually had oc- 
curred in these provinces. The annual deaths from 
smallpox dropped from an average of forty thou- 
sand a year to a few hundred. 

The cause and cure of beri-beri were discovered, 
largely due to Philippine investigators, and many 
were cured of this disease, while others learned to 
avoid it by eating unpolished rice. 

By 19 1 3 about 1.300 artesian wells had been 
bored in the Philippines, saving thousands of peo- 
ple from water-borne diseases. Through the educa- 
tion of trained physicians multitudes enjoy expert 
medical attention. The Philippine General Hospital 
was opened in 19 10, at Manila, and later the South- 
ern Islands Hospital, at Cebu. 

At Culion the finest leper colony in the world 
was established, which cares for nearly three thou- 
sand lepers. 

Progress in Education. — The principal events in 
educational progress in 1904- 19 14 were the growth 
of higher education, the erection of modern school 
buildings, the spread of industrial education and 
the growth of school athletics. 


The University of the PhiHppines, at Manila, is 
a group of colleges united under the government 
of a Board of Regents, a President, and a Univer- 
sity Council. It consists of the Philippine Medical 
School, the School of Fine Arts, the College of 
Agriculture, the College of Veterinary Science, the 
College of Liberal Arts, the College of Engineering, 
and the College of Law. In 19 13 it numbered 704 

Pupils in the secondary grades increased to 6,111 
in 19 1 3 and those in the intermediate grades to 
30,692. The total number of pupils enrolled under 
the Bureau of Education reached 529,665 in 1912. 

Hundreds of reinforced concrete schoolhouses 
were built. Industrial education was widely ex- 
tended during this period. Ninety-three per cent, of 
the pupils of the public schools received some form 
of industrial instruction. 

Largely due to the encouragement given by Gov- 
ernor-General Forbes, school athletics grew to great 
proportions. Interscholastic field meets became a 
common feature of school life; baseball and other 
athletic sports were popularized in every part of 
the Philippines. 

The Philippine Assembly. — In 1907 the Philip- 
pine Assembly was established. This was the first 
representative governing body for the Philippines 
elected by Filipinos. It consists of 81 members 
chosen from 81 districts into which the provinces 
have been divided. The Assembly shares with the 


Philippine Commission the authority for governing 
all of the Philippines, except the Moro Province 
and the other non-Christian provinces. 

Filipino Self-government. — The self-governing 
powers of the Filipinos were greatly extended in 
the decade 1904-1914. Besides the constitution of 
the Philippine Assembly, Filipinos were given a 
greater share in the courts. One half the judges of 
the courts of first instance are Filipinos. All the 
justices of the peace are Filipinos, practically all of 
the municipal presidents, and two-thirds of the 
members of the provincial boards. The proportion 
of Filipino employees in the civil service steadily 
increased till a great majority of those positions 
were held by Filipinos. In 1913, President Wil- 
son gave the Filipinos five out of nine positions 
on the Philippine Commission, thus giving the 
Filipinos a majority in both houses of the Legisla- 

Changes in the Philippine Commission. — For pur- 
poses of reference it will be well to note the follow- 
ing complete table of successive changes in the 
composition of the Philippine Commission: 

William H. Taft, Mar. 16, 1900, to Jan. 31, 1904. 
Luke E. Wright, Mar. 16, 1900, to Apr. i, 1906. 
Henry C. Ide, Mar. 16, 1900, to Sept. 19, 1906. 
Bernard ]\Ioses, Mar. 16, 1900, to Dec. 31, 1902. 
Dean C. Worcester, Mar. 16, 1900, to Sept. 15, 



Jose R. de Luzuriaga, Sept. i, 1906, to Oct. 29, 


Benito Legarda, Sept. i, 1 901, to Oct. 31, 1907. 

T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Sept. i, 1901, to Feb. 28, 

James F. Smith, Dec. 31, 1902, to Nov. 10, 1909. 
W. Cameron Forbes, June 15, 1904. to Sept. 2, 

W. Morgan Shuster, Sept. 28, 1906, to Feb. 28, 


Gregorio Areneta. July i. 1908, to Oct. 29, 1913. 

Newton \A'. Gilbert. July i, 1908, to Nov. 30, 1913. 

Rafael Palma, July 6, 1908, to date. 

Juan Sumulong, Mar. i, 1909, to Oct. 29, 19 13. 

Frank A. Branagan, ]\Iar. 4, 1909. to Oct. 29, 1913. 

Charles B. Elliott. Feb. 14, 1910, to Dec. 4, 1912. 

Victorino ]\lapa, Oct. 30, 19 13. to date. 

Jaime C. De Veyra, Oct. 30, 19 13, to date. 

Vicente Ilustre, Oct. 30, 19 13. to date. 

Henderson S. Martin, Nov. 29, 1913, to date. 

Clinton L. Riggs, Nov. 29, 1913, to date. 

Winfred T. Denison, 19 13 to date. 

The organization of the Philippine Commission 
in 19 14 was as follows: 

Governor-General and President of the Commis- 
sion, Francis Burton Harrison. 

Vice-Governor and Secretary of Public Instruction, 
Henderson S. Martin. 


Secretary of Finance and Justice, Victorino j\lapa. 
Secretary of Commerce and Police, Clinton L. 

Secretary of the Interior, Winfred T. Denison. 
]\Iembers : Rafael Palma, Vicente Singson, Jaime 
C. De Veyra, Vicente Ilustre. 

Message of President Wilson.- — The accession to 
power of the Democratic party in the United States 
in 19 1 3 caused a fresh statement of the policy of the 
sovereign government toward the Philippines. 
This policy was best expressed in the course of an 
address given by President Wilson at a joint ses- 
sion of the two houses of Congress, Dec. 2, 19 13. 
The following excerpts from the address are of 
vital importance to students of Philippine history: 

"Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines are 
ours, indeed, but not ours to do as we please with. 
Such territories, once regarded as mere possessions, 
are no longer to be selfishly exploited ; they are part 
of the domain of public conscience and of service- 
able and enlightened statesmanship. W'e must ad- 
minister them for the people who live in them and 
with the same sense of responsibility to them as 
toward our own people in our domestic affairs. No 
doubt we shall successfully enough bind Porto Rico 
and the Hawaiian Islands to ourselves by ties of 
justice, interest, and affection, but the performance 
of our duty toward the Philippines is a more diffi- 
cult and debatable matter. We can satisfy the ob- 
ligations of generous justice toward the people of 


Porto Rico by giving them the ample and famihar 
rights and privileges accorded our own citizens in 
our own territories and our obligations toward the 
people of Hawaii by perfecting the provisions for 
self-government already granted them, but in the 
Philippines we must go farther. We must hold 
steadily in view their ultimate independence, and 
we must move toward the time of that independence 
as steadily as the way can be cleared and the foun- 
dations thoughtfully and permanently laid. 

"Acting under the authority conferred upon the 
President by Congress, I have already accorded the 
people of the Islands a majority in both houses of 
their legislative body by appointing five instead of 
four native citizens to the membership of the Com- 
mission. I believe that in this way we shall make 
proof of their capacity in counsel and their sense 
of responsibility in the exercise of political power, 
and that the success of this step will be sure to clear 
our view for the steps which are to follow. Step 
by step we should extend and perfect the system of 
self-government in the Islands, making test of them 
and modifying them as experience discloses their 
successes and their failures : that we should more 
and more put under the control of the native citi- 
zens of the archipelago the essential instruments of 
their life, their local instrumentalities of govern- 
ment, their schools, all the common interests of their 
communities, and so by counsel and experience set 
up a government which all the world will see to be 


suitable to a people whose affairs are under their 
own control. At last, I hope and believe, we are 
beginning to gain the confidence of the Filipino 
peoples. By their counsel and experience, rather 
than by our own, we shall learn how best to serve 
them and how soon it will be possible and wise to 
withdraw our supervision. Let us once find the 
path and set out with firm and confident tread upon 
it and we shall not wander from it or linger upon 


Significance of President Wilson's Message. — 

This message confirmed and renewed the policy laid 
down by President AIcKinley and his successors in 
the presidency. In spirit and purpose it is the same. 
The growing knowledge of American institutions of 
government, the spread of education, and the ma- 
terial development which fifteen years of American 
rule had brought about made it possible for the 
President to express his belief that the Filipinos 
had gained confidence in the good will and efficiency 
of the American government. He implied that the 
training and capacity of the Filipinos had reached a 
point where it would be possible to be guided more 
and more by their wishes and advice in matters of 
government. This is the end for which previous 
administrations strove. The additional powers of 
self-government given the Filipinos were evidence 
of the success of the policies thus far pursued in 
the Philippines. In the future, as in the past, the 
attainment of self-government by the Filipinos will 


rest upon the evidence which experience gives that 
they have mastered the lessons of enhghtenment, 
organization, self-control, and just dealing — the 
things which fit a people for self-rule. 

Real and lasting independence cannot be given; 
it must be acquired by patient self-mastery upon the 
part of the individuals who compose a nation. The 
steps taken by President Wilson's administration 
were made in the hope that the use of these in- 
creased powers by the Filipinos will justify the 
faith which America reposes in their capacity for 
progress and good government. Permanent control 
of the Philippines has at no time been the policy of 
America. The hopes and efforts of both great 
parties in the United States have been directed to- 
ward the gradual elevation of the Philippines to a 
self-governing state. The decade 1904-1914 re- 
corded definite progress toward that goal. 


Abiicay, 123. 
Acapulco, 114. 
Agricr.ltural Bank, 285. 
Agriculture, 178, 1S4, 194, 

Aguilar, Rafael de, 185. 
Aguinaldo, 235, 240, 248, 255, 

264, 265. 
Alcayceria, 107. 
Ali-Mudin. 134. 
Amusements, 29. 
Anda, Simon de, 170, 177. 
Anitos, 32. 

Arrechederra, Governor, 135. 
Assembly, Philippine, 289. 
Augustin, Basilio de, 246. 
Augustinians, 69. 

Bancao, 142. 

Banco Espanol-Filipino, 208. 

Barangay, 21. 

Bataan, 123. 

Biac-na-bato, 239. 

Bicols, 4. 

Blanco, Governor, 234. 

Bohol, 5, 141. 

Borneo, 78, 80, 128. 

Bridge of Spain, 143. 

British Invasion, 167. 

Brunei, conquest of, 77. 

Burgos, 218, 223. 
Bustamante, 155. 

Cagayan, 65, 81, no, 145. 

Cainti, 60. 

Calamba, 234. 

Calendar, reformation of, 

Camarines, 60. 
Cavite, 121, 123, 221. 
Cebu, 5, 35, 45, 48, 55- 
Charles I., 41. 
Charles III., 183. 
Chinese, conversion, 109. 

immigration, 85. 

invasion, 103. 

revolts, 109, no. 

trade with, 113. 
Chirino, 22. 
Cibabao, 24. 
Civilization, 19, 29, 70, 121, 

165, 197- 
Claveria, Xarcisso de. 203. 
Coast-guard Towers, 134. 
Cock-fighting, 29. 
Commerce, 26, 203, 226, 281, 

Commission, Philippine, 259, 

273, 290. 
Conquest, cost of, 86. 



Constitution of 1812, 191. 
Conversion of the Filipinos, 

Corcuera, Sebastian Hurtado 

de, 149. 
Cortes, 189, 193. 
Cotton Industry-, 98. 
Council of Manila, 67, 90. 
Councils, Municipal, 227. 
Courts, 91, 149, 276. 
Crimes, 24. 

Cruz, Apolinario de la, 199. 
Cruzat, Fausto, 160. 
Cuba, 244, 250, 252. 
Cuesta, Archbishop, 157. 
Currency, Philippine, 285. 

Dagohoy, 195. 

Das ^larinas. 93. 

Dato. 22. 

Decree of 1589, 90. 

Demarcation Lines, 41, 49. 

Dewey, 245, 246. 

Discovery of Philippines, 44. 

Dominicans, 69, 109. 

Dress, 24. 

Dutch, 120. 

Earthquakes. 144, 212. 
Education, 211, 22S, 2TJ, 288. 
Elcano, Juan de, 49. 
Encomiendas, 62, 66, 67. 
Enrile, Pascual, 198. 

Fajardo, Alonso, 141. 
Fajardo, Diego, 144. 
Fernando VII., 191. 
Franciscans, 69. 
Freedom, 219. 

Freemen, 22. 

Friars, arrival of, 69. 

as merchants, 95. 

as teachers, 211. 

character of, 70. 

disputes with governors, 
148, 202. 

lands, 153. 

monasteries, 67. 

Galleons, 114, 116, 117. 
Goiti, Martin de, 56, 69. 
Gold, 27, 64. 
Gomez, Maximo, 223. 
Government, 20, 160, 202, 

248, 290. 
Governors, 205, 210. 
Guam, 1 16. 

Head-hunting, 10. 
Headmen, 21. 
History, study of, 2. 
Homonhon, 44. 
Humabon, 45. 

Ide, Henry C, Governor, 

Igorots, 10. 
Ilocos, 104, 173, 191. 
Iloilo. 81, 129, 266. 
Improvements, sanitary, 288. 
Ihigo, i8g. 
Inquisition. 151. 
Isabella II., 216. 
Isla, Juan de la, 57. 
Izquierdo, Rafael de, 220. 

Japan, 26, 81. 
Java, 180. 



Jesuits, 6g, 210. 
J0I6, 137, 206. 
Jubilee of 1654, 151. 

Katipiinan, 231, 238. 

Labor tax, 140. 

Lacandolo, 58. 

Lavezaris, Guido de, 57, 66, 

76, 103. 
Laws of the Indies, 163. 
Legazpi, 53, 57, 59. 
Leyte, 50, 141. 
Limahong, 104. 
Limasaua, 45. 
Llanera, 236. 
Loaisa, 49. 
Luna, General, 261. 
Luzon, 2, 57. 

Mactan, 46. 

IMagellan, 40, 41, 43, 45. 46. 
]\Iahometanism, 14. 
Malayans, 9. 
Malolos, 256. 
Mandarins, 109. 
Manila, American occupa- 
tion, 248. 

building of the walls, 97. 

capture of, 169. 

compared with provinces, 

fired by insurgents, 262. 

incorporation of, 59. 

in Das IMarinas time, loi. 
Manrique de Lara, 144, 150. 
Marivelas, 104. 
Marriage customs, 29. 
Martial law, 268. 

Massacre of Spaniards, 48. 
McKinley, 244, 257, 272. 
^Mexico. 76, 93. 
Mindanao, 5, 50. 
IMindoro, 126, 130. 
Moluccas, So, 100, 120. 
Moraga, Father, 89. 
Morga, Antonio de, 120. 
Moros, 14, 27, 126, 132. 

Xava, 149. 
Negritos, 6, 99. 
Negros, 266. 
Nozaleda, 246. 

Obando, Governor, 135. 
Ordinances of good govern- 
ment, 160. 
Ornaments, 24. 
Otis, General, 258. 

Pampanga, 85. 

Pardo, Archbishop, 153. 

Parian, 107. 

Philip IL, 52, (^, 89. 

Pilar, Gregorio del, 264. 

Pirates, 81, 126, 128, 137. 

Poblete, Archbishop, 151. 

Polavieja, 236. 

Portuguese, 39, 41, 49, 79 

Postal Savings Bank, 285. 

Priests, Filipino, 35, 210, 

Prince Henry, 39. 
Prisons, 161. 
Punta de Flechas, 130. 

Rada, Father, 65. 
Railroads, 226, 287. 



Recollects, 70, 210. 
Religion, 31, 67. 
Republic, Filipino, 251. 

of Negros, 266. 
"Residencia," the, 79, 153. 
Restitution, 96. 
Revolts, Bohol, 141. 

Cavite, 221. 

Cofradia, 199. 

Dagohoy, 195. 

early, 65. 

Filipino-American War, 

Filipinos, 106. 

Ilocos, 145. 

Ilocos Norte, 191. 

Pampanga, 145. 

Pangasinan, 172. 

Samar, 144. 

Silan. 173. 

Tagalog, 1896, 237. 

Tagalog, 1898, 246. 
Revolutionary Government, 

248, 256. 
Ricafort, Governor, 194. 
Rivera, Governor, 183, 237. 
Rizal, Jose, 121, 233. 
Roads, 198, 287. 
Rojo. Governor, 167. 
Ronquillo de Peiialosa, 78. 
"Royal Company of the 
Philippines," 183. 

Saavedra, 49. 

Saint Louis Exposition, the 

Salazar. Bishop, 84, 96, 109. 
Salcedo, Diego, 152. 

Salcedo, Juan de, 58, 60, 105, 

Samar, 44. 

Sanchez, Alonso, 90. 

Sande, Francisco de, 76. 

Santiago, Fort, 98, 170. 

Schools, "2. (See Educa- 

Silan, Diego de, 172. 

Silk culture, 180. 

Silva, Juan de, 122. 

Slavery, 22, 36, 68. 

Smith, James F., Governor, 

"Sociedad Economica de 
Amigos del Pais," 184. 

Spanish, teaching of, 179, 

Spices, 40, 184. 

Steamers, 204. 

Subsidy, Royal, 118. 

Suez Canal, 226. 

Sulu Archipelago, the, 16. 

Surnames, 204. 

Tabora, Juan Nino de, 142. 
Taft, Governor, 272. 
Tagalogs, 200, 2^7. 
Tattooing, 25. 
Taxes, 96, 160. 
Taytay. 60. 

Tello de Guzman, 130. 
Ternate, 80. 
Tila Pass, 264. 
Tobacco, 181, 287. 
Torralba, 155. 
Torre, Carlos de, 217. 
Treaty of Paris, the, 249, 



Tribes, 12, 162. 
Tribute, 63. 

Villalobos, 50. 
Visayas, 5, 266. 

Urbistondo, Antonio de, 206. '. Weapons, 25. 

Urdaneta, Father, 53. 

Valenzuelar 234. 

Van Xoort, 121. 

Vargas, Juan de, 152, 184. 

Vasco de Gama. 40. 

Vera, Santiago de, 85. 

Vigan, 174. 

Village Government, 20. 

Wilson, 292. 

Wright, Luke E., Governor, 

Writing, 27. 

Zambales, 99. 
Zamboanga, 155. 
Zamora. 223. 
Zapote Bridge, 263. 


Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



! O 1 

"^ STACKb 

OCT 22 19b/ 

29 Aug 58? 1 



REC'O i-U 
NOV 2196? 


MAR 4 ^9B3 

^jllN 2619711? 9 

2 73 -K PM 1 4 

LD 21-95m-ll,'50(2877sl6)476