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I 



THE HISTORY OF SILHOUETTES 



THE HISTORY 
OF SILHOUETTES 



. . BY . . 

E. NEVILL JACKSON- 




THE CONNOISSEUR 

1911 

All rights reserved 
Copyright by E. Nevill Jackson in the United States of America, 19) J. 




FAR IN AND OUT, ABOVE, ABOUT, BELOW, 
'TIS NOTHING BUT A MAGIC SHADOW SHOW, 

PLAY'D IN A BOX WHOSE CANDLE is THE SUN 
ROUND WHICH WE PHANTOM FIGURES COMB AND GO. 



XLVI. 
Fit*fir*l<ft translatim a/ flit Rufyat / Omar Kayyam. 



I I" 




FOREWORD. 

iMONGST my reminiscences of personal belongings and 
the charm of old portraiture, none has given me 
greater pleasure than the silhouette of bygone days. 

The souvenir, sometimes cut by gifted amateurs, was exchanged 
amongst friends in my early days as the photograph is to-day. 
We had many at Wolterton, our Norfolk home, and the picture 
of my grandmother, Lady Orford, and the cuttings of Princess 
Elizabeth are amongst my treasured possessions. 

I remember Mr. Guest collected silhouettes, and had some 
fine examples of the work of Miers (who lived near Exeter 
Change), of Rosenberg, and of Field. 

Mr. Guest was a very good judge of such things, having, 
by many years of collecting, perfected a naturally cultured 
sense of art. Like myself, he had learnt much from Mr. Pollard. 

Lady Evelyn Cobbold shewed me three silhouettes of Mr. 
Cobbold, his father, and his grandfather, all perfect portraits, 
and very interesting. 




CONTENTS 



PREFACE 
CHAPTER I. 



CHAPTER II. 

CHAPTER III. 
CHAPTER IV. 

CHAPTER V. 
CHAPTER VI. 
CHAPTER VII. 

CHAPTER VIII. 



PAGE 

I 



BLACK PROFILE PORTRAITURE, ITS PLACE 
IN ART, LITERATURE AND SOCIAL 
LIFE - 

THE COMING OF THE SILHOUETTE AND 
ITS PASSING 

PROCESSES: (i) BRUSHWORK - 

PROCESSES: (2) SHADOWGRAPHY AND 
MECHANICAL AIDS - 



ALPHABETICAL 



LIST OF SlLHOUETTISTS, MAKERS OF 
SILHOUETTE MOUNTS AND OTHERS 



CONNECTED WITH THE CRAFT - 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
INDEX - 



13 

20 

35 



PROCESSES: (3) FREEHAND SCISSOR-WORK 47 
AUGUST EDOUART AND His BOOK - 59 

SCRAP-BOOKS. A ROYAL CUTTER AND 

HER WORK - - 73 

SILHOUETTE DECORATION ON PORCELAIN 
AND GLASS THE SILHOUETTE 
THEATRE ------ 81 



- 87 

- 117 
LXXIII 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Portrait of a Private in an English Regiment Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

Silhouette Portraits of the Ansley Family - i 

Painted in black and orange-red on convex glass 

I 

Silver Wedding Anniversary Picture - 16 

With portraits and emblems 

Captain Robert Conig - 32 

Of H.M. 90M Regiment of Infantry 

Silhouette Portraits of Members of the Ansley Family - 48 

Painted in black and orange-rid tn convex glass 

Portrait of Lord Mansfield - - 64 

Painted in black and gold tn glass 

Silhouette Portrait of a Man 80 

Painted in black and gold on glass 



Silhouette Portrait of a Lady 



96 



Painted Silhouettes 



112 



Illustrations in Monochrome 



- I to LXXII 




PREFACE. . 

iT has not been easy to gather up the threads of history 
concerning an art and handicraft long fallen into 
desuetude. Amongst the few who still work at black 
profile portraiture, none has been found who is 
cognisant of the traditions, nor who has any knowledge of the 
complex processes by means of which the fine eighteenth-century 
work was accomplished. 

My sincere thanks are due to Mrs. Head, Mrs. Whitmore, 
Madame Nossof, Mrs. Wadmore, Mrs. Lea Carson (of Philadelphia), 
Mrs. Whetridge, Mr. Francis Wellesley, Mr. H. Palmer, 
Mr. Desmond Coke, Mr. Holworthy, Captain Pringle, Mr. H. 
Terrell (of Boston), Mr. Laurence Park, Dr. Beetham (descendant 
of Mrs. Beetham, the fine eighteenth-century silhouettist), 
Mr. J. A. Field, for the interesting series of portraits painted 
by his great-grandfather, and many others, who, possessing 
silhouettes, have allowed me to visit and make a study of their 
collections or have sent specimens for examination. Without 
their courtesy, and that of many others who gave me facilities 
for studying some thousands of specimens and advertisements, 
it would have been impossible to write this book. A subject 
on which there exists no written history, and which has hitherto 
received scant attention, requires much research amongst a large 
number of examples, amongst old newspaper matter, contemporary 
social history, and the trade labels of the silhouettists, for its 
faithful record. 

More especially I am grateful to those who have kindly 
permitted me to reproduce their silhouettes, thus making clear 
to art lovers, and those who take pleasure in the curio, how 
manifold are the charms of family treasure, which would not 
otherwise have been available for study. To . Herr Julius 

B 



Preface 

Leisching, Director Erzerzog Rainer Museum, I am indebted 
for information concerning silhouettists of Germany and Austria 
contained in his memorandums of the Industrial Museum ; 
to Sir Sidney Colvin, Keeper of the Prints in the British 
Museum ; to Mr. C. J. Holmes, Director of the National 
Portrait Gallery ; to Mr. T. Corsan Morton, of the National 
Galleries of Scotland ; to Mr. D. E. Roberts, of the Library of 
Congress, Washington, for access to special collections ; to 
Mr. Horace Cox and Mr. T. P. O'Connor, with regard to 
pictures under their control in the " Collector " and the Magazine ; 
to Lady Dorothy Nevill, for placing at my disposal the beautiful 
silhouette work of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of George III. ; 
to Lady Sackville, for allowing me to study the silhouettes of 
Knole, and to reproduce some of the silhouette porcelain in her 
possession. 

If fresh interest is kindled in the graceful art of the sil- 
houettist, and the names of some little known artists are rescued 
from oblivion, my pleasant task will not have been in vain. 
Perhaps those who read these pages will find a charm and wist- 
fulness in the shadow portrait. Beauty is not alone recorded 
by the brush of great artists, but also by minor workers. 
Gainsborough painted portraits of beautiful women at Bath, and 
Charles and Spornberg worked at their shades in the same 
street ; the same clients visited both studios. The silhouette, 
poor relation of the miniature, the forerunner of Daguerre, shows 
the Belle of Cheltenham, or the Dandy of Bath and the Wells, 
appealing and dainty in shadowland, while the laughter of the 
shadow children echoes ghost-like as we note their toys and 
sports; they flit across the pages, they cast a shadow, and are 
gone. - . , E j 

Oak Lodge, Sidcup. 



CHAPTER I. 

BLACK PROFILE PORTRAITURE : ITS PLACE IN ART, LITERATURE, 

AND SOCIAL LIFE. 




in black profile join hands round the wine- 
cups and oil-jars made by Etruscan potters; in sil- 
houette men are armed to battle, women weave cloth 
and grind corn, children play at ball and knuckle- 
bones, life-like in shadow. 

There is a pageant of profile portraiture on the mummy cases 
and frescoed tombs of ancient Egypt. Strange peoples are 
shown in outline as they lived ; they go to war, they marry, 
their children play, the ritual of their Book of the Dead is 
pictured in profile three thousand years before the Christian era. 

These flat and unsubstantial ghost figures come to us down 
the ages. From those mystic times when Crates of Sicyon, 
Philocles of Egypt, and Cleanthes of Corinth first worked in 
monochrome, there is an unbroken tale of men and women who 
have lived, loved, hated, and triumphed Pharaohs and their 
slaves, Greek gods, and athletes ; a French king, a murdered 
queen ; Napoleon and his generals ; statesmen and politicians ; 
Goethe, Beethoven, Burns, Wellington, Dickens, Washington, 
Harrison, Scott, and ten thousand others down to the present 
day. They come as colourless ghosts, relics of bygone men and 
women, shadows caught and held, while the realities have flitted 
across life's stage and vanished. 

Old Omar Khayam, "King of the Wise," in the twelfth 
century knew 

" We are no other than a moving row 
Of magic shadow shapes that come and go 
Round with the sun, illumined lantern held 
In midnight by the master of the show." 



4 The History of Silhouettes 

He had not been busied with winning knowledge without seeing 
the deep significance of the shadow portrait. The familiar figure 
of the showman whose lantern displays the black moving figures 
in the midnight streets of Teheran appealed to him with vital 
force. He uses the shadow picture constantly as a simile in his 
matchless quatrains 

" Heav'n but the vision of fulfilled desire, 
And hell the shadow from a soul on fire, 

Cast on the darkness into which ourselves 
So late emerged from, shall so soon expire." 

The subtle appeal of the silhouette is inevitably associated with 
death, in its legendary origin. Filled with joyous anticipation, 
thrilling with the thought of the woman he would soon hold in 
his arms, a lover returned after a short absence to find that his 
betrothed was dead ; he rushed into the death chamber, maddened 
with grief, to look his last on the face of his beloved before it 
should be hidden from him for ever. There on the wall the 
shadow of the dead woman's features appeared in perfect outline, 
for a taper at the head of the bier cast the shadow. With 
reverent hand the man traced the portrait, which he believed to 
have been specially sent as consolation. 

There are other variants of the story. The Greek legend 
attributes the invention of painting to the daughter of Dibutades. 
Knowing that the passion of her lover was waning, she furtively 
sketched his shadow on the wall as he stood with the sun behind 
him. We are not told if this delicate way of indicating that 
even a shadow outline can be made permanent by a sufficiently 
determined young woman was of any use in making the love 
of the inconstant swain indelible. 

Many artists have illustrated different phases of the basic idea 
as to the shadow having first suggested portraiture. Le Brunyn, 
Schenan, B. West, R.A., and Mulready are some of them. 

We make no apology for studying the history of this art of 



Black Profile Portraiture. 5 

the silhouettist in its latter-day manifestations. At its best, 
black profile portraiture is a thing of real beauty, almost worthy 
to take its place with the best miniature painting ; at its worst, 
it is a quaintly appealing handicraft, revealing the fashions and 
foibles, the intimate domestic life and conventions of its day. 
It was executed by so many distinguished amateurs, from 
Etienne de Silhouette himself to Queen Charlotte and Princess 
Elizabeth of England, that few social histories or collections of 
letters of the eighteenth century fail to show how its strange 
chequer fitted into the fashionable life of the period. 

Surely it is high time the art of black profile portraiture had 
a. historian of its own and the great masters of silhouette por- 
traiture were rescued from oblivion. Shadows are impalpable 
things which fade away almost before we are aware of their 
existence. 

Year by year accident and the ravages of time lessen the 
number of these fragile curios ; the beautiful portraits on ivory 
and glass, being the most fragile, are the first to go. Already it 
is not easy to find good examples in their original frames 
complete with convex glass and trade label of the artist pasted on 
the back. Mutilated examples with cracked wax filling or plaster 
paintings, chipped and incomplete, are still to be found ; but 
even these have often been reframed, or have been broken open 
to renew glass or back, and so the trade label has been lost. 
The searcher who hopes to be successful in his quest has now 
to go very far afield, unless he be satisfied with the paper pictures 
of indifferent quality, interesting perhaps on account of the 
identity of the sitter or the fame of the cutter, but very far from 
equalling in beauty the best work of the masters in black profile 
portraiture. Some enthusiasts maintain that the least artistic 
profile shadow portrait has a curious individuality which redeems 
it from overwhelming ugliness ; certainly the infinite variety of 



6 The History of Silhouettes 

the processes and the fresh and vigorous outlines in unexpected 
media give a charm to the portrait in monochrome. 

There is no sequence in the production of the different types. 
Some of the earliest specimens were cut in paper, for Mrs. Pyburg 
is said to have cut out the portraits of William and Mary 
in 1699 ; and certainly some of the beauties of Versailles were 
cut by Gonard in paper ; the mid-Victorians worked in paper, 
and there are still a few cutters busy with their scissors. Glass, 
ivory, and plaster, oil-painting, smoke-staining, and Indian ink, 
all were used one by one or together. There is no evolution and 
gradual development to trace in the art and craft of the sil- 
houettist ; the pictures come before us like the shadows that they 
are, each process appearing and disappearing. Sometimes the 
same man worked in half a dozen different processes, using now 
one and now another, according to the taste or purse of the 
sitter, or guided by his own judgment as to the suitability of 
his subject for this or that medium of expression. The miniature 
shades for mounting in rings, brooches, scarf-pins, and pendants 
were not done exclusively by a few men, as one might surmise 
from their rarity ; they were painted with the delicacy of a 
miniaturist by many of the silhouettists, who usually painted 
silhouettes of ordinary size. These jewel shadows are now very 
difficult to find, and it is probable no such collection as that of 
the late Mr. Montague Guest will ever come into the market 
again. 

Into the lives of great personages, such as Goethe, Napoleon, 
our English kings, queens, and princesses, the silhouette creeps 
with colourless persistence ; there is no escaping it. Goethe 
writes letters to his mother, and to Lavater, being touched 
with enthusiasm for the silhouette and its uses by the zealous 
Zurich minister. The poet cut a few himself. Napoleon presents 
glass profile portraits of himself in black on gold tinsel ground to 



Black Profile Portraiture 7 

his generals. Princess Elizabeth, daughter of George III., is a 
famous scissor-woman, and many are the pictures she cut, not 
only of her father, mother, and sisters, but also of trees, birds 
and flowers, rural scenes, cupids, and cupid groups. 

Fanny Burney delights in the black portraits ; all the 
Burney family are grouped together. She records her visits 
to the silhouettist Charles, when her attendance on the Queen 
as Maid of Honour was over. This portrait shows the famous 
creator of " Evelina " to be sprightly indeed ; her delicate profile 
is well set off with curled and powdered hair, lace ruffle, and 
beribboned hat, whose tilt must surely have been learnt at 
Versailles. 

Pepys lived too early to have his shadow taken. We feel 
sure the old coxcomb would have had a dozen of himself, mighty 
fine in new clothes, and perchance, if in generous mood, a 
single one of his wife in her old ones. [My father's profile, cut 
in paper, is spoken of by Bulwer Lytton in " The Caxtons," in 
the second volume.] 

Horace Walpole, in his letter to Sir Horace Mann, written 
in 1761, desires him to thank the Duchess of Grafton on his 
behalf for the ddcoupure of herself, this being, he explains in a 
note, " her figure cut out in card by M. Herbert, of Geneva, 
who was famous in that art." This allusion at- this early date 
again indicates that the cut silhouette was the earliest, as it 
certainly is the last survival, of the art. The scissor-type, it is 
still called by the old inhabitants of Suffolk, who well remember 
the visits of the itinerant artists. 

Strange confusion has arisen in the minds of many admirers 
of silhouettes on account of the name. Black profile portraiture 
was practised long before Etienne de Silhouette economised 
in the public finance department of Louis XV., and the wits of 
the day nicknamed "silhouette" whatever was cheap and common. 



8 The History of Silhouettes 

In Swift's " Miscellanies," ed. 1745, vol. x., page 204, is a whole 
series of poems (full of the most eccentric rhymes) on silhouette 
portraits, e.g. : 

" On Dan Jackson's Picture Cut in Paper." 
" To fair Lady Betty Dan sat for his Picture, 
And defy'd her to draw him so oft as he piqu'd her. 
He knew she'd no Pencil or Colouring by her, 
And therefore he thought he might safely defy her. 
Come sit, says my Lady, then whips out her Scissar, 
And cuts out his Coxcomb in Silk in a trice, Sir. 
Dan sat with Attention, and saw with Surprize 
How she lengthen'd his Chin, how she hollow'd his Eyes, 
But flattered himself with a secret Conceit 
That his thin leathern (sic) Jaws all her art would defeat. 
Lady Betty observ'd it, then pulls out a Pin 
And varies the Grain of the Stuff to his Grin ; 
And to make roasted Silk to resemble his raw-bone 
She rais'd up a Thread to the jett of his Jaw-bone, 
Till at length in exactest Proportion he rose 
From the Crown of his Head to the Arch of his Nose. 
And if Lady Betty had drawn him with Wig and all, 
Tis certain the Copy'd out-done the Original. 
Well, that's but my Outside, says Dan with a Vapour ; 
Say you so? says my Lady;. I've lin'd it with Paper." 

Swift, " Miscellanies',' vol. x., /. 205. 

ANOTHER. 

" Clarissa draws her Scissars from the Case, 
To draw the Lines of poor D n J n's Face. 
One sloping Cut made Forehead, Nose, and Chin, 
A Nick produc'd a Mouth and made him grin, 
Such as in Taylor's measure you have seen. 
But still were wanting his Grimalkin Eyes, 
For which grey Worsted-Stocking Paint supplies 
Th' unravell'd Thread thro 1 Needle's Eye convey'd, 
Transferr'd itself into his past-board Head. 
How came the Scissars to be thus out-done ? 
The Needle had an Eye, and they had none. 
O wond'rous Force of Art ! now look at Dan 
You'd swear the Past-board was the better man. 
The Dev'l, says he, the Head is not so full 
Indeed it is, behold the Paper Skull." THO. S D, Sculp. 



S/ack Profile Portraiture 9 

Swift, " Miscellanies" vol. x., p. 206. 
ANOTHER. 

" Dan's evil Genius in a Trice 
Had strip'd him of his Coin at Dice ; 
Chloe observing this Disgrace, 
On Pain cut out his rueful Face. 

By G , says Dan, 'tis very hard, 

Cut out at Dice, cut out at Card!" 

G. R D, Sculp. 

Now, Swift died in 1745, and may be said to have died to 
literature some years earlier. Silhouette's cheese-paring economy 
was, we are told, induced by the deficit entailed " by the ruinous 
war of 1756," consequently it could not have been before 1760 
that his name would have become synonymous with cheapness. 
We thus have evidence that the art was in use at the least 
twenty years before his name could have been applied to it ; and 
it does not at all appear that it was new then, as Mrs. Pyburg 
cut William and Mary's portrait out of black paper in 1699. 
This nomenclature must, therefore, have been caused by 
his adoption of it as a pastime, and not by the reason 
given by I. D'Israeli and the Diet. Hist. This is an 
instance of how easily false derivations may be published even 
within so short a time of the events for which they profess to 
account. 

A very slight study of silhouettes shows how characteristic 
is the pose of many of the old black profile portraits. In 
the shadow of George III., do we not see the embodiment 
of Lord Rosebery's inimitable description, " the German 
Princelet of his day," and in Pitt's silhouette, with its "damned 
long, obstinate upper lip," as his royal master so vigorously 
described it, there is the very ego of the man who was premier 
at twenty-five. 

Goethe's letters to his mother are full of allusions to the 



io The History of Silhouettes 

novel portraiture which had been brought to his notice by 
Lavater, the Zurich divine, whose essay on Physiognomy, written 
for the promotion of the knowledge and love of mankind, is 
still read in Germany. The edition of 1794 is before us, and 
shows hundreds of silhouette drawings, for he wrote of the 
importance of reading character from people's faces, and used 
the silhouette for this purpose. Thus the shadow portrait, 
once the amusement of amateurs, now began to have scientific 
significance. 

Goethe testifies that Lavater wished all the world to 
co-operate with him, and he arrived at Goethe's house on June 
23rd, 1774, not only to take portraits of the young genius, but 
also of his parents. A year later Goethe implores Lavater in a 
letter, " I beg you will destroy the family picture of us ; it is 
frightful. You do credit neither to yourself nor us. Get my 
father's cut out and use him as a vignette, for he is good. 
You can do what you like with my head too, but my mother 
must not stand there like that ! " 

An amusing sequel to this is that when, in the third volume 
of the " Physiognomy," the councillor's portrait appeared, but not 
that of Goethe's mother, she was much annoyed, and said 
that Lavater evidently did not think her face worthy to 
appear. The matter rankled, for in 1807 she had her head 
examined by Dr. Gall, " to find out if the great qualities of 
her son had, by any chance, been passed on to her." 

This much discussed silhouette of Goethe's mother is 
illustrated in " Goethe's Mother," by Dr. Karl Heinemann, and 
fuller accounts of the poet's attitude towards the silhouettists 
of his day, and the instructive and exciting deductions from 
their work, will be found further on in our volume. 

In a letter from Fraulein von Gochhausen to Frau Rath we 
use the translation of Mr. A. S. Gibb the delight in the novel 



Black Profile Portraiture IJ 

portraiture is shown, and incidentally the vivacity of the 

writpr ' 

"WEIMAR, the 2jth December, 1781. 

" I am sure, dearest mother, that you in your life have had many and varied 
joys ; but whether you know any such joy as you have given me on Christmas 
Day, at least I wish it you ! Your silhouette, so like ! of such an excellent, dear, 
beloved woman ! in such a costly, pretty, and stylish setting ; and your letter 
O your dear letter! could I only say how indescribably admirable the letter is! 
Enough, dearest mother : from all my exclamations there is, alas, nothing further 
to be learned than that I am half out of my wits with excessive joy. The 
first day Goethe had much to bear from me, for I almost ate him up. By 
monstrous good luck there was on that joyous day a grand dinner at the 
Duchess's, and nearly half the town was assembled. I could, therefore, produce 
at once my splendid present (which will not so soon come off my so-called 
swan-like neck) ; and there was a questioning and a glancing at the beautiful 
novelty, and I was thoroughly wild, and people thought I must have had a gift 
of clear quicksilver.* 

" Dearest woman, how shall I thank you ! how ever deserve so much good- 
ness so without all desert and worthiness on my part ! In return, I can, alas ! 
do nothing, except to go on in my old jog-trot love, honour, and obey you my 
life long. Amen! " L. GOCHHAUSEN." 

Later the craft of the silhouettist fell into disrepute when 
it had become part of the curriculum of young ladies' schools; 
unskilful artists itinerated, pursuing their craft in booths and 
at fairs one in the Thames Tunnel, several on the Chain Pier 
at Brighton. At street corners magic figures, with concealed 
workers, were used to entice the unwilling with mystery. Even 
Sam Weller, in his inimitable letter to Mary, laughs at the 
methods of the "profeel macheen." 

" So I take the privilidge of the day, Mary, my dear as the gen'l'm'n in 
difficulties did ven he valked out of a Sunday to tell you that the first and only 
time I see you your likeness was took on my hart in much quicker time and 
brighter colours than ever a likeness was took by the profeel macheen (wich 
p'raps you may have heerd on, Mary, my dear), altho' it does finish a portrait 
and put the frame and glass on complete, with a hook on the end to hang it 
up by, and all in two minutes and a quarter." 

* This seems a strange expression ; but at that time, when anyone showed a restless activity, they would 
say that someone had given them quicksilver. 



12 The History of Silhouettes 

Such is the story, in brief, of the silhouette. Sometimes 
we see in it a little social document, elevated by fortuitous 
circumstances or scarcity of other pictorial record to historical 
value. As in the case of Robert Burns's portrait, by J. Miers, 
and that of his brother, Gilbert Burns, by Howie, in the 
Scottish National Portrait Gallery, at all times it is passively 
charming. Surely we need not scorn this step-sister of photo- 
graphy this poor relation of the art world. In the words of 
Seraphim, when, in 1771, he flung wide the doors of his Shadow 
Theatre at Versailles 

" Venez ganpons, venez fillettes, 
Voir Momus a la silhouette ; 
Ou, chez Seraphim venez voir 
La belle Lumeur en habit noir, 
Tandes que ma salle est bien sombre 
Et que mon a cleur n'est que 1'ombre, 
Puisse messieurs votre gaite" 
Devenir la r<aliteV' 





CHAPTER II. 

THE COMING OF THE SILHOUETTE AND ITS PASSING. 

jHERE is a simplicity in the silhouette picture which 
brings it nearer to the Japanese print in its effect 
upon the mind than any other expression in art. 
All our attention is concentrated on outline, and in 
consequence there is a directness and vigour in the likeness 
which are lacking in more complex studies. Some Japanese 
artists, recognising this peculiar quality in the black profile 
portrait, supplement a conventionally drawn coloured portrait 
with a silhouette. 

In Europe, during the last decade of the eighteenth century, 
the time was ripe for some popular outlet for the newly awakened 
interest in the old Greek classical method, for the recently 
excavated wonders revealed at Passtum and Pompeii had appealed 
strongly to the popular taste, causing Greek purity of line and 
simplicity to dominate all ornament. 

There was a natural rebound towards simplicity after the 
over-gorgeous detail in all domestic decoration under Le Roi 
Soleil, though exuberance survived for many years ; the Greek 
influence may be traced from the latter half of the eighteenth 
century. Gradually the rococo absurdities disappeared ; purity 
of line came back to architecture, and was manifested in furniture, 
in damask, brocade, and all ornamental expression, until at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century the mode in building 
design, decoration and dress was of the First Empire, and that 
is pure Greek. 

The silhouette was another answer to the demand which gave 
us the reliefs after the antique which Flaxman and Josiah 
Wedgwood supplied. 



14 The History of Silhouettes 

At first these paper portraits must have seemed grotesquely 
cheap and ineffective to men to whom portraiture had hitherto 
meant a painting on canvas or panel, a delicate miniature, or 
an enamel of Limoges ; but economy was in the air, the palmy 
days of reckless expenditure on personal matters by the few were 
over. Marie Antoinette was soon to wear India muslin instead 
of costly hand-made lace very soon she might not even wear 
her own head ; the gorgeously painted equipages of the Martin 
Brothers would give way to the less costly tumbrils. The days 
of fustian and the proletariat were coming; paper portraits instead 
of painting ; then the apothecary picture-man, as Ruskin calls the 
photographer Daguerre. 

The silhouette was the pioneer of cheap portraiture, which is 
now so great a factor in modern life. No wonder that, like all 
pioneers, the shadow portrait was made the butt of the wits. 

Born in France, flourishing greatly in Germany, the silhouette 
soon reached England, and penetrated to the middle class, through 
the upper classes and court circles, the first English cut portrait 
that we can find record of being the cut silhouette of William 
and Mary in 1699. Then, while such men as Gonard were 
working in France, some of our best English exponents came 
to the fore. Miers, first of Leeds, then of London, painted 
generally in unrelieved black on plaster or ivory ; John Field, 
his partner for thirty-five years, whose studio was thronged at 
u, Strand, close to the old Northumberland House, which 
has now given way to Northumberland Avenue. Mrs. Beetham 
painted in shadowgraphy with exquisite skill, some of her jewel 
portraits rivalling the finest miniatures in quality. Charles, 
of 130, Strand, worked in Indian ink with pen on card, and 
produced such beautiful work that his trade description, " the 
first Profilist in England," may well be excused. 

It is interesting to note the very varied nomenclature of this art 



The Coming and Passing 15 

of black profile portraiture. H. Gibb and many others, besides 
Charles, call themselves Profilists. 

Skiagraphy is used early. 

The fashionable Shade is mentioned by half a dozen diarists 
and social writers of the eighteenth century, and was in more 
common use early in the nineteenth century. Horace Walpole 
gives us D&coupure. Scissargraphist is used by Haines, of 
Brighton ; in rural districts in Suffolk silhouettes are still called 
Scissartypes, quite regardless of whether the picture is of cut 
black paper or done with brush or pencil. Hubard, of 
Kensington and American fame, calls himself a Papyrologist \ 
and his art that of Papyrolomia. In the Art Journal, 1853, 
p. 140, we read Papyrogra^hy is the title given to the art of 
cutting pictures in black paper. 

Shadowgraphy was frequently used by the artists who took 
the portrait in shadow with or without the patent chair and 
wax candle so carefully described by Lavater, while some 
silhouettists are content to describe themselves as artists. 

It was August Edouart, the Frenchman, who, wishing to 
emphasize the superiority of his methods over the machine-made 
shadows of his day, first used the words silhouette and silhouettist, 
or silhouetteur, in England. So great a novelty were these 
names that Edouart relates in his treatise how visitors 
constantly came to his salon to obtain the new silhouette 
portrait, and retired disappointed when they found it was only 
the familiar black shade which was offered to them. 

Not only has there been much confusion in the popular mind 
with regard to the name of the silhouette, but also on account of 
the many different processes, and mixture of processes, used 
in their execution. Many silhouettists, as we have said, 
used several different ways of gaining the desired result. Mrs. 
Beetham, for example, painted exquisitely on ivory and plaster, 



1 6 The History of Silhouettes 

with and without gold ; she also cut out black paper, pasted 
it on card, and finished the edges with softening lines of paint 
on the background. This artist also painted on plaster and 
also on glass, so that very considerable study is required in 
order to judge unsigned examples. 

Occasionally the whole process in silhouette cutting is 
reversed, and not only is a white paper portrait mounted on 
black, as in Mrs. Leigh Hunt's silhouette of Byron, but the 
portrait is cut as a hole in a sheet of paper, and, on placing 
black paper, silk, or velvet at the back, the portrait outline is 
seen. The author owns an interesting silhouette locket in this 
manner, but examples are rare in England, though there are 
several at the Congressional Library at Washington. 

Shadow portraits began to receive popular attention about 
1770. At this date a picture was painted by J. C. Schenan 
(1740-1806), who also worked under the name of Johann 
Eleazar Zeisig. 

The picture, which was extremely popular, was called 
" L'Origine de la peinture 1 ou les portraits a la mode." This showed 
a modern version of the old Greek legend. A lady, in a modish 
cap and deshabille, is having her shade outlined by a youth who 
holds a paper against the wall. This is the first hint at the 
movable picture which can be executed in one place and hung 
elsewhere ; hitherto the wall or ground itself has been in place 
of the canvas. Two children are in the foreground, one holds 
up the cat while the other wields the pencil ; another child 
makes a rabbit shadow with his fingers. Against the wall are 
many shadow pictures, all life-size, including one of a man, a 
dog, and a donkey. The dedication of the engraving of this 
picture runs thus : " Dedie"e a Son Altesse Serenissime Mon- 
seigneur le Prince Paladin du Rhin Due regnant des Deux 
Ponts." 




SILVER WEDDING ANNIVERSARY PICTURE WITH PORTRAITS AND EMBLEMS. 
In the possession of the Author. 



The Coming and Passing i? 

A century before, Frances Chauveau engraved a picture by 
C. le Brunyn which shows the traces of a shadow portrait 
on the wall. The figures are in classical dress the woman 
steadies her subject with one hand while she pencils the shadow 
with the other. A winged love superintends the process. 

The popularity of such pictures was easily accounted for. 
Those whose accuracy of vision and skill of hand were 
insufficient to achieve the fashionable freehand scissor-work, saw 
in this tracing method an easy way of making the black profile 
portraits. 

The tracing of shadow pictures was considered to be of 
Greek origin, and the enthusiasm for any art of Greek origin 
was assured, and the amateurs prospered. 

The inevitable book of instruction for amateurs appeared in 
1779 in Germany, " Directions for silhouette drawing, and the 
art of reducing them, together with an introduction dealing 
with their physiognomical use." It must be remembered, 
in its early days silhouetting was supposed to be the handmaid 
of scientific research, and it was very many years before the 
artists in black portraiture threw off this pose in connection 
with their work. This book is published by Romhild, Leipzig. 

Another little book of 258 pages, with eleven copper-plate 
illustrations, is now very rare, dated 1780; it was published by 
Philip Heinrich Perrenon, bookseller, of Mtinster. Rules are 
given, advice as to materials, the reduction of portraits, their 
finish, ornamentation, etc. Processes on glass, in relief, etc., 
arc described. 

Pantographs and other mechanical processes were invented, 
the names of such things varying from the high-sounding 
parallelogrammum delineatorium to the "monkey" indispensable 
for silhouette artists. Other books are described more fully in 
our chapters on the processes. 



1 8 The History of Silhouettes 

The silhouette mania affected the engravers of the day; black 
portraits in copper-plate appeared, and were used to illustrate 
histories and biographies. Also domestic scenes, with elaborate 
backgrounds, such as the death of the Empress Marie 
Theresa, which occurred in 1780. This was to be had of 
Loeschen Kohl, of Vienna, in the High Market, No. 488. It 
appeared in "An Almanack for the year 1786," with fifty-three 
silhouettes, published by Loeschen Kohl. 

Large engraved silhouette pictures also appeared, and were 
sold separately, such as the Festivity on the Prater. Another 
variety now in the Hohenzollern Museum in Berlin shows 
Friedrich Wilhelm II., with his wife, four sons, and three 
daughters, walking in a garden. This picture is painted on 
glass, and is mounted on a red ground. Later, August Edouart 
achieved elaborate pictures, such as a skirmish of cavalry or 
sports. His figures were entirely scissor-work and extra- 
ordinarily clever. The black portraits were mounted on drawn 
or lithographed backgrounds. 

Many English books of a biographical nature were entirely 
illustrated with portraits in silhouette, notably, "The Warrington 
Worthies," by James Kendrick, M.D., published in 1854 by 
Longman Brown, London ; " Hints, designed to promote Bene- 
ficence, Temperance, and Medical Science," by J. C. Lettsom, 
published in 1801, by J. Mawman. In the second volume 
of this work there are nine fine silhouette portraits. 

In the memoir of Hannah Kilham, by her daughter-in-law, 
published by Darton Harvey, London, 1837, there is a 
beautiful silhouette portrait. Field, of the firm of Miers & Field, 
notifies on his trade label that he cuts silhouettes suitable for 
" frontispieces in literary work." 

In the porcelain factories of England and Germany silhouette 
pictures were used for the ornamentation of gift-pieces, and also 



The Coming and Passing ! 9 

for souvenir examples. In connection with such factories we 
may mention that a cup was made on which Dr. Wall, of 
Worcester fame, is painted in silhouette, and at the museum 
belonging to the Meissen factory, sixteen miles from Dresden, 
there is a portrait of Johannis Joachim Kandler, born 1706, King's 
Court Commissioner and model master at the Royal porcelain 
factory. Rare and interesting specimens of silhouette porcelain 
are dealt with in a separate chapter. In glass, too, silhouette 
portraits were etched in gold leaf and in black on glass, which 
was then enclosed in another transparent layer of glass for 
protection. 

The taste for the silhouette spread its glamour over many 
arts ; it became vitiated on account of unskilled and inartistic 
work, and may be said to have fallen into disrepute in the early 
days of Queen Victoria. 

It was then that the art of Miers and Field, Gibb and 
Charles, fell into the hands of unworthy exponents, whose works 
partake of the ineptitude of so much of the early Victorian art. 
There are silhouette portraits of the second quarter of the 
nineteenth century and later, which are amusing because of their 
vitality, interesting because of the people whom they portray, or 
because of a quaint bygone fashion ; but with the exception of 
the work of Edouart, which stands alone on account of its 
superb technique, they are as a rule no longer examples which 
connoisseurs sincerely admire for their beauty. On the production 
of the real treasures of black portraiture the curtain was rung 
down about 1850. At that date the pageant of shadow pictures 
since the days of black outline on Etruscan vases ceased to be 
hauntingly beautiful, mystic, alluring ; its subtle appeal was over. 




CHAPTER III. 

PROCESSES. 

(i) Brushivork. 

JESEARCH regarding the processes by which the 
shadow portraiture was produced, results in a baffling 
amount of material. Besides the professional 
silhouettists, who worked on definite lines of their 
own, or who used several of the processes from time to time 
according to the wishes of the sitter and the purpose for 
which the portrait was intended, there was a very large 
number of amateur workers who used any materials that came 
to hand and any process or mixture of processes which seemed 
good to them for gaining the desired result. 

The silhouette portrait produced by the brush on ivory, 
card, or plaster is not necessarily the highest type, although 
it approaches most nearly to the work of the miniature painter, 
for the technique of one or two of the cutters, such as 
Edouart, is so fine that it lifts this humbler process on to 
the highest plane. Many miniature painters of the eighteenth 
century worked alternately in black profile portraiture and 
colour. Silhouettes thus done are, in fact, original profile 
portraits in monochrome; the process employed for producing 
them has nothing to do with scissor or penknife cutting. 

Those who know only the picture of more or less shiny 
black paper stuck on card by inferior cutters of the early and 
mid Victorian era, are apt to consider the silhouette beneath 
contempt from the artistic point of view; but the collector who 
has studied fine examples, and who knows many processes, 
understands that each variety has its special charm, and that 
many have an individuality and dignity which raise them to a 
very high level. 






[35 





Processes 2 1 

John Miers, whose silhouette of Robert Burns is in the 
National Portrait Gallery of Edinburgh, worked at Leeds, and 
afterwards had headquarters in the Strand, opposite Exeter 
Change, where he was in partnership for many years with John 
Field, another silhouettist, whose work is of very fine quality. 
On most of Miers' work he is described as " late of Leeds." 
His early business label in Leeds is extremely rare. It is on 
a fine portrait of a man which lies before us. This is painted 
on plaster, and, like nearly all his early work, is untouched 
with gold. 

Miers did an enormous amount of work on plaster and 
ivory, in the usual 2i to 3 inch oval size, as well as the 
inch to half-inch size for mounting in rings, brooches, and pins. 
These latter are frequently signed " Miers," sometimes " Miers and 
Field." On a fine portrait by Field, during the time of the 
partnership with Miers, there is an advertisement on the back ; the 
partners set forth the announcement at this period that they 

^ " Execute their long approved Profile Likenesses in a superior style of elegance 
and with that unequalled degree of accuracy as to retain the most animated 
resemblance and character, given in the minute sizes of Rings, Brooches, Lockets, 
etc. (Time of Sitting not exceeding five minutes.) Messrs. Miers & Field preserve 
all the original shades by which they can at any period furnish copies without 
the necessity of sitting again." 

In the London Directory of 1792 John Miers' name is first 
mentioned as " Profilist and Jeweller, 1 1 1, Strand" ; in 1817, in the 
London Directory, "Miers & Son, Profilists and Jewellers"; ten 
years later, in Kenfs London Directory, 1827, " Miers & Field, 
Profilists and Jewellers " ; and in the London Directory of the 
same date, " Profile Painters and Jewellers." 

Miers is frequently called the Cosway of silhouettists. This 
name is correctly suggestive in a double sense, for not only 
was he amongst the most charming and successful exponents 
of his art, as was Cosway, but his methods and brushwork on 



22 "The History of Silhouettes 

ivory were, with well-defined limitations, identical with those 
of the miniaturist. 

We are able to reproduce the portrait of John Field, the 
partner of Miers, through the courtesy of his great-grandson. 
This silhouette was done by himself, and that of his wife is a 
companion picture. Portraits also of his two daughters, Sophie, 
afterwards Mrs. Webster, and her sister, who married E. J. 
Parris, the artist who decorated the dome of St. Paul's, are 
amongst an interesting collection belonging to the Field 
family. All these are painted on plaster, and beautified with 
exquisite pencilling in gold. The muslin cap and dainty neck 
frills of the artist's wife are handled with great skill. Field's 
shop was next door to Northumberland House, No. n, Strand, 
and here he amassed a very substantial fortune. He usually 
had several apprentices, both male and female, in his studio, 
and his brother being a skilled frame-maker, the Field frames, 
in black papier-mach6 and brass mounts, are very dainty, while 
the jewel work in gold and pinchbeck is always suitable and 
sometimes beautiful. After many years the partnership between 
Miers and Field was dissolved, as a cloud seems to have settled 
on the life of the former artist, and we have not been able 
to find details of his latter years. 

Mrs. Beetham also painted in unrelieved black on ivory or 
plaster, and connoisseurs are divided in opinion as to whether 
her work should not bear the palm instead of that of Miers. 
Examples are much more rare. Her label on the portrait of 
a woman in cambric stock and ruffle runs thus : 

" Profiles in Miniature by 

Mrs. Beetham, 

No. 27, Fleet Street 

1785." 

Sometimes Mrs. Beetham cut black paper, and used a little 
brushwork in the more delicate hair outlines, softening the hard 



Processes 23 

paper line. This artist excels not only in the delicacy of her 
profile portraits, but also in the way in which she depicts, 
with the very limited materials at her command, the texture of 
hair, gauze, and ribbon ornaments. 

A third process employed by Mrs. Beetham was the painting 
on glass of flat or convex shape. The painting was done on 
the back of the glass, and usually a backing of wax or plaster 
was placed to preserve the portrait. As a consequence of this 
filling of wax, many of these old pictures have suffered severely 
from extremes of temperature, cold shrinking the wax and causing 
disfiguring cracks, and heat, when the portraits were hung on the 
chimney wall, as they so frequently were, being no less disastrous. 

Occasionally a shade painted on convex glass is found with 
a flat composition card or plaster background, upon which, 
standing away behind the rounded glass on which the portrait 
is painted, a beautiful shadow is cast by the painting. 

This is perhaps one of the loveliest embodiments of the 
miniature shadow portrait, created independently of all shadow 
tracing, for the portrait is simply painted on the inside of a 
convex glass; yet the shade is there, dainty, alluring, created 
through the workings of one of nature's laws ; the brushwork 
becomes of secondary importance, and nature's shadow the 
likeness. Rosenberg of Bath (1825-69), whose son was an 
associate of the Old Water-Colour Society, was a proficient in 
this process. His advertisement is quaintly worded in the 
small card found pasted on the back of his framed specimens: 

" Begs leave to inform the Nobility 
And Gentry that he takes most striking 
Likenesses in Profile, which he Paints 
On Glass in imitation of Stone. 
Prices from Js. 6d. Family pieces, 
Whole Lengths in different Attitudes. 
N.B. Likenesses for Rings, Lockets, 
Trinkets, and Snuff-boxes.' 



24 The History of Silhouettes 

This unusual allusion to imitation on stone is doubtless 
written to attract those who, cognisant of the recent discoveries 
in Paestum and Herculaneum, were on the alert for portraiture 
in profile and ready to patronise an art which was well in 
accordance with the return to Greek feeling in matters artistic. 

Another type of glass painting was executed by W. Jorden, 
who in 1783 painted the portraits of the Deverell family. 
These six fine examples show Thomas Deverell in ribbon-tied 
wig and shirt frill, Ann, Caroline, Susan, Elizabeth, and Hester ; 
they were formerly in the collection of Mr. Montague Guest, 
and were sold for a large price at Christie's. The work of Jorden 
differs considerably from the glass painting of other profilists, 
as he used flat glass instead of the convex, and his work is 
extremely bold and without detail, except in outline. He does 
not depend on any shadow casting for his charm in the 
work. Examples by Jorden are exceedingly rare. 

A. Charles was another profilist of the eighteenth century, 
whose work has extraordinary charm. He used Indian ink and 
fine line together with the solid black work. Sometimes examples 
are to be found where the draperies and dress are in colour. 
A good specimen in the original wood oval frame, in the 
possession of Mr. Rowson, has a trade label on the back as 
follows : 

" Profiles taken in a new method by A. Charles, No. 1 30, opposite the Lyceum, 
Strand. The original miniaturist on glass, and the only one who can take them 
in whole length by a pentagraph. They are also worked on paper and ivory, from 
2s. 6d. to 4 45. They have long met the approval of the first people and 
deemed above comparison. 

" N.B. Drawing taught." 

Glass portraits were executed with a mixture of carbon made 
with pine-soot and beer, which gives an intense blackness. The 
process was sometimes inverted, and the flat or convex glass 
having been blackened with pine-smoke all over, the outline of 



Processes 25 

the head or figure was then drawn in with a sharp point and 
the blackness removed, except where it served as the filling of 
the outlined objects to be silhouetted. 

The back of such a portrait was then treated in one of the 
several different ways gold leaf or gold tinsel paper was placed 
over the back, and was as a rule covered with a thin layer of 
wax, so that, looked at from the front, the silhouette portrait 
stood out from a gold ground ; or, if the blacking process had 
been reversed, the gold portrait showed on a black ground. 

Sometimes silver leaf was used instead of gold, and occasion- 
ally, as in the Forberger memorial picture in the Wellesley 
collection, and in a fine, small example at Knole, both gold 
and silver are used in the same picture. 

In the Graz Museum in Germany there is a beautiful head 
of a youth painted on glass. A pyramid-like building also 
figures in the picture, both gold and silver foil being used as 
background. 

We have seen gold-backed silhouette portraits showing 
profiles which, like the old puzzle pictures popular at the same 
period, are hard to decipher. Thus an urn is made the central 
feature of the picture, but the outline, varying slightly on either 
side, gives the profile of a man and his wife. Such quaint 
conceits were popular at the time. George III. and Queen 
Charlotte, or his successor and Queen Caroline, are sometimes 
the subject of such freakish portraiture in silhouette ; this 
method in black and white survives to the present day. 

The richness of the gold-leaf background made this variation 
of the profile portrait especially suitable for jewels. Lockets, 
brooches, and pins are the most usual form ; these may be set 
in gold or in carved pinchbeck. Occasionally a tiny silhouette 
picture is in pearl framing, or an ornamental one of paste. 

The silhouette rings are most frequently in the marquise 



26 The History of Silhouettes 

setting; it was not unusual for a bequest to be made for profile 
portrait memorial rings. Occasionally some apt motto was 
engraved inside, such as, " II ne reste que 1'ombre." The ethereal 
shadow picture seems to have specially appealed to the senti- 
mental of the eighteenth century as a suitable reminder after 
death. 

In the Wellesley collection there is a charming patch-box 
with three gold-backed profile portraits set in a row. None 
measures more than half an inch across ; the faces are those of 
three lovely women. Another example is of a fine silhouette 
portrait of somewhat larger size, set in the lid of a small, 
round black lacquer snuff-box. 

A mirror case was exhibited at the Silhouette Exhibition held 
in Maehren, Germany, in 1906, which had, on one side, the 
head and shoulders of a woman painted in black on glass. 
This was mounted on a yellow ground. 

Finer than either of these is a patch-box in ivory, set in 
gold, with gold hinges and snap. In the centre is a gold set 
profile portrait of a man, signed by Miers ; on either side there 
are beautiful panels of blue enamel. Doubtless this was a well- 
thought-out gift of a devoted admirer to the lady-love whose 
patches were to be held in this artistic box. A tiny oblong 
looking-glass is set in the inside of the lid to facilitate the 
adjustment of the beauty spots. 

It is in work for the embellishment of such dainty things 
as these that the art of the profilist touches its highest point 
in minute work. Those who had the opportunity of examining 
the marvellous collection of the late Mr. Montague Guest can 
judge how these rare gems are not only beautiful in themselves, 
but speak of the illusive charm of the eighteenth century more 
eloquently than many other more costly bibelots. 

The dainty sentimentality of a gold ring set with the shadow 



Processes 27 

of a beautiful woman, or the scarf-pin with the shade of a 
friend ; a locket with the unsubstantial reflection of a child's face ; 
who can resist the colourless appeal of so unobtrusive a jewel, 
which is yet one of such rich association and rare beauty ? 

The method most usual for profile portraits in minute size 
is the painting with Indian ink on ivory or plaster. We have 
seen these as small as a pea, but this is unusual ; they are 
generally double that size for rings, or, for lockets and brooches, 
larger still. 

J. Miers must have painted many of these jewels. Amongst 
the examples we have examined, some are plain black, probably 
of early date ; some pencilled with gold. This process we 
cannot help surmising to have been a concession on the part 
of the artist to the popular demand which came early in the 
nineteenth century. In two signed examples, in the possession 
of the author, one is plain black a man's head, with tied queue 
wig and high stock with ruffle ; the other, a woman exquisitely 
pencilled in gold, a lawn cap of Quaker shape on her head, a 
folded kerchief crossing her breast. Both are signed. 

Authentic examples by Mrs. Beetham are rare, for she seldom 
signed her work ; but there is a quality in them which usually 
proclaims their authorship. The nervous delicacy of the work 
equals that of Miers : the manipulation of accessories excels it 
when she is at her best. 

These silhouette jewels, of fine quality, are very rare, and are 
much sought after. Unfortunately, like so many of our beautiful 
and artistic treasures, the boundless wealth of America is 
absorbing many good examples. Is it possible that a frame 
containing about forty of the finest examples of Field's work 
went to America before the collection came up for public 
inspection in the auction room, when the Guest collection was 
dispersed ? 



28 The History of Silhouettes 

A variant of the shadow portrait, painted on glass, shows 
a blue, rose, or green coloured paper or coloured foil taking 
the place of the gold or silver leaf ground. A beautiful locket 
in the Wellesley collection demonstrates the charm of this 
method to perfection. It is probably French. 

In a book of instructions for the amateur silhouettists of 
Germany, published in Frankfurt and Leipzig by Philip Heinrich 
Perrenon, bookseller, of Mlinster, 1780, we are told : " One 
can use tinfoil for the ornamentation of silhouettes for hanging. 
When the glass is turned round, the places where the tinfoil is 
form a sort of mirror. If the background be black and the 
portrait the mirror, the effect is pretty, but it is as contrary 
to nature as a white shadow. It is best to have the ground of 
looking-glass, and to blacken or colour the silhouette." 

One of the earliest silhouettists was Franois Gonard, a 
Frenchman, whose processes seem to have been very varied. 
Unlike most of the early shade-makers, he did not make a 
speciality of any particular process. His profile portraits were 
painted on ivory and plaster, and were occasionally cut out 
in paper and engraved on copper for reproduction ; in fact, 
he seems to have practised every kind of profile portraiture. 

Born at St. Germain in 1756, he was taught copper 
engraving at Rouen, and was specially clever in reducing 
copper-plate engravings. In the Manuel de I" amateur cfestampes, 
Joubert relates having seen a plan of St. Petersburg engraved 
in minute size by Gonard, who had reduced it from one of 
much larger size. This brings us to the pantograph. 

In Le Journal de Paris, 1788, Le Sieur Gonard, who is 
called a dissenateur physionomiste, announces that he is in a 
position to take silhouette portraits quicker than any other artist. 
He will make these for 24 sols each, but he will not make 
less than two for each person. The price of those of minute 



Processes 29 



size, suitable for mounting, as boxes, lockets, and rings, is 
He also announces silhouettes a 1'Anglaise ; these have the dress 
and head-dress added, and the price is 6 each, whether they 
be on ivory for wearing as an ornament or on paper to be 
framed. Whether the paper is scissor-work the profile cut out 
of black paper or the black drawing is made on paper, we 
are not told. For this latter type a sitting of one minute only 
was necessary, and the following day the portrait was finished. 

Another process, which he describes as silhouette colorde, 
can also be done. These seem to have been more like 
miniatures; they cost ,12, and a three-minute sitting was 
required. The portrait was finished on the next day but one. 

Gonard's address is given as the Palais Royal, under arch 
No. 1 66, on the side of the Rue des bons Enfants, and he 
describes how a lantern shall be lit each evening to facilitate 
the finding of his salon on dark nights. The lantern had 
silhouettes on it, as a sign for the footmen bringing carriages. 

One cannot help imagining -the scene when gay aristocrats, 
with powdered heads and dainty brocades, drove up to have 
their pictures taken in the fashionable mode, and beaux, with 
lace cravats and wigs, trod the floors of the studio with steps 
as firm as they might be three years hence when mounting the 
steps of the guillotine. How many of those beauties of the 
court of Louis XVI. were left when the terrors of the Revolu- 
tion were past? How many of the pathetic little paper shadows 
have come down to us, fragile, indeed, but outliving the 
doomed originals by a century and a half? 

As would be imagined, Gonard used elaborately engraved 
mounts to add to the grace of his portraits, and occasionally 
he used relief in white, grey, or colour in the execution of 
the portrait. 

The view that the shadow portrait should remain a shadow 



3 The History of Silhouettes 

always in black is held by one of the most prolific of all 
silhouettists, Edouart, whose work is fully described in the 
chapter on Freehand Scissor-work. In deploring the decline of 
the public taste for shadow portraiture, he says in his treatise 
on Silhouette Likenesses: "As something was wanting to 
revive the expiring taste of the public for these black shades, 
some of the manufacturers introduced the system of bronzing 
the hair and dress. To what species of extravagant harlequinade 
this gave rise, the public is sufficiently aware. I cannot avoid 
making my observations concerning profile likenesses taken by 
patent machines, which possess sometimes all the various 
colours of the rainbow : for example, every day there is to be 
seen in the shops this kind of profile, with gold hair drawn 
on them, coral earrings, blue necklaces, white frills, green dress, 
and yellow waistband, etc. Is it not ridiculous to see such 
harlequinades? The face, being quite black, forms such a contrast 
that everyone looks like a negro ! I cannot understand how 
persons can have so bad and, I may say, a childish taste! 
Very often those likenesses are brought to me to have copies 
made of them, and it is with the greatest trouble I am able 
to make them understand that it is quite unnatural ; and that, 
taking a silhouette, which is the facsimile of a shade, it is 
unnecessary for its effect to bedizen it with colours. 

" I would not be surprised that by-and-by those negro 
faces will have blue or brown eyes, rosy lips and cheeks ; 
which, I am sure, would have a more striking appearance for 
those who are fond of such bigarrades. 

" It must be observed that the representation of a shade can 
only be executed by an outline ; that all that is in dress is 
only perceived by the outward delineation ; consequently, all 
other inward additions produce a contrary effect of the appear- 
ance of a shade. 



Processes 3 1 

" Here it may be said that every one has not the same 
taste ; some like colour which others dislike ; some find ugly 
what others find beautiful ; and, in fact, des gouts et colours 
ou ne pent pas disputer. But every artist or real connoisseur 
will allow with me that when nature is to be imitated, the least 
deviation from it destroys what is intended to be represented." 

Edouart concludes with some severe remarks. " It is a pity 
that artists, in whatever line they profess, should give way to 
those fantastic whims, and execute works against all rules ; for 
if they would employ their time in proper studies, and try to 
show the absurdity of encouraging whatever deviates from the 
true line of nature, they would improve themselves, and in 
time would derive greater benefit than in executing things 
which only bring scorn and ridicule from people of discernment." 

Despite the opinion of Edouart, with which most connoisseurs 
of the present day heartily agree, much silhouette work was 
finished in colour. We have before us a delicately painted 
lady of the Early Victorian period. She wears a grey dress 
with graceful pleated sleeves, a deep embroidered muslin collar, 
and the most bewitching cap tied with blue ribbons. Her 
face and hands only are shadow black. The delightful ringlets 
of the period are marked in gold, and she is writing in a note- 
book with a gold pencil, quite a blue-stocking occupation for 
a lady of that period. In the collection of Dr. A. Figdor, 
Vienna, there is an elaborate picture of a mother with a young 
child on her knee; two elder children and her husband complete 
the group. Only the heads in this group are black. Again, 
Professor Paul Naumann, of Dresden, owns the silhouette of 
a Moor. The clothing is brightly coloured, the head alone 
black. Every collector will find he has some examples where 
colour has been used to relieve the black of the card, ivory, 
or glass painting. 



3 2 The History of Silhouettes 

It must be remembered that this was the time of glass 
pictures of the ordinary coloured type, and this glass painting 
Eglomist, as the process is called by the learned Dr. Leisching 
would naturally influence the minds of the profile portrait painter 
on glass. So it came about that the two allied crafts gradually 
overlapped in ideas, and method and points of colour began to 
appear in uniform or other parts of the picture where colour 
would obviously add interest of a historical or sentimental 
character to the silhouette portrait, and in the glass picture of 
saint or Bible history. The glaring colours hitherto used to 
appeal to the popular taste began to be modified, and examples 
are found where the figures are all in black, the background 
alone being coloured ; so that the glass picture is to all intents 
and purposes a silhouette on a coloured ground. 

Of this type is the picture at the Francesco Carolinum 
Museum at Linz, where eight musicians in uniform are shown 
in black in the chapel. There is a good deal of wreath and 
ribbon decoration, and two small curtained windows are in the 
background. 

An important example of the black glass painting on coloured 
ground is the picture on a red ground in the Berlin Museum. 
Other red and black silhouette works are owned by Lady Sack- 
ville, who has an extraordinarily interesting collection of the 
Ansley family, painted by Spornberg in 1793. Each portrait is 
signed and dated, the address of the artist, No. 5, Lower Church 
Street, Bath, being given on one. These pictures are painted 
on convex glass in black; the background, outlines of the face, 
dress, hair, and elaborate wigs, caps and hats, together with 
the eyes, and slight shading, being painted in black. Over 
the whole an orange red paint is then worked in at the back, 
so that one sees from the front the red bust figure shown in 
black lines on the black background. 



Processes 33 

Coloured grounds are very rarely found in connection with 
English silhouette work. One, in the possession of the author, 
is of a boy's head finely painted on ivory ; the background is 
tinted blue, the whole mounted in a chased gold locket of the 
period, early eighteenth century. 

Abroad, especially in Germany, we constantly find coloured 
backgrounds and coloured cardboard mounts, with or without 
wreaths or other ornamental frames. 

In the catalogue of the Silhouette and Miniature Exhibition 
held at Briinn from April 22nd to May 2Oth, 1906, there was 
much work of the kind : 

The silhouette numbered 67. Head and shoulders of a young 
man. Silhouette painted on glass on a brown ground. At 
the back the letters A. J. L. 

No. 77. Round lacquer box with head and shoulders of a 
man in silhouette on a yellow ground, gold glass mount. 
Owner : R. Blumel, Vienna. 

No. 99. Head of an officer, silhouette, painted on glass, 
blue ground. 

No. 106. Lady walking, silhouette on glass, blue ground. 

No. 26. Gentleman sitting at a writing-table, painted on 
glass, yellow silk background. French, Louis XVI. 

No. 127. Lady sitting at a table, companion picture. 

Other silk-mounted pictures are numbered 154. 

Elise Herger (n6e V. Pige) and the Countess Chotek, both 
painted on glass and mounted on silk. 

No. 159. Two female and two male heads, probably 
members of the noble family of Belcredi, silhouettes, cut out 
of paper and mounted on mother-of-pearl, 1800. 

No. 184. In this there is a fresh variety of mounting. The head 
and shoulders of a man in painted silhouette, on glass ; this 
shows up over white paper. Above this portrait, within the same 



34 The History of Silhouettes 

frame, is a semicircle of nine female figures in silhouette 
over blue foil ; completing the circle is a gold laurel branch. 
This example is signed " Fecit Schmid, Vienna, 1796." 

Schmid, of Vienna, seems to have constantly used coloured 
backgrounds. A fine drawing by him, on glass, of Sophie 
Landgravine Fiirstenberg, 1787-1800, is mounted on green; this 
was painted in 1800. It is an interesting specimen, as it is 
one of the rare examples of silhouette work in which human 
hair is used. At the back there is a landscape drawing in 
silhouette, on glass. The brook in the sylvan scene is put in 
with the waved lines of hair. It is remarkable that Edouart, 
who was a skilled worker in human and animal hair before he 
was a silhouette cutter, never combined the two crafts. 

A strange variant of the dressed picture must be mentioned 
in connection with silhouettes where colour and exotic processes 
are employed. In four examples in the possession of Dr. 
Beetham, descendant of Mrs. Beetham, the fine silhouette painter, 
of 27, Fleet Street, the face, hair, arms, hands, and neck 
are cut out of black paper. The vase, in the example illustrated, 
is also in black, in this case, as in the less rare dressed engravings 
of the same period. The dress of the figure is made up of 
deftly arranged scraps of material. The head-dress is of spotted 
black, outlined by narrow bands of black paper; the bodice and 
skirt are of linen, with purple bands ; the outstanding paniers 
are of faded scarlet flowered cotton ; the flowers in the vase 
are painted, being outlined in gold. There are also dressed 
silhouettes in the possession of the Beck family. These 
show the Quaker dress in folded material with the black 
silhouette. All these examples are probably the work of clever 
amateurs. 




CHAPTER IV. 

PROCESSES. 

(2) Shadowgraphy and Mechanical Aids. 

to this point we have discussed only those processes 
which entail hand drawing with pen, pencil, or brush, 
which are undoubtedly an attractive type of the shadow 
picture, whether they are executed on ivory, plaster, or 
paper ; their backing with wax, gold, or silver leaf tinsel, on 
coloured paper makes accidental varieties of the one type. 

Any of these processes require a good deal of artistic training, 
even if the shade is used as a guide, for unless there is skill 
in catching a likeness, or delicacy and charm in drawing, 
black portraiture has nothing whatever to recommend it. 
However the silhouette is executed, the mechanical appliances 
play so important a part in nearly all the processes that they 
need a chapter to themselves. In order to popularise the black 
portrait, some means of achieving it was required which could 
be used by persons without talent or artistic training. 

It was here that shadowgraphy came to the fore. Even the 
most ignorant in art work could trace a shadow when thrown 
upon white paper on a wall or specially made screen, and if 
the full life-size were considered too large, the Singe, pantograph, 
or other contrivance could reduce its size ; then only scissors were 
required, and the silhouette-by-machinery maker felt himself to be 
as gifted as the black portrait painter, or the freehand scissor- 
cutter, whose work we describe in another chapter. 

Etienne de Silhouette, born in 1709, amused himself with 
the craze of the day. His craft, belonging essentially to this 
section of mechanical execution, deserves special mention, not 



36 The History of Silhouettes 

because he invented the black profile portrait, for they were 
made sixty years before he was born, but because his name was 
given to it in derision, and has stuck to it ever since. Being 
finance minister, he was supposed to be a promoter of the fine 
arts, but such was his economy, or meanness, that artists 
styled his paper pictures "portraits a la silhouette," a name 
synonymous with paltry effort and cheapness. This did not, 
however, deter people from patronising the silhouette artists, 
nor of attempting, themselves, to achieve the machine-made 
variety of the fashionable black portrait. 

In the Journal Officiel, published in Paris, August 29th, 
1869, we read: " Le Chateau de Berg sur Marne fut construit 
en 1759 par Etienne de Silhouette .... une des principals 
distractions de se seigneur consistait a tracer une ligne autour 
d'un visage, afin d'en avoir le profil dessine" sur le mur: 
plusieurs salles de son chateau avaient les murailles couvertes 
de ses sortes de dessins que 1'ou appelle des silhouettes du nom 
de leur auteur de nomination que est toujours reste"." 

In the seventeenth century, dilettantism was an obsession 
with the leisured classes. The tendency of the time towards 
Greek art, as has been indicated in another chapter, helped to 
popularise the scissor-work of this type of shadow portraiture, 
and it became a fashionable craze. Though the cutting out 
with scissors and penknife sometimes took the form of land- 
scape groups and small whole figures, the profile alone in 
small, though not miniature size, proved the most fascinating 
branch of scissor-work, and survived the longest in the favour 
of amateurs, because the purely mechanical shadow tracing 
required no skill, and inevitably gave a life-like likeness if traced 
with reasonable care. 

There were several methods of securing steadiness on the 
part of the sitter and the best result as to arrangement of 



Processes 37 

candle-light essential to the success of the portrait. Lavater, who 
believed so sincerely in the infallibility of the silhouette as an 
assistance in his physiognomical studies, gives elaborate directions 
as to how to obtain the best results. He says in Lecture 
XVI. (we spare our readers the long observations on 
silhouettes) : 

" It may be of use to point out the best method of taking 
this species of portraits. 

"That which has hitherto been pursued is liable to many 
inconveniences. The person who wants to have his portrait 
drawn is too incommodiously seated to preserve a perfectly 
immovable position ; the drawer is obliged to change his place ; 
he is in a constrained attitude, which often conceals from him 
a part of the shade. The apparatus is neither sufficiently simple 
nor sufficiently commodious, and, by some means or other, 
derangement must, to a certain degree, be the consequence. 

"This will happen when a chair is employed expressly 
adapted to this operation, and constructed in such a manner as 
to give a steady support to the head and to the whole body. 
The shade ought to be reflected on fine paper, well oiled and 
very dry, which must be placed behind a glass, perfectly clear 
and polished, fixed in the back of the chair. Behind this glass 
the designer is seated ; with one hand he lays hold of the 
frame, and with the other guides the pencil. The glass, which is 
set in a movable frame, may be raised or lowered at pleasure; 
both must slope at bottom, and this part of the frame ought 
firmly to rest on the shoulder of the person whose silhouette is 
going to be taken. 

"Toward the middle of the glass, is fixed a bar of wood or 
iron furnished with a cushion to serve as a support, and which 
the drawer directs as he pleases by means of a handle half an 
inch long. 



38 The History of Silhouettes 

"Take the assistance of a solar microscope, and you will 
succeed still better in catching the outlines ; the design also will 
be more correct. 

"There are faces which will not allow of the most trifling 
alteration in the silhouette, or strengthen or weaken the outline 
but a single hair's-breadth, and it is no longer the portrait you 
intended ; it is one quite new, and of character essentially 
different." 

In this work of silhouette-making and physiognomical study, 
Lavater wished the whole world to co-operate with him, as 
Goethe testified. On a long journey down the Rhine, he had the 
portraits taken by his draughtsman, Schmoll, of a great number 
of important people. This served the secondary purpose of 
interesting his sitters in his work. He also asked artists to 
send him drawings for his purpose, and wrote much on the 
physiognomical character of the figures in the pictures of such 
artists as Raphael and Vandyck. 

Goethe was intensely interested, and there is much of his 
correspondence extant on the subject. Enthusiastic at first, his 
zeal seems to have waned. On June 23rd, 1774, Lavater 
arrived at Goethe's house with Schmoll, and portraits were 
taken of the author of " The Sorrows of Werther," and of his 
parents. 

A year later, in August, 1775, Goethe writes, imploring 
Lavater, " I beg you will destroy the family picture of us ; it is 
frightful. You do credit neither to yourself nor to us. Get my 
father cut out, and use him as a vignette, for he is good. I do 
entreat of you to do this ; you can do what you like with my 
head too, but my mother must not be recorded like that." 

An amusing sequel to this correspondence is that when the 
third volume of Lavater's " Physiognomy " appeared containing 



Processes 39 

her husband's portrait alone, the councillor's wife was extremely 
offended, and says that evidently the author did not think her 
face worthy to appear. 

A scrap-book full of these machine- and scissor-made 
silhouettes, with copious notes made by Lavater on the character 
of the sitters, judged by the shadow portraits, is one of the chief 
treasures in the collection of Mr. Wellesley, and forms an important 
item in silhouette history in its use for scientific purposes. 

A machine for the use of amateurs is owned by Dr. Beetham, 
descendant of Mrs. Edward Beetham, the clever silhouettist of 
Fleet Street. This machine for taking silhouettes is a box 
about the size of a cigar box. One end has a lens 
glued into a sliding block or frame for focusing purposes. A 
piece of looking-glass reflects the object on to a piece of frosted 
glass on the top of the box. The subject is drawn from this 
reduced shadow. 

There were others besides Lavater who published advice 
as to the best way of taking silhouettes. 

In " A Detailed Treatise on Silhouettes : their Drawing, 
Reduction, Ornamentation and Reproduction," published in 1780, 
the author, after many allusions to prisma, cylinder, pyramid, 
cone, the sun and moon, and perpendicular and horizontal lines, 
gives indispensable rules for the silhouetteur : 

1. The surface on which the shadow is made must be 

upright. 

2. It must be parallel with the head of the sitter. 

3. The imaginary line running from the centre of the flame 

to the middle of the profile must be horizontal with 
the surface on which the shadow is to be cast. 

4. The light must be as far from the head as possible, 

but the surface for drawing on must be as near the 
head as possible. 



4 The History of Silhouettes 

As will be seen from the print taken from Lavater's book, 
these rules were fairly accurately carried out in the chair 
depicted. Practical hints are also given in the treatise as to 
paper, light, pencils, etc. Great stress is laid on the importance 
of obtaining paper large enough for the drawing of the 
enormous modern head-dress of women, for which, sometimes, 
two pieces were put together. We have seen interesting 
examples of this, where the paper is actually joined together 
with the thin old-fashioned pins of the period, and life-size 
heads, executed in black paper, in a country house in Sussex. 

" A wax light is better than tallow or suet," this careful 
mentor continues, " as there is nothing so harmful as a flare, 
which makes the shadow tremble. If one cannot obtain a wax 
candle, and must use a lamp, let it be dressed with olive oil. 
Coughing, sneezing, or laughing are to be avoided, as such 
movements put the shadow out of place." 

The reduction of shadow portraits so taken is then described 
at length, and by various methods, " as the physiognomical 
expression is more piquant in a reduced silhouette." "The best 
of these mechanical reducers is the Stork's Beak or Monkey 
(this is our present-day pantograph), which consists of two 
triangles so joined by hinges that they resemble a movable 
square, which is fixed at one point of the base of the drawing, 
while a point of the larger triangle follows the outline of the 
life-size silhouette. A pencil attached to the smaller triangle 
traces the same outline smaller and with perfect accuracy. By 
repeating these reductions, silhouettes may be made in brooch 
and locket size." 

" With regard to the ornamentation and finish of the 
silhouette portrait, black paint should be used." We presume 
this would be for the fine lines of the hair, which are sometimes 
added to the background after paper-cut silhouettes are 



Processes 4 1 

mounted. Chinese or Indian ink is advised, or pine-soot, mixed 
with brandy, gum, or beer. 

Advice is also given as to painting round the paper outline : 
the paint should be put on from the pencil outline towards the 
centre. The anonymous author suggests that two portraits 
should be cut at once; the first to be stuck into the family 
album, the second to be hung upon the wall. 

For such decorative purposes elaborate instructions are given. 
"Take a nice clear sun-glass and clean it with powdered 
chalk and clean linen to remove all grease and dirt. Cover this 
glass on one side with finely powdered white lead mixed with 
a little gum-water. When this is dry take the silhouette, 
which has been cut out of strong paper, place it on the powdered 
surface, and trace round the outline with a needle ; remove the 
silhouette, and scrape away all the white within the drawn line. 
Thus one obtains a transparent silhouette, which can be turned 
into a black one by laying a piece of black velvet at the back 
of the glass, or if not velvet, fine black cloth or taffeta or 
paper." 

This silhouette recipe maker also suggests that the cut-out 
black silhouettes can be stuck on to the glass with Venetian 
turpentine, and the glass then treated with the white covering; 
or one can use tinfoil, which forms a mirror. 

This brings us back to the background treatment for painted 
silhouettes without the aid of shadowgraphy and scissor-work, 
so that we need not repeat the various kinds. 

In this remarkable book, which is in the possession of 
Professor Dr. Th. Slettner (Munich), and for a description of 
which we are indebted to Herr Julius Leisching, a further 
description of silhouette-making is given : " By sticking together 
three or four sheets of paper and working at the back with a 
polishing, steel, one can actually make a profile portrait in slight 



4 2 The History of Silhouettes 

relief out of a cut-out silhouette in white paper, ' giving it the 
appearance of a marble tablet or a plaster cast done by a 
sculptor/ " adds this enthusiast. 

A treatise on this method exists in English, entitled " Papyro- 
Plastics ; or the Art of Modelling in Paper, with Directions to 
cut, fold, join, and paint the same," with eight plates, published 
in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. 

Mention is also made of silhouettes in enamel on copper 
for snuff-boxes, lockets, and rings, and the black profile portraits 
on porcelain in the German volume. 

Finally, the author praises a process by which, by means of a 
stencil, one can make one hundred copies a minute, and the 
reproduction of the silhouette portrait by woodcut and copperplate 
impressions. 

A second book appeared simultaneously, if not immediately 
before the treatise. It was published by Romhild at Leipzig, 
and in the following year (1780) Philip Heinrich Perrenon 
brought out a third, which is called " Description of Bon Magic ; 
or the Art of Reduplicating Silhouettes easily and surely." 

The principal process is one which the author describes as 
" so simple that every woman who can make silhouettes can 
practise it as well as the best artist." 

" Take a piece of flat tin, polish it on one side, put the 
drawing on it and cut out the tin accordingly, and the form 
is obtained. Rub this form on the side to be printed off on 
a flat stone with sand. Damp some paper, and make a black 
mixture out of linseed oil and pine-soot. Make a pair of balls 
of horsehair covered with sheepskin. Get a small piece of 
hat felt. Blacken the shape or form with the black mixture 
put on with the horsehair ball ; place it on the table, and 
over it, on the blackened side, the damp paper, on this a few 
sheets of waste paper and then the felt. Now nothing but the 



Processes 43 

press is required; this consists of a rolling-pin, which can be 
made by any turner. Roll it over, and when the paper is 
taken away the silhouette, en Bon Magic, appears printed off." 

Illustrations of various implements are given, besides a 
simple pantograph for reducing the life-size shadow. Many 
pantographs are mentioned in connection with silhouette work. 
It is probable the earliest one was invented by Christopher 
Scheiner, a Jesuit, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
and was called the parallelogrammum delineatorium. 

We meet it again in England, where mercifully its name 
is shortened, and it is interesting to see that it is a woman 
who applies for protection of her invention. The abridgment of 
her specification runs thus : 

Patents for Inventions. 
Abridgments of Specifications. 
Artists' Instruments and Materials. 
1618-1866. 

A.D. 1775, June 24. No. uoo. 

Harrington, Sarah. "A new and curious method of taking and reducing 
shadows, with appendages and apparatus never before known or used in the 
above art, for the purpose of taking likenesses, furniture, and decorations, either 
the internal or external part of rooms, buildings, &c., in miniature." The 
person whose likeness is to be taken is placed so "as to procure his or her 
shadow to the best advantage, either by the rays of the sun received through 
an aperture into a darkened room, or by illuminating the room." The face is 
then brought "directly opposite the light, so that the shadow may be reflected 
through a glass (or transparent paper) ; " the glass is movable in a frame " so 
as to fix it on a level direction with the head of the person." The outline of 
the shadow is then traced with a pencil, &c., after which it is " reduced to a 
miniature size by an instrument called a pentagrapher." 

Respecting furniture, &c., "the articles required to be taken are to be placed 
in such a direction that their shadows may be reflected as above described, 
traced out in the same manner and reduced." The shadows (as also the likenesses) 
are cut out "and placed upon black or other coloured paper or any dark body" 
and the external parts are, if required, decorated with cut paper, &c. 



44 The History of Silhouettes 

When a likeness is to be taken, accompanied with the external "part ol a 
room or buildings," a camera obscura is used ; the reflected shadows are received 
on paper, the outlines are carefully marked, and then " either fill'd up with Indian 
ink or coloured, or cut out as above directed." 

[Printed, 4d. No Drawings.] 

On December 22nd, 1806, Charles Schmalcalder applied for 
a patent for a machine of the same type, but of more compli- 
cated construction. We give the abridged specification, for it 
forms a humble though important link in silhouette history, 
having been much used by itinerant silhouettists at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. 

* 

A.D. 1806, December 22. No. 3000. 

Schmalcalder, Charles. " A delineator, copier, proportionometer, for the use of 
taking, tracing, and cutting out profiles, as also copying and tracing reversely 
upon copper, brass, hard wood, cardpaper, paper, asses' skin, ivory, and glass, to 
different proportions, directly from nature, landscapes, prospects, or any object 
standing or previously placed perpendicularly, as also pictures, drawings, prints, 
plans, caricatures, and public characters." This apparatus is composed of (i) a 
hollow rod "screw'd together, and from two to twelve feet, or still longer, chiefly 
made of copper or brass, sometimes wood, or any metal applicable ; " the diameter 
is from half an inch to two inches and upwards, according to the length ; one 
end carries a fine steel tracer, made to slide out and in and fastened by a 
milled-head screw, and in the other is "a round hole to take up either a steel 
point, blacklead pencil, or any other metallic point, which may be fastened 
therein by a mill'd-head screw ; " (2) a tube about ten inches long and sufficient 
in diameter to allow the rod " to slide easily and without shake in it ; " (3) a 
ball (in which the tube is fixed) " moveable between two half sockets ; " (4) a frame 
of wood about two and a half or three feet long (the length depending on the length 
of the rod) and supported by two brackets ; (5) a swing-board attached to the 
frame ; (6) a clamp-screw ; (7) a hook hanging on a string for the rod to rest 
in ; (8) a weight on the back of the frame, connected thereto by a hook, " to 
which is attached a string forming a pulley, serving to prevent the point from 
acting upon the paper when not wanted." Through the sides of the frame are 
holes at certain distances corresponding with marks on the rod, and " in copying 
any original, supposing to the size of , J, J, f, &c.," the swing-board and clamp- 
screw " must be transplanted to the different holes and divisions corresponding." 
The paper or other substance is fastened to the swing-board by screws or is 
placed in a brass frame which slides up and down the board, and is kept in 
position by a spring. " The machine is fixed either to a partition in any room 
or to any piece of wood portable, and so constructed as to be easily fixed 



Processes 45 

upright with a screw-clamp upon a table or any other stand." In turning the 
rod round in the sockets " the tracer and point in the two ends of the rod 
must remain in the centre, to obtain which sometimes an adjustment with four 
screws " is required. 

Directions are given for using the apparatus in taking profiles, in copying 
and tracing pictures, landscapes, &c., and in copying from nature " landscapes or 
whatever object exposes itself to view." 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing. See "Repertory of Arts," vol. IO (second series), p. 241 ; 
"Rolls Chapel Reports," ;th Report, p. 195.] 

Still lower was the- shadow portrait to fall, when another 
contrivance was invented to trick the public into the belief that 
magic played a part in producing the likeness. An automatic 
figure was taken round the country which it was claimed could 
draw silhouettes. Somewhere about 1826 the automaton was 
brought to Newcastle, and is described as a figure seated in 
flowing robes with a style in the right hand, which by machinery 
scratched an outline of a profile on card, which the exhibitor 
professed to fill up in black. The person whose likeness was to 
be taken sat at one side of the figure, near a wall. " One of 
our party," says an eye-witness, " detected an opening in the 
wall, through which a man's eye was visible. This man, no 
doubt, drew the profile, and not the automaton. Ladies' heads 
were relieved by pencillings of gold." 

The son of the great, little Madame Tussaud, who began 
her wax modelling in the -Palais Royal in the days of the 
French Revolution, taking death-masks of many of the guillotine 
victims, thus advertises in 1823 : " J. P. Tussaud (son of 
Madame T.) respectfully informs the nobility, gentry, and the 
public in general, that he has a machine by which he takes 
profile likenesses. Price, 2s. to 75., according to style. 

This machine was probably of the kind described by Blenkinsopp 
in Notes and Queries: "A long rod worked in a movable 
fulcrum, with a pencil at one end and a small iron rod at 
the other, was the apparatus. He passed the rod over the face 



4-6 The History of Silhouettes 

and head, and the pencil at the other end reproduced the 
outline on a card, afterwards filled in with lamp-black." 

It is probable that Edward Ward Foster, who described 
himself as " Profilist from London," used such a machine, which 
he thus describes : " The construction and simplicity of this 
machine render it one of the most ingenious inventions of the 
present day, as it is impossible in its delineation to differ from 
the outlines of the original, even the breadth of a hair. 

" Mr. F. wishes the public to understand that, besides sketching 
profiles, this machine will make a complete etching on copper- 
plate, by which means any person can take any number he 
thinks proper, at any time, from the etched plate ; and for the 
further satisfaction of the public, he will most respectfully return 
the money paid if the likeness is not good. Profiles in black 
at 55. and upwards, etc. Derby, January i, 1811." 

Mr. West, miniature and profile painter, from London, 
worked with the same machine. His prices were : profiles on 
card, in black, 55. ; in colours, ics. 6d. ; on ivory, in colours, 
one guinea and upwards. 

We have succeeded in tracing the recorded description of 
one of the sitters who actually had a portrait taken by such 
an instrument, and also one who saw such an instrument as 
late as 1879. The account is by Mr. H. Hems, Fair Park, 
Exeter, and brings our tale of mechanical contrivances in con- 
nection with silhouette portraiture to a fitting close : 

" Happening to be at Dundee at the time of the Tay 
Bridge disaster (it occurred upon the last Sunday evening in 
1879, when 67 people were drowned), I recollect a Mr. Saunders, 
a saddler at Droughty Ferry, in the immediate neighbourhood, 
possessed and showed me as a curio one of these identical 
portrait-taking machines." 




CHAPTER V. 

PROCESSES. 

(3) Freehand Scissor-work. 

IN the foregoing accounts of black profile painting, the 
cutting out of a sketched outline obtained by shadow- 
graphy or any other means, little mention has been 
made of the freehand scissor artist, who, without pencil 
or pen sketch, cut a small likeness after studying the sitter for 
a few seconds. 

Though there were many other processes which gave 
charming and artistic results, there is no doubt that from the 
dated convent work of 1708 and the first known record in Eng- 
land of Mrs. Pyburg, who cut the portraits of William and 
Mary, up to the few remaining cutters of the present day, this 
type of freehand scissor-work has persisted in England, and also 
in Germany. 

Some of the early cut -work examples were made with the 
assistance of fine small-bladed knives. Specimens of cut vellum 
exist, which it would have been impossible to cut with scissors 
alone. A notably fine example is in the Francisco-Carolinum 
Museum at Linz ; it is an Ex Voto offering, and represents the 
Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt. The parchment mount 
has the most elaborate tendrils cut out, while typically German 
flourishes and mantling support birds and beasts. A stag-hunt 
is seen in one part, while the imperial eagle is not wanting in 
this skilful production. The picture is dated 1708. 

In the same museum is a magnificent Dedication to the State 
Deputation of the Province of Nymwegen. Justice is surrounded 
by angels and trophies, painted and gilded, and the arms of 
the province are cut with much delicacy, and with richly foliated 



48 The History of Silhouettes 

ornament. The whole is mounted on red, and dated 1710, but 
the artist wielder of the penknife unfortunately does not sign his 
work. 

It is possible that these examples were convent-made. The 
cutting out of religious subjects and the extreme elaboration of 
their ornamental borders flourished, to a small extent, for some 
years after the printing press had destroyed the occupation of the 
monks in copying and illuminating manuscripts. A reproduction 
of one of these is now before us. It represents St. Benedict 
seated in the habit of a monk ; a cross, skull, and other symbols 
are on the rocks at his side ; the saint has a halo. A large 
tree is in the background, and birds and a squirrel are amongst 
the branches ; two steps lead down to a sylvan scene, where 
the saint is seen walking away in the distance. Conven- 
tionalised roses, cornucopia, and floriated forms compose the 
wide border ; this is all cut on the same piece of vellum, but 
there is no colour used. Another convent-made cut picture, 
which was exhibited at the Briinn Exhibition, shows a picture 
of the Baptism of Christ in the Jordan ; it is signed " F. Aga- 
thaugdus, Bonnensis Capuchin'' In this picture, which is of 
paper, not vellum, the arms of a bishop appear, together with the 
inscription, "Johanni Ernesto, S.R.I., Principi Metropolitanae 
Eccl., Salisbury." 

An achievement of arms seems to have been a favourite 
subject for such pieces. A remarkable specimen in cut paper, 
mounted on looking-glass, is in the collection of Lady Dorothy 
Nevill. It displays the arms, supporters, and motto of Robert 
Walpole, Earl of Orford, the ancestor of Lady Dorothy. 
These examples are very difficult to find ; it is probable that 
many have been destroyed. 

Another example, in the possession of the author, shows 
a heraldic escutcheon, with wolf and hound supporter, etc. 







. 





SILHOUETTE PORTRAITS OF MEMBERS OF THE ANSLEY FAMILY 

Painted in bUck and ornpe-red on convex glass. Ditcd 1793. Signed by W. 
In the possession of L*dy S*ckrt1lc, Knole 



Processes 49 

This lies between two sheets of glass. The minuteness of the 
cutting of this fine paper is extraordinary. 

A very fine specimen has a miniature of Charles I. In the 
centre an elaborate mount is cut out of thin paper ; the whole 
is in a fine tortoiseshell frame of the period. This type of 
work is rare. 

Little mention is made of freehand paper or vellum cutting 
in the early written treatises, probably because, needing only 
talent for catching a likeness and skill in wielding the 
scissors, there was little to be said about it ; so that the 
early writers on the black profile work turned their attention to 
the less gifted workers who needed their help with extraneous 
and complicated processes. 

Of all those who cut the likeness direct after glancing at the 
sitter, the Frenchman, August Edouart, was undoubtedly the most 
skilful and prolific. He styles himself " Silhouettist to the French 
Royal Family. Patronised by His Royal Highness the late Duke 
of Gloucester and the principal nobility of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland." When he first came to England as a refugee, he 
seems to have supported himself by a strange industry, invented 
by himself, which he calls mosaic hair-work. In the descriptive 
catalogue which is before us, of an exhibition of this work held 
about 1826, such items appear as a wolfs head ; a squirrel, made 
with real hair, climbing a tree ; a marine view with a man- 
of-war. 

"This performance in human hair imitates the finest true 
engraving ; the curious may perceive, with the help of a 
magnifying glass, the cordage and men on board. This work 
has taken at least twelve months in its execution." When he 
made hair portraits of men, women, or animals, he used their 
own natural hair, " raising them from the ivory and making 
bas-reliefs." 



5 The History of Silhouettes 

"These works," writes Edouart, "being of my own invention 
and execution, I have desisted from making for the last twelve 
years, since the death of my royal and distinguished patrons, 
Queen Charlotte, the Prince of Saxe-Coburg, and others." 

It is strange that Edouart never combined hair- work with 
shadow portraiture, as did some of the German exponents. 
Being so expert a hair artist, it would have been natural to 
expect some examples of this rare combination ; none, however, 
have as yet come before the author, though, knowing Edouart 
was an expert in both crafts, such examples have been sought. 

Edouart wrote a treatise on " Silhouette Likenesses," a book 
which is now very rare. It was published by Longman & Co., 
Paternoster Row, in 1835, and is illustrated with eighteen full- 
page plates, and it is characteristic of the man that the first 
is a portrait of himself; others are of celebrated personages of 
the day, and there are also several genre pictures executed with 
considerable skill. It is in portraiture, however, that his 
unrivalled skill has placed him high above all other workers in 
black paper cutting. 

He describes his discovery of his talent for likeness cutting 
at some length. At the end of 1825 he was shown black shades 
which had been taken with a patent machine, and condemned 
them as unlike the originals. He was challenged to do them 
as well. " I replied that my finding a fault was not a reason 
that I could do better, and that I had never even dreamed of 
taking likenesses. ... I then took a pair of scissors, I tore the 
cover off a letter that lay on the table ; I took the old father 
by the arm and led him to a chair, that I placed in a proper 
manner, so as to see his profile, then in an instant I 
produced the likeness. The paper being white, I took the 
black snuffers and rubbed it on with my fingers ; this likeness 
and preparation, made so quickly, as if by inspiration, was at 



Processes 5 1 

once approved of, and found so like that the ladies changed 
their teasing and ironical tone to praises, and begged me to 
take their mothers' likeness, which I did with the same facility 
and exactness." 

There is much long-winded explanation in this egotistical 
and somewhat priggish style, but delightful sidelights are 
thrown on the adventures of a silhouettist in the performance 
of his craft, of the status of the artist, his contempt of all 
methods except his own, and the naive devices used for gaining 
advertisement. As these have no place in the present chapter, 
they will be found elsewhere under "August Edouart and his 
Book." 

Edouart nearly always cut the full-length figure. Amongst 
some thousands of his portraits which have been examined, only 
about fifty of bust size have been discovered. 

"The figure adds materially to the effect that produces a 
likeness, and combines with the outline of the face to render, 
as it were, a double likeness in the same subject. From this 
combination of face and figure arises the pleasing and not less 
surprising result of a striking resemblance. The many thousands 
I have taken of the full-length enable me confidently to make 
this assertion." 

He argues that, in catching a likeness, attitude and demeanour 
are as important as the features of the face and contours of 
the head. The silhouette is the representation of a shade, he 
says, and if it be not critically exact, the principal part of its 
merit is lost. 

He considers that the grouping of several figures makes 
the emphasising of a likeness in any one of the figures more 
noticeable, the difference existing between individuals, whether in 
height, gesture, or attitude, being a great advantage to the 
artist in giving point to the likeness. 



5 2 The History of Silhouettes 

He also lays great stress on the proportions in the figure 
of the sitter, which can be shown only in the full-length. 
Some have a long body and small legs, others long legs and 
a short body; in fact, everything in nature varies, and all these 
variations help to make the portrait of the individual, and not 
the features alone. Beauty, he continues, has respect to form. 
Now, one part of a figure may exhibit a beautiful form, and 
yet that figure may not be well proportioned throughout. For 
instance, a man may have a handsome leg, or arm, considered 
in itself, but the other parts of his figure may not equal this 
part in beauty, or this part may not be accurately propor- 
tioned to the rest of the figure ; and so on through many 
pages, in which Edouart proves to his own satisfaction that, 
in order to give a correct shade likeness of a person, it is 
necessary to portray the whole and not one part only of that 
person. He goes further, and maintains that, as the manner of 
dress is often as characteristic as the gait, what is most 
usual for the sitter to wear should be depicted. 

Edouart's portraits are to be found in many parts of the 
British Isles and the United States of America, for his custom 
was to take up his abode in a town, to advertise in the 
papers, and to stay there while he took the silhouette 
portraits of the surrounding gentry and noblemen. Quite early 
in his career, his albums of duplicates contained 50,000 
(the late Mr. Andrew Tuer computes them at 100,000) 
portraits, so that his whole output must have been enormous. 
He seems to have worked with great method, keeping a note 
of " the names of the persons I take, and the dates. These 
are written five times over first, on the duplicate of the like- 
ness ; secondly, in my day book ; thirdly, in the book in which 
I preserve them ; fourthly, in the index of that book ; and fifthly, 
in the general index. Without this arrangement, how could I 



Processes 53 

at a minute's notice tell whether I had taken the likeness of 
any person enquired for, and could it be otherwise possible to 
produce the silhouette, or to know from about 50 books, folio 
size, and above 50,000 likenesses, if I had taken the one 
required ? " 

The value of such method and classification, when some of 
these long-lost volumes came to the writer for identification, 
can be imagined. The story of the romance of the lost folios 
is too long a one to include in a general chapter on silhouette 
cutters and their work. It will appear in its place elsewhere, 
together with a notice of some of the extraordinarily interesting 
groups of famous people, especially those of the United States, 
where presidents and senators, public officials, professional men, 
famous characters, their wives and children, appear in startling 
sequence, crowded with order and method on to the pages of 
the numerous large volumes. 

It was when on his way home from the American continent 
that Edouart met with that misfortune which so preyed upon 
his mind that he died in a short time. The ship "Oneida," 
on which he travelled, was wrecked off the coast of Guernsey, 
and a large portion of Edouart's collection was lost, together 
with much personal luggage, and a good deal of the cargo of 
cotton from Maryland. He died near Calais in 1861. 

The very clever freehand scissor pictures of Paul Konewka 
are justly famous. Like Edouart, he was of the nineteenth 
century. Born in 1840, he was the son of a university official 
in Greifswald. After a public school education, he studied under 
Menzel, for whose influence he was ever grateful. He dedicated 
his Falstaff and his Companions to him while his master lay 
dying. 

During his travels through Germany, Konewka cut a very 
large number of portraits which are now treasured in the 



54 The History of Silhouettes 

possession of private owners. The actress, Anna Klenk, served 
as a model for many of his very beautiful figures. 

While in Tubingen, at the Clinical Institute, he used 
quietly to cut the portraits of many of the listeners, and the 
professor who was lecturing as well. Such was his skill that 
he did his work by touch alone under the table. He was 
introduced to a general in Berlin, who flattered him, but called 
his gift dangerous. Konewka immediately handed him his own 
likeness, cut out of the lining of his dress-coat at the back 
while the general addressed him. Surely the same might be 
said of Konewka as was said of Runge, " the scissors have 
become nothing less than a lengthening of my fingers." 

It is as a book illustrator that Konewka is best known to 
the world. Besides the Fa 1st off and his Companions dedicated 
to Paul Heyse, illustrations for Midsummer Night's Dream 
and twelve sheets for Goethe's Faust, children's picture 
books, loose sheets, and many other illustrations, were cut 
by him. Konewka died in Berlin in 1871, his last silhouette 
being that of a dying trooper to illustrate the German song, 
" O Strasburg du wunderschcen Stadt." 

No less gifted in the art of scissor-cutting was Karl 
Frohlich, once a compositor. His skill was chiefly directed 
towards little genre pictures of children plucking flowers, winged 
cupids, old men and women drinking coffee, and much fine 
landscape work. Unlike Konewka, he never cut wood blocks, 
so that his work has not been accessible for publication. 

P. Packeny was an enthusiastic amateur, who worked in 
Vienna from 1846. He cut landscapes and genre pictures, but 
unfortunately did not confine himself to black and white effects, 
so that much of his work is spoilt by the use of brightly 
coloured papers. 

Runge, the German artist, it is said, learnt silhouette cutting 



Processes 55 

by watching his sister at her embroidery. In 1806 he sent 
some marvellously cut-out flowers to Goethe. The poet was so 
charmed with them that he declared he would decorate a whole 
room with Runge's work ; this was never done. The artist 
wrote early in his career : " If chance had put a pencil instead 
of scissors into my hand, I would draw you all, so 
plainly do I see you." Herr Julius Leisching agrees with 
Lichtwark that the cutting out of silhouettes had great influence 
on Runge's pictures. Runge's studies of plants with scissors 
and paper have been privately published. He cut out while 
out walking ; saw and cut nature down to the roots. 

One of the most remarkable of the paper cutters of the early 
nineteenth century was Hubard, who seems to have been the 
inevitable infant prodigy of the craft. He began his freehand 
scissor-work in portraiture and landscape at the early age of 
thirteen. The handbill which lies before us advertises his art as 
" Papyrolomia " a terrible word, which doubtless had its uses in 
whetting the appetite of the public by mystifying them and 
suggesting terrifying adventures. This leaflet is illustrated with 
a grotesque figure, which has obviously been some of the 
printer's stock-in-trade, for it is hardly germane to the. subject 
of silhouette cutting, nor could it be the portrait of a 
scissor-worker of such tender years as Master Hubard, though 
this artist is only a secondary attraction in the show. The 
handbill runs thus: 

Facing the George Hotel, Galway. 

Entrance, 376, High Street. 

The Papyrolomia of the celebrated Master Hubard. 
Little John, the Muffin Man. 

\Tktn follows the rough wood block representing a grotesque figure.} 

Collection of accurate Delineations of Flowers, Trees, Perspective Views, 
Architectural, Military, Sporting Pieces, Family Groups, Portraits of Distinguished 
Individuals, etc., Elegantly Mounted Pictures and Backgrounds, by W. G. Wall, 



5^ The History of Silhouettes 

Esqre., Dublin, together with 7 grand Oriental Paintings of the most celebrated 
views of North America, taken on the spot by eminent British artists. 

Admission I/-. 

For which money each visitor is to receive a correct Likeness in Bust, cut in 
20 seconds, without drawing or machine, by sight alone, and simply with a pair 
of scissors, by a boy of 14. Those who are averse to sitting for the Likeness are 
presented with some small specimen of the youthful artist's talents. 

Likenesses both in ink and in colours. 
Style from 75. 6d. up, by artists. Frames in Gilt. 

Visitors are enabled to return to the Gallery by introducing a Stranger. 

Open from 10 till Dusk. 

This device with regard to a return visit to the gallery was 
probably highly successful, and adopted by Master Hubard on 
his visit to the United States about 1833. He was seventeen 
years of age when he went to America and established a 
Hubard Gallery in New York, where for fifty cents he cut the 
portraits of many well-known people. His gallery was thronged. 
His pictures are usually full-length portraits, and are pasted 
on card, having "Hubard Gallery" embossed in the left-hand 
corner. The example before us shows a handsome man with 
frock-coat and high stock collar. Though most of his work 
was done with scissors, Hubard also worked in Indian ink, 
and sometimes used gold pencilling to heighten the effect. 
An interesting example of his work is the portrait of little 
Princess Victoria, when about ten years of age. This was 
doubtless cut at Kensington Palace ; possibly the little maid 
would be allowed to visit the gallery, or Hubard may have 
been summoned to the palace, as Edouart v/as to Holyrood. 

J. Gapp was another early Victorian profile cutter, whose skill 
with the scissors is markedly in advance of his artistic sense. 
In his advertisement of about the year 1829, at the back of 
a boy's full-length in Eton suit and aggressively large white 
collar, he describes himself as "The original Profilist for cutting 



Processes 57 

accurate Likenesses attends daily at the Third Tower in the 
centre of the Chain Pier (Brighton), and begs to observe 
that he has no connection with any other person, and that he 
continues to produce the most wonderful Likenesses, in which 
the expression and peculiarity of character are brought into 
action in a very superior style on the following terms : 
Full-length likenesses at 2s. 6d. each, two of the same 
45., or in bronze 45. ; profile to the bust is., two of the same 
is. 6d., or in bronze 2s. Ladies and gentlemen on horseback 
75. 6d. ; single horses 55. ; dogs is. 6d. N.B. A variety 
of interesting small cuttings for Ladies' Scrap-books." 

Here we have a clue to the great scrap-book mania of the 
day. Everyone, from royalty downwards, collected treasures to 
paste in scrap-books, and Gapp, of the Chain Pier, like 
Hubard, was clever enough to offer to supply the want of 
interesting items. 

E. Haines, patronised by the Royal Family, also worked on 
the Chain Pier at Brighton, at " the first left-hand tower." He 
describes himself as a " Profilist and Scissorgraphist." His 
trade label is on the back of a fine full-length portrait of a 
man, once in the collection of Mr. Montague J. Guest. There is 
great vigour and character in Haines' work ; the specimen 
before us is untouched with gold. 

G. Atkinson (1815) also describes himself as " Silhouettist to 
the Royal Family." He lived at Windsor, and there are some 
fine portraits of George III. and his sons, which, though stilted 
and without imagination, show considerable skill in the cutting. 
A group cut out in black and touched with gold was exhibited 
by G. Sharland, Esq., at the Royal Amateur Art Society's 
Exhibition in 1911. 

Though there are many other scissor-workers who might be 
mentioned, and examples described of graceful women in hooped 



5^ The History of Silhouettes 

skirts and fascinating side ringlets, maidens in cottage bonnets, 
and dainty children whose ringing voices one can almost hear as 
the shadow pageant passes, yet sufficient examples have been 
mentioned to show how popular was the craze for black portrait 
cutting, and how large a branch it was of the black profile 
processes. 

That silhouettes are kept in the reference library of our 
National Portrait Gallery, because, on account of their life-like 
resemblance, they are of great value to the authorities in the 
identification of unknown portraits, is a fact which speaks for 
the great historic value of these pictorial records. In the 
cuttings of Edouart there is the ego of the man or woman 
as well as the bodily form. A gesture, the poise of the body, 
the arrested movement of the limbs, are shown with more than 
photographic correctness when photography was as yet unborn. In 
the picture of a blind man we see by the tilt of the chin, the 
angle of the head, that, like all so afflicted, the man is exercising 
senses which are dormant in those who have sight. The simple 
black outline of the American deaf and dumb poet Nack, by 
this master-cutter, is instinct with the patient silence of the 
dumb, the aloofness of the deaf. Fine oil paintings and 
miniatures give us a man or woman interpreted through the 
senses of the artist and idealised or distorted through the 
alchemy of the artist's mind. The shadow portrait is nature 
herself, and its very simplicity of line imposes a keener effect 
on the mind of the student, because there are no contours to 
confuse the outline. 




CHAPTER VI. 

AUGUST EDOUART AND HIS BOOK. 

[HE introduction of the name Silhouette into England 
seems to have been due to August Edouart, a French- 
man, who, though only commencing the black portrait 
cutting after leaving his own country, used the French 
word for his craft instead of the black shade, which had hitherto 
been the name in England for such profile portraits. 

" How many times," writes Edouart, in the chapter in his 
treatise which he naively calls "The Grievances and Miseries of 
Artists," " have I had people who, immediately after entering my 
room, departed, exclaiming, ' Oh ! they are all black shades," and 
would not stop to inspect them." 

" The name silhouette, which appeared in the newspaper adver- 
tisements, seems to have given them to understand that it was 
a new kind of likeness done in colours, each of which (full- 
length figure) they expected to get for five shillings." 

Again, on another page, he exclaims, " Why does such pre- 
judice exist against black shades, which I call silhouette like- 
nesses?" Certainly none of the early shadow portrait painters 
on paper, glass, or plaster ever used this name, taken from the 
French Finance Minister. It was not used in England until 
after the commencement of Edouart's work and the publication 
of his book. By this time, it must be remembered, black profile 
portraiture had deteriorated in beauty, and the artists who fre- 
quented fairs and places of amusement were less skilled, indeed, 
than the Miers, Fields, Beethams, and Rosenbergs of the eighteenth 
century. 

" Obliged to quit my country in consequence of a change in 
its Government," Edouart, the most prolific and important of 



60 The History of Silhouettes 

all the scissor-men, describes himself as "thrown upon foreign 
ground, without friends and without knowledge of the language. 
I had then very little money left, for I had lost all I pos- 
sessed in the evacuation of Holland in 1813. A few months 
after my arrival in England, I found myself, after payment of 
all my travelling expenses, in possession of no more than a five- 
pound note, which I immediately expended in advertising myself 
as a French teacher." 

Succeeding in this at first, the arrival of so many other 
Frenchmen after a time reduced his work, and Edouart sought 
other means of livelihood. He began to make devices, land- 
scapes, etc., with human hair, though what led him to this 
quaint handicraft, or what previous training he had in it, we 
have not been able to discover. 

After receiving the patronage of Her Royal Highness the late 
Duchess of York, and making the portraits of some of her dogs 
with the animals' own hair, he worked for the Queen and 
Princess Charlotte. Edouart, whose industry seems always to 
have been remarkable, executed over fifty of these strange hair 
portraits, and held an exhibition, the catalogue of which lies 
before us. 

In 1825, Madame Edouart died, and August was persuaded 
to try his hand at likeness cutting in order to better the per- 
formance of some machine artist, whose work he had condemned. 
Finding, much to his surprise, that he was able to produce 
likenesses with extraordinary facility and exactness, he was 
persuaded by his friends to employ his time in this way, " so 
as to divert the gloom from my sinking mind, and alleviate 
my sorrows." It seems probable also that his new talent was 
useful in filling his much depleted purse. 

After many expressions of reluctance that he, August 
Edouart, should be cut by society and become a black profile 



August Edouart 61 

taker, he decided to make an art of what had been so long 
considered a mere mechanical process, for Edouart never seems 
to have heard of black painted profiles and the exquisite work 
of the early profile painters, but only the machine-made pictures 
by the itinerant workers. 

The first full-length that Edouart took was of the Bishop 
of Bangor, Dr. Magendie. " I succeeded so well," he says in his 
introduction, " that I took all his lordship's family ; and so 
pleased were they that I made forty duplicates. This d6but, 
being so far above my expectation, encouraged me to continue, 
and from that time, being much engaged by the first visitors of 
Cheltenham, I took a resolution to keep a copy of every one to 
form a collection." 

"This talent," he continues, "showed itself so strongly, and 
I was so anxious, that I worked from morning till night, and 
even in my dreams my brain was so much overheated by that 
anxiety, that in those dreams I was cutting likenesses of great 
personages, kings, queens, etc." 

His method of holding the scissors was unusual. The reason 
for this peculiarity is thus described : " One day, when crossing 
a stile, a lady tore her dress by a nail which was put on the 
step mischievously. To prevent the recurrence, I took a stone 
to take the nail away: in the act of doing so my index finger 
was lacerated in such a manner that I could not use my 
scissors. I suffered a great deal for several days, and my 
mind being so much excited about it, I dreamt that I cut 
likenesses without using the index finger. I was so much 
struck by this that, as soon as I awoke, I took my scissors 
and have ever since used them in that manner." In an old 
daguerrotype he is seen cutting a portrait in this manner. 

In his treatise Edouart gives no detailed account of his 
journeys, though he notes that he has always kept a diary. 



62 The History of Silhouettes 

From newspaper advertisements we learn that he was in 
Cheltenham in June, 1829, where he is described in the Chel- 
tenham Journal as assisting in Lavater's system with regard 
to Physiognomy. At this stage the old idea that silhouette 
portraits must have a scientific use still clung to the craft. 

In 1830 Edouart is in Edinburgh. In the Scotsman of 
February i3th the collection of ingenious works executed by 
Monsieur Edouart is mentioned. " This may be seen gratuitously 
at 72, Princes Street. Mr. Edouart makes silhouette likenesses, 
not only of the profile, but also of the whole person, by cutting 
them by the hand, out of black paper." The account ends 
thus : " In his rooms the curious will find amusement and the 
philosophic employment." The cannie Scotsman would attract 
the "unco" guid" with learning and occupation as well as the 
frivolous with amusement. 

On May 8th of the same year the Edinburgh Evening 
Courant takes notice of Edouart's success in his likenesses of 
Sir Walter Scott (this portrait of Scott was recently pur- 
chased by the Director of the National Portrait Gallery, on 
account of its fine technique and the human and lifelike 
attitude of the great novelist), the Dean of Faculty, and other 
distinguished characters of the city, and slyly regrets that Edouart 
departs so soon. 

The clever hint at departure evidently had the desired effect, 
for in the following February, 1831, Edouart is still at Edin- 
burgh, " his rooms thronged with visitors since his threatened 
departure. Six hundred likenesses in a fortnight, and declining 
to take new ones till the orders given by the first families are 
executed." Five thousand duplicates are now on view, and his 
books are exhibited at Holyrood Palace, where they are much 
approved of by the Royal Family. 

It was at the end of 1830 that Charles X., ex-king of France, 



August Edouart 63 

and suite, arrived at Holyrood, and though Edouart acknow- 
ledges "a feeling of ill-will towards the Bourbon family is 
still lingering in my bosom, remembering as I did the losses 
I suffered in consequence of their restoration to the throne of 
France," he attended, when requested in person by the Duchesse 
de Berri. He found " His Majesty pacing up and down, and 
the Duchesse presented me, reminding the King that I was a 
Frenchman. He seemed pleased and affable." 

The whole Royal Family, attended by the suite, nearly forty 
in number, formed a circle, in the centre of which Edouart cut 
his first paper portrait of Charles X. " By mistake," he says, 
" I took paper of four folds, in place of one of two, and, as 
I had begun, so I cut out the likeness. As soon as I had 
finished it the little Prince (the Duke of Bordeaux) took one, 
Mademoiselle, his sister, took another, the Duchesse de Berri 
another." 

Edouart cut the likenesses that evening of the Duke 
d'Angoulme, the Duchesse d'Angoule'me, the Duchesse de Berri, 
Mademoiselle Louise Marie, the Duke de Bordeaux, the 
Cardinal de Latil, and many of the suite. After this Edouart 
declares that he "was a daily visitor at Holyrood, and my 
exhibition was often honoured by Royalty." The Duke de 
Bordeaux declared that if Edouart would become one of his 
suite, he should be called the Black Knight. 

Two of the Holyrood portraits by Edouart were exhibited 
at the Amateur Art Society's Exhibition in 1902, by Miss 
Head. They were thus described in the Catalogue: 

" 119. Duchesse de Berri and her children (Henry V. and 
the Duchesse de Parma) at Holyrood, by Edouart." 

" 1 20. Henry V. and the Duchesse de Parma as children 
at Holyrood." 

In the recently discovered folios which belonged to Edouart 



64 The History of Silhouettes 

himself, and which serve as an invaluable record of the 
entourage of Charles X. at Holyrood, very many of these 
likenesses appear ; most of them have the original autograph 
of the sitter. From the wonderfully interesting groups of 
shadows we see the vie intime of the exiled king. He is 
surrounded by his children, his chamberlains and equerries, 
intimate friends, physicians (for body and soul). Even L'Abbe 
Focart, Confesseur du Roi, figures amongst them ; and visitors 
to Holyrood, such as the Baron de Size and the Baron de 
Sepmanville, are included ; besides the dogs and horses, the 
ponies of the children, and the toys and playthings with which 
they amused themselves in those days of exile. 

Even when such success rewarded the efforts of Edouart, 
he is still in apologetic mood with regard to his art, and 
declares that if his work had not been good the French Royal 
Family would not have encouraged it. " They had seen a 
great quantity of those common (machine-made) black shades in 
Paris, and had also a great dislike to them, which was soon 
removed when they saw the nature of mine." He is never 
able to refrain from a sneer at the other silhouettists. 

In December, 1831, the Glasgow Free Press declares that 
" Monsieur E.'s rooms need only to be known to become a 
fashionable resort for lovers of the fine arts." The hair models 
seem to have formed part of the exhibition. 

In October, 1832, Edouart is still in Glasgow, and his 
likenesses now number 45,000, including the Orphan Asylum 
and all its managers, the directors of the Commercial Bank, 
and several others. In London he took 800 members of the 
Stock Exchange, of which he sold several books. 

Edouart seems to have moved on to Dublin in 1833, but 
we doubt if he was pleased when the Dublin Evening Mail 
of July 24th describes him as " the most comical and at the 




PORTRAIT OF LORD MANSFIELD 

Painted on glass by A. Forbirger, P* 



August Edouart 65 

same time the cleverest artist from Paris. His art gives the 
scissors all the expressive powers of the pencil, and extracts 
from a single tint of black the miraculous effects of a whole 
rainbow of colours." 

Edouart is by now cutting out genre pictures, and subjects 
from " ^sop's Fables " are mentioned, while the portraits increase 
rapidly in number, 6,000 being taken in Dublin alone. The 
Archbishop of Dublin and a great number of clergy and the 
officers of the garrison head the list. In his exhibition he 
shows, amongst thousands of others, His Royal Highness the 
late Duke of York, the Duke of Gloucester, and the Duke of 
Wellington ; the Bishops of Norwich, Bangor, St. Davids, and 
Bristol ; Doctors Chalmers and Gordon ; Edward Irving, 
Charles Simeon, Rowland Hill, Joseph Wolfe, Jabez Bunting, 
Sir Walter Scott, Mrs. Hannah More, Mrs. Opie (herself 
a silhouettist), Kean, Listen, Power, Sir Astley Cooper, Baron 
Rothschild, etc. 

In August, 1834, Edouart went to Cork. Later he visited 
Kinsale, Fermoy, Mallow, Limerick, and many other places. 
Paganini's portrait was taken at Edinburgh in October, 1832, 
where Edouart went, travelling from Glasgow on purpose to 
obtain it. Signer Paganini declared it was the first likeness 
of himself which was not caricatured. This full-length portrait 
shows the maestro standing, violin in hand, just ready to begin. 
In the background are lithograph portraits of the members of 
an orchestra : they are seated in a domed music-room. 

It was in 1835 tnat Edouart's book was published. We 
presume it had been written during the time of his prodigious 
activities in silhouette cutting while he moved from place to 
place and conducted his exhibition. It is a thin demy octavo 
volume of 122 pages, now extremely rare. The copy in the 
possession of the author was presented to Miss C. J. Hutchings 



66 The History of Silhouettes 

by Edouart at Cheltenham, August 25th, 1836. There are 
eighteen full-page plates, showing black portraits or fancy 
figures mounted on lithograph backgrounds, by Unkles & Klasen, 
26, South Mall, Cork. In the original volumes of duplicates 
kept by Edouart many of these mounts were found, as the 
silhouettist doubtless kept a number by him ready for 
mounting his portraits. 

In a chapter headed " The Vexations and Slights my Pro- 
fession has brought upon me," Edouart deplores " the vulgarity 
into which silhouettes have fallen, so that I could not walk 
in public with a lady on my arm without hearing such 
remarks as this, ' Who can she be that lady with the black 
shade man?" The same disposition to cast odium on me 
was displayed whenever I was seen walking arm-in-arm with 
friends who moved in circles of high life. It went so far 
that, being in the habit of walking at the Wells of Cheltenham, 
and accustomed to go to the balls at the Rotunda, I was forced 
to deprive myself of the pleasure of being with my friends in 
these places. On different occasions several persons of high 
rank in society accused me of being somewhat proud," and 
so on through many pages. 

On one occasion his greeting was of the most cordial des- 
cription, owing to an amusing mistake. " A friend having given 
a recommendatory letter to a particular friend in town, I was 
received in a better manner than ever I was received since I 
began taking black shades. As my friend would not recommend 
me to a suitable lodging, we went to the editor of a newspaper, 
to whom he spoke, and then presented me to him. Upon 
this we all went to the governor of the castle, who had a 
house to let in the town. The governor willingly consented 
to let me have the house, though he feared the boards might 
not be strong enough for the exercise of my profession, and 



August Edouart 67 

the quantity of people it would be likely to attract ; indeed, 
it would be advisable to practise on the ground floor, that 
the noise and bustle would not be so great, and the like. . . . 

"The governor, who had been a military man, asked me very 
good-humouredly if it were not trespassing on my goodness 
to allow him to take a round with me, saying that he had 
taken lessons, and took off his coat. I declared that I had 
not brought my tools with me." The scene is described in 
several pages, and shows how the governor offers eventually to 
lend gloves, when it dawns upon the profilist that the letter 
has been misread, and the sports around him imagine he is a 
pugilist. 

Edouart seems to have suffered much at the hands of his 
sitters. 

" But, Monsieur Edouart," says one of these, " you have taken 
John, who is a head taller than his brother William, a great 
deal smaller. How can that be ? It is a mistake of yours ; you 
must correct that." 

" You must know, madam," replies the silhouettist, " that it is 
according to the rule of perspective. Do you not see that John 
is at least six yards farther in the background than his 
brother?" 

"Yes! but his is cut smaller," persists the aggrieved parent. 

Gentlemen demanding ladies' profiles were refused by this 
veritable Mrs. Grundy of silhouettists. His refusal is given 
in language worthy of the Fairchild family. 

" Ladies are never exhibited, nor duplicates of their likenesses 
either sold or delivered to anyone but themselves or by their 
special order. This resolution I have taken, and I follow it very 
strictly, being fully aware of the consequence that would result 
if this measure was not adopted. Gentlemen presume that they 
are entitled to possess the likenesses of any ladies they like. 



68 The History of Silhouettes 

But no no they cannot deceive me by false pretences. I am 
too much upon my guard to be surprised. The books in which 
I keep duplicates are all defended with a patent lock." 

Monsieur Edouart rivals the serpent in wiliness when a 
lady's portrait is so desired and the gentleman offers the address 
where it should be sent. The artist says, " I do not require to 
know your direction, gentlemen. I know that of the lady, to 
whom I shall send it, and she herself will deliver it to you." 
We should imagine that, under those conditions, orders were 
usually cancelled. 

" Some make themselves pass for relations," adds Edouart, 
who is not without a sense of humour, though he does take 
himself so seriously, "as a brother, cousin, uncle, etc., but all 
this is in vain." 

Edouart seems to have used special means of his own to 
extract payment of debts, and his illustration " The Screw " 
shows in what manner his clients were brought to book. 
The episode is described at great length in his book, but un- 
fortunately the name of the sitter for " The Screw " is withheld. 
Briefly, a young man had his portrait cut, approved of the 
likeness, but regretted, after seeing a picture of a friend in a 
dress-coat, that he had not also worn that kind. In a very 
rude manner he said he would not pay for the completed like- 
ness until another was done in a dress-coat. Edouart said he 
must be paid for both. This the man refused, so the artist 
refused to cut the second picture and was left with the portrait 
on his hands. To cut the screw and add the ring and hook 
was the work of a few moments, and the picture was then 
exhibited in a conspicuous position in the window, where every- 
one recognised it. "Since that time, I have not had occasion to 
make a screw," adds Edouart, naively. 

The subject of caricature in silhouette is a very interesting 



August Edouart 69 

one, but cannot be fully treated here. There are few examples, 
and it is strange that so virile and graphic an art as that of 
the silhouette should show so few specimens of caricature work. 

In August Edouart's work just such aptitude for seizing 
the salient feature in face or figure is invariably shown which 
is the quality most required by the caricaturist, but Edouart 
never allows his scissors to swerve from faithful and exact 
portrayal ; no note of exaggeration is seen even when executing 
the fine studies, such as his beggar and itinerant groups in the 
streets of Bath or Cheltenham. 

In the figure of George Gary, porter at Price's auction 
rooms, Bath, taken April 4th, 1827, there is no exaggeration. The 
man appears balancing two fine candlesticks on a small tray; 
the unerring likeness is self-evident. It is the same with 
the blind gingerbread-seller of Gay Street ; the bill-sticker who 
is about to paste up one of Edouart's own labels ; John Hulbert, 
the old scavenger ; and with several of the no less clever street 
characters of Bath. In these we see consummate skill in depicting 
the man or woman in life as they were, but with no sense 
of bias towards caricature. 

Amongst the old letters recently discovered with the precious 
folios of Edouart's duplicates is one from " S. H.," dated 
Birmingham, June ist, 1838 : 

" MY DEAR FRIEND, On seeing your Exhibition, I was 
astonished at the application you must have bestowed on an 
art I had till then considered as useless. I found likenesses 
of unrivalled talent, not only accurate outlines, but giving the 
character of those whom they represented. Write to me from 
America. The Americans are known to encourage talent of 
every description, and I hope to see you return laden with 
the produce of your labours in that fresh and interesting 
country to the place you are now quitting." 



7 The History of Silhouettes 

For how long Edouart had been contemplating his American 
tour we are not aware. In the year 1839 he was in Liverpool, 
working at his profession. In the same year he sailed for the 
United States, taking with him his volumes of English, Scotch, 
and Irish portraits for exhibition purposes. 

He seems to have met with immediate success, and the 
volumes which contain his American portraits give so complete 
a pictorial record of the social and political history of the time 
(1839-1849) as probably no other nation possesses. During his 
first year three hundred and eighty-one portraits were taken in 
New York, Saratoga, Boston, and Philadelphia, amongst them 
being Mr. Belmont, who is entered as "August Belmont, Agent 
of the House of Rothschild, New York." There are two portraits, 
8i inches in height, of this man, who was an important social 
and financial figure of the day, and founder of the Jockey 
Club of New York ; congress-men, editors, journalists, and 
officers of the Army and Navy in uniform. 

The wives and children of these interesting men are also 
included in the collection, and later, when he visited New 
Orleans and other States where slavery was permitted, we find 
occasionally a slave's picture " belonging " to the family. As in 
his English collections, the names of his sitters, the date, and 
name of place where taken, and sometimes curious details such 
as height and weight, are all entered, not only beneath each 
portrait in the folio, but also at the back of the portrait itself; 
and also in his list-books newspaper cuttings are sometimes 
added. In 1840 five hundred and thirty-one portraits were taken 
in the same places, in Washington and Saratoga Springs. Major- 
General Winfield Scott (Commander-in-Chief) is amongst them. 

The year 1841 was the time of the great Log Cabin election, 
and Harrison, the hero, is shown with two autographs in Edouart's 
books, besides his whole Cabinet and the orators, demagogues, 



August Edouart \ ^l 

place-hunters, and abolitionists, who all seem to have visited 
the studio of the artist, whatever their political opinions. Seven 
hundred and sixty-five portraits were taken in this year at 
Washington and elsewhere. 

After the tragic death of Harrison, John Tyler, the only 
man who was President without election, was taken by Edouart, 
and it gave the author great pleasure to present to the 
American nation his autographed silhouette. It was taken at 
the White House in 1841, and was returned there through 
Mr. Taft in June, 1911, after seventy years' wandering. When 
arranging the presentation, His Excellency, James Bryce, our 
Ambassador in Washington, was much interested, because 
Edouart had visited his old home in the north of Ireland and 
cut the portraits of his father and grandfather, which are still 
preserved there, and are fine likenesses. 

In 1842 Edouart travelled further afield, and made six 
hundred and forty-one pictures in New Orleans and other 
States he had not yet visited ; in Cambridge he cut Longfellow, 
the Appleton family, the President of Harvard, and dozens of 
professors and students of the College. 

In 1843 four hundred and sixty of the citizens of Phila- 
delphia, New York, Saratoga Springs, Norwich (Conn.), 
Charlestown, and other towns too numerous to mention, were 
taken, named, dated, and placed in his folios. There are an 
interesting crowd of congress-men, senators, financial celebrities, 
actors, musicians, editors, men of science, and the members of 
the Army and Navy, mostly in uniform, including Macomb, 
then Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army. 

In 1844 five hundred and eighty-nine portraits are extant 
from a dozen different cities, and then we come down to eight 
pictures taken in 1845, four only in 1846, and four only in 
the next three years. 



72 The History of Silhouettes 

The reason for this falling off in numbers is so extra- 
ordinary that we give it in continuing Edouart's life-story. 
It is probable that the artist was just as industrious during 
the last five years of his tour in America as he had been in 
the first four, but his work is destroyed. 

In December, 1849, he packed all his folios in great cases, 
and set out for home, sailing in the ship " Oneida," laden with 
bales of Maryland cotton. When off the coast of Guernsey she 
was caught in a great gale, and was wrecked in Vazon Bay 
on December 2ist. The crew and passengers were saved and 
some of the baggage; a case, containing fourteen of the precious 
folios, some old letters and list-books, was saved ; all the rest 
was lost, with much of the cargo, when the ship broke up 
two days after she had gone on the rocks. 

Edouart suffered much from exposure, for he was then an 
old man, and the loss of the greater part of his life's work 
so preyed upon his mind that he never again practised his 
profession. The Lukis family, resident at Guernsey, hospitably 
entertained the old artist, and he gave his remaining volumes, 
fourteen in number, containing his European collection and his 
American portraits, to Frederica Lukis before he left for Guines, 
near Calais, where he died in 1861, in his seventy-third year. 

The writer was fortunately enabled to secure these volumes 
through the medium of The Connoisseur Magazine, and has 
included illustrations from them in the present work. 




CHAPTER VII. 

SCRAP-BOOKS. 

A Royal Cutter and her Work. 

jiN the Georgian days the cutting of animals, landscapes, 
groups, and single profiles was the fashionable pastime 
of a large number of amateurs. Girl-friends cut for 
each other mementos in black paper or in white ; 
these were then gummed on to a black or coloured ground. 
They vied with each other in cutting some clever little piece 
of scissor-work, which, for safe storage, would be placed in an 
album or scrap-book. Sometimes the little cutting is found 
gummed in amongst tiny steel engravings, some Bartolozzi 
tickets, a treasured sheet of music, or wreaths and scraps of 
faded flowers. The fragrance of such a collection does not lie 
only in the shrivelled rose or violet leaves ; there is an aroma 
of sentiment, a reminder of those past days when everyone had 
leisure and the polite elegances of the little arts had full sway. 

The cuttings usually show groups of children, reminding us 
of Buck's work of contemporary date; or of animals, sometimes 
alone, and sometimes set in a landscape of such elaboration 
that one wonders how so great an effect can be packed into 
the two square inches of paper, which is often the size of 
the complete silhouette picture. It would be unusual to find so 
much and such accurate detail in a pen-and-ink drawing; the 
fact that the picture is cut out with a pair of scissors or a 
penknife makes it the more extraordinary. 

Many professional portrait cutters also cut landscapes, 
animals, groups of flowers, and other trifles, notably Patience 
Wright, who accomplished much fine work of this kind, as well 
as her lovely portraits. 



74 The History of Silhouettes 

J. Gapp, who worked on the Chain Pier at Brighton, 
advertised pieces suitable for ladies' scrap-books. At the end 
of his trade label are the following words : " N.B. A variety 
of interesting small cuttings for ladies' scrap-books." The label 
from which we take the words is on a full-length profile 
portrait of a boy in the old Eton School dress. 

Much black shade cutting was done at the Court of 
George III., both in profile portraiture and also in fancy groups 
and landscapes. Queen Charlotte was an ardent collector, and 
delighted to have her own portrait taken in shadow, if we can 
judge by the very large number of pictures of this type which 
have come down to us. King George III. was no less enthusiastic, 
and must have sat to every profilist of the day, both professional 
and amateur. In most of these silhouette portraits the vitality 
is clearly seen in this " German Princelet of his day," as Lord 
Rosebery's inimitable description has it. The character of the 
Princelet is as plain to see as if the veritable embodiment of 
His Majesty were before us, and not alone his shadow picture. 

We can imagine that the whole of the Court entourage 
would feel or assume an interest in the pastime beloved of the 
royal mistress, the king, and their artistic daughters, whose 
story one thinks of with mingled feelings of sympathy and 
interest. Their fair faces on the canvases of Gainsborough, 
Hoppner, and Beechey haunt us as they gaze from the walls of 
the royal residences. How each of the six girls must have 
thought of the suitors which were so long in coming 1 Their 
graceful and gracious young days sped away, only half filled by 
the mild excitements of Court life, with their embroidery, their 
pencil, brush, and scissor work, cutting the portrait of Fanny 
Burney, or admiring the family group of the Burney family, 
and imitating with their amateur scissor-work the elegant 
curtains and tassels of the professional cutter's background. 



Scrap-Books 75 

Perhaps they showed their efforts to Mrs. Delany, who was 
living so near to them at Windsor, and had herself been cut by 
a professional profilist with so great success the dainty goffered 
cap with its becoming chin-strap, and a love-knot and wreath 
are beneath the picture. Did their parents dread the unstable 
glories of Continental courts for their girls in those revolutionary 
days? The prudent Queen Charlotte would shudder to think of 
a repetition of the disastrous Danish marriage of her husband's 
young sister, and King George would try to shield his golden- 
haired girls from such a loveless match as that of his eldest 
sister, Augusta, to the Duke of Brunswick. 

It was Princess Elizabeth, born May 22nd, 1770, whose 
artistic talents were most marked ; she studied with her pencil 
and brush under various masters until she attained great 
proficiency. There is a charming portrait of her painted by 
Edridge, engraved in mezzotint by S. W. Reynolds, Engraver 
to the King. She is shown pencil in hand, her sketch-book 
on her knee ; her turban, which would be of correct fashion 
for the present day, only half hides her fair curled hair. Her 
diaphanous gown is not specially becoming to her ample shape, 
already showing signs of the enormous proportions she 
afterwards attained. Fine octagon-shaped brooches adorn her 
sleeves and breast, a thin scarf is laid over her chair, and on 
the writing bureau is a work basket, flower vase, and inkstand. 

The dedication of the picture runs thus : " Her Royal 
Highness the Landgravine of Hesse Homburg, dedicated 
by Permission to His Most Gracious Majesty, William IV., 
by His Majesty's devoted Subject and Servant, Edward 
Harding, Librarian to Her Late Gracious Majesty Queen 
Charlotte, May 2ist, 1830." Published by E. Hardy, 13, 
Rochester Terrace, Pimlico. 

It was long after irreverent courtiers had ceased to think 



76 The History of Silhouettes 

of the princess as anything but a confirmed spinster that the 
Prince of Hesse Homburg, of whose person and manners the 
caustic Creevy paints a very unattractive picture, appeared on 
the scene, and considerable mirth greeted the news of her 
engagement at the mature age of 47. The fact that the princess 
was severely criticised by a censorious world for quitting her aged 
and dying mother, and that as Landgravine of Hesse Homburg 
her good qualities were displayed to great advantage, do not 
concern us here, where we are chiefly concerned in her industry 
and artistic talents. These were evidently more marked in her 
than in any other member of her family, and we have read 
that many of her silhouettes were engraved and published, but 
we have not been able to trace any of these reproductions. 

That the small and very charming single figures or groups 
were frequently given as souvenirs is certain, for on a 
specimen we have examined there is an inscription, " H.R.H. 
Princess Elizabeth was pleased to give me (Lady Bankes) at 
Windsor, August 2yth, 1811, where I had the honour of seeing 
her by chance." 

Lady Dorothy Nevill is the owner of a most interesting 
relic of this favourite pastime of a royal princess. It is the 
original scrap-book given by Princess Elizabeth to her friend, 
and is filled with every variety of cutting executed by the 
princess herself. The book is of dark blue morocco leather, 
9 inches by 6 inches in size. On its silver lock and clasp is the 
initial of the royal donor, and between the pages are the little 
gem cuttings, a selection of which we are able to reproduce 
here. Many varieties of silhouette cutting are shown ; none of 
the specimens are gummed into the book, or, if they have been, 
the mucilage has perished. Faint pencil notes head the pages, 
and the cuttings are placed separately between the leaves. 
Some of the groups are cut out in black paper ; some, 



Scrap-Books 77 

notably the shadow perforation type, are in white paper ; and 
some are painted in Indian ink and then cut out. The groups 
of children playing are most animated ; there is real movement 
in the baby toddling downstairs held by ribbon strings by 
its nurse. 

The portraits of Queen Charlotte and King George III., 
the parents of the artist, are naturally of great interest. These 
have a note on the page in which they lie that they were 
taken in the year 1792. They are drawn in Indian ink, and 
not cut, and those who have had occasion to examine the 
profiles of the king and queen will at once see that Princess 
Elizabeth was proficient in catching a likeness. There are two 
other bust portraits of George III. in this interesting scrap- 
book, and a full-length picture in black profile, in which the stiff 
coat-tails and dangling court sword or rapier are admirably 
portrayed. 

The cutting of the shadow perforation pictures seem to have 
been an agreeable variety in scissor-work. These strange 
silhouettes were so cut that, on holding a light at a particular 
angle behind the picture, a shadow was cast by it which 
resembled some special character or object group. Thus the 
head of Christ is thrown in shadow upon any white surface 
when the strange-looking mask is held up between the candle 
and the board ; the child on the rocking-horse is arranged for 
the same effect, which thus reverses the shadow portraiture of 
long ago. 

In the Victoria and Albert Museum there is a large portfolio 
with examples of scissor-work and black portraiture. Amongst 
the specimens are many of the perforated shadow-throwing type, 
some well-known pictures being thus reproduced. They were 
bequeathed by the Rev. Chauncey Hare Townshend, and consist 
of shadow and silhouette pictures and portraits "done by 



7^ The History of Silhouettes 

C. H. Townshend and his family." This donor also bequeathed 
many paintings to the Museum. Little groups, such as " A Child 
and a Goat," " Children Playing," " A Lady holding up a Child," 
give glimpses into the domestic scenes it was considered pleasing 
to portray in silhouette. Some of these are done by Charlotte 
Townshend ; some by other members of the family. There is 
no very great interest attaching to these amiable records of a 
bygone day. 

" Copied by Mrs. Wigston from Lady Templetown's designs " 
gives us an insight into the part played by those not sufficiently 
skilful to originate but who, by copying, could take their share 
in the fashionable pastime. 

The late Andrew W. Tuer, who was keenly interested in the 
subject of silhouettes, wrote thus in Notes and Queries concerning 
silhouettes of children : " Much should I like to know who 
designed and cut out in black paper a remarkably clever series 
of about eighty minute silhouettes of child life, mainly groups. 
They are loosely placed in a book of blank leaves bound in 
contemporary citron morocco, lettered on the front ' M. G.' To 
some the artist has written a verse, and to others a date the 
earliest 1796, the latest 1806. Inferentially, the work is that 
of gentlefolk. Between two of the leaves is a piece of black 
paper, on the reverse or white side being written 'J. Poulett, 
Twickenham, Middlesex,' and on another piece of paper the 
name 'Lucy' is cut out in silhouette." 

Later Mr. Tuer wrote : " From the Earl Poulett I gather 
that these interesting and clever silhouettes were probably the 
handiwork of the first wife, whose initials were A. L., of the 
fourth Earl Poulett, of Poulett Lodge, Twickenham. What the 
initials M. G. stand for his lordship does not know. 

"ANDREW W. TUER. 

"The Leadenhall Press, E.G." 



Scrap-Books 79 

Though more a note-book than a scrap-book, an interesting 
relic of the laborious methods of Lavater must be mentioned 
here. This volume, which is one of the chief treasures of the 
Wellesley collection, is a small leather-bound book, in which the 
philosopher pasted the silhouette portraits of those persons whose 
heads he wished to measure, study, and compare with others in 
his collection, and then to pronounce judgment upon as to their 
mental and moral qualities. The fact that Goethe was for a 
time enthusiastic with regard to Lavater's work casts a glamour 
over the little book, with its many pictures and vast store of 
minutely written notes. 

Another album, which is also in Mr. Wellesley's collection, 
is most elaborate. Each page has a finely wrought border, in 
the centre of which is pasted the silhouette portrait of a friend ; 
the male sex is largely in the majority, but a few women's 
profiles are included. We cannot imagine a more charming 
souvenir of an interesting circle of friends than such a shadow 
pageant. Old comrades would be brought to remembrance 
through the extraordinarily vivid personal touch that the 
silhouette picture retains; friends almost forgotten seem to rise 
up in the memory as we handle their black profile portrait, 
for there is a direct appeal in outline, which is more profound 
than when contour blurs the recollection. 

In examining such a collection, one cannot help being 
interested in the very great variety of wigs no two are alike; 
long and short queues, large and small ribbons, coquettish curls, 
majestic rolls, are shown amongst the men's profiles, till we are 
bewildered with the variety, and cease to wonder that all kinds 
of fanciful names were given by the beaux of the day to the 
special hair-dressing they affected. 

No less remarkable is the head-dressing of the ladies, and 
the elaboration of the curls and coifs is only eclipsed by the 



8o The History of Silhouettes 

intricacy of the flowers, feathers, bows of ribbon gauze and 
taffeta with which the great erections are garnished. Even 
when there is no gilt pencilling to throw up the detail, the effect 
is marvellously interesting ; and, for this reason alone, the old 
black shadow collections make a very absorbing study. 

An extraordinarily interesting collection of upwards of one 
hundred and fifty is in a narrow folio volume in paper cover, 
dated 1804. Religious processions and ceremonies, rural 
and domestic scenes and children's games, are cut with the 
utmost delicacy and mounted on white paper. Here are a few 
of the subjects : Carrying the Host to a sick person at Nice ; 
Cleaning Shoes in Paris ; Drinking the Waters at Wiesbaden ; 
Gathering Apples near Paris ; Sprinkling Clothes at Bergen ; 
Procession on Palm Sunday ; Procession of the Virgin Mary ; 
Jewish Wedding ; The Pope carried round St. Peter's ; A Fish- 
market ; Wine-making ; and a dozen other complicated scenes. 
All are depicted with wonderful accuracy. This important 
collection has now unfortunately left England. 

Another interesting little scrap-book of yellow paper, bound in 
calf, contains the portraits of the King (George III.); Edw. 
King, Esq. ; Mrs. King ; Mrs. Carter, the translator of Epictetus ; 
Tiberius Cavallo, Esq. ; Mrs. Fiere, mother of the Rt. Hon. 
S. H. Fiere ; Baron Rechausen, Swedish Minister ; Madame 
Rechausen ; two favourites ; Miss H. Randall ; Warren Hastings, 
Esq., Governor-General of India ; General Paoli. Some of these 
are in Indian ink, some in cut paper. 




SILHOUETTE PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

By A.. Forbergw, Paris, Signed and dated 1791 




CHAPTER VIII. 

SILHOUETTE DECORATION ON PORCELAIN AND GLASS. 
THE SILHOUETTE THEATRE. 

the oldest type of black profile representation is 
undoubtedly connected with the decoration of pottery, 
it is not to be wondered at that when silhouette-making 
by brush, pencil, or scissors was at the height of 
its popularity, a return should be made in style to the 
antique. The porcelain and glass makers ornamented their 
work in silhouette, sometimes in the modern form, when the 
head and neck would be shown, generally in black upon 
white china, but also in a few instances in black upon a 
reddish terra-cotta colour, when the full figure would be given 
in the Greek style, and designs more or less elaborate would be 
I as borders, notably, the key pattern, so usually associated 
with Greek art, though, as a matter of fact, such patterns appear 
m all Oriental decoration. A Vienna factory, and also some of the 
French factories of the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the 
uneteenth century, made objects with the reddish ground Sil- 
houette porcelain was not infrequently made for private individuals 
such, for example, as the specimen owned by Dr A Figdor of 
Vienna. A female head painted in black is surrounded by a wreath 
of forget-me-nots in colour, and on the back is the inscription 
In remembrance of your affectionate grandmother M J C " A 
fine cup and saucer is in the collection at Carnavalet in Paris 
amongst those pieces which are associated with the Revolution' 
Within a frame of olive or laurel, is the silhouette of Mirabeau' 
with the name printed below. There is a beautiful tray belonging 
Mr. FitzHenry, of French manufacture. This shows the silhouette 



82 The History of Silhouettes 

portrait at its best, in gold, as centre ornament. Wreaths of 
ribbon garlands and pierced ornament make this fine piece 
specially attractive. Besides these individual pieces, specially 
ordered for special occasions, there are the pieces of silhouette 
china ornamented with portraits of the king or of the reigning 
family. In Mr. Wellesley's collection there is a mug with a 
portrait of George IV. rather coarsely done, and we have 
examined some custard cups with lids, which were also English. 
At the Worcester and Bristol factories such painting was done, 
though usually less elaborately than at some of the German 
porcelain factories. There is an exception, however, in the very 
fine vase shown in our illustration. This is in the possession of 
Mr. Spink, and was made at Worcester. It stands thirteen- 
and-a-half inches high, and its elaborate decoration in gold 
and colour is extremely effective. The wide band above the 
portrait is of chocolate colour, with pencillings of gold in a 
Greek design ; blue, green, and brown figure on other parts 
of the vase, and the lid has a gold knob. The black profile 
of the king has a band round it, on which are the words, 
" Health and prosperity attend His Majesty." 

At Knole there are several beautiful Worcester vases with 
silhouettes of George III. and a remarkable breakfast service 
of German workmanship. This is complete, and gives the 
different portraits of the reigning royal family. Even more 
elaborate are two vases also connected with royalty ; they 
were evidently made for centre-pieces when a special dinner 
service was used. There are no silhouette portraits on the 
plates and dishes, but on the two splendidly ornamental 
vases, which match in decoration, there are profiles of the King 
and Queen of Sweden respectively. These fine examples are 
in Copenhagen porcelain ; swags of flowers in high relief show 
up well on the white ground. Cupids ornament the lids and 



Silhouette Decoration 83 

hold as a shield gold-framed medallions, where, on a rose- 
coloured ground, the silhouettes show with excellent effect. These 
vases stand sixteen inches in height. 

Amongst the German examples there is a good specimen from 
Wallenstein with a silhouette portrait of Frederick the Great in 
a frame of laurel picked out in gold. In the Hohenzollern 
Museum at Monbijou Castle there is a large service entirely 
decorated in this way. Teapots and cream-jugs, basins, sugar 
and slop bowls, and coffee-cups, all are complete, and six female 
and three male heads appear, all being members of the Royal 
Family. Frederick the Great is on the coffee-pot. 

Undoubtedly such ware was made for presentation. We can 
well imagine the special pleasure in a gift which has this very 
personal touch ; the royal attribute of picture presentation must 
have been most acceptable when the useful service became the 
portrait background. 

Not only did the silhouette cast its glamour over the 
porcelain makers, but glass manufacturers also utilized the fashion 
for the original decoration of their wares. Dr. Strauss, of Berlin, 
owns a remarkable glass with a well-cut shank, which shows the 
head and shoulders of a woman, with the inscription, " With 
best wishes for your welfare, your faithful wife presents you 
with this. L. W. V. R., August 6th, 1795." The silhouette is in 
gold, and is done by means of a curious process practised by 
one Glomi, and called after him Eglomis6, though the method 
was known and utilized long before his time ; in fact, as early 
as the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, this etching in gold 
between glass was done. Fine specimens, usually cups, goblets, 
and chalices, for the use of the Church, enrich our museums. 
The process is thus described by Larousse in the Nouveau 
Dictionnaire : 



art. Larousse, "Nouveau Dictionnaire" Tom. 4. 
glomis, ee. (de Glomi, n. pr.) adj. 



84 The History of Silhouettes 

Se dit d'un objet en verre dcor au moyen d'une dorure interieure, suivant 
le proce"de" de 1'encadreur Glomi, qui parait en avoir 6t6 1'inventeur au XVIII' 
sifecle. 

Encycl. Les verres e'glomise's sont ces petits tableaux dont le sujet est peint 
sur le verre meme qui les recouvre. On fait un frequent usage de ses petits 
panneaux ou de ces lentilles pour former des dessus de bonbonnieres, etc. 
Ordinairement, le trace" est fait a la pointe, sur une feuille d'or fixe au vernis 
sur le verre. Le mot "^glomise"" a 6t6 invente", en 1825, par l'arche"ologue 
Carrand et applique" par lui aussi bien aux verres modernes de"cores suivant la 
me'thode de Glomi qu'aux objets beaucoup plus anciens, datant du plus haut 
moyen age, oil la feuille d'or est soudee au feu entre deux pellicules de verre. 

The work was done on one glass, and another was made 
to literally enclose the finely etched gold lines, so that no 
harm could come to the decoration. Delicate landscapes as 
well as figures and portrait busts are done, and the glass is 
found coloured as well as clear white. There is a fine example 
in the Imperial Austrian Museum at Vienna, in which the 
silhouette in gold of a man appears with the inscription, 
" P. Ferdinand Karl, Professi Hilariensis. Mildner fee. a 
Gullenbrunn, 1799." 

In the Glass Gallery at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
and at the British Museum, there are very fine specimens. 
At the former there is a drinking glass specially worthy of 
note. It is of tumbler shape, 3^ inches by 2f inches, and is 
formed of two layers of glass, one of which is etched in gold 
leaf, with a group of St. George and the Dragon, foliated 
scrolls, festoons, and arabesques. The bottom is coloured red 
and etched in gold, with the sacred monogram I.H.S., and 
the legend, " Benedictine sit nomen Domini." The outside is 
cut in facets. This example is German early eighteenth century. 

Wonderfully vivid hunting scenes are shown in gold- 
silhouette on an example of sixteenth-century work owned by 
Mr. FitzHenry ; while black silhouette work of Nuremberg 
manufacture is painted in black with flowers and sacred 



Silhouette Decoration 85 

emblems. Besides the gold ornamented glass, there was also a 
good deal made in the same way but decorated in very dark 
brown or black. Hunting scenes, elaborately sketched with the 
minutest detail in tree, hound, and huntsman, often figure on 
such pieces. 

A volume on the silhouette in all its aspects would be 
incomplete without some reference to the use which, from 
earliest times, has been made of shadowgraphy to represent 
isolated scenes, and also complete plays on the stage. 

In Paris, in 1771, the celebrated Theatre Seraphin was 
founded by Seraphin Dominique Francois, who opened his little 
theatre for shadowgraphy alone, in the gardens at Versailles. 

Slight and dainty were the plays, and we can imagine 
the silk-clad audience in powder and patches who would come 
with the children, or with no excuse at all, to amuse them- 
selves at the antics performed in this shadowland. Little they 
cared for the real shadows of the terrible Revolution which 
were already gathering as they applauded the silhouettes of 
Seraphin. 

" Venez gardens, venez fillettes, 
Voir Momus a la silhouette." 

Twenty-six years later, after the stormy days of the Revolution, 
marionettes were added to the attraction of Chinese shadow- 
graphy, which still lingers in the magic-lantern shows of 
to-day. 

For the palmy days of the silhouette theatre we must look 
a long way down the centuries, and the recent astounding find 
of a large collection of ancient figures used in the shadow 
plays of old Egypt enables us to actually see how the Egyptian 
figures looked and how they worked. The history of their 
discovery by Dr. Paul Kahle in one of the villages of the Delta 
is a fascinating one, too long for these pages, but the signs 



86 The History of Silhouettes 

and proofs of antiquity are complete. The coats of arms of 
the Mamelukes used in the thirteenth century are used as 
ornaments, and the leather, of which the human figures, ships, 
and birds are made, is cleverly cut, so that a mosaic of richer 
colouring is visible. 

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries there are renowned 
actors in the shadow theatre, and even as early as the eleventh 
century performances are mentioned. The stage was formed by 
a thin sheet, behind which there was a strong light, and the 
figures were moved with two sticks fastened in the middle of 
the back. 

In Java legendary history is taught by means of itinerant 
silhouette shows. These figures are also of leather, from 
eighteen inches to two feet in height. They are moved by 
means of horn sticks ; they were in existence before Mahomet- 
anism came to the island. In China silhouette plays always 
represent a priest of Buddha as the central figure, and he is 
made to dance in imitation of the movements made in the 
performance of religious rites. 

On the night of the festival of Diwali in India men exhibit a 
huge cylindrical paper lantern, over the sides of which shadow 
figures pass in succession, so that Gonard's lamp in the Palais 
Royal, that was decorated with silhouettes to guide his clients 
to his salon, might have come straight from the East. 

Special plays for performance on the stage of the shadow 
theatre were published as late as 1850, written some years 
before by Brentano for the amusement of his family, for 
shadowgraphy was often practised in the middle-class houses. 

Pocci also wrote a play for the shadow theatre, and Henri 
Riviere produced the " Prodigal Child " and the " March to 
the Star," both shadow tableaux rather than plays, arranged 
in seven elaborate scenes. 







ALPHABETICAL LIST OF 

SILHOUETTISTS, MAKERS OF SILHOUETTE MOUNTS, 
AND OTHERS CONNECTED WITH THE CRAFT. 

N attempting this the first list which has ever appeared 
of silhouette artists, apology must be made for 
inevitable omissions. Since commencing it six years 
ago, obscure examples have been found which give the 
names of unknown painters or cutters, possibly amateurs, who 
have left no other sign of their work except this ghost of the 
past. Sometimes a rare specimen has been the means of adding 
to the list of silhouettists a man or woman already well known 
in some other branch of artistic work, such as Dicky Doyle 
and the late Phil May, examples owned by Mr. Desmond Coke. 

It is well known that while the fashion for shadow 
portraiture lasted, many artists used the method but did not 
sign their work, thinking perhaps that this passing mode 
was not one altogether worthy of their reputation in other 
branches. It is the exception rather than the rule for silhouettes 
to be signed, whatever the process chosen. Connoisseurs are 
enabled by careful study to recognise at a glance examples 
of well-known silhouettists, such as Miers, Rosenberg, Mrs. 
Beetham, or Edouart, by their treatment of hair or some slight 
characteristic touch ; but as a rule the shadow pageant passes 
before us nameless, elusive. We hope to rescue from final 
obscurity some of the names of the lesser men, and perhaps 
the list, however incomplete, may help owners to identify the 
originals of these shadow sitters of the past. When possible, 
dates of birth and death are given ; but often only a single 
date is available that when the portrait was taken. In many 
cases the advertisement at the back of the frame gives us the 



88 The History of Silhouettes 

desired information ; but comparatively few examples are still in 
the original frames provided by the artist. Even if the frame has 
not been changed, the glass may have been broken, rendering the 
opening of the back necessary for renewal, with destruction to 
the trade label. Beneath a second covering, for dust-proof 
purposes, it is sometimes possible to find a name, but each 
year the chances of the preservation of such clues is lessening. 
The author will be glad to have information sent to her in 
order to add further information in view of a later edition 
of her work. 

It has been thought advisable for purposes of reference to 
arrange the names in alphabetical rather than chronological 
order. As the methods of silhouetting in different countries 
do not vary to any large extent, and as most of the workers 
travelled widely, so that, for example, Hubard, though an 
Englishman, did much of his work in America, and August 
Edouart, a Frenchman,' is best known in the British Isles 
and the United States, the artists have not been grouped 
according to their nationality, nor with regard to their mode 
of work. The alphabetical order seemed on the whole to be the 
most convenient. 

ACKERMAN. Published a sheet of silhouettes of children 
playing in groups, about 1830. 

ADAM, J., Vienna. Engraved mounts for silhouettes. 

ADOLPHE. Signature on silhouette of George IV. in black 
ink, gold on hair and rings, xxm. Advertisement on a signed 
portrait of Lady John Townshend, 1840, in the National Portrait 
Gallery. "The Origin of Profiles, sketched by Mons. Adolphe, 
Portrait, Animal, Miniature and Profile Painter, 113, St. James's 
Street, Brighton." Then follow verses commencing 

'"Twas love, 'twas all inspiring love 'tis said, 
Directed first a female hand to trace." 



Silhouettists 89 

ALDOUS. On the silhouette portrait of his late Royal 
Highness Frederick Duke of York is written, " Drawn on stone 
by Mr. Aldous." 

ANTHING, F. (1783-1800). One of the finest painters of 
silhouettes. Volume of 100 silhouettes of his notable personages 
was published (see Bibliography). Three large silhouettes by 
this artist were exhibited at the Berlin Exhibition. Worked 
in St. Petersburg. 

ASMUS, HILDEGARD. Cut genre subjects in black paper. 

ATKINSON, G. (1815). Lived at Windsor. Was called 
Silhouettist to the Royal Family. A large group of George III. 
and his sons, cut in black paper and touched with gold, was 
exhibited at the Royal Amateur Art Society's Exhibition in 
1911. Owner: G. Sharland, Esq. xxxvu. 

AYRER, GEORG FREDERICK. Late eighteenth century. Did 
much of his work at Lausanne. Of him was written by Madame 
Weston (n&e Bry) in 1778: "Tous les talents meritent qu'on 
les prise. Le votre est amusant joli interessant. En le per- 
fectionnant vous rendez inutile qu'au bas de vos portraits on 
ecreVe son nom." 

BARBER (1821). 

BAUSER, M. (1779). Head of a man published in Germany in 
a book of operettas (see Bibliography). 

BEAUMONT. Signature on portrait of Ed. Copleston, D.D., 
taken 1845. 

BECKMAN, JOHANNA. Fine foliage work, black paper. Modern. 

BEETHAM, MRS. (1785), 27, Fleet Street. Painted on card, 
plaster, and convex glass, sometimes filled with wax. Jewel 
examples of her work are rare one brooch in the Wellesley 
collection, one owned by Mrs. Head. Mrs. Beetham's work is 
very fine ; ribbon gauze and hair are done with great taste and 
dexterity. Her advertisement on an example in the possession 



9 The History of Silhouettes 

of her descendant, Dr. Beetham, runs thus : " Profiles in miniature 
by Mrs. Beetham, No. 27, Fleet St., 1785." x., xi., XLIX. 

BETTS. Made a " newly-invented machine " for reducing the 
life-size shadow. 

BLACKBURN, J. (1850), King Street, Manchester. 

BLUM (1795). Cut silhouette portraits for the Annalen der 
neueren theologischen Literatur in Kirchengeschichte, 7th vol., 1795. 

BLY. Cut silhouettes in black paper at the West Pier, 
Brighton. Present day. 

BOCKTON. On portrait of Sir Wm. Wynne Knight, LL.D., 
Dean of the Arches and Judge of the Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury. " Mr. Bockton, his Proctor, took his resemblance 
as he sat giving judgment." 

BOHLER, DR. OTTO, Vienna. Cut twenty-one silhouettes of 
musicians and others, which have been reproduced. He is 
considered by Herr Julius Leisching to be one of the best modern 
German silhouettists. 

BONNES. 

BOUVIER, J. Signature on the portrait of the Right Hon. 
Sir R. Peel, Bart., M.P., showing the New Exchange, Glasgow, 
in the background. Published by Wm. Spooner, 377, Strand. 
Lithograph in the National Portrait Gallery. 

BRANDES, MINNA. Born 1765, in Berlin. A girl's head thus 
named, probably herself, done by some silhouettist of the day, 
appears in the operettas published in Germany in 1799 (see 
Bibliography). 

BRETTANER, BARBARA (1721). Parchment cutter. 

BROWN, Miss. Said to have cut Gibbons's profile without 
a sitting. 

BROWN, WILLIAM HENRY. Born May 22nd, 1808, in Charles- 
town, South Carolina. Itinerated in the United States. He cut 
mostly full-length portraits, and called his studio the Brown 



Silhouettists 9 1 

Gallery in whatever town he worked. A book was published 
with twelve silhouettes by him, mostly full-lengths with elaborate 
backgrounds, also facsimile autograph letters of the people whose 
portraits are given (for full title of book, see Bibliography). 

BRUCE, I., 85, Farringdon Street ; and 3, Somerset Place, 
Brighton. Signature on a series of early nineteenth-century 
portraits in the National Portrait Gallery, which include Lord 
John Russell and William IV. 

BURMESTER (1770). Court silhouettist in Berlin. 

CAPUCHIN, F. AGATHAUGDUS BONNENSIS. Signature on fine 
cut paper ; ornament with bishop's arms. 

CHARLES, 130, Strand. Worked with pen and Indian ink; 
sometimes he used colour on the dress. A signed specimen of 
Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire, and one of Fanny Burney, 
owned by Mr. Wellesley; others owned by Mr. Leslie and Mr. 
F. G. Rowson. In his advertisement, which bears an engraved 
head on the label, he describes himself as " the first profilist in 
England," 138, Strand. XL, xv., xix. 

CLARKE, W. (1781), of Newcastle. Painted on plaster. Label 
on an example in the Wellesley collection. 

COOPER. Signature on portrait of a man painted on card 
in red brown touched with gold. Date 1833. At Knole. 

Coos (1782). Signature on woman's profile portrait on 
gold glass background; in the collection at Knole. xxi. 

CURTIS, ELEANOR PARK (1779-1852), step-daughter of 
Washington, first President U.S.A., whose silhouette she cut at 
Mount Vernon in 1798. This portrait is bust size, looking right. 

DEINVEL, F. Silhouettes cut out of paper blackened with 
Indian ink, the hair, lace, and other ornaments being added with 
the pen on the mount; engraved mounts sometimes used. 

DEMPSEY. " Profilist. Established No. 30, Manchester Street. 
Likenesses in shade, 3d. ! Bronzed, 6d. I I Coloured, 2s. 6d. 



92 The History of Silhouettes 

Observe it is Dempsey's." Advertisement label on two full-length 
men's portraits with painted sepia background. Owner : Mr. 
Desmond Coke. 

DENON, DOMINIQUE. Medallist, engraver, silhouettist. Born 
Chalon-sur-Saone, died in Paris. He accompanied Napoleon 
to Egypt. His silhouettes are mounted with elaborate borders. 

DESFONEAUX, T. E. 

DEWEY (1800). Name on silhouette of Ambrose Clarke, in 
the possession of Mrs. Wm. A. Fisher, U.S.A. 

DEYVERDUNS. Eighteenth-century silhouettist. 

DIEFENBACH. Cut genre pictures in black paper. Present day. 

DIETERS, HANS. Silhouette cutter, nineteenth century. A fine 
portrait of Bismarck, with two of the great hounds named after 
him, is used as an illustration in "The Revival of the Silhouette." 

DOHREN, JOCOB VON, Hamburg. Reduplication of silhouettes ; 
process mentioned in book on Bon Magic (see Bibliography). 

DUMPLE. Advertisement label on an example in the Wellesley 
collection. 

EBERLE, CONSTANCE, Briinn. Cut silhouettes. 

ECKART. A labouring man of Berlin ; his clever silhouette 
cutting was brought to the notice of the public by Werkmeister. 

EDOUART, AUGUST. Born 1789, died 1861 ; a Frenchman. 
Served under Napoleon, and was decorated. He married 
Mademoiselle Vital, and during the political crisis came to 
England. Cut silhouettes in doubled black paper; itinerated in 
the large towns in England and on the Continent. He kept 
books of duplicates which contained upwards of 100,000 portraits ; 
these included the French Royal Family taken at Holyrood, 
hundreds of the gentry and nobility of Great Britain, besides 
professional men, statesmen, politicians, and almost every man 
and woman of note of his time. He wrote a treatise on 
silhouettes (see Bibliography), a demy octavo volume with many 



Silhouettists 93 

illustrations, which is now very rare. When upwards of fifty 
years of age, Edouart went to America, and while there cut 
the portraits of presidents, soldiers, sailors, senators, and famous 
men and women in the States. In 1849 the ship " Oneida," 
on which the artist returned, was wrecked, and many of his 
valuable volumes of duplicates were lost. Some 9,000 portraits, 
however, in fourteen volumes, were saved, and form a remarkable 
collection of the celebrities of his day (see chapter on " Edouart 
and his Book"), iv., v., vi., vn., xv., xxiv., xxv., xxvn., xxxvn., 

XXXVIII., XL., XLL, XLIII., XLIV., XLVIIL, L., LVII., LX., LXIV. 

EDWARDS, E. C. (1824). Name on silhouette of Thomas 
Coke, of Holkham, afterwards Earl of Leicester. From a drawing 
made at Holkham. 

EDWIN, HENRY. Silhouettist of the second half of the 
nineteenth century. Cut the portraits of Lords Iddesleigh, 
Tennyson, and Salisbury, Mr. Gladstone, and many other famous 
men. A small paper book was published with a few of his 
fancy subjects. 

ELIZABETH, PRINCESS, xiu., xxxiv., xxxv., xxxvi., LXII., LXIV. 

FERPELL (1837). Signature on a sheet of five engraved sil- 
houettes at Knole. The portraits are of the Duke and Duchess 
of Dorset, of the eighteenth century, and their three children. 

FIELD, J. Born 1771, died 1841, at Molesey. Painted in black 
on glass, plaster, and card ; nearly always pencilled with gold. 
He was for many years in partnership with Miers, when the 
names Miers & Field appear on the label. Afterwards, " J. Field, 
n, Strand, late of the firm of Miers & Field," is found on the 
backs of his fine portraits. Thus: " J. Field, Profilist to their 
Majesties, and H.R.H. the Princess Augusta, No. 2, Strand, 
London, two doors east from Northumberland House. Upwards 
of thirty years sole profile painter, and late of the firm of 
Miers & Field. Continues to execute his long approved 



94 The History of Silhouettes 

likenesses, combining expression and character with accuracy of 
finish, so as to give the most pleasing resemblance, for 
frames, cases, frontispieces for library works, and even in minute 
size for bracelets, brooches, lockets. Time of sitting, three 
minutes. Mr. F. preserves all the original shades, by which he 
can at any time furnish copies, if required, without the necessity 
of a second sitting. Copies correctly taken from profile busts. 
Miniature frames and cases of every description manufactured 
by H. W. Field ; also jewellery and seal engraving." This 
label is on a portrait of himself by J. Field, in the possession 
of his great-grandson, vin., ix., x., xxu. 

FINKENTSCHER, OTTO. Cut silhouettes, chiefly animals. 

FIRTH, FREDERICK. Cut silhouettes, which are generally 
pencilled with gold. Advertisement in the possession of 
Mrs. Wadmore : " The nobility, gentry, and inhabitants of Tun- 
bridge Wells are respectfully informed that Master Firth will 
remain but one week longer in this town. Those ladies and 
gentlemen who have not yet completed their family sets are 
requested to make early application. That extraordinary talented 
youth, Master Firth, who has been the astonishment of all 
lovers of the fine arts, will exercise his ingenious and interesting 
profession for one week longer in this town, next door to the 
Ladies' Bazaar, Parade, etc. His prices A plain bust, is. ; 
duplicate of ditto, 6d. A bust in gold bronze or shaded, with 
drapery, 2s. 6d. Whole-length figure in plain black, 2s. 6d. ; 
ditto, duplicate of ditto, is. 6d. ; ditto, very highly finished, 2s. 6d. 
The much-admired coloured profiles, IDS. 6d. Whole-length 
figure in bronze or shaded, with drapery, developing every 
characteristic peculiarity of hair, dress, etc., 55. 6d." 

FLINT, ANDREAS. 

FOLWELL, S. Signature on a portrait of George 
Washington, 1791. Painted on card. 



Silhouettists 95 

FORBERGER, A. (1795), Paris. Painted on glass, gold lined. 
A memorial silhouette is in the Wellesley collection. (See 

Plates.) 

FOSTER, EDWARD WARD. Born in Derby 1761, died 1864. 
Described on his trade label as from London. In 1811 he was at 
Mr. Abbott's, Trimmer, Friar Gate. Most of Foster's work is in 
sanguine reddish colour, painted on card. There is often a 
minute diaper pattern of stars on the dresses of women and 
children ; occasionally greens and blue tints greatly enhance the 
beauty of his silhouettes. His signature is rare. Occasionally it 
is found written minutely, as on the portrait of the Countess of 
Blessington in the collection at Knole, Sevenoaks. His name 
is occasionally embossed in the brass ornamental ring of the 
papier-mache" frame. 

FOWLER. On signed portrait of George III., with minute 
writing forming ornamental lines. 

FRANCOIS. French silhouette cutter of the present day. 
Worked at Earl's Court Exhibition, 1911. 

FRANKLIN. Worked in the Thames Tunnel. Early nineteenth 
century. 

FRERE, J. Signature on painted silhouette portrait of a man, 
white collar and stock, in the possession of the author. 

FROHLICH, KARL, of Berlin. Cut silhouettes after drawing. 
GABILLON, Vienna. Illustrated "Puss in Boots" in silhouette, 
1876-1877 (see Bibliography). 

GAPP, J. (1829), Brighton. Worked on the Chain Pier. 
Label on full-length cut portrait of a boy, in the collection of 
the author. " Daily at the Third Tower on the Chain Pier. 
Full length, 2s. 6d. ; bronze, 45. ; on horseback, 75. 6d. ; 
horses, 55. ; dogs, is. 6d. ; small cuttings for scrap-books." 
Sala in his " Brighton as I have known it " writes : " Old Chain 
Pier cabins, where they took portraits known as silhouettes, 



9 6 The History of Silhouettes 

which were profiles, cut out apparently of black sticking plaster, 
stuck on pieces of card." XLI. 

GEIGNER, FRANZ. Born 1749, died 1841. Cut silhouettes 
with indented outline. 

GIBBS, H. Painted on glass, plaster and card. " H. 
Gibbs, profilist," on the back of a portrait of a woman in 
Empire dress, painted on glass with wax filling. Owner, the 
author. " H. Gibbs, profile painter, Queen Street, Ranelagh, 
Chelsea," on silhouette painted on card, black profile, blue coat, 
yellow buttons. At Knole, Sevenoaks. 

GIBBS, M. Painting on glass, white relief, card back. Early 
nineteenth century. 

" M. G." Signature on book of silhouettes of children 
mentioned in Notes and Queries. 

GILLESPIE, J. H. (1793). "Likenesses drawn in one minute 
by J. H. Gillespie, profile painter," on three painted silhouettes 
owned by Mrs. Whitmore, Bromley. Greyish black with dead 
black lines, white relief. LIV. 

GNESIENAN, FRAU VON. 

GODFREY, W. F. Label on the portrait of a woman painted 
on convex glass in possession of the author. The face is black, 
the dress white, gold earrings and a tortoiseshell comb in her 
hair. "W. F. Godfrey announces to the nobility and gentry 
of this town and its vicinity, that he executes likenesses in 
profile shadow in a style particularly striking and elegant, whereby 
the most forcible animation is reduced to the miniature size 
for setting in rings, lockets, bracelets,- etc. W. F. G. having a 
successful practice for the last seven years, and the honour of 
taking the principal families in Somerset, Cornwall, and North 
Devon to their fullest and entire satisfaction ; and one trial only 
is required to ensure confidence and recommendation. Likenesses, 
beautified and enamelled on flat and convex glass, in bronze on 



Silhotttttists 97 

paper or glass. Likenesses taken in colour. Ladies and gentlemen 
waited on at their own houses in town or country." 

GOETHE (1749-1832). German poet. Cut the silhouette of 
Fritz von Stein and others, now in the Goethe Museum at 
Weimar. 

GONARD (1784), Paris. At the Palais Royale cut paper and 
painted; used elaborate printed mounts. His address in 1788 
was Palais Royale, under arch No. 167, at the side of Rue des 
Bons Enfants. Here his studio was so frequented that a special 
lantern, decorated with silhouettes, was used at night, that 
carriages and chairs might draw up for the convenience of his 
aristocratic sitters, xxu. 

GRAFF, A. Born 1736, died 1813. Portrait profilist, German. 

GRAFF. Described as " Portraitist." 

GRAPE (1793), Gottingen. Signature on silhouette portraits 
in the fifth volume of Annalen der neueren theologischen 
Literatur in Kirchengeschichte (see Bibliography). 

GRASSMEYER. Signature on cut silhouette in engraved mount. 

HAINES, E. Worked on the Chain Pier, Brighton, 1850. 
Label on a man's full-length portrait from the collection of 
Mr. Montague J. Guest, now belonging to the author : 
" Profilist and Scissorgraphist, patronised by the Royal Family, 
most respectfully informs the nobility and gentry, and visitors 
of Brighton, that he continues to execute the peculiar art of 
cutting profile likenesses in one minute with the aid of scissors 
only, so as to equal any yet produced by the most accurate 
machine. Terms : Full-length portrait, 2s. 6d. ; ditto bronzed, 
or two of one person, 45. ; bust, is., or two of one person, 
is. 6d. Portraits of many interesting living characters may 
be seen at the first left-hand tower on the Chain Pier. Families 
attended at their own residences without additional charge. 
Proprietor of original weighing machine." Bishop, writing of 

H 



9^ The History of Silhouettes 

the Brighton Chain Pier in 1897, writes of the old tower 
keeper, Mr. Haynes, a skilful silhouette cutter, " was very deaf, 
and his invariable reply to any question was ' is. 6d. head 
and shoulders; 2s. 6d. full length." xxxi. 

HAMLET (1779-1808). Label on a portrait painted on glass 
of His Serene Highness Count Beaujolais, brother to Louis 
Philippe of Orleans, afterwards King of France, " done for the 
Parry family, Bath, April, 1807." His addresses are 12, Union 
Street, on a portrait of Princess Sophia in the Wellesley 
collection, and 17, Union Passage. 

HANKS, MASTER. Silhouettist mentioned in the Catalogue of 
the Exhibition of the Maryland Society of Colonial Dames of 
America, held January, 1911. The name occurs on a silhouette 
of Miss Henrietta Moffet, belonging to Mr. and Mrs. Whitbridge. 

HARDING, Henry Street, London (Foster & Harding, London). 
Cut in paper by Mr. Harding " on the silhouette of Mr. 
Lawless, Irish Agitator," in the National Portrait Gallery. 

HAYD, H. Painted silhouettes. 

HEINEMANS. Cut silhouette of Goethe, about 1763. 

HEINRICH, ERNST (1792-1862). Cut the portrait of Countess 
Salm Proshan ; also painted silhouettes. 

HENNING, C. D. Born 1734. Engraver, painter, and 
silhouettist. 

HENSEL, F. and C. Cut twelve silhouettes to illustrate 
" Grimm's Fairy Tales," published in a book entitled " Lus 
Marchenland." 

HENVE, HENRY, 12, Cheapside. Label on silhouette owned 
by Mr. Wellesley. 

HERBERT, M., of Geneva. In 1761 Horace Walpole writes 
to Sir Horace Mann and asks him to thank the Duchess of 
Grafton on his behalf for the ddcoupure of herself, " her figure 
cut out in card by M. Herbert, of Geneva." 



Silhouettists 99 

HRRVE. "Artist, 172, Oxford Street," on cut paper silhouette 
of a lady in early Victorian dress. It is painted in gold. 
Owner : E. Jackson. 

HESSELL, L. H. (1757), St. Petersburg. Painter of silhouettes 
and copper engraver. Invented a machine to take silhouettes by 
daylight. 

HOERING. German. 

HOWIE. Painted the silhouette of Gilbert Burns, brother of 
Robert Burns, now in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 
Edinburgh. 

HUBARD, MASTER (1833), Began to cut silhouettes at the age 
of twelve. Label on portrait of Princess Victoria when a little 
girl. He also painted in Indian ink touched with gold. The 
Hubard Gallery was at 109, Strand. When seventeen years 
of age he landed in New York, and itinerated in the United 
States for many years, charging fifty cents for his silhouettes. 
A full-length portrait of a man, in the possession of the 
author, has " Hubard Gallery " embossed in the corner of the 
cardboard mount. Cut with scissors without drawing or machine 
at the Gallery of Cutting and Philharmonic Concert Room. 
This is the silhouette of John Grey Park, of Groton, Mass. : " cut 
in 1824 " is on one of his figures. Hubard also visited Boston, 
and worked at the Exchange Coffee House. XLV. 

HUBERT. Cutter of two silhouette portraits of Voltaire 
en deshabille, published in Illustrated London News, June 9th, 
1860. 

HUBNER (1797). On a fine painted silhouette of a child with 
long hair, belonging to Madame Nossof, Moscow. LIX. 

HULM. Eighteenth century. Signature on silhouette scarf- 
pin, metal. 

HUNT, MRS. LEIGH. Cut Byron's silhouette. LI. 

HONIGSMANN, R. Painted silhouettes in Indian ink. 



ioo The History of Silhouettes 

ICHIYEISAI YOSHIIKU (1824-1895). Japanese artist, who worked 
in silhouette. Two examples of his shadow prints show a cray-fish 
and red shell-fish, gold-fish and carp, in silhouette. A portrait 
of the actor Onoye Takanojo in colour and with silhouette is 
one of a series entitled " Mako no tsuki Hana no Sugata-ye " 
("A flower form picture (before) a real moon"). 

JEFFRESON. Name on label, gold bronze silhouette. Early 
nineteenth century. 

JONES. Advertisement in the Northampton Mercury, December 
3oth, 1752: "Shading Likenesses in Miniature Profile, on an 
entirely new plan and with great improvements. Taken in one 
minute by Mr. Jones, Artist and Drawing Master, from the 
Royal Academy, London. That no person may be deprived of 
their own friend's likeness, they will be done at so small a sum 
as 2s. 6d. Nothing required unless the most striking likeness is 
obtained. Specimens may be seen each day from 12 till 7, 
at Mr. Balaam's, Saddler, Northampton." 

JORDEN, RICHARD (1780). Painted on glass. No relief. 

JORDEN, W. (1783). Painting on flat glass, six portraits of 
the Deverell family, formerly in the collection of Mr. Montague J. 
Guest, now owned by the author. 

JOUBERT. Name on silhouette at Knole of boy cut, 
in ornamental engraved mount. Printed beneath the portrait 
is, " Fait par Joubert, peintre en miniature." XLVII. 

KAFFKA, J. C. Head of a young man in the operettas. 
Probably himself (see Bibliography). 

KAY, G. (alias WIRER). " Scissor-worker, photographist, 
miniature painter of the city of Oxford." In 1877 was in 
Scarborough. 

KELFE, M. LANE. Fecit April i6th, 1781, Bath. On man's 
portrait, black profile, uniform in grey relief, E. A. Girling. 
Owner : Mr. Desmond Coke, 



Silhouettists 101 

KEMPTON, W. Name on profile shade of " Francis, late 
Duke of Bedford," taken at Ampthill Park. 

KINDERMANN, JOHANN (1809). Gold-backed silhouette with 
pencil drawing. Sacred picture, with colours in landscape. 

KING, WILLIAM, "Taker of profile likenesses, respectfully 
informs the ladies and gentlemen of Portsmouth that he will 
take a room at Col. Woodward's on Wednesday next, and will 
stay ten days only to take profile likenesses. His price for two 
profiles of one person is twenty-five cents, and frames them in 
a handsome manner with black glass in elegant oval, round, or 
square frames, gilt or black. Price from fifty cents to two 
dollars each, etc." Advertisement in the New Hampshire 
Gazette, U.S.A., Tuesday, October 22nd, 1805. 

KNIGER, HEINRICH. Silhouettes with touches of colour, 
black faces, bodies in water-colour. Signature on town criers' 
and bell-ringers' silhouettes. 

KOCH, F. R. (1779). Name on a girl's head in the 
operettas (see Bibliography). 

KOMPF. Designed silhouettes for book " Martin Spitzbauch," 
1806. 

KONEWKA, PAUL. Born 1840, died 1871. One of the best 
known silhouettists of the nineteenth century. Illustrated several 
books with silhouettes, cut portraits for plays and children's 
books, designed, but did not himself cut, some of his early 
work. Much of it is signed " K." xiv. 

KORINTHEA. Daughter of the potter Dibutades. First traced 
shadow of her lover when he was leaving her (600 B.C.) in 
Corinth ; related by Pliny. 

KUNST, FRIEDRICH, Mollen. Made scissor-cut silhouettes. 

KUNST, THEODOR. Began to cut silhouettes when twelve 
years of age. 

LANGERVELS, H. (1820). 



102 The History of Silhouettes 

LASSE. Signature on portrait of the Emperor Paul of Russia 
as a child. In the possession of Madame Nossof, Moscow. 

LAVATER, J. G. The famous Swiss divine and author, whose 
learned work on physiognomy is largely illustrated by the 
silhouette portraits of the famous men of his day, cut or drawn 
by himself or his assistants. Many profile portraits by artists 
such as Michael Angeto, Vandyck, and others, are used in his 
book for purposes of examination. 

LEA, of Portsmouth. Signature on portrait painted on glass 
of Admiral Sir J. Lawford. 

LEU, Portsmouth. Painted on convex glass, end of eighteenth 
century. Much the same method as Mrs. Beetham, but not 
so fine. 

LEWIS. Profilist. Signature on portrait of Mr, J. Cunliffe, 
of York (1808). In the possession of Mrs. Fleming, xxvi. 

LIGHTFOOT, MRS. About 1785. Advertisement on two 
silhouettes, painted, in the possession of Miss Cumings, North 
Wales : " Perfect likenesses in miniature profile, taken by Mrs. 
Lightfoot, Liverpool, and reduced on a plan entirely new, which 
preserves the most exact symmetry and animated expression 
of the features. Much superior to any other method. Time 
of sitting one minute. N.B. She keeps the original shades, 
and can supply those she has once taken with any number of 
duplicates. Those who have shades by them may have them 
reduced and dressed in perfect taste. All orders addressed to 
Mrs. Lightfoot, Liverpool, will be punctually despatched." 

LINCOLN, P. S. Signature on several portraits in the collection 
of Mr. Montague J. Guest, sold at Christie's, April nth, 1910. 

LLOYD, A. E., Chain Pier, Brighton. Second half of nineteenth 
century. Cut paper pencilled with gold. 

LOCKE, M. (fecit 1843). Signed on full-length of lady 
holding book, 9 inches by 6 inches. Owned by Mr. J. R, Hall. 



Silhouetttsts 103 

LOEKSI. A Polish silhouette cutter who itinerated in 
Ireland, holding exhibitions in each city. Advertisement on an 
example in the Wellesley collection. 

LONGINATE, 81, Margaret Street. On printed silhouette of 
Granville Sharp, Esq., born 1734, died 1813. Published by 
L. Nichols & Co., December, 1818. In the N. P. G. 

LOSCHENKOHL (1780), Vienna. Painted originals of engraved 
silhouettes. Published in an almanack for 1786. 

MACKENZIE. Signed "P.M., after Atkinson," on silhouette 
portrait, full length, of Prince of Wales (late King Edward VII.) 
in his perambulator (1847) with the Princess Royal. At Knole. 

MACKINTOSH. igth century. Address: St. Andrew Street, 
Edinburgh. 

MACLISE (1806-1870). Born at Cork. Historical painter. 
Amongst his drawings bequeathed to the Victoria and Albert 
Museum by Mr. Foster, there are two heads in black silhouette 
and two cut silhouettes measuring ii inches. 

MANDERER, E. Illustrated a children's book with silhouettes. 

MANNERS, W. H. Cut the silhouette of Sir Thomas Swin- 
nerton Dyer, R.N., eighth baronet. Born 1770, died 1854. 

MAPLETOFT. A fellow of Pembroke College. Cut a black 
shade of Thomas Gray, " taken after he was 40." In the 
Strawberry Hill collection a profile of the poet was described 
as " Mr. Thomas Gray, etched from his shade by W. Mason." 
Mr. George Sharf, in the Athettaum, February 24th, 1894, 
considers it a happy instinct to make use of the silhouette for 
producing a more complete portrait. The black shade of the 
poet preserved at Pembroke College directly inspired the best 
known portrait of Gray by Basire. 

MARIA THERESA. Two white paper cuttings appeared in the 
Briinn Exhibition attributed to the scissors of the Empress. 

MARTINI, VIGER. On painted silhouette of Blondin, dancer 



IO 4 The History of Silhouettes 

at the Thdatre Italien, Comedi6 Francais, and others. In the 
National Portrait Gallery. These portraits are usually about 
5 inches by 2^ inches. Sometimes modelling in the face is 
suggested by brushwork. 

MASON, W. Profile painter and printseller, Cambridge. 
Label on portrait of Ed. Daniel Clarke, LL.D., Professor of 
Mineralogy, Cambridge, who died March gth, 1822, aged 53 years. 
MAY, PHIL. Died 1910. This brilliant black and white 
artist occasionally worked in silhouette, giving to each portrait 
his inimitable touch of good-natured caricature. Signature on 
several silhouettes owned by Mr. Desmond Coke, xv., XLIX. 

MAYER, JOSEF. Signature on silhouette of a young lady on 
a gold ground. 

MAYER, STEPHANUS (1813). Signature on a portrait finely 
etched on glass with gold ground. 

MELFOR, S. Name on cut silhouette of early Victorian lady 
in lace collar, gold lines on black dress. 

MERINSKY, F. D. Cut silhouettes, the paper afterwards 
stamped in slight relief. 

MERRYWEATHER. Profilist. Label on the back of cut 
silhouette of a girl, in black paper bronzed with gold. 
MEWES, Magdeburgh. 

MIERS, JOHN. Silhouette painter; generally painted in 
unrelieved black on plaster. His earliest label is very rare. 
" Perfect likenesses in miniature profile taken by J. Miers, Leeds," 
on a portrait of a man in the possession of the author. Other 
labels give "John Miers, in, Strand, opposite Exeter 'Change, 
Profilist and Jeweller, late of Leeds." His name is first men- 
tioned in the London Directory of 1792. Another address is, 
"J. Miers, late of Leeds, 162, Strand, opposite New Church." 
Also, " Miers & Field," when he commenced a partnership with 
John Field, which lasted many years. " Miers & Field, 



Silhouettists *5 

in, Strand," appears in Kent's London Directory of 1827. 
Considerable trouble clouded the latter years of the artist's 
life, ix., x., XL, xix., XXIIL 

MILDNER (1799). Gold silhouette on glass goblet enclosed 
in second glass (eglomise). 

MILNER, JAMES, 78, Grange Hill Road, Eltham. Pen-and- 
ink silhouette portraits. Present day. 

MOGLICH (1742), Augsburg. Drew silhouettes or etched on 
glass on a gold ground. 

MORSE, LEONARD BECKER (1783), St. John's College, 
Cambridge. 

MOSER, KOLOMAN, Vienna. Illustrated a book of caricatures 
in silhouette cut out of coloured papers (see Bibliography). 

MULACZ, OLGA, Vienna. Cut silhouette pictures to illustrate 
Goethe's "Faust," etc. 

MULLER, H. Silhouette in Indian ink. 

MULLER, WILHELMINA. Cut very minute landscapes in black 
paper. A man of humble origin, who possessed the gift, but 
made little use of it 

MURATORI, SIGNOR. Extract from Art Journal, 1853 : 
" Papyrography is the title given to the art of cutting pictures 
in black paper. Some specimens that have recently been shown 
by Signer Muratori are certainly the most ingenious works we 
have ever seen ; they are executed with scissors only." 

MUYBRIDGE. Mentioned as English silhouettist by Gardner 
Teall. 

NEATHER (1809). Cut silhouettes. 

NEVILLE, J., Pool Lane. 

NILSON (1721-1788). Member of the Vienna and Augsburg 
Academy. Cut a silhouette of Josef II. 

NILSON, ANDREAS, father of above. Silhouette and miniature 
painter. 



106 fhe History of Silhouettes - 

NOETHER, J. (1776). German. 

NOWAK, ANTON. Cut portraits and genre pictures. 

OCCOLOVITZ, L. Died 1799. Fine gold-back glass painted 
silhouettes, also jewel gold-back silhouettes with fine black 
drawing. 

OLDHAM, JOHN (1807). Miniature painter, engraver, and 
mechanic, of Dublin. " Invented the Ediograph for taking 
profile miniatures, price iis. 4sd." He also invented a machine 
for engraving bank-notes, which was adopted by the Bank of 
Ireland. 

OPIE, AMELIA (nee ALDERSON), wife of the artist. Cut the 
portrait of Mrs. Edward Beetham, silhouettist, of Fleet Street. 
This portrait is now in the possession of Dr. Beetham, of 
Bradford. It is cut hollow in white paper, which, when laid 
on black, gives the effect of a black shadow portrait, xxn. 

OPITZ, JOHANN ADOLF (1763-1825), Dresden. Portraits in 
silhouette. 

OSTERMEYER. Glass painted silhouettes with gold ground. 

OUVRIER (1725-1754). Engraved Schenan's painting, 
" L'origine de la peinture a la mode," and those of Eisen, 
Falconet, Boucher, etc. 

PACKENY, P. (1846-1905), Vienna. Cut silhouettes cleverly 
in variously coloured papers. 

PAHLY. Signature on two fine silhouettes of officers in 
uniform of the early nineteenth century. In the possession of 
Madame Nossof, Moscow. LIX. 

PAREY, AUGUSTE (1855). 

PASKIN, Colchester. Painted silhouettes on glass, wax filling. 
" Miniature and Profile Painter ; profiles painted in a new and 
elegant style producing the effect of aquatinta engraving, with 
the beauty and softness of enamel, in imitation of marble, 
conveying the most perfect likeness. In rings, brooches, lockets. 






Stlhouettists 107 

\ 

Time of sitting, one minute. Ladies and gentlemen attended 
at their own houses, if required, by leaving their address at 
Mr. Good's, hairdresser, 14, Head Street, Colchester." 

PAVEY, AUGUSTE (1855). 

PAVEY, C. H. 

PEALE, C. W. Began business in the United States; cut 
Washington and other famous men. 

PEARSE, JAMES. Portsmouth. Cut Nelson just before sailing 
for Trafalgar, and the Duchess of Kent in unrelieved black ; in 
the National Portrait Gallery. 

PEARSE, B., father of above. Cut the portrait of the Duke of 
Wellington from life. In the National Portrait Gallery. 

PELHEN, J. Painted on glass, eighteenth century. 

PFEILHAUER (1796). Silhouette pictures painted on glass, with 
several portraits of court musicians. 

PICK, G. Cut the portrait of King Edward VII. at 
Marienbad, Carlyle, and others. In the Knole collection. 

Pocci, F. G., Munich. Silhouette play, and silhouette 
illustration in books. 

POKORNY. Gold glass silhouette with some blue ground. 

PRIXNER (1784). Silhouettes cut in paper, on elaborate 
engraved mounts. 

PULHEN, E. B. (1819). Cut silhouettes. 

PYBURG, ELIZABETH. Cut profile of William and Mary, 
1699. See Harpers Magazine, June, 1882. 

QUIETENSKY, E. M. Cut silhouettes of theatrical characters. 

RAYNER (fecit 1808). On the painted silhouette of a boy, 
the property of Madame Nossof, Moscow. LVIII. 

READHEAD. Eighteenth century. On glass, painted to 
resemble a stipple engraving, card back. 

REHSEINER, MARIE. German modern silhouettist. 

REINHOLD. Cut silhouettes in black paper. 



io8 fhe History of Silhouettes 

RICHTER (about 1780). Painted on glass, gold leaf or silk 
background. 

RIDER, T. (1789). Temple Bar Advertisement. " Any lady or 
gentleman in the country, by taking their own shade, can have 
reduced for 35. 6d. rings in the new method, which has the 
effect of topases, gilt border, plaster filling. Profile painting 
on convex glass ; inventor of gold borders on convex glass, 
which gives a painting, print, or drawing the effect of fine 
enamel." 

RITZSCH (1788). Cut battle-scene in white paper. 

RIVIERE. Cut silhouettes in coloured papers, which have 
been published as book illustration in " L'enfant Prodigue 
Scenes Bibliques en 7 Tableaux " and " La Marche a 1'Etoile " 
(see Bibliography). 

ROBERTS, H. P. On glass, white relief, sometimes silk back. 

RODE, B. (1770), Berlin. Court silhouettist. 

ROSENBERG, T. E. Painted on plain or convex glass with 
backings of wax or plaster. Worked sometimes in colour. 
Address : 14, The Grove, Bath. Painted lockets, trinkets, and 
snuff-boxes. Prices from 75. 6d. to ;i is. Also Rosenberg, 
of Bath, at Mrs. Barclay's, ye Temple. XLV. 

ROUGHT, W., Corn Market, Oxford. Painted on glass. 
" One-minute sittings from 55. to los. 6d.," on female figure. 
Owner : Mr. A. B. Connor. 

ROWE, G. 

ROZEN (1766). Russian silhouettist. Signature on two fine 
portraits in the possession of Madame Nossof, Moscow. LVIII. 

RUNGE, PHILIP OTTO (1777-1810). Painter and silhouettist. 
Cut out in white paper, flowers, animals, human figures. His 
works have been collected and published in Germany. 

SANDHEGAN, M. Painted on card and glass. Marlborough 
Street, Dublin. 



Silhouettists 109 

SCHADER, K. (1799). Silhouette painted on glass. 
SCHARF. Black cut silhouette on blue ground- Eighteenth 
century. 

SCHELYMAC, I. W. (1779). 

SCHENAN, J. C. (1768). Painted picture, " L'Origine de la 
peinture ou les portraits a la mode." 

SCHINDLER, ALBERT (1805-1861), Silesia. Coloured silhouette 
portraits. 

SCHMALCALDER, C. Invented profile machine, patented 
1806. Address : Little Newport Street, Soho. Mathematical and 
philosophical instrument maker. 

SCHMED (1795-1801), Vienna. Many examples of his work 
were at the Exhibition at Brtinn, 1906. He painted on glass, 
using Indian ink decorations ; sometimes coloured foils as 
background. 

SCHREINER, CHRISTOPHER. Eighteenth century. Inventor of 
an instrument of the pantograph type for the reduction of 
silhouettes. 

SCHROTT, G. Silhouette landscapes and portraits with gold 
backgrounds. 

SCHUBRING, G. Illustrated, in cut silhouettes, songs and 
stories. (See Bibliography.) 

SCHULER (1791). Engraved silhouette portrait in Annalen der 
neueren theologischen Literatur in Kirchengeschichte. 

SCHUTZ, FRANZ. Born 1751, in Frankfort-on-Maine. Land- 
scape painter and silhouettist. 

SCHWAIGER, HANS (1906), Prague. Cut and painted silhouettes. 

SCOTT, M. (1911). Draws silhouette portraits in Indian ink. 
u, South Molton Street, W. 

SCROOPE, G. (1824). 

SEIDL, C. Gold background, black silhouette, locket size. 

SEIGNEUR. Cut silhouette of Gibbon. Lent by Miss Adam 



110 'The History of Silhouettes 

to Royal Amateur Art Society's Loan Collection, March, 1902 ; 
also Monsieur and Madame de SeVery by same artist. 

SEVILLE, W. (1821), Lancaster. Advertisement: "At a large 
room adjoining the Merchant's Coffee Room, Market Street. 
Striking likenesses cut with scissors in a few seconds, i/-." LVI. 

SHERWELL, MRS. (nte LIND). " Cut with scissors, without 
any other instrument," a series of silhouette portraits presented to 
the library of the Society of Antiquarians of Scotland by her son, 
Lieut.-Col. W. Stanhope Sherwell, in 1877. Amongst them is 
a bust portrait of George III., Queen Charlotte, Princess 
Amelia, Mr. and Mrs. Delaney, and many other persons of 
distinction, including the only known full-length portrait of 
Thomas Gray. This is 4J inches in height, and turned right ; 
it represents the poet in his later years. 

SHIELD. Signature on cut black paper silhouette of Wash- 
ington, in Library of Congress, Washington, U.S.A. 

SILHOUETTE, ETIENNE DE. The silhouette took its name, 
but no more, from Louis XV.'s miserly finance minister, Etienne 
de Silhouette (1709-1767). Born at Limoges on July 8th, he 
received as good an education as could then be obtained in 
a provincial town, studying such books on finance and 
administration as he could obtain. After travelling in Europe, 
he settled in London for a year to examine our practice of 
public economy (the Progressive of our present County Council 
had not yet been born) ; he then determined that one day France 
should have the same sound financial system. On returning 
to Paris, he translated some English works, which made his 
name known, and, becoming attached to the household of 
Marshal Nivelles, was appointed Secretary to the Due d'Orleans, 
the son of the Regent, who in a short time made him his 
Chancellor. At this time costly wars were depleting the treasury 
of France, and ministers were rapidly succeeding each other 



Silhouettists \ I I 

as head of the finance department of the State. Silhouette 
had always preached economy, a most uncommon plank in the 
political platform of those days of huge personal and State 
expenditure. Disgusted at the extremes of the Grand Monarque 
and the Regency, a section of thinking men gathered round 
Silhouette, seeing in him the controller who would straighten 
out the finances of the State. A party headed by the Prince 
de Conde opposed him, on the ground that he had committed 
a crime by translating English books into French. Silhouette, 
however, possessed the powerful influence of Madame de 
Pompadour, and was, through her, elected Contr61eur-General 
in March, 1757. It is said that he saved the treasury seventy- two 
millions of francs before he had been in office twenty-four 
hours. " This is the more remarkable," naively comments the 
old biographer Michaud, "because many of his relations were 
amongst those whose salaries he cut down." Economies next 
came in the household expenditure of Louis XV., and it 
is owing to Silhouette's policy that so many of the splendid 
masterpieces of the goldsmith's and silversmith's art of that epoch 
found their way into the melting-pot. Silhouette next proposed 
a novel system of banking. This led to the unpopularity which 
eventually brought about his downfall. He was forced to resign 
after a term of office lasting eight months, and on retiring 
he spent his time in regulating his estate on economical lines, 
and in silhouette cutting at Brie sur Marne. 

SINTZENICH (1779). Silhouette engraver. 

SKOYMSHER. Eighteenth century. Cut paper. Address: 280, 
Holborn. 

SMITH, J., Edinburgh. Painted on plaster. Eighteenth 
century. 

SOLLBRIG, JOHANN GOTTLIEB (1765-1815). Miniature painter 
and silhouettist. 



112 The History of Silhouettes 

SPECKBERGER. Silhouette portraits with gold backgrounds. 

SPORNBERG, W. Painted in black on convex glass, ground 
in black, profile, and pattern in orange red, elaborate borders. 
Portrait, one of eight, signed and dated, in the possession 
of Lady Sackville. "W. Spornberg, inventor, No. 5, Lower 
Church Street, Bath, 1793." Portraits of the Ansley family. 

STANZELL. Silhouette portrait with gold ground. 

STARCH (1806). Silhouette of Wieland, in the Goethe Museum 
at Weimar ; also group of a family at the tomb of a child, at 
the same Museum. 

STEELL. Advertisement from the Northampton Mercury, 
October 8th, 1781 : " Mr. Steell most respectfully solicits those 
inclined to honour him by sitting to be immediate, as his stay 
will be so short. " Likenesses in Profile. Dec. 22, 1781. Mr. S., 
having been sent for back to Northampton to wait on some 
families in the neighbourhood, and being informed that several 
ladies and gentlemen have applied during his absence, takes this 
opportunity of acquainting the public that he purposes stopping 
for about a week at Mr. Mawby's, in Mercer's Row, where he 
hopes those who are inclined to honour him will apply." 

STROHL, KARL FROLICH. Modern German silhouettist. 

TAPP, F. Frontispiece for a cookery book. Silhouettes cut 
out of black paper, red background. 

TERSTAN, A. T. xvm. 

THOMAS, 83, Long Acre. " Undertakes to supply silhouette 
portraits at is. each. Mr. T. is able to make this liberal offer 
in consequence of an order he has received from a gentleman 
of eminence to procure 50,000 different profiles of the human 
countenance for a treatise on physiology." On Indian ink portrait 
of an officer, engraved mount. 

THOMASON, I. (1793), Dublin. Itinerated in Cheshire, Lan- 
cashire, and Staffordshire. Painted on glass and plaster, black 




Painted silhouette, with gold pencilling. 

In the possession of Lady Sackville, at 

Knole. 





Painted silhouette, with gold pencilling 
and blue stock tie, at Knole. 




Painted silhouette, with gold pencilling, 
at Knole. 




Silhouette, painted on card. In 
possession of the Author. 



the 



The COUNTHSS OF BLESSINCTON. 1829. 
By Foster, at Knole. 



Silhouettists i 1 3 

faces, white relief. His advertisement says: "Silhouettes in 
miniature profile taken by Thomason on a peculiar plan and 
reduced to any size. Silhouettes set in rings, lockets, and pins, 
and he keeps original shades ; can supply those he has once 
taken with any number of copies, reduces old ones, and dresses 
them in present taste. Address : 25, Great George Street, 
Dublin." Also advertisement in Dublin Chronicle, May, 1792. 
Address : No. 30, Capel Street, Dublin. 

THONARD. Cut silhouette groups and family pieces between 
1790 and 1820. Sometimes worked in dark olive green with 
touches of gold. 

TOWNSHEND, BARBARA ANNE. Cut groups of figures in black 
paper. A collection of these was published in paper covers by 
Ed. Orms, Bond Street, London, in 1808. Price, 55. the book, 
or is. each print. 

TURNER. Published a silhouette of " Queen Charlotte of 
Great Britain," 1782, opposite the Church, Snow Hill. In the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

TUSSAUD, J. P. (1823), son of the great Madame Tussaud. 
" Respectfuly informs the nobility, gentry, and the public in general 
that he has a machine by which he takes profile likenesses. 
Price 2s. to 75., according to style. Biographical and descriptive 
sketches of the whole-length composition figures and other 
works of art forming the unrivalled collection of Madame 
Tussaud, etc." 

UNGER, Berlin. Reduplicated silhouettes by means of 
printing press, mentioned in " Bon Magic," one of the early 
books of instruction in silhouette-making. (See Bibliography.) 

URICH, R. Signature on engraved mount. 

VALENTINI (1759-1820). Silhouettist and painter. Worked 
at Turin, Milan, Florence, and Berlin. Originally a bookseller 
in Frankfort. Practised drawing and silhouetting in his leisure 



iH the History of Silhouettes 

hours. One of his portraits gained sufficient notoriety for him 
to throw up his book-selling and go to Italy to study. 

VALLOTON. Obtained silhouette effects by woodcuts and 
lithographs in two shades. 

VIDEKI, LUDWIG, Salzburg. 

V., L. Signature on white heads on dark blue ground. 
Hair, eyes, and shadows indicated by light grey shading in 
imitation of cameos. 

WAGNER, GEBHARDT. Silhouette post-card caricatures. 

WALCH, JEAN BAPTIST NICOLAS (1773). Silhouette of Mozart 
and his sister at the piano, as children. Cut out of small 
pieces of silk of various colours gummed on card. 

WALKER, J., Trowbridge. Eighteenth century. Painted 
on card, white relief. 

WALLER, H. & J. 

WALLSON. Signature on silhouettes owned by Mrs. Young. 

WASS, JOHN, Cornhill, London, Feb., 1823. On portrait of 
a lady wearing a frilled lace collar and high comb, in the 
possession of Mr. Alfred Doxey. 

WATKINS. Cut paper, signature on portrait of Nelson's 
mother ; also on portrait of Nicholas Brooking family, taken 
in Devon. Painted card, white relief. LIV. 

WELLINGTON, W. Painted on card in reddish brown. Also 
cut black and white paper with brushwork details. Formerly 
of Trafalgar House. 

WEST (1811). Advertisement: "Miniature and profile painter 
from London, respectfully informs the ladies and gentlemen 
of Derby and its environs that he has taken apartments 
at Mr. Price's, in the Market Place, where he intends for 
a short time practising the above art, and where specimens 
may be seen. Mr. W. requires only two short sittings, and 
will reduce the likeness with the greatest exactness to within 



Silhouettists US 

the compass of rings, brooches, etc. Miniatures from two 
to six guineas. Profiles taken correctly in one minute by 
means of his improved portable machine. The construction 
and simplicity of this instrument render it one of the most 
ingenious inventions of the present day, as it is impossible 
in its delineation to differ from the outline of the original, 
even in the breadth of a hair. Profiles on card, in black, 
55. ; in colours, ros. 6d. ; on wood, in colours, i guinea and 
upwards. Attendance from ten in the morning till five in the 
evening. 

" ** Mr. W. never permits a painting to quit his hands 
but what it's a likeness." 

WESTON, 149^, Bowery, New York. 

WHEELER (1799), Windsor. 

WHIELER, J. (1793). On portrait of coachman in elaborate 
livery, probably an amateur's study. In the possession of 
Mr. Desmond Coke. 

WHITTLE, E. (1830). " Cut with scissors. Mr. E. Whittle, 
artist." On portrait of a lady in black paper, book in hand, 
gold touches. In the possession of the author. 

WILL, J. M. German. 

WILLSON, Miss. Painting on convex glass. Signature at 
the back of portrait of Elizabeth Mitchell. Black head, cap, 
fichu, and lace in relief. Owner, the author. 

WILLTON (1809), Queen Street, Portsea. Advertisement on 
an example in the Wellesley collection. 

WINKLER, ROLF, Munich. Cut silhouettes without previous 
drawing. 

WIRER. See KAY. 

WISH, R. Signature on portrait of a man with ribbon, 
decorated engraved mount. At Knole. 

WRAG, MRS. On silhouette of Daniel Wrag, Esq. Profile 



u6 The History of Silhouettes 

taken by Mrs. Wrag. Published by J. Nichols & Co., April, 
1816. In the National Portrait Gallery. 

WRIGHT, PATIENCE. Came to London from America. Cut 
silhouettes and modelled wax figures. Also cut flowers and 
animals. 

YOUNG, G. M. (1836). On a full-length portrait in dark 
olive green, white relief, cap, etc. Owner : Mrs. Nickson. 

ZIMMERHAKEL (i8io). Painted on glass. 

fThe Roman numerals at the end of a biography refer to the page in 
the illustrations in which an example of the work of the silhouettist 
is included.} 




BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

|N compiling a list of books and essays in which the 
art of taking black shades is described, or in which 
silhouettes are used as illustrations, it is impossible to 
enumerate all the fragmentary notes which have appeared 
from time to time in modern magazines and newspapers. Amongst 
such, we have mentioned those which will best repay the 
attention of the student. 

" Heft mit heiteren Schnitten weiss auf Schwarz." 1653. 

Swift's "Miscellanies." Edition 1745. Vol. X. 

" Physiognomische Fragmente zur Beforderung der Menschen- 
kenntnis und der Menschenliebe." Lavater. 1775. 

"Anweisung zum Silhouettenzeichnen und zur Kunst, sie zu 
Verjiingen, nebst einer Einleitung von ihrem physiognomischen 
Nutzen." 1779. Anonym. Romhild und Leipzig. 

" Operetten," von C. F. Bretzner. 1777. C. F. Schneider, 
Leipzig. 

" Schattenrisse von hohen Herrschaften." 1779. 

" Ausfuhrliche Abhandlung liber die Silhouetten und deren 
Zeichnung, Verjiingung und Vervielfaltigung." Von dem unge- 
nannt bleibenden Verfasser des " physiognomischen Kabinets." 
Philip Heinrich Perrenon. 1780. Frankfurt und Leipzig. 

" Beschreibung der Boumagie oder der Kunst, Schattenrisse 
auf eine leichte und sichere Art zu vervielfaltigen." Anonym. 
1780. Perrenon, Miinster und Hamm. 

" Kalender fur das Jahr 1786." Mit 53 Schattenbildern. 
Herausgegeben von Heronim, Loschenkohl. 



n8 The History of Silhouettes 

" Collection de Cent Silhouettes de Personnes illustres et 
cdebres Dessines d'apr6s les originaux par Anthing." A. Gotha. 
1791. 

"Annalen der neueren theologischen Literatur und Kirchen- 
geschichte." Silhouette Bildnisse 1793, 1795, 1796. Rinteln, 
Leipzig, Frankfurt. 

"Die neuen theologischen Annalen." Marburg, 1799. Mit 
gestochenen Schattenrissen nach hervorragenden Geistlichen. 

" Essays on Physiognomy calculated to extend the Knowledge 
and Love of Mankind," written by the Rev. John Caspar 
Lavater, Citizen of Zurich. Translated from the last Paris 
edition by the Rev. C. Moore, LL.D., F.R.S. Illustrated by 
several hundred engravings, accurately copied from the originals. 
London, 1793. 

" Hints designed to promote Beneficence," by John Coakley 
Lettsom, M.A., LL.D., etc. Published by J. Mawman, London, 
1801. 

" Erster Teil Meusel's Lexicon." 1789. Zweite Auflage 
desselben 1808-9. 

" Portrait Gallery of Distinguished American Citizens, with 
Biographical Sketches," by William H. Brown, and facsimiles of 
original letters. Hartford. Published by E. B. and E. C. 
Kellogg. 1845. 

" Sermons par M. J. G. Ch. de la Saussaige a la Haige 
et a Amsterdam chez les freres vaullerf Imprimeurs Libraires." 
1817. 

"Treatise on Silhouettes," by Monsieur Edouart, Silhouettist 
to the Royal Family, and patronised by His Royal Highness 
the late Duke of Gloucester. Published by Longmans & Co., 
Paternoster Row ; J. Bolster, Patrick Street, Cork ; and Fraser, 
Edinburgh. 1835. 

" Memoir of the late Hannah Kilham," chiefly compiled from 



Bibliography 119 

her journal, and edited by her daughter-in-law, Sarah Beller, of 
St. Petersburg. Published by Darton & Harvey, London. 1837. 

" Profiles of Warrington Worthies," collected and arranged by 
James Kendrick, M.D., Warrington. Longman, Brown, Green, 
and Longman, London; Haddock & Son, Warrington. 1854. 

" Der Gestiefelte Kater." 1876-77. Bilder von Hermine 
Gabillon. 

"Till Eulenspiegel." 

Moser, Bilderbuch. Wien. 

" L'enfant Prodigue, Scenes Bibliques en 7 Tableaux." 
Von Henri Riviere. Paris: Enoch & Co., 1895. 

" La Marche a l'e"toile." Von Henri Riviere. 

" Kochbuch." 1840. 

" Liederbiicher mit Silhouetten." Von Gertrud Schubring. 

" Frauenzimmer-Almanache und Damen-Konversationslexicon," 
1816, 1817, 1819, 1820, 1831, 1846. 

" Beschreibung eines sehr einfachen zur Verjiingung der 
Schattenrisse dienenden Storchschnabels, den sich jeder Liebhaber 
selbst verfertigen kann." Anonym. Von dem Verfasser der 
" Boumagie." 

"Ins Marchenland." 12 geschnittene Silhouetten zu Grimm's 
" Marchen." Von Fanny and Cecilie Henzel. Berlin : B. Behr 
(E. Bock). 

"Der Schwarze Peter." Von P. Konewka. Stuttgart: J. 
Hoffmann. 

" Osterspaziergang." Von P. Konewka. Miinchen. G. D. W. 
Callwey. 

" Falstaff und seine Gesellen." Von P. Konewka. Text von 
Hermann Kurz. Strassburg : Moritz Schauenburg. 

" Ein Sommernachtstraum von W. Shakespeare." Mit 24 
Schattenrissen. Heidelberg: Fr. Bassermann, 1868. Von P. 
Konewka, in Holz geschnitten von A. Vogel. 



120 The History of Silhouettes 

^^ 

" Schwarze Kunst." 12 Silhouetten von P. Konewka. Mit 
einem Titelblatt von H. Braun. Holzschnitte aus der xylo- 
graphischen Anstalt von W. Hecht in Miinchen und Phototypien 
von Angerer and Goschl in Wien. Verlag L. Unflad. 1880. 

" Lose Blatter." Fiinf Silhouetten, erfunden von Paul Konewka. 
Berlin: Paul Bette. 

" Allerlei Tiergeschichten." Von. P. Konewka. Text von J. 
Trojan. Strassburg : M. Schauenburg. 

" Zerstreute Blatter." Von P. Konewka. Gesammelt und unter 
Mitwirkung von F. Freiligrath, H. Kurz, H. Leuthold, H. 
Lingg, H. Noe. Herausgegeben von Fritz Keppler. Miinchen: 
G. Beck. 

" Schattenbilder." (Zweiter Teil des Schwarzen Peters.) P. 
Konewka. Mit Reimen von F. Trojan. Stuttgart : J. Hoffmann. 

" KomnV Mit I " Ein schwarz frohliches Bilderbuch von Frida 
Schanz. Bilder von E. Mauderer. Stuttgart : Levy & Miiller. 
Hofbuchhandling, Gerold & Ko., Wien. 

" Schattenspiel." Von Franz Pocci. Miinchen. 

" Zweites Schattenspiel." Franz Pocci. 

" Kinderspiele, Puppenspiele, Volksschauspiele." Franz Pocci. 

" Geschichten und Lieder." Mit Bildern, als Fortsetzung 
des Fest Kalenders. Von Franz Pocci und Anderen. Zweiter 
Band. 1843. 

" Sammelband von Runge's Werken." Philip Otto Runge. 
Pflanzenstudien mit Schere und Papier. Herausgegeben von 
Alfred Lichtwark. Hamburg, 1875. Gesellschaft Hamburgischer 
Kunst freunde. Jahrbuch, 1904. A. Lichtwark. Neue Silhouetten 
von P. O. Runge. Theaterstiick : Die Jager, in 5 Aufziigen 

" Das verungluckte Standchen." Chimt a Vogerl gefloge, 
Zerstreute Blatter und Biographische Skizze von Keppler. Die 
Bilder von Paul Konewka. Obernetter, Miinchen. 

" Martin Spitzbauch." Ein satyrischcomischer Roman in 



Bibliography 121 

Versen, im Geschmacke der Jobsiade, herausgegeben von G 

L Mit dem Portrat des Verfassers, dem satyrischen Portrat 

des Martin Spitzbauch und einigen Kupfern zur Versinnlichung 
versehen. Wurzburg, 1896 Auf Kosten des Verfassers. 

" Saute-au-Ciel." Der ungliickliche Franzose oder der deutschen 
Freiheit Himmelfahrt. Ein Schattenspiel mit Bildern. Manuscript 
1816. Herausgegeben von Chr. Brentano. Aschaffenburg, 1850. 
Mit 8 Schattenrissen. 

" L'Auge Conducteur dans les prieres et exercises de pieteV' 
Franzosisches Gebetbuch, Wien. Mit Bildnissen 1832, 1834, 
and 1837. 

" Es regnet, es regnet ! " Kinderbilder und Kinderreime von 
Nelly Bodenheim. Steglitz, Berlin. Bei Enno, Quehl. 

"Silhouette Sketches and Portraits," by Harry Edwin. 1887. 

" The Revival of the Silhouette." Article in " The Bookman," 
published by Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 1910. Written 
by Gardner Teall. 

" Die Silhouette." Maehrisches Gewerbe Museum Mitteilungen. 
Director, Julius Leisching. 

" The Art of cutting out Designs in Black Paper." Barbara 
and Ann Townshend. 1815. 

" Histoire des Marionnettes." Charles Maguire. 

"The History of Java." Thomas Stamford Raffles. 

"A Newly-discovered Portrait of Thomas Gray, the Poet." 
"The Athenaeum," February 24th, 1894. 

" An Undescribed Silhouette Portrait of Thomas Gray," by 
J. M. Gray, F.S.A., Scot. "The Athenaeum," April i4th, 1894. 

"Geschichte des Schattentheaters." 1907. By Georg Jacob 
of Erlangen. 

" Islamische Schattenspiel-Figuren aus Egypten." By Dr. 
Paul Kahle. Qu Die Islam. Vol. I. in 1910. 




Advertisement of Silhouettist, early nineteenth century. In the possession of Lady Sackville, Knole. 



II. 




The Origin of a Painter, from a sketch by Wm, Mulready, R.A., in the possession of W. Mulready, Esq. 

From a lithograph published 1828. 



III. 




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VII. 




Silhouette cut in white paper. 



Portrait in Indian ink, probably Ciernian, in the 

possession of the Author. Formerly in the Montague 

Guest Collection. 




The famous tragedienne, MRS. SIDDONS. TYRONE POWER in the character of D. O'Toole, and in ordinary- 
dress. By August Edouart. 



VIII. 





Portrait of JOHN FIELD, by himself. 

Painted on plaster, pencilled with gold, 

and signed. 



MRS. JOHN FIELD, wife of the silhouettist. 

Painted on plaster, pencilled with gold, 

and signed. 





Cut portrait of MARY, COUNTESS 
OF ORFORD, grandmother of Lady 
Dorothy Nevill, in whose pos- 
session the silhouette now is. 



Portrait of Miss FIELD. Painted 

on plaster, pencilled with gold, by 

John Field. 




Portrait of Miss FIELD. Painted on 

plaster, pencilled with gold, by 

John Field. 



The portraits of the Field family are in the possession of Mr. J. A. Field, great-grandson of the silhouettist. 



IX. 





-Frill brooch, mounted in 
gold, painted on ivory. 



Portrait painted on plaster. 
Signed, Miers and Field. 





Signed portrait by Miers, 
painted <>n plaster. 



Portrait on plaster, elaborately pencilled with 
gold. I'nsigned. Probably by Field. 





Portrait on plaster. 
In the possession o( Mr. J. A. Field. 



Signed portrait by Miers, in 

brown and gold, on plaster, 

mount nil in a turned wooden 

box. 




Portrait on plaster. 
In the possession of Mr. J. A. Field. 



The portraits on this page are in the possession of the Author, with the exceptions stated. 



X. 




Coloured silhouette portrait 

of a lady in a gown of apple 

green ; cap and kerchief buff 

colour; about 1780. 





Signed portrait by Miers, 
mounted in gold. 




Signed portrait by Miers, mounted in gold. 



1'ortrait of a man painted on plaster, probably 
by Miers ; at the back is the trade label of 

Miers & Field. 

In the possession of Mrs. Head, together with 
the three above. 




Painted on card by Mrs. Edward Beet ham ; on 

the back is the trade label and date, 1785. 

In the possession of Dr. Beetham. 






XI. 





Boy with bow, painted on glass, 
dated 1798. 




Signed portrait by Miers, in 
gold-mounted pendant. 





Frenchman, in gold touched 

uniform, mounted with pearls 

as a pendant. 



1 'ainted on card by Mrs. Beetham. 

All on this page in the possession 

of Mrs. Head, with the exception 

stated. 




I'ainted on convex glass. 



1'ortrait of a man painted on card, signed 
Charles. Owner: Mr. J. A. Field. 



XII. 











Silhouette portraits in caricature, probably German, first half of the nineteenth century. 
In the possession of Mrs. F. N Jackson. 



Mil. 




ELISAUETH VON WAI.UON. 




111. 





Portrait of GEORGE III., painted 
in Indian ink, by his daughter. 
Princess Elizabeth. In the pos- 
session of Lady Dorothy Nevill. 



MARY LADY CI.ERK OF PENICCIK. 

In the possession of 
Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. 




Portrait of (JUEEN CHARLOTTE, 

painted by Princess Elizabeth. 

In the possession of Lady 

Dorothy Nevill. 



XIV. 





DUKE or WELLINGTON, life size. 
In the possession of the Author. 



SHELLEY. 
In the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 




A 1'ainful Subject, by Konewka, the German silhouettist. 



XV. 





1'ortrait, by Charles, painted on card. 



Portrait, by Charles, painted on card. 





Portrait of a CAMBRIDGE DON. cut by August Edouart. Portrait of MICKIF.WICZ, sketched by Phil May in 1888. 

All these portraits are in the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 



XVI. 




LllCUT. Bl.AYTHWAITE 

52nd Regiment. 



UNKNOWN. 



I/NKNOWN. 



The portraits are in the possession of Francis Wellesley, Esq. 



XVII. 








Hare dressed picture in silhouette. One of four owned Silhouette drawn in Indian ink, late eighteenth century, 

by Dr. Beetham, probably German. Dated 1745. In the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 





Black cutting, from a single sheet of paper. 
In the possession of .Mr. Desmond Coke. 



China plate with black profile picture, red border. 

with Greek pattern in black. One of a pair in the 

possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 



XVIII. 




Portraits in black and colour. Signed A. T. Terstan fecit, 1787, at Knole. 



\I.\. 





Portrait of unknown man by Charles, painted on card. 
In the possession of E. Jackson. 



MRS. PKINGLK, of Korwcxxllca, >'e Tod, of Dryburi;h 
Abbey. By J. Miers, on plaster. At the back is his 
early Leeds label. In the possession of Captain Pringle. 





Silhouette in printed mount, painted pink ribbon. 
In the possession of Lady Sackville, Knole. 



Printed silhouette portrait of CAPTAIN PATL Cci'FEE. 
Published by Darton, Henry & Darton. Nov. 1st, 



XX. 




i 



MARIA MARCHIONESS 01- AII.ESBURV. 





" PERDITA " ROBINSON. MR HOPE. 

The portraits on this page are in the possession of I'rancis Wellesley, Esq. 



XXI. 




Coffee cup in Sevres china in white and gold. Silhouette portrait of Mirabeau. In the Musee Carnavalet, Paris. 





Portrait painted on glass with gold ground. Signed 
Coos, 1789. In the possession of Lady Sackville, Knole. 



Black portrait on gold ground, silver shield and vase. 

On the vase is written, " Pensez a moi." Date 1812. 

In the possession of Lady Sackville, Knole. 



XXII. 





Portrait painted on convex glass rilled 

with wax. In the possession of Lady 

Dorothy Nevill. 




WILLIAM ALEXANDER WILLIS, born 
1799. Taken prisoner by Napoleon 
in 1812. Portrait in the possession 
of Capt. Richard rfolliott Willis, his 
grandson. 




Portrait painted on plaster, pencilled 

with gold. Signed, J. Field. In the 

possession of A. C. Field, Esq. 



Early French portrait, 
about 1770. Cut in 
shiny black paper, 
probably by Gonard. 
In the possession of 
the Author. 



Portrait of MRS. BEETHAM, cut hollow 

in white paper, by Mrs. Opie. In the 

possession of Dr. Beetham, descendant 

of the silhouettist. 





MR. RAMSAY. 
Portrait painted on 
glass. In the posses- 
sion of Miss Gatliff. 






Picture in white paper. A scrap-book piece in the possession of Miss de la Chaumette. 



XXIII. 




Fainted silhouette of MARIE ANTOINETTE, at Knole. 




Signed portrait of GKORGE IV'., by Adolph. hair and 

jewels pencilled in gold. 
In the possession of Mrs. F. N T . Jackson. 





Portrait of a man painted on plaster by Miers, rare early 

Leeds label on back. 
In the possession of Mrs. F. N. Jackson. 



Painted silhouette at Knole. 



XXIV. 




Two of the sons and one married daughter of Joseph and Sarah Lea, with their children. 
The room and all the furniture then in use is faithfully represented in the picture, which 

was drawn by Edouart in 1843. 




Joseph Lea and his wife Sarah, with one son and eight unmarried daughters. Taken 
by August Edouart in 1843, at Philadelphia. 

Both these portrait groups are in the possession of Mrs. Hampton Lea Carson, 

Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 



XXV. 




The GARY FAMILY, of Boston, taken February isth, 1X42, by August Edouart while on a tour in the 
United States, when he made many thousands of silhouette portraits. Height of adult figures about 

8 inches, each figure being named and dated. 




i 2 3 4 

i. SAMUEL FOOTE. Taken at New York, October 3ist, 1839. 2. JOHN FOOTE, by Edouart, 
whose children's portraits are particularly happy. 3. EUPHEMIA FOOTE. 4. J. NIMS, 
portrait painter. Taken at New York, May :6th, 1840. From the American collection by- 
August Edouart. In the possession of the Author. 



XXVI. 





Portrait cut in shiny black paper, folds of dress and 
trimmings are indicated by indented lines, the chain 

and brooch are painted in gold. 
In the possession of Lady Sackvilie, Knole. 



MR. JOHN CUNLIFFE, of York, 1808. Signed, Lewis, 

Profilist. 11x9 ins. 
In the possession of Mrs. Fleming. 




The Anglers' Repast, by William Ward, after Morland, cut out in black paper in facsimile size, mounted on card. 

In the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 



\\VII. 





Cut silhouette, probably by Edouart, of verger, with 

stave of office. 
In the possession of Mrs. Head. 



Painted silhouette, black face, buff coat, blue tie. 
In the possession of Mrs. Head. 




Memorial card cut out of black and coloured papers, some gilt, green, blue, and red. Peacocks, grapes, pickaxe, shovel 

are shown, besides the weeping willow and other symbols of grief. The mourning widower is also depicted, and a verse 

beginning "Farewell, dear wife, thy loss to us is great." In the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 



XXVIII. 













a 

a, 
o 









1 









| 



o ; 

$ 

P 81 



15" 
s: 






XXIX. 




Hand-screen, with dancing figures in silhouette, painted on orange-yellow card. 
In the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 




Hand-screen showing scene at a musical party, painted on orange-yellow card. In the 
possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. A similar screen, probably by the same artist, is in 
the possession of Dr. Beetham, descendant of Mrs. Beetham, Silhouettist, of Fleet Street. 



XXX. 






DICK AVTOSY. 



LOKD YARBOROCGH. Taken at Cowes. WHITEMAX, of Southampton. 





LORD HENRY RCSSZLL. SIR TBOS. MC>!AHOX Lieut. -Governor of Portsmouth. 



MR. J. P. Dixox. 



These brashvork portraits are in the collection of Francis WeUedey. Esq. 



XXXI. 




: 
.' 



X 3 

^ < 



.2 




S 2 

C8 



o -5 

ee 



' 2 

i! 







XXXII. 




Worcester Vase, 13^ inches high, with silhouette of George III. and motto commemorating his Jubilee. 

In the possession of Mr. C. F. Spink. 



XXXIII. 




Worcester Vase, 13 inches high, with silhouette of George III., from Knole, Sevenoaks. 



XXXIV. 





JS 



TJ 



XXXV. 







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g. 



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3 

U 



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t/1 




XXXVI. 




GEORGE BROWN, Esq., 
of Everton, Liverpool. 





A Member of the Withers 
Family, Everton, Liverpool. 



Painted in dark olive green touched 
with white. Unsigned. 




Figures cut out in white paper by Princess Elizabeth. The centre figure is cut so that it throws a 
shadow when held between a light and screen. In the possession of Lady Dorothy Nevill. 






\\.\VII. 




u 
/. 

f. 
o 

CJ 

O 



3 




o 

3 



u. 




> cr 

U 

3 3 

' "^ '' 

c 'u i 



y. 

u 

Of 



. u< 

o _ 

. o 

= 

a .2 



s 

CM 






XXXVIII. 




Painted family group, relieved with colour. In the possession of A. W. Searley. 




MR. and MRS. FISK, of Oxford, with their sons, Marshall and Fred, and daughter, Elizabeth Prudence, who 
married Thomas Jackson. Signed, "Aug: Edouart, fecit 1828." In the possession of Miss Emily E. Jackson. 



\\.\I.\. 




THE BURNEY FAMILY. 




X 3h e <^-^ui^h^t 







Miss HARRIKT CONXEII. AND Miss FANNY BARTON. 
The portraits on this page are in the possession of Francis Wellesley, Fsq. 



XL. 




-. 




XI. I. 




Portrait of a Boy, early nineteenth 
century. 





NAFOI.EO.V. Shade on skeleton leaf. 
From The Collettor. 



Portrait by J. dapp. of the Chain 

Pier, Brighton. 
In the possession of Mr. 0. I.. Kxby. 





N.M'OI.KOX. Cut from a single piece of 

black paper by unknown artist. 
In the possession of Mr. I'esmond Coke. 



Portrait of NAPOLKON on lithographed background. 

Reproduced from Rdouart's Treatist on Silkouiltes, 

published in 183:;. 



XLII. 




g 

o. 



H r 




XI.III. 





The late LORD FAUCONHUKC;. Size 15 x 20 ins. 
picture at Knole. 



Painted silhouette 



Coloured silhouette portrait, early nineteenth 

century. Grey dress, blue cap ribbons. 

In the possession of Mrs. K. N. Jackson. 





SIR HKNRY JOHNSON, G.C.B., and- SIR JOHN JOHNSON, Welsh Baronet, takenjat Bath 
in 1827. From Bath Characters, by August Edouart. In the possession of the Author. 



XIJV. 





ISABELLA LUCAS, aged 36 years, 

hawker of tinware. 

From Eciouart's l-'olio of Bath 

Characters. 



JOHN HOWARD PAYNE, author 
of "Home, Sweet Home," etc. 
Washington, April 22nd, 1841. 




Portrait of a slave, G. WRIGHT, born 
in Virginia, belonging to Ch. Oxley. 
Taken by Edouart at New Orleans, 

March ist, 1844. 

This portrait is reproduced to show the 
artist's method of naming and dating 
all the portraits in his folios, also his 
method of adding white for collar, 
which is seen as a thin line when 
the black paper side of the portrait 
is shown. 



MR. DAVID HOFFMAN. Taken 
at Baltimore, Dec. 9th, iS4o. 



All the portraits on this page are in the possession of the Author. 



XI.V. 





UNKNOWN. In the possession of 
Francis Wellesley, Esq.-. 



Supposititious silhouette of WILLIAM 
MAKEPEACE THACKERAY reading. 





THE PARSON'S LADY. 
Bv Master Hubard. 




MRS. DEI.ANEY. 
In the possession of Francis Wellesley, lisi]. 



1'ortrait painted on glass, by Kosenberg, of Bath. Original 
frame. In the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 



XLVI. 





BRAV, Historian of Surrey. 
In the possession of Francis Wellesley, Esq. 



WELLINGTON. 

Cut paper portrait, touched with gold. 
In the possession of Francis Wellesley, Esq. 





Silliouctte iu black anil colour. 
In the possession of Mrs. Leggett. 



Iu the possession of Francis Wellesley, Ksq. 



XIA II. 



Fait par JOUBERT , Peintre en miniature. 




1'ainted silliouette. In the possession of 
Lady Sackville, Knole. 



At KiioU'. 





Quaint portrait of a child. In the possession of 
Mrs. Head. 



Portrait of George III., surrounded by minute lines of 
writing, actual size. In the possession of the Author. 



XLVIII. 




Silhouette portrait group. In the possession of Mr. Maberly Phillips, F.S.A. 



] 



r 1 




CHECKMATE. 
From the Treatise on Silhouettes, published in 1835. 




Silhouettes from Lavater's Lecture X I'll., published in 1794. 



XI. IX. 




Portrait of himselt, sketched liy I'liil May, 1894. 




Glass painting by Mrs. Beet ham. showing the real 
shadow portrait behind. 




Kennedy, of the Aquarium, sketched by Phil May, 1890. 




GEORGE III., his wife and family, with footman. 
A large, authentic group painted on glass. 



All these portraits are in the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 



L. 




" OLD " CROME. 
Silhouette, by August Kdounrt. 




PACAXINI, by Edouart, considered by the 
musician to be the only likeness ever taken 
which was not a caricature. From the 
Treatise on Silhouettes, published in 1835. 




Family group in the all-in-a-row method of the Georgian period. 



I.I. 





LIT. 




" s 



Family portraits cut out in black paper, mounted on white satin. A wreath of forget-me-nots, 
roses, ivy, jessamine, and fern is embroidered, and at intervals lovers' knots of plaited hair are tied. 
Ihe nine plaits of white, grey, brown, auburn, and golden hair are probably souvenirs of the 
portrait subjects. This interesting specimen is in the possession of Mrs. Wadmore. 



I. III. 




Miniature of CHARLES I. cut out of thin paper. In tortoiseshell hainc. 



I.1V. 




REBECCA TOWN, 
born 





FRANCIS TOWN, born 1796. 
Painted on card. 



CAPT. J. SMITH, of Dartmouth. 




MRS. TOWN. Painted on 

card by J. H. Gillespie. 

In the possession of Mrs. 

Whitmore. 





NICOLAS BROOKINC,, born 

1755, died 1830. 

In the possession of Mrs. 

Whitmore. 





MRS. NICOLAS BROOK- 
ING, died 1840. 
Painted on card by 
Watkins. 



ELIZABETH HOLDSWORTH BROOKING, SALLY CORNISH (m : e BROOKING), 

died 1822. By Watkins. of Scobell, Devon. 

All the portraits on this page arc in the possession of Mrs. Young, with the exceptions stated. 



I.V. 





SOPHIA MAGDALENE HOLWORTHV, youngest 

daughter of Rev. S. Holworthy. Portrait cut 

in card. 





F. C. JONHS, wife of Bishop of 

St. Davids, eldest daughter of 

S. Hohvorthv. 



SAMUEL HOLWOKTHY. 
i)orn 1758. 



Esy. 



NICHOLAS HADDOCK HOLWORTHY, 
R.N., born 1761. In the posses- 
sion of Mrs. Loggin. of Brighton. 






F.MII.Y THURSTON. In the possession 
of Mrs. Nicholls. 



RKV. J. DIXIE CHURCHILL, Rector 
of Blickley, Norfolk. Cut hollow 
in white paper over black. In the 
possession of F. M. Holworthy, Ksq. 



KUWAKU JOHN HOLWORTHY, 
Ksg., 3rd son of Rev. S. 
Holworthy. of Croxall. Derby- 
shire. Major I4th foot. Died 

1864. 




REV. \V. H. HOLWORTHY, 4th son of 

Captain Matthew Holworthy. born 

1792. Cut hollow in white paper. 



LVI. 




1824. 



AT A IARHE ROOM AUK'IMM; THE likKtHAXTS COKKKK ROOM, 
MAKKET STKKKT. 



iU&*tt*ft&0 cut u-UA common SCISSORS! 
in a few seconds, iri/hovt either Driurhig. or Maeliine, or tiny oilier aid, but by a mere 
glance of the EYE!! by MR. SEVILLE, full length figures, Animals. 

4fC. ^-c. cut in. any attitude. Prnfilfs faithfully copied. I'lain Bust Is. Two 
of the same Person Is. Qd. Elegantly lii-onzed I*, each extra. JframtS in great 
variety OH Sale. 

Attendance 

From 11 till 1, from 3 till 6, 

and from 6 till 9 o'Clock. 

ONE SHILLING jraimnw 

K .11 Irufih At. or 2 of f . M. 



HANDBILL ADVERTISEMENT OF MR. SEVILLE. 




THE METTERNICH FAMILY. 







I.\ II. 



I 



QUEEN VICTORIA. 

Cut paper pencilled with gold. In the possession of 
Francis Wellesley, Ksq. 




SPORTS. 
From Edouart's Treatise, published in 1835. 



I.YII1. 





|ewelled silhouette clasp on a 
bracelet of garnets. 



Portrait by the Russian silhouettist, A. Ro/en. 
Signed and dated 1796. 




Signed portrait by Rayner, 




Silhouette mounted as a ring. It is 
shown twice the natural size. 



These portraits are in the possession of Madame Nossof, Moscow. 



I.IX. 





Signed portrait on glass, by Hiibner, dated 1797. Signed portrait of an Officer, by I'ahly. 

In the possession of Madame Nossof. Moscow. 




:-rr \yntffr y* ,t* 

Machine for drawing silhouettes life size. 



l^ortrait of GEOR<;E 111. In the possession of Lady 
Sackville, Knole. 



LX. 





ROBERT BURNS. 
Given by the poet to his friend, J. Cotterall. 



WASHINGTON. 





Two silhouettes by August Edouart. 
The portraits on this page are in the possession of Francis Wellesley, Esq. 



LXI 





MVKIF. ANTOISKTTK. 



DrcHEss OF DEVONSHIRE. 








MRS. HOPE. MRS. GRAY. 

The portraits on this page are in the possession of Francis Wellesley. Esq. 



LXII. 









Silhouette drawings in Indian ink, by Princess Elizabeth, daughter of George III. They were given by the 
Princess to Lady Bankes, at Windsor, August 27th, 1811, and are now in the possession of Lady Dorothy Nevill. 



l.MII. 





KINGSI.EY FAMII.V. 
In the possession of Francis Wellesley, Esq. 





Silhouette of the eighteenth century, painted 

on card. 
In the possession of Mr. Desmond Coke. 



KINGSI.EY FAMILY. 
In the possession of Francis Wellesley, Esq. 




CUPID. 

Cut silhouette. In the possession of 
Mr. Desmond Coke. 



LXIY. 





CQ a 



l.XV. 





li 
V 

f. 
tl 

X 



CO 
CO 





o < 
** o> 



JS o 

S ^* 

c -2 
I I 



is 











Portrait painted on convex glass, so that the 
shadow picture is seen on the flat card behind. 



Shadow portrait of a lady delicately painted on 

glass. The tortoiseshell comb and gold ear-ring 

are in colour. 




Shadow picture painted on convex glass. 
All the portraits on this page are in the possession of the Author. 



l.XVII. 




Saucer with blue tisli-mark, with ,t' 
in gold. Portrait of Dante. 



Tea-cup of Fiirstenberg china, in 
white and gold, with black 
silhouette portrait, 3 inches high. 
In the possession of the Author. 



l'..iMn and cover in white china with gold ornaments and black 
silhouette portraits. 






Tea-cup with gold Moral ornament 
and black silhouette. 



Coffee-cup with gold and coloured garlands, 

black silhouette. 
This porcelain, with the exception stated, is at Knole. 



LXY11I. 





MEMBERS OF THE BINNS FAMILY. 




FAMILY GROUP. 



LXIX. 




Signed portrait of JAMES SWORD. ESQ., of Armfield, May 2 5 th, 1832, in original bird's-eye maple frame 
provided by the artist. This portrait was identified through the discovery of its duplicate, cut at the 
time, named, dated, and pasted in Edouart's reference folios. 



LXX. 




Portrait of the actor Onoye Takanojo with one of his poems, also a silhouette portrait of the 
same actor. One of a series, " Mako no tsuki Hana no Sugata-ye." 
("A flower form picture (before) a real moon.") 
Signed, Ichiyeisai Yoshiiku, Shasei. 

Ichiyeisai Yoshiiku, facsimile. 
Pated, Ausei Hare 4 = 4111 month, 1855. 



I. XXI. 





Gold mounted brooch, signed Miers. 
The portrait is pencilled in gold. 




Painting on ivory, unrelieved black. 



1'ainting on ivory. Drapery border 
on glass. 




Patch-box of ivory mounted in gold. Portrait signed Miers. 
Blue enamelled lid. 






Portrait, cut hollow in white paper 
laid over black satin, brnshwork Portrait painted on blue tinted ivory 

added. mounted in gold. 



Painted on glass with composition 

backing. The other side of the 

pendant has a brown silhouette on 

card, by Foster. 



All the objects on this page are in the possession of the Author. 



LXXII. 





A. ROZEN, dated 1796. 



Portrait of the EMPEROR PAUL OF RUSSIA 
as a child. Signed Losse. 




Signed picture by Anthing, the finest silhouettist of Goethe's time. 
The central figure is that of C>ustav Adolph. 



All the silhouettes on this page are in the possession of Madame Nossof, Moscow. 



\ 



INDEX 



" ^Isop's Fables " . 
Agathaugdus, F. . 
Amateur Art Exhibition 
America 
Angouleme, Due d" 



Ansley Family 

Appleton 

Atkinson 

Bangor, Bishop of 
Bankes, Lady 
Baptism of Christ 
Bath 
Beck . 
Beechey 
Beetham, Dr. 

Mrs. 14, 15, 2 
Belcredi Family . 
Berlin Museum 
Berri, Duchesse de 
Blenkinsopp . 
Bordeaux, Duke de 
Boston . 
Brighton 
Bristol . 

of 



Briinn Exhibition . 

Brunyn, le 

Bryce 

Buck . . 

Bunting, J. 

Burney, Fanny 

Burns 

Byron 

Cambridge (U.S.A.) 

Carnavalet Museum 



PAGE 

65 
. 48 
. 63 

. . 69 

. . 63 

. 63 

32 

. 71 

57 

, . 61, 65 

'. . 76 

. 48 

. 69 

34 

74 

34, 39 
27, 34, 39, 59 

33 

32 

63 

45 

63 

70 

57 
. 82 

65 
33, 48 

17 

. 73 
. ' . 65 

7> 74 

12 

. 16 

.7' 
81 



Caroline, Queen . 
Carter, Mrs. . 
Gary, G. 
Cavallo, T. . 
Chalmers, Dr. 
Charles, A. . 
Charles I. 

Charles X. of France . 
Charlestown . 
Charlotte, Queen 
Chauveau 
Cheltenham . 
Chotek, Countess . 
Cleanthes of Corinth 
Cooper, Sir A. 
Copenhagen Porcelain 
Cork 
Cosway . 

Crates of Sicyon . 
Creevy . 



PAGE 

25 
. 80 

. . 69 
. 80 
. 6 5 

7, 14, 15, 24 

49 
. 62-64 

7' 
5, 25, 60, 74, 75 



61, 62, 



66, 69 

33 

3 

. 65 
." 82 

65 

21 

3 
. 76 



Daguerre 14 

" Dedication to the State Depu- 
tation of Province of Nym- 
wegen " . 47 

Delany, Mrs 75 

" Description of Bon Magic " . 42 
" Detailed Treatise on Silhouettes, 

A". . . . . .39 

Deverells, The . . 24 

Dibutades 4 

" Directions for Silhouette draw- 
ing" . 17 
Diwali, Festival of . .86 
D'Israeli ... 9 
Dublin .... .64 
Archbishop of '. . .65 



LXXIV. 



Index 



PAGE 

Edinburgh . . . . 62, 65 
Edouart 15, 18-20, 30, 31, 34, 49-53, 

56, 59-72 

Edridge . 75 

Egyptian shadow plays . . 85 
Elizabeth, Princess . 5, 7, 75-77 
Eton School ... -74 

Etruscan potters ... 3 

" Falstaff and His Companions " 54 

Faust 54 

Fermoy ... . . 65 

Field, E. J. . - 22 

-J. . 14. !8, 21, 22, 27, 59 

Sophie 22 

Fiere, Mrs. '.; . . . 80 

Figdor, Dr. . . . . 31, 81 
Fitzhenry . . 81, 84 

Flaxman . . . . . 13 
Focart, 1'Abbe . " . 64 

Forberger 25 

Foster, E. W. . . . 46 

Frederick the Great ... 83 
Friedrich, Wilhelm II. . . . 18 

Froelich, K 54 

Fiirstenburg, Landgravine . . 34 

Gainsborough .... 74 
Gapp, J. 56, 57, 74 

George TIL 9, 25, 57, 74, 77, 80, 82 

George IV 25, 82 

Gibb ... .15 

and Charles .... 19 

Glasgow Commercial Bank . . 64 

Orphan Asylum . .64 

Glomi . . . . . 83, 84 
Gloucester, Duke of . . . 65 
Gochhausen, von . . . 10, n 
Goethe . . . 6, 9, 10, 38, 55, 79 
Gonard . . . 6, 14, 28, 29, 86 

Gordon, Dr 65 

Grafton, Duchess of . . .7 
Graz Museum . ... '. 25 



PAGE 
" Grievances and Miseries of 

Artists" .... 59 
Guest, Montague . . 6, 24, 26, 57 
Guines 72 

Haines 15, 59 

Harding, E 75 

Hardy, E 75 

Harrington, Sarah ... 43 
Harrison .... 70, 71 
Harvard . . . . 71 

Hastings, Warren . . .80 

Head, Miss 63 

Heinemann, Dr. Karl . . .10 

Hems, H 46 

Henry V 63 

Herbert of Geneva ... 7 
Herger, E. . .33 

Hesse Homburg ... 75, 76 

Heyse, P 54 

Hill, Rowland . -65 

Hohenzollern Museum ... 83 
Holyrood ., . . . 56, 62-64 
Hoppner " . . . . .74 

Howie . . . . . .12 

Hubard. . .15, 55-57 

Gallery, New York . . 56 

Hulbert, J .69 

Hunt, Mrs. Leigh . . . . 16 
Hutchings, Miss C. J. . . -65 

Irving, Edward . . . .65 

Jorden 24 

Joubert .28 

Kahle, Dr. ... . 85 

Kandler ..... 19 

Kean 65 

Kendrick 18 

Kilham . . . . . .18 

King, E. . .... 80 

Mrs. . ' . 80 



Index 



\. XXV. 



Kinsale 
Klenk, Anna . 
Knole . 
Kohl, L. 
Konewka, P. . 

Latil, Cardinal de 

Lavater 6, 10, 15, 38, 39, 40, 62, 79 
Le Brunyn . . . 
Leisching, J. ... 

Lettsom 

Lichtwark ... V 

Limerick .... 

Linz, Francesco Carol inum 

Museum .... 

Liston 

Longfellow .... 
Louise Marie, Mdlle. . 

Lukis, F 

Lytton, Bulwer 

Macomb 

Maehren Exhibition 

Magendie, Dr. 

Mallow . . . ; 

Mamelukes .... 

Mann, Sir Horace 

" March to the Star " . 

Marie Theresa, Empress 

Menzel 

" Midsummer Night's Dream " 
Miers, J. 12, 14, 1 8, 21, 22, 26, 
Miers and Field . . .18, 
Mildner .... 

Mirabeau .... 
Monbijou Castle . 
More, Hannah 
Mulready .... 

Napoleon . . " . 
Naumann, Prof. . 
Nevill, Lady Dorothy . 
New Orleans 



PAGE 


PAGE 


05 


New York .... 70, 


7 


54 


Norwich (U.S.A.) 


71 


-'5. 82 


Bishop of 


65 


. 18 


Nuremberg work . 


84 


53. 54 








" Oneida " . 


72 


63 


Opie, Mrs. 


65 


62, 79 






4 


Packeny, P. . 


54 


4'- 55 


Paestum 


'3 


. 18 


Paganini 


65 


55 


Paoli, General 


80 


65 


" Papyrolomia " 


55 




" Papyro-Plastics " 


42 


32, 47 


" Parallelogramum Delineatorium " 


43 


. 65 


Parma, Duchesse de . 


63 


71 


Parris, E. J. . 


22 


63 


Perrenon . . . . 1 7, 28, 


42 


, 72 


Philadelphia . . 70, 


71 


7 


Philocles of Egypt 


3 




Pitt ... 


9 


7i 


Pocci 


86 


. 26 


Pompeii 


13 


. 61 


Poulett . 


78 


. 65 


Power 


65 


. 86 


"Prodigal Child" 


86 


7 


Pyburg, Mrs. , 6, 9, 


47 


. 86 






. 18 


Randall, H. . 


80 


- 53 


Raphael 


38 


54 


Rath 


10 


27. 59 


Reynolds, S. W. . 


75 


19, 21 


Riviere, H. . 


86 


. 84 


Romhild . . . . 17, 


42 


. 81 


Rosebery, Lord . 


74 


83 


Rosenberg of Bath . . 23, 


59 


. 65 


Rothschild, Baron 


65 


4 


Runge . 54, 


55 




Ruskin 


'4 


. 6 






3' 


Sackville, Lady . 


32 


48, 76 


Saratoga .... 70, 


71 


7i 


Saunders .... 


46 



LXXVI. 



Index 



Scheiner, Christopher . 
Schenan .... 
Schmalcalder . 
Schmid (Vienna) . . . 
Schmoll .... 
Scott, Sir Walter . 
Sepmanville, Baron de 
Seraphin .... 
Sharland, G 
Silhouette, Etienne de 5, 7, 
" Silhouette Likenesses " 
Simeon, C 
Singe Pantograph 
Size, Baron de 
Slettner, Dr. . 
Spink . . . . 
Spornberg 
St. Benedict . 
St. Davids, Bishop of . 
Stock Exchange . 
" Stork's Beak or Monkey " . 
Strauss, Dr. . 
Sweden, King and Queen of 
Swift . 

Taft, President 
Templetown, Lady 
Townshend, C. H. 
Rev C H 


PAGE 

43 
4, 16 

44 
34 
- 38 
62, 65 
. 64 

12, 85 

57 
9, 35- 36 
5 
. 65 

35 
. 64 

. 82 
32 
. 48 
. 65 
. 64 
. 40 
83 
. 82 
. 8 

. 78 
p& 78 
77 
5i. 78 
45, 48 
78 

. 66 


Vandyke .... 
Vazon Bay .... 
Versailles .... 
Victoria and Albert Museum 
Victoria, Princess . 
Vienna ..... 


PAGE 
38 
72 

77, 84 
56 
. 81 
84 

55 
. 19 

83 
7- 15 
- 48 
. 18 
70, 71 

28, 39, 

79,82 
. 65 

4 
. 46 
. 78 

75 
1 4, 47 
70 
. 65 
. 82 

73 

. 65 
. 60 

. 16 


Wall, W. G. . 

Dr 


Wallenstein .... 
Walpole, Horace . 


" Warrington Worthies " 
Washington .... 
Wedgwood .... 
Wellesley Collection 25, 26, 

Wellington, Duke of . 
West, Benjamin . 

Mr 


Wigston, Mrs. 
William IV. . 
William and Mary . 6, 9, 
Winfield Scott ... 
Wolfe, J. 
Worcester . . . . . 
Wright, P. . ; 

York, Duke of . . 

Tfiir'hF**''" 1 t^iT 


Tuer, A. .... 
Tussaud 
Twickenham . 
Tyler, J. 

Unkles and Klasen 


Zeisig . . . . . 






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