] '; \iw
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID
The Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument, Manila.
A SHORT HISTORY OF
FOR USE IN PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
PRESCOTT F. JERNEGAN
FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND GOVERN-
J.IENT, PHILIPPINE NORM.\L SCHOOL, MANILA
WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
Copyright, igo5, igo8, igi4, by
D. APPLETOX AND COMPANY
PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AATERICA
MY FORMER PUPILS
IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
Ten years have passed since this work was
adopted for the pubHc schools of the Phihp-
pines. These years, sown with fresh events, new
ideals, and many changes in the administration of
the government of the Philippines, make necessary
a new and completely revised edition of this book.
It has been necessary to omit and condense some
of the material contained in the former editions,
in order to make room for a chapter covering the
past decade. The long service which this book has
rendered seems to justify the selection of material
and method of presentation employed in the former
edition. The lapse of years, however, has brought
changes which make it desirable to readjust the
emphasis placed on both the more remote and the
nearer past. The following remarks from the
preface to the first edition are still an appropriate
introduction to this l:)ook.
"The period to 1660 occupies nearly one-half
of the book. For two centuries after that date
there is httle in Phihppine history that was not
present, in principle, in the foundations laid by the
Spanish conquerors. The chapters relating to this
epoch discuss the material topically rather than
chronologically, in the conviction that themes such
as 'the galleon trade,' the 'encomienda' system,
and the like gain in clearness and interest by this
method of treatment.
"Necessarily, in so short a work, there are many
omissions. The principle which has governed in
the selection of events has been the growth of the
Filipinos toward civilization and self-government.
An effort has been made to explain in an elementary
way the origin and results of the more important
revolts against Spanish rule. Along with this
is given some account of the agricultural and
commercial development of the Islands. Thus
the struggle to live and the strife for free-
dom are the two underlying themes of the
"Many of the questions with which Philippine
history is concerned are darkened by bitter con-
troversies, religious and political, extending to the
present day. It is quite possible, therefore, that
errors of fact or judgment have crept into these
pages. Ill a land jarred by the shock of many
conflicting nationaHties. where a new poHtical
structure is rearing itself from the ashes of the
old, it cannot be expected that the past will have
the same message for all.
"In large measure this book has been based on
original sources. The author is particularly in-
debted to Blair and Robertson's The Philippine
Islands,' that invaluable collection of original docu-
ments relating to the Philippines. Most of the
quotations relating to the period 1493- 1600
have been taken from this work; in a few cases
with a modification of the phraseology of the
translations, for the sake of simplicity of
The Author desires to renew his expressions of
obligation to those who have assisted him in the
preparation of this work, in particular Mr. Emer-
son Christie, of the Ethnological Survey for the
Philippine Islands; Mr. Jesse George, formerly
prosecuting attorney of the City of Manila; Dr.
David P. Barrows, of the University of Califor-
nia ; as well as many others.
Finally, he would extend from the shores of
these other islands of the Pacific his felicitations
to those who teach and those who study these
pages. Time and distance will never lessen his
kindly recollection of the Filipinos and the Philip-
Prescott F. Jernegan.
HiLo High School,
HiLO, Hawaii, April i, 1914.
THE FILIPINO RAqES.
Resources of the Philippines — The Study of History —
Geography and History — Luzon — The Visayas —
Mindanao — The First Inhabitants — The Malayans —
The Igorots — Head-hunting — The Place of Woman
— The Christian Peoples — The Moros — The Sulu
Archipelago — Summary I
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS.
Village Government — Life in Ancient Times — War and
Robbery — The Headmen — The Freemen — Slaves —
Causes of Enslavement — Crimes — Discovery of a
Thief — Dress and Ornaments — Tattooing — Weapons
— Commerce — Writing — Civilization — Amusements —
Marriage Customs — Religion — The Great God — The
Worship of Anitos — Household Gods — Nature Spir-
its — Prayers — Good and Bad Anitos — Heaven — The
Soul — Priests and Priestesses — Religious Customs of
the Cebuans — Conclusions — Summary 20
DISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINES BY EUROPEANS.
European Trade with the East — A Sea-route from Eu-
rope to India — Ferdinand Magellan — The Demarca-
tion Lines — Magellan and Charles I — Magellan Sails
— Wreck and Desertion — The Pacific — Discovery of
the Philippines — First Mass in the Philippines — Ma-
gellan at Cebu — Baptism of the Cebuans — Death of
Magellan — Massacre of Spaniards at Cebu — Elcano
Sails Around the Globe — Demarcation Line of 1529
— Expedition of Villalobos — Summary 39
THE CONQUEST OF THE PHH.IPPINES.
The King's Command — Andres de Urdaneta — Legazpi —
1 he V^oyage of Legazpi — Arrival in the Philip-
pines — The Settlement of Cebu — Legazpi's Treat-
ment of the Cebuans — Legazpi "Adelantado" — First
Expedition to Luzon — Juan de Salcedo — Second Ex-
pedition to Luzon — Legazpi Founds Manila — Death
of Legazpi — Conquest of Luzon by Salcedo — Sum-
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS.
Poverty of the Victors — The Encomiendas and Enco-
nifuderos — The Tribute — Injustices of the Enco-
menderos — Early Revolts — The Protest of Rada —
Answer of Lavezaris — King Philip Forbids En-
comiendas — Progress of Religion — The Encomien-
das in 1591 — The Pope Forbids Slavery — The Ar-
rival of the Friars — Character of the Early Friars —
What the Friars Taught — The First Spanish
Schools — Reasons for the Rapid Conversion of the
Filipinos — Summary 62
DRE.A.MS OF CONQUEST.
Lavezaris, Governor — Distress of the Spaniards — De
Sande, Governor — Conquest of Brunei — Dreams of
Conquest — Better Days — Ronquillo de Penalosa,
Governor — The "Residencia" — Union of Portugal
with Spain — Expeditions to Borneo and Ternate —
Japanese Pirates — The Fihpinos' Part in Spanish
Conquests — Summary 76
SALAZAR AND DE VERA.
The First Bishop of Manila — De \'era, Acting Gov-
ernor — Scarcity of Food — Insurrection in Pampanga
—Deeds of De \'era— Cost of the Conquest — Aims
of Spain in the Conquest — Reply of Philip II—
Philip III and Moraga — The Memorial to the King
— Reform Decree of 1589 — Summary 84
A ROYAL GOVERNOR.
Gomez Perez Das Marinas — Salazar's Opinion of the
Governors — Neglect of Religious Instruction — Resti-
tution to the Filipinos by the Conquerors — Building
of the Walls of Manila— Decay of the Cotton Indus-
try — A Change for the Worse — Conquest of Zam-
balcs— Tlie Great Fleet— Death of Das Marinas—
:SIanila in Das Mariiias' Time — Summary .... 93
THE CHINESE IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY.
Arrival of the Chinese— Limahong— The First Attack-
Repulse of the Chinese — The Second Attack — Re-
volt of the Filipinos— Limahong in Pangasinan —
Salcedo Expels Limahong— The Alcayceria and the
Parian — Chinese Christians— The Three Mandarins
—Chinese Revolt of 1603— Defeat of the Chinese-
Revolt of 1639 — The Chinese Question— Summary . 103
THE VOYAGES OF THE GALLEONS.
The Chinese Trade — Commerce with Mexico — The Gal-
leons — The Voyage Across the Pacific — Arrival of
the Galleons — Loss of the Galleons — The Royal
Subsidy — Summary 113
THE WARS WITH THE DUTCH.
The Dutch Conquer the Moluccas — Antonio de Morga —
The Defeat of Van Noort — Silva's Great Fleet —
Attack on Cavite — Massacre of Abiicay — Defeat of
the Dutch — Filipino Loyalty — Summary 120
THE MORO PIRATES.
Introductory — The Moro Pirates — Spaniards Fail to
Destroy Piracy — A Raid on the Visayans — Acuna
and the Pirates — Battle of Punta de Flechas —
Treaties with the Moros — Concentration of Villages
— Arming the Filipinos — Brave Defenders — The
Coast-Guard Towers — The Story of .'Mi-Mudin —
Conversion of the Sultan — Treachery of Ali-Mudin
— Lessons of This Story — The High Tide of Piracy
— Summary 126
FORCED LABOR AND INSURRECTION.
The Dark Century — The Labor Tax — Alonson Fajardo
— Insurrection in Bohol and Leyte — Bancao — Death
of Fajardo — Tabora, Governor — Diego Fajardo —
Earthquake of 1645 — Insurrection of 1660 — Revolt
in Ilocos — Summary 14Q
THE STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE.
Introductory — Two Kinds of Courts — The Case of Nava
— The Law of Refuge — The Pope's Pardon — The
Inquisition in the Philippines — Diego de Salcedo —
De Vargas and Pardo — The Friars' Lands — Busta-
mante and the Friars — Bustamante Fortifies Zam-
boanga — Arrest of the Archbishop — Death of Bus-
tamante — Archbishop Cuesta, Governor — Summary . 148
THE END OF THE SENTNTEENTH CENTURY.
Fausto Cruzat y Gongora. Governor — Ordinances of
Good Government — Evil Days — Manila and the
Provinces — "The Laws of the Indies'' — What the
Filipinos Did— Summary 160
THE BRITISH INVASION AND ITS RESULTS.
The Mysterious Fleet — Landing of the British — The
Capture of Manila — The Surrender — The Sack of
the City — Simon de Anda y Salazar — Restoration of
Spanish Rule — Effects of the Invasion — Revolt in
Pangasinan — Diego Silan — Silan in Power — Alliance
with the British — Death of Silan — A Fresh Outbreak
— Why the Revolts Failed — Summary . . . . . 167
THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIMES,
Governorship of Anda — Anda a Modern Man — The
Teaching of Spanish — Death of Anda — Vargas and
Agriculture — Why Java Prospered — The Tobacco
Monopoly — Abuses of the Tobacco Monopoly — End
of the Tobacco Monopoly — "Royal Company of the
Philippines" — Sociedad Economica de Amigos del
Pais — Vargas Resigns — Industry Better Than Con-
quest — Rafael de Aguilar, Governor — Aguilar and
Foreigners — Progress of the Filipinos — Summary . 177
REBELLION .\ND REFORM.
Filipinos in the Cortes — The Constitution of 1812 — Res-
toration of Fernando VII — Revolt in Ilocos Norte —
Oppression of the Poor — The Constitution Renewed
— The School of Freedom — End of Representation
in the Cortes — Mariano Ricafort, Governor — The
Rebellion of Dagohoy — .-\n Independent People —
The New Pueblos — Pascual Enrile. Governor — Ad-
vantages of Good Roads — Kinds of Rebellion — The
Revolt of the Cofradia — Destruction of the Cof-
radia — Summary 189
CL.\\T;RiA .\ND URBI.STONDO.
Changes of Governors — The Friars and the Governors —
Effect of Travel and Commerce — Narciso Claveria,
Governor — Reformation of the Calendar — Surnames
of Filipinos — First Steamers in the Philippine.s — The
Governors — Gains of the Governors — L'rbistondo;
Conquest of Jolo — Treaty with the Sultan — First
Philippine Bank — The Next Ten Years — Return of
the Jesuits — Reforms in Education — Educational De-
cree of 1863 — Earthquake of 1863 — Summary . . . 202
THE D.\WN OF REPUBLICANISM.
Revolution in Spain — Carlos de la Torre, Governor —
"Guias de Torre" — The Red Ribbon — Spread of Re-
publicanism — The Meaning of Freedom — Rafael de
Izquierdo, Governor — The Cavite Insurrection —
Cause of the Insurrection— Burgos, Zamora, and
Gomez— The Execution— The :\lailed Hand— Peace
— Commercial Growtli — Municipal Councils — Prog-
ress in Education — Summary 216
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN.
New Leaders — The Secret Societies — Jose Rizal — Ca-
lamba Lands Trouble — Banishment of Rizal — Death
of Rizal — Discovery of the Plot — The Rise of Agui-
naldo — The Rebellion in the North — Campaign of
Polavieja — Spread of the Insurrection — The Right
to Revolt — Rivera's Campaign — Katipunan Procla-
mation of 1897 — Pact of Biac-na-Bato — Departure of
i\guinaldo — Broken Promises — Renewal of the In-
surrection — Summary 231
THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS.
Cuba and the United States — The Cuban Rebellion — The
Battle of Manila Bay — Effect in Manila of Dewey's
Victory — Renewal of the Insurrection — \\'hy Dewey
Remained in the Philippines — Aguinaldo Dictator —
The Revolutionary Government — The Taking of
Manila — The Treaty of Paris — The Effect of Dis-
tance — Monarchy or Republic — Possibility of a Fili-
pino Republic — Unity First Necessary — Summary . 244
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR.
Why Aguinaldo's Army Did Not Enter Manila — The
Malolos Government — Instructions of McKinley —
The Revolutionary Constitution — The First Shot —
Periods of the War — Battle of February 5th — Fight-
ing the Flames — The Advance North — The Battle of
Zapote Bridge — The Flight of Aguinaldo — The
Taking of Tila Pass — Aguinaldo's Escape — The
Period of Guerilla Warfare — The Occupation of the
Visayas — The Republic of Negros — Results of the
War — Martial Law — Summary 255
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR.
William H. Taft, Governor — The Policy of AIcKinley —
"The Philippines for the Filipinos" — The Educa-
tional System — Filipino Students in America — Agri-
culture — Commerce — Summary 272
A DEC.\DE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS.
Taft's Successors — General Observations — The Philip-
pine Currency — New Banks — The Saint Louis Expo-
sition — Commercial Growth — Annual Trade — Road
Building — Railways — Sanitary Improvements — Prog-
ress in Education — The Philippine Assembly — Fili-
pino Self-government — Changes in the Philippine
Commission — Message of President Wilson — Sig-
nificance of President Wilson's Message 284
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
The Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument, Manila . Frontispiece
Mayon Volcano 4
A Negrito Hunter 7
Negritos of Northern Tayabas 8
Salt Springs, Northern Luzon 9
Igorots with Head-axes n
Ilongotes of Northern Tayabas 13
A Group of Moros i5
Pearl-fishing boats, Sulu I7
A Moro Warrior in Coat of Mail 26
Alphabets in Use at the Time of the Spanish Discovery . 28
An Igorot Dance 30
Taal Volcano ' 33
Ferdinand INIagellan 40
Charles I. of Spain • 4^
jNIagellan Planting the Cross in the Philippines . . .47
The Magellan Monument, Manila 48
Old Fort at Cebii 55
The Harbor of Cebu 56
A Church at Cebu . 63
Luzon (Map) Opposite page 65
Lake Taal 68
St. Augustine Convent, Manila 71
Philip H. of Spain 80
XX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Augustinian Church, Manila 88
Fort Santiago 95
The Oldest Part of the Wall of Manila .... 97
The Cathedral, Manila 100
Dominican Church, Manila 108
Spanish Galleons 115
The Coast of Romblon 127
A Moro Pirate Boat 131
A Moro Warrior 136
The "Bridge of Spain," Manila 1^3
Church at Laoag, Ilocos Norte 149
Fort Pilar, Zamboanga 154
Plaza" de Goiti, Manila 164
Lighthouse at Entrance to the Pasig River . . . 168
Spanish Guns, Fort Santiago 169
The Malecon Drive, Manila 171
The Anda Monument, Manila 178
Tobacco Growing i8r
The Santa Lucia Gate, Manila, Built by Vargas . . 186
Fernando VII. of Spain 190
Bell Tower and Theater, Laoag 192
Parian Redoubt 195
The Sultan of J0I6 with Datos 207
A Gateway at J0I6 209
Isabella II. of Spain 216
The Governor's Palace (2^Ialacanan), Manila. . . 218
The Ayuntamiento (City Hall), Manila .... 220
Fort, Cavite 222
The Luneta, Manila 224
The Manila-Dagupan Railroad 226
Jose Rizal 232
A Waterfall near Calamba 22,2,
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xxi
Tondo Church, Manila 241
The Spanish Warship "Reina Christina" after Five Years
under Water 245
Manila Bay from the Luneta 247
A View of Manila 249
The Philippine Commission in 1904 252
William McKinley 258
Emilio Aguinaldo 260
San Juan Bridge '2-(i2
Tila Pass 263
An Insurgent Stockade 266
The Insular Ice-Plant, Manila 268
William H. Taft, First Civil Governor of the Philippines 273
The New City Hall, Manila 274
Chief Justice Arellano 275
The Old Philippine Normal School, Central Recitation
A Group of Filipino Governors 278
Making New Land, Manila 280
The Inauguration of Governor Wright .... 281
A SHORT HISTORY OF
THE FILIPINO RACES.
Resources of the Philippines. — Nature has made /
it easy to live in the Philippine Islands. There is
plenty of rich land for all who are willing to culti-
vate it. There is no month when some fruit does
not ripen. There is no season when one may not
sow or reap some crop. Thousands of horses and
cattle could feed on rich pastures that now lie un-
used. The seas and rivers of the Philippines are
full of fish. There are few lands where food is
more easily obtained.
Yet after all the centuries that have passed since
men first lived in these Islands, their people are
poor. Most of their rich soil the plow has never
turned. The wealth of their forests and mines
waits for a hand to gather it. In other lands,
whose soil is stiff with frost half the year, the barns
are filled with the harvest. In countries where men
must hew their houses from the rocks and dig
their fuel from the earth, men have built fair
2 A SilURT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
cities. In the Philippines most of the towns are
groups of frail huts, the prey of fire and storm.
The Study of History. — The study of history
explains why the lands of the Filipinos lie uncul-
tivated. It tells why the people struggle with pov-
erty. It points out the mistakes of the past and
shows the path to follow in the future. Since
1898 there have been many changes in the Philij>
pines. Government, church, education, commerce,
and many other things are different from the days
of our fathers. History helps us to understand
why these changes were made. We can compare
the past with the present and see which is the bet-
ter. The history of the Philippines begins with the
study of the first men who made this land their
Geography and History. — \Ye cannot fully un-
derstand the history of a country unless we know
its geography. The forms of the mountains and
rivers, the extent of the plains, the kind of soil,
and the climate help decide where the cities shall
be built. They explain why the people raise cer-
tain products. They tell how their commerce
arose. They have a great effect upon the language
and customs. They help show why some of the
people became civilized and others remained wild.
We shall therefore study a little of the geography
of the Philippines to see what it may teach us about
Luzon. — The great valley of the Cagayan is the
THE FILiriNO RACES. 3
most important part of northern Luzon. It is the
home of the Cagayans or Ibanags. Most of the
people live along the river banks, because for a
century the Spaniards compelled them to plant to-
bacco there. Four hundred years ago there was no
tobacco in the Philippines. Thousands of carabao
roamed in the mountains. The rivers were the
home of the crocodile ; the people lived largely by
hunting. Then, as now, many wild tribes lived in
the mountains. It is difficult to reach the Cagayan
Valley from Manila by land. By sea it is a long
voyage; therefore civilization has advanced slowly
The central part of Luzon is very mountainous.
It looks much the same as when the Spaniards first
arrived. The people have changed but little in
religion and customs. This is because it was diffi-
cult for the Spaniards to reach them. So the few
thousand people who lived here when Legazpi
came to Manila now number a third of a million
The coastal plain of northwest Luzon has
changed much more than the Cagayan Valley, be-
cause it is easily reached from Manila by sea or
land. Its people, the Ilocanos, were united and
industrious, so they have made the wilderness a
A great plain and a great lake fill most of cen-
tral Luzon. No part of the Philippines is so much
changed from ancient times as this. The railroad
4 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
through the great plain has made it a land of
peaceful farms. Industries and manufactures
flourish because they are near great markets.
On the east of the Tayabas Range and in all the
country south of the narrow isthmus of Tayabas
4, live the Bicols.
The habits and language of this
Ma YON Volcano.
"^ people in ancient times were much like those of
the Visay'ans. Can you tell why?
The lofty mountains and broken ranges of this
peninsula made a refuge for several Negrito and
other wild tribes who still live there. This re-
gion has but one large river, the Bicol. Vast hemp
fields now cover the once barren slopes of ancient
volcanoes. Many boats are built in this part of
THE FILIPINO RACES. 5
The Visayas.— In the Visayas, though there are
many islands, the people are more alike than in
the one island of Luzon. This is because it is
easier to cross the narrow straits that divide them
than it is to pass the lofty ranges of Luzon. It is
easy to see why the Visayans have always been
famous fishermen and sailors. Each of these
islands has had its own kind of history because of
some of its geographical features. Bohol is an
island of barren mountains and coral reefs. Its
scanty soil has compelled its people to become fish-
ermen and traders. They became warlike, because
in the olden days they, fought pirates from neigh-
boring Mindanao. Their soil and their situation
have made them one of the most industrious of the
people of the Philippines.
Cebu is thickly populated and advanced in civili-
zation. There are several reasons for this. Its
long coast line and low mountains made it easy
for the Spaniards to settle there and subdue and
convert the people. Cebu is the oldest Spanish
town in the Philippines. It is in the central part of
the Archipelago, with a fine harbor. In ancient
days its chief was one of the most powerful in
the Philippines. For all these reasons it is now
among the most important cities of the Philippines.
Mindanao.^ — The island of Mindanao is the sec-
ond largest island in the Philippines. It produces
all that the other islands raise, also the spices and
gutta-percha. Mindanao has the largest rivers and
6 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
forests and the greatest area of rich, uncultivated
land of any of the PhiHppines. \\'hy, then, has it
less people than little Cebu and only one town of
importance? Mindanao is large enough and rich
enough to supjXDrt the entire present population of
the Philippines. Probably this island was one of
the first settled of the Philippines because it is near
the great Malayan Islands from which the Fili-
pinos are believed to have come. Yet it is thinly
One reason is because it has been the home of
too many different tribes. Everything great in
this world has been done by the united efforts of
people who spoke the same language and believed
the same things. In Mindanao there are more wild
tribes and different religions than in any other
island of the Philippines. Let us see why this is so.
The many mountain ranges running in different
directions and the trackless forests kept the people
from mingling easily. One can get farther from
the sea in Mindanao than in any other of the
islands. There are many people in the interior who
have never seen the ocean or met people of other
islands. This has kept them ignorant and uncivil-
The First Inhabitants. — The first people who
lived in these Islands were the Negritos. These
are the little black savages who now dwell in the
mountains. Most of them are less than five feet
tall. They have woolly hair, thick lips, and broad
THE FILIPINO RACES. 7
noses. Clad in little or no clothing, they wander
from place to place. A mat of grass thrown over
a few poles makes them a house. They hunt deer
A Negrito Hunter.
and wild pigs, catch birds and fish, and raise moun-
Most of the Negritos live in the mountains of
Luzon, Negros, Panay. and Mindanao. They do
not love towns, churches, or any of the ways of
Christian Filipinos. Once an archbishop of Man-
8 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
ila reared a Negrito boy, and taught him to read.
He was nearly ready to become a priest. One day
he could not be found. He had fled to the rocks
and woods of his babyhood to live with the birds
and the beasts.
No one knows when or how the Negritos came
'^- '". . -^'.-^ ^nT;- .<^^
Negritos of Northern Tayabas.
here. The traditions of the Filipinos say that
when the lowland tribes arrived the Negritos were
the only dwellers in the Islands. At that time they
lived on the plains. Because these Negritos re-
fused to become the friends of the new arrivals,
they were driven to the mountains. When the
wilderness is cleared away and the game gone from
the forests, the Negritos will become civilized or
THE FILIPINO RACES. 9
perish. Every race which lives beside a wiser and
stronger race must learn to live wisely and well, or
it dies out.
The Malayans. — While the little Negritos were
still living in the valleys and plains a strange people
Salt Springs, Northern Luzon.
4 landed on their shores. They came sailing up from
■At first the Negritos fought the strangers. Then
more of the boats and the brown men came till the
timid blacks climbed into the mountains to hide and
The men from the south were jMalayans. They
probably came from Sumatra or the Malay Penin-
10 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
sula. These early comers were not much more
civihzed than the Negritos. Sometimes they mar-
ried with these, and Hved in peace. There are wild
tribes in Mindoro and Paragna which are thought
to be a mixture of Malayans and Negritos.
There are many of these half -savage peoples in
the Philippines. They speak different dialects.
They do not dress the same. Their customs are not
all alike. Yet the wild Malayan tribes are more
like each other than they are like the Christian
The Malayans did not all arrive at the same time.
They were like the waves of the sea, alike, but
coming one after the other. Among the strongest
and most numerous of these tribes were the fol-
The Igorots. — Nearly all of these live to-day in
the mountains of northern Luzon. Most of them
dwell in houses built of boards cut from great pine
trees. They cultivate their fields carefully, bring-
ing the water in long canals and pipes from the
mountains. The men are strong and well formed.
They carry heavy loads on their backs all day over
the mountains. They have many savage customs.
Head-hunting. — Until recently, an old custom of
the Igorots was to cut off the heads of their ene-
mies. They did this not only in war but also at
other times. When one of their number fell ill,
or died, they sometimes slew the first wayfarer
from a strange town. They believed that the
THE FILIPINO RACES.
strength of the murdered person passed into the
body of the sick. They thought, also, that the
death of the stranger pleased the spirit of their
dead companion. This practice of the Igorots has
iGOROTS WITH HeAD-AXES.
almost entirely disappeared within the past few
years. In the old days it was very common among
all the wild tribes. The people of the coast feared
the savage mountaineers, and paid them rice every
year, as a tribute, that they might not be attacked.
\Miat has been said here of the Igorots is for
the most part also true of the Ifugaos, Ilongots,
12 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Tingians, and Kalingas of northern Luzon. The
Tingians have a measure of civihzation and wealth
in some places, while all of these peoples have been
docile in their acceptance of the rule of America.
In spite of their barbaric customs, they possess
many domestic and patriotic virtues.
The Mangyans of Mindoro still use one of the
ancient Filipino alphabets. Like some others of
the wild tribes, they are in part Negrito.
In Panay, Negros, a part of Mindanao, and else-
where, the term Monfeses or Bukidnon is used to
designate certain wild Malayan tribes. A large
number of tribes inhabit Mindanao, some of whom
have seldom seen civilized people. The chief of
these are the Bagobos, the Mandayas, the Mano-
bos, and the Subanun. These various peoples dif-
fer in dress, speech, and habits, but belong to the
same grade of advancement; they are all more or
less barbaric, though welcoming education, and
obedient to the government.
The Place of Woman. — Woman has a very low
])lace among these wild tribes. She does most of
the hard work in the fields. Her lot is sad and
humble compared with that of woman among the
Christian Filipinos. She is often sold in marriage
for a few pesos. She lives like the cattle, and
serves her husband like a slave. In this and other
ways these people have changed but little in the
last few centuries.
The Christian Peoples. — After the Malayans had
THE FILIPINO RACES.
Ilongotes of Northern Tayabas.
driven the Negritos from their homes, other
Malayan tribes came saiHng up from the south, and
drove the first conquerors from the homes they had
14 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
made. These last tribes were more civilized than
the ones who came before. They had better weap-
ons and clothes. Some of them had a new and
better religion. To-day they compose the eight
Christian peoples. Tlie Christians are the Visay-
ans, Tagalos, Ilocanos, Bicols, Pampangans, Pan-
gasinans, Cagayans, and Zambalans.
The Christian tribes have always been the ene-
mies of the wild tribes. They are the peoples to
whom most of the history of the Philippines re-
lates. We shall learn from the pens of those who
saw them four hundred years ago what they
were like when the Spaniards first reached these
The Moros.- — In IMindanao, Palawan, and the
Sulu Archii)elago live many tribes of Filipinos
whom the Spaniards called Moros. The religion
of these natives is Mahometanism. The Mahomet-
ans whom the Spaniards knew in Europe were
called by this name. So when Magellan found that
some Filipinos had this same religion he called
Mahomet li\-ed in Arabia in the sixth century
after the birth of Christ. He said there was but
one God, and that he was the prophet of that God.
Mecca was and is the holy city of Mahometanism.
Some of the Moros go there to w^orship. Such a
journey is called a pilgrimage. Mahomet wrote a
book called the Koran. This is the Bible of the
i6 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
About six hundred years ago the priests of
Mahomet came to the IMalay Peninsula. Xext they
taught their rehgion in the islands of Malaysia.
About the fifteenth century they reached the Philip-
pines. ]Many Filipinos accepted the new religion.
\\'hen the Spaniards arrived, the ]\Ioros were teach-
ing this religion in ^^lindanao, Paragua, the Jolo
Archipelago, and Luzon.
Mindanao, because of its position at the south of
the Archipelago, was one of the first islands to
receive the Aloros with their new religion. The
Moros have always been at war with the mountain
tribes. This has prevented the increase of popula-
tion and commerce. The ^Moros have enslaved
many of the people. No country can become great
or civilized through slavery.
The Spaniards were a long time in the Philip-
pines before they settled in Mindanao. This island
is so far from Manila that to conquer and convert
the people was expensive and difficult. When the
Spaniards at different times were threatened by
the Chinese and the Dutch, they took away their
soldiers from ^Mindanao. Then the people fell
back into their old ways. Therefore Mindanao has
made slow progress.
The Sulu Archipelago. — ^^'hen we look at the sea-
girt islands that stretch from Alindanao to Borneo
we can easily guess how the people have always
lived. These little islands are mountain peaks of
coral rock. They are too small for agriculture.
THE FILIPINO RACES.
The people for centuries were the traders and pir-
ates of the PhiHppines. They caught fish and dived
for pearls and pearl shells. Their boats visited dis-
tant lands, capturing and bartering slaves.
When the followers of the religion of Mahomet
Pearl-fishing Boats, Sulu.
came from the south they made an easy conquest
of these islands. There were no mountains or vast
forests to which the people might flee. They must
accept the new religion or die. Thus it is that near-
ly all the dwellers of this archipelago are Moros.
The nature and position of their islands have
made the Sulus sailors and warriors. They build
the best native boats and make the finest weapons
l8 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
of any Filipinos. They are different in religion,
customs, dress, and language from the Filipinos of
the northern and the central islands, but they are
of the same blood. Thus we see what wide differ-
ences the land that a people inhabit may make in
Summary. — The mountains and forests of the
Philippines are the home of wild tribes, speaking
many tongues and worshiping the ancient gods of
the Filipinos. The coasts and larger valleys are
inhabited by the civilized Filipinos. The islands
with the best harbors and nearest the routes of
commerce are most populous and prosperous. Four
hundred years ago there were no great cities, nor
railroads, or even wagon roads. Pirates sailed the
seas and wild animals roamed the woods. No one
in Europe had heard of the Philippines. All the
people in the Islands were fewer than those who
now live in Cebu. They numbered only about half
a million. Their languages, religions, and customs
were learned in hundreds of different islands and
coasts of the Malay Archipelago. They were like
flocks of wild birds of different colors and plumage,
driven by the storm upon a strange shore. From
Luzon to the north it is a long sail to new lands,
but to the south one can see from island to island
for hundreds of miles. Driven from home by war,
by desire for adventure, by hope of gain, or by a
chance wind, these races drifted for centuries to
THE FILIPINO RACES. 19
They drove the first inhabitants, the Negritos,
from the plains to the mountains. Later comers
drove the primitive Malayans to the mountains.
There they have kept to the present day their an-
cient customs, like head-hunting, with little change.
They are divided into many tribes; the chief of
these are the Igorots, Ifugaos, Ilongots, Tingians,
and Kalingas, of Luzon: the ]\Iangyans of Min-
doro; the Bukidnon of Panay, Negros and Min-
danao; the Tagbanuas of Palawan; and the Bago-
bos, ]\Iandayas, ]\lanobos, and Subanun of Min-
danao. The eight Christian peoples are the Vis-
ayans, Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Bicols, Pampangans,
Pangasinans, Cagayans, and Zambalans.
The l^loros are Filipinos in race, but Mahometan
in religion. They were once pirates and are now
fishermen, pearl divers, and traders. They are
backward in civilization but superior to the wild
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS,
Village Government — Among the ancient Fili-
pinos the village was the unit of government. There
was no king over all the people. There was not
even a chief for each tribe. Each little town was
a kingdom in itself. The population was divided
into many hostile groups. Each village chose its
own ruler. We shall see why this kept the Fili-
pinos from becoming numerous and rich.
Life in Ancient Times. — The people of these little
villages did not respect or obey any chief other
than their own headman. Men were born, lived,
and died in the same village without ever visiting
the people who lived on the other side of the hill.
Sometimes they could not understand the language
of members of their own tribe a few miles distant.
This is so to-day among some mountain tribes.
There were no roads and traveling was dangerous.
When men went to the fields to plant or reap, they
carried the bow and spear with them. Thus they
grew up in ignorance of the great world. They
cared nothing for the sorrows or joys of any but
their own townspeople. They married their near
relatives, and so became weak in body and mind.
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 21
War and Robbery. — The Filipinos of those times
were constantly at war. Robbery and murder were
common. If a person was killed by some one from
another village, his friends and townspeople at-
tacked that village. For these reasons, the popula-
tion was kept from increasing rapidly. In time of
famine or pestilence one town would not assist an-
other. Commerce was difficult when each man
feared his neighbor. In such a state of society no
people could become great or happy.
The Headmen.- — There w^ere three classes of so-
ciety : the headmen, the freemen, and the slaves.
The headman obtained his position because he
was the best fighter, or the richest man, or because
his father was headman. Every one must obey the
headman. He was paid a tribute of rice from all
except his relatives and the most powerful of the
freemen. It was his duty to act as judge in dis-
putes between the members of his village. A coun-
cil of old men advised him.. They decided what
punishment must be given to evildoers. The head-
man also led his people to war.
In later days these headmen were called cahezas
de baraugav. "Barangay" formerly meant a boat.
Now it means the group of people that live in a
small village. Perhaps the people that came in the
same boat settled in one village with their captain
The headmen of some of the larger villages com-
pelled smaller villages to submit to them. This
122. A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
was usually the case where the Moros ruled. The
chief of Cebu, when Alagellan arrived, was accus-
tomed to receive tribute from several villages.
Sometimes the chiefs of these subject towns met in
a council with the greater chief. Chirino, who
came to the Philippines in 1590, said:
"It is customary for these villages to be divided into dis-
tricts which they call barangayes. Each one of these is
under the command of a chief, who governs it and ap-
points those who are to do all that is necessary. The
latter are called datos. At this time Taytay (in Laguna)
had four hundred families and was divided into four
barangayes ; therefore there were four datos. Each of the
datos had charge of one barangay."
The Freemen. — The freemen, called among the
Tagalogs timaiias or maharlica, were subject to the
headman, but were not slaves. Usually they did
not pay tribute, but the headman could ask their
help in time of need, such as house-building, or
harvest. They could have their own land and
houses, and possess slaves.
Slaves. — Slaves were of two classes. The first,
called by the Tagalogs aliping nanianiahay, were
only partly slaves. They usually planted land which
their master rented to them, and did not live in his
house. These people owed debts of service to their
masters. They had to work without pay at seed-
time, harvest, house- or boat-building; in fact,
whenever their owners called for them. If they
had children, these children became slaves.
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 23
The second class of slaves, called sagigilid, lived
in their master's house and served him without
pay. These persons were absolute slaves. Their
master could kill them for any offense.
Yet slaves were not treated so harshly among the
Filipinos as in some other countries. Sometimes
they did so little work that their masters found it
hard to get food for them. Favorite slaves were
treated like members of the family.
Causes of Enslavement. — Slaves were made such
by birth, captivity, adoption, on account of debt, as
a punishment, and for other reasons.
Captivity was the chief of these causes. When
a hostile village was captured, those who were not
killed in battle were offered in sacrifice to the gods,
held for ransom, or enslaved. Children and the
aeed were usually sacrificed or held for ransom.
The young and strong were kept as slaves. Mem-
bers of the same tribe enslaved each other in these
Many fell into slavery through debt. So small
a debt as five pesos caused enslavement for life.
Children sold themselves into slavery to pay the
debts of their parents. Evil as the practice was, it
shows us how faithful the Filipinos were in guard-
ing the honor of their parents.
A very small offense against a headman or free-
man was punished by enslavement. For passing
under the house of a headman, crossing his fields,
breaking a tool or dish, letting dust fall on him
24 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
when he passed under a house, people were made
slaves for life. When a man committed a great
crime, his relatives were also enslaved. All these
practices made the hearts of the people very hard
Crimes. — Crimes were punished by fines, enslave-
ment, or death. There were no prisons, as now.
where men were shut up and made to work. If
the punishment was the loss of liberty, the criminal
became the slave of the person he had wronged or
of the headman. Theft and robbery were usually
punished by enslavement: in serious cases by
Discovery of a Thief. — When it was desired to
find out who had stolen something, the suspected
thieves were given a piece of cloth or a large leaf.
If one of them returned the stolen object wrapped
in this covering, he was pardoned. If the object
was not returned, the suspected persons were jnit
under water, and the one who came to the surface
first was considered guilty. There were other tests
like these. The different tribes had different cus-
Dress and Ornaments. — Legazpi said, in 1565, of
the people of Cibabao, one of the Visayas :
"These people wear clothes but they go barefooted.
Their dress is made of cotton, or of a kind of grass like
raw silk. . . . The people wear gold earrings, bracelets,
and necklets. Wherever we went we found a great show
of these things."
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 25
The natives of Luzon wore a blue or black spot-
ted jacket. The head. legs, and feet were bare.
A narrow strip of cloth was bound about the head.
The chiefs wore a red jacket. Necklaces of gold,
heavy gold bracelets set with precious stones, and
anklets made of strings of agates were worn by the
Tattooing. — The Visayans and the inhabitants of
Albay and Camarines practiced tattooing, that is,
they marked pictures in their skin with blue ink.
Frequently they blackened their teeth. Often they
made holes in them and filled these holes with gold.
Slaves were not allowed to tattoo themselves.
Tattoo marks were signs that the owner had done
brave deeds. IMany of the wild tribes still follow
Weapons. — Legazpi said :
"The weapons generally used in the Philippines are
swords and daggers ; lances with iron points, one and one-
half palms in length ; and a few bows and arrows. When-
ever the natives leave their houses, even if it is only to
go to the house of a neighbor, they carry these weapons;
for they are always watchful and distrustful of one an-
Besides the weapons mentioned by Legazpi, the
blow-gun and throwing-sticks were used. Among
the Tagalogs and Moros a few firearms and small
cannon were in use at the arrival of the Spaniards.
Legazpi says the natives obtained these from the
26 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
For defensive armor the Filipinos used thick
coverings of cotton, reaching to the feet, corselets
A MoRO Warrior in Coat of Mail.
of wood or buffalo-hide, long wooden shields, and
Commerce. — The Filipinos of the sixteenth cen-
tury traded mainly with Borneo, Japan, and China.
From Nagasaki, in Japan, came silks, cotton, and
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 27
iron utensils. No money was in use, but gold-dust
was often used in exchange for goods. The natives
carried little balances to weigh this gold.
Legazpi, in a letter to Philip II, said :
"Farther north than our settlement are some large
islands called Luzon and Yindoro where the Chinese and
Japanese come every year to trade. They bring silks,
woolens, bells, porcelains, perfumes, iron, tin, colored cot-
ton cloths, and other small wares. In return they take
away gold and wax. The people of these two islands are
Moros, and having bought what the Chinese and Japanese
bring, they trade these same goods throughout this archi-
pelago of islands."
Writing. — The principal Filipino tribes had writ-
ten alphabets, but no books. They wrote from the
bottom of the page to the top in columns, and from
the left to the right side of the page. There were
fourteen to seventeen letters in their alphabets. It
is said that many of the people knew how to write.
Their records were ver}^ simple. They kept ac-
counts of the number of their animals and of other
business matters, and wrote letters.
The natives used a sharp point of iron or wood
with which they wrote on banana-leaves or bamboo
joints, ^^^ith such frail paper, and houses which
burned so easily, it is not strange that no old Fili-
pino books have been preserved. The Moros have
old family records that tell the names of their an-
cestors for a few generations past.
• d Si 's °
II -s 1 1 « I s § d _. ..• g .• .-■ !
S a -^ «: g S. i a 5 d . •-• S c -S; S
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 29
Civilization. — The simple natives whom the Span-
iards found here knew nothing of their past but a
few traditions which were passed from parent to
child by speech. In their wanderings from island
to island they had forgotten the past. They had
not been here long enough to build up a good civili-
zation. They were pioneers, fighting battles with
many enemies. Without books, roads, temples, or
fine houses, they were not what we now call a
civilized people. But if the early Filipinos were
far behind China, Japan. India, and Europe, they
have since shown themselves willing to learn. The
ancestors of all the great nations of to-day were
once ignorant savages. It is no more disgrace for
a people to be young than it is for a child to be
young. The Filipinos need not be ashamed that
their ancestors four hundred years ago were not
highly civilized. The real glory of any people is
not in its past, but in the use it makes of the pres-
Amusements. — The amusements of the ancient
Filipinos were few and simple. They were fond of
music, singing, and dancing. Their musical instru-
ments were very simple, and their dances such as
those of the wild tribes to-day. They were fond of
feasting and of wine. Cock-fighting was seen in
Palawan by Magellan's men. Some of their amuse-
ments were such as we would not think permissible
Marriage Customs. — Marriages were arranged as
30 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the parents wished. The children were promised
in marriage at an early age ; sometimes before they
were born. This custom still exists among the wild
An Igorot Dance.
Marriage was not a matter of love, but of pur-
chase. The bridegroom paid the parents of the
bride a price in slaves, jewelry, furniture, land, or
whatever else he had. The mother of the bride
received a part of this, called by the Tagalogs hig-
aysusu. The other part was to pay the expenses of
the wedding celebration, and to provide for the
rearing of a family. This was called the big-
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 31
The bridegroom was also required to work for
the parents of the bride during several years after
marriage. He must assist them at seed-time and
harvest, and on other occasions. Many laws were
made by the Spaniards to stop this practice, but it
lasted long after they came. The Filipinos of that
day wanted their children to be girls because of
the goods and labor for which they could be sold.
The ceremony of marriage was begun by killing
a pig. This was done by a priestess. She then
blessed the bridal couple. Old women fed them
from the same plate. After this followed a great
feast. At this feast they ate and drank for many
In return for the payment he made and the
labor he gave for his wife, the man made the
woman work like a slave.
Among the poor, and in the wilder tribes, mar-
riage was very simple. Sometimes there was no
ceremony. In some islands polygamy was prac-
Religion. — To understand the Filipino fore-
fathers we must not only know about their wars
and laws, their dress and commerce. The most im-
portant fact about any people is its religion. The
religion of a people tells us what they value most,
and how well they can think. So we shall next
study the ancient religion of the Filipinos.
The Filipinos of the sixteenth century had no
sacred book like the Bible or the Koran. The par-
22 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
ents told the story of the gods to their children.
Many of their songs were religious chants. These
songs told of the birth, relationships, and great
deeds of their gods. They sang these chants while
rowing boats, at feasts, funerals, and while work-
ing in the fields.
There were no regular forms of prayer used by
all alike. They had no regular day and hour for
worship. There was not in all the Islands a church
or temple. Sometimes they built huts, where some
one of their many gods was worshiped. Usually
they prayed under the open sky.
The Great God — The Filipinos believed that there
was one great God over many lesser gods. This
great God was called Bathdla, Creator, by the Tag-
alogs ; Laon, Antiquity, by the Visayans ; and
Kabiinidn, the Sun, by the Ilocanos and the Igor-
ots. Some writers say that the rainbow was
thought to be the home of this God. It was con-
sidered a sin to point at the rainbow. Some thought
that those who were killed by lightning or the
sword traveled to Bathdla by the path of the rain-
The Worship of Anitos. — ]\Iost of the prayers of
the Filipinos were offered to the lesser gods. They
believed that when any one died, his soul entered
into some object, such as a tree, rock, or river.
Certain birds and other animals, especially the
crocodile, were thought to be the home of the de-
parted spirit. These spirits of their dead ances-
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS.
tors were called anitos, or nonos, by the Tagalogs;
diiiata by the Visayans ; and by other names.
Household Gods. — The anitos of a family were
often represented by little idols made of wood or
metal to show the dead parent in his new form.
Thus they would set the tooth of a crocodile in
gold, and crown it with a head of gold. This
showed that the anito was living in the body of a
crocodile. These family anitos were their house-
Nature Spirits.— The anitos of the trees, the
rocks, and the fields were not represented by idols.
Many of these were not the spirits of dead ances-
tors, but nature spirits. There was nothing which
34 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
might not be worshiped as an anito. Useful ob-
jects, such as salt, rice, gold, silver, anything in
fact that interested the ancient Filipino, might seem
to him the home or sign of a god.
Wherever the Filipino turned, the gods were with
him. Nine hundred gods and superstitious beliefs
of the early Filipinos have been counted.
Prayers. — ^Though the Filipinos had no true re-
ligion, they were full of fears and hopes about the
unseen gods. They asked the help of the anitos in
various undertakings. From the anito they sought
freedom from famine, sickness, and other evils.
Before doing the following acts they asked per-
mission of the anitos, clasping their hands and
bowing while they prayed : picking a fruit or a
flower, passing by or cutting down a big tree, cross-
ing a valley, river, or plowed field.
Good and Bad Anitos.- — Some anitos were be-
lieved to be good and friendly, others evil. Most
of the Filipinos did not think that the anitos pro-
tected them because they were good men and
women, but because they gave the anitos offerings
of food and human sacrifices. The tribes on the
coast thought that the evil anitos were the spirits
of their Negrito enemies, and the good anitos the
spirits of their Malayan ancestors who drove the
Negritos to the mountains.
Heaven. — The ancient Filipinos believed in a life
after death. Some thought that at death the soul
crossed a river or lake in a boat rowed by an aged
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 35
ferryman. Then the soul dwelt in flowery fields,
eating, drinking, and idling till it returned to earth.
It was believed that the brave, the just, and the
good entered heaven, and the bad a place of pun-
The Soul — They fancied that the soul was easily
separated from the body and lost during sleep, or
while one was walking in the woods. If a man
became insane, it was believed that his soul had
strayed. Friends took the insane person to the
place where his reason had left him. There cries
were made to the soul, calling it back to the
Priests and Priestesses. — More women acted as
ministers of religion than men. They were usually
old, and said that they were led by the anitos.
These old women directed the ceremonies at mar-
riages and funerals. They tried to cure the sick.
At the religious feasts they offered the prayers over
the sacrifices. Some of them gained wealth, but
they were not beloved by the people. There were
about twelve kinds of priests and priestesses among
the Tagalogs. The most important was called the
sonat. Only people of importance could be sonat.
They claimed the power to forgive sins, or to con-
demn people. They could also appoint other
priests. The poor usually could not get their ser-
Religious Customs of the Cebuans. — A writer who
was with Legazpi said of the Cebuans :
36 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
"They worship their ancestors as gods. When they are
ill, or have any other necessity, they go to their graves
with great weeping and prayer to beg their ancestors for
health, protection, and aid. They make certain alms and
prayers there. And in the same manner they call upon
the devil, and they say that they cause him to appear in
a hollow reed, and that there he talks with their priest-
esses. Their priests are, as a general rule, women who
make this prayer and talk with the devil, and then give
his answer to the people, telling them what offerings of
birds and other things they must make. When any chief
dies, they kill some of his slaves ; a greater or less number
according to his rank and wealth. They are all buried in
coffins made out of two boards, and they bury with them
their finest clothes, porcelain ware, and gold jewels.
Some are buried in the ground, and others of the chief
men are placed in lofty houses."
Conclusions — The ancient Filipino knew how to
govern a village, but not a tribe or a nation. The
ancestors of the Christian Filipinos of to-day were
not savages four hundred years ago. Many of
their laws were just and wise. They had learned
the first lesson of governtnent, but only the first.
No people can become great who depend upon the
labor of slaves. The great nations of the world
have become great because their citizens built their
fortunes by their own industry and intelligence.
They did not despise labor. In Mindanao and Jolo
the Moros lived by piracy and slavery throughout
the period of Spanish rule. But their country has
not become fruitful and rich like Luzon and the
Visayas, where slavery was stopped. The ancient
LIFE OF THE ANCIENT FILIPINOS. 37
Filipino was not in the path of progress four hun-
dred years ago. The Igorot, left almost alone in his
mountains by the Spaniard, is very little different
from what he was centuries ago. The ancient
civilization of the Tagalog and the Visayan was
not much different from that of the wild tribes
now. Had no people come from Europe or Asia
with new light for the Philippines, the Islands
would be far less prosperous and happy than they
There were many priests speaking for many
gods. They were not like the priests of the Chris-
tian religion, who believe and teach nearly alike.
The ancient Filipino priests were like the headmen,
divided against themselves. Any one who could
persuade the ignorant that he had the favor of
some strong anito could become a pries-t. Just as
there was no one government for all islands, so
there was no united body of priests. The priests
were like an army without leaders. This is one
reason why Mahometanism and Christianity made
such easy and rapid progress in the Philippines.
Summary. — The village was the unit of govern-
ment. Towns were hostile to each other. Robbery
was common, and commerce was small. The three
classes of society were : the headmen, the freemen,
and the slaves. Councils of old men advised the
headman. Some chiefs ruled over several villages.
Slaves were of two classes, absolute slaves and
slaves who owed services in time of need. Slaves
38 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
became such by birth, captivity, debt, and other
reasons. Slavery was mild in form. There were
no prisons. There were peculiar "tests" for dis-
covering criminals. People wore many ornaments.
Some were tattooed. Daggers, spears, and bows
were the chief weapons. Commerce was chiefly
with China and Japan. The Moros were the prin-
cipal traders. There were several ancient Filipino
alphabets. Many knew how to write. There were
no books. They had the beginnings of civilization.
Music, singing, and dancing were their chief amuse-
ments. Marriage was by purchase, a part for the
mother of the bride, a part for the new family.
They worshiped the spirits of their ancestors and
of natural objects. They believed in a great god
over lesser gods. The crocodile was especially re-
vered. They believed in good and evil anitos.
There were several kinds of priests. Women were
often priests. There were no temples or sacred
DISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINES BY EUROPEANS.
European Trade with the East. — Before the year
1500 the people of Europe brought goods from the
East across Asia by caravans. The silks, spices,
gems, and other luxuries of India and China were
carried on the backs of camels to the Black and the
Mediterranean seas. There they were put into
ships and sent to Venice and Genoa. This was a
long, dangerous, and expensive route. In 1453 the
Turks captured Constantinople. They were the
enemies of the Christians of Europe, and they
would no longer allow this traffic between the east
and the west. So it was now necessary to find
another route to the east. The search for this
route led to the discovery of the Philippines.
A Sea-route from Europe to India.— The Portu-
guese were the best sailors in those days. Under
the protection of the brave and wise "Prince Henry
the Navigator," they made voyage after voyage
down the west coast of Africa. At that time people
thought that the ocean toward the south grew hot-
ter and hotter till the water boiled. It was a great
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
surprise to them to find that south of the equator
the water began to grow cooler. Finally Vasco da
Gama reached India by sea in 1498. Albuquerque
conquered Malacca in 151 1. He saw there two
large boats from Luzon, but he did not know where
that island was. The next year the Portuguese
discovered the Moluccas, or Spice Islands. From
these islands came the pepper, cinnamon, cloves,
and other spices so much liked in Europe.
Ferdinand Magellan.^ — Magellan was a Portu-
guese nobleman and naval officer. He was a brave,
DISCOVERY OF PHILIPPINES BY EUROPEANS. 41
ambitions sailor. Serrano, one of the captains who
discovered the Spice Islands, wrote to his friend,
Magellan, an acconnt of them.
Magellan believed that he could find a western
sea-route to these islands. The lands which Colum-
bus had discovered a few years before were thought
to be a part of Asia. Magellan thought that the
newly discovered Spice Islands lay in the sea a
short distance west of Mexico. He told his plan
to the King of Portugal, but the king would not
give him ships for his voyage.
The Demarcation Lines. — Aftei" the discoveries
of Columbus, the Spanish and the Portuguese quar-
reled about the possession of the new lands. So in
1493 Pope Alexander VI. drew a line through the
Atlantic Ocean from north to south, one hundred
leagues west of the Azores Islands. New lands
west of this line were to belong to Spain; those to
the east of it to Portugal. The next year the kings
of Spain and Portugal moved this line to a point
three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape
Verde Islands. The Spice Islands had been dis-
covered by sailing east, but Magellan thought that
they were nearer by a western route. If so, they
would be on the western side of the demarcation
line, and belong to Spain.
Magellan and Charles I.- — Refused aid by his
own king, Magellan went to Spain. He told King
Charles I. that the rich islands which the Portu-
guese had discovered lay within the part of the
42 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
world set aside for Spanish discovery. He offered
-to find a western route to these islands, and to con-
quer and settle them for Spain.
King Charles gave Magellan a fleet of five small
ships for his voyage of discovery and conquest.
Charles I. of Spain.
The largest of them was only one hundred and
thirty-two tons in size. That is about half as large
as one of our little coast-guard steamers. Several
fleets like Magellan's could l)e put into one of the
big steamships that come to Manila from America.
DISCOVERY OF PHILIPPINES BY EUROPEANS. 43
The king gave Magellan the sole right to make
discoveries for Spain in the South Sea for ten years.
No one else might do this. INIagellan was to have
a share of the profits from trading with the natives.
He was to become governor of the new lands. It
took much patience and skill to make this contract
with the king; for Magellan had many enemies.
Magellan Sails.- — The fleet sailed from Spain.
August 10, 1 5 19. There were two hundred and
thirty-five men. The ships were filled with every-
thing necessary for a long voyage over unknown
seas. The names of these famous ships were : Vic-
toria, La Trinidad, Concepcion, San Antonio, and
Stopping a few days at the Canary Islands, they
reached Brazil in December. The sailors became
discourap-ed as thev sailed for months toward the
south in search of a passage. At the mouth of the
broad Rio de la Plata they thought they had found
the desired opening to the west. Again disap-
pointed, a mutiny broke out. Magellan was obliged
to punish several men with death. One of his cap-
tains and a priest he abandoned on the desert coast
Wreck and Desertion, — In April, 1520, th*e fleet
stopped for the southern winter at Port St. Julian,
south of the Rio de la Plata. The Santiago, which
had gone ahead, was now wrecked. This misfor-
tune greatly disheartened all. Still Magellan sailed
on. November i, 1520, he entered the strait which
44 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
now bears his name. He himself called it "Strait
of all Saints." The San Antonio sailed ahead of
the other ships to explore the strait. When she was
out of sight of Magellan, her captain turned his
ship toward Spain, and deserted his comrades.
The Pacific. — After a month's anxious battling
with the currents and winds, Magellan entered the
greatest of oceans. He called it the "Pacific" be-
cause of its quiet waters. No one then knew how
broad it was. Had they known, they might not
have dared to cross it. Their voyage across the
Pacific, of three months and twenty days, was one
of terrible suffering. Nineteen men died. They
boiled their food in the salt sea-water. They ate
rats and gnawed leather. In this long journey they
passed two desolate, rocky islands, which in their
grief they called "The Unfortunates."
Discovery of the Philippines. — March 6, 1 52 1,
they sighted some small islands. Many boats sailed
to meet them from the shore. So they called these
islands the "Isles of Sails." The natives were such
thieves that they also called the islands the La-
drones, or "thieves."
Refreshed by the fruits and vegetables which
they obtained here, they sailed westward till March
1 6th. On this day they saw a lofty island called
Zainal (Samar). This was probably near Cape
Guiuan. The next day they landed on the island
of Homonhon, or Malhon, then called Hnmiuiu.
Here thev built two huts for the sick, whom Ma-
DISCOVERY OF PHILIPPINES BY EUROPEANS. 45
gellan tended with his own hands. A canoe with
nine natives visited them here. These were the
first Fihpinos the Spaniards saw.
After a few days the Spaniards sailed to the
islands the "Isles of Sails." The natives were such
traded and feasted with two Moro chiefs from
Mindanao. They helped the natives harvest their
rice, exchanged presents with them, and treated
them as friends.
First Mass in the Philippines. — On the last day of
March, 1521, they celebrated on the island of Lima-
saua the first mass said in the Philippines. Here
]\Iagellan erected a cross and took possession of the
Islands. He plucked grass and broke off branches
of trees. By this ceremony he claimed the land
for the King of Spain. He named the islands
the Archipiciago dc San Lazaro. For many
years, however, they were called the "Western
Magellan at Cebu. — From Limasaua Magellan
sailed to Cebu, taking with him one of the chiefs
and several other natives. The chief of Cebu was
Raja Humabon. With him Magellan made a blood
compact after the custom of those times. Each
drank blood taken from the veins of the other and
mixed with his own blood. Several days were used
in making a treaty of peace. At first the chief of
Cebu wished to make Magellan pay tribute. Ma-
gellan refused to do this. He told Humabon that
he would destroy his towns if he did not submit to
46 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the Spaniards. The chief had heard of the Portu-
guese, who had taken the Spice Islands, and knew
how terrible the weapons of the Spaniards were.
So he yielded.
Magellan landed many goods for trade with the
natives. He told his men not to let the Cebuans
know how much the Spaniards valued gold, for the
natives were willing to give a great price for the
trifles, like mirrors and bells, which the Spaniards
Baptism of the Cebuans. — The Spaniards at once
taught Humabon the Catholic faith. The chief and
800 of his subjects were baptized in one day. An
early writer says that within eight days all the
people of Cebu and the near-by islands were bap-
tized. All of the towns on Cebu now submitted
to Magellan, who promised to help them fight their
Death of Magellan.— The chief of the island of
IMactan, just east of Cebu, was the sworn enemy of
Humabon. He refused to accept the rule of the
white conquerors. Magellan with sixty soldiers in
armor sailed over to Mactan in the night. At day-
light he was attacked by hundreds of natives.
Twenty boat-loads of Cebuans went with Magellan,
but he would not let them assist him, for he wished
to show them how well the Spaniards could fight.
His pride cost him his life. He was soon wounded
in the leg with an arrow, and then in the face and
arm with a lance. Then his left leg was cut with a
Magellan Planting the Cross in the Philippines.
48 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
bolo and he fell. Eight other Spaniards were
killed. Only fifteen of the natives fell.
So perished the bravest sailor of his day. A
monument marks the spot in Mactan where he was
killed. If lie had been a man of the tact and pru-
The Magellan Monument, Manila.
dence of Legazpi, Spanish rule in the Philippines
would have begun forty years sooner than it did.
Massacre of Spaniards at Cebu. — The fame of
the Spaniards was destroyed by this defeat. The
Cebuans no longer thought it impossible to resist
them. A former slave of Magellan told Humabon
that, if he did not kill the Spaniards, they would
DISCOVERY OF PHILIPPINES BY EUROPEANS. 49
make slaves of him and his people. The chief
therefore planned to kill them. He invited the
Spaniards to a banquet. He forgot the blood com-
pact, his baptism, and the fact that Magellan died
fighting the enemies of Cebu. ^^'hile the Spaniards
were enjoying the feast, twenty-three of them were
suddenly massacred. Juan Serrano escaped to the
beach. He called to his companions in the ships
and begged them to rescue him. They refused to
offer a ransom for him, and sailed away. We can
not admire the treachery of the natives or the
heartlessness of the Spaniards.
Elcano Sails Around the Globe. — The Victoria, in
command of Juan Sebastian de Elcano, sailed on
around the world to Spain, by way of the Cape of
Good Hope. She was the first ship to encircle the
globe. Her voyage was the most daring and inter-
esting ever made. The vast Pacific had been
crossed, a strait found connecting it with the At-
lantic, and a new archipelago discovered. All Eu-
rope now knew that the world was round. This
was the greatest discovery, perhaps, that man ever
Demarcation Line of 1529.- — Loaisa and Saavedra
followed Magellan to the Philippines within a few
years. Both of their expeditions were failures.
The value of the Philippines was not yet under-
stood. They produced few spices. The Moluccas
were considered much more valuable. Portuguese
and Spanish both claimed these islands. To end
50 A SllORr HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the quarrel, Charles I., in 1529, gave up his claim
to the Moluccas to the King of Portugal for 350,-
000 ducats. Really, Spain had no right to the
Philippines, because they were on the eastern half
of the globe, in Portuguese territory. A new line
was now established 297 leagues east of the Moluc-
cas. This left the Philippines on the Portuguese
side of the line. Still Spain continued her attempts
to conquer them. Thus she sold what she did not
own, and took by force what she had already sold.
Expedition .of Vill'alobos — This leader left Mex-
ico in 1542. King Charles sent him "For the dis-
covery, conquest, and colonization of the islands
and provinces of the southern sea toward the west."
Villalobos partly explored Mindanao. After strug-
gling with hunger and hostile natives for two years,
he gave up the attempt to make a settlement in the
Philippines, dying at Amboina, in the Spice Islands.
It was Villalobos who gave the name "Felipinas"
to Leyte and some smaller islands in 1543. This
was in honor of Prince Felipe, son of Charles I.,
who later, as Philip II., sent Legazpi to the Philip-
Summary. — The Portuguese Vasco da Gama
reached India via the Cape of Good Hope in 1498.
Albuquerque conquered Malacca in 1 5 1 1 . This
diverted the trade with the East, which the con-
quest of Constantinople in 1453 had checked. Ma-
gellan tried to find a western route to the Spice
Islands. Charles I. of Spain fitted out his expe-
DISCOVERY OF PHILIPPINES BY EUROPEANS. 51
dition. \Mth five ships he sailed through the
Straits of Magellan, across the Pacific and dis-
covered the Philippines, ]\Iarch 6, 1521. He first
landed on Homonhon, celebrated the first mass in
the Philippines on Limasaua, then settled in Cebu,
and was killed at Alactan. Juan de Elcano com-
pleted the voyage around the globe in the Victoria.
Many natives were Christianized at this time, but
they massacred some Spaniards at Cebu and drove
them away. Charles I and the King of Portugal
established a line 297 leagues east of the Moluccas.
Islands west of this line were to belong to Portu-
gal. This gave them the Philippines. Neverthe-
less, Spain later on sent Villalobos to conquer them.
Villalobos named the islands "Felipinas" in 1543,
in honor of Prince Felipe, son of Charles I.
THE CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES.
The King's Command. — Philip II., in whose
honor the Phihppines had been named, came to his
throne in 1556. He desired to conquer the Islands
Avhich bore his name. Nearly forty years had
passed since their discovery by Magellan. Still,
there was no Spanish settlement in the Philippines.
So in 1559 Philip wrote to the Viceroy of Mexico
and commanded him to send ships
"for the discovery of the western islands toward the Malu-
cos such as the Phelipinas and others which lie within our
demarcation and are said likewise to contain spice."
The viceroy replied:
"It is impossible to go to the Filipinas Islands without
breaking the treaty, because the latter are no less within
the treaty than the Malucos."
He meant that Philip would break the promise his
father, Charles I., made to the King of Portugal
in 1529, if he should send ships to the Philippines.
THE CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES. 53
Philip now sought the opinion of the famous friar,
Andres de Urdaneta. — This Augustinian friar
was chosen by Phihp as the spiritual leader and
chief navigator of the expedition of Legazpi. Ur-
daneta was born in 1498. He was formerly an
army captain. He was with Loaisa's expedition,
and had spent ten years in and near the Spice
Islands. In 1552 he became an Augustinian friar
in the city of Mexico. He was a brave soldier, the
greatest geographer of his time, and a worthy
priest. Urdaneta was a friend and relative of
In reply to the king's request that he go with the
new expedition, Urdaneta said that the Philippines
were not on Spain's side of the demarcation line
of 1529. He wrote :
"Therefore it would not be right for your majesty to
order the said vessels to the Fijipina Island without show-
ing some lawful or pious reason therefor."
In spite of the opinions of the viceroy and Ur-
daneta, Philip determined to send the expedition.
Legazpi. — Aliguel Lopez de Legazpi was chosen
commander of the fleet. He was born in 1502 in
Spain. He came to ]\Iexico when a young man,
and became secretary of the couiicil of the city of
Mexico. He was at this time a wealthy land-
owner. He spent much of his own money in the
54 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
preparation of this expedition. Legazpi was a wise,
just, and generous man. He deserves the fame he
has gained in history.
The Voyage of Legazpi. — Legazpi's fleet sailed
from Navidad, Mexico, November 21, 1564. There
were five ships and 380 men. Four Augustinian
friars accompanied Urdaneta. At first the fleet
sailed toward New Guinea, as Urdaneta wished.
When five days from port the course of the ships
was changed to the direction of the Philippines.
Legazpi did this because sealed letters which he
carried from the Supreme Court ordered this
change. He said :
"The religious in the fleet were very sorry at this, say-
ing that they had been deceived ; and had they known
while yet ashore that such a route was to be sailed, they
would not have gone with the expedition, for the reasons
that Fray Andres de Urdaneta had given in Mexico."
Arrival in the Philippines. — Legazpi reached Cebu
February 13, 1565. He did not land at this time, as
the natives were unfriendly, and brought him little
food. For two months he sent boats from island
to island to get provisions and find the best place
to settle. Negros, Panay, Leyte, and Mindanao
were visited. The Spaniards had several sea-fights
with Moros. In Butuan they traded with Luzon
boats for gold and wax. Finally it was decided,
against Urdaneta's wish, to settle in Cebu. This
brave and just friar was so sure it was wrong to
THE CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES.
do this that he would not even talk about the
The Settlement of Cebu.— April 27th the fleet
appeared before Cebu. The natives were hostile, so
Old Eokt at Cebu.
Legazpi landed soldiers to capture the town. The
Cebuans fled. One hundred houses were burned,
either by a shot from the vessels, or because the
Cebuans set fire to them.
May 8th the fort was begun, and Legazpi took
formal possession of the town in the name of Spain.
He called it "San Miguel." A palisade of stakes
was built, enclosing a triangular village. A church
was erected. Tupas. the chief of Cebu, was much
alarmed when reminded of the massacre of Magel-
56 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
lan's men. He was promised forgiveness if he re-
Legazpi's Treatment of the Cebuans. — Legazpi
treated the natives kindly and justly. He was not so
rash a man as Magellan, and he expected to live all
The Harbor of Cebu.
his life in the Philippines; so he was very patient.
The natives were not allowed to bring weapons into
San ]\Iiguel. They were required to sell their goods
at a fair price. Legazpi made his men pay for
everything they took from the natives. Gradually
he won the friendship of many villages. Martin
de Goiti, his maestre de campo, or field marshal,
spent most of his time sailing about looking for
food. Sometimes the soldiers had to eat rats.
Legazpi's men drank too much wine. He had to
THE CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES. 57
hang several to suppress a mutiny. He also for-
bade them to open the graves of the natives and
steal the gold jewels and ornaments which they
buried with their dead. In all things he tried to
Legazpi, "Adelantado." — In June, 1569, Juan de
la Isla arrived at Cebii from Cadiz with three ships.
He brought a letter from King Philip for Legazpi,
ordering him to take possession of the Philippines
for Spain. Legazpi was made governor of all the
Philippines with the title of Adelantado. He im-
mediately went to Cebu and organized a city gov-
ernment. He appointed Guido de Lavezaris gov-
ernor of the city, and gave lands to the Spaniards
who settled there. He named the town the "City
of the Holy Name of God."
First Expedition to Luzon. — The Spaniards now
had few guns and little ammunition. One-third of
their men were without arms. They sent cannon
to Mexico as ballast for ships, because there was no
powder for them. The natives of Panay often re-
fused to plant their fields, hoping thus to starve
out the Spaniards. Four years of tribute-paying
and the new religion had not taught them to love
their masters. Boats had often come with stories
of the richer island of Luzon to the north. So
Legazpi now determined to send an expedition to
On the 8th of ]\Iay, 1570, one hundred and
twenty Spaniards and fifteen paraos manned by
58 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Visayans left the River of Panay for Luzon. Mar-
tin de Goiti commanded.
Juan de Salcedo. — With De Goiti went Juan de
Salcedo. Salcedo was a grandson of Legazpi. He
was born in Mexico in 1549. He reached Cebu in
1567, at eighteen years of age. He was a brave
and noble young man. Already he had fought
successfully the pirates of IMindoro, who had been
killing and burning along the coasts of Panay.
On the way to Manila, Salcedo went up the Pan-
sipit River to Bombon Lake. Here he was wounded
in the leg by a poisoned arrow in a fight with the
Moros. He went back to De Goiti and they sailed
into ]\Ianila Bay.
At ten in the morning. May 19th, they entered
the Pasig River. The town was defended by a
palisade of stakes, and small cannon were at the
gates. Hundreds of warriors waited at the water's
edge. De Goiti landed, and first met Lacandola,
the chief of Tondo, uncle of Soliman. De Goiti
and the two chiefs pledged their faith to each other
in a blood compact. A few days later the natives
fired upon the Spanish boats without warning. It
is said that Soliman fired the first cannon-shot with
his own hand. The Spaniards landed at once and
captured the fort. They burned the town, killing
one hundred natives and capturing eighty. They
found the clay and wax mold for a cannon over five
meters long. The inhabitants fled up the Pasig in
boats, and left Manila deserted. De Goiti, fearing
THE CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES. 59
that the winds would become contrary, returned at
once to Panay. The battle of Manila and the for-
mal taking possession of Luzon occurred June 6,
Second Expedition to Luzon. — The day after
Easter, 1571, Legazpi with twenty-seven boats and
280 men again sailed for Luzon. \Mien the people
of j\Ianila saw another Spanish fleet coming, they
burned the town, which had been rebuilt since its
destruction the year before. Then they crossed
the river to Tondo, and sent back the chief Alcan-
dora to make terms with Legazpi. The Adelantado
promised forgiveness and friendship. The next
day Soliman and Lacandola met Legazpi and prom-
ised to be subjects of the King of Spain.
Legazpi Founds Manila. — June 3, 157 1, Legazpi
gave the title "Distinguished and ever loyal city"
to Manila. June 24th he appointed the officials of
the new city. The Filipinos called the town "May-
nila." This means in Tagalog, "There is nilad."
The nilad is a small tree bearing white flowers, that
grew abundantly about ]\Ianila.
Death of Legazpi. — \\'orn out by the hardships
and anxieties of his life, the great Adelantado
passed away, August 20, 1572. He died in debt
because he had spent all his money in the king's
service and in helping needy soldiers. His fame is
without stain. Of ah the monuments in the Philip-
pines, none is more deserved than that to Legazpi
and his friend, the wise and good Urdaneta.
6o A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Conquest of Luzon by Salcedo. — Soon after Leg-
azpi founded Manila, he sent Salcedo to subdue
Cainta and Taytay in La Laguna. They had re-
fused to pay tribute. After a fierce battle, Salcedo
captured these towns. Then he continued around
the south shore of the lake, going as far south as
the gold-mines of Paracali in Camarines.
Returning to Manila, his love of adventure led
him to make another expedition at his own ex-
pense. With forty-five men he sailed up the west
coast of Luzon, around the north end of the island,
and then down the east coast to the island of
Polillo. From here he returned to Manila by land
across La Laguna. This journey took a year. Lie
arrived at Manila a few weeks after the death of
On this trip of conquest, Salcedo landed at every
important town. He told the natives that they must
accept Philip IL for their king and pay tribute. If
they resisted him, he fought. Generally he per-
suaded them by kindness. In several places he
left a few of his soldiers to govern the towns. He
went up the Cagayan River with thirteen men, but
was obliged to return quickly. The people of Vi-
gan received him kindly. Later he was given
charge of this district.
The following year (1573) he took a larger ex-
pedition by sea to Camarines and the island of
Catanduanes. He was very successful in making
friends with the people.
THE CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES. 6l
Salcedo died of fever, near Vigan, in 1576. He
left most of his property to the natives whom he
ruled. He did more than any other man to sub-
ject Luzon to the Spaniards. Yet there were many
who were unwilling to submit to Spanish rule. The
mountain tribes were never fully conquered.
•Summary. — Philip II. of Spain sent Legazpi and
Urdaneta to the Philippines in 1564. Legazpi was
a wealthy landowner and official in Mexico. Ur-
daneta was an Augustinian friar, who had for-
merly been in the Moluccas and was a geographer.
Legazpi 's expedition reached Cebii February 13,
1565. Later he captured the town. Here he made
the first permanent Spanish settlement in the Phil-
ippines. He treated the Filipinos kindly and
justly. The soldiers often abused the natives. The
Spaniards had many hardships. Legazpi was made
governor of the Philippines in 1569. In 1570 he
sent the first expedition to Manila. After captur-
ing the town it returned to Cebu. In 1571 Legazpi
moved his capital to Manila. He built a palace,
church, and many houses. Urdaneta returned to
Mexico soon after his arrival in the Philippines.
He discovered the northern return route. Legazpi
died in Manila in 1572. Juan de Salcedo con-
quered most of Luzon in 1572-3. He left garri-
sons in a few towns. The mountain tribes were
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS.
Poverty of the Victors — When the Spaniards de-
cided to settle permanently in the Philippines, they
had to find some way for so many officials and sol-
diers to live. At times the soldiers were without
pay for years. King Philip had hoped that his men
would find much gold and spices in the Philippines.
One-fifth of this was for himself. But Legazpi
had been able to send the king only a few tons of
cinnamon, some wax, and a few gold ornaments.
The soldiers had become so desperate that they
sometimes robbed the natives.
The Encomiendas and Encomenderos. — There-
fore when Legazpi founded the city of Cebu in
1570, he divided the Cebuans among the Spanish
citizens. Each of these groups of natives must
support a Spaniard. He thought this better than
to let the soldiers steal from the natives. Each of
these groups was called an encomienda, or reparti-
micnto. There were usually from 300 to 1,000
natives in an encomienda.
The Spaniard who ruled them was called an
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS. 63
encomendcro. It was his duty to care for the na-
tives under his control. He must keep order, see
that the laws were obeyed, and protect the people
from their enemies. It was also his duty to sup-
port a priest for the religious instruction of the
A Church at Cebu.
natives, and to build churches. His support came
entirely from the natives, who were taxed for his
The Tribute. — Every male Filipino between the
ages of sixteen and sixty was compelled to pay an
annual tax, or tribute, to the encomendero. When
Legazpi settled in Alanila he fixed the amount of
64 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
this tribute at a caz'an of rice and a piece of col-
ored cloth two varas long and one wide. Instead
of this, the native could pay his tax with six sil-
ver reals. In other parts of the Islands the tribute
was four varas of cloth, seventy gantas of rice,
and one hen. In Ilocos the tribute was often col-
lected in gold-dust. The natives washed this out
of the sands of the rivers, or got it by trading
wnth the Igorots. The Cebuans later were freed
from the tribute because of their loyalty to the
In the early days of the encomiendas all this tax
belonged to the encomendero. If his encomienda
was small, or the tax hard to collect, he sometimes
found it difficult to live. In other encomiendas the
encomenderos became rich. The tribute was in-
creased to ten reals in 1590. In addition the tribute-
payer gave one real for the support of the church
and one real for the support of the government of
his town. A single man paid one-half the tax that
a married man paid.
This tax seems small, but it was difficult for the
Filipinos of that day to pay it. They were not used
to laying up goods for the future. Their custom
was to get just enough food to live upon from day
to day. They could not see why they should work
for these strangers. So their hearts were bitter
toward the encomenderos.
Injustices of the Encomenderos. — Many of the
encomenderos tried to get rich as quickly as pos-
DIVISION IXTO PROVIXCBS
IS THE YEAR 1585
SCALE OF MILES
■2i 30 100
SCALE OF KILOMETERS
121 Lonrimde East 122 fiom Greenirich 123°
THE ENCOMEXDEROS AND THE FRIARS. 65
sible. Few of them cared for the good of the
natives. Once a year they went through their en-
comiendas with soldiers, collecting the tribute. The
rest of the time they usually left the natives to
themselves. There were a few just and kindly
men, like Juan de Salcedo, who were loved by the
natives they ruled. IMany of the encomenderos,
however, made the Filipinos pay a tax not only
for themselves, but also for each of their children,
and even for their slaves. Some natives did not
marry on account of the burden of the tribute.
Others killed their children to avoid the tax on
them. Some burned their houses and fled to the
mountains when the tax-collector came.
Often the tax-collectors deceived the natives.
The collector of Dagami, in Leyte, used a scale
that required double the proper weight to weigh
the tribute of wax. At times, instead of collecting
the tax when rice or wax was plentiful and cheap,
the encomendero waited till these articles were dear
so he could sell them at a high price.
Early Revolts — The first insurrections against
Spanish rule were caused by the hardships of the
tribute which the encomenderos forced from the
natives. In 1589 there were revolts in the Caga-
yan Valley and in Ilocos Xorte, in which tax-col-
lectors were killed.
The Protest of Rada. — Father Rada, the pro-
vincial of the Augustinians, wrote to Governor
Lavezaris, in 1574, to say that he and other friars
66 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
thought it wrong to ask so much tribute of the
natives. He said :
"Most of the owners of encomiendas have stocks in
which they keep as prisoners the chiefs or freemen who
do not supply the amount of tribute from their slaves
when they themselves can not obtain it from the latter."
He said that the reason the friars consented to
the encomienda system was, "To avoid greater in-
juries and robberies which are done without any
remedy when there are no encomiendas."
Answer of Lavezaris. — The governor answered
this protest by saying that the natives who did not
pay the tax were too lazy to work, or that they spent
their time in drunkenness and feasting. He also
said that the increase of trade which the Span-
iards brought had made the encomiendas a benefit
to the natives. Above all, he said the encomien-
das were necessary, because without them the sol-
diers would rob the natives. This shows us why
one Filipino said he did not wish to become a
Christian because there were Spanish soldiers in
King Philip Forbids Encomiendas. — In 1574
Philip wrote to Governor Lavezaris :
"As for what you ask concerning encomiendas of In-
dians — namely, that you have them because you were dis-
coverers of these Islands — such a thing has appeared to
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS. 67
Governor De Sande in 1576 ordered the encom-
"hold those encomiendas as the royal property, make col-
lections, and have the natives instructed in the teachings
of our holy Catholic faith."
In spite of this decree the encomenderos continued
their rule for fifty years longer. Only a portion of
the encomiendas were transferred to the king.
It was the duty of the encomenderos to see that
their natives had religious instruction. Yet some of
them let the people of their encomiendas live for
twenty years without priests.
Progress of Religion.- — By 1586 over two hun-
dred and fifty thousand Filipinos had become
Christians, about one-half the total population of
the Islands then. The friars had established mon-
asteries in forty different places. Yet there were in
this same year one hundred encomiendas. So it can
be seen that there were many who did not have
religious teachers. The Council wrote to King
"Many who are already baptized are yet without instruc-
tion or ministers. Many others pacified, and yet to be
baptized, are daily asking for baptism. There are an in-
finite number of others to be pacified who have no knowl-
edge of God."
The Encomiendas in 1591. — By 1591 there were
267 encomiendas of Filipinos. Thirty-one of these
68 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
were for the king. The others were to support
officers and favorites of the king or the governor.
The entire Cagayan Valley was divided among the
soldiers who had conquered it.
The encomenderos made the cabcaas de harangay
collect the tribute for them when possible. In re-
turn for this service the cabezas and their families
were free from the tribute.
The Pope Forbids Slavery. — ]\Iany of the en-
comenderos had slaves. Early in the conquest when
the Spaniards were in Cebii, they used as slaves
Negritos who had been captured in battle. Shortly
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS. 69
after Legazpi took Manila, Martin de Goiti cap-
tured several hundred natives in Butas, near Manila.
These captives were made slaves of the Spanish
soldiers. The Spaniards bought slaves whom the
Portuguese brought from India. They also allowed
the Filipinos to keep their old slaves, but not to take
When the Pope heard of these things, he forbade
the Spaniards in the Philippines to have Filipinos as
slaves. They were still allowed to have Negro and
Kaffir slaves. The Kaffirs came from India. It was
Pope Gregory XIV. who forbade slavery in 1591.
"We order all persons dwelling in those islands to set
wholly free, without any craft or deceit, whatever Indian
slaves or serfs they may have; nor for the future shall
they, in any manner contrary to the edict of the said King
Philip, take or keep captives or slaves."
This order was very poorly obeyed.
The Arrival of the Friars. — The Augustinians, in
1565, were the first friars who settled in the Philip-
pines. They had charge of the mission in Cebu,
Manila, and in the districts now known as Pam-
panga, Pangasinan, Bulacan, and Ilocos.
The Franciscans came next, in 1577. They
labored in La Laguna and southern Luzon. The
Jesuits arrived in 1581, and were given charge of
the central and southern islands; also a few towns
in La Laguna. Then came the Dominicans, 1587,
70 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
to whom a part of Pangasinan and all of Cagayan
were given. The Recollects were the last of the
great orders to arrive, in 1606. They worked in
Zambales, IMindanao, and the smaller Visayas. A
few friars of other orders came in later times, but
these five are the chief religious orders that have
worked in the Philippines.
Character of the Early Friars. — The friars who
came to the Philippines with the conquerors were
not rich and powerful. They did not have great
haciendas and fine houses. Some of them begged
their food from the Filipinos. The Franciscans did
not, like the others, receive money from the taxes
the government raised. They lived with the natives,
who supported them by gifts.
These first missionaries were brave, self-sacrific-
ing men. They labored patiently and lovingly with
the poor, ignorant, warring natives. They studied
the native dialects diligently so that they might un-
derstand the people and preach to them. Often
after three to six months' study of Tagalog or
Visayan they were able to write and speak these
tongues. One young Jesuit learned to read, write,
and talk Tagalog in seventy-four days.
What the Friars Taught. — Besides the Catholic
religion, the friars of those days taught the Fili-
pinos many things that are necessary to civilization.
They showed them how to make brick, to burn lime
from shells and coral rock, to build houses of stone,
to make roads, and to do many other things.
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS. 71
At times the convents were turned into work-
shops to teach various handicrafts, like carpentry.
St. Augustine Convent, Manila.
The friars took great interest in agriculture. They
preached sermons on the best ways of planting.
They brought new garden-seeds from Mexico and
^2 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Spain. The anona, ate, chico, and papaya, also
corn, cacao, tobacco, and maguey were all brought
One of the hardest and most useful of their tasks
was to get the people to move into towns from their
little villages in the woods and mountains. In these
larger villages they were safer. They could hear the
gospel. They could see how other people lived.
Their children could learn more, and have a better
chance in life.
The First Spanish Schools. — The friars did what
they could to teach the natives to read and write.
They changed the old Filipino alphabets for the
Roman alphabet that the nations of the West nearly
all use. They wrote books for the Filipinos in the
native dialects. These books were almost all about
religion, but they opened a new world to people who
had never seen a book. Juan de Placencia estab-
lished many primary schools in La Laguna before
1590. These schools were not like the schools of
to-day. Very little besides religion was taught in
them, but they were a good beginning.
That the friars were good and "earnest men, liked
by the natives, is shown also by the rapid acceptance
of Christianity by the Filipinos.
Reasons for the Rapid Conversion of the Fili-
pinos. — By 1586 half of the inhabitants of the Phil-
ippines had been baptized. Among the reasons for
this rapid change of faith were these :
( I ) The ancient religion of the Filipinos was one
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS. 7Z
of fear. They did not love their gods. Their rehg-
ion was not one of thought, but of foohsh dreams.
They thought the God of the Christians must be bet-
ter than their own because they saw the Christians
were wiser and stronger than they. People are very
slow to give up a religion which they love. We can
see from the readiness of the Filipinos to accept a
new religion that they had little love for their old
(2) The Filipinos had no books of religion, or
churches to abandon. They liked the wonderful
buildings and beautiful clothing of the friars, the
decorations of the altar, and the images of the
(3) They did not have a society of priests who
worked together to keep out the new religion.
There was no union among their priests. ]\Iost of
them were old women who gained their living by
deceiving the natives. Their medicines did not heal
diseases so well as the medicines the new teachers
(4) It did not cost so much to become a Chris-
tian as to worship the old gods. The friar would
make long journeys over the mountains to visit the
sick and the dying, yet, in those days, not ask for
money. He was not afraid of the demons that the
natives thought were in the trees and rocks. They
no longer had to pay to have these spirits driven
away from their houses.
Summary. — An encomienda was a group of na-
74 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
tives ruled by a Spaniard, called an encomendero.
He kept order, collected taxes, maintained religion,
and gained his fortune. Males between sixteen and
sixty paid him an annual tax, equal to about six
reals. Many encomenderos were harsh and unjust.
The first insurrections were caused by the hardships
of the forced tribute. The friars complained of the
injustice of this system. King Philip forbade this
practice in 1574, but it w'as continued for fifty
years. By 1586 half the population of the Philip-
pines was Christianized. In 1591 there were 267
encomiendas, 31 belonging to the King. The Pope
forbade the Spaniards to keep Filipinos as slaves.
The Augustinians settled in the Philippines in 1565.
The other principal orders which worked in the
Philippines were the Franciscans, the Jesuits, the
Dominicans, and the Recollects. The early friars
were as a rule poor, brave, self-sacrificing, and dili-
gent. They showed the natives many things about
industries and agriculture. They organized many
towns. The friars changed the old Filipino alpha-
bets for the Roman, wrote books in the native dia-
lects, and established schools.
The rapid conversion of the Filipinos was due to
the inferior character of their religion, their love
for the ceremonies of the friars, their lack of a
united body of priests, and the benefits of Chris-
The encomenderos and the friars were the two
classes from whom the Filipinos got their first ideas
THE ENCOMENDEROS AND THE FRIARS. 75
of the Spaniards. They endured the rule of the
former, and cheerfully accepted the religion of the
latter. They still had their headmen, only these had
become tax-collectors for the encomenderos. There
was less war among themselves and less slavery.
The tribute was disliked, but taxes are necessary for
any people who wish to rise above barbarism. Their
commerce was increasing, and they were learning
better ways of cultivating the soil. Yet they were
far from satisfied.
DREAMS OF CONQUEST.
Lavezaris, Governor — 1572-1575. — Guide de
Lavezaris had been the treasurer of Legazpi's expe-
dition, and later the Governor of Cebu. He fol-
lowed Legazpi as Governor of the Philippines. His
time was mainly spent in settling quarrels about en-
comiendas. He gave encomiendas in places that
had never been conquered, or even seen, by the
Spaniards. Lavezaris was not a strong governor.
He was easily flattered and influenced by those
Distress of the Spaniards — The Spanish colony
was now in great distress. Many were sick. Food
was scarce. The Filipinos were suspicious and hos-
tile. They paid the tribute very reluctantly. Mean-
time Lavezaris took large encomiendas for himself.
During his rule Manila was nearly lost to the
Spaniards by the attack of Limahong, about which
we shall study in a chapter farther on. A strong
governor was now sent to the Islands.
De Sande, Governor — 1575- 1580. — De Sande was
a judge of the Supreme Court of JNIexico. From
DREAMS OF CONQUEST. -jj
the time of Legazpi, the Phihppines were ruled
from Mexico as a colony till that country separated
from Spain in 1819. From Mexico came most of
the governors, soldiers, and officials of the Philip-
pines. There many of the laws for these Islands
were made, and by its Supreme Court most impor-
tant matters were settled.
De Sande made every one obey the law, but the
country was so poor that he could not keep crimi-
nals in prison long, because their labor was needed
to obtain food. In his time the first horses were
sent to the Philippines, from China. They were
thirteen in number, brought as presents and to sell.
It was difficult for De Sande to get servants, be-
cause they were afraid of the horses. De Sande
had many slaves, and lived in greater luxury than
Legazpi and Lavezaris.
Conquest of Brunei — In 1578 De Sande went
with a fleet of forty ships, several hundred Span-
iards, and about fifteen hundred Filipino soldiers
and sailors to the city of Brunei, capital of Borneo.
After a short battle, De Sande captured the city. He
did this at the recjuest of the sultan, Sirela, whose
brother had driven him from the throne. He took
twenty-seven ships and one hundred and seventy
cannon. Then his men fell ill and he was obliged to
return to Manila.
During this expedition he sent some of his ships
to J0I6 and the Rio Grande de Mindanao. They
collected some tribute, but most of the natives fled
78 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
to the mountains. The next year the collector
found them so poor that he returned the tribute.
Dreams of Conquest. — De Sande was very proud
of his conquest in Borneo. He had really done very
little for the Philippines. It was a great task for
the Filipinos to build him a fleet, and go so far
away to fight people they had never seen. Then,
after all the expense of conquest, Borneo was not
kept. Most of the early governors thought of little
but fleets and armies with which they hoped to con-
quer new countries. They thought the business of
the government was to raise money by taxes for
the king and themselves. They did not understand
that they could do this best by teaching the people
agriculture and other useful things. The victories
of peace are greater than those of war, but war
seemed to them more glorious.
Better Days. — With all its faults the Government
of Spain in those days was much better than the
condition of things before the conquest. Then
every man was afraid of his neighbor ; a man's own
brother was his slave. Men feared the evil anitos
of the earth, the sea, and the air. Life was hard and
very uncertain. After the Spaniards came, life was
still hard, but it was much safer. Trade was bet-
ter; people were growing richer in spite of the
taxes; the population was increasing faster, and
the Filipinos were becoming more united.
Ronquillo de Penalosa, Governor — 1580-1583. —
Ronquillo brought six hundred soldiers to the Phil-
DREAMS OF CONQUEST. 79
ippines at his own expense. In return for this he
was to receive the governorship of the Islands for
Hfe. The king gave Ronquillo this honor because
Spain had received very Httle return for the treasure
spent in conquering the Islands.
One of Ronquillo's first acts was to examine what
Governor De Sande had done. He took away all
royal office from De Sande by what was called the
The "Residencia."^ — The Governor of the Philip-
pines in the old days was very powerful. It was so
far to Mexico and Spain that he was allowed to do
what he thought best, like a king. No one might
disobey him while he held office. At the close of
his rule, however, he must stay in the Islands till the
governor who followed him had examined all he
had done. This examination was called the "resi-
dencia." At this time all the governor's accounts
were searched to see if he had spent the public
money honestly. Any one who thought the old
governor had treated him unjustly might come be-
fore the new governor and make a complaint. If it
was found that the old governor had not ruled
justly, he was punished. Sometimes they took
away all the property of a governor and put him
Union of Portugal with Spain. — In 1580 Philip
II, conquered Portugal. With this conquest all the
Portuguese colonies in the East Indies came under
the rule of the Governor of the Philippines. This
8o A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
union of the two kingdoms lasted till 1640. During
this period the Government of the Philippines
stretched from India to Japan. It was a great task
for the Filipinos to find the ships and men to rule so
many different and widely separated lands. From
this time the governors began to try to make the
Philip II. of Spain.
name of Spain respected in the islands south of the
Expeditions to Borneo and Ternate, — In 1582
Philip II. ordered the conquest of the Moluccas.
They had been given to him with Portugal, but actu-
DREAMS OF CONQUEST. 8l
ally were in the power of the native Malayan tribes.
Ronquillo sent an expedition to Borneo in 1581,
when he replaced the sultan Sirela on his throne.
A second expedition under his son, Sebastian
Ronquillo, besieged Ternate, but could not capture
it because disease broke out. This little island was
taken in later years by the Dutch. Its people re-
mained faithful to Spain. A few emigrated to
Cavite, and made their home in Ternate. Their
descendants still live in this town.
Japanese Pirates. — The northern coast of Luzon
was often attacked by Chinese and Japanese pirates.
They would land, burn and rob a town, and then
sail away. During Ronquillo's rule a strong force
of Japanese pirates captured and held the village at
the mouth of the Cagayan River. They were under
a leader called Tayfusa, who severely oppressed
the natives. Ronquillo sent a force which, after
heroic fighting, drove them away. He deposed the
native rulers, who were holding the people in
Near the mouth of the Sagayan he founded the
city of Nueva Segovia, now called Lal-loc. It was
also in Ronquillo's time that Iloilo was founded.
Sorrow and sickness ended Ronquillo's life in
1583. Neither he nor De Sande had won the glory
The Filipinos' Part in Spanish Conquests. — In all
those expeditions the Filipinos toiled to add glory
to the flag of Spain. They built the ships, rowed or
82 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
sailed them, did all the hard work, and often shared
in the fighting. Thousands of them perished from
disease and the sword in the various expeditions of
the Spanish. They did not like this. They were
not accustomed to the labor of ship-building. They
objected to the long, weary hours spent at the oars,
and felt little interest in conquering the people of
far-off islands. Most of the king's tribute was
spent on war. Many of these wars were for glory
and plunder. The expeditions, however, usually
cost more than the result was worth.
Summary. — Lavezaris was governor from 1572
to 1575- Tn his time the Spaniards suffered
from poverty and sickness, and the natives were
From the time of Legazpi the Philippines were
ruled as a colony of Mexico till 18 19. Governor
De Sande ruled from 1575 to 1580. In 1578 he
captured Brunei and made an expedition to J0I6
and Mindanao. His conquests were a heavy bur-
Ronquillo de Penalosa was governor from 1580
to 1583. The king made him governor for life.
The residencia was an examination of the deeds of
the last governor by the incoming governor. De
Sande was deprived of all royal office by the resi-
In 1 580 Spain conquered Portugal and the Portu-
guese East Indies came under the rule of the Philip-
pines. This lasted until 1640. In Ronquillo's time
DREAMS OF CONQUEST. 83
several expeditions of conquest went to the Moluc-
cas. The Japanese pirates, who raided northern
Luzon, were suppressed. Ronquillo founded Nueva
Segovia and Iloilo. IMost of the tribute in these
days was spent on war.
SAT.AZAR AND DE VERA.
The First Bishop of Manila. — Domingo de Sala-
zar, the first bishop of Manila, arrived in March,
1 581. He was a good and earnest man, but not
greatly beloved, because he was very stern. In his
time the quarrels between Church and State began
to be serious. There was an encomendero in Min-
danao who treated the natives with great harshness.
The friar there reproved him and excommunicated
him, but the encomendero laughed at him. When
Salazar heard of this quarrel, he persuaded Ron-
quillo to call the encomendero to Manila. Here
he felt the disgrace of excommunication. This
event made the other encomenderos very angry,
for they feared their own evil lives would be pun-
ished in the same way. So they complained to the
governor. This was the beginning of a strife be-
tween bishop and governor that lasted till the end
of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Under the pres-
ent form of government such quarrels are impos-
sible, because the duties of the governor and the
SALAZAR AND DE VERA. 85
bishop are separate. Neither can interfere with the
De Vera, Acting Governor — 1584- 1590. — Ron-
quillo and Salazar had asked the king to establish a
Supreme Court in the PhiHppines. It was hoped
that the disputes between Church and State could
be settled by such a court. In 1584 three judges
arrived and set up the Supreme Court of the Phil-
ippines. De Vera, the chief justice, became acting
governor, because Ronquillo had died the year be-
fore. It was long the custom in the Philippines for
the chief justice of the Supreme Court to fill a
vacancy in the governorship.
Scarcity of Food. — Ronquillo had brought so
many soldiers to the Philippines that it was difficult
to feed them. The population of Manila was only
a few thousand in those days. Many had died in
the expeditions of conquest; others were employed
in the ship-yards and upon other public works.
IMeantime, in 1584, twenty-five Chinese ships ar-
rived at Manila bringing four thousand Chinese.
These new settlers were merchants and mechanics.
They ate a great deal and of the best kind of food.
The prices of all provisions rose. In 1577 one
could buy in IManila three hens for one real. A
buffalo could be bought for four reals, and a hog
for six. By 1585 one hen cost two or three reals,
and a hog six or seven pesos. Both Spaniards and
Filipinos suffered hardships.
Insurrection in Pampanga. — In 1585, while the
86 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
soldiers were sick and hungry and many of them
without weapons, a revolt broke out in Pampanga.
Certain men conspired with some Moros from Bor-
neo, who were trading in ]\lanila, to burn the city
and kill all the Spaniards. The plot was betrayed
by a woman, and the disaster averted.
Deeds of De Vera. — De Vera was a wiser and
stronger man than most of the governors who came
before him. He did some useful things for the
Islands. In his rule the first stone houses were
built in Manila. He found that stone could easily
be cut from the ledges near the banks of the Pasig
and brought to Manila in boats. So he had twenty
stone houses built that there might be less danger
from fire. He also built the first stone fort, near
where Fort Santiago now stands. It was called
"Nuestra Senora de Guia." The artillery for this
fort was cast by a Pampangan native called Panda-
pira. De Vera also began to dig the moat which
surrounded the city. He built a stone breastwork
along the river-front. The great wall was not be-
gun till later.
Cost of the Conquest. — All these military works
cost a great deal for those days. The fort and moat
were paid for by a tax of one real on each married
man and half a real on each single man. The total
cost of conquering and holding the Philippines from
the time of Legazpi till 1586 had been 3,000,000
pesos. This was equal in value to at least 15,000,-
000 pesos to-day, because money would buy much
SALAZAR AND DE VERA. 87
more then than now. Only a small part of this
sum was paid by the tribute from the natives. The
Islands were a heavy tax upon the treasury of
Aims of Spain in the Conquest.- — The old Spanish
kings who conquered and held these Islands had
three aims in so doing. First, they desired to make
money by trade and taxes. The rare and costly
goods brought from the East filled their minds with
visions of wealth. Charles I. expected that Magel-
lan's ships would return laden with riches. The
letters between the kings and the leaders of the
expeditions say a great deal about trade, spices, and
gold-mines. The conquerors hurried from island
to island, hoping for new treasures from each newly
discovered land. They were bitterly disappointed
to get so small a reward. Yet when they had once
taken the new lands, it was hard to give them up.
A second aim in the conquest was the glory of
empire. Spain was one of the richest and proudest
of the kingdoms of Europe in those days. The
sailors and soldiers who raised the banner of Spain
in new lands were richly rewarded. The king gave
them pensions and titles of nobility. Both monarch
and subjects delighted to boast of the wide dominion
of the crown of Spain. There is a feeling which
every great people has that where its flag is once
raised it should never be lowered. So while gain
was one of the first thoughts of the Spanish con-
querors, it M'as not the only one.
88 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
The Spanish monarchs were CathoHc kings. They
thought that the cross must always go with the flag.
Side by side with the soldier went the missionary.
The king felt that he was conquering for God as
AuGUSTiNiAN Church, Manila.
well as for himself. This was why he did not ask
the inhabitants of new lands if they wished to serve
him. He believed he had the only true religion.
He was given by the Pope the right to teach pagan
nations and induce them to be baptized. So even if
SALAZAR AND DE VERA. 89
it cost vastly more to conquer these lands than they
returned to his treasury, he could not give them up.
He believed this would mean the loss of many souls.
Reply of Philip II. — ^Vhen urged by some of the
conquerors of the Philippines to give them up be-
cause "the cost of keeping them would be greater
than the gain," Philip II. said :
"For the conversion of only a single soul I would give
all the treasures of the Indies ; and should that not be
enough, I would give all that I have most precious in
Spain. On no account would I cease to send preachers
and ministers to give the light of the holy gospel to all
newly discovered lands, however poor, uncultivated, and
barren they might be, because to me and my heirs the holy
Apostolic See has given the task which the apostles had
of publishing and preaching the gospel. This must be
done there and in infinite other kingdoms, rescuing them
from the rule of demons, and giving them knowledge of
the true God without any hope of gaining riches."
The reason given by Philip III. for holding the
Philippines told of pride in his empire.
Philip III. and Moraga. — About the year 1619
some of the counsellors of the king were advising
him to give up the Philippines. Some thought they
were too expensive ; others said it was not right to
compel a people to accept a new religion by the
power of the sword. The Franciscan, Moraga, now
arrived at the court of Philip III. When he heard
that the Philippines might be abandoned by Spain
he was full of grief; for he thought all the work of
90 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the Catholic missionaries there would be lost. He
threw himself at the feet of the king, and begged
him not to give up the Islands. Philip III. replied :
"Depart with God, Father Moraga. certain that it
shall not be said of me that I abandoned what my
father conquered and left to me."
The Memorial to the King. — In 1586 the General
Council of Manila, composed of all the leading men,
sent a long letter to the king asking for many re-
forms. The governor, the bishop, and all civil and
military officials united in the choice of the Jesuit,
Alonso Sanchez, to take this memorial to the king.
Sanchez went to Spain. After much talking, the
king finally decided to change many things in the
Philippines. The decree ordering these changes is
called the reform decree of 1589.
Reform Decree of 1589. — The principal things in
this decree were the following:
( 1 ) Twelve thousand ducats were to be spent in
repairing and ornamenting the cathedral and con-
vents. The cathedral at that time was built of
"wood and straw, poor and weather-beaten and de-
prived of necessities."
(2) ]Many friars were to be sent to the Islands.
Thev must stav for life unless excused bv the
bishop. This was ordered because the friars had
been going to Japan and China instead of staying
in the Philippines. Like the governors, they wanted
to make new conquests before the first ones were
SALAZAR AND DE VERA. 91
(3) Native girls who should marry poor Span-
iards were to receive dowries.
(4) The governor was forbidden to give an en-
comienda to any one who had not worked in it for
three years. It was desired to give the natives an
example of industry. Nor could the governor give
encomiendas to his friends, relatives, or servants,
unless they were worthy. Some worthless people
from ]\Iexico were getting encomiendas, while men
who had lived and fought for years in the Philip-
pines had none.
(5) No new slaves w^ere to be made. Those
born of slave parents were to be free.
(6) The Supreme Court was to be taken away.
It had not succeeded in settling the difficulties be-
tween Church and State. The king now sent a
governor of his own choice, in whom he had full
Summary, — Domingo de Salazar was the first
bishop of ]\Ianila. Troubles between church and
state date from his arrival in 1581.
In 1584 the Supreme Court of the Philippines
was established. De Vera, chief justice, became
acting governor after Ronquillo's death. In 1584
four thousand Chinese came to Manila to live. Pro-
visions became scarce and high. In 1585 there was
a revolt in Pampanga. De Vera built the first stone
houses in ]\Ianila.
The conquest of the Philippines up to 1586 cost
3,000,000 pesos. The Spanish conquerors had
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
three aims : to make money, to spread the power of
Spain, and to make Christian converts. Philip II,
said he would give all the treasures of the Indies
for the conversion of a single soul. Moraga, a
friar, -went to Spain in 1619 to beg Philip III. not
to give up the Philippines. The king said he would
not abandon his father's conquests. In 1586 the
Council of Manila sent a request for reforms to the
king. This resulted in the reform decree of 1589-
Among the reforms were the spending of money
on the cathedral, sending more friars, giving dow-
ries to native girls, reforming the encomienda sys-
tem, checking slavery, and taking away the Supreme
A ROYAL GOVERNOR.
Gomez Perez Das Marinas — i590-i593- This
man was the wisest and strongest of the early gov-
ernors. Phihp II. trusted Das Marinas fully. The
king desired to treat the Filipinos justly and kindly;
but he was a long distance from the Philippines.
The officials of Mexico did not always tell him the
truth about these Islands. The governors and the
bishop had written him different stories about the
treatment of the Filipinos by the Spaniards. So
he sent Das Marifias from Spain to find out the
truth. The governors before Das Marifias had been
chosen by the Viceroy or the Supreme Court of
Mexico. Das Marinas was a royal governor. The
king gave him more power than any governor be-
Das Marinas worked very hard for the good of
the Philippines, but he received little help from
Mexico, because the rulers there were jealous of
him. Nor did he and Bishop Salazar agree. The
new governor did not think the friars had treated
the natives of the Philippines justly. On the other
94 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
hand, Bishop Salazar did not think the governors
and soldiers had done right. Each tried to prove
to the king that he was the best friend of the na-
Salazar's Opinion of the Governors. — Salazar
wrote to the king: "The natives are so harassed
with public and private undertakings that they are
not able to take breath." He said also : "The
Spaniards came to this country in name as con-
querors but in fact as destroyers."
Neglect of Religious Instruction.- — It was the duty
of the encomenderos to give one-fourth of the
tribute for the support of churches and friars in
their districts. Salazar said :
"Of ten divisions of this bishopric, eight have no in-
The bishop said the fault for this was the neglect
of the governor to make the encomenderos do their
duty. He wrote to Das Marinas :
"Who doubts that the preaching of the gospel is the
most important thing for which we have come here? But
yet I see that we care least for this. If you do not think
so look at the progress of the natives. I know very well
that there is plenty of care about temporal things. As
long as these are present, religious instruction must stop,
or the Indians must support it even if they never under-
stand it. So we all say that the gospel is the principal
thing, but our works show what it is that we care most
A ROYAL GOVERNOR.
Das Marinas wrote the king about the friars.
Each was trying to tell the best story possible.
Probably neither the bishop nor the governor was
so much at fault as each painted the other to the
Das Mariiias said that the friars and Bishop Sala-
zar interfered with the governor, and took away
the respect of the Filipinos for the king. Of the
natives he said : ''They recognize no other king or
superior than the father of the doctrina and are
96 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
more attentive to his demands than to those of the
Restitution to the Filipinos by the Conquerors. —
It was the opinion of Salazar and of nearly all the
friars that the early conquerors of the Philippines
did wrong. They thought that it was unjust to
conquer people without teaching them the Christian
religion. They said that the natives ought to re-
ceive Christian instruction in return for the taxes
they paid. King Philip II., when he heard that
some of the natives had been paying taxes for many
years without religious teaching, was deeply
grieved. He ordered in the decree of 1589 that the
early conquerors pay back to the Filipinos the taxes
which they had collected from them at the time
when they had no priests of Christianity.
Salazar refused to confess and absolve the Span-
ish encomenderos who did not do this. Some
money had been collected to restore to the Filipinos.
The bishop expended this money for the benefit of
the church and the people.
Das Marinas wrote to the king that it would take
150,000 pesos to make proper restitution to the Fili-
pinos for taxing them without teaching them relig-
ion. Very little of this money was ever paid to
the Filipinos. The Philippines were so far away
that the rulers did not always obey the king's de-
crees. So the restitution was never made. There
were, however, juster laws made about taxes. Das
Marinas ordered that in encomiendas where there
A ROYAL GOVERNOR.
were judges but no priests only three-fourths of
the tribute should be collected. If there was neither
judge nor priest in an encomienda no tax was to
Building of the Walls of Manila. — Das Marinas
found the Philippines threatened by the Moros, the
The Oldest Part of the Wall of Manila.
Chinese, and the Japanese. He determined to build
a fort and a wall at Manila as a protection against
these enemies. It was difficult to get money for
these works. He taxed playing cards for this pur-
pose, also the goods of all merchants. The bishop
and friars opposed this because they were trading.
They said that the natives did not ask for the wall.
But Das Marinas was determined to build it. He
wrote to the king :
T have begun the walls at the
98 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
point where the fort was being built. It is nine
feet above ground and the foundation is of the
same depth. It is from sixteen to twelve and eight
feet wide on top, according to the plan." It took
many years to make the walls as we see them now.
Many different governors added to them, so that
they grew wide and thick. Das Mariiias also built
Decay of the Cotton Industry. — Before the Span-
iards came, the Filipinos grew their own cotton and
made their own cloth. When they began to earn
money from the Spaniards, they bought their cloth
of the Chinese. They still raised cotton, but they
sold it to the Chinese. This cotton was taken to
China, woven into cloth, then brought back to
Manila and sold to the Filipinos. By and by the
Filipinos did not even raise the cotton. Then the
price of cloth was put higher and higher by the
Chinese. Thus an industry was lost which was of
great benefit to the Philippines. Cotton grows very
well in these Islands. It is best for a country to
make all that it needs for itself. At this time the
Filipinos were spending on Chinese goods, chiefly
cottons and silks, about 200,000 pesos a year.
A Change for the Worse. — In the time of Das
Marinas an inquiry was made about the former hab-
its of the Filipinos. Several Filipinos said, under
oath, that, before the Spaniards came, the natives
lived in villages and worked upon their crops. The
chiefs were obeyed and respected, and there was
A ROYAL GOVERNOR. 99
plenty to eat. But after they found they could get
money by working for Spaniards, they left their
villages and gave themselves up to vice and wander-
ing. The}' found it easy to buy what they needed
after working awhile. Then they spent their spare
time in evil ways. Before the conquest they
had to work all the time. But now, since so many
had left the fields, food had become scarce and
dear. Civilization always brings some evils with
it. Those who are not strong can not stand the
freedom and the changes that it brings. Whatever
losses the Filipinos suffered, there was much that
Conquest of Zambales. — The Negritos of the
Zambales mountains had for centuries robbed and
killed the Pampangans, their neighbors. So Das
]\Iarinas resolved to make war on them. The wav
he did it shows how the Spaniards used the Filipinos
to help them.
In 1 591 he sent six Spanish captains against the
Negritos. Each captain led twenty Spanish sol-
diers and five or six hundred Pampangans. They
entered the Zambales mountains by six different
roads. Then they burned the houses and crops of
the Negritos. They captured 2,500 men and wom-
en. Of most of these they made slaves. Four hun-
dred of them were put as rowers into four new
boats which Das Marifias had built. These boats
were propelled by fifty or sixty long oars each. It
was very hard work to pull these oars all day. The
100 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Filipinos never liked this work. Yet they did a
great deal of it for the Spaniards. A slave who was
used in rowing by the Spaniards was given freedom
after three years of this work.
The Great Fleet. — Like the governors before him,
Das Marinas wanted to conquer the Moluccas. The
The Cathedral, Manila.
king had given a special order that this be done. So
Das Marinas made many natives cut trees in the
forests of Bulacan. This timber was taken to Cav-
ite and made into ships. By 1593 Das Mariiias had
two hundred ships, large and small. To build and
equip these ships was a great task for the Filipinos.
A ROYAL GOVERNOR. loi
It would have been much better for them to culti-
vate the fields, and learn to make the things they
were buying of the Chinese.
Das Mariiias sent the fleet ahead to Iloilo. It
carried one thousand Spaniards, four hundred Tag-
alog and Pampangan arquebusiers, one thousand
Visayans, armed with lances and bows, and five
hundred Chinese rowers.
Death of Das Marinas. — Das Marifias with forty
companions, among them several captains and
friars, sailed a few days later in a boat propelled
by one hundred and fifty Chinese rowers. At the
island of Maricaban, near the coast of Batangas,
the Chinese killed twenty-one of the Spaniards, in-
cluding the governor. So perished one of the best
governors the Philippines ever had.
Manila in Das Marifias' Time — Das Marinas left
Manila a different city from what he had found it.
He had surrounded it with a wall. He had built
barracks, storehouses, hospitals, public markets, and
the college of Santa Potenciana. The cathedral was
completed by him. His rule was a time of great
activity. Manila became a city of stone instead of
bamboo. The foundations of Spanish rule were for
the first time firmly laid.
Summary, — Gomez Perez Das Marinas was gov-
ernor from 1590 to 1593. He was appointed di-
rectly by the king instead of by the Supreme Court
of Mexico, as was then the custom. Bishop Sala-
zar said that Das Marinas oppressed the natives.
102 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Das Marinas said that the friars made the natives
disloyal to the governor. Salazar also said that
the religious instruction was neglected by the en-
comenderos. King Philip ordered the early con-
querors to pay back to the natives the taxes col-
lected when they had no religious instruction. One
hundred and fifty thousand pesos were needed for
this purpose. A small amount was restored to the
Das Marinas built Fort Santiago and the first
wall of Manila. This wall with later additions still
Before the Spanish conquest the cotton industry
was large. It passed away and the Filipinos bought
their cottons and silks from the Chinese. The in-
troduction of money into the Philippines led many
to wander for work and to fall into vice.
Das Marinas subdued the Negritos of Zambales,
capturing 2,500, most of whom he enslaved. He
built 200 ships and in 1593 started for a conquest
of the Moluccas. He was killed by his Chinese
crew. He built many public buildings and laid
firmly the foundations of Spanish rule.
THE CHINESE IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY.
Arrival of the Chinese. — Long before the Span-
iards came to the PhiHppines, the people of China
traded with the Filipinos. Only a few Chinese
made their homes in the Philippines in those early-
days. The country was not safe for strangers.
When Legazpi came to Manila, there were about
one hundred and fifty Chinese living in the town.
The Spaniards in those days encouraged the Chi-
nese to come to Manila and settle. They wanted
them to build houses, row in the boats, and make
and sell the things which the Filipinos did not use.
Morga said : "It is true the town can not exist
without the Chinese, as they are workers in all
trades and occupations, very industrious, and work
for small pay."
In the time of Lavezaris (see Chapter VI), a
danger threatened Manila that alarmed the Span-
iards. A Chinese boat from Manila fell into the
power of a noted Chinese corsair. This was Lima-
hong. He decided to attack Manila when he
learned of its wealth and defenselessness.
104 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Limahong. — Limahong had defeated the fleets of
the Chinese emperor, and burned cities on the coast
of China. Thousands of soldiers and many ships
were his. At length he was driven away by the
rulers of China. With a fleet of sixty ships and
three thousand soldiers and sailors, besides work-
men and women, he sailed to the Philippines to
found a kingdom.
Near the coast of Ilocos he captured a boat, and
killed its crew of Spaniards and Filipinos. An offi-
cer of Salcedo's saw the fight from the shore. He
hastened to Vigan and told Salcedo. The young
captain sent three natives in a boat to tell the people
of Manila of the coming of the pirate. This party
was nearly captured by Limahong. It reached Ma-
nila too late to warn the Spaniards. Salcedo with
fifty men set out for Manila in boats as soon as
Limahong sailed south.
The First Attack. — The pirate ships reached
Mariveles November 29, 1574. The same night
Limahong sent his Japanese captain, Sioco, with
about seven hundred men to take Alanila. They
landed near Paranaque, and marched toward the
city about ten o'clock the next morning.
De Sande describes the appearance of the Chi-
nese soldiers thus :
"There were seven hundred men, among whom were a
few arquebusiers and many pikemen, besides men armed
with battle-axes. They were clad in corselets, which are
coats lined with exceedingly thick cotton. They had dur-
THE CHINESE IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY. 105
able bamboo hats, which served as hehnets. They car-
ried cutlasses and several daggers in their belts; and all
were barefoot. One out of every ten men carried a ban-
ner fastened to his shoulders and reaching two palms
above his head. There were other and larger banners
Repulse of the Chinese. — Then the Httle force of
forty Spanish soldiers came out of the wooden fort
that stood near where Fort Santiago now stands.
They killed eighty of the Chinese, losing fourteen
of their own men. Sioco retreated to Cavite, where
Limahong had now moved with his fleet. This was
St. Andrew's day, November 30, 1574. Manila had
no great stone wall then. The fort was small, with-
out a moat, and surrounded by a palisade of stakes.
The city was filled with terror. Every one was
obliged to work day and night on the fortifi-
The Second Attack.^ — The next day Limahong
prepared for a second attack, but he was too slow.
On the evening of that day Juan de Salcedo sailed
into Manila Bay, with six boats and fifty men, to the
rescue of Manila. All were overjoyed to see him.
At daybreak the next morning Limahong's fleet
sailed from Cavite to Manila, and began to fire its
cannon. Then the pirates landed near the city and
attacked it in three columns, of about five hundred
men each. Those on the seashore forced their way
into the fort. About eighty of them were killed
within its walls. Then the Chinese were driven to
io6 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
their ships. They had burned the Augustinian
church and killed only half a dozen Spaniards.
Revolt of the Filipinos. — The Filipinos were glad
to see the Chinese attack the Spaniards. They did
not stop to think that the Chinese might prove to be
worse masters than the Spaniards. On the day of
the second attack they gathered in thousands before
Manila in their baiicas, ready to avenge themselves
on the Spaniards if the Chinese should win. The
Moros around Manila captured and robbed the
friars who were outside of the city. They killed
goats in the churches to show their contempt for
the new religion. Several Spaniards and their
slaves were slain. But when the Moros saw that
the Spaniards were victorious they set the captured
friars free and asked pardon for revolting. Sev-
eral of their chiefs were executed as a punishment.
Limahong in Pangasinan. — Limahong now sailed
to the mouth of the Agno River in Pangasinan. He
built a town, and conquered the surrounding coun-
try. What he did shows how foolish it was for the
Filipinos to support him against the Spaniards. He
seized several headmen and kept them as hostages.
He compelled the natives to bring him food for his
army. He robbed them and treated them badly.
Salcedo Expels Limahong. — Juan de Salcedo was
now appointed field marshal. The Spaniards were
called together from all over the Islands to repel the
Chinese. In March, 1575, Salcedo set out for Pan-
gasinan with a large fleet. He led two hundred
THE CHINESE IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY. 107
and fifty Spaniards and twenty-five hundred na-
tives, mostly Visayans. At the mouth of the Agno
he was fortunate enough to surprise and burn the
Instead of attacking the fort of the Chinese,
Salcedo besieged it for four months. The Chinese
built thirty boats during this time, and escaped on
the 4th of August. Thus the Filipinos were freed
from the tyranny of a people who would have
treated them cruelly.
For a while after the repulse of Limahong, the
Chinese did not come in large numbers. But the
great public works undertaken by Vera and Das
Marinas brought many of them to the Philippines.
They came so rapidly that by 1600 there were more
Chinese than Filipinos in Manila. It was necessary
to make them live in one place when they became
numerous. Then they could be more easily
watched. Therefore a building was made for them.
The Alcayceria and the Parian. — The Alcayceria
was a huge house built by Ronquillo in 1581 for the
Chinese. Its first site was on Calle San Fernando,
Binondo. There the Chinese merchants who came
to Manila lived and traded. In 1582 this building
was burned to the ground. The following year a
new Alcayceria, called the Parian, was built where
the Botanical Gardens now are. It consisted of
four long rows of buildings. These structures were
built on the four sides of a square. In the middle
was a small lake, long since filled with earth. A
io8 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
creek led from this lake to the River Pasig. The
Chinese boats laden with merchandise would come
to this lake and unload silks, cottons, and other
wares. In these great buildings lived thousands of
■' ■ * mmmmmammm ^
Dominican Church, IManila.
Chinese. Here they carried on all kinds of trades
and sold many things the Filipinos had never before
seen. The Parian had one hundred and fifty shops
and six hundred merchants. The Chinese were
rapidly becoming rich and powerful.
Chinese Christians. -
-Das Marinas thought it was
THE CHINESE IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY. 109
not well to let the Chinese do all the useful things
and get all the money. He wished to expel them
from the country. But Bishop Salazar and the
friars did not want him to send away the Chinese,
because many of them had become Christians. The
Dominicans had done a great deal for the conver-
sion of the Chinese. More would have been con-
verted, had not the old bishop made every Christian
Chinaman cut off his hair. After this he could not
return to his native land. So the Chinese remained
The Three Mandarins. — A strange thing hap-
pened in the year 1603, when Acufia was governor.
Three Chinese mandarins, as the great men of
China are called, arrived in Manila. They wished
to see if a mountain of gold existed in Cavite, as
they had been told was the case. Acuna showed
them that this was an idle tale, so they went away.
The Spaniards could not believe that the search for
a mountain of gold was the real purpose of the
mandarins. They thought these men wished to see
if jManila could be captured. The Chinese in Ma-
nila now began to act strangely. Many of them
went back and forth between the city and the coun-
try. The Spaniards, fearing a plot, began to
threaten them. Then the Chinese became alarmed
and planned to kill off the Spaniards.
Chinese Revolt of 1603. — On the night of October
3, 1603, the entire Chinese population of Manila,
nearly 25,000 in number, rose in revolt. They
no A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
burned many houses in Quiapo, and killed many-
natives. There were few Spaniards in Manila. A
force of one hundred and fifty men attacked the
Chinese. All but four of the Spaniards were killed.
At dawn, October 5th, the rebels attacked the
walled city. The fight lasted several days. Every
Spaniard, including the friars, armed himself and
fought. It is said that Father Flores sat all day in
a boat near the wall, firing two arquebuses, and
killed many Chinese.
Defeat of the Chinese. — Finally the Spaniards,
with the aid of some Japanese and Pampangans,
drove away the Chinese. They fled to the moun-
tains of San Pablo. Here a large force of Span-
iards and Filipinos surrounded and besieged them.
Hunger and attacks of the natives, who hated the
Chinese, caused the death of about 23,000.
In the case of Limahong, the Spaniards saved the
Filipinos, but in the insurrection of 1603 the Span-
iards would all have been destroyed without the
help of the Filipinos.
Revolt of 1639. — Two galleons were wrecked off
the coast of Cagayan in 1639. This ruined the
business of the Chinese. The Spaniards and Filipi-
nos had no money to buy their goods, because it had
sunk with the galleons. Hunger forced the Chinese
to revolt. There were by this time 33,000 of them
in the Islands, and they were living in the provinces,
as they had not done in earlier times. They com-
mitted many outrages in La Laguna and near Ma-
THE CHINESE IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY, iii
nila. But they did not attack the walled city again.
They remembered 1603. An edict was published
ordering all the Chinese in the provinces to be
killed. For a year the battles lasted. In all, 20,000
of the Chinese were slain.
The Chinese Question. — Many times after this
there was trouble with the Chinese. They were
taxed more heavily than the Filipinos. They were
sometimes compelled to become Christians or leave
the country. But although both Spaniards and Fili-
pinos hated the Chinese they always had to allow
them to return to the Islands. The Chinese are
the most numerous people in the world. They have
learned by centuries of practice the virtues of in-
dustry, perseverance and economy. No people can
become great without these qualities. In the four
centuries just past, the Filipinos have made great
progress in learning these things. They are now
engaged in many callings requiring skill and pa-
tience. No more Chinese laborers are allowed to
come to this country. The door of opportunity is
wide open for the Filipino. He may learn any
trade and there is plenty of work. It is the duty
of the children of to-day to show that they can do
as good work of all kinds for their country as the
people of any other nation. This is a better vic-
tory than fire and sword can win.
Summary. — The Chinese traded with the Philip-
pines centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards.
The latter encouraged the Chinese to settle in the
112 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Philippines. Limahong, a Chinese pirate, attacked
Manila in 1574 with sixty ships and three thousand
men. With the aid of Juan de Salcedo, the Span-
iards drove them away. Limahong settled in Pan-
gasinan near the mouth of the Agno. He op-
pressed the people, but was driven away by Salcedo
By 1600 there were more Chinese than Filipinos
in Manila. The Alcayceria was built for them in
1 58 1. Here the Chinese merchants lived and
traded. The Parian had 150 shops and six hun-
In 1603 the Chinese of [Manila revolted. They
burned houses and killed many Filipinos. Finally
the Chinese rebels were driven to the mountains
and over 20,000 were killed.
The wreck of two galleons in 1639 ruined the
business of the Chinese, so many of them revolted.
At this time there were 33,000 Chinese in the
Islands. For a year there were battles around
Manila, and 20,000 Chinese were slain. The Chi-
nese were heavily taxed. They were at times com-
pelled to become Christians or to leave the coun-
try. They are industrious, economical, and perse-
vering. Xo more Chinese laborers are allowed to
come to the Philippines.
THE VOYAGES OF THE GALLEONS.
The Chinese Trade. — It is impossible to under-
stand the history of the Philippines unless we know
something of the early trade with Chiria. In the
time of Das Marinas, twenty or thirty Chinese
junks came to Manila every year. They brought
porcelain, silks, cottons, cloths ornamented with
gold and silver, jewels, copper and iron vases, curi-
ous ornaments of ivory and wood, besides many
kinds of food, and buffaloes, horses, and cows.
Commerce with Mexico. — Most of the goods that
the Chinese brought were bought by merchants who
sent them to Mexico. Here they were sold at a
very high price. The profits of this trade were so
tempting that everybody engaged in it. The gover-
nor, the judges, the army officers, in fact all classes
tried to get rich from the commerce with Mexico.
There were only one to four ships a year to Mex-
ico from Manila. There was not room in the ships
for the cargoes of all who wished to engage in this
trade. So only the rich and powerful could send
their goods. Therefore the Filipinos did not get
114 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
much advantage from it. They helped load and
unload the ships, and received some of the money
the Spaniards spent ; but very few became rich mer-
chants. The proper business of the Islands was
neglected. Manila became the place where the
goods of one foreign country were bought and sent
to another foreign country.
Yet the galleon trade was the foundation of the
wealth of Manila. The money was made by work-
insr for three months. Then the merchants lived in
ease and luxury the rest of the year. The people
who made money from this trade often spent it fool-
ishly, or else went away to Mexico or Spain. No
attention was given to agriculture and the native
industries. IManila grew rich and powerful, while
the rest of the Philippines was neglected.
The Galleons. — This trade was so profitable that
the king allowed no ships but his own to carry goods
to Mexico. Private merchants could not send ships
of their own. The ships, built for the trade between
Manila and Mexico, were called naos de Acapulco,
or galleons. They were owned and sailed by the
government. In fact, they were royal trading and
treasure ships. They carried also the goods of a
few private merchants. These ships sailed first
from Navidad, but after 1602 from Acapulco. The
last galleon left IManila in 181 1. The last to come
from IVIexico was in 181 5.
The galleons were short, broad ships with very
high bow and stern. For those days they were
Ii6 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
large ships. Now they would seem small. They
were about the size of the steamers which run from
Manila to Iloilo and Vigan. Usually they were
built in Cavite. Although small, they had four
decks, and carried sometimes forty cannon to pro-
tect them from enemies.
The Voyage Across the Pacific. — The galleon
sailed from Manila in July. The voyage across the
Pacific to Acapulco was long and dangerous. It
took from four to six months. Often, in the early
days, one-fourth of the passengers died from the
hardships of the voyage. Nearly every one who
traveled from Spain to the Philippines came on the
galleons. Sometimes four or five hundred persons
were crowded into the ship. They were soldiers,
friars, government officials, merchants, and travel-
ers. It cost from five hundred to one thousand
pesos each way for a private person to cross the
ocean in a galleon. Often the food became scarce.
The water, kept so many months in wooden casks,
became hot and foul. Many galleons were wrecked,
while others were captured by English or Dutch cor-
sairs. It was so difficult and dangerous a voyage
that many persons spent their lives in the Philip-
pines because they could not get the money or had
not the courage to return to Spain.
Arrival of the Galleon. — The voyage from Mex-
ico to Manila was much easier. It was made in from
forty to sixty days. The galleon stopped at Guam
for water. It entered by the Strait of San Bernar-
THE VOYAGES OF THE GALLEONS. 117
dino. A watchman on Mi. Bulusan, when he saw
the ship on the horizon, sent the news to ^Manila as
quickly as possible. Then the bells rang for joy,
and all was excitement. The merchants were ex-
pecting the money for the cargo they had sent the
year before to Mexico. The church looked for new
priests to take the places of those who had died.
The army awaited fresh soldiers. The governor
looked for replies from the king to his requests, or
perhaps for the arrival of his successor. Friends
watched for those who were coming for the first
time to the Philippines.
In short, there was no one in ]\Ianila who did not
feel an interest in the arrival of the galleon. In
years when the galleon did not arrive, many articles
became scarce and high in price. The wrecking or
capture of the galleon meant a hard year for many
Loss of the Galleons. — The officers of the gal-
leons received very high salaries. The commander
was called "General." His salary was 40,000 pesos
a year. The pilot received 20,000 pesos. These
positions were filled by the governor. Too often
he appointed favorites. These men were not always
good sailors. About ten galleons were wrecked at
different times in the Strait of San Bernardino,
upon its dangerous rocks and shoals. Several sailed
from ]\Ianila and were never seen again. Hundreds
of lives and millions of pesos were thus lost to the
Philippines. It would have been better to have
Ii8 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
smaller vessels and more of them. Then in case of
loss, the Islands could have borne it more easily.
The Royal Subsidy. — The Philippines for many
years received annually a sum of money from the
royal treasury in Mexico to help pay the expenses
of the government here. This was called the real
situado, or royal subsidy. The taxes collected from
the Filipinos were used to buy Chinese goods.
These were shipped to Mexico in the galleons.
There they were sold, and the money sent back to
the Philippines. Enough money or goods was
added to pay the expenses of the government here.
In 1665 the subsidy was fixed at 250,000 pesos.
Sometimes it was more ; sometimes less. On the
whole these Islands cost the treasury of Spain much
more than she ever received from them. There
were merchants and officials who made large for-
tunes in the Philippines. Often they did this by
dishonesty to the government and injustice to the
Filipinos. But the Islands never paid a lasting
profit to the king.
Summary. — In the time of Das Marinas twenty
or thirty Chinese junks came to Manila every year,
loaded with silks, cottons, provisions, etc. Most
of these goods were reshipped to Mexico. One to
four ships a year sailed from Manila to Mexico.
They were called galle^ ins. The galleon trade was
very profitable but only the rich and powerful could
engage in it. The king owned the galleons. The
last galleon to come to Manila was in 18 15. The
THE VOYAGES OF THE GALLEONS. 119
galleons sailed from Manila in July, taking four to
six months for the journey across the Pacific to
Acapulco. Many were wrecked; others were cap-
tured by corsairs. From Mexico to Manila the
voyage was by way of Guam and the Strait of San
Bernardino, and occupied forty to sixty days.
The annual sum of money sent from Mexico to
aid the Philippine government was called the real
situado. In 1665 it was fixed at 250,000 pesos.
The Philippines never paid a lasting profit to the
treasury of Spain; many officials became rich; some
THE WARS WITH THE DUTCH.
The Dutch Conquer the Moluccas. — When Philip
II. annexed Portugal in 1580, he forbade the Dutch
to buy Eastern goods there. There was no country
in Europe except Portugal where such goods could
be bought. Therefore the Dutch began to conquer
the Moluccas. In 1598 they defeated the combined
fleets of Portugal and Spain, and established trad-
ing posts in Java and Johore. Then they grew
bold and sent a strong fleet under Admiral Van
Noort to attack Manila. With four large ships the
Dutch admiral appeared in ^Manila Bay in Decem-
ber, 1600. His was the first fleet to attack Manila
since the days of Limahong. Antonio de Morga
led the defense.
Antonio de Morga. — Morga had come to the
Philippines a few years before. He served as
judge and lieutenant-governor from 1595 to 1596.
He is best known by his book, Siicesos de las Fili-
pinas (Events in the Philippines). This book was
published in Mexico in 1609. It was the first full
history of the early days of the Spanish rule in the
THE WARS WITH THE DUTCH. 121
Philippines. Jose Rizal, the Fihpino patriot, re-
printed Morga's work in Paris, 1890. He added
notes of his own. In these notes Rizal explains the
customs of the Filipinos of the sixteenth century.
He shows that they could make cannon, build large
boats well, carry on foreign commerce and do other
things that place them above the condition of sav-
ages. We must not think that all the Filipinos of
those days were entirely without culture. Some of
the things which make civilization had been brought
to the Philippines from China and India even at that
time, but in the first few years of Spanish rule
more progress was made toward civilization than
in centuries before.
The Defeat of Van Noort.- — Morga was made
commander of the force that was chosen to defend
Manila against the Dutch. There were two old
ships at Cavite, the San Diego and the San Bar-
tolome. They were hastily prepared for battle.
The cannon were too heavy for the ships, and there
were few sailors. Several hundred Spaniards and
Filipinos sailed from Cavite in these ships to meet
Morga with his flag-ship, the San Diego, fought
the Dutch flag-ship near Fortun Island. He sailed
up to the Dutch ship and both were fastened to-
gether with chains. The Dutch were driven to one
end of their ship. Then for several hours both
forces waited, not daring to attack each other.
Morga hid behind a breastwork of mattresses and
122 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
refused to allow his men to finish the battle. Then
the Dutch ship escaped. Morga's flag-ship was de-
stroyed. Over one hundred Spaniards and one
hundred and fifty Filipinos lost their lives. Morga
and many others after several hours in the water
landed on the island of Fortun.
Meantime two Dutch ships escaped and one was
captured, with thirteen men and some boys. The
friars persuaded all but one of the men to give up
their Protestantism and become Catholics. Then
they were executed as pirates. Their captain, an
Englishman, was "hanged and thrown into the sea."
The bovs were released.
Silva's Great Fleet. — Governor Juan de Silva now
determined to build a fleet which should drive the
Dutch from the seas. For years the natives of Pam-
panga and Bulacan toiled in the forests cutting
trees for ship-building. In the Cavite shipyard
Filipino mechanics shaped the boats and cast the
cannon that were to bring victory to Spain. In
1616 Silva sailed in search of the Dutch fleet. He
had fourteen large ships and many small ones, car-
rying three hundred cannon. Two thousand Span-
iards and three thousand Filipinos manned this fleet.
The flag-ship Salvadora was two thousand tons in
size, perhaps the largest ship ever built in the Phil-
The Dutch had heard of the great preparations
to break their power. They were careful to keep
out of reach of this mighty squadron. Silva hunted
THE WARS WITH THE DUTCH. 123
the Dutch for two months in vain. Then he died
in Malacca of fever. His ships returned to Manila,
to the joy of its anxious inhabitants.
Attack on Cavite — 1647. — The last great sea-fight
with the Dutch took place in 1647. That year
twelve large ships sailed into Manila Bay. The
flag-ship went ahead to Cavite and fired at Fort San
Felipe. The fort was wholly unprepared for an
attack. Had the Dutch admiral fought that day,
Cavite would have fallen. General Corcuera was a
prisoner in the fort. When he saw the Dutch ship
sail back to Mariveles, he cried out, "Wretched
soldier, to-day you have lost the victory." Three
days later when the Dutch fleet attacked the fort,
all was ready. Their fleet fired more than two
thousand cannon-balls at the fort, but was driven
away. Their flag-ship was wrecked, and the ad-
Massacre of Abucay.— The Dutch now retreated
to Mariveles and tried their fortune on land. They
attacked the pueblo of Abucay, in Bataan. The
governor had six hundred Filipino soldiers. He
shut himself up with them in the convent. The
Dutch surrounded the building, and demanded the
surrender of the force. On the advice of some
friends, the governor yielded without fighting. The
Dutch had promised to spare the lives of the sol-
diers. But when they entered the convent they mas-
sacred over four hundred of them. War was very
cruel in those days, and often carried on without
124 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
honor. The Dutch acted little better than pirates.
Defeat of the Dutch. — After this massacre the
Dutch grew very bold and plundered the country-
near their camp. Captain Chaves with three com-
panies of troops, mostly Pampangans, attacked
them in the pueblo of Abucay. He slew the Dutch
without mercy at the same place where they had
shown no mercy to the Filipinos. Then an epi-
demic fell upon the Dutch and they sailed away.
After this defeat they gave up the attempt to con-
quer the Philippines. Fifty years of war with these
cruel and greedy conquerors had cost the Filipinos
many lives and ships. Spaniards and Filipinos
had fought bravely together against the common
Filipino Loyalty. — In those days there were many
Filipinos who were very loyal to Spain and proud
of the Spanish flag. They had never seen Spain
defeated. They believed she was the greatest na-
tion on the face of the earth. Pirates of many na-
tions sailed the seas then, and the Filipinos were
glad of the protection of a strong hand. The peo-
ple were simple and ignorant. They knew nothing
of such words as "republic," "equality," "reform."
When they rebelled, as they sometimes did, it was
because of some particular hardship in one locality.
They had no thought of uniting all the islands under
a free, equal, and just government by all the people.
Those who took refuge from the Spaniards in the
mountains had no hesitation in robbing and killing
THE WARS WITH THE DUTCH. 125
their fellow countrymen as in the days before the
Summary. — In 1 580 Philip II. forbade the Dutch
to buy eastern goods of Portugal. So they tried to
conquer the Moluccas. In 1600 they attacked Man-
ila but were driven off by Antonio de Morga.
Governor Silva built a great fleet and in 1616
sailed in search of the Dutch fleet. He died in
Malacca. In 1647 the Dutch again attacked Man-
ila. They were defeated at Cavite, and at Abucay
Many Filipinos were loyal to Spain in the seven-
teenth century. The revolts were not attempts to
gain independence for all the i'slands, but to avenge
THE MORO PIRATES.
Introductory. — We have studied the peoples of
the Philippines as they were before the Spaniards
came. We have read how these Islands were dis-
covered and conquered by Europeans. We have
learned how the early governors laid the founda-
tions of a new rule in the Philippines. We have
seen how America and Asia were connected by the
galleon service, which began the commerce of the
Pacific. We followed the story of battles with
foreigners, the Dutch and the Chinese. We shall
now study the struggles of the islanders with one
The Moro Pirates. — The pirates of Borneo, Jolo,
and Mindanao had for many years put terror into
the hearts of the Visayans and the people of Lu-
zon. Their boats were large and swift. A hundred
slaves sometimes rowed them swiftly over the sea
at the stroke of the master's lash.
When the southwest wind began to blow, they
would come out from their pirate refuges in the
south. Along the shores of Mindoro, Masbate, and
THE MORO PIRATES.
Other islands they would hide among the nipa
swamps. Concealed in the forest-fringed bays and
estuaries, they would cross in a night to the shores
The Coast of Romblon.
of Panay, Cebu, or Luzon. Then, while the fisher-
men and farmers slept, the fierce cries of the sea-
rovers would ring out. People ran out of their
houses and found the villages in flames. Dazed by
fire and fright, they were slain if they resisted and
128 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
enslaved if they submitted. All their goods of value
were taken by the pirates. Then by the light of
their burning homes they were hurried into the boats
and rowed across the sea to the retreat of the
Moros. There they remained till the camp was full
With the coming of the northeast wind they
sailed away to the south and slavery. If they were
aged and weak, the Moros took them to Sandakan
on the coast of Borneo. Here they were sold to
the heathen tribes, who offered them as sacrifices to
their gods. The strong were sold as slaves or kept
by their captors. Families were separated in this
way, never to meet again. For centuries the camps
of the Moros were the prisons of thousands of
Christian Filipinos whose friends and relatives wept
for them in the northern islands.
Spaniards Fail to Destroy Piracy — After the
Spaniards came the Filipinos became richer.
There was more wealth to plunder. Therefore
the Moros came oftener than before. The Span-
iards fought these pirates many times. Usually
the Moros escaped because their boats were
very swift. Often the Spaniards failed to pursue
When the great fleets sailed away to the Moluc-
cas with every man and gun they could get, the
pirates came north to rob and capture the defense-
less Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have
suffered many times as much from the pirates of
THE MORO PIRATES. 129
their own race as from all the invaders that have
come from China, Japan, and Europe.
Had the Philippines never been conquered by for-
eigners, the Islands would now be thinly populated
by a poor and timid people. Civilization brings its
terrible wars, but they are often wars of progress.
The wars of the pirates were unjust. They did not
lead to a better government. Wc shall now study
some of these piratical attacks and the attempts of
the Spaniards to stop them.
A Raid on the Visayans.— In the summer of 1599
one of the most terrible of the Moro raids occurred.
Two chiefs with fifty boats from Mindanao and
J0I6 and three thousand armed men ravaged the
coasts of Cebu, Negros, and Panay. They captured
1 .400 natives in Bantayan and Panay, burned many
villages and loaded their boats with plunder. The
inhabitants of the coast fled to the mountains. An
aged priestess, called Dupufigay, told them that the
Spaniards were helping the Moros to destroy the
peaceful Filipinos. With great difficulty they were
persuaded to come back to their villages on the
The following year the pirates returned with
eight thousand men in seventy boats. This time
they boldly attacked Iloilo. The Governor of Panay
with seventy Spaniards and one thousand Visayan
bowmen built a fort to resist the Moros. A fierce
battle followed in which the Moros were defeated.
The governor pursued them. Then the cunning
130 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Moros- surrounded his boat and killed him. Tello
de Guzman. Governor of the Philippines at the time,
sent two hundred Spaniards to Jolo to punish the
pirates. They killed many Moros, but could not
capture the fort. Then the pirates were as bad as
Acufia and the Pirates; — In Governor Acuna's
time a large fleet of Moros sailed along the coast of
southwest Luzon. They burned the church and
convent of Calibaya, and captured the friar and
many natives. They took away the bells of the
churches to melt them into cannon. Next they went
to Balayan, now Batangas Province. Here the na-
tives repulsed them bravely. Finally they sailed
away with their booty to a desert island. Acufia
heard of all this, but instead of crushing the pirates
he sent an ambassador to make peace with them.
Then he sailed away with his great fleet to conquer
the Moluccas. Thus, while the Spaniards were busy
with their dreams of conc[uest. the pirates were
growing bolder. In 1616 they came even to Cavite.
Here they were defeated and for some years gave
Battle of Punta de Flechas. — In 1636, Tagal, a
Moro chief, brother of the Sultan of Mindanao, at-
tacked the islands of Cuyo and Mindoro. He cap-
tured three Recollect friars, for each of whom he
asked a ransom of two thousand pesos and thirty
taels of gold. With six hundred and fifty captives
he sailed for Punta de Flechas. This is a lofty
132 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
promontory about one hundred miles east of Zam-
boanga. The Moros believed that in this cliff lived
a diuata, or god of war. On departing for a pirati-
cal trip, and on returning, they were accustomed to
shoot arrows at the cliff in honor of the god. The
governor of Zamboanga sent a fleet against Tagal,
who was killed with three hundred of his men.
Many captives were set free.
In a letter to the king, the archbishop said that
in the last thirty years the Moros had carried into
captivity over twenty thousand Filipinos.
Treaties with the Moros.- — For a century the
strife went on. At length, in 1725, the Sultan of
J0I6 sent a request for peace to Manila. A treaty
was made. By this treaty it was agreed that Fili-
pinos and Moros should trade freely with each
other. All Christian captives were to be set free.
The sultan did not keep his promise. The Moros
never kept their promises to the Spaniards.
Concentration of Villages. — In 1734 it was de-
cided by the Council of War at Manila to build
little forts on the coasts of the Islands, as a defense
against the pirates. It was ordered that the little
fishing villages unite to form large towns. No
coast town could have less than five hundred tax-
payers, or about two thousand persons. It was a
great hardship to make this change, but it pro-
tected the people, because the Moros did not often
attack large towns.
Arming the Filipinos.- — The Filipinos were now
THE MORO PIRATES. 133
given arms to defend themselves. They were al-
lowed to make expeditions against the Moros, and
to make slaves of all they captured. There was
quiet for a few years, then the pirates again began
their attacks. Like many other Spanish decrees,
the order to unite the small villages with the large
ones was not fully carried out. So the raids of
the pirates began again.
The governors of Cebu, Leyte, Iloilo, and Negros
were now commanded to build thirty-six boats that
could carry one hundred men each. The govern-
ment paid for the food of the men who built these
boats, but the towns furnished the wood and labor
free. To encourage the natives to fight the pirates,
it was decided that Filipinos who won victories over
the Moros should not have to pay tribute. This
plan showed that the Spaniards did not feel strong
enough to defeat the pirates with their own forces.
But the Moro boats had little of value in them, so
the Filipinos did not wish to risk their lives in the
attempt to capture them.
Another reason why this plan failed was because
the governors used these boats for their private
trade. The soldiers in the forts acted as servants
for them. So when the Moros came, there were
neither boats nor men to oppose them. Sometimes
an expedition would go out to attack the pirates,
and return laden with merchandise, without pur-
suing the enemy.
Brave Defenders. — There were times when the
134 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
pirates met their match. In 1753 the islands of
Tablas, Banton, the Calamianes and others lost
much b)^ the attacks of the Moros. The same Moros
who made these attacks were driven away by the
people of Camiguin. Romblon, Culion, and Capiz.
The people of Batangas were very brave. Several
times they repulsed the pirates from their shores.
The Coast-Guard Towers. — On many of the
beaches of the Philippines, round stone towers may
be seen. Most of these were built in the middle of
the eighteenth century to serve as watch-towers and
forts for a defense against the Moros. The parish
priests had charge of this work. To their persever-
ance and skill in building these towers the Filipinos
owe much. Unfortunately the governors took these
towers away from the command of the priests and
put lazy officials in charge of them. These men
used the guards for their own work as servants.
The Story of Ali-Mudin.— Philip V. was per-
suaded by the Jesuits to write a letter to Ali-Mudin,
Sultan of J0I6, asking his friendship. The sultan
received the messengers of the king peaceably. He
decided to visit Manila.
When he went on board of the Spanish ship, his
brother seized the throne and put a price of six
slaves and one thousand pesos on the head of Ali-
Mudin. The sultan sailed away to ^Manila, where
he was received with the honors of a king. He and
his seventy followers were given a house in Bi-
THE MORO PIRATES. 135
Conversion of the Sultan.^Governor Arreche-
derra, who was formerly bishop of Nueva Segovia,
became greatly interested in the conversion of the
Mahometan ruler. He ate with him. walked with
him, made him presents of gold, emeralds, and
rubies, and tried in every way to make a Christian
of him. He used to say to the sultan : "Sultan, if
you wish to return to your kingdom and conquer
your enemies, become a Christian, be converted to
Jesus Christ, and you shall be master of your sub-
At length the sultan became a Catholic. The
Jesuits did not think he was sincere; but the gov-
ernor, proud of his success, determined to have the
sultan baptized. The ceremony was performed and
Ali-]\Iudin was christened "Fernando I. of J0I6."
The governor had little money and few men, so
he could not place Ali-]\Iudin upon the throne of
Treachery of Ali-Mudin. — Governor Obando,
who followed Arrechederra. sent a fleet to replace
Ali-Mudin on his throne. This fleet was driven
away from J0I6. On the return to Zamboanga the
Spaniards decided that Ali-^Iudin was a traitor.
He had written a letter for the Spaniards to the
Sultan of ^Mindanao which proved to be against the
Spaniards instead of to their advantage. So Ali-
Mudin and two hundred and seventeen of his fol-
lowers were brought to Manila and put in prison.
Lessons of This Story. — The treatment of Ali-
136 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Mudin shows how feebly the Spaniards dealt with
the Moros. It was pitiful that the ruler of the once
powerful kingdom of Spain should beg the friend-
ship of a pirate chief. It shows also that the Span-
A MoRo Warrior.
iards were slow to learn the treachery of the Moros.
\\'^ith all their faults, the Spaniards were usually
honorable in their treaties. So it was difficult for
them to believe that the Moro chiefs were deceiving
When the Americans came to the Philippines,
THE MORO PIRATES. 137
they made an agreement with the Sultan of J0I6.
The sultan agreed to keep his men from making
war on the Americans. For this he was paid a
pension. The sultan failed to keep his part of the
treaty. In time of peace the Americans were at-
tacked, in J0I6, in 1903. So they had to punish the
Joloans. In 1904 America declared the treaty
ended. In 1906 and in 191 3 the Aloros of J0I6
were again punished for repeated breaches of the
peace and for serious crimes and 'disturbances of
the public welfare.
The High Tide of Piracy. — The year 1754 was
the high tide of ]\Ioro piracy. The defeat of the
Spaniards at J0I6 when they tried to put Ali-]\Iudin
on the throne had destroyed all respect for their
power. j\Ioro fleets attacked the towns of the
Christian Filipinos from jMindanao to Batangas, and
from Mindoro to Samar. Hundreds of villages
were burned in that year. Thousands were killed
and enslaved. The savings of years were carried
away by the dreaded sea-robbers. The Islands lay
under a pall of ashes and grief. Ten thousand
Christian Filipinos toiled in slavery among the
bloodthirsty Moros. Yet the rulers were so weak
that they could think of nothing better than to send
Ali-Mudin's daughter to J0I6 to try to make peace.
Finally Governor Arandia sent a strong expe-
dition against the Moros. Some battles were won
by the Spaniards, many forts were built in the
Visayas, and more treaties were made with the pi-
138 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
rate chiefs. But the Moro raids continued for an-
Summary. — Until the middle of the nineteenth
century Moro pirates yearly raided the Filipino
coast towns of the Visayas and Luzon. They car-
ried thousands of captives away, and burned many
villages. In 1599 fifty boats and three thousand
Moros ravaged the coasts of Cebu, Negros, and
Panay. The next year they returned with eight
thousand men and attacked Iloilo. They were de-
feated. Governor de Guzman sent an expedition
to J0I6, but it could not capture the town. Gov-
ernor Acuna sent an ambassador to make terms
with the pirates while he sailed to conquer the
Moluccas. In 1636 Tagal captured three friars and
six hundred and fifty other prisoners. The gov-
ernor of Zamboanga sent a fleet against Tagal and
killed him. In the thirty years the Moros took cap-
tive twenty thousand Filipinos. In 1725 the Span-
iards made a treaty with the Moros. The Moros
did not keep their promises to free Christian cap-
tives. In 1734 villages were concentrated and the
Filipinos were armed. Boats were fitted out to
fight Moros, but the provincial governors used them
for private trade. Stone coastguard towers were
built in many places as a defense against the
Ali-Mudin, sultan of J0I6, visited Manila and
was converted to Christianity. The Spaniards sent
him to J0I6 with a fleet, but were unable to place
THE MORO PIRATES. 139
him on the throne. Finally they decided that he
was a traitor and imprisoned him in Manila. The
Americans made an agreement with the sultan
when they came to the Philippines, but as the sul-
tan did not keep it they ended the agreement in
Seventeen hundred and fifty-four was the high
tide of Moro piracy. Hundreds of villages were
burned by the Moros. Governor Arandia sent a
strong expedition against the Moros, built forts and
FORCED LABOR AND INSURRECTION.
The Dark Century, — On the stage of Philippine
history there were many years of darkness and dul-
ness in the seventeenth century. We shall raise the
curtain only now and then to view the scenes that
teach us most.
The Filipinos had suffered from the toil and
losses of war for half a century. Much of their
time had been spent in building fleets and fighting
battles against the Moros, the Chinese, and the
Dutch. These fleets were built by forced labor.
The hardships of this labor brought on many re-
volts against Spanish rule.
The Labor Tax.^ — Besides the tribute, the Filipi-
nos had to pay a labor tax. During most of the
period of Spanish rule this forced labor was forty
days each year for every man. This labor was used
to build churches, convents, roads, bridges, and all
kinds of public works. By this forced and unpaid
service the timber was cut from which the galleons
were built. There was a force of Filipinos em-
ployed in the shipyard at Cavite who received rice
FORCED LABOR AND INSURRECTION. 141
and about twenty pesos a year each for their skilled
labor as carpenters and smiths. But most of the
heavy work was done by the peasants, who were
taken from their fields to build ships and forts.
The long succession of wars with the Moros, the
Dutch, and the Chinese had nearly worn out the
patience of the Filipinos. At length a governor
came whose rule was not disturbed by foreign
Alonso Fajardo.— This was Alonso Fajardo, who
governed the Philippines from 1618 to 1624. Fa-
jardo saw that the people were overworked. He
therefore lessened the labor tax. He said that for
a while they need not work without pay, except at
making cannon and ships. In -this way he won the
favor of the Filipinos. He was the first governor
for a long time whom they had liked. Still the
burden was heavy, and the reform came too late
to prevent revolt.
Insurrection in Bohol and Leytc — In i62i,W'hile
the Jesuit fathers of Bohol were in Cebu at a fes-
tival, the natives of Bohol revolted. This revolt
was led by the chiefs. They told the common
people that a diiiata ordered the expulsion of the
Spanish. The real reason for this revoU was the
desire to escape taxes and labor. Often the leaders
of the Fihpinos have taken advantage of the igno-
rance of the people to get them to rebel for religious
reasons, when the chiefs themselves had some other
142 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Four towns were jjurned by the revolters. Im-
ages of the Virgin were pierced with lances. Nearly
all the natives joined the revolt, and fled to the
mountains. Fifty Spanish lancers and one thou-
sand Cebuans followed them into the mountains for
five days. Then they came to a village of one thou-
sand houses which the rebels had built. Here fifteen
hundred rebels were defeated, but it was six months
before they were all driven from their mountain
Bancao. — Now the insurrection spread to Leyte,
led by the aged chief Bancao, of Limasaua. Philip
IT. had given a letter to this old chief thanking him
for the services he had done for Legazpi. But Ban-
cao longed for his okl power, and joined the rebel-
lion. He was beheaded. The revolt was soon sup-
Death of Fajardo. — The last days of Fajardo's
life were filled with sorrow. Finding his wife un-
faithful, he killed her in public with his sword. The
power of a governor of the Philippines in those
days may be seen from the fact that no one tried to
punish him for this deed. A few months later he
died broken hearted, and was buried beside his wife
in the Church of the Recollects.
Tabora, Governor — 1626-1632 — Juan Nino de
Tabora came to the Philippines from the wars in
Flanders. He brought six hundred soldiers with
him. This large force kept the country peaceful
for a time. The Philippines were now prosperous.
FORCED LABOR AND INSURRECTION. 143
The former age, with its independent villages and
its neighborhood wars, was fast passing away. The
Islands and their people were now a part of the
great world, sending their products across the seas.
Shells and gold-dust were no longer their money.
The "Bridge of Spain," Manila.
There were rich men among the Filipinos. For-
tunes were being made in the trade with China and
Many public works were undertaken by Tabora.
Within six months he built ten large ships and sev-
eral small ones. It was Tabora who built the
"Bridge of Spain" in 163 1, called at first the
"Puente Grande." This bridge lasted for nearly
144 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
two centuries, till it was destroyed by an earth-
quake in 1824.
Diego Fajardo/ — This governor (1644-1653) was
a stern and warlike man. He tried to establish a
shipyard in the Visayas like those in Tondo and
Pampanga. This caused an insurrection in Samar.
Sumoroy, the leader, was beheaded. There were
other revolts caused by the oppressions of the trib-
ute and forced labor during the following year.
The principal ones were in Camarines, Pampanga,
Ilocos and Mindanao. The Filipinos always showed
themselves willing to endure a great deal from gov-
ernors who tried to understand and benefit them.
But their lives were so full of hardship that when
harshly treated the fire of revolt burned.
. Earthquake of 1645.- — In the year 1645, on St.
Andrew's day, November 30th, there was a terrible
earthquake in Manila. Fire, it is said, burst through
cracks in the ground. The Pasig River was thrown
out of its channel. Nearly all the churches, con-
vents, and other large buildings of Manila fell in
ruins. Six hundred persons were killed.
After this earthquake they built no more great
houses of stone in ]\Ianila for many years. The
large and beautiful houses which stood before the
earthquake had gained for Manila the name 'Tearl
of the Orient."
Insurrection of 1660. — ]Manrique de Lara was
now governor. During his rule many calamities
had come upon the Philippines. Locusts, famine,
FORCED LABOR AND INSURRECTION. 145
smallpox, pirate attacks, shipwrecks, and earth-
quakes had made the lot of the Filipinos a hard
In addition to all these troubles the natives were
worked like slaves at ship-building. In 1660 one
thousand Filipinos were cutting timber for the gov-
ernment in the forests of Pampanga. Sometimes
they were whipped to make them work harder.
These woodmen now rebelled. A Mexican, Man-
ago, was their leader. They wrote to their fellow
countrymen in Pangasinan, Ilocos, and Cagayan to
get their aid. But before it could come they were
betrayed by their leader. They went with arms to
the pueblo of Lubao. Manrique de Lara hurried
to Macabebe with a few soldiers. Instead of fight-
ing, he won over Mafiago by making him com-
mander of the Mexicans in Manila. Then he built
forts in Arayat and Lubao. He promised better
treatment to the rebels. Deprived of their leader,
they went back to work, without bloodshed.
Revolt in Ilocos. — In Ilocos the revolt had more
strength. Juan Manzano was the leader. A fierce
battle occurred at Bantay, near Vigan. Eight hun-
dred loyal natives were slain. But the rebels were
soon put to flight. They were driven to Ilocos
Norte. From here they crossed the mountains to
Cagayan. The Governor of Cagayan, with three
hundred royal troops, drove the rebels back to Ilo-
cos. Then he marched through Ilocos to Pan-
gasinan. Here he joined the Spanish forces, and
146 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
greatly assisted them in putting down the rebellion.
As had often happened before, the weakness of the
Filipinos was the lack of union between the different
tribes. The Spaniards held these Islands largely by
setting one tribe against another.
Summary. — The first half of the seventeenth cen-
tury was largely occupied with wars. The hard-
ships of forced labor brought on revolts. During
most of the period of Spanish rule the labor tax was
forty days a year for each man. Tiiis labor was
used to build churches, roads, and other public
Alonso Fajardo was governor from 1618 to
1624. He lessened the labor tax. In 1621 there
was a revolt in Bohol. Four towns were burned.
A force from Cebu pursued the rebels into the
mountains and defeated them. Bancao in Leyte
led a revolt at this time.
Juan Nino de Tabora was governor from 1626
to 1632. He brought six hundred soldiers. Tabora
built many ships and the first Bridge of Spain in
Diego Fajardo, governor 1644-53, caused a re-
volt in Samar by trying to establish a shipyard in
the Visayas like those in Tondo and Fampanga.
Forced labor caused revolts in Ilocos, Mindanao,
and elsewhere in his time.
In 1645 there was a great earthquake in Manila;
six hundred persons were killed. In 1660, when
Manrique de Lara was governor, many calamities
FORCED LABOR AND INSURRECTION. 147
came, such as famine, locusts, pirate attacks, and
earthquakes. A revolt of woodmen cutting timber
for ships occurred in Pampanga. A similar re-
volt occurred in Ilocos. The lack of union between
the different peoples of the Philippines made it easy
for Spain to put down revolts.
THE STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE.
Introductory. — We have seen earlier in this book
that the governors ami the friars did not always
agree. Although the governors were Catholics,
they usually supported the king, while the friars,
though Spaniards, looked rather to the Pope. Be-
sides this, on the whole, the governors cared less
for the good of the Filipinos than did the friars.
Perhaps but few Filipinos understand what their
lot would have been had the friars not been here to
protect them from the selfishness of the governors
and the encomenderos.
The fifty years following the insurrection of
1660 are filled with this strife. It lasted to the very
close of Spanish rule. But we shall not study all of
these struggles. There is no longer any quarrel-
ing between church and state in the Philippines.
The bitterness of recent years should be forgotten.
Yet it is impossible to understand the history of the
Philippines without some knowledge of those events.
The things we shall study in this chapter happened
long ago. We can think of them now without
STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE. 149
anger and read them for the light they throw upon
Two Kinds of Courts.- — In those days there were
two kinds of courts; that of the state and that of
the church. The roval court tried those who had
Church at Laoag, Ilocos Norte.
broken the laws of the king. The church court
tried those who broke the laws of religion. Some-
times crimes against religion are the same as those
against the state. Therefore there were times when
it was difficult to know which court ought to pun-
ish the wrongdoer.
The Case of Nava. — In the governorship of Se-
bastian Hurtado de Corcuera (1635-1644) such a
case happened. Corcuera was a man of great en-
150 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
ergy, warlike and firm. One of his soldiers, called
Nava, had a female slave. Later another man ob-
tained the woman. One day Nava saw her riding
along the street with her new master. He rushed
to the carriage and killed her. Then he fled into
the convent of St. Augustine for refuge.
The Law of Refuge.- — It was the law of those
days that a criminal who took refuge in a church
or other sacred place could not be taken away by
the civil rulers. This was called ''the right of sanc-
tuary," or refuge. When Governor Corcuera heard
what had happened he ordered the archbishop to
give up Xava. The archbishop thought that Xava
ought to be tried by the church court, so he refused
to obey the governor.
Then the governor fell into a rage. He did what
was at that time thought a terrible thing. He
marched his soldiers to the convent and took away
Nava by force. Then he punished him at once with
death. The archbishop closed the churches, re-''
proved the governor severely, and fined the artillery
officer who arrested Nava. For a long time the
courts and the bishops quarreled over this case.
Such things were very bad for the country, for the
people lost respect for both governor and bishop.
They did not know which to obey. These quarrels
grew in number. Finally the Islands were left for
years without an archbishop. Then a governor
and an archbishop arrived who were friends.
The Pope's Pardon. — Manrique de Lara ruled
STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE. 151
from 1653 to 1663. With him came Archbishop
Miguel Poblete. the first archbishop the Islands had
seen for twelve years. Poblete found great distress
in Manila. The quarrels of the few years preced-
ing had filled the dungeons of Fort Santiago and
the convents with many prisoners. Some of these
had been unjustly condemned. The city had not
recovered from the losses caused by the earthquake
The condition of things was so bad that the Pope
in 1654 ordered that all who had been imprisoned
should be pardoned and have his blessing. There
was great joy in Manila when the dungeon doors
opened and friends were again united. To show
their gratitude all set to work to rebuild the cathe-
dral, which had been destroyed by the great earth-
The Inquisition in the Philippines. — The Inquisi-
tion was a church court. It was founded several
centuries ago to discover and punish those who be-
lieved and taught ideas contrary to the doctrines of
The Inquisition was introduced into the Philip-
pines in 1583. The head of it was called "the Com-
missary of the Inquisition." Sometimes no one
knew who that man was. Yet the secret hand of the
Inquisition was always at work reaching out after
those who were unfaithful to the king or the
Church. The Jesuit, Sanchez, recommended that
it be taken away from the Philippines. This was
152 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
not done. The Inquisition was not so cruel here
as in other countries. No one was burned at the
stake, as was the case in Spain. Yet it had great
power, as we shall see.
Diego de Salcedo. — Salcedo was governor from
1663 to 1668. He brought the hatred of all the
merchants and friars upon him by his selfishness.
He wanted to be the only one to send goods in the
galleon to Mexico. After the king's goods were
put into the ship he filled the rest of the space with
his private merchandise. Although many hated
him, it seemed impossible to take away his power.
Salcedo quarreled with Poblete. When the arch-
bishop died, the governor forbade the church bells
to be tolled, and would not allow the body to be
The enemies of Salcedo then conspired with the
Commissary of the Inquisition. This man threat-
ened the old Filipina who guarded the door of Sal-
cedo's room when he slept. She allowed the com-
missary and others to enter. They seized and bound
the sleeping governor, and locked him in a cell in
the Augustinian convent. They then sent him to
Mexico to be tried, but he died in mid ocean.
When the Supreme Court of Mexico heard of
this, it ordered the commissary to Mexico for im-
prisonment, but he, too, died on the ocean at nearly
the same place where Salcedo had died.
De Vargas and Pardo. — When De Vargas was
governor (1678- 1684) it was the State and not the
STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE. 153
Church that triumphed. According to the histori-
ans of the rehgious orders, those were dark days
for Manila. There were many lawsuits and impris-
onments. Felipe Pardo was archbishop. He and
the governor were bitter enemies. The archbishop
disobeyed twenty different royal decrees. Then the
governor did what no governor had before dared
to do. He sent soldiers to the palace of the arch-
bishop, and in the early dawn led the old man out of
the city. As the archbishop passed out of the gate
he shook the dust from his feet and threw a hand-
ful of stones at the wall to show that he rejected
the city. He was sent to Lingayen, where the Do-
minicans cared for him. The next governor re-
stored Pardo to power. The archbishop had De
Vargas put on an island in the Pasig, where he was
kept for four years while his rcsidencia was held.
Thus the high officials of Spain wasted their time
and the money of the Philippines in this unhappy
The Friars' Lands.^The friars grew more and
more powerful. We have seen how they overcame
the governor. Now we shall see how they were
stronger than the governor and the archbishop to-
gether. In 1697 Archbishop Camacho and Gov-
ernor Cruzat tried to make the friars show the titles
to their lands. They were now in possession of
large estates. In those times people were not care-
ful about the papers which prove the ownership of
lands. Some of these lands had been bought by the
154 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
friars; some had been given to them by the State,
and other lands were gifts of those who, dying, left
their property to the Church. The growing wealth
of the friars made it difficult for the archbishop and
the governor to make them obey.
Fort Pilar, Zamboanga.
A judge was appointed to examine the titles of
these lands. In some cases the friars refused to
show the titles. Then the governor embargoed the
lands; that is, he took possession of the lands till
the question could be settled. Then all the friars
closed their churches and refused to obey Arch-
bishop Camacho. The governor sent the soldiers
to open the churches by force. The opposition of
STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE. 155
the friars was so strong that a rebelhon was feared.
So the governor and the archbishop had to yield
and allow the friars to keep their lands. Thus
the strife continued, sometimes the governor and
sometimes the friars winning. Finally occurred a
contest which is one of the darkest blots upon the
pages of Philippine history.
Bustamante and the Friars. — Fernando Manuel
de Bustamante (171 7-17 19) was a stern and des-
potic governor. Yet he was honest and able. He
found the treasury empty. This was not because
the country was poor. Many of the citizens of
Manila were in debt to the treasury. To avoid pay-
ing these debts they had the money due them from
the sale of goods in Mexico come to their friends.
These friends secretly gave it to them. Then the
Sfovernment could not collect its debts from them.
Bustamante made these people pay their debts. In
this way he added three hundred thousand pesos to
the treasury in one year.
Bustamante Fortifies Zamboanga. — Bustamante
also imprisoned Torralba, a former governor. It
was said that, through the neglect of Torralba,
seven hundred thousand pesos had been lost to
the treasury. With the money he obtained by these
just deeds he established a garrison in Zamboanga.
For half a century the government had abandoned
the Christian population of Mindanao and the Vi-
sayas to the attacks of the Moro pirates. With their
own efforts the Visayans had built a fleet called the
156 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
"fleet of the Pintados" to defend their homes. The
Jesuits had for a long time urged that a garrison
be placed in Zamboanga. The other orders were
opposed to this plan. But Bustamante had the cour-
age to do whatever he thought was right. So he
built forts for the defenseless Filipinos of the south.
All these acts made him many enemies. These
enemies now plotted his destruction.
Arrest of the Archbishop, — A galleon was about
to sail for Mexico. Bustamante feared that this gal-
leon was carrying letters with charges against him.
He sent an officer to bring the captain of the gal-
leon ashore. The captain threw overboard the offi-
cer and his men and sailed away. The governor
sent ships to overtake the galleon. He now was
sure that there was a conspiracy against him.
Bustamante then put every one in prison that he
believed to be his enemy. The churches and con-
vents were filled with persons seeking refuge from
the governor. Bustamante demanded one of these
refugees from the archbishop. The archbishop re-
fused to give up the refugee. Then the governor
arrested the archbishop, and imprisoned him in Fort
Santiago. The church bells tolled when this was
done. The friars were filled with horror and anger.
Now the governor called on the citizens of Manila
to defend the rights of the king. At the signal of a
cannon-shot all were to present themselves with
arms and aid the governor. Manila was filled with
noise, terror, and tumult.
STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE. 157
Death of Bustamante — October 11, 1719, was a
day long to be remembered in Philippine history.
The friars resolved to rescue the archbishop by
force. They went through the streets in proces-
sion holding aloft crucifixes in their hands. Behind
them came the refugees, bearing arms, ready to fight
for their lives. Then followed a crowd of citizens
and the Jesuits. All were giving vivas for "the
faith, religion, and the king." Never before was
there such a scene in the Philippines. The crowd
rushed into the palace. They attacked Bustamante.
He defended himself bravely, but fell wounded. His
son came to his rescue, but was dragged from his
horse and killed. The governor was thrown into
prison, where he died the same day.
Archbishop Cuesta, Governor. — The archbishop
and other prisoners were released. The judges of
the Supreme Court, who had supported Bustamante,
were put in chains. Many army captains were ar-
rested and the royal standard of Spain was torn
down. It was a dramatic moment in the history of
these Islands. It meant that after one hundred and
fifty years of strife the Church had triumphed over
the king. The archbishop, Cuesta, now took pos-
session of the palace as Governor-General of the
The religious orders gave a great funeral to Bus-
tamante and a pension to his six sons. They denied
that they had planned the death of the governor.
The king was very angry when he heard of the
15S A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
overthrow of the royal power in the Philippines.
The slayers of Bustamante were arrested and taken
to Mexico for trial. They were then returned to
the Philippines to be tried and punished there. This
was not done, because the confessor of Governor
Torre Campo advised him to disobey the order of
Philip V. to punish these men.
Summary. — There were many quarrels between
church and state in the Philippines in the last half
of the seventeenth century. There were state courts
and church courts. Some cases belonged to one
court, others to the other. A soldier, Nava, had a
slave ; he killed a man who took this slave. Then
Xava took refuge in the Augustinian convent. The
archbishop refused to deliver Nava to the governor,
who took him by force and executed him. For
some years the Islands were left without an arch-
In 1654 the Pope ordered that all who had been
imprisoned should be set free and receive his par-
don. ■Miguel Poblete was archbishop then.
The Inquisition was a church court whose pur-
pose was to discover and punish those who believed
doctrines contrary to those of the Church. In Spain
the Inquisition burned thousands at the stake. In
the Philippines it was mild. Diego de Salcedo,
governor 1663- 1668, was seized by the authorities
of the Inquisition and shipped to Mexico for trial.
He died at sea.
De Vargas was governor 1678- 1684. The arch-
STRIFE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE. 159
bishop, Felipe Pardo, was opposed to him. He
disobeyed twenty royal decrees. The governor ex-
pelled the archbishop from Manila. The next gov-
ernor restored him and imprisoned Vargas.
In 1697 the archbishop and the governor tried to
make the friars show title to their lands. In some
cases the friars refused to show their titles. Then
the governor seized the lands. The friars closed
their churches and the archbishop and governor had
Fernando Manuel de Bustamante was governor
from 17 1 7 to 1 7 19. He collected back taxes, for-
tified Zamboanga and by stern but honest methods
made many enemies. He imprisoned his enemies,
including the archbishop, who refused to give up
a refugee. The friars marched through the streets
leading a rebellious procession. Bustamante was
killed by the mob. The archbishop, Cuesta, then be-
THE END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
Fausto Cruzat y Gongora, Governor — 1 690-1 701.
— Cruzat found the treasury empty. He was a
courageous and honest governor. He collected
large sums due the treasury from citizens of Man-
ila. With this money he repaired the palace and
other public buildings. Cruzat found many abuses
in the system of governing the Philippines. In or-
der to correct these he published the "Ordinances
of Good Government." A study of these reform
laws will show us much about the condition of the
Philippines two centuries ago.
"Ordinances of Good Government." — The prin-
cipal matters of which these ordinances spoke were
I. — Taxes. It was the practice to make the poor
pay the same tax as the rich. Cruzat ordered that
the rich pay more than the poor. This was ah ex-
cellent law, but it was not obeyed. Instead of this,
the poor were made to pay more than the rich. The
reason for this was that the rich could bribe the tax-
collector to take less than the just tax, while the
END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. i6l
poor, who could not offer such a bribe, were forced
to pay more than they ought.
2. — The governors and commerce. The govern-
ors were accustomed to engage in commerce. They
occupied their time more with private business than
with their duties as governors. Cruzat forbade
them to engage in any kind of commerce. He com-
manded them to visit each pueblo six days and the
large pueblos twelve days each year. The object of
this was to give the natives an opportunity to make
their complaints and get justice.
3. — Industry. Cruzat ordered that the Filipino
farmers be obliged to work. They must cultivate a
certain amount of ground each year and raise a cer-
tain number of animals. No one was to be allowed
to lend more than five pesos to a Filipino. This
shows that the people were contented with just
enough to eat, and had little ambition to provide for
4. — Prisons. It was decreed that separate rooms
be given to women in the prisons. In case of a light
charge they must be shut up in private houses, and
not put in prison. The prisons of those times were
filthy, and full of evil practices. This was so even
in Europe. Many of the faults of the Spanish Gov-
ernment were common to most governments in those
days. It is easy to see the mistakes of those who
lived centuries ago. We should remember that if
we had lived then we might have made the same
l62 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
5. — Spaniards. Spaniards were not to be allowed
to live in the pueblos without permission from the
government. This was because the governors
wanted all the commerce for themselves. Besides,
the Spanish planters did not always treat the Filipi-
nos justly when they were far away from the reach
of the law.
6. — Wild tribes. One ordinance forbade the
Christian natives to speak with or trade with the
people of the wild tribes. The reason given was
"because this makes their pacification impossible."
There were goods the wild tribes wished to get
from the Christians. It was thought that they would
come down from the mountains and live in the
pueblos as Christians if they were forbidden to
trade while living in a wild state. But the Chris-
tian natives wished to trade with these people,
so sometimes they would leave their goods at cer-
tain places in the mountains. When they went
away the savages would come and get these
things, leaving some of their own products in ex-
Evil Days.-These laws and others like them show
that two hundred years ago there were oppres-
sion and injustice in the Philippines. They -show
that the Spaniards did not trust each other; that
slavery still existed; that there were still encomen-
deros; that many Filipinos were idle and in debt;
that the prisons were a disgrace, and the roads and
bridges in a bad state. After seeing how the rulers
END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 163
in Manila had been acting for half a century we
can see why these things were so.
Manila and the Provinces. — In spite of all the bad
government from which the Philippines sufTered at
this time, the country prospered. The rulers and
people of Manila have been accustomed to think that
city all-important. Manila is more important to
the Philippines than many capitals are to their coun-
try. It is the only large commercial city in the
Islands. But most of the people in the Philippines
live and die without ever seeing Manila. Most of
the wealth of the Philippines was won from her
fields and forests by the farmers. They knew little
of their rulers in the capital, and most of their
rulers knew little of them. Two hundred years ago
there were no steamers or railroads. Many of the
Islands saw no Spaniards, except once a year. Then
the tax collector came, took his piece of cloth, or
the peso of tribute, and departed. For another
year all lived in the country villages very much
as they used to live before the Spaniards came to
the Philippines. There was less war between the
villages. There was less practice of the old religion.
Still, the Filipinos of the barrios were governed by
their headmen, and saw little of their Spanish rulers.
The "Laws of the Indies." — The "Laws of the
Indies" were made for the natives of Mexico and
the West Indies by Spain. After this, when the
Spaniards conquered the Philippines, they gave them
these same laws. But the customs of the Filipinos
END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 165
were different from those of the Mexicans, so the
laws of the Indies were not always good for this
land. Therefore the Filipinos were allowed to use
their old laws and customs when these were not
contrary to Christianity. So they continued to gov-
ern themselves in all small matters. There are more
Filipinos to-day ruled by ancient Filipino laws and
customs than there were when Legazpi settled the
Most of the Filipinos were little influenced by
their rulers compared with those who lived in Man-
ila. Therefore much of the growth and prosperity
of the Philippines must have come from the indus-
try and intelligence of the Filipinos themselves.
What the Filipinos Did, — In spite of war and bad
government the Filipinos multiplied. They broad-
ened their fields. They increased their herds of
cattle and horses. They sent their children to the
primary schools that the friars established from
early times. They were taught many useful things
by the friars. Had they been bad pupils they
would not have learned these lessons. But the Fili-
pinos learned as rapidly and as well as any primi-
tive people could learn from such teachers as the
Spaniards. Some of the American Indians refuse
to accept the teachings of civilization. The Ha-
waiian Islanders are dying out, although every ad-
vantage has been offered them. But most of the
Filipinos have accepted civilization. The pupil who
learns deserves praise as much as his teacher. To
i66 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the Filipinos belongs great credit for the steady
growth of their country in population, wealth, and
civilization. It was their loyalty that enabled Spain
to hold the Islands. They built ships for the trade
and wars of their conquerors. They fought by
their side against the Chinese, the Dutch, the Eng-
lish, and against rebellious Filipinos. The Philip-
pines grew greater and richer by their efforts.
Summary. — Fausto Cruzat y Gongora was gov-
ernor from 1690 to 1 70 1. He issued the "Ordinan-
ces of Good Government." These provided for
equalizing the taxes, stopping the provincial gover-
nors from engaging in private commerce, compelling
farmers to cultivate a certain amount of ground
each year, reforming the conduct of the prisons,
forbidding Spaniards to live in the pueblos, and
stopping intercourse between the Christians and the
Manila was long considered more important than
the provinces. During much of Spanish rule, the
country people saw little of their rulers and lived
nearly as before the conquest.
The "Laws of the Indies" were made by Spain
for her colonies in America. Later they were ap-
plied to the Philippines. But when ancient Filipino
laws and customs were not contrary to the Laws of
the Indies, the Filipinos were allowed to use them.
The Philippines gained greatly in wealth and impor-
tance under Spanish rule. This was largely due to
the industry and good qualities of the Filipinos.
THE BRITISH INVASION AND ITS RESULTS.
The Mysterious Fleet. — In the year 1762 Arch-
bishop Rojo was acting governor of the Phihppines.
He was a good man, but not fitted for the great
trials that were to come upon the Phihppines. For
nearly one hundred years Manila had not been
threatened by a foreign fleet. There was a small
garrison, and no readiness for the attack of a pow-
One day in September, 1762, thirteen large ships
anchored in Manila Bay. No one knew of what
nation they were, or why they had come. An offi-
cial was sent out to them to make inquiries. He
came back with the startling news that the ships
were British, and that they demanded the surrender
of Manila. Eight months before the British fleet
sailed into Manila Bay, England had declared war
on Spain. To-day news of such an event is flashed
over the telegraph wires around the world in a few
minutes. At that time sometimes one ship and some-
times none in a year brought tidings of Europe.
Some American merchants had told the archbishop-
l68 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
governor that the British in India were preparing
a fleet to attack the PhiHppines, But Governor Rojo
was a man whose thoughts were not of war. No
preparations had been made for defense.
Lighthouse at Entrance to the Pasig Rivee.
Landing of the British. — The next day the Brit-
ish landed at Malate. Their troops occupied the
churches and convents of Malate, Ermita, San Juan
de Bagumbayan, and Santiago. Not a shot was
fired at them from the walls and forts of Manila.
The city was dumb with surprise and fear. There
were nearly seven thousand British troops, includ-
BRITISH INVASION AND ITS RESULTS 169
insf three thousand of their Indian alHes. In Manila
there were only six hundred soldiers. With great
courage they refused to surrender. Messages for
help were sent to the provinces. In a few days_
seven thousand natives, armed with bows and
spears, had come to the help of the Spaniards.
The Capture of Manila.- — On the 5th of October,
1762, the British entered the city through a breach
which their guns had made in the wall on the east
side of the city. General Draper led a column
Spanish Guns, Fort Santiago.
through the streets to the plaza, two cannon preced-
ing him firing constantly. The officials of the
Church and the government had taken refuge in
Fort Santiago. The palace guard was cut down
while fighting bravely. The inhabitants of Manila
were fleeing across the Pasig in boats. The British
turned the guns of the wall upon them, and killed
many of the fugitives.
170 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
The Surrender. — Colonel Mtinson now went to
Fort Santiago, and demanded its surrender. Gov-
ernor Rojo was so terrified that he wished to get
down on his knees before the officer. The victors
promised, in return for the surrender of the forts:
1. Security for the life and property of all.
2. The free exercise of the Catholic faith.
3. Freedom for commerce and industry.
4. The preservation of the Supreme Court.
5. Military honors for the soldiers on their surrender.
Later the governor and the judges signed a paper
giving up the entire Philippine Archipelago to the
Governor Rojo was completely in the hands of
the British. General Draper compelled him to raise
five hundred and forty-six thousand pesos in money,
jewels, and silver plate. The British demanded four
million pesos, but could get no more.
The Sack of the City. — A cruel practice of war in
those days was the permission given to soldiers to
rob and abuse the inhabitants of a conquered city.
Manila was given over for three hours to be sacked.
The robbery and murder went on for forty hours.
Across the Pasig in Binondo the natives did as
wicked deeds as the British. Finally Draper hanged
several Chinese and stopped his soldiers. About
one thousand lives were lost on each side in the tak-
ing of Manila.
Simon de Anda y Salazar — On the Malecon
BRITISH INVASION AND ITS RESULTS. 171
Drive in Alanila stands a tall monument to a brave
Spaniard who would not surrender to the British.
Anda was a judge of the Supreme Court. The
night before the British entered jManila he left the
city in a canoe for Bulacan. Here he proclaimed
The Malecon Drive, Manila.
himself governor. The Augustinians supported
Anda soon had a small army. With this he tried
to keep order in the provinces and besiege the Brit-
ish in Manila. Anda and Rojo each sent proclama-
tions through the provinces calling the other a
Restoration of Spanish Rule. — January 30, 1 764,
Governor Rojo died. Shortly after his death, news
of peace between England and Spain arrived. A
172 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
new governor, La Torre, was sent to the Philip-
pines. The British gave up Manila to the Spaniards
after holding it nearly a year and a half. La Torre
generously allowed Anda to make a triumphal entry
into ]\Ianila. March 31, 1764.
Effects of the Invasion. — When the fall of Manila
became known in the provinces many revolts broke
out. Taxes were not collected. Property and life
were not safe. Bands of robbers roamed through
the provinces. During the period of British occupa-
tion the Philippines suffered great distress. No one
knew who was the real governor — Rojo or Anda.
Outside of Pampanga and Bulacan. where Anda
ruled, there was little law and order of any kind.
In Batangas, Laguna, Tondo, and Cavite provinces
homeless and starving people wandered from village
to village. The wild tribes of Negritos and Igo-
rots descended boldly from the hills and killed the
Revolt in Pangasinan. — Throughout the British
occupation there was a revolt in Pangasinan. Ten
thousand natives perished in battle. The popula-
tion of the province fell from sixty thousand to
thirty-six thousand in less than four years. Many
had gone to other provinces, died of hunger, or been
killed by savages. Finally Anda's troops aided by
some Cagayan soldiers put down the revolt and
hanged the leaders.
Diego Silan.— One of the fugitives from Manila
when the British took the city was Diego Silan. He
BRITISH INVASION AND ITS RESULTS. 173
was a native of Vigan, Ilocos Sur. This man was
one of the most remarkable leaders the Filipinos
ever had. At first he took the side of the Spaniards,
saying that he wished to arm the natives against the
British. The Spaniards became suspicious and im-
prisoned him. Some persons of influence to whom
he promised to give good positions released him
from prison. Now Silan boldly said he would drive
the Spaniards and mestisos irom the country, and
then the British.
Silan in Power.- — ]\Iany joined the cause of Silan
As in previous insurrections, the oppression of the
local governor was the main reason for the revolt.
This man had abused the natives of Ilocos. He had
made them sell him all their wax and buy of him all
their candles. Silan drove him from Vigan. Then
the new leader set up a shrine and claimed the
special favor of God. He proclaimed Jesus Christ
as the head of his rebellion. Thousands came to
The bishop of Nueva Segovia and some of his
priests led a force of natives from Ilocos Norte
against Silan. This force was defeated by treach-
ery. While they laid down their arms to talk, the
Tinguian allies of Silan attacked them. They were
driven back to Ilocos Norte. Silan sent a force to
Ilocos Norte and captured a number of the leading
men and friars. He raised large sums of money
by setting these men free for a ransom. This
created great hatred for him in that province.
174 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Alliance with the British. — When the English
general heard of the success of this revolution he
offered to make Silan his ally. The Ilocano leader
did not dare to refuse. He feared that Anda would
soon send a strong force against him. The people
of Ilocos Norte were hostile to him also. So he was
between two fires. He accepted the offer of the
British. They sent him a cannon and appointed
him Governor of Ilocos. This was a great surprise
to the followers of Silan, but their faith in him
Death of Silan. — The bishop of Nueva Segovia
and his friars were now shut up in the convent of
Bantay, near Vigan. Silan could not persuade his
followers to kill them. So he was about to allow
some of the savage Tinguians to massacre the
priests. At this time a mesti::o, named Vicos,
planned to assassinate Silan. He went to Silan's
house and shot him in the back. The friars now re-
turned to their parishes, for the death of Silan ter-
rified his followers for a time. A general pardon
and a remission of taxes was proclaimed.
A Fresh Outbreak. — Anda sent new officials to
Vigan. By this time the followers of Silan had re-
covered their courage. They rebelled, making an
uncle of Silan governor. Now was the opportunity
for Ilocos Norte to take revenge. A force of six
thousand from that province invaded Ilocos Sur and
defeated the rebels. Silan's wife fled with the
wealth he had collected to the mountains of Abra.
BRITISH INVASION AND ITS RESULTS. 175
She was a brave, determined woman. She meant to
avenge the death of her husband. So she hired the
wild Tingiiians to attack Vigan for her, but the
bowmen of Piddig drove her Httle army back to the
Anda now made the Cagayan leader, Arza, gov-
ernor of all of Luzon north of Pangasinan. Arza
pursued Silan's wife till he captured her. She and
ninety other leaders of the revolt were hanged.
Why the Revolts Failed. — It is easy to see that
all these revolts failed because the Filipinos were
not agreed as to what they wanted and how they
wanted to get it. Each was working for his own
good, not for the good of all Filipinos. The old
hostile spirit of the different tribes toward each
other was still alive. It takes a long time to make
one people out of so many different branches of the
Malayan race. The Filipinos of that day were
struggling for a freedom which they did not know
how to get; or to use, if they had obtained it.
Summary. — In 1762 a British fleet from India at-
tacked Manila. War had been declared between
England and Spain, but no one in the Philippines
knew this. Seven thousand British landed and laid
siege to the city. Thousands of Filipinos came from
the country to help save Manila. After a few days
the British took the city and sacked it. The gov-
ernor and supreme court judges gave up the whole
Archipelago to the British. General Draper com-
pelled the Spaniards to pay an indemnity of 546,000
176 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
pesos. Anda proclaimed himself governor in the
provinces and resisted the British. After a year
and a half the British gave Manila back to the
Spaniards. The new governor, La Torre, allowed
Anda to make a triumphal entry into Manila.
The capture of Manila caused many evils in the
provinces. Bands of robbers roamed about. Re-
volts against Spanish rule broke out and thousands
were killed in battle or perished of hunger and hard-
ships. Diego Silan, an Ilocano, was a noted leader.
He subdued Ilocos and captured many friars. Then
Silan allied himself with the British. Finally he
THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIMES.
Governorship of Anda — 1770-1776. — Shortly after
the departure of the British, Anda had returned to
Spain. The governors who followed Rojo did not
repair the ruin caused by the war. The old quar-
rels between Church and State were renewed. The
Jesuits were expelled from the Philippines. A
strong hand and a clear head were needed. Several
times the king asked Anda to take the governor-
ship of the Islands. He was weary of strife, but
finally yielded to the repeated requests of the king.
Anda was a brave and honest man. Dliring his
fight against the British he had spent only 600,000
of the 3,000,000 pesos which he had received from
the Philipino. As governor he was economical and
honest. Although he repaired the walls of Manila
and built many ships, the public revenue increased
to one and one-half million pesos a year. He did
all he could to bring the Philippines out of the
wretched state into which a century of folly had
Anda a Modern Man.' — Anda was different from
178 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the governors who preceded him. At the time of
his return to the Phihppines, Europe and America
were feeHng their way toward Hberty and progress.
The revokitionary spirit was stirring France and
the North American colonies. New ideas filled
men's minds. The Church was losing control of
The Anda Monument. Manila.
the State. Anda, like Das Marinas, was a royal
governor. He was not liked by the friars, because
he sent a report to the king charging them with
disloyalty and crimes of oppression. Anda was not
a republican, but he believed that the government
should study to make the country prosperous. He
therefore encouraged agriculture, believing that the
future prosperity of the Islands depended upon this.
From his time the governors began to develop the
unused riches of the Philippines. The galleon trade
THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIAIES. 179
was nearing its end, and a new era was beginning
for the Filipinos.
The Teaching of Spanish.- — During Anda's rule a
royal decree ordered that Spanish be taught instead
of the native dialects of the Philippines. In a great
church council of 1590, the friars had decided to
teach the Filipino tongues instead of Spanish. This
was because they believed it necessary to teach re-
ligion to every one as soon as possible. The friars
could learn the languages of the natives much
quicker than the natives could learn Spanish. Very
old people and little children might die ignorant of
the gospel if it were not quickly taught them in
their own tongue.
Many times the rulers of Spain ordered that
Spanish be taught to the Filipinos. Most of the
friars were willing to have this done. But they
did not believe it would ever be possible to make
Spanish the language of the common people. In
later days there were some who did not wish the
Filipinos to learn Spanish because they were afraid
the Filipinos would become wise enough to rule
Death of Anda. — Anda made many enemies by his
stern, just ways. These enemies fought against
him at the court of Spain. He was fined and some
of his acts condemned. \\'earied with work and
the ingratitude of his country, he fell ill, dying at
Cavite in 1776. His remains were placed behind
the high altar of the cathedral in Manila. His
i8o A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
fame is secure to-day as one of the most upright
governors that Spain ever sent to the Phihppines.
Vargas and Agriculture. — Jose de Vasco y Var-
gas (1778- 1 787) was an intelhgent and industrious
man. Under him a serious attempt was made to
improve agriculture. He pubhshed a proclamation,
offering prizes to those who excelled in agriculture
and industry. He encouraged the production of
silk. IMulberry trees, on which the silkwomi feeds,
were planted in large numbers. For some years
silk was made in the Philippines. The mulberry
and the silkworm flourish in these Islands. In the
end, however, the culture of silk did not pay. The
plantations were abandoned. The silk of China and
Japan was produced and sold cheaper than that of
the Philippines. This was because wages were less
in those countries and men were willing to work
more steadily than in the Philippines. Many things
have failed in the Islands because Filipino laborers
have beem satisfied with earning a little money.
Then they have abandoned their work to spend or
gamble away what they have earned. No country
can have great industries till it raises up an army of
steady workers who will work for months at a
time at the same rate of wages.
Why Java Prospered. — It is true that one reason
for lack of labor was because the Spaniards did not
always give the Filipinos a fair share of the prod-
ucts of their labor. In Java the Dutch compelled
the natives of the Island to work; but in all their
THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIMES. i8i
business dealings they treated the natives justly and
fulfilled all promise's. Thus Java grew industrious
and prosperous while the Philippines advanced
slowly. We shall see an example of this in the way
the Spanish managed the tobacco industry.
The Tobacco Monopoly — For centuries the Phil-
ippines had cost the treasury of Mexico a large sum
yearly. The burden of the royal subsidy was a
heavy drain on the Mexican treasury. Vargas now
thought of a plan to make the Philippine Govern-
ment pay its own expenses. He decided that all the
tobacco must be raised, manufactured, and sold by
i82 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the government. This plan was called the Tobacco
Monopoly. In 1781 the Filipino farmers were for-
bidden to grow and sell tobacco, except at the order
of the government. The following year the gov-
ernment began the business of growing, manufac-
turing, and selling tobacco. This monopoly con-
tinued for exactly one hundred years. The revenues
of the government increased rapidly. There were
some years now when it was not necessary to send
a subsidy from Mexico. But the treasury was
filled by means of oppression and injustice.
Abuses of the Tobacco Monopoly. — The govern-
ment told the farmer just how much land he should
plant each year with tobacco. He was ordered to
raise a certain amount from this land. He could
not keep one leaf for his own use. His house was
searched for hidden tobacco. If the farmer did not
raise the required amount the land was given to
another. He was heavily fined if he hid any away.
When the government bought the tobacco of the
farmer it fixed its own price. Then it made this
tobacco into cigars and sold them to the farmer,
again at its own price. The government inspectors
were often dishonest and cruel. They accepted
bribes from some natives who broke the laws. They
undervalued the tobacco of others. They treated
harshly the families of those whose houses they
searched. As time passed, the government paid
less and less for the tobacco, and the payments were
slow in coming. After planting most of his land
THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIMES. 183
with tobacco, and working hard and long to secure
the crop, the farmer often waited longer still for
his pay. Finally the government began to pay in
written promises instead of money. Men went
through the country and bought these pieces of
paper of the natives, giving them less money than
they were worth.
End of the Tobacco Monopoly. — Under Governor
Primo de Rivera in 1881 the government ceased to
raise and sell tobacco. This monopoly had become
a disgrace. Large sums were due the farmers for
the tobacco they had raised for the government.
Since this monopoly has ceased, many Filipinos
have succeeded in making a good living by raising
tobacco for themselves. It is said that since the
semislavery days of compulsory tobacco raising
ended the farmers have not grown as good tobacco,
or cured it so carefully as before. But the bribery
and abuses of the old days are ended. Free indus-
try and an honest government are worth more than
"Royal Company of the Philippines." — The great-
est commercial enterprise that Spain started in the
Philippines was the "Royal Company of the Philip-
pines," in 1785. The king, Charles III., was an
investor in this company. He and his governor,
Vargas, did all they could to make it succeed. The
capital of the company was six million pesos. It
had the sole right to trade between the Philippines
and Spain, but not with Mexico. The company en-
i84 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
couraged the cultivation of silk, indigo, sugar, and
cotton. Pepper was planted by it in Luzon, the
Visayas, and JMindanao. It paid a higher price for
Philippine pepper than for that of Java and Su-
matra. But the Philippines were not so fit to grow
pepper as these other islands. The governors wanted
all the trade of their provinces. They were jeal-
ous of the company and would not assist it. So
this great enterprise which cost so much and prom-
ised so well failed. A further reason for its fail-
ure was the unwillingness of the natives to work
"Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais," — One
of the best acts of \^argas was to establish the
"Economic Society of Friends of the Countr3^''
Pie did this in obedience to a royal decree. The
king ordered the formation of a "society of select
persons capable of producing useful thoughts."
This society was founded in 1781. In his speech
at the first meeting of the society Vargas said that
the backward condition of the Philippines was on
account of too great attention to the galleon trade.
The society included some of the most distinguished
people of that day. It lasted till the close of Span-
ish rule. At times it was dead for years, but it was
of some help to Philippine agriculture and industry.
Vargas Resigns,- — \^argas did many other things,
such as the suppression of highway robbery, the es-
tablishment of a hospice, or house of refuge, and the
creation of militia regiments of Filipinos. Like
THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIMES. 185
many other good governors, Vargas made enemies.
Wearied with the opposition of the judges, mer-
chants, and others, he resigned in 1787. Some think
he was the most useful governor the Phihppines
have ever had.
Industry Better Than Conquest. — AUhough the
Tobacco Monopoly was oppressive and the Royal
Company a failure, such efforts did more for the
Philippines than did the old expeditions of conquest
to the Moluccas. They did more for the permanent
prosperity of the country than the galleon trade.
The Filipinos learned much about industry. The
country grew in numbers and wealth. So rich a
land, with every variety of soil and climate, needed
but little encouragement.
Rafael de Aguilar, Governor — 1 793-1 806. — Agui-
lar was a governor of intelligence and energy. He
continued the plans of Vargas. The Tobacco Mon-
opoly was bringing large sums of money to the gov-
ernment. By royal order in his rule encouragement
was given to the cultivation of the mulberry tree,
and of cinnamon, pepper, cotton, and cacao.
Aguilar built a road from Cavite to Manila. He
was the first to light the streets of Manila. The
iron mines of Angat received his help. His rule
was marked by only one backward step, the exclu-
sion of foreigners.
Aguilar and Foreigners. — In 1800 Aguilar for-
bade foreigners to settle in the Philippines. This
policy was a great loss to the country. In a rich
i86 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
country, with so small a population as the Philip-
pines then had, merchants of other lands, with capi-
tal and energy, are a benefit. The United States,
for example, has become great and powerful in a
The Santa Lucia Gate, Manila, Built by Vargas.
short time by freely admitting industrious immi-
grants of practically all nationalities.
Progress of the Filipinos. — Manila was no longer
a village of nipa huts. Many of its inhabitants
lived in luxury. The governor loved display. He
spent upon his household 60,000 pesos a year. This
was three times his salary. The Islands were en-
tering upon a long period of prosperity. The popu-
lation was about one and one-half millions. The
Philippines were coming into better days. They
still suffered from pirates and other evils, but their
condition was steadily growing better. The Fili-
THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIMES. 187
pinos were learning their rights. From this time
forward their protests had more weight with their
rulers. Instead of the barbaric chiefs of Legazpi's
day their leaders were industrious, successful farm-
ers and merchants. They had learned much from
Spain. It was they who were now building her
ships, churches, and forts. Filipino soldiers were
the larger part of Spain's army in the Philippines.
Filipino priests were serving side by side with the
Spanish friars. Filipinos were soon to share in the
councils of Spain.
Summary. — Anda (1770- 1776) was an able and
honest governor. He repaired the walls of Manila
and increased the revenue to one and one-half mil-
lion pesos a year. He charged the friars with dis-
loyalty, encouraged agriculture, but was eventually
fined for some acts and died in 1776. In Anda's
time it was ordered that Spanish be taught in the
schools instead of the Philippine dialects.
Jose de Vasco y Vargas (1778- 1787) offered
prizes to those who excelled in agriculture. The
production of silk flourished in his administration.
In the end it failed because labor was cheaper in
China and Chinese silk sold cheaper than Philippine
In 1 78 1 the Philippine government took over the
sole right to raise, manufacture, and sell tobacco.
This was called the Tobacco Monopoly. It lasted
for a hundred years and brought large sums to the
treasury. There were many abuses by government
l88 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
inspectors. The culture of tobacco was greatly ex-
tended and improved.
The Royal Company of the Philippines was
started in 1785. King Charles III. was an investor.
It encouraged the cultivation of silk, indigo, sugar,
and cotton. The jealousy of the provincial gover-
nors injured it and it failed.
Vargas established the Economic Society of
Friends of the Country in 178 1. It was an agricul-
tural society and did much good.
Rafael de Aguilar (1793- 1806) also encouraged
agriculture and industry. He forbade foreigners to
settle in the Philippines. The population was about
one and one-half millions in 1800 and commercial
prosperity was increasing.
REBELLION AND REFORM.
Filipinos in the Cortes — The Cortes was the body
of men which made laws for Spain and her colonies.
In 1810 two natives of the Philippines were chosen
to represent the Islands in the Cortes. In 1809 the
Filipinos had been given by Spain the right to send
forty deputies to the Cortes, but the cost of sending
them was so great that as a rule only two or three
were sent. Ventura de los Reyes, of Manila, was
one of the first deputies. He recommended that
the galleon trade be stopped. This was done in
Another Filipino deputy, liiigo, in 18 15, recom-
mended that the taxes upon the poor people be de-
creased. He advised that the government monopo-
lies of tobacco, wine, and other products be stopped,
and that every person be allowed to raise what he
wished. He called the attention of the Cortes to the
many false land titles in the Philippines. He asked
that the missions of the friars to China be stopped.
These missions were costing the government about
fifty thousand pesos a year. He advised that a
190 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
college be started in which Filipino boys might
learn various native languages, so that they might
be fitted to hold government positions in the
These were some of the things the Filipinos
Fernando VII. of Spain.
wanted. They did not get them. The reason was
because Spain did not give the Filipinos representa-
tion in the Cortes in order to learn how to govern
REBELLION AND REFORM. 191
them better, but to gain their friendship in time of
The Constitution of 1812. — A new constitution
was proclaimed in Spain in 18 12. When this con-
stitution was published in the Philippines the follow-
ing year, the people thought they would now be free
from the labor tax and tribute. The governor had
to send out a proclamation to the provinces explain-
ing that no government could exist without taxes.
Restoration of Fernando VII.. — In 1814 Fernando
VII. was restored to the throne of Spain. He
began his new rule like a tyrant. He abolished the
constitution, and began again the Inquisition, which
had been stopped the year before. All who opposed
him were killed or driven out of the country.
Revolt in Ilocos Norte. — ^^'hen the natives of the
Philippines were told of these changes, they thought
the officials in IManila were lying to them. They
believed they were being robbed of the new liberties
which the constitution had given them. Fifteen
hundred Ilocanos revolted in Ilocos Norte. Their
attacks were directed mainly against the rich princi-
pales. They killed and robbed a number of these.
Convents and churches were burned and sacked.
The books and papers in town records were de-
Oppression of the Poor. — One cause of this revolt
was the oppression of the poorer natives by the rich..
The latter used to give raw silk or cotton to the com-
mon people, and require them to make it into cloth.
192 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
When the cloth was deHvered the rich would com-
plain of its poor quality. They would say it weighed
less than it did. Then they would pay the makers
less than they ought.
If the Filipinos had stopped oppressing each other
Bell Tower and Theater, Laoag.
they might have thrown off the yoke of Spain.
But as soon as a few of them got more power
than the rest, they began to oppress those under
them instead of helping them to be free. They
had not learned the great fact that no people can
ever be free unless they are willing to treat each
The Constitution Renewed. — The revolts in
Spain compelled the king to set up the constitution
again in 1820. The next year it was proclaimed all
REBELLION AND REFORM. 193
over the Philippines. That year four deputies were
elected to the Cortes. The people did not rejoice
much over the renewal of the constitution; for they
had learned that it made little improvement in their
lot. The governor and the church officials did not
want many deputies from Manila in the Cortes.
They had always done as they thought best in the
Philippines. They did not wish to have their plans
and acts exposed and criticised in Spain. As for
the Filipinos, they had not received much benefit
from the deputies, so they did not care.
The School of Freedom — These events show that
it is very difficult for a people who have never been
free to learn what freedom means. \\'hen the
United States became a free nation she had already
spent centuries in learning, little by little, how to
use freedom. France, who tried to free herself
about the same time, soon lost her freedom be-
cause her past history had not taught her people
how to use liberty. She had to go to school nearly
a century longer before she established a strong
End of Representation in the Cortes.- — In 1837,
in a secret session of the Cortes, it was decided not
to let the Filipinos send any more deputies to Spain.
The reasons given for this were four — -the distance
of the Philippines, the expense, the difference of cus-
toms, and the lack of enough Filipinos sufficiently
well educated for so high an office.
News of this action nearly created a revolution in
194 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Manila. The governor, however, agreed to make
no changes till the Cortes decreed them. It really
made little difference at that time whether there were
Filipino deputies or not. The Filipino deputies were
so few in number that they could not secure re-
forms to which the officials in the Philippines were
Mariano Ricafort, Governor — 1825-1830 Rica-
fort was an intelligent and active governor. Manila
in his day was full of beggars and bad men. He
caused a house-to-house visit to be made, and drove
away many of these. He also punished those who
sang evil songs, gambled, blasphemed, worked on
feast days, or did not bring up their children prop-
Ricafort gave much attention to agriculture. A
great evil in the Philippines had been the taking of
all that a man had to pay a debt. Ricafort ordered
that laborers should not be put in prison for private
debts. If a man could not pay his debts, his creditor
could not take away his tools, animals, or land. The
object of this law was to give a man time to pay
his debts. He ordered that laborers who worked
steadily for many years should be free from tribute.
These reforms were good. The difficulty was that
the governors of the Philippines did not hold their
positions long enough to carry out their reforms.
When a new governor came to the Philippines he
did just as he pleased. If he did not agree with the
governor who came before him, he did not compel
REBELLION AND REFORM.
the people to obey the laws that the former governor
The Rebellion of Dagohoy.- — Ricafort suppressed
a rebellion that had begun one hundred years before.
A century before his time a Jesuit priest in Bohol
ordered the capture of a man who had abandoned
the Catholic faith. The native who tried to capture
him was killed. The brother of the dead man
brought the body to the priest for burial. The priest
demanded the usual fee. The brother, who was
named Dagohoy, refused to pay a fee, saying that
as his brother had died in the service of the priest
he ought to be buried without charge. For three
196 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
days the body lay unburied while they quarreled.
Then Dagohoy, exerting his influence on the na-
tives, started a rebellion. The people of Bohol had
always loved war. Three thousand people joined
Dagohoy. Then they killed the priest who refused
to bury the body without pay, and in other ways
wreaked their vengeance on the priests.
An Independent People. — For nearly a hundred
years these people and their descendants remained
unsubdued in the mountains of Bohol. It was the
most successful rebellion the Filipinos ever made.
It is a mistake to think that the real cause of this re-
bellion was the refusal of the priest to bury the dead
body. Many times in the history of the Philippines
a few Filipinos have become weary of the life of
civilization and left it to live the wild life of the
mountains. Sometimes they have done it because
they were oppressed ; at other times simply because
they loved a wild life.
To-day the Filipinos have far more freedom than
they ever had under Spanish rule. All but a few of
the governors of the thirty-eight provinces are Fili-
pinos. All the officers of the more than six
hundred municipalities of the Philippines are Fili-
pinos. There is plenty of work for all. No one
needs to flee to the mountains and live a wild life.
Yet there are still those who do this. The real
reason for this is not because they are oppressed,
or because they desire to help their brother Filipinos.
It is often because they do not love civilization. The
REBELLION AND REFORM 197
life of a civilized man is a life where each respects
the rights of others. It is a life where each obeys
the laws that are made for the good of all.
But these people of Bohol that withdrew to the
mountains pre3'ed upon other Filipinos. They at-
tacked the villages on the coast. If they had gained
their living by agriculture and industry we might
admire them. But they robbed and killed their
neighbors. No man is obliged to live in a country
if he does not like the government. He may go to
some other country. But if most of the people in
a country desire to obey the law, nothing can be
worse than for a few men to rebel and live like
savages. It was therefore a good thing that Rica-
fort finally suppressed this rebellion.
The New Pueblos. — Ricafort determined to com-
pel these rebellious mountaineers to live among and
like the civilized Filipinos. They had increased to
twenty thousand in number. Under governor Raon
pardon had been offered to all who would return to
,a civilized life. But the leaders threatened to kill
any who accepted this pardon. Ricafort therefore
sent the Governor of Cebu with a large force to
bring back the rebels to a civilized life. The loyal
Cebuans and Boholans of this force penetrated to
the heart of the mountains of Bohol. It required
over six thousand men and more than a year of
fighting to do this. In the end five new pueblos
were formed on the coast of Bohol and in these and
other pueblos the mountaineers were made to live.
198 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Had this not been done, Bohol to-day would be a
wilderness populated with savage tribes.
Pascual Enrile, Governor — 1830-1835 Enrile
was another governor whose rule did much for the
progress of the Islands. IMany of the governors
knew little of the Islands outside of IManila, Enrile
was a great observer. He traveled over the prov-
inces of northern Luzon. The maps of the Islands
were very imperfect. Enrile had in his service a
very intelligent young engineer called Penaranda.
The governor caused new maps and charts to be
made by Penaranda. At this time the great north
and south highways of Luzon were begun. Penar-
anda made surveys for the post-roads. Later he
was Governor of Albay. Here he greatly improved
the roads and encouraged agriculture.
Advantages of Good Roads.- — No country can be
civilized, or in any degree prosperous, without roads.
With good roads there are fewer bandits, because it
is easier to pursue and capture them. Crops can be
transported more cheaply. Land that is rich but
useless, because its products can not be carried to
market, becomes valuable. With good roads it is
easy to reach schools and churches, two of the great-
est helps to civilization. Without good roads the
people of the Philippines never can understand each
other. As long as the Filipinos live in the villages
where they were born, and never see or talk with
the people of other tov/ns and provinces, they will
never become a nation.
REBELLION AND REFORM. 199
Enrile should therefore be long remembered as a
wise and useful governor because of the efforts he
made to cover Luzon with good highways.
Kinds of Rebellion. — We have studied all the im-
portant rebellions in the Philippines for nearly three
centuries of Spanish rule. We have learned that
most of them were due to the abuse of the tribute
system and the forced labor law. We have seen
how the government monopolies were the cause of
others. Still others came from the desire to return
to the free, savage life of the mountains and forests.
One or two were begun by soldiers in revenge for
wrongs or to satisfy ambition. We are now to read
of a rebellion that had religion for its cloak and in-
dependence from Spain for its aim.
The Revolt of the Cofradia — 1 840-1 841. — Apoli-
nario de la Cruz was a donado, or helper, in the
Hospital of San Juan de Dios. He was a young
Tagalog, slight in figure, silent, and religious. He
organized the "Cofradia de San Jose." This was a
religious brotherhood in honor of St. Joseph. None
but Filipinos were allowed to join this brotherhood.
It soon had several thousand members in La La-
guna, Tayabas, and Batangas. Each member paid a
tax of one real a month. Secret meetings were
held. The authorities of Church and State sus-
pected that the real purpose of the brotherhood was
to start a revolution. Therefore they refused the
request for permission to hold a novena in Tayabas.
At the same time they tried to arrest the young
200 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
leader. But Apolinaria fled from Manila to La
Destruction of the Cofradia. — Apolinario called
his people together, and took refuge in Igsaban. He
enlisted the aid of the Negritos to fight the Span-
iards. Governor Ortega, of Tayabas, attacked him
with a force of three hundred. This force was de-
feated and Ortega was killed.
The Spanish authorities now realized that a seri-
ous rebellion had arisen. A large force of soldiers
was sent from Manila to destroy the Cofradia.
Apolinario had encamped on the peninsula of Ali-
tao near the city of Tayabas. The river was on two
sides of his camp and a mountain in the rear. Here
he had built a church. Strange ceremonies were
held there. Apolinario claimed to have the special
protection of the Virgin Mary. He told his fol-
lowers that when their enemies attacked them the
earth would open and swallow their foes.
In the battle that followed five hundred of the
Cofradia were killed, after a brave fight. Apoli-
nario's own men. filled with rage at being deceived,
tried to find and kill him. But he had fled. A few
days later he was captured, tried, and executed. His
followers called Apolinario "King of the Taga-
logs." Most of them were poor, ignorant peasants.
We shall see how in the next revolt Filipinos of a
different class, with new ideas, were the leaders.
Summary. — In i8io two Filipinos were chosen to
represent the Philippines in the Cortes. The gal-
REBELLION AND REFORM. 201
leon trade ended in 181 5. Deputy Inigo advised
that the government monopolies be ended, the Chi-
nese missions stopped and a Fihpino college started.
The new constitution of Spain was proclaimed in
18 1 3 in the Philippines. The next year it was abol-
ished and a revolt in Ilocos Norte followed. One
cause of this revolt was the oppression of the poor
Filipinos by the rich.
The constitution was renewed in 1820. It made
little improvement in the Philippines. The deputies
in the Cortes were of small benefit to the Filipinos.
In 1837 Philippine representation in the Cortes
Manuel Ricafort (1825-1830) improved the mor-
als of Manila. He forbade imprisonment for debt,
encouraged agriculture and suppressed a rebellion
in Bohol. This revolt was led by Dagohoy. The
rebels had established a new town in the mountains
and remained independent nearly one hundred years.
Ricafort compelled these rebellious mountaineers
to live on the plains. They had increased to twenty
thousand. After a year of fighting, these people
were gathered into five new towns.
Pascual Enrile, governor 1830- 183 5, had new
maps and highways made. Apolinario de la Cruz
was a Tagalog religious leader who in 1840 organ-
ized the Cofradia de San Jose with several thousand
members. They held secret meetings with strange
ceremonies. After a severe battle his followers
were subdued and Apolinario was executed.
CLAVERIA AND URBISTONDO.
Changes of Governors. — Beginning with Claveria,
twenty different governors ruled the Phihppines in
twenty-five years. In a country where each gov-
ernor had the power to change the plans of his
predecessor, frequent changes were made. Many
reforms were begun by these governors, but few of
them were made efTfective. Montero, the greatest of
modern Spanish historians of the Philippines, said :
"As hell, according to a vulgar proverb, is paved with
good intentions, so Spanish legislation appears full of wise
laws and beautiful theories which are never enforced.
The very men who proclaim the soundest principles of
government and thunder against the existing political and
social evils are the first to commit them."
The Friars and the Governors. — A further reason
was the ignorance of the governors of the real needs
of the Filipinos, and how to .satisfy them. The peo-
ple who really understood the country were the par-
ish priests. These men as a rule spent their lives in
the Philippines. Many of them spoke the Filipino
CLAVERIA AND URBISTONDO. 203
tongues fluently. On the whole, they had the good
of the natives at heart. When they saw laws pro-
posed by men who knew little of the Philippines and
the Filipinos, they fought against these laws. If
they could not influence a governor, they persuaded
his successor to change the laws. Oftentimes they
were in the right. But right or wrong, no coun-
try can prosper with two ruling classes who do
not agree. Therefore, though the governors dur-
ing this period were intelligent and active men,
they accomplished very little by their numerous
Effect of Travel and Commerce.- — The world ad-
vanced so rapidly during the nineteenth century that
it was impossible that some light should not reach
the Philippines. In the middle of that century the
world began to be girdled wnth steamers and tele-
graph-lines. People traveled more, and commerce
brought all countries closer together. So in spite
of the weakness of the Philippine Government a few
of her rulers who had learned modern methods suc-
ceeded in helping the country. Among these are
two whose names are most worthy to be remem-
bered — Claveria and Urbistondo.
Narciso Claveria, Governor — 1844-1849. — Claveria
was a man of "culture, probity, and industry." He
traveled through many provinces trying to learn the
needs of the Filipinos. He encouraged agriculture,
improved the streets and suburbs of Manila, and
tried to give the Islands a government as good as
204 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
that of modern Spain. We shall study a few of his
Reformation of the Calendar. — The Philippines
till 1845 were one day behind the calendar of Fai-
rope. When Magellan sailed west around the world,
he lost a few minutes every day. He was going the
same way the sun seems to go, so his day ended later
than that of the people who remained in Europe.
Therefore he was later in beginning the next day.
By the time he reached the Philippines, he was a
day behind Europe in his date. This error had been
known for centuries. That it was not corrected
shows how slow the rulers of the Philippines in
those days were to change a custom. Finally Cla-
veria and the archbishop agreed to drop December
31, 1844, from the Philippine calendar. So the day
that followed December 30, 1844, in the Philippines
was called January i, 1845.
Surnames of the Filipinos. — From the days of the
Spanish conquest some Filipinos had received Span-
ish surnames. Most of the people, however, had
no surnames. This caused much confusion. So
in 1849 Claveria sent to the chiefs of the provinces
long lists of Spanish surnames. These were sent
out to the different towns, and given to the natives
who had no surnames. In many towns all these
names began with the same letter of the alphabet.
First Steamers in the Philippines.- — The first
steamers to sail regularly in Philippine waters were
the Magallanes, Elcano, and Rcina de Castilla.
CLAVERIA AND URBISTONDO. 205
They were brought from London in 1848. These
steamers were of great vakie, because now it was
possible to chase and capture the swift boats of the
The Governors — From the earhest days the chief
of a province had acted both as governor and judge.
He also engaged in trade, of which he had a monop-
oly. With the duties of three men to perform, it
was not strange that the governors were often poor
rulers. They knew little of the law. Therefore
they sent all the important cases to Manila. For
this reason there were often long delays in deciding
cases. Sometimes it required years to get justice.
This encouraged the strong to oppress the weak.
Claveria therefore ordered that the governors be
men of two years' experience in the law.
Gains of the Governors. — Claveria also ordered
that the governors should not engage in trade.
This wise decree was not fully obeyed for many
years after the time of Claveria. At that time there
were thirty-one provinces. The governor received
a salary of from three hundred to two thousand
pesos a year. The most common salary was six
hundred pesos. In return for the privilege of con-
trolling the trade of the provinces, the governors
paid the government as high as three thousand pesos
a year. Yet they usually became rich. Men of high
position tried to get these places. Sometimes they
returned to Spain with fortunes, after a few years
as governor. Too often these fortunes were made
2o6 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
by dealing unjustly with the Filipinos. From the
days of the first encomenderos, the Spanish officials
looked upon the Filipino as a mine out of which to
dig a fortune. They did not see that if the rulers
of a country are to be prosperous they must make
all the people prosperous.
Urbistondo ; Conquest of Jolo. — Antonio de Urbis-
tondo, governor from 1850 to 1853, demanded of
the Sultan of Jolo the punishment of some pirates
who had attacked Samar. The sultan refused the
request and fired upon the ships of Urbistondo.
Then the Spanish Government aroused itself to
strike a death blow at the old enemy of the Fili-
pinos. The merchants of ]\Ianila gave eighty thou-
sand pesos toward the expenses of an expedition,
and lent several ships to Urbistondo. A great force
of Cebuans and Boholans, under the brave Father
Ibaiiez, joined the fleet which sailed from Manila.
Urbistondo collected all his forces at Zamboanga.
He had three thousand Spanish troops and one thou-
sand Filipinos. The fleet sailed to Jolo. The city
was filled with thousands of Moro warriors, and
strongly fortified. The two days' battle that fol-
lowed was one of the bravest and bloodiest ever
fought on Philippine soil. Father Ibanez fell, flag
in hand, on the walls of Fort Daniel. Several hun-
dred of the loyal forces were killed or wounded.
Many Moros were slain, and the city of Jolo cap-
Treaty with the Sultan. — The sultan was com-
2o8 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
pelled to make a treaty with Spain. He agreed to
use the Spanish flag, and to allow freedom of com-
merce and religion. But the promises of these
pirates were never worth anything. The Spaniards
agreed to pay the sultan a pension of fifteen hun-
dred pesos a year and smaller pensions to several
of his datos. Tn reality the sultan had made a good
bargain. Spain showed her inability to conquer and
keep Jolo. Still, the pirates long remembered their
defeat. From that day they did less harm to the
people of the northern islands.
The First Philippine Bank. — ^Commerce is one of
the pillars of modern civilization. To carry on a
srreat commerce, banks are necessarv. The first
bank in the Philippines was due to the energy of
Urbistondo. He furnished half the money to start
it from the Obras Pias and other public funds. The
bank opened in 1852. It was called the Banco
EspaSiol-Filipino. Few Spaniards or Filipinos had
the money or the courage to deal with it. The peo-
ple of Manila were always slow to make changes in
their way of doing business. Foreign merchants
had been shut out of the Philippines till very recent
years. The merchants here had no competitors to
show them and make them use better methods.
Finally it became necessary to allow foreigners to do
business with the bank. Then commerce and indus-
try began to flourish. Merchants could get capital
to purchase large and fresh stocks of goods. The
great commercial houses now began to do a large
210 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
business. Manila was waking from the sleep of
The Next Ten Years. — In the nine years succeed-
ing Urbistondo, eight governors ruled the Philip-
pines. They attempted many things but with little
success. It was impossible for the country to flour-
ish when governors were changed so often. Each
man was ambitious to become famous. So he tried
to do something different from the governor who
came before him. Some of the governors were sent
to the Philippines against their will because the king
did not want them in Spain. All this was very bad
for the Filipinos.
We shall study only two or three important events
of these ten years.
Return of the Jesuits.- — -The Jesuits had been ex-
pelled from the Philippines, by order of the king, in
1/68. For nearly one hundred years there had been
none of this famous religious order in the Islands.
In 1859 they began to return. They were not al-
lowed to become parish priests in the civilized towns
or to hold haciendas. They could organize and
teach schools, and serve as missionaries among the
wild tribes. The special field for their missionary
work was to be Mindanao. Here they taught many
savages to live in towns, and instructed them in
religion. Their work since their return has been
The Recollects had to leave Mindanao to make
room for the Jesuits. Then they were given par-
CLAVERIA AND URBISTONDO. 211
ishes in Cavite and Manila which the FiHpino
priests held. The native clergy felt that this was un-
just, and ajDpealed to the king. But the plan was
carried out in spite of their protest. From this
time hatred for the friars increased rapidly among
certain classes of Filipinos.
Reforms in Education.- — For three hundred years
the schools of the Philippines had been in charge
of the Friars. Antonio Sedeno, a Jesuit, established
the first true Spanish school in the Philippines. The
friars decided what should be taught. They selected
and trained the teachers. They gave as much at-
tention to education as their other duties would al-
low. In doing this they did a great deal for the
Filipinos. In the early days the Spanish govern-
ment was too poor to establish a good system of
secular public schools. Besides, it was long thought
in Europe that the charge of the schools belonged
to the Church, and that religion should be the chief
matter of instruction. But .by the middle of the
nineteenth century, education had become a science
in Europe. It was now thought by many to be the
duty of the State to educate all its children.
Educational Decree of 1863.- — Therefore a royal
decree in 1863 placed the Governor of the Philip-
pines in charge of all the schools. He was assisted
by the archbishop and others. The chief school-
inspector of each province was its governor, who
was also assisted by a church official. The town
inspector of schools was the parish priest.
212 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
It was ordered that every town should have at
least one school for boys and one for girls. Instruc-
tion was free for all, and all were obliged to attend.
Many schoolhouses were built and new studies were
introduced into the schools.
In 1865 the Jesuit Normal School was opened in
Manila to educate teachers for the primary schools.
The government tried to have Spanish taught in the
schools. Text-books in the Philippine languages
were ordered translated into Spanish. Teachers
were to be free from the labor tax. Other wise
regulations were made, but these reforms were
poorly carried out because Church and State did
not work in harmony. But we should not judge the
past by the standards of the present. Spain did
more for the education of the Filipinos than some
of the other nations have done for their colonies.
Small as the results seem, they were of great value
and were one of the greatest benefits that the Fili-
pinos received from the Spanish government.
Earthquake of 1863.-^ — In 1863 and the following
year, many calamities befell the Philippines. The
locusts destroyed the crops in the southern islands.
Cholera caused many deaths. Great fires burned
thousands of houses in Manila, Batangas, and else-
where. Among the losses was a government store-
house containing two million pesos' worth of to-
Most terrible of all was the earthquake of 1863 in
Manila. On June 3d, at 7.21 p. m., the earth began
CLAVERIA AND URBISTONDO. 213
to tremble. Rents opened in the ground. A cloud
of flame and dust arose above the falling city. The
bells of the churches clanged wildly with the first
shock ; at the second they fell to the ground. More
than six hundred of the largest and finest buildings
of Manila were destroyed. A cry of grief and ter-
ror went up from the stricken city. Six hundred
persons were killed and injured. All who were
able fled outside the walls and lived for days in the
native huts, afraid to return to their homes. Five
days later another shock completed the ruin of the
buildings. The Augustinian convent was the only
public building that was uninjured.
Large sums of money were collected in Spain and
the Spanish colonies for the relief of the suf-
ferers from the earthquake. It was many years
before this money was distributed. Much of it
never reached the people for whom it was in-
Summary. — Beginning with Claveria, twenty dif-
ferent governors ruled the Philippines in twenty-five
years. The priests understood the needs of the
Filipinos better than the governors. In the middle
of the nineteenth century the Philippines shared in
the growing commerce of the world.
Claveria was a man of "culture, probity, and in-
dustry." He improved Manila, encouraged agri-
culture and industry, reformed the calendar, which
was one day behind that of Europe, and gave Span-
ish surnames to many thousands of Filipinos. The
214 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
first steamers to sail regularly in Philippine waters
were brought from London in 1848.
The provincial governors from early times had
acted as governor, judge, and private trader. Cla-
veria forbade them to engage in trade. The gover-
nors received very small salaries, yet they usually
became rich. Often they were unjust.
Urbistondo (1850-1853) conducted a campaign
against the Moros and captured the city of J0I6.
The sultan made a treaty, agreeing to allow freedom
of commerce and religion. From this time ]Moro
piracy practically ceased. The first Philippine bank,
the Banco Espanol-Filipino. was established in
1852. In the nine years after Urbistondo, eight
governors ruled the Philippines. In 1859, the Jes-
uits returned to the Philippines. They had been
expelled in 1768. They were not allowed after
their return to become parish priests, or to hold
haciendas. They conducted schools and served as
missionaries to the wild tribes, particularly in ]\Iin-
danao. The Recollects who were removed from
Mindanao took the parishes of Filipino priests in
Cavite and ]>klanila. This caused much bad feeling.
A royal decree of 1863 placed the schools of the
Philippines under the direction of the governor-
general, instead of the church. The governor of
each province assisted by a church official inspected
the schools. A free public school was ordered for
each town. In 1865 the Jesuit Normal School was
opened in ^Manila. The reforms were poorly carried
CLAVERIA AND URBISTONDO. 215
out, but Spain did more for the education of the
Fihpino than any other nation did for its colonies.
In 1863 a terrible earthquake visited Manila.
Six hundred were killed. Large funds were col-
lected for the sufferers.
THE DAWN OF REPUBLICANISM.
Revolution in Spain. — In 1868 Isabella IT. was
dethroned. Many of the revolutionists wanted a
Isabella II. of Spain.
republic. Instead, a constitutional monarchy was
formed which lasted two years. The event was of
THE DAWN OF REPUBLICANISM. 217
the greatest importance to the Phihppines. A gov-
ernor-general with ideas of equahty, freedom, and
democracy was now sent to the Islands. The Fili-
pinos now began to learn the meaning of a republic;
of the rule of the people.
Carlos de la Torre, Governor — 1869-1871.- — No
governor had ever come to the Philippines with such
ideas as La Torre brought. Philip II. had given
to Das Marinas a body-guard of halberdiers. The
governors-general were accustomed to appear in
public with the pomp and display of monarchs. La
Torre changed this custom. He dressed simply,
wore a straw hat, and went about the city without
an escort. He treated the Filipinos as fellow citi-
zens, not as beings far beneath him.
La Torre's wife was an invalid, so the wife of
Colonel Sanchez received the guests of the governor
at the palace. She was a woman of culture and
ability. At the receptions at Malacanan she received
the Filipinos so courteously and cordially that the
Spaniards w^ithdrew. The Filipinos called her "la
madre de los Filipinos"
"Guias de Torre." — The provinces near ^Manila
w^ere full of robbers in those days. Torre was weak
in dealing with these bandits. He pardoned one of
their leaders, Camerino, and gave him command of
the "Guias de Torre." This was a police force
whose object was to destroy brigandage. Some of
its members had themselves been bandits. They
were now taken, fresh from robbery and murder,
2i8 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
and given "safe conducts." Often they aided the
robbers instead of attacking them. It soon became
necessar}^ to put several provinces under martial
law. Experience has shown in the Philippines that
it is unwise to pardon men who have gone about the
country for years as bandits.
The Governor's Palace (Malacanan), Manila.
The Red Ribbon. — September 21, 1869, the new
constitution was sworn in Manila. To celebrate the
revolution of 1868 the governor held a reception.
Many Filipinos attended. A procession with flags
and music, led by Father Burgos, Joaquin Pardo de
Tavera, and Maximo Paterno, marched to the pal-
ace. Such a procession, in honor of such an event,
would have been impossible under former gover-
At the reception Senora Sanchez was conspicu-
ous, with a red ribbon about her hair upon which
THE DAWN OF REPUBLICANISM. 219
appeared the words, "Viva cl pueblo sohcrano."
About her neck was a red tie bearing at one end the
words, "Viva la lihertad," and at the other, "Viva
el General Torre/' These were strange scenes for
the Phihppines. The new governor was fulfilHng
the hopes of the revokitionary leader who said of
him, "We hope that under his rule individual rights
may be proclaimed in the Philippines."
Spread of Republicanism.- — By the close of La
Torre's rule everything was in confusion. The
revolutionary government had sent new officials to
the Philippines. These men were full of democratic
ideas. They spread these ideas among the Filipinos.
For the first time, many began to understand the dif-
ference between the rule of a king and the rule of
the people. Filipinos were allowed to read papers
and magazines full of republican ideas.
The revenues of the government grew smaller be-
cause collected by inexperienced men. La Torre,
therefore, was recalled to Spain. He left the Fili-
pinos full of hopes and ambitions, but with no
knowledge of how to realize them.
The Meaning of Freedom. — The Filipinos
thought, and many still think, that good laws would
make the people free. But no people is made free
merely by changing the laws. . In order to use fre-
dom properly, the citizens of a country must be intel-
ligent, industrious, respectful of the rights of others,
and obedient to the laws. Not until a nation is com-
posed of such people is it ready for political free-
220 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
dom. Spain had far more citizens of this sort than
the Philippines had, yet it was impossible to estab-
lish a republic in Spain. Peoples who have lived in
oppression and ignorance for centuries need a very
long preparation for freedom.
The Ayuntamiento (City Hall), Manila.
Rafael de Izquierdo, Governor — 1871-1873.- — A
stern and firm governor of the old style succeeded
La Torre. Republican ideas were losing ground in
Spain. Amadeo I. had been proclaimed king. The
ceremony of taking the oath of obedience to the new
monarch was held in the Ayuntamiento. In the old
days this event was a time of enthusiasm and fes-
tivity. But on this occasion the spirit of loyalty
THE DAWN OF REPUBLICANISM. 221
was missing. New thoughts had come to the FiH-
pinos. Respect for kings was passing away.
The hopes raised under the Hberal rule of La
Torre were crushed by Izquierdo. He had the
proud ways of the former governors. He Hstened to
the advice of the enemies of free institutions. The
people felt that there was no chance to get their
liberty by peaceful means. Therefore they secretly
planned an insurrection against Spain.
The Cavite Insurrection. — The night of January
20, 1872, was set by the conspirators for the destruc-
tion of the Spaniards in Cavite and ]\Ianila. Rock-
ets were to be fired from the walls of },Ianila as a
signal to the rebels in Cavite that the revolt had be-
gun in Manila. Toward evening a native woman in
Manila told a Spanish officer that all the Spaniards
would be killed that night. The officer at once noti-
fied Governor Izquierdo. The governor immedi-
ately visited all the barracks and warned the officers
to be on their guard. The native soldiers who were
in the plot saw that their plans were discovered.
Therefore they did not rebel.
Meantime the conspirators at Cavite were watch-
ing the horizon toward Manila for the sign of the
rockets. In Sampaloc that evening, the fiesta of the
Virgin of Loreto was being celebrated. The fire-
works in honor of this event were mistaken for the
promised signal. Several hundred soldiers of the
Cavite Arsenal and of Fort San Felipe seized their
guns and revolted with the cry, "Death to Spain."
222 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
They killed the commander of the fort and some
other officers. The colonel of the seventh infantry
prevented his soldiers from rebelling. These were
fired on from the fort by the rebels. The latter
now held the fort, besieged by the loyal natives.
That night the news of the revolt reached Manila
by boat. There was surprise and fear among the
Spaniards. Manila was garrisoned by Filipino regi-
ments with Spanish ofiicers. These regiments were
faithful to Spain. They were carried to Cavite in
boats. The rebels refused to surrender. The fort
was taken by storm on the second day, and most of
the rebels were put to the sword.
Cause of the Insurrection. — The Spaniards
THE DAWN OF REPUBLICANISM. 223
thought that the native priests, jealous of the friars,
planned this insurrection. Others say that the friars
secretly stirred up the insurrection so that they
might accuse the native clergy of a crime that would
prevent their advancement. This seems unlikely.
Whether the revolt was planned by the Filipino
priests or not, the object of the insurrection was
freedom from what the Filipinos considered the
tyranny of Spain. To some, this freedom meant
the expulsion of the friars. Many would have been
satisfied with reform, without independence of
Spain. Others wished independence and the estab-
lishment of a Filipino republic.
The importance of this insurrection was great,
though it had small success. x-\ more intelligent
class of Filipinos planned it than the leaders of
previous insurrections. It was the first revolt of
importance in which hatred of the friars strongly
Burgos, Zamora, and Gomez.- — These three men
were Filipino priests. Burgos and Zamora were
curates of the Cathedral of Manila. Gomez was
parish priest of the pueblo of Bacoor, Cavite. All
had long been suspected of treachery to 5pain. They
had striven for the rise of the Filipino clergy. Their
ability and influence had aroused jealousy. The
Spaniards arrested them, and charged them with
being the authors of the insurrection. Some of the
captured rebels said they were urged by these priests
to revolt. On the 15th of February, the Council of
224 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
War condemned them to die by the garrote. The
unhappy trio declared their innocence to the last.
No proofs of their guilt have ever been published.
Most Filipinos believe they were martyrs to the
cause of freedom.
The Execution. — At sunrise, on the 17th of Feb-
ruary, 1872, the three priests were led out to the
The Luneta, Manila.
Bagumbayan Field to receive the death penalty.
Clad in humble suits of black, they walked between
files of soldiers to meet their fate.
Gomez was possessed of property valued at two
hundred thousand pesos. Just before he went forth
to death he calmly dictated his will, leaving most
of his wealth to a young man. On his knees, about
to die, he said to the officer of police at his side that
he had forgotten a bag of money which lay under
his pillow. He asked that this be given to the poor.
The large field of Bagumbayan and the Luneta
THE DAWN OF REPUBLICANISM. 225
were filled with an immense and solemn throng.
Batteries of artillery faced the crowd, ready to fire
at the least sign of revolt. Gomez met death
calmly. Burgos and Zamora are said to have wept.
The multitude went quietly to their homes. The
threat of the cannon had stilled their hands, but
not their hearts.
The "Mailed Hand." — Many others were con-
demned to death or imprisonment. The trials were
swift and secret; the sentences promptly executed.
Fear and rage filled the hearts of the rulers. Iz-
quierdo sent to Spain for a regiment. Henceforth
the Philippines felt the weight of the "mailed
hand." There was peace in the land for years after
this, but beneath the surface a deeper and more ter-
rible revolt than the Islands had ever known be-
fore was forming.
Peace. — In the years from 1872 to 1896 there was
no serious insurrection in the Philippines. Gradu-
ally the Filipino soldiers were replaced with Span-
iards. The rulers no longer had confidence in the
loyalty of the native troops. For centuries the Fili-
pinos had fought the battles of their conquerors
against both natives and foreigners. If the rule of
Spain had been just and generous, the Philippines
might still be hers. But she had abused the faith
and disappointed the hopes of the Filipinos. They
no longer had confidence in promises of reform
which never came true. Peace during these years
was therefore kept at the cannon's mouth.
226 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Commercial Growth. — Peace, even of this sort,
was better for the commerce and industry of the
country than war. The Suez Canal was opened in
1868. Steam navigation was rapidly growing. A
direct mail service between the Philippines and
Spain was begun in 1874. At the same time Le-
The Manila-Dagupan Railroad.
gazpi, Tacloban, and other ports were opened to
foreign commerce. Telegraph lines were construc-
ted in some parts of the Islands in 1873. The
Manila-Dagupan railroad was opened in 1891.
Capital from other countries was invested in busi-
ness undertakings. All these changes brought the
Philippines nearer the great markets of Europe and
America. The governors no longer monopolized the
trade of the provinces. Wealth began to be dis-
tributed among many instead of remaining in the
THE DAWN OF REPUBLTCANISM. 227
hands of a few. With a wise government, this pros-
perity would have been much greater. The reason
the Philippines advanced in this period was because
the commerce of the great world outside grew so
fast that the riches of the Philippines could no
longer be hidden. Small credit is due to the gov-
Municipal Councils.- — In 1893 a change was made
in the way of governing towns. For a long time
the head of the government in each town was the
gohcrnadorcillo. This man was the only official
with much power. He did what the alcalde-mayor
ordered him to do. But the alcaldes seldom visited
the pueblos, and in all small matters the gohernador-
cillo acted like a little king. He was chosen by thir-
teen men only. One of these was the last gobcrna-
dorcillo. Six were men who had been in the past
gohcrnadorcillos. The remaining six were cabccas
dc baraiigay. The gohernadorcillo must be a native,
or a Chinese mestizo. The alcaldes-mayor were
Spaniards. So the power to choose the gohernador-
cillo was in the hands of a very few. This was a
poor school in which to learn self-government.
The new law of 1893 was an improvement. In-
stead of thirteen men, all the principalia were al-
lowed to choose the head of the town. This head
was now called the capitan-mnnicipal. Four tenien-
tes, or lieutenants, were elected to assist him in his
duties. But there were not many who belonged to
the principalia. To be a principal a man must have
228 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
been a cahcza de barangay, capitan-miinicipal, te-
niente, or rich enough to pay an annual land tax
of fifty pesos. These men elected from themselves
twelve delegates. The delegates chose the capitan
and his four assistants. Some things were decided
by this council of five alone; others by the council
and the delegates together. The capitan was not
obliged to follow their advice.
Small as this increase of the power of the people
was, it taught them a little about self-government.
Progress in Education. — During this period the
schools were slowly becoming secular instead of
religious. The administration of the schools was
passing from the hands of the friars to that of the
Filipino officials. At first the schools were not so
well managed in some ways as before. It requires
great education and experience to conduct schools
wisely. The officials of the government were not so
well qualified to teach as the friars, and had not
always the same interest in the schools. But it was
better that the Filipinos should learn to have a share
in the conduct of their schools. The things that a
people learns to do for itself are worth the most to
it. To-day the American Government is making
every possible eff^ort to train the Filipinos to carry
on their system of education by their own efforts.
They are put into positions of importance in the
schools as soon as they qualify for the duties of
those positions. It is only just to say that they have
made and are making rapid progress in the knowl-
THE DAWN OF REPUBLICANISM. 229
edge of what makes a good school, and of proper
methods of teaching.
Summary. — A constitutional monarchy was
formed in Spain in 1868. Carlos de la Torre was
governor 1 869-1 871. He was animated by revolu-
tionary ideas. He formed the Guias de Torre, com-
posed of ex-bandits. In 1869, at a palace reception,
democratic ideas were encouraged. Filipinos were
allowed to read revolutionary books. La Torre
stimulated the ambitions of the Filipinos but gave
them no means of satisfying them. Political free-
dom is of no value to people who have not learned
self-control, industry, and consideration of the
rights of others.
Izquierdo (1871-1873) listened to the advice of
enemies of free institutions. He crushed the hopes
which La Torre had raised. This led to a secretly
planned revolt. In 1872, the Cavite insurrection
broke out. The Filipino soldiers in the Cavite ar-
senal and fort mutinied. Filipino regiments brought
from Manila put down this revolt.
The Spanish authorities accused three Filipino
priests of fomenting this rebellion and executed
them. They were Burgos, Zamora, and Gomez.
The Spanish army in the Philippines was increased
and from 1872 to 1896 there was no serious revolt.
In 1874 direct mail service between Spain and
the Philippines via the Suez canal was begun, and
several ports were opened to foreign commerce.
The first railroad was opened in 1891.
230 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
In 1893 the new municipal law went into effect.
All members of the principalia shared in electing
the head of the town, who was called capitan-
mnnicipal. He had four assistants. The schools
were placed more under government control in this
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN.
New Leaders. — In most of the revolts that we
have studied, the ignorant classes were the actors.
The leaders were usually religious fanatics, or men
who selfishly deceived the people for their own gain.
Such men knew nothing of the principles of repub-
lican government. Had they succeeded in their
plans, the Filipinos would have been the losers.
Often their revolts were just, but they were always
poorly planned and feebly carried out.
In the entire history of the Philippines up to
1896, the power of Spain was never in real danger
of destruction from revolution. But in the years
since the Cavite insurrection, a new class of men
had joined the struggle for freedom. The educated,
the rich, and the powerful were secretly enrolled
'under the banner of rebellion.
The Secret Societies. — In many places secret so-
cieties were formed to teach and prepare for revo-
lution. Blood-compacts were made and solemn
oaths taken to fight for the liberty of the Filipinos.
The best known of these societies was the Katipii-
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
nan. The founder and director of this was Andres
Bonifacio. The members of the Katipunan were
nearly all Tagalogs. They believed themselves to
be patriots. Cruel and wicked deeds have often
been done under the name of libertv, and the meth-
ods of the Katipunan were not those of honorable
foes. No people ever found the way to freedom
by means of assassination and massacre. The cause
of freedom is so high and holy that even those who
seek it by secret revolution should employ honorable
means. The first blood shed by the katipiineros was
that of some helpless Chinese in Caloocan, who had
nothing to do with the wrongs from which the
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN. 233
Jose Rizal. — Rizal, whom so many Filipinos love
to honor, was a man of a different sort from Andres
t»V- Tit; , ^
|P|. /:' -^^
A Waterfall Near Calamba.
Bonifacio. He was born in 1861, at Calamba, on
the south shore of Laguna de Bay. From early
youth he was a brilliant scholar. He obtained his
bachelor's degree at the Ateneo Municipal, of Ma-
234 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
nila. Then he studied medicine at the University
of Santo Tomas. After this he went to Spain and
graduated at the University of Madrid. Later he
studied and traveled in France, Germany, and other
parts of Europe. Rizal was a fine hnguist and a
good physician. He wrote two novels against the
friars. Noli mc Tangcre and El Filihusterismo.
Calamba Lands Trouble.- — Rizal's family lived on
lands held by the Dominicans, in Calamba. His
people, with others, believed that the friars did not
possess a good title to this land. They were de-
feated in the courts of law by the friars. Governor
Weyler sent soldiers who drove the Filipinos from
the lands, burning some of their houses. This event
fanned the flame of insurrection.
Banishment of Rizal. — Rizal returned to Manila
from Hongkong in 1892. It was said by the Span-
ish authorities that seditious papers were found in
his trunk. He was therefore banished to Dapitan,
in northern Mindanao, where he lived four years.
Meantime the plot of the Katipunan was ripening.
Valenzuela, one of the leaders, visited Rizal at
Dapitan. Rizal advised him not to begin the insur-
rection at that time. He did not think the Filipinos
were prepared to win. He believed that it was bet-
ter to try to secure reforms before using force.
Death of Rizal.— Wearied with his lonely life in
Dapitan, Rizal asked permission to go to Cuba as
an army surgeon to the Spanish forces then fighting
against the Cuban rebels. Governor-General Blanco
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN. 235
granted this request. Rizal received from him let-
ters of recommendation to the authorities in Spain,
saying that he was not connected with the insurrec-
tion which had just broken out.
During the voyage his enemies cabled to Spain,
and on his arrival there he was imprisoned for a
time, then sent back to the Philippines. A new
governor, Polavieja, was in power. Rizal was tried
by a court-martial for "sedition and rebellion," and
condemned to die. He was shot on the Luneta,
Manila, at six in the morning, December 30, 1896.
A favorite saying of his was : "What is death to
me? I have sown the seed; others are left to
Discovery of the Plot — During Rizal's captivity,
the secret societies had completed their plans for
revolution. The night set for the attack was Au-
gust 20, 1896. At the last moment a woman be-
trayed the plot to Father Gil, of Tondo. The pris-
ons were soon crowded with suspected persons.
The leaders of the revolution fled from the city
and prepared to begin the rebellion.
There were only seven hundred European troops
in Manila. Blanco at once telegraphed for more.
After that every steamer brought soldiers. Within
a few months there were ten thousand Spanish
soldiers in the Islands.
The Rise of Aguinaldo.— The insurrection soon
centered in Cavite, at Silan, among the mountains.
Emilio Aguinaldo, former capitan-municipal of the
236 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
town of Cavite Viejo, soon became the leader, An-
dres Bonifacio having been killed a short time be-
fore. August 31st, Aguinaldo issued the first rebel
The rebels took possession of the friars' estate at
Imus, fourteen miles south of Manila. Here they
captured thirteen friars. Some of these were put
to death in a most cruel manner. The whole prov-
ince of Cavite, except the town of Cavite, was in
the power of the insurgents for several months.
At Noveleta, trenches were made and several at-
tacks of the Spaniards were repulsed.
The Rebellion in the North. — In Pampanga and
Bulacan, a mestizo Llanera commanded. When-
ever the Filipinos were pursued by the Spanish
troops, they retired to San ]\Iateo or Angat for
refuge in the mountains. By December, thousands
of men were fighting on the rebel side. They were
masters of the provinces around ]\Ianila.
Campaign of Polavieja.- — In December, 1896, the
new governor-general, Polavieja, took command.
He soon had 28,000 troops ready for the field. His
army fought several battles with Aguinaldo's forces
in Cavite. \\'ithin three months the revolutionists
were driven out of Cavite. Their army was broken
into small bands.
Spread of the Insurrection. — After Aguinaldo
was driven out of Cavite, he joined Llanera in the
north. The rebellion now spread to Zambales, Pan-
gasinan. Ilocos, Nueva Ecija, and Tarlac. The
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN. 237
country people suffered terribly. Towns and crops
were burned to make the peaceful inhabitants join
the insurrection. The Filipinos were robbed and ill-
treated by their own people. Many had become so
dulled by oppression that they had not the heart to
fight against tyranny. The rebels felt that these
people were traitors. Therefore they treated them
harshly. This was a great wrong.
The Right to Revolt. — Those who claim the right
to revolt should remember that their neighbors have
the right to keep the peace. War should be carried
on against people in arms, not against those who
wnsh to live in peace.
The insurrection of 1896 was a Tagalog rebeUion.
There were few who belonged to the Katipunan out-
side of the Tagalog provinces. As the Tagalogs
went among other tribes, they tried to make them
join the rebellion. Many did not wish to do this,
yet they were compelled to assist the revolutionists,
under penalty of death for refusing. Some cruel
wrongs were committed by the rebels; and it is
doubtful that people who did such things would have
made good rulers had they gained control of the
Rivera's Campaign.^ — Early in 1897 Primo de
Rivera became governor. Spain at this time felt
the burden of supporting 200,000 soldiers in Cuba.
The Filipino forces were also suffering from the
hardships of war. Rivera therefore tried to make
peace. He offered pardon to all who would sur-
238 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
render. Many Filipinos gave up the fight. Others
fought on desperately.
Rivera now continued the war with energy. Gen-
eral Monet marched through Zambales and Pangasi-
nan. It is said that the Spanish soldiers killed men,
women and children, whether guilty of rebellion or
not. His native troops and even some of the Span-
iards deserted him by the time he reached Ilocos.
General Nunez succeeded in driving the rebels out
of Nueva Ecija, though they fought very bravely.
The Spaniards suffered heavy losses. Their best
soldiers were in Cuba. The troops that fought the
Filipinos were mostly boys. They were poorly fed
and clad, and had little knowledge of war.
Katipunan Proclamation of 1897.- — There were
still many bands of revolutionists. Rivera now is-
sued a proclamation forbidding any one to leave his
town except with a pass. Unfortunately the corrupt
officials made the Filipinos pay for these passes, and
in other ways oppressed them. Many went over to
The Katipunan in July published an answer to
this proclamation. This document, addressed "to
the brave sons of the Philippines," demanded the
expulsion of the friars, the restoration to the natives
of the friars' lands, and equality of treatment for
all classes. The revolutionists did not at this time
ask to be separated from Spain. Some wished for
independence, while others believed that the Fili-
pinos were not yet strong enough to stand alone
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN. 239
as an independent nation. Yet a little later, Aguin-
aldo said : "We aspire to the glory of obtaining the
liberty, independence, and honor of the country."
So the leaders were divided against themselves.
Pact of Biac-na-bato; — In August, 1897, Gov-
ernor Rivera sent Pedro Paterno, a distinguished
citizen of Manila, to make peace with Aguinaldo.
The peace commissioner and the insurgent leader
met in Biac-na-bato, a rocky cave in Bulacan. Here
an agreement was made. It was settled that the
war should stop on certain conditions.
The Filipino leaders promised :
1. To surrender to the Spaniards 1,000 rifles and
2. To stop fighting and plotting against Spain.
3. That Aguinaldo and his leading officers should
leave the Philippines.
Governor Rivera promised :
1. To pay Aguinaldo 800,000 pesos. This sum
was to be divided among the revolutionary leaders.
Later, 900,000 pesos were to be paid to Filipino citi-
zens who had lost property through the war.
2. To send away the friars from the Philippines,
or else make them live in the convents.
3. To give the Filipinos representation in the
4. To judge Filipinos and Spaniards by the same
laws, and give Filipinos high positions in the civil
Rivera had received authority from the Spanish
240 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
government to make the payments of money. The
promised reforms were not written down in the
agreement. It is claimed that Rivera gave his word
of honor that they should be granted. It is certain
that Spain gav^, him no authority to make these
Departure of Aguinaldo. — On the 27th of Decem-
ber, 1897, Aguinaldo and thirty-four other leaders,
including eight of his generals, sailed from Sual.
a port of Pangasinan, for Hongkong. Aguinaldo
was paid 400,000 pesos. Two Spanish generals
were kept in the cave of Biac-na-bato as hostages
until Aguinaldo arrived in Hongkong. Other Fili-
pino officers remained to fulfil the promises that had
Broken Promises.— The Filipinos kept their part
of the agreement of Biac-na-bato. The 1,000 rifles
were delivered to the Spaniards. The attacks on
the Spanish forces ceased. The insurrection was
ended. January 23, 1898, peace was proclaimed in
Manila with great rejoicings. The Filipinos be-
lieved that they had obtained the reforms for which
so many of their countrymen had died. Their joy
was soon turned into sorrow.
The Spanish government failed to pay the re-
mainder of the promised money. It had offered
pardon to all who had taken part in the rebellion.
Instead of keeping this promise it imprisoned and
executed many. These acts showed that the govern-
ment did not intend to keep its promises. The
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN. 241
Filipinos believed that they had been tricked. There-
fore they renewed the insurrection.
Renewal of the Insurrection.' — March 25th sev-
enty Visayan sailors v^ere killed in Manila by Span-
ish soldiers. The Visayans had been accused of con-
spiracy, but without any trial they were shot down
^^ A _^
_ __-- , ,eaes4.
ToNDo Church, Manila.
in cold blood. This was nothing less than a mas-
sacre. Nine days later five thousand rebels attacked
the Spanish garrison in Cebu. Troops were hur-
ried to Cebii from Manila and serious fighting fol-
lowed. With the aid of the Seventy-third Native
Regiment the Spaniards defeated the rebels. The
latter fought bravely, but lost over a thousand men.
If ever a country had lost its right to govern a col-
ony, Spain had lost all claim on the Philippines.
242 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
A few weeks later the power which she had misused
for centuries was to be taken from her. Great
events were happening on the other side of the
globe. A country whose people hardly knew where
the Philippines were was preparing to break forever
the rule of Spain in these Islands.
Summary. — Until 1896 the revolts in the Philip-
pines were local. Spain's rule over the Islands was
in no danger of destruction till then. Since the
Cavite insurrection the rich, educated and powerful
had joined the standard of revolt. Secret societies
were formed to organize a revolution. The Kafipii-
nan was the chief of these. Its founder and direc-
tor was Andres Bonifacio, a Tagalog. Assassina-
tion was one of its chief weapons.
Jose Rizal was born in 1861. He was a brilliant
scholar, knew many languages, graduated from the
University of Madrid, and traveled over Europe.
He was a physician. He wrote two novels against
the friars, N^oli me Tangere and El Filihiistcrismo.
His family contested the title to the friars' lands in
Calamba. Governor Weyler drove them from their
homes. In 1892 Rizal was banished to Dapitan on
the charge of being a revolutionist. Rizal believed
in securing reforms by education and agitation
rather than by forcible revolution. Governor Pola-
vieja tried him by court-martial and he was exe-
cuted December 30, 1896. His favorite motto was,
"What is death to me? I have sown the seed;
others are left to reap."
THE LAST STRUGGLE AGAINST SPAIN. 243
The revolutionary plot was betrayed to a priest
by a woman. Many were imprisoned, but the revo-
lution went on. In a short time there were ten
thousand Spanish soldiers brought to the Philip-
pines. Emilio Aguinaldo became the chief. He
gained control of Cavite province. By December,
1896, the rebels were masters of the provinces
around Manila. Polavieja drove the rebels to the
mountains. The common people suffered greatly.
Governor de Rivera offered pardon to all who
would surrender. In 1897 he made with Aguinaldo
the pact of Biac-na-bato. The rebels agreed to sur-
render their arms, stop fighting, and that Aguinaldo
and his leading officers should leave the Philippines.
The Spaniards promised to give Aguinaldo and his
leaders 800,000 pesos and to give the citizens who
had suffered losses 900,000 pesos. Also to send
the friars away or to make them live in convents,
and to give the Filipinos representation in the Cor-
tes. Also to judge all equally and to give Filipinos
high positions in the government.
Aguinaldo was paid 400,000 pesos and, with
thirty-four of his officers, went to Hongkong. The
Spanish government failed to keep the promises of
THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS.
Cuba and the United States, — For many years
the United States had been watching the rule of
Spain in Cuba, a fertile and beautiful island lying
but a day's sail from the shores of the Great Re-
public. Not only were there millions of dollars of
American capital invested in Cuban industries, but
many Cubans were living and working in the United
States. Therefore the people of the United States
felt great interest in the prosperity of the people of
The Cuban Rebellion. — The rule of Spain in Cuba
had been severe; and in 1894 the Cubans began the
last of a long series of rebellions against their
mother country. The methods employed by Spain
in trying to put down the rebellion were greatly
displeasing to the United States. They were con-
sidered cruel and unjustifiable. Early in 1898,
President IMcKinley sent the following message to
Congress : *Tn the name of humanity, in the name
of civilization, in behalf of endangered American
interests which give us the right and duty to speak
THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS.
and act, the war in Cuba must stop." Congress
then passed a resolution saying that "the people of
Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and inde-
pendent." The President was instructed to demand
that Spain free Cuba or face war with the United
The Spanish War-ship "Reina Cristina" After Five
Years Under Water.
States. Spain refused to free Cuba and war be-
tween Spain and the United States began April 21,
The Battle of Manila Bay. — When the war be-
gan, Commodore Dewey was at Hongkong with
several American war-ships. When two nations go
to war, each attacks the other in every place where
the ships or soldiers of the enemy are to be found.
So the President ordered Dewey to "capture or
destroy" the Spanish fleet at Manila. With six war-
ships Dewey steamed past Corregidor Island, Ma-
nila Bay, May i, 1898. Within a few hours he
246 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
destroyed ten Spanish ships near Cavite. Six hun-
dred Spaniards were killed, but no Americans. This
brilliant and easy victory altered the history of the
Philippines and the United States.
Effect in Manila of Dewey's Victory.^— When the
inhabitants of Manila saw how easily the Spanish
fleet was destroyed, the city was filled with terror.
Many fled to the provinces or to Hongkong. The
governor-general, Basilio Augustin, and the Arch-
bishop, Nozaleda, published proclamations asking
the Filipinos to help Spain ; but the broken promises
of Biac-na-bato were fresh in their minds.
Renewal of the Insurrection. — The revolution
against Spain now broke out again. Admiral
Dewey allowed Aguinaldo to return from Hong-
kong, and assisted him to secure arms. At that time
the Filipinos were glad to see the Americans.
The proclamation of the Hongkong junta of Fili-
pinos, May, 1898, said: "Let us all fight together;
let us support the avenging and humane action of
the United States. Let us learn by accepting her
advice and rules how to live in order, peace, and^
liberty." Aguinaldo said : "Wherever you see the
American flag, there flock in numbers ; they are our
Why Dewey Remained in the Philippines.— After
Dewey had destroyed the Spanish fleet, he might
have sailed away. He had not come to the Philip-
pines to conquer them. Why, then, did he stay?
There were at least three reasons :
THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS.
( 1 ) There was a Spanish army in Manila. He
had to blockade Manila to keep that army from es-
caping. He might have bombarded the city and
compelled an immediate surrender, but he did not
desire to injure the innocent. Therefore he awaited
the arrival of troops from America.
(2) He feared the insurgents might capture the
Manila Bay from the Luneta.
city and massacre the Spanish inhabitants. This
would have been a disgrace both to the Americans
and the Filipinos. Therefore he remained to pre-
vent anything of this sort.
(3) At that time it was not known how weak the
power of Spain was. Therefore it was decided to
send troops to the Philippines to capture Manila.
The purpose of this was not conquest, but to hasten
the close of the war with Spain. Dewey stayed to
assist in this.
248 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Aguinaldo Dictator — \Miile American soldiers
were crossing the Pacific to take Manila, Aguinaldo
proclaimed himself Dictator. His forces fought
many successful battles with the Spaniards. Ma-
nila was closely surrounded by the insurgents.
Many provinces fell into their power. The govern-
ment of Aguinaldo made laws and collected taxes in
The Revolutionary Government. — In June, 1898,
Aguinaldo called a congress at Cavite to form a gov-
ernment. June 23d the constitution of the "Revo-
lutionary Government" was proclaimed. Aguinaldo
was chosen President of the new government. Its
object was : "To struggle for the independence of
the Philippines, and to prepare the country for the
establishment of a real republic."
In August an appeal was sent to the great nations
of the world asking them to recognize the inde-
pendence of the Philippines. No answer was re-
ceived from any nation.
The Taking of Manila. — Ten thousand American
soldiers had now reached the Philippines. August
13, 1898, the American army attacked and entered
Manila. Very few Americans were killed and
•wounded in this attack. The Spanish fought only
to save their honor, not with the hope of keeping
the Americans out of the city. Fifteen thousand
Filipino troops were at hand ready to assist. Their
aid was not accepted, because it was not necessary.
Captain-General Augustin fled in a German ship-
THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS.
of -war before the city was captured. General Fer-
min Jaudenes. the last Spanish governor-general
of the Philippines, surrendered the city. Spain's
power in the Philippines was forever ended. The
stars and stripes floated from old Fort Santiago.
The Philippine archipelago was surrendered to the
United States of America.
A View of AFantla.
The Treaty of Paris. — The day before Manila was
taken a protocol of peace was signed between the
United States and Spain. News did not reach Ma-
nila till after the city was captured. American and
Spanish commissioners met in Paris and for several
months talked about the terms of peace. It was
difficult to decide what to do about the Philippines.
Spain did not wish to give them up. Yet her power
there had been broken by America. But the pur-
250 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
pose of America was not conquest. America was
not seeking more glory or new lands. Yet she de-
cided to take the Philippines from Spain. By the
treaty signed in Paris, December lo, 1898, Spain
ceded the Philippines to the United States. Spain
was paid $20,000,000 for the Islands. She would
not willingly have sold them for many times that
sum, but the United States did not desire to accept
the Islands as a right of conquest, since she had not
waged the war for that purpose. Therefore she
compensated Spain for their loss.
Even then it was not decided by the people of the
United States to keep the Philippines and estab-
lish American government there. The Americans
knew very little about these Islands. Most of them
thought that the Philippines were like Cuba. With
Cuba they were acquainted. They believed her
capable of self-government. They were perfectly
willing to allow the Filipinos also to govern them-
selves, if that were possible. It was only after ex-
perience in the Philippines taught the United States
that the country was unlike Cuba that she decided to
withhold independence from the Filipinos for a
time. It is very important to understand why she
treated these two Spanish colonies differently.
The Effect of Distance. — Cuba was near the
United States ; the Philippines were on the other
side of the globe. Many great events of history are
decided by the geographical position of countries.
It was easy for the United States to protect Cuba.
THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS. 251
Long before any European nation could send sol-
diers across the sea, the United States could place
an army in Cuba. But Manila Bay was dotted with
the war-ships of several nations when Dewey de-
feated the Spanish fleet. All the great European
nations have lands in Asia, and want more. Had
the United States left the Philippines free, some of
these nations would probably have seized the
Islands. Yet unless the United States raised her
flag there, she could not have forbidden other na-
tions to take the Philippines. Had she done so, she
must have fought a terrible war.
Monarchy or Republic. — The other powers that
might have seized the Philippines are monarchies.
The United States is a republic. It believes its
government is the best and freest on earth. It
fought to get that kind of a government for Cuba.
It could not honorably allow any other kind of gov-
ernment to be established in the Philippines.
If no other nation had taken the Philippines,
Spain would have reconquered them. When her
large army returned from Cuba she would have
sent it to the Philippines. Then the sufferings of
the Filipinos would have been worse than before.
The United States could not consent to this.
Possibility of a Filipino Republic. — The strongest
of all the reasons why the United States did not
assist the Filipinos to form and maintain an inde-
pendent republic was because she did not believe
they were ready for self-government. The people
Henry C. Ide.
Dean C. Worcester. Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera.
The Philippine Commission, in 1904.
THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS. 253
of Cuba are not superior to those of the Philippines.
The Fihpinos are as good and as inteUigent as the
Cubans, but they are not so united. There must be
unity among a people who would found a republic.
The people of Cuba spoke one language; they lived
on one island ; they had the same religion ; they had
never fought each other; they were united. It was
different in the Philippines.
In the Philippines the population is distributed
among many islands, with different languages, cus-
toms, and religions. Some of the tribes have hated
and fought each other for centuries. If the United
States had left the Philippines to form a govern-
ment of its own, the Moros would have become
pirates again. They did this in Mindanao between
the end of Spanish and the beginning of American
rule. The Igorots would have attacked the people
on the coast. The Tagalogs. the Visayans, the Ilo-
canos, the Bicols, would each have wished to rule
their own part of the Islands.
Unity First Necessary. — People of the same blood,
language, and religion are often torn apart by civil
war. How much more difficult for a people of a
hundred different tongues, living on hundreds of
scattered islands, to remain at peace.
Summary.^ — Cuba lies near the United States.
Much American capital was invested there. Many
Cubans lived in the United States. In the Cuban
rebellion of 1894-8 American trade suffered and
the severe treatment of the Cubans by the Spaniards
254 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
displeased the Americans. These facts led the
United States to begin war with Spain.
Commodore Dewey attacked and destroyed the
Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, May i, 1898. Many
fled from Manila to Hong Kong and the provinces.
Dewey allowed Aguinaldo to return to the Philip-
pines and assisted him to secure arms. The rebels
welcomed the Americans as friends. Dewey re-
mained in Manila Bay to keep the Spanish army in
check and to save Manila from sack by the in-
surgents. Aguinaldo proclaimed himself Dictator
and won control of the provinces from the Span-
iards. In June, 1898, the constitution of the Revo-
lutionary Government was proclaimed. Foreign
nations were asked to recognize it, but none did.
August 13, 1898, the American army captured
Manila. The protocol of peace between America
and Spain was signed the day before the Battle of
Manila. The Treaty of Paris was signed Dec. 10,
1898. Spain ceded the Philippines to the United
States and was paid $20,000,000. Had America
not taken the Philippines some other power would
have done so. Cuba was set free because the
United States could easily protect her, and it was
believed that Cuba was capable of self-government.
In the Philippines the number of Islands and the
hostility of the different tribes made the establish-
ment of a free republic much more difficult. These
conditions require time to adjust them.
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR.
Why Aguinaldo's Army did not Enter Manila. —
On the day Manila was taken, the Filipino army
tried to march into the city with the Americans.
This was not permitted. It was natural that the
Filipino leaders were disappointed because they
could not receive the surrender of Manila side by
side with the American troops. Up to the 13th of
August, they had looked upon the Americans as
their allies. It now seemed to them that they were
to be robbed of the fruits of victory. They feared
that America meant to keep the Philippines. There
were good reasons why both armies should not enter
It is not the custom of the world to admit a new
member into the family of nations till the govern-
ment that applies for admission has shown that it
is wise enough and strong enough to rule well. The
Revolutionary Government was established by only
a part of the Filipino peoples. Some of the leading
men in other parts of the Philippines than central
Luzon, for example in Ilocos and Negros, would
256 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
have nothing to do with the revokition. For these
and other reasons which seemed good and sufficient,
the United States did not wish to recognize the
Revolutionary Government; but to admit the
army of Aguinaldo to Manila on equal terms
with the American army would have been to recog-
nize that government. This would not have been
just to the Filipinos. These reasons made it
impossible to admit the Filipino army to a share
in the control of the government. Disappointed in
his hope of sharing the occupation of Manila,
Aguinaldo resolved to establish a capital of his
The Malolos Government. —Aguinaldo now made
Malolos, twenty miles north of Manila, his capital.
He took the title of "President of the Filipino Re-
public." At Malolos he gathered a congress. This
congress was not elected, as should be the case in a
republic, by the votes of all the people. It repre-
sented a small part of the population of the Philip-
pines. From Malolos Aguinaldo issued proclama-
tions and sent expeditions to various parts of Luzon
and the Visayas. His officers collected taxes and
carried on the government of most of the provinces
of Luzon. Thousands of Spanish prisoners, includ-
ing several hundred friars, were captured and held
by him. The Spanish forces scattered through the
Islands were captured or besieged by his troops.
Young, ambitious, and often ill-advised, he pre-
pared to plunge his unhappy country into a terrible
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR. 257
war against a nation that desired only the good of
The Instructions of McKinley. — By December,
1898, 6,500 additional troops had arrived from
America. These soldiers were not brought for the
conquest of the Philippines. They were for the
protection of Manila. Aguinaldo had surrounded
the city with thirty thousand troops. It was the
duty of America to maintain the government of
Manila till the Treaty of Paris was finished ; because
while a treaty is being made, everything must re-
main as it was when the fighting stopped. This is
the custom of nations. It was for this reason that
the American army made no attempt to interfere
with the government which Aguinaldo had estab-
lished at Malolos.
At last the Treaty of Paris was finished. Al-
though it was now known that Spain had given up
the Philippines to America, it remained for the
Congress of the United States to decide what should
be done with the Islands. The Filipinos, after
watching the conquests of Spain for three centuries,
could not believe that the United States might peace-
fully give up what she had won. Yet if the leaders
of the revolution had ruled wisely and justly in the
provinces, if they had used patience and reason in-
stead of war, America might have given indepen-
dence at an early day. After their experience of
the oppressions of Spain it is not strange that the
Filipinos did not believe in the good intentions of
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
America. Yet it was a mistake not to believe the
words of President McKinley, which follow.
January 4, 1899, General Otis, the military gov-
ernor of the Philippines, issued a proclamation ex-
plaining the instructions of McKinley for the
temporary government of the Philippines. This
proclamation declared the purpose of America to
be "to give the blessings of peace and individual
freedom to the Philippine people" and to prove to
the Filipinos "that the mission of the United States
is one of benevolent assimilation, which will sub-
stitute the mild sway of justice and right for arbi-
trary rule." A little later President ]\IcKinley told
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR. 259
the first Philippine Commission to go to the Fili-
pinos "as bearers of the good-will, the protection,
and the richest blessings of a liberating rather than
a conquering nation."
The Revolutionary Constitution. — A few days
after the proclamation of General Otis, Aguinaldo
published his decision to enforce his own rule and
reject the control of America. He threatened war
in case the American army should seize more Phil-
ippine territory. Secret clubs were established in
Manila to plot against American rule. Arms were
secretly distributed. Many natives of Manila now
fled with their goods to the country. Spaniards in
the suburbs took refuge in the walled city.
On the 2 1st of January the Filipino congress at
Malolos proclaimed a constitution for the Filipino
republic. This constitution contained many good
points, but our study of Philippine history has
shown that good laws need wise and good men to
enforce them. Many of the Filipino leaders were
brave and patriotic, but they were mistaken in their
judgment of America, and they had not consulted
all the people of the Philippines.
The first article of the constitution read : "The
political association of all the Filipinos constitutes
a nation." At this time very few Filipinos were
truly associated. Most of the people of the Philip-
pines had never even heard the names of the mem-
bers of the Malolos congress. They could not read
the language in which the constitution was written.
26o A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
They knew neither by experience nor by study what
a free repubhc means. Such was the situation on
the eve of the war.
The First Shot. — During the last days of Janu-
ary, 1899. the two armies drew closer together.
Several Americans who crossed the Filipino lines
were captured and held as prisoners. At night there
were frequent attempts to cross the American lines.
Finally on the night of February 4, one of Agui-
naldo's lieutenants tried to cross the San Juan
bridge with several of his soldiers. The American
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR. 261
sentry ordered him three times to halt. As the
Heutenant refused, the sentry shot and killed him.
A few minutes later an insurgent signal gun
sounded a general attack. Both armies were ready.
A battle began all along the line.
Periods of the War.- — The war may be divided
into two periods. The first lasted till about January
I, 1900. This was the period of war between or-
ganized armies. During this time large bodies of
troops faced each other in the field.
Then followed the period of guerilla warfare
which lasted till the capture of Aguinaldo. March
23, 190 1, and the surrender of nearly all his gen-
erals within a few weeks after. This really ended
the war. From this time till April 20, 1902, when
General Zamora surrendered in Samar, the war was
the pursuit of a few bands of men who fought on
when there was no more hope of defeating the
The Battle of February 5th — When the gun was
fired that began the war, General Luna, who com-
manded the Filipino forces before Manila, tele-
graphed the news to Aguinaldo at Malolos. There
was great rejoicing in the capital. At midnight,
February 4th, a general declaration of war against
America was sent to the insurgent army. Many of
the leaders were at Malolos. They hurried to the
scene of battle. At dawn, fighting began along a
semicircular line about ten miles in length. At
many points the Filipinos fought with great brav-
262 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Although three times the number of the
Americans, they lacked artillery and discipline. At
the end of the day the American troops had taken
the intrenchments of Aguinaldo's army. The head-
quarters of General Luna at La Loma were cap-
tured. His chief of staff fell mortally wounded
while trying to rally the Filipino troops.
San Juan Bridge.
Fighting the Flames. — On the night of February
22, 1899, [Manila was set on fire by the secret bands
which had been organized to destroy the city. The
revolutionary leaders planned the massacre of the
American troops and of all Europeans during this
fire. Assassins clad in citizens' clothes burned the
homes of their own countrymen.
The Advance North. — During the next three
months the American army advanced northward.
Several battles were fought. The retreating revo-
lutionary army burned towns behind it. Malolos
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR.
was taken March 25th. Aguinaldo moved his capi-
tal to San Fernando, then to San Isidro and finally
to Tarlac. The coming of the rainy season made it
impossible to transport the supplies of a large army.
There was therefore little fighting till November.
In the three months' campaign the power of the
revolutionary army had been broken. AVisdom
would have seemed to indicate that further resist-
ance was useless.
The Battle of Zapote Bridge. — Early in June,
1899, occurred the battle of Zapote Bridge. This
was the only serious battle fought south of Manila.
The American forces numbered about four thou-
sand. Zapote bridge was a strong position where
in 1896 the insurgents had made a successful stand
against the Spanish. About three thousand Fili-
pinos gathered for the defense. Their intrenchments
on the south bank of the river were very strong.
264 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
With the aid of the navy the bridge was crossed
and the works taken. Nearly a third of the FiH-
pino force was lost. So brave a defense would be
a credit to any people.
The Flight of Aguinaldo. — In November, Agui-
naldo was driven from Tarlac, which was captured
November 12th. The next day he fled north
through the mountains with a small force. An
army had landed at San Fabian, Pangasinan, to cut
off his retreat north. Another army on the east
prevented his escape in that direction. Traveling
night and day, narrowly escaping the pursuing
troops, he reached Candon, Tlocos Sur, in safety.
Then he crossed the mountains and settled for a
short time at Cervantes, the capital of Lepanto.
The Taking of Tila Pass. — Tila Pass is the gate-
way through the west coast range to Cervantes. A
narrow trail winds steeply around precipices to a
height of 4,400 feet. Here the rear-guard of Agui-
naldo made as heroic a defense as men could make.
December 8, 1899, two companies of American
soldiers climbed this trail and attacked a stone barri-
cade across the narrowest part of the path. The
barricade was defended by General Gregorio del
Pilar and about fifty men. Here he stayed and met
certain death, firing till the last. On his person was
found a small pocket diary in which half an hour
before his death he had written, "I am surrounded
by fearful odds that will overcome me and my gal-
lant men, but I am well pleased with the thought
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR. 265
that I die fighting for my beloved country." It is
said that only eight of his men escaped.
Aguinaldo's Escape. — Aguinaldo now fled to the
central mountains of Luzon. Here for many
months he wandered among the wild Igorot tribes
by whom he was several times attacked. He was
accompanied by several of his officers and about one
At length Aguinaldo secreted himself in a lonely
town called Palanan on the northeast coast of Lu-
zon. Here he remained, sending letters and
commands to his leaders in different parts of
Luzon, till he was captured March 23, 1901.
Aguinaldo then took the oath of allegiance to
the United States. He has been faithful to that
The Period of Guerilla Warfare.— After the flight
of Aguinaldo, the insurgents no longer faced the
Americans with organized armies. They decided to
carry on the war by guerilla methods ; that is, to
fight in small bodies, retreat when attacked, and
resort to raids and ambushes. A number of com-
manders were appointed in different provinces.
Each of these worked independently of the others,
gathering about him a body of men who assembled
and dispersed at his bidding, leading a life half rob-
bery and half war. They compelled the peaceful
population to give them money and food. Fire,
torture, and assassination were freely used to force
their countrymen to support a hopeless war. The
266 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
deeds of some of the guerilla chiefs make one of
the saddest pages of Filipino history.
The Occupation of the Visayas.- — The island of
Panay was the scene of the only serious fighting in
the Visayan group. Iloilo was taken by the Ameri-
i- V ■
An Insurgent Stockade.
cans February ii, 1899, the insurgents burning and
looting the city as they fled. During the year all
the larger \^isayan islands were occupied by the
American troops. Bands of outlaws and fanatics
.furnished most of the resistance to American occu-
The Republic of Negros.- — In the island of Ne-
gros, soon after the Americans took ^Manila, an in-
dependent republic was organized. The leaders
were as capable and honorable men as could be
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR. 267
found in the island. The Tagalog insurgents were
refused a landing in this island. After a short ex-
perience with their own government, commissioners
were sent to Manila in February, 1899, inviting the
protection of American troops.
The requested protection was given to Negros.
Under the oversight of General James F. Smith, an
opportunity was given to show what could be done
by a government, wholly planned and conducted by
Filipinos. But the experiment was not a success,
and the Republic of Negros was a republic in name
only. With the full consent of the people them-
selves, the Americans then took entire control.
Results of the War. — Every Filipino and every
American should regret the unhappy war of 1899-
1902. There was much true patriotism and bravery
on the side of the insurgents. There were some
among them whose sincerity and courage Americans
gladly honor. These brave men fought in a mis-
taken and hopeless cause.
There were only two or three real battles in the
war, though there were over two thousand minor en-
gagements. The only really difficult task for the
American army was to transport and feed its sol-
America has no resentment toward a brave but
defeated foe. Seven thousand of her sons were
killed, wounded, or died of disease in the war. She
spent hundreds of millions of dollars to bring peace
and good government to the Philippines. She has
268 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
put into positions of power many of those who
fought against her and opposed her poHcies. Truth
and justice demand that we think of the war with-
out bitterness and work together in peace for the
good of all.
Martial Law.' — From 1898 to 1901, there was
military rule in the Philippines. The commanding
The Insular Ice-Plant, AIanila.
general of the army acted as governor. Besides
fighting battles, the army made and enforced all
laws. It organized and carried on the custom-
house, the post-office and other public establish-
ments, performing the duties of peace as well as of
war. The army established the American public
school system in the Philippines. History does not
tell of any other army which waged war and taughi
school at the same time. Yet in this case army
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR. 269
officers became superintendents of schools, and sol-
diers became teachers.
Military rule is hard to l)ear. Changes in gov-
ernment are made slowly in time of peace, under
civil rule. Under martial law the customs and
wishes of the people have little weight. What the
general thinks is best for the country must be done
at once. It was a great trial to the patience of the
Filipinos to see old laws and customs changed so
rapidly. But methods of government in the Philip-
pines were in great need of change. The rule of
the military made (juick reforms possible. Methods
of government advanced a century in the Philip-
pines during the three years of American military
Summary. — Aguinaldo's army was not allowed to
enter Manila because this would have been a recog-
nition of the authority and independence of his
government. Aguinaldo made iMalolos his capital
and gathered a congress there elected in name but
in fact appointed by him. He established his gov-
ernment, collected taxes, and took thousands of
Spanish prisoners. General Otis published the dec-
laration of McKinley that the purpose of America
was "to give the blessings of peace and individual
freedom to the Philippine people." Then Agui-
naldo threatened war in case the American army
should seize more territory. Jan. 21, 1899, the
congress at Malolos proclaimed a constitution for
the Filipino Republic. The laws were good, but
270 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
the leaders were not representative of the majority
of the people.
February 4. 1899, the first shot of the war was
fired at San Juan Bridge, near Alanila. Until Jan.
I, 1900, the war was between organized armies.
After this time it was guerilla warfare till the cap-
ture of Aguinaldo, ]^Iarch 23, 1901. After this
there was pursuit of scattering bands of armed
rebels till the surrender of Zamora in Samar, April
The battle around Manila. Feb. 5, 1S99. was won
by the Americans. General Luna was killed. Secret
bands of assassins and incendiaries fired the City of
Manila Feb. 22. Aguinaldo moved his capital north
from town to town. In June. 1899, occurred the
battle of Zapote Bridge. It was bravely defended
by the Filipinos.
Aguinaldo took refuge in the mountains of north-
ern Luzon. General Gregorio del Pilar defended
Tila Pass, where he was killed. After Aguinaldo
was captured he took the oath of allegiance to the
Iloilo' was taken by the Americans February
II, 1899. An independent republic was organ-
ized in Negros soon after the Americans took
Manila. This government was a failure. \\Tth the
consent of the people, the Americans took over the
There were over two thousand small engagements
during the war, but only two or three pitched bat-
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR. 271
ties. From 1898 to 1901 there was martial law in
the Philippines. The commanding general of the
army acted as governor of the Islands. Public in-
stitutions, such as the post-office and the schools,
were administered by the army.
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR.
William H. Taft, Governor, 1901-1904. — July 4,
1 90 1, the Hon. William H. Taft became the first
American civil governor of the Philippines.
More than one hundred different men have filled
the chair of Governor of the Philippine Islands.
Xone ever did more for the Filipinos than Governor
Taft. An entirely new system of government was
created for the Islands. A thousand new laws were
made. Unlike many laws in the past, these were
enforced. They were not made to fill the coffers of
king or encomendero. They provided peace, pro-
tection, justice, education, and industrial prosperity
for the Filipinos. It will be well to study the prin-
ciples of government followed during Mr. Taft's
The Policy of McKinley.— President AIcKinley
marked out the path of American rule in the Philip-
pines. What he said was, and is to-day, the wish of
the American people for the Filipinos. At the be-
ginning of America's occupation of the Philippines
he said to General Otis and Admiral Dewev : "We
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR. 273
want to improve the condition of the inhabitants,
securing them peace, hberty, and the pursuit of their
highest good." He told the first Phihppine Com-
mission to have "due respect for all the ideas, cus-
WlLLIAM H. TaFT.
First Civil Governor of the Philippines.
toms, and institutions of the tribes which compose
the population." This commission said : "The
aim and object of the American Government is the
prosperity and happiness of the Philippine people
and their elevation and advancement to a position
among the most civilized people of the world."
Prosperity, happiness, and a high civilization are the
274 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
very things for which the Filipino revohitionists
fought. Under the direction of Governor Taft, the
Filipinos made more rapid progress toward this goal
than ever before.
"The Philippines for the Filipinos." — Governor
Taft said that the policy of McKinley meant "The
The New City Hall, Manila.
Philippines for the Filipinos." His administration
was an attempt to carry out this motto. His ex-
planation of these words is that every law made for
these Islands must be for "the welfare of the
Filipino people." Governor Taft and the Philip-
pine Commission, under the direction of the
Government at Washington, worked for four great
( I ) To keep the natural riches of the Islands
for the Filipinos. There are millions of acres of
uncultivated public lands in the Philippines. It is
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR. 275
to be divided into small farms for Filipinos. The
land laws, the forestry laws, the mining laws, are
all made for the benefit of the Filipino. He is to
have the first share of the riches of his father-
To encourage the Filipino farmer to own his land
Chief Justice Arellano.
the government bought the great estates of the
friars. These estates comprised half a million acres
of the best lands in the Islands.
The government paid more than $7,000,000 gold
for this property. It will be divided into many
small farms which the Filipino farmer may pur-
, chase little by little for sums about equal to what
2/6 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
he used to pay as rent. It is hoped that within a
few years a generation may grow up which will own
its native soil, and live upon it in peace.
(2) To girc goi'cnimcvA positions to Filipinos
as fast as fit persons could be found for this service.
More Filipinos than Americans are holding posi-
The Old Philippine Normal School, Centk.^l kEcixATiox
tions as government officials. Some of these posi-
tions are among the highest in the land. Most of
the Philippine Commissioners are Filipinos, as are
also the chief justice of the Supreme Court and
several of his associates.
Alodern government needs highh' trained officials.
Besides an education in the schools, a high official
must have years of practice in order to learn the
business of these high offices. As fast as this train-
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR. 277
ing can be given, more and higher positions are
opened to FiHpinos.
(3) To allow the Filipinos as much sclf-gov-
crmnent as possible. Under the Hberal rule of Gov-
ernor Taft the Fihpino people were granted the
power of choosing their own municipal officers.
Most of the provincial officials also are Filipinos.
The governors of all the Christian provinces are
(4) To give speedy and equal justice to all
classes. Nothing is more important than this.
Formerly it took many years in some cases to secure
justice. Now the judges often settle scores of
cases in one week. The poor man is heard as
quickly as the rich. Men used to be kept years in
jail before they were tried. Now there are able
judges who hear quickly any complaint. In some
towns there were separate courts for Filipinos and
foreigners. Now all races are heard before the
same judges and tried under the same laws.
The Educational System.- — Thus four gates of
opportunity are opened to the Filipino. It has been
made easy for him to acquire land, to get a govern-
ment position, to govern himself, and to secure jus-
tice. In order to train Filipinos to use these privi-
leges a system of public schools was established.
By 1905, nearly one thousand American and three
thousand Filipino teachers were preparing the Fili-
pinos to use the freedom and opportunity that
America brought to these Islands. Half a million
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR. 279
children were attending the pubHc primary schools.
In many provinces intermediate, high, industrial,
and agricultural schools had been established. The
number of American teachers in the islands to-day
is somewhat less than at first, because of the ever-
increasing capacity of Filipino teachers for carry-
ing along the work begun by the Americans.
Filipino Students in America. — In October, 1903,
one hundred Filipino students sailed from Manila
for America. These students were selected from
all parts of the Philippines. They represented all
the civilized races of the Islands. When they met
upon the steamer, the only language that all of them
knew was English. This tie of language and their
common education and aims bound them together
as no other bond has ever united Filipinos of dif-
ferent islands and tongues. They were the first
division of a young and noble army of Filipinos
who are now bringing to their fatherland a knowl-
edge of principles which have placed the United
States of America in the front rank of great na-
tions. These students spent from four to five years
in the schools of America. They were chos.en for
their scholarship and character. They were not
selected by favor because their parents were rich
and influential. Many of them were poor boys.
This is true freedom — the freedom to win place
and power by one's own work and fidelity.
Agriculture.— The same wise policy that in so few
years gave justice, education, and equal opportunity
28o A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
to the Filipino did much for the farmer and the
merchant. Before and during the governorship of
Mr. Taft the PhiHppines suffered from war, famine,
and pestilence. Deadly diseases struck down man
and beast ; the locusts destroyed the crops, and the
rains refused to fall. It was difficult to fight such
Making New Land, AIanila.
enemies, but much was accomplished. Hundreds
of miles of good roads were made. Cattle were
brought from other countries to plow the idle fields.
War was waged against the locusts. Disease in
man and beast was fought by an army of doctors.
The forests and plants were studied. New seeds
were tried, and better methods of cultiyation were
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR. 281
Commerce. — The commerce of the PhiHppines be-
came greater than ever before. The revenues of
the government greatly increased. The plans begun
by Governor Taft looked to the future. His time
was spent in laying foundations. Only the future
will show how well that task was done.
Among the many far-seeing plans of Governor
Taft was the improvement of the port of Manila.
The Inauguration of Governor Wright.
One may now look at a tract of land larger than
the walled city of Manila, which was pumped from
the bottom of the bay in the three years from
1901 to 1904. Large steamers now tie up to
the big steel docks, protected behind a great
sea-wall, instead of lying at anchor one or
two miles out in the open bay. Great ware-
282 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
houses now cover a considerable portion of these
Mr. Taft continued as civil governor until Feb-
ruary I, 1904. Then he became Secretary of War
for the United States. As Secretary of War, he
continued to exercise a great influence over the
course of affairs in the Philippines. In the next
chapter we shall see how the plans of government
laid out by him as governor were followed up and
developed by his successors in office.
Summary. — William H. Taft was Governor of
the Philippines from July 4, 1901, to February i,
1904. More than one hundred men have filled the .
chair of governor of the Philippines. Under Taft
the entire system of government was reorganized
and many new laws were made. McKinley said,
"We want to improve the condition of the inhabi-
tants, securing them peace, liberty, and the pursuit
of their highest good." Taft's policy was "The
Philippines for the Filipinos." This means : to keep
the natural riches of the Islands for the Filipinos,
to give government positions to Filipinos as fast
as possible, to allow the Filipinos as much self-gov-
ernment as possible, and to give speedy and equal
justice to all classes. An elaborate system of public
schools was organized, including primary, inter-
mediate, high, industrial, agricultural, and collegi-
ate. From 1903 to 1907 one hundred Filipino
students were educated in ^^he colleges of the United
States at the expense of the Philippine Government.
THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVIL GOVERNOR. 283
Much attention was given to agricultural develop-
ment. Cattle diseases were fought. Hundreds of
miles of new roads were built. The commerce of
the Philippines grew greater than ever before. A
large tract of new land was made at Manila by
pumping earth from the bay.
A DECADE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS.
Taft's Successors. — Since Air. Taft's time, five
men have occupied the post of Governor-General of
the Phihppines.* They are: Luke E. Wright, from
February i, 1904, to April i, 1906; Henry C. Ide,
from April 2, 1906, to September 19, 1906; James
E. Smith, from September 20, 1906, to November
10, 1909; W. Cameron Forbes, from N^ovember 11,
1909, to September i, 191 3. On the date last men-
tioned Francis Burton Harrison, the present Gov-
ernor-General, was appointed to the position.
General The history of the ten years from
1904 to 1914 is a story of peace and progress. There
were some conflicts with Moro rebels and with ban-
dits ; but taking the Philippines over, life and prop-
erty have been safe for a decade. Large sums of
foreign and home capital have been invested in
Philippine industries, and many public improve-
ments made. Increased powers of self-government
have been given to the Filipinos and great advances
* On February 5, 1905, the title "Civil Governor" was
changed by law to "Governor-General."
A DECADE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS. 285
made in education. The story of peace is not so
thrilling as that of war, but history is shaped by "the
victories of peace" as much as those of war. The
most important facts in history are those which tell
how a people grows in health, wealth, wisdom, and
The Philippine Currency.- — In 1903 the new Phil-
ippine currency was introduced to take the place of
the Mexican silver pesos and Spanish-Filipino
money, formerly the principal money of the Philip-
pines. The value of this money was constantly
changing; its price at the money changer's rose or
fell almost daily. One borrowed money when it
was low and paid when it was high, or in other
ways suffered loss and inconvenience. The new
Philippine currency has a fixed value in gold, be-
cause a "reserve" of gold coin is kept to redeem
the silver. The Philippine currency is one of the
safest and most convenient in the world.
New Banks. — In 1906 the Postal Savings Bank
was established. In 1914 it had about 40,000 de-
positors, three-fourths of whom were Filipinos.
The Agricultural Bank of the Philippine Govern-
ment was established in 1908. The purpose of this
bank is to make loans to individuals and companies
engaged in farming. Its work has grown slowly
because of the difficulty of securing perfect titles to
lands upon which loans were to be made.
The Saint Louis Exposition. — In 1904, an inter-
national world's fair at Saint Louis celebrated the
286 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
four hundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Pur-
chase. An extensive exhibition of Philippine prod-
ucts and industries was made. Several villages
were built there, representing both the Christian
and non-Christian peoples. ]\lany diplomas and
medals were awarded to Filipinos for the excellence
of their exhibits. Knowledge of the Philippines
was greatly extended in the United States.
Commercial Growth.— The Commerce of the Phil-
ippines greatly increased from 1904 to 1914. A
very large trade was built up with America. The
duties on the importation of sugar and tobacco into
the United States were removed and these indus-
tries were made much more prosperous. Modern
sugar machinery was introduced in various parts of
the Islands and the production increased. The
planting of cocoanut groves was widely extended,
and the exports of copra increased by several mil-
Annual Trade. — The exports of the Philippines
increased from $30,250,627 in 1904 to $53,683,326
in 19 1 3. These figures may be compared with the
total exports of the Philippines in 1894, which
amounted to $16,500,000.
The value of imports increased from $33,220,761
in 1904 to $56,327,583 in 1913. Exports to the
United States amounted to $10,848,885 in 1913,
and the imports from the United States to $25,-
The four leading exports of the Philippines are
A DECADE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS. 287
hemp, copra, sugar and tobacco. Hemp exports
increased from $21,794,960 in 1904 to $23,044,744
in 1913; copra from $2,527,019 to $11,647,898,
sugar from $2,688,507 to $9,491,540, and tobacco
from $1,099,818 to $5,362,415.
These dry figures mean that agriculture and in-
dustry, the foundation on which all civilization and
government are built, made tremendous advances in
the Philippines from 1904 to 1914. The increased
wealth of the Philippines has been shared by a
larger number of the middle and poorer classes than
in some countries, because the farms and industries
of the Philippines are small and numerous, the pos-
session of many people rather than of a few great
Road Building. — The material progress of the
Philippines was greatly increased by the numerous
roads and bridges constructed during this decade.
Over 4,000 miles of modern roads were constructed.
More than 5,000 permanent bridges and culverts,
most of them made of concrete, were built. In
mountainous districts 1,500 miles of cart roads and
horse trails were built, as well as numerous wooden
bridges and aerial ferries constructed of cables.
INIany thousands of small farmers were thus en-
abled to bring their produce to market.
Railways. — During the past ten years the number
of kilometers of steam railway in the Philippines
has increased to five or six times what it was before.
The plan in the construction of these railways is to
288 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
connect up the important agricultural centers with
the seaport towns.
Sanitary Improvements.- — The scourges of small-
pox, plague, and cholera have been almost entirely
wiped out. In 1907 not a single one of seven
provinces reported a death from smallpox, al-
though during the years before the campaign of
vaccination about 6,000 deaths annually had oc-
curred in these provinces. The annual deaths from
smallpox dropped from an average of forty thou-
sand a year to a few hundred.
The cause and cure of beri-beri were discovered,
largely due to Philippine investigators, and many
were cured of this disease, while others learned to
avoid it by eating unpolished rice.
By 19 1 3 about 1.300 artesian wells had been
bored in the Philippines, saving thousands of peo-
ple from water-borne diseases. Through the educa-
tion of trained physicians multitudes enjoy expert
medical attention. The Philippine General Hospital
was opened in 19 10, at Manila, and later the South-
ern Islands Hospital, at Cebu.
At Culion the finest leper colony in the world
was established, which cares for nearly three thou-
Progress in Education. — The principal events in
educational progress in 1904- 19 14 were the growth
of higher education, the erection of modern school
buildings, the spread of industrial education and
the growth of school athletics.
A DECADE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS. 289
The University of the PhiHppines, at Manila, is
a group of colleges united under the government
of a Board of Regents, a President, and a Univer-
sity Council. It consists of the Philippine Medical
School, the School of Fine Arts, the College of
Agriculture, the College of Veterinary Science, the
College of Liberal Arts, the College of Engineering,
and the College of Law. In 19 13 it numbered 704
Pupils in the secondary grades increased to 6,111
in 19 1 3 and those in the intermediate grades to
30,692. The total number of pupils enrolled under
the Bureau of Education reached 529,665 in 1912.
Hundreds of reinforced concrete schoolhouses
were built. Industrial education was widely ex-
tended during this period. Ninety-three per cent, of
the pupils of the public schools received some form
of industrial instruction.
Largely due to the encouragement given by Gov-
ernor-General Forbes, school athletics grew to great
proportions. Interscholastic field meets became a
common feature of school life; baseball and other
athletic sports were popularized in every part of
The Philippine Assembly. — In 1907 the Philip-
pine Assembly was established. This was the first
representative governing body for the Philippines
elected by Filipinos. It consists of 81 members
chosen from 81 districts into which the provinces
have been divided. The Assembly shares with the
290 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Philippine Commission the authority for governing
all of the Philippines, except the Moro Province
and the other non-Christian provinces.
Filipino Self-government. — The self-governing
powers of the Filipinos were greatly extended in
the decade 1904-1914. Besides the constitution of
the Philippine Assembly, Filipinos were given a
greater share in the courts. One half the judges of
the courts of first instance are Filipinos. All the
justices of the peace are Filipinos, practically all of
the municipal presidents, and two-thirds of the
members of the provincial boards. The proportion
of Filipino employees in the civil service steadily
increased till a great majority of those positions
were held by Filipinos. In 1913, President Wil-
son gave the Filipinos five out of nine positions
on the Philippine Commission, thus giving the
Filipinos a majority in both houses of the Legisla-
Changes in the Philippine Commission. — For pur-
poses of reference it will be well to note the follow-
ing complete table of successive changes in the
composition of the Philippine Commission:
William H. Taft, Mar. 16, 1900, to Jan. 31, 1904.
Luke E. Wright, Mar. 16, 1900, to Apr. i, 1906.
Henry C. Ide, Mar. 16, 1900, to Sept. 19, 1906.
Bernard ]\Ioses, Mar. 16, 1900, to Dec. 31, 1902.
Dean C. Worcester, Mar. 16, 1900, to Sept. 15,
A DECADE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS. 291
Jose R. de Luzuriaga, Sept. i, 1906, to Oct. 29,
Benito Legarda, Sept. i, 1 901, to Oct. 31, 1907.
T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Sept. i, 1901, to Feb. 28,
James F. Smith, Dec. 31, 1902, to Nov. 10, 1909.
W. Cameron Forbes, June 15, 1904. to Sept. 2,
W. Morgan Shuster, Sept. 28, 1906, to Feb. 28,
Gregorio Areneta. July i. 1908, to Oct. 29, 1913.
Newton \A'. Gilbert. July i, 1908, to Nov. 30, 1913.
Rafael Palma, July 6, 1908, to date.
Juan Sumulong, Mar. i, 1909, to Oct. 29, 19 13.
Frank A. Branagan, ]\Iar. 4, 1909. to Oct. 29, 1913.
Charles B. Elliott. Feb. 14, 1910, to Dec. 4, 1912.
Victorino ]\lapa, Oct. 30, 19 13. to date.
Jaime C. De Veyra, Oct. 30, 19 13, to date.
Vicente Ilustre, Oct. 30, 19 13. to date.
Henderson S. Martin, Nov. 29, 1913, to date.
Clinton L. Riggs, Nov. 29, 1913, to date.
Winfred T. Denison, 19 13 to date.
The organization of the Philippine Commission
in 19 14 was as follows:
Governor-General and President of the Commis-
sion, Francis Burton Harrison.
Vice-Governor and Secretary of Public Instruction,
Henderson S. Martin.
292 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Secretary of Finance and Justice, Victorino j\lapa.
Secretary of Commerce and Police, Clinton L.
Secretary of the Interior, Winfred T. Denison.
]\Iembers : Rafael Palma, Vicente Singson, Jaime
C. De Veyra, Vicente Ilustre.
Message of President Wilson.- — The accession to
power of the Democratic party in the United States
in 19 1 3 caused a fresh statement of the policy of the
sovereign government toward the Philippines.
This policy was best expressed in the course of an
address given by President Wilson at a joint ses-
sion of the two houses of Congress, Dec. 2, 19 13.
The following excerpts from the address are of
vital importance to students of Philippine history:
"Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines are
ours, indeed, but not ours to do as we please with.
Such territories, once regarded as mere possessions,
are no longer to be selfishly exploited ; they are part
of the domain of public conscience and of service-
able and enlightened statesmanship. W'e must ad-
minister them for the people who live in them and
with the same sense of responsibility to them as
toward our own people in our domestic affairs. No
doubt we shall successfully enough bind Porto Rico
and the Hawaiian Islands to ourselves by ties of
justice, interest, and affection, but the performance
of our duty toward the Philippines is a more diffi-
cult and debatable matter. We can satisfy the ob-
ligations of generous justice toward the people of
A DECADE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS. 293
Porto Rico by giving them the ample and famihar
rights and privileges accorded our own citizens in
our own territories and our obligations toward the
people of Hawaii by perfecting the provisions for
self-government already granted them, but in the
Philippines we must go farther. We must hold
steadily in view their ultimate independence, and
we must move toward the time of that independence
as steadily as the way can be cleared and the foun-
dations thoughtfully and permanently laid.
"Acting under the authority conferred upon the
President by Congress, I have already accorded the
people of the Islands a majority in both houses of
their legislative body by appointing five instead of
four native citizens to the membership of the Com-
mission. I believe that in this way we shall make
proof of their capacity in counsel and their sense
of responsibility in the exercise of political power,
and that the success of this step will be sure to clear
our view for the steps which are to follow. Step
by step we should extend and perfect the system of
self-government in the Islands, making test of them
and modifying them as experience discloses their
successes and their failures : that we should more
and more put under the control of the native citi-
zens of the archipelago the essential instruments of
their life, their local instrumentalities of govern-
ment, their schools, all the common interests of their
communities, and so by counsel and experience set
up a government which all the world will see to be
294 A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
suitable to a people whose affairs are under their
own control. At last, I hope and believe, we are
beginning to gain the confidence of the Filipino
peoples. By their counsel and experience, rather
than by our own, we shall learn how best to serve
them and how soon it will be possible and wise to
withdraw our supervision. Let us once find the
path and set out with firm and confident tread upon
it and we shall not wander from it or linger upon
Significance of President Wilson's Message. —
This message confirmed and renewed the policy laid
down by President AIcKinley and his successors in
the presidency. In spirit and purpose it is the same.
The growing knowledge of American institutions of
government, the spread of education, and the ma-
terial development which fifteen years of American
rule had brought about made it possible for the
President to express his belief that the Filipinos
had gained confidence in the good will and efficiency
of the American government. He implied that the
training and capacity of the Filipinos had reached a
point where it would be possible to be guided more
and more by their wishes and advice in matters of
government. This is the end for which previous
administrations strove. The additional powers of
self-government given the Filipinos were evidence
of the success of the policies thus far pursued in
the Philippines. In the future, as in the past, the
attainment of self-government by the Filipinos will
A DECADE OF PEACE AND PROGRESS. 295
rest upon the evidence which experience gives that
they have mastered the lessons of enhghtenment,
organization, self-control, and just dealing — the
things which fit a people for self-rule.
Real and lasting independence cannot be given;
it must be acquired by patient self-mastery upon the
part of the individuals who compose a nation. The
steps taken by President Wilson's administration
were made in the hope that the use of these in-
creased powers by the Filipinos will justify the
faith which America reposes in their capacity for
progress and good government. Permanent control
of the Philippines has at no time been the policy of
America. The hopes and efforts of both great
parties in the United States have been directed to-
ward the gradual elevation of the Philippines to a
self-governing state. The decade 1904-1914 re-
corded definite progress toward that goal.
Agricr.ltural Bank, 285.
Agriculture, 178, 1S4, 194,
Aguilar, Rafael de, 185.
Aguinaldo, 235, 240, 248, 255,
Anda, Simon de, 170, 177.
Arrechederra, Governor, 135.
Assembly, Philippine, 289.
Augustin, Basilio de, 246.
Banco Espanol-Filipino, 208.
Blanco, Governor, 234.
Bohol, 5, 141.
Borneo, 78, 80, 128.
Bridge of Spain, 143.
British Invasion, 167.
Brunei, conquest of, 77.
Burgos, 218, 223.
Cagayan, 65, 81, no, 145.
Calendar, reformation of,
Cavite, 121, 123, 221.
Cebu, 5, 35, 45, 48, 55-
Charles I., 41.
Charles III., 183.
Chinese, conversion, 109.
revolts, 109, no.
trade with, 113.
Civilization, 19, 29, 70, 121,
Claveria, Xarcisso de. 203.
Coast-guard Towers, 134.
Commerce, 26, 203, 226, 281,
Commission, Philippine, 259,
Conquest, cost of, 86.
Constitution of 1812, 191.
Conversion of the Filipinos,
Corcuera, Sebastian Hurtado
Cortes, 189, 193.
Cotton Industry-, 98.
Council of Manila, 67, 90.
Councils, Municipal, 227.
Courts, 91, 149, 276.
Cruz, Apolinario de la, 199.
Cruzat, Fausto, 160.
Cuba, 244, 250, 252.
Cuesta, Archbishop, 157.
Currency, Philippine, 285.
Das ^larinas. 93.
Decree of 1589, 90.
Demarcation Lines, 41, 49.
Dewey, 245, 246.
Discovery of Philippines, 44.
Dominicans, 69, 109.
Earthquakes. 144, 212.
Education, 211, 22S, 2TJ, 288.
Elcano, Juan de, 49.
Encomiendas, 62, 66, 67.
Enrile, Pascual, 198.
Fajardo, Alonso, 141.
Fajardo, Diego, 144.
Fernando VII., 191.
Friars, arrival of, 69.
as merchants, 95.
as teachers, 211.
character of, 70.
disputes with governors,
Galleons, 114, 116, 117.
Goiti, Martin de, 56, 69.
Gold, 27, 64.
Gomez, Maximo, 223.
Government, 20, 160, 202,
Governors, 205, 210.
Guam, 1 16.
History, study of, 2.
Ide, Henry C, Governor,
Ilocos, 104, 173, 191.
Iloilo. 81, 129, 266.
Improvements, sanitary, 288.
Isabella II., 216.
Isla, Juan de la, 57.
Izquierdo, Rafael de, 220.
Japan, 26, 81.
Jesuits, 6g, 210.
J0I6, 137, 206.
Jubilee of 1654, 151.
Katipiinan, 231, 238.
Labor tax, 140.
Lavezaris, Guido de, 57, 66,
Laws of the Indies, 163.
Legazpi, 53, 57, 59.
Leyte, 50, 141.
Luna, General, 261.
Luzon, 2, 57.
IMagellan, 40, 41, 43, 45. 46.
Manila, American occupa-
building of the walls, 97.
capture of, 169.
compared with provinces,
fired by insurgents, 262.
incorporation of, 59.
in Das IMarinas time, loi.
Manrique de Lara, 144, 150.
Marriage customs, 29.
Martial law, 268.
Massacre of Spaniards, 48.
McKinley, 244, 257, 272.
^Mexico. 76, 93.
Mindanao, 5, 50.
IMindoro, 126, 130.
Moluccas, So, 100, 120.
Moraga, Father, 89.
Morga, Antonio de, 120.
Moros, 14, 27, 126, 132.
Negritos, 6, 99.
Obando, Governor, 135.
Ordinances of good govern-
Otis, General, 258.
Pardo, Archbishop, 153.
Philip IL, 52, (^, 89.
Pilar, Gregorio del, 264.
Pirates, 81, 126, 128, 137.
Poblete, Archbishop, 151.
Portuguese, 39, 41, 49, 79
Postal Savings Bank, 285.
Priests, Filipino, 35, 210,
Prince Henry, 39.
Punta de Flechas, 130.
Rada, Father, 65.
Railroads, 226, 287.
Recollects, 70, 210.
Religion, 31, 67.
Republic, Filipino, 251.
of Negros, 266.
"Residencia," the, 79, 153.
Revolts, Bohol, 141.
Ilocos Norte, 191.
Tagalog, 1896, 237.
Tagalog, 1898, 246.
Ricafort, Governor, 194.
Rivera, Governor, 183, 237.
Rizal, Jose, 121, 233.
Roads, 198, 287.
Rojo. Governor, 167.
Ronquillo de Peiialosa, 78.
"Royal Company of the
Saint Louis Exposition, the
Salazar. Bishop, 84, 96, 109.
Salcedo, Diego, 152.
Salcedo, Juan de, 58, 60, 105,
Sanchez, Alonso, 90.
Sande, Francisco de, 76.
Santiago, Fort, 98, 170.
Schools, "2. (See Educa-
Silan, Diego de, 172.
Silk culture, 180.
Silva, Juan de, 122.
Slavery, 22, 36, 68.
Smith, James F., Governor,
"Sociedad Economica de
Amigos del Pais," 184.
Spanish, teaching of, 179,
Spices, 40, 184.
Subsidy, Royal, 118.
Suez Canal, 226.
Sulu Archipelago, the, 16.
Tabora, Juan Nino de, 142.
Taft, Governor, 272.
Tagalogs, 200, 2^7.
Taxes, 96, 160.
Tello de Guzman, 130.
Tila Pass, 264.
Tobacco, 181, 287.
Torre, Carlos de, 217.
Treaty of Paris, the, 249,
Tribes, 12, 162.
Visayas, 5, 266.
Urbistondo, Antonio de, 206. '. Weapons, 25.
Urdaneta, Father, 53.
Van Xoort, 121.
Vargas, Juan de, 152, 184.
Vasco de Gama. 40.
Vera, Santiago de, 85.
Village Government, 20.
Wright, Luke E., Governor,
Zapote Bridge, 263.
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