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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, by 

John K o ji e y n B k « d h k a p, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, At Washington. 


Ihe Estate of Wis 5 F^tHh Putnam 



When this volume was begun, it was ni}- purpose to Lring its 
contents down to the accession of Queen Anne of England, and 
the chapters embracing the years between 1691 and 1702 are ready 
for the printer. But, by the affluence of original authorities, and 
the temptation to use them, perhaps, too liberally, this book, in 
spite of laborious condensation, may have grown mifashionably 
large ; and these chapters must be reserved for another volume — 
should the public manifest a desire to learn more of early New 
York, down to the inauguration of "Wasliington. 

Descended from an.English ofhcer who heliDed his king to con- 
(jucr Dutch New Netherland, as well as from a colonial Hollander 
who stood up manfully for his Eepublicau Fatherland, I feel no 
partiality in telling the history of the greatest European plantation 
in America. My object has been to exhibit the truth honestly and 
minutely. In doing this, I have long and carefully studied the re 
ceived authorities relating to the colonial annals of our country, 
and also all that I have seen, recently brought to light. If I have 
missed my aim, let my failure be imputed to incapacity rather than 
to lack of industry or candor. 


Neiv York; February, 1871. 


C II A r T E U I. 


War at hand ; Louis the Fourteenth, page 1 ; The Dutcli Republic, Wilham of Orange, 
and John I)e Witt, 2 ; Engkind and Charles, 3 ; James, Duke of York, 4 ; Tlie En- 
glish King's Jlinisters, 5 ; Downing, G ; Canada, New England, New Netherland, 
and Virginia, 7 ; Admirable Situation of New Netherland, 8, 9 ; Territorial Jealousies 
in North America, 10, II ; Charles's Policy, 12; English new Navigation Law, 13; 
New Netherland to be seized by England, 14 ; The Duke of York's Patent, 15, IG ; 
(^olonel Kichard Nicolls, 17 ; lioyal Commissioners, 18 ; Instructions of the Commis- 
sioners, 19; English Expedition against New Netherland, 20; Infatuation in Hol- 
land, 21 ; Swedish Complaints, 22 ; States General refuse to defend New Netherland, 
23 ; New Amsterdam blockaded, 24 ; Stuyvesant returns from Fort Orange, 25 ; 
The Metropolis defenseless, 2G; Nicolls demands the Surrender of Manhattan, 27 ; 
Stuyvesant's Letter to the W. I. Company ; Willett and Winthrop, 28 ; Winthrop's 
Letter to Stuyvesant, 29 ; Stuj'vesant tears up W^inthrop's Letter, 30 ; StujTcsant's 
Justification of the.Dutch Title, 31 ; Nicolls at Graveseud, 32 ; Submission of Long 
Island to the English ; New Amsterdam beleaguei'ed, 33 ; Panic in the Metroi)olis, 
34; English and Dutch Commissioners appointed, 35 ; Articles of Capitulation agreed 
upon, 3G ; Surrender of New Netherland to the English, 37-41. 

C II A P T E K I I. 


Fort Amsterdam given up, and the English Flag hoisted, 42 ; New York and Fort 
James named ; Nicolls's new Government, 43 ; English and Dutch Church Service, 
44; Fort Orange submits, and is named Albany ; Manning commander; Brodhead 
in command at Esopus, 4G ; Oath of Allegiance required from the Dutch, 47; York- 
shire and Albania, 48 ; Nicolls's Grants of Land, 49 ; Conquest of the Delaware by 
the English, 50-53 ; Connecticut Boundary, 53 ; Long Island adjudged to New York, 
54 ; Boundaries established between New York and Connecticut, 55 ; Long Island 
Atl'airs, 5G ; The Dutch Government demands Restitution of New Netherland, 57; 
Hostilities begun by England, 58 ; Nicolls seizes the W. I. Company's Estate, 59 ; 
Stuyvesant returns to Holland ; New City Officers in New York, GO; Provincial Kev- 
enue, Gl ; lioyal Commissioners in New England ; Nicolls establishes a Court of As- 
sizes in New York, G2 ; Long Island or Yorkshire divided into Ridings, G3 ; Purpose 
of the Court of Assizes, G4 ; The Duke of York's Power to make Laws, G5 ; Enghsh 
Laws established, GG; Meeting at Hempstead ; Nicolls's Code, G7, G8 ; Hempstead 
Address to the Duke of York, G9 ; "The Duke's Laws," 70-73; Race-course at 
Hempstead.; Albany Atiairs, 74 ; City Government of New York changed, 75 ; Wil- 
lett :Mayor, 7G ; The Dutch dissatisfied, 77 ; Holland appeals to France against En- 
gland, 78 j War declared between Holland and England, 79 ; Feeling in New York. 


80; Berkeley and Carteret, 81 ; James conveys a part of New York to them, and 
calls it " New Jersey," 82 ; The Duke's Letter to Nicolls, 83 ; Philip Carteret Gov- 
ernor of New Jersey, 84-8G ; Delaware and Pemaquid, 8G ; Admiralty Court in New 
York, 87 ; NicoUs's Instructions to Brodhead at Esopus, 88 ; Purchase of Esopus 
Lands ; Nicolls's new offers to Planters, 8!) ; Case of Witchcraft, 90 ; Dutch Prop- 
erty confiscated by Nicolls ; Condition of New York, 'Jl, t)2 ; War between the Dutch 
and English iu Europe, 93-9G. 

C 11 A P T E E III. 


France declares War against England; Charles's Colonial Orders, 97; New York and 
Canada, 98 ; The Jesuits oppose the Liquor Trade, 99 ; De Mezy recalled, and Cour- 
celles Governor of Canada; Talon Intendant, 100; Tracy Viceroy of New France, 
101 ; The Iroquois and Onnoutio, 102 ; Courcelles's Expedition against the iVIoliawks, 
103; Action of Nicolls, lOi; The Delaware Territory, lOG; Discontent on Long 
Island ; Nicolls warns the seditious, 107 ; Narrative of the Hempstead Delegates ; 
Action of the Court of Assizes, 108 ; New Land Patents, 109 ; New York and Al- 
bany, 110; Koyal Commissioners recalled. 111 ; Nicolls's Report on New York, 112, 
113; Submission of the Western Iroquois to Canada, 114; The Oneidas and Mo- 
hawks submit to the French, 115; Tracy's Expedition against the ilohawks, 117- 
119; Precautions of Nicolls, 120; Van Curler drowned in Lake Champlain, 121; 
Brodhead suspended from command at Esopus, 121-123; Naval War between the 
Dutch and English, 121 ; Great Fire of London, 12a; Krynssen in Virginia, 12G; 
New York Privateer in Acadia, 127; French Slissionaries assigned to the Iroquois, 
128-131; Stujwesant and the West India Company, 132, 133; The Dutch in the 
Tliames, 134 ; Treaty of Breda ; New Netherland given up to England, 135 ; Feeling 
in London ; Fall of Clarendon, 13G ; Stuyvesant's return to New York, 137 ; IMartha's 
Vineyard and Nantucket, 138 ; Fisher's Island granted to Wiuthroii, 139 ; Delaware 
Affairs, 140 ; Nicolls leaves New York, 142. 

C II A P T E R I V, 


Colonel Francis Lovelace Governor, 143, 144 ; Esopus Affairs ; a Printing-press want- 
ed, 145; Jesuit Missions among the Iroquois, 14G-1 48; New Jersey Affairs ; Staten 
Island adjudged to New York, 149, 150; The English refuse Free Trade to New 
York, 151 ; Trijile Alliance, 152; Aspect of the Metropolis, 153, 154; Panic on 
Long Island, 155; Marbleto^^^l, Hurley, and Kingston, 15G, 157 ; Provincial and 
City Seals, 157, 158; Ministry of the Refonned Dutch Church, 159; Court of As- 
sizes, IGO; The Mahicans and I\Iohawks, IGl ; Jesuit Explorations in the West, 162; 
La Salle, DoUicr, and Galinee exjtlore Lakes Ontario and Erie, 1G3; Delaware Af- 
fairs, 1G4, 1G5 ; Lovelace buys Staten Island from the Indians, 1G5, IGG ; Esopus and 
Albany Affairs, 1G7; No foreign trading Vessels on the Hudson, 1G8 ; Iroquois and 
the French, 1G9, 170; Case of Witchcraft, 171 ; Long Island Towns seditious, 172, 
173; Lutherans, 174; Reformed Dutch Church in New York, 175, 17G; Captain 
James Carteret, 177; Iroquois Missions, 178 ; The French in the Northwest, 179; 
Courcelles's Voyage to Lake Ontario, 180, 181 ; North River Vessels, 182; Purchase 
of the "Domine's Bouwery" by Lovelace, 183; Death of Stujwesant, 183; England 
and France unite against the Dutch, 184 ; William Prince of Orange, 185 ; Death of 
Nicolls, 18G ; English Plantation Council, 187 ; New York, ^Massachusetts, and Rhode 
Island, 188, 189; JMaryland rebuked by New York, 190; George Fox in America, 


191 ; Jesuit Missions, 192; Fort at Cataracouy pi'ojected ; Frontenac Governor of 
Canada, 193, 194 ; Law of Divorce in New York, 19a ; Post to New England estab- 
lished by Lovelace, 19G-198; Pemaquid, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket, 199; 
New Jersey Affairs, 200; Lovelace in Connecticut, 201 ; English " Test Act" passed ; 
how it affected the Duke, 201, 202 ; War between the Englisli and Dutch, 202 ; "Or- 
ange Boven;" William the Third, 203; Death of De Witt, 204; Expedition of Ev- 
ertsen and Binckes, 20j ; the Dutch reconquer New York, 20G-208. 



British Sovereignty extinguished in New York, 209 ; Province again named New Neth- 
erhmd, 210; Anthony Colve appointed Governor, 211 ; City of New Y'ork named 
New Orange, 211, 212; Esopus and Albany reduced, 213; Lovelace arrested, 213, 
214 ; Eastern Towns on Long Island submit to the Dutch, 215-218 ; Kingston named 
Swanenburg, and Albany Willemstadt, 218 ; Dutch Church again established, 219 ; 
Letter from New Orange to tlie States General, 220, 221 ; English and French Prop- 
erty confiscated, 223 ; Andries Draeyer Commander at AVillemstadt, 224 ; Fortifica- 
tion of New Orange, 225 ; Long Island Affairs, 22G-228 ; The New England Colo- 
nies, 229 ; Connecticut and Colve, 230, 231 ; New England Vessels captured, 232 ; 
New Orange Regulations, 234 ; Achter Col or New Jersey, 235 ; Jesuit IMissions, 
23G, 237 J Frontenac's Visit to Lake Ontario, 237-239 ; Fort Frontenac built at Ca- 
taracou-y, 239 ; La Salle Commander, 240 ; The Upper Mississippi explored by Mar- 
quette and Jolliet, 240, 241 ; New Orange taxed for Fortifications, 242 ; Dutch Expe- 
dition to Shelter Island, 243 ; Action of the States General ; Joris Andringa appoint- 
ed Governor of New Netherland, 245, 24G ; England wishes to regain New Y'ork, 247 ; 
Marriage of the Duke of Y'ork to Mary of Modena, 248 ; Treaty of Westminster ; New 
Netherland restored to King Charles by the Dutch, 249-251 ; Dutch in New Nether- 
land disgusted, 252 ; Connecticut Boundary, 253 : Capture of French Forts in Aca- 
dia by the Dutch, 254 ; Reformed Dutch Church ; Feeling against the Restoration of 
New Netherland to England, 255, 25(; ; Major Edmund Andros commissioned to re- 
ceive New Netherland for the King, 257, 258 ; Orders of the States General to Colve 
about the restitution of New Netherland, 259. 



Eff'ect of the Treaty of Westminster, 2G0 ; Duke of Y'ork's new Patent, 2G1 ; Jlajor 
Edmund Andros commissioned Governor of New Y'ork, 2G2-2G4 ; Anthony Brock- 
holls Lieutenant, 2G4 ; Dyer Collector of New Y'ork, 2G5 ; New Jersey Affairs, 2G8 ; 
Andros at New Y'ork, 270 ; New Netherland restored to England, 271 ; Andros's 
Proclamation, 272 ; Former Grants confirmed, 273 ; Lovelace's Estate seized for the 
Duke of Y'ork, 274 ; Long Island Towns submit to Andros, 275 ; Trial and Sentence 
of Manning, 27G ; Andros requires Oaths of Allegiance from the Dutch, 277; Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and Delaware, 278 ; Duke of Y'ork disapproves of popu- 
lar Assemblies, 279 ; Connecticut Boundary, 279, 280 ; Philip of Pokanoket and New 
England Pohcy, 281, 282; Rhode Island proposes Arbitration, 283; Philip begins 
War, 283 ; Andros at Saybrook, 284 ; Connecticut Protest pronounced "a Slander" 
by Andros, 285; New Y'ork off"ers Lands to Emigrants, 28G ; Andros named "Cor- 
ker" by the IMohawks, 287; Robert Livingston appointed Indian Secretary, 287; 
Domine Nicolaus van Rensselaer, 288 ; Massachusetts Coopers not liked on Long 
Island, 289 ; Andros helps Rhode Island, which rebukes Massachusetts, 290 ; Massa- 


ilmsetts asperses New York, 291 ; Connecticut Agents at New York, 202 ; Duke sus- 
tains Andros's action about Connecticut, 21)3 ; Andros at JScliaghticook, 2!)4 ; riiilip 
slain near Mount Hope, 295 ; remaquid burned, 296 ; Charles's Plantation Commit- 
tee ; Kandolph sent to Boston, and insulted, 297, 298 ; Massachusetts Agents sent to 
England, 298 ; Tlie Iroquois conquer the Andastes, 299 ; Jesuit Missionaries ; Prai- 
rie de la jNIadelciue ; Caghnawaga on the Saint Lawrence, 299 ; Domine Van liens- 
selaer, Leisler, and Jlilborne; Dock in New York, 300; Delaware Affairs, 301 ; Fen- 
wick sails to the Delaware, and is imprisoned in New York, 302 ; Duties levied by- 
New York on New Jersey Imjiortations, 303 ; Quintipartite Deed for East and West 
New Jersey, 303, 30 1 ; New York refuses New Jersey a separate Port, 30.") ; Andros 
and New Jersey Quakers, 305 ; Burlington founded, 30G ; Andros asserts English sov- 
crcigntv over the Iroquois, 300, 307 ; Henncpiu among the Mohawks, 307 ; La Salle 
builds Barks on Lake Ontario, and returns to France, 308 ; New England called 
" Kinshon"' by the Iroquois, 309 ; INIaryland Agents in New York ; Greenhalgh sent 
to the Senecas, 309, 310 ; Fort Charles at Pemaquid, 310 ; New I'altz Patent, 311 ; 
Andros returns to England, and leaves Brockholls in charge of New York, 312 ; New 
York described by Andz'os, 313. 

C: II A P T E II V I I. 


William of Orange married to Mary of England, 314, 3L'> ; Peace of Nime^uen, 315 ; 
Andros knighted by Charles, 3L5; Andros suggests the Consolidation of New En- 
gland; His Report about New York, 310; The King absolves New York from the 
"imputation" of Massachusetts, 317 ; Andros returns to New York with Chaplain 
^Vollcy ; Bolting of Flour ; Population and Sliii)ping of the INIetropolis, 318 ; Leisler 
and other New Yorkers redeemed from the Turks, 319 ; Fenwick arrested on the Del- 
aware and sent to New York, 320 ; Andros complains of New England ; Case of 
Jacob Milborne, 321 ; Louis authorizes La Salle to explore the Mississippi, 322 ; 
French at Niagara, 323 ; Hennepin among the vScnccas, 324 ; La Salle builds a Ves- 
sel above Niagara, 325; Launches the "Griffm" above Niagara, 325; Embarks on 
Lake Erie or " Conty," 32(5 ; The Irofjuois at Albany ; " Corlaer governs the whole 
Land," 327; Conquest of the Andastes by the Irocjuois, 328 ; Virginia Agents at Al- 
bany, 328 ; Andros at Pemaquid, 328 ; Dutch Lahadists in New York, 328 ; Dutch 
Ministers in New York ordain I'etrus Tcsschcnmacker, 329 ; Coopers fined ft)r strik- 
ing in New York ; Bolting Fhntr ; Shoemakers, 330 ; Imported Indian Slaves de- 
clared free in New York, 331 ; New Dutch Church in New York, 331 ; Chaplain 
^VolIcy returns to l^igland, 332 ; Trouble between New York and New Jersey, 332 ; 
Andros proposes Beacons and a Fort at Sandy Hook, 333 ; Carteret seized at Eliza- 
bethtown, and tried and acquitted at New York, 333, 334 ; Pemaquid Affairs, 335 ; 
Andros at Boston, 330 ; Negro Slaves in Massachusetts and New York, 337 ; Habeas 
Corpus Act in England; Freedom of tlie English Press; Tories and Whigs, 338 ; 
Penn's Argument for the New Jersey Quakers, 339 ; Sir William Jones's wary and 
fallacious Opinion, 340,341 ; James releases East and West Jersey, 342; Andros 
recalled, 343 ; Lewin sent by the Duke as his Agent to New York, 343, 344 ; The 
great Comet of 108O, 345; Andros leaves New York ; Brockholls Commander-in- 
Chief, 345; Pennsylvania chartered by Charles II., 340-348 ; Brockholls relinquishes 
Pennsylvania to Penn, 349; Carteret's Claim to Staten Island denied, 350; New 
York Merchants refuse to pay Duties to the Duke, 351 ; Collector Dyer tried and his 
Case referred to the King, 352 ; Petition of the Court of Assizes to James, 353, 354; 
Disaffection in New York, 355; Duke of York's orders to Brockholls, 350-358; 


Perm's Frame of Government ; Ilnndoliih again in Boston, ;>">0 ; Massaclnisctts sends 
Bribes to England, ^500; Connecticut I^oimdary Question referred to the Duke, IJOO, 
.'iCl ; S'elyns returns to New York, 'Mil ; La Salle's Adventures in the jMississipj)i Val- 
ley, 3()2, oG3 ; Louisiana named, SGt ; De la Barre appointed Governor of Canada, 
;!(!") ; James grants the Delaware Territory to Penn, 3GG ; Philadelphia founded, 3G7 ; 
Penn's Treaty at Shackamaxon, oGS ; Kudyard succeeds Carteret as Governor of 
New Jersey, 3G8 ; Canada and New York Atfairs, 'M'J, 

C II A 1' T E R VIII. 


Colonel Tliomas Dongan appointed Governor of New York, 370 ; Dongan's Commission 
and Instructions, 371-373; James allows an Assembly in New York, 374 ; Spragg 
Secretary, Santen Collector, and Gordon Chaplain in New York, 374 ; Dongan ar- 
rives in New York, and summons an Assembly, 37.") ; Dongan, Penn, and the Susrpie- 
hanna Lands, 37G; Dongan renews Andros's claim of English Sovereignty over the 
Iroquois, 377 ; De la Barre against the IroquoL"' and La Salle, 378 ; Louis thinks La 
Salle's Discovery "useless," 378 ; Dongan warns Castin at Pemaquid; Jealousy in 
Boston, 37'J ; Clergymen in New York, 380 ; Address of the Court of Assizes to the 
Duke, 380, 381 ; Easthampton's Address to Dongan, 381 ; A Majority of the New 
York Assembly Dutchmen ; NicoUs Speaker, and Spragg Clerk, 382 ; Charter of 
Liberties adoi)ted by the New York Assembly, and a Revenue granted to the Duke of 
York, 383, 384 ; Democratic Idea in New York ; "The Peojjle" the fountain of Sov- 
ereignty, 384, 'SS'> ; New York divided into Counties, 385, 3SG ; Courts of Justice es- 
tablished, 38G ; Naturalization Law, 387; Connecticut Boundary, 387-389; New 
York City Government ; The City divided into Wards, 389, 390 ; Metropolitan Court 
of Sessions ; Bolting of Flour, 391 ; Shipping of the Metropolis, 391 ; The City's Ad- 
dress to the Duke ; New York and New Jersey, 392 ; Dongan opposes Penn ; James's 
Orders to Dongan ; The Susquehanna Lands, 393 ; Dongan's Orders for Pemaquid, 
394 ; Dongan's Indian Policy firm for New York, 39.") ; Lord Effingham, Governor of 
Virginia, visits New York, and is made a Freeman of the City, 39G ; Dongan and Ef- 
fingham at Albany; Effingham named "Assarigoa" by the Iroquois, 397; Duke of 
York's Arms put on the Iroquois Castles, 398 ; S])eeclies of the Iroquois to Dongan 
and Effingham, 399, 400 ; Dongan's Dispatches to LondoTi by Baxter, 401 ; De la 
Barre's Expedition against the Iroquois, 401, 402 ; Viele at Onondaga, 402 ; Grande 
Gueule opposes Corlaer ; The Iroquois free, 403 ; De la Barre at Fort Frontenac ; 
Goes to La Famine ; Conference there ; Grande Gueule insults De la Barre ; tlie 
French succumb and make a Treaty with the Iroquois,' 403-40."> ; Louis orders robust 
Iroquois to be sent to his Galleys, 40G ; Pemaquid ; Esopus ; Eastliampton Affiiirs, 
407 ; Josias Clarke Chaplain in place of Gordon, 407 ; David Jamison, a Scotch 
"Sweet Singer," comes to New York and teaches a Latin School there, 407, 408 ; 
Second meeting of the New York Assembly ; Provincial Navigation Law, 408 ; Court 
of Oyer and Terminer established ; Rudyard Attorney General, 409 ; City Corpora- 
tion ; Staten Island, 410; No " innovation" on the Hudson River to be sufi'ered; 
Staten Island "Mitbout doubt'' belongs to New York, 411 ; Pertl/s Letter to Don- 
gan; Dongan's reply, 412; Connecticut Boundary Commissioners appointed, 412; 
Colonial Post with New England established by New York, 413; Massachusetts and 
Connecticut Boundaries, 413; Rye-House Plot in England; Princess Anne of En- 
gland married to Prince George of Denmark, 414 ; Charles dispenses with the Test 
Act, and restores James to his Offices, 415 ; James signs the New York Charter, 4ir> ; 
Massachusetts Agents foiled in London •, Charles detennines to quell that Colony, 41 G ; 


The Massachusetts Patent canceled, 417; Debate in the British Council; Halifax; 
Decision about the New England Government; Kirke appointed its Governor; No 
Assembly allowed, 417-41!) ; Duke of York suspends the New York Charter ; Hali- 
fax, Louis, Charles, and James; The King and the Duke, 420. 



Decease of Charles II. ; Accession of James II., 421 ; New York Colonial Records sent 
to the King's Plantation Office, 422 ; New York a royal EngUsh Province ; James 
does not confirm its Charter, 423 ; Orders of James's Privy Council to New York, 
424 ; James II. proclaimed King in New York, 42o ; Address of the Metropolitan 
Coiporation to James, 42G ; Jews in New York, 42G, 427; Last Meeting of the New 
York Assembly, 427, 428 ; Thanksgiving ; Court of Exchequer, 428 ; Dongan gives 
Passes to New Yorkers to hunt in the West, 420 ; Conference with the Iroquois at 
Albany, 430 ; Louis removes De la Barre, and appoints Denonville Governor of Can- 
ada, 431 ; Dongan and Denonville; New Jersey ; Eeid and Scott, 432 ; James con- 
siders Colonial Affairs ; Connecticut, Ehode Island, Jersey, and Delaware in danger, 
433 ; New England regulated ; Randolph Deputy Postmaster, 434 ; Baptism of Ne- 
groes in the English Plantations, 434 ; Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes, 435 ; Penn 
gains the Delaware Territory, 43.5, 43G ; Press Censorship revived in England, 43G ; 
William Bradford begins to print in Philadeli)hia, 437 ; Dongan granted Lands on 
Long Island, 437; Dongan's Charter to the City of New York, 438 ; Albany incor- 
porated as a City, 439 ; Robert Livingston Clerk of Albany, 439, 440 ; Dongan op- 
jioses Denonville's Policy about the Iroquois, 440-442 ; Lamberville deceived by De- 
nonville, 412; Dongan again sends Rooseboom and others to the West; MacGregorie 
sent after Rooseboom, 443, 444 ; Huguenots sheltered in New York, 444 ; Palmer 
and West sent to Pemaquid, 444, 445 : Dudley and Randolph installed at Boston ; 
Qiiakei-s unjustly taxed at Plymouth, 445, 44G; Connecticut claimed by James ; Dud- 
ley and Treat against Dongan, 44G, 447 ; Consolidation of his American Colonies the 
Idea of James ; Royal in place of Colonial Despotism, 447, 448 ; James commissions 
Sir Edmund Andros to be his Govei'nor of New England, 448, 449; James allows 
Liberty of Conscience to " all Persons" in New England, 450 ; Great Seal of New 
England, 451 ; Its "remarkable Motto" taken from Claudian, 451 ; English Soldiers 
sent to Boston by James II., 451 ; Captain Francis Nicholson Lieutenant under An- 
dros, 451 ; James orders Pemaquid to be taken from New York and annexed to New 
England; Dongan in fiivor of the change, 451, 452 ; James gives Dongan a royal 
Commission, 452 ; Dongan's Instructions, 453 ; James repeals the New York Charter 
of Liberties, 453 ; The Church of England estal)lished in New York, 454 ; English 
Schoolmasters to be licensed in New York, and Liberty of Conscience declared by 
James, 454; "No innovation" to be allowed on the Hudson River; Royal African 
Company ; Conversion of Negroes and Indians in New York ; No unhccused Print- 
ing in New York, 455 ; Orders of James's Plantation Committee to Dongan, 456; 
James II. establishes the English Episcopal Church in New York ; Bishop Compton ; 
Archbishop Sarfcroft, 450 ; James's Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in his American Colo- 
nies, 457 ; Rev. Alexander Innis Chajtlain at Fort James, 457 ; Dongan receives his 
royal Commission; His Counselors sworn; Population of New York in 1G8G, 458; 
The New York Assemlfly dissolved by Order of James II., 458; First Laws passed 
by Dongan and his Council, 459 ; Kingston Patent, 459 ; Quakers in New York not 
exempted from Military Service, 459 ; Northern Boundary between Ncav York and 
New Jersey, 459 ; Dongan complains of East Jersey, Smuggling, and Interlopers, 


4G0 ; Dongan wishes a Fort built on Sandy Ilooli to command the Channel to New 
Yorlv, 4G0; Thinks that New Jersey should be reannexed to New York, 4(51 ; The 
]\Iouth of the Hudson River at Sandy Hook, 4G1 ; Inconvenience of a separate Tort 
in New Jersey, 40 1 ; Collector Santen suspended and sent a Prisoner to England, 4G2 ; 
A''an Cortlaudt and Graham Joint Collectors in Santen's place, 4G2 ; Palmer and 
Bayard sworn Counselors, 4G2 ; Hongan's Report on New York sent to England, 4G2 ; 
Its interesting Details ; Militia of the Province ; Prolific Woman ; Forts James, Al- 
bany, and Charles, 462, 4G3 ; Dongan advises Pemaquid to be annexed to Massachu- 
setts, and Connecticut to New York, 4Go ; Right of New York to Connecticut, 4G4 ; 
English, Scotch, Irish, and French Immigrants into New YorJi, 4G4 ; Petition of 
French Protestants to James II., 4G4 ; Religious Persuasions in New York ; The 
Dutch Church used by Episcopalians, etc., 4G4, 4Gu ; No Eeggars nor Idlers in New 
York, 4G5 ; Address of the Corporation of New York City to King James II., 4G5 ; 
Case of Stepney, a Dancing-master, 40") ; Dongan appoints a New York Postmaster, 
4GG ; William Nicolls made Attorney General of New York, 4GG ; A New York Ship 
pillaged by Irish Pirates, 4GG ; The Iroquois the '"bulwark" of New York against 
Canada, 4GC ; Dongan's Advice to James unlieeded, 4GG, 4G7 ; Sir Edmund Andros 
at Boston, 4G7; Assumes the Government of New England, 4G7 ; Dudley Licenser 
of the Press, and Judges appointed in the Dominion of New England, 4G7 ; How An- 
dros's coming to New England aftected New York, 4GS ; Dongan surrenders Pema- 
quid or Cornwall to the New England Government, 4GS ; Artful Letter of Connecti- 
cut to Lord Sunderland, 4G8 ; Dongan sends Palmer and Graham to Connecticut, 
401) ; Palmer and Graham's Report to Dongan, 470 ; Dongan's Report to Lord Sun- 
derland, 470 ; Assumed Submission of Connecticut to James, 471 ; Dongan reproves 
the Conduct of Connecticut, 472 ; Andros takes the Government of Connecticut into 
his hands, 473 ; The Senecas seek the Protection of Corlaer, 474 ; Whitehall Treaty 
of Neutrality in North America, 475 ; Vaudreuil in Canada ; Dcnonville's Expedition 
against the Senecas, 476; Iroquois sent Prisoners to France, 476; Lamberville in 
Danger, 477 ; The French at Irondequoit ; La Fontaine Marion shot, 478 ; Dcnon- 
ville's Advance, 479; French take Possession of the Seneca Country, 480; Denon- 
ville builds a Fort at Niagara, 480 ; Dongan's Conference with the Iroquois at Al- 
bany, 481 ; No French Priests to be allowed among the Iroquois, 482 ; Dongan sup- 
plies the Iroquois with Arms, 483 ; War Tax in New York, 484 ; Palmer goes to En- 
gland with Dongan's Dispatches, 485 ; Spanish Indian Slaves again set free, 4SG ; 
Brockholls in Command at New York, 487; Dongan winters at Albany, 488 ; De- 
nonville sends Vaillant and Dumont to Albany, 489 ; James's Declaration of Liberty 
of Conscience, 490 ; French Protestant Refugees fiivored by James, 490 ; Perth Am- 
boy made a Port subject to New York, 491 ; New Royal Seal for New York, 491 ; 
Plowman appointed Collector of New Y''ork, 492 ; James's Instructions to Dongan 
about the Iroquois, 492 ; Agreement between James and Louis to prevent Colonial 
Hostilities, 493 ; The French assert Sovereignty over the Iroquois, 494 ; Negotiations 
of the French Agents with Albany, 494 ; Dongan's Report to Sunderland, 
495; Dongan calls on the neighboring Colonies for Help, 49G ; Addi'ess of New York 
to the King, 496. 



Colonial Administration of James the Second, 497 ; Popular Representation not allow- 
ed in the EngHsh Colonies, 498 ; James faithful to England, 499 ; New York Con- 
solidated with New England, 500 ; Andros appointed Viceroy of the Dominion, 501 ; 


James's new Commission to Andros, 502 ; Andres's Instructions, 503 ; Francis Nich- 
olson iippointed Lieutenant Governor, 504 ; New Tax levied in New York, 505 ; The 
Reformed Dutch Church asks to be Incorporated, 50G ; New York, Canada, and the 
Iroquois, 507 ; Grande-Gueule rebukes Denonville, 508 ; Denonville makes Peace 
with the Iroquois, who assert their indei)endence of England and France, 508 ; French 
Fort at Niagara demolished, 5U9 ; Indian Slaves to be set Free, 509 ; Tax Law Sus- 
jicnded, 510; Andros at Pemaquid, 510; Returns to Boston, 511 ; Graham and Ja- 
mison favored by Andros, 511 ; Palmer made a New England Judge, 511 ; Andros 
in New York ; The Seal of New York broken, 512 ; New Jersey reduced, 512 ; New 
York dislikes Annexation to New England, 513 ; New York and Massachusetts very 
different, 514 ; Laws passed at New York by Andros, 515 ; Selyns's Opinion of An- 
dros ; Hinckley's Opinion of Uongan, 51 G ; Birth of the Prince of Wales ; Rejoicings 
in New York, 516 ; Andros at Albany calls the Iroquois " Children," 517 ; The Mo- 
hawks wish to remain "Brethren," 518 ; Adario captures the Iroquois Delegates, 519 ; 
Denonville baffled ; Callieres sent to France, 520 ; Andros returns to Boston, leaving 
Nicholson in command at New York, 521 ; Andros goes to Maine as General, 522; 
Traitorous Boston Merchants ; Garrisons established in Maine by Andros, 523 ; Buc- 
caneers or Pirates imprisoned by Nicholson in Boston, 524 ; The old Boston Mint 
coins Piratical Plate, 525 ; The Massachusetts Hedge broken by Episcopal wild 
Beasts ; Misrepresentations of Andros, 520 ; The New York Confidents of the Gov- 
ernor, 527; Puritan hatred of Episcopacy ; Slather goes to London, 528; Sir Wil- 
liam Phipps High Sheriff of New England, 529 ; INIather kindly received by James, 
529 ; Massachusetts wishes James to establish a Colonial Landed Aristocracy, 530 ; 
James favors Penn, 531 ; James's Second Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, 532 ; 
Trial and Acquittal of the Bishops, 532 ; Birth of the Prince of Wales, 532 ; The 
I'rince of Orange invited to England, 532 ; The Prince's Policy, 533 ; Cornells Ev- 
ertsen of Zeeland ; William lands at Torbay, 533 ; James's Proclamation and Letters 
to the American Colonies, 534 ; Lovelace, Cornbury, and others flock to William, 
534 ; James throws his Great Seal into the Thames and goes to France, 535. 



William in London, 53G ; Orange Ribands worn, 53G ; William's first Colonial Acts, 
537 ; The Prince's Circular Letter not sent to Boston, 537 ; The C< 'mention Parlia- 
ment : Its Declaration of Right copied from the Dutch, 538 ; William and Mary King 
and Queen of England, 539 ; William's I'lantation Committee, 539 ; All Persons to 
remain in their old Offices in the Plantations nntil farther Ordei-s, 540 ; English 
Corporation Bill fails, 541 ; Phipps and Mather's Petition to William, 541 ; Wil- 
liam wishes to preserve the Dominion of New England whole, 542 ; James and 
Phipps, 543 ; Phipps goes to Boston, 543 ; The I'lantations to be made more de- 
pendent on the Crown of England, 544 ; James in Ireland, 544 ; War declared 
between England and France, 545 ; Colonial Policy of Louis, 545 ; Iroquois Pris- 
oners sent home from France, 540 ; Callicres's Project approved by Louis, 547 ; 
Denonville recalled, and Frontenac appointed Governor of Canada, 547 ; Frontc- 
nac's Instructions in regard to New York, 547 ; Andros's Proclamation from Pem- 
aquid, 548 ; Andros returns to Boston, 540 ; A "general Buzzing" at Boston, 550; 
Politics of the Boston Gentlemen ; Lies circulated, 551 ; Insurrection in Boston, 552; 
Andros Imprisoned by the Boston Insurgents, 553 ; Plymouth does not like " to trot 
after the Bay Horse," 554; Secession triumphs, 554; Connecticut revolts, .555; 
Phipj)s's Felony at Boston, 555 ; Inconsistency of the Boston Revolt, 55G ; Virginia, 


Maryland, and Pennsylvania, HoG ; Nicholson Lieutenant Governor at New York, 
557 ; Phillipse, Van Cortlandt, and Bayard Resident Counselors, 558 ; Convention of 
Officers called in New York, 559 ; Nicholson's Letter to tlie Boston Rebels, 5G0; 
Long Island in trouble, 5G0 ; Nicholson's Report to William sent by Riggs to En- 
gland, 5G1 ; Andros's verbal Orders to Nicholson, 5G1 ; Baxter and Russell suspend- 
ed, 5G2 ; Excessive Protestantism in New York, 5G3 ; Nicholson insulted and misrep- 
resented, 56i5 ; Jacob Leisler a German, not a Dutchman, 5G4 ; Dutch Influence in 
New York ; Leisler's Declaration, 5GG ; Leisler in Fort James, 5G7 ; Leisler's Proc- 
lamation from Fort James, 5G8 ; Leisler's Address to WiUiam, 5Gi) ; Nicholson leaves 
New York; Letter of the Council to the English Government, 570; Leisler assumes 
the Command, 571 ; William and Mary proclaimed in New York, 572 ; Leisler's Con- 
vention at New York, 573; Committee of Safety ; Leisler Captain of the Fort, 574; 
Leisler commissioned as Commander-in-Chief by his Committee of Safety, 575 ; Leis- 
ler writes to William, 57G ; Jacob JNIilborne ; His bad Advice, 57G ; IVIichaelmas 
Charter Election in New York, 577 ; Leisler attempts Albany, 578 ; Bleecker and 
Schuyler, 579; Ba\-ard at Albany, 580; The Albany Convention, 581 ; Millet an 
Oneida Sachem, 582 ; The Iroquois ravage La Chine, 583 ; Leisler writes to Wen- 
dell and Bleecker at Albany, 584 ; Rival Governments in New York and Albany, 585 ; 
Leisler's Despotism, 58G ; Milborne sent to Albany, 587 ; Bleecker and Schuyler op- 
pose Milborne, who is baffled at Albany, 588 ; Connecticut sends Soldiers to Albany, 
589 ; Bayard denounces Leisler, 589 ; Phillipse submits to Leisler, 590 ; The Fourth 
and Fifth of November Holidays in New York, 591. 



Trouble in London about the Colonies, 592 ; William's Letter to Massachusetts, 593 ; 
His Letter to Nicholson at Ne\^ York, 593 ; Riggs brings the King's Dispatches to 
New York, 594 ; Henry Sloughter appointed Governor of New York, 594 ; Nicholson 
made Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, 595 ; StoU foiled in London ; Matthew 
Clarkson appointed Secretary of New York, 59G ; Leisler seizes the royal Dispatches 
to Nicholson and his Council, brought by Riggs to New York, 597 ; Leisler assumes 
to be Lieutenant Governor, 598 ; He appoints Counselors, and makes a .'-'eal for New 
York, 599 ; Leisler issues new Commissions and erects Courts, COO; Leisler's Letters 
to the King and Bishop Burnet, GOO ; Bayard and Nicholson Prisoners in the Fort, 
GOl ; Albany Convention declai'es against Leisler, G02 ; Frontenac at Quebec, G03 ; 
French Message to the Iroquois ; Grand Council at Onondaga, G04 ; The Iroquois stick 
to "Quider,"G05; Advice to attack Quebec, 605 ; Frontenac's Expedition against 
Schenectady, GOG ; Schenectady attacked, G07 ; Domine Tesschenmaeker and others 
killed, and Prisoners taken, G08 ; Captain Alexander Glen, or Coudre, G( I8 ; The French 
return to Canada, G09 ; Albany advises an attack on Canada, G09 ; The Mohawks at 
Albany, GIO ; The Albany Convention sends Barentsen to New York, and Livingston, 
Teunissen, and Garton to New England, Gil; Albany urges the union of all the British 
Colonies against Canada, Gil ; LeislerimprisonsAndros's officers, Gil ; Dongan in New 
Jersey, G12 ; Leisler rebuked by Connecticut, G12 ; Leisler tries to arrest Livingston, 
G13 ; Massachusetts cold toward New York, G13 ; De Bruyn and others sent by Leisler 
to Boston ; Fort Orange surrendered to them, GI4 ; Suffolk County disregards Leisler's 
authority, but his Assembly meets, G15 ; A Colonial Congress at New York ; Its Ac- 
tion, GIG; New York Cruisers against the French, Gl 7; Frontenac sends D'Eau to 
Onondaga, G17 ; Conference at Albany with the Iroquois, G17 ; D'Ean seized at Al- 
bany and sent to New York by the Iroquois; Kryn, the great Mohawk, slain, CIS; 


StoU returns from London -with bad News for Leisler, G18 ; Address of the principal 
Inhabitants of New York to William and Mary, C19 ; Leisler assaulted ; Sends Let- 
ters to the King by Blagge, G19 ; Leisler appoints Milborne General, who is objected 
to by Connecticut and Massachusetts, G20 ; Winthrop appointed General ; Marches 
to Albany ; Council of War at Wood Creek, G20 ; Epidemic Small-pox ; The Army 
marches' back to Albany; Leisler imprisons Winthrop, and is rebuked by Connecti- 
cut, 021 ; Captain John Schuyler's successful Expedition against La Prairie, 622; 
Leisler's intemperate Letters to Massachusetts and Connecticut, G22 ; Phipps re- 
pulsed at Quebec ; Massachusetts obliged to issue Paper iloney, G23 ; New York 
Cruisers take French Prizes, G23 ; Assembly at New York ; Laws passed, 623 ; Al- 
bany Officers appointed, G2-t ; Leisler quarrels with the Dutch and French Clergy of 
the Province, 624, 625 ; Huguenots at New Rochelle, 625 ; Milborne sent to subdue 
the opponents of Leisler on Long Island, 625 ; Clapp's Letter against Leisler to the 
Secretary of State, 625, 626 ; Viele Agent at Onondaga, 626 ; Boston advises Leisler 
to be moderate, 626 ; Leisler's abusive Letter to Connecticut, 626 ; Last Acts of 
Leisler's Despotism, 627 ; William's New York Government, 627 ; Sloughter's Com- 
mission ; Assembly; Council, 627, 628 ; Sloughter's Instructions ; Councilors, 628 ; 
Andros and ethers sent to England and discharged, 629 ; Dudley a New York Coun- 
cilor, 629 ; New Provincial Seal ; Soldiers for New York ; Major Richard Ingoldesby 
commissioned, 630 ; Blagge in London ; His Papers referred to Sloughter, 631 ; 
Sloughter sails for New York, and is carried to Bermuda, 631 ; Ingoldesby at New 
York ; Demands the Fort ; Leisler very angry at the demand ; Refuses Compliance, 
631, 632 ; Leisler obstinate, 632, 633 ; Leisler opposes Ingoldesby, 633 ; Leisler keeps 
Councilors Baj-ard and Nicolls Prisoners, 633 ; Leisler's fresh Lies, 634 ; Action of 
the Royal Council, 634 ; Leisler's Proclamation, 634 ; Clarkson writes to Connecti- 
cut ; Allj'n's Advice to Leisler, 635; "Peace Address" from Kings and Queens 
Counties, 635 ; William Kidd, a Privateer, 635 ; Leisler's Declaration against In- 
goldesby ; Re[)ly of the Council, 635 ; The Council consider Ingoldesby chief Com- 
mander, 636 ; Leisler fires on the Troops ; Persons killed ; The Block-house surren- 
ders, 636 ; Arrival of Sloughter ; Councilors sworn, 637 ; Milborne and De la Noy 
imprisoned, 637; Leisler's Submission to Sloughter, 638; Leisler imprisoned, and 
Bayard and Nicolls set free ; An Assembly called, and Officers ajjpointed by Slough- 
ter, 638 ; Domine Selyns's Sermon, 638 ; Sloughter appoints a Special Commission of 
Oyer and Terminer, 639; The Prisoners indicted by the Grand Jury, 639; Leisler 
and ]\Iilborne refuse to plead ; Opinion of the Governor and Council on the King's 
Letter to Nicholson, 640 ; Eight of the Piisoners convicted ; Two acquitted ; Prison- 
ers sentenced and reprieved, 640 ; Blagge's Memorial answered, 641 ; Sloughter's Re- 
ports to England, 641 ; Jamison Clerk of the Council ; Dellius returns and is reward- 
ed, 641 ; The Assembly meets ; Its Members, 642 ; Speeches of Sloughter and Dud- 
ley to the Assembly, 642 ; Assembly's Resolutions against Leisler's arbitrary Acts, 
(i42 ; Rebellion abhorred by the Assembly, 643 ; The Assembly resolves that the Co- 
lonial Laws of James are void, 643 ; The Council does not concur in this Resolution, 
643 ; Assembly's Address to William and Mary, 644 ; Assembly Bills to be drawn by 
the Attorney General, 644 ; Law passed to quiet Disorders, 644 ; Law declaring the 
Rights of the People of New York, 645 ; Courts established, and Judges appointed, 

646 ; Revenue Act, 646 ; Kidd rewarded, 646 ; Amnesty Law; Certain Exceptions, 

647 ; Sloughter's Proclamation, 647 ; Petitions for Leisler's pardon ; His Execution 
demanded, 647; Resolution of the Council; Sloughter signs the Death-warrant of 
Leisler and Milborne, 648 ; Leisler and Milborne executed ; Their dying Speeches, 

648 ; Tlieir Execution a Political Mistake ; Its Consequences to New York, 649. 


A p p E :n- D I X. 

Note A PageGol 

Note B '. G53 

NoteC Ga3 

NoteD G/i8 

NoteE G:>^ 

NoteF GGl 

NoteG *. GG2 

Notell G62 

Index GGj 





The year sixteen hundred and sixty-four found the cuAr.i. 
strongest powers of Europe on the brink of a fierce war. 
That war determined the fate of New York. -^va,. ^t 

In France, Louis the Fourteenth was pushing up to its '"'°'^' 
pinnacle the idea of absolute monarchy. The king was 
himself the state. Laborious and untiring, Louis had the 
rare faculty of choosing well his subordinates. Colbert 
became his minister of finance ; Lionne, of foreign affairs ; • 
Louvois, of .war. Condc, Luxembourg, and Turenne, his 
^•ictorious generals, earned him bloody renown. The 
French king was a devout son of the Roman Church. Franca 
But, above all other characteristics, he had the instinct of tue Four- 
grandeur and the thirst for glory. " There is stuff enough 
in him," said Mazarin, " to make four kings and an honest 
man." If Louis was not the greatest soviereign, he was 
" the best actor of majesty that ever filled a throne." More 
than any other monarch, he had "the marvellous art of 
reigning." Supreme in France, he wished to sway all Eu- 
rope, and to that end he directed his subtile diplomacy. 
He soon established a control over the half French Idng of 
England. ' With the United Netherlands he made a treaty 
of alliance. But the system of bribery by which Louis 
succeeded almost every where .else, failed when it was used 
against the chief servants of the Dutch liepublic. 

After the death of the secoijd William of Orange? in 

XL— A 


Chap. I.- November, 1650, the dignity of stadtliolder had remained 
in abeyance, and the Dutch executive authority had been 
administered by statesmen whose pohtical opinions were 
opposed to those of the deceased prince. One of these 
opinions was that the ahnost royal power which the stadt- 
holderate gave to the house of Orange was dangerous to 
the repubhc. A few days after the death of William, his 
widow, who was the daughter of Charles the First of En-w 
The Dutch gland, gave birth to a son, whom she desired to name 
andwiu Charles, but who was baptized William Ilcnry, in the 
Third.'"' great Dutch Church at the Hague. lie succeeded liis fa- 
ther as William, the Third Prince of Orange. This event 
roused the apprehensions of the Louvestein, or aristocratic 
party, at the head of which was the young John De Witt, 
a disciple of Descartes, already conspicuous for his. ability, 
firmness, and integrity. So highly were his talents and 
. prudence esteemed, that he was frequently called " The 
wisdom of Holland." His mind was well compared with 
that of Richelieu. In 1653, De Witt was made Grand 
Pensionary of Holland, and thenceforward he became the 
real chief magistrate of the republic. To gratif}^ Crom- 
well, he procured an act of the States excluding the Prince 
of Orange from the office of stadtholder. Upon the resto- 
ration of Cliarles the Second to the throne of England, 
this act, so insulting to his nephew, was repealed. De 
johnDc Witt, nevertheless, remained at the head of Dutch affairs, 
which he directed with consummate skill and nearly regal 
authority. His country had reached the zenith of its pros- 
perity and glory. Domestic trade and manufactures main- 
tained a growing population in content and abundance; 
while foreign commerce, searching every shore of the 
globe, poured continual riches into the warehouses of Hol- 
land and Zealand. An alliance liad secured the- friend- 
ship of France. A similar treaty promised i^eace with En- 
gland; and Charles, solemnly professing gratitude and af- 
fection toward the Dutch people, confided to the States of 
Holland the guardianship of liis infant nephew, AVilliam 
of Orange. With the king apparently so well disposed, it 
seemed as if enduring friendship was established between 
the two great Protestant nations of Europe — continental 
Holland and insular Enijland. 


It was an interesting circumstance that the royal family cuAr. i. 
of Great Britain was connected with the King- of France 
and the Prince of Orange in a nearly equal degree. To- ''■'^^*- 
ward Louis and William, Iloyalist Enghshmen felt much 
more kindly than did the men of the Coinmonwealth. 
But Englishmen generally hated both Frenchmen and IIol- England 
landers with strong national antipathies. The court ])oets uonara"-''" 
praised the frivolous French, whose fashions were imitated ''p''""®"- 
at Whitehall, while they lampooned the honester Dutch, 
whose national virtues were a reproach to their king and 
to themselves. Even the most accomplished English schol- 
ars were superciliously ignorant of the literature of Hol- 
land, then so rich in varied learning. Yet, w^ith all their 
affectation of contempt, the English were intensely jealous 
of the Dutch, whose enterprise, outrunning their own, had 
•established a profitable commerce in Asia and Africa. 
The Navigation Act of the Commonwealth, de^•ised to crip- 
ple the foreign trade of the Netherlands, was made more 
vindictive just after the Restoration. Dr3'den but uttered 
the envy of his countrymen vdien he wrote of the Hol- 
landers — 

"As Cato fraits of Afiic did display, • 

Let us before our eyes their Indies lay ; 
All loyal English will like him conclude, 
Let Civ;sar live, and Carthage be subdued."* 

Xevertheless, there was no cause of war between En- 
gland and Holland. The British sovereign ostentatiousl}' 
professed his own good feeling toward the nation which charies the 
he allowed his couVtiers to abuse. But there was no faith ^'^°^ ' 
in the frivolous Kinc: of England. Of all hS* monarchs, 
Charles the Second was the meanest and most insincere. 
If Louis of France was the best actor of majesty, Charles 
of England was the greatest dissembler that ever sat on a 
throne. He did not lack talent, nor education, nor the 
training of adversity, but he did lack conscience, a sense 
of shame, and an honest heart. His early years had been 
passed in his father's palace, whence he had been driven 
into strange lands. During the period of the Common- 
wealth he had wandered apiong princes aijd peoples, en- 
during vicissitudes of fortune which few royal personages 

• Satire on the Dutcli, 1CC2. 



ever bad the advantage of enjojnng, l)ut profiting nothing 
from an experience which should have made him one of 
the* greatest of kings. At the age of thirty years he was 
•recalled to England and crowned its sovereign. But 
Charles brought back with him from his exile no proper 
sense of his kingly office. Like a prodigal heir, who pos- 
sessed an estate after long nursing by a prudent guardian, 
he came home to "Wliitehall, eager to expend a splendid 
inheritance. His selfish heart, and easy temper, and glib 
tongue enabled him calmly to put by every embarrassing 
question of public concern, while he submitted himself to 
the most degrading influences. It followed that the reign 
of Charles the Second was the most execrable of any in 
the annals of England. 

Charles had a brother, three years younger than him- 
jarae.?, sclf, Jauics, Dukc of York and Albany. As the king had 
York." no legitimate offsj^ring, the duke was heir presumptive to 
the British 'throne. Although married to a daughter of 
his brother's chief minister, James was a cold-blooded lib- 
ertine ; and, while he professed to be a Protestant, was 
gradually becoming a Roman Catholic. His temper was 
harsh jind obstinate, his undefstanding slow, and his views 
narrow; but his word was sacred. lie loved the details 
of business as much as the king detested them, and with 
a;ll the method of a conscientious clerk, he seemed to M'ork 
for work's sake. To aid in supporting his dignity, the rev- 
enues of the post-office, estimated at about twenty thousand 
pounds a year, were settled on the duke by an obsequious 
Parliament. One of the first acts of tiie king was to ap- 
point his brother lord high admiral of England. • In exe- 
cuting the duties of this office, which involved all the ad- 
ministration of the navy, James was assisted by a Board 
of Admiralty, of which John Lord Berkeley, of Stratton, 
and Admiral Sir "William Penn, were commissioners. Sir 
George Carteret treasurer, and Samuel Pepys clerk. The 
duke's own private affairs were managed by three ccm- 
The duke's missioucrs. Sir William Coventry, who also acted as his sec- 
fiionera." retary, Henry Brouncker, and Ti^ ^nas Povey, who was 
likewise his treasurer and receiver i>;Gn<^ "al. 

There was at this time, properly s])eaking, no ministry 
to conduct the public affairs of England. The privy coun- 



cil were the nominal advisers of the sovereign. Each de- cuap. i. 
partnient of the government was directed by a comiselor ' 
responsible for his own acts, but not for those of his asso- 
ciates, as is the modem British cabinet minister. The 
most important, and by far the most able of the Idng's jrinistcr;^ 
servants, was the lord chancellor, Edward Hyde, Earl of the scTonl 
Clarendoii, and father-in-law of the Duke of York. The 
secretaries, of state were Sir 'William Morrice and Sir 
Henry Bennet, afterward Earl of Arlington. Sir "Anthony 
Ashley Cooper, Lord Ashley, and afterward Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, was president of tlie council, and Thomas, Earl of 
Southampton, lord his-h treasurer. These iixe chief minis- tiic ed- 
ters were collectively called " The Cabal," or cabinet. The '^cabai." , 
• affairs of the colonies and foreign plantations of England 
were managed by a council appointed by the king, consist- 
ing of the chief officers of state and others, among whom 
were Lord Say and Sele, John Lord Berkeley, Sir George plantation 
Carteret, Denzil Ilollis, Bobert Boyle, Sir William Cov- 
entry, and the poet, Edmund Waller. The}'' were specially 
instructed to acquaint themselves with the condition of 
each colony, correspond with the governors, cause the Act 
of ISTavigation to be s'trictly executed, provide for the settle- 
ment and maintenance of " learned and orthodox minis- . 
t6rs," and endeavor to bring the several colonies into more 
certain miif ormity of government, and render " those domin- 
ions useful to England, and England helpful to them."* 

Of all the servants of Charles the Second, the one whose 
influence was at this moment most pernicious was Sir 
George Downing, his envoy to the United Bro^-inces. Downing. 
Do"\vning was a nephew of the elder John Winthrop, and 
was one of the earliest, ablest, and basest graduates of 
•Harvard College in Massachusetts, He was sent by Crom- 
well ambassador to Holland, where he insulted liis exiled 
king ; but as he was " capable of managing a bad design," » 
he was forgiven and taken into the favor of Charles at the 
Restoration. Those who knew Downing best describee^ 
liim as " a crafty, fawning man," a " perfidious rogue," a 
" most ungrateful villain," and "■ a false man who betrayed 

* PepyB'a Diary (Bolm's ed.), ii.,312; iii., 167, 32S, 331 ; Letters of D'Estrades, ii.,4S7; 
Papin. ii., G35; Lingard, xii., 2CG; Macaulay, i., 211, 212, 2T3; iv., 435; New York Colo- 
nial Documents, iii., 32-30; Sainsbury'd Calendar of State Paper?, i., 492,493,494; ante, • 
vol. j., p. CSC. 


Chap. I. his ti'iist." The renegade certainly seems to have merited 
his damaging portrait. " If we may believe history, he was 
' a scomidrel." He was "keen, bold, subtile, active, and 
observant, but imperious and unscrupulous ; naturally pre- 
ferring menace to persuasion ; reckless of the means em- 
j)loyed and the risk incurred in the pursuit of a proposed 
object ; disliking and distrusting De Witt and the Dutch, 
and forearmed with a fierce determination not to, be foiled 
or overreached."* 

Downing lost no opportunity to inflanie English jealousy 
of the Hollanders. His correspondence with Lord Chan- 
cellor Clarendon, who seems to have as much to do with 
the foreign department as the secretaries Morrice and Ben- 

Dojning's net themselves,*exliibits a constant desire to provoke the 
•ence! , ' king iuto a war with the United Provinces. Pretexts were 
not wanting. The Dutch East and West India Companies 
were charged with colonial aggressions. Charles, howev- 
er, disliked hostilities, although he hated De Witt, whom 
he considered the chief obstacle to the advancement of 
his nephew, William of Orange. The Duke of York, on 
the other hand, absolutely detested the Zealanders, who 
had punished, less promptly than he washed, the authors of 
some libels against himself. Besides, said Clarendon, " hav- 
ing been, even from his childhood, in the opmmand of 
armies, and in his nature inclined to the most difficult and 
dangerous enterprises, he was already weary of having so 
little to do, and too impatiently longed for any war in 
which he knew he could not but have the chief command." 
Moreover, James was the governor of the new Poyal Af ri- 

Kngiishne- cau Company, which, besides selling their negro slaves "at 

gros a\e3. ^j^^ Barbados, and other the king's plantations, at their own 
prices," imported into England from the coast of Guinea 
" such store of gold that administered the first occasion for 

oiigjH of the coinage of those pieces which from thence had the de- 
nomination of guineas.''^ The Dutch West India Company 
were accused of injuring the duke's African interests; but 

* Uutchinson's Ha'snchusctts, i., Ill, 510; Savnse's Winthvop, ii., 240-243 ; Masa. Hist. 
Soc. CoU.,xxxvi.,53G-544; Palfrey's New England, ii., 431 ; John AdiimsV Works, x., 329 ; 
Pcpys, i., 264^teG5; Kvelyn, ii., S; Unmet, i., 79S ; Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii.. 231 ; D'Es- 
trade's Letters, ii., 303, 304; N. Y. Col. Doc.,u., 410-^18 note; ante, vol. i.,p. 700. There 
is a curiinis narrative of an interview between Charles tlie Second and Powning at the 
Hague, while the latter was Oomwell's anibas.-ador, in the Antiquarian Kcpcrtorj-, and in 
the Universal Magazine for November, 1770, vol. Ixv., p. 24'5. 



even Downing could not make out a fair case against tlieni, cuAr. i. 
Nevertheless, Sir Eobert Holmes was secretly dispatched , 
with a squadron to the coast of Guinea, where he seized j-ebruary". 
the Dutch fort of Cabo Corso, and committed other acts of 
aggression, which Lord Clarendon afterward admitted M-ere 
"without any shadow of justice."* 

Another motive influenced the mind of James, and even- 
tually governed the action of Charles. This arose oiit of 
the condition of affairs in North America. There, for 
nearly half a century, England, France, and Holland liad Kmopean 

1 . 1 . 1 -I . • 1. J. • colonics in 

each, with various success, endeavored to appropriate tern- xonii 
tory and plant and rear dej)endent colonies. France, the ™*''"^''' 
pioneer, had first pushed her adventurous way through the 
valley of the Saint Lawrence, and had set up the emblem 
of her national faith beside the banner of her king among 
the savage tribes which inhabited its borders. Thus arose 
her dominion over New France, or Canada and Acadia. Canada. 
Farther south, England had clung to the sea-coast, the clear 
waters of which were alive with the finest fish, and where 
commodious harbors invited her emigrants to linger near 
those crystal waves w^liich could roll unbroken to Land's 
End. Yet England had not explored nor occupied the 
whole of that more southern coast. Midway between Yir- virginii 
ginia and New England — in a region, the most of which no Kngiaud. 
European eye had seen before — colonists fi-om Holland, 
following the track of the Half Moon of Amsterdam, 
planted themselves, without question, among the native 
Americans, from whom they bought the soil, and thus add- xow Neth- 
ed a New Neitiekland to the Dutch Republic. 

The progress of the various enterprises by which these 
several territories were first colonized has already been 
minutely traced. Each has its OAvn peculiar history, event- 
ful, romantic, and iiistrii(?tive. Of none of them M'ere the 
motives of the projectors or the views of the promoters ex- 
actly alike. Canada was peopled by Europeans, speaking 
the French tongue, and professing the Koman faith. New 

• Pepy.=, ii.,CS, 12S; Clarendon's Life, ii., 232-234 ; Lister's Clarendon, ii., 2-11, 251, 258- 
2G2; iii., 2SS, 290, 301, 302, 347; Basnago, i., 711; Aitzema, iv., 579; D'Estradcs,*, 3C4, 
435; Lingard, xii., 165-lCS ; .Itapin, ii , 636 ; Davies's Holland, iii., 10, 20, 25 ; Anderson's 
Colonial Church, ii., 279, 2S0 ; Cobbett's Parliamentary History, iv., 292, 293 ; ante, vol. i., p. 
735. Anderson, in his Origin of Commerce, ii., 473,526, seems to think that guineas were 
first coined in 1673. But I'cpys, ii.-, 4S3 ; iv., 26, alludes to tlioni, in 1606 and 166S, as al- 
ready at n premium in London. 


Chap, I. Netheiland was colonized by Protestant emigi-ants from 
"". a fatherland whicli had conquered in the most c-lorions 

Moth-es of strife for civil and religions liberty that tlie world has ever 
coioniza- witnessed. Virginia was occnpied by loyal Englishmen 
who admired the hierarchy ; New England chiefly by Pn- 
ritans who abhorred prelacy ; Maryland by larger-minded 
Roman Catholics. But all these were Britons, who spoke 
the tongue of Shakspeare and Milton ; who, much as they 
differed among themselves respecting creeds or fashions, 
were the subjects of one common sovereign ; and who, ar- 
rogant and exclusive by nature, looked upon other races as 
their inferiors, and v\'illin§ly combined against them as 
national foes. Their hereditary hatred of foreigner ac- 
companied the English emigrants across the Atlantic, and 
even burned more brightly in some parts of the wilder- 
ness. There was a constant tendency on their part, and 
English in- especially among the New England Puritans, to quari-el 
science. ^y[^j^ q^^^ ovcrbcar both their neighbors, the Poman Cath- 
olic French of Canada, and the Protestant Dutch of New 
Netherland. This tendency had already resulted in the 
conquest of Acadia, or Nova Scotia, from the French, by 
order of Cromwell, in 1654. That acquisition the Pro- 
tector declined to restore, and made it a* British province. 
Cromwell's His dcsign to rcducc the Dutch possessions, which were 
ofxfw ''"^ the more coveted because they were so advantageously 
hu^a^"' situated, was abandoned in his treaty with De Witt, by 
which England A-'irtually conceded New Netherland to 

The Dutch picovince was indeed the most admirably sit- 
uated region in North America. Its original limits in- 
cluded all the Atlantic coast between Cape Ilenlopen and 
Admirable Moiitauk Poiut, aud all the inland territory bounded by the 
of New "^ Connecticut Valley on the east, 'the Saint Lawrence and 
Lake Ontario on the north, and the affluents of the Ohio, 
the Susquelianna, and the Delaware on the west and south. 
Within those bounds is the only spot on all the continent 
whence issue divergent streams which find their outlets in 
the ^ulf of Saint Lawrence, the Atlantic Ocean, and the 
Gulf of Mexico. Diagonally across " its surface runs a 

* Charlevoix, ii., 109-204; Chnlmcrs's Annnls, i., 1S7; Pepys, iii., 120, 344 ; Wil- 
linmson'a Maine, i., 301; Palfrey's New England, ii., 3T2; Proud, i.,2Sl; Gruhamo/ed.lSlS), 
i., 400 ; Smith, i., 3ST ; ante., vol. i., p. 580. 




chain of tlie Alleghanies, through which, in two remarka- chap. i. 
hie chasms, the waters 'of the Delaware and the Hudson 

flow southward to the sea. At the head of its tides, the -•■""*• 
Hudson, which its explorers appropriately named " The its piiysic 
Great Eiver of the Mountains," receives the current of the terb-tica. ' 
Mohawk rushing in from the west. Through the valleys 
of these rivers, and across the neighboring lakes, the savage 
natives of the country tracked those pathways of travel and 
commerce which civiHzed science only adopted and im- 
proved. Along their banks grew np flourishing villages, all 
contributing to the prosperity of the chief town, which, Avith 
unerring judgment, had been planted on the ocean-washed 
island of Malihattan. In addition to" these superb geo- 
graphical peculiarities, every variety of soil, abundant min- 
eral wealth, nature teeming with animal and vegetable life, 
and a climate as healthful as it is delicious, made New 
JSTetherland the most alluring of all the European colonies 
in America. From the first, it ^tas alwaj'S the chosen seat 
of empire.''^ 

It was an admirable decree of Providence which or- 
dained thai this magnificent region should first be occu- 
pied by the Batavian race. If originally as homogeneous influence 
*as the English, that /ace had certainly become less selfish foundwV 
and exclusive. The well-considered policy of IMland at- 
tracted to her shores many of whom their own lands were 
not worthy. This magnanimity was rewarded by almost 
unexampled national prosperity. After achieving their 
own independence and establishing a republic on the basis 
of religious toleration, the Dutch colonized the American 
province which they had discovered, and at the same time 
invited strangers of all races to come and find homes along . 
with themselves in its temperate and attractive territory. 
The Batavian emigrants brought' with them the liberal 
maxims of their fatherland. Soon, eighteen different lan- 
guages werQ spoken in New Amsterdam.f Thus, by de- 
grees, grew up the germ of a mighty cosmopolitan state. 
In spite of the stunting mismanagement of the West India 
Company, to which its government had been unwisely in- 
trusted, New Netherland gaVe early promise of coming 

* 'Lecture on the " Topography and History of New York," by Governor Horatio Sey- 
mour, Utica, 1856 ; also Colden, in Col. Doc, vi., 122 ; Doc. Hist., iv., 112. 
t-lnf<?,vol. i.,p. 374. 


cuAP.i. grandeur. The fathei-land scarcely appreciated the trans- 
Atlantic dominion which its emio-rants had fonnded. But 
the growing greatness of that dominion, which had long 
excited the jealousy of its Xew England neighbors, at 
length moved both the pride and the cupidity of the En- 
glish court to seize it as a royal prize. 

To estimate properly the course which Charles the Sec- 
ond now pursued, we must consider tliti irreconcilable views 
of title to American territory which the English and the 
Dutch severally maintained. Tliey may be stated thus: 
As Columbus had discovered the Xew World, which should 
have borne his name, in the service of Spain, the Pope 
granted it to the Spanish sovereigns. A few years after- 
ward the Cabots, under commissions of Henry the Seventh 
of England, discovered Newfoundland, and sailed at a dis- 
tance along the North American continent as far south as 
the latitude of Gibraltar. By virtue of these discoveries, 
Ttie terri- tlic English sovcrcigus claimed dominion over all that part 
ti'on in " " of North America along the coast of which the Cabots 
America, had Sailed. But, as the previous sweeping title of Spain 
was in the .way of the English claim. Queen Elizabeth, in 
15S0, announced the principle that " prescription without 
possession is of no avail ;" or, in other words, that actual oc- 
cupation "must follow discovery in order to confer a valid 
right. Accordingly, England did not question the title of 
France to Canada and Acadia. But, as the discoteries of 
Yerazzano and of Gomez, farther to the south, did not lead 
to French or Spanish colonization, James the First granted 
a patent in 160G, under which the English asserted an ex- 
clusive right to colonize all the Atlantic coast between Cape 
Fear and Acadia not " actually possessed by any Christian 
prince or people." Under this patent no English mariner 
had searched the shore between Buzzard's Bay and. the 
Chesapeake, when Henry Hudson, in 1G09, in the service of 
the Dutch East India Company, explored " tlie great River 
of the Mountains." Tiiis gave the Ilolhanders an unques- 
tionable title by discovery, which they soon fortified by far- 
ther visitation and actual occupation. In IGl-i, the States 
General granted a trading charter which recognized " Xew 
Netherland" as a Dutch territory* Six years afterward, 
James the First granted, in 1620, a second patent for "New' 


England in America," which inchided all the region be- chap. i. 
tween the fortieth and the forty-eighth des-rees of latitude, ~~~' 

Ti . 166-]: 

and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. But his patent ex-, 
pressly provided that no territory was intended to be grant- 
ed which was " actually possessed or inhabited by any other 
Christian prince or estate." This proviso clearly excepted Canada 
New France and New Netherland. Nevertheless, from the >,°theriand 
time of the landing of the first Puritan emigrants on new ncV En." 
Plymouth beach, the English pertinaciously insisted on f^^'^ ^''"' 
styling the Dutch occupants of New Ketherland '' intrud- 
ers" into New England. "With inconsistent logic but char- 
acteristic assurance, they maintained their own title under 
the patent .of James, while they denied that of the Hol- 
landers, which was recognized in its proviso. This they 
continued to do, although the House of Commons in 1621 
confirmed Queen Elizabeth's doctrine, and insisted that 
" occupancy confers a good title by the law of nations and 
nature." In 1635, the grantees of the New England pat- 
ent conveyed to the Earl of Stirling the territory of Pema- 
quid, between the Saint Croix and the Kennebeck in Maine, 
and the island of Matowack, or Long Island. The Dutch, 
however, utterly denied the English claim to any part of confiicttns 
Long Island, and expelled Lord Stirling'^ agents. At length koku'i^'" 
Peter Stuyvesant, the director of New Netherland, by a "^ '^^"'°' 
treaty made at Hartford in 16o0, surrendered to the En- 
glish all the territory south of Oyster Bay on Long Island, 
and east of Greenwich on the continent. This treaty M'as 
ratified by the States General in 1656, but no reciprocal 
action was taken by the Bi-itish government. Cromwell, 
however, after directing an expedition to take New Nether- 
land, recognised the Dutch title by the treaty of 165-1 ; and 
no demonstration was afterward made against what New 
England men pertly considered " a thorn in the side." " 

Thus stood the question when Charles the Second was 
restored to the throne. The antipathy of the Puritan colo- 
nists of New England*against their Dutch neigliboi*s in New 
Netherland, which to some extent seems to have moved the 

« Antc^ vol. i., pages 4, 11, 3G, OS, 64, %, ISD, 250, 262, 519, 5S2, 5S3, 5S6, 621, 025, 643, 053, 
6S5; Thurloe's State Papers, i.. 5G4, 721, 722; ii., 419; Mas.-;. II. S. Coll., xxxii., 230-232; 
Sainsbury's Calendar, i., 204 ; Chalmers's Political Annals, i., 6, 82, S3 ; Kennett'.^ EnglaTid, 
ii.,450; Parliam. Debates, i., 250. 2§1 ; Smith, i., 3S7 ; Proud, i., 2S1 ; Palfrey, ii., 371,372. 
Smith, i., 7, errs in attributing to Hichard Cromwell thttin-tructions given by Oliver ia Feb- 
ruaiy, 1054 ; and Graliame, i.,409, follows Smith ; see ant\ vol. i., p. 5S3. 


cnAP. I. Protector, had no similar influence on the king. Charles 
had no sympathy with the likes or the dislikes of his New 
Poiicvof* 'England subjects. His restoration had been a sore disap- 
^^^^^^^*i>epointment to. them. They had received the tidings with 
"scrnpnlous incredulity." They had acknowledged him 
as king with a very grim austerity. Constant comj^laints 
were preferred against them at Whitehall. In the sum- 
med of 1661, Henry, the fourth Earl of Stirling, complained 
to the king of the " intrusion" of the Dutch upon Long 
Island, and petitioned that they might be subdued or ex- 
pelled. Lord Stirling's petition was referred to the Coun- 
cil of Plantations, at the head of which was Clarendon. 
But before any action was taken, the king granted to John 
Winthrop a charter for Connecticut, which aj^Ji^eared to 
cover a large part of New Xetherland, together with " the 
islands thereunto adjoinmg." The charter, howeve:^, was 
violently opposed ; and it finally passed the great seal in 
April, 1662, with the understanding that the king would 
" send Commissioners into those parts, who upon the place 
should settle all differences and pretences upon the bounds 
of each colony." In the following September, Clarendon 
declared in the Plantation Committee that the king would 
dispatch commissianers, and the DulvC of York was re- 
quested "to consMer of the choice of fit men." Charles 
himself, in April, 1663, anjiounced to the Pri\y Council 
that he intended to send commissioners speedily to New 
England, " to see how the charter is maintained on their 
part, and to reconcile the differences at present among 
. them."* 

There was another subject which was now pressed upon 
The Kn- the king's attention. The Navigation Act of 1660 had been 
giuioiiAct. opeidy disregarded or clandestinely evaded in the British 
American plantations. One of the chief obstacles to its 
execution was charged to be the existence of the Dutch 
province. The trade carried on between New Netherland 
and New England on the one side, and Maryland and Vir- 
ginia on the other, was alleged to be " very much to the 
prejudice of England, and to the loss of his majesty, in re- 

• Clialmers'a Pol. Ann., i., 249, 250, 253, 2S6, 257, 203, 3S6, 432; Col. Doa, ii., 389 ; iii., 32, 
49, 43, 55 ; vii., 431 ; Miv=s. H. S. Coll., xxxii., 2S4 ; Diitr's Life of Stirling, 31 ;. TrumbnU's 
Connerticiit, i., .523 ; Col. Hcc. Conif, i., 5S1 ; ii., 3-11 ; Pulfrey, ii., &10-545, 5T4, 575; ante, 
vol. i., p. lS:i, 71.2, 720 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (1SC9), 1-57. 



spect to customs, many tliousand pomids yearly." Lord cuap. i. 
Baltimore, the Proprietary of .Maryland, promised to " do 
his best to prevent" this trade ; and Sir AVilliam Berkeley, 
the royal governor of Virginia, was ordered to enforce .the 
law. Still, the intercolonial traffic was continued. Parlia- xew navi- 
ment accordingly enacted a new law in 1G63, which pro- ^'^ ^°^ '^^' 
hibited the importation of European commodities into the 
English plantations, except in English vessels fi'om En- 
gland.. In June of the same year, the Prhy Council or- 
dered all the American governors to enforce this act, which 
the king was determined to have " very strictly observed, 
in regard it much concerneth the trade of this Idngdom." 
At last, in December, 1CG3, the farmers of the customs, 
who were paying the king nearly four hundred thousand 
pounds a year for their monopoly, demanded redress for 
the "great abuses committed and done as well by the in- 
habitants and planters on, as by the masters, mariners, and 
traders to, Virginia, New England, Maryland, Long Island, 
etc., who, under pretence of furnishing some of those plan- 
tations and other his majesty's doininions, do both, by land 
and ^vater,• carry and convey great quantities of tobacco to 
the Dutch, whose plantations are contiguous, the custom 
whereof would amount to ten thousand pounds per annum 
or upward, thereby eluding the late Act of Navigation and 
defi'auding his majesty." This brought the question to a 
crisis. The Navigation Law, meant to cri})ple the commerce 
of the Dutch and foster that of the English, must be main- 
tained. It could b(4 enforced, and it was enforced in En- 
gland. It was evaded, and it could not be enforced in 
America as long as New Netherland existed as a Dutch 
plantation. . New Netherland, therefore, must no longer 

This convenient and characteristic logic was exactly 
adapted to the situation of Charles the Second. The read- Engjana 
iest way to sustain it was to insist that New Netherland seiz/NeJ' 
was " the true and undoubted inheritance of his majesty," iand."' 
and to subject it accordingly to English rule. It so hap- 
pened that three persons had just before this time, come 

* D'Estrades, ii., 312 ; Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i.; 243, 260, 261 ; Holme?, i., 3^0; Andei-son 
on Commerce, ii., 475; New Haven Tec, ii,, 510-512; Col. Doc., iii., 40, 44, 50, 203, 210; 
Lister'a Clarendon, ii., 45S ; iii., 308 ; Statute 15 Cli. II., cap. xvii. ; Grahame, i.,02 ; Bancroft, 
ii., 43; Palfrey, ii., 5GG ; ante, vol. i., CS5, 702, 725, 735 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (ISCO), 1-57. 


cuw. I. over to London, who were admirably qualified to stimulate 
English animosity against the Dutch colonists in x\merica. 
Scott bIx These persons were John Scott and George Baxter, who 
ter.and cherislicd no "goocb opinion 'of the law" under which they 
testify. liad smarted in New Netherland, and Samuel Maverick, a 
zealous Episcopahan who had formerly lived in tribulation 
in Massachusetts. All the three made universal profes- 
sions of loyalty. Scott, especially, was clamorous for a roy- 
al grant to him of the government of Long Island,.nearly 
the third part of which he pretended to have purchased. 
But Lord Stirling's claim, which had not yet been acted 
on by the Council for Plantations, stood in his way. The 
three American witnesses, however, were called before the 
board, and ordered to draw up a statement of "the title of 
his majesty to the premises ; of the Dutch intrusion ; of 
their deportment since and management of thfit possession, 
and of their strength, trade, and government there ; and 
of the means to make them acknowledge and submit to his 
majesty's government, or by force to compel them there- 
unto or expulse them." The result of these witnesses' la- 
bors and of Downino-'s arguments from the Hague was to 
satisfy Lord Clarendon that New Netherland belonged to 
the king, and that it had been " only usurped" by the Dutch, 
who had "no colour of right to pretend to" its possession. 
The chancellor's opinion, although it was utterly inconsist- 
ent with truth and reason, was conclusive. The difiicidt 
point was that the Dutch were, and for half a century had 
Been, in uniiiten-upted possession of tlie Yalley of the Hud- 
son and its neighborhood. How the English could best 
gain possession became the question.* 

It was certain that the government at the ILague would 
not acknowledge any. English pretension of right to Dutch 
New Netherland. The States General had, indeed, just 
directed their ambassador at London to insist on " the de- 
termination of the boundary line" between the English and 
Dutcli possessions in North America. They also requested 
l^^ j.nn'ry. tlic Iviug to issuc ordcrs " for the immediate restoi'ation of 
ilmin'tahl'' thc tftwus aud places in New Netherland invaded by his 
rights. subjects within the aforesaid limits, and for the cessation 

* Col. Doc, iii., 4(5, 48, 105; M?tef s Clarendon, iii., 270, 34T ; Hiitchinson'fl Mnp?nchusotts, 
i., 147; Ccllcction, iiSO, 381; I'nlfrcy, ii., Cf)l-.V.7, .'.s:i; Anpiuwall, in Mass. II. S. I'roceed- 
ingf, 18C2, 00-72, note ; N. Y. H. ?. Coll. (ISOO), 10-07 ; (uif-, vol. i., 571), 020, 071, 725. 

(lon'.i opin 


of all further usurpations." Of this action Clarendon was cnAr.i. 



j^romptly informed by Downing, to whom De AVitt had also 
spoken about the "encroaching" of the English upon the 
Dutch, in New Netherland. " It would be good, I think," is janna- 
was tlie crafty envoy's advice to the chancellor, " after ^' 
three or four months' delay, to give them for answer that 
liis majesty will write into those parts, to be informed of 
the truth of the matter of fact and right on both sides." 
The next month, referring to the complaints of the West 12 Febm. 
India Company against the aggressions of the English, he 
suggested " if his majesty think fit to leave that matter to 
me, I shall deal well enough with them."* 

Yet Charles and his ministers were for some time per-, 
plexed. whether tliey should view the Dutch " intruders" as 
subjects or as aliens. At length the king's course was de- 
termined. In spite of treaties, at the risk of war, it was Kngnsh 
resolved that the principle announced by Queen Elizabeth ol-dered. 
and affirmed by Parliament in 1621 should be repudiated 
and reversed. New Netherland must be seized at all haz- 
ard, and the English claim by " prescription" must be main- 
tained against the Dutch title by actual discovery and con- 
tinuous occupation. An expedition " against the Dutch in 29 Febia- 
•New England" was ordered. But this was kept profoundly '"^* 
secret, lest the States should send a squadron to aid the 
weak garrison at Manhattan. A quiet grant to the king's 
owTi brother would be both the readiest assertion of title 
and the best apology for any consequences. ' This, indeed, 
had been decided upon before Scott returned to America 
with the royal orders to enforce the navigation laws. Its 
execution was perhaj^s hastened by his report to Under 
Secretary AYilliamson of the condition of affairs at the 
western end of Long Island.f 

Lord Stirling's interest was accordingly purchased by 
Clarendon for his son-in-law, who promised to pay for" it 
three thousand five hundred pounds. Long Island, ofxhoDuke 
which the greater portion was already subject to the crown, patent. 
being thus secured to the Duke of York by a color of title, 

* Col. Doc., ii., 224-229 ; Aitzema, v., C4, C5; Holl. Merc, 1GC4, 13-15 ; Liter's Claren- 
don, iii., 270, 2T7, 278 ; ante, vol. i., 730. 

t Ogilby's America, 1('9; Chalmers's Eev. Col., 1., ItC ; Col. Doc, ii , 303, 824, 325, 332, 
379, 3S0, 400, 507 ; iii., 47, 48; New Haven I!ec., ii., 510, 515; ante, vol. i., T25, 72C. On the 
29th of Febniary, 1G04, a warrant for £4000 was issued on account of the expedition jigainat 
New Netherland : Am. and W. I. {?. P. O.), 372. 


cuAP.r. tlie rest of New Netlierland was added by the mere word 

of the Idng, Tlie Connecticut charter was entirely disre- 

garded. A patent to James was prepared, to which his 
father-in-law hastened to affix the great seal. The descrip- 
tion of .the premises conveyed was framed in part from 
Lord Stirling's original grant, which Clarendon borrowed. 
12 March, f or the purpose. By his patent, Charles the Second grant- 
ed to his brother, and to his heirs and assigns, the tei-ritory 
• of Pemaquid, in Maine, between the Saint Croix and the 
Kennebeck, " and also all that island or islands commonly 
called by the several name or names of Matowacks or Long 
Island, situate, lyiug, and being towards the west of Cape 
Cod and the Narrow Iligansetts, abutting upon the main 
land between the two rivers there called or known by the 
several names of Connecticut and Hudson's River; together, 
also, with the said river called Hudson's Eiver, and all the 
land from the west side of Connecticut to the east side of 
Delaware Bay, and also all those several islands called or 
known by the names of Martin's Vinyard, and Nantukes, 
Tenitoriiii otlicrwise Nautuckett." The inland boundary most con- 

I'xtent of , •ii'T •• a T r ^ ^ t r 

the Duke's sistcut With this Qescription was a line from the head or 
Connecticut River to the source of Hudson's River, thence 
to the head of the Mohawk branch of Hudson's River, and 
thence to the east side of Delaware Bay." The grant " was 
intended to include all the lands which the Dutch held 
there." These territories were to be held of the king in 
free and common soccage, and under the yearly rent of 
forty beaver-skins, when demanded. The patent invested 
the Duke of York and his heirs, deputies, and assigns with 
" full and absolute powei' and authority to' correct, punish, 
pardon, govern, and rule" all British subjects inhabiting the 
territory, according to such laws as he might establish, and 

The (luke'a in cascs of nccessitv according to the " good discretions" of 

powers of,., . .tti it iiii 

)vera- Ins deputies, provided that such laws should be, not contra- 
ry, but agreeable to the statutes of England. It granted 
him authority to appoint and discharge all officers, execute 
martial law, regulate trade and the tenure of lands, send 
out emigrants " not prohibited or under restraint," expel 
all persons living under his government without his license ; 
and it declared that, notwithstanding any uncertaint}^ or 
imperfection, or any former grants to any other persons, 




or any statute to the contrary, this patent to tlie Duke of chai-. l 
York should be " ffood and effectual in the luw, to all in- 
tents and purposes whatsoever." This instrument, clearly " 

defective in many material points, was much less cumber- 
some than those which the kings of England had previously 
sealed to American proprietaries. It was the most impu- 
dent ever recorded in the colonial archives of England. 
But its crisp clauses warranted all that a despot could de- 

The duke's parchment title now appeared to be com- 
plete. The next step was to give it validity by obtaining 
possession. James %vas informed that his newly-patented 
territory might yield him thirty thousand pounds a year, 
and he was anxious to enjoy his anticipated revenues, 
peaceably or by force. To this end, it was necessary that 
tlic person to secure and govern the prize should be well 
selected. The duke was singularly fortunate in the choice 
he made. There was at this time in his household Colonel 
Richard NicoUs, a gentleman whom he had long known, coiond 
and in whom he justly felt great confidence. Nicolls was nIcoTis!" 
born in 1624, at Ampthill, in Bedfordshire, where his an- 
cestors had lived in great esteem. His father was a barris- 
ter of the Middle Temple, and his mother a daughter of Sir 
George Bruce, ancestor of the Earl of Elgin. At the Uni- 
versity he distinguished himself as a scholar ; but on the 
breaking out of the civil war in 1043, he left his college 
and joined the royal forces, in which he obtained the com- 
mand of a troop of horse. Nicolls adhered faithfully to 
the royal cause, and shared its fortunes. Attaching him- 
self in Paris to the Duke of York, he served with him in 
the French army under Turenne, and afterward on the 
other side under Don John of Austria and the Prince of 
Conde. At the Restoration Nicolls returned to England, 
and was made a groom of the bedchamber to the duke. 
His sincerity, courage, capacity, and prudence recommend- 
ed him for the most important trust which his patron could 
now confer. Nicolls was accordingly commissioned by the 2 Aprit 

• Patents, i.,109; Duer's Life of Stirling, 3T, 3S; P" Kstrades, iii.,334; CIialmer.«'s Ann., 
i., 573, 580 ; Col. Doc, ii., 295-MS, 400, 50T ; iii., 4T, 4S, 215, 2:5, 240, '2C0, 600, 60T, TfC ; v., 
330,500; vi.,50S; vii., 431, 504, 590, 50T; viii., 107, 430, 440; Maine II. S. Coll., v., 2-0 ; 
Learning and Spicer's Grants and Concessions, 3-8; Smith's N. Y., i., 15; Thomp-son, ii., 
308-311 ; Wood, 0, note ; Palfrey, ii., 58 ) ; ante, vol. i., 725, 7-0. The original patent, beau- 
tifully engrossed, is in the State Library at Albany ; a copy is in Appendix, Note A. 

II.— B 


Chap. I. Duke of York to be his deputy governor during pleasure, 

within his American proprietoi*ship, to execute all the pow- 

A ointed ^^ gi'anted by the patent, and obey such orders as he might 

Deputy receive. A set of instructions from the duke was also ffiven 

Governor. , , O 

to NicoUs for his general guidance.* 

The king now determined to send commissioners to Kew 
England, as he had announced his purpose of doing a year 
before. They appear to have been selected by the Duke 
of York. The first was Colonel Richard Nicolls, whom he 
had just commissioned to be the deputy governor of his 
yet unpossessed transatlantic territory. The second was 
Eoyai Sir Eobei't Carr, a needy Royalist knight, of loose princi- 
Bionersto plcs, avaricious, and supercilious, and a " rank papist," who 
giand.'°" had already been talked of as governor general of New 
England. The third was Colonel George Cartwright, of 
Nottinghamshire, " naturally morose, saturnine, and suspi- 
cious," but clear-sighted and energetic. These three were 
officers in the royal army. The fourth commissioner was 
Samuel Maverick, an ardent Episcopalian, who had lived 
from his youth in Massachusetts, of which he was the 
avowed and well-informed enemy, and who, with Scott and 
Baxter, had just before advised the Council of Plantations 
respecting the best means of subduing New Netherland. 
25 April. To tlicse f our persons a royal commission was issued, di- 
recting them, or any three or two of them (of whom Nicolls 
was always to be one), to visit the several New England 
colonies, and " examine and determine all complaints and 
appeals in all cases and matters, as well military as crim- 
inal and civil, and proceed in all tilings for the providing 
for and settling the peace and security of the said country, 
according to their good and sound discretion, and to such 
instructions as they, or the survivors of them, have, or shall 
from time to time receive."t 

* Col. Doc, ii., 23*, 400, 507; iii., l.^n, 154 ; Tliompson's Long Islan(5, ii., 325; Clarke's 
Jarae3 II., i., 54 ; Clialmcrs's Pol. Ann., i., .MS ; I.yson's Magna I'ritt., i., 38 ; Lister's Claren- 
don, i., 3CS ; il., 250 ; N. V. 11. S. Proc., 1S44, App., 110-118 ; Notes and Queries (2d eeriee), 
iii., 214-210; Nichols's Topographer and Genealogist, iii., 539-544; Learning and Spiccr, 
C05-CfiT; Patent?, i.,14G; «7i^c, vol. i.,727, 730. A copy of NicoUa's Peal is in Hist. Map., 
ix., 177. A copy of Nicolls's Ommission i.s in Appendix, Note 1!. His Instriiction.s from tlie 
Duke, which were exhibited iit Hempstead in Slarch, 1005, are not on record at Albany, nor 
did I fml them in the State Paper Office at London. Perhaps they were lent to Kvelyn in 
1071, and he may not have returned them : Pepys, iv., 221, 222 ; Kvelyn, iii., 241, 240 ; post, 
p. 422, notr. 

t Hutch, Mass., i., 225, 230, 250,635; Kvelyn, U., 05 ; Chalmers, i., 3SG, 432; Winthrop, 



It was the duty of the secretary of state io prepare in- 
structions for the commissioners. But the lord chancel- 
lor had given minute attention to the aifairs of the New 
England colonies, and, in the plan which he drew up for 
their \dsitation, had considered them as " already well-nigh 
ripened to a commonwealth." To Clarendon, therefore, 
appears to have been assigned the task of drafting the com- 
missioners' instructions, of which there were different sets 23 Apni. 
relating to the several colonies. In those lor their private tions of uic 
direction they were thus instructed : " You may inform all s°on^" 
men that a great end of your design is the possessing Long 
Island, and reducing that people to an entire submission 
and obedience to us and our government, now vested by 
our grant and commission in our brother the Duke of 
York, and by raising forts or any other way you shall judge 
most convenient or necessary, so to secure that wliole trade 
to our subjects, that the Dutch may no longer engross and 
exercise that trade which they have wrongfully possessed 
themselves of ; that whole territory being in our possession 
before tliey, as private persons, and without any authority 
from their superiors, and against the law of nations and the 
good intelligence and alliance between us and their supe- 
riors, invaded, and have since wrongfully obtained the same, 
to the prejudice of our crown and dignity, and therefore 
ought in justice to be resumed by us, except they will en- 
tirely submit to our government, and live there as our good 
subjects under it; and in that case you shall let them know, 
both by private significations and treaties, or by any public 
declaration set out by you in our name, that we will take 
them into our protection, and that they shall continue to 
enjoy all their possessions (forts only excepted), and the 
same freedom in trade with our other good subjects in 
those parts." It would be difficult to find in any official 
document of any government a more impudent falsehood 
than the one in this clause, that the " whole territory" of 
New Netherland had been in the " possession" of the En- 

i.,27; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxii.,QS4; Maine II. S. Coll., i., 301; B.irry's Mass., i., 300; Col. 
Doc, iii., 04, 92, 94; Tatents, i., 14S-150; Hazard, ii., 63S; Trumbull's Conn. , i. , 5-22 ; ante, 
vol. L, 73G. Palfrey, ii., 580, note, errs in confounding Sir Rnbert Carr, Knight, the rnni- 
missioner (who died at Bristol, '2d June, 1067 ; Col. Doc, iii., ifil ; Morton' r? Memorial, 315, 
note; Smith, i., 33, no(e), with Sir Robert Carr, Baronet, of Pleeford, in Lincolnshire, who 
married a sister of Secretary Bennet, and certainly was alive in IOCS: compare Collins's 
Peerage, iv., 312, 330; Evelyn, i., 401 ; I'cpys, iii., 200, 427. 


ciiAr. 1. glisli crown before the Dutch "wrongfully obtained the 
■ same." Several other particular directions were given to 

the commissioners, who, when in I^ew England, were to 
avoid giving any offense in matters of religion, and even 
to frequent the Puritan churches, wliile their own Episco- 
palian chaplain was not to wear his surplice, " which, hav- 
ing never been seen in those countries, may conveniently 
be forborne at this time." The main object of the king, 
however, was to obtain such alterations in the charters of 
the New England colonies as would give him the appoint- 
ment of their governor and of the commander of their mi- 
litia. " We should look upon it as a good omen," said 
Charles, " if they might be so wrought upon at the General 
Assembly as that Colonel Nicolls might be chosen by them- 
selves for their present govei'nour, and Colonel Cartwright 
for their major general." 

Royal letters were also addressed to the several colonies. 
The reasons for the ^dsit of the commissioners were ex- 
plained in soothing language ; the motives for subduing the 
Dutch, and " the benefit and advantage which, wdth God's 
1?, Ai)rii. blessing, must accrue" to New England fi-om the reduction 
tei>r of New Netherland, were seductively exliibited, and a full 
compliance with all the king's desires was required. "For 
the glory of the matter," these letters were dated on Saint 
George's day."^" 

The Duke of York, who, as lord high admiral, directed 
the fleet, now borrowed se^'eral men-of-war from the king. 
They were the Guinea, of thirty-six guns, Captain Hugh 
Hyde ; the Elias, of thirty. Captain William Hill ; the 
The En- Martiii, of sixteen, Captain Edward Grove ; and a char- 
diiioiT"^*' tered transport, the William and Nicholas, of ten. Captain 
N^"r'' Morley. About four hundred and fiity of the king's vet- 
iaud'.'^'^ eran soldiers, forming three full companies, which were 
commanded by Colonels Nicolls, Carr, and Cartwright, were 
embarked on the squadron. Nicolls was commander-in- 
chief of the expedition. Among the commissioned officers 
serving under him were Captains Matthias Nicolls, Daniel 
Brodhead, Robert Ncedham, Harry Norwbod, and Ensign 
Sylvester Salisbury, of the British army, some of whom, 

* Oil. Doc, ii., snT; iii., .'il-fiH; Oldmixon, i., 538 ; TnimbuU, i., 523; Holmes, i., 333, 
note; Hazard, ii., 3G-1 ; I'alfrey, i., 103, note; ii., 5(50, 5TS, 5T9, 5S2-586; iii., 23S. 


intending to settle themselves permanently in the Dutch cuAr. i. 
province after its reduction, were accompanied by their ^ 
families. The forces "were " exceedingly well fitted with all ' 

necessaries for warre, with such ingineers and other expe- 
dients for the forcing the strongest fortifications." Kicolls 
and Cartwriglit went on hoard the Guinea, while Carr and 
Maverick embarked in the Martin. The expedition set sail l^ Jiay- 
from Portsmouth, with orders to assemble in Gardiner's 
Bay, at the eastern end of Long Island." 

Intelligence of these preparations soon reached the 
Hague. Stuy\-esant had already warned the West India 29 Fctru. 
Company of the intended grant of Charles to the Duke of ^^^' 
York, and that not only Long Island, but the whole of New 
Netherland, would be lost, unless speedily re-enforced from 
Holland. But the company, now on the brink of bank- 
ruptcy, wrote back, with mars'elous infatuation, that the 
king, " being inclined to reduce all his kingdoms under one 21 Apiu. 
form of government in Church and State, hath taken care 
that commissioners are ready in England to repair to iSTew 
England to install bishops there, the same as in Old En- 
gland ; therefore we believe that the Enghsh of the North, 
who mostly left England for the aforesaid causes, will not infatn.-uion 
give us henceforth so much trouble, and will prefer to live 
under us with fi'eedom of conscience, rather than risk that 
in order to be rid of our authority, and then again to fall 
under a government from which they formerly fled." Nev- 
er was the Puritan sentiment in New England more thor- 
oughly misapprehended than by the Diitch West India 
Company. Scarcely had this absurd letter been dispatch- 
ed before the real pm-pose of Nicolls's expedition was bet- 
ter understood. In great concern, De Witt sought fi-om 
Downing some explanation of the report of the English 
" sending to take New Netherland." The British envoy £^ May. 
replied, " I know of no such comitry but only in the maps ;" 
and he boldly insisted that " the Enghsh had the first pat- 
tern of first possession of those parts." The Dutch govern- 

♦ Col. Doc, ii., 243, 372, 410, 423, 44.5, rm ; iii., 05, 60; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvi., 527; 
Smith, i., 10 ; Clarke's James H., i., 400 ; Tepys, iv., 353 ; N. Y. General Kntries, i., 2, 3, 22, 
27, 2S ; Valentine's Manual, ISCO, 502 ; Wood, 144 ; ante^ vol. i.,736, 744, jwte. Of tlie En- 
glish officers who accompanied NicoUs, the family of Captain JIatthias XicoUs settled on 
I.ons I.^land, and those of Captain Daniel Brodhoad and Knsign Sylvester Salishury in Ul- 
ster County, in the province of New York. Numerous descendants now bear thc^'c ancestral 
names. See also N. Y. 11. S. Coll. (ISOO), 5T. 


ouAP.i. ment ^\'as now sufficiently warned of the danger which 

menaced New ISTetherland. But a purbhnd confidence in 

the honor of Charles, and an unjust estimate of the impor- 
tance of its American province to the fatherland, clouded 
the judgment of De Witt, Prompt orders to De Ruyter, 
Avho was now on his way to the Mediterranean, might have 
hurried his squadron to Manhattan in time to assist Stuy- 
vesant, and give the Duke of York'§ expedition a memo- 
rable repulse. But, unhappily, the Dutch province was un- 
der the immediate government of a commercial monopoly 
which had hut little popular sympathy. " What !" cried 
the commonalty at the Hague, " must we have a war for 
the East and West India Companies ? We will rather pull 
them by the ears."* And so the fatherland abandoned New 
Netherland to her fate. 

NicoUs's squadron worked slowly to the westward. It 
was nearly ten weeks before the first of his ships reached 
New England. In the mean time, Appleboom, the Swedish 
minister at the Hague, awakened from its sleep of eight 
5^ June, years the complaint of his king against the proceedings of 
fmu''^ Stu}wesant on the Delaware in 1655. In a well -written 
piHints. memorial to the States General, he demanded that the West 
India Company should be ordered to restore the " wrested 
lands" to the Swedish Company and pay all damages. 
This should be speedily done, because it was reported that 
the Dutch Company " were themselves now questioned by 
jf^ August, others in those parts." Two months afterward, the Am- 
sterdam chamber submitted a full justification of their pro- 
ceedings against the Swedes ; and here the question, which 
uuciober. ^^^^^ l)een revived " for form's sake," was ended.f 

Appleboom's suggestion was almost a prophetic sneer. 
The Dutch were, indeed, eifectually " questioned by others" 
in New Netherland. In alarm at the now certain destina- 
28 June. ^^^'^ ^^ Nicolls's squadrou, the West India Company de- 
«Juiy. manded assistance from the city of Amsterdam, and asked 
the States General for " three hundred soldiers as a re-en- 
forcement for New Netherland, and a ship of war to op- 

♦ Lister's Clarendon, iii., 30T, 310, 318, 320, 322 ; Kennett's England, iii., 251, 253; D'Es- 
trades, ii., 435; Col. Doc, ii., 230-23T, 3CT, 400, 40S, 421, 431, 432, 492, 403, 505, 507 ; Letter 
of W. L Co. to S. G., 20 June, 1C64, MS., N. Y. Historical Society; Mass. Kec, iv. (ii.), 101- 
110 ; Palfrey, U., 5Tfi, 5S0, 687. 

t Cnl. Doc, i., C15; ii., 240-242, 246, 24T, 26S-2C0; Aitzcmn, v., 21T-C40; IIoll. Merc, 
16G4,135-13T; Lister's Clarendon, Iii., 350; n?ifc, vol. i.,622. 


pose the English designs there." But Van Gogh, the am- chap. i. 
bassador at London, reported that the king constantly pro- 
tested that " he would not in any way \'iolate liis alliance ^^ j^^^ ' 
Avith the Dutch ;" and the States General, wishing to give lu juiy. 
no umbrage to England, refused the company's request for oenena'n- 
assistance. Early in the autunm, Yan Gogh wrote that it ["^^ y^"^^^' 
was rumored that the English had taken Long Island, and f^^j'"' 
intended to reduce New Amsterdam and the rest of New ip ^^pt- 
Netherlaud, Soon afterward the West India Company no- g'^^j/tfij'ei. 
tified the States General that Stuyvesant's dispatches an- 
nounced that the Didce of York had already reduced Long 
Island, and was about to attack New Amsterdam, the "cap- 
ital, " and thereby to erase the name of New Netherland 
from the map, and cause a loss of millions to the company." 
The same week intelligence reached London that the Dutch 20 sept. 
had been " beat out" of Guinea and New Netherland, " with- '' ^''°^'' 
out public knowledge or reason," according to the honest 
notion of Pepys, the clerk of the Admiralty. The Iving did 
" joy mightily at it." The mask need no longer be worn. 
" But," said Charles to his vice-chamberlain Carteret, laugh- 
ing, " how shall I do to answer this to the ambassador when 
he comes V^" 

Meanwhile NicoUs and Cartwrisrht, with part of the 23 juiy. 

~ . Nicolls at 

squadron, had reached Boston after a tedious voyage, and Boston. 
had dispatched a letter to Winthrop requiring the assist- 
ance of Comiecticut. This was very readily given. At 
the suggestion of the commissioners, the Massachusetts au- 
thorities, with evident unwillingness, ordered two hundred s August. 
volunteers to be called out to aid in reducing New Neth- 
erland. The West India Company, as wc have seen, had 
cherished the absurd belief that the Puritan colonists would 
not assist the royal forces in overthrowing the government 
of New Netherland, in which " freedom of conscience" was 
so fully recognized. But the English jealousy of the Dutch, 
which New England fostered, together with a curious notion 
of loyalty to the king, prevailed over Puritan dread of epis- 
copacy. Nevertheless, the backwardness of Massachusetts 

* Col. Doc, ii., 243-24G, 253, 255, 256 ; Linpar.l, xii., ICS; Davics iii., 25; Kapin, ii., G37, 
COS; Parliamentary History, iv., 29S-S02; p'F.strade?, ii., 459, 4C0, 494 ; Lett, of De Witt, 
iv., 306, 342 ; I'cpya, ii , 17t. It is another instance of the ignorance which English scholars 
so constantly display in rec;.nrd to .\nierican history, that the editor of IJohn's recent edition 
of Pepys repeats the erroneous statement of Hume, vi., :'.S3, nnd others, that the expedition 
sent against New Netherland was commanded by Sir Hubert Holmes. 


Chap. I. gave NicoUs and Cartwright an opportunity to complain 
to Secretary Bennet. As soon as the rest of tlie Eni^lisli 
•-9 j!.i s^iips reached Boston, Nicolls wrote again to Winthrop at 
Hartford, and also to Captain Thomas Willett at Plymouth, 
desiring them to meet the commissioners at the west end 
of Long Island, whither the expedition soon afterward 
in- August, sailed. The squadron, piloted by Kew England mariners, 
nmarNy- anchored at Nyack or New Utrecht Bay, just inside of Co- 
'^^' ney Island. Here the royal commissioners were joined 
by Winthrop and his son Fitz John, with Willys and sev- 
eral other Connecticut magistrates. Willett also appeared 
on behalf of the new Plymouth colony, and " greatly rec- 
ommended himself to the commissioners by his acti^dty and 
intelligence." Scott was likewise at hand, with men fi'ora 
New Haven, " pressed by authority," to go with him to Long 
Island. A number of militia, summoned fi*om Southold 
and the other towns at the eastern end of the island, soon 
appeared in arms under the command of Captain John 
connecti- Youuge, Tliomas Clarke and John Pynchon also came 
outh,aE^ from Boston with a report of its military arrangements, 
sette^eie- But, as there was already an overpowering force collected, 
^*'*^" the services of the Massachusetts troops M'ere found to be 

1^ August. All the approaches to New Amsterdam by land and wa- 
itwd^m' ter were immediately blockaded, and communication be- 
biockaded. t^ygen the city and Long Island, Bergen, and Achter Cul 
was cut oif. The block-house on Staten Island, opposite 
the squadron, \vas occupied. Several coasting vessels, on 
their way to the South River, were captured. The Long 
Island farmers were forbidden to furnish any supplies to 
the capital, on pain of destruction of their property. At 
ggAuguBt. the same time a proclamation was issued by the commis- 
sioners on board the Guinea, (;opies of which were " scat- 
tered broadcast" amonc: the Dutch towns, and soon found 
rrociama- their way to the buro-hers of the metropolis. " Forasmuch," 

lion of the . ^ i .. ^? . . ,1 . • 

Hoyaicom- wcrc its words, " as Ins maiesty hath sent us, by commission 
under his great seal, among other tilings to expel or to re- 


* General Entrie?, i., 3-7; Col. Doc., ii.,2n5, 23G, 372,409,410,438,444; iii.,C5, GC, 84; 
Clinlmer.s Ann., i., 380,387, 673 ; Masa. Itcc., iv. (ii.), 117-128, 141, 149„157-16S; Mass. 11. 
S. Coll.,. wiil., 92-94; xxxvi., 527, 528; lliitcli. Mas.s., i., 230, 231; Barry, i., 390, 391 ; Pal- 
frey, ii., 578, ri8r,, 51)1 ; iti., 230, 238 ; Morton's Mem., 311, note ; New Haven Rec, ii., 550 ; 
Trumbull, i., 207 ; Smith, i., 17, IS ; Wood, 27 ; Thompson, i., 127 ; anU., vol. i., 737. 


diice under his majesty's obedience all such foreigners as cnw. i. 
have without his majesty's leave or consent seated them- 
selves amongst any of his dominions in America, to the prej- 
udice of his majesty's subjects and the diminution of his 
royal dignity, We, his Majesty's Commissioners, declare and 
promise that whosoever, of what nation soever, will, upon 
knowledge of this proclamation, acknowledge and testify 
themselves to submit to this his majesty's government, as 
his good subjects ought to do, shall be protected by his 
majesty's laws and justice, and peaceably enjoy whatsoever 
God's blessing and their own honest industry have fm-- 
nished them with, and all other privileges with his maj- 
esty's Englisli subjects. We have caused this to be pub- 
lished that we might prevent all inconveniences to othei'S, 
if it were possible ; however, to clear ourselves fi'om the 
charge of all those miseries that may any way befall such 
as live here and will not acknowledge his majesty for their 
sovereign — whom God preserve." The inhabitants of the 
several towns on Long Island were also specially sum- 
moned to meet the commissioners at Gravcsend on the fol- 
lowing Thursday.* 

In the mean time, Stuyvesant, on receiving the letter 
which the West India directors had written to him in 
April, was somewhat relieved from fear of an attack by 
the English, although he could not refrain from writing to 25 juiy. 
the company that the design of the royal commissioners •* ^^"sust. 
was rather against New Netherland than for the "imag- 
ined reform of New England." Willett, of Plpnouth, who 
had originally warned him of the danger, now contradicted 
his previous statements, and the director incautiously went 27 Juiy. 
up to Fort Orange to repress some disorders among the In- suiy^ant 
dians in its neighborhood. Upon learning the approach of oranjlo. 
the English expedition he hurried back to New Amster- Rotuma to 
dam, which he reached only the day before the Guinea gtmiam!' 
anchored in Nyack Bay. According to the rule "in such jsAu-^ust 
critical circumstances," the burgomasters were called into Tile city 
council, and every thing possible was done for the f orti- trafe,^ 
iication and defense of the city. But its condition was council. 

• Col. Doc, li., 372, 410, 411, 4.'!4, 43S, 443, 444, 476 ; General Entries, i., 7, 8; Coloni.-il 
Manuscripts, X. (iii.), 299-303 ; Albany Rcc, xxii., 307, 3S5; Smith, i., 3S7, 3SS; S. Smith's 
New Jersey, 30, 37 ; Oyster Bay Rec, A., 10 : O'Call., ii., 521, 522; Tlionipson, i., 124, 125; 
ante, vol. i., 73S ; N. Y. 11. P. Coll. (1SG9), 5S, GS. 


cuAP.i. hopeless from the first. No aid could be obtained from 

Lono- Island. The reo-ular soldiers in the garrison did 

not exceed one hmidred and fifty; and the burghers — of 
whom only two hundred and fifty were able to bear arms — 
thought more of protecting their own property than of de- 
fending the open town. The whole city force, placed man 
Defense- by mau four rods apart, could not guard its breastwork, 
tion of"the Fort Amsterdam itself was untenable against a regular be- 
metropoha. jgag^igpi^g^ liaviug bccn originally built to resist an attack 
of the savages rather than an assault by European arms. 
Houses were clustered around its low earthen walls, which 
in some places were not over ten feet liigh, and were com- 
manded, within pistol - shot on the north, by much higher 
ground on the " Heere-weg," or Broadway. Its six hund- 
red pounds of ser^dceable powder were not sufiicient for 
more than a few hours' firing. Long before its extremity, 
Stuyvesant had given his mihtary opinion, winch modern 
judgment has only confirmed, that " whoever by water is 
The river master of the river will be in a short time master by land 
■ of the feeble fortress." The contingency he dreaded had 
now happened, and the English squadron was in full com- 
mand of the harbor, Nevertheless, the director resolved 
to hold out to the last. At the request of the burgomas- 
ters, and to ascertain the condition of affairs on Long Isl- 
and, he sent four commissioners, representing the council 
p August, and the city, down to the Enghsh commanders, with a let- 
pends^to*"' ter inquiring the object of their coming, and why they re- 
who°re- mained at jSTyack without giving notice to him. Nicolls 
^'*^^" answered them that he had come to reduce the country to 
the obedience of the King of England, whose commission 
he exliibited ; that he would not argue about his majesty's 
right, which he would leave to be vindicated by the Idng 
liimself ; and that, the next day, he would send a letter to 
New Amsterdam " over the ferry."* 

Colonel Cartwright, Captain Needham, Captain Grove, 

and Mr. Thomas Delavall accordingly came up to the city 

5 August, on Saturday morning with a letter from NicoUs to Stuy- 

• Alb. Rec., xviii., 270-297, 311, 312; Colonial MSS., x. (iii.), 251, 299 ; xv., 140; Mass. 
Rcc, iv. (ii.), 101-1 OC; Palfrey, ii., .^70; New Amsterdam Rec., v., 5.V2-5.'54, 507-570 ; Val. 
Man., ISGO, 592 ; 1^01, C03-G05 ; Col. Doc., ii., 2D5, 248, 3G7, SOS, 371, 373, G76, G77, 4H8-411, 
421, 431-434, 438, 44'\ 441, 44.0, 440. 4G9, 474, 47.5, 494, 409, 505, .508; Gen. I'.nt, i., S, 9; 
Smith, i., 18 ; S. Smith, 37, 38 ; Hazard's Reg. I'enn., iv., 30, 31 ; Letter of Drisius, 15 Sept., 
1604 ; antr, vol. u, 737, 73S, 741. 


vesant, asserting the " unquestionable right" of the English chap. i. 
king " to these parts of America," and requiring the sur- ^ 
render of the " town situate upon the island connnonly j,.^oii?dc- 
known by the name of Manhatoes, with all the forts there- ^ands the 

•' _ " ^ _ surrender 

unto belono'ing ," at the same time assuring him " and every "f Manimt- 

o c>' O J tan. 

respective inhabitant of tlie Dutch nation that his majesty, 
being tender of the effusion of Christian blood, doth by 
these presents confirm and secure to every man liis estate. Terms of- 
life, and Hberty, who shall readily submit to his govern- 
ment, and all those who shall oppose liis majesty's gra- 
cious intentions must expect all the miseries of a war 
M-hicli they bring upon themselves." A copy of the proc- 
lamation of tlie royal commissioners was also sent. Fond 
of parade, and determined to " keep up state" to the last, 
tlie Dutch director received the English delegates with a 
salute of artillery which expended a large proportion of 
his slender stock of powder. As Kicolls had omitted to 
sign his smnmons, it was returned to the delegates, and a stuyvcsant 
delay was thus gained. Stuyvesant, on his part, showed nate™' '' 
them his commission as Director General of JS^ew Nether- 
land, and the grant of the States General to the West India 
Company in 1021, which, he insisted, gave as much power 
and authority as the King of England had given or (iould 
give to any colony in America. The municipal authorities, 
■with some of the burghers, now assembled at the City Hall, 
and agreed that the city should be so fortified as to prevent 
a surprise, that thus " good terms and conditions" might be 
obtained from the enemy. But, as protracted resistance 
was out of the question, a copy of the Enghsh communica- 
tion was to be demanded fi-om the director. 

On the following Monday morning, Nicolls, ha"\ang signed 
Ills summons, sent it back with a note of apology by Cap- 22 Augiiat. 
tains Hill, Needham, and Matthias Nicolls. Another salute i:.^?'?'- 
was fired, and on the departure of the Enghsh deputies the ^^^"""^ 
burgomasters asked Stuy\^esant for a copy of the summons, 
to be shoA\m to the citizens. But the director, fearing that 
its easy terms might lead them to capitulate at once, re- 
fused. The burgomasters endeavored to explain the pur- 
port of the summons, but the citizens insisted upon seeing 
for themselves. Stuyvesant then went in j^ei'son to their 
meeting, hoping to dissuade them from their purpose. 






cated to 
the people. 

S:2 August. 
1 Scptem. 

gant's let- 
ter to the 
W. I. Com- 




22 AiiK 
1 i;cptem. 

promises to 

" Such a course," he said, " would be disapproved of in tlie 
fatherland : it would discourage the people, and he would 
he held answerable for the surrender." At last, finding it 
useless to resist the popular will, the director furnished the 
required copy, with a protest that he should not be held re- 
sponsible for " the calamitous consequences."* 

With a sorrowful heart Stuyvesant now drew up a dis- 
patch to the West India Directors, informing them of his 
"perilous and very alarming" situation. "Long Island is 
gone and lost," The capital, threatened by Old and New 
England forces, could not hold out long. " The company 
is scolded and cursed by the inhabitants, in regard that not- 
withstanding the so often renewed and successive warn- 
ings and remonstrances from time to time, no attention has 
been paid, and none of the solicited succor obtained. Yea, 
it is loudly and openly proclaimed, to the contempt and 
shame of your faithful servants, that your honors by pre- 
meditation abandoned the inhabitants, if you did not in- 
tend to expose them for sale, and endeavored to devote 
them to slaughter." This dispatch was intended to be sent 
by the recently arrived ship Gideon, which was to pass that 
night " in silence through Hellgate." But, upon considera- 
tion, Stuyvesant refused to let the vessel sail, and Gelde, 
her master, could only protest against his detention.f 

By this time Nicolls had become better informed of the 
state of affairs in New Amsterdam through Willett, who 
was " more acquainted with the manners and customs of 
the Dutch than any Englishman in the country." Win- 
throp had also explained to him how easily the citizens 
might be induced to compel Stuyvesant to surrender, if 
they were assured that their intercourse with Holland 
would not be interrupted. Nicolls accordingly wrote to 
Winthrop, " As to those particulars you spoke to me, I do 
assure you that if the Manhadoes be delivered up to his 
majesty, I shall not hinder, but any people from the Neth- 
erlands may freely come and plant there, or thereabouts ; 
and such vessels of their owne country may freely come 

• General Entries, 1., 9-11; Alb. Rec., xviii., 3I1-31T; xxii., 314, 315; Col. MSS., x. (lii ), 
309, 311 ; XV., 143, 144 ; Col. Doc, li., 441, 443, 409, 498 ; Hazard's Ec;,'. Pcnn., iv., 31, 41 ; 
Smith, i., 1^-21 ; s. Smith, 38, 3D ; Thompson, i., 128 ; Bancroft, li., 314 ; O'Call., ii., 522, 
523; o;if<', vol. i.,73S, 739. 

t Alb. lice., xviii., 302-304; xxii., 318-321; Col. MS.?., x. (5ii.),313; xv.,141; Tliompson, 
i., 128, 129; General Kntries, 1., 34, 141 ; Col. Doc, ii.,22il, 430, 409, 744. 


thither, and any of them may as freely returne home in cuai-.i. 
vessels of their owne country ; and this and much more is ~ ~ 
contained in the privilege of his majesty's English sub- 
jects ; and thus much you may, by what means you please, 
assure the govenior." In thus promising the people of 
Xew Nethcrland a free intercourse with Holland, in viola- 
tion of the English Navigation Acts, Nicolls exceeded his 
instructions from the king, which authorized him to assure 
the Dutch colonists only '■'• the same freedom in trade with 
our other good subjects in those parts;" and he even as- 
sumed more power than his own sovereign possessed, who 
" could not dispense with the laws by permitting a com- 
merce which they had prohibited."* 

Having, nevertheless, gained his point, Winthrop ad- 
dressed a friendly letter to Stuyvesant and his comicil, iVcpfeul" 
urging them to "speedily accept his majesty's gracious ten- 
der," and adding that " otherwise you may be assured that wintinoiya 
both the Massachiisett colony and Connecticutt, and all the s^tuyv J 
rest, are obliged and ready to attend his majestie's service; ^""^ 
and if you should, by wilfull protraction, occasion a gen- 
erall rising of the English colonies, I should be sorry to 
see the ill consequences which you will bring upon your 
people thereby, of which I hope and persuade, in reall com- 
passion, that you will not rim so great an hazard to occa- 
sion a needless warre, with all the evills and miseries that 
may accompany the same, when nothing but peace, and lib- 
erties, and protection is tendered. I have, I hope, obtained 
of their honoi's this farther addition to their former free 
tenders for the good of youi'selves, your friends, and allies, 
that any of your friends in Holland that will come over 
hither shall have fi"ee liberty to inhabite and plant in these , 
parts, imder his majestie's subjection, and to transport 
themselves in theire ovme country ships, which (if you con- 
sider well) gives you such a settlement in your present con- 
dition, that you will find little alteration but your submis- 
sion to and acknowledgment of his majestie's empire (for 
the most apparent future good of all your people), who 
hath imployed such persons of honor and wortli that your 
people may be happy under their government." To this 

• Gen. Tnt , i., 15; Morton's Memorial, 311, note; Col. Doc., iii., 57, 1C5; (Miiilmer?, i., 
514, 59G ; OCa'l., ii , .'^>jr> ; ante, p. 19 ; vol. i., 73(>. 


Chap, l letter Nicolls, Carr, and Cartwi'ight added their autograph 
approval and assent " that it be sent to the governor of the 
1^^^- Manhadoes."* 

Winthrop, with liis son Fitz John, and Willys of Con- 
necticut, accompanied by Willett of Plymouth, and Clarke 
and P}aichon of Massachusetts, came up the next day with 
23 August, this letter fi'om Gravesend "in a row-boat with a white 
whfthTo'' ^^g'" t^ ^^^^ ^^*y wharf, whence they were " immediately 
at New conducted to the nearest tavern." Another salute was 

dam, flped as they landed, and Stuyvesant went with his council 

and the two burgomasters to greet them. The English 
delegates declared that they had come to offer " all the in- 
habitants, in the king's name, fair conditions, and, in case 
these were not accepted, to excuse themselves for any mis- 
chief that might follow — it being their business, as they 
had been ordered by England's majesty, and were therefore 
obliged to assist General Nicolls." Many " speeches and 
answers" passed at the long conference. On taking leave, 
Winthrop handed his own sealed letter to Stuys^esant, who, 
when he returned to the fort, opened and read it before the 
council and the burgomasters. Its effect was immediate. 
In a short time the burgomasters came back to the council 
chamber, and demanded a copy of AVinthrop's letter to be 
communicated to the city authorities. This Stuyvesant de- 
cKned to allow, thinldng it " rather disadvantageous than 
favorable to communicate such letters to the inhabitants." 
The burgomasters insisted that the director " ouglit to com- 
nnmicate to the commonalty all that had any relation to 
tlie public welfare." Stuyvesant explained the disastrous 
consequences of so doing ; but the burgomasters persisted, 
and as they went away, " greatly disgusted and dissatisfied," 
stuyvesant tlic director, against their protest, tore the letter in pieces, 
winthrop's " in order thereby to prevent its communication." Shortly 
afterward, most of the bui'ghers assembled at the City 
llall ; the work on the palisades suddenly stopped ; and 
three of the principal citizens, " not belonging to the gov- 
ernment," came to the council chamber and peremptorily 
denuindcd a copy of the letter. The fragments were shown 
to them, but no reasoning would satisfy ; and Stuyvesant 

' This letter wns published for the first time in 1SG3, from ^Yinthrop's original draft, in 
Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvl., 52T-620 ; N. Y. U. S. Coll. (ISGl'), 5S. 


was obliged to liasten to the City Ilall, " to encourage and cuAr. i. 
appease the burghers, and bring them "back to work." In 
vain did he try to. pacify them; comphiints against the ■*■""*• 
company's shameful neglect of the people's representations 
were uttered on all sides ; and a prolonged defense of the 
city, without hope of relief, was declared to be impossible, 
"seeing that to resist so many was nothing else than to 
gape before an oven." In vain did the director again re- 
fuse a copy of the letter, because " it did not concern the 
commonalty, but the government," and, moreover, it had 
been torn up. " The letter ! the letter !" was the only re- 
ply. Fearing a nuitiny, Stuyvesant returned to the coun- 
cil chamber; and Bayard, the clerk, having made a copy a copy giv. 
of Winthrop's mutilated writing, gave it to the timorous citizens!*' 

Meanwhile Stuyvesant had been preparing a reply to the 
summons of Nicolls. It was an overwhelming argument, 23 August. 
tracing the history of New Netherland, den}dng the English stuyP^e."'- 
pretension, and maintaining the Dutch title by first dis- ^''^^J^JJ'oy" 
covery, uninterrupted possession, purchase of land from the '!'° '^"*'^'' 
native owners, and the recognition of the sovereignty of the 
States General by the articles of peace with England. For 
these reasons, the unsoundness of the English claim was 
" as manifest and palpable as the brightness of the sun at 
noonday." At the same time, the director proposed to re- 
new the agreement with Scott in the previous Marcli, that 
the question of boundaries on Long Island should be ami- 
cably determined by the king and the States General, " in 
order to prevent bloodshed here and further trouble in Eu- 
rope," wliich must follow any hostile aggressions. 

This letter was conveyed by four of Stnjn'esant's ablest 
advisers, two from the council and two from the city, who 
were instructed to "argue the matter" with the English 23 August. 
commander. But Nicolls, declining discussion, told them ^•icollsX 
that the question of right did not concern him ; it was to cug"^on.''" 
be considered by the king and the States General. He nnist 
and should take the place ; and if the reasonable terms he 

• Col. Doc, ii., 3CS, 3G9, 44-1, 445, 460, 4TG ; iii., 165; Alb. Rec, xxii., 316; Col. MSS., x. 
(iii.), ,311, 313; Smith, i., 20 ; Trumbull, 1., 2CS; Bancroft, ii., 314 ; O'CiU., ii., 523, 524 ; 
Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxvi., .128, 529 ; ante, vol. i., T39. According to Smith, Trumbull, and 
others, Stuyvesant tore Winthrop's letter " in a fit of anger;" according to his own account, 
in Alb. Kec, xxii., 310, and Col. Doc., ii., 4J5, " to prevent its communication" to the people. 


cuAP. I. had offered were not accepted, lie would attack tlie city, 
for which purpose, at the end of forty-eight hours, he would 
bring his forces up nearer. " On Thursday, the fourth," he 
added, '' I will speak with you at the Manhattans." The 
Dutch deputies replied, " Friends will be welcome if they 
come in a fi-iendly manner." " I shall come with my ships 
and soldiers," said Nicolls, " and he will be a bold messen- 
ger, indeed, who shall then dare to come on board and so- 
licit terms." To their demand, " What, then, is to be done ?" 
Nicoiis's He answered, " Hoist the white flag of peace at the fort, 
™p^"°"^ and then I may take something into consideration." With 
tliis imperious message the Dutch delegates returned sad- 
ly to New Amsterdam.* 

Seeing that Stuyvesant was disposed to hold out, Nicolls 
24 August, directed Hyde, of the Guinea, " to prosecute, with the ad- 
AnTttaTk "^'ice of the captains under his command, his majesties' 
ordered, ^.j^ij^^ ^ud iutcrcst bv all ways and means as they shall 
think most expedient for the speedy reducing of the Dutch 
under his majesties' obedience." The transport ship Wil- 
liam and Nicholas was also " pressed" for active service, 
and an agreement was signed Avith Morley, her captain, to 
indemnify her owners in case she should be damaged.f 
At the appointed day, a great number of the inhabitants 
«.5Angust. of Long Island assembled to meet the royal commissioners 
N-fcoUs^^Tt f^t Gravesend. Winthrop and the other Connecticut mag- 
Gravesend. ig^-j-rj^t^g were prescut. Nicolls, in their presence, pubhshed 
the king's patent to the Duke of York, with his own com- 
mission, and demanded the submission of Long Island to 
his authority. On the part of the inhabitants living east 
of the Dutch towns there was no doubt respecting alle- 
giance. They were already British subjects, and under the 
jurisdiction of Connecticut. The only question was about 
coming under the Duke of York's government. Winthrop, 
on behalf of Connecticut, declared that as the king's pleas- 
ure was now fully signified by his letters patent, the juris- 
diction which that colony had claimed and exercised over 
Long Island " ceased and became null." Nicolls, on the 
j)art of the duke, replied that he would not displace any of 

• Col. Doc, ii., 400,411-414; Gen. Ent., i., i:>-20; Alb. Kec., xviii., 319, 320; xxil, G17 ; 
Col MSS., X. (iii.), 313; xv., 144; Hazard's Reg. Pcnn., iv., 41, 42; Val. Man., 1860, 592; 
Smith, i., 20-26 ; Bancroft, ii , 314; O'Call., ii, .'526 ; ow^c, vol. i., 72S, 740. 

t Gen. Knt., i., 21, 22, 27, 28 ; Smith, i., 37 ; S. Smith, 40 ; Hazard. Keg. Penn., iv., 42, 4 '. 


the civil officers appointed by Connecticut, but would con- cuap. i. 
linn them to act under him "until a convenient season 


served to convene deputies from all the towns on the isl- -'•""*• 
and, when and where laws were to be enacted and civil of- 
ficers established." This assurance seemed to explain the 
vague promise in the proclamation of the commissioners, 
that all persons submitting to the royal government should 
enjoy " all other pri%ileges with his majesty's English sub- subminMon 
jects." It was, at all events, considered satisfactory. Long nnd'to^^thV 
Island, chiefly inhabited by Englishmen already subject to York/ 
the crown, submitted at once to the authority of the Duke 
of York ; and the volmiteer forces from its eastern towns, 
joined by those of New England, marched from Amers- 
foort and Midwout toward Brooklyn, to assist in reducing 
the Dutch capital.'"'' 

Observing the approach of the English forces, Stuyve- y, August . 
sant wrote once more to Nicolls, that although by his or- ItuyC-"'" 
ders he was " obliged to defend our place," yet, to prevent ^^^slFln 
the shedding of innocent blood, he proposed that commis- \ 
sioners should be appointed on both sides to treat about " a 
good accommodation," and that in the mean time all hos- 
tilities should cease. The Enghsli commander replied from 
Gravesend that he would willingly appoint commissioners 25 August. 
"to treat upon articles of surrender." At the desire oi'^^n^^^"'- 
Stuyvesant's delegates, orders were given to Commodore 
Hyde not to lire first on the city. But Nicolls refused 
their request that the troops should not be brought nearer. 
" To-day I shall arrive at the ferry," he added : " to-mor- 
row we can agree with one another."f 

The regular soldiers, consisting of three full companies, 
eager for booty, were then landed at Gravesend, whence 
they marched up to the ferry at Brooklyn, where the auxil- Tiie i:n- 
iaries from Long Island and New England were already sta- nVBiwkl^ 
tioned. Two of the ships moved up near Nooten, or Gov-^^"' 
ernor's Island. The other two frigates came on with full 
sail, and guns ready to open broadsides, and, passing in front New Am. 
of Fort Amsterdam, anchored in the East River. Watch- La^iered. 
ing them from the parapet as they sailed along, Stup-esant 

* Deed?, ii., 43, 44 ; Wood, 27, 2S, S7, 173, 177; Thompson, i . 126, 127; ii., 323, 32S ; Col. 
Doc., ii., 407, 40S, 414, 445, 501 ; Col. Rec. Conn., i. 424, 427, 429 ; antf, vol. i., 733, 73 J. 

t Gen. Ent., i., 13, 14, 15; Alb. Kec, xviiu, 321 ; Col. MSS., xv., 144 ; Col. Doc, ii., 414 ; 
Hazard, Reg. Penn., iv., 31 ; Smith, i., 27 ; S. Smith, 41, 42 ; ante, vol. i., 740. 



Chap. I. was about to ordei' his gunner to fire, when the two Domines 

~ Megapolensis led him away between them, imploring him not 

to begin hostilities. Leaving fifty men in the fort, under 
the command of Fiscal de Sille, the director, at the head of 
one hundred of the garrison, marched into the city, in or- 
der to prevent the English from landing " here and there."* 
Panic in By tliis time the Dutch regular soldiers themselves had 
trop?ii3. become more disposed to plunder than to defend. They 
openly talked of " where booty is to be got, and where the 
young women live who wear chains of gold." Warnings 
had come from Long Island that the New England auxil- 
iaries of Nicolls declared " that their business was not only 
with New Netherland, but with the booty and plunder, and 
for these they were called out and enrolled." The " curs- 
ing and talking" of these Eastern adventurers forced the 
citizens of New Amsterdam to look upon them as their 
" deadly enemies, who expected nothing else than pillage, 
plunder, and bloodshed." The whole population on Man- 
hattan Island was about fifteen hmidred, of whom only 
two hundred and fifty were able to bear arms. Opposed 
to these were more than a thousand effective soldiers and 
sailors in the English squadron, besides the re-enforcements 
from New England and Long Island. Moreover, it was 
understood that six hundred Northern savages and one 
hundred and fifty French rovers, with English commissions, 
had offered their ser\aces against the Dutch. Seeing them- 
selves thus " encircled round about," with no means of de- 
liverance, and considering " the notorious and palpable im- 
possibility of being able to defend and hold the place," the 
city authorities, clera-y, and officers of the burgher o-uard, 

2G Aiiiniat. . . & o ? 

5 septem-' ^^ the suggcstiou of the elder Domine Megapolensis, adopt- 
iteiiion- ed a remonstrance to the director and his council, implor- 
stuyvc- ing them to accept the conditions offered by the English 
commander. Ilis threats, it stated, " would not have been 
at all regarded, could your honors, or we, your petitioners, 
expect the smallest aid or succour. But God help us ! 
whether we turn for assistance to the north or to the 
south, to the east or to the west, it is all in vain." Ninetj'- 
three of the principal citizens, including all the municipal 

• Col. Doc., ii., 414. 422, 444, 44.5, 501, 502, 5 i.'i, .WS, .509 ; Val. Man., ISCO, 592 ; Dii.'iiu.s to 
Clnssis of AinBtcrdam, 15 Sept., 16G4; ante, vol. i., 740. 


officers, and Stuyvesant's eldest son, signed the paper. The cuap. i. 
threatening answer of NicoUs to the Dutch commissioners 
had meanwhile been spread among the people, and many ' 

of them, with their wives and children crying and praying, 
besought the director to parley. To all their supplications 
he sturdily replied, " I had much rather be carried out 
dead !" But now he was obliged to yield to inevitable ne- stuyvcsant 
cessity, and prevent the mischiefs about to overtake, " evi- ^"^ 
dently and assuredly, the honest inhabitants."* 

The lesson in Saint Luke's Gospel taught Stuy\'esant 
how vain it was, with ten thousand men, to resist him that 
came with twenty thousand. Yet there was one balm for 
the director's wounded spirit. Nicolls had voluntarily pro- 
posed " to redehver the fort and city of Amsterdam, in New 
Netherland, in case the difference of the limits of this prov- 
ince be agreed upon betwixt His Majesty of England and 
the High and Mighty States General." A full power to 
agree upon articles with the EngHsh commander or his 26 August. 
deputies was accordingly given by the Dutch director and ^ ^eptem. 
his council to Counselor John De Decker, Commissary Dutch 
Nicholas Yarlett, and Doctor Samuel Megapolensis, repre- sioners ap. 
senting the provincial government, and Burgomaster Cor- ^"* ^ ' 
nelig Steenwyck, old burgomaster Oloff Stevenson van 
Cortlandt, and old schepen James Cousseau, representing 
the city. Nicolls was now encamped at the Brooklpi fer- 
ry, " before the Manliatans," with the royal "• beleaguering" 
forces. On his part, he promptly named his two col- 
leagues, Sir Robert Carr and Colonel George Cart^vi-ight, English 
with John Winthrop and Samuel Willys of Connecticut, lionZT 
and Thomas Clarke and John Pynchon of Massachusetts, '"*™^*^' 
as his commissioners. " The reason why those of Boston 
and Connecticut were joined in the treaty," Nicolls after- 
ward explained to Arlington, " was because those two col- 
onies should hold themselves the more engaged with us if 
the Dutch had been over-confident of their strength."t 

The next morning, which was Saturday, the plenij)oteu-^^^"'''"''^- 

G Septem. 

* Alb. Eec, xviii., 320, 321 ; Col. MSS., xv., 144 ; Col. Doc, ii., 248-250, 3C0, 423, 444, 446, 
476, 503 ; Drlsius's Letter; Val. Jfan., ISGO, 502, 593 ; ante^ vol. i., 741. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 414, 440; iii.,10.^; Gen. Ent., i., 30-33 ; Alb. Kec, xviii., 322, .323; Col. 
MSS., XV., 144, 145; Ilazava'a Ann. Penn., iv., 44; O'Call., ii., 531 ; S.iiut Luke'a Gospel, 
xiv., 31 ; ante, vol. i., 741, 742. Smith, i., 27, inaccurately fays that Stuyve^ant agreed to 
Biirrcnder " on condition the English and Dutch limits in America were settled by the 
Clown and the States General." 


ciiAi\i. tiaries on both sides met by agreement at Stuyvesant's 
" Bouwery," or farm. Their only dispute was about tlie 
Dutch garrison, whom, as tlie English refused to do it, the 
city deputies agreed to convey back to Holland. The proc- 
Articieaof lamation of the royal commissioners and the reiterated 
tfon agreed promises of Nicolls formed the basis of the twenty -four 
"^''^' articles of capitulation. These declared all the inhabitants 
of New Netherland to be " free denizens," and secured to 
them their property. Any persons might come from Hol- 
land "and plant in this country," while Dutch vessels 
might " freely come hither, and any of the Dutch may 
freely return home, or send any sort of merchandise home, 
in vessels of their own country." For the next six months, 
intercourse with Holland was to continue as before the 
coming of the English. The Dutch inhabitants were to 
" enjoy the liberty of their consciences in di^ine worship 
and Church discipline," as well as " their ovm. customs con- 
cerning their inheritances." All public buildings were to 
continue in their existing uses, and all public records to be 
respected. All inferior civil officers were to remain as they 
were until the customary time for new elections ; and the 
town of Manhattan might choose deputies with " fi-ee voices 
in all public affairs." Owners of houses in Fort Oi-angc 
were to enjoy their property " as all people do where there 
is no fort." The articles of capitulation were to be con- 
sented to by Nicolls, and delivered to Stuyvesant, together 
with copies of the king's patent and the Duke of York's 
commission, by eight o'clock the next Monday morning, 
" at the old mill."* Within two hours afterward, the fort 
and town " called New Amsterdam, upon the isle of Man- 
hattoes," were to be surrendered, and the military officera 
and soldiers to " march out with their arms, drums beating 
and colors flying, and lighted matches."! 
2SAn(ntst. These very advantageous and conciliatory terms were 
rs pteni. explained to the burgher authorities at the City Hall on 

* This "old mill," which wns the ne.irest point on Manhattan to "the ferry" at Brooklyn, 
wn.s on the uhore of the Kast River, near wliat is now tlic foot of Koosevelt Street, but thou 
nt the oiitli't of a brook runninp; out of tlie " Kolck," aftenvard vulgarly called "the Col- 
lect:" Hce Valentine's Manual, 1S,5'.), :m, and 18G3, G'21, and the maps appendi d; ante, vol. 
i., p. 1C7, note. We owe the recovery of maps to the research and care of George H. 
Moore, the present librarian of the New York Uistorical Society. 

t Gen. Ent., i., 23-26, 3:5 ; Col. Doc, ii., 250-263, 414 ; Smith, i., 27-32 ; S. Smith, 43-4r. ; 
Hazard's Hcg. I'enn., iv., 43; Holl. .Merc., 1GC4, 15"!, l.-)!; Alb. Kec., xviii., 32.5 ; Col. MS.S., 
XV., 14.'>; Chalmera'a Ann.,l.,5T4 ; O'Cal!., i., 53>-535; nn/c, vol. i., 742, 7C2. 


Sunday afternoon, "after the second sermon," It was the chm-. r. 
last religious service that was expected to be celebrated 
under the Dutch flag in Kioft's old church in Fort Amster- ,,,^^j^g ^^ 
dam. The next morning Stuy vesant and his council, hav- f^g pg^pi'^ 
ing ratified the articles of capitulation, exchanged them 
with Nicolls, who, on his part, delivered the stipulated doc- 20 August. 
uments ; and thereupon New Amsterdam was surrendered, ArtlciS"' 
and " the English, without any contest or claim being be- Ngj^^Am- 
f ore put forth by any person to it, took possession of a fort ''[rfender- 
built and continually garrisoned about forty years at the '^•^■ 
expense of the West India Company."* 

The story of the reduction of Long Island and New 
Amsterdam has now been minutely told : the unexpected 
blockade of the port by the English ; the overwhelming 
force of the invaders; the weakness of Fort Amsterdam 
and its garrison ; the almost solitary heroism and loyalty 
of Stuyvesant ; the natural resentment of the city burghers 
against the authorities in Holland, who had left them un- 
protected against surprise ; their common prudence, which 
preferred the easy terms oifered by the English command- 
er to the consequences of an unavailing resistance and a 
capture by storm ; their reasonable dread of being plun- 
dered by the English colonial volunteers from the east; 
the inevitable capitulation of the metropolis, and the con- 
sequent surrender of the whole Dutch province. There 
was, indeed — as Stuyvesant reluctantly confessed — '' an ab- Ti.e Dutch 


solute impossibility of defending the fort, much less the defonBe- 
city of New Amsterdam, and still less the country,"! 

On the part of England this conquest of New Nether- 
land was an act of peculiar national baseness. It was a 
scandalous outrage. It was planned in secret, and was ac- The con- 
complished with deliberate deceit toward a friendly gov- Bcandaioas 
ernment. None but Englishmen had the impudence to do 
60 vile a wrong. Its true motive was carefully concealed 

• Col. Doc, ii , 414, 415; Alb. Rcc, xviii., 323, 324, 326; Col. MSS., xv., 14*5; Gen. Knt., 
i., 31, 32 ; ante, vol. i., 763. Smith, i., 32, errs in stating that Stuyvesant refused, for two 
days, to ratify the articles, becau.«e they were "very disagrecahle" to him. The true rea- 
son was that a Sunday intervened, and the articles themselves provided for their due exe- 
cution on Monday. 

t Col. Doc., ii., 366. Tlie fir^t dispatches which Nicoll.s sent home, containinjr an account 
of his tr.".nsactions with the Now Engl.and colonies and the surrender of New Netherland, 
were at s a in the Elias fri.^ate, as will be stated hereafter: see Col. Doc., iii.,C8, 92, 
103 ; Pepy.", ii., 1S5 ; ^wsC, p. 50, note. 


caAr. I. in all the diplomatic statements which attempted to justify 
the deed. The navis^ation laws of Ens-land, which were 

1 AAA cj / 

chiefly meant to cripple the commerce of her great mari- 
time rival, could not be enforced in America as long as 
that rival possessed so important a province there. The 
intensely selfish spirit of those laws eagerly employed the 
most unjustifiable means to maintain them. Because En- 
gland coveted New Netherland, and not because she had 
any rightful claim, she treacherously seized it as a prize. 
Tlie whole transaction was eminently characteristic of an 
insolent and overbearing nation. On no other principle 
than that which frequently afterward governed the preda- 
tory aggressions of England in India and elsewhere can 
her conquest of the Dutch province be defended. 

Nevertheless, unjustifiable as was the deed, the tempta- 
tion to commit it was irresistible. Its actual execution was 
The event probably only a question of time. The event itself could 
mevi a e. j^^j.^-j^y j^^^^.g bccu avoidcd by the Dutch government, unless 
all their previous policy had been reversed, and the holding 
of New Netherland at all hazards against any enemies been 
made an indispensable obligation. But this could not have 
been expected. Neither the West India Company — now on 
the brink of bankruptcy — nor the States General adequate- 
ly valued their American province. It was not until toward 
the end of their rule that the importance of New Nether- 
land and the necessity of securing it seriously engaged the 
attention of the authorities in Holland. Even then their ap- 
parent indifference encouraged the mousing designs of En- 
gland. Charles the Second decreed that the United Neth- 
erlands should no longer have a foothold in North America. 
The decree was executed ; and the Dutch province became 
the easy prey of undeclared enemies, who sneaked, in time 
of peace, into her chief harbor. New York replaced New 
Nethcrland on the map of the world. Although wars in 
•Europe followed, the result in America was the same. 
Holland retired from the unequal strife, leaving France 
and Spain to contend for a season with England for ulti- 
mate supremacy in North America, 
wimtrii- By the conquest of New Netherland Ene-land became 

gland caiD- ,*^. rniAi at 

cd. the mistress oi all tlie Atlantic coast between Acadia and 

Florida. On the north and west her colonies were now 



bounded by tlie French possessions, on the south by those cuai-. i. 
of Spain, on the east by the ocean. Yet, altliough tlie 
British American dominions thus became geograpliically -'■""'*• 
united, they were neither homogeneous in character nor 
sympathetic in feehng. Tlie Puritan colonies, wliile they 
rejoiced in the subjection of tiieir " noxious neiglibors" to 
the crown of England, had themselves no respect for their 
own ungodly sovereign. The aid which they had given to 
the royal commissioners was a fatal political mistake, if 
any purpose of independence was really cherished. They 
thus lost the best opportunity they ever had of securing 
their local governments, because the king was now master 
of the most advantageous position on the continent, from 
which he could, if necessary, direct military and naval op- 
erations for their reduction in case of revolt. Maryland, 
ecpially removed from Puritan severity and Cavalier license, 
was content that its territorial dispute should at all events 
be adjourned. Virginia, perhaps, felt less interest in the 
event, although the prompt loyalty of her people, who had 
hastened to proclaim their restored sovereign, was natm-al- 
ly gratified at the extension of his dominion over all the 
neighboring coast between Ca]3e Henlopen and Montauk 

In the progress of years, a common allegiance and com- 
mon dangers produced greater sympathy among the Anglo- 
American plantations. Nevertheless, although incorpora- 
ted into the British colonial empire^ New York never lost Prcvaiimp 
her social and political identity and her salutary moral in- New York! 
fluence. It was her lot to sustain fiercer trials, and gain a 
more varied experience, than any other American state. 
It was ecpially her destiny to temper the narrow character- 
istics of her English sister colonies with the larger ideas 
which she had herself derived from Holland. Midway be- 
tween New England and Virginia, she stood for nearly a 
century guarding her long frontier against the attacks of 
Canada ; and at length she became the Pn^ox Pkovestce, 
on which hinged the most im23ortant movements of that 
sublime revolt against the oppression of England, the only 
parallel to which was the successful struggle that the fore- 
fathers of her first settlers maintained against the gigan- 
tic despotism of Spain. 


uhap. I. The terms of capitulation offered by Nicolls and accept- 

ed by Stnyvesant were, perliaps, the most favorable ever 

1 Ifrni oi- c;ranted by a conqueror. In theory, the king only resumed 

icy of the iiis rifrlitful autlioritv over a province which had been in- 

Hukc of ^ */ A 

York. trusively occupied and improved by the Dutch. Once re- 
duced under his own proprietary rule, the Duke of York 
hoped tliat it would become not only profitable to himself, 
but a valuable accession to the colonial dominions of the 
crown, to which he was tlie presumptive heir. Ilis policy, 
therefore, was to obtain peaceful possession of the territory, 
and at the same time induce its Dutch inhabitants to re- 
main there and become loyal English subjects. Indeed, the 
duke's patent authorized him to govern British subjects 
only. The most liberal inducements were accordingly of- 
fered to the people of New I^etherland, with ostentatious 
benevolence. On the other hand, the Dutch colonists, cha- 
grined at the imbecility and seeming indifference of the 
authorities in the fatherland, and having many causes of 
complaint against their own provincial government, accept- 
ed the change of rulers calmly and hopefully, if not with 
positive satisfaction. 

Yet, by becoming British subjects, the Dutch inhabitants 

The people of Ncw Nctlierland did not gain political freedom. Fresh 

frain noth- .- . _ iti n ^ ^•^ • 

ins by the uames and laws, they found, did not secure fresh liberties. 
Amsterdam was changed to York, and Orange to Albany. 
But these changes only commemorated the titles of a con- 
queror. It was nearly twenty years before that conqueror 
allowed for a brief period to the people of 'New York 
even that faint degree of representative government which 
they had enjoyed when the three-colored ensign of Hol- 
land was hauled down from the flag-staff of Fort Amster- 
dam. New Netherland exchanged Stnyvesant, and the 
West India Company, and a republican sovereignty, for 
Nicolls, and a royal proprietor, and a hereditary king. 
The province was not represented in Parliament; nor could 
the voice of its people reach the chapel of Saint Stephen 
at Westminster as readily as it had reached the chambers 
of the Binnenhof at tlie Ilague. 

Nevertheless, to all the changes which befell them, the 

,WT °J Dutch colonists of New York submitted with characteristic 

the Dutch. A £ ' \ at 

good taith. No more loyal subjects than they were ever 


brought under the British crown. Yet it was not pleasant cuap. i. 
for them to watch the red cross of England wavinij where 

the emblems of the Netherlands had floated for fifty years. -'•""*• 
To Holland they felt a deep, nnaltcrable, hereditary attach- 
ment. Nor have the vicissitudes of time extinguished that 
sentiment in their descendants. Two centuries have scarce- 
ly weakened the veneration which citizens of New York of 
Dutch lineage proudly cherish toward the fatherland of 
their ancestors. Year by year the glorious and the genial 
memories of Holland are renewed by those whom long 
generations have separated from the country of their fore- 
fathers. But colonists usually retain more affection to- 
ward their fatherland than those who remain at home ever 
feel toAvard the emigrants who leave its shores. As years 
roll on, the contrast becomes more marked. Two centu- uoiiand 
ries have almost wiped out of the recollection of Holland ^Ifv^^ 
the once familiar name of New Netherland. A few of the j^ni!'^'^' 
more curious of lier scholars and her statesmen may some- 
times, by careful search, discover the meagre paragraphs in 
wliicli her ponderous histories dismiss the story of her an- 
cient trans- Atlantic province. But the people of the Low 
Countries scarcely know that New York was once their 
own New Netherland, or that they have any right to the 
glory of haAang laid the foundations of the mightiest state 
in the American Union, and the metropolis of the Western 




cuAp. II. On Monday morning, the twenty-ninth of August, six- 
teen hundred and sixty-four, Peter Stujs^esant, having per- 
29 \!i"i^'t foi'i^sd his last official act as Director General of New 
s septem. Netheiiaud by ratifying the articles of capitulation, placed 
The Dutch himself at the head of his garrison, and marched out of 
of Fort°" Fort Amsterdam with arms fixed, colors flying, drums 
dara.'^'^' beating, and matches lighted. Wheeling to the left, the 
veteran led his sullen troops do\\Ti the Beaver Street to the 
North River. From there they were hurried on board the 
"West India Company's ship Gideon, which was preparing 
to sail for Holland. This was so arranged because the 
Dutch soldiers were enraged at not being allowed to strike 
a blow, and the British infantry were prudently kept out 
of siglit until they were safely embarked. In the mean 
time the English regulars had taken post near the old mill. 
The Long Island and New England auxiliaries, by previous 
agreement between Stuyvesant and Nicolls, were kej)t to- 
gether on the Brooklyn side of the river, and were not al- 
lowed to enter the city, because the burghers " were more 
api)rehensive of being plundered by them than by the oth- 
ers." As the Dutch garrison marched out, the ensign of 
the United Provinces was hauled down, and an English 
The En- corporal's guard took possession of the fort and hoisted the 
hoisted." Britisli flag, which Nicolls had borrowed from the frigate 
Guinea. Leaving Colonel Cartwright w^itli his company, 
which was stationed at the ferry, to occupy the city gates 
and the City Hall, NicoUs advanced at the head of his own 
and Sir Robert Carr's companies, and, accompanied by the 
burgomasters, marched into the fort. After being formal- 
ly inducted by the civic authorities, wlio "gave him a wel- 
come reception," the English governor performed his first 


official act by directing that the city of New Amsterdam chap. ii. 
should thenceforth be called " New York," and Fort Am- 
sterdam " Fort James."* ncv York 

The surrender being thus accomplished without blood- jl^^"^'- 
shed, Nicolls at once dismissed the Long Island and New "^^^^d. 
England volunteers. The Massachusetts delegates were 
sent back, with the thanks of the royal commissioners to 29 August. 
her General Court. The governor also addressed a letter and and 
to Captain John Yonnge, of Southold, who commanded giand vJi- 
the Long Island militia, desiring him to make out a list dSmL^ea. 
of those who had taken up arms " for their king and coun- 
tr}'," so that they might be suitably rewarded, and promis- 
ing that deputies from the several towns should, " in con- 
venient time and place, be summoned, to propose and give 
their advice in all matters tending to the peace and benefit 
of Long Island."t 

The new pro\ancial government was now organized. 
The governor's subordinate, Captain Matthias Nicolls, of NicoUs-s 
Islip, in Northamptonshire, who had accompanied himcmnSt' 
from England, and was a lawyer, was appointed secretary 
of the ]3rovince. Captains Robert Needham and Thomas 
Delavall, also from England, together with Secretary 
Nicolls, Thomas Topping, of Southampton, and William 
Wells, of Southold, were named counselors. On extraor- 
dinary occasions, Stuyvesant's late secretary, Cornelis van 
Ruyv'en, and Schepen Johannes van Brugli, were some- 
times called on to assist. Delavall was also appointed col- 
lector and receiver general of New York and its neighbor- 

The Dutch municipal officers were continued in their 
places by virtue of the articles of capitulation. The day 
after the surrender, the Court of Burgomasters and Sche- 
pens of the city of New York assembled to transact their 30 Augnat. 
ordinary business, and proceeded to administer justice as if " '^^p"^"- 

* Alb. Rec, xviii., 326; Col. MSS., xv., 145; Gen. Ent., i., 32, 55; Hazard's Reg. Penn., 
iv., 50 ; New Anist. Rcc, v., 56T-5T0 ; Val. Man., ISGO, 592, 503 ; Col. Por,, ii., 250-^r>2, 41.5, 
422, 440, 445, 446, 501, 502, 509, 744 ; Bushwick Rcc. ; Thompson, ii., 165; aiUr, vol. i , 742, 
743,703. As tho old Btyle was used in England, it was now introduced into New York. 1 
shall therefore follow that supputation, adding, whenever necessary, the corresponding 
date in the now style in a line under the old. The historical, and not the Knglisli legal 
year, will, however, be used between 1 January and 25 March. 

t Gen. Eat., i., 29, 30; Thompson, i., 127; Smith, i, 32. 

t Patents,!., 3; Deeds, ii.. 24 ; S.Wood, 144; Thompson, ii., 390; Val. Man., 1817, 351, 
360 ; 1852, 381 ; 1S53, 330, 3S3. 


Chap. II. nothing unnsnal liad occnrred. A few days afterward 
; tliej wrote to the West India Company, by the ship Gid- 
«-se tem '^^"' "^^'^"^'^^ ^^^th a pass from Nicolls, took home the late 
ouyoffi- garrison, nnder the command of Ensign Nyssen, describ- 
ued. ing the surrender, and adding that, " since we have no lon- 
ger to depend upon your honor's promises or protection, we, 
with all the poor, sorrowing, and abandoned commonalty 
here, must fly for refuge to the Almighty God, not doubt- 
ing but He will stand by us in this sorely afflicting con- 
juncture." By the same vessel Stuyvesant and his late coun- 
j«jj scptem. cil also sGut the company an ofiicial account of the capitu- 
lioiiand. lation, and declared " that they would prefer to suffer ship- 
wreck in the empty praise and esteem of the world, than, 
waiting to the last moment without hope of relief, subject 
every thing to bloodshed, or at least to the danger of being 
plundered."* Domine Samuel Drisius, one of the collegi- 
15 septem. ate ministers of the Dutch Church, also wrote an interest- 
ing letter to the Classis of Amsterdam, detailing the circum- 
stances of the surrender.! 

For the first time, the English Episcopal service was 
Kngiisii now celebrated in New York. The articles of capitula- 
(^urch*' tion expressly declared that all public buildings should 
service, continue in their previous uses, and that the Dutch should 
enjoy their accustomed divine worship and church disci- 
11 October, pliiic. Provision was accordingly made by the burgomas- 
ters and schepens for the due support of the Domines 
Megapolensis and Drisius, until the governor should make 
farther arrangements. The chaplain of the English forces 
had, however, no proper place in which to celebrate divine 
service, except in the Dutch Church in the fort. It was 
very cordially arranged that after the Dutch had ended 
their own morning worship in their church, the British 
chaplain should read the Church of England service there 
to the governor and the garrison. This was all the footing 
that tlie English Episcopal Church had in New York for 
more than thirty years.:}: 

• Gen. Knt., i., n4, 35, 141 ; Kew AmBt. Rec, v., 55!5, SGO-TnO; Val. Man., ISGO, 592, 5.13; 
Col. Doc , ii , 422, 504, 744; Mn?8. Hist. Soc , TnimbuU Pap., xx., 73 ; Col. MSS., x. (lii), 323. 

t A tranclation of tliiB letter, which pives several details heretofore unknown, was pub- 
lished for the first time in the Ajipendix to Urodhead's Oration on the Conquest of New 
Netherland, delivered before the New York Historical Society on 12 October, lSr)4. 

t Doc. lliBt. N. v., ill., 2(15; Col. Doc, ili , 2()2, 415; iv., 32.5, 52f.; New Amst. Rec., v., 
639; IliKt. Mag., i. (ii.), 322; Hcnson'g Mem.,ii. N. V. II. S. Coll. (ii.), 103; Humphreys's 


Meanwhile, Fort Orange and Esopus, although included chai-. ii. 
in the capitulation, remained to be reduced under the 
duke's authority. Accordingly, as soon as the Gideon had „ g^pje^ 
sailed for Holland with the Dutch garrison, and the safety 
of the capital was thus assured, Kicolls commissioned his 
colleao;ue, Colonel Cartwrio-ht, to <»:o up the river with his ^gseptcm. 
company and occujjy those places, ihe autlionties andtoidt 
inhabitants of Fort Orange were required to aid him in 
obtaining quiet possession, and to obey him according to 
the governor's instructions, especially "in case the Mo- 
hawks or other Indians shall attempt any thing against the 
lives, goods, or chattels of those who are now under the 
protection of his majesty of Great Britain." Yan Rensse- 
laer was also directed to bring the title papers respecting 
Kensselaerswyck down to New York for the governor's in- 
spection, and, in the mean time, to obey Cartwright's or- 
dei-s. In order to secure the transfer to the English of the 
friendship which the Iroquois had cherished toward the 
Dutch, Nicolls requested some persons who had experience 
in dealing with the savages to accompany the military offi- 
cers of the expedition. One of these was Willett, of Plym- 
outh, and the other was Captain Thomas Breedon, of Bos- 
ton, formerly governor of Xova Scotia, who had visited 
Fort Orange in 16G2. Cartwright's chief military subor- 
dinates were Captain John Manning and Captain Daniel 
Brodhead. Manning seems to have formerly connnanded 
a trading vessel between Xew Haven and Manhattan, but 
was now in the regular service. Brodhead was a zealous 
Royalist, of Yorkshire, England, where his family had lived 
" in the credit and reputation of gentlemen," and who, hav- 
ing a captain's commission from the king, embarked with 
his household for America in the expedition of Nicolls.* 

When Cartwright reached Fort Orange, he found that September. 
De Decker, one of Stuyvesant's late plenipotentiaries at 
the capitulation, had hurried up thither from New York, 

HUt. Ace, 201; Thompson, ii., 205; Cliristinn Journal, quoted in Dr. Berrian's sketch of 
Trinity Church, 11. The nnmc3 of the earliest chaplains of the Knglish forces in New York 
are not known. The first that has come donn to us is th:it of the Rev. Charles WoUey, a 
gi-aduatc of Cambridge, who officiated from Aug., 1C7S, to July, ICSO: Hist. Mag , v., I.'aJ, 189. 
* Gen. Knt., 1., 34, 35, 141 ; Henss. M.SS. ; Col. Poo , i., 4'.)G; ii., 422, 502; iii., 33-41, C5, 
SI, 140,270; ix.,75; Munsell's Ann., vii., &7; Morton's Mem , 311. Jiofe," Hutch. Mass., i., 
'. l."). 220, 224, 225; Mass. Itec, iv. (ii ), GO, 75; Hazard, ii., 4t;2, 46?,; Palfrey, i., 1G3; ii., 
405, .525, 575 ; New Haven Rec, ii., CS-75; Joastlyn's Voyages, 153; ii. N. Y. H. S. Coll, 
i., 3&4 ; (1SG9), IC, 37, 67, 337, ante, vol. i., 519, 525, 579, 5S5, 704, 73G, 743. 


cnAP. II. and was endeavoring " to alienate the minds of his majes- 

ties' Dutch subjects from that happy reconcilement with- 

out bloodshed upon articles so lately made." But the 

Fort Or- re • T T»r 

angc sub- couuselor's efforts were "v^ain. La JMontagne and the mag- 
istrates had no disposition to resist. Little change was 
made except in the name of the place, which was thence- 
Named ai- forth to be called "Albany," after the Scotch title of the 
tany. D^kc of York. All the inferior officers and civil magis- 
trates were continued in their places. An English garri- 
Manning SOU occuj)ied the little fortress, which was named " Fort 
comman - j^ji^g^j^y^jj ^^^ placcd iu cliargc of Captain Manning. Soon 
24Septem. g^f j-gp^j^j.^]^ scvcral Mohawk and Seneca sachems appeared 
First i:n- at the fort, and signed with Cartwright the first treaty be- 
with tiTe'"''' tween the Iroquois and the English. It was covenanted 
Iroquois. ^^^ ^i^g Indians should have all the commodities from the 
English which they formerly had fi'om the Dutch; that 
offenses should be reciprocally pmiished ; and that the Riv- 
er Indians, and those below Manhattan, should be included 
25 septem. ill the treaty. The next day it was farther agreed that 
the English should not assist the hostile Eastern tribes, that 
they should make peace for the Iroquois with the nations 
down the river, that the Iroquois should have free trade, 
and " be lodged in houses" as formerly, and that, if they 
should be beaten by the Eastern tribes, they should " re- 
ceive accommodation" from the English. The friendship 
thus established continued to be maintained with remark- 
able fidelity on both sides for more than a century, until 
the American Revolutionary War. 

On his return from Albany Cartwright landed at Eso- 
pus. As at Albany, care was taken to conciliate the in- 
habitants. William Beekman was retained in his place as 
sellout, or sheriff, while Thomas Chambers remained com- 
missary, and Matthys Capito secretary of the village of 
nrodhead Wildwyck. A garrison of rcc-ular soldiers occupied the 

in com- £ ^ ^ 

inand at tort, uudcr the command of Captain Brodhead. The only 

I'jiopus. • • 1 • 1 /-^ 

opposition winch Cartwright experienced during his expe- 
dition was from Do Decker, at Albany ; and Nicolls, on 

30 scptcm. learning his conduct, ordered the too patriotic Hollander to 
leave the government within ten days. The deputies who 

10 October, accompanied Cartwright from Albany agreed to written 
articles with Nicolls that the inhabitants there " should en- 


joy all the articles of surrender" made at New York, and chap. ii. 
that former local arrangements were generally to remain ~ 

in force. Jeremias van Eensselaer was also confirmed in is October, 
his authority, on condition that a new patent sliould be ob- j^y"^^'"^''" 
taincd from the duke, and the inhabitants of Rensselaer- 
wyck should take the oath of allegiance.''^ 

By the articles of capitulation, the Dutch, who were 
three fourths of tlie inhabitants, were at liberty to sell 
their lands, and remove with their families and personal 
effects to Holland. But Nicolls, fi-om the first, had been 
anxious to retain them all in their present homes, and in- 
duce them to become British subjects. He therefore went 
to the meeting of the metropolitan burgomasters and sche- 14 October. 
pens, and having sent for Stuyvesant, Van Ruyven, and 
the Dutcli ministers, invited them to take an oath to be oatu of ai- 
true subjects of the King of Great Britain, and to obey all required. 
commands from his majesty, the DulvO of York, or his gov- 
ernors and ofiicers, while they lived in any of his majesty's 
territories. This obligation did not involve any permanent 
renunciation of allegiance to the Dutch government. Nev- 
ertheless, great reluctance to take it was shown, as the ar- 
ticles of surrender, while they declared that " all people 
shall still continue free denizens," did not provide for their 
swearing to a new allegiance. After mucli debate, "all 
the meeting roundly declared" that they could not take 
such an oath unless the governor should add to it "■ con- 
formable to the articles concluded on the surrender of this 
place." Tlieir reason for insisting was that otherwise they 
might " nullify or render void the articles." Domine Mega- 
polensis and Secretary Van Ruyven, however, " saw no im- 
pediment" to taking the proposed oath. 

A few days afterward the burgomasters called upon is October. 
Nicolls, with whom, in the presence of Cartwright and 
Willett, the matter of swearing was again discussed. To 
put an end to the "false and injurious aspersion" regarding 
it by which the minds of the inliabitants were by this time 
distracted, NicoUs declared in wi-iting " that the articles of 
surrender are not in the least broken, or intended to be bro- 
ken, by any words or expressions in the said oath." This 20 October. 

•Crcn.Ent., 1,36-50; Col. Doc.,iii., CT, 08, 04; Coldcn (cd. 17515), i., .^4 ; Smith,!., 33; ii. 
N. Y. II. S. Coll., i., 384 ; Mun.«cll, vii., 9T, 98 ; Val. Man., 1847, p. 370 ; Ksopus Pvecords ; 
U'OaU., ii., 305, 431, 56'2 ; ante, vol. i., 714, 729, 732, 744, 761. 


cuAP. II. answer satisfied all. Tonnemaii, the schont, although in- 

~~ tending to return to Holland in the next ship, did not re- 

"/ocfober ^^^^^ *^ ^^^^ *^^® obligation. In the course of the next five 
' „ '" days, upward of two hundred and fifty of the Dutch inhab- 

26 October. J ' i ^ i -r\ • 

Allegiance itauts, includine: Stuyvesant, Van Kuyven, the Dommes 

sworn l)v •/ ' *^ 

tiie Dutch. ]\Iegaj)olensis and Drisius, Beekman, Van Eensselaer, and 
others from New York, Esopus, and Albany, s's^'ore allegi- 
ance to Charles the Second and the Duke of York. - 

The governor's statesmanship Avas quickly vindicated. 
The " Yroedschap," or great coimcil of the city, having been 
22 Novem. callcd together to elect a successor to Tonneman, chose Al- 
12 Decern, lai'd Autliouy ; and Nicolls, confirming their choice, gave 
the new sheriff a commission and instructions for his guid- 
ance. As the soldiers had already become unruly, Nicolls 

21 Novem. appointed Anthony AVharton to be provost-marshal, to keep 

them from interfering with the citizens, and to punish of- 

22 Novem. f eudcrs. Tlic city authorities testified their good will in a 
city'siDt- letter to the Duke of York, drawn up by Burgomaster 
Duke of Steenwyck, praising Nicolls as a " gentle, wise, and intelli- 
gent" governor, under whose wings they hoped to " bloom 
and grow like the cedar on Lebanon." To this end they 
prayed that the city of New York might have the same 
commercial privileges as the king's subjects in England, or 
even be as free from burdens as Boston ; in which case, 
in a few years, the duke would derive great revenues from 
a province which would be " then peopled with thousands 
of families, and having great trade by sea with New En- 
gland, and other places in Europe, Africa, and America."t 

Thus was an imperial territory added to the dominions 
of England. Specific names were now given to the acqui- 
sition, so as to " comprehend all the titles" of the Duke of 
vork«hirc York. Tlic province itself was called " New York." Long 
uL "" Island was designated as "Yorkshire." The region be- 
tween the Hudson and the Delaware, of which little was 
known beyond the few hamlets near Manhattan, was 
named " Albania." 

Of all the territory of New York, Albania offered the 
greatest attractions to emigrants. It was considered the 

• Gen. Ent., 1., 40, 60; New Amsterdam Pec, v., 611_C1S; Vnl. Man., 1861, C05-COT ; Col. 
Doc, iii., 74-77 ; II. B. Daw.-ion'a " f-'ons of Ulnrty in New Vovk," 14-16 

t Now Amst. Rcc, v,, 643-64''> ; PRtent^', i , 161-105; Val. Man., ISGI, 607, 608; Valen- 
tine's City of New York, 1C1-1G3. 


most '" improveable part" of the province " in respect not chap. ii. 
only to the quantity of the land, but to the sea-coast and 
Delaware River, the fertility of the soil, the neighborhood -•■""*• 
to Hudson's River, and, lastly, the fair'hopes of rich mines." 
Communipaw, Bergen, and Staten Island, already settled settio- 
by the Dutch, were now to gain new neighbors. John Albania. 
Bailey, Daniel Denton, and others, of Jamaica, on Long Isl- 
and, asked leave to buy and settle a tract of land on the 20 sept. 
After Cull River,'"' which they had formerly intended to 
do, but had been " obstructed by the then ruling Dutch." 
Nicolls, wishing to give the Long Island people some " re- 
ward for their lidehty" previous to the surrender, cheer- 
fully assented, and promised the petitioners " all due en- 30 sopt. 
couragement in so good a work." Bailey and Denton, 
with their associates, soon bought from the savages the 2s October, 
land between the Raritan River and Newark Bay, which 
had been purchased thirteen years before by Augustine 
Heermans. Tlie English purchase, however, was conlirmed 2 Dec. 
by Nicolls to Captain John Baker and John Ogden, who 
had bought out Denton's interest, and to Bailey and their 
associates, upon condition of their " doing and performing 
such acts and things as shall be appointed by his royal 
higlmess the Duke of York or his deputy." Before long, 
foiu" families from Jamaica began the settlement of what 
was soon afterward known as Elizabethtown.f 

The military and naval officers who accompanied Nicolls 
from England also became large landliolders. Captain 
James Bollen, the commissary of ammunition at Fort Grants of 

. land. 

James, and others, receiAcd a grant on Staten Island. A 24 Dec. 
tract at Hackensack was granted to Captain Edward Grove, 3 October. 
of the Martin. To Captain William Hill, Lieutenant Hum- 
phrey Fox, and Master (.'oleman, of the Elias, were sever- 
ally allotted parcels of land on Staten Island. The naval 
grantees, however, had scarcely time to take possession of 
their domains ; for their ships, being no longer required for 
service at New York, were sent back to England with dis- 

• This was an English corruption of the Dutch name " Achtcr Cul" (now called Newark 
Bay), which was given because it was achtn; or " behind" the bay of Noh- York. Tlio pas- 
sage leading to tliis cul was called the "Kil van Cul," and is now known as "the Kills." 
See ante, vol. i., 313, note. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 105; Chalmers, i., G15, 624, 655; Patents, i., 20; Elizabethtown Bill in 
Chanceiy (1747), 25-2S ; Learning and .*picer, 6GS-673 ; Smith's N. Jersey, 62 ; Gordon, 27 ; 
"Whitehead's E. J., 10, 36-39 ; Index N. J. t'ol. Doc, 47 ; Tliompson's U I., ii., 103 ; Den- 
ton's N. Y., 13, 15 ; ante, vol. i., 537, 707, 70S, 724. 

IL— D 


cuAP. II. patches fi'om jSTicoUs announcing the success of the expe- 

dition, and the establishment of the duke's government in 

■^^^^- M-hat was lately 'New Netherland.'- 

An important question had been meanwhile presented 
for the action of the royal commissioners. The Duke of 
lare^OTi- Yoi'k's patcut iucludcd only the territory l}"ing east of the 
""•^'' Delaware, and the authority of NicoUs as governor extend- 
ed no farther. Yet the commissioners were instructed by 
the king to reduce to his obedience the Dutch wherever 
seated within his claimed dominions in North America. 
Nicolls soon learned that the Maryland people were " in 
some sort overawed" by the city of Amsterdam, to which 
the Delaware settlements belonged, and that, unless those 
possessions were acquired, the gaining of New York would 
be "of small advantage to his majesty." Without regard- 
ing Lord Baltimore's pretensions, the commissionei's de- 
termined " to reduce the Delaware, thereby to assure this 
place for his royal highness." 

Five days after the capitulation of New Amsterdam, 

Nicolls, with Cart^^Tight and Maverick, accordingly com- 

f J Sept. missioned their colleague. Sir Robert Carr, to go with the 

urredure"^ Guinea, Captain Hyde, and the William and Nicholas, Cap- 

on^he^Dei- *^"^ Morlcy, and " all the soldiers which are not in the fort," 

aware. ^ud rcducc tlic Delaware settlements. Carr was instructed 

to promise the Dutch tlie possession of all their property 

and all their present privileges, " only that they change 

their masters." To the Swedes he Avas to " remonstrate 

their happy return under a monarchical government, and 

his majesty's good incHnation to that nation." To Lord 

Baltimore's oiBcers in Maryland he was to declare that 

their proprietor's pretended right to the Delaware being 

" a doubtful case," possession would be kept for the king 

"till his majesty is informed and satisfied otherwise."f 

Carr's expedition sailed from New York j ust before Cart- 

* Patent?, i., 5, 7-0, 22; Col. Doc, ii., 470 ; iii., C8,92, 103. The El ias wag wrecked near 
the Lizanl, and nil the lettevH in her tent by Nicolls were lost. For this reason, among 
others, the early records nlating to New York in the State Paper Office are so defective. 
Captain IIIU and a few men were saved. Hill afterward obtained another ship, was at the 
b.attlc of Lowrstoffe the next Juno, then at Barbadoea, and in the autimin of IfiC" returned 
to Kngland fioni France, where he had been a prisoner. Captain Grove arrived saftly with 
the Martin, and behaved like a coward at Lowestoffe. lie was "reckoned a prating cox- 
comb and of no courage," and was certainly an adept in the business of bribing for office : 
Pepys, i., 401, 402 : iii., 294 ; Mass. 11. S. Coll., x.xxvii., ICO. 

+ Gen. i:nt,, i., 53, 5^, 09; Hazard's Keg. Pcnn., 30, 37 ; Col. Doc, ii., 29G ; iii., 52, 57, C3, 
C9, 70; Col. MSS., xx.,1. 


Wright's went up to Fort Orange. After a tedious voyage, cnAi>. ii 
prolonged by the ignorance of the pilots and the shoaliness 
of the Delaware, the sliips anchored above New Amstel. 30 sipt 
The Swedes were soon made fi-iends. But the Dutch at 10 October. 
first were obstinate for a defense. After a long parley, 
Fob Oothout and five others, on behalf of the burghers, 
signed articles of capitulation as favorable as those which i\ oct. 
had been agreed to by Stuyvesant. But Hinnoyossa, the 
city's governor, with less than fifty soldiers, resolved to de- 
fend the fort. The next Sunday morning the ships drop- ^ Oct. 
ped down, and fired two broadsides each, while a company of"",^e"^ei. 
of foot, under the command of Lieutenant John Carr, a son °■'^^'^^'^^ 
of Sir Robert, with Ensign Arthur Stock, stormed the works. 
The Dutch fired three volleys of musketry, but none of 
their ordnance, on their assailants, who did not lose a man ; 
while three of the garrison were killed and ten wounded. 
Carr now landed from the Guinea, and claimed the pillage 
for himself as " won by the sword." Assuming an author- 
ity independent of NicoUs, he claimed to be " sole and chief 
commander and disposer" of all affairs on the Delaware. 
With quick rapacity, he appropriated Iliunoyossa's farm to Rapacity of 
himself. Sellout Yan Sweringen's to his son John, and Peter 
Alricks's to Ensign Stock. To Captains Hyde and Morley 
he granted a tract of land in the upper part of the river, ^- Oct. 
called by the Indians '' Chipussen," which he erected into a 
manor by the name of " Grimstead." The Dutch soldiers 
were sent into Virginia to be sold as slaves. The property 
of the city of Amsterdam, as well as that of the iiiliabitants 
about New Amstel, was remorselessly seized. To complete 
the work of Carr — in such disgraceful contrast to that of 
Nicolls at Manhattan — a boat was sent down to the Hoar- 
kill, where all the city's effects M'ere plundered, and even 
the inoffensi^-e Mennonists, who formed " the Quaking So- 
ciety of Plocldioy," were stripped " to a very naile." 

The ships were quickly sent back to New York with a H Oct- 
report from Carr of his proceedings, and of the hostile at- 
titude of the Susquehanna Indians, who were then at war 
witli the Iroquois Senecas. But Carr himself, instead of 
returning to assist in executing the royal commission, 
would not leave the Delaware. His colleagues thought 
his conduct there presumptuous, and disgraceful. They buked. 

24 Oct, 


cuAi'. n. peremptorily required him to return to New York ; and 

Cartwriglit and Maverick commissioned Nicolls to proceed 

1 Oct ^^ Delaware Bay, " there to take special care for the good 

. Novem. goveiTiment of the said place, and to depute such offi- 
cer or officers therein as he shall think fit, for the man- 
agement of his majestie's affairs, both ci^al and military, 
until his majestie's pleasure be further kno^m." In writ- 

^- ^''- — ino- to Secretary Bennet, Mcolls rebuked Carr's conduct, 
and added that because of his absence, his majestie s com- 
mission can not be pm-sued in the several colonies of New 

Nicoiia's England unless I should leave New York, and thereby put 

ato^?eta^ to hazard the security of all at once, contrary to the opin- 
ions of Colonel Cartwright, Mr. Maverick, and all the rea- 
son which God hath given me. For we do concur that we 
came to serve his majesty and not our own ends." NicoUs 
farther m'ged that merchandise for the Indian trade and 
the necessities of the inhabitants should be promptly sent 
out. By the loss of the former Dutch trade, thousands in 
Virginia, Maryland, and New England were deprived of 
their accustomed necessaries, and would not laiow how to 
live " without speedy care be taken from England." If 
Lord Baltimore should solicit the grant of Delaware to 
himself, the king ought to look upon his patent as forfeit- 
ed, for trading with the Dutch contrary to the Navigation 
Act. Nicolls also submitted that if the Dutch should at- 
tempt to recover either New York or Delaware, the king 
should " enjoin all liis colonies, none excepted, under severe 
penalties, to resist and expel all such foreigners out of these 
his majesty's territories." With these dispatches the Guinea 

26 Oct. was ordered to follow the Elias and the Martin to England. 
But her departure was delayed by a mutiny which broke 
out among the soldiers in the garrison of Fort James, and 

22 Kovem. slic did iiot Sail Until nearly a month afterward. Captain 
Harry Norwood, whom Nicolls not long aftervi^ard recom- 
mended as his own successor, returned in her to England. 
In pursuance of the commission of his two colleagues, 

Nicolls Nicolls visited the Delaware, accompanied by Captain Kob- 

goM to the , -NT n i i i 

Delaware, crt Nccdham, whom he proposed to leave there as his dep- 
uty in command. Carr was severely rebuked, and obliged 
to give up much of his ill-gotten spoil. Nevertheless, he 
could not be persuaded to leave the place for some time. 



The name of New Amstel was now changed to New Castle, ouap. ii. 
and an infantry garrison estabhshed there. As Needhani's ' 
presence at Fort James, to act as first counselor, was desir- 
able. Captain John Carr was appointed commander of the 
Delaware, in subordination to the government of New 
York, to which it was annexed '* as an appendage ;" and 
thus affairs remained for several years.* 

Upon the return of Nicolls to New York, the royal com- 
missioners proceeded to execute a very delicate duty. The 
Connecticut Charter of 1662 covered not only the entire 
territory of New Haven, but also a large part of New Boundary 
Netherland. The Dutch rejected the claims of the Hart- necticut"' 
ford Court, and New Haven stoutly refused to yield to Con- 
necticut, because her charter liad been surreptitiously ob- 
tained " contrary to righteousness, amity, and peace." The 
DulvC of York's patent, however, not only comprehended 
Long Island and other neighboring islands, but the whole 
of New Haven, and the greater part of Connecticut, includ- 
ing Hartford itself. When this became known, both the 
wrangling Puritan colonies were seriously troubled at a 
specimen of majestic usurpation which outdid their o'wn 
encroachments on the Dutch territory. Yet Connecticut 
was in no condition to oppose so powerful an antagonist 
as the presumptive heir to the crown. New Haven was 
still more helpless. Her only alternative was submission 
to Connecticut, or annexation to New York. x\fter a sor- 
rowful debate, her General Court determined to submit toL^o"^'"'^^' 

' ^ _ ^ 14Septeai. 

Connecticut; yet final action. was postponed until it could 
no longer be avoided. 

In this dilemma it was important to conciliate the royal 
commissioners. At their first meeting after the surrender 
of NcAv Netherland, the Connecticut Court voted a present is October. 
of five hundred bushels of corn to Nicolls and his col- 
leagues. Tliey also appointed Mathew Alhm, Nathan Gold, Agents 
James Richards, and Captain John Winthrop to go with kew York. 
Governor Winthrop to New York and congratulate the 
commissioners, "• and, if an opportmiity offer itself, that 
they can issue the bounds between the duke's patent and 

* Gen. Ent., i., 53, 55, 50, 57, CO, 61, C2, 6T ; Coll. MSS., xx., 1 ; Col. Doc, il., 369, 411, 421. 
434, 43S ; iii., C^V4, S3, 103, 104, 109, 113, 115, 345, 340 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., x.xxviL, 309-311 ; 
Chalmers, i., 634 : Hazard'.- Rep. Penn., i., 37; iv., .50 ; Ann. Penn. , 355-369 ; S. Smith's N. 
J., 40-50 ; Proud, i., 122-124 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll. (1SG9), SI ; ante. vol. i., 717, 744. 



ouAP.ii. ours (so as in their judgments may be to the satisfaction of 
the court), they are impowered to attend the same." John 
Howell and Captain John Younge, of Long Island, were 
desired " to attend the same service." Horses were like- 
wise presented by "Winthrop to the royal commissioners.* 

The Connecticut delegates accordingly visited ]N"ew York, 
where they were received by ISTicoUs, Cartwright, and Mav- 

soNovem. crick. Both patents were produced, and all that could 
be said on each side was fully considered. The question 
about Long Island was soon decided. The duke's patent ex- 
pressly included it by name ; that of Connecticut did not. 
Moreover, Governor Winthrop, at Gravesend, a few days 
before the surrender, had declared that the jurisdiction 
formerly exercised by Connecticut over Long Island " ceased 
and became null." The commissioners, therefore, at once 
determined that the southern boundary of Connecticut 

Long i3i. should be the Sound, and that Long Island should be un- 

jujgedto der the government of the Duke of York, "■ as is so ex- 
■ pressed by plain words in the said patents respectively." 
But Connecticut claimed that, under her charter, her 
territory extended across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. 
On the other hand, the Duke of York's patent covered all 
her territory west of the Connecticut River, 'and left her 
only the narrow strip between the east side of that river 
and Rhode Island. Moreover, she had not yet obtained 
possession of New Haven. Her charter had been granted 
only upon Winthrop's promise of submission " to any alter- 
ation" in her boundaries which might be made by the 
king's commissioners. Their authority to declare Hart- 
ford itself within the jurisdiction of New York, as it had 
once been within the jurisdiction of New Netherland, 
could not be disputed. The original Indian deed of 8 
June, 1633, to Commissary Van Curler, of the land around 
Hartford, was appealed to in proof. But the connnission- 
crs were supplicated not to enforce the duke's patent to its 
full extent, which would deprive Connecticut of her " very 
bowels and principal ])arts." In the judgment of Nicolls. 
such a decision would " cast dishonor upon his majesty," 

• Col. Rec. Conn., i.,41.\ 427, 4'!^, 4?,r,: iii.. 4Sn ; New Haven Rcc, ii., 4G7-4S3, 401-548; 
Mass. n. S. Coll., x.\.\vii., 311 ; (!ol. Hoc, iii., 1S4 ; Cbiilniers, i., 20.^-200 ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
i., r)04 ; Tniml)ull, 1 , 249-272, 515-521 ; Palfrey, ii., 54.'>-55G, 50^-595; iii., 28G; ante, vol. 
i.,519, 702, T33. 


and be " to the utter ruin of that colony, and a manifest cuap. ir. 
•breach of tlieir late patent." Besides, in the delicate rela- 
tions in which the commissioners were placed resj)ecting 
all the New England colonies, it was important this should 
be made " a leading case of equal justice." They there- 
fore determined that live towns, which " had been pur- Five towns 
chased, possessed, or gained" by Hartford, or by Newconnecti- 
Haven, should be "relinquished to Connecticut by virtue*^"'' 
of their precedent grant from his majesty." Such a settle- 
ment, they " were assured, would be an acceptable service" 
to the Duke of York, although to the diminution of his 
patented bounds. 

At the same time, it was distinctly understood on both 
sides that the dividing line should run " about twent}^ miles 
from any part of Hudson's Kiver." An agreement to this 
effect was drawn up between Nicolls and Winthrop and so xovem. 
his colleagues. To define the starting-point and the com- 
pass direction of this boundary, an amendment was insert- Boumiaiy- 
ed, describing it as running from the head of Mamaroneck maL" "and! 
Creek to the north-north-west, until it reaches the Massa- 
chusetts line. The amendment seems to have been pro- 
posed by the Connecticut delegates, who assured Nicolls 
that the boundary thus described would be " twenty miles 
every where from Hudson's E-iver." 

Upon this basis the royal connnissioners the next day i Decern, 
signed an instrument, in which, after declaring Long Island 
to be under the government of the Duke of York, they or- 
dered " that the creek or river called Mamaroneck, which 
is reported to be about thirteen miles to the east of West- 
chester, and a line drawn from the east point or side, where 
the fresh water falls into the salt at high-water-mark, north- Boundaries 
north-west to the line of the Massachusetts, be the western cd."* 
bounds of the said colony of Connecticut ; and all planta- 
tions lying westward of that creek and line so drawn to be 
under his royal highness's government ; and all plantations 
lying eastward of that creek and line to be under the gov- 
enunent of Connecticut." Winthrop and his colleagues at 
the same time gave their " consent to the limit and bounds 
above mentioned."* 

• Gen. Ent., i., TO, 71 ; N. Y. Col. MSS., x.xii., 5 ; Ixix., 1-C ; N. Y. Senate Doc, 185T, No. 
105, p. T, 30, 41, 42, 100-104 ; Col. Doc, ii., 139, 140 ; iii., 55, 106, 53S ; vii., 504, 59T ; Col. 


cuAP.ii. For the moment, this settlement of the dispute seemed 
to be satisfactory to both parties. The submission of New 

13 Decern Havcn to Connecticut was soon completed. But Nicolls 
and his colleagues were strangers, and ignorant of the ge- 
ography of the country. They supposed that they had 
adopted substantially the same boundary agreed to by the 
Dutch and English colonies in 1650. Unfortunately, they 

•Trickeiy of " relied upon" the assurances of the Connecticut delegates, 

cut. and were deceived by " wrong information" which no hon- 

est or intelligent adviser could have given. The line as- 
sented to and intended by Mcolls — twenty miles every 
where from the Hudson River — instead of starting at 
Mamaroneck, should have started several miles farther to 
the east, near Stamford ; and, instead of running north- 
north-west, it should have run due north. But the duped 
commissioners established a line, the starting-point of 
which was about ten miles from the Hudson, and which, 
crossing that river near Peekskill, intersected the prolong- 
ed southern boimdary of Massachusetts near the north- 
west corner of the present New York county of Ulster. 
All the territory north and east of this line was thus ap- 
parently assigned to Connecticut and Massachusetts. Tlie 
absurd error was soon detected, and the boundary was nev- 
er ratified by the Duke of York or by the crown. But the 
pertinacity with which Connecticut clung to what looked 
very much like a mean deception on her part was after- 
ward the cause of great controversy.* 

Long Island being now settled under the Duke of York's 

ung isi- aitthority, Nicolls, to conciliate its inhabitants, addressed a 

and affairs. , ^^ ' ' ' . 

1 Decern, letter to Jlowell and i ounge, who acted as their represent- 
atives at Kew York. Referring to his promise when he 
dismissed the troops in August, after the surrender, he in- 
formed all persons that Long Island was declared to be 
under the duke's government ; that, as it was now winter, 
he would not trouble the inhabitants to send deputies to an 
Assenil)ly in relation to the affairs of the island ; but that, 

Rcc. Conn., ii., 341, 570-573 ; iii., 330 ; New Haven Rcc, ii., 555, 550 ; Smith, i., 3C-3S, 297; 
ii., 305, m; ; Trumbull, i., 273, 523, 525; Wood's Long Island, 2S, 170, 173; Tliompson, i, 
120; ii., 323; Dunlap, ii., App. ccvi. ; ante, vol. i., SO, 1S9, 234, 235, 519. 

* Col. Ucc. Conn., i., 441; ii., 341,.')72, 573; iii., 330; New Haven Rcc, ii, 551-557; Col. 
Doc, iii., 94, 230, 231, 235, 238, 247, 257, 333, 3.^0, 4i1f,, 7G1 ; iv., G25; v., 098; vi., 125, 770, 
885; vii., 503, 504, 5rO, 597 ; viii.,.345; Hutch. Coll., 412 ; Smith, i.,3S; Chalmers, i., 290, 
670; Trumbull, L, 274 ; N. V. H. S. Coll. (1SG9), 70. 


as soon as the weather should permit, he would notify cuap.ii. 
thein of tlie time and place of meeting. In the mean time, 
the existing magistrates should remain in their places un- 
der the duke's government. No new taxes had yet been 
tliought of ; those laid by Connecticut should continue for 
a time ; but the people might " assure themselves of equal 
(if not greater) freedoms and immunities than any of his 
majesty's colonies in New England." Upon the return of 
Howell and Younge, a town meeting was held at East2iDccem. 
Hampton, at which, " understanding that we are off from 
Connecticut, and the magistrates not willing to act further 
on that account, that we may not be without laws and gov- 
ernment, it is agreed the former laws shall stand in force 
till we have further order from New York."* 

In the mean time, the West India Company had informed M 0'='- 
the States General of the English conquest of New Nether- 
land, by which the republic had " lost a province, the ap- 
pearance whereof was wonderful to behold." The States 
at once directed Van Gogh, their aml)assador at London, gi Oct. 
to expostulate with the king, and demand " prompt restitu- 
tion and reparation." Van Gogh, in an audience with 
Charles, denounced the capture as " an erroneous pi-oceed- f '^'''^^ -^ 
ing, opposed to all right and reason, contrary to mutual Ti>e Dutch 
correspondence and good neighborhood, and a notorious ™ent do- 

nounc6 tliG 

infraction of the treaty lately concluded." Finding that conquest of 
he could no longer dissimulate, the king replied with the eriand an<i 
audacious falsehood that his " dependency" New Nether- resluution! 
land "had been settled and occupied before this by the 
Englisli, who only permitted the Dutch nation at the outset 
to settle there, without any authority having been thereby 
conferred upon the Dutch West India Company." The 
next day Clarendon wrote to Downincj that the Dutch need l^""^"'"'''- 

11. 1 . p ^ Noveni. 

not expect the king to restore his conquests ; " for they have 
no color of right to pretend to New Netherland, nor is our 
possessing that the least violation of the treaty." Dooming 
accordingly told De Witt that the king was not ac(?ount- ^-^j xovem. 
able to the Dutch government for Avhat he liad done in 
America, " no more than he should think himself obliged 
to let them know his mind, or to have their consent, in case 

• Gen. Ent., i., 20, C5, C6 ; Thompson's L. I., i., 127, Sll, 3S2, 3S3; ii., 323, 324, 327; 
Wood, ITT ; Dunlap, ii., App. xxxvii. ; Col. Doc, iii., SO ; Uoc. Hist., i., 402 ; ai^ix^ p. 43. 


ciiAP. II. he sliould tliink lit to proceed against any Dutcli tliat live 
~ in the fens in England, or in any other part of his domin- 
ions." Without stopping to demonstrate the transparent 
absurdity of this comparison, the Grand Pensionary peremp- 
torily replied that ISTew Netherland " must be restored."* 

5 Decern"' '^^^ •^*^^o afterward Downing presented an insolent me- 
morial to the States General, in which any reference to 
New Xetherland was avoided. It was now clear that no 
redress was to be expected from England. Secret orders 

j% Decern, wcre therefore sent to De Ruyter, who commanded tli^ 

De'iiuyter. Dutcli squadrou on the coast of Africa, to reduce the En- 
glish possessions there, after which he was to proceed on 
his voyage home, '' and inflict, by way of reprisal, as much 
damage and injury as possible on said nation, either at 
Barbadoes, ISTew Netherland, Newfoundland,, or other isl- 
ands and places under their obedience." 

C4 xovem. j^^ ^j-^g opening of Parliament, the kino- laid srreat stress 

4 Decern. ± o ? o o 

upon the proceedings of the Dutcli in Africa and the East 
Indies, but did not allude to his own treacherous conquest 

J\. Decern, of New York. A few days afterward Van Gogh had un- 
satisfactory inter\^ews with the king and the Duke of 
York, both of whom were evidently disposed to hostilities. 
With his report, the ambassador communicated to the States 
General, for the first time, a copy of the king's grant of New 
Netherland to the Duke of York. 

1^ Decern. It was not loug bcforc Downing informed the British 
government of the secret orders which the States General 
had sent toDe Ituyter. Bennet and Coventry warmly 
lu'ged hostilities against the Dutch. The Privy Council 

iiostiiitiea immediately directed letters of reprisal to be issued against 

England. " the sliips, goods, and servants" of the United Provinces. 
According to British custom, without any formal declara- 
tion of war, one hundred and thirty Dutch merchant ves- 
sels were seized in the English ports.f 

• Col. Doc, ii., 272-285 ; iii., T7-S1 ; Aitzcma, v., 193 ; Sec. fics. lloll., ii., 445 ; De Witt, 
iv., 3S6, 3S7, 300, 301, 3!)3 ; IIoll. Merc, 16G4, 17S ; D'Estr-idcs, ii., 530, 538 ; Lister's Clar- 
endon, ii., 209 ; iii., 340-351 ; Hume, vi., SS.'). 

t Col. Doc,ii.,2S5-29S; iii., 85; Pari. Hist., iv., 29G-303 ; Clarke'sJnmefsTI, i., 401-404; 
Aitzema, v., 93, 94; De Witt, iv., 413; Sec lies. lIoU., ii., 450; I loll. Merc , 1GG4, 185,180; 
Liiitor, ii , 270 ; iii., 352-356 ; IJasnago, i., 714 ; Davics, iii., 27, 28 ; Popys, ii,, ISO, 102 ; Mar- 
tin, i., 209. Downing stopped at nothing to gain his objects, lie told Pepys "that he had 
BO good Hpios that he hath liad the keys taken out of De Witt's poeket when he was n-bed, 
and his closet opened, and pajiors brought to him and left in his h^inds for an hour;" and 
"■that he hath always had their aost private debates that have b^en but betv.'ecii two or 


Intelligence of the threatening aspect of affairs in Eu- <^'n^.n- 
rope had meanwhile reached Nicolls by way of Boston, ^ppt 
As a measure of precaution, he ordered all the estate of 13 Decem. 
the West India Company in the hands of Stuyvesant and ^ ^'"*™- 
Van- Kuy ven to be put mider arrest. A few days after- 27 Decem. 
ward all persons were directed to report what they knew Action of 
about the property thus sequestrated to the benefit of the ^'*^"'' 
Duke of York.* 

The West India Directors, on their part, felt the loss of 
New Netherland very keenly. Stuyvesant's official report 
was unsatisfactory. The " licentious prating" of the sol- 
diers who had returned in the Gideon from New York only 
increased their annoyance. They determined to " disavow 
all tlie articles and capitulations" made with the English 
by the governor and council, and endeavor to regain New 
Netherland. Accordingly, they sent one of their ships to ^» Novem. 
New York, with a dispatch to Stuyvesant, requiring him to imHalSn- 
come home and give " by word of mouth more comfort" ituyve^-''''" 
than his letters had afforded. They also desired Van Ruy- ^''^^■ 
ven to save what he could of their property. 

Wlien these letters were received at New York, NicoUs, 1665. 
anxious for news, required Stuyvesant and Van Ruyven to -^ ^^^' 
bring them to him. As the West India Company appeared 
determined to amiul the capitulation and retake the prov- 
ince, he felt himself " obliged so far to abide their displeas- f 

23 Feb. 

^ • rr • i i ^ March. 

ure as to seize upon their ettects, and to remit the decision ><icoii3 
to his majesty, whether, after such a letter, they ought to company-s 
claim any benefit by articles which in so contemptuous a 
manner they have disavowed." 

Stu}^-esant, however, could not avoid going to Holland 
to defend his action ; and Nicolls granted him a passport ij,i/y"' 
to go and return, with his son and his servants. Consider- 
ing the need of supplies to New York, Nicolls also licensed 
the West India Company's ship " Crossed Heart" to go to 
and return from Holland with merchandise. By her Van 
Bu}wen wrote to the Amsterdam directors that it was,^^^^ 
" impossible to keep" New Netherland against the " vast, 
overwhelming force of the assailants ;" and that, if their 

tlireo of the chief of them brouprlit to liim in an hour after, and an hour after that hath sent 
word thereof to the king." — Pepys, iv., 72, 73 ; see also Temple's AVork=, i., 307. 
* Col. Doc, iu., S4 ; Gon. Eat., i., 76, 7S, 79 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 1 ; Smith, L, 3S. 


cuAP. 11. honors had been personally present, they would, " without 

7^ doubt, have considered it better and more Christian-hke to 

agree to some conditions, than be obliged to look upon the 
ruin of the place and the murder of the poor people, 
women and children, without being able to do any thing 
5??^ May. to prevent it." A few days afterward Stuyvesant appear- 
rsui^^^o* ed, for the last time, in the Court of Burgomasters and 
uoiiand. g(.|jgpgj-ig^ ^Q iq]^q iiis leave, and asked of them a certificate 
of his deportment while their governor. The city authoi*-^^^ 
ities declared " that his honor hath, during eighteen years*** 
administration, conducted and demeaned himself not only 
as a director general, as according to the best of our knowl- 
edge he ought to do, on all occasions for the best interest 
of the West India Company, but besides as an honest pro- 
prietor and patriot of this province, and as a supporter of 
the Reformed religion."'^ 

[Notwithstanding all the changes which had occurred in 
the province, the city magistrates of whom Stuyvesant thus 
took leave still exercised the same powers which he had 
himself conferred on them twelve years before. "When 
their term of service expired, the burgomasters and sche- 
pens named their successors, as they had done under the 
2 Feb'iy. Dutch govcmment. This they did on the usual day, and 
in pursuance of the sixteenth article of the capitulation. 
New city Tlic ucw officcrs wcro confirmed by Mcolls, and announced 
to the commonalty after the usual ringing of the bell. 
They were Cornelis Steenwyck and Oloff Stevenson van 
Cortlandt, burgomasters ; Timotheus Gabry, Johannes van 
Brugh, Johannes De Peyster, Jacob Kip, and Jacques Cous^ 
seau, schepens; and AUard Anthony, schout. An oath, 
6 Feb'ry. drawu up by Nicolls, was taken by them, to do right and 
justice to all persons, and demean themselves in their 
places " according to the good and wholesome laws which 
are or shall be ordained by virtue of his majesty's commis- 
sion to his Royal Highness the Duke of York, within this 
government and city of New York." A controversy soon 
arose between the provincial and the city authorities. 

• Col. Doc, ii., 3G1, 3C5, 339, .^77, 4-20, 470, 744; iii., IGl; Trumbull Papcr.«, Mnss. Hi.-t. 
Soc., XX., 7.S ; Ilntcli. Mass., i., 2:;i, vote; Gen. Ent., i., 168, ICO, 170; New Amst. Hcc, v., 
liiH; Vnl. Man., 18C1, G20, C21. Stuyvesant, accompanied by jlCgidius Luyck, the late prin- 
cipal of the gninimar-scliool at New Amsterdam (wlio now returned to study theology in 
Holland), 1 indcil from the "Crossed Heart" at Bovgon, in Norway. From there they pro- 
ceeded to Amsterdam, in July, 1CG5, in the company's yacht the Muech. 


Bj the capitulation, the biu-gomasters were bound to pro- cn\p.ii. 
■sdde quarters for the soldiers who could not be lodged in 
the fort. Nicolls therefore proposed that one hundred 25 March" 
of them should be cinartered amono; the inhabitants, who sowiera 

■i- O ^ _ ' quartereu. 

were to be compensated ; and that, in consideration of 
this, the city should have, in addition to the great excise, 
the income of the scales and of the ferry. The numicipal 
authorities endeavored to comply with the governor's req- 
uisition ; but they were so unsuccessful that he accused 6 April, 
them, apparently without justice, of sloth. The English 
soldiers were quarrelsome and insolent, and the Dutch 
burghers were unwilling to receive them into their houses. 
Most of the citizens preferred to pay an assessment in 
money ; and the matter was finally arranged in this way, 10 Apni. 
to the satisfaction of all parties, under the supervision of 
Captains Delavall and Salisbury.* 

The provincial rcAenue had, up to this time, been left Provincial 
unsettled. Two months after the surrender, Nicolls had ''*^^®°"'^- 
directed that the customs rates, "according to English 
law," should be paid to Delavall, the collector. lie now 
enacted that, mitil farther order, imported liquors should 27 Fevry. 
be taxed ten per cent., Indian goods ten, other goods eight, 
and English manufactures five per cent. These duties 
were to be paid in beavei*s, at eight guilders, or thirteen 
shillings and four pence each. Export duties were also 
laid on beaver and tobacco.f 

Kicolls, however, was a fiiend of colonial enterprise. 
Paulus Eichards, one of the burghers at New York, in- 
tending to establish a vineyard at the "Little Fief" onvineyaniat 
Long Island, and manufacture wine, the governor granted 10 junTy. 
him several special privileges. All the produce of Rich- 
ards's vines, if sold in gross, was to be forever free from 
any imposts ; if sold in retail by him in any one house in 
Xew York, his wines were to be free for thirty years ; and 

* N. Y. City V.PC., v., GSO, CS2, 718-725, 737-743; vi., SG, S7; Gen. Ent., i , 83, 84; Col. 
Poc, iii., IIT ; Val. Mim., 1S4S, 125; 1S50, IOC ; ISGl, 60S-G20 ; ante, vol. i., 548, 578, CIS, 
C40, 074, 702. Among the burghers thus afse.=!se(], Jeronimua Ebbinck, Frederick Phillipse, 
Peter Stujrvesantj Comelis van Kuyven, Paulus Leendertscn van dcr Grist, Johannes van 
Brugh, and Oloff Stevenson van Cortlandt paid four guilders a week ; Alhird Anthuny, Jo- 
hannes dc Peystcr, Jacob Kip, Simon Janseu Komcyn, and C'arel van Urugh, thVoe guilders ; 
Jiin Evertsen Bout, Evert Duyckinck, Johannes De Witt, Hans Kiei-stede, Jacob Lcisler, and 
Paulus Kichards, two guilders ; Isnac Bedlon-, Augustine Heermans, ^gidius Luyck, and 
many others, one guilder. The Dutch domines wore not assessed. 

t Gen. Ent., i., 63, 112, 113; Thompson, i., 144. 



Chap. II. any person who, during that time, should plant vines in 
any part of the province, should pay live shillings for each 
acre so planted to Kichards, " as an acknowledgment of 
his being the first undertaker and planter of vines in these 

Soon after the arrangement of the Connecticut bound- 

januaiy. ary, Cartwriglit and Maverick went to Boston to prosecute 

nSoncra" their duties as royal commissioners. But they could do 

gland!'' "nothing without the presence of ISTicolls or Carr. The 
governor of New York was too much occupied to leave 
his post. Carr could not be persuaded, for some time, to 
quit the Delaware and follow the king's commission. At 

4FeViy. length he came to New York, and went on to join his col- 
leagues at Boston. The commissioners, finding much op- 
position there, determined to visit the other colonies, and 
wait until the next April before opening their business 
with Massachusetts, wlien they hoped that Mcolls would 
be able to join them. They were not deceived. Connecti- 
cut answered their inquiries with prudent facility. Their 
stumbling-block was to be Massachusetts.f 

Meanwhile, the details of the system upon which he was 
to administer his government in New York had seriously 

Policy of occupied the attention of Nicolls. The policy of the Duke 
of York was to vnn the Dutch, who were three quarters of 
the population, to become contented English subjects. To 
this end, as little alteration as possible was to be made in 
the form of administration to which they had been accus- 
tomed. The director general and his council had been the 
executive authority in New Netherland. The deputy gov- 
ernor of the proprietary and his council were now the ex- 
ecutive authority of New York. Nicolls accordingly " cop- 
ied," or rather "continued," with some modification, "what 
had been already established by the Dutch." He erected 

Court of a " Court of Assizes," which, like its New Netherland proto- 
type, was the supreme tribunal of the provin(^e, having both 
common law and equity, as well as original tind aj^pellate 

• DeedB, ii., 87; Hist. Mag.,vii., 80. New Netherland was funions foe its native wines 
before 1650: Col. Doc., i., 277. Lord Bellomout, in 1700, wrote enthusiastically about the 
"fair clusters of grapes" which he saw ahout Albany: Col. Doa, iv., 787. Denton, 14, 
speaks of "grapes great and small" as natural to Long Island. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 04, 83, 84, 87-SO, 93 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvi., 532 ; Mas?. Rec., iv. (ii), 
141 ; riymoulh Hec., iv., 85 ; R L Rcc., ii, CO, SO-SO, 91, 93 ; Palfrey, ii., 597-006 ; linrry, i., 
390 ; Arnold'.^ Khodc Island, i., 314. 



jurisdiction. In this court, the governor and his counsel- cuap. ii. 
ors possessed the same powers that had formerly been 
exercised by the Dutch director and his counselors. But 
the peculiar condition of Kew York required that other 
members should be added to the Court of Assizes. York- 
shire, or Long Island, peopled chiefly by Englishmen, with 
Westchester and Staten Island, was erected into a shire, Ridings of 
and, like its English namesake, was divided into three dis- 
tricts or ridings. "What is now Suffolk County formed the 
East Riding ; Staten Island, Iving's County, and the town 
of Newtown, in Queen's, the West Riding ; and the remain- 
der of Queen's County, with Westchester, the North Riding. 
The governor and council were to appoint a high -sheriff nigh-?iier. 
every year over the whole of Yorkshire, and also justices uces! "'"''' 
of the peace, wlio were to continue in /)flice during the 
governor's pleasure in each of the ridings. These justices 
were to hold a '' Court of Sessions" in each riding three coun of 
times a year, in which the governor or any counselor might 
preside. Besides their local duties, the high sheriff and 
the justices were to sit with the governor and his council 
in the Court of Assizes, which was to meet at New York 
once a year, on the last Thursday in September, This 
court was invested with " the supreme power of making, 
altering, and abolishing any laws" in the government of 
New York.* 

The Court of Assizes thus established by Nicolls was no 
advance toward democracy. It was not, in any popular 
sense, a Legislature. It had not even the representative 
character enjoyed by Stuyvesant's " Landt-dag," or Assem- The court 
bly. Its members were wholly dependent on the govern- not ITaI- 
or's will, and they were expected to perform their legisla-^^™ ^' 
tive function with the usual docility of a French " bed of 
justice." The governor and his council remained the real 
law-makers, as well as the interpreters of the laws they 
made. Before long, it is true, the Court of Assizes delib- 

' Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i., 575, 59C; Rev. Col., L, 117; Col. Doc., iii., ISS; X. Y. H. R. 
Coll., i., .^-21, 33G, 342, T.b'J, 374, 3S5, 391 ; ante, vol. i., 163, 247, 270, 277, 327, 405, 414, 431, 
4G7, 540, .54S, 570-575, 72^. Chalmers in Pol. Ann., i., 575, says that Nicolls "erected," and 
in Rev. Col., i., 117, that he "continued," the Court of Assizes, one of " the prior customs 
of the Dutch." The errnncons statements of Smith, i., 41, 47, on this point, are corrected by 
Chalmers, Pol. Ann., i., 5^fi, and by Wood, 90, note. I can not doubt that the Court of As- 
sizes was established, if it was not completely organized, before March, 10G5, the period 
stated by Wood ; compare II. B. Uawson, and N. Y. H. S. Coll. (1SC9J, 70. 


Chap. II. Grated with closed doors upon the general concerns of the 
~ province, and made such changes in the laws as were 
Ibbo. ^]^Q^jg}^j; proper. But the Dulce of York, who, by his pat- 
ent, had '' full and absolute power," disapproved of legis- 
lative assemblies as inconsistent with the form of govern- 
ment which he had established in liis province. Yet he 
supposed that no harm and much good might result fi'om 
the justices being allowed once a year to meet with the 
governor and his council, and make desirable changes in 
the laws, which, after all, were subject to his own approval. 
These justices, he complacently assumed, w^ould be chosen 
by the people themselves as " their representatives, if an- 
pmposc of other constitution were allowed." Moreover, the Coiu-t of 
of Awkes. Assizes was the most convenient place for the publication 
of any new laws, or of any business of general concern. 
In establishing that court, the duke's deputy did not con- 
cede any political privileges to the people. All its officers 
were his own subordinates ; none of them his colleagues. 
Nicolls was, and he continued to be, a provincial autocrat, 
w4io exercised, indeed, his delegated powers with the pru- 
dence and moderation which belonged to his character, but 
who, in adroitly allowing his official dependents apparently 
to share with himself the responsibility of legislation, did 
not in the least curtail his own vast authority."' 

The governor and his council, who at present were the 
only members of the Court of Assizes, were early called 
upon to fi-ame a body of laws for the province. Its con- 
dition was more anomalous than that of any other Ameri- 
can plantation. It had no charter like the Kew England 
colonies. It was not a royal province like Virginia. As 
a proprietary government, it resembled Maryland in some 
respects ; yet Lord Baltimore's charter was very different 
from the despotic patent of the Duke of York. Wlien 
Charles the Second granted New Netherland to his broth- 
er, he affected to consider it a resumption of British terri- 
tory, the possession- of which England had never enjoyed, 
i.csai effect and Holland had maintained for half a century. In re- 
giiBh con- ahty, he obtained possession only by a conquest from the 
Dutch, and upon articles of capitulation. Excepting Aca- 

• Col. Doc, ii., 290; iii., 230; Chalmers's Ann., i., 5S1, COO; Court of Assizes, ii., 321), 
825, 414; Wood, 90, 91 ; Thompson, i., 141, 142 ; post, p. 293. 


(lia and Jamaica, New York was the first colony Avhich the cdap. ii. 
Enghsh arms ever gained. The rights which the king 
thus acquired over the Dutcli territory were those of a '^' 

conqueror, hmited, however, by the terms agreed upon at 
the surrender. This principle did not aifect that part of 
Long Island which was actually British territory before the 
capitulation, and where, of course, the English law prevail- 
ed. But with respect to the Dutcli possessions, the right 
of conquest governed; which was, that where a country 
was conquered by or ceded to England, the sovereign might 
establish such government and laws as he should think 
proper, but that the ancient laws of such conquered or 
ceded country were to remain in force, if not contrary to 
the law of God, until the king should change them. Ac- 
cordingly, Charles authorized the Duke of York " to make, The nuke 
ordain, and establish all manner of orders, laws, directions, power to 
instructions, forms and ceremonies of government and 
magistracy fit and necessary for and concerning the gov- 
ernment of the territories and islands aforesaid, so always 
as the same be not contrary to the laws and statutes of this 
our realm of England, but as near as may be agreeable 
thereunto, and the same at all times hereafter to put in 
execution, or abrogate, revoke, or change, not only within 
the precincts of the said territories or islands, but also u])on 
the seas in o-oinc; and comino- to and from the same." The 
duke thereupon commissioned Nicolls as his deputy, " to 
perform and execute all and every the powers which are 
by the said letters patent granted." But, before he could 
obtain peaceable possession of New Netherland, Nicolls 
was obliged to concede special privileges to its inhabitants, 
which placed them in many respects upon a better foot- 
ing than the kingj's own English subjects on Long Island. 
Among other things, the Dutch were to enjoy their own 
church discipline and customs concerning inheritances. 
Besides these guaranteed rights, they were, as a conquered 
people, entitled to be governed according to their ancient 
laws, which were to remain in force until changed by the 
actual authorities in the province."" 

• Chnlmers's Fol. Ann., i., 574; Kev. Col., i., 110, 117 ; Calvin's Case, T Coke's Rep., 17; 
Show. Pnrl. C, 31 ; Cowper, 504 ; Blackstone's Omm. ; Jacob, v., 159 ; Col. Doc, ii., 290 ; 
LeaminR and Spicer, 6(50 ; nnic, vol. i., p. "02 ; pnst, .A pp. .\ and B. I venture, with much 
deference, to express my opinion that Mr. Barnard, in lii.i sketch of Ilens.-elaerwyck, 130, and 

II.— E 


cuAP. II. It was nevertheless generally understood that " English 
lawes" were to be established in New York at the end of 
six months after the surrender. In writing from Boston, 
4 Feb. Cartwriffht advised Kicolls that the Dutch "will rather 
take that for oppression which shall be imposed on them 
afterward, than for the present acknowledge 3'our indul- 
gence in letting them for a while longer use their own 
lawes." But, if the governor hesitated at .fidlowing his 
colleagues' advice with respect to the Dutch portion of the 
province, he had no doubt in regard to Yorkshire. Before 
iccgii-ii the surrender, in explaining at Gravesend the phrase of 
p"a'bii"ii'-° the proclamation that all persons submitting to the royal 
'"'■ government were to enjoy "all other privileges with his 

majesty's English subjects," he had promised the people of 
Lono: Island that at a convention of delegates from their 
towns, " laws were to be enacted and civil officers estab- 
lished." A few days afterward, he told them that they 
should be summoned " to propose and give their advice in 
all matters tending to the peace and benefit" of the island. 
Again he assured them " of equal (if not greater) freedoms 
and immunities than any of his majestie's colonies in New 
England." These expressions appear to have been differ- 
ently understood by NicoUs and by the Long Island people. 
The latter supposed that the New England system was to 
be transplanted into New York, with all the machinery of 
royal corporations to perpetuate their benefits or abuses. 
Powprof The governor, on the other hand, was the deputy of a pro- 
make laws, prietor who centred in himself, all the delegated authority 
of the king possessed by any of the New England oligarch- 
ies. It was his function under a royal patent, as it was 
theirs under royal charters, to make laws. Nicolls, how- 
ever, M-as desirous to adopt in New York all that he might 
find good or exj^cdicnt in the several codes of the New En- 
gland colonies. For this purpose he appears to have ob- 
tained copies of those of Massachusetts and of New Haven, 
the latter of which had been printed at London in 1656. 
He also ajiplied to Winthrop for a copy of that of Connec- 
ticut, which existed only in manuscript ; but a transcript 

Chancollor Wiilwnrtli, in 17 Wonddl, .'ST, iind Mr. Butlrr in ii. N. V. II. S. Coll., ii., 41, 
have not ncciirntcly Rtnted llio oonilition of tlu; linv in New York imniedi.itely after tlie sur- 
render. Ccrl;iinly I^ong Lflaiid was differently situated from the rest of the province. 


could not be made for him in time to be of use. With the cdap. ii. 
assistance of members of the Court of Assizes, he made it 
his " whole business to prepare a body of lawes" to be sub- ^.^j^j p^.^^; 
mitted to the general meeting proposed to be held on Long ^'"jgofig''^ 
Island. These laws were largely borrowed from those " in 
practice in his majesty's other colonies in New England," 
but with a relaxation of their severity against those who 
differed " in matters of conscience and religion."" 

To fulfill his i^romises, NicoUs addressed a letter to each s Feb. 
of tlie towns on Long Island, announcing that in discharge 
of his "trust and duty to settle good and known lawes 
within this government for the future," and receive tlieir 
" best advice and information in a o-eneral meetino; " he y^aetin^ 

called at 

had appointed such a meeting to be held at Hempstead on ucmp- 
the last day of February, to which he invited each town to ^ 
send two deputies chosen by a majority of the tar-pay ei*s. 
These deputies were to be " the most sober, able, and dis- 
creet persons ;" and were to produce at the meeting the doc- 
uments showing the boundaries of tlieir respective towns, 
notify the Indian sachems whose presence there might be 
necessary, and bring with them certificates of their due 
election, " with full powers to conclude any cause or mat- 
ter relating to their several towns." A similar letter was 
sent to Westchester. But no deputies were summoned 
from New York, Esopus, Bergen, or any other town in the 

At the appointed day the Convention met at Hempstead. 28 Feb. 
It consisted of thirty-four delegates — two from each of the 
English and Dutch towns on Long Island, and two fi-om 
Westchester. Some of them had been members of Stuy- 
vesant's last General Assembly of New Netherland a year 
before. New Utrecht sent Jacques Cortelyou and Younger Delegates. 
Fosse ; Gravesend, James Hubbard and John Bowne ; Flat- 
lands, Elbert Elbertsen and Roeloff Martense ; Flatbush, 
John Stryker and Ilendrick Jorassen ; Bushwick, John 
Stealman and Guisbert Tennis ; Brookhni, Frederick Lub- 
bertsen ant^ John Evertsen ; Newtown, Richard Betts and 

•Gen. Ent.,i., 23, 20, CG; Deeds, ii., 43 ; Col. Doc., iL, 251; iii, SC, SS, IM; iv.,ll,'>4; 
Thompson, i., ICG, 127, 382; ii , 323, 324, 327; Dunlap, ii., App. xxxvii. ; Smith, i., 3SS; 
Hist. Mag., viii., 211 ; Trumbull MSS., xx., 74 ; ante, p. 2ri, 33, 43, 57. 

t Gen. F,nt., i.,93-1'5; Wood, S7,SS;Thompsou,i., 131,132; Bolton, ii, ISO; Journ. Leg. 
Council of N. Y., i.. Int., iv. 


Chap. II. Joliii Coe; Flushing, Elias Doughty and Richard Cornhill ; 
Jamaica, Daniel Denton and Thomas Benedict ; Hempstead, 
^""'^' John Hicks and Robert Jackson ; Oyster Bay, John Under- 
liill and Matthias Harvey ; Huntington, Jonas Wood and 
John Ketcham; Setalcott (or Brookhaven), Daniel Lane 
and Roger Barton; Southold, William Wells and John 
Younge ; Southamj)ton, Thomas Topping and John How- 
ell ; Easthampton, Thomas Baker and John Stratton ; and 
Westchester, Edward Jessop and John Quinby.* 

28 Feb. The governor opened the meeting by reading the duke's 

patent and his own commission; and told the delegates 
that their first business should be to decide some of their 
local differences about boundaries, which were afloat before 
he .came to the government ; but that " he had prepared a 
body of general laws hereafter to be observed." These 

Nicoiis'a were delivered to the delegates, who, upon perusal, found 
them to be chiefly compiled from the laws then in force in 
New England, " ^vith abatement of the severity against 
such as differ in matters of conscience and rehgion." The 
delegates, however, were not satisfled. Most of them rep- 
resented towns which had recently been under the juris- 
diction of Connecticut ; and they supposed that in promis- 
ing them " equal, if not ' greater freedoms and immunities 
than any of his majestie's colonies in New England," Nicolls 
meant tg establish in New York a government resembling 
those of his Puritan neighbors. The inhabitants of South- 
old especially had signified their desire that all civil oflicers 
should be annually elected by the freemen, that all military 
oflicers should be chosen by the soldiers, that no magistrate 
should have " any yearly maintenance," and that taxes 
should be leaded only by consent of a majority of the dep- 
uties at a General Court. But the code prepared by the 
governor recognized none of these points. The delegates 

objeciea therefore objected against some of its clauses, and proposed 
others. Several of their amendments were accepted by 
Nicolls, who moreover promised that when any reasonable 
alterations should be afterward offered by any town to the 

• Gen. Knt, i., OC ; Journ. N. V. Log. Council, Int., v. It will be obscn-cd tlio nnmea 
of gcvcral of these towns nrc difTi-reiit from tho.«e which they had borne under the Dutch 
authority. Flatlnnds was formerly Amcrafoort ; Flatbush, Midwout ; Rushwick, Roawyck ; 
Brooklyn, Urcuckelen ; Newtown, Middloburgh or lla.stings; Fluahing, Vlissingen or New- 
iirke; .Jamaica, ItiLstdoi-p or Crafford; and Oyster 15ay, Folestone: see ante, vol. i., CIP, 
723, 7'20. 




Sessions, the justices should tender them at the next Assizes, chap. ii. 
" and receive satisfaction therein." lie further declared 
that "he expected no benefit for his labours out of the 
purses of the inhabitants," but that it was absolutely neces- 
sary to establish a system of county rates to support the 
public charges. The delegates accordingly " pitched upon 
the form and rule" then observed in Connecticut, viath 
which most of them were familiar. But when they asked 
to be allowed, " according to the custom of the other colo- 
nies," to choose their own magistrates, Is icolls exhibited his 
instructions from the Duke of York, " wherein the choice 
of all the officers of justice was solely to be made by the 
governor." Upon this point the delegates were pacified by 
the consideration " that a Parhament of England can nei- 
ther make a judge nor justice of the peace." To stop fur- 
ther debate, Nicolls told them that they had seen and read 
his commission and instructions, and that if they would 
have a greater share in the government than he could allow, 
they " must go to the king for it." This was decisive. The 
delegates found that instead of being popular representa- 
tives to make laws, they were merely agents to accept those 
already prepared for them. Nicolls's code, as amended, i March. 
was now formally promulgated at the " General Meeting." co'dc pnl 
During its session, which lasted ten days, several orders "*"'s'"<^''- 
were made respecting the boundaries of some of the towns. 
The only act which the delegates really performed was 
to adopt a loyal address to the Duke of York, in which, i Marcu. 
after acknowledging their dependence, they declared their the oukc 
" cheerful submission to all such laws, statutes, and ordi- ° 
nances which are or shall be made by virtue o:^ authority 
from" his royal highness ; whose rights under the king's 
patent they would forever maintain, and whom they be- 
sought " to accept of this address, as the first-fruits of this 
General Meeting, for a memorial and record against us, 
our heirs and successors, when we or any of them shall fail 
in our duties."* 

The I^ew York code thus promulgated at the Hemp- 

• Deeds, ii , 1-15, 43, 4fi; Col. Doc, iii., 91, 260; N. Y. II. S. Coll., i., 307; ii. (ii.), 32; 
Journ. Le<r. f;ounciI of N. Y., i., Int., v. ; Thompson, j., 132, 13C, 3S2; ii., 324, 325, 327; 
Wood, ST. RS, 171-175; Dunlnp, ii., App. xxxvi. : Bolton, ii., ISO; Smith, i., 41 ; Chalmer?. 
i., 577, 57S, 59S. The duke's instructions, which Nicolls exhibited nt Hempstead, were not 
recorded in the New York provincial archives, as was his commission : ante, p. IS, note. 







cnAP. II. stead meeting is generally known as " The Duke's Laws." 
It was arranged in an aliDhabetical order of subjects, like 
the Kew England codes. A very general analysis of its 
provisions is all that can now be attempted. 

The Court of Assizes — as an existing institution — was 
to meet in the city of ISTew York once a year, on the last 

Courts. Thursday in September. But, in pressing capital cases, the 
governor and council might issue commissions of Oyer and 
Terminer. Inferior courts of Sessions, composed of the 
justices of the peace, and in which any counselor might 
preside, were to be held three times a year in each rid- 

jurymcn. iug of Yorkshire. Trials by jurymen, who were not to 
exceed seven, except in capital cases, were provided for. 
Arbitrators might be appointed in small causes between 
neighbors. Whenever the law was silent in any case, the 
Sessions were to remit it to the next Assizes, where mat- 
ters of ecpiity were to be decided and punishments award- 
ed " according to the discretion of the bench, and not con- 
trary to the known laws of England." 

Each town had a local court for the trial of small causes 
under five pounds, which was to be held by the constable 
and six overseers, and from which there was an appeal to 
the Sessions. Eight " men of good fame and life" were to 

Overseers, be clioscn as ovcrscers for each town by a majority of the 
freeholders. Four of these overseers retired at the end of 

Constable, each year, and from them a constable was to be annually 
chosen, on the first or second of April, by the freeholders, 
who was to be confirmed by the justices at tlie next ses- 
sions. The constable and overseers had power to make 
local ordinances in the several towns. 

sherifEs. A lijgli- sheriff over Yorkshii'e was to bo annually ap- 
pointed by the governor from each riding in rotation, and 
also an under-sheriff or higli-constable in each riding. Jus- 
tices of the peace were to continue in ofiice during the gov- 
ernor's pleasure. But the governor and coimcil might, by 
special warrant, displace any ofiicer within the government 
"for neglecting of liis office, or other notorious misdemean- 
or and niis1)cliavior." 

Bafc'. Each inhabitant was to contribute to public charges in 

Cliurch and State according to his estate. Assessments 
were to be made every year, after the first of June, by the 


officers in each town. Provision was made for the en- cu.vr. ii. 
forcement of the rates imposed ; and all the plantations 
within the government were " fully comprehended in this '^' 

The tenure of lands was to be from the Duke of York. 
All persons were required to bring in their old grants and 
take out new patents from the governor, upon the seal- 
ing of which a fee was to be paid. After the iirst of 
March, 1G65, no purchase of lands from the Indians was Lands. 
to be valid unless the governor's leave was obtained, and 
the savage owner acknowledged satisfaction before him, 
upon which a grant was to be made by the go\^ernor and 
recorded in the secretary's office. All conveyances in the 
several ridings were also to be recorded in New York, 

No barter with the savages in ammunition, lire-arms, Indians, 
strong liquors, or furs, was allowed witliout the governor's 
license. Ali harm done by the English to them, or their 
cattle, or corn-lands, was to be promptly and justly satis- 
fied, as fully " as if the case had been betwixt Christian and 
Christian." But no Indian was to "be suffered to Powow, 
or perform outward worship to the devil, in any town with- 
in this government." 

There was no particular Protestant denomination more Kciigion. 
favored than any other in the province. The English 
Episcopal Church was not established. The Peformed 
Dutch Church, by the articles of capitulation, preserved its 
ancient ecclesiastical system. But in every parish a church ciunchcs. 
was required to be built, the expense of which, and of the 
maintenance of its minister, was to be provided for by the 
church- wardens, appointed yearly by the overseers and con- 
stables. No minister was to officiate within the govern- 
ment but such as should produce testimonials to the gov- 
ernor of his having " received ordination, either from some 
Protestant bishop or minister within some part of his maj- Ministers, 
esty's dominions, or the dominions of any foreign pi-ince 
of the Reformed religion." Thereupon the governor was 
to induct such minister " into the parish that shall make 
presentation of him as duly elected by the major part of 
the inhabitants householders." Each minister was to 
preach every Sunday ; and on the fifth of November, the simdiiy.-^ 
anniversary of the gunpowder treason; on the thirtieth ofday^." 


Chap. u. Januaiy, when King Charles the First was beheaded ; and 

on the twenty-ninth of May, when King Charles the Sec- 

ond was born and restored to the throne. He was also to 
pray for the king, queen, Duke of York, and the royal 
family, baptize the children of Christian parents, and mar- 
ry persons " after legal publication or suihcient license." 
No congregations were to be disturbed during divine serv- 
Freedom ICC ; " nor shall any person be molested, fined, or imprison- 
o religion. ^^ ^^^ differing in judgment in matters of religion who 

profess Christianity." 
Negro Negro sla^'ery was recognized ; but servants were pro- 

" ^''^'^^' tected from tyranny and abuse. ~No Christians were to be 
kept in bond slavery except those sentenced thereto by 
authority, "or such as willingly have sold or sliall sell 
themselves." All servants were prohibited from trading 
or trucking " any commodity whatsoever." If servants ran 
away, justices and constables were authorized |o press men, 
liorses, and boats, at the public charge, and bring them 
back by force. 

All males above sixteen years old, except certain exempt 
Militia, persons, were subject to military duty. Enrollments, the 
supply of arms, the appointment of officers, and the pun- 
ishment of offenders were provided for. In each town 
tliere were to be four days of training every year ; and in 
each riding a general training of all the towns once a year. 
Once in every two years there was to be general training 
of all the soldiers within the province. No person was 
obliged to bear arms beyond the limits of the government ; 
but volunteers might be raised by beat of drum to assist 
the neighboring English colonies. All defensive or vin- 
dictive wars against the Indians were to l)e maintained by 
a general assessment on each town, 
capitni In many respects the duke's capital laws followed those 

of the New England colonies. Denying the true God, 
murder, treason, kidnapping, the striking of parents, and 
some other offenses, were punishable with death. But 
witchcraft and blasphemy were not included. There were 
Juatfons^' ^^^"^*3rous regulations respecting the administration of es- 
tates, boundaries of towns, brewers, births and burials, con- 
veyances of lands, surgeons and midwives, children and 
servants, marriages, laborers, orphans, pipe-staves and casks, 


sailors, weights and measures, the destruction of wolves on chap. ii. 
Long Island, and wrecks and whales. Inn-keepers were 
not allowed to charge " above eight pence a meal, with '^' 

small beer," and were always to have a supply of " strong 
and wholesome" malted liquor. No mares were to be car- 
ried out of the government to other plantations without 
special license. Cattle and horses were to be marked with 
a letter which distinguished each town on Long Island and 
AVestchester. Every town was to provide a pair of stocks 
and a pound ; and a pillory was to be erected in each place 
where the Courts of Sessions were held. 

The code was intended to be ultimately the law of the operation 

■,, . , 1 r •, •• . • J. of the code. 

whole province, and several oi its provisions went into gen- 
eral operation at once ; but many of them were evidently 
applicable only to Long Island and its neighborhood. The 
inhabitants of the Valley of the Hudson, most of whom 
were Dutch, hardly understood the yet strange English 
tongue. Only by degrees could the institutions which they 
derived from Holland, and under which they had lived so 
long, be safely altered. Nicolls, therefore, prudently ab- 
stained from enforcing the new code in New York, Esopus, 
Albany, and Schenectady. From the original manuscript 
deposited in the office of the Provincial Secretary at Fort 
James, copies and translations were made for the several 
towns on Long Island and Westchester. It was not until 
more than a century after the "Duke's Laws" had be- 
come obsolete that they were first printed as historical 

Upon the adjournment of the Hempstead meeting. Coun- 
selor William Wells, of Southold, in the East Riding, was 
commissioned by the governor to be high-sheriff of York- ii miicIi. 
shire. Captain John Underhill, of Oyster Bay, who had pointwi."''' 
been so prominent in the affairs of New Netherland, was 
appointed high - constable and mider-sheriff of the North is March. 
Riding ; and similar appointments were made for the oth- 

* Col. Doc, ill., 104, 1S8, 2.^0; Chalmers, i., 506; Wood, 8S-90; Thompson, i., 13S-150; 
Butler, in ii. N. Y. 11. P. Coll., ii., 33; Dnly'.a Introduction, 21-25; Dankers's and Sluy- 
ter's Journnl, 106. The Duke's Laws, copied from the transcript in the Easthampton 
town.clerk'.s office, deposited there on 24 .Tunc, lflG.5, are printed in the first volume of N. 
Y. Hist. Soc. Ooll., 305-42S, puhlished in ISll. There is a copy in the Secretary of State'.t 
office at Alhany, approved hy tl\c Duke of York, and certified by hi.'f secretary, Matthew 
Wren, which was probably lirnught over by Governor L'^velace in IOCS. A niuch-npedcd 
compil.Ttion of all the laws of New York previous to 10;il has been, for several yean», prom- 
ised by Mr. George U. Moore. 


fuAr.ii. er ridings. Daniel Denton, of Jamaica; John Ilicks, of 
Hempstead ; Jonas Wood, of Huntington ; and James Hub- 
bard, of Gravesend, were appointed justices. Underbill 

22 April, was also made surveyor general of Long Island. All these 
appointees had been delegates to the Hempstead meeting, 
and, by thus promptly favoring them, the governor exjiect- 
ed to silence their murmurs.* 

Kicolls's visit to Hempstead was the immediate cause 
of the establishment of a race-course on Long Island. To 
improve the provincial Dutch or Flemish breed, which was 
better adapted to slow labor than to flcetness or display, 
the governor directed that a plate should be run for every 

M'ly. year. The ground selected for the course was in the town 


course at of Ilcmpstcad, ou a part of the great plain, about sixteen 
Btead. miles long and four broad, which was covered with fine 
grass like the English downs, and where could be found 
"neither stick nor stone to hinder the horse heels, or en- 
danger them in their races." For many years this remark- 
able tract was known as " Salisbury Plains." The race- 
course itself was named " Newmarket," after the famous 
English sporting ground, and it long continued to be the 
favorite annual resort of the governors of New York and 
the farmers of Long Island, f 

Captain John Manning, the commander of the garrison 
6 April, at Albany, was now commissioned as sellout, with instruc- 

Albany . -,. 

affaire. tious similar to those of the schout of New York. Not- 
withstanding the Duke's Laws, the municipal affairs of Al- 
bany continued to be managed as they had been under the 
Dutch, by commissaries elected by the people, and con- 
iirmcd by the governor. Excepting some differences be- 
tween the townspeople and the soldiers there and at Esoi^us, 
there was little to disturb their tranquillity.:}: 

Thus occupied in arranging his government, Nicolls had 
been unable to act as a fourth commissioner to the New 
England colonies. His colleague, Cartwright — while con- 
is April, ceding that the duke's deputy had work enough at New 
York, where " the bare hearing of impertinences, without 

* Deed?, ii., If., 17, 10, 2fl: Gen. Knt,, i., 115; Dunlnp, ii., App. xxxv. ; -Wood, 150; 
Thompjon, i., UO; ii., 157, 35D ; inker's Newtown, 70; Bolton, ii., 170, ISO; ojiV, vol. i., 
55G, 671, 7-28 ; N. Y. H. S. Cull. (ISG'J), 70. 

t Thomp'-on, i., 271, 272 ; ii., C3 ; Diinlap, i., 110 ; Prim^'a L. I., 71 ; Doiiton'B Now York 
(GownnV cd), fi, 34, 35 ; Hiirnaby, in Pinkerton, xiii., 739 ; Oldmixon, 1., 275. 

t J'aicntP, i., 155; (;ol. Doc, iii., 04, 117, M3. 


tlie framing of laws, the ordering of tlie soldiers, the gain- chap. ii. 
iug of the Dutch, the governing of the English, the regu- 
latiug of the trade, and the providing of necessaries, is 
more than enough to trie one" — urged that the chief busi- 
ness of the connnissioners was now at Boston, where, 
" though they should refuse us all three, having a preju- 
dice against us, you, whom they respect and honor, might 
be prevalent with them, because acceptable to them." 
Finding that his presence was indispensable at Boston, 
Nicolls appointed Captain Robert Needliam to command 20 Aprii. 

i J. X Nicolld £it 

in Xew York during his absence. As the new code had Boston. 
just gone into operation, Captain Topping, High-sheriff 
AYells, and Secretary Kicolls, all members of the Court of 
Assizes, were appointed to sit wdth the justices of the East, 21 Apni. 
North, and West Ridings of Yorkshire at their approaching 
sessions, and explain the laws to them.""' 

The visit of Nicolls to Boston was unavailing. Massa- May. 
chusetts, " presumptuous and refractory," repelled the royal The royai 
commissioners, who "could obtain nothing that might be gioncrs' ic- 
satisfactory to his majesty's desires." Finding that their ^^ 
time and labor were lost upon men " misled by the spirit 
of independt'ucy," Carr, Cartwright, and Maverick went 
eastward to Maine, and Xicolls hastened back to New York, 20 May. 
at any rate with a better reputation for prudence and dis- 
cretion than was accorded to either of his coUeagues.f 

The first care of the governor, after his return, was, in 
obedience to the duke's instruction, to make the city gov- city gov- 
ernment, which had remained unaltered for nearly ten New York 
months since the capitulation, " conformable to the custom '^ '"°^ 
of England." To do this in the most conciliatory manner, 
he selected, as the first mayor of New York, Captain Thomas 
"Willett, of Plymouth, who, w^liile he was an Englishman, 
was highly esteemed by the Dutch. He had been one of 
Stup-esant's negotiators at Hartford in 1650, and had acted 
with discreet friendship at the surrender. So much did his 
prudence on the Albany expedition impress Cartwright, that 
he wrote to Nicolls from Boston, " I believe him both a 4 Feb. 

* Deeds, ii., 2^?, 24 ; Gen. Ent., i., 116-110 ; Punlap, ii., Apji. xxxvi. ; Col. Doc., iii., 03, 
04; Val. Man., ISGl, CIS ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (ISCO), 75. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 05-103; Mas.^.. Hcc, iv. (ii ), 141, 143, 177-215; Ilutoli. Masa., i., 234-250; 
Coll., 41T-422; Chalmer.s's Ann., i., 3SS, 3S0, 502-504; Rev. Col , i., 114; Bancroft, iL, 
S4-SG; Barry, i., 305-400 ; Palfrey, ii., COT-CIS; Willianiaou, i., 411. 


Chap. II. vGrj lionest and an able gentleman, and that he will serve 

3-011 both for a mayor and a counsellor." At Nicolls's re- 

quest, Carr, while on his way to Boston, visited Willett at 
Rehoboth, and obtained for him from Governor Prence 
leave of absence from Plymouth, to assist in remodeling the 
city government in New York, as he was " more acquainted 
with the manners and customs of the Dutch than any En- 
glishman in the country, and his conversation was very ac- 
ceptable to them." No better choice could have been 
12 June. Nicolls, by a proclamation, now revoked " the form and 
ceremony of government of this his majesty's town of New 
York, under the name of Schout, Burgomasters, and Sche- 
pens," and declared that its future government should be 
administered by persons who should be knouTi by "the 
\:ayor, name and style of Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriff, according 
LfTdTeriff. to the custom of England in other his majesty's corpora- 
12 June. tions."t By a separate instrument of the same date, he 
ordained that " the inhabitants of New York, New Harlem, 
with all other his majesty's subjects, inhabitants upon tliis 
island commonly called and known by the name of the 
Manhattan's Island, are and shall be forever accounted, 
nominated, and established as one body politic and corpo- 
rate, under the government of a mayor, aldermen, and sher- 
'^^f^ iff;" and he appointed Thomas Willett to be mayor ; Thom- 
as Delavall, Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt, Johannes van 
Brugh, Cornells van Puyven, and John Lawrence, to be 
aldermen, and Allard Anthony to be sheriff. These officers 
were to hold their places for a year, and any four of them, 
of whom the mayor or his deputy was always to be one, 
were to have full authority to govern the city according to 
the general laws, " and such peculiar laws as are or shall be 
thought convenient and necessary." Of the new corporate 

• Col. Doc., Hi., 68, 87, 94; Morton's Memorial, 251, 304, 311 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xiv., 100, 
293; xxxvi.,532; Araold's niiode Island, i., 314; Deanc'a Bradford's riymouth, 200; Pav- 
nge's Winthrop, i., C22 ; I'alfroy, i., 163 ; Thompson, i., 130; Val. Man., ia')3, 379, 3S0; ante, 
vol. i., 519, .525, 5S5, 730, 743. After serving as mayor of New York in 1CG5 and 1007, Wil- 
lett remained tliere acting as a coimpelor until the Dutch conciuest, when lie returned to his 
farm at Rchoboth, in Scckonk, Bristol county, Massachusetts, where he died on the 4th of 
August, 1C74. A rough Ktonc with an inscription still marks the place of his burial. His 
son Thomas remained in New York, where he became prominent; and his great -great- 
grandson, Colonel Jlarinus Willelt, was m.ayor of the city in 1807 Munscll, iv., 22; Col. 

Doc, ii., 017, 047; Val. Man., ISOl, .'>53; Val. City of N. Y., 240, 247. 

t Ogilby, in his America, 109, remarks in New England the only municipal officer 
retaining hi.s Old-country name wa.s "constable." 


authorities three were Englishmen — Willett, Delavall, and cuap. n. 
Lawrence ; and four were Hollanders — Van Cortlandt, Van 
Brugh, Van Ruyven, and Anthony. The latter liad been '^' 

prominent in the late government, and eminently repre- 
sented the Dutch element ; while Anthony, the old sellout, 
only assumed a new title when he became sheriff. 

Nevertheless there was much dissatisfaction shown when 
the governor appeared in the Court of Burgomasters and w June. 
Schepens to install the new officers. Burgomaster Van disaatis- 
Cortlandt, who had been selected to be alderman, objected 
that the new charter violated the sixteenth article of the 
capitulation ; but Nicolls quietly showed him that the old 
officers had been continued, and new ones elected in Feb- 
ruary, who had been retained until now. Yet " divers de- 
bates occurred," because the magistrates wished the Dutch 
system to be retained, under which they nominated their 
own successors, while under that established by the English 
governor they were to be chosen by himself without any 
restraint. Nicolls, however, told them that he had received 
letters from the Dulce of York " to make the government 
of this city conformable to the custom of England," and 
that, while he acknowledged the good conduct of the for- 
mer magistrates, he had qualified some Englishmen for 
office, " on purpose that parties may be better aided on 
both sides, as well English as Dutch, who go to law, and the 
better to strengthen the peace and quiet of the inhabitants 
of this place." The new magistrates were then sworn and The new 
installed, and were proclaimed to the commonalty after installed. 
" the customary ringing of the bell three times." 

Thus were inaugurated the first mayor and aldermen of Maj-oi-s 
the city of New York. The new court was organized the 
next day, and Johannes Nevius was retained as secretary, 15 June, 
assisted by Nicholas Bayard to translate his Dutch minutes. 
Soon afterward Nevius resigned, and Bayard was appoint- is July. 
ed secretary in his place. Little change was made in the 
mode of judicial proceedings, except the substitution of the 
English tongue for tlie Dutch. Jury trials, as provided for 
in the code, were ordered to be held on the first Tuesday 
of each month. But suitors generally preferred to have 
their causes disposed of in the summary manner to wliich 
they had been accustomed ; and many forms peculiar to 


cdap.ii. the Dutch jurisprudence continued for half a century to 

be recognized in " The Mayor's Court of the City of New 

1665. Yoj.],;.* 

Meanwhile important events had happened in Europe. 

1664-. The States General represented to the King of France the 

^g Decera. -^.j.q^^o- whicli the Iviup" of England had done them in cap- 

appeals to turinrf Xew Netlierlaiid, and asked for the aid guaranteed 

1' ra n c J ^ ^--^ 

iigahist i)j the treaty of 1662. This appeal embarrassed Louis, 
whom Charles had tried to persuade that he was the ag- 
grieved instead of the aggressor. D'Estrades, writing from 
y- recera. the Ilague, urged his sovereign " to prefer England to the 
States," because he could thereby "procure the restitution 
of Acadia from Penobscot to Cape Breton, being eighty 
leagues of coast, where there are fine harbors, and oblige 
the King of England, by the same treaty, to declare war 
against the Iroquois, whom the Hollanders, who have their 
plantations adjoining, have always assisted with arms and 
munitions against us. By this means your majesty would 
free Canada from the only enemies which she has in that 
country ; and by attacking them on the Canada side, and 
on that M'hicli the English occupy, they would all be de- 
stroyed in a year." Finding that the designs of Louis on 
-J,-,,.- the Spanish ISTetherlands controlled his action, the States 
8. January. General informed him that they were ready to adjust their 
•riipvc^to- diiferences with King Charles, by restoring every thing 
N^elvNcth- they had taken from him, if he would " bind himself to rc- 
ummUJ' store New Netherland," and other prizes.f 
l(;(i4. In reply to the Dutch statements. Downing insisted that 
?^^j Decern. Is^ew Kctlierlaud was within the New Enc-land patent ; that 
nienioiiai. the treaty of 1654 had not cut oif the English claim ; and 
even if it did, that the New England colonies had ''"jura 
belli within tliemselves, without appealing first into Eu- 
1 665. rope." A committee of the States General soon published 
oiebr'y. ^ " dcmolitiou" of Do^vnlug's memorial. "The English," 
it was conclusively argued, " have no other title to the pos- 

' Gen. F.nt., i. . 120-121 ; X. Y. City Kec, v., 7S0-7S4 : vi., 3, 4" ; Col. Doc, ii , 373, 407, 
445, 473; Doc. Hist., i., 3S0, 390; Val. Man., 16,52, 3S1, .S83, 3S0, 301, 3:'5, 473, 470, 4;)2 ; 
IS-jS, 330, 3.S3, 38;) ; ISGO, COl, G02, COS; Tliompson, ii., 303; Daly's Introductory Sketch, 
14, 25, 2C ; Hoffman's Treatise, i., 10 ; ii., 3-5 ; ante, vol. i., 388, 410, 548, 010, 089, 703, 720, 
728, 73S. 

+ Col. Doc, ii., 2SG-201, 305, 300; Dc AVitt, ii., 2, 4. 14-17 ; D'Kftrade?, ii., 550, 5.')5-504, 
r>G7, 5G8, 570, 575-577; iii., 5, 10, 11, l;! ; Rnpin, ii., 639; Aitzeina, v., 03, 188-294 ; LiHtcr'.-, 
Clarendon, iii., 352 ; Basnage, i., 718, 710, 737; Martin, i., 209 ; «n{<', vol. i.,5S0, 


session of what tlicy liold, namely, New England, than cuAr.u. 
those of this nation havo to ISTcw Xetherland, to wit, the 
right of occnpation ; because all those countries being des- ^,,g gj^jj^ 
ert, uninliabited, and waste, as if belonging to nobody, be- tudr right. 
came the property of those Avho have been the first occu- 
pants of them. It is thus the English have occupied, and 
this is the title by which they possess New England, as 
those of this nation New Xetherland. The right which 
the English found on the letters patent wherein their king 
grants such a vast extent to the limits of the English, so as 
to include also all the possessions of this nation, is as ridic- 
ulous as if your high mightinesses bethought yourselves of 
including all New England in the patent you would grant 
to the West India Company ; therefore a continued jjos- 
session for such a long series of years must confer on this 
nation a title which can not be questioned with any ap- 
pearance of reason.""" 

Affairs now approached a crisis. The West India Com- 
pany was authorized " to attack, conquei", and ruin the En- g Febrv. 
glisli every where, both in and out of Europe, on land and 
water." The East India Company equipped twenty ships. The Dutch 
The herring and whale fisheries were suspended, in order fleet?'' 
to man the war vessels of the nation. Fourteen millions 
of guilders were voted for the fleet and the fortifications. 
The Dutch, Avho lived by commerce, resolved that they 
must fight to deliver themselves from the English yoke ; 
and all the cities broke out in cries of joy at the hope of 
triumph. As De Ruyter was far away in the West Indies, 
Wassenaar of Opdam was made admiral, with the youn- 
ger Tromp and other renowned commanders under him.f 

The English Parliament granted two millions and a half Kngiisii 
of pounds sterling ; and Holmes was sent to the Tower, so uo?;^"'' 
that if the Dutch should be successful, he might be made 
" a sacrifice, as Sir Walter Raleigh was." TJie Duke of 
York prepared to take command of the fleet. At length 22 Fcbr-y. 
the king, Avithout the concurrence of Clarendon or South- twr cT,!!' 
ampton, issued a declaration of war, full of bitterness ^''"''^'^• 
against the Dutch.:}: 

• Col. Pec, ii., 20S-304, 307-331 ; Aitzcma, v., 35G-.GS. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 30C, 307; D'Estrades, iii., 32, 42, C3; Aitzema, v., -113^143 ; Baaiiage, i., 
730; Davie.=, iii.,20, 30; Pcpys, ii., 2C5; Lister, iii., 3C1. 
X Pepys, ii., 1S7, 19G, 109, 215 ; Kennett, iii., 252 ; Lister, ii., 271-27G ; Aitzcma, v., rCS ; 


cuAP. II. Charles also wrote to Nicolls and his colleagues, inf orm- 
~ ~ ing them of De Ruyter's expedition, and enjoining them 
28Jan^>.' " *^ ^^^^ ^^^ possible diligence for their security." They 
7 Keb'y. woTB, moreovor, directed to observe all orders from the 
thecoio-" Duke of York, whom the king had authorized to grant 
°'^' letters of marque against Dutch ships, and condemn them 
in Admiralty. Clarendon likewise warned ISTicolls that he 
"must expect all the mischief the Dutch can do him." 
-liFebr'y. The Dukc of York directed that his province should be 
put " into a posture of defense against the Dutch." lie 
2SFebr'y. also appointed Nicolls and Captain Philip Carteret sub- 
commissioners in Admiralty, to dispose of all prizes in any 
of the ports or harbors of New England.* 

These dispatches were brought by Carteret to Virginia, 

and forwarded thence to New York. As soon as he re- 

22 June, ccived tlicm, Nicolls issued a proclamation for the confisca- 

NicoUs." tion of the West India Company's estate, which had al- 

24 June, ready been attached. Letters were also sent to the several 

New England governments inclosing copies of the king's 

orders, and instructing them how to treat Dutch prizes in 

any of their ports. The inliabitants of Long Island were 

so June, especially warned to be ready against Dutch invasion. The 

2s June, commoualty of New York were called together to consult 

about fortifying the city on the river side. The governor 

offered to contribute palisades and wampum, and promised 

" not to constrain any inhabitant to tight against his own 

nation." Steenwyck, the deposed burgomaster, declared 

Feeling in that lic would always be a faithful subject. But the burgh- 

■ ers generally were not zealous to prepare defenses against 

an expedition which might restore the authority of their 

fatherland. " Some of the people answering said that the 

to^^^l was sufficient enough; others that they could not 

work before they had their arms restored to them again ; 

and many other excuses; but no categorical answer was 


Basnage, i., 73C; Lingard, xii., 170; Davies, iii., 30; Rapin, ii., CSS, C39; Pari. Hist, jv., 
JiOJ-SOO. There is an interesting account of the origin of this war in Temple's Works, i., 

* Col. Doc, iii., 85, SC, 92, 104; Vnl. Mnn., 1S47, 353 ; N. Y. Surrogate's Rec. WiU8,i., 9. 

t Col. Doc, iii.,C7, 92, 103; N. V. City Rec, vi., 19, 29; Col. MSS.,xxii.,l; Val. Man., 1852, 
4S0, 4S4 ; 1853, 3S1 ; Gen. Knt., i., 7G, 12.'i-132 ; OrJ. Warr. and Lett., ii., 2 ; Col. Rec Conn., 
ii.,21; Mass. 11. S. Coll., XXX., 52; Tnimbull, i. 278; Thompson, i., 140; Smith, 1., 08, 41. 
De Ruytcr was actunlly on lii.f way from the West Indies to Newfoundland in May, IGCi. 
If he had visited New York, as he intended, he would easily have reconquered the prov- 


Tlie condition of the metropolis was told in a letter from cuap. n. 

Nicolls to Lord Arlington : " We have had no ship or the ~ 

least supplies directly out of England since the surrender, gj jy,^. * 
which hath brought the soldiers and planters into very ^^^^j''"" 
great wants of meane necessaries, thougli I will still have metropoiiH. 
liopes that a place of this importance will fall into due con- 
sideration with his majesty and royal highness." The col- 
onies had less cause to ai)prehend De Ruyter than the pri- 
vateers, " and this place doth not apprehend either or both ; 
for we have no ships to lose, no goods to plunder, but a 
ragged sort of a fort, put into the best posture of defence 
possible, well litted with cannon, no want of amnnmition 
for the present, and as many soldiers as will not lose his 
majestie's interest but with their own lives," Fort James, 
indeed, with its low ramparts, greatly needed strengthen- 
ing. But Cartwright thought that it could not be kept 
" two hours by having its walls raised higher," and advised 
that " a battery upon the point would be of greater advan- 
tage, and more considerable than the fort itself, if ever the 
town be fortified."" 

While Nicolls was thus securing his government, annoy- 
ino; orders came to him from Enc-land. The Duke of York 
had dismembered his province, and had laid the foundation 
of another American state. James was fond of naval af- 
fairs, and a degree of intimacy existed between him and 
his assistants in the Admiralty Board. One of them, John, 
Lord Berkeley of Stratton, a brother of the Governor of Berkeley. 
Virginia, had been the duke's own governor in his youth, 
and afterward was made treasurer of his household. At 
the request of James, the king, two years before liis restora- 
tion, had raised Berkeley to the peerage. Berkeley was a 
" bold and insolent" man, weak, popishly inclined, " not in- 
corrupt," and very arbitrary. The Treasurer of the Ad- 
miralty, Sir George Carteret, " the most passionate man in Carteret. 
the world," had been Governor of the Channel Island of 
Jersey, where he received Charles while Prince of Wales, 
and which he afterward gallantly defended against Crom- 

ince. Rut, being short of provisions, lie was obliged to lia.sten homeward. See .^itzema, v., 
469, 477; Le Clerc, iii., 7'.t, SO; Basnage, i., 741, 745; Davieg, iii., 0:!; Kennctt, iii., 253, 
i57 ; Col. Doc., ii., 2S0, 422; Slapp. Kec-, iv. (ii.), 154, 270,280; N.Y. II. S. Coll. (ISGil), 74,75. 
• Col. Doc., iii., 87, 101, lO.T; Val. Man., 1859, 543-552, and the map of IGGl appended, 
showing the situation of the fort. 

IL— F 


Chap. II. well's forcGS. At the Restoration, Carteret rode with the 
;;" king triumphantly into London, and was made chamberlain 
• of his household. Both Berkeley and Carteret were mem- 
bers of the Council for Plantations, and in the spring of 
1663 had, with Clarendon, Albemarle, Ashley, and other 
courtiers, obtained a grant of Carolina.* 

The two royal favorites early prevailed on tlie Duke of 
York to convey to them a part of his splendid American 
domain. They seem to have been prompted by Captain 
John Scott, " who was born to work mischief, as far as he 
is credited or his parts serve him." Disappointed in his 
own aim to get a part of New N etherland, and well know- 
ing its geography, which the duke did not, Scott contrived 
to make Berkeley and Carteret the instruments of his mal- 
ice by inducing them to procure from its proprietor the 
cession of one of the most valuable parts of liis province. 
^ James, not yet in possession, was easily cajoled. Nicolls's 
1664. expedition was yet on the Atlantic, when the duke, by 
II June.' deeds of lease and release, in consideration of " a compe- 
ronveya'^a ^cnt sum of moncy," conveyed to Berkeley and Carteret, 
Yo'^k t.f "^"^ and their heirs and assigns, the portion of his territory 
an^'rirte- wliicli lie dcscribcd as " that tract of land adjacent to New 
ret. England, and lying and being to the westward of Long Isl- 

and and Manhitas Island, and bounded on the east, ])art by 
the main sea and part by Hudson's River, and hath upon 
the west Delaware Bay or River, and extendeth southward 
to the main ocean as far as Cape May, at the mouth of 
Delaware Bay, and to the northward as far as the nortli- 
ermost branch of the said Bay or River of Delaware, which 
is forty-one degrees and forty minutes of latitude, and 
crosseth over thence in a strait line to Hudson's River 
in forty-one degrees of Lititude." In memory of Carteret's 
gallant defense of the island of Jersey, this " tract of land" 
Avas " liereafter to be called by tlie name or names of New 
cniied Caisarea or New Jersey." Thus the name of New Jersey 
Bey." was given in London to a part of New Netherland before 
it had been conquered fi-om the Dutch. 

The Duke of York's release of New Jersey was in the 

•Pepy?, I., 31,88; ii., 271 ; Clarke's Jamea II.,i.,54; Burnet's Hist., 1., 2CT, GIS, CIO; 
Chalmers, i.,517; Lister's Clarendon, i.,296, 307, 341, .3CS, 373; iii.,7, 419; Whitehcair.t 
East Jersey, 30, 31 ; Col. Doc., ii., 410, 699 ; ColUne's Peerage, iv., 1C7, 212. 


ordinaiy form of conveyances of land. It merely con- cuap. a 
firmed to his grantees a part of his province, which he de- 
scribed as " that tract of land" between the Hudson and yg^^^^ ' 
the Delaware, and the " royalties" and " hereditaments" be- '!itP "JJ^ 

'J of York'B 

longing to the same, with their " appm-tenances." This^onvey- 
land and its appurtenances was conveyed " in as full and 
ample manner as the same is granted to the said Duke of 
York" in his patent from the king. By that patent the 
king granted New Netherland to his brother in free and 
common socage, subject to the yearly rent of forty beaver- 
skins. In the same " full and ample manner" James now 
released to Berkeley and Carteret a " tract" of this terri- 
tory, subject to the rent of twenty nobles a year. This 
was the legal scope of the instrument, which, in words 
usual in deeds of real estate, conveyed a tract of land and 
its appurtenances to Berkeley and Carteret as amply as the 
same had been granted to the Duke of York by the king ; 
namely, in socage, subject to an annual rent. The king, 
however, besides his gift of territory, had intrusted to his 
brother and his assigns " full and absolute" authority to 
govern all English subjects inhabiting within the same. 
This iurisdiction the duke did not convey. Nevertheless, p^w^ere of 

. . • govern- 

as he did not reserve it, his grantees assumed that he had ment not 

transferred to them " every right, every royalty, and all the 

powers of government which he himself possessed." It 

was not until many years afterward that tliis interesting 

question was settled.* 

As soon as news of the reduction of New Netherland 

reached England, Berkeley and Carteret hastened to avail 

themselves of their grant, by procurino; from James a let- 28 Novem. 

P . . . . The duke'B 

ter to Nicolls, " signifying the same to him, and requiring letter to 
him and all others therein concerned to yield their best 
assistance in the quiet possession and enjoyment of the 
premises to all such persons as my said grantees should at 
any time appoint and authorize to negotiate their affairs in 
those parts," Soon afterward they signed and published ,q J: ^. 
an instrument which, under the title of "The Concessions New jewy 
and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of sione." 

• CoL Doc, ii., 243; iii., 46, 4S, 105, 229, 240, 2S5; Pepys, ii., 103 ; Learning and Spicer, 
8-11 ; S. Smith's New Jersey, CO, CI, 5CT-570 ; Gordon, 20, 23, 24, 42, 43 ; Chalmers, i., 613, 
614, 624, 625 ; Graliame,i.,462, 403 ; Bancroft, il, 315; Whitehead, 31, 32 ; ante, vol. 1., T25, 
730; ii., 14,21. 


ghai-.ii. New Cgesarea or New Jersey," formed its liberal constitu- 

tion. At the same time, Cai^tain Philip Carteret, a cousin 

J.~^ ., of Sir George, was commissioned as sjovernor, and received 

Philip Car- o ' -r> • •• 

tei-etgov- iiis instructions from the Proprietors."^ 

With about thirty emigrants, several of whom were 
Frenchmen skilled in making salt — which was apparently 
intended to be the staple of JSTew Jersey — Carteret sailed 
for New York in the ship Philip, belonging to Sir George, 
cnrteret In Tlic vcsscl was driven into the Chesapeake, and anchored 
isTiIn'e!" at Newport News. From there Carteret transmitted to Nic- 
olls some of the dispatches intrusted to his care. lie also 
forwarded several letters to Captain James BoUen, the com- 
missary at Fort James, among which was one from Berke- 
ley and Carteret, containing a copy of the duke's grant of 
29 June. Now Jcrscy. As soon as he received them, Bollen showed 
these interesting documents to his chief .f 

This was the first intimation to Nicolls of the dismem- 
berment of his government of New York. The duke's own 
dispatch to him had not yet been delivered by Carteret ; but 
he could not doubt the news which Bollen communicated. 
Surprise of Ilis surprisc was grievous. For ten months he had exer- 
njcoiis. ^[gQ^ dominion, as the deputy of James, over ancient New 
8 April. Netherland. Only a few weeks before, he had confirmed 
to Goulding, Bowne, and others, from Long Island, the 
lands between Sandy Hook and the mouth of the Karitan, 
upon which the towns of Middletown and Shrewsbury 
were afterward settled. He had looked upon " Albania," 
within which three new towns were already begun, as the 
most " improveable part" of the province of New York. 
And now the mortified governor M'as \A'arned to give up 

* Elizubothtown Bill in Chancery (1T4T), 12-lC, 05; Lonmirgan'l Ppiocr, 12-01 ; Smith's 
N. J., 512-521 ; Collins'a Peerage, iv., 208 ; Whitehead's i::iA Jcr.^ey, o2-3C ; Gonlon, 24-27 ; 
Bancroft, ii., 315-310; Chalmerd'.sAnn., i., C14, G15; N. J. II. S. Proc., i. (ii.), 23, SO, 31 ; Mass. 
II. S. Coll., xxxvii., 31!). The New Jersey " Concessiona," among other thing.", provided 
that the iiilmliilaiita Hhould every year elect rcpresentativea to a General Asscmhly, and 
that there wa,-* to be impo.sod no " tax, custom, subsidy, tallage* assessment, or any other 
duty whatsoever, upon any colour or pretence, upon the said province and inhabitants there- 
of, other than what shall bo inipo.sed hy the authority and consent of the said General As- 
sembh', and then only in manner as aforesaid." These memorable words— which were bor- 
rowed from the Petition of Right aa.scnted to by Charles the Pirst in 162S, and recognized by 
him in his charter of Marj-Iand in 1632_were adopted by the Assembly of New York in lCiS3 
and ir.Ol, and by that of Massachusetts in 1G92. See Chalmers, i., 204, 205; Hapin, ii., 
270, 271; Kennctt, iii., 42; Lingard, ix., 317-321; Gordon's American Pevolution, i., 47, 
CO, 97, 99. 

t Mass. II. S. Coll., XXX., 49-53 ; Elizabethtown Rill in Chnncory, 28 ; Smith's New Jer.spy, 
67; Whitehead's Kaat Jersey, 30 ; Col. Doc., ii., 470; iii., 103, 105; Rhode Island Kec, ii.,SJ. 


tliat desirable region. Thencefortli " New Jersey" was to chap. n. 
take tlie place of '' Albania" on the map of America. Too , 

good an officer to disobey, Nicolls could not refrain from a jj,,y '^' 
manlj remonstrance against his master's improvident grant, ^o^g't'l.^tgg 
"to the utter discourao-ement" of any that mio-ht desire toto|iio 

o J n duke. 

live under his protection. " For my boldness," he added, 
" I can at last but beg pardon. Neither can I suppose 
that my Lord Berkeley or Sir George Carteret knew how 
prejudicial sucli a grant would prove to your royal high- 
ness ; but I must charge it upon Captain Scott, who was born 
to work mischief as far as he is credited or his parts serve 
him."* Hoping that he might yet induce the duke and 
his grantees to make other arrangements, NicoUs urged that 
the latter should give up New Jersey, and receive " a better 
and a more entire tract of land, worthy of great considera- 
tion to my Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, which 
is that part of Delaware River which is reduced from the 
Dutch, if it is not already disposed ; if so, then that my 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret may have a hun- 
dred thousand acres all along the sea-coast, wliicli is a most 
noble tract of land, but it will cost them twenty thousand 
pounds before it will yield a penny, and their children's 
children may reap the profit."! 

Tliis letter may have caused the duke to repent liis pre- 
cipitate grant ; but it reached him too late. Toward the 
end of July, Carteret arrived at New York. After exliib- 20 juiy. 
iting liis authority to Nicolls — witli whom he had been ncw York. 
joined as a sub-commissioner in Admiralty — he received 
from him, according to the didce's orders, quiet possession 
of New Jersey, whither he proceeded with his ship. Early 
in Auffust, Philip Carteret landed at the head of his fol- August 


lowers, carrying a hoe on his shoulder, " thereby intimating lands in 
his intention of becoming a planter with them." Lie chose eey. 
for the seat of his govermnent a spot on the north bank of 

* NicoIIs, on his return to London in IfifiS, told the king, the queen, and the duke enough 
about ?cott to make the Intter " foiiJake Whitpliiill :" ?co Ma?B. U. S. Coll., xxxvii., 315, 310. 

t Col. 5ISS., xxiv., 1 ; Hist. Mas,'., ii.. 203 ; Ixiaming and ?piccr, G61-CG3 ; Pniitir.s N. J., 
C2-C7 : Whitehead, 39, 40, 57, ISO ; N. J. 11. S. Proc., i., 105; Col. Doc, iii., 105, 174. Chal- 
mers i-, 614. 015, 024, 02.5, erroneously states the date of thi.s letter of Nicolls— of which 
only a frairment exifts in the State Paper <1ffice — as yovcnibcr, lflS.5. It was evidently 
written licforc Carteret arrived at New ^'ork from Virginia (on 29 July, Col. Doe., iii., 103), 
and about ten days after BoUen shoived the governor the letter he had received from the pro- 
prietarie.s of Neu-.Ters v wliieh wa^ on th • 20th or 22d of June (Ma??. II. S. Coll , xxx,52; 
Col. Pee , iii., 1051 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (1SC9), 74. Its date, therefore, must have been about 
the beginning of July, 1005. 

ware torri 


cnAp.Ti. "the Kills," where four families had already been settled 

under the authority of Nicolls, but which, in compliment 

WGo. ^^ g|j. Q-eorge's wife, he named " Elizabethto^vn." Captain 
James Bollen, who seems to have been a favorite of the 
proprietaries, was soon afterward appointed secretary of 
New Jersey ; the annals of whicli, from tliis time forward, 
assume a distinct place in American history.* 
TheDeia- The Delaware territory, whicli NicoUs had proposed 
should be taken by Berkeley and Carteret in exchange for 
New Jersey, had meanwhile been governed as an append- 
age to New York, but without any special ordere from En- 
gland. In consideration of the good service of Captain 
20 June. Johu Carr, its commander, a grant was made to him of the 
confiscated estate of the former Schout Van Swerino-en, 
who emigrated to Maryland. Ilinoyossa having also gone 
there, his property was given to Sir Robert Carr, and Al- 
ricks's to Ensign Arthur Stock. But the trade of tlie place 
languished for want of supplies ; and Nicolls besought Ar- 
lington to send him orders at once, as the garrison there 
was now maintained at his own private cost.f 

After their failure at Boston, the three royal commis- 
sioners visited the other New England colonies, leaving 
Nicolls at New York "to attend De Euyter's attempt." 
At their colleague's request, they oi'ganized a government 
PcmmjuiJ. within the duke's territory of Pemaquid, the few colonists 
of which, chiefly fishermen, appeared to be " the worst of 
men," Cartwright, weary of his unprofitable labors, and 
suffering fi'om the gout, now determined to return to En- 
gland. The command of his company of foot at New 
2C June. York was accordingly assigned by Nicolls to Captain Rob- 
ert Needham. With full dispatches prepared by the com- 
Ai:Kuat. missioucrs, Cartwriflcht sailed from Boston, intending; to ex- 
wrife'ht. plain in person to the home government the condition of 
affairs in New England ; but he was captured at sea by a 
Dutch privateer, wlio took all his papers and carried him 
to Spain. Massachusetts was well pleased at the misliap 
which delayed injurious reports from reaching the king. 
Carr and Maverick, however, before returning to New 

• Col. r)oc.,ii.,G07; iil.,103; Smith's N. J.,6T; Whitehead, 36, 84, 85; V:il. Maii.,lSr>2. 
48.1, 4't2, 495; Klizabethtown Bill in Clinncery, p. 28; ante, p. 40. 

t <'(.l. Doc., iii.. 82, inn, lOfl, 11:-!, 115, 34C; Patents, i., 15; S. Ilazard':^ Keg. I'uun., iv., 
74 ; Auti., 301) ; IJiivi^'H " Day Star," 7'J. 


York, wrote to tlie secretary of state, inclosing fresh docu- chap. ii. 
meuts, among which was a " narrative" of the condition of 



the several New England colonies. Strong prejudice waSgoNovcn. 
shown against Massachusetts, where some dared to say, J?®''?," '" 

" ' •/ " New r.n- 

" Who knows what the event of this Dutch war will he ?" ei^na. 
Carr also urged Secretary Morrice and Lord Lauderdale to t> Decem. 
have Delaware, Rhode Island, and all the territory as far 
west as the Connecticut River annexed to the Narragan- 
set country or the " King's Province," and then make him 
governor over the whole, where he promised to serve his 
majesty " as faithfully as any he shall set over them,"-' 

The war with the Dutch obliged K icolls to erect a prize 
court at New York. He accordingly appointed Captains 23 August 
Needham, Willett, and Topping, with Secretary Nicolls and co^-tTn'^ 
Alderman Lawrence, to be Commissioners of Admiralty for ^''^^'"' 
the province, and R. Cliarlton to be clerk of the court. 
The organization of this tribunal was, howeve]*, several 
times altered ; and the Mayor's Court of New York fre- 
quently acted as a Court of Admiralty.f 

Fresh troubles had meanwhile broken out between the 
Mohawks and Mahicans, and some of the Dutch near Al- 
bany were killed. Two of the savages were arrested and 
imprisoned for the murder. Willett, the new mayor of 
New York, was sent thither to advise; and, on his return, 4 July, 
the Albany magistrates were directed to hang one of the 27 juiy. 
Indians, and send the other in chains to Fort James. 
Winthrop was also asked to aid in making peace between 2 August. 
the Mahicans and the Mohawks. Having taken precau- 
tions for the safety of New York during his absence, Nic-Nicoii8vi«. 
oils went up to Albany. Manning, who was needed at 23 August 
Fort James, was relieved ; and the command of Fort Al- 
bany, with its nine cannon, and its garrison of sixty men, 
was given to Captain John Baker, who was commissioned 25 septem. 
to be " chief military officer" of the place. Baker was in- mad,- com- 
structed to keep constant guard and good discipline, and Albany." 
to avoid all disputes with the inhabitants, with whom he 

* Col. Doc, iii., 101-113, ICO: rntcntf. i., KG; Mortnn's Mem., 315, iiotc; Hutch., i., 250; 
Coll., 412-426 ; Chalmere, i , 277, 2;)C., 389, 4S:!, 504 ; Maine II. S. Coll., i., 1 10-1 10 ; v., 232, 
230; Williamson, i., 415-425; niiode Isliind Koc, ii., 93-95, 102, 110-114, 118, 127, 132-13S, 
157, 257 ; M;is3. II. ?. Proc, 1S5S-1800, 274 , Piilfiey, ii., 619-C24. 

t Court of A?.«ize3, ii., 345,346; N. Y. Surropate'a Koc. Wills, i.. 5-10, .';5-47 ; Vnl. M;ui., 
1847, 35?, 353, 362-367 ; Col. Uoc, t:., 296, 207 ; iii.. 67, 239, 2G0, CCS ; Daly's Sketch, 30, .'1 ;, nutcs \ and B. Jvicolls's Adminilty power in New York came f/om the duke. 





12 October, 

NicoIU at 

14 Septetn. 

1-1 ?cptem. 
er at Eso- 

'23 Oct jlier. 

liois to 

was to live "as brothers together." In capital cases or 
treaties with the Indians he was to sit in the fort, with the 
schout and commissioners of Albany ; but he was to have 
no concern with the ordinary civil courts. He was also to 
act as deputy collector, and send the entries of goods by 
each sloop to Van Ruyven, the collector at New York. 
John Shutte, one of Baker's soldiers, was also licensed to 
be the " only English school-master at Albany," upon con- 
dition that he should not "• demand any more wages from 
each scholar than is given by the Dutch to their Dutch 

1\ icolls also visited Esopus, where troubles had occurred 
during the previous winter between the soldiers and the 
townsmen. Beekman and the other officers of Wildwyck 
were continued, and Chambers was appointed caj^tain of 
the local militia company. As it was necessary that the 
commander of the regular soldiers who formed the garri- 
son should have general military authority. Captain Daniel 
Brodhead was commissioned to be " chief officer of the 
militia in the Esopes," and all inferior officers and soldiers 
were required to obey him as such. Like Baker at Al- 
bany, Brodhead M'as instructed to keep constant guard, 
cause the village authorities to be respected, and prevent 
his soldiers from abusing the Indians or quarreling with 
the burghers. In general, he was to use his best discretion, 
but to "■ avoid harshness of words and heat of passion on 
all occasions ; seeking rather to reconcile differences than 
to be head of a party. Preserve yourself," said the pru- 
dent governor, " single and indifferent as to justice between 
soldiers and burghers. Give not too easy an ear to private 
wliispercrs and insinuators, which may overrule your judg- 
ment and beget a prejudice in your mind against the Dutch. 
For, though I am not apt to believe they have a natural af- 
fection to the English, yet, without ill usage, I do not find 
them so malicious as some will seek to persuade you they 

One of Kicolls's chief objects in his visit to Esopus was 

• Patents, i., 20, 155, 15T, 158, 1C1-1G4 ; Ordere, Warrants, etc., ii., 3-5. J), IT, 229 ; Col. 
r)op.,iii.,in4, 117, 110, 14.1; Chnlmers, i., .570; MunseU'a Ann. Alb., Hi., 327 ; Iv., 16; vii.,' 
OS-101 ; Viil. Mnn., 1847, 351, 350, 3.57 ; 18.52, 484, 400 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., x.x.\., 54, 55; MSS. 
Trumbull I'lipcr,-", xxii. , 74 ; ante., vol. i., f);!0, 5"3, .5r.5, 733. 

t I'atTOtK, i , 15S, 159, 1C7-1G9; Col. Doc, iil, 04; Esopu.i llocoi-da; lister II. S Coll., 
i., 40, 52-54, US. 


to piircliase from the savages fresh lands on wliich to settle cjup. ii. 
colonists. This was the more important since the separa- 
tion of New Jersey from his government. A treaty was '^' 

accordingly executed at Fort James between Nicolls and t ortober. 
the Esopns sachems, by which a large trac^t of land to the Ksopus 
west and southwest of the " Kahanksen" Creek, in the '^°' ^' ■ 
present towns of Rochester and Wawarsing, was conveyed 
to the Duke of York. All past injuries were buried on 
both sides, and the sachems engaged " to come once every 
year and bring some of their young people to acknowledge 
every part of this agreement in the Sopes, to the end that 
it may be kept in perpetual memory.""' 

This treaty with the Esopus Indians enabled Xicolls to 
offer new inducements to planters, of which the province xcw oflfors 
was in great need. AVliile at Boston in the previous May, °i'*°^'"^- 
he had caused to be printed by Samuel Green, at the Cam- 
bridge press — then the only printing-press in the British 
American colonies — on a half sheet of foolscap paper, " The 
conditions for new planters in the territories of his Roya) 
Highness the Duke of York." In this document the terms 
upon which lands could be purchased and held were stated, 
in conformity to the "Duke's Laws," which had just been 
promulgated at Hempstead. " Liberty of conscience" was 
prominently allowed. '" The lands which I intend shall be 
first planted," said Nicolls, " are those upon the west side 
of Hudson's RiveT, at or adjoining to the Sopes." In this ' 
form numbers of copies had been distributed. As soon as 
he had made the treaty, Nicolls added, in his own hand- 
writing, to the copies not yet issued, " The governor hath 
purchased all the Sopes land, Avhicli is now ready for plant- 
ers to put the plough into, it being clear ground."t 

• Col. MSS., xxii., 4; Deed?, iii., 7-10; l>opu3 Records; I"I-tcr U. S. Cull., i., O.l^i, 97; 
Denton's N. 'S'., 14 ; ante, vol. i., GT5, OTS. This puvchiuc of Nicolls was beyond the " new 
vill.nge," now known as nurlcy, which Stuyvesant had caused to be laid out after his treaty 
with the Ksopus s.acliems in lODO: ante, vol. i., CTS, COO, 710-7U; Ulster H. S Coll., i.,71, 72. 

t Thomas's Uistory of Printing, i., 'J'2(), 253 ; ii., Si) ; Ulster U. S. Coll., i , ;'.7, i'S. An 
original of these "conditions" is in the librarj' of the N. Y. Uist. Society ; and theic is a re- 
print of them in Learning and Spirer, CC)7, GGS. Another o-.iginal, with XiccilU's niaiiu-cript 
addition (formerly helongiiig to Kbi-nezer Uazard), is in tlic Torce Library at Wiishirigton; 
and one of the>^e anicnilcil cpies Smith reprinted in his revised ediiion (IS.jO), i., 3;\ 40. 

It is interesting to nolo that a censorship of the press was istablished by Ma.ssachusetts 
on S October, 10(;2, and repealed on 27 May, lOGO. But when the royal commis.-inners, on 
24 May, 1G65, desired that certain papers should be printed, the General Court, three days 
afterward, to prevent "abuse to the authority of this country by the printing-pres.=e," again 
ordered "that there shall be no printing-prcsse allowed in any towno within this juris- 
diction but in Cambridge, nor shall any person or persons presume to print any cop.e but 


cuAr. II. According to the reqmrements of the code, the Court of 
Assizes was now held at New York. It was attended by 
'-sse te!tl ^^^® governor, his counselors, and tlie justices of Yorkshire. 
4 October Several amendments to the laws were adopted and promul- 
(;ourt of gated. Among other things, all wills were required to he 
deposited in the Record Office at New York, and all land 
patents to be recorded there. To enforce the provision in 
the code, it was ordered that " all persons whatsoever who 
have any grants or patents of townships, lands or houses 
within this government, shall bring in tlie said grants or 
patents to the governor, and shall have them renewed by 
authority from his Royal Highness the Duke of York, be- 
fore the beginning of the next Court of Assizes."* 

At this court some of the sachems of the Long Island 
r. October. Indians appeared before the governor, and agreed to sub- 
andiffai'ra. mit to liis authority. A few days afterward Nicolls issued 
o octo er. ^ pa^gj^t to David Gardiner, coniirming to him the grant 
of tlie Isle of "Wight, or Gardiner's Island, which had been 
originally made to his father in 1G40, by Farrett, as agent 
of the Earl of Stirling. This was the promptest compli- 
ance of any considerable landowner with the requirement 
of the code.f 

An interesting criminal case was also decided at Nicolls's 
first Court of Assizes. Ralph Hall and his wife Mary 
having been presented by the authorities of Brookhaven 
for practicing " some detestable and wicked arts, common- 
ly called witchcraft and sorcery," which, it was alleged, had 
Q October, causcd two dcatlis, were arraigned before the Court of As- 
witciicraft. sizcs. As the New England penalties against that delusion 
had been left out of the New York code, the prisoners were 
indicted, not for witchcraft, but for murder by means of 
witchcraft. Twelve jurymen, one of whom was Jacob 
Leisler, afterward so prominent in provincial affairs, tried 
the case. They found that there were "some suspicions 
by the evidence of what the \voman is charged with, but 

by the allowance first bad ami obtained under the bands of such as this court shall from 
time to time impower." Mas.x. Kcc , iv. (ii.), CO, 73, 141, 211 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 24S. Thom- 
as, lli.1t. Print., i., 247, gives the date of this order erroneously as of 19 October, 1GC4, in- 
stead of 27 May, 1005. 

• N. V. II. S. Coll., i., 402-411 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 7, 107 ; Wood, 00 ; Hoffman's Trcati.-fp, 
l, 96, 97. 

t Deeds, ii., 127 ; Patents,!., SO; Tliompsrn, i., 311 ; l:oc. Hist., i.,4G3; Dunlap, ii., App. 
cxix. ; ante, vol. i., 297, 20a 



nothing considerable of value to take away her life." As chap, il 
to the man, there was " nothing considerable to charge him 
with." The court thereupon sentenced Ilall to give a re- 
cognizance for his wife's appearance from Sessions to Ses- 
sions, and be of good behavior while they remained within 
the government.* 

In consequence of the war between the United Prov- 
inces and England, Nicolls now ordered in council that all lo October, 
the lands and property within the territories of the Duke o/XLu 
of York, belonging to Dutch subjects who had not taken con'lfs'-"' 
the oath of allegiance to the king, should be confiscated to '^^''"^' 
his majesty's use. This decree was entered on the records ; 
yet while, " for reasons and considerations" satisfactory to 
the governor, it was not made public, it was to stand as 
firm and effectual " as if the same had been publicly de- 
clared and manifested."f 

Nicolls, however, did not dislike the Dutch. "When it 
was found that the salary of their ministers at New York 
had fallen into arrear, the governor directed the mayor 25 necRm. 
and aldermen to enforce a contribution of twelve hundred (;huich 
guilders for their support. As Megapolensis and Drisius 
also preached in some of the parishes on Long Island, the 
people of Bushwick were directed to raise a proportion of 
the sum.:}: 

To the duke Nicolls modestly reported : " My endeavors November. 
have not been wanting to put the whole government into 
one frame and policy, and now the most refractory Repub- 
licans can not but acknowledge themselves fully satisfied 
with the method and way they are in. * * * I have been 

* Court of A?3izea, ii., 39-42; Doc. Uist. X. V., ir., 85, 80; Yates's note to Smith, cd. 
1814; AVood, 24; N. Y. II. S. Coll., i., 320; Vt,\. Kec. Conn., i.,7T; Xew Haven Col. Kec, 
ii., 5T0. One of the last acta of Governor Nicoll?, just before he left New Yorl-;, was to re- 
lease Hall and hij wife from their bonds, on 21 August, ICCS : Ord., Wan., etc., ii., 216, 217 ; 
Doc. Hist , iv., sa. By the statutes of England (".3 lien. VIII., cap. S, and 1 I., cap. 
12), witchcraft, sorcery, and the invocation of evil spirits were felony, without benefit of 
clergy. These Knglish law.s were not repealed until 1T3G. It is worthy of remark, that ou 
the 10th of March, 1005, a few months before Hall and his wife were acquitted in New York, 
"two wrinkled old women" were convicted of bewitching, before Sir Slatthew Hair, chief 
baron of tlie Knglish Court of Kxchoquer, nt Bury P;iint I'dmonds, and were hung, protest- 
ing their innocence: Howell's State Trials, vi., 647-702; Campbell's Chief Justices, i., 

t New York PuiTogate's V.oc. 'Willfl, i.. 1, 2; Val. Man., 1S47, 351. By virtue of this de- 
cree. Hog Island in Hellg.'Xtr, nfterward called JIanning's, and Blackwell's Ireland, was, 
among other property, confiscated : Patontn, i., 129. The earlier volumes of records in the 
New York Surrogate's Office are full of documents of general interest to the state, copies 
of which, at all events, ought to he preserved in the .'Secretary's Office at Albany. 

t Ord., Warr., and Lett., ii., 24; Dunlap, i.,120; N. Y. City Rec, vi., 7."!, 10.%; Thomp- 
son, ii., 15$, V)0 ; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 322. 


cuAr.ii. more industrious than in all the other actions of my life to 
this day ; and what I have done towards the settlement of 

-J pope •/ ' 

laws in the government, Mr. Coventry w^ill show to your 
royal highness." At the same time the governor sent over 
i.aw3 i>ub- " a copy of the laws as they now stand, with the alterations 
the duke, made at the last General Assizes, which," he added, if the 
duke should " be pleased to confirm, and cause them to be 
printed at London, the whole country will be infinitely 
Condition The condition of the metropolis NicoUs told in feelinc: 
vwk. terms. Its whole trade, " both inwards and outwards, is 
lost for want of shipping." The people of Long Island 
were very poor, and labored only to get bread and cloth- 
ing. From the city of New York alone " is the great hopes 
of all the benefit which can arise to your royal highness ; 
and, if my former proposals of encouragement meet with a 
good answer, I may, without boasting, assure your royal 
highness that within five years the staple of America will 
be drawn hither, of which the brethren of Boston are very 

This prophetic remark was made by Nicolls after he had 
visited the capital of Massachusetts in the previous spring. 
Yet New York, at that day, sadly wanted those comforts 
to which even English private soldiers were accustomed. 
" Such is the mean condition of this town, which I am sure 
is the best of all his majesty's towns in America, that not 
one soldier hath to this day, since I brought them out of 
England, been in a pair of sheets, or upon any sort of bed 
Want of 1)iit canvass and straw." Owing to the want of supplies, 
the whole charge of four garrisons had fallen upon the 
governor, which had nearly I'uined his private fortune. 
Cartwright's capture was very unlucky, because, among 
other things, it had prevented the duke from receiving a 
full detail of the condition of his province. Oppressed by 
these considerations, Nicolls asked to be relieved from his 
government, and proposed as his successor " Harry Nor- 
wood," who had returned to England in the Guinea, after 
the conquest, and " whose temper would be acceptable both 
to the soldiers and country."* 

• Col. Doc, iii., 104, 1 no ; Chalmcm, i., 575, 570, 597, 539 ; Gen. F.nt., i., 02 ; N. Y. City 
Rcc, vi., SG, 87. Norwood appears to have been governor of Dunkirk and deputy governor 



Yet gloom was relieved by news that the English had cu.w. u. 
gained a great naval victory over the Dutch in the North 
Sea, and that the Duke of York, " to whose wisdom and '^' 

courage" the result was attributed, had escaped unhurt. 
This event was celebrated in New York with " a general 
joy and thanksgiving ;" and Nicolls assured his chief that Timnu^- 
"it hath revived our spirits, and is antidote both against ^'^*"^' 
hunger and cold, until such time as your royal highness 
shall think us wortliy of a nearer consideration."* 

Before war opened between England and the United Aflfairs la 
Provinces, De Witt and D'Estrades had many conferences ^"'■^^'°' 
about the interference of France. The States General, 
while insisting upon a reciprocal restitution of conquests, 
were willing to adopt the French suggestion that hostilities 
should be confined to New Netherland in America and 
Guinea in Africa, without affecting Europe. Charles hav- 
ing accepted the mediation of Louis, the French king24Apni. 
proposed that New Netherland should be exchanged for 26 May. 
Poleron, one of the Banda or Nutmeg Islands, which the 
Hollanders had retaken from the English. But this was 
declined by the Dutch, who maintained that if conquests 2: May. 
were mutually restored, the}' would only receive back what 
had been '' ravished from them in full peace," and which 
the English " could not appropriate by any just title, nor 
retain under any probable pretext."f 

Hostilities now began vigorously. Off Lowestoffe, on the ^n J""*^- 
coast of Suffolk, the Didce of York, with a large English Jlv^e,^ ll'^; 
fleet, fought the Dutch under Admiral Opdam, whose ship Kn^'il^iMi' 
blew up. After an obstinate combat the Dutch retired to ^-°'^'■''■'^^"^''^ 
their ports, and the English remained, for a short time, 
masters of the sea. James returned in triumph to London. 
An English medal was struck bearing the words " Quatuor 
maria vindico" — I claim the your seas. But the bonfires 
in London which celebrated the victory glared over a 
doomed city. The plague broke out. The appalled court Novemhor. 
fled from "Wliitehall. During the next five months the London, 
metropolis was almost a desert. Thoroughfares were over- 

af Tanker, and in IGTl to have lietn granted tlie quit-rents of Virginia : Pepy;", i., 4C, 355; 
iv.,6T, Dl, 130; Clialm'trs, 1., 32S ; Evelyn, ii., ST ; Campbell, 215, 272 ; ante,p.52. 

* Col. Uoc, iii., 104. 

t Col. Doe., ii., 3'!G-339 ; iii., 104 ; D'Estrade?, iii., SI, S5, S9, 9?, 93, 164, ICS, 1T9, 1S'?_100; 
Aitzcnia, v., 373-376 ; Rnpin, ii., CSS ; De Witt, ii., OS, 70, 93 ; iv., 4C3 ; Basnage, i., 737-740, 
3 6; Anderson on Commerce, ii, 420, 482,4 J3; Pinkcrton, viii., 457; xi.,198; an^;-, p. 7S. 


CllAP. II. 


23 July. 
New Neth- 
and i'olc- 

IC Auguet. 

20 August. 






grown with grass, and the awful silence was broken only 
by the nightly round of the pest-cart.* 

In Holland, naval defeat almost produced a revolution. 
The people began to murmur against De Witt, and all 
anxiously looked for the return of De Ruyter from Amer- 
ica. Louis, annoyed at the growing haughtiness of Charles, 
pressed De Witt to exchange New Netherland for Poleron ; 
and the Pensionary, avowing that the sacrifice would be 
great, agreed that the French king might, " as of his own 
accord," propose it to the King of England. This step 
was kept secret from the States General, for both Louis 
and De Witt feared that the people might declare for 
the young Prince of Orange. The French ambassadors at 
London were directed to make the proposed offer " as from 
themselves," and Louis promised to break with Charles if 
it was not accepted. The States General were urged to 
sustain De Witt's secret agreement ; but they only directed 
the East and AVest India Companies, which were chiefly 
interested, to give their opinions upon the j)roposition.f 

The English ans,wer to the French overture was, that the 
Dutch had usurped New Netherlaiid, to which they had no 
right, and that the king was surprised at a proposal to cede 
Poleron " in compensation for a country already his own." 
With lieadstrong subserviency. Clarendon reiterated the 
falsehood that King James had granted the country, " aft- 
erwards named New Netherland," to Lord Stirling; that 
" the Scotch had begun to cultivate it a long time l)efore 
the Hollanders were received there ;" and tliat, as the Dulvc 
of York liad bought the rights of Stirling's heirs, the Dutch 
province legitimately belonged to the English. Yet the 
chancellor well know that Lord Stirling's claim affected 
Long Island only, and not the rest of New Netherland. 

• Aitzoma, v., 377-3S4, 443-4G0 ; Risnagc, i., 741-743; Pepys, ii , 243-330; Kvelyn, i., 
417-422; Kennctt, iii., 'Jt)5, 25o; Burnet, i.,218, 213; Rapin, ii.,«;iO, C40; Clarke's James 
n.,i., 405-422; Lister's Clurendon, ii., 333-335; iii., 3S0-3S4 ; Courtenay'g Temple, i., 80: 
Martin, i., 270. Tlic Guinea and the Martin, two of the ships which had as.-^isted in the re- 
duction of New Nctlicrland, were in the British fleet in the battle of June, 1GC5, hut under 
other commanders. Three of the captains who returned from New York were also in that 
battle with other ships. Hyde, of the Guinea, commanded the Jersey, 4S; Grove, of the 
Jlartin, the Sucochs, 30; and Hill, of the Ellas, which foundered nn her voyage home, tho 
Coventry, 22 — Allen's Itattles of the British Navy, i., 46 ; Aitzeraa, v., 444, 445; I'epy?, ii., 
185, 249 ; iii., 240 ; (infe, p. 50, 7wtc. 

t D'Estrades, iii., 107, 21.''>, 219, 221, 242, 249, 250. 202, 3G5. 278, 205-301, 318; Aitzemn, 
v., 348-388, 393 ; Col. Doc, ii., 341-353 ; Basnage, i., 743, 750-754 ; Lister, iii., 381, 387, 388, 
893 ; Lambrechtaen, 78, note. 


The Hollanders, he argued, had only been tolerated there cnAr.ii. 

as they would have been liad they established themselves 

in England or elsewhere, where they would not, for that ■^""^• 

reason, acquire any right of sovereignty for their republic. 

The ambassadors of Louis answered this burlesque of rea- Answer of 

soning by showing its utter want of analogy. But they 

saw that " the interest of the Duke of York prevailed," and 

that Clarendon did not believe that the Dutch would break 

off on the point of New Netherland, especially as the Eng 

of France himself had offered to cede it for Poleron. 

This answer of Charles was justly considered by Louis as 
rather " hard, dry, and haughty." lie wrote at once to l^ August. 
D'Estrades, at the Hague, " I will say to you that, having 01°"^ tito 
examined what the English and the Hollanders have writ- uutch to''° 
ten upon the subject of New Netherland, it appears to me ^nrnd!^'''" 
that the right of the Hollanders is the best founded ; for it 
is a species of mockery to make believe that those who 
have built and peopled a city without any one saying a 
word to hinder them would have been tolerated as stran- 
gers in France or in England ; and habitation, joined to a 
long possession, are, in my judgment, two sufficiently good 
titles to destroy all the reasons of the English." At the 
same time, Louis thought, that as the Dutch had already 
lost their American province, they should be willing to 
abandon it for the sake of peace.'"' 

But the States of Holland were too much interested in 
the preservation of New Netherland to consent to its sur- 
render. The city of Amsterdam likewise insisted upon re- 3 septcm. 
covering what had cost it so much. The States General 
would not treat with England unless Charles receded from 
his position ; and De Witt's private agreement with Louis 
was repudiated. The French mediators — who thought ^|septcm. 
that while the Dul^e of York would not give up New 
Netherland, the Dutch made its restitution rather " a point 
of honor" — made farther propositions to the English gov- 
ernment. Charles haughtily replied that they were "not 25 October, 
adapted to secure a firm peace." The West India Com- 
pany, not yet satisfied with Stuyvesant's behavior, resolved 27 October. 
that their own pro"snnce in America should not be ex- cwiiinot 
changed for Poleron, because they had " no partnei-ship" nJ^ N^eth- 

* D'Estrades, iii., 324, 3GO-05-1 ; Aitzemn, v., 393 ; Col. Doc, ii., 354, 356; Basnage, I., 754. 


Chap. II. -svith the East India Company, which had an entire mo- 
7" nopoly in the Eastern seas, while not only were private 
persons largely concerned in New Netherland, but also 
great public interests were involved which would be ruin- 
ed by its loss. "■ 

Meanwhile Downing had left Holland, after having sent 
to the States General a reply to their answer of the ninth 

^j Apiii. of Febi'uary, in which he insisted upon the English title to 
New Netherland, and mendaciously affirmed that it had 
not been " taken by any order" of the king. This having 

10 septem. been published in London, the Dutch government ordered 
their rejoinder to be printed. The absurdity of the En- 

31 Decern, glish claiui was demonstrated ; because, while James the 

maintain First might iiiscrt in a patent such clauses as he chose, he 

toN^ew"' could not thereby prejudice the rights of others;. and, 

iand!'"" moreover, he had expressly excepted territory in the pos- 
session of other states. The " imaginary subterfuge" that 
Charles had not directed the capture of New Netheiiand 
was exposed by quoting his own ordere to Nicolls of the 
23d April, 106i, Full appendices completed this able 
state paper, which fitly closed the long correspondence be- 
tween Holland and England about the conquest of New 

The answer of Charles to the propositions of Louis ended 
any hopes of a peaceable adjustment. All the cities of 

3 Decern. Ilollaud thanked God that he had not accepted them. 

at h.iuti. They determined to bear increased taxation for war rather 
than submit to dishonorable terms of peace. Van Gogh 

u Decern, was rccallcd from London by a letter, in which the States 
General set forth their offers of reciprocal restitution, and 
the British haughty repulse of them. Charles, on his part, 

ic Decern, insisted that the Provincial States of Holland were " the 
real authors" of a war which seemed to ''prejudice the 
Protestant religion.";}; And as this eventful year closed, 
the two gi-eat champions of the Reformation prepared for 
a fiercer struggle. 

• D'Estrades, iii., HCO, nfi5, 371, 3S2, .^95, 43.''>, 444, 4:2; Aitzemn, v., 395; Basnage, i., 
755; Col. Dec, ii., 357, 353. 3;;l, 417-419; Courlcnay'i? Temple, i., 7.5; MSS. N. Y. II. Soc, 
conimimic:iteil by M. r. A. G. C;impbell, of tlie llngue. 

t D'Kstra.le-', iii.,363; Aitzemn, v., 394 ; Col. Doc, ii., 331-335, 379-115; ante,\t. 19. 

t Aitzcma, v., 394, 396, 397 ; D'Estradcs, iii., 565, 50G, 577, 531 ; Basnage, i., 766. 



A FRESH element now entered into the liistory of Xew cuat. hi. 
York. Louis, reluctant! J fulfilling his engagement to as- 
sist Holland against England, issued a declaration of war 59 j^n. ' 
ae-ainst Charles the Second. It was very moderate in its '''"'"^'^^ ^^■ 

o •/ clarea war 

tone ; for the French king secretly sympathized with his ?g^j° ^^ 
English brother, and was really hostile to the Republic of 
heretics and merchants. "■ This is a great step I have 
taken," wrote Louis to D'Estrades at the Hague, " for the 
sole interest of the States, and in almost every thing con- 
trary to my OAVU." The next month England declared war a. Feb. 
against France. Charles immediately directed his Ameri- 22 Feb. 
can colonies to be on their guard against the enemy, and to colonial 
reduce " all islands and plantations in those parts belonging 
to the French or Dutch nation, and especially that of Can- 
ada." These orders, however, did not reach Xew York until 
the following summer. But they foreshadowed an aggress- 
ive colonial policy, which, culminating in the conquest of 
New France by England a century afterward, prej^ared the 
way for the American Revolution. ■"'■ 

Interesting events had meanwhile happened on the 
northern frontier of New York. The treaty which Nic- 
olls had so promptly caused to be made with the native 
Indians at Albany, and his subsequent behavior toward 
them, were meant to make them firm friends of the En- 
glish, as they had been of the Dutch. The territory of the 
Mohawks and Oneidas was within the Duke of York's pat- 
ent ; and even at that early day the time was perhaps an- 
ticipated when the five confederated nations, instead of 

* Aitzema, v., C93, G95, 912; D'Estrade.', iv., 47, C5, 70 ; Kcnnett, iii., 258; Rapin, ii., 
641, 642 ; Kasna^e, i., 770 ; Lavallee, iii., 212 ; Martin, i., 272 ; Courtcnay's Temple, j., 82 ; 
Col. Doc, iii., 120, 137 ; Gol. Kec. Conn., ii., 514 ; Shea's note to Miller's N. Y., 113, 114. 

IL— G 


cn^p. III. being treated as equals, would be claimed as English sub- 

jects, and used as barriers against the neighboring French 

,. ^, ; in Canada. Between New France and New Netherlaud 
andCana- tlicrc had bccu little if any disagreement, while many acts 
of kindness shown by the Dutch were long remembered by 
the French authorities. But now, instead of placid Hol- 
land, aiTffressive En^i-Iand was sovereign of New York. 
Where there had been friendship was soon to l)e discord ; 
and national antipathies, which could not be repressed in 
Europe, were destined to begin, in the country of the Iro- 
quois, an eventful struggle for ultimate supremacy in North 
French It had bccu the policy of France to obtain a spiritual as 

canadi" "Well as temporal dominion over the savages who encom- 
passed her colonists in the New World. Wherever the 
lilies were planted, there was set up the cross. With he- 
roic devotion the missionaries of Christianity pushed on 
their labors among the tribes south of the Saint Lawrence 
and " the beautiful lake" which the Iroquois called " Onta- 
rio."* Of all these confederated tribes the Onondagas were 
the most friendly to the French, This was chiefly owing 
to their greatest orator, Garakontie, " the sun that advan- 
ces," who had nothing savage in him " except birth and 
education." A nephew of the " Atotarho," or great sachem 
of the Iroquois, but himself neither sachem nor chief, Gara- 
kontitj had acquired immense power over his countrymen 
by his eloquence and his political wisdom. He had pro- 
tected the Jesuit father Simon le Moyne at Onondaga, and 
had induced the remote Cayugas and Senecas to join his 
own nation in releasing their French prisoners, with whom 
the missionary returned to Canada in the summer of 1662.f 
But the nearer Oneidas and Mohawks cherished enmity, 
and even threatened Montre-Jil. Tliis aroused the Canadian 
government. The Baron Pierre du Bois d'Avaugour, who 
had succeeded D'Argenson in 1661, "was a soldier, who 

• "Ontario" signifies in Indian "the beautiful lake:" Col. Doc, ix., IC; Hennepin's Lou- 
isiana, 5. The note in Col. Doc, ix., 70, which renders Ontario "tlie Great Lake," is con- 
tradictory, and scem.s to be erroneous. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 13, IG, 76 ; Relation (ed. Quebec, 1858), 1661, ^^SS ; 1662, 10-12 ; Henne- 
pin, Desc. de la I.oui.iiane, 5; Charlevoix (ed. 12mo), ii., 8S, lOS-110, 144; Shea's Catholic 
Mission.', 242,248; Fcrland, Ilistoire du Canada, i., 470-177; Faillon, Hist, dcla Col. Fran- 
faise en Canada, ii,4.'>0; iii., 2, 92; Rparks's Life of r,n Salle, 71 ; Bancroft, iii., 1'20-162; 
aiitr, vol. i., 84, 704. Le Moj-ne died at tlin Cap de la Madeleine, 24 November, 1665: Col. 
Doc, iii., 123 ; ix., 3S; Shea's Missiou.s, 24S. 


thought it his chief duty "to plant effectually the Jleiw de chap. in. 
/y«" in New France. lie recommended to Louis a scheme 
of fortifications by which Quebec would be made impreg-^^ug^gj' 
nable, and the king "■ master of America, where all the her- ^J^'^^i- 
etics would remain only so long as might please him." The jg^frucfion 
Iroquois he considered a rabble to be destroyed. To this°^'^«'''o- 
end forts should be built on the Eichelieu Kiver, and at the 
upper part of the Hudson, near Fort Orange. Three thou- 
sand men should be sent to Canada to rout the Iroquois, 
hinder the progress of the heretics, and open a direct com- 
munication with the sea through the more genial region of 
Kew Netherland. Should his bold plan be vigorously pros- 
ecuted, D'Avaugour prophesied that his ambitious sover- 
eign would be " master of the finest and greatest empire in 
the world." 

On the other hand, the Jesuit missionaries insisted that ThcjcsuUs 
their greatest obstacle was the drunkenness of the Indians, nquor 

... ti'adc. 

who were supplied with liquors by the Europeans, and es- 
pecially by the Dutch at Fort Orange. The French colo- 
nists had been forbidden by severe edicts from engaging 
in this traffic. But D'Avaugour would not enforce the 
prohibition ; and a quarrel broke out between him and the 
ecclesiastics, headed by Laval de Montmorency, the titular 
Bishop of Pctree, in jMy'tibus infidelium^ who had come 
out to Quebec in 1659 as Yicar Apostolic of New France. 
Laval complained to the king, who, at his suggestion, ap- 
pointed the Chevalier Augustin de Mezy, an apostate Cal- 1 jray. 
vinist, to succeed D'Avaugour as Governor of Canada. De Govemo^- 
Mezy arrived at Quebec in the summer of 16G3, accompa- ° 
nied by the Royal Commissary Du Pont Gaudais, who or- 
ganized the colonial government which Louis had estab- 
lished after the surrender to him of all their rights by the 
old Canada Company." 

The administration of De Mez}- was short and troubled. \aax 
Its most important event was an embassy sent by the Iro- iioqnois 
quois to Montreal, in the summer of 1664, to treat f or jtoi^cai. '^ 
peace. Tlie Mohawks had been M^eakened and their pride 
humbled by their war with the Mahicans, or " Loups."t 

* CoL Doc, i.\-., 7-17, 25. 53,783,784; Relation, 1661, 10; Qiichec MSS.,U. (ii.)170; Gar- 
neau,TH3t. du Canada, i., 140-146, 155; Ferland, i., 44", 44S, 47G-4S.1, 494-500; Faillon, iL, 
322 ; iii., 30-GO ; Charlevoix, ii., SS, 105, 120-123, 13.5, 13T, 140, 146 ; ante^ vol. i., T05. 

t The Maliicana or Slohegans were originally Bettled on the Hudson River, and were 


ciiAP. III. The far-off Senecas were in arms against their fierce neigh- 
bors, the Andastes, or Conestogues, or Susquehannas, who 
inhabited the region west of the Swedes on the Delaware, 
near what is now Lancaster in Pennsylvania, and were 
thonght " the most capable of all others to exterminate the 
Iroquois.''* The confederate nations therefore desired 
that the French should live among them and supply them 
18 septem. with European weapons. De Mezy was assured by the 
upper tribes that all except the Oneidas desired peace ; and 
the friendly disposition of the Mohawks was vouched for 
by a letter from " one of the notables of New Nether- 
land." But the governor let the Iroquois see that the 
French were resolved to rid themselves of such treacherous 
enemies, f 

De Mezy, however, quarreled with the Jesuits, as his 
predecessor had, and was recalled by Colbert. The Chev- 
1665 ^^i®^* Daniel de Remy de Courcelles, a brave oflicer of 
33 March, merit and experience, was commissioned to succeed him as 
Kovcmor of governor of Canada. The Sieur Jean Talon, formerly of 
and Tnion Ilaiuault, a mau of large views and enterprising mind, was 
also appointed intendant of justice, police, and finance. 
D'Avaugour's plans of fortification, which he had ex- 
plained more fully on his return to France, and the ad- 
vice of D'Estrades to destroy the Iroquois in a year, were 
now favorably considered. The king's instructions to Ta- 
27 March, lou declared the five nations to be " j^erpetual and irrecon- 
cilable enemies of the colony," and ordered that war should 
be carried " even to their firesides, in order totally to ex- 
temiinate them." A thousand veterans of the Carignan 
regiment, which had just distinguished itself against the 
Turks in Hungary, were detached, under the command of 

therefore often called the " River Indians." Their Indian name " Mahigan" was the Algon- 
quin word for " wolf," which the French translated into "I.oiip:" Uclation, ICGO, 31; 1661, 
nO; 160-i, 33 ; Charlevoix, v., 178 ; Col. Doc, i.K., 38, 66 ; mite, vol. i., 72, 183, 232, 733. 

• Relation, 1600,6; 16r)l,31 ; 1663,10; 1664,33; Cliarlevoix, i., 134; Col. Doc.,iii.,74,125, 
417,797; v., 4-86; ix., 45, 60, 84, 227, 665; Doc. Hist, i., 250; Shea, 24, 249, 291. Mr. Gal- 
latin erroneously places tlic Andastes on the Alleghany and Ohio Rivers, and calls tlicm 
Ouyandots. The Mcngwe, Minqua.s, or Mingoes were the Andastes, or Gandastogiies, or 
Conestogas, who lived on the (^onostoga Creek, whicli empties into tlic Snsqiiehanna. Upon 
their reduction hy the Five Iroquois Nations in 1675, the Andastes were to a great ex- 
tent mingled with tlieir conquerors; and a party removing to the Ohio, commonly called 
Mingoes, was thus made up of Iroquois and Mingoes. The celebrated Logan was a real 
Andaste: Colden, i. ; Shea'a note on Wa.shington's Ohio Diary, p. 224; Historical Mag.a- 
zine, ii., 294-297. 

t Relation, 1663, 1 1 ; 1664, 26,32-36; CharlevoLx, ii.,134, 141, 142; Garncau, i.,156; Shea, 
250,251; Faillon, iii., 83-100; ante, vo\.i., 133. 


the Sieur de Sali^res, and Coiircelles set sail with liis ex- chap.iii. 
peditiou for Canada. '''' 

In the mean time, Lonis had commissioned Alexander jg No^em. 
de Prom-ille, Marquis de Tracy, to be his lieutenant gen-^j^^^y^^«- 
eral in America, in the absence of the Count D'Estrades, i^rance. 
whom he had appointed viceroy, but wlio was now his am- 
bassador in Holland. Tracy embarked with four com- 
panies of infantry, and, after visiting the West Indies, sail- 
ed for the Saint Lawrence. Among other things, the act- laa^ 
ing viceroy was instructed to avoid quarreling with tliei5Xovem. 
Jesuits, but not let them encroach too much. Their inter- 
diction of the liquor trade had injured Canada, because the 
savages carried all their peltries to the Dutch, who sup- 
plied them with brandy in exchange. Another conse- 
quence followed : the Iroquois allowed themselves " to be 
catechized by the Dutch ministers, who instruct them in 
heresy." In the opinion of Lyonne, the Jesuits should 
have "closed the eye to one evil to avoid a greater." 1665 

Soon after Tracy reached Quebec, he w^as joined by so June. 
Courcelles and Talon. The squadron in which they came 
brought over, besides the Carignan regiment, a number of u septcm. 
mechanics and cattle, and the first horses that had been 
seen in Canada ; " in a word, a more considerable colony 
than that which it came to rc-inforce." No time was lost 
in executing the vigorous policy which Louis had adopted. 
The viceroy, with all liis soldiers, went up to the mouth of 23 juiy. 
the Richelieu, when the fort which Montmagny had estab-ontue" 
lished in 1642 was at once rebuilt by the able engineer or &frcr' 
Saurel, or Sorel, whose name is commemorated in that 
which the river now bears. A second fort was erected by 
Chambly at the foot of the rapids, about half way to Lake 
Champlain, which at fii-st was called Saint Louis, but was 
soon known as Fort Chambly. Three leagues farther south 
a tliird fort was built, called Sainte Thertise, because it was 
finished on the fifteenth day of October. Here Sali6res 
took his post as colonel ; and the way to Lake Champlain 15 October, 
was now commanded by the French.f 

• Col. Doc, ix., 20-20, 785; Faillon, iii., 100-110: Charlevoix, ii., 145-14T, l.')0; D'Es- 
trades, ii., T>~G, 577; Gameau, i., ISS, ISO; ante, p. 73. De Mezy died at Quebec on the 
5th of May, 1665, a short time heforo Couroellps arrived there. 

+ Col. Doc, ix., IS, 10, 22 ; Relation, 1665, n, 4, 7, 10-13, 25 ; I,a Potheric, i., 319 ; ii., 82, 
S3; Charlevoix, i., 357; ii., 151, 152; v., 221; Doc. Hist, I, 43-45; Warburton, i., 373; 
Gameau, i., 100; Fcrland, i., 320; Faillon, iii., 117-126; Shea, 251. On the map in the 


Chap. III. TliGSG vigoroiis iiiGasures impressed the savages. Depu- 

ties from the Oiiondagas, who also represented the Cayu- 

Decem^r S^^ ^^^ Seiiecas, liasteiied to Tracy at Quebec, led by Gara- 

The West, kontic, " the father of the Frenchmen." An Oneida chief 

ern Iro- ' ,/,,.. 

quois visit ioined the Western ambassadors, and spoke for his nation, 
tio." Presents were interchanged between the Iroquois plenipo- 
tentiaries and " Onnontio,"* by which name they distin- 
{^ Decern, guishcd the governor of Canada. A treaty was made, by 
rn^Ae^ wliich Louis was declared the protector and sovereign of 
the four Iroquois nations, and they his vassals and allies. 
French families and missionaries were to be settled among 
the savages, and farms near Montreal, Three Rivers, and 
Quebec assigned to emigrants from the four Iroquois na- 
tions. Thus these nations would " hold the French, not 
merely by the hem and fringe of the garment, but clasp 
The Mo- them cordially around the waist." The Mohawks were not 
included, included in the treaty. The representatives of the other 
confederates promised to return to Quebec "within four 
moons," and ratify this acknowledgment of their vassalage 
to France.f 
Canada ig- Up to this time the French in Canada were ignorant of 
the L°ng°i9ii the political changes in ISIew York. Tliey supposed that 
NTw^Neth- it was Still a Dutch province. The boundaries between 
eriand. ]s["e^ FrancG and the neighboring English colonies were in- 
definite ; but while tlie Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and 
Senecas had just given to Louis a nominal sovereignty over 
much of the territory south of Lake Ontario, the Mohawks 
had never acknowledged their subjection to any European 
master. Tracy therefore resolved to treat them as enemies. 
1GG6. An expedition into the Mohawk country was organized, 
and Courcelles was directed to take the command. In the 
9 January, dcptli of wintcr lic began his march with three hundred 
regular soldiers and two hundred Canadians. The Father 

Rcl.ilion of 1CC5, the name of Sorel is spellod " Saurel," which seems to be the true orthog- 
raphy according to Col. Doc, ix., 5'2, 5,"?, ].^;>. 

* This word, derived from "Onnontn," a mountain, signifies in the Iroquois tongue, 
"Great mountain." It was a literal translation of the name of Montmagny, who was gov- 
ernor of Canada from 1G3G to 1C4S ; and the savages, having become familiar with the word, 
applied it to his succcsi^ors in office. I?y the same rule they called the King of France 
"Grand Onnontio." The Knglish, who did not nnderstand its etymology, wrote the word 
" Vonnondio :" Relation, 1C41, 22 ; 1C5S, 8 ; Doc. llL^t., i., 32, 33, 35 ; Col. Doc, iii., 4S9, 7.^3, 
735; iv.,803; ix.,37; La Potherie, i., 303, 348; Charlevoix, i., 350; Golden, i., 29, 62, 70 ; 
ante, vol. i., 591, note. 

t Gol. Doa, iii., 121-125; ix., 37, 3S; Relation, IGGl, .SS; lfiG4, 32; 1065, 5; Charlevoix, 
11., 154, 155; Doc. Hist., i., 46; Gameau, i., 193 ; Shea, 251; laillon, iii., 127, I2S. 


Pierre Raffeix went along as chaplain. Snow four feet chap. m. 
deep covered the ground, so tliat no horses could be used. ~~ 
Light sledges, drawn by mastiffs, were the only mode of ^.g,,,. * *' 
conveying provisions. Each officer and soldier was also pg"^;','],^ ^" 
obliged to carry a weight of thirty poimds, and to walk on jf^f,"'',.'j" 
large Canadian snow-shoes, to the use of which the heroes 
fi'om Hungary were not accustomed. It required " a 
French courag-e" to sustain their lone; and difficult, marcli 
through American forests, over deep snow, and across 
fi'ozen lakes and rivers, and to sleep in the woods, where 
the cold was more severe than the rudest winters in Eu- 
rope, From Fort Sainte Ther6se they passed southward, so j.m-y. 
over Lake Champlain, toward the Mohawk villages. But, 
in the absence of tlieir expected Algonquin guides, they 
missed their way, and wandered in the wilderness until, 
without knowing where they were, they encamped about t>> reb/y. 
two miles from Schenectady, or Corlaer.-'" A party of Mo- Fiencii 
hawks appearing, a detachment of f usileers was sent against tady. 
them, which, falling into an ambuscade, lost several killed 
and wounded. The Mohawks reported their victory at 
Schenectady, and exhibited the heads of four Frenchmen 
as trophies. The news was dispatched to Albany, and the 
next day three of the " principal inhabitants" came to in- ^5 Fcbr-v. 
quire why the French commander had brought '' such a 
body of armed men into the dominions of his majesty of 
Great Britain without acquainting the governor of these 
parts with his designs ?" Courcelles replied that he had 
come to attack and destroy his enemies, the Mohawks, but 
not to molest the English ; and that he " had not heard of 
the reducing those parts to his majesty's obedience." See- 
ing that the English, instead of the Dutch, were masters, he 
was " disturbed in mind," and prophetically remarked " that 
the King of England did grasp at all America." As it was 
reported that France and Holland had miited against En- 
gland, Courcelles inquired particularly about the force at 
Albany, thinking that he might take the place by a rapid 
movement. But, learning that the fort was garrisoned by 
sixty English soldiers with nine cannon, and that Baker 

• The French called this place "Corlner," after Arendt Van Curler, who had bcgnn a set- 
tlement there in ICGl: see ante, vol. i., 345, C59, 631, 732; Golden, i., 31; Charlevoix, ii., 
156; Col. Doc., ix., 407. 








•nAP. III. had sent down to Brodhead at Esopus for a re-enforce- 
ment, he abandoned the project. At his request, seven of 
his wounded were taken to Albany for medical aid. Wine 
and provisions were cheerfully supplied, through the influ- 
ence of Van Curler ; but Courcelles declined the offers of 
accommodation for his troops in Schenectady, lest his half- 
starved followers, who had camped under the cold blue 
heavens for six weeks, might desert if brought " within the 
smell of a chimney-comer." Learning that most of the 
Mohawks and Oneidas had gone to attack the " wampum 
makers," wdiile the rest had retired to their castles, and 
fearing that a sudden thaw might break up the ice, Cour- 
celles " found it reasonable to return home, nothing effect- 
ed." He began his retreat with a show of marching to- 
ward the Mohawk villages, but soon faced northward, and 
pushed rapidly for Canada. The savages pursued their 
enemies to Lake Champlain, and made some prisoners. 
The Frencli supposed that they had terrified the Mohawks, 
w^ho only took fi-esh courage because their vainglorious 
adversaries had " vanished like false fire."* 

When the news of Courcelles's expedition reached Is ic- 
olls, he was " surprised" at such an invasion of " these His 
Majesty's dominions" in time of peace, wdiich was " not 
conformable to the practice in Europe." Yet he com- 
mended the fi-iendly conduct of the Albany officers, wdiose 
predecessors had " in all former times been very affection- 
ate with Christian charity to ransom or by an}^ other means 
to convey divers French prisoners out of the hands of their 
barbarous enemies." The wounded Frenchmen who had 
been left there were caref ull}^ attended by Surgeon D'llinse, 
wdio spoke their own tongue. With Nicolls's approbation, 
the officers at Albany exerted themselves so that the Mo- 
hawks " Avere at last wrought upon to treat of peace" wath 
the Frencli ; and a letter from Baker and his colleagues, 
announcing the event to Tracy, was handed to the Oneidas 
to carry to Quebec. Li consequence of the supplies which 
had been furnished to Courcelles, and of an anticipated 

i!4 March, sliort crop, tlic govcmor was obliged to prohibit the ex- 

Artion of 

2C March. 

• Relation, 1G6G, C, 7 ; Col. Doc., 118, 119, 126, 12T, 133, 1.52, 305; Doc. Hist., i., 46, 47, 50, 
M, .%'-), 100 ; Charlevoix, ii., 144, 156, 157 ; Colden, i., 31, 32 ; Mass. U. S. Coll., L, 161 ; Fail- 
lou, iii., 129-134. 


portation of wheat from New York, except by special li- chap. in. 

By this time apprehension of an attack by De Ruyter 
had ceased ; but the want of trade, caused by the war and 
the Enghsh navii^ation laws, was grievous to New York. 
In letters to the Duke of York, and Clarendon and Coven- 
try, Nicolls described the sad condition of the province. 
To Arlington he wrote, " In regard the inhabitants (at 9 Aprii. 
least three parts of four) being Dutch, though now His Maj- of Nicoiis" 
esty's subjects as native English, have been seated here '°™^' 
divers years as a factory, and their estates as well as rela- 
tions interwoven with their correspondents and friends in 
Holland, unless His Majesty pleaseth to grant them some 
extraordinary enfranchisement, the sudden interruption of 
their factory with Holland will absolutely destroy all the 
present inhabitants ; who, setting aside the innate love to 
their country in this time of war after so sudden a change, 
will prove better subjects than we have found in some of 
the other colonies ; and, with a moderate permission, both 
for time and trade, will support this government better 
than can be reasonably expected from new comers of our 
own nation, who at first, as we find by experience, are 
blown up with large designs, but not knowing the knack 
of trading here to differ from most other places, they meet 
with discouragements, and stay not to become wiser." After 
alluding to the action of the royal commissioners, and the 
" sophistry" and " pride" of Massachusetts, Nicolls remarked 
that New York " will withdraw, in short time, most of their 
trade hither, where I have begun to set up a school of bet- 
ter religion and obedience to God and the king." Again he 
urged that " a speedy consideration be taken of the neces- 
sities both of the soldiers and country. For myself," he 
added, " I am utterly ruined in my small estate and credit ; 
and, which is worse, without very great supplies I shall not 
be able to secure or make an honest defence of his maj- 
esty's interest should we be attacked by a foreign force." 
The English soldiers, upon whom alone he could rely, were 
now dispereed into four garrisons, at New York, Esopus, Al- 

• Col. Doc, iii., 12G-134; Ord., Wavr., Ixtt., ii., HO, TS, 157. Nicolls appcaw to havo 
thought of Rending Van Curler to Canada, hut the latter did not go until the next year : Col. 
Doc., iii., 128, 150 ; 2>ost, 121. 



cuAP. in. 


The Dela- 
ware terri- 

eO March. 

D April. 

9 April. 

IS May. 
1 laerlcra 

Shelter Isl- 
and patent, 

25 Mav. 

bany, and the Delaware. "My ignorance," lie modestly 
suggested, '* made me bold to undertake so great a charge, 
which will become a much wiser man and of a more plen- 
tiful fortune."* 

The Delaware territory had meanwhile been governed 
by Nicolls on his own responsibility, without any directions 
from England. To encourage its trade, he directed that no 
duties should be levied on any merchandise carried between 
it and New York. By Ensign Arthur Stock, who had acted 
as commissary there, Nicolls wrote to Arlington, exposing 
the fallacy of Lord Baltimore's pretensions to the Delaware 
country, and urging that it might be granted to Berkeley 
and Carteret in place of New Jersey. " If some course be 
not taken to rectify these great mistakes," he added, " New 
York, Delaware, and the Lord Berkeley's interest will de- 
stroy each other." Sir Bobert Carr, who was now at New 
York, also renewed his suggestion that Delaware should be 
united with some of the Eastern colonies, and himself made 
the governor, which he thought would be " both useful and 
beneficial." Nevertheless Delaware long remained an in- 
convenient apjDendage to New York.f 

In spite of the admonitions of Nicolls, few patents for 
lands were yet issued. An important one, however, was 
granted to tlie inhabitants of Ilaerlem, or " Lancaster," 
which confirmed their former privileges, but in subordina- 
tion to the city of Ne^v York, " as being within the liber- 
ties thereof.":}: 

Following the examj^le of Gardiner, the owners of Shel- 
ter Island obtained a confirmation of their title. This 
beautiful spot, formerly known as " Farret's Island," had 
come into the possession of Thomas Middleton, and Con- 
stant and Nathaniel Sylvester, of l>arbadoes. The latter, 
who professed to be a Quaker, settled himself at Shelter 
Island. In consideration of one hundred and fifty pounds, 
paid " one half in beef and the other half in pork," toward 
the support of the New York government, Nicolls released 

* Col. Doc, iii., 114, llfi. Tlii.s letter, heing nddrcssed to Lord Arlington as Secretary of 
State, iii preserved in the nrilish State Paper Office. Those of the same date, which Nicoll.^ 
wrote to the Duke of York, Lord Clarendon, and Secretary Coventr)', were not deposited 
there : Rce N. V. II. S. Coll. (ISGO), 1 13-120. 

t Ord., Wan-., Lett., ii.,43; S. Hazard, SCO, 370; Col. Doc., iii , 105, 100, 113-115; R. L 
Col. Rec, ii., l.JT, US ; Chalmers, i., C:!4. 

} P.itents, i , 5T-G0 ; Hoffman, i., 131 ; antf, p. 70 ; vol. i., C74, 675. 


the island forever from all taxes and all military duty. A cuap. ni. 
patent was also issued coniirmino: it to the Sylvesters as an 
" entire enfranchised township, manor, and place of itself," ^^^^ 
with equal privileges with any other town in the province.* 

Yisiting Hempstead again at the time of the annual 
races, Nicolls made a treaty with Tackapansha, the chief ii June, 
sachem of the Marsapeagues, and other Long Island tribes, 
by which they covenanted to be at peace with the English 
and snbmit to their government.f 

In the mean time there was great discontent on Long Discontent 
Island, especially in its eastern towns, which were vexed island"" 
at being no longer under the government of Connecti- 
cut. Southampton, Southold, and Easthampton refused to lo Apiu 
choose the local officers required by the duke's laws, and 
would not jDay their rates. Nicolls therefore warned them 21 ApriL 
against sedition, and that the duke's anthority wonld be 
enforced. The oath required fi'om the overseers seemed 
to be the chief stumbling-block, and this the governor pru- 
dently waived. The authors of the trouble were Howell, 3 May. 
of Southampton, and Younge, of Southold, whose rival and 
colleague at the Hempstead meeting, William Wells, had 
been made high-sheriif of Yorkshire. In the judgment of t .May. 
Nicolls, Younge was " a bad instrument," but had no brains 
'' to carry on such a business." ITnderhill, the high-consta- 
ble of the North Riding, whose "reall hart" inclined to Con- 
necticut, likewise wrote from Oyster Bay representing " the 29 Api-u. 
distempers of the people against the present form of govern- 
ment, by which they are inslaved under an arbitrary pow- 
er," and intimated that there av ere some who would " hazard 
both life and estate in a mutiny and rebellion rather than 
bear the burden of the public charge." Nicolls pcremp- nicohs 
torily denounced the complainants as calumniators or trai- Tedufo^.^ 
tors, and made known his purpose to act vigorously, but ^ ^^"^^ 
justly, in every case.:}: 

Much of this ill feeling arose fi'om the discontent of the cause of 
eastern Long Island towns with the result of the Hemp- lent. "'*^°°" 
stead meeting. They disliked various provisions in Nicolls's 

* New Unvcn C;ol. Itec , ii., .^1, S9, 92, i:2, 190-104, "04, SSO, 41-? ; Col. Rec. Conn., i., :.S6. 
r.9n, 400, 427; Cldraixon, ii.,2S; Fox's Journal (Philad. ed ), 4:iS, 442, 4.''>:{ ; Patents, i., 6!>, 
133; Tliorapson, i., 304-36T. 392 ; Wood, C, 9 ; ante, p. 90 ; vol. i , 292, 300, GOl. 

t Wood, "9; Thompson, i, 94; ii,3. 

t Ord , Wan-., Lett., ii., 40, 4T, 50, 51, 55, 5S, 59, CO, 01 ; Mas.s. II. S. CoX, xxxvii., 192. 


Chap. III. code, Riid pined for a legislative assembly after the manner 
of New Eno-land. Above all, they were mortified bv what 
they thought was servile language in the address of their 
delegates to the Duke of York. This f eehng grew when it 
was seen that several of those delegates had been appointed 
to ofiice by the governor. Censm-es were so fi-eely uttered 
by the disaffected, that the delegates, to justify themselves, 
21 June, drew up a " Xarrative and Remonstrance," in wliich they 
tiv^"'of the detailed what had occurred at Hempstead, and declared 
dde^tes!^ that their address to the duke could not " bear any other 
natural sense and construction than our obedience and sub- 
mission to His Majesty's letters patent, according to our 
duty and allegiance." This narrative they published and 
recorded in each to\vn, " that future ages may not be season- 
ed with the sour malice of such unreasonable and ground- 
less aspersions."'"^ 

Yet this did not satisfy the people. Disaffection became 

60 general that the governor was obliged to interfere. At 

September, the autuuin scssiou of the Court of Assizes, it was accord- 

the Court ino-ly decreed " that whosoever shall reproach or defame 

d'' Assizes . 

!is!iinst SB- any person or pei-sons who have or shall act in any public 
employment, either in court or otherwise, rr shall vilif}" 
their proceedings who serve the public in this Government 
by authority under His Eoyal Highness the Duke of York, 
or whoever hereafter shall any ways detract or speak 
against any of the deputies signing the Address to His 
Royal Highness at the General Meeting at Hempstead, 
they shall be presented at the next Court of Sessions, and 
if the Justices shall see cause, they shall from thence be 
bound over to the Assizes, there to answer for the slander 
upon plaint or information." Sedition was most violent 
at Sctalcott, or Brookhaven. Arthur Smith, of that place, 
was convicted at the Assizes of saying that " the King was 
none of his Iving, and the Governor none of his Governor," 

29 septem. and Sentenced to be put in the stocks. Richard Wood- 
luill was also fined five pounds, and required to make 

1 October, a public acknowledgment. The same punishment was 
awarded to William LaAvi'cnce, of Flushing.f 

• Deeds, ii. , -IS-IS ; Wood, 87, 17.% IT."); Thompson, i., 137 ; ii., 323-320. 
t Court of Assizes, ii., 82, S.!, 84, 94; Col. MSS., x.xii., 107; N. V. 11. S. Coll., i , 417: 
Thompson, 1., 137, 400, 410 ; ii., 3G4, 398. 


Several amendments of the code were made at this ses- chap. ni. 
sion of the Assizes. Public rates were required to be paid 
every year in wheat and other produce, at certain lixed 27 ggptem. 
prices, " and no other jDayment shall be allowed of." As ^ Q^t^^^r. 
the law a2;ainst sellinij; liquor to the savas-es was disrec:ard- ■'^™<'°''; 

o Jr> 1 O o ments to 

ed, owing to the difficulty of proof, it was ordered " that al- "'e codu. 
though the testimony of heathens against Christians may 
not altogether be allowed, yet, when it meets witli other 
apparent circumstances, such as may be sufficient to con- 
vince a jury, in such cases the Indian testimonies shall be 
admitted as good proofs against the persons accused." Per- 
haps the most important decree related to land patents. 
" The Court having taken notice of the defects and failings 
of both towns and persons in particular of not bringing in 
their grants or patents to receive a confirmation of them, 
or not coming to take out new grants where they are de- 
fective, or where there are none at all, according to former 
directions in the Law, As also taking it into their serious con- 
siderations that several towns and persons within this Gov- 
ernment, as well English as Dutch, do hold their lands and 
houses upon the conditions of being subjects to the States 
of the United Belgic Provinces, which is contrary to the 
allegiance due to his Majesty, They do therefore Order that 
all grants or patents whatsoever formerly made, shall be 
brouglit in, to be confirmed or renewed by authority of his Land pat- 
Royal Highness the Duke of York, and all such as have renewed, 
not patents shall like'svise be supphed therewith by the first 
day of April next after the date hereof ; after which time 
neither town nor private person, whether English or Dutch, 
shall have liberty to plead any such old grants, patents, or 
deeds of purchase in law, but they shall be looked upon as 
invalid to all intents and puq^oses."* 

This stringent ordinance made great commotion. It was 
vigorously enforced, because the quit-rents and fees on 
renewals were necessary for the support of the govern- 
ment. In the course of the next few months, Xeperliaem, 
Pelham, Westchester, Eastchester, Huntington, Flushing, New pat- 
Brookhaven, Easthampton, New Utrecht, Gravesend, Ja-ed. ^'" 
maica, Hempstead, NewtoAvn, Flatlands, Bush wick, Flat- 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 80; Col. MSS., xxii., lOT; N. Y. Uist. Eoc. Coll., i., 414-419; noff- 
man's Treatise, l.,97. 



ouAr.iii. biisli, and Brookl^Ti, paid new fees and obtained new 
charters wliich generally confirmed to each of them their 
old bonndaries, and " all the rights and privileges belong- 
ing to a town within this government." But Southold and 
Southampton refused to comply with this law ; and it was 
not until several years afterward that they were finally 
obliged to yield.* 

Nicolls, however, made allowances in special cases. In 
the city of ISTew York, where all land titles were derived 
NpwYork from the Dutch West India Company, the payments for 
Albany new pateuts were neatly eased. The magistrates of Al- 
fgXoveni. bany were granted a month's delay, "in regard 'tis uncer- 
tain whether the river will be open before the time prefix- 
ed by the Court of Assizes for bringing in your ground- 
briefs under a penalty." They were also desired to keep 
a strict hand upon the authors or reporters of strange news, 
" that amongst yourselves no cpiarrels or disputes may arise, 
and to the end tliat English and Dutch may live as broth- 
ers." At the same time Nicolls advised Jeremias van 
Eensselaer, who claimed Albany as a part of Kensselaer- 
wyck, " not to grasp at too much authority," as the ques- 
tion was to be settled by the Duke of York, to whom it had 
been referred. "If you imagine," he added, "there is 
pleasure in titles of Government, I wish that I could serve 
your appetite, for I have found only trouble."t 

The roguery of some of the soldiers gave Nicolls much 
annoyance. Thomas Weall and two others of the garrison 
9 Novcm. at New York were convicted of having stolen some goods 
eoitere.' " out of Captain Carteret's cellar," and it was determined 
that one of- them should die. The fatal lot fell to Weall. 
But on the Sunday evening before he was to be executed, 
" a company of the chief women of the city, both English 
iiNovem. and Dutch," earnestly besought the governor to spare his 
life. The next morning they again interceded, accom- 
panied by " many others of the better sort, and a greater 

• Col. Doc, ii., 473; viii., 441 ; Patents, i., 8S, 01, 99, 102, 105, lOS, 111 ; iv., !>0, 5t, 50, 
54, 50, 5S ; Bolton's Westclicdter, i., 125, 375, 517 ; ii., 171, 412 ; Uikei's Newtown, 74, 75 ; 
Thompson's L. I., i., 311, 312, 334, 336, 384, 385,411,407; ii.,81, 159,171,177,183,201,220; 
Stiles'8 Urooklyn, i., 154-150 ; ante, vol. i., 762. 

t Court of As8ize:<, ii., 413, 444; Col. Doc, iii., 143, 144. Jeremias van Rensselaer seem- 
ed to claim a rl(;lit to succeed his brother John Bnptist as proprietor, but NicoUs advised 
liim to apply the line of Ovid— Filhin ante difin patrios inqw'rit in annos — and not to in- 
quire prematurely, like a grasping son, how long his father was to live. See linrnni-d's 
Sketcli of I{ens.=ehierwyclc, 131-133. 


number of the ordinary Dutch women." All the i)rivates cuap. in. 
in the garrison, headed by Sergeant Thomas Extoii, joined 
in a petition for their comrade's release. Yielding to these 
influences, Nicolls drew up the soldiers on parade, and 12 Novem. 
pardoned the prisoners.* 

The governor's prudence was generally appreciated, and 
his influence grew stronger every day. " Many old mat- 
ters are ripped up and misinterpreted," wrote Van Ruyven ^^^ Aug-t. 
to Stuyvesant in Holland, ''but they are wisely disregard- of Nicoiu. 
ed by Governor Nicolls, so that a man remarked to me that 
it was the Governor's policy to follow the same course you 
had observed in the case of Governor Kieft."t 

On reaching London after his captivity, Cartwright had 
explained the condition of affairs in New York, and the 
duke had licensed two ships to sail thither with necessary 
supphes ; but Nicolls could not yet be spared from his gov- 
ernment. In very friendly terms Clarendon intimated to i3 Apru. 
him that he might before long expect to return to England, commend- 
" and then I hope some others will receive encouragement giand. 
by your example to look a little abroad, and imploy them- 
selves in doing good for their country." Secretary Mor- 
rice also wrote him a flattering letter on belialf of the king, 12 Apra. 
and enclosed a present of two hundred pounds, which Nic- 
olls gratefully received as given " at a time when money 
can be least spared.":}: 

Finding that it was useless to continue them in New En- 
gland, the king, in gracious words, recalled his commission- 10 April, 
crs with " considerable gratuities." Letters expressing the mlMioneiT 
royal approbation were likewise addressed to the submis- '■^'^"^"^• 
sive colonies of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth ; 
but Massachusetts was ordered to send over Bellingham, 
Ilathorne, and others, to answer for her to the king. Mav- 
erick and Carr, one, or both, were also directed to return 
as witnesses. These letters were sent under cover to thee August, 
commissioners at Boston, where they were received by Mav- 
erick early in August. B}^ order of Secretary Morricc, a 
duplicate of the one to Massachusetts, " signed and sealed," 

• X. Y. Surrogate's Kcc. Wills, i., 13-lS; Val. Man., 1847, 354, 355, 356. 

+ Col. Doc, iL, 473. Stuyvesant's policy had been to sustain the acts of his predecessor 
Kieft : eee ante, vol. i., 4fi8, 409,472. 

t Col. Doc, iii., no, 13'j ; Chalmers, i., 5TS ; Ord., AVarr , Lett., il, S7 ; Mass. U. S. Coll., 
xxxvii., 312. 


cnAp. III. was delivered the next month by Maverick to Governor 
BeUingham. But the General Court, " with an uncom- 
c septem' ^^^^u Strain of dissimulation," affected to doubt its genuiue- 
tion ood'^'. ^i6ss, notwithstanding a copy had been " surreptitiously con- 
taciiusetts. yeycd ovcr to them by some unkno"\ni hand before the 
11 Septem. Original came to Boston," An answer was addressed to 
Secretary Morrice, " in all humility" refusing to obey the 
royal directions ; but, to avert the king's disj^leasure, a 
present of " two ^•ery large masts" for his navy was pre- 
pared at great expense, and sent to England, which it was 
hoped would prove " as a cloud of latter rain." The dis- 
3 Novem. obedicnce of the Puritan colony was rebuked by Nicolls, 

Carr, and Maverick, but without effect.* 
24 October. Ill Writing to Secretary Morrice, Nicolls sharply review- 
wolfof ed the " false sophistry" of Massachusetts, and suggested 
theEn-'° that the king might "easily chastise their undutifulness, 
Immfnt? uot by forcc, which might frighten the innocent as well as 
nocent, but by a temporary embargo upon their trade, 'till 
such and such persons arc delivered into the hands of jus- 
tice. The numerous well-affected people in that and oth- 
er colonies would soon give up the ringleaders at His Maj- 
esty's disposal. Neither would Ilis Majesty lose any of his 
customs by that embargo ; for if strict care were taken to 
send a convenient number of ships with goods suitable to 
this port, all the trade of Boston would be brought hither, 
and from thence carried into England ; in which case, a 
frigate of countenance for convoy or any emergent occa- 
sion would be necessary, if possibly to be supplied out of 
His Majesty's more immediate service. Indeed, in the 
posture we are, every small picaroon of the enemy's is 
master of all our harbors and rivers, from the Capes of 
Virginia to Piscataway."t 
6 Novem. At tlic samc time, Nicolls sent to the British government 
report' on au interesting autograph report of the condition of New 
York, in the form of " Answers to the several queries re- 
lating to the planters in the Territories of Ilis Boyal High- 
ness the Duke of York in America." Among other things, 

• Col. Doc, iii., IIG, 13C, 140, 141, 142, IGO, 173 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvii., 312-314 ; Chiil- 
mers, i., 140, 277, 390; Hutch., i., 2^2, 257, 61C-54S ; Coll., 408-410; Mas.^'. Itec, iv. <ii.), 
314-318, 327; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., .M4 ; R. I. Roc, ii., 149 ; Pepys, iii., 24 ; Bancroft, ii , 87- 
89; Barry, i., 400-403 ; Palfrey, ii., COG, 024-030. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 473; iii.,13G, 137; Ori3.,Warr., Lett., ii., 85; Chalmers, i., 578, 599; N. Y. 
H. S. Coll. (1SG9), 125-13], 157-159. 

New York. 


he explained that the governor and council, with the high- chat. in. 
sheriff and justices in the Court of Assizes, " have the su- ~ 
preme power of making, altering, and abolishing any laws -*■"""• 
in this Government ;"' that '* the tenure of lands is derived 
from His Royal Highness," who would grant them at rents 
of one penny an acre, when purchased by himself from the 
Indians, and of two shillings and sixpence for a hundred 
acres when so bought by the planters ; that " liberty of 
conscience is granted and assured," provided the jieace of 
the government be not disturbed ; that the rate for public 
charges had been agreed to " in a General Assembly, and 
is now managed by the Governor, his Council, and the Jus- 
tices in the Court of Assizes ;" and that " the obtaining all 
these privileges is long since recommended to Ilis Koyal 
Highness as the most necessary encouragement to these his 
territories, whereof a good answer is expected."* 

In the mean time, the war in Europe between England 
and Holland and France seriously affected the American 
colonies. Suspicious of the Canadians, Nicolls engaged june. 
Winthrop and the Connecticut magistrates to mediate with 
the Mahicans for a peace between them and the Mohawks. 
The king's letters of the 22d of February, directing hostili- 
ties against Canada, being now received, measures were 
taken to stir up the Mohawks to war with the French, In- 
formation soon afterward reached Ni colls that a large force 5 juiy. 
was marching from Canada " towards Albany." The gar- 
rison at Esopus was at once ordered to strengthen that 
place. The governor also urged the authorities of Connec- c juiy. 
ticut and Massachusetts to raise a cavalry expedition, which atuckfof 
could " cut off the whole strength of Canada at once." Con- 
necticut pleaded that all her hands were occupied in theiuuiy. 
harvest ; and suggested that as she wished to promote peace cut refusee. 
between the Mohawks and the Mahicans, it M'ould be well 
" to let the French and Mohawks try it out a while," by 

* Col. Doc.,iii.,lSS; Chalmers, i., 506, 597; Whitehead'? Index N. J. Col. Doc, 4. Chal- 
mers says that NlcoUs transmitted these answers in July, 1G<;5. They are not dated, but 
they appear to have been sent by him in November, 1GG6, as they are placed in the volume 
in the State Paper Office next to his letter to the commissioners! at Albany of 6 November, 
1G6G : Col. Doc, iii., l.'iO, 143, 188; New York I'apcrs, i., 28, 30, 31. It was first intended 
that Sir Kobert Carr should convey these papers to Kngland, and then that Maverick should, 
as one or both had been ordered home. But both were " taken sick," and neither could go. 
(Jarr, however, sailed from Boston on 20 March, 1GC7, for Bristol, where he arrived on the 
first of June folIowin>.', and died the next day : Col. Doc., iii., ICO, 161 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 
250; Morton's Mem., 315, note; Smith, i., 33 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., x.x.xvii., 312, 313. 
II.— II 


Chap. III. wliich botli would be weakened. Winthrop, however, learu- 
iiie: from Baker at Albany that the French were endeavor- 
26 Jul "^S ^^ S^^^^ ^^^^ Mahicans, interfered so seasonably as to 
prevent the going over of " many hundred" expected auxil- 
iaries. Horsemen Avere likewise sent out from Hartford 
and Springfield, who penetrated with great difficulty one 
liundred and twenty miles through the wilderness as far as 
Lake Champlain, " to discover the way toward Canada," 
September, and procure intelligence. Winthrop also went to Boston to 
consult with the Massachusetts authorities and Sir Thomas 
Temple, the Governor of Nova Scotia. It was there unan- 
imously agreed " that at present there could be nothing 
done by these colonies in reducing those places at or about 
•24 October. Canada." The General Court of Massachusetts notified 
icttli're-"' Lord Arlington that the reduction of Canada was " not at 
^"^^''' present feazable, as well in respect of the difficulty, if not 
impossibility, of a land march over the rocky mountains and 
howling desarts about four hundred miles, as the strength 
of the French there, according to reports." Winthrop also 
e.^october. wrote to the same effect. Privateers, however, were com- 
co'mmis- missioned at Boston, which made prize of several French 
iismng vessels." 

On their side the French had not been idle. As soon as 
the Saint Lawrence was clear of ice, ten Seneca sachems 
came down to Quebec to ratify the treaty which the Onon- 
dagas had made in their behalf with Tracy the prcAnous 
IS May. December. They now promised to send some of their fam- 
ofth'^wes" ilies to settle in Canada as hostages, and to acknowledge 
X//tothe tke King of France " henceforth as their sovereign." Tracy, 
Frencii ^^^ j^jg part, agreed to send French colonists and Jesuit mis- 
sionaries to the Senecas, who stipulated to build cabins for 
their shelter and forts to protect them from " the common 
enemy the Andastes and others."}- 

Thus the Upper Iroquois confirmed their vassalage to 
France. But no overtures came from the Mohawks. Tracy 
now resolved to extend his permanent military occupation 
further to the south, and directed Captain La Motte to 
build a new fort on an island in the upper part of Lake 

• Col. Doc., iii., 117, 120, 121, 13T, 138, 141; Col. Rcc. Conn., ii., 40, 43, 45, 514; Mass. Rec, 
iv. (ii.),316, 317, 328, 329; Masi». M.S. Coll., xviii., 101-109; xx\-.,C:?; Hutch. Mass.,!., 25G, 
257; Coll. ,407: liancroft, ii., 88; Palfrey, ii.,G30; iii., 114-llfi: «)*;.•, p. 97. 

t <;ol. Doc., iii., 125; ix., 44, 46; Doc. Hist., L, 47 ; Faillon, iii., 134 ; ante, p. 100, note. 


Chuuiplain. This post, which was the iirst one possessed 
by the French witliin the ancient limits of New York, was 
named Fort Sainte Anne, but was afterward better known p^^.^ g^j^'^^ 
as Fort La Motte. Intended to command the Mohawk ^""J^j'J^ 
country, it soon caused uneasiness to the neighboring En- 
p-hsh colonies.* 

Soon afterward Oneida envoys came to Quebec, tardily ^'j^^""*'' 
bringing the letter of the Albany officers assuring Tracy 
that the Mohawks wished peace with the French. Two 
detachments of two hundred men each had meanwhile 
been ordered to march, under Courcelles and Sorel, from 
the forts on the Richelieu, against that nation. Under- 
standing the Albany letter as a guarantee for the good 
faith of the Mohawks, Tracy countermanded the expedi- 
tions, and signed a treaty covenanting peace between theiHrJuiy- 
French and the Oneidas and Mohawks. Prisoners were to da's'^and ' 
be mutually restored, and trade with Canada by way of agrce^to" 
Lake Saint Sacrement was to be open to the Oneidas, who theFrench. 
now ratified the treaty made two months before by the 
Western Iroquois, and, like them, acknowledged the King 
of France " from this time as their sovereign." It was also 
agreed that Jesuit missionaries should be sent " to make 
known to them tlie God of the French, whom they prom- 
ise to love and adore." Hostages were left with Tracy for 
the faithful performance of these conditions. At the re- 
quest of the Oneidas, the Father Thierry Bechefer, with 
Ilertel and two other Frenchmen, were sent, under their ujuiy. 
escort, to visit the soldiers Mdiom Courcelles had left at Al- 
bany, and treat with the Mohawks there, or assure tliem 
that they might safely come to Quebec at any time within 
forty days. The letter of the Albany authorities was also 
published at the several French garrisons ; and all felt con- 
fident that peace between Canada and the Iroquois was 

But scarcely had Bechefer and his companions gone 
three days' journey from Quebec, when news came that 
several Frencli officers, who liad gone out a hunting from 

• Relation, 1CG5, 10; 1C6G,7,S; Doc. Hist., i., 43, 4S; ii.,lG2; Col. Doc.,iii.,141, 145, 14C, 
155,803; iv.,!^, 404; ix., 001,1050; Faillon, iii.,12G, 135. Fort Sainte Anne, or La Motte, 
appears to have been built on Isle La Motte, which, being east of the present boiindary-lino 
between New York and Vermont, belon£;3 to the latter .state: N. Y. Kevised Statute?, i., 6-4. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 126-132, 153 ; ix., 45, 4G, 52, 100, TSG ; Doc. Hist., i., 47, 51, 52 ; Ilolation, 
1CC1,34; 16GG,7; 1070,45; Charlevoi.x, ii., 110, 111, 155; Shea, 252, 500 ; atUe^p.VH. 


cuAr.iii. the new Fort Sainte Anne, had been waylaid and murder- 
"~~~;~ ed by the Mohawks, and some others taken prisoners. One 
Fienchoffi- ^^ ^^^^ chiof victims was a nephew of the viceroy, the Sieur 
cers killed, jg Chaz}^, whosc name is yet commemorated in that of one 
of the towns in the county of Clinton, Bechefer and the 
other Frenchmen on their way to Albany were at once re- 
called, and the Oneidas who escorted them were imprison- 
ed. Sorel quickly collected three hundred men, with whom 
he pushed on toward the Mohawk country, intending to lay 
" a heavy hand every where." But when he had come 
within twenty leagues of their villages he met a party of 
Mohawks, who declared that they were on their way to 
Quebec to restore the Frenchmen captured near Fort Sainte 
Anne, and offer satisfaction for those who had been slain, 
as well as new guarantees for peace. The party was led 
by a half-breed known among the Indians as " Smits Jan," 
and among the French as " the Dutch Bastard."- Believ- 
ing their statement, Sorel turned about, and conducted 
Smits Jan and his followers to the vicero}', by whom they 
were well received. A few days afterward, Agariata, a 
Mohawk chief, came to Quebec and announced himself as 
also a delegate from his nation. Negotiations for peace 
went on prosperously, until one day, Tracy having invited 
the two pretended ambassadors to his table, the talk fell 
upon the death of De Chazy. The Mohawk chief, lifting 
up his arm, exclaimed, " It was this which broke the head 
of that young officer !" All present were filled with indig- 
Tracy's natiou. " You shall kill no more," said the viceroy to 
' Agariata, who was at once hung in the sight of his com- 
rades, and Smits Jan was committed to prison. 
22 July. Tracy now sent William Couture, who had been a pris- 
oner with Jogues among the Mohawks, with a letter to the 
Albany officers, complaining that they had deceived him as 
to the peaceful disposition of that nation. Learning that 
Nicoiu at a courier had come from Quebec, Nicolls voyaged up the 
river, which was " pleasant enough at that season of the 
year," to meet him. But before the governor reached Al- 
bany, Couture had returned to Canada. Kicolls, however, 

* This "Smits Jnn" was the son of a Hollander and a Mohawk squ.iw, and had been 
Ijrought up among the savages. Ho was one of the witnesses to Cartwright's treaty at Al- 
bany in September, 1GG4, and wa^ in the Knglish Col. Doc;, iii., G8, 146, 148, 151, 
435; Charlevoix, ii., 61, G.% 155, IGl ; Itclation, 1654, 10, 11. 



wrote courteously to Tracy, expressing his surprise at cuAi-.iir. 
Courcelles's inroad into New York the last winter, but 
declaring his purpose to promote "the European inter- ^ „ ^^ ^^J^ 
est amidst the heathen in America, as becomes a good Answers to 

. . Tracy. 

Christian, provided that the bounds and limits of these 
His Majesty's of England's dominions be not invaded, or 
the jDcace and safety of his subjects interrupted." Baker 
and the Albany magistrates also wrote to the viceroy, 
justif}'ing their conduct respecting the Moliawks, and stat- 
ing that they would not intermeddle with French aifairs in 

Ambassadors from all the nations but the Mohawks 
having met Tracy and Courcelles in the Park of the 3 ^August. 
Jesuits at Quebec, the Cayugas renewed their request 
for missionaries, and the Fathers Jacques Fremin and Jesuit mis- 
Pierre Raffeix were chosen to go to them. Seeing j^q ^'°"^"^='- 
reason to hope for peace with the Mohawks, the viceroy 
determined to chastise them effectually. Colbert had 
insisted upon a prudent administration "in the present 5 April, 
conjuncture, when His Majesty is obliged to maintain a 
heavy war against the English, whom none of his pre- 
decessors had ever before attacked on the sea." Talon 
accordingly submitted to Tracy and Courcelles various 1 septcm. 
considerations for war and for peace. It was argued, 
among other things, that a successful attack on the Mo- 
hawks would open the door for the seizure of Albany, 
where the Dutch might be found inclined to aid the French 
against the English, upon whom they wished " to avenge 
the usurpation unjustly committed upon them," and of 
whose "insupportable dominion" they were weary. An 
expedition against the Mohawks was ordered, and six hun- French ex- 
dred soldiers of the Carignan regiment, with an equal num- a^iuTtim 
ber of militia, and one hundred Ilurons and Algonquins, -'^^'*'*'''''''*- 
were soon collected. Notwithstanding he was more than 
seventy years old, Tracy set out from Quebec to leadi4Septem. 
his forces in person. The Jesuit Fathers Charles Al- 
banel and Pierre E-affeix, and two secular priests, Du 

• Col. Doc, iii., 6S, 131-134, 140, 151, 153, 15T ; ix , 52; Doc. Hist., i., 4T,4S, 5f) ; Rela- 
tion, 1G45, 23 ; 1G47, 19, 24; 104S, 11 ; 16GC, T, 8 ; La Potlierie, ii., 85; Cliarlcvoi.x, i., 409; 
ii.,64, G9, 155, 156; Golden, i., 33, .34 ; Gameau, i., 193; Ferland, i., 317; Faillon, iii., 135- 
137 ; ante, vol. i., 34C, 347, 373. Tiie Albany letters of 20 August, 166G, did not reach Tracy 
until April, 1G67: Col. Doc, iii., 140, 147, 14S, 151, 152. 


Chap. HI. Bois D'Esgnselles, and Dollier de Casson, accompanied 

the exi^edition. 
lODo. ijijjg general rendezvoiis was Fort Sainte Anne, on Lake 

3 October. Cliamplain. It was October before tlie main body of 
troops was ready to advance ; but Courcelles, with charac- 
teristic impatience, pushed forward with four hundred men. 

Tracy's ad- Thc rcar-guard followed four days after the main column, 
under Tracy. Three hundred light bateaux and bark ca- 
noes were prepared, each of which could convey five or six 
persons ; and two pieces of artillery were carried along 
with great labor. The viceroy endeavored to advance 
cautiously, so as to surprise the Mohawk castles ; but the 
watchful Iroquois scouts on the mountain tops saw the 
French flotilla afar off, as it swept southward over Lake 
Champlain, and the alarm was quickly s^^i-ead. As the 
troops debarked the savages whooped on the hill-sides, and 
fired random shots at the invaders. Expecting to find 
abmidance of corn in the Mohawk villages, the French 
carried only small supplies of provisions. These were 
soon exhausted, and the army was on the point of disband- 
ing to seek food, when it fortunately entered a forest of 
chestnut-trees, the just ripening fruit of which relieved the 
famishing troops. 

After marcliing thirty or forty leagues from the lake, 
the French reached tlie first Mohawk village, which they 
found abandoned. Entering it in order of battle, with 
flags flying and drums beating, the hungry army discover- 
ed abundance of corn buried in the earth. A second and 
a third ^•illage farther west were found deserted like tlie 
first. At length, guided by an Algonquin, who had long 
been a prisoner in the canton, the French reached the fourth 
Moliawk village. Ilere the savac-es were observed in great 

Moliawk force, and, by their heavy fire, appeared disposed to defend 

stioyed. their fortress with desperation. The invaders prepared to 
attack it in regular form ; but, as their van came on to at- 
tack, the Mohawks fled in terror into the forest, whither 
the French could not pursue them. An old man and two 
old women, too infirm to escape, and the half-roasted re- 
mains of two or three prisoners, were found in the desert- 
ed stronghold. It was surrounded by a triple palisade 
twenty feet higli, flanked by four bastions, and abundantly 


supplied with water in bark tanks to extinguish fire. Pro- cuavau 
digious quantities of provisions had been stored. Some of 7" 

the cabins, which were one hundred and twenty feet long, 
and proportionably wide, and M-ere planked on the inside, 
moved the admiration of the Frenchmen. 

The cross was planted, mass said, a Te Deum sung, andnociohc-. 
formal possession was taken for the King of France of eesBionTf' ' 
" The Fort of Andaraque," as well as all the other con- taken"" '^ 
quered Iroquois strong-holds, " and of all the lands in the 
neighborhood as far and in as great a quantity as they may 
extend." A post, with the king's arms affixed, was erect- 
ed, amid the shouts of " Vive le lioi .^" The palisades and 
cabins, with vast stores of corn, beans, and other j^rovisions, 
were then burned. On its return, the expedition conq^leted 
the devastation of the other villages ; and grain " enough to 
sustain the whole colony for two years" was destroyed. 

Supposing that famine and the terror of the French arms 
would overawe the Mohawks and keep them peaceful, 
Tracy judged it unnecessary to establish a fort in their 
country. Those on the Richelieu River were thought suf- 
ficient to maintain the sovereignty of France. Colbert's 
policy was against extending the Canadian settlements too 
far from each other. For the present, the Jesuit mission- 
aries were to form the advanced guard of the French 
among the Mohawks. The viceroy would nevertheless 
have pushed on westward, and humbled the Oneidas also, 
if the approach of November had not warned him to re- Tracy rt^ 
turn. The paths were now much more difiicult to travel, {^InlaL 
and the swollen rivers hindered the march of the troops. 
On Lake Champlain two canoes and several soldiers were 
lost in a storm. Throughout the whole march of three 
hundred leagues, and during fifty-three days, Tracy, who 
was a very large man, shared all the fatigues of his army, 
submitting to be borne in a litter for two days only, when 
crippled by the gout. Courcelles, attacked by a 'nervous 
disease, had to be carried in the same manner. On reach- 
ing Quebec, the viceroy hung two or three of his prisoners xovcmber 
by way of example, and sent the rest back to their cantons, 
with Smits Jan, the Dutch bastard, after having sho's\Ti 
them many kindnesses. The returning Iroquois carried 
the terms of peace which Tracy offered to the Mohawks, 


cuAP. III. and which they were expected to accept before the end of 

the next June.* 
Ibbb. After tlieir severe hnmihation by the French, the Mo- 
hawks came to confer with the Albany officers. It was 
now supposed that Tracy, wearied with his " two fi'uitless 
1667. voyages," would liardly attempt another expedition. Yet 
I'reeau- no prccautiou was neglected. NicoUs had visited the gar- 
Nicoiis. risons on the North River the previous autumn, and had 
given the Albany magistrates full directions in case the 
French should attempt to do them harm. Captain Brod- 
T January, head was uow Ordered to be " ready, upon an hour's warn- 
ing," with all his soldiers at Esopus, and as many of the 
burghers as possible, to assist Albany in case of need, 
because it was " impossible" to send any from New York 
during the winter. Van Curler w^as also desired to pre- 
pare a map of Lake Champlain, with the French forts, 
showing " how it borders upon the Maquas's River."f 
When Nicolls received the news from Canada brought 
11 Jan. by Smits Jan, he directed that the Mohawks should be coun- 
seled to insist that the French must demolish all their new 
advanced forts on Lake Champlain. Baker was specially 
KicoUs's instructed to advise the Mohawks to " make a good peace, 
tions re- or none, with the French, such as may bring in beaver to 
tiirM^^ Albany, and leavef them without fear or jealousy of the 
hawks. pj.gj-^p]^ ." j^^-jj j^igQ ^]^^^ ti^gy a g]io^;i(j declare to the French 

that the King of England is the great king of all their 
country and parts adjacent, and unto him they are subor- 
dinate, living in peace and trading with all his sul)jects ; 
and now they are wilhng to make peace with the French, 
and will resolve to keep it, if the French will demolish 
their forts, and bring no more troops of soldiers into the 
King of England's country or their Plantation.":}: 

On receiving the letters of Nicolls and the Albany offi- 
cers written the pre^^ous August, Tracy explained the in- 
road of Courcelles into the Mohawk country, and declared 

• Relution, IfiCG, S, 9 ; Charlcvnix, ii., 157-101 ; l.a Potliorio, ii., 1'2.3; iii., 55; Col. Doc , 
iii., 135, 14C, 151 ; iv., 352; ix., 41, 52-57, 7S(;; Doc. Hist, i., 4S, 40, 5n, 51 : Coliien, i., 33; 
Shea, 252 ; Fuillon, iii., 13S-155. The map of Tracy's route is in the Library of Parliament 
at Quebec: see Catalognn (1S5S), p. 1014. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 143, 144, 145; Col. MS?., xxii., 22. The lettei-s of Nicolls to Van Curler 
and tlic Albany magistrates Mxre translated into Dutch, at the governor's request, by Coun- 
selor Van Riiyvcn. 

t Col. Doc , iii., 14G-14S. Colden says nothing of this. 


that until tlien lie did not know that New Netherland was chap. iil 
not nnder the dominion of the United Provinces. " The 
French nation," he added, " is too much inclined to ac- g^ ^p^^ ' 
laiowled£!;e courtesies not to confess that the Dutch have'r'"?fy 

v5 writes to 

had very much charity for the French who have been pris- nicoUs. 
oners \nth the Mohawks, and that they have redeemed 
divers, who had been burned without their succour. They 
ought also to be assured of our gratitude towards them, 
and to any others who shall exercise such Christian deeds 
as they have done." The viceroy also absolved the Albany 
officers from blame in regard to the murder of his officers 
by the Mohawks near Fort Saintc Anne, and invited Yan 
Curler to visit him the next summer at Quebec^ 

Van Curler, accompanied by La Fontaine, a young French- 
man whom he had rescued fi-oni the savages, now went to ss May. 
Canada, with passports from Nicolls, who wrote a kind let- gow to"/ 
ter to Tracy. Embarking in a canoe on Lake Champlain, ada. 
he had a prosperous voyage as far as " a great bay" on its 
western side, opposite the " Isles des quatres vents." While 
crossing this bay the canoe was upset by a tempest, and Drowned 
Yan Curler was drowned. The memory of this estimable cuiam- 
Ilollander was long preserved by the Iroquois, who insisted ^ '"°' 
upon calling the successive governors of New York "Cor- "Coriaer." 
laer." For years Lake Champlain was known among the 
English as " Corker's Lake." The bay in which he was 
drowned — long called by the French " Baye Corlar" — is 
now known as " Peru Bay," in Essex county, New York.f 

Soon after Nicolls left Esopus, in the previous autumn, 
the ill feeling which had been growing between its inliab- 
itants and the garrison broke out into open hostility. The 
soldiers, who, as well as their officers, were all Englishmen, 
did nothing to conciliate and much to offend the Dutch 
burghei*s. Disturbances occurred both at the villaore of Disturb- 
Wildwyck and at the redoubt on the creek. Wlien, in obe- i^opu^. 
dience to Nicolls's orders. Captain Brodhead was " gather- 
ing some of the young burghers together" to go to Albany, 
Antonio d'Elba, a French refugee, openly said, " Shall we 
go and fight our friends, and leave our enemies at home ?" 

• Col. Doc. iii., 133, 134, inO-LM ; Doc. Hist., i., 55 ; ante, vol. i., 402. 
t Map in Charlevoix, i, 22G ; Kol..l(>CS, 5; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., l.W, 160; Col. Doc., iii., 
128,156, 157,322,395,558, 569,815, S17; Colden, i., 32 ; O'Call., i., 323; Smith, i., 65. 


Chap. III. Mucli of the ill feeling was due to the overbearing conduct 
of Brodhead, who did not hesitate to commit to the ffuard 

1 PP'7 . . 

urodhcad'3 ^^y ^^'^^^ offended him, lie imprisoned a burgher who 

overbear- "would kcei) Cliristmas according to the Dutch and not the 

jng con- i ■^ 

d^ct. English style. He quarreled with and arrested Cornelis 
^■^ " Barentsen Slegt, the village brewer, and a sergeant of its 
militia. Slegt's wife and children thereupon ran crying 
through Wildwyck. The excited villagers rushed to arms. 
Finding some sixty of them drawn up before their lieuten- 
ant's door, Captain Brodhead marched thither with a few 
of his soldiers, and ordered them to disperse. The local 
magistrates asked Brodhead to release his prisoner and 
liave him tried before them, wdiicli he refused, and threat- 
ened to resist any attempt at a rescue. The people would 
not disperse until late at night, and then only with the un- 
derstanding that the whole matter should be laid before 
the governor. "What added to the bitterness was that Ilen- 
drick Cornelissen, the village ropemaker, was Idlled by Wil- 
liam Fisher, one of Brodhead's soldiers." 
16 April. Reports were sent down to Kicolls, who issued a special 
commia- commissiou empowering Counselors Needham and Dela- 
E^opus" ° vail and Justice Yan Ruyven to go to Esopus, and " hear, 
receive, and determine such and so many complaints as 
they shall judge necessary or of moment, and to pass sen- 
tence of imprisonment, fine, correction, or suspension of of- 
fice against such who shall be found guilty." At the same 
time the governor guided the action of his commissioners 
Njcoiis's by private instructions. They were to be attended by a file 
Btructiona! of soldicrs, aud were to admit but "" very few" into the room 
in which they might sit. The case of Fisher was " to be 
the first tried, because a man is killed." But he could only 
be convicted of manslaughter; and it might turn out that 
he had acted in self-defense. In regard to the " first occa- 
sion" of tlic mutiny, as Slegt, the brewer, had first assaulted 
Captain Brodhead, they were " to declare that the king's 
officer is not of so mean a quality as to be struck by a 
burgher," and were to enlarge their discourse on this point 
as they should " find fit." But as the captain had broken 
his instructions several times, they were to suspend him 

• Col. MSS.,xxu., 14, 21-32; Alb. Rcc, xviii., 327-030, 4T0; Esopua Kccords; Col. Doc, 
iii.,144, 149. 


from liis command for '' that only fault" of keeping the cuap. m. 
brewer in prison after the schoiit and commissaries had 
asked for his release. A few of the " most notorious" in- 
surgents were to be found guilty of " a treasonable and 
malicious Kiot," and were to be brought to jS^ew York for 
" final sentence of punishment" l)y the governor. " Dis- 
courage not the soldiers too much in public," added Nicolls, 
" lest the boors insult over them ; appear favorable to the 
most of the boors, but severe against the principal incen- 
diaries ; and, in general, you may tell them freely that I 
will proceed against every man that shall lift arms against 
His Majestie's garrison, as rebellious subjects and common 

The commissioners sat three days, at Esopus. Captain 25 Apni. 
Brodhead fi-ankly admitted the charges against him, and 27 Aprli! 
was suspended from his command, which was intrusted to suTpcnd- 
Sergeant Beresford. The burghers excused their being in ^ ' 
arms because the soldiers had threatened to burn the town, 
and because Brodhead had imprisoned their sei'geant. Four 
of the movers of the insurrection, Antonio d'Elba, Albert 
Heymans, Arent Albertsen, his son, and Cornelius Barent- 
sen, were found guilty of a " rebellious and mutinous Riot," 
and were carried down to New York for sentence by the 
governor. Nicolls was of opinion that they deserved death. 
But, on the petition of the inhabitants and by the advice of 
his council, he sentenced Heymans to be banished for life 3 May. 
out of the government, and the others, for shorter terms, ers'sc™ ' 
out of Esopus, Albany, and New York. These sentences ^'^^^^' ' 
were afterward modified ; and Heymans, the chief offend- 
er, became a prominent officer at Esoj^us.f 

The soldiers at Albany also gave the governor much snidiorsat 
trouble. Several of them were convicted of stealing wam- '^°^' 
pum from the inhabitants, and, upon Captain Baker's re- 
port, Nicolls, with the advice of his council, decreed prompt 
satisfaction. :j: 

• Patents, i., 145 ; Ool. Doc, iii., 149, 150. 

t Col. MS:*., xxii.. 24, 2S, 31, 32, 99 ; N. Y. Purr. Rec. Wills, i., 22-25; Val. Man., IS-IT, 
S5T, 35S ; (Jol. Doc, ii., G2T ; iii., 150 ; Ulster Hist. Coll., i., 50, 51 ; ICsopus Ilccord.^. Fisher, 
the soldier who killed Corneli.^?en, appears to have been acquitted, and afterward obtained 
a lot of land at Marbletown: Val. Man., 1S47, 3G1 ; Patents, iii., 43. Capt;iin Brodhead died 
at Ksopua on the 14lh of July, 1061, about two months after his suspension from command, 
leaving his widow, Ann, and three sons, Daniel, Charles, and Kichard. 

t The details of these cases are given in N. Y. SiiiTogate's Records, Will.s i., 19, 20, 21, 32; 
Val. Man., 1S4T, 35C, 357, 361. 



Chap. m. Discoiiteiit was still manifested in Long Island. While 
~ the governor was attending " a public meeting" at Flush- 
3 jiuy ' " ^^&' ^^ offered to furnish the people with 230wder for their 
i'°iand ^^'^^ ^^^®' ^^^ receive pay for it in firewood. This friend- 
ly proposition was covertly represented by William Bishop 
July. as " another cunning trick." It was accordingly ordered 
Bishop in Coimcil at New York, that for his " seditious words" 
to-°aedu Bishop should " be made fast to the whipping-post, there to 
stand, with rods fastened to his back during the sitting of 
the Court of Mayor and Aldermen, and from thence to be 
removed into the common Gaol, till further orders." This 
sentence seems to have effectually quelled sedition dm*ing 
the rest of NicoUs's administration,* 

Meanwhile England had been at open war %vitli Hol- 
land and France. But before France engaged in hostilities 
\QQQ she made another attempt to pacify England and Holland. 
f^ April. A conference was held at Paris between Lord Ilollis, De 
fera'fo En- Liouue, aud Van Beuningen, in wliich the latter offered, on 
*^^''°'^' the part of the States General, " either to restore all things 
to the same state they were in before the war, or to take 
them as they now stand, and every one keep what he hath." 
But neither of these alternatives suited Charles, who di- 
rected his ambassador to leave Paris.f 
Jejune. Another naval engagement followed oif the mouth of 
tweent'he the ThauiGS, betwccn the English fleet under Prince Ru- 
I'Sh."'^ pert and the Duke of Albemarle, in place of the Duke of 
York, who refused to command, and the Dutch under De 
Ruyter, Evertsen, and Tromp. The contest lasted four 
days, and the English Vice-Admiral Sir John Berkeley and 
other officers were killed. Both sides fought with prover- 
ohain- bial courage; but the chain-shot which De AVitt is said to 
have invented, and now introduced, cut to pieces the rig- 
Tiie Dutch ging of tlic English, and the Dutch remained conquerors. 
They had never gained such a triumph since the founda- 
tion of the republic. In London, " orders were given for 

• N. Y. Purr. Itpc. Wills, i., 2S, 29 ; Val., ISJT, S.'iO, 361. On thp third of July, 1GG7, 
the mayor and nldcrnicn of the city of Now York, with the npprohation of Nicoll?, sold to 
Johannes VciTcshe, of Ilarlacra, for five years, the fern.- thence to Hronck side, provided ho 
maintained proper ferry houses, and carried over free " all men going or coming with a pack- 
rtt from our Governor of New Yorke, or coming from the Governor of Connecticott :" Val. 
Man., 1S49, 362 ; N. Y. City Rec. 

t D'Estrades, iv., 167, 253, 25", 263, 276, 521; Lister's Clarendon, iii, 431-134; De Witt, 
ii., 253, 255. 


bonfires and bells." But even Charles became " melan- cuap. hi. 
choly," wrote Pepys in his cipher diary, " under the 
thoughts of tliis last overthrow, for so it is, instead of a 
victory." A month afterward the fleets enficasred as-ain. -JJ^ — 

_ /, . 1 -r-< T 1 . . ° ° -r^ ^ 4 August. 

Un this occasion the Jiiiglish were victorious. Lvertsen AnoDier 
and other Dutch admirals were killed, and Do Ruyter and The Kn- 
Tromp became bitter enemies. The next week Sir Robert rious. 
Holmes made a piratical descent on tho island of Schelling, iioimesat 
on tlie coast of Friesland, which was chiefly inliabited by ^^'"'""'°- 
unwarlike Meimonists, and, after burning several Dutch 
merchantmen, destroyed nearly a thousand houses in the un- 
fortified town of Brandaris. The Tower guns at London 
were fired for this "• late good success." But the English 
government could send no supplies to the American Plan- 
tations, and especially to the Carribee Islands, which were 
exposed to great danger from the French. Arlington 
therefore urged the New England colonies to fit out, if 2s August, 
possible, an expedition for the relief of those threatened 
places, which would be considered by the king as a mark- 
ed expression of their " good affection and loyalty." 

In Holland, the conduct of Holmes at Schelling embit- 
tered the national resentment against England. De AYitt, 
who felt the nnpopnlarity which threatened to overthrow 
his administration, vowed that lie would never sheathe the 
sword until he had obtained revenge. But before his vow 
was fulfilled, London was visited by a calamity scarcely 
less appalling than the pestilence by which she had been 
desolated the year before. A great fire, which lasted for soptember. 
three days, consumed every house, church, and hall in London. 
ninety parishes, between the ToM-er and Temple Bar. This 
" marvellous year" was commemorated by Dryden in mag- Dryden-s 

. " Annus 

nificent vei*ses, full of bitterness against the Dutch, wliich mirawiis." 
before long won for him the laurel crown.* 

AVlien the news tardily reached the North American 16GT. 
colonies by way of Barbadoes, Massachusetts set the ex- J''"'"'^- 
ample in contributing for the relief of the sufferers. Not 

• Aitzema, v.,C97-T31; Rasnage, L,7T2-7S4; Kennctt,iii., 250-202 ; Clavkc'? James II., 
i., 423, 424; Burnet, i., 22S-2G2; Rapin, ii., 642, 043; Pepy?, ii., Sai, 4::i, -JSS, 439-148; 
Kvelyn, ii., 0, 11-17 ; D'Kstrade», iv., 322, 402, 4S2 ; Davies, iii., 45-54 ; Martin, i., 273, 274.; 
Uryden's Annus mirabilis ; Lister, ii., 3C0-3C5; Knight, iv., 279-290 ; Col. Doc, ii., 061 ; iii., 
147,154; M,-»s.''. II. S. Coll.,xxx.,60; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 515, 510. Dryden's patent as Poet 
laureate >7a3 dated IS .\ugnst, 1670, but his salary began immediately after the death of Sir 
William Davenant, his predecessor, in IOCS. 


Chap. III. long afterward, upon the receipt of Arlington's letters, 

Winthrop went from Connecticut, and Maverick from New 

siarcii ' York, to consult with the authorities at Boston in regard to 

Colonial sending aid to the Carribee Islands, But there was too 

apprencn- ~ iiip 

dons. much danger to be apprehended near home, both from 
Canada, and from the Dutch and French ships at sea, to 
justify an expedition for the relief of the " dear country- 
men" in the West- Indies. This was communicated by 

7 Majr. Winthrop to Arlington in a very loyal letter excusing the 
apparent indifference of the New England colonies. Mav- 

jnne, crick also informed the secretary that such were the straits 
to which Nicolls had been reduced for want of supplies in 
New York, that he had been obliged to pledge his personal 
credit for more than a thousand pounds, to carry on his 

The apprehensions of the English that the Dutch and 
French might attack their West India colonies were well 
founded. Commander Abraham Krynssen, sailing from 

6 March. Flusliiug witli three ships, surjjrised the English colony of 

takea Suri- Surinam, in Guiana, and left a military force to secure it, 
under the command of Maurice de Bame, and Ensign 
Colve. Not long afterward, a frigate belonging to the 
Duke of York, coming from Guinea with a cargo of ivory 
and negroes, was captured by the Dutch at Sui'inam, 
Krynssen had meanwhile joined the French squadron 
commanded by Lefebvre de la Barre, and assisted in de- 
feating the English off the island of Nevis. Thence the 

jnne. Dutch commaudcr sailed to Virginia, where he captured, 

ill virgi- in the James River, twenty-six English vessels, one of which 
was a man-of-war. After scuttling most of them, Kr^ms- 
sen returned to Flushing, bringing along with him eleven 
prizes laden with tobacco.f 

This daring exploit so near home alarmed and mortified 
Nicolls, who attril)uted it to tlie "negligence and ill con- 
duct" of the officers in Virginia. Every precaution was 
therefore taken for the defense of New York. The masr- 
istratcs of Southampton, Easthampton, and the other towns 

• Col. Doc, iii., l.'J-l-lSr., Ifll ; Hntcli. Mass., i., 250, 257; Coll., 411, 412 ; Mass. Kec, iv. 
(ii.), 310, .■ill, .^35, Uty, .347 ; M7; Palfrey, ii., C31. 

t WagenMar, xiii., 40G-40S; Riclicssc de la HoUande, i., 213; Bapnajrc, i., S09; D'Kp- 
trades, v., S3, 1!S0, 201, 2C2; Pe Witt, iv., 0-12, 077; Allzema, vi., 123, 420-428, 438, 440; 
Burk, ii., 149 ; Campbell, 207 : Pinkerton, -xii., 292 ; Col. Doc, ii., 518-022 ; iii., 155, 101, 107 ; 
ix., 167 ; N. Y. Senate Doc, 1844, No. 42, p. 5. 



at the east end of Long Island were ordered to turn one ch.m-.iii. 
third of their militia into cavalry, and to he ready at an 
hour's notice ; while the other two thirds were to remain at ^^ ^^^^ " 
their homes for the security of their estates. Connecticut, ^^^''^^'^( 
fearing a French incursion from Canada, did the like. But '^'i^oUs. 
" the grandees of Boston were too proud to be dealt with," 
alleging that the king was well satisfied of their loyalty, and 
had recalled and disgraced his commissioners. Kicolls, 
however, anxious to harass the enemy, commissioned Ser- no juiy. 
geant Thomas Exton,'of the garrison at Fort James, to he pHvateei- 
captain of the privateer Cedar, of New York, and sent her '" 
under his command to act against the French and Dutch. 
Exton soon captured and l^urnt two French forts, Saint 
Mary and Du Coudray, in Acadia, and came to Boston with u October. 
" as many gmis and other plunder" as his ship could carry. 
On reaching New York, Exton reported his proceedings, 4 xovem. 
and the spoil he had taken was condemned as good prize.* 

In their war against the Mahicans during the summer, 
the Mohawks had committed some depredations at Ilad- 
ley and Northampton, in Massachusetts, and had murdered 30 August. 
a yomig savage, whose scalp they exliibited at Albany. 
The victim " was servant to an Englishman at Northamp- 
ton." On learning this outrage, Nicolls went to Albany to 10 ootobpr. 
interpose his authority with the native belligerents. The Albany. 
General Court of Massachusetts, however, conceiving that 
they could treat independently with the New York Iro- 
quois, wrote to "the chief sachem of the Mohawks" that 
such doings were contrary to their promise not to molest 
any Indians " that woare Enghsh cloakes, or that had their 
haire cutt short;" and hoping for satisfaction and better 
behavior in future.f 

The war in Europe had meanwhile obliged Louis to 
recall Tracy to France, with several companies of the Tracy 
Carignan regiment. Tliese orders surprised the viceroy, Canada, 
who was expecting Van C Hirler to visit him at Quebec, and 
was obliged to embark just as his coming guest was meet- May. 
ing his death on Lake Champlain. Courcelles was now conrceiic^ 
left in command as governor general of Canada. The 

• Col. Poc., iii., 157, l.'iS, ICl, 1C2, 1G7 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 6!>, 81 ; Vnl. Man., 1847, 355, 
362 ; N. y. Purr. Rec. Wills, i., 16, 35 ; Patent?, i., ITl, 172 ; Court of Assize.?, ii., \r>i, 155. I 
do not find any reference in the French authorities to Kxton's exploits in Acadia. 

t Col. Doc., iii., 162 ; Relations, 1667, 28 ; 166S, 4 ; Mass. Rec., iv. (ii.), 359-361. 





C April. 

and Onei- 
das at 

aries as- 
signed to 
the Iro- 

14 July, 
iiud I3ru- 

king had approved the treaties made with tlie Western 
Iroquois tlie year before, because he expected thereby " to 
acquire a possession adverse to tlie actual or future preten- 
sions of the European nations." But, as the Mohawks had 
shown no disposition to submit to the French, Colbert di- 
rected Courcelles to undertake a new expedition against 
that nation during the next summer, " for the purpose of 
utterly destroying them if possible, or at least of increas- 
ing the terror they entertain of His Majesty's forces, and 
placing them in a position not to trouble the country." 

Courcelles had " a sufficiently strong inclination to return 
to the charge." But, a few days after the viceroy's depart- 
ure, Mohawk and Oneida deputies came to Quebec to de- 
clare their submission to the French, and solicit that mis- 
sionaries might be sent to their cantons. The Canadian 
expeditions the year before had so awed these proud na- 
tions that, in spite of the efforts of Nicolls and his officers 
at Albany, they showed their sincerity by bringing several 
of their families to Canada as hostages. Talon, suspecting 
that the Mohawks had " yielded considerably to existing cir- 
cumstances, and to the war with the Mahicans, from which 
they were suffering," thought that they had not brought 
hostages enough. But, as Colbert desired to " Frenchify" 
the savages, a treaty was concluded to the apparent satis- 
faction of both parties. Jesuit missionaries were at once 
selected to go among the several Iroquois nations. The 
Father Jacques Fremin, who had been with Dablon at 
Onondaga in 1656, and the Father Jean Pierron, who had 
just arrived from France, were assigned to the Mohawks. 
Father Jacques Bruyas, who had been about a year in Can- 
ada, and had already given proof of that talent which was 
to make him so distinguished as an Indian philologist, was 
appointed to go to the Oneidas. Three other Jesuit fathers 
held themselves ready to work among the Onondagas, Cay- 
ugas, and Senecas.* 

The next month the Mohawk and Oneida envoys set out 
with Fremin, Pierron, and Bruyas for their mission grounds. 
On reaching Fort Sainte Anne, at the foot of Lake Cham- 

• Kclalion, 1657, 9 ; 1607, 2, 28 ; 106S, 3 ; Charlevoix, ii., 161, 103, 104, 170, 178 ; Col. Doc, 
iii.,151, 152; ix.. 53, 59, CO, 130, 720, 7S7; Dor. Hist., iv., 190; Shea, 254, 274, 204, 500; Gar- 
neau, 1., 196 ; Faillon, iii., 150-158 ; UJitc, vol. i., 04 1. 


plain, tliey were delayed a nioutli by apprehension of a cuap. m. 

Maliican ambuscade. At length, on the eve of Saint Bar- 

tholomew's day, finding that tlic Mahicans had retreated, 23 ^gj 

the party embarked, and fullowed the north coast of the 

lake. From morning to night, the fathers, unused to the 

toil, rowed " like poor galley-slaves," for every hand in the 

light birch-bark canoes was obliged to work. In this man- 
es o 

ner they "traversed gaily the whole of this great lake, 
already too renowned by the shipwreck of several of our 
Frenchmen, and quite recently by that of the Sieur Cor- 
laer." On reaching the outlet of Saint Sacrement* they 
crossed the portage, and at the head of the lake met four- 
teen Mohawk warriors, who were stationed there as senti- 
nels to watch for a new army of Frenchmen. But, on 
learning the peaceful errand of the missionaries, they 
" made themselves their valets," and joyfully carried their 
luggage. A few days of pleasant journeying brought the 
party near the first palisaded village of the Tortoise tribe 
of the Mohawks, on the north bank of the river, " called 
Gandaouague,t which is that which the late Father Jogues Gandaou- 
moistened with his blood, and where he was so badly treat- cagUiiaMa- 
ed during eighteen months of captivity." The inissionaries ^''' 
were received with all honor by the savages, who were de- 
lighted to see among them peaceful Frenchmen in place 
of those who so recently appeared " as furies, setting every 
thing on fire." Two leagues further to the west they came 
to the village called " Gandagaro," or " Kanagaro," belong- 
ing to the Bear tribe.ij: Thence they proceeded four leagues 
more, passing beyond Oanajoharie,to the ^dllage of the Wolf 
tribe, and the capital of all the Mohawk country, called 
" Tionnontoguen,"§ which that nation "had rebuilt at a'^'T°°"'' 

• This was called by tho Indians " Tiondcroga," meaning in their language "the place 
where two rivers meet." The I'rcnch called it "Carillon," on account of the noise of the 
waterfall in tlie outlet : see Benson's Mem., 9G- The English called it " Ticonderoga :" see 
Col. Doc., vii., 300, 795, 9S4; x.,721; ante, vol. i.,ii. IS, note. 

t Relation, IOCS, C; 1670, 23. This village, called '•'■Onciigioure" by Jogues, and '•'•Kagh- 
nexcaric" by the Dutch, was the site of the modem village of " Caghnawaga," in the county 
of Montgomery: Kelation, lC4(i, 15; (Jol. Doc, ii., 712. Want of taste has recently belittled 
this sonorous, significant, and historical name into " Fonda:" see Hist. Mag., ix., 371, 372; 
X., 20, 115, 321, 322. The word "Caghnawaga" (which was afterward transferred to the 
Catholic " Ucduction" on flie Saint Lawrence, near Montreal) means, in the Mohawk lan- 
guage, "the Rapids," or "a carrying place:" Col. Doc, ii., 712; iii., 250, «o^c; Index, 282; 
Doc Hist., iii., G74 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll., iii. (u.), 150, 171 ; Shea's Catholic Missions, 25f., 304 ; 
ante, vol. i., 423, G50. t Col. Doc, ii., 712 ; iii., 250. 

5 This village seems to have been not far from Fort Plain, or Palatine. It was removed, 
in IGSO. " an English mile higher up," and was ag.iin burned by the French in 1003 : Doc. 

TL— I 


cuAP. III. quarter of a league fi'om that which the French had burn- 
ed the year before." It was situated on a hill, about a 
bowshot from the north bank of the Mohawk River. Like 
Caghnawaga, the capital was " double - stockaded round ;" 
and it contained about thirty cabins. Here the missiona- 
ries were received with a grand fusillade, " each one firing 
from his cabin, and two swivels going off at the extremi- 
ties of the village." 
14 septem. On the day of the exaltation of the Holy Cross, the six 
Mohawk villages assembled at Tionnontoguen, and were 
Mission of harangued by Fremin, after the Ve)ii Creator had been 
oftiieMo-' chanted. Having reproached them for their cruelties to 
the French, the father declared that their Great Onnontio 
would receive them as his subjects. To enforce his speech, 
Fremin planted a tall pole, at the top of which was a 
wampum belt, and explained that the first Iroquois who 
should kill a Frenchman would be thus hung. The awed 
savages offered a place for a chapel ; mass was soon cele- 
brated in the rude building, at which all had worked with 
zeal ; and the Mission of Saint Mary of the Mohawks was 

Leaving Fremin and Pierron aihong the Mohawks, Bru- 
Bruyas at yas uow wcut thirty leagues farther west to found a new 
JFrancis missiou amouff the Oneidas, who were esteemed " of all the 
thronel Iroquois the least numerous in fact, but the most proud 
^'^^' and insolent." A small chapel, quickly built by the sav- 

29 Septem. agcs, was cousecratcd on the feast of Saint Michael the 
Archangel. Ifere Bruyas labored diligently ; but the Mis- 
sion of Saint Francis Xavier of the Oneidas never answer- 
ed French hopes.f 

The Jesuits soon found that the strong liquors which 

were sold to the savages by their European neighbors 

greatly hindered conversions. Pierron therefore asked an 

13 Septem. interview with the English authorities. Nicolls, who was 

Hist, ii., 50, SS ; Col. Doc, iv., 10, S2. A note in Col. Hoc., ix., 702, erroneously states that 
Tionnontoguen (wliicli was on the north side of tlie Mohsiwk, and several leagues west of 
Caghnawaga) was ttie site of Fort Hunter, which was built in 1712, on the smith side of the 
river, eaut of (Jaghnawaga, at the mouth of the Scoharie Creek. The note appears to con- 
found "Tionnontoguen" with " Tiononderoge," the castle of the "Praying Maquas," which 
was built in 1090, and was the Bite of Fort Hunter : compare Col. Doc, iii., 103, 250, 4S.3, 
559,505,771,772; iv., 10, 04, SI, 82,391; v., 279, 280, 349, 372,900; vi., 15, 10; vii.,577; 
ix., 550, 558; x.,677; Doc. Hist., L, 340; ii.,59,8S; iii., 543, 031 ; Munsell's Annals, ii., 67, 
93, 99, 108 ; post, 5S3. 

• Kelation, 1007, 28 ; 1008,4-13; 1070,23; N. Y. H. S. Coll., iii. (ii.), 159; Col. Doc, ii., 
712 ; iii., 103, 250 ; Shea, 254-25S. t Kelation, ICOS, 13-16 ; Shea, 259, 275. 


then at Albany, invited the father to meet him at Sche- chap. ni. 
nectady, and a pleasant conference followed. The French 
missionary did not fail to acknowledsre that the kindness. „^, ' 

^ _ o ^ii Octob r. 

he had received amonc; the Dutch at Schenectady had fierron 

Cv *' mcGts Nic- 

kindled a friendship which " diversity of religion should ous at 
not quencli." Leaving Fremin alone at Tionnontoguen, dy. 
Pierron then returned to Quebec, which he did not reach 
until early the next year.* 

Meanwhile there had been little direct intercourse be- 
tween England and her North American colonies. The 
only vessel that had reached New York for many months t May. 
was Sir AVilliam Davison's ship, the " Orange Tree," which 
came from Hamburg under the king's special license. 
Necessaries of all kinds grew very scarce; and, although want of 
rumors came by way of Bilboa and Fayal that peace had New voiu. 
been concluded between England and France, it was fear- 
ed that " some extraordinary disaster" had befallen the 
kinfj. In writincr to Lord Arlino-ton, Nicolls reported the 12 Novcm. 

, . .~ o ' X Nicolls'8 

miUtary precautions he had taken during the summer, and report to 
with just pride in New York, observed that "when His 
Majesty is truly informed how advantageously we are post- 
ed by situation to bridle his enemies and secure all his 
good subjects, I humbly presume to think that His Maj- 
esty would afford much of countenance and regard unto 
us, notwithstanding that His Majesty hath granted the 
whole tract to His Royal Highness."t 

There was, indeed, reason to apprehend that some great 
disaster had happened to the King of England. He had 1666; 
expressed his desire to make peace with the Dutch, and ^ septem, 
the States General had renewed their offers of reciprocal 
restitution or retention of all that either had taken before or _ 

. ig M.arcli. 

during the war. At the suggestion of Charles, plempoten- Pienipotcn- 

. . T "^I'l •j.j.TiJJ. t'^ries at 

tiaries were appomted on each side to negotiate at Jireda.:}: Breda. 

In the mean time Stuyvesant had reached the Hague, 
and presented to the States General his report of the sur- i665. 
render of New Netherland. This having been referred to 19 October. 

• Relation, ICGS, 12, 13, 62 ; Col. Doc, iii., 162, 1C3 ; Kenss. MSS. in O'Call., i., 337, 33S ; 
Shea, 25S, C59. t Col. Doc., iii., 162, ICT ; Ord., Warr., I^tt., ii., 16.5, 166. 

t Aitzema,v.,724, 732, 750-766; vi., 4, 9, 12,236-239; D'Kstradep, iv., 391,469, 515,609; 
v.,S,26, 63, 109; Basnage, i., 790, 801; Lister's Clarendon, ii., 36S-3i 4; iii., 443, 453 ; Ra- 
pin,ii.,644; Courtcnay's Temple, i., 99, 112; Martin, i., 276 ; Pepys, iii., 66, 67, 72, 82, 94; 
ante, 78, 93, 96, 124. 




Chap. III. tliG "West Iiiclia Compaiiy, they insisted tliat their late di- 

7~ rector had not done his duty, and prayed the States to dis- 

iijan' approve of "the scandalous surrender of the aforesaid 

stuyvcsant couutrv, and consider such example detrimental to the 

and the AV. " " ■•■ 

2 '^'^ ii state." Stuyvesant urged that his case should be prompt- 
ly decided, so that he might return to New Xetherland, and 
bring back to Holland " his sorrowful wife and family, with 
his property." The States General, however, required 
17 April, him to answer the objections of the West India Company, 
After six months' delay, in order to procure additional tes- 
29 October, tiuiouy from New York, Stuyvesant submitted an able vin- 
snnt'a re- dicatiou of liis couduct, supported by proofs. Among oth- 
^^" ers was a letter from his former subordinate, Yan Ruyven, 

" still the Company's resident and agent" in New York, 
and, at the same time, high in the confidence of Nicolls. 
IT August. " I can not myself imagine," wrote the late secretary of 
New Netherland to his old chief, " on what pretext the loss 
of the country can be laid to your charge. Was not every 
possible effort used for its preservation ? And was not its 
dangerous and ruinous condition notified, and assistance 
for redress solicited? and was it not protested that other- 
wise every thing would be lost ? Certainly yes ; not once, 
nor one year, but for several years, and by almost every 
ship. What more can be demanded from a Governor ?"* 
1GG7. In a long and petulant rejoinder, the West India Com- 
The \v I.' pany labored to shift the responsibility for the loss of New 
rejoinder.'^ Nctherlaud from themselves to Stuyvesant. But it was 
now useless to ]>rolong discussion. The States General had 
offered to Charles the alternative of reciprocal restitution 
or retention of conquests as the basis of a treaty. They 
had triumphantly established the Dutch title to New Neth- 
erland against the asserted claims of England, but they 
could not make its restitution the only condition of peace. 
Finding liow the case stood, the West India Directors 
25 March, represoutcd to their High Mightinesses that they had rear- 
taiico of ed New Netherland " like a foster child," at an " excessive 

Now Neth- *5 J? _f J • 1 IT- • • 

criand. cxpensc,' lor lorty-six years, and urged that its restitution 
by England should be insisted upon. To this was append- 
ed a memorial from many prominent merchants of Hol- 
land, setting forth the importance of regaining New Netli- 

* Col. Doc, ii.,3Cl-3T^ 419-425,427-458; ante, p. GO, note. 


erland, possessed by the Dutch for nearly half a century cuap. nr. 
" by a just and indisputable title," and " inhabited by more 

than eirfit thousand souls, consisting of about fifteen hun- 



dred families, all natives and subjects of this state, who 
went thither formerly to gain a livelihood and to settle, on 
a promise of being sustained and protected." Its restora- 
tion by treaty was urged, " the rather that in case the afore- 
said country be left to and remain in the power and hands 
of the Enghsh nation, it could gain and obtain therefrom, 
in time of war, considerable advantages over this state and 
its inhabitants, as well because it will be able to draw and 
receive thence, and therefore from its own lands and colo- 
nies, almost all the wares which, being necessary for its 
equipments, it has hitherto been obliged to obtain from the 
Baltic, as that, whenever it shall possess and be master of 
nearly the entire northern part of America (for the French 
will be illy able to hold Canada against that nation), it can, 
without people here in Europe having the least knowledge 
of the circumstance, fit out a considerable fleet of large and 
small ships there, * * * whereb}^ said English nation then 
would found, and extend considerably, its pretended do- 
minion over the sea.""'^ 

But these statesmanlike arguments were now too late. 
Charles accepted the alternative which he pretended the M Apiii 
States General had proposed, " namely, that each party 
should remain in the possession of all things which had 
been acquired on one side or the other during this war." 
On the other hand, the States instructed their ambassadors 5 May. 
at Breda to adhere to their offer actually made on the tions at 
sixteenth of the previous September, namely, " that it be 
left to His Majesty's choice to make peace by a reciprocal 
restitution, on both sides, of what is seized by force of arms 
or detained from the other, either before or after the com- 
mencement of the war; or else that the one party retain 
what it hath taken by force of arms, or otherwise seized 
from the other, as well l)efore as after the commencement 
of the war." The j^lenipotentiaries were also directed to 
procure, if possible, from the King of France, the cession 
to the republic of some of the colonies which he had taken 
from the English, as some equivalent for the relinquish- 

• Col. Doc, ii., 401-515 ; Kea. IIoU., ICCT, 120, 133. 


(jnAP.iii. ment of Xew Netherland by the Dutch, which sacrifice 

Louis had fii'st suggested.* 

Ibbl. £y ^]^-g ^jjjj-jg ^|jg j.qqI importance of New York had be- 
come better appreciated by the European powei's which 
1 666 were chiefly interested in its fate. From Quebec, Talon 
13 Novem. had suiTsested to Colbert that Louis should, after an ar- 
wi'shes rangement with the Dutch government, procure the cession 
gaTn New froui England of New Netherland to himself, by which 
ilndi^'' means he " would .have two entrances into Canada, and 
would thereby give the French all the peltries of the North 
— of which the English have now partly the advantage, by 
means of the communication with the Iroquois which they 
possess by Manatte and Orange — and would place those 
barbarous- tribes at His Majesty's discretion ; who could, 
moreover, approach New Sweden when he pleased, and 
-ipf^-T hold New England confined within its limits." This idea 
27 October. Talou reiterated the next year ; but Colbert was obliged to 
c April, content himself with directing the subjugation of the Iro- 
quois by the French. Louis, now engaged in active hos- 
tilities in the Spanish Netherlands, could do nothing to ob- 
tain the cession of New York either from Holland or En- 
gland, and limited his efforts to regaining Acadia, which 
Cromwell had wrested from France.f 
20 May. A diflicult poiut soou occurrcd at Breda. The Dutch 
offer was craftily misstated by Charles, and the negotiations 
were delayed. Observing this, De Witt, who could not for- 
get his vow to avenge the outrage which the English had 
perpetrated the year before at Sclielling, thought that the 
time had come for a memorable retaliation. The large 
sums voted by Parliament for the fleet had been squander- 
ed by the king on his unworthy favorites, and most of the 
English ships were laid up in ordinary. The Grand Pen- 
The Dutch sionary accordingly dispatched De Ruyter and Cornelis de 
Thames. AVitt to the Tliamcs. Sheerness and the dock-yard at Chat- 
ham were surprised ; several of the finest vessels in the En- 
l?^ June, glish navy were burned ; and the " Royal Charles," which 
had brought back the restored king in triumph from Sche- 
veningen, was carried off as the chief prize of the Dutch 

• D'K.« trades, v., 17.5, 201 ; Aitzcma, vi,, 27-31 ; Sec. Res. IIolI., ii., 623-552; Col. Doc, 
li.,;516,B17; Rapin.ii., 645; Martin, i, 275; Courtcnay's Temple, i., 100 ; ante,p.lSl. 
t Col. Doc, ix., 5G, 57, 58, CO ; D'Estradea, v., ISl, 208, 250, 333, 344. 


avengers.* London was deprived of its supplies, and chap. iii. 
threatened for several weeks by the blockading Holland- ^ 

ers, who, had they been better informed of the condition of p^„,jj /^* 
the capital, and acted with prompt vigor, might from the London. 
White Tower have dictated their own terms of peace to 
the fugitive sovereign at Windsor. While his ships were 
burning at Chatham, Charles was gayly supping with his 
parasites at Wliitehall, and all were " mad in hunting of a 
poor moth." But the nation felt, with Evelyn, that En- 
glishmen had suffered " a dishonor never to be wiped off." 
Well might Kicolls, at New York, after waiting the whole 
summer for a ship from England, apprehend that " some 12 Novem. 
extraordinary disaster" had befallen his majesty .f 

De Witt's galling success in the Thames had a marvel- 
ous effect at Breda. The English ambassadors agreed to Effect at 
the principle that each party should retain the places it had co June. 
occupied, and Charles was obliged to recede from his posi- 
tion and accept the terms insisted upon by the Dutch. A 
treaty between Enai-land and Holland was soon concluded. Ii J"'y- 

.... . Treaty 

By the third article it was stipulated that " each of the said made, 
parties shall hold and possess in future, in perfect right of 
sovereignty, propriety, and possession, all such countries, 
islands, towns, forts, places, and colonies, and so many as 
each, whether during this war or before, in whatever time 
it may have been, shall have taken and retained from the 
other, by force and by arms, or in whatever manner it may 
liave been, and that in the same manner as they shall have 
occupied and possessed them on the ~th of May last, none 
of the said places excepted." The same day another treaty 
was signed between France and England, by which Acadia Acadia re- 
was restored to Louis, in exchange for Antigua, Montserrat, France. 
and a part of Saint Christopher's.:}: 

By the treaty of Breda the Dutch West India Company New Neth- 
lost New Netherland, while the East India Company gained enlp by^ 

the treaty 
of Breda. 
A part of the stern of the Royal Charles Is still preserved as a trophy in the dock -yard at 

t Aitzcma,vi., 35-411, 109-120; D'Estradcs, v., 2-IC-3C1,382, 390; Kennett, uL, 2G5; Lis- 
ter's Clarendon, ii., 376-3S1 ; iii., 454-4C3; Rasnage, i., 803, 804; Evelyn, ii., 27, 2S; iii., 
214; Pepys, iii., 142-156, 1G4 ; Rnpin, ii., 645 ; Burnet, L, 250; Clarke's James II., i., 425, 
426; Martin, i., 286; Col. Doc, iii., 107; a)i^<>, p 125, 1.31. 

t Dumont, vii., 45; Aitzema, vi., .55; D'E.-trade?, v., 333, 384, 3S.5, 402, 4G4, 47G ; Bas- 
nage, i., 806, 807 ; Temple, i., 4S1 ; Courtenay's Temple, i., 112 ; U.~ter's Clarendon, ii., 881 ; 
DeWitt, ii.,537; Charlevoi.'cii., 204; Hume, vi., 400-402; Lingard, xii, 211-215; Hazard's 
Reg. Fenn.,iv.,120; Rapiu, ii ,645, 616; Anderson, ii., 4.2, 493; Martin, i., 287. 


(•uAP. III. Puleroii. Surinam, having been conquered before the 10th 
of Mav, was also confirmed to the United Provinces. Its 
acquisition somewhat reconciled the Dutch people to the 
loss of New Netherland ; and all, except the West India 
shareholders and the regents of the city of Amsterdam, 
•24 August, seemed to be content when the peace was proclaimed at 

the Ilague. 
i-eeiinKin But iu Loudou tlic fccling was very different. The 
church-bells rang out merry peals. Yet no bonfii'es show- 
ed the national joy — "partly," wrote Pepys, "from the 
dearness of firing, but principally from the little content 
most people have in the peace." They lamented " the giv- 
ing away Poleron and Surinam, and Isox^ Scotia, which 
hath a river 300 miles up the country, with copper-mines, 
more than Swedeland, and Newcastle coals, the only place 
in America that hath coals that we know of; and that 
Cromwell did value those places, and would forever have 
made much of them." In this feeling Massachusetts 
sliared wdien it became known that England had jjarted 
with " a place so profitable to them, from whence they 
drew great quantities of beaver and other peltry, besides 
the fishing for cod." Public sentiment, both in and out of 
Parliament, strongly condemned the king. A scape-goat 
Fall of became necessary at Whitehall ; and Clarendon, who had 
. aren. on. g^^.^.^^ j-^^jg sovercigii witli austcrc fidelity, was meanly de- 
00 August, prived of the great seal, which, at the very moment it was 
demanded from him, he was affixing to the proclamation 
of the Peace of Breda. This was followed by a quarrel 
between the Duke of York and his secretary, Sir William 
'.> spptem. Coventry, wlio gave up his place, and was succeeded in it 
ii.'ediike'a by Mattlicw Wren, a son of the Bishop of Ely, and secreta- 
eecreaiy. ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ fallen chanccllor, upon w^hose recommendation 
James made him his own most confidential ofticer.* 

The Peace of Breda finislied the controversy between the 
West India Company and Stuyvesant. As the fatherland 
had relinquished its ancient province to England, the vete- 
ran felt no scruple about ending his days under a govern- 

* Lambrcchtacn, SO; Aitzcma, vi.,r)4; Basnneo, i., SCO, RIO; Lin;;aril, xii., 215-220; 
Humo, vi., 402-400; Lister, ii., 383^14; Olinlmnr,--, Ann., i., i'.O", 5TS; IJov. Col., i., IIS; 
P(>py^^, ii , 3G1 ; iii., 227, 233-236, 240, 242, 244, 247 ; Kvclyn, i., 33.'), 400 ; Campbell's Chan- 
cellors, iii, 232 ; Clarke's James II., i, 420-433; Col. Uoc, iil., 241 ; Uutch. (Joll., 430; Life 
of Clarendon, Cont. (0.\f.), ili., 5.92, 293, 234. 


ment to which ho had ah-eady sworn a temporary alle- ciur. iir. 
gianee. But, before returuiii <;• to America, he tried to obtain ^ ^ 
a relaxation of the English navigation laws in favor of New 
York by allowing it a direct commerce \vith Holland ; urg- stuyvesant 
ing to the Duke of York that the capitulation should be free trade, 
ratified, and that its sixth article especially — which allowed 
a fi'ee trade with the Netherlands in Dutch vessels — should 
be " observed, or in some measure indulged." This was 
very necessary, because the Indians, in trading their bea- 
vers, especially prized Holland duffels and Utrecht iron- 
ware, and, for want of them, would trafHc with the French 
of Canada, '' who are now incroached to be too neare neigh- 
bours unto us ;" and because, as no ships were to go to New 
York from England this season, there would be destitution 
unless it should be relieved from Holland. Stuyvesant 
therefore asked permission to dispatch two Dutch vessels 
from Holland to New York, that so "■ the inhabitants, being 
plentifully supplied, may cheerfully follow their vocations, 
and bless God for the opportunity of enjoyment of all peace 
and plenty under the auspicious wings of your Royal High- 
ness's paternal care and protection."* 

As the Duke of Yn-k could not grant such a request, 
Stuyvesant petitioned the king in council. On the report 
of a special committee, without reference to the Council of it cct. 
Trade, Charles ordered that " a temporary permission for -2?. oct. 
seven years, with three ships only," he granted to the Dutch given!''^'°" 
" freely to trade" with New York ; and the duke was author- 
ized to grant his license to Stup'esant pursuant to Nic- 
olls's passport. The capitulation of New Netherland was 
not formally ratified, but it was recognized as obligatory. 
Having gained for his countrymen this concession in their stuyve- 
favor, Stuyvesant returned to spend the remnant of his days tnrnlJ^*' 
cahnly in New York.f 

The Peace of Breda brought welcome relief to NicoUs. nicoiis rcr 
The duke yielded to his many requests to be recalled fi'om 
an administration which he had conducted so well. It was 
difficult to find a proper successor in a court thronged with 
needy place-hunters, few of whom were qualified to govern 
an American province. James selected Colonel Francis 

* Col. Doc., ii.,251 ; iii., 163, 104; ante, voL i., p. 762. 

t CoL Doc, Ui., 164-1 6T, 175-179,237; v., 406; vii., 5S6: Man., 1S47, 370. 



Chap. III. 




1 .I;inuary. 
I ivice pro- 
il limed in 
Now York. 

ciiil enter- 

Grants of 
3 Febr'y. 

and Nan- 

Lovelace, a brother of John, Lord Lovelace of Hurley, and 
a favorite of the king, of whose " honorable privy cham- 
ber" he was one of the gentlemen. It seems to have been 
Lovelace's chief " affliction" that at his departure from En- 
gland he was unable to see Secretary Arlington.* 

At length official intelligence of the Peace of Breda 
reached NicoUs, whose pleasant duty it was, at the open- 
ing of the new year, to announce the good news in his gov- 
ernment. This was done by, warrants addressed to each 
justice, requiring a general publication of the proclama- 
tions announcing the ausj^icious event.f 

A new order of things at once 0]3ened. The success of 
Stuyvesant at London aroused the repressed commercial 
enterprise of the Dutch merchants ; of whom Van Cort- 
landt, Cousseau, Ebbing, and others set sail for Holland 
during the summer, to settle old accounts and prepare for 
increasing trade.:}: 

The peace also enabled Nicolls to reward some of his 
English subordinates. Among the effects of Dutch sub- 
jects which had been confiscated by the decree of lOtli of 
October, 1665, were Hog Island, and the two " Barent's" 
Islands in the East River. Hog Island was now granted 
to Captain John Manning, whom the governor had just 
before appointed sheriff of New York. The Barent's Isl- 
ands were at the same time patented to Collector Thomas 

A question respecting the jurisdiction of N^ew York was 
now settled by Nicolls. The islands of Martha's Vineyard 
and Nantucket, although contiguous to the coast of New 
Plymouth, were included by name in the Duke of York's 
patent. In 1641 they had been conveyed by Stirling and 
Gorges to Thomas Mayhew and his son, who, after 165-1, 
finding that they were out of tlie jurisdiction of Massa- 

• Chalmers, i., .MS, follows the error of Smith, i., 42, in stating that Lovelace assumed the 
administration of New York in M.iy, 16GT. Uc appears to have arrived at New York in the 
ppring of 1GC8, and did not relieve Nicolls until August of that year. See N. Y. Surrogate's 
liecords, Wills, i.,.^5; Val. Man., 1847, 3G2 ; Col. Doc, ii.,5S0; jii.,lT4. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., ii., lO:! ; Col. Doc, ii., 5.'2. t Col. Doc, iii., 178. 

5 Patents, i., 129, 131 ; Ord., Warr., Lett., ii., 177; Col. Doc, ii., 6M; Val. Man., 1847, 
351; 185.", 330; 1855, 403-407; Smith, i., 299 ; Hoffman's Treatise, i., 147, 1-18; Benson's 
Mem., 96; C. WoUey, 90; ante, p. 91. Hog Island was known as INIanning's Island, and 
afterward as Blackwell's Island. The "Barent's Islands" became Knglished into Great 
and Little "Bam" Islands, one of which is now known as Ward's Island, and the other as 
Kandall's Island. All the tliree now belong to the city of New York. See the "■ Nicolls 
Map," Val. Man.,lSG3. 


cliusetts and New Pljonouth, exercised a kind of independ- vum: hi. 
ent government in their remote habitations. An English 
vessel having been driven ashore on one of the neighboring 
Ehzabeth Islands, and seized by the Indians, the matter was 
reported to Nicolls, who sent a special commission to May- 3 January. 
hew, and instructed him to summon the offending sachems 
before him at " Martin's Yineyard," and also to request 
Governor Prince, of New Plymouth, to reprove the disor- 
derly savages within his jurisdiction. " I have not been 
forward," he added, " in trivial cases, to contest for my 
master's bounds ; knowing, however, that all the islands, 
except Block Island, from Cape Cod to Cape May, are in- 
cluded in my master's patent. The first scruples will be 
soon removed ; however, in cases of this consequence, I 
must declare myself both in point of power and readiness 
to protect and defend my master's honor and interest.* 

Another case of "scruple" was decided without diffi- 
culty. A few miles from Stonington, in Connecticut, 
is an island, about nine miles long and one broad, which 
the Dutch discovered in 1614, and named the " Visscher's" Fishcr-s 
or Fisher's Island. As it was near the mouth of the Mys- granted to 
tic, John "Winthrop obtained a grant of it in 1640 from '°'"'°^' 
Massachusetts, and in the following year the assent of the 
Hartford Court; and in 1644 he bought it from the sav- 
ages. But, as it was included in the Duke of York's patent, 
Winthrop procured from Nicolls a confirmation to himself 2S March. 
of Fisher's Island " as an entire enfrancliised township, 
manor, and place of itself ; and to have, hold, and enjoy 
equal privileges and immunities with any other town, en- 
francliised place, or manor, within the government of New 
York ; and to be in nowise subordinate or belonging unto, 
or dependent upon any riding, township, place, or jurisdic- 
tion whatsoever." In vain Connecticut afterward attempted 
to assert her authority over Fisher's Island. It still forms 
part of Suffolk County, in the State of New York, and was, 
until recently, owned by "Winthrop's descendants.f 

For some time after his arrival at New York, Lovelace 

• Col. Doc, iii., 165-170 ; Iloiii^h's " Nantucket Papers," x.-xv., 1-22, 70 ; Jfass. Kec, iv. 
(i), 199 ; Palfrey, ii., 196, 339 ; Hutch. Mas?., i., 161 ; JIathcr'.s Mag., ii., 424, 427. 

t Patents, iii., 5; Col. Kec. Conn., i, 64,65; iii.,64,2S3; Mas.s. Kec, i., G04; Ma?s. H. S. 
Coll., XXX., 54, 78 ; xxxvi., 36S ; xxxvii., S3 ; Palfrey, iL, 234, 624; Thompson, i., 38S-390 , 
N. Y. Kev. Stat., ia, 2 ; ante, vol. i., 57. 



(JiiAr. III. 


13 April. 
Court in 
New York. 

IS April. 


21 April. 

S June. 

ments in 
the prov- 

occupied liimself in becoming familiar with the govern- 
ment he was soon to administer. One of his duties was to 
preside in the Admiralty Coui't ; and a case having been 
removed from the Mayor's Court to that tribunal, Lovelace 
took his seat with Nicolls on the bench. A controversy 
had arisen between the owner of the ship Cedar and the 
privateers who went in her to Acadia the year before, and 
who had taken a Spanish prize which they brought into 
New York. After several hearings the court pronounced 
a sentence, a remarkable feature of which was, that an 
Indian man, who had been taken " as part of their prize," 
should be sold, to defray the charges on both sides.'- 

Affairs on the Delaware had meanwhile gone smooth- 
ly along. A new church had been built by the Swedes in 
1G67 at Crane Hook, near Fort Christina or Altona, now 
known as Wilmington, in Avhich Lokenius, the Lutheran 
clergyman, who appears to have led rather a godless life, 
continued to minister. By an order of Nicolls, the local 
government of the Delaware territory was now regulated 
more clearly. Captain John Carr was to remain as com- 
mander-in-chief at Newcastle, assisted by Alricks and oth- 
ers as counselors, and the Duke's laws were to be publish- 
ed and observed. Li all cases of difficulty the directions 
of the governor and council at New York were to be sought 
and followed. Not long afterward, the Mantes, or Eed 
Hook Indians, having committed several murders, Nicolls 
and Lovelace, in a joint letter, directed Carr and his coun- 
selors to make all necessary rules for the government of 
both Christians and Indians, and report them to New York 
for conlirmation.f 

The military establishment of the whole province was 
now settled. The garrison at Newcastle was to have a 
lieutenant, a corporal, and eighteen men ; that at Esopus, 
a sergeant and twenty-one meii ; and that at Albany, a lieu- 
tenant, a sergeant, a gunner, a drummer, and twenty men. 
At Fort James, in New York, there were to be a lieutenant, 

• N.Y..';urr. Roc. Wills, i.,n.')_'>l; Val. Man., 1847,302-300; Col. M.S?:.,xxii., 40-49; Ord., 
Warr., Lett., ii., I'.ll; ant(\ p. 127. Captain Uichard Morriii, formerly of IJarbadoi';', firtit ap- 
penr.s as a New Yorker in connection with this matter of the ship Cedar: compare Dunlap, 
i., 272 ; Bolton's Westchester, ii., 2S4, 2S0 ; Col. Doc, ii., 51)5, CIS). 

t Ord., Warn. Lett., ii., 20T, 20S; .S. Smith, 51, .'J2; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn.. 140, 332, 34S, 
371, 372 ; Reg. Penn., i., 37, 38 ; iv., 74 ; Proud, i., 124 ; Upland Records, 24, 25 ; aiile, vol. 
i., 225, 21S, 511, GIG, 031, 734. 


an ensign, a gunner, a marshal, a surgeon, four sergeants, chap. ni. 
four corporals, and eighty men. As a special encourage- 
ment to the settlement of the newly-purchased country 
back of Esopus, Kicolls granted thirty lots of thirty acres c Apiii. 
each to the soldiers in the garrison there.''^ 

After the recall of the royal commissioners, Massachu- 
setts extended her authority over Maine, which drew from 
Nicolls a strong remonstrance. But this was unheeded. In 12 June. 
a farewell letter the Governor of Xew York sharply admon- 30 juiy. 
ished the Boston Court, avowing himself "concerned dm*- letter to 
ing life in the affairs of New England ;" adding, " You know scu,^^^ " 
that my station hath been a frontier place towards the In- 
dians, who had too much influence upon the spirits of the 
Dutch in former times, but are now in a competent meas- 
ure reduced to a better compliance in their behavioui*s to- 
wards us, and have given me some testimonies of their de- 
sires to live in peace with our nation ; for they have made 
me a present of two youths which have been their prison- 
ers a few yeai*s : they were taken in Maryland. Also they 
have promised to bring me another young man remaining 
with them. So that though they have a warr with the En- 
glish in Maryland, because the English there do take part 
with their Indians, yett you may guesse these heathens are 
yet desirous of peace with the English, of which I have long 
since advertised the Governour of Maryland."! 

In company with his successor, Xi colls made a last visit : Juir- 
to Albany, against the monopoly of the Indian trade at 
which place the magistrates of New York had protested. 
Wliile there, the two governors jointly issued new instruc- Angnst. 
tions to Captain Baker for the regulation of the garrison Mn. 
and in regard to transactions with the Indians, and other 
matters growing out of the treaty of Breda. There was 
now to be a general amnesty and oblivion of all " seeds of 
distrust and jealousy ;" and, in future, no complaints were 
to be brought before the governor at New York '' but such 
as are of high nature, and the proofs grounded upon sufii- 
cient testimonies.'':!: 

• Col. MSS.,xxii.,50; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 20C ; Coll. Ulster H. Soc., i., 50, T-2; ante,SO. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 170-173; Ilutcli.,!., 260-207; Coll., 427, 42S ; Mass. Rcc, iv. (ii.), 370-373, 
400,401; CTialmew, i.,4S4; Rilfrcy, ii., 632-634 ; Williamson, i., 431-438. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 229-233 ; Col. MS3., xxii., 10 ; Munsell, vii., 100, 101 ; New Vcrk 
City Rec, vi., 3S7 ; ante, p. SS. 


Chap. III. Oil liis returii to New York, NicoUs prepared to take leave 

77~ of liis government. His predecessor Stuyvesant, having ir- 

' regularly sealed some patents after the surrender of New 

8 August. Netherland, received a formal pardon for himself and his 
secretary Van Ruyven. A new patent was also given to 

15 August. De Sille, Cortelyou, and others, confirming the town privi- 
leges of New Utrecht. At the same time, Samuel Edsall 
received a patent for Bronck's land, opposite Ilaerlem. As 

21 August, a crowning act of grace and justice, Nicolls released Ralph 

Hall. Hall and his wife from the recognizances which they had 
been required to give when charged with witchcraft in 
1665," there having been no direct proofs nor further j^ros- 
ecution of them, or either of them, since."* 

17 August. The authorities of the city of New York now sio-ned a 


leaves loyal addrcss, which they asked Nicolls to deliver to the 
duke, near whose person he was to resume his service. All 
the freemen of the metropolis were divided into two com- 
panies, and ordered to appear in arms at the governor's de- 
parture. A few days afterward, Nicolls, having transferred 

2s August, his functions to Lovelace, embarked for England, with every 
demonstration of res]3ect and regret from those who, receiv- 
ing him as a conqueror, bade him farewell as a friend. In- 
vested with extraordinary powers, he had used them witli 
the moderation and integrity of a true gentleman ; and the 
people, whose prejudices he had avoided wounding, "loved 
the man whose orders they disliked." His former colleague, 

C5 August. Maverick, thus wrote to Lord Arlington : "After liis abode 

iettiiabout here four years (where he hath lived with great reputation 
and honour), he is now returning home. 1 must needs ac- 
company him with this character — that he hath done His 
Majesty and His Royal Highness very considerable service 
in these parts, having, by his prudent management of affairs, 
kept persons of different judgments and of diverse nations 
in peace and quietness, during a time when a great part of 
the world was in warrs. And as to the several nations of 
the Indians, they were never brouglit into such a peaceable 
posture and faire correspondence as by his means they now 

• Ord., AVarr., etc. , ii., 210, 217, 220 ; Patents, iv., 54 ; Thompson, ii., 191 ; Bolton, ii., 2S3, 
2S4;*Doc. Hist., iv., 86; anU; p. 91 ; vol. i., p. 2GS. 

t N. Y. City Rec., vi.,397,48:); Col. Uoc.,iii., 174,175-. Chalmers, i.,57S; Smith, i., 42; 
Hutch. Coll., 428. 




About thirty miles west of London, on the Berkshire cnAP.iv. 
side of the Thames, in the parisli of Hurley, there stood, 77~ 
until a few years ago, a large country house, Ijuilt in the 
Elizabethan style, and called " Lady Place." Covering the i-ady riace 
site of an ancient Benedictine monastery, from which it'^ ^^^^' 
was named, it had been erected by Sir Kichard Lovelace, a 
lucky comrade of Drake. With the rich Spanish spoil he 
had won, the retired adventurer had laid out terraced gar- 
dens around his Tudor mansion, the wide hall of which 
opened on the placid river, and had adorned its stately gal- 
lery with beautiful Italian landscapes. The heir of the old 
knight greatly imjDroved this place, and was created, by 
Charles the First, Baron Lovelace, of Hurley. His sons, 
John, the second Lord Lovelace, and Francis, a colonel in 
the army, adhered to the royal cause. Francis Lovelace coionei 
appears to have visited "Long Island" in 1650, nnder ai^vdak 
pass from Cromwell's Council of State, and to have gone 
thence to Virginia. At its surrender to the Common- 
wealth forces in 1652, he was chosen by Sir William Berke- 
ley to convey the tidings " to the late King of Scots." The 
zeal of Lovelace in the interest of Charles the Second led 
to his being committed a prisoner to the Tower by Richard 
Cromwell, on a charge of high treason. This only in- 
creased his favor with the king at the Restoration. He 
was enrolled as one of the knights of the " Royal Oak," an 
order which Charles proposed to institute as a reward to 
his faithful followers in adversity, but was more substan- 
tially recompensed by being made " one of the gentlemen 
of His Majesty's Honorable Privy Chamber." In due 
time, the king's favor induced his appointment by the Duke Appointed 
of York as the successor of NicoUs in his government.* n'cw vort'. 

• Lyson'a Magna Brit., i., 299; Burke's Dormant Peerage, iii., 498, 499 ; Sainsbury's Cal- 


cuAP.iv. Lovelace was in many respects unlike his predecessor, 
lie was phlegmatic rather than enterprising, and lacked 
Character ^^^^ energy and decision so necessary in a provincial gov- 
ofLovc- ernor far removed from the observation of his superiors. 
Yet he was of " a generous mind, and noble ;" upright and 
good-natured, and by the very moderation of his character 
unwilling to disturb the policy by which Nicolls had ad- 
ministered the government of New York with such suc- 
cess. For several months he had enjoyed the opportunity 
of studying his predecessor's conduct. With a commission 
similar to that of Xicolls, Lovelace also brought with him 
to New York a formal confirmation by the duke of the 
code of lav\'S established at Hempstead. Lovelace's in- 
structions, among other things, required him " to make no 
alterations in the Laws of the government settled before 
his arrival."''^' 

Having received from NicoUs the cipher in which he 

was to correspond with the secretary of state in case of 

2s August, necessity, Lovelace announced to Lord Arlington his in- 

inataiied'. stallatiou in tlic government of New York, '' being the 

middle position of the two distinct factions, the Papist and 

Puritan," and asked " some instructions" how he might 

steer his course, so as most to advance the interest of the 

king and the duke.f 

•2 septcm. Lovclacc's couucil, at various periods, consisted of Cor- 

cuuncii. nelis Steenwyck, the mayor of New Yoi'k ; Thomas Willett 

and Thomas Delavall, former mayors; Ralph Whitfield, 

Isaac Bedlow, Francis Boone, and Cornells van Ruyven, 

aldermen ; Captain John Manning, the sherift" of the city ; 

Dudley and Thomas Lovelace, the governor's brothers ; and 

Matthias Nicolls, the provincial secretary. Van Ruyveu 

24Xovcni. was also appointed to succeed Delavall, who went on a 

cndar, i., 339, 3G1, 376, 370 ; Chnliiinri^, i., 12.1 ; Trvcrly (od. 1S55\ 50, r>l ; Biirk, ii., Sl-01 ; 
Thurloe, vi., 151; vii., 65S, 5:!S, G'22 ; Col. Doc, ii., r.SO; Mnraulay, ii., 40.1; Knislit's En- 
gland, i v., 430; Loiul. Quart. Kev., July, IS.'iO. The nephew of Governor Francis Lovelace 
was John, tlie third lord, who waa prominent in the devolution of 1CS3. Upon his death 
without issue, the harony descended to his second cousin, John, the grandson of Francis, 
who hecame the fourth Lord Lovelace, and was appointed hy Queen Anno governor of New 
York, where he died in May, 1700. 

' Court of Assizes, ii., 131 ; MSS., Secretary's Office, Albany ; Journ.als I.«g. Council, i.. 
Int., v., vii.; Col. Hoc, iii., 104, 218,220, 2G0; Mass. H. S. Coll., xx.x., 78; Smith, i., 42, 40; 
S. Smith, 73 ; N. Y. IL S. Coll. ilSOO), 32; a/ltc, IS, 73. 

t Col. IJoc., iii., 1T4, 175. The erroneous statements of Smith, i., 42, and Chalmers, i., 
r)7S, which have been so generally copied, that Lovelace began his administration in 1007, 
have been already noticed, antr^ p. 13S, note. 


visit to England, as collector of the duke's revenue at Kew chap. iv. 
York ; and Bedlow was made comptroller or naval officer, 
and Nicholas Bayard surveyor. The customs' rates were jg j^^j^^^l 
regulated by a new order from the governor." 

Affairs at Esopus required Lovelace's earliest attention. 
Conflicting claims were made for the lands in the " New 5 septem. 
Dorp ;" and the governor, finding it necessary to go thither fairs. 
in person, left Captain Manning in charge of Fort James, lo scptem. 
with full instructions. At Esopus, Sergeant Beresford was 
directed to disband the garrison, and cause their duty to be 25 septem. 
performed by the burghers ; but, to induce the soldiers to 
remain, liberal grants of land were assured to them, and 
arrangements made to found two new villages farther in- 
land along the fertile borders of the Esopus Creek. Soon 
afterward, Henry PaAvling was appointed to lay out lots at o xovem. 
the new " furthest dorp."f 

A severe epidemic — fever and ague, and fluxes — visited 21 Novem. 
New York this autumn, which caused the governor to pro- in'^Ne™ "^ 
claim a day of humiliation and prayer. In his proclama- 
tion, Lovelace reproved the swearing, intemperance, and 
impiety which he observed to prevail throughout the prov- 

The want of a printing-press in New York was now Apnntin?- 
much felt, and, as the only one in the English colonies wased?""^'"" " 
at Cambridge, Lovelace sent to obtain a printer from there. 
But he did not succeed ; and it was a quarter of a century 
before the "■ master art" began to be practiced in New 
York. Tliis was not, however, owing to the duke, who 
never instructed any of his governors to restrain printing. 
The immediate cause of Lovelace's enlightened effort was 
his desire to have published a catechism which the Rever- 
end Thomas James, the first minister at Easthampton, en- 
couraged by the fi-iendship of Nicolls, had prepared for the 
use of the Indians, and translated into their tongue, with 
some chapters of the Bible. For this and other labors 19 xovem. 
James was warmly thanked by the governor.§ 

' Council Min.,iii.,l; Court of Assizes, ii., 203, 293, 619, 035; Ord., Wnrr., etc., ii.,29T, 
298, 322 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 51-63, lOS, 109 ; Vnl. Man., 1853, 328, 3T9-3S3 ; Munsell, iv., 22. 

t Ord., Warn, etc., ii., 20G, 241-258, 279; Esopus Records; Ulster H. S. Coll., i., 50, 72. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 294, 205; Col. Doc, iii., 185; Val. Man., la'iC, 514. 

§ (1rd., Warr., etc., ii., 290-293; Mass. H. S. Coll.. xxxvii., -185; Wood, 41 ; Thompson, 
i., 317 ; Dunlap, i., 120; Tiionias's Hist. Print., i., 275; ii.,90, 2SG. The Dnkc of York has 
been unjustly charged with discouraging printing in liis province. The fact is, that neither 

XL— K 


c'uAP.iv. The Jesuit "Mission of the Martyrs," now named Saint 
Mary of the Mohawks, had meanwhile prospered greatly. 
Jeeuit mi*B. -A-fter visiting Quebec, Fremin's colleague, Pierron, retuni- 
J*|j*°j^j™°°s ed to Tionnontoguen, and resumed the care of the mission. 
7"<>ctobor ^^^ ^^^^ acquired the Mohawk language well enough to be 
understood, and, by means of little pictures which he paint- 
ed himself, explained more readily the Christian doctrines. 
Every week he visited seven Mohawk villages, which ex- 
tended over a distance of seven leagues and a half. But 
the war now raging between the Iroquois and " the nine 
nations of Mahicans who were scattered between Manhat- 
tan and the environs of Quebec," hindered the progress of 
religion. Hostilities were carried to the neighborhood of 
Albany, and prisoners taken on either side were burned or 
eaten. Being more numerous, the Mahicans had the ad- 
vantage. One of Pierron's chief encouragements was that 
the savages themselves observed that they had among them 
a " foreign Demon" who was more to be feared than those 
which they adored in their dreams. This demon was in- 
toxicating drink, which came to them from Albany,* hin- 
dered religion, and ruined their youth. At Pierron's sug- 
gestion, several sachems came to New York with a petition 
to the governor, accompanied by a letter from the father, 
asking him to arrest the evil. Lovelace at once directed 
i2Novem. the officers at Albany to execute the laws against selling 
13 Novem. liquors to the Indians. He also wrote to Pierron : " I 
have taken all the care possible, and will continue it under 
the most severe penalties, to restrain and hinder the fur- 
nishing of any excess to the Indians. And I am very glad 
to learn that such \nrtuous thoughts proceed from infidels, 
to the shame of many Christians. But this must be at- 
tributed to your pious instructions ; you who, being well 
versed in a strict discipline, have shown them the way of 
mortification, as well by your precepts as your practice."t 

Andros nor Dongnn, the auccessors of Lovelace, wcrn at all restricted on this subject: see 
Col. Doc, iii., 21G-219, 331-.'i34. It was not imtil IGSG that James the Second restrained 
the liberty of iirinting in New York ; and the instruction then given to Dongan followed the 
precedents o{ the I'lantatinn Committee re-ppcting other royal governors: Col. Doc, iii., 
i>75. The restrictive policy of Massachusetts has hcen adverted to, antf, p. SO, vote. 

* The French furnished the ludians with brandy diftilled at Rochelle; the English and 
Dutch with rum imported into New York from the West Indies, which the savages prefer- 
red, as " more wholesome :" Col. Doc, iii., 4G3, 797 ; ix.,3G, 970, 107,^; Doc Hist., i., 140. 

t Ord. , Marr., Lett., ii., 261 ; Col. Doc, ix., 8S3 ; Kelution, 16G9, 1-C ; (Jharlevoix, ii., 183; 
Shea, 2G3, 2G4. 


At Saint Francis Xavier, among the Oneidas, Bruyas cuai-.iv. 
suffered many discouragements. lie was obliged to live 
upon dried frogs and herbs, while few baptisms rewarded j5,.^,yj^^ ,,' 
his zeal. Of all the Iroquois, the Oneidas were the most j'° ^°"" 
intractable. The hostile Mahicans, and the Andastes or 
Conestogues, however, iillcd the canton with continual 

Early in the summer, Bruyas was joined by the youthful June. 
father Julian Garnier, the first Jesuit ordained at Quebec. 
After remaining a short time at Oneida, Garnier set out 
for Onondaga, a day's journey farther to the west, to the 
old mission of Saint Mary of Gennentaha, from which the 
French had been expelled ten years before. Received with 
every mark of good will, Garnier was constrained by " a cannier 
gentle violence" to remain among the Onondagas. At his at onon(i... 
request, Garakontie caused a chajiel to be built, and with ^''' 
four others then visited Quebec. His request for another 20 Aug.iM. 
"black robe" to be sent as a companion to Garnier was 
granted by Courcelles, who did not fail to impress upon 27 August, 
the savages the power and glory of the " Great Onnontio 
Louis." Loaded with presents, Garakontie and his col- 
leagues returned to Onondaga, escorting the Fathers Eti- October. 
enne de Carheil and Pierre Millet, and the Mission of Saint 
John the Baptist was happily established.f 

Carheil, however, did not remain long at Onondaga with 
Garnier and Millet. During the first mission of the French 
there, the Father Rene Menard had founded a church at 
Cayuga, about thirty leagues farther west, and delegates 
now came from there to ask a renewal of missionary serv- 
ice. Conducted by Garnier, Carheil accordingly visited c xovem. 
Cayuga. A chapel was soon completed and dedicated to xovcm. 
Saint Joseph. Besides the village of Guyoguen, or Cayuga, 
which was the seat of the mission, there were two othei's a 
few leagues apart, Iviohero or Tiohero, and Onnontarc. 
These villages were near the Lake Tiohero — now known • 
as Cayuga Lake — upon the banks of which David le Moyue 
had died in 1657. In this most beautiful region of West- 

-\T ^^ 1 /^ 1 •! 1 1 1 • • Cnrlioil ,it 

em JNew lork Carheil began a laborious service among cayiig;^ 

• Uplntion, icon, 7, 8; Charlevoix, ii., 1S5; Shea, SV.''.. 

t Relation, IG.^S, ."!, 4; lfiG2, 8-13; 166S, fi-19; 1GC!>, 10; Charlevoix, ii., ITfi, 177; Cal. 
Doc., ix., 227, 665; Shea, 259, 260, 277, 287, 289, 294 ; ante, vol. i., 643, 646, "04. 


ouAP. IV. the docile but superstitious Cayugas, and Gamier returned 
to assist Millet at Onondaeja.* 

Twelve years before, Chaumouot had proclaimed the 
faith to the Senecas at their principal village of Gandagarc. 
The most numerous of all the confedei-ates, the Senecas, 
whom the French called " the Upper Iroquois," were the 
most gentle and tractable. They were rather laborers and 
traders than warriors, and many Christian Ilurons had been 
adopted by them after 1649. Fremin, who was now the 
superior of all the Iroquois missions, thought that the time 
had come to "begin a new church" among the Senecas. 

10 October. Leaving Pierron in charge of the Mohawks at Tionnonto- 

guen, the superior accordingly passed westward, visiting 
the other missionary stations. After twenty days' travel 
1 Noveni. lic rcaclied the Senecas, who received him with the honors 
among the wliicli the savagcs show to ambassadors. The chiefs quick- 
ly built him a chapel, and many converts, especially among 
the domiciled Ilm-ons, rewarded his labors. The mission 
was named in honor of Saint Michael. Thus in 1668 the 
Jesuits had established five stations among the Iroquois. 
Frcmin, the suj)erior, however, found his labors among the 
Senecas hindered by a projected war against the Ottawas. 
But this he was able to prevent, aided by the opportune ar- 
rival, the next spring, of the Father AUouez from Canada, 
with some restored prisoners ; and it was hoped that the 
Iroquois, who had now both " the Mahicans and the An- 
dastes on their hands, would fear more than ever the arms 
of France."! 
Iroquois A colony of the Cayugas, which had been formed on the 
Quiaio northern shore of Lake Ontario, at Kentc or Quintd Bay, 
"^^ was placed in 1666, for a short time, under the care of Frc- 
min and some other fathers of his order ; but, on the con- 
clusion of the peace with the Iroquois the next year, the 
Jesuits, who were to occupy the more important field south 
p of tlie lake, resigned the Quinte mission to the Sulpitians 
of Montreal. Two young " Levites" of that order, Francis 
Salignac de Fenclon and Claude Trouvc, had recently ar- 

11 June, rived in Canada, the latter of whom was ordained a priest 

" Relation, 1C5T, 10, 43 ; 1CG8,20; 10G9,12-1C; 1070, G3, CO; 1072,22; Map in i;cl.,lGfir>: 
Col. Doc, iii., ^51 ; Chnrlevoix, ii., SO, 81, 185; Shea, 232-234, 201, 287, 35G ; ante, vol i.. CJt 

t Relation, 1040,3-33; 1057, 4.% 45; 1008.32; 1000,17; 1070,00,7"; Charlevoix, ii., 8 , 
183; Shea, 101, 102, 108, 220, 232, 234, 203, 200; nntc, vol. i., 014. 


by Bishop Laval ; and in the autumn of this year they went chap, iv 
to Quinte, where they began their missionary labors. In " 

this station they were succeeded by Francis Lascaris D'Urfe, ogy , ?;, 
De Cice, and others ; who for several years struggled with 
many difficulties, until the Sulpitians at length resigned 
their enterprise to the Recollets.* 

New Jersey, under the government of Phihp Carteret, New Jersey 
had now for three years Ijeen quietly growing. But it was ^^'^"^' 
a constant eyesore to the authorities of New York ; and, al- 
though Nicolls had ceased to allude to its dismemberment, 
Maverick could not refrain from writing by him to Lord snAuguet. 
Arlington that the duke's grant to Berkeley and Carteret 
had " proved very prejudicial to this place and government. 
Their bounds reach from the east side of Delaware River 
to the west side of Hudson's Eiver, including a vast tract 
of the most improveablest land witliin his Royal Highness 
his patent. It hath taken away some Dutch villages for- 
merly belonging to this place, and not above three or fom* 
miles from it. The Duke hath left of his patent nothing 
to the west of New York, and to the east upon the main 
about sixteen miles only from Hudson's River, whereon is 
but one poor village. Long Island is very poore and in- 
considerable ; and beside the city there are but two Dutch 
to^vns more, Sopus and Albany, which lie up north on Hud- 
son's River, I suppose when the Lord Berkeley had that 
grant, it was not thought he should come so neare this place, 
nor were the inconveniences of it known or considered,"f 

This letter of Maverick, in connection with Nicolls's per- 
sonal representations on reaching London, caused the duke 
to try to regain New Jersey. One point was promptly set- 
^ tied. As Nicolls had confiscated to his royal highness, in 
1665, the estate of the West India ComjDany in Staten Isl- staten i«\. 
and, and as one of the outlets of the Hudson River ran judgc'i";,. 
around the island, it was " adjudged to belong to New York." ^''"' "^^' 
Philip Carteret, the Governor of New Jersey, had probably 

* n<'lation,16G8, 4, 20, 31; Col. Doc, ix., 91, 07, 101, 102, 112, 132; FaiUon, iii., 1TI-1T3, 
ISO-IOS; Liil'otherie, iii.,21G; Doc. Hist , i.,2S3; Charlevoix, li., 177,250; Shea, 2&4, 2S3, 
309; N. V. H. S. Proc.,lS4S, lW-209 ; 1849, 12; Sparks's Life of La Salle, 10, 17; Shea's 
note in N. i\ Hist, and Gen. Keg., xvii.,24G, 247. Fonolon, of Quinti', has been confound- 
ed by Hennepin and other later writers with his younger half-brother, the famous author 
of Telemachus, the Archbishop of Cambray. Another blunder places the scene ofthe Quinte 
F6neIon's labor.s among the parent tribe of the Cayugas, instead of among their colonists oa 
the northern shore of Lake Ontario. f^ 

t Col. Doc , iii., 174; ante, p. 85. 



ciiAi-. IV. anticipated this decision when he took title from Ni colls, 
in 1667, for land on that island. Lord Berkeley, one of the 
commissioners of the Duke of York's estate, having been 
detected in " the basest" corruption, was now " under a cloud, 

ijorkoicy and out of all his offices." Berkeley therefore offered to 

ret ngrce to surrender to James his patent for New Jersey. Carteret, 

jli'.'cy to^'Mately made Treasurer of Ireland, agreed to do the like; 

of vor"^'' and it was arranged that the two proprietors should, in ex- 
change for New Jersey, " returned to his Royal Highness," 
receive the territory on the Delaware which NicoUs had so 
shrewdly and earnestly recommended. This determination 
was promptly notified by Carteret to his cousin at Eliza- 
bethtown. Had it been carried out it would have relieved 
the duke of much future anxiety,* 

TiK- But, owing probably to Lord Baltimore's claim to the 

Kion'' west side of the Delaware, the proposed arrangement fell 
through, and New York was not " inlarged" by the restora- 
tion of her old territory. In the spring of this year Carteret 

Miy. called an assembly, in which each town in New Jersey was 
represented, while Staten Island, being conceded to New 

November. York, was uot. But iu the next autumn dissensions grew 
so strong that the governor was obliged to adjourn the As- 
sembly without day.f 

The order of the king in council, which allowed three 
Dutch ships " freely to trade" with New York for seven 
years, had meanwhile caused jealous complaints ; and the 

Novaiubcr. Couucil for Trade reported that English merchants were 
" altogether discouraged and withdrawing their respective 
estates" from New York, and that the sixth and seventh ar- 
ticles of the capitulation bound the king to grant freedom 
of trade no longer than for " the first six months after the 
rendition of the place." They therefore advised that, as* 
there had been " a mistake in the drawing" of the order, it 
should be revoked, and that all persons trading to New 

• Mass. n. S. Coll., XXX vii., ni5, ni9 ; N. J. U. S. Proc, i. (ii.'>, 32-SG ; Pepys, iii., IGT, 172, 
331; iv.,28; Col. Doc, iii., 105, 114; Vnnkers Gazette, No. CSG, for S jMly,lSGr); Newark 
Town KecordH, 21, 22 ; ante, p. SI), 71, 85. 

t Col. r)oc.,i!i.,113, ISG, 340; Ponn. Archives, I., 70; I.cnmin.? and Spicer, 77-92; Gor- 
don, 28; Whitehead, 42-48, 51-63, lSS-100; Newark Town Kee., 21 ; (;lialmer.s, i., 52C, 52S, 
634; Yonkcr.s Gazette, S July, ISC'). Lord I'.erkeUy was made Lieutenant of Ireland in 
1C70, when, on tlie death of the Duke of Albemarle, he also became Palatine of Carolina; 
and doubtles.s lie and (Jarteret thouglit that tlieir interests would be better aei-ved by rctain- 
ing New Jersey tlian by taking tlio Delaware territory, and with it a controversy with so 
* important an Irish p cr as Ix)rd Baltimore, wlio could be easier dealt with by the king's 




York contrary to the navigation acts should be prosecuted, cuap. iv. 
This was the more necessary because the trade of England 
was " now in great measure upheld" by the American plant- 
ations. The king in council therefore ordered that all is Noyei... 
passes granted under the order of 23d October, 1067, be re- iishn-fiL 
called and annulled ; yet, out of regard to those who had i7iiew'''' 
relied on it, the Dulvc of York might license one of the ^°''^' 
ships now preparing in Holland to make one voyage to 
New York. 

Sir AVilliam Temple was directed to notify this decision 
to the interested parties in Holland. Eclying on the pre- 
vious order, Van Cortlandt, Cousseau, and several other " loy- 
al subjects now residing in New York," had dispatched one 24 October, 
ship from Amsterdam, with the duke's pass, and were pre- 
paring another, which was nearly ready to sail. Upon their 
representing this to the king, backed by the personal efforts 
of Nicolls, an order in council was obtained, " with much 11 Decem. 
difficulty," allowing the second " permissionated ship" " to siiip"pV 
make one voyage and no more ;" and the Duke of York mutedr'^' 
was at the same time directed not to grant '• any other 
Passe or Passes to any Dutch shipp or shipps whatsoever 
to trade to New Yorke." Lovelace proclaimed the royal 1669. 
pleasure on the arrival of Avhat was understood to be tlie^'*^^^* 
last Dutch ship that would " ever come on that account" to 

This ending of the old commercial intercourse between 
New York and Holland followed one of the best acts of 
Charles the Second. Soon after the peace of Breda, the 
ablest English statesmen saw that the only w^ay to curb the 
arrogance of France was to form an alliance between Great 
Britain and the Dutch Pepublic. Sir William Temple — 
in many respects the opposite of Dowming — was accord- 
ingly sent with special powers to the Hague. He had al- 1668. 
ready won the confidence of De Witt, and in a few days a p Jan'y. 
treaty was made which bound Great Britain and the United pie aih- ' 
Provinces to act, if necessary, in concert against France. ^^^^' 
The accession of Sweden shortly afterward gave to this 
famous coalition the uame of the " Triple Alliance." 

• Col. Don., ili., 1T5-1T3 ; Chalmers's Rev. Col., i., 117; Mnss. H. S. Coll., xxx.,77, 78; 
xxxvii., ."15; IlUt. Mag , viii., 230; ante, 137. Lovelace, nt the Fame time, "granted free 
trade to the merchants at New York, and took off the wonted recognition." 


Chap. IV. Foiled and mortified, Louis was obliged to suspend his 
conquests and make peace with Spain. In England, the 
Ibbo. "j-j-jpig Alliance became yery popular. The two great 
Protestant states of the world were now close friends, and 
outspoken members of Parliament declared that the king 
had done his only good act. " It was certainly," says 
I'rincipieof Bumct, " the master-piece of King Charles's life ; and if he 
AUiance.'^ had stuck to it, it would have been both the strength and 
the glory of his reign. This disj)osed his people to forgive 
all that was passed, and to renew their confidence in him, 
which was much shaken by the whole conduct of the 
Dutch war." The real merit of Temple's dij^lomacy was 
IT Febr'y. the ratification of the commercial stipulations in the treaty 
of Breda, by which England recognized the great principle 
so earnestly contended for by the Dutch, that " free ships 
make free goods."* 
1669. I^ew York was now prosperous, and Lovelace was sin- 
Kshta - cerely anxious to aid its progress. Lender his encourage- 
covere^d'off '^^^^^j ^ fishiug-bauk — now the favorite sporting-ground of 
^""^ the metropolis — was discovered, about two or three leagues 
froiji Sandy Hook, on which, in a few hours, some twelve 
hundred " excellent good cod" were taken. At the east 
end of Long Island the whale fisheries promised great re- 
sults, and even in the harbor of jS'cw York several whales 
were struck. More than twenty of them were taken dur- 
ing the spring. In partnership with some others, Lovelace 
phip-buiid- built a ship, " by Thomas Hall's house,"t on the East River, 
York? ' '^^'^ and a smaller one was launched at Gravesend. The gov- 
ernor's was "a very stronge and handsome vessell, but 
costly," named " the Good Fame, of New York," and was 
sent to Virginia, and afterward to Europe. It was noticed 
that there were at one time nine vessels in port which 
brought tobacco from Virginia, and otluers were employed 
in carrying more than ten thousand schepels of New York 
wheat to Boston. Several people in and about Boston 

• Aitzema, vi., 3S3-39S; Sylvius, i., 2-6; Dc Witt's Letters, iv., GO!)-fir>l ; Hasnage, ii., 
S-13 ; I)'K8tradc3, vi., 222, 220, 233, 2-1S-253, 26T, 2SG, i;91 ; Itiipiii, ii., WiO, 051 ; Kennctt, 
iii.,2iO; Anderson, ii., 495-407; Daliymplp, i., 37; Burnet, i., 2.^4.; Temple, i., 312-3S4; 
Courtenay's Temple, i., 117-201, 433; ii., 440, 4.V2; D.ivies, iii., C7-71 ; lliimo, vi., 411-413; 
I.ingard, xii., 228-232 ; Maeaiihiy, i., 2(i2, 203; Campbell's Chancellor?, iii., 304; Bancroft, 
ii., 325. 

t Hall's hous-e was near the present Reekman Street, so named after William Bcekmai', 
of I':sopii.'<, who piircliascd Hall's property in 1670 : sen Valentine's New York, 72, 1"3 ; Val. 
Man., ISOO, 530, 540 ; I'.ensoa's Memoir, 129 ; an/(\ vol. i., 517. 


showed inclination to come and live in New York, one of ciiap. iv. 
tliem having bought five houses. Many others, attracted 
by the reports of Sylvester and Morris, and the earnest 
recommendations of Maverick, prepared to remove from 
Bennuda and Barbadoes, and bought houses and planta- 
tions. The genial hospitality which had hitherto distin- 
guished ISTew York seems to have been encouraged by 
Lovelace. " There is good correspondence," wrote Maver- 
ick to Nicolls, " kept between the English and Dutch ; and April. 
to keep it the closer, sixteen (ten Dutch and six English) in°tho me-^ 
have had a constant meeting at each other's houses iix*''°P°"'- 
turns, twice every week in winter, and now in summer 
once. They meet at six at night, and part about eight 
or nine." Generous Madeira wine, and rum and bran- 
dy punch, " not compounded and adulterated as in En- 
gland," were the usual beverages of the colonial me- 

The city itself was described by Daniel Denton, of Ja- Aspect of 
maica, in the earliest separate account of New York ever New Voric. 
published, as " built most of brick and stone, and covered 
with red and black tile ; and the land being high, it gives 
at a distance a pleasing aspect to the spectators." The 
king's cosmographer, John Ogilby, more elaborately pic- 
tured it as " placed upon the neck of the Island Manhat- 
ans, looking towards the sea, encompassed with Hudson's 
River, which is six miles broad : the Town is compact and 
oval, with very fair streets and several good houses ; the 
rest are built much after the manner of Holland, to the 
number of about four hundred houses, which in those 
parts are held considerable : Upon one side of the town is 
James'-Fort, capable to lodge three hundred souldiers and 
Officers : It hath four bastions, forty pieces of cannon 
mounted ; the walls of stone, lined with a thick rampart 
of Earth ; well accommodated with a spring of fresh wa- 
ter, always furnished with arms and ammunition against 
accidents : Distant fi'om the sea seven leagues, it affords a 
safe entrance, even to unskilful pilots: Under the town 
side, ships of any burthen may ride secure against any 
storms, the current of the River being broken b}' the inter- 

• Col. Doc, iii., 183-1S5; Gen. Knt., iv., 140 ; Court of ApsIzcs, ii., 455, 501 ; M.iss. U. S. 
Coll., XXX., SO ; xxxvii., 31G-310 ; WoUcy's New York, r.5, 55. 


Chap. IV. positioii of a Small Island, wliicli lies a mile distant from 

——the Town."* 

April.' * The "small island," just below the city, known as Nut- 

Governor-'s ^^"' ^^' ^^^^ GoAcmor's Island, " by the making of a garden, 

Island. jji^j planting of se^'eral walks of fruit-trees on it," wrote 
Maverick to Nicolls, " is made a very pleasant place." The 
metropolis was admirably protected by nature. About ten 

iieii Giitc. miles to the northeast was " a place called Hell Gate, Avhich 
being a narrow passage, there runneth a violent stream, 
both upon flood and ebb, and in the middle lieth some Isl- 
ands of rocks, which the current sets so violently upon that 
it threatens present shipwreck; and upon the flood is a 
large Whirlpool, which continually sends forth a hideous 
roaring, enough to affright any stranger from passing any 
further, and to wait for some Charon to conduct him 
throng] i; yet to those that are M-ell acquainted, little or no 
danger; yet a place of great defence against any enemy 
coming in that way, which a small fortification Avould ab- 
solutely prevent, and necessitate them to come in at the 
west end of Long Island, by Sandy Hook, where Nutten 
Island doth force them within command of tiie Fort at New 
York, wliich is one of the best pieces of defence in the 
North parts of America."f 

Long M- Long Island, although thought by Maverick to be " very 
poore and inconsiderable," was described by Denton, of Ja- 
maica, as almost a paradise. Crops of all kinds came up 

• Dnniel Denton's "Brief Description of New York," London, 1070 (republished by W. 
Gowana, New York, 1S45), p. 2; Ogilby's America, 1C71, 109, 170. Ogilby's account ia 
compiled chiefly from Denton and from Montanu,-', who pcems to have described the Dutch 
engraving of New Amsterdam, rather than the reality of New York, as follows: "On the 
Manhattan's Island stands Now Amsterdam, five [Dutch] miles fiom the ocean. Shijis run 
up to the liaibour there in one tide from the ocean. The city has an earthen fort. Within 
the fort, upon the outermost bastion towards the river, stand a wind-mill and a very high 
Htaff, on which a flag is hoisted whenever any vessel is seen in Godyn's [the lower] I5ay. 
The church rises with a lofty doubled roof, between which a square tower looms np. On 
the one side is the pri.-on, and on the other sideof tlie church is tlie Governor's houRe. Out- 
side of the walls are the houses, mostly built by Anisterdnmmers. At the waterside stand 
the gallows and the whip. A handsome city tavern adorns the furthest point. I'etween 
the fort and this tavern is a row of proper dwelling-houses, among which are conspicuous 
the warehouses of the West India Company." Montann.", 123; N. Y. Doc. Hist , iv., 75. I 
do not quote the description of Edward Melton, Amsterdam, ICSl, who was in New York 
from 2 July, KiOS, to July, ICiiO — (and, being an o.xfurd scholar, ought to have written an 
original account) — because he merely copies Montanus. John Josselyn, Cent., wlio publish- 
ed his two voy.iges to New Kngland in 1074, describes New York as "built witli Dutch 
brick, albt-modertut, the meanest house therein being valued at one hundred pounds. To 
tlie landward it in compassed with a wall of good thickness. At the entrance of the liiver 
is an island well fortified, and hath command of any ship that shall attempt to pass without 
Itave:" eee extract in N. Y. II. S. Coll. (ii.), i., r;84 ; also Oldmixon, i., 2.10, 271. 

t Col. Doc., iii,, 183; Denton, 2 ; Benson's .Mi m., '.4, '.>' ; cnitc, vol. i., 50, 207. 


ill plenty. Many fruits grew spontaneously, especially cnAP.iv. 
strawberries ; of which there was " such abundance in 
June, that the fields and woods are died red : Which the 
country-people perceiving, instantly arm themselves with 
bottles of wine, cream, and sugar, and, instead of a coat of 
Male, every one takes a Female upon his horse behind him, 
and so rushing violently into the fields, never leave 'till stniwi^r- 
they have disrob'd them of their red colours, and turned trout ' 
tliem into the old habit." Trout and other delicious fish 
abounded in the crystal streams which " keep their course 
throughout the year;" and multitudes of seals, producing 
"an excellent oyle," sported on the beaches. The vast 
smooth plains on the island encouraged the breeding of 
swift horses ; and upon that at Hempstead, Nicolls had al- 
ready established a race-course, and directed that a yearly 
plate should be run for. Lovelace now ordered that trials i April. 
of speed should take place every May; and the justices of 
Hempstead were directed to receive subscriptions from all 
disposed to run " for a crown of silver, or the value thereof 
in good wheat." The swiftest horse was to be rewarded 
by a silver cup. The general training being ordered for is M«y. 
the same time, the governor attended it himself.* 

An extraordinary panic now occurred at the eastern end Panic on 
of Long Island. The Indians of " Meontawket" or Mon- andf 
tank, who were tributary to Ninigret, tlie Narragansett 
sachem, being in arrear, collected a quantity of wampum, 
which, with an old gun-barrel, they sent over to the chief, 
who received the messengers graciously, and pardoned the 
defaulters. This at once excited suspicions of a great In- 
dian plot. The constable of Easthampton required the 
Montauks to give up their arms, which they reluctantly 
did. The clergyman James, with several of the inhabit- 
ants of Southold, wrote to Major John Mason, of Comiecti- w junc. 
cut, one of the Pequod war heroes, and to Lovelace, charg- 
ing Ninigret with organizing an extensive conspiracy to 
cut off all the English. The governor at once coinmuni- 5 juiy. 
cated with the Rhode Island authorities, who directed that 
Ninigret should be brought before them at Newport. But 

* Col. Doc, iii., 174; Denton's N. Y., 2-0; Thompson, i., 2T), 272; ii., C.T; Dunlap, i , 
110; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 41C; Farmer and Moore's Coll., iii., 1S3; Oldmixon, i., 275; 
«)!?'', p. 7}. 


Chap. IV. the sacliem exjolained every thing so satisfactorily that the 

court " saw no just grounds of jealousy as to his inten- 

2.SJU1 tions." The whole story was evidently a "panic fear of 

24 August, gome over-credulous persons." In order, however, to pre- 

3\ovciu. vent future jealousy, the Montauk chiefs soon afterward 

acknowledged the governor of New York as " their chief- 

est sachem."''" 

As the Navigation Laws prevented direct trade between 
Holland and New York, the Duke of York asked of his 
brother that " such of His Majesty's subjects in Scotland 
as shall be induced to take conditions as planters at New 
sootcii York" might be allowed to go there and trade in Scotch 
" '^""^^ vessels to the West Indies and other plantations. The 
.-> April, king accordingly authorized two Scotch shij)s to trade be- 
tween Scotland and New York. The farmers of the cus- 
£3 April, toms objected that this would be a breach of the Naviga- 
tion Laws. It was replied that the duke's design was for 
the general good of the king's " late acquired dominions," 
and that natural-born British subjects should be encour- 
aged to emigrate to New York and its dej^endencies, so as 
to counterbalance its " forraigne" population, which con- 
Not aiiow- sisted of Dutch, Swedes, and Finns. The objections of the 
to New farmers of the English revenue seem to ha^'e defeated the 
enterprise. In expectation of their arrival, Lovelace made 
'-'5 July, arrangements to settle two hundred Scotch families at 

Esopus ; but no ship came fi'om Scotland this year.f 
septem. Lovclacc uow Ordered that " the garrison at the Esopus 
frir.s.'" "^ * shall be henceforth disbanded and dismissed of their milita- 
ry employment, they being a needless charge to the Duke." 
.nseptcm. A commission and instructions were likewise issued to 
Counselor Ralph Whitfield, Captain John Manning, Captain 
Thomas Chambers, William Beekman, Christopher Beres- 
ford, and Henry Pawling, to regulate affairs at Esopus and 
the new villages adjoining. The commissioners accord- 
17 ^pptem. ingly went to Esopus and organized two new villages, the 
Mavbio- farthest of \vhich they named " Marbletown," from the 
blue limestone which abounds there ; the nearer one they 
Uiiricy. called " Hurley," after Lovelace's ancestral home on the 

• Onl., WaiT., Lett., ii., 401, CIO; Court of Assizes, ii., 431 ; H. I. Kcr., ii., 2G3-0GS ; Col. 
Kcc. Conn., ii. , 548-5.51 ; Thompson, i., 02, 208-300; "Wood, C.5, CO, 70; Hough's I'hilip's 
War, 33-37; Arnold's IJ. I., i., 33S, 339 ; ante, vol. i., 271, 550-554. 

t Col. Doc, iii., ISO, 181, 182, ISC ; Ord., W:u-r., otc, ii., 482-484. 


Thames. A few days afterward, " the town formerly call- cuap. iv. 
ed Sopes was named Kingston" by the commissioners, in 
farther compliment to the governor, whose mother's family „^ septem. 
had a seat at Kingston, I'Isle, near Wantage, in Berkshire, ^'^s^'""- 
Beresford was appointed chief magistrate of Hurley and 
Marblctown, and Pawling officer over the Indians. Lewis 
du Bois and Albert Hey mans, who was now restored to New ofti- 
favor, were made overseers for Hurley ; John Biggs and 
Frederick Ilnssey for Marbletown ; and Thomas Chambers 
and William Beekman for Kingston. The " Duke's Laws" 
were directed to be enforced, and instructions were given 
to the new officers respecting their conduct toward the In- 
dians. Separate lots in the two new villages were parcel- Lands 
cd out to the disbanded soldiers. The governor having iLopiL. 
specially directed that '^ a very good provision at the fur- 
thest doi-p" be made for Mrs. Ann Brodhead, " in regard of 
her great charge, and of her being a commissioned offi- 
cer's widow," a tract at Marbletown Avas allotted to her. - 

In the mean time, Lovelace, sorely troubled that no in- 
structions had come to him from England, in the absence 
of which he conceived " the whole frame of government at 
this time standing still," prorogued the Assizes from Oc-23?cptcm. 
tober to ISTovember. His reasons were that " new Instruc- proro^'ed. 
tions and directions from His Boyal Highness" were daily 
expected from England, "' and the Generall Court of As- 
sizes being thought the most proper place for the publish- 
ing of business of such publique concern."f 

Xot long afterward Delavall returned fi'om England, 
bringing the expected dispatches. Nicolls having explain- 
ed the condition of New York, the duke caused a seal to be * 
engraved for the province, and another for the city, which 4 juir. 
he directed should be used fur all public purposes. James and'cuy* 
also presented to the city authorities a silver mace, and^"'''*' 

• Council Min., iii., 11 ; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 530-500; Col. MSS., xxii., 09, 1-2T ; Ulster 
n. S. Coll., i., 50, 51 ; ante, p. 123, note. Descendants of Captain ISrodhead have continued 
to reside at Marblctown, where, in 1770, his great-grandson, (Japtain Charles W. Brodhead, 
raised aconipanyof grenadiers, in command of wliicli he was present at the surrender of Gen- 
eral Bnrgoync at Saratoga, in October, 1777 : American Archives, v., 13S2; Journals of .\. 
Y. Prov. Congress, i., 295, 074 ; ii., l.W, 150 ; ante, S9 ; X. Y. II. S. Coll. (ISCS), 1S5. 

t Ord., Warr.. etc., ii., 504; Court of Assizes, ii., 414, 415; ?. Hazard's Ann. Pcnn., 37C ; 
CouncilJournals, i., Int., vi. It seems tliiit Alderman John Lawrence, wliile in London in 
the spring of IGGO, had been asked by NicoUs to take lettcre from liini to New York ; but on 
his calling for them, "Coll. NicoUs being not out of bed, and his man unwilling to awake 
him, he came away without them." So New York, through a vnlel's scruples, hnd no letters 
by Ijiwrence: Col. Doc, iii., 1S3; Mass. 11. S. Coll., xxxvii., 319. 



Chap. IV. 

10 July. 

The city 
for fi-ce 

5 Jii!y. 

12 July. 

nil Nciv 

seven gowns for the mayor, aldermen, and sheriff, and sent 
them a letter acknowledging the satisfaction which their 
loyal address had given him. Lovelace presented these to 
the corporation in behalf of the duke, who, " although he 
esteems some of these but as the gaiety and circumstantial 
part of Government, yet, you may be assured as to what is 
more essential and substantial, it shall receive all encour- 
agement and hearty assistance from him."* 

Thus encouraged, the corporation petitioned the duke 
that — as the limited permission for Dutch ships to trade 
between Holland and New York had been withdrawn — a 
free commerce might be allowed to the province, accord- 
ing to the Navigation Acts, by vessels " touching in some 
port in England as they came from Holland, and paying 
His Majesty's customs there ; as also touching in England 
as they go for Holland." This was indispensable if the 
Indian trade was to be retained, which required " Dutch 
duffels and blancoates," not made in England, and w^hich, 
if prohibited, would be procured through Canada, to the 
injury of New Y-ork.f 

Since the departure of Nicolls, Maverick had lived in 
New York, whence lie wrote that he liad never received any 
thing " to the value of sixpence, one horse excepted, which 
Mr. Winthrop presented me with, among the rest. And 
what I had by His Majesty's order, I have spent as much 
since I came over, and four hundred pounds besides in En- 
gland, in prosecution of this design." Nicolls now obtain- 
ed for his former associate the gift, from the Duke of York, 
of a "house in the Broadway" of the city. In acknowl- 
edffine: this favor, Maverick urged Nicolls and Cartwright 
to do all they could for the relief of their " poor friends in 
New England," whose spirits were drooping in the " bond- 
age they live," and who were " now in a far worse condi- 
tion" than that in which the royal commissioners had 
found them. The king, in truth, had, by this time, be- 
come "very intent about settelment of his collonies" in 

* N. v. City Too., vi , 4SS-490; Mass. U. S. Coll., xxxvii., 316, 310; Val. Man., ISI!', 
34."? ; 1850, 400 ; 1S5.'!, 3S0 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 241 ; iv., 1, * ; ante, p. 142. The »enl of the prov- 
ince of New ^'ork, thiisi authorized by the Duke of York's warrant of 4, July, ICfli), to be ii.»e<l 
for all public instrunientp, was po us-ert until replaced by the new seiil which James the fee 
end PubFtilutcd for it on 14 August, 1087 : Col. Doc, iii., 42T. 

t Cnl. Doc., iiL, 1ST; Val. Man., 1S60, 4'ja. 


America, and a select council was appointed to consider cnAr. iv. 
their affairs.* „ ,„ " 

The Duke of York, l)y conviction a Koman Catholic, 
felt a sympathy with all who dissented from the Esta]:)lish- 
ed Church of England. This feeling led him, in apparent 
contradiction to the arbitrary impulses of his nature, to be- 
come the friend of religious toleration. Soon after Nicolls 
came to New York, he allowed the Lutherans in the prov- 
ince to send to Germany for a minister. The Reverend 
Jacobus Fabricius accordingly came over, and Lovelace 20 Febr'y. 
gave him leave to exercise his office as long as he and his Lutiician 
people should behave themselves orderly. At first Fabri- ™""^ '"^' 
cius labored at Albany ; but his conduct was so offensive to 10 Apni. 
the magistrates and the Dutch congregation that the gov- 
ernor was obliged to suspend him from his functions there, 2s uaj. 
allowing him, nevertheless, to preach at New York, On 
receiving his dispatches from England, Lovelace wrote to r, October. 
the Albany magistrates "that His Royal Highness doth 
approve of the toleration given to the Lutheran Church neiigiou? 
in these parts. I do therefore expect that you will live "^"""'^ 
friendly and peaceably with those of that profession, giv- 
ing them no disturbance in the exercise of their religion ; 
as they shall receive no countenance in, but, on the con- 
trary, strictly answer any disturbance they shall presume 
to give unto any of you, in your divine worship."t 

The provincial ministers of the Reformed Dutch Church Minister 
at this time Avere the Domines Schaats at Albany, Polhe- for^c,i'^" 
mus at Flatbush and Brooklyn, and Megapolensis and cimrcii. 
Drisius, colleagues at New York. Blom's place at Esopus 
remained vacant. Samuel Megapolensis had returned to 9 .\v !'• 
Holland in the spring, under a pass from the governor. 
The following winter, Domine Johannes Megapolensis was Decemboi-. 
" snatclied away by death," after twenty-seven years' minis- 
terial service in the province ; and the metropolitan church 
was left in care of Drisius, whose declining health almost 
prevented his doing active duty. Privileged by the articles 
of capitulation, the Dutch churches in New York maintain- 
ed their foiTnei' discipline, and remained for a century in 

• Col. Doc, iii., 1S4, 1S5; Ma??. H. S. Coll., xx.\:vii., 311, CIG; ante, p. r>4. 
t Gen. Knt.,i.,Tl; Ord.,WniT., etc., ii., 3.^5, 394, 423; Court of A.'sizes. ii., 424; P. Haz- 
.".rd,373; Dnnlap, i., 120, 12G, 4S4 ; Mimscll,iv., 24; aii^fl, vol. i., p. 634,612, 650, 6S1. 


cuAr. IV. direct subordination to tlio mother Classis of Amsterdam, 

in Holland.""^ 
4Novera' ^^^ ^^^^ Coiirt of Assizcs it was ordered tliat miiformity 
Meeting of Qf -^yeiglits and measures should be enforced throughout 
the province. But as there were not enough English stand- 
-\Q^Q ard weights and measures in the country, the governor was 
1 January, obliged to suspcud the execution of the law by his procla- 
mation, " sealed with the seal of the colony."f 
1669. At the same Assizes petitions from East and West 
mltions" Chester, Hempstead, Oyster Bay, Flushing, Jamaica, New- 
isi^d'°°° town, and Gravesend, against several grievances, were pre- 
towna. sented. These grievances were " that what was promised 
upon our submission by Governor Ni colls and the rest of 
His Majesty's Commissioners should be made good to us : 
— Namely, That we should be protected by His Majesty's 
lawes, and enjoy all such privilcdges as other. His Majes- 
ty's subjects in America, do injoye ; — which pri^dledges 
consist in advising about and approving of all such lawes 
with the Governor and his council as may be for the good 
and benefit of the common-wealtli, not repugnant to the 
Lawes of England, by such deputies as shall be yearly 
chosen l)y tlie freeholders of every Towne or parish ; and 
likewise to be informed what is required of us IBs Majes- 
ty's subjects by virtue of the Commission granted from His 
Koyal Highness the Duke of York." Some of the smaller 
grievances complained of were remedied. But Lovelace 
had no power to grant the demand for an Assembly to 
make laws with the governor and council. Lideed, Nic- 
olls had distinctly refused it at the Hempstead meeting in 
the spring of 1665. To the statement of the petitioners 
Answer of tlic Court of Assizcs replied : " It doth not appear that 
of Assizes. Coloncl Nicolls made any such j^romise; and the Govern- 
or's Instructions directing him to make no alterations in 
the Lawes of the Government settled before his arrivall, 
they cannot expect his Honor can comply with them there- 
in; — And for their desire to know what is required of them, 
there is nothing required of them but obedience and sub- 
mission to the Lawes of the Government, as appears by His 

* Ord., AVarr., etc., ii., 3S1 ; Corr. CI. Amst. ; Col. Poo. . ii., 2.M ; ili.. 15? ; vii., .WO ; X. 
y. H. S. Coll., iii. (ii.), 14-1, 14.'') ; nnlr, vol. i., 014. 724, '(Vi. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 22C; Col. MSS., xxii., SS, iXJ, 9S; Munsell, iv., S, 0, 11 ; N. V. II. 
.S. Coll., i.,4'31. 


Royal Iligbness's Commission, which hath often been read cuw. iv. 
unto them."* ; 

In the spring of this year a Mohawk cmlmssy asked ^he mo' ' 
Conrcelles, at Quebec, that other missionaries miirht beH'^*'"^'*^''- 
sent to assist Pierron, and tliat their nation might be pro- 
tected from the Mahicans by the King of France, to whom 
their country now belonged " by the force of arms." Fa- 
ther Francis Boniface was accordingly selected to help in 
the mission, the prosperity of which, piously attributed to 
the death of Jogues at Caghnawaga, seemed to verify the 
words of Tertullian, that " the blood of martyrs is the seed 
of Christians."! 

But the Mohawk country was a battle-ground. At day- 1.9 AuRust. 
break, toward the end of summer, thi*ee hundred Mahican «a*r'with 
warriors attacked the palisaded village of Caghnawaga, ha^ks!' 
which the Mohawks bravely defended, while their squaws 
made balls for their firelocks. The news was quickly car- 
ried to Tionnontoguen, and at eiglit o'clock a large force, 
accompanied by Pierron, set out to relieve their beleaguer- 
ed friends. The enemy had retired, however, after two 
hours' fighting ; and the Mohawks, descending the river in 
canoes, hid themselves below the Mahicans in an ambus- 
cade which commanded the road to Schenectady, at a place 
called " Kinaquariones." A conflict followed, in which the 
Mohawks put the Mahicans to flight. Tlie Mohawks then 19 August. 
induced the Oneidas, Onondagas, and Cayugas to make 
common cause; and four hundred confederate warrioi*s 
went to surprise a Mahican fort " situated near Manhat- 
tan." But this enterprise failed, and the Iroquois came 
home with two wounded. They quickly appealed to Love- 27 October. 
lace, who — anxious that they should hunt beaver rather nnd^\Mn- 
than fight — endeavored, in concert with Winthrop, to make i„ake"^ '" 
peace between them and the Mahicans.:}: ''""''■ 

Frdmin, the New York Jesuit superior, now summoned 
his missionary brethren to meet him at Onondaga. Pier- 
ron from the Mohawks, Bruyas from Oneida, Gamier and 

' Court of Assize?, ii.,22S-234; Journals Log (Council, i., Introd., vi., vil. ; Wood, 91; 
Thompson, i., 145, 14G ; Duulap, i., 120; ajitc, p. 33, CO, C!). 

t delation, 1C09, 2-G ; Slica,2G4; nn^r, 129 ; i.,4'23. 

t Relation. IGTii, 23-27; 1071,17; Col. MSS., xxii., 132; Court of Assizes, ii., 42C; Ord., 
Warr.,ctc.,ii.,4S.'); Muuscll, iv., 10, 20; Mass. II. S. Coll., i., 160, 107; xxx., 79 ; Holmes 
i., 352 ; Col. Kec, Conn , ii., 549. 

XL— L 



Chap. IV. 


•29 August. 
council at 
(i Septeni. 
•JT Septera. 
with Fre- 
niin among 
the Scne- 

15 MrtV. 
i'lilon in 

.Jesuit ox- 
iu the 

Millet of Onondaga, and Carheil from Cayuga, accordingly 
met Fremin, from the Senecas, in council. After deliber- 
ating for a week, the superior detached Garnier to assist 
him among the distant Senecas, leaving Millet alone in 
charge of the Onondagas. On reaching their remote sta- 
tion, Fremin assigned Garnier to the village of Gandachi- 
ragou, himself remaining in charge of the mission of " Saint 
Michael," at Gandagarae. This village was composed of 
refugees fi-om three different nations, the Keutres or Atti- 
wandaronk, and the Hurons, which had been conquered by 
the Iroquois.''^ 

Talon now went for a short visit to France, where he in- 
duced Colbert to instruct Courcelles to visit the Iroquois 
country at least once in two years, with all his forces, so as 
to impress the savages with respect for the French. Six 
companies of the Carignan regiment, which had returned 
with Tracy, were also ordered back to Canada.f 

Meanwhile Talon's energy had aroused enterprise in 
Canada. The Jesuit Father Claude Allouez had, in 1665, 
visited Lakes Huron and Superior, or Tracy, by way of the 
Ottawa River, and had heard of " the great River called 
Messipi." In 1667 he was again on his way to the West 
with Father Louis Nicolas. The next year Nicolas return- 
ed; and Allouez, after a short visit to Quebec in 1669, 
went back to the Falls of Saint Mary, accompanied by Fa- 
ther Claude Dablon, where, with Father James Marquette, 
who had meanwhile arrived there from the Ottawas, they 
established a mission among the Chippewas.:}: 

Up to this time the disciples of Loyola had been the pi- 
oneers of western exploration in New France. Their hon- 
ors were now to be shared by others. A young man of a 
good family at Rouen, Robert Cavelier de la Salle, after 
studying with the Jesuits, had emigrated to Canada in 
1667, and had established liimself on a fief granted to him, 

• Kclation, lC4t, 72 ; 1651, 4 ; 1G70, 2G, 45, 40, 69, 72-7T ; Rhea, 279, 290, 291. In Barber 
and Howe's N. Y. Hist. Coll., 393, and Clark' .^ Onondaga, j., 194, is an extract from Governor 
Clinton's Memoir, giving an account of the massacre of a French and Spani.«li party at the 
Hutternut Creek, near the present village of Jnmesvillc, on the first of November, 1069. 
The story rests on the traditionary statements of some Onondaga sachems, and is not al- 
luded to in the contemporary Kelations of the Jesuits. 

t Col. Poc, ix., 62, SO, 78"; Charlevoix, ii., 166, ISS, 1S9 ; Clarnrau, i., 198-201. 

t Kelation, lOG?, 2-20; 166S, 21 ; 1669, 17-20; Charlevoix, ii., 107-176, ISO, 1S7; I.a Po- 
therie, ii., 124; Uancroft, iii., 149-1.'")2; Sheii's Missions, 35'-301; Discovery of the Miet., 
xxiv., xlvii., 67, OS, 69 ; Sparka's Life of La Salle, 2, 3. 


whicli he named Saint Sulpiee, at the liead of the Rapids of chap. iv. 
Saint Louis, just above Montreal.* Enterprising, medita- 
tive, and abounding in courage and resources, La Salle 
thought that there must be a route to China and Japan 
through the Saint Lawrence and the unknown countries to 
the south and west of the great lakes. lie talked so much 
about discovering it, that his home on the Saint Lawrence 
got the derisive name of " La Chine," which it bears to this Lasaiic 
day. Champlain had early heard of a great dividing cat- chinc/- 
aract; and in IG-il the Jesuit missionaries had argued that 
if the French were once the masters of the shore of Lake 
Ontario nearest to the Iroquois, they could easily go np 
by the Saint Lawrence beyond " Onguiahra" to the farther 
savage tribes. The information which La Salle gained 
from " many savages of different nations" satisfied him 
that " by means of a great River, whicli the Iroquois call 
Ilohio, emptying into the Meschasipi (which ill the Illinois The "mcs. 
tongue signifies Great River), one could penetrate even to Great'Kiv'!.'^ 
the sea." In the summer of 1669, La Salle, encouraged '^^' 
by Courcelles, joined the Sulpitian fathers Fran9ois Dol- 
lier de Casson and Rene de Galinde, of Montreal — whose 
brethren had already established a mission at Quinte, on 
tJie northern shore of Lake Ontario — " in an expedition to 6 jniy. 
explore a passage which they expected to discover, com- Doiiier,^' 
municating with Japan and China." They proposed to n6o expimc 
visit " divers Indian nations situated along a great River, tirl'ol^d " 
called by the Iroquois, Ohio, and by the Ottawas, Missis- ^'""'' 
sippi." Ascending the Saint Lawrence in canoes, they 
coasted along the southern shore of Lake Ontario, and vis- 
ited the Seneca village just at the time Fr^min was absent August. 
at Onondaga. After observing the Falls of Niagara, La 
Salle was seized with a violent fever, which obliged him to septem. 
return to Montreal. DoUier and Galince, however, con- 
tinued their explorations, and visited the country between 
Lakes Ontario and Erie, of all of which they took possession Popsc^nion 
in the name of the king. The royal arms were erected, the 
and a map was prepared showing the new discoveries. 

* La Salic does not appear to have artually r'ntfred the Society of Jo?u3. Mr. Shea in- 
forms me that l-'athcr F. Martin, of Quebec-, could not find La Salle's name in the Catalogues 
of the Order, all of whidi he examined. See also Shea'a note to his " Early Voyages," etc: 
Munsell, ISGl. F.aillon, iii., 22S, says that I^ Salle was a "novice," by becoming which ho 
lost Ilia patrimony. 


Chap. IV. TliGse evGiits occuiTed Avliile Talon was yet in France. 
But the act of possession, drawn Tip by the Montreal Sul- 
pitians, was held to be good evidence of the French title 
to the countries around Lakes Ontario and Erie.'"' 

Intercourse overland with the Delaware had become so 
constant, that a grant was obtained in 16G8 from Governor 
,u.^w"8inn Carteret by Peter Jegow, who had been a member of the 
I'-oitiTon New Jersey Assembly of that year, to take up the land at 
waiu^''*' " Lazy Point," now known as Burlington, opposite Mattine- 
cunk, or " Chygoes" Island, and keep a house there for the 
21 May. entertainment of travelers. Lovelace now ordered that all 
the inhabitants on the Delaware should take out new pat- 
ents from himself. WilKam Tom, who had come over 
with Nicolls, and who had served as commissary there, 
2 August, was appointed collector, and families from Maryland were 
afvaira^'^ cncouraged to settle on the creek near Apoquinimy. This, 
however, excited the jealousy of the Maryland authorities, 
and AVliite, their surveyor general, coming to Newcastle, 
i>ord Baiti- laid claiui " to all the west side of Delaware Kiver, as be- 
cJaim. longing to the Lord Baltimore." Maryland also sent per- 
sons to exercise jurisdiction at the Hoarkill, but none of 
the inhabitants would submit to it until the matter should 
be decided in England. Nicolls had written that the ques- 
tion about the Delaware territory, which was to be trans- 
ferred to Berkeley and Carteret in exchange for New Jer- 
sey, would be settled " in some short time ;" and Lovelace 
15 October, now dispatched to the dulce " the original claim" made by 
White in behalf of Lord Baltimore by a ship " bound away 
for London."f 

Disaffection had meanwhile appeared among the people 
on the Delaware. A Swede, whose real name was Marcus 

• Faillon, iii., 151, 1S9, 228, 229, 284-30T, 312-314 ; Col. Doc, ix., C6, 80, 81, 138, 305, 335, 
382, TOG, 78T, TSO ; Chaniplmn'sMai),lC32 ; Relation, 1641,71,72; 1008,4; Uonnepm'aDesc. 
de la Louisiane, 2, 3 ; (Jhiirli'voix, ii., 263, 264 ; Catalogue of Library of rarliainent, Canada, p. 
1615; Raynnl,viii.,145; Kalni,in Pinkerton,xiii., C9!); Hancroft, iii., 122,120, 102; Sparks'ii 
Life of La Salic, 5-7 ; Slien's Desc. Miss., S3, 84, 100; nolo on Wnsbington's Diary, 1753, 
320; ank, p. US ; vol. i., p. 344. Tbe statement in Col. Doc, ix., 035, and Doc. Hist., i., 
150, tliat La Salle visited Niagaia, and " established quartern and some settlers there," iu 
1068, seems to he a clerical error for 1678. 

t Records of I'pland Court, 140, 141; Klizabethtown Bill, 4; Ord., AVarr., etc., ii., 234, 
267,208,260; Col. Doc, iii., 185, ISO; Col. MSS., xx., 2,3; S. Hazard, 37.3, 374, .006 402, -^4?, 
406; Gordon, 22; Gazetteer, 112,113; S. Smith, CO, 74, 93; a)!<c, p. 1!J0 ; vol. i., 1S.3. It ap- 
pears that New Jersey was understood to be restored to New Yorlc, from NcM-.nrk Town Rec- 
ords, p. 21, that ou 2Sth July, 1060, the town appointed Crane and Tretit "to goe over to 
York, to advise with Col. Lovelace concerning our standing, whether we are designed to ho 
part of the Dukc'.i colony or not :" compare Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvil., 319. 


Jacobsen, but wlio pretended to be a son of tlie famous crap. iv. 
Count Ktinigsmark,'-' went about uttering seditious speech- 
es, and with Henry Coleman, a Fiini, endeavored to excite ,5^^^,^ ^j 
an insurrection against tlie English authority. " They pre- ^i,'"kl%r 
tended an expectation of some Swedish ships to come and g^fj^g^"^' 
reduce that place." The news reaching New York, Love- 
lace ordei'cd the arrest of the ringleaders, and the confis- 2 August. 
cation of Coleman's estate if he should abscond among the 
Indians. Jacobsen, or " the long Swede," was soon taken, isseptem. 
and kept in custody until he and his associates could be 
tried by special commission from 'New York. " For the 
rest of the poor, deluded sort," added the governor in his Lovelace's 
directions to Carr, " I think the advice of their own coun- 
trymen is not to be despised, who, knowing their temper, 
could prescribe a method for keeping them in order, which 
is severity, and laying such taxes on them as may not give 
them liberty to entertain any other thoughts but how to 
discharge them."t " I perceive the little DomineX hath 
played the trumpeter to this disorder. I refer the quality 
of his punishment to your discretion." 

The council at New York ordered that although " the is October. 
long Swede" deserved to die as a rebel, yet, as others were 
involved with him, he should be whipped, branded, and 
sold at Barbadoes. Secretary Nicolls and some othei-s 
were commissioned to go to the Delaware and try the 22 Novcm 
insm-gents. This they did, and brought back to New York c Dcccm. 
Jacobsen, the ringleader, in irons, who was temporarily 20 Deccm. 
imprisoned in the City Hall. The next month " the long 1670. 
Swede" was sent to Barbadoes and sold as a slave. Cole- ThclnBur- 
man, his accessary, lived for several years among the In- feuccY^" 
dians, and afterward became a landholder in Delaware.§ 

Another troublesome person, William Douglas, was sent ^jig"^ 

• Erolyn,ii.,lGS, 1"4; Reresby. LTO-UO; Kennett, iiL, 402; Eapin, ii., 720; nargrave'3 
State Trials, iii.,40G. 

t It appears from this that the Swedes themselves advised severity and heavy taxes as a 
ineAiis of preserving order on the Pclaware. Yet Wood (95), Thompson (i., 140), Diinlap 
(i., 121), and Bancroft (ii., 321) give Lovelaee the credit of the idea, and seem to ni.ike the 
specific instructions which he gave to Carr at Newcastle his general principle of government 
in New York. 

i " The little Domino" here referred to was Laurentiiis CaroUis I.okenius, the Lutheran 
minister of the Sivedish Church at Crane Ilook, near Wilmington : ante, p. 140; vol. 1., p. 
577,C0C, GIC), 734. 

§ Council Minutes, iii., 13-1(5; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 500, 503-506 ; Court of As-sizes, ii., 
440,400, 4C4: Col. MS;*., xx., 4-S ; xxviii., 163; Col. Doc, iii., ISC, 343; S. Smith, 53, 54; 
S. Hazard, 375-379 ; Dunlnp, ii., App. cxvii. ; G. Smitli's Del. Co., 93. 


unAP. IV. to New York, whence lie was banished to New England, 
and warned not to come affiiin within the duke's territories. 
..."., A court was also established at the Iloarkill, and Martin 
^sMal'^f' l^i'Ggier appointed collector of the customs there, which 
Guatoma at worc fixod at ten per cent. This duty, however, M'as soon 
llfre. * '^" abolished, upon condition that liquors were to be sold to 
23 October, ^j^^ Indians very cautiously, and no prejudice be done to 
ic Novem. the trade at Newcastle, where Carr was directed to be vig- 
ilant, and send at once to New York for assistance in case 
of need.'" 

Lovelace now accomplished " the most memorable act" 
of his administration. After the return of Nieolls to Lon- 
don in the autumn of 1668, Staten Island having been "ad- 
judged to belong to New York," Lovelace took measures 
for its settlement, as it was considered " the most commo- 
diosest seate and richest land" in America. Its chief sach- 
em, in the summer of 1669, had solemnly renewed the cov- 
enant between its aborigines and the Enghsh and the Iro- 
7 April, ([uois. Several of its sachems, however, insisted that they 
were " the very true, lawful, and sole Indian owners" of the 
island, who were told that their predecessors had sold it to 
statonisi- the Dutch. To quiet their claims, satisfactory presents 
cbiu^ti were promised ; and they accordingly executed a deed by 
jiiiiians for Avliicli, for a quantity of wampum, coats, kettles, guns, 
)3 April*!' powder, lead, axes, hoes, and knives, they conveyed to 
Lovelace, in behalf of the Duke of York, " all that Island 
lying and being in the Hudson's Riverf — commonly call- 
ed Staten Island, and by the Indians Aquehonga Manack- 
nong — having on the south the Bay and Sandy Point, on the 
north the River and the City of New York on Manhattan's 
Island, on the east Long Island, and on the west the main- 
land of After Coll, or New Jersey." Possession was for- 
mally gi vcn " by turf and twigg ;" and it was covenanted that 
on the first of May in each year the Indians should go to 
Fort James and acknowledge their sale ; which was done.:]; 

• Council Minutes, iii., IT, 32 ; Court of Assizes, ii., 47.'), Cll ; S. Smith, 55, 50 ; HazarJ'3 
Reg. Penn., i.,7{;; Ann. Penn., 373, 3S0, 3S2; Proud, i., 1.30; Whitehead, GO, no^f. Iteecras 
that Douglas, not liking \\U baniHliment into New Kngland, returned to Newcastle in 1G72, 
whence he was sent to New York, and from there was shipped in February, 1073, to Barba- 
doflF, to be fold : Ccn. ICnt., iv., 244; Council Slinutes, iii., 131 ; S. Hazard, 403. 

t !iy this it appears that the New York lludanu was then understood to encircle Stnfen 
Island : in other words, that " the Kills" north of that island were a part of the great Hud- 
son Kiver. 

t -Mass. n. S. Cull , xx.\vii.,315, 317; Munsrll, iv., ; Chalmers's Ann , i.,r>:9; Council 


As soon as the river opened, Captain Dudley Lovelace, cnAi-.n- 
with Cortelyou, Beekman, Beresford, and Pawling^, met at 
Kingston, under a commission of the governor, and grant- 


ed lands at Hurley and Marbletown, chiefly to the dis- ^.'^j,^,^f '■• 
charged soldiers, who were required not to sell them f or ''"f"''"'- 
three years. Town boundaries were established, local reg- 
ulations were made, and Beresford was sworn chief officer 
of Hurley and Marbletown. At the adjournment of the ii Apni. 
commission the laws were read, and an artillery salute was 
fired " when the president took horse to dej^art for Xew 

Captain Baker had meanwhile behaved so badly that he 
was bound over to answer at the Assizes ; but the govern- 
or, finding it '* not only difficult, but too tedious" to decide 
the case at Xew York, referred it to the Albany mao;is- commis- 

~ sioncra 

trates, with Delavall and Lovelace as commissioners. The ^eat to ai. 
latter were instructed, among other things, to make a peace ii apwi. 
between the Mohawks and Mahicans, arrange the garrison, 
the excise, and the Indian trade, and inform the magis- 
trates that the governor looked upon the Dutch Church 
and ministry, which was " found established" by Nicolls 
and himself, as the parochial church of Albany, Avliich was 
to be maintained at their discretion, by tax or otherwise, 
" and that no inhabitant, of what opinion soever, be ex- 
empt, but bear his proportion." 

Tlie result of Baker's case was his dismissal from mill- u May. 
tary employment "at Albany and elsewhere." As his 
place was one of the most important in the province, the 
ffoveraor promoted Ensio-n Sylvester Salisbury to fill the 13 July. 

P . . Uakcr hiic- 

vacancy, with a commission as lieutenant of infantry ; and reeded by 
Dudley Lovelace naturally succeeded to Salisbury's en-"'''*"'^' 
signcy on the duke's establishment.f 

Minutes, iii , 10-'2.'); Court of Asaizc», ii., f>\S ; Land Papers, i., 34; Patents, iv., 63; Vnl. 
Man., 1857,544-547 ; UUt. Mag., x., 375-o77: Dunlap, ii., App. cxviii. ; Wliitehead, 17, lit, 
216; N. V. II. S. Coll., ii., 41 ; Col. I>oc.. ii., 70C ; iii., 304, 352, 354; ante, p. 140, 150 ; vol. 
i., 73, 202, 203, 525, C41, 042, 602. It does not s( em tliat there could iiave been n better Imi- 
ropean title to Platen Island tlian that now held by the duke as proprietor of New York. 
Vet Carteret's hcira afterward sngs^'ted that it belonged to New Jersey. 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 470, 4S1, 4S2, 5S1 ; Col. Mass., x.xii., 99, 100; Patents, iii., 43; Ul- 
ster H. S. Coll., i., 51, 72 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll. (18GS), 1S5. 

t Ord., Warr., Lett., ii., 514-516; Court of Assize.", ii., 418, 4S9, 400, 500 ; Council Min , 
iii., 27; Col. MS.S., xxii„ 78-94, 104 ; S. Hazard, 373; Munsell, iv., 9, 12, 13, 14 ; vii.,101: 
Hist. Mag., iv., 50; i. (ii.), 323 ; Val. Man., 1847, S.M, 361. After his di.-graco Baker appears 
to have sought a refugs at Klizabethtown, New Jersey, in whicli he had a joint interest : 
CoL Doc., ii., 571 ; ante, p. 49. 


Chap. IV. The Corporation of New York, jealous of any infringe- 

ment of the ancient " staple right" of Manhattan, now rep- 

•2T jnne Tcsented that many vessels not belonging to the province 
Trading a ^^^^ frequently cro up Hudson's River to Esopus and Al- 

vcsseld on n n 

the Hud- Ijany, there to trade and traffic, contrary to former consti- 

son River. *^ ' ^ d 

tutions and customs." Lovelace accordingly ordered " that 
no stranger or strange vessel shall be permitted, from and 
after the date hereof, to pass up the said River to either of 
the places aforesaid, there to trade or traffic, upon any pre- 
tence whatsoever. However, such vessels, unloading their 
goods in this city, and paying the duties required, the own- 
ers of such goods have liberty to transport them into these 
parts in any other vessels belonging to this port, and may 
go up themselves, with leave to negotiate there, having 
first obtained the privilege of being free Burghers of this 

There was, at this time, no exchange or place of meeting 

for the merchants of N^ew York. Lovelace therefore di- 

34 March, rcctcd that they should come together every Friday, be- 

kxchangc. twccu elcveu and twelve of the clock, at the bridge which 

crossed the canal.f The governor also gave by patent, to 

10 Feb. Adriaen and Christofell van Laer, the exclusive privile2;e 

BarkmiU. „ . . . .„ • i i i i i • 

of manitammg a rasp mill to grmd the bark used m tan- 
ning leather in the city.:}; Another order of Lovelace di- 
19 Angu3t. rected that " Love Island," in the bay, owned by Isaac Bed- 
low, alderman, counselor and comptroller of the revenue, 
should be a privileged place, where persons were free from 
warrants of arrest.§ 

Their war with the Mahicans prevented the Mohawks 
from rcaphig all the advantage expected from the pres- 
ence of Bierron and Boniface. Yet many converts were 

• Court of A.asizes, ii., 550 ; Munpell, ir., IS, 19 ; mite, vol. i., S'lS, 62S. 

t Court of Assizis, ii., 47S, 47'.>; Dunlap, ii., App. cxvii. ; Hist. Mag., x., 3S1. This 
place was at tlie corner of the present 15riilj,'e and Broad Streets : sec Vnl. JIan., 13G2, 515, 
555. Tlie canal or creek at that time ran vip from tide-water through Broad Street as far 
as "Verlettcn Brrg," or " hinderinp; liill," which tlic unknowing Kngli^Ii, who caught the 
sound, but not the meaning, nonsensically calli'd " Flattenbarrack Hill," and which is now 
known as " Exchange Place." It was a favorite sport of New York boys to "coast" on their 
slcdgos from Broadway down the steep decent of Vcrletten Berg. 

t Court of Assizps, ii., 4T1-474; Val. Man., 1S.'')1, 401, 1(»'>. 

? (;ourt of Assizes, ii., 570 ; Dunlap, ii., App. cxvii. Governor NicoUs granted this isl- 
and to Captain Needham on the 2:!d of Deccmb r, 1007, and he sold it to Bedlow, after whom 
it was named. Bedlow's widow sold it to James (Jarteret on 2l) April, 1070. In ISOO the 
State ceded to thi! United States jurisdiction over it, and Kllis or Oyster, and Governor's 
Islands in the bay, provided that New York process, civil or criminal, should still continue 
to be executed on them : Benson's Mem., 121 ; 1 11. L., 1S13, ISO, 100 ; Col. MSS., xxv., 102. 


made ; and even the worship of Aireskon^, their great dse- cuap. iv. 
mon, was renounced when Pierron threatened to leave 
them, after witnessing one of their solemn " feasts of the 
dead" at Caghnawaga. So zealous were some of the pros- 
elytes that they took pride in displaying their crucifixes at 
Albany, and in arguing with the " heretics," A converted 
squaw went into the church while Domine Schaats was MoUawk 
preaching, and recited her chaplet during the whole of di- Albany. 
vine service. The Mohawk mission promised so well that 
the Fathers Bechefer and Nicolas were assigned to assist 
Pierron and Boniface.* 

Bruyas had little success among the intractable Oneidas ; 
but he edified himself by keeping Easter and Pentecost 
with Millet at Onondaga, where Carheil came from Cayu- 
ga to meet them. The little bell which, fourteen years be- 
fore, had called the faithful to prayer, was begged back oneida and 
from the Onondagas and nsed again for Christianity, misslonf' ^ 
Many new converts were made, chiefly by the influence of 
Garakontid who had declared himself a Christian at a Mo- 25 Mmcii. 
hawk council on his way back from Albany. About mid- 
summer, an Iroquois embassy, headed by him, set out for ir> june. 
Canada with a letter from Millet, in which Garakontie was 
described as an "incomparable man," who might justly be 
called " the protector of the French crown in this country." 
A council was held at Quebec with all the Iroquois except juiy. 
the Senecas, and Frcmin Avas directed to leave his mission August. 
if the Senecas did not come and give satisfaction. At this 
visit Garakontie was baptized by Bishop Laval, and took Baptism of 
the name of " Daniel," from Courcelles, who acted as liistLt"^* """ 

Talon now returned from France, wdiere he had inform- 
ed Colbert that there was a copper mine:}: near Lake Hu- 
ron, which, in connection with " the communication sup- 
posed to exist between Canada and the South Sea," it was 
desirable to explore. The Intendant was accompanied by 
several Ilecollet§ or Franciscan fathers, among whom was 

• Relation, 1670, "T-m ; Charlevoix, ii., 223-220; N. Y. H. S. Coll., iil. (il.), 15S; Shea, 

t Relation, IGVO, 4-7, 43, 4T-C3 ; 1C71, 3 ; 1073-9, ISO ; Charlevoix, ii. , 220, 221. 227, 230 ; 
Faillon,iii., 227-230; Col. Doc, i.\., 7S5, 7S0; Shea, 278, 2R0 ; onV, vol. i., C4T. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 63, 787. Allouez, in the Relation for 16C7, \i. S, .spoke of the maBses* of 
copper reported by the savapes in L-ake Superior. 

5 The RecoUet?, or Gray Friar?, were a branch of the Order of Saint P'ranci.-^, and were so 


cuAr.iv. Gabriel de la Ribounle, and by some companies of the 
Carisnan regiment. Delio-lited with the proo-ress of West- 

1 fi70 o o c3 r o 

Fi^nciipx- ^"^ discovery during liis absence, Talon dispatched two 
pioiations. a persons of resolution," La Salle, to explore farther in the 
southwest, and his own deputy, Saint Lusson, to the north- 
west. They were encouraged by the promise of the king 
to reward nobly him who should reach the Pacihc. Saint 
n scptcra. Lusson was instructed to go to Lake Superior, and " make 
m'ines on scarcli and discovery there for all sorts of mines, particn- 
iicrior. "' larly that of copper ;"* take possession of all the countries 
through which he might pass, and plant the cross, with the 
escutcheon of France, in confirmation of the king's domin- 
ion. The Intendant's deputy was accompanied by the ex- 
perienced interpreter Nicholas Perrot, who was directed to 
visit the Northern nations, and in\-ite them to meet, the 
next spring, at the Falls of Saint Mary, the delegate of tlie 
in October. Great Onnontio. Talon also sent to Paris the maps and 
irencir"" rccords made by Dollier and Galinee, as evidences of the 
iTkes on^ French title to the regions round Lakes Ontario and Erie, 
ici-ie."'^'^ and proposed that a galley should be maintained on Onta- 
rio to secure the fur trade, as the English at Boston, and 
the Dutch at New York, now drew to themselves more 
than twelve thousand livres of beaver " trapped by the In- 
dians in the countries subject to the King."f 

The movements of the French among the Iroquois were 
?. October, reported to Lovelace, who wrote to Secretary Williamson 
Lovelace." that f our Jcsuits, with their servants, in all eleven, had " set- 
tled themselves on this side the Lake of Irecoies. They 
pretend it is no more but to advance the kingdom of 
Christ, when it is to be suspected it is rather the kingdom 
of his most Christian Majesty." The " legionary soldiers" 
whom Louis was sending over might be dangerous to the 
English Plantations, and should be looked after in Europe. 

railed because tlicy were first instituted in solitary convents devoted to recollection : Col. 
Doc, ix., SS, note; ante, i., p. C7. 

* In the Relation of 1670, S3-SG, in n very interesting account of the copper mines on 
Lake Superior, particularly that at "Nantonnngan," or Ontonagon, pent by Dablon from 
the Falls of Saint Mary to I.c Mercier at Quebec, and by him communicated to Talon beforo 
tlie dispatch of Saint Lusson. 

t Col. Doc, ix., C3-.C7, 70, 7f., SS, 07, 3S2, 620, 7S7, 7S9, S0.3, 804; Relation, ICTO, ? : 1C71, 
2G ; Faillon, iii., 25."), 256, 005-307 ; Coldon, i., 85 ; Charlevoix, ii., 210, 217, 2.14, 2r.7 ; Ilcn- 
nepin. New. Disc, 32; I^v I'otherie, ii., H? ; Hist. Mng , ix., 200; Shpa's Catb. jMiHS.,412; 
Disc. Miss., 70, 80, 80, 159; Garnean, i., 204. Tlie maps and description of Lake Ontario, 
prepared by Dollier and (lalini'e, are in the I'arliament Libraiy ut Quebec : see ('atalogue, 
p. 1015; also in Faillon, iii., .'MJS. 


111 consequence of a letter from Pierroii, orders were sent cn.u-.iv. 

to Salisbury, at Albany, to keep a vigilant watch over hi in, 

and report all his actions. 22 October. 

Lovelace, at the same time, expecting leave to return 
home, went, with several of his council, as far as Milford Loyeiac(> 
to meet Winthrop, " and discourse all affairs that may tend necticur 
to the mutual convenience of each other." Among these 
was the settlement of the boundary - line between I^ew 
York and Connecticut, which the llartford Court had pro- 
posed should be run by a joint committee from each gov- 13 October. 
eminent. But Winthrop, intending to visit England, had 
vainly endeavored to resign his office of governor, and was 
unable to meet Lovelace, whose winter journey was thusoDccem. 
made fruitless.* 

At the Court of Assizes another case of reputed witch- 
craft was disposed of. Katherine Harrison, a widow, of Katucrine 
Wethersiield, in Connecticut, having been comicted ofwudicraft 
witchcraft, was obliged to leave that town, and came to May. 
Westchester, the Puritan inhabitants of which complained t juiy. 
to Lovelace, who w^arned her to return to Connecticut. 
Upon her refusal she was cited before the governor, who 
referred her case to the Court of Assizes, upon her giving 25 August, 
security for good behavior. The court, finding nothing 
against her, directed her release, and gave her liberty to October. 
reside where she chose in the government. But the peo- 
ple of AVestchester became so '' uneasy" at her remaining ordered 
amongst them, that Lovelace was obliged to order the poor westcUcH. 
widow to leave that infatuated town.f ''^'^' 

An interesting political event now occurred. The pali- 
sades around Fort James being decayed, the Court of As- 
sizes ordered that a levy, or contribution for their repair, s October, 
should be made in the several towns of Long Island, and uo" ^1-"" 
the justices in each riding were directed to find ways and .^u^f' 
means at the next courts of Sessions. But the rejection dercfi °'"' 
of the petitions which some of the Western towns had pre- 
sented for redress the last autunm, left the people in no 
mood to comply with this extraordinary demand. They 

* Col. Doc , iii., 190; Court of Aa^ize.s, li., 445; Council Min., iii., 2T, 32, 34; Col. Kec. 
Conn., ii., 145 ; Mape. II. S. Coll., xxx , S0-S2. 

t Council Min., iii., 2S-31 ; Court of Assizes, ii., 255, ."MJS, 577, 5S4, 5S5; Doc. Hist., ir., 
S7,SS; Col. Kec. Conn., ii., 118,132; Dunlap, ii., App. cxviii. ; Dolton, ii., ISl, 182 ; ante, 
91, 142. 


Chap. IV. wei'G persuaded that the principle of " Taxation only by 
consent" — which Holland had maintained since 1477, and 
• England had adopted in her Petition of Right in 1628 — 
was their own birthright as British subjects. They had, 
for several years, paid a direct tax of a penny in the pound 
to defray their town charges. They had also submitted to 
the duke's customs' duties for the support of his govern- 
ment. But this last order of the Court of Assizes, where 
they were not represented, would, if yielded to, become a 
dangerous precedent : they might next be required to main- 
tain the garrison, and they knew not what else. Southold, 
Action of Southampton, and Easthampton, in a joint meeting of 
Island"^ their delegates, agreed to contribute, pro\'ided that they 
°^'^°''" might have the privileges which the king's other subjects 
in New England enjoyed. Huntington refused, because 
her people " were deprived of the liberties of Englishmen." 
Those of Jamaica declared that the order of the Assizes 
was inconsistent with the British Constitution ; but if it 
was the king's absolute pleasure to " dispri^dlege" them, 
they %vould bear their burthens with patience until they 
could address him for relief. Flushing and Hempstead 
concurred with Jamaica ; and the constables of the three 
10 Decern, towus laid their votes before the Court of Sessions of the 
before\"he North Biding, which was held at Jamaica ; where, howev- 
sessions. ^^^ ^^ actiou was taken. They were again presented the 
21 Decern, f ollowiug wcck, at tlic Scssions of the West Riding, which 
met at Gravesend. At that court Secretary Nicolls pre- 
sided, and Counselors Van Ruyven, Manning, and Thomas 
Lovelace were present as justices. It was there unani- 
Adjudged mously adjudged "that the said papers are in thcnisehes 
tioup/^ '' false, scandalous, illegal, and seditious, tending only to 
disaffect all the peaceable and well-meaning subjects of 
His Majesty in these His Royal Higlmess's Territories and 
dominions ;" and they were referred to the governor and 
his council for such action as should " best tend to the sup- 
pression of such mischief as may arise by the impression of 
false suggestions and jealousies." Upon this reference, 
29 Decern. Lovclacc and his council ordered that these " scandalous, 
Ordered to illegal, aud seditious" papers should " be openly and pub- 
inNow° licly burned" before the Town Hall of the city of New 
York, at the next Mayor's Court, and that "the principal 


contriver thereof be inquired into, and proceeded against cuap. iv. 
according to their demerits, and the laws of the land ^^ 
established."* ^^'^• 

It was easier to burn " seditious" votes than to subdue 
opinion. Most of the Long Island towns had, as we have 
seen, taken out new patents, in conformity with the law of 
1666. But Southampton and Southold refused to comj^ly. 
The latter claimed that tlieir title from the Indians and 
fi'om New Haven was sufficient. Southampton relied 
upon theirs from Lord Stirling. The Court of Assizes 
therefore declared invalid the titles to lands in Soutliamp- s October. 
ton, unless a patent from the duke's government should be 
obtained for them within a certain time. This produced a 1G71. 
spirited remonstrance from fifty of the inhabitants of that P f; '"•■>•. 

A •' _ r^oHtliam])- 

town, in which, amonej other things, they set forth that a tonRemou- 

" ' ~ -, • ^ 11 strance. 

new patent would be a grievance, and might make them 
and their posterity " groan like Israel in Egypt ;" that they 
could not acknowledge the Duke of York to be the " sole 
Proprietor of the whole Island ;" that, although Nicolls had 
promised them as great privileges as any colony in New 
England, they had no deputies at the courts, and were 
" forced to pay customs for goods imported, for which cus- 
tom hath before been paid to His Majesty's use in En- 
gland ;" and that the royal commissioners, in August, 
1664, had proclaimed that all should enjoy " whatsoever 
God's blessing and their own industry had furnished them 
withal." Lovelace, expecting leave to run over to En- 
gland, replied that, to avoid " prolix debates," he would o Marcii. 
appoint commissioners to confer with them, and mean- 
while recommended that they should observe the " golden 
rule of the Apostle, which is — be not high-minded, but 
fear." Counselors Delavall, Nicolls, and Bedlow were ac- 
cordingly deputed to examine the cases of the recusant 
towns ; but no other steps to enforce a compliance with the 
law were taken until several years afterward.f 

The isolated inhabitants of Martha's Vineyard and Nan- 
tucket, however, were more tractable. Nicolls had ap- 

* Court of Assize?, ii., 050, C51, C52, Cr.3 ; Col. Doc., iii., 303 ; Wood, 9C-' 5, IM ; Tliomp- 
pon, i., 14()-149, 2S4; Dunlup, i., 1'21; ii., App. c.Kvii. ; Bancroft, i., 331 ; Council Journals, 
i., Int., vii., viii. ; an<i', p. ICO ; vol. i., 437, 442. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 591, CG1-CC4; Wood, 01, 02, 17r>-lT"; Thompson, i., 140, 334, .^84; 
ii.,32(>-328; ante, 25, 110; vol. i, 300, 301. 




cuAP. IV. pointed Thomas Mayhew to superintend affairs tliere ; bnt 

~ as the relations between those islands and New York were 

^•ague, the governor notified their landholders to take out 

June. fresh patents. Mayhew accordingly came to New York in 

behalf of Martha's Vineyard, and Tristram Coffin, with 

ssjime. Thomas Macy, represented Nantucket. Lovelace readily 

and Mar! made Nautuckct a townshi}), and commissioned Coffin its 

yard inJo?- cliicf magistrate, in subordination to New York, A simi- 

rjl\i\' lar patent was granted to Martha's Vineyard, of which the 

A'enerable Mayhew was appointed governor during his life. 

His grandson, Matthew Mayhew, was also commissioned as 

collector of the duke's customs for the several islands. " 

Lovelace proved himself no bigot. John Booth, of 
Southold, whose children had been refused baptism by the 
Puritan minister, John Younge, declined to pay his tax for 
Younge's salary, and his cattle were distrained. Booth pe- 
sjuij-. titioned the governor and council for relief. Lovelace 
10 July, could not lawfully interfere; yet he wrote to Younge, re- 
rebuke? proving his want of Christian charity, reminding him that 
sout"ioki°^ the indulgence granted by Nicolls and himself was not in- 
eranco?'^'^ tended to justify such severity toward others "of a differ- 
ent persuasion ;" and adding, " I desire you not to insist on 
such rigorous courses against those Mdio desire to live un- 
der the known and established laws of Ilis Majesty's do- 
minions, lest I be forced to represent to His E;>yal High- 
ness the great inconveniences that may arise by it, and you 
be interrupted in the exercise of that Christian function 
you now so peaceably enjoy."f 
i-utiicrans. The Luthcraus in the province gave Lovelace the great- 
est trouble. He had been obliged to suspend their minis- 
ter, Fabricius, from preaching at Albany, l)ut allowed him 
to exercise his function in New York. A quarrel broke out 
before long between Fabricius and his congregation, who 
10 July, were building a church " on ground without the gate," and 
i.ndAren- Lovclacc was obligcd to interfere. Another Lutheran 
clergyman, Bernardus Arensius, " a gentle personage and 
of a very agreeable behaviour," fortunately arri^-ed about 

• Council Min., iii.. 26, GT, CS; Court of .\!>Bize!>, iii.,.''>3n, 538: Deed?, ii!., 58-63, 70-75; 
noiigh's Niintucket I'liperp, 20-41, 70, 71, 129-131 ; Mass. U. S. Coll., xiii., S.'j; xxxvii., .^0 ; 
aiite^ p. 130. 

t Court of AsBizcs, ii., 735-737 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 200 ; Tliomp-son, i., 3S3, 395; Wood, 31 ; 
F.armer .ind Moorc'a Coll., iii., ISO. 



tliis time at New York. Fabricius, having already received chap. i\-. 
the governor's passport to go to the Delaware, was allowed, 
as his last clerical act, '' to give his congregation a valedic- ^j ^u„,„J 
tory sermon, and to install the new-come minister, accord- 
ing to the custom used by those of their religion."* 

The Reformed Dutch Church in the city had meanwhile 
wanted a colleague for Drisius, whose ill health prevented 
his doing much duty. Polhemus, of Flatbush, preached 
occasionally ; and ^gidius Luyck, the former teacher of 
the grammar-school in New Amsterdam, who had returned ncformt'j 
from Holland, after studying divinity for a time, assisted church in 
by the foresinger Evert Pietersen, conducted divine serv- 
ice on Sundays. The Consistory, in January, 1670, had 
called Selyns, who formerly preached in Brooklyn, and 
was now settled at Wavereen, in Holland, to supply the 
place of Megapolensis, but he had declined their invitation. 
At the joint request of " the Elders and Deacons of the 
Church," and of the mayor and aldermen of the city, who 
desired that " some care may be taken for the supply of 
this place with an able and orthodox minister, of which 
they are at present wholly destitute," Lovelace, in June, 
1670, declared, under his hand and the seal of the prov- 
ince, " that whensoever such a minister shall come over to 
this city, and undertake the charge aforementioned, I shall 
take care that there shall be duly and justly paid unto the 
said minister, or to his order, the value of One Thousand 
Guilders Holland's money, each year, and likewise that he 
shall have the accommodation of a convenient dwelling- 
house, rent free, together with his provision of firewood 
gratis." This being sent to Holland, Domine Wilhelmus van xion- 


van Nieuwenhuyscn. an accomplished scholar and divine, caiied. 
was induced by his relative Selyns to accept the call, which 
was approved by the Classis of Amsterdam. On his arri- 
val at New York he was installed as a colleague with Dris- 24 August. 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 500, 503, 702, 725; Gen. Ent., iv., 15-17, 19, 304; Doc. Hist., iii., 
242,245,525; Col. Doc, iii., 415, jioic,- Munsell, iv., 14, 22, 23; S. Hnzard, 3S1, 385, 3S.S; C. 
WoUcy's Two Years in New York, 57 ; Dunlap, i., 127 ; ante, 15'.t. On the ISth of (Ictolwr, 
1G72, Arcnsius had a pass from the governor to go to Albany for the winter. Tlie "Aanf- 
preker," or Sexton of the Dutch Church there, had claimed the right enjoyed by pucli offi- 
cials in Holland to conduct the funeral,'! of all decedents in his parish; but on the 10th of 
June, 1672, it was ordered in Council that, as the I.utliprans have a toleration for their relig- 
ion, they may bury their own dead; and Delavall, in the following November, declared in 
open court at Albany, "■ Let the dead bury their dead :" Gen. Ent, iv., 228 ; Council Min., 
lit, 103; Doc. Hist, iii., 525 ; Dunlap, ii., Api). c.\ix. 


cuAP. IV. ius, to the " highest acceptance" of the people. The Con- 
~ sistory of the Dutch Church were soon afterward author- 
26Septem. ^^^^ ^J ^^^ Order in council to lay taxes on the congrega- 
tion for the support of the ministers and of the poor. Dris- 
D Decern, ius was also allowcd one hundred pounds out of the public 
revenue for the partial services he had rendered during 
the last two years. By these various measures the Re- 
formed Dutch Church w^as virtually " established" in New 
York by its English rulers,* 

Although the Dutch inhabitants of New York had little 
cause for complaint, the inducements offered by the pro- 
prietaries of Carolina, where Sir John Yeamans had just 
arrived with slaves from Barbadoes, attracted some to em- 
Port Royal, igratc thither. Two ships were accordingly sent by the 
lina. proprietaries to convey them to Fort Koyal, But Love- 
lace, dislildng the "fair and specious pretences" which 
were robbing his own government of its population, order- 
9 xovem. cd tliat all persons resident in New York for more than six 
months should notify the secretary of their intended de- 
parture, and procure passports. Captains of vessels were 
isKovem. also directed not to receive passengers on board unless 
duly authorized. Notwithstanding these restraints, nine- 
20 Novem. tccu hcads of families obtained the necessary passports and 
fr^m NeV embarked for Carolina, where they settled themselves on 
carouna. tlic Ashlcy Bivcr, and were afterward joined by others of 

their countrymen from New York and Ilolland.f 
New jer- In Ncw Jcrscy, the proposed restoration of which to the 
^^' Duke of York had not been executed, Carteret's govern- 

ment went well, until the first payment of quit-rents to the 
proprietors became due on " Lady-day," or the 25th of 
March, 1G70 — the Old Style New-year's day. Open oppo- 
sition was then shown, especially by those who held their 
lands under patents from Nicolls, or direct purchases from 
the savages. The governor could not prevail on them to 

* Corr. Classia of Amst. ; Records of Collcgiiite R. D. C, N. Y. ; N. Y. City Rec, vi., 5G2, 
563, 653, 005, CT9-CS1, 750; Gen. Ent., iv., 4T ; Council Miu., iii., 82; Col. Doc, ii.,4T0,4T5; 
iii., 189 ; UUt. MaR., i. (il.), 323, 324; Dunlap, i., 12T; ii., App. cxix. ; C. WoUey, 50, 93; 
Murphy's Anthol"Ky of N. N.,14C, US;; vol. i., 633,094,734. The eldcri< and 
deacons of the " Reformed Chri.'itian Church in New York," who wrote to the Classii* of Am- 
sterdam on 5 June, 1070, were Petnis Stuyve?ant, Oloflf Stevonpen van Cortlandt, Paulas 
■ IiCendert?en van de Grist, Hoele Roelofsen, .Jacoh Ti uni.-isen Kay, and Jacob Leir^ler. 

t Gen. Knt., iv.,02, 09, 72; ('halmers, i., .'):;0, 531, 557; Oldmixon, i., 404; Hewnt, i.,5-, 
73; Holmes, i., 357, .".07; Gralmme,i.,300, 3G1, 420, 422; Bancroft, ii., 170, 171 ; Smith,!., 
47 ; Rikcr's Newtown, 100, 101 ; Gentleman's Magazine, 1740, p. 104. 


recognize the rights of the proprietors, and anarchy began, cuap.iv. 
Elizabethtown became the focus of disaffection, while Ber- 
gen and Woodbridge alone remained loyal.* 

About this time a young man, destined to cause great 
trouble in the province — Captain James Carteret, the weak captain 
and dissolute second sou of Sir George, and who, with teret. 
John Locke, Sir John Yeamans, and others, had been cre- 
ated a landgrave of Carolina — stopped, on his way tliither, 
at New Jersey. Some murders having been committed 
by the Indians on the Delaware, near Mattinicunk Island, 
Lovelace ordered Governor Carteret and his kinsman to 
advise with the council at New York. Carteret at once 
promised to call an extraordinary Assembly at Elizabeth- 25 septem. 
town, and ascertain how far the people of New Jersey were 
willing to contribute for a general war with the savages. 
It was also as^reed that a good correspondence should be Agreement 


kept up between the two governments, and nothing be New York 
done without a mutual understanding. At the appointed Jersey. 
day Lovelace met Carteret at ElizabethtoAra ; but the sea- 1 0ctober. 
son being too far advanced for an effectual camjiaign, the 
officers on the Delaware were directed to enrol their mili- 
tia, and engage the Susquehannas on their side. On this 
occasion Carteret was " ready with a handsome party to 
have stepped into the work ;" and Lovelace was obliged to 
reprove his own subordinate, Carr, because " the backward- 9 xovem. 
ness of the inliabitants on the Delaware has put a stop to 
the forwardness of those in New Jersey ."f 

This autumn, Thomas Batts, ^vath several Englishmen 1 septem. 
and Indians, under a commission from the authorities of 1 October. 
Virginia, made an interesting tour " behind the Apuleian ginian di/- 
Mountains." The party appear to have gone from the*^"^^™^' 
Appomattox to the head waters of the Great Kenhawa ; 
and, as the lirst European explorei-s, they took possession 
of the whole country in the name of their king.:}: 

The movements of the French now caused much excite- French 
ment in New York. Com'celles's imperious message to the ment^. 

* Kliz. Bill, 35; Chalmer?, i., CIC; Gordon, 29; Grabame, 1., 4G6 ; Bancroft, ii., 310; 
Whitehead, 54, 55; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvii., 319 ; ante, 150, 1C4. 

t Gen. Knt., iv., r,5, 42, 45, 50, 67; Council Min., iii., 71-73, 77-Sl ; S. Smith, C9, 70, 71 ; 
S. Hazard, 3SS-392; Col. MSS., x.x., 24, 25; Whitehead, 55, 59; Oldmixon, i., 464; Eliz. 
Bill, 35 ; Douglas, ii., 272 ; Collins, iv., 213 ; Chalmers, i.. 528, 530, 616 ; ante^ 164. 

X Beverly, 5S, GO; Burk, ii., 149-151 ; and CamphcU, 26S, 269, refer briefly to this expe- 
dition. The original journal of Batts wag first published in N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., 193-197. 

II.— M 



Chap. IV. Senecas determined them to restore some of their Algon- 
qiiin prisoners, whom they intrusted to the great Cayuga 
' chief, Saonchiogoiia, to convey to Canada. On reaching 
Quebec, the Cayuga mediator arranged every thing satis- 
factorily with Courcelles ; and, having declared himself a 
Christian, was baptized by Bishop Laval, receiving fi'om 
Talon, his sponsor, the name of " Louis."* 

Li 1669 the Jesuits had founded a " residence" at their 
Prairie de Prairie de la Madeleine, on the south bank of the Saint 
leine^ ^' Lawreucc, a little below the Rapids of Saint Louis, and 
nearly opposite Montreal. It was intended as a place of 
repose for their missionaries, and Father Pierre Raffeix 
was appointed its first superintendent. Converts from the 
Oneidas, Mohawks, Mahicans, and other nations, on their 
way to the Huron colony of Notre Dame de Lorette, near 
Quebec, soon began to stop at the nearer Prairie ; and 
Courcelles, observing the political importance of the " Re- 
duction," it was established as a mission, under the name 
of " Saint Francis Xavier, des Pres." In 1671 Raffeix was 
sent to Cayuga, and Fremin was recalled fi-om the Senecas 
to take charge of the new mission, which soon became very 
important, both to the Jesuits and the civil authorities of 
Canada, f 

On the recall of Fremin, Bruyas became superior of the 
Iroquois missions, and, leaving Oneida, he went to the Mo- 
hawks to take the place of Pierron at Tioimontoguen, who 
now returned to Quebec. Millet, at Onondaga, encour- 
aged by Garakontie, labored with such zeal that the sav- 
ages, who always gave descriptive names, called him, as 
they had formerly called Le Mercier, Teharonhlafjannra^ 
or " the looker up to heaven." Bruyas, however, transfer- 
red him to his own former mission at Oneida ; and John 
de Lamberville, who liad come out to Canada in 1668, suc- 
ceeded Millet at Onondaga. Carheil, forced by a nervous 
disease to leave Cayuga, was replaced by Raffeix, who came 
from the Prairie de la Madeleine. After the departure of 
Fremin from the Senecas, Garnier was left in sole charge 
of the three stations of Conception, or Totiakto, Saint 

• Relation, 1G71, 3, 4; Charlevoix, ii.. 230,231 ; Shea, 2S9; anteAWi. 

+ Kclation, 1C71, 12, 13, 16; 1672, 10, 18; Doiinior.s Mission du Canada (Paris, 1S61). i., 
179, 180 ; ii., 49 ; ChaHevoix, ii., 233, 257 ; v., 261 ; Oil. Poc, ix., 116, 130 ; Shea, 2SS, 296- 
29S; Faillon, iii., 316, 317 ; Colden, i., 53, 54; Smith, i., 09 ; fiarneau, i., 203. 




Michael, or Gandagarae, and Saint James, or Gannagaro. chap. iv. 
In the spring of this year the village of Saint Michael, or 
Gandagarad, was burned, and the chapel, with all Gar- 
nier's effects, were destroyed. But the greatest grief of the 
lonely missionary was the drunkenness " caused by the liq- 
uors which the savages brought from the Hollanders for 
more than eighty leagues over land."* 

In writing to Talon, Colbert recommended that a good i_i Marcii. 
correspondence should be kept up with the English, and a orders to 
mutual trade established. The dispatch of La Salle to the 
South, and of Saint Lusson to the North, was approved ; 
" but the princij^al thing to which you ought to apply your- 
self in discoveries of this nature, is to look for the copper 
mine. Were this mine once discovered, and its utility evi- 
dent, it would be an assured means to attract several 
Frenchmen from Old to New France."t 

Meanwhile Perrot, after visiting the copper mine in 
Lake Superior, had summoned the "Western Indians to 
meet at the Falls of Saint Mary ; and Saint Lusson, who 
had wintered on Lake Huron, went thither to join the Fa- May. 
thers Dablon, Druillettes, Allouez, and Andre. Soon fom*- 
teen different savage nations were represented in an assem- 
bly. The arms of France were placed on a cross on the i4 Janc. 
top of a hill ; the " Vexilla" and the " Exaudiat" were 
chanted, the " Te Deum" was sung, and possession was 
taken, in the name of the king, " with all the pomp and 
dclat the country could afford." Talon exultingly prophe- 2 Novem. 
sied to Louis that this part of his monarchy would " be- in the 
come something grand." The foreign colonies, " so long 
settled on the sea-board, already tremble with affright in 
\dew of what His Majesty has accomplished here in the 
interior within seven years." * * * " They are already 
aware that the King's name is spread so far abroad among 
the savages throughout all those countries, that he alone 
is there regarded by them as the arbiter of Peace and 
"War. All detach themselves insensibly from tlie other 
Europeans; and, with the exception of the Iroquois, of 
whom I am not yet assured, we may safely promise oiir- 

• nolation, 1G71, 14-24 ; 1C72, 12, 21 ; Col. MS?., xxxv., 100 ; Col. Doc, lii., 251, 253 ; ix., 
171, 3C6, 3C7, GC5; She.% 2C8, 276, 277, 2S1, 2S2, 2S8, 231 ; ante, 14S, 1G2. Mr. Shea's note 
(56) to his edition of Colden, p. IS."), ia evidently erronsous. 

t Col. Doc., ix., 03, C4, 70, 7S7, 7S9 ; ante, 170. 




11 March. 
orders to 

Chap. IV. selves to make the others take up arms whenever we 

"Wlien he wrote to Talon, Colbert also instructed Cour- 
celles that he need not visit the Iroquois, and, as troops 
could not be sent from France, he and the Intendant might 
do as they thought best on Lake Ontario. This piqued 
the governor, whom Talon had represented as being slug- 
gish. He therefore detennined to make a showy voyage 
up the Saint La^^Tence ; to strike terror into the Senecas 
and other remote tribes ; to establish a post which would 
prevent the Iroquois — who had exhausted the country 
south of Lake Ontario, and were now hunting elk and 
beaver among the Hurons and Ottawas — from taking their 
peltries to the Dutch and English ; and to ascertain wheth- 
er a colony near the foot of Lake Ontario would not aid fu- 
ture explorations of his countrymen toward the Mississippi. 
A large plank bateau was accordingly built at Montreal, 
in which Courcelles proposed to ascend the Rapids of the 
Saint Lawrence, to convince the savages — who thought 
that their own light bark canoes could alone perform the 
feat — " that the French could accomplish something they 
were incapable of." In spite of all sneers, a flat-boat of 
two or three tons burthen was loaded with provisions, and 
thirteen Indian canoes carried the rest of the expedition, 
which was fifty-six men in all. Courcelles embarked at 
La Chine, accompanied by Perrot, the governor of Mon- 
treal, and other French officers, and by the Sulpitian Fa- 
ther DoUier — who had already visited Ontario with La 
Salle — as chaplain. With great labor the heavy bateau 
was dragged up the several rapids as far as " Otondiata," 
now called Grenadier Island, a few leagues above Ogdens- 
burg. There it was left under a guard, while Courcelles 
went in his bark canoe througli " beautiful tranquil waters 
almost without a ripple," past the " Thousand Islands," to, 
the mouth of Lake Ontario, which appeared " like an open 
sea without any bounds." Charles Ic Moyne, the inter- 

3 June. 
celles' 8 
voyage to 
Lake On- 

10 June. 

11 June. 

• Col. Doc, ix., 72, 73, 97, 3C4, 3S3, C2G, 700, 803, S04 ; Kelation, 1G71, 2G-2S, 31, 35, 42, 43; 
La Potherie, ii., 124-130 ; Charlevoix, ii., 234-238 ; Hist. Mag., ix., 200; Bancroft, iii., 154, 
155 ; Faillon, iii., 307, 308 ; Shea's Miiisionf, 3G1-305 ; Disc, of Mi.-^s., CO. On this visit, Per- 
rot appears to have discovered the long-talked of Ontonagon copper mines near Keewena 
Point, on Lake Superior, which Colbert and Talon were so anxious to find out, and whicli 
have fince developed such wonderful richer : see Kelation, 1GC7, S; 1G70, S3-SG; 1071, 25; 
1G72, 2 ; ante, 170. 


preter, sootlied by judicious presents the jealousy of some cuap.iv. 
Iroquois who were catching eels, which abounded there ; 
and letters were sent by them to the missionaries, direct- ^ojung ' 
ing that the reasons of Courcelles's voyage should be pub- 
lished in the several villages. After enjoying the aston- 
ishment of the savages at the sight of his heavy bateau tri- 13 June, 
umphantly reposing at Otondiata, the governor safely de- 
scended the rapids ; and in three days reached Montreal n June. 
without the loss of a man. The flat-boat of Courcelles 
was tlie first European-built vessel which ever accompHsh- 
ed the adventure, now safely performed every summers 
day in vast steamers, guided by the confidence of prac- 
ticed skill. The eifect of the expedition was at once ap- Effect of 
parent. Several of the missionaries, on their return from celies's cx. 
tlie Iroquois country, reported that it had alarmed the fue iX °" 
cantons so much that they recalled their warriors from an *^"'"^' 
exj)edition against the Andastes, and resolved to send an 
embassy the next spring to learn from Onnontio the rea- 
sons of his voyage, and what they must now expect." 

The influence of Courcelles's expedition was not con- Effect of 
fined to the savages. Exaggerated accounts of it were ceiics'a ex- 
sent to New York, where a panic broke out, and some pre- xow York.' 
pared to move away before the French could reach them. 
Lovelace, returning in haste from Staten Island, where he 
was looking for a mill-seat on his farm, wrote to Delavall g juiy. 
at Albany that, as there was peace in Europe, Courcelles 
would not dare to " commence a warr on his own head." 
A fortnight afterward, the governor, ha^^[ng appointed 
Steen^y}•ck to act in his absence, left the fort in charge of 10 juiy. 
Manning, and went up to Albany. Various arrangements 
were made for its better government. Deputies from the 2 August. 
several Iroquois nations having arrived there, peace was iween the 
made between them and the Maliicans ; which, however, in'dMaiu- 
proved to be as annoying to the French as it was welcome *^*°'" 
to the English.f 

* Col. Doc., ix., TO, 71, 75-!!.'), DC ; x., ^40 ; Relation, 1G71, 2 ; Charlevoix, ii., IS?, 190, 191 ; 
v., 2S6; Gent. Mag., xxvii., 74; Sauthier's Map in Doc. Uist. , i. ; aji^c, 162. Charlevoix 
erroneously dates Courcelles's voyage in 1670 instead of 1671. It was my good fortune to 
discover, in the Royal Library at Paris, the original and very interesting account of this 
voyage, by DoUier, of which a translation is printed in N. Y. CoL Doc, ix., 75-S5: see also 
Faillon, iii., SSl-.ISC. 

t Conrtof Assizes, ii., 732: Gen. Ent., iv., 10, 2S2-CS4; Munsell, iv., 21, 24-26 ; Relation, 
1671, IT ; 1672, 21 ; Faillon, iii., 336 ; Douniol, i., 4, 5 ; Shea, 281 ; Mass. U. S. Coll., i., 169 ; 


cuAP. IV. Notwithstanding tlie orders of the previous year, vessels 
~~ not belonging to the city of New York continually went up 
the IsTorth Eiver to trade at Esopus and Albany; and the 
9 Marcii. govcmor, on the complaint of the metropolitan burghers, 
ei°ves3ei3r rcucwed the prohibition, with directions to the custom- 
house officers to take a strict account. As a special favor, 
Counselor Willett's sloop was declared a privileged vessel, 
although it had not been built in the province. Isaac 
Grevenraet, who had just been appointed to succeed Beek- 

12 July, man, as sheriff of Esopus, was directed to keep an account 

of all vessels coming there.* 

According to the Duke's laws, the high-sheriff of York- 
shire was to be appointed every year from each of the rid- 
ings in turn. Warned by the recent exliibitions of the 
temper of the Long Island people, Lovelace thought that 
this office should now be held by one of his own immedi- 
7 septem. atc dependents. He accordingly commissioned Captain 
high-sher- John Manning in place of Robert Coe. The captain, who 
ahiie. had been sheriff of the metropolis since 1667, was succeed- 
ed in that office by Allard Anthony.f 

John Archer, of Westchester, having purchased a part 
of the old estate of Van der Donck, built a new village 
" near unto the passage commonly called Spiting Devil ;" 
the place being " the road for passengers to go to and fro 
from the main, as well as for mutual intercourse with the 
neighboring colony" of Connecticut. Lovelace therefore 

13 Novcm. made Archer's property an enfrancliised township, with the 
patent usual immunities, by the name of the Manor of Fordham, 
ciicstcr." upon condition that its inhabitants should always send for- 
ward to the next town all public packets and letters com- 
ing to New York, or going thence to any of His Majestie's 

The Peace of Breda brought ad\antage to the banished 
New Netherland Counselor, John do Decker, wliom the 

Golden, i., 35 ; Col. Doc., ii., 5S0. It is a hardly exon?al)lo blunder in Punlap, i., 125, ICO, 
to make Lovelace go to Albany in 1C71, to meet Kendall and Littleton, of Virginia, who did 
not visit that place until September, 1C70 : Golden, i., 42, 43. 

• Court of Afsizes, ii., 5.W, 657, 059, OGO ; Gen. Kut., iv., 3 ; Val. Man., ISGO, 540 ; Val. N. 
Y., 72, 133 ; Munsell, iv., IS, 21, 22 ; ante, IGS. 

t Court of As.'iizes, ii.. .'354; Gen. Ent., iv., 20, 201 ; Council Min., iii., 143; C. WoUey, 
89; Val. Man., 1S53, 328, G29; N. Y. II. S. Coll., i., 3S5; "Wood, 150; Thompson, i., 2S4; 
ante, 70, IT.S. 

t Patents, iv.,70-S2; Bolton, ii., 179, 320-322; Col. Doc, iii., 303 ; aji«c, vol. i., 421, 501 ; 
ii., 124, 710^1?. 


Duke of York referred to Lovelace for the redress of any cnAr.iv. 
grievances he might have suffered. De Decker's case was 
accordingly considered by the governor, who gave him, aSj,jj^J„^^: 
a peace-offering, a tract of land on Staten Island. The ^^^^^f'^" 
settlement of Deckertown, in Sussex County, New Jersey, 
perpetuates the name of Stuj^'esant's honest, and perhaps 
too patriotic commissioner.* 

Perhaps the most interesting domestic transaction of 
this year was the purchase by Lovelace of the greater part 
of " the Domine's Bouwery," or about sixty-two acres of 
land, between the present Warren and Christopher Streets, 
in the city of l^ew York, which had formerly been in the 
possession of the Dutch Domine Everardus Bogardus and 
his widow. This property had been conlirmed to their 
heirs, by Nicolls, in 1667. It adjoined the old West India 
Company's farm, which the duke now held by virtue of its 
confiscation by Nicolls. But in the spring of 1671 several o March. 
of the heirs of Bogardus and his wife sold the old domine's o/thV"'''*' 
estate to Lovelace, who appears to have held it for some uomv^ry" 
time in his own right. It was afterward vested in the IlTce^"^*^ 
Duke of York, and then in the crown ; and, by a curious 
train of events, the original Bouwery of the Dutch clergy- 
man of Manhattan at length made part of the estate now 
enjoyed by the corporation of Trinity Church.f 

The new year was marked by an impressive local event. 1672. 
Since his return from Holland, Stuyvesant had remained 
for four years quietly at his "• Bouwery," taking no part in 
public affairs. Having made his will, the veteran calmly 
died at the age of eighty years, and was buried in a vault February, 
imder the little chapel he had built near his country house. st°uyve°^ 
Crowded thoroughfares now surround the spot where his^"°'" 
ashes rest ; and a pear-tree from the fatherland, planted by 
his own hands, until recently put forth its annual foliage, 
amid the hum of busy multitudes.:}: 

* Court of A.«.«ize.-', ii., C35, CCC; N. V. Surr. Hcc. Will.=, i., 52, 53; Val. Man., 1S17, 3C9, 
370; O'Call.,ii.,305; Gordon's Gaz. of N. J., 127; on^c, 46. 

t Rec. Clerk's (W., City and County of N. Y. ; Val. Man., 1S55, 531, 532 ; 1830, 5-lS ; Val- 
entine's N. v., 132; Snndford'.s Chancery Itep., iv., C.IH, 726; Faige, iv., 178; Hoffman's 
Treatise, i., 116, 117 ; ii., lSO-190 ; Col. Poc., iii., 226 ; ante, vol. i., 206 ; ii., SO. 

t N. Y. II. S. Coll. i. (ii.), 399, -100, 454; N. Y. Surr. Rec. Wills, i. ; Smith, i., 33 ; Dunlap, 
i., lis ; Thompiion, i., 129, vote ; Val. Man., 1852, 413 ; 1861, 632 ; Barber and Howe's N. Y. 
Coll., 330. The pear-tree, surrounded by an iron r.iilinir, stood at the corner of Third Ave- 
nue and Thirteenth .'Jtri et, until it was destroyed in Kebru.'iiy, 1867. Tlie inscription on 
the tablet in the wall of t-aint Mark's Church, over the vault in which Stuyve.sant was 


cuAP. IV. Notwithstanding the orders of the previous year, vessels 
not belonging to the city of New York continually went up 
the North River to trade at Esopus and Albany ; and the 


March, govcmor, On the complaint of the metropolitan burghers, 
er vessels, reucwcd the prohibition, with directions to the custom- 
liouse officers to take a strict accoimt. As a special favor, 
Counselor Willett's sloop was declared a privileged vessel, 
although it had not been built in the province. Isaac 
Grevenraet, who had just been appointed to succeed Beek- 

12 July, man, as sheriff of Esopus, was directed to keep an account 

of all vessels coming there.* 

According to the Duke's laws, the high-sheriff of York- 
shire was to be appointed every year from each of the rid- 
ings in turn. Warned by the recent exhibitions of the 
temper of the Long Island people, Lovelace thought that 
this office should now be held by one of his own immedi- 
7 septem. atc dependents. He accordingly commissioned Captain 
iiigi.-sh?r- John Manning in place of Robert Coe. The captain, who 
shiie. had been sheriff of the metropolis since 1667, was succeed- 
ed in that office by Allard Anthony.f 

John Archer, of Westchester, having purchased a part 
of the old estate of Van der Donck, built a new village 
"near unto the passage commonly called Spiting Devil;" 
the place being " the road for passengers to go to and fi'o 
from the main, as well as for mutual intercourse with the 
neighboring colony" of Connecticut. Lovelace therefore 

13 Novcm. made Archer's property an enfranchised township, with the 
patent usual immunities, by the name of the Manor of Fordham, 
Chester." upou Condition that its inhabitants should always send for- 
ward to the next town all public packets and letters com- 
ing to New York, or going thence to any of His Majestie's 

The Peace of Breda brought advantage to the banished 
New Netherland Counselor, John do Decker, whom the 

Coldcn, i., 35 ; Col. Doc, ii., 5S0. It is a hardly excusable blunder in Dunlnp, i., 12.5, 120, 
to make Lovelace go to Albany in 1C71, to meet Kendall and Littleton, of Virginia, who did 
not visit that place until September, 1C79 : Colden, i., 42, 43. 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 5.59, 657, C59, 6C0; Gen. Eut., iv., 3; Val. Man., ISGO, 540; Val. N. 
Y., 72, 133 ; Munsell, iv., IS, 21, 22 ; ante, 1C8. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 554; Gen. Ent., iv., 20, 201 ; Council Min., iii., 148; C. Wolley, 
89; Val. Man., 1S53, 328, G29; N. Y. IL S. Coll., i., 3S5; Wood, 150; Thompson, i., 284; 
ante, 70, 138. 

t Patents, iv., 79-82 ; Bolton, ii., 179, 320-322; Col. Doc., iii., 303 ; ante, vol. i., 421, 5G1 ; 
iL, 124, note. 


Duke of York referred to Lovelace for tlie redress of any chap. iv. 
crrievances he niis-ht have suffered. De Decker's case was "T7Z 
accordingly considered by the governor, who gave liim, as ,, jan„„ry. 
a peace-offering, a tract of land on Staten Island, The l^X^iT^' 
settlement of Deckertown, in Sussex County, New Jersey, 
perpetuates the name of Stu^^sesant's honest, and perhaps 
too patriotic commissioner.* 

Perhaps the most interesting domestic transaction of 
this year was the j)urchase by Lovelace of the greater part 
of " the Domine's Bouwery," or about sixty-two acres of 
land, between the present Warren and Christopher Streets, 
in the city of New York, which had formerly been in the 
possession of the Dutch Doraine Everardus Bogardus and 
his widow. This property had been confirmed to their 
heirs, by Nicolls, in 1667. It adjoined the old West India 
Company's farm, which tlie duke now held by virtue of its 
confiscation by Nicolls. But in the spring of 1671 several 9 March. 
of the heirs of Bogardus and his wife sold the old domine's ofthV'^° 
estate to Lovelace, who appears to have held it for some Bou°™y" 
time in his own right. It was afterward vested in the jlTcJ;'*''''' 
Duke of York, and then in the crown ; and, by a curious 
train of events, the original Bouwery of the Dutch clergy- 
man of Manhattan at length made part of the estate now 
enjoyed by the corporation of Trinity Church.f 

The new year was marked by an impressive local event. 1672. 
Since his return from Holland, Stuyvesant had remained 
for four years quietly at his " Bouwery," taking no part in 
public affairs. Having made his will, the veteran calmly 
died at the age of eighty years, and was buried in a vault February, 
under the little chapel he had built near his country house, suij'vi.- 
Crowded thoroughfares now surround the spot where his^""'" 
ashes rest ; and a pear-tree from the fatherland, planted by 
his own hands, until recently put forth its annual foliage, 
amid the hum of busy multitudes.:}; 

• Court of A?size.», ii., C35, CnC ; N. V. Surr. Kcc. Will.«, i., 52, 53 ; Val. Man., 1S17, 300, 
370; O'Call.,ii.,305; (lordon'a Gaz. of N. J., 127; aji^e, 4G. 

t Rec. Clerk's Off., City and County of N. Y. ; Val. Man., 1S55, 531, 532 ; 18G0, 543 ; Val- 
entine's N. v., 132; Sanrtford'.s Chancery Rep., iv., C.^3, 726; Taige, iv., 178; noffman'.s 
Treatise, i., IIG, 117 ; ii., ISO-ISO ; Vo\. Doc., iii., 220 ; ante, vol. i., 2G6 ; ii., SO. 

t N. Y. H. S. Coll. i. (ii.), 399, 400, 454; N. Y. Surr. Uec. Will.", i. ; Smith, i., 33 ; Dunlap, 
i.,llS; Thompson, i., 129, note; Val. Man., 1S52, 413 ; 1801,532; ISarbcr and Howe's N. Y. 
Coll., 339. The pear-tree, surrounded by an iron raillnj;. Flood at the corner of Tliird Ave- 
nue and Thirteenth .'^tnet, until it was destroyed in February, 1S67. The inscription on 
the tablet in the wall of !?'aint Mark's Church, over the vault in which Stuyvesant was 


Chap. IV. Commanded its fleet, while the French ships were led by 
D'Estrees. De Ruyter quickly attacked the combined En- 
2s Mat"^* gli^^i ^^^^ French fleet lying in Southwold Bay, or Solebay, 
7 June. on the coast of Suffolk. A bloody, but indecisive action 
Solebay. foliowcd. The Duke of York was attended on board his 
flag-ship by Colonel Richard Nicolls, his late governor of 
Death of Ncw York, wlio was killed by an avenging Dutch cannon 
wren!'^'^ ball. The duke's secretary, Matthew AYren, was mortally 
Avounded at his side. The Dutch had the advantage ; and 
the French prudently looked on while the naval rivals de- 
stroyed each other. Yet all this carnage was caused, said 
the calm and candid English Evelpi, " for no provocation 
but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all 
things but euAy."* 

In the mean time, Charles, " very intent" about the set- 
1670. tlement of his American colonies, had appointed a new 

30 July. Comicil for Foreio;n Plantations, and made the Duke of 
4 April. ' York and others, of whom one was John Evelyn, addition- 

26 May. al mcmbcrs. The first inquiry of the council was into the 
tatbn ""' condition of the " peevish and touchy" colonies in New 
Eng^andl" England. Colonel Cartwright, Kicolls's old colleague, gave 
21 June, the council " a considerable relation of that country ;" and 
it was determined to send new commissioners, with secret 
3 August, instructions, to ascertain whether those colonies were able 
12 Augu-^t. to resist the king and " declare for themselves as independ- 
ent of the crown." 
1672. The Dutch war, however, postponed action on this point ; 
although orders were sent to the plantations that none of 
their ships should venture home without convoys ; and it 
12 reb'y. was Considered who would be fit commissioners to go to 
Xew England. The affairs of Xew York were also no- 
ticed. Dissatisfied with Lovelace's government, Easthamp- 
3 July. ton, Southampton, and Southold represented to the king- 
that they were more heavily taxed than his subjects in 
New England, were not represented by " deputys in Court," 

• Ba.snage, ii., 192-200; Sylvius, i., 191-208, 243-249; Clarke's James II., 1., 456-4S1; 
r.vclyn, i., 335, 409 ; ii., 75, 76, 80, 82 ; Popys, ii., 361 ; iv., 235 ; Kennett, iii., 2S5, 2S7, 2'>'? ; 
Rapin, ii., 662-664; Lyson's Mag. Britt., i., 39 ; I>avie8, iii., 90-104 ; T.ingard, xii., 2C5-2S3 ; 
Hume, vi., 449-450; Anderson, ii., 522; Martin, i., 327, 328. In tlie Ampthill Church, 
Bedfordshire, England, is a mural monument to Kichard Nicoll,», on which is represented a 
cannon ball, witli the inscription ^^ Innfriiuiciitmn mnrtis el immnrtalitatix." A copy of 
NicoUs's epitaph is in N. Y.IIist. Soc. I'roc. for 1844, p. 117. It is a curious coincidence that 
the conqueror, NicoUs, should have followed Stuyresant to the grave within a few month?. 


and were obliged to obey laws imposed by others, who in- cuap. iv. 
suited over them, and threatened to cut down their timber. 
As they had purchased their lands from Lord Stirling's .j,,^^ j^^" 
deinitv, and had formerly been under Connecticut, they ^^^'^^'^ , 

J. .' ' _ •/ 'J representa- 

prayed that they niio;ht " be continued under the Govern- tion lisre- 

A •' ./ o yarded :n 

ment and Patent of Mr. Winthrop, or else that they may i-^ngiaud- 
be a free corporation as His Majesties subjects." The king 
referred the petition to the Plantation Council for a report, 
and directed that notice should be given to the Duke of 
York's commissioners that they might attend when it 
should be considered. The council accordingly read Lord 19 juiy. 
Stirling's conveyances, on wliich the petitioners relied ; but 
as the whole of Long Island M-as clearly within the Duke 
of York's i^atent, no farther action appears to have been 

The next autumn the supervision of trade and com- 2- septem. 
merce was added to the former functions of the Plantation 
Council. Of this new council the versatile Ashley, recent- 
ly created Earl of Shaftesbury, was made president ; and, 
through his influence, John Locke, " an excellent learned 24 October. 
gentleman and student of Christ Church," at Oxford, was i.>eiyn hi 
appointed its secretary, while John Evelyn continued to be gUsh pian- 
a member. The first business of the council was to warn coumu. 
the governor of Jamaica of a design of the Dutch against 
that island.f 

Meanwhile the king had directed Lovelace to take care 10 March, 
that all ships bound for Europe should sail in company, in tionfintiie 
March, June, and September, that an additional battery American 
should be made at New York, and that the whole govern- dereT^ °'' 
ment should be put in a condition of defense. As soon as 
war M-as declared, the several colonies were warned against 3 Apru. 
the private men-of-war which were being prepared in Hol- 
land and Zealand, and were directed to take effectual pre- 
cautions for their own safety, as well as to seize all Dutch 
ships and property within their territories.:}: 

"When the king's letter reached Lovelace, prompt meas- 

• Col. Doc, iii., 21, 22, lPO-193, 197, 19S; Sainsbury, 1., 29S; Evelyn, ii., 60, 62-CG, T4; 
Palfrey, iii., 33, 273, 274; Maw. II. S. Coll., xxxii., 2S5; xxxvii.,31G; a7i^c, 153. 

t Col. Poc, iii., 228; Kvelyn, ii., S3, 85, 8G; Anderson, ii., 522, 523; Palfrey, iii., 33. 
Locke gave up his secretaryship when hU patron, Shaftesbury, quarreled with the court in 
November, 1G73. King's Life of l/jcke (Bohn's ed.), 34 ; Kvelyn, ii., 74, 94 95 ; 2WSt, p. 249. 

t Kvelyn, ii., 74 ; Council Min., iii., 99, 100; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 559, 560. 


Chap. IV. ures Were taken for defense. Younge, at Southold, was 

'^ warned to be on his guard. Instead of a compulsory tax, 

24 Ma'"* ^ contribution, or "benevolence" from each town, was 

30 May. askcd bv the ofovernor for the repair of Fort James. 

Lovelace a J » • cc -» r 

action in Thouias Lovclacc, Ilio-h-sherift Mannino;, Allard Anthonv, 

New York. . , ■ " 

24 June. Captain Richard Morris,* Thomas Gibbs, and Francis 

3 July. i , . . . , 

11 July. Rombouts M'cre appointed commissioners to receive and 

expend the moneys collected. On the king's declaration 
c July. of war coming to hand, it was proclaimed at the Fort Gate 
and the City Hall, and the fortifications vigorously pushed 
forward. Counselors Delavall and Steenwyck were dis- 
18 July, patched to put Albany in a state of defense. Already the 
commerce of New York suffered ; and Lovelace's own ship, 
the " Good Fame," -svith three others belonging to the port, 
were seized in Ilolland.f 

The restriction of the navigation of the Hudson to I^ew 
York vessels brought up an interesting question. Massa- 
chusetts had insisted, in 1659, that her territory extended 
as far as the Hudson, and Stuyvesant had distinctly reject- 
ed her claim. But the Massachusetts governor now wrote 

12 March, to Lovclacc, dcsii'ing that her boundary might be settled, 
qucation* and fi'ee passage up and down the Hudson be allowed to 
N^jw Yo°rk her people. This letter was brought to New York by John 
chu.setts.^'^' Paine, of Boston, who was interested in the Massachusetts 
8 August, grant of 1659. Lovelace, however, declined to recognize 

any rights claimed by Massachusetts, which ought to have 
been settled by the royal commissioners ; and he referred 
the whole subject to the Dulvc of York. On his re- 

23 October, tum to Boston, Paine obtained the grant of a tract of 

land ten miles square, "at or near Hudson's Biver," 

and free trade with th-e Indians forever. But, as Massa- 

1673. chusetts vessels could not navigate that river, and "be- 

7 -^'"y- cause a hill of a vast extent impedes the passage to that 

• Captain Richard Morris died soon after this, Icuving an only son, Lewis ; and admini.--- 
tration of his estate was granted to Secretary NicoUa and others, by whom word was sent to 
lycwis MoiTis, of Rarbadoes, an elder brother of the deceased : N. Y. Surr. Rec. Wills, i., 173 ; 
Bolton, ii., 287, 2SS ; Col. Doc, ii., 595, 617 ; nntc^ 140, note. 

t Council Min., iii., !19, 100, 108, 114, 115; Gen. Knt., iv., 57, 159, 14S, 140, 156, 161, 165, 
170; Col. MSS., xxii., 130, 134; Thomp.^on, i., 150; Col. Doc, iii., 185; ante., 152. The 
declaration of war against the Dutch was proclaimed at Boston on the 28th of May, 1672, 
the first instance of such a measure ; Connecticut called a special court for 26 June, and 
Rhode Island took similar precautions : Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 517 ; Hutch., i., 283, 284 ; Coll., 
441; Palfrey, iii., 120; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 180-183, 609-561; Mass. U. S, ColL, xxx., 82, 
83; R.L Rec, ii., 401-464. 


place," Paine was allowed to take up another tract, " into chap. iv. 
which passage may be found for transportation overland."* 

The visit of Paine to New York, however, gave rise to Question' 
another claim of territory. He had bought Prudence Isl- j^^"' j^"' 
and, in Narragansett Bay, from the representatives of Wil- a°<^'^^" 
liams and Winthrop, and was astonished to find that Love- i-^iaQJ- 
lace claimed it as belonging to New York under the duke's 
patent. The pretension was as absurd as that of Massa- 
chusetts to any part of the Yalley of the Hudson. Never- 
theless, Paine thought it best to take a patent for his isl- 
and from Lovelace, who readily gave it, in consideration 
of liberal contributions to the repair of Fort James. By 
Lovelace's patent. Prudence Island was made a free town- 25 juiy. 
ship, under the name of " Sophy Manor," of which Paine 
was appointed governor for his life, subordinate to the 7 August. 
jurisdiction of New York. But Rhode Island, very prop- 
erly resenting Lovelace's usurpation, arrested the unfortu- g septem. 
nate Paine ; who, not long afterward, was convicted of at- 23 octXer. 
tempting to introduce a foreign jurisdiction.! 

In New Jersey, disaffection had meanwhile grown so 
strong that those who desired to escape paying the pro- 
prietors' quit-rents sent deputies to an anarchical assembly 
at Elizabethtown, which deposed Governor Philip Carte- 14 May. 
ret, and appointed in his place his newly-arrived cousin, teret^L-^"^' 
Captain James Carteret, the " weak and dissolute," but le- govern!''* 
gitimate younger son of Sir George. Lovelace and hisKewV/r- 
council did their best to reconcile the dispute ; but the n-'june. 
usurper rejected the friendly offices of New York, and 
claimed that he was justified by the instructions of tliei4june. 
proprietors of New Jersey. Philip Carteret therefore ap-Uuiy. 
pointed Captain John Berry to be his deputy, and sailed for 20 juiy. 
Guernsey under a passport from Lovelace, accompanied by is septcm. 
Secretary James Bollen, to state the case at London. Aft- 
er Philip Carteret's departure, James, who usurped his of- 12 October. 
fice, corresponded with Lovelace ; but without any result.:}: is October. 

• Ante, IGS, 182 ; vol. i., 655, C71, 672 ; Col. Doc, vi., 143, 159 ; vii., 224, 334. 563, 5G4, 
596, 597 ; viii., G71, 439 ; Hutch., i., 159, 160; Gen. Ent., iv., 177, 17S, 179 ; Col. Mf:S., xxii., 
137, 149; Mns3. Kcc, iv. (i.), 395, 396 (ii.), 548, 558, 570; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxvii., 512. 
The Western Kailroad from Springfield to Albany now triumphantly surmounts this " hill 
of a vast extent." 

t Patents, iv., 86-90 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 138, 139 ; R. I. Col. Rcc, i., 45, 46 ; Arnold, i., 87, 
105,362,363; Palfrey, iii., 109. 

t Council Min., iii., 101; Gen. Tnt., iv., 142-14 ', 171, 207, 208, 213 ; F.liz. Bill in Chan- 


Chap. IV. Fi'esli troubles now occurred on the Delaware. A party 

I of Marylanders came to the Hoarkill, and, assisted by 

Daniel Brown, a planter, assaulted the magistrates, and 

carried off all the plunder they could. Brown was after- 

1 July. ward sent a prisoner to I^ew York, where he was tried and 
convicted, but was released on promise of amendment. 

12 August. Lovelace quickly rebuked Calvert for allowing his people 

trucuience to commit, for a second time, such outrages in the Duke 

NeirVoriJof York's territories "in these portending troublous times, 
wherein all true-hearted Englishmen are buckling on their 
armour," and required him to punish the offenders. The 
New York governor's prompt intervention saved Delaware 
from " the imminent peril of being absorbed in Maryland." 
The Duke of York was soon advised of the trucuience of 

7 oetoijer. Lord Baltimore's agents ; and Carr was directed to guard 
against the Maryland people, who, following up "their 
former violent action" in 1G69, had again invaded a de- 
pendency of New York, " after so long quiet possession of 
those parts by His Royal Highness's deputies under His 
Majesty's obedience, and by other nations before that, sev- 
eral years before the date of the Lord Baltimore's patent, 
whom they never disturbed by arms, and whose right is 
now devolved upon the Duke."* 

A memorable event of this year was the visit of the En- 
glish Quaker, George Fox, to America. Sailing to Barba- 
does, he spent several months there with Lewis Morris and 

March. otlicr " Frieuds." Early in 1672 he went to Jamaica, and 
thence to Maryland. Passing through Newcastle, Fox 

April. traversed the wilderness of New Jersey to Middletown, 

eery, 35 ; N. J. H. S. Proc, i. (ii.), 23, 30 ; Douglas, ii., 269, 271, 2T2 ; Chalmers, i., 610 ; S. 
Smith, CS; Gordon, 29 ; Bancroft, ii., 319 ; AVliitehead, .'SS-ST; CoUins's Peerage, iv., 213; 
ante, 177. James Carteret seems to have enjoyed the genial societyof New York during the 
winter, as ho was married, by license from Lovelace, on 15 April, 1G73, to Frances, daughter 
of Counselor Thomas Delavall : Gen. Knt., iv., 277 ; N. Y. Marriages (1860), CS, 105. lie 
appears to have been a sad rake, and "a very profligate person," but of "a good under- 
standing." lie was afterward .separated from his wife and allowed an annuity by his fa- 
ther, who would not '•'acknowledge him as his son, as before:" sec Dankers's and Slu}'tci''s 
Journal (1SG7), 137, 138. ?ee also Hist. Mag., x., 157, for a notice of the descendants of 
Jamea Carteret and Frances Delavall. There is no reason for the brand of iUenitimacii 
which Whitehead, t>rt, and Mulford, 152, have endeavored to stamp on James Carteret : 
compare Eliz. Bill, 35; OUins's Peerage, iv., 213; Douglas, ii, 272; Chalmers, i., 616, C25. 
"Natural," as used by (!halniers, does not mean "illegitimate;" Hist. Mng.,ii. (iii.), 110. 

• Council Min., iii., 110; Gen. Knt., iv., IS?, ISO, 211-213; S. Smith, 72-76; Hazard's 
Ann. Penn., .397-402, 405; Bancroft, ii., 2.1S, 310, 320; Proud, i., 131, 132 ; Col. MSS., xx., 
37, 3S; Col. Doc, iii., 186; ante, 164. Yet Chalmers, i., 361, 634, affirms that Calvert 
took possession of the country around Cape Henlopen, which the Dutch "had relinquish- 
ed;" and Grahame repeats Chalmers's falsehood. 


and went from there to Gravesend, on Long Island. At cuw. iv. 
Oyster Bay he cahned the quarrels of the " Friends." At 
Rhode Island he met several Connecticut Quakers. From j^^^ 
there he crossed over to Shelter Island, accompanied by^^'^'J°J 
several " Friends," one of whom was " John Jav, a planter ^'"^ '? 
in Barbadoes." He visited Oyster Bay, Flushing, and Ja- Augun. 
maica again, and held several "precious meetings." On 
his return through Xew Jersey, Fox came near losing his 
companion. Jay, who was thrown from his horse, but was 
restored by the skill of the Quaker apostle. At Newcastle, 
Fox was lodged by Can* in his o\m house, where the first 
Quaker meeting in Delaware was held. After revisiting 
Maryland, Fox passed on to Virginia and North Carolina, septcm. 
and in the spring of the following year sailed from the 
Chesapeake for England.* 

There were, at this time, seven Jesuit missionaries among Jesuit mis- 
tlie nve iroquois nations, Bruyas, the superior, remained among the 
with Boniface among the Mohawks, who still kept on their 
guard against their old enemies, the Mahicans. At Oneida, 
Millet found the savages as obdurate as the rock from 
which they derived their name. John de Lamberville, 
at Onondaga, aided by the active zeal of Garakontie, had 
better hopes.f 

Carheil, now cured of his disease, returned to the Cayu- 
gas, and Raffeix was transferred to assist Garnier among 
the Senecas. In a letter to Dablon, Eaffeix described Ca- 24 junc. 
yuga as " the most beautiful country I have seen in Ameri- description 
ca. It is situated in latitude 42 degrees and a half, and ° ^''^"^'*' 
the needle dips there scarcely more than ten degrees. It 
lies between two lakes, and is not more than four leagues 
wide, with almost continuous plains, while the woods which 
border them are very beautiful. Mohawk is a narrow val- 
ley, often very stony, and always covered with fogs. The 
mountains which enclose it seem to me to be of very poor 
soil. Oneida and Onondaga appear to be a very rugged 
country, and little adapted to hunting. The same is true 
of Seneca. Every year they kill more than a thousand 

• Fox's Journal (Phil. ed.),435-4W; Sewell, 509-512 ; Col. Doc, ii., 019; Aniold, L, 360, 
361; Thompson, ii., 82, S3; Uaz.ird's Reg. Penn., vi., ISl; Palfrey, iii., 106-10> ; Mass. II. 
S. Coll., xxxvii., 2SS ; ante, vol. i., 635. Fox returned to Bristol on the 2Sth of June, 1673. 

t Relation, 16T2, 18-22; 16T2-3, 33-39; Douniol, i., 4-S; Charlevoix, it, 222, 231, 232; 
Shea, 19S, 26S, 2S1-2S3 ; ante, 181. 


Chap. IV. deer in the neigbborliood of Cayuga. Fisliing is as abun- 
daiit here as at Onondaga, as well for salmon as for eels 
and other fishes. Four leagues from here I saw, on the 
brink of a River, within quite a small space, eight or ten 
ver}^ line salt springs. It is there that they spread num- 
bers of nets to catch pigeons, of which they often take 
seven or eight hundred at one haul. The Lake of Tiohero 
[Cayuga], one of the two which border on our village, is 
fourteen leagues long, by one or two wide. Swans and 
bustards abomid there all the winter ; and, in the spring, 
one sees nothing but continual clouds of all sorts of game. 
The River of Ochoueguen [Oswego], which flows out of 
this Lake, divides itself at its beginning into several chan- 
nels surrounded by prairies, with here and there very 
pleasant and pretty deep bays, where the wild fowl resort. 
I find the inhabitants of Cayuga more tractable and less 
fierce tlian the Ouondagas and Oneidas ; and, if God had 
humiliated them as much as the Mohawks, I believe that 
the faith would be established there more easily than in 
any one of the Iroquois nations. They reckon more than 
three hundred warriors among them, and a prodigious 
multitude of small children."* 

From Seneca, Garnier sent his superior a discouraging 

20 July, account of the three missions of Conception, Saint Michael, 

nccountof aud Saiut James. The expedition of Courcelles to Lake 

Ontario, which at first had been thought to be an intended 

invasion, retarded conversions ; and an ill feeling arose 

against the " black robes," who were charged with being 

sorcerers and spies to report every thing to Onnontio. 

3ijuiy. With great joy, Garnier welcomed Raffeix to assist him 

among the Senecas, who now numbered from twelve to 

thirteen tliousand souls.f 

The war against the Andastes was still carried on, chief- 
ly by the Cayugas and the Senecas. During the summer, 

• Relation, 1C72, 22, 23 ; Col. Doc, iii., 251. The salt springs which Raffeix describes nrc 
those at Montezuma. 

t I^elation, 1GT2, 18, 21-2C; 1G72-3, lOS; Col. Doc, i.x., 97, note; Shea, 292; ante, 1T9. 
The Annual Kclntions of the Jesuits were not printed later than this year at Paris, owin;; 
to the r< quest of Courcelles: Fuillon, iii., 312. Dablon, however, who remained superior 
general, at Qiubec, until 1093, compiled several others. Two of these, for 1672-1G73, and 
1G73-1CT9, have been published from the originals at Quebec, by Mr. John G-. Shen. Mr. 
James Leno.\ has likewise printed the Relation for lfi7G-1677. (Jliarles Douniol, of Pari?, 
also published two volumes in 18G1, entitled "Mission du (Janada," containing the Rela- 
tions from 1C72 to 1079, copied from the originals at Quebec and at Konic. 


an Iroquois party descending the Susquehanna River were cuap. r\'. 
attacked and routed by sixty young Susquehannas. The ~ 
sympathies of the French missionaries were witli the latter. The war 
" God preserve the Andastes, who have only three hundred ^^1"^^ 
warriors, and bless their arms to humiliate the Iroquois and q"oisaud 

' _ ■■■ Andastes. 

preserve to us peace and our missions," wrote Kaffeix to 
Dablon, his superior general, at Quebec* 

Courcelles's expedition the last year to Lake Ontario 
so affected his health that he asked to be relieved ; and 
the king appointed in his place Louis de Buade, Count 6 April, 
of Frontenac, a veteran lieutenant general in the French re°aiicdr 
army. Frontenac was quick, firm, penetrating, domineer- tofac^ap"' 
ing, and a scholar. lie was instructed, among other goi^e'rnor of 
things, to keep his government prepared to repel, and, if ^A^rij]" 
necessary, to attack the Iroquois ; to favor " contiguous 
clearances" rather than scattered settlements ; and to coun- 
terbalance the influence of the Jesuits by encouraging the 
Sulpitians and Recollets.f 

The summer before Frontenac reached Canada, a con- 
gress was held at Montreal, to which more than five hun- July. 
dred red men came in one hundred and fifty canoes. A 
new treaty of peace was confirmed in the presence of Cour- August. 
cellos. At the same time, the governor invited the princi- 
pal Iroquois chiefs to meet him at Cataracouy, on the north- couiceiies 
em shore of Lake Ontario. Having assembled there, Cour- fonTt ca- 
celles flattered them by presents, and got their consent to or Kings- 
build a fort at that place, where they might come to trade '^^' 
with the French. They did not perceive that the object of 
the Canadian governor was really " to hold them in check," 
after they should have ended their war with the Susque- 
hannas, and pro\'ide an entrepot for himself. The work 
was at once projected by Courcelles ; but its completion 
was left to other hands.:}: 

On his return to Quebec, Courcelles met Frontenac, who scptem. 
had just arrived, and easily convinced him of the impor- 
tance of the enterprise he had begun on Lake Ontario. 

* Kclation, 1072, 20, 24. It has been supposed by Charlevoix, ii., 244, that the Susque- 
hannas, or Andastes, were siibjuRated by the Iroquois in 1672. But this event does not 
Bcem to have happened until 1G75: see Douniol, i., 267; ii., 44, 99; Hist. Mag., ii,, 297; 
Col. Doc., i.x., 110, 111, 227; ante, 100, note. 

t Col. Doc., ix., 85-88,791; Charlevoix, ii., 191, 247; Garneau,i.,201, 205, 207; Sparks's 
La Salle, 15, 16 ; Faillon, iii., 416-418; ante, ISl. 

t Kelatiou, 1672, 21 ; Charlevoix, ii., 241, 245; Shea, 282; Ganicau, i., 206. 

II.— X 


Chap. IV. Frontenac's first act was to publish bis king's declaration 

~ of war against the Dutch, In his dispatches to France, he 

nse tem' approvcd of Courcelles's projected fort at Cataracoiiy "to 

Frontenac prevent the Iroquois carrying to the Dutch the peltries, for 

governor i •■• ., 

of Canada, -whicli tliev ffo to tlic Ottawas : and as it mi2:ht stren2;then 

2 Xovem. . . 

the mission at Quinte Bay, he promised to go there him- 
. self the next spring. - 

Courcelles soon afterward returned to France, accom- 
panied by Talon, in a new ship of five hundred tons bur- 
then, which had been built at Quebec. As the Mississippi 
was supposed to empty into the Gulf of California, Talon 
recommended to Frontenac that its exploration should be 
jouiet sent intrusted to Louis Jolliet, of Quebec, an "aspirant to the 
thJ^Mis^^s- Ministry," who had accompanied Saint Lusson the year be- 
Marquette. forc to Lake Supcrlor, and who had " already been almost 
at that great river, the mouth of which he promises to see." 
Jolliet was accordingly dispatched to Michilimackinac, with 
orders to Marquette to join the expedition. On the feast 
8 Decern, of the Immaculatc Conception he reached the Jesuit mis- 
sionary, who longed to visit the Mississippi ; and the win- 
ter was spent in preparations for their journey. f 

While Lovelace was at Albany the last year, he regu- 
lated the Indian trade at Schenectady as the frontier. 
i.Tjniy. The people of that town now bought fi*om the Mohawks 
dy affairs.' the land on both sides of the river, as far as " Kinaquari- 
ones," where the last battle was fought between the Mo- 
hawks and Mahicans in 1669. A separate court was soon 
c septcm. afterward established at Schenectady.:}: 

Under the new arrangements at Esopus, its three villages 
Pro'pfrity prospcrcd abundantly, and twenty -five tliousand " schepels" 
uopua. ^£ QQi-xi were raised there this year. Not far from the vil- 
lage of Kingston, the land owned by Captain Chambers 
Fox Hall. ' was erected into a manor, with the usual privileges, and 

* Col. Doc., ix., 90-94, 791; Quebec MSS., ii. (ii.), IIG; Charlevoi.x, ii.,245; Garncati, i., 
20T-210; Faillon, iii.,45G, 4f)T; a»i?p, 148, 149. 

t Relation, 16T2, 1, 2, 3G; 16T2-3, 146; Col. Doc., i.x., S9, 92, 121, COS, T93, 804; Charle- 
voix, ii., 245, 240, 248, 254,'25r) ; Bancroft, iii., 153, 155, 150 ; Garneau, i., 205-20T, 231, 232 ; 
I,a Pothcrie, ii., 130; Shea's Disc. Mi-ic., xxvii., xxviii., l.\v.,l.\xix., 4,5,0; Hist. Mag., v., 
237; Douniol, i.,193, 194; rnillon, iii., 200,312, 417-421; ««((', 170, 179. 

t Gen. Ent.,iv.,90; Council Min., iii., 110; Col. MSS., xxii., 132 ; a?i<e, 101. On the 27Ui 
of January, 1073, Anthonia van Curler, in consideration of her house and barns being de- 
Btroycd, and of her husband, Arendt van Curler, being lost in the public scn-icc (ante, 121), 
was allowed to sell rum and lead, but not powder, to the Indians, far a year and two months: 
Council Min., iii., 120; Col. Doc., ii., 052. 


named ''Fox Hall." Soon afterward Counselor Delavall chap. in. 

was authorized to build a store-liouse adioinino- the redoubt 

at the Strand, near Kingston." lo^z. 

The provincial law, in cases of divorce, was now settled, lo Marcu, 
Daniel Denton, of Jamaica, wlio had gone to London tOdivorcTin 
publish his work on New York, found, on his return, that ^^^^ ^'^^^ 
his wife, Abigail, had been unfaithful during his absence. 
lie applied to the Court of Sessions for a divorce ; but 
that tribunal having no jurisdiction, he laid his case before 
the governor and council. Lovelace, observing that it was 
" conformable to the Laws of this Government, as well as 
to the practice of the civil law, and the laws of our nation 
of England," granted Denton a divorce from his w^ife. But 2c junc. 
in this decision the governor seems to have followed the 
Dutch rather than the English law.f 

At the autumn session of the Court of Assizes an inter- 2 October, 
esting case was heard on appeal from the court on the appcaun"^ 
Delaware. Amigart Pappegoya, the daughter of the for- of Assizes, 
mer Swedish Governor Printz, brought an action in eject- 
ment against Andrew Carr, to recover her patrimonial es- 
tate in the island of Tinicum. The plaintiff's attorney 
was John Sharpe, assisted by Samuel Edsall, and Jacob 
Milborne, who was specially admitted to plead. John Ri- 3 octoucr. 
der appeared for the defendant. Tlie writings in German 
were translated for the court by the Lutheran " Domine" 
Arensius, and those in Low Dutch by Nicholas Bayard. 
After a full hearing the case went to the jury, who brought 
in a verdict for the plaintiff, and judgment was given in 4 October. 
her favor.:}: 

• Col. Doc., ii., 526; Lambrecht?(?n, 115; Gen. Ent., iv., 210, 273; O'Call., ii., 394, 395; 
Val. Man., 1853,381. 

t Gen. Ent, iv., 153; Dunlap, ii., App. cxviii. ; Daly's Introd., 27. The Court of As- 
sizes, however, in the following October, allowed the divorced Abigail Denton to marry 
again : Court of Assizes, ii., 317. In October, 1070, the Court of Assizes divorced Rebecca 
Leveridge from her husband, Eleazer, on account of his alleged impotence : Council Min., 
iii., 27 ; Court of Assizes, ii., 4S0, 519-522, 007, COS ; Thompson, i., 256. The governor and 
council, in October, 1072, divorced Thomas Pctitt, of Newtown, from his wife Sarah, because 
of her adultery; and Mary Cole from Daniel Sutton, because of his bigamy: Gen. Ent.,iv., 
213, 214, 215. . The law, however, was afterward settled otherwise. Chancellor Kent ob- 
serves that " for more than one hundred yeare preceding the Revolution, no divorce took 
place in tlie colony of New York;" and that there was no way of dissolving a marriage in 
the lifetime of the parties but by a special act of the Lcginlature. The Court of Chancery 
was not authorized to grant divorces d vinculo until 17S7, and then only for adultery : 
Kent's Comnientaric.s, ii., 97,98. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 293-300 ; Gen. Ent., iv., 260-262 ; Col. JISS., xx., 26 ; S. Hazard's 
Ann. Penn., 400, 401, 404 ; ante, vol. i., 397, .'557. Sharpe and Rider appear to have been 
regular pr.actitioncra : Col. Doc, ii., 617, 709, "IS; iii., 202; Doc. Hist., iii., 5S, CO; Mass. 


cnAP. IV. Several important public measures were adopted at the 
same session of the Court of Assizes. As servants f re- 
2 0ctobei* fl^^sntlj ran away from their masters into other govern- 
T o tobcr i''^6nts, it was ordered that all strangers without passports 
New laws ghould bo liable to arrest. Enghsh weights and measures 
thecoiut only wei'e to be used throughout the province before the 
next Old Style T^ew-year day, on the 25th of March. The 
laws as to parochial churches were to be duly observed, 
and " although divers persons may be of different judg- 
ments, yet all shall contribute, to the minister established 
and allowed of, which is no way judged to be an infringe- 
ment of the liberty of conscience to the which they may 
pretend." The contributions for the renovation of the 
fort were to be sent to New York, or to " the Ferry," be- 
fore the next Christmas. It was also ordered that a Bos- 
ton shilling should pass for one shilling, and a good 
Sj^anish piece of eight, whether of Mexico, Seville, or 
a pillar piece, should be valued at six shillings in all 
New Yoi'k transactions.* 
loupccra. Lovelace now issued a proclamation that, conforma;bly 
i)o°ttoNewto the king's commands to promote correspondence, and 
nstawrshed the advancement of commerce and general intelligence 
lace'°^''* between his colonies, a monthly post should be establish- 
ed to go fi'om New York to Boston ; and that, according- 
ly, a sworn messenger would be dispatched on the first 
of the next Jauuar}^, to convey letters or small j^ackets to 
Hartford, Boston, and other places on his way. All letters 
were to be deposited in the secretary's ofHce, and the post- 
age to be prepaid before the bag was closed. In a private 
2T Decern, letter which Lovelace intended to dispatch by his pioneer 
post, he wrote to AVinthrop : " I here present you with two 
rarities, a pacquett of the latest intelligence I could meet 
withal, and a Post. By the first, you Avill see what has 

II. S. Coll., XXX., 108. Kd.^nll nftoiward became quite prominent in colonial affairs: Col. 
Doc., ii., 570, 720 ; iii., 75, 5s!), OSIi, 789. Jacob Milborne, who became still more prominent, 
was a yoiinp; EnRliahman, wlio had been convicted of clipping the king's coin, and sold as a 
servant in Uarbado'S. lie was afterward bought by a Hartfonl man; bnt_ because of his 
stubbornness and disobedience, was transferred several times from one master to another. 
Having finally got his liberty, he c.inie to New York in 1GG8, being then twenty years old, 
and was employed by Counselor Thomas Delavall to keep his books and manage his affairs ; 
in which service he remained until this year: Col. Doc, iii., 301, 621, 074, 7"27, 755, 7S9; 
Doc. Hist., ii., 2S, 42 ; Col. MSS., xxvi., 139 ; Gen. Knt., xx.\ii., 19. 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 323; Col. MSS., xxli., 9, 14^; N. Y.ll. S. Coll., 1., 430-424; Thomp- 
son, i., 150. Frequent cases of the prohibition of the export of grain, cither by order of the 
governor and council, or of tlio Court of At'sizes, occurred from time to time in New York. 


been acted on the stage of Europe ; by the latter you will chap. iv. 

meet with a monthly fresh supply ; so that if it receive but 

the same ardent inclinations from you as first it hath from t , ■' 

t/ Lovelaces 

myself, by our monthly advisees all pubhque occurrences fj^[?'J^'" 
may be transmitted between us, together with severall oth- 
er great conveniencys of publique importance, consonant 
to the commands laid upon us by His sacred Majestic, who 
strictly in joins all his American subjects to enter into a 
close correspondency with each other. This I look upon 
as the most compendious means to beget a mutual under- 
standing ; and that it may receive all the countenance from 
you for its future duration, I shall acquaint you with the 
modell I have proposed ; and if you please but to make an 
addition to it, or substraction, or any other alteration, I 
shall be ready to comply with you. This person that has 
undertaken the imployment I conceaved most proper, be- 
ing both active, stout, and indefatigable. lie is sworne as 
to his fidelity. I have afiixt an annuall sallery on him, 
which, together with the advantage of his letters and other 
small portable packes, may afford him a handsome lively- 
hood. Hartford is the first stage I have designed him to 
change his horse, where constantly I expect he should have 
a fresh one lye, leger. All the letters outward shall be de- 
livered gratis, \vitli a signification of Post Payd on the 
superscription ; and reciprocally, we expect all to us free. 
Each first Monday of the month he sets out from New 
York, and is to return within the month from Boston to us 
againe. The maile has divers baggs, according to the 
townes the letters are designed to, which are all sealed up 
'till their arrivement, with the scale of the Secretarie's Of- 
fice, whose care it is on Saturday night to scale them up. 
Only by-letters are in an open bag, to dispense by the 
wayes. Thus you see the scheme I have draAVTie to pro- 
mote a happy correspondence. I shall only beg of you 
your furtherance to so imiversall a good work ; that is to 
afford him directions where, and to whom to make his ap- 
phcation to upon his arrival at Boston ; as likewise to afford 
him what letters you can to establish him in that imploy- 
ment there. It would be much advantagious to our de- 
signe, if in the intervall you discoursed with some of the 
most able woodmen, to make out the best and most facile 


CHAP. IV. way for a Post, which, in processe of tyme would be the 

King's best highway ; as likewise passages and accommo- 

dation at Rivers, fords, or other necessary places."" 

Lovelace is certainly entitled to the credit of having 
estabhshed the first post between New York and New En- 
gland. But the pioneer whom he intended to dispatch on 
New-year's day M'as kept back until the Albany news reach- 
16Y3. ed the capital. He was then sworn, and instructed to be- 
kI^ post liave civilly ; to inquire of Winthrop " how to form the 
from N^T ^^^^ post-road ;" to mark trees " that shall direct passen- 
York. ggpg ii^Q i^ggi; ^T^y ." ^j^^ " ^Q detect, and cause to be appre- 
hended all fugitive soldiers and servants" who might run 
away from New York. By him the governor wrote again 
22 Jan. to Wiuthrop that the last ships from England to Maryland 
wrnthrop." and Virginia brought " little tidings save the despair of a 
peace between the Protestant nations. Presses, both by 
sea and land, are very vigorously prosecuted. The Hol- 
lander has absolutely lost three of their Provinces. They 
have disposed of all their men-of-war, and given liberty to 
all that will venture on privateering ; in so much that forty 
saile, well fitted, are dispatched towards the West Indies. 
If so, it will be high time for us to beginne to buckle on our 
armour, and to put ourselves into such a posture of defence 
as is most suitable to our severall conditions. However, it 
will be absolutely necessary that in the first place, a good 
understanding be made and preserved amongst us, conform- 
able to His Majestie's gracious care and good pleasure ; to 
which end I have erected a constant post, which shall 
monthly pass betwixt us, or oftener, if occasion requires. 
I desire of you to favour the undertaking by your best 
skill and countenance. I have writt to you my more par- 
ticular desires in a former letter which this bearer brings 
Murder The delayed messenger from Albany brought news of 
b^ny"' ^'' tl^G murder of a soldier there by two " North Indians," who 
2T Jan. ^^,^^,^ promptly arrested by Pynchon, at Springfield. Love- 
lace at once commissioned Salisbury to try them at a spe- 

• Gen. Ent., iv., 243, 2-14; liarbor ami IIowi'.s N. Y. Coll., 290; Viil. Man., 1S5T, 542; 
Bolton, i., 139 ; ii., 321, 322 ; Mass. H. S., Tninibull I'apera, MSS. xx., 110 ; mile, 1S2. 

t Gen. Knt., iv., 252, 253 ; Vul. Man., lSr)T, 543, 544 ; Ma.s?. II. S., Trumbull Tapers, MSS. 
XX., 109; Hiat. Mag., iv., 60. Masaacliusetts do&s not appear to have taken any step.? rc- 
jipecting a post until 1C7T : bco Mass. Rec, v., 147, 14S; Palfrey, iii , 30C, 518. 


cial court at Albany. The imirderers were couvicted and cuap. iv. 
executed ; and the savages retained a lasting memory of 
the sure and swift justice of the English.* 

Lovelace had given no attention to the dulse's territory 
at Pemaquid. Massachusetts, however, had claimed juris- 
diction over that region ; and after the Peace of Breda, 
the French insisted that Acadia extended as far west as 
the Kennebec River. Saint Lusson had visited Pemaquid 
after his return from the West, and found the colonists 
there apparently glad to come under French authority. 
Lovelace therefore wrote to them to send to N^ew York " a le Febr-y. 
modell of such a government as shall be most conducing to orders 
the happiness of that colony, both to its safety, traffic, and remaquid. 
increase of inhabitants ; promising, upon the reception of 
that scheme, not only to invest you with ample power to 
exercise your authority both to ecclesiastick as civill af- 
fairs, but will be ready on all occasions to be assisting to 
you in the preservation of all your rights and interest 
against any sinister obstructions."f 

At Martha's Vineyard affairs went quietly on under the 
government of Mayhew, and a code of laws was passed at is Apni. 
a General Court held at Edgartown. Nantucket, however, vineyard 
" would not proceed" in the same way ; and Lovelace ap- tucket. 
pointed Richard Gardner its chief magistrate, in place of 
Coffin, with instructions. One of these was that the island 
should thereafter be known as the town of Sherborne.:}: 

Meanwhile, Philip Carteret had succeeded in England. ^},^''- 
At the request of the proprietors of New Jersey, the Duke The duke-s 

A i J- 'f ' orders to 

of York wrote to Lovelace that the grants of Nicolls to Loveiace 
Baker and others being made after his own conveyance to Jersey! 

• Gen. Ent., iv., 24S-251; Col. Doc, iv., 994; Hist., iv., 50,51. On the 2Sth of 
January, 1CT3, "Jo. Clarke," who appeal's to have belonged to the g.irrison of Fort James, 
wrote by tlie same post to Salisbury, among other thing:*, the following city news : "The 
other day we bad like to have lost our hangman, Ben. Johnson ; for he, being taken iu 
divers thefts and robberies, convicted and found guilty, 'scaped his neck through want of 
anotlier hangman to truss him up ; so that all the punishment he rcceaved for his 3 yearcb" 
roguery in thieving and stealing (which was never found out 'till now) was only thirty-nine 
stripes at tlie whipping-post, loss of an car, and banishment. Capt. Manning had likewise 
two servants that he employed at his Island, taken with him in their villainy ; but they 
being not found so guilty as he, came off with whipping and baniahment. All this happen- 
ed about a fortnight since, but 'tis two months since they were apprehended." 

t Gen. Ent., iv., 25S, 259 ; Maine II. S. Coll., i., 130, 131 ; v., G-8, 247, 24S ; Col. Doc, i.v., 
74, 75, 119, 205, 379, 433 ; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 519 ; Charlevoix, ii., 250 ; La Potherie, ii., 130; 
Williamson, i., 440-442 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 325; ante, 141, 179. 

t Deeds, i., 7S; iii., 57, 85-33 ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 92; Hough's Nantucket Papers, 42-59, 
71; oMfc, 174. 




9 Decern. 


5 May. 

15 May. 
James Car- 
teret re- 
tires from 
New Jer- 
2 July. 
2U July. 

Panic in 
New York 
Dutch at- 

1 May. 
29 May. 

24 June. 
tions and 
war orders 

Berkeley and Carteret, were void ; and as the latter had 
promised to instruct their agents to assist the governor of 
New York, " I do desire you," he added, " and all others 
herein concerned, in like manner effectually to assist them 
in furthering the settlement and maintaining the quiet of 
these parts." The king also directed Berry, the acting gov- 
ernor, to notify all the inhabitants of New Jersey to yield 
obedience to the proprietors, who had " the sole power" un- 
der him,* 

When these documents were published by Beriy, the in- 
surgents submitted. James Carteret retired with his young 
bride to New York, whence he soon afterward sailed for 
Virginia. Lovelace read in council the duke's orders about 
New Jersey, and supported the proprietors' authority there. 
Willis and Winthrop also wrote to Berry and Sir George 
Carteret in favor of emigrants fi'om Connecticut to New 
Jersey, and recommended convenient townships as " best 
conducing to safety and the advancing of civil societies."t 

\Vliile Lovelace was at Anne Hook's Neck, or Hutchin- 
son's Bay, on postal business, news came to New York that 
a Dutch squadron was coming from the West Indies to 
Vii'ginia, and thence northward ; and the governor was 
summoned back to the capital by express from Manning, 
Seeing no enemy, Lovelace " slited" his subordinate's care, 
and said " this is one of Manning's 'larrums." He did not 
even prepare the fort to withstand an enemy, although he 
had received the contribution money. Soldiers were, how- 
ever, summoned from Albany, Esopus, and Delaware, and 
nearly one hundred and thirty enlisted men were muster- 
ed. At the general training the volunteer and regular 
force amounted to tliree hundred and thirty. But soon 
afterward, Salisbury, with Ids men, were sent back to Al- 
bany, and the whole number left in garrison at Fort James 
did not exceed eighty.:}: 

The exportation of wheat, however, was prohibited, ow- 
ino: to " these times of trouble." On account of the scar- 
city of wampum, it was directed that six white and three 

• Col. MSS., xxii., 144; Eliz Bill, 35, 30, 3T ; Learning and Spiccr, 31-41 ; Whitehead, 57, 
5S; Hatfield, 14;)-154; aiife, 49, S4, 189. 

t Coun. Min., i. (ii.), 147; Gen. Knt, iv.,277; Eliz. Bill, 37, App. 31 ; Whitehead, 5S, 50 ; 
Col. Doc, iii., 200, 214 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 84, 85; anlr, 100, nnte. 

t Doc. Ilin., iii., 54, 57, 59 ; I?olton, i., 518 ; atUe, voL i., 334, 306, 595. 


black beads should pass for a stiiyver or penny, instead of cuap. iv. 

eight white and four black, as formerly. The Duke's Laws 

were also ordered to be enforced in Esopus.* ^o j„ne * 

Lovelace for some time intended to visit Winthrop, who 15 May. 
had recently lost his wife ; and now, " having urgent occa- 
sions," he set out for Connecticut, leaving Manning, as20juiy. 
usual, in charge of Fort James ; but " without any order to vfsiu win- 
repair the same for to make defence against an enemy." con^necu- 
Before the governor saw that fortress again, events occur- ^^^' 
red which he does not appear to have appreliended.f 

The "Cabali^ of Charles the Second had, meanwliile,. 
been the only gainers by his M'ar with the Dutch. Parlia- 
ment was asked by the king for assistance. Shaftesbmy, 4 Febr'y. 
his chancellor, bitterly denounced the Dutch, whose com- an"'''' 
merce he described, in glowing rhetoric, as leading them bur^'yoTtuo 
to " an universal Empire, as great as Kome." Following ^"*'^'*- 
the key-note which Dryden had sounded ten years before, 
he compared Holland to Carthage, which England, like 
Rome, must destroy — " Delenda est CarihagoP Both 
Charles and Shaftesbury spoke to little purpose. Parlia- 
ment suspected the orthodoxy of the Duke of York, and 
disliked the king's meretricious alliance with Roman Cath- 
olic France no less than his unjustifiable war with Protest- 
ant Holland. A supply was voted, but it was coupled with 
a condition to which Charles was obliged to give his reluc- 
tant assent. This was the " Test Act," which continued to 20 Mnrcii. 
be an English law until the reign of George the Fourth, giish "Test 
It required all persons holding any civil or military offices ed. ^*^'" 
in England, Wales, Berwick, Jersey, or Guernsey, to take 
the oaths of allegiance and supremacy ; publicly receive 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper according to the usage 
of the Chm-ch of England ; and subscribe a declaration 
against the Romish doctrine of Transubstantiation. In 
consequence of this law, the Duke of York, who for some 
time had secretly been a Roman Catholic, candidly de-Kffcctof 
clared his rehgious faith, and in a flood of tears resigned Act on tiie 
all the offices which he held under the crown, including York. 
that of lord high admiral of England. But as the Test 

• Council Min., iii., 129, 145, 14G, 153-15T; S. Hazard, 405; Proud, i., 133, 134 
t Council Min., iii., 147; Trumbull Papers, xx., 104, 109: Ma.=s. II. S. MSS. ; Col. Doc, 
iii , 198; Doc. lliat., iii., 57, 59 ; Col. Kec. (Jonn., ii., 242 ; Kliz. Bill, G. 


Chap. IV. Act did iiot Gxteud to Scotland and L-eland, nor to the 
~ British Plantations, the duke's admiralty jurisdiction over 
' ■ them remained unimpaired."^ 

Parliament again turned its attention to the American 
colonies. Their commerce had already been restrained by 
the Navigation Laws ; but " the avarice of English shop- 
keepers" now required that commerce to be taxed. It was 
observed that the British Plantations enjoyed a profitable 
intercolonial traffic, and sold their commodities to foreign 
nations, " to the diminution of the customs and the naviga- 
29 March, tiou of the kingdom." Parliament therefore enacted that 
poHcyof sugars, tobacco, ginger, and certain other productions, 
ivriia-^'*''' when exported from any English colony, should pay the 
""■"*■ same duties to the crown as if they were landed in En- 
gland ; and that these duties were to be collected at such 
places and by such officers as the commissioners of the 
customs in England should appoint. This selfish measure 
" formed the seed-plot on wliich was raised the subsequent 
system of colonial revenue."! 

During the first year of the war the United Provinces 
-[Q^^ suffered terrible calamities. Although the Dutch had, a 
The Dutch century before, proved themselves the first soldiers in the 
!ig;nn aT world, they had, through a long interval of peace and pros- 
perity, become unused to military service on land. Their 
whole energies had been directed to commercial and naval 
enterprise. Holland seemed almost like a rich galleon, 
with De Ruyter for captain, and De Witt for pilot. One 
of the Pensionary's maxims had always been to foster the 
He Witt, sea rather than the land forces of the republic. The 
aud wii-*''^' young Prince of Orange, on the other hand, chafed at his 
thraldom, and longed to be at the head of armies. It is 

Ham of Or- 

• Statute 25 Ch. IT., cap. ii. ; Pari. Hist., iv., 495, 502-5S5; Kennett, iii., 2SD-294; Clarke's 
James U., i., 4S3; Burnet, i., 340-352; Rapin, ii., 06.5-071; Basnage, ii., 305-399; King's 
Locke, 34; Kvelyn, ii., 88, S9 ; Anderson, ii., 52T; Uunie, vi., 46S-47'2; Liiigard, xii., 289- 
298,303; Canipbcll'a Chancellors, iii., 314-317; Col. Doc, iii., 239 ; Leainiug and Spicer, 
46; anti\ 3. The Test Act did not extend to the Plantations of its own force, be- 
cause they were not particularly named, or intended to be embraced in the statute: Col. 
Doc., iii., 3rj7; Chalmers's Ann., i., 240; l!ev. Col., i., 173, 230; PlackrJtone, i., 108, 100; Ja- 
cob, iv., 401; v., 15, 100. It was first extended to the American Plantations by William 
III., in 10S9, of his own will, by clauses in tlie Royal Conimi.--sions and Instructions to the 
several Governors : Cul. Doc, iii., 023, 085 ; post^ p. 264. 

t 25 Charles II., cap. vii. ; Anderson, ii., 521, 522 ; Chalmers's Ann., i., 317, 320; Rev. 
Col., i., 125, 120, 1.52, 172; Kennett, iii., 205; Holmes, i, 300 ; Bancroft, ii., 44; Grahamc, 
i., 92; Palfrey, iii., 33, 34, 270. Chalmers, and tliot^e who follow him, using the Old Style, 
erroneously date this act in 1072. The 25th year of Charles the Second was from 30 Janu- 
ary, 1073, to 29 Jan uaiy, 1074. 


not surprising that while the Dutch fleets gloriously main- cnw. iv. 
tained the honor of their flag against England, their militia, 
ofiicered by incapable favoiites, recoiled before the disci- ' ' 
plined veterans of France, led by Condu, and Luxembourg, 
and Turenne. Before Holland knew it, the Gallic Hanni- 
bal was at her gates. Louis established liis court atjuiy. 
Utrecht. Almost in despair, De "Witt opened negotiations utrechl 
with France and England. But the humiliating terms 
they offered could not be accepted ; and spasmodic popular 
indignation broke out against the Pensionary and his broth- 
er. Orcmje JBoven, De Witten onder ! " Up with Orange iio'^Tn""" 
— down with the De Witts" — was the cry.* 

William Henry, Prince of Orange, was now in the wmiam, 
twenty-second year of his age. '' A young man without oruoge. 
youth," he concealed under a cold exterior a dauntless 
soul. But he had been deprived of the stadtholderate en- 
joyed by his ancestors, and its duties were performed by 
the Grand Pensionary of Holland, John de Witt, who ad- 
ministered the government with great success until the 
war with France. The people then began to murmur that 
their soldiers did not fight well because they were badly 
ofiicered, and demanded that the Prince of Orange should 
be made captain general. This was done ; and, at the wa^e cap- 
popular cry of " Oranje Boven," William was appointed ai and 
stadtholder. An army to protect the hearth was now er. 
more important than a navy to keep open the port. John 
de Witt resigned his ofiice of Pensionary, and his brother 

• Sylvius, i., 340; HoUandtsche Mdicuiiu?, 1CT2, S9-91 ; Basnage, ii., 1S3, 190, 211-200, 
283,234; Le Clerc, iii., 290 ; Wagenaar, xiv., 20-105; Davies, iii., 91-108; llumc, vi.,4.'>4; 
I.avallee, iii., 220; Martin, i., 345-352 ; untCy p. 1S5. On the 29th of June, 1072, the parti- 
sans of tlie prince welcomed him at Dordrecht, in Uolland, with the old national song, 
" Wilhelmits van Nassauwen" {aiite^ vol. i., p. 442), and by hoisting an Orange flag above a 
white flag, the upper one bearing the inscription in Dutch : 
" Oranje boven, de Witten onder; 
Die 't anders meend, die slant den Bonder.^' 
Which may be rendered in English : 

" Orange above, the Whites under ; 
Who thinks not so, be struck by thunder." 
The Dutch word ITO signifies "White." De Witten^ or the De Witts, therefore means "the 
Whites ;" and thus the Dordrecht flags, with their inscription, formed a popular double pun. 
Although the words "Oranje Boven" were thus adopted as a popular cry by the partisans 
of William the Third in 1072, they were known and used long before by the Dutch people, 
who applied them to their national flag, of which the upper stripe was orange, the middle 
one white, and the lower one blue {n7ilc, vol. i., 19, note). These words were also shouted 
on the 15th of January, 1051, when the young prince was baptized at the Great Church in 
the Hague: ante, p. 2; Aitzema, iii., 551, 552; Basnage, i., ISl; Le Clerc, ii., 292; J. C. 
de Jonge, Oorsprong (1S31), 52; lley's llistoire du Drapeau (1S37), ii., 51S, 519; J. Ter 
Gouw, Oor.=prong(1303), 44, 45; De Navorscher for 1S51, iv., 02, 03 ; and for 1S57, vii., 371. 


Chap. IV. Cornelis was imprisoned. The Oraiigeists attributed the 
disasters of their coimtry to the party which had lately 
The De go'^'crned it ; and a band of ruffians, bursting into the pris- 
wittsmur- QJ2 wliere John de Witt was visiting his brother, butchered 
'20 August, them both on the " Plaats" before the Buitenhof at the 

In almost uncontrolled authority, William now showed 

the grandeur of his soul. To the desponding States he 

spoke encouragement. To the proposals of Louis and 

William's Charles he answered that, " rather than sign the ruin of 

magnanun- ^^^^ Eepublic and reccive the sovereignty from the liand 

of its enemies, he would embark with his friends for Ba- 

tavia." To the suggestion that Holland was lost if he did 

not accept the terms of France and England, he replied, 

" There is a sure way never to see it lost, and that is, I will 

die in the last ditch !"t 

The Dutch The spirit of William roused his drooping countrymen. 

ag^!"^' The Dutch remembered what their ancestors had done a 

century before. The sluices were opened, and the low 

lands Ibecame a vast lake, studded with cities and villages, 

risino; here and there above the waters which washed their 

ramparts. Again the invaders were forced to retreat, and 

Holland was saved.:}: 

The Dutch navy was now commanded by De Kuyter 
1673. and Tromp, who had been reconciled by the Prince of 
Orange. Prince Rupert took the place of the Duke of 
York in command of the English fleet, which, being joined 
28 May. by tlic Frcnch, attacked the weaker Dutch oif the coast of 
actions. Zealand. Tromp's division was almost overpowered by the 
French, when De Ruyter, who was conquering the English, 
magnanimously checked his own career and hastened to 
rescue his former rival. The battle was indecisive. An- 
4 June, other engagement followed the next week, and the English 
retreated to the Thames. Two months afterward, one 
hundred and fifty English and French ships were encoun- 
tered by seventy-five Dutch off the Holder. A terrible 

• BasnaRP,!!., 284-322; Temple, ii, C57, 258 ; Wagenaar, xiv., 1C6-193; Davies, iil., 4.1, 
107-118 ; Martin, i., 3r)2-357 ; Sylvius, i., 340-400; D'Estrades, iv., 223, 242 ; Macaulay, ii., 
180 ; ante, 2. 

t Burnet, i., 327,331, 332; Kennett,iii.,202; Daliymple, i., 53; Rapin, ii.,664; Basnage, 
ii.,2.^C; Temple, ii., 250; Iliime, vi., 4C5-4C7 ; Davies, iii., 121-123 ; Mackintosh, 320; Ma- 
caulay, i., 218, 219; ii., 182. 

t Burnet, i., 335-337 ; Temple, ii., 2G0, 2C1 ; Davie?, iii., 123 ; ante, vol. i., 442, ■:43. 


conflict followed, in which, as a last exhibition of courage, cuap. iil 
Hollanders and Englishmen rivaled each other in stubborn 
valor. From morning until night the churches were filled iiAuLst 
with praying Dutch Protestants, while the sound of rapid j;*t,'"''' 
o-uns boomed over the low coast of Ilollaud. At leno;tli ""l^.'"''=^ 

& " and hn- 

the English retreated, and De Ruyter and Tromp shared eiish. 
with William of Orange the gratitude of their rescued 

While the countrymen of Grotius were thus fighting for 
their hearths, a former province of the Netherlands was un- 
expectedly annexed to the Dutch Republic, Cornelis Evert- 
sen, a son of the famous admiral, had been sent out from 1672. 
Zealand with fifteen ships to harass the enemy in the West Jf^pedfuon 
Indies, which was effectually done. At Martinico he fell "gn '^^^ 
in with four ships dispatched from Amsterdam, under the ^^^<^^^- 
command of Jacob Binckes. Joining their forces, the two 1673. 
commodores followed Kiynssen's track to the Chesapeake, 
where they took eight, and burned five Virginia tobacco h^ July, 
ships, in spite of the gallantry of the fi'igates which were 
to convoy them to England. As they were going out of 
the James River, the Dutch commodores met a sloop from At virgin- 
New York, conveying Captain James Carteret, with his'^' 
bride, and Samuel Hopkins, of Elizabethtown, to Virginia. 
The master of the sloop, Samuel Davis, on being question- 
ed, stoutly insisted that New York was in a good condition 
of defense, with one hundred and fifty mounted guns, and 
five thousand men ready to answer the call of Governor 
Lovelace in three hours. But Hopkins bluntly told the 
truth. Davis's story was " altogether false ;" there were 
only sixty or eighty men in the fort, and thirty to thirty-six 
cannon on its walls ; three or four hundred men might be 
raised in three or four days, and Lovelace was absent on a 
visit to Governor Winthrop in Connecticut. Upon Hop- 
kins's information, " all the cry was for New York." Car- Kesoive to 
teret and his young wife were set ashore in Virginia; but New York. 
Hopkins, with Davis and his sloop, were detained. In a 
few days the Dutch fleet, which, with three ships of war f •^"'^'- 
from Amsterdam, and four fi'om Zealand, was now swelled The Dutch 

1 • 1 T . . Ill"'' '''"''■» 

by prizes to twenty -three vessels, carrymg sixteen hundred inland. 

* Basnage, ii., 410-422; Sylvius, viii., C0V-C12; ix.,64T-649; Davies, iiL, 12T-132; Ken- 
nctt, iii., 295, 296; Rapin, ii., 671 ; Humi>, vi., 473-476 ; Bancroft, ii., 324; Martin, i., 375, 376. 



cnAr. III. men, arrived off Sandy Hook. The next morning they 

anchored under Staten Island.* 
28 jiiiv "^^^^ tidings of their approach were soon brought to 

7 August. Manning, at Fort James, who, finding tliat tlie wolf was 
action'."^ ^ this time really at the door, hurried off an express to meet 

Lovelace at New Haven. Yolunteers were sought by beat 
of drum, provisions were seized, and the arms in the fort 
repaired. Orders were sent to the nearest Long Island 
towns to forward re-enforcements, but none came. The 
The Dutch Dutch inhabitants, rejoicing at the approach of their coun- 
their°™ trymcu, had already begun to make " threatening speeches." 
The fleet was soon crowded with sympathizing visitors from 
New Utrecht and-Flatbush. Learning from them how 
weak Fort James really was, the Dutch commanders came 
fl'^^J' — up the bay, and anchored above the Narrows, in sight of 
the city. Lovelace's sheep and cattle on Staten Island af- 
forded them an acceptable "breakfast." Already New 
York was substantially restored to the Dutch. In ^-ain did 
Mannino; continue beatino; the drums for volunteers. Few 
appeared, and those that did only spiked the guns at the 
City Ilall.t ■ 

The situation of the capital now resembled that of New 
Amsterdam nine years before. All that Manning could 
think of was to procrastinate, in hope that the governor 
might return, or aid come from Long Island. Captain 
John Carr, of the Delaware, who was now in New York, 
30Jui};^_ ^g^g accordingly dispatched, with Counselor Thomas Love- 
Answei- of lace and Attorney John Sharpe, to demand why the fleet 
commo- had come "in such a hostile manner to disturb His Majes- 
Manning's ty's subjccts iu tliis placc ?" The Dutch commodores re- 
plied that they had come to take the place, " which was 
their own, and their own they would have." Meanwhile 
Evertsen and Binckes had sent a trumpeter with their joint 
summons from the flag-ship " Swanenburgli," requiring the 
surrender of the fort. To this Manning ])romised a reply 
on the return of his own messengers. When they did re- 

• Dasnage, »., 45G, TSl, TSS; 832, S34 ; Sylvius, ix., 660, 665; x., 23 ; xiv., S.'SS; xv.,38, 
04; Kok,vi.,5G2; xiv.,&64; Davies, iii., 50, 132; Col. Uoc, 11,518,627,572,571) ; iii., I'JO, 
200,201,204,205,213,214; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 207, 298 ; Hutch. Mae?., i., 2S4; Mass. H. S., 
TruuibuU Papers, xx., 103 ; Lambreclitsen, 82 ; Grahame, i., 420 ; ante, 120, 200. There is 
n portrait of Kvertscn in Wagenaar, xv., 394. See also N. V. H. S. Coll. (ISCS), 1S4. 

t Doc. Hist., iii., 57,59,00, 05; Col, Doc, iii., I'JS, 199; iv., 1151; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 298; 
ante, 200. ; 



turn, CaiT declared that the Dutch were too strong to be chap. iv. 
withstood, and that they woukl only allow half an hour's de- ~7JZZ~ 
lay. The fleet had meanwhile quietly tided up and anchor- 
ed within musket-shot of the fort, without a gun being 
fired. Sharpe was sent on board a second time, to ask a 
stay of hostilities until the next morning, so that Manning 
might obtain the advice of the mayor and aldermen. But 
the Dutch commander, Evertsen, had already written to 
the city authorities, " promising to all men their estates and 
liberties," and this had been communicated to the l)urghers 
at the City Hall. On Sharpens return, he rei^orted that the 
commodores would give only a half an hour more, " and 
accordingly they turned up the glass." At the end of that 
time the shii)s fired their broadsides at the fort, which kill- The Dutch 
ed and wounded some of its garrison; "whereupon thejlmc" °' 
fort fired upon them again, and shot the General's shi]) u,mVa°' 
through and through." Six hundred men were now land- ^''°'^' 
ed above " the Governor's Orchard," at " the new burial- 
place" on the shore of the Hudson, just north of the fort, 
and back of the present Trinity Church. The Dutch 
burghers, all armed, and about four hundred strong, en- 
couraged their countrymen to storm the fort, promising 
that not one of its garrison would "' look over their works." 
At Carr's instigation. Manning ordered a parley to be 
beaten, and a flag of truce exhibited ; but Carr, exceeding 
his orders, struck the king's flag at the same time. Carr, 
Lovelace, and Gibbs were now dispatched to " make the 
best conditions they could." They met the Dutch " for- 
lorn" storming-party advancing. Carr was sent back to 
inform Manning that the garrison must surrender as pris- 
oners of war, while Lovelace and Gibbs were kept in cus- 
tody under the Dutch standard. But Carr, never coming 
near the fort, fled away from the city. Manning then dis- 
patched Sharpe with articles for the Dutch to agree to, 
who met their column marching down Broadway toward 
the fort. It was now about seven o'clock in the evening. 
Captain Anthony Colve, who commanded the Dutch forces, 
readily accepted the proposed articles, which merely sur- Fort james 
rendered the fort and garrison with the honors of war. ed. 
Manning himself had meanwhile caused tlie fort gates to 
be opened, and the Dutch marched in, while the gamson 


Chap. IV. marched out with colors flying and drums beating, and 
^g grounded their arms. The Enghsh soldiers were now or- 
dered back into the fort, and committed to prison in the 
church. Before the sun went down, at the end of that 
& August e^^cntf ul summer's day, the three-colored ensign of the 
Suered ^^^tch Republic rose to its old place on the flag-staff of 
iTutch ^^^^' ancient fort, and New York reposed again under the 
dominion of her former lords.* Stuyvesant was avenged. 
The Dutch had taken New Yoek. 

• Col. Doc, ii., 597,059; iii., 199-206,234; iv.,1151; Doc. Hist., iii., 53-65; Council Min", 
iii. (ii.), IS; Col. MSS., .xxiv., 30-53, 97 ; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.),29S; N. Y. City Kec. ; Dunlap, 
i., 129. Smith, i., 43, carelessly asserts that Manning "treacherously made his peace with 
the enemy," and that the Dutch "landed their men and entered the garrison without giv- 
ing or receiving a shot." Smith's statement has been credulously adopted. Tlie weight 
of authority, which I have followed, seems to be that the fort did return the fire 
of the Dutch fleet : compare Col. Doc, iii., 199, 201, 200 ; iv., 1151 ; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 29S ; 
Doc. Hist., Iii., 62. Manning's real fault was that he allowed the ships to anchor before the 
fort without firing on them : see Doc. Hist., iii., 55, 56, 5S. But, after all, he was as badly 
off as Stuyvesant, nine years before : see ante, 34. Compare Cadwallader Colden, in the Col- 
lections of the New York Historical Society for the year 1SG8, p. 184. 




The recovery of New York by the Dutch was an abso- 
lute conquest by an open enemy in time of war. All its 
circumstances differed from those which had disgraced the 
capture of New Netherland by the English nine years be- 
fore. Then, while the mother-countries were at peace, a 
treacherous expedition, deliberately prepared, liad seized 
the territory of an unsuspecting ally : yet the British com- 
mander felt it necessary to grant the most liberal articles 
of caj)itulation. But now, after proclaimed hostilities, and 
distinct warnings for more than a year, the ships of the 
Batavian Republic came boldly to recover what had been 
robbed from an insulted fatherland ; and the English en- 
sign fell beneath the Dutch avengers, who, welcomed by 
their countrymen, marched triumphantly into the old for- 
tress, which surrendered to their discretion. 

"Not the smallest" article of capitulation, except mili- 
tary honors to the garrison, was granted by the victors. 
They had unexpectedly captured a prize from the aggress- 
ive enemy of their nation. Their reconquest anniliilated 
British sovereignty over ancient New Netherland, and ex- 
tinguished the duke's proprietary government in New 
York, with that of his grantees in New Jersey. Evertsen 
and Binckes for the time represented the Dutch Republic, 
under the dominion of which its recovered American prov- 
ince instantly passed, by right of successful M'ar. The ef- 
fete West India Company was in no way connected with 
the transaction.* 

Never liad the Bay of New York held so majestic a fleet 

• Col. Doc, ii., 530, 611 ; iii., 202 ; Doc. Uist., iii., 5.^, 50, 61, 62 ; Eliz. Bill, 6, 7, 37. The 
old West India Company went into liquidation soon after the conquest of Ni'«- Netherland 
in 1064, and the new corporation took no interest in its recapture : Murphy's Steendam, 12, 
13; Col. Doc, ii., 504, 505. 

II.— o 


of the 
Dutch re- 
conquest of 
New York. 

British sov- 





cuAP.v. as that now anchored in its beautiful waters. Two ships 
'^ loading for England were added as prizes to the force of 
TheDutch *^® conquerors. The condition of the province, thus mar- 
n^'y rk Yelously restored to the republican Ketherlands, was far 
different from what it was when the English appropriated 
it to themselves. ISTew York, including New Jersey and 
Condition Delaware, now contained three chief towns and thirty vil- 
iIlcc^^^"'^"lages, and its Dutch population was estimated at between 
six and seven thousand. The event which brought its Ba- 
tavian inhabitants once more under the authority of the 
States General and the Prince of Orange, " their lawful 
and native Sovereigns," was hailed by them with boundless 
joy. It more than atoned for the bitterness witli which 
they had endured " the insolent injustice of England's 
original acquisition." Once more, " The Fatherland" be- 
came a household word. The cry of " Oranje Boven" was 
soon as familiar in Manhattan as in that fatherland.* 
The prov- The name of " Kew Netherland" was of course restored 
Jmrae^'F"* to tlic rcconqucred territory, which was held to embrace 
^^rZ^T^' not only all that the Dutch possessed according to the 
Hartford agreement of 1650, but also the whole of Long 
Island east of Oyster Bay, which originally belonged to 
the province, and which the king had granted to the Duke 
Fort James of York. Fort James was named " Willem Ilendrick," in 
wiuem honor of the Prince of Orange. It was, first of all, neces- 
sary to extemporize a provisional government. No orders 
had been given to Evertsen or Binckes about New Neth- 
erland. Its recovery was a lucky accident, wholly due to 
the enterprise of the two commodores ; upon whom fell the 
responsibility of governing their conquest until directions 
should come from the Hague. As commanders of sepa- 
Kvcrtsen, ratc Dutcli squadrous, Evertsen, of Zealand, and Binckes, 
ijincke.-, of Ilollaud, alternately wore the admiral's flag for a week. 
cTi of wTr Associating with themselves Captains Anthony Colve, Nic- 
in power, ^j^^ Bocs, and Abram Ferdinandus van Zyll, as an advis- 
ory Council of War, they held regular sessions, first at the 
City Hall, and afterward at the fort. Their most impor- 
tant duty was to appoint " a fit and able person as Gov- 
ernor General, to hold the supreme command over this con- 

• Col. Doc, ii., 526, 59S; iU., 200; Uoc. Hist., i.,4GT ; Lambrcchtsen, Sl-SO;, 
i., 422; antcWZ. 


quest of Xew Netherland." Anthony Colve, of Zealand, cnAP.v. 
who appears to have served as an ensign at the capture of ~ 
Surinam in 16C7, and was now a captain in the Dutch in- „ . 

, T^ August 

fantry, was chosen for the office. To him Evertsen and Anthony 
Binckes gave a commission "to be Governor General of pointed 
this Country and Forts thereunto belonging, with all the New Nctu- 
a])pendencies and dependencies thereof, to govern, rule, and 
protect them from all invasions of enemies, as he, to the 
best of his ability, shall judge most necessary." Colve's 
commission described his government as extending from Extent of 
fifteen miles south of Cape Ilenlopen to the east end of goVern. 
Long Island and Shelter Island, thence through the middle "^° ' 
of the Sound to Greenwicli, and so northerly, according to 
the boundary made in 1650, including Delaware Bay and 
all the intermediate territory, as possessed by the English 
under the Duke of York. But Pemaquid, Martha's Vine- 
yard, and Xantucket, not having been under Stu}^'esant's ju- 
risdiction when New N^ethcrland was taken from him, were 
not comprehended in the Dutcli province now organized.* 
Colve was "a man of resolute spirit, and passionate," 
whose arbitrary nature had not been improved by military 
seiwice. He did not, however, assume the administration 
at once ; for the naval commanded prudently determined 
to keep their ships in harbor until the new government 

should be firmly established. In the mean time they re- council ot 

... . War re- 

tained supreme authority in their own hands, assisted bytaintcm- 

the three captains whom they had adjoined, as a " Council ^wen 
of War." Mattliias Nicolls, ousted fi-oni his office of pro- 
vincial secretaiy, was replaced by Nicholas Bayard, the ex- M August. 
pcrienced clerk of the city, whom the Dutch commodores secretary of 
appointed to act as their own secretary, and as secretary eruTnd.'' 
and register of New Netherland under Colve.f 

The name of the city of New York was, at the same i^ August. 

*/ City of 

time, changed to " New Orange," in compliment to the New York 
prince stadtholder, and its magistrates were released fi*om New or- 
their oaths to the late English government. At the re- 
quest of the commandei*Sj six burghers were appointed to i\ August. 

• Col. Poc, ii., 52S, 529, 571, GOO, CIO ; iii., 201 ; Smith, i., 44-4G ; Wagcnaar, xiii., 40T ; 
De Witt's Lctterg, iv , 077 ; ante, 126 ; vol. i.. 510, 520. 

t C;ol. Ecc. Conn., ii., 5C5; Col. Doc, ii., r-71, 573, 57S, 612; Mass. II. S. Coll., x.tx., 90, 
lOS. Among other clinngcs, the Dutch introduced .ngain into New Netherland the New 
Style, which had so long been used In Holland : see aiite, vol. L, US, no'e. 


cuAP. V. confer witli them respecting the restoration of the old mu- 
nicipal ffovcrument, who were directed to convoke the 
r. commonahy and nominate persons "from the wealthiest 

^^ inhabitants, and those only wlio are of the Reformed Chris- 

tian Eeligion," out of whom the Council might select the 
magistrates for the city. From the nominations thus made, 
x\ August. Johannes van Brugh, Johannes de Peyster, and JEgidius 
ferefache!" Luyck wcrc clioscu as burgomasters, and William Beek- 
Bchour^ man, Jeronimus Ebbing, Jacob Kip, Laurens van der Spie- 
gel, and Gelyn ver Planck as schepens. In place of Al- 
lard Anthony, the late sheriff, Anthony de Milt was ap- 
pointed sellout. The new magistrates were sworn to ad- 
minister "good law and justice;" promote the welfare of 
the city ; maintain " the upright and true Christian Relig- 
ion agreeably to the Word of God and the order of the 
Synod of Dordrecht;" uphold the supreme authority of 
the States General and the Prince of Orange; and were 
empowered to govern for one year, "both burghers and 
strangers, conformably to the laws and statutes of om* Fa- 
j8g August, therland." The next day John Lawrence, the displaced 
si^ia s\n°" uiayor, surrendered the gowns, mace, and seal which the 
rendered. j)^j,g ^f York had presented to the city ; all of which were 

carefully deposited in Fort Willem Ilendrick.* 
j8g August. Evertsen and Binckes now issued a proclamation seizing 
anTFrench ^^^ property and debts belonging to the kings of France 
Sed'^ or England, or their subjects, and requiring every person to 
report such property to Secretary Bayard. Under this 
edict — which only retaliated that of Nicolls against the 
Dutch in 1665 — tlie estates of Thomas Delavall, the duke's 
auditor, and of William Dervall, his son-in-law, were espe- 
cially attached. The houses of Lovelace and Manning had 
already been plundered by the Dutch troops in the heat of 
conquest; but Manning himself had been courteously al- 
lowed to wear his sword. Mayor Lawrence's house had 
been spared, at the request of the Dutch burghers. Yan 
Ruyven, the receiver of the Duke of York's revenues, al- 
J J August, though an old Dutchman, was, nevertheless, required to 
render a strict account.f 

• Col. Doc, ii., 5T1-5T5; Doc. Hist., i., 300, Ml ; New York City Rec, vii. ; Vnl. Man., 
1850, 487-490 ; Valentine's New York, 173, 174 ; Moulton'.s New Oinng.', C, 7; a7itr, 15S. 

t Col. Doe., ii., 57S, fjSO, .Wl, C03, COS, G43 ; iii., '200, 200 ; Iliitrli. Coll., 408 ; Court of As- 
sizes, ii., 5S0 ; Val. Man., 1S53, .-SSI, CSl ; ante, r.9, SO, 91. 


The metropolis being secured, two liunclred men were cuap.v. 
sent up the river, in several vessels, to reduce Esopus and "~~~~ 
Albany. No opposition was shown. Salisbury at once ^ ^^ ' 
surrendered Fort Albany " upon the same terms with New Albany 
York, namely, at mercy," and all the English soldiers were reduced. 
brought do'«^l to New York as prisoners of war. As the 
number of these prisoners was now embarrassing, they x's^^s"''- 
were embarked for Europe, with Manning, Salisbury, Dud- pHaouers 
ley Lovelace, and other subordinate officers, in three ships rope. ° 
fi'om Binckes's squadron, and one of Evertsen^s, under the 
command of Captains Boes and Van Zyll. A small prize, 
taken in the West Indies, was also placed in charge of An- 
dries Michielsen, and dispatched to Amsterdam with let- 15 AnguBt. 
ters from Binckcs, detailing the capture of New York.* 

Meanwhile Lovelace, after enjoying Winthrop's hospi- 
tality at Hartford, and arranging his favorite post-office 
project, had met, on his return to New Haven, Manning's 
" unwelcome news" of the Dutch approach before New 
York. On reaching Mamaroneck, he learned that they had -^^ J"'y' 
taken the fort. Hoping to retrieve the calamity, the gov- Love'ifce*' 
ernor hastened over to Long Island to raise its militia. At ^"la'^d!^ 
Justice Cornwell's, near Flushing, he met Secretary Mat- 
thias Nicolls, who agreed to go over to the fort on the next 
Saturday, while the governor was to keep himself "out of ii-^"S"-5t- 
the enemy's hand," and raise the country to reduce the 
place again. But, being " collogued with" by one of the 
Dutch domines, Lovelace weakly consented to revisit his 
old quarters in the fort "for three days." On the after- 
noon of Saturday, the third day after the surrender, one of -^Angust. 

iT-ii 1 Ti -i-i Enticed 

the Dutcii commanders accordingly went m Ins barge, oyer to 
with Orange flag and trumpet, over to Long Island; andandancut- 
Lovelace and Nicolls returned with him to the fort. The 
English governor was " peaceably and respectfully" enter- 
tained by his conquerors. But, before the three days were 
out, Lovelace's creditors arrested him for debt. The proc- 
lamation of Evertsen and Binckes soon afterward stripped ib^^^s"*'- 

* Col. Doc.,ii., 527, r)7C; iii., 202, 203, 205,206; HLst. Mag.,iv., 50; i. (n.), 29S; Sylviu.o, 
ix.,CG5; x.,23; Doc. Hist., iii., 54, 5X Micliielscn was captured in the Channel, off Bcichy 
Head, and obliged to throw his dispatches overboard. He got to Amsterdam on 24 October, 
1673; but the Aiiniii'alty there found him "a man of so little curio.>!ity that he had no par- 
ticulars to report" about the reconquest of New York: rol. Doc, ii. , 527, 52S, 529. The 
original dispntclies of Nicolls, detailing his capture of New York iu 10C4, were also lost at 
Bca : nufc, 00, note. 


ouAi-. V. him of all his property ; but the commanders told him 
that, on paying his debts, he might leave the country with- 
J^A -t ^^^ ^^^ M'eeks. With touching simplicity the ruined Love- 
il^veiace'8 lacc wrotc to Winthrop : " I am now intending for England, 
winthrop. with all tliG conveiiiency I may, unlesse prevented. Al- 
bany is suiTendered on the same termes this did, which was 
too lean and poor for persons of Honour. However, they 
would willingly frame some excuses, and shoulder the blame 
and burthen from one to the other. Some shelter them- 
selves under the shields of my absence, which, though (it is 
confes't) it proved unfortunate, yet the means that were 
afforded them to a handsomer resistance and prudent man- 
agery can plead no excuse. To be brief — it was digitus 
Dei, who exalts and depresses as he pleases, and to whom 
we must all submit. Would you be curious to know what 
my losses might amount to — I can in short resolve you. It 
was my all which ever I liad been collecting ; too greate to 
misse in this wildernesse."* 

No sooner had the Dutch commanders established them- 
selves in the metropolis than the nearest six Long Island 
Longisi- towns — Midwout, Amersfoort, Brooklyn, Xew Utrecht, 
staten'isi- Busliwick, and Gravesend, together with Staten Island, 
submitted to their authority. These towns were chiefly 
settled by rejoicing Hollanders. Upon their nomination, 
/g August. Jacob Strycker, of Brooklyn, w^as a^Dpointed schout, and 
Francis de Bruyn, of New Utrecht, secretary of the dis- 
trict; from each of the six towns, of which four persons 
y August, named by them were made schepens. Peter Biljou was ap- 
pointed schout, and two others schepens of Staten Island.f 
But the other towns of Long Island and Westchester 
showed no disposition to submit to the Dutch. They were 
fy August, therefore summoned to send deputies to New Orange, with 
their constables' staves and English flags, in place of which 
they would be furnished with the prince's colors as soon as 
-/I,, Aiigu-H. possible. The connnandcrs, in a proclamation, declared 
lion of""' that although the fort and city on Manhattan Island had 

nud towns. 




^,„, " surrendered themselves without any Capitulation or Arti- 

cles," yet that no harm would be done to any of the in- 

• Col. Doc, li., 578, 5S3, 5S;, CO.'!, C8r>; iii., 19S, 200, 201, 202, 203, 205, 20C; Mass. H. S. 
Coll., XXX., 80, ST; MS?:. Truiiibull i'upcr.s xx., 104, lOS; Uist. Mag., i. (ii.),29S; anfc, 20(i. 
t Col. Doc, ii., 573, .';77, 5S0, 5S0, GU 


habitants of ISTew Netherland wlio should submit to the cqap. v. 
Dutch government. Each town was required to send two ~~ 

delegates to the fort, authorized to take the oath of allegi- 
ance, and bring with them their Englisli colors and con- 
stables' staves, " \yhereupon they shall be considered and 
governed, without respect of nations, as good and faithful 
subjects ;" but, if they refused, they would be forcibly 

The fact that Lovelace was in the hands of the Dutch 
commanders added emphasis to their summons. West- 
chester, Eastchester, and Mamaroneck promptly sent dele-|"Augu8t. 
gates, and magistrates were selected from their nomina- pointed on' 
tions. The five Long Island towns — Flushing, Jamaica, and.^ 
Middelburg, Oyster Bay, and Hempstead — upon the peti- 
tion of their delegates, were granted the usual privileges, 
but with a warning not to take up arms against the pres- 
ent Dutch government, as some of them had " formerly 
done, contrary to honor and oath," against that of Stuyve- 
sant. From their nominations, William Lawrence, of Flush- 
ing, was chosen to be schout, and Carel van Brugge secre-g^Augn.t. 
tary of the district, and three schepens were selected for 
each of the five towns. At the same time Captain William 
Knyff and Lieutenant Jeronymus de Hubert were sent h?j August. 
with Ephraim Hermann, a clerk in Secretary Bayard's of- 
fice, to administer the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants 
of the neighboring towns, which was readily taken by all 
except the Quakers. f 

But the five towns in the East Jliding were not disposed 
to submit to the Dutch commanders. On receiving their 
proclamation, Southampton, " struck with amaeement," sent 
to Hartford " for their advice or help." Connecticut, how- 
ever, would not encourage the '' poore towne" to stand out The Eaat- 
alone. She was about to send messengers to New Or- on Long 
ange on her own affairs, wliich had suddenly come to a no"subrait 
critical point. John Selleck, of Stamford, going in alCtciiau- 
ketch to Long Island, was captured by a Dutch cruiser. "'°''"''' 
Another sloop was taken, but, being neglected by her cap- 
tors, was retaken on the "Sabbath day following." The ^August. 

• Col. Doe., ii., 572, 5T3 ; iii., 202 ; Mn?s. II. ?. Coll., xxx., 87 ; Wood, 06. 
t C >1. Doc, ii., 6S0, !VS1, 532, 580, 591, 592, 596 ; Val. Man., 1S50, 520, 521 ; aute, vol. L, 
719, 723, 724, 720, 730, 733. 


cuAP. V. General Court met at Hartford ; a military committee was 
~ organized ; and troops were ordered to be ready. James 
^Ib^d. ]^j(.}^^j.(jg j^j^(j "William Kosewell were also sent with a let- 
connecti- tcr to the Dutcli commandcrs, which, with " amazing ab- 
tothe ^"^ surdity," lectm'ed them for treating "His Majesty's sub- 
command- jects" in time of war, as Charles the Second had treated 
^^' the colonists of Holland in time of peace, nine years be- 

fore ; inquired their " further intentions ;" and declared that 
the United Colonies of New England would defend their 
sovereign's authority "in these parts." The Connecticut 
1^ August, delegates delivered this letter to the Council of War at 
New Orange, and explained verbally that their colony 
would not molest the Dutch province if nothing hostile 
was done against her by New Netherland. They were 
courteously asked to put in writing what they had to say ; 
but they declined to do this, because " such written nego- 
tiations might be turned to the worst use by any disaffect- 
ed person of their colony." The Connecticut messengers 
Answer of wcrc then handed a reply, with which they returned to 
command- Hartford. In soldier-like style, the Dutch commanders 
answered that it was " very strange" that their enemies 
should object to the results of war ; that the Ilepublic of 
the Netherlands had commissioned them to do all manner 
of damage to its enemies, in consequence of which the 
neighborhood of the Hudson River had been reduced to 
obey Dutch authority ; and they declared that, as the vil- 
lages east of Oyster Bay " did belong to this Government," 
they would be likewise ^ibjected, and prompt punishment 
would be visited on all " those that shall seek to maintain 
the said villages in their injustice."* 

In the mean time, deputies from Southampton, East- 
hampton, Southold, Brookhaven, and Huntington had met 
1^ August, at Jamaica, and drawn up a paper, in whicli, after stating 
that they had not heard from their governor, Lovelace, 
who was "peaceably and respectfully entertained" in the 
fort, they asked the Dutch commanders to allow them, 
upon their submission, to retain their ecclesiastical privi- 
leges, and enjoy several other particular liberties. On 

• Mass. II. S. Coll., XXX., R7 ; xxxvii., 570, 571 ; Col. Rcc. Conn., ii., 181-1S.% 204, 20S, 5G1. 
562 ; Plymouth Col. IIcc, x., 3S7, SiSS ; Col. Doc, ii., 584, 58C, C02, C06 ; iii., 201, 203 ; Tiuni- 
bull,i., 323,324; Grnhame, i., 421 ; Thompson, i., 153, 154; Palfrey, iii., 120; onie, 24, 25. 



reaching Wew Orange, the deputies met the Connecticut 
messengers, whom they found were "shy and cautious" 
about giving advice. But Captain Nathaniel Sylvester, of 
Shelter Island, who had come from Hartford with Rich- 
ards and Rosewell, advised his Long Island neighbors " by 
all means" to submit to the Dutch government. The del- 
egates accordingly " declared to submit themselves to the 
obedience of their High Mightinesses the Lords States 
General of the United Netherlands, and his Serene High- 
ness the Prince of Orange." Upon this their petition was 
granted in all points, except that in regard to appointing 
officers and sending deputies they should have the same 
privileges enjoyed by the Dutch towns, and that their re- 
quest to buy whaling tools in New England could not " in 
this conjuncture of time be allowed." The next day they 
were directed to nominate for approbation a sellout and a 
secretary for the district, and four magistrates for each 
town, who should be " only such as are of the Reformed 
Christian Religion, or at least well affected to it."* 

Nathaniel Sylvester now asked for a confirmation of the 
j^rivileges which Nicolls had granted to Shelter Island in 
1666. It was found, however, that the heirs of his de- 
ceased brother Constant, of Barbadoes, and Colonel Thomas 
Middleton, Avho lived in England, were part owners. Their 
share was accordingly confiscated, and Sylvester bought it 
of the Dutch authorities for five hundred pounds " in this 
country's provisions." L^pon his giving a bond for this 
payment. Shelter Island was duly conveyed to Sylvester, 
with all the usual privileges, David Gardiner, who had 
early offered his submission, was likewise, on his personal 
promise of obedience, confirmed in the possession of his 
island, with " the same privileges and pre-eminences that 
may be granted to the other subjects of this Government."t 

Upon the return of their deputies from New Orange, the 
five eastern towns of Long Island, ha^^ng " duly weighed" 
their circumstances, and found that they must follow their 
"neighbour townes in submitting to the Dutch Govern- 
ment," nominated magistrates, and sent their discarded En- 
glish flags and constables' staves to Fort Willem Ilendrick. 

ClIAP. V. 


Long lel- 
aad dele- 
gates at 
New Or- 

J^ August. 

^ August. 

^|- August), 
Shelter Isl. 

J-^- August. 

20 Septem. 
1 October. 

23 August. 
7 Septem. 
of thcl'iist- 
crn towns. 

• Col. Doc, ii., 5S3, 5S4, 5SG; Mass. H. P. Coll., x.xx., ST. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 5S7-530, 622 ; Thompson, i., 1E5, 3GT ; Wood, 9 ; ante, 90, lOT. 


cuAP. V. From these nominations the Conncil of War chose Isaac 
~ Arnold, of Southold, to be schout, and Ilenrj Pierson, of 
29 A^insL Sonthampton, to be secretary of the five towns, and two 
8 t'eptem. from cach town to be magistrates. A petition for a modi- 
poinTed."^" fieation of the oatli from some of the more scrupulous in- 
habitants was at the same time presented, which the coun- 
cil promptly granted, and instructed Schout Arnold to give 
notice that it would be administered by commissioners to 
be sent for that purpose. Nevertheless, the five towns 
were ver}^ reluctant to acknowledge the Dutch authority ; 
20 August. f^j^(j Southampton felt constrained to address a declaration 
southamp- to all liis British majesty's subjects in Massachusetts, Con- 
dress. ' necticut, Plymouth, or elsewhere, " to take off an aspersion 
cast upon us, as though we should freely submit to this 
foreign government."* 
2-2 August. Delegates from Albany and Esopus had meanwhile ap- 
Ki^^ton' peared at the fort, and received prompt satisfaction. The 
swTnen- namc of Kiugstou was changed to " Swanenburg," after 
burg. Evertsen's flag-ship ; but the names of Hurley and Mar- 
Aibany blctowu wcrc uot altered, Albany was ordered to be call- 
wiiiem- ed " Willemstadt," and its fort was named " Nassau." A 
^''"''" garrison was directed to be maintained, and presents made 
to the five Iroquois nations, " in order to prevent the de- 
signs and undertakings of our enemies the French." Sche- 
nectady was to observe the regulations established by 
25 August. Stuyvesant and Nicolls. Jeremias van Rensselaer was al- 
4 septenT" lowcd to cujoy liis prcvioiis privileges for a year, upon con- 
laerwyck. tributiug three hundred schepels of wheat ; but was re- 
quired to obtain a new grant from the States General.f 
Dutch authority was qtiietly re-established over New 
New Jersey Jerscy, the name of which was changed to " Achter Col." 
"Achter The vcry day tliat Evertsen and Binckes began their ses- 
-3° August, sions at Fort Willem Ilendrick, delegates came to them 
from Elizabethtown, Newark, Woodbridge, and Piscata- 
way, to treat for a surrender. They were partisans of 
James Carteret, and opponents of Berry, the acting gov- 

* Col. Docii., 601,f.02; M.nss. H. S. Coll., xxx., 8G-SS ; Uist. Mag.,i. (ii.),298; Col.Rec. 
Conn., ii., 212, 503; Wood, OC. 

t Col. Doc.,ii.,559, 592-59T; Doc. Uist., iii.,CO; Val. Man., 1852, 431. Van Kensselaer 
was ordered to account to Joanna de Laet, wife of Scliepen Jeronymus Ebbing, for the tenth 
part of the colony, whicli nhe had inherited from her father, John de Laet. The next year 
«lie sold her interest to Van llensselacr: Col. Doc, i., 406, 407, 519, 534; ii., 549-501, 590, 
597 ; Vn). Man., 1855, 521 ; Barnard's Sketch, 109, 132 ; ante, vol. i., 204, 535. 


enior. A few days afterward delegates from these towns, cuap. v. 
and from Middletown and Shrewsbury, came to the fort, 
and were granted the usual privileges. Berry and his 3 ^^g^g't 
friends were treated with the same liberality, Bergen, of 
which the j)opulation was chiefly Dutch, nominated offi- iiAngnat. 
cers, who were promptly confirmed ; and every one of lier 
seventy-eight burghers who were present when the com- 
manders visited the town the next Sunday, " after the ser- ^|Augu3t. 
raon," took the oath. John Ogden was appointed schout, 
and Samuel Hopkins, whose timely information had i">jep'tem. 
l>rought the Dutch fleet from Virginia, was made sccre- 'j*^^j^'j^g™"P" 
tary of the other six towns ; fi'om each of which three 
magistrates were likewise chosen, among whom was Daniel 
Denton, of Piscataway, the author of the recently publish- 
ed " Brief Description of New York." Bollen, the late 
secretary of ISTew Jersey, was directed to deliver his papers ^^^"g"''^- , 
to Hopkins ; but, as he was charged with " having made 
away with some of them," the records were ordered to be 5:^5 scptem. 
deposited with the provincial secretary Bayard, in Fort 
Willem Ilendrick.* 

Deputies from the Delaware were promised freedom of x^oSeptem. 
trade and commerce, and equal privileges to all the in- affarrl"'^'' 
habitants who should take the oath of allegiance. Courts 
of justice were also established at New Amstel, Upland, 
and the Iloarkill ; and the usual nominations of magistrates 
were ordered to be sent by the schout, Peter Alrichs, to 
New Orange, for approval.f 

The affairs of the metropolis went on with great regu- 
larity. Measures were taken to improve the fortifications ; 
and, as these were made chiefly of earth, owners of hogs Xg Augiwt. 
were directed to prevent them from roaming in the streets aDge rJgu- 
south of the " Fresh Water," or Kolck, lest they should ''"""" 
damage the works. The Dutch Church having again be- The Dutch 
come the establishment in New Netherland, its service ngnln'^ea- 
was conducted by Domine van Nieuwenhuysen, to the *''""'""'■ 

» Col. Doc, ii., 571, r>T2, r>70-5S0, 5S2, .%3T, 505, 538, COO, 002, G03, COG, GOT ; iii., 201, 203, 
213,214; Smith, i., 44; Whitehead, CO, C1,G2; ante, 151. The estate of Governor Philip 
Carteret was orJcrcd to be inventoried ; and Robert la Prairie, or Vanquellen, and Jona- 
than Pingletary, who liad tried to secrete some of it, were brought to the fort, where the lat- 
ter was fined, and VamiucUen sentenced to banishment for pnblicly declaring "that the 
Diike of York had Ptill an interest in Fort James, and that there would be another cliango 
wiiliiu half a year." t Col. Doc, ii., C;)4, G05; S. llazTrd, 407, 40S. 





29 August. 
8 r^eptem. 
Letter of 
the munici- 
pality of 
New Or- 
ange to the 
States Gen- 

ance of 
New Neth- 
crland to 

great acceptance of Refomied Protestant Dutch people, in 
Kieft's old church in the fort.* 

Yan Ruyven now intending to return to Holland, the 
sellout, burgomasters, and schepens of New Orange intrust- 
ed to him a letter to the States General, in which — after 
thanking them for reducing the inhabitants of New Neth- 
erland again under the obedience of "their lawful and 
native Sovereigns, from whose protection they were cut 
off, about nine years ago, in time of peace" — they repre- 
sented how advantageous the province, which now consist- 
ed of three cities and thirty villages, miglit be made to the 
fatherland. Many private families there, ruined by the 
French invasion, could live easily in New Netherland, 
which, with a larger farming population, would soon be- 
come " a granary and magazine of many necessaries" 
which Holland ordinarily imported from the Baltic. Eso- 
pus alone, which the last year had produced twenty-five 
thousand schepels of grain, could supply the Dutch colo- 
nies of Cura§oa and Surinam. New Netherland could also, 
by its peltries, maintain the Dutch commerce with Mus- 
covy ; and the tobacco trade, besides many other interest- 
ing details, would be personally explained on his arrival by 
Van Ruyven, who had filled " divers respectable offices 
here." But, above all, the province would be especially 
important as a naval station, and as a watch-tower, from 
which a constant eye could be kept on the King of En- 
gland, " who, in case he only came to be Lord and Master 
of this northern part of America, would be able to equip 
ships here, unknown to any Prince or Potentate in Europe, 
and thus, most unexpectedly, fall on our state or its allies." 
Yet, without speedy re-enforcements from the fatherland, 
its " good Dutch inhabitants," who were not more than six 
or seven thousand, and scattered over a vast country, could 
not resist " its numerous neiiihborinc;; Eno-lish and French 
enemies, by whom it is encompassed around on all sides." 
The States General were therefore urged to dispatcli such 
aid as might, after the departure of the Dutch fleet, defend 
" this newly-recovered Province." This statesmanlike let- 

• New Orange Rec, vii., 10-20; Val. Man., 1S50, 400-408; Corr. Classis of Amsterdam ; 
Letter of Van Xienwenhu)ven, '.'(! July, lfi74; (Jol. Doc, ii., 705, 7:iO. The other Dutch cler- 
gymen in New Netherland were I'olhemus on Long Island, and Schaats at Alhany, or Wil- 
Icmstadt: Hloin having left l^opiis in 1007, and Drisius having died ou 18 April, 1073. 


ter could hardly have failed to produce a decisive efPect in cuw. v. 

Holland. But a remarkable fatality prevented its delivery 

in time to advance " the Dutch interest."* ' ' 

This appeal of the corporation of New Oranfjje was 
quickened by the determination of Evertsen and Binckes 
to depart with all their ships of war, leaving New Nether- 
land unjn-otected. Hearing of this, the city authorities 
represented the exposed condition of the country, surround- ^^Auguet. 
ed by Enghsh and French colonies, and its scattered Dutch xho corpo- 
population of six thousand outnumbered, fifteen to one, by New or- 
that of New England. These English and French sub- sfres ships 
jects had now become enemies, and would endeavor to us^rotc'c- 
gain New Netherland as soon as it should be left to its*'°°' 
own resources for defense. The Duke of York, and Berke- 
ley, and Carteret were all alike interested in its recovery. 
" This, without doubt, renders some so bold as to say al- 
ready that something else will be seen before Christmas, 
and that the King of England will never suifer the Dutch 
to remain and sit down here, in the centre of all his do- 
minions, to his serious prejudice in many respects ; so that 
we are inevitably to expect a visit from our malevolent 
neighbors of old, now our bitter enemies, unless they be 
prevented, under God, by your valiant prowess and accom- 
panying force." Two ships of war, under the command 
of one of the superior officers, should therefore winter in the 
province, and not leave its inhabitants " a prey to be de- 
stroyed or to be sold as slaves to the English Plantations."f 

The commanders replied that the garrison in the fort ".'/"f"'^" 
could protect the place sufficiently against all enemies ; but, 5'"^^ ?"■' 
as the petitioners were so urgent, the f rio-ate Sicpinam, of euard tiip 

„ i^.-T" -ri TIT metropolis. 

forty guns, Captam Evert Evertsen, and the sloop or snow 
Zeehond (or Seal), Captain Cornelis Ewoutsen, M'ould be 
left under the command of Governor Colve until the 
province should be " furnished with other help, either fi-om 
Fatherland, or by the ships already sailed hence." As these 
vessels belonged to Evertsen's Zealand squadron, Binckes 

• Col. Doc., ii.,. "526, 527,532, 53? ; Lnmbreclitsen, 83-S6; N. Y.II. S.Coll, i. (ii.>,115, IIC. 
Van Ruyven embarked in the snow " Expectatie," Captain Martin Vonck, which, having 
lost her mast and pail.s in a storm, managed to get into Nantiieket, whence Van Kiiyven re- 
turned to Now York in the following November : Col. Doc., ii., 532, ('>r)8, GCJ, 003 ; Col. Rec. 
Conn., ii., 505; Mass. Hoc., iv. (ii.), 5T3, 574 ; JIa??. H. S. Coll., .xx.v., 103. Vonck sailed 
again in the ketch "Hope" in J:iniiary, 1074: Col. Doc, ii., 077; jws?, p, 25S. 

t Col. Doc., ii., 59S-G00 ; Doc. Hist., i., 407. 


odap.v. agreed that the Admiralty of Amsterdam should bear its 
just proportion of all expenses and damages which might 
ni ui f/t iiappen to them during their special service in New Keth- 
10 septem. crlaud.* 

Some necessary police regulations were now adopted. 
9 septem. Kesolvcd AValdron was directed " to forbid the ferry peo- 
uiations?^' plc at Ilacrlem and Spytenduyvel to put across any stran- 
gers from this Island, unless they first exhibit a pass to that 
effect." As many strangers were passing in and out of the 
Jj; Septem. metropolis, it was ordered that all persons who had not 
taken the oath of allegiance should leave New Orange 
within twenty-four hours, and that none but Dutch sub- 
jects should visit it without license ; and all the inhabitants 
■svere forbidden to harbor strangers without reporting them 
to the sellout, t 
iriseptcm. Attracted by the fleet in the harbor, tlie Ilackensack 
(lian sach- sachcms cauic to the fort with several of their people, and 
New Or- declared their desire to live as before, in peace with the 
''°^*' Dutch. The commanders made them presents, and prom- 
ised that they should be considered " good fi-iends" as 
heretofore. A few days afterward, the sachems of the 
/y Septem. Moliawks, wlio had come " to see the naval force and make 
a report," were likewise dismissed with satisfactory pres- 
ents. The people of Schenectady were also confirmed in 
the privileges formerly granted by Stuyvesant, and the 
local oflicers nominated by them were approved.:}: 

Colve's commission as governor general was now enter- 
ed on the records of the province. The experienced Cor- 
5% sepfem. nelis Steenwyck was appointed counselor of New Nether- 
colins.aor land, " to assist in the direction of all cases relative to jus- 
Hhia'co'm- tice and police, and further in all such military concerns 
*^'^"'' both by water and by land, in which the Governor shall 
deem proper to ask his advice and assistance." Cornelis 
Ewoutsen, the commander of the snow Zeehond, was made 
superintendent of gunners and ammunition. Nicholas 
Bayard, who had been commissioned as secretary and reg- 
?.{J Septem. istcr of Ncw Ncthcrlaud, was also appointed receiver gen- 
eral of the provincial rc\cnne. All these appointments 

• Col. Poc, ii., (100, Gil, 612, C40, C54, CSS, CC2, CCJ, CS-2, 703, 707, 71.'), 72G; Val. Man., 
1S50, 522. t Col. Dor., ii., GO,'!, C04. 

t Col. Doc , ii., COO, COS, C03, 


were made subject to the approval of tlie " Lords Princi- chap. v. 
pals" in the fatherland.* 

The commanders now issued a proclamation, referring ^^g^'^^^ 
to their former one of the eiii-hteenth of August, and de- confisca- 
claring that, as " not the smallest capitulation was en- gUsh an<i 
tered into at the surrender of the fort and province to the property. 
States General and the Prince of Orange, all the property 
belonging to the kings of England and France, and their 
subjects, was liable to confiscation and forfeiture. They 
therefore confiscated all such property, especially that of 
the Duke of York, his governors, officers, and agents, to 
the benefit of the Dutch government. Nevertheless, they 
excepted the effects of " the actual inhabitants of the neigh- Exceptions 
boring colonies of New England, Virginia, and Maryland," 
which, " for sufficient reasons," were for the present ex- 
empted from this confiscation.f 

Under this act, the property of Lovelace, Delavall, Car- Lovelace's 

and others' 

teret. Manning, Willett, and others was placed in the hands property 
of commissioners. Lovelace was also required forthwith 
to leave the province, and go either to New England or to 
Holland in one of the returning vessels. His request to 
go to Europe in Commander Binckes's ship was promptly 
granted. Delavall accompanied Lovelace. Tlie Dutch The Dutch 
commodores soon afterward sailed — Binckes directly to dores sail 
Holland; and Evertsen by way of the West Indies, Fayal, °' '"'"^^ 
and Cadiz, to Zealand.:}: 

Anthony Colve now assumed the government of New coue as. 
Netherland. To give greater state to his office, he set up goTOm- '" 
a coach drawn by three horses. In all ordinary business NeTxt tu- 
be was assisted by Counselor Steenwyck and Secretary *^'"''^"'^' 
Bayard. On important occasions, the authorities of the 

• Col. Doc, ii., 600-GlJ; c.nie^ p. 211. 

t Col. Uoc, ii., .57S, CU, (Ui, 710; S. Hazard, 400 ; anlc^ p. 21-2. Palfrey, iii., 120, notc^ 
suggests that this forboiiraiico on the part of the Dutch commanders may liave arisen from 
the hope of the States General that New England would ally itself with them. But Vir- 
ginian and Maryland property was at the same time exempted from forfeiture by the act r f 
Evertsen and Binckes ; and, moreover, the States General knew nothing about the niiUti r. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 580, 5ST, .^Ol. .')!)5, 597, 00.1, COS, 617, KS, C43, G44, 045, 617, 051, 067, 072, 
&S7, 088, 720, 721 ; iii., 205, 206 ; .'^mith, i , 44. Binckes aftenvard commanded a squadron 
against the French in the West Indies, and was killed at Tobago in December, 1077. Ev- 
erl8?n rose to the rank of admiral, and, in November, 16SS, commanded a division of the 
fleet which conveyed tlie Prince of Orange to England. He died in November, 1706, and 
was buried at Middelburgb, in Zealand : Sylvius, ix., 665; x., 2!1 ; Wagenaar, xiv., 376, 401, 
443, 444; xv., 395; Lambrechtsen, 82, 86,' 87, 88; Kok, vi., 502; xiv., .';64; (Jol. Doc, ii., 
572,579; Col. MSS., xxv., 171 ; Doc Hist., iii., 54, 59. 


Chap. V. citj of New OraiigG were consulted. When questions 
" ~ arose about the treatment of foreigners or their property, 
' Captains Winiam Knyff and Carel Epesteyn, of the Dutch 
infantry, were added as a Council of War.* 
j%- septem. Colvo's first official act was to commission Peter Alrichs 
commander commaudcr and sellout " on the South River, in New 
soutirEiv- Netherland, lately called Delaware," where he was to 
"■ maintain the Established Dutch Church, keep his soldiers 

in discipline, the Indians in good temper, and obey all or- 
ders from New Orange. Walter Wharton was also com- 
iA Septem. missioucd to be surveyor of all the Dutch territory on the 

South River.f 
a I Septem. Lieutenant Andries Draeyer was appointed commander 
Diaeyer of Fort Nassau, and sellout of the town of Willemstadt and 
eraTwii'- the colonic of Rensselaerwyck. Draeyer was instructed, 
'^^^ ' among other things, to maintain "the pure true Christian 
Keligion agreeably to the Synod of Dort ;" and, as much as 
he could, " keep the natives and Indians devoted to him, 
and, according to his ability, render the Dutch government 
agreeable to them, and obtain from them all the informa- 
tion he can respecting the trade and doings of the French, 
and present all correspondence they may carry on with the 
inhabitants of Willemstadt.":}: 
Lutherans Tlic Luthcraus at Willemstadt, who had enjoyed much 
stadt.' '^™' liberty under the Duke of York's government, petitioned 
Colve at the same time for the " fi'ee exercise of their re- 
ligious worship, without let or hindrance, to the end that 
they may live in peace with their fellow burghers." Their 
Jl Septem. request was granted, "on condition of comjDorting them- 
selves peaceably and quietly, without giving any offence to 
the Congregation of the Reformed Religion, which is the 
State C]iurch."§ 

• Col. Doc, ii., C30, C42, C44, G(j2, CG4, CG5, 710, 715; Doc. Hist., iii., 4S. 

t Col. Doc., ii., 014, G15, CIS, 019 ; S. Hazard, 40S, 409. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 51)3, 59G, COS, CIS, 027, 059, CG2, 67C. On the 23.1 of January, 1G74, Com- 
mander Draeyer was married in tlie Dutch Church to Gorritje, a daiiijliter of Gosen Gerrit- 
Ecn van Schaick, and a sister of Lcvinus van Schaick : llolgate, 12i», 144, 145, 140 ; Munsell's 
Collections, i., 301 ; MSS. of Matthew (Jlarkson, Esq., communicated to me. Draeyer after- 
ward entered the Danish service, in which he became a rear-admiral ; and in March, 1C90, 
his widow, having returned to New York, was received, "with attestation from Copenliagen," 
into the membership of the Dutch Church. Her son. Captain Andries Draeyer, returned 
to Denmark in April, 1700: see Uecords of the CoUeBiatc K. P. 1). Church of New York, 
J.iber A. 'I'lie Widow Dracyer's diuighter, Anna Dorothea, afterward married the Reverend 
Thomas IJiirrlay, of Albany : Holgate, 129, 144. 

J Col. Doc, ii.,C17; ante, 175. It appears, however, that the " Aanspreker," or sexton 


To assure tlie safety of the metropolis, the magistrates at cuap. v. 
" the Nevesiugs," near Sandy Hook, were ordered to send 
the earhest information to the governor of the arrival of , „ ^ " 

" SijSeptem. 

any ships from sea. Martial law was also necessary to Military 
clieck the imruly troops who had so recently spoiled the tions. 
West Indies. Ensign Jan Sol, the major of the garrison 
in Fort Willem Ilendrick, was accordingly directed to en- 21 septem. 
force it severely within the citadel ; and the burghers ^ October. 
were prohibited from selling liquors or giving credits to 
the soldiers." 

The fort itself was miserably insecure. Its condition, as 
described by Stuyvesant, had been very little strengthened 
by Nicolls and Lovelace, neither of whom seem to have 
apprehended its being again occupied by a foreign force, inaecurity 
and certainly not by its old masters. Houses, gardens, and wiii°em 
orchards were clustered thickly under its earthen walls. 
" The newly-begun fortification of ISTew Orange" was in 
the same case. Obstructions were ordered to be demolish- 2s septem. 
ed, and their owners summoned before the governor. At ** ^'='°'^^'"- 
tlie same time, an extraordinary duty was laid to indemni- incumber- 

r ^ 1 11 o 1P1 '"^S houses 

ly those whose property was to be taken. Several 01 the demoiish- 
owners accordingly appeared ; other lots were assigned to 
most of them ; and all were promised satisfaction out of 
the new duties. Counselor Steenwyck, with Burgomasters 
Van Brugh, De Peyster, and Luyck, were directed to esti- 11 oct. 
mate the damages, and report to the governor. The dem- 
olition of the doomed houses was effected ; and each own- 1% oct. 
er was recompensed for the property which the public 
safety required should be taken. Among the buildings 
thus destroyed was the Lutheran Church, which had just 
been built " without the gate."t 

To establish a general system for the srovernment of the 

^^ 1 >^ T T .. T, . . 1 21 Septem. 

to^vns m JNew JNetherland, Colve drew up a " Provisional 1 October. 
Instruction," some of the articles of which were annoying 

of tlie Dutch Church at Willemstadt required the Lutherans to pay fees to himself, as was 
the custom in Holland, notwithstanding they employed their own se.xton; which produced 
a remonstrance to Colve from Arensius, their minister, and otliers : Doc. Hist, lii., 5'25; 
Col. MSS. , xxiii., 29G, 31."?, 40S. * Col. Doc, ii., 019, 622-625, C50. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 440, 629-631, 633-637, SS.-), 6S8, 69T, 699, 700, 710, 716; iii., S7; Val. Man., 
1S50, 511, 512, 521, 525, 530 ; 1S51, 435, 447, 448 ; New Orange Rec, viL, 42 ; Moulton's New 
Oi-ange, 11, 12 ; Valentine's New York, 175 ; ante., 26, 81. 200. The Lutherans were allowed 
anotlier lot, "No. 5 in the Company's garden," within the gate, on which they built a new 
church. It was at the corner of Broadway and Rector Street, where Grace Church was aft- 
ei-ward built : Col. Doc, ii., 036 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 245; ft;! (c, 174. 

II.— P 


Chap. V. to the English inhabitants. The local magistrates were, 
above all things, to " take care tliat the Reformed Christian 

prtvisiOTiai Religion be maintained in conformity to the Synod of Dor- 

the''!fve*^°n ^Irccht, without permitting any other sects attempting any- 

mentof tliinof contrarv thereto." Local ordinances must be con- 
towns. ~ •' 

formable to the laws of Holland, and be approved by the 
governor. All officers must acknowledge the authority of 
the States General and the Prince of Orange, and " main- 
tain their sovereign jurisdiction right and domain over this 
country." The magistrates were to nominate as their suc- 
cessors " a double number of the best qualified, the hon- 
estest, most intelligent and wealthiest inliabitants, exclu- 
sively of the Reformed Christian Religion, or at least well 
affected thereunto, to be presented to the Governor, who 
shall then make his election therefrom, with continuation 
of some of the old ones, in case his Honor may deem it 

Colve's municipal system was substantially a revival of 
that of Stuyvesant. The " Instruction" was ordered to be 
enforced in every town of the province except New Orange 
and Willemstadt, where some modifications were neces- 
sary. But the eastern towns of Long Island showed great 
disaffection, although their nominations of magistrates had 
24 septcm. bccu promptly confirmed. Colve therefore commissioned 
commiT'' C!aptain William Knyff, Lieutenant Anthony Malypart, and 
sioners the clcrk, Abram Yarlett, to visit all the towns east of Oys- 

8€nt to ' •' 

Kong i8i- ter Bay, and administer the oath to their inhabitants ; and 
also directed their magistrates to publish his Instructions, 
with the proclamation for the seizure of the property of 
English and French subjects.f 
5% Oct. Tlie commissioners reported that Oyster Bay had taken 
tiieTong" the oath, while Huntington desired to be excused, upon 
towns. promising in writing to be faithful to the government of 
New Netherland. Setauket, or Brookliaven, apologized, 
and asked a suspension of censure, because her people 
wished to preserve their English allegiance, and yet to live 
in peace with the Dutch government. Easthampton ac- 
knowledged the " Christian and moderate" dealing of the 

• Col. Doc., ii., C20-C22, C53, C54, 67S-680. 

t Col. Doc., ii., 5TB, 5S6, 591, COl, 602, 61C, 620, 022, C2C, 62S ; Whitehsad, 61 ; antc^ 212; 
vol. i., 540, 548, 574, 013, C19, 040. 


Dutch ; but asked to be left as slie was, as her letters had cuap. v. 
been opened and read at Southampton, where threats 
against her submission had been uttered by " several disaf- -'■" ' '^• 
fected persons." Southold objected to several clauses in 
the " Instruction," but was " willing to submit" to the 
Dutch government, if the articles first promised should be 
performed, and the town be protected " from the invasion 
of those which daily threaten us." Knowing that Evert- 
sen and Binckes had left New Netherland, Southampton 
declared that Colve's " Instructions" overthrew what had 
been previously agreed upon ; that the town could not ab- 
■ jure its king, and swear allegiance to a foi*eign power; yet, 
that it would not disturb the Dutch, unless molested by 
them, or " called thereunto by His Majesty's power of En- 

On receiving this report, Colve called the burgomasters 
and schepens of New Orange to advise with the council, U O'''- 
and was disposed to send the frigate Surinam, with a "con- fraiLfrom 
siderable force," to the Eastern towns, and " punish them theTeaf- 
as rebels, in case they persist in refusing to swear obedi- ^*° *°^°'' 
ence." The majority thought " that, in this conjuncture of 
war, it was not advisable to attack them by force of arms, 
as we should thereby be affording them, and the neighbor- 
ing Colonies, occasion again to take up arms against us ; 
but they judged it better to send a second delegation."! 

It was gratifying, however, that Midwout, Bushwick, h?i o^t. 

T o ./ o' ' ' J ^ijg Dutch 

Xew Utrecht, Amersfoort, Brooklyn, and Gravesend, in towns sub- 
Schout Jacob Strycker's district, declared that " the entire 
of the people" would observe their oaths, and, in case of 
attack, would assist New Orange in resisting the enemy. 
These loyal Dutch towns were accordingly allowed to se- M o<='- 
lect their OAvn military officers.:}: 

Lewis Morris,§ and Nathaniel Sylvester, with whom he 

• Col. Doc, ii., 632, 63S-642 ; Wood, 96. t Col. Doc, ii., 642, 64S. 

t Col. Doc., ii., 077, 643, C45, 640 ; ante, 214. 

§ Lewis Morris wa,s a Welshman, a brother of Richard Morris, of Westchester, and a 
CromwcUian officer, who was sent to the West Indies, and settled himself at Barbadoes, where 
he became a Quaker, and entertained George Fox. After the death of his brother Uioliard ia 
1672, he was allowed by Colve to come to New Netherland, "• on condition that he attempt 
nothine; to its prejudice during his sojourn." Morris was accordingly granted the guardian- 
ship of his infant nephew, and custody of his brother Richard's effect.', under the direction 
of the "• Orphan Chamber" of Xcw Orange, although his own estate was confiscated as be- 
longing to a then Barbadian : Col. Doc, ii., 595, 61T, G19, 031, 632, 045. 050, 0G4 ; Besae, ii., 
2SS, 313, 314, 315; Fox's Journal, 442; Smith, i., 209; Bolton, ii., 2S0-300; Whitehead'a 
Jlemoir of L. Morris, 1 -5 ; ante, 140, ISS, 190. 


Chap. V. was Staying at Shelter Island, now asked the governor to 

" send " a second embassy to the east end of Long Island, so 

' that the innocent may not be punished with the guilty." 
If Oct. Colve therefore dispatched Captain Km-ff and Ensign 
mtn^atw-' Mcholas Yos to administer the oath to such as might " be 
^^' free to take the same." Huntington and Setauket were 

accordingly visited ; and their inhabitants and officers read- 
ily swore fidelity to the Dutch government." 

By advice of his council, which agreed with that of Mor- 
ris and Sylvester, Governor Colve, instead of sending the 
|g Oct. frigate Surinam, directed Counselor Steenwyck, with Cap- 
tain Charles Epesteyn and Lieutenant Charles Quirynsen, 
to A^sit Easthampton, Soutliold, and Southampton, and " ad- 
Tiie Enst- mouisli tlic inhabitants of their duty and true submission, 
mimonX and also to establish the elected magistrates in their respect- 
ive offices, and to administer the oath, as well unto them 
as the rest of the inhabitants there." If any Xew England 
vessels were met, they were not to be molested. If the 
people of the to^^^ls objected to swear, they were to be al- 
lowed to promise obedience ; but their magistrates must 
take the oath, as the Sellout Arnold had already done. 
Concessions were promised regarding trade with the New 
England colonies, the nomination of local officers, and what- 
ever the people might " ask in fairness." But, if they should 
be obstinate, the chief mutineers were to be reported at 
New Orange. Steenwyck, with his colleagues, accordingly 
31 Oct. embarked in the " Zeehond," under the command of Cap- 
tain Cornells Ewoutsen.f 

In the mean time, Bhode Island, which did not belong 

13 Aug. to the New England confederation, had passed laws for the 

Rhode isi- (jgfgj^gg Qf ti^Q colon}', in case it should be attacked by the 

Dutch. On receiving the answer of Evertsen and Binckes, 

27 August. Connecticut summoned a meeting of the commissioners of 

Connect- ^hc United Colonies at Hartford. A " remonstrance" was 

•="'• there adopted, recommending each confederate to take care 

for its own defense, and to aid any other which might be 

^ Sept. first invaded. Plymouth did not see satisfactory grounds 

1 yraouti. £^^, ^ ^^^^^ upon the Dutch at New York " without express 

command" of tlie king, or the actual invasion of a New 

• CoUDoc.,ii., C45,647; Wood, 00, 97; Thompson, i., 154, 155; anjc, 217. 
t Col. Doc, ii., 64S, G41, C54 ; 'VTool, 07 ; ante, 21S. 


England colony. Massaclinsetts, characteristically selfish, chap. v. 
notwithstanding the appeal of Southampton, " did not judge 
it expedient to engage" in the matter further than to pro- 3^3^ ' 
\-ide for her own safety. This was owing, not to love of fiassachu- 
the Dutch, or hatred of the Duke of York, but to an ever- 
controlling thirst for individual aggrandizement. At this 
very time, Captain Cleyborne, of the English frigate Gar- 
land, being at Boston, offered to retake New York with his 
own ship, if Massachusetts would assist him with some sail- 
ors, soldiers, and provisions. But the General Court would 
do so only on condition that " the conquest might be added 
to Massachusetts ; and if that were refused, it would rather 
that Manhattan remained in possession of the Dutch than 
that it should be put into the hands of Colonel Lovelace, 
the former governor." At the same time, upon the petition 
of John Payne, to whom a large tract had been granted, 
the Court ordered "■ the running of their southern line to hf oct. 
Hudson's River." But this attitude of Massachusetts did to^te ruZ 
her no good at Whitehall.* 

Connecticut, however, yearned after Long Island. How- 
ell, Younge, and James, as representatives of the three east- 
ern towns, petitioned for " protection and government" M O'^*- 
against the Dutch, and were received with great favor at 
Hartford. Letters were sent to Plymouth and Massachu- ^^ Oct. 
setts, asking their concurrence ; upon favorable answers to 
which, the governor and some other magistrates of Connec- 
ticut were authorized " to protect the people of the east M Oct. 
end of Long Island, and to establish government amongst 
them." But the reply fi-om Boston was unsatisfactory. In 3 NoleV' 
cloudy words it intimated that Massachusetts was " igno- Jgt'l ^epeis 
rant of the extent" of the Connecticut patent, yet admitted ^oMecu- 
an obligation to aid the Long Island people, as Englishmen, 
against the Dutch, as a national enemy ; while the Hart- 
ford "claim of jurisdiction over them" was testil}' rejected. 22 October. 
Connecticut, nevertheless, commissioned Samuel Willys and 1 Novem. 

■' ' V ConDGCti- 

Captain Eitz John Winthrop to go to Long Island with cut sends 
necessary attendants ; treat with such Dutch lorces as Kionci-8 to 
they might find there ; and warn them that opposition and. 

♦ Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 562, 503; iii., 4S6, 4ST; R. I. Rec., ii., 4SS-500; Plymouth Col. Rce., 
v., ^?A ; X., 387 ; Mnss. Rec., iv. (ii.), 54S, S.'iS, 501, 5T0 ; Arnold, i., 3GC, 3G7 ; Clialinprs, i., 
4S3, 434: llutcli. Coll., 443; Mii.=3. IF. S. Coll., xsx.. 8C-SS, rC; ralfrey, ili , 121, 122, 304; 
ante, ISS, 21G. 




M'ould provoke the Hartford authorities to consider what 
the J were " nextly obliged to do."* 

The Connecticut magistrates also lectured " the com- 
|i Oct. mander of the Dutch forces at New York" for m-ging his 
^utTec^.''' majesty's subjects on Long Island to swear allegiance 
uo'ive. against the King of England, and threatened that if he 
persisted, the JSTew England colonies would attack him at 
" headquarters." These " animadversions" were sent to 
New Orange " by Mr. John Bankes," who was instructed 
to inform Colve how tender Connecticut was of the " effu- 
sion of Christian blood," yet how interested for her " dear 
neighbours, his Majestie's good subjects" on Long Island. 
26 October. Surprised at the insolent tone of this letter, Colve arrested 
oo^ve-T^n- ^^^ bearer, and replied to Winthrop that he could not be- 
swev. lieve such an " impertinent and absurd writing" came fi'om 
winthiop's him. Winthrop, in answer, complained of Bankes's deten- 
tion at New Orange, and declared that the letter he bore 
contained " very pertinent and needful premonitions for the 
preventing a confluence of evill consequences."t 

Unappalled by this peculiar rhetoric, Colve denied the 
/g Novem. right of Couuecticut to question his proceedings on Long Isl- 
pungent and, whcro the people would have peaceably taken the oaths 
retort. ^^ ^j^^ Dutcli " had uot souic evil-disposed persons gone from 
you and dissuaded them." He was in New Netherland, he 
added, " to maintain the right of their High Mightinesses 
and his Serene Iliglmess the Prince of Orange ;" and he 
would do it. The Dutch had always treated their enemies 
more humanely than the English, who had so barbarously 
used the " poor fishermen and farmers" on the island of 
Ter-Schelling. On his return to Hartford with this letter, 
Report of Bankes reported that Colve was " a man of resolute spirit 
about ' and passionate, that manageth the affaires now under his 
Nc J Neth- power SO as is not satisfactory to the people nor soldiers ; 
and tliat he is in expectation of strength from foreign 
parts, upon whose arrival he seems to be resolved to sub- 
due under his obedience what he can, not only on the isl- 
and, but he sayth he knowes not but he may have Hart- 
ford ere long.":}: 

* Col. Kcc. Conn., ii., 212-210, 503, 504 ; Col. Doc, ii., 656 ; Col. MSS., xxiii., 281 ; Wood's 
Long Island, OG; Palfrey, iii., 121, 122. 
t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 21C, 504, 505 ; Col. Doc., ii., 051, C52, 000. 
t Col. Doc, ii., OGO, 001 ; Col. KfC. Ci.nn., ii.,505 ; an'e, 125. On the ISth of Jl.ny, 1C75, 




After a boisterous voyage through the Sound, Colve's cuap. v. 
commissioners meanwhile met, near Plum Gut, the vessel 
conveying Willys and A¥inthrop to Long Island, which 27 octobeV 
struck its colors to the Dutch. The Connecticut officei"s, c Novcm. 

■IT 1 ^ • l^ • • - New Nctli- 

on coming on board and producing their commissions, criand 
were com-teously treated, and the Dutch, on their side, 8U)"e.^"'ttt 
showed them their own papers. Both parties then landed ^°"'^°'''- 
on Long Island, Steenwyck and his colleagues spending the 
night with Sylvester. The next morning the commission- ^^ October. 
ers on both sides rowed up to Southold. A large force 
was in arms. Steenwyck desired the inhabitants to be 
summoned ; but the Connecticut officers urged the people Foued by 
to remain faithful to the King of England. Upon this, necticuT 
Moore, who had been named a magistrate of Southold, 
declined the Dutch appointment ; and Arnold, although 
already sworn as sellout, declared that he had resigned 
liis office, because his neighbors threatened to plunder his 
liouse. Seeing that they could now do nothing at South- 
old, Colve's commissioners left the village, intending to go to ^o October. 
Southampton. But, jfinding that they would " be unable to heturn'to 
effect any thing, and rather do more harm than good," they ange. '' 
came back to New Orange with an unsatisfactory report."^"^ 

On the return of Willys and Winthrop, Connecticut, con- 
sidering the condition of her " dear countrymen upon Long 
Island, their further motion for assistance, and the late at- 
tempts of their enemy the Dutch upon them," determined 
to send them help ; and commissioned Captain Fitz John M Govern. 
Winthrop " to be sergeant major over the military forces of cuTibrMs 
his majesty's subjects on Long Island." Accordingly, ad- southoid. 
venturers were raised at Stonington and New London, and 
hurried across the Sound to Southold.f 

Meanwhile " the Dutch interest" in New Netherland was 
hoping that Van Ruyven would do much for them in theyanRuy- 
fatherland. But Van Ruyven returned unexpectedly to ^•recked''' 
New Orange, reporting that the snow " Expectatie," in ^eT or'" 
which he embarked, had been wrecked near Nantucket, ""se- 
Ewoutseu was dispatched thither with the Zeehond, to bring Kwouuen 
back the disabled vessel, but not to damage any New En- Nantucket. 

the Connecticut General Court granted Bankcs " forty ehillings towards his expences, when 
he was detained in Yorke, in the year seventy three:" Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 253. 

' Col. Doc, ii., 654-C5S ; Wood, 97 ; Thompson, i., 155 ; Palfrey, iii., 124 : ante, -il", 218. 

t Ma.s9, II. S. Coll., XXX., S?, 91 ; I'alfrey, iii., 125; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 21G. 



cuAP. V. gland craft, unless tlie Expectatie bad been captured ; in 
wbicli case be was to take or destroy all Eno;lisb vessels, 
is T " wbencesoever tbey may be." Ewoutsen reported tbat tbe 
nIw En- ' Expectatie bad been taken by an Englisb privateer, com- 
fefs^cap-^" manded by Joseph Dudson, and carried to Boston ; and 
*''^^^^' that, according to bis orders, be bad brougbt into New Or- 
ange four New England trading ketcbes. Tbese vessels 
were detained " provisionally under arrest," and tbeir mas- 
^1 Novem. tcrs Were sent to Rbode Island witb a letter from Colve to 
Le^^erett, asking tbat tbe crew of tbe Expectatie migbt be 
allowed to return unmolested from Boston. Upon f urtber 
Condemn- Consideration, tbe New England prizes were confiscated as 
?fl Novem. l^elonging to "subjects of England actually in open war 

against our state."^^ 

pyovem. Tbese spirited Dutcb reprisals waked up New England. 

Threats of Massacliusctts demanded tbe release of its coasters, and 

setts. tbreatened, otberwise, " a full reparation by force of arms." 

^ Decern. Colve replied tbat Massacbusetts bad seized a Dutcb vessel 

^ovesre- ^^^^ carried it to Boston, before any tbing bad been done 

by New Netberland to ber prejudice; and tbat, in future, 

Massacbusetts sbould employ as messengers " honorable 

people, and no spies."t 

Connecticut now proposed to Massachusetts a " prevent- 
1 D^clm"' ^^^ expedition" against New Netberland, offering a "pro- 
portionable conjunction and compliance." Massachusetts 
^ Decern, determined " that God doth call them to do something in 
a hostile way for their own defence," fitted out a ship and 
Action of a ketch, and impressed soldiers. But, as Dudson had seized 
rat°and'" the Dutch vcsscl at Nantucket, which was " without tbe ju- 
Massachu- j-igf^j^tion of tlfis court," and had acted under a letter of 
marque from tbe king, and not from Massacbusetts, it was 
thought " not convenient to proceed to a judication" of the 
Jf Decern, prize. Plymouth resolved that tliere was "just ground of 
a war," and tbat she should do her utmost against the 
Dutch in New Netberland. But Rhode Island, not belong- 
ing to tbe New England Confederation, took no action.:}: 

This state of war obliged Colve to adopt more severe 
measures toward strangers, especially Englisb. Francis 

• Col. Doc, ii., 520, 532, 0.53, 662, 663, 604 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 565 ; M.iss. Rcc, iv. (ii.), 
573, 57-1 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 103 ; ante, 221. t (^ol. Doc, ii., 067, 66S. 

t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 216-220, 555, 556 ; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii ), .')72, 573, 574 ; Plymouth Rec, 
v., 135, 136; N. Y. Col. Doc.,ii.,003; Palfrey, iii.,9S, 122, 125; R.I. Utc, iii., 508-515. 


Beado, an Englishman, had been convicted, on his own con- chai-. v. 
fession, of designino; to burn the village of Fordham, and 
had been sentenced to be l^randed and banished from New oA; 

2S Noveni. 

Netherland for twenty-live years. In addition to the pre- suecem. 
vious order of 11th September, a proclamation was now is- vigorous 
sued requiring all strangers who had not taken the oath of nie^m-es. 
allegiance to leave the province at once, and forbidding all ^a ^«<=e'"- 
persons, not inhabitants and subjects, to come within the 
government without proper passports. The inhabitants 
were also forl^idden to harbor such strangers, or hold any 
correspondence with the people of New England and all 
other actual enemies ; and all letters to or from such per- 
sons were to be sent to the provincial secretary's office for 

Colve also appointed Captain William Knyff, of the in- A Tieccm. 
f antry in Fort Willem Ilendrick, to be " Fiscal and Con- cai of New 
servator of the Laws" in New Netherland. It was a revival land. 
of the office, held last by De Sille, under Stuyvesant ; the 
duties of which were to promote the peace and prosperity 
of the province, maintain the jurisdiction of the home gov- 
ernment, prosecute all offenders, and to take care " that good 
law and justice be administered, without respect of persons, 
in all courts of justice within this province, according to the 
laudable custom, laws, and ordinances of our Fatherland."t 

Colve now visited Midwout, where he had invited the x^, Dcccm. 
magistrates of the Dutch towns on Long Island to meet Fhtinr^h, 
him. lie informed them of the preparations making in wout! " 
New England, and recommended the towns to send grain 
to New Orange, repair thither whenever summoned, keep 
a good watch, and send horsemen occasionally to observe 
what was doing in the English towns. Steenwyck, Van 
Kuyven, and Van Brugh were directed to examine the 
houses in the cit}', and report what accommodation could 
be given to " outside people" seeking refuge from the ene- 
my. The toAvns in Sellout Lawrence's district, and Bergen, 
Ilacrlem, and Fordham, were also enjoined fidelity and vig- 53 Deccm. 

* Col. Doc, ii., fiG5, CGG ; ante, 222. 

t Col. Doc, ii., C6S, 009 ; ante, vol. i., 1C4, 411, 532, 622. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 609, 670, 672, 673. The burRomastcra of the city, anxious for its safety, 
were alarmed that the frigate Surinam had left the harbor on the 2d of December, contrary to 
the promise of Evertscn and Binckcs, ante, 221, and, on calling on Colvc, were informed 
that he could not and would not explain his reason?, but that " with or without the ship 


cuAP. V. The city fortifications being nearly completed, at " exces- 
'^^ sive expense, trouble, and labor of the burghery and inhab- 
J: itants," resrulations were made to secure the place. At sun- 

nIw Or- down the gates were to be closed, and the burgher watch 
Ta^fons!""" set ; and no other person was to approach the batteries un- 
til sunrise. No one could enter or depart, except through 
vandewa- tlic city gate, on pain of death. Jacobus van de Water was 
major™ appointed town major of New Orange and auditor of its 
court-martial. The commissioned officers of the city mili- 
tia were Captains Cornelis Steenwyck, Martin Kregier, 
Militia offi- Johannes van Brugh, and ^gidius Luyck, Lieutenants Wil- 
liam Beekman, Jacob Kip, Christopher Hooghland, and 
Nicholas Bayard, and Ensigns Gabriel Minvielle, Stephanus 
van Cortlandt, and Gelyn Yerplanck. They were thanked 
by tiie governor for the zeal they had shown in fortifying 
New Orange, and assured that the States General would 
not fail to " take the greatest interest in the preservation 
and prosperity of the city." But the event did not justify 
Colve's too ready words.* 

Following the laudable practice of the fatherland, the 
^ Novera. govemor issued a proclamation that, as the province was 
and ° now blessed with " the free and pure worship of God," and 
ing°da|r' other mercies, the fii'st Wednesday in each month should 
oideied. 1^^ observed in New Netherland as " an universal day" of 
fasting, humiliation, and thanksgiving, on which all labor, 
gaming, or excess in drinking was strictly prohibited.f 

On the Delaware the Provincial Instruction was readily 
enforced by Sellout Alrichs, and magistrates were estab- 
lished at the Hoarkill. Captain John Carr, who had gone 
to Maryland, was allowed to settle himself in New Nether- 
land, if he took the oath of allegiance ; but if he refused, 
his estate was to be seized. As several Marylanders had 
^jj xovem. lately committed aggressions on the Delaware settlers, 
affair! Colvc iuvitcd thc sutt'crers to New Orange, and directed 
all the inhabitants there to obey the orders of Alrichs.:}: 

aforesaid, he Rhould not undertake nnr expciite any thing except what his Honor shotild con- 
sider perviceahlo and cxprdicnt for the fort, the city, and thc burghery :"' New Orange Rcc, 
vii., 72; Val. Man., 1S50, Q-22. The Surinam was back again in harbor in January, 1CT4: 
Col. Doc., il., 6S2. 

* Col. Doc, ii., C70, C71, G74, C75, C77, C7S; Val. Man,, 1S50, 52D. Moulton, 7, 8, 11, 12, 21, 
mistakes the ofBce of Van de Water for mayor, instead of major, of New Orange. The mus- 
ter-roll of ("aptain Ptocnwyck's com;)any, of which Bayard was lieutenant and Minvielle en- 
sign, is in Val. Man., 1S.'50, 424, 425. t Col. Doc., ii.,C5S; Val. Man., 1S50, 521. 

X Col.Doc.,ii., 697,622,032, 059, 603, 672,073,078; Col.MSS.,xxiv.,'.)7; S. Ilazard,409,410. 


In Achter Col, or New Jersey, Colve's instruction was cuap. v. 
cheerfully obeyed. Bergen enacted some local regulations. 
At an assembly called by Sellout Ogden at Elizabethtown, j, ' 
several ordinances were adopted, much milder than the En- Achter coi, 
glisli laws. Before approving them, Colve had them trans- sey. 
lated into the Dutch language. Weary of their distractions ^« ' "^'^"^ 
under the government of Berkeley and Carteret, the people 
of Xew Jersey welcomed the regained authority of the 
Republican Netherlands.* 

The Esopus officers were confirmed by the governor ; o October, 
among whom were Cornelis AVynkoop, Roeloff Kierstede, fairs. 
Wessel Tenbroeck, and Jan Burhans, of Swanenburg, or 
Kingston ; and Louis du Bois, Roeloff Ilendricksen, Jan 
Joosten, and Jan Broersen, of Hurley and Marbletown ; 
and Captain Albert Ileymans, who had been prominent in 
the riot of 1G67. William la Montague was made secreta- 
ry of the three towns, and Isaac Grevenraet their sellout, in 
place of William Beekman, who had removed to New Or- 
ange. Two brass guns, useless at Swanenburg, were order- y oct. 
ed to be sent down to the metropolis, " as the same are re- 
quired here."t 

Schenectady was made subordinate to Willemstadt ; and ^'^^y"^,'^'' ' 
Anthonia van Curler was allowed an extension of the priv- wiiiem- 
ilege which had been granted by Lovelace. As New France scuenecta- 
was now hostile to New Netherland, Commander Draeyer 
was directed to " stop all correspondence with the Jesuit, f „ Novcm. 
and Frenchmen from Canada, whether runaways or oth- 
ers." He was again instructed to observe all military pre- ^f xovom. 
cautions at Fort Nassau ; not to confide in any French from ^/dTi^" 
Canada ; and " to break off all correspondence with the 
Jesuit, but to excuse himself in a courteous manner.":}: 

The Jesuit missionaries had meanwhile been active 
among the Iroquois. Bruyas, at Tionnontoguen, or Saint Brupsana 
Mary's, and Boniface, at Caglmawaga, or Saint Peter's, among the 
labored among the Mohawks. Although the smallest of ' ° '*" 
the Iroquois villages, Caglmawaga was esteemed by the 
Jesuits, like ancient Judah by the Israelites, as the greatest 
of all their stations. Prayer was offered there as constantly 

• Col. Doc, ii., G21, 633, 043, 65S, 6^3, "OC, 714. 726 ; -Whitehead, Gl, Gi. 
t Co!. Poc, ii.,62'2, 626, 627, 629, 030, 044, 646, 649, 650; Esopus Records; Warr., OrJ., 
Paase?, iii., 147 ; ante, 123, 157, 21S. 
t Col. Doc, ii., 652, 653, 654, 059, 662, 675 ; Council Minute?, iii., 120 ; ante, 21S, 224. 


cuAP. V. " as in the best regulated families of France." Yet, while 
~ zealous Mohawk converts paraded their chaplets in the 
' Dutch churcli at Albany, the Jesuit missionaries mistrusted 
their fi-equent visits to the " heretics," and lamented their 
"wretched peace" with the Mahicans, which, by making 
the paths safe, enabled the Iroquois to get brandy to their 
hearts' content. The most interesting incident was the de- 
parture of a number of Mohawks to the mission at the 
Prairie de la Madeleine, near Montreal, This settlement 

icniigra- had rcccived its first Iroquois accessions from Oneida, 

ndafi-om whosc chicf, Garouliiague, or "Za cemlre chaude^ became 
'^^ ' a catechist. While on a visit there, Kryn, or " the Great 
Mohawk," had become converted by Fremin ; and, on his 
return to Caghnawaga, so moved the village that forty Mo- 
hawks, with their squaws and children, went back with him 
to the Prairie. Their brethren at Tionnontoguen, "who 
were not yet disposed to embrace the faith," complained to 
Bruyas of the " black robes, who seemed to wish to make 
their country a desert and ruin their villages." The health 
of Boniface, however, soon failed ; and he returned to Que- 

12 June, bee to die — conducting "a great party" of converts, and 
leaving Bruyas alone, in charge of both the Mohawk sta- 
tions. The intervals of missionary labor were employed 
by the Iroquois superior in preparing his immortal dic- 
tionary of the Indian tongue.* 

Millet became so popular at Oneida that he persuaded 

Millet at many proselytes to renounce the invocation of Agreskoue. 
But he was much embarrassed by the efforts of the Hol- 
landers against the Jesuits, " since they had retaken Man- 
hattan and Orange, and driven out the English." In an 
interesting letter to Dablon, at Quebec, Millet described 
an eclipse of the moon on the 21st of January, 1674, which 
he had foretold, much to the amazement of the savages.f 

Umber- At Onondaga, John de Lainbcrville was cheered by some 

Onondaga, ucw couverts. But liis flock was diminished by several 

• Relation, lC72-.n,33-r)6; 1CT3-0, 140, 142, 143-151, 175, 177; Doiiniol's Miss. Can. ,i., 4-21, 
179-130, 235-239, 279-293, 315, 340; ii.,10; Shea, 2C9-272, 298, 299; Cliarlevoi.v, ii., 233, 
ibl^ 354, 357; Col. Doc., ix., 3.'S2, 474 ; ante, 190-192. I find no antliority for tlic statement 
in the note in Col. Doc., ix., 720 (repeated in N. V. Senate Doc, 11.5, April 10, 1SG3), that 
IJruyas was among the Senecas in 1(i73. He certainly wrote from Tionnontoguen, by Boni- 
face, to Frontenac, on 12th June of that year : Col. Doc, ix., 792 ; Donniol, i., 345. 

t Relation, 1072-;!, 55-C5; lG7.'!-9, 140 ; Douniol, i., 22-30, 175-177, 239-25G; Charlevoix, 
ii., 26S ; Shea, 27G, 262 ; ante, 178, 181, 191. 


proselytes from their native " Babylon," who went to live cuap. v. 
at the more attractive Prairie de la Madeleine. Carheil, 
at Cayuga, had little to break the monotony of his station f-^heiuu 
except the baptism of three Andaste prisoners before they ^'=iy"e-'- 
were bnrned by their Irocpiois conquerors." 

Among the Senecas, Garnier had charge of Saint Michael Gamier 
and Saint James, while Raffeix labored at Conception, at uie sen- 
Wanting assistance, the lonely Jesuits applied to Dablon, ^'^'^^' 
and Pierron was sent to their aid, who took care of Saint 
James. After leaving the Mohawks in 1G71, Pierron re- Pierron in 
turned to Quebec, and from thei*e went to Acadia, where ncw En- 
he spent the winter of 1673. Thence he wandered over Maryian'd. 
New England, Maryland, and Yirginia, finding nothing 
"but desolation and abomination among those heretics." 
At Boston he was " much esteemed," although suspected 
of Jesuitism, because of " the uncommon knowledge which 
he exhibited." Pierron offered to establish a mission 
among the Maryland savages, " whose language he knew." 
But Dablon, scrupulous not to allow a Canadian mission- 
ary to interfere with the " English Fathers" in Maryland, 
ordered Pierron to assist Garnier and Paifeix among the senecal*''^ 

During the winter the Jesuit missionaries had reported 
to Frontenac that the Iroquois were not well disposed to- 
ward the French. The new Onnontio therefore resolved Frontc- 
to make a pompous visit to Lake Ontario, and impress the to Laue" 
savages with the power of Canada. lie built two ba- ' ' 

teaux similar to that of Com'celles, but of a peculiar model, 
each carrying sixteen men with their provisions, and each 
mounted with small cannon, and painted "in a fashion 
unlike any thing seen before in the whole country.":}: 

To disarm the suspicions of the Iroquois, Frontenac dis- 
patched La Salle, who was well acquainted with them, and 
had just returned from the West, to invite the five nations 
to meet him at Quinte Bay toward the end of June. On 
his way from Quebec to Montreal, as he was passing the ^^ ^^^ 
Cap de la Madeleine, the governor is stated to have met a june. 

* Relation, 1GT2-3, C5-10S ; 1G73-9, 143-14G, 152 ; Douniol, i., 30-02, 2DG-2CS, 317 ; ii., 11 ; 
Shea, 2S3, 2S9. 

t Relation, 1072-3, 108-114 ; 1073-9,140; Douniol, i., C3-CS, 2GS-27S ; ii.,S, 9,10, 11, 12, 
44 ; Sliea, 2GS, 292 ; ante, 178, 192. 

t C.l. Doc, is., 91, 95, 90; Faillon, iii., 450-470; a7i^c, ISO, 193. 


cuAP. V. Dablon, the superior of the Jesuits, who informed him that 
~ he had learned from the Indians that some Dutch ships 

* had captured Manhattan ; and that it was to be feared that 
they might blockade the Saint Lawrence, or even attack 
Quebec. But Frontenac, " seeing no foundation for this 
intelligence," continued his route, requesting Dablon not to 
di\-ulge the news ; at the same time taking precautions for 
the safety of Quebec and Tadoussac* 

l^ June. Frontenac started from La Chine with one hundred and 
twenty canoes and four hundred men, and ascended the 
Saint Lawrence with " incredible labor," fifty men being 
required to drag each heavy bateau up the rapids. On 
his way he saw " the most delightful country in the world." 
^ '^""'^- At leno-th he arrived at " a iioint at the head of all the 
i-aGaiette, rapids," Called "La Galette"t which the Sieur la Valterie 

cr Frcscott. 

* had previously chosen for a magazine of provisions. Here 
the governor received letters from La Salle, informing him 
that two hundred leading Iroquois had gone to meet him 

• at Quinte. This obliged him to send the Sulpitian Abbes 
Fenelon and D'Urfe thither, to ask them to come twenty 
leagues nearer, at Cataracouy, which he judged to be the 
best place for the establishment which Courcelles had pro- 
posed. Passing Otondiata and the " vast group of Islands 
with which the river is studded," Frontenac reached the 
opening of Lake Ontario, and arranged his flotilla in order 

i^juiy. of battle. Here he met D'Urfe, who had overtaken the 

Iroquois on their way to Quinte, and caused them to turn 

back. The French flotilla followed them " to the mouth 

Frontenac of the River Cataracouy, into a bay about a cannon shot 

wuy. "^ from the entrance, which forms one of the most beautiful 

and agreeable harbors in the world ;" and Frontenac was 

* Col. Doc, ix., 97, 9S; ante, 1V9. This is a pulpnble anacliionism. New York was re- 
captured by tlie Dutch on tlie 30th of July, or 9th of August, 1073 (ante, 20S), which was 
eight or nine weeks after Dablon is said to have reported it to the governor at the Cap de 
la Madeleine! It seems that Frontenac got his first information in a letter from Lamber- 
ville, dated at Oswego, on the 30th of August, or 9th of September, 1C73, and dispatched by 
La Salle, who, he states, was "in haste to depart, to carry the news of the reconquest of 
Manhattan and Orange by the Hollanders, and of the current rumour that they have twen- 
ty ships of war about to sail for (Juebec :" Douniol, i., 347, 34S ; 2iosr^ 239, 240. 

t " La Galette" (the meaning of which French word is a flat cake, familiar to Pari.'^ian.-) 
seems to have been what i.s now called Wind-mill Point, a little below Prcscott, in Canad.\ 
West, the scene of one of the " patriot" movements in 1S3S : compare Col. Doc, ix., 77, 101, 
114, 195, 241, 3S1 ; (Jharlevoix, v., 2Sl-2Sfl, and Map ; (ient. Mag., xxvii., 74, Map ; Hough's 
Saint Lawrence, 41, 4C; Barber and Howe's N. V. Coll., 4S8. The name, however, was aft- 
erward transferred to Fort Presentation at Oswegatchie or Ogdensburg: see Smith, i.,C9, 
note; Col. Doc, vii., 136,673; x., 349; Doc. Hist.,!., 2S1, and Sauthicr's Map annexed. 


"enraptured at finding a spot so well adapted for his cuAr.v. 

The next day Frontenac received the Iroquois with _^ ' " 
great pomp in front of his tent, called them his " children," ^■' 
and named a day for solemn conference. In the mean 
time the Sieur Kendin traced out a fort, and the troops Fort tmccd 
worked at it with good will. At the appointed time Fron- /^ juiy. 
tenac told the Five Nations that the Jesuits labored only to i^u'ifTh "''^ 
teach them, and should be respected ; that Onnontio had ^'■°''"°'^ 
proved his power by coming up all the rapids with ba- 
teaux carrying cannon; that he now ratified the treaties 
made by his predecessors ; and he urged his " children" to 
let tlicir 3'outh learn the French tongue, promising to com- 
municate with them either through the missionaries, or by 
some '" person of character" like La Salle. The Iroquois The iro- 
"appeared highly gratified that Onnontio had, at the first ed^cwi-' 
and second audience, addressed them as Children, and 
thereby had bound himself to act towards them as a Fa- 
ther; the other Onnontios not having made use of that 
mark of authority, and they having never consented to be 
addressed otherwise than as Brothers." They expressed tb J"iy 
their joy at the establishment of a French fort at Catara- iioquoi^. 
couy ; yet they lamented the conquests of the French in 
Holland, and the ruin of the Dutch, who " had been friend- 
ly with them."f At the same time, they wished Frontenac 
to assist them against the Andastes, " the sole enemies re- 
maining on their hands." This, however, the governor 
waived ; and the Five Nations j^romised to consider his 
proposition in regard to their children learning French. 

The fort was soon completed ; and, after settling its gar- 
rison, Frontenac returned to Montreal, delighted that he i August. 
had accomplished his enterprise without any accident, and 
by the resources of Canada alone, without any aid from 
the court. Not long afterward La Salle came back from .j><cptem.' 
Oswego with a letter from Lamberville, reporting the re- 

• Col. Doc., ix., 91, 9S-103, 702 ; x., 349 ; Douniol, i., 17>, 240, 250, 348; Chai-levoix, ii., 
245 ; antr, ISO, 193. The adnih'able situation of Kingston, in Canada West, well dcseiTsa 
the prait-e bestowed by i's founder, Frontenac. But in ITOS, D'Aigremont reported to 
Pontcliartrain that La Gnlette would be a much better place for the fort than riontenac: 
Col. Doc, ix.,S22; and C;harIevoix adopted this opinion when he visited Cataracouy in 
1721 : Charlevoix, v., 2S1,2S2. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 110. It is clear from this that Frontenac could not yet have heard the 
news of the recapture of New York by the Dutch, referred to on the previous page. 


cuAP. Y. capture of New York by the Dutch, and their proposed at- 

' tack of Quebec. La Salle was immediately appointed gov- 

La saue Gruor of " Fort Frontenac," at Cataracouy, an interesting 

governor detail of the establishment of which was sent to Colbert.* 

of "Fort . 

Frontc- Jn hig lettcrs liomc, i^rontenac dwelt upon the mter- 

^j xovem. meddhng of the Jesuits with the Kecollets. Colbert, in 
reply, instructed him to form towns and villages in Cana- 
IGT-i. da, rather than prosecute distant discoveries, unless they 
/^May. should opcu a nearer way to France than through the 
Saint Lawrence. At the same time, he expressed surprise 
Population that the population of Canada was only six thousand seven 
-4-^Novfm. hundred souls.f Frontenac answered that his expedition 
to Lake Ontario had made the L-oquois friendly, and in- 
sured the safety of the Jesuit missionaries among them. 
But the only way to build up Canada was to follow the 
example of her neighbors at Manliattan and Orange. The 
Jesuits only endeavored " to instruct the Lidians, or rather 
to get beavers, and not to be parish priests to the French." 
But the Franciscans or Kecollets, who, under the Father 
TheRecoi- Gabriel de la Ribourde, were now transferred from 
taracouy!'" Quintc to Cataracouy, were laboring with great zeal, and, 
if more numerous, " would assuredly do wonders in the 

Li the mean time the exploration of the Mississippi had 

been partially accomplished. After spending the winter 

at Mackinaw, Jolliet and Marquette left Green Bay in 

1G73. June, 1673, ascended the Fox Biver, crossed the portage 

to the Wisconsin, down which they drifted in their birch 

^june. canoes until they reached the Great River, which the fa- 

Mai'qiiette tlicr callcd " tlic Couccption," while his fellow-adventurer 

up^poTmIs- wished to name it " the Colbert." Following its current, 

si3sippi. ^i^^y passed the mouth of the muddy " Pekitanoui," or 

Missouri, and then that of the limpid " Ohio," which Bru- 

yas — who literally translated its Mohawk name — called 

"The Beautiful River." Having reached the mouth of 

• Col. Doc, ix., 103-114, 122, 211, 702; Quebec MSS.,ii. (ii.), 291 ; Douniol, i., 347, 34S; 
Ganieau, i., 112; Hennepin's Louisiana, 5, G; Slica, 2S3; Discovery of the Mississippi, xxxiv. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 8S, 05, 115, IIG, 702 ; (^icbec MSS., ii. (ii.), 291 ; ante, vol. i., 67. The 
population of New Netherland at this time was estimated to bo from six to seven thousand, 
and that of New Kngland about one hundred and twenty thousand : Col. Doc, ii., 52(3, 503 ; 
Chalmers, i., 4.14. 

t Col. Hoc, ix., 05, 120, 121, 7'."3 ; Quebec MS>!., ii. (ii.), 57 ; Charlevoix, ii., 257 ; Sparks's 
I^a Salle, IG; Slioa'd Missions, 412; Discovery of the Mississippi, 85, 89, 169; ante, 149, 109, 
170, 191. 


the Arkansas, and satisfied themselves that the Mississippi cbkt. v. 
eini^tied into the Gulf of Mexico, the explorers returned by ~ 
way of the Illinois River to Chicago, and thence to Green ^ ' 
Bay, having traveled nearly tliree thousand miles. Leav- ^' 
ing Marquette at Green Bay, Jolliet went homeward as far septem. 
as Maclcinaw, accompanied by a young savage, who had 
been given him by tlie chief of the Illinois, and spent the 
winter there. Early the next spring he came down to Fort 1674. 
Frontenac, where he communicated his discoveries to La 
Salle, who was in command of the post. In descending 
the Saint Lawrence, Jolliet safely passed all the rapids un- 
til he reached the Sault Saint Louis, just above Montreal, 
where his canoe was overturned, all his papers lost, hisjuiy. 
young Ilhnois companion drowned, and his owni life barely 
saved after a four hours' struggle with the waters. 

Nevertheless, Jolliet was able to prepare from memory a Joiuefs 
map and a narrative of his marvelous iourney. From these narrative. 

. . 22 July 

materials Dablon compiled a "Relation," which he dis- ^ August. 
patched to the superior general of the Jesuits at Paris. 
Not long afterward Jolliet was rewarded by a grant of the 
island of Anticosti. By the Ottawa flotilla Dablon re- 
ceived copies of Marquette's journal and map, wliich he Mar- 
forwarded to France. Frontenac also sent to Colbert tlie joumai 
map and narrative of Jolliet, who had discovered an inland "i Novcm. 
navigation from Lake Ontario to the Gulf of Mexico, with re'cTm-"'"^ 
only a short portage ; and therefore he suggested that a p^Jifch* 
French settlement should be made at Nias-ara, and a bark i'^*** *' ^''- 

o J ^ agara. 

be built on Lake Erie. Tliis idea was no doubt originated 
by La Salle, who had seen Jolliet at Cataracouy, fresh 
from his Mississippi voyage, and who was now out of em- 
ployment. La Salle therefore resolved to return to France Lasaiiere- 
to plead his own cause witli the king ; and Frontenac cheer- France, 
fully recommended him as " tlie most capable for all the 
enterprises of discovery."* 

• Col. Doc, vi., 532, 545, 610 ; ix, HS, 119, 121, 122, 211, 21G, 3S3, CCS, TOG, 787, 703, SS6; 
Quebec MSS., ii. (ii.), 57; La Potherie, ii., 131 ; Douniol's Miss. Can., i., 193-204; ii., 5, 6, 241- 
330; Faillon, iii., 312-315,472; Charlevoix, ii., 248-250; Hist. Mag., v., 237-230; Henne- 
pin's Louisiana, 6, 13; New Di.scovor>-, 303-300; Sparks's La Salle, and Marquette; Ban- 
croft, iii., 155-lGl; Garneau, i., 232-237; Shea's Disc, of the Mi.esissippi, xxvii.-x.xxiv., 
Ixxv., Ixxx., 4-52, S3, 84; and Catholic Missions, 405, 406, 435-437; ante, 1G3, 104. The 
copy of Marquette's Journal which Dablon sent to Paris was published by TheTonot, with 
curtailments, in ICSI. An English translation was issued in IfiOS, annexed to Hennepin's 
"New Discovery," 306-349 ; and another in Dutch is contained in vol. xxviii. of Van der 
Aa's Collection of 1707. Another copy of Marquette's Journal was prepared for publication 

II.— Q 


Chap. V. While the dominion of France was thus indefinitely ex- 
tended by her adventurous sons over the interior of North 
* America, that of Holland over a modest space of its sea- 
board was firmly maintained by her patriotic children. 

15 Jan. The metropolis of New Netherland was brought more 
nn^ af." directly under the governor's authority by a " Provisional 

Instruction," which, among other things, authorized the 
Fiscal Knyff to preside over the court of Schout, Burgo- 
masters, and Schepens. The city magistrates rebelled at 

16 Jan. this ; but, upon Colve's threat to dismiss them and convoke 

the burghers to nominate others, they yielded, under a 


To provide for the " excessive expenses" of the city for- 
1 Febr'y. tificatious, Colvc Icvicd a tax on the estate of each citizen 

of New Orange worth over one thousand guilders. Com- 
19 Febr'y. rnissioncrs were accordingly appointed, and lists made out 

Tax for the o »/ x j, / 

city fortifi- of thc property of " the most affluent inhabitants ;" which 
amounted to upwards of five hundred and twenty thousand 
guilders. But as it would take time to collect this tax, 

17 March, cacli burglicr assessed more tlian fom* thousand guilders 

was ordered to " advance, by way of loan," the hundredth 
penny of his capital, " for such is deemed to be necessary 
for the public good." Of this forced loan Major Jacobus 

24 March, vau dc Water was appointed receiver.f 

The city of New Orange being now " capable (under 
God) of resisting all attacks of any enemies," the " out 

13 March, pcoplc" of thc neighboring villages were directed to hasten 
there with proper arms on the first notice of the coming of 
any hostile ships. The citizens were also forbidden to 

16 March, leavc towu witliout tlic consciit of their magistrates. The 

prccau- sloops "Sailing up the North Kiver to Esopus and Willem- 
stadt, and to the Delaware, were required to go in rota- 

by Dablon, which, however, was long buried, along with the original mnp, in thc archives 
of tlie Jesuit t'ollcgo at Quebec. In 1S44 they came into tlie handa of Father Felix Martin, 
by whom tlicy were intrusted to Mr. John G. Slica, who published a fac-similc of the mai) 
and a translation of the Journal in 1853. The originals were privately printed, with great 
elegance, in 1S55, by Mr. James I.cno.x. 'IMiey were also reprinted at Paris in ISGl, by I)ou- 
niol, in his " Mission du Canada," ii., 241-331. Copies of Jolliet's map and letter to Fronte- 
nac, made from thc originals at Paris, arc in the Library of the (;anadian I'arlianient at 
Quebec: see Catalogue (ed. 1S5S), p. 1015. Henri Martin, i., 491, insists that La Salle dis- 
covered the Mississippi before JoUict and Marquette : compare Gurncau, i., 236, 7tote; and 
Douniol, ii., 375 ; Faillon, iii., 313. 

• CoL Doc, ii, 678-6S1 ; Val. Man., 1S50, 523-527 ; n;ite,'212, 220, 233. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 685, 6SS, 6:)7, 609, 700, 701 ; Val. Man., 18.50, 52.5, 530; 1S51, 435; Moul- 
ton, 14, 15, IG ; Valentine's N. York, 319-330; aiilc, p. 234. The rate list Is in Col. Doc., ii., 
699, 700. 



tion, so as not to weaken the capital. In case an enemy cuap. v. 

should arrive, all vessels were to haul behind the f rio-ate ~ 

Surinam, " near the circular battery,"* 27 Marcb^ 

The to^vns on Long Island, with Bergen and Ilaerlem, 22 March. 
were also directed to send each a militia officer and magis- uonatNcw 
trate to a Convention in New Orange. Francis Bloodgood, ^'"''"se- 
one of the schepens of Flushing, Avas at the same time ap- 
pointed " chief officer" of the Dutch people of Flushing, 
Ileemstede, Jamaica, and Newtown, and charged with their 
military police. The Convention met accordingly, and ev- 2c March. 
ery precaution was taken to provide sufficient defense for 
the capital in case it should be attacked.f 

The governor's attention had meanwhile been drawn to 
affairs at the eastern end of Long Island. Provisions be- 
ing needed at the fort, Ewoutsen was ordered to receive Fcbr-y. 
them at Shelter Island from Sylvester, whose bond was 
now due. Some soldiers were sent along, in hope that the Dutch cx- 
refractory towns might be reduced to subjection. Mean- sheit'eTid. 
while Fitz John Winthrop had reached Southold with his '^"' ' 
Connecticut auxiliaries. On learning the approach of 
Colve's expedition, forces were hurried from Southamp- 
ton and Easthampton ; and it was determined not to hin- 
der the Dutch from obtaining what they wanted at Shelter 
Island, but only to defend Southold. Sylvester promptly ^\i^^J^' 
delivered his stipulated provisions to Ewoutsen. The next 
morning the Dutch flotilla ranged itself before Southold, 
and Sylvester was sent to demand the surrender of the En- 
"•lish, wlio were promised the same privilee-es with other ^^ Febr'y 

O ' X 1 o g March. 

towns in New Netherland, but were threatened, in case of Attempt to 
their refusal, " with fire and sword." lie was answered .southow 
that the Dutch commander would be received " as a per- 
son that disturbs His Majesty's subjects." Ewoutsen now 
ordered his boats to land, and a gun to be fired from his 
snow, the Zeehond, which did no harm. The fire was re- 
turned without effect. As the English were evidently too 
overpowering, it was thought absurd to attempt any thing 
farther ; and the Dutch flotilla (piietly returned to New 
Orange with the provisions for which it had come to Shel- 
ter Island safely on board.:}: 

• Col. Doc, ii., 005, 096, 007, 702 ; Val. Man., 1S50, 536, ."537 ; 1S51, 430, 440, 441 ; Moul- 

ton, 12 ; Wood, 97 ; Thompson, i., ir>C. t Col. Doc, ii., 103, .591, 701, 702 ; ante, 216. 

t Col.Doc.,ii.,5S3-500; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx ,91-94; Col. Rec. Conn., ii.,. '506,537; Wood. 


cuAr. V. Wiutlirop's conduct at Southold "was applauded by Con- 
necticut, wliicli directed him to continue " to assist and de- 
^ fend tlie people there 'till at least these present motions of 

cfnnecti-' the Dutcli bc ovcr." Application was also made to Massa- 
chusetts for a man-of-war " to cleare the coasts." But 
^ Mardi. Govcmor Leverctt replied tliat " the generall voague of the 
setts.'"^ '"' averseness of the people to ingage in any acts of hostility 
against the Dutch, occasions retardment of comeing to any 
conclusion tending thereto." The General Court, however, 
" after much and serious consideration of the condition of 
11 March, tlicse colouies," resolved to send out a vessel or two " to re- 
press the insolence of the Dutch in tlie Sound, who are, 
with an inconsiderable force there, triumphing to the 
amazement and affrightment of our friends." Connecti- 

14 March, cut was ad\'ised of this determination ; but no cruisers ap- 

pear to have .been dispatched from Boston.* 
3,4 March. It was uow rumored that the Kino; of Eng-land was 
about to retake 'New l^etlierland. Some vessels having 

15 April, arrived at Sandy Hook, Ewoutsen was dispatched to learn 

what they were, but '' not to imperil his snow." Soon aft- 
erward it was reported that peace had been made between 
Holland and England. Nevertheless, the property of in- 
j% Jiny. habitants of Kew England, Virginia, and Maryland found 
lonfaipropl within Ncw Xetherland, which had been excepted, was 
cltedi''"*'^' now confiscated. The Zeehond was also ordered to cruise 
in Long Island Sound, where Ewoutsen captured two Mas- 
sachusetts craft, and in Karragansett Bay a Plymouth 
ig May. sloop. • The prizes were brought to New Orange and con- 
denuied. But this was the last act of hostility between 
the Dutch and Englisli colonies in North America.f 
1673. The first intelligence of the reconquest of New York 
J* Oct. came to Holland by way of England. Michielsen, who 
had been sent home with dispatches from Binckes, was 

9, 97 ; Thompson, i., 155, 3GT, 36S ; Trumbull, i., 324, 325; Palfrey, iii., 125, 12G ; ante, 217, 
231. The Dutch Kecords (Col. Doc, li., CS8-707) do not mention this expedition, of which 
the reducing the towns at the east end of Long Island seems to have been " the chiefe part 
of their errand :" Mass. U. .S. Coll., xxx., 99, 100. 

• Mass. II. S. Coll., x.x.x., 95-r8 ; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 57G, 577; Palfrey, iii., 122, 120; 
ante, 229, 232. The vessels ordered by Mimsacluisetts for service in the Sound were the 
" Swallow," of 12 guns. Captain Richard .^prnpue, and the " Salisburv," of S guns, Captain 
Samuel Moseley : Mass. H. S. Cull., xxx., 100-102, 104. 

t Col. Doc, ii., Cll, 707, 710, 715, 710, 719, 725, 726, 727; iii., 208-212 ; Col. MS.?., xxiii , 
325; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 99, 104, 107; Col. lice. Conn., ii.,222; Moulton, 13; Palfrey, 
iii., 127 ; ante, 223. 


captured off Beacliy Head, and threw them overboard to cuap.v, 
prevent their being read by the Enghsh. The States Gen- ~ 
eral dehberated "what further ouijht to be done for the , ;r 
protection and preservation of the Colony of ]^ew Nether- Sews of the 
land." Upon the petition of merchants interested in the of ncw'^' 
colonial trade, the secret committee on foreign affairs was iifiio^ami. 
directed "to" dispose of the matter as they shall think |f|^.^^'-^j 
proper." Six wrecks afterward, on the receij^t of dispatch- Q°jjgr„|^ 
es from Binckes, the States General resolved " that the su- 
perintendence of New Netherland, and whatsoever apper- 
tains thereto, shall be committed, as it is hereby commit- 
ted, provisionally and until further order, to the Board of 
Admiralty at Amsterdam ; Ordering and commanding tlie is ceccm. 
inhabitants of New Netherland aforesaid, and the military 
who shall be sent thithei*, absolutely, and without any re- 
serve, to obey the orders which will be issued by or on be- 
half of the said Board, in their High Mightinesses' name : 
— That by Commission of their High Mightinesses, a prop- 
er person shall be sent thither, with the title of Governor 
or Commander, in order to clothe him with greater respect : 
— That the aforesaid Governor or Commander shall be 
chief and Supreme Ruler, botli in civil and in military af- 
fairs ; and that he shall by the aforesaid Commission, be 
instructed to obey the orders of said Board of Admiralty 
at Amsterdam : — That Joms Andringa, actually Secretary JoHs An- 
of the Provincial fleet, shall be appointed and commission- pointed' 
ed to said government or command, and tliat the necessar}^ >,w Neth- 
commission shall be expedited to him : — That the Captain 
and officers of the Companies to be sent thither shall be 
given in charge, as they are hereby enjoined, precisely and 
punctually, to obey all orders that ^vill be given them by 
said Board of Admiralty at Amsterdam."* 

By this action of the States General a regular govern- 
ment was established over New Netherland, and Joris An- 
drino;a took his place in her annals as the successor of An- 
thony Colve. The Amsterdam Board of Admiralty, after j^^,' 
considering Binckes's dispatches, determined that, as the runiiciac- 
entire province had been surrendered at discretion, all the land. 

• Col. Doc, ii., 527-531; Sylviu?, i\-., G60, CC5; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 103; ante, 213. 
Joris is the Dutch for Georpe. Andrinpca had formerly heen secretnr>- to De Riiyter, and 
had written interesting accounts of the liattle of Juno, ICGG, and of the Chatham expedition 
of Juno, 1CC7 : Casnage, i., 7S1, 805 ; ante, 124, l.'!4. 


cnAP.v. property of the Duke of York, or his officei-s, was good 
~ prize, and should be applied to the benefit of the state ; 
"' and that the governor of New Ketherland should be au- 
thorized to "maintain some neutrality" with the English 
colonies north and south of him, and even to make a treaty 
of commerce with them. These points were approved by 
the Prince of Orange and the States General, and were or- 
f f jan'y. dcrcd to be carried into effect by " Joris Andringa, Gov- 
ernor of New Netherland aforesaid."* 
]:xtraordi- Extraordinary vicissitudes have always marked the colo- 
SeVin' nial life of New York. Another epoch appeared to be 
huroiy?'"^ now opening in her history ; and many in her Dutch fa- 
therland looked forward to the establishment of their na- 
tion's power over the most important region in North Amer- 
ica. That region, they knew, had formerly languished 
under the selfish rule of the West India Company. Now 
they hoped it would flourish as the rose under the more 
Holland genial administration of the Dutch Eepublic itself. Mid- 
tain New way between the Koyalist and the Puritan colonies of En 
land. ' gland might grow up a valiant empire, to teach the world 
sublime lessons in civil liberty, religious freedom, and pa- 
triotic endurance. The descendants of the men who had 
first proclaimed the doctrine of " taxation only by con- 
sent;" w^ho had banished the Inquisition, and established 
in its place liberty of conscience ; and who were even 
now breasting the ruthless cohorts of France, could main- 
tain and extend in the Columbian world the principles and 
the virtues which distinguished the grandest " United" na- 
tion in Christendom. Instead of emigrating to Batavia, 
the children of Holland might follow tlie sun toward the 
west, and on the great " River of the Mountains" wliich 
their fatherland had discovered, could build uj) " the Ex- 
change of a wealthier Amsterdam, and the schools of a 
more learned Leyden."f 
1GT3. But these things were not to be. England must take 
decrecr"^!"- the place of Holland in America. The Dutch Republic 
fuccftcd" could not, single-handed, cope with France and Britain. 
Amotlcl'" Peace with the latter had become a necessity. William of 
Orange felt that, to secure the republic, Louis must be ef- 

• Col. Dop.,ii.,5r.5-5:i7; rtJiYr-, 212, 223. 

t A7itc, vol. i., 2t;4, 403, -130, 43T, 441 , 4-J2, 44^, 445, T IG ; ii., C04 ; >Iiicaul.iy, i , 219. 


fectually crippled. Alliances ai^ainst France and England cuap. v. 

were accordino;ly made between the United Provinces on ~T7ZZ~ 

• 1673 
the one hand, and the Emperor of Germany and the King Auianco ' 

of Spain on the other. Europe wondered at the extraordi- ^^^^auli 

nary spectacle of the Roman Catholic dynasty which had Germany, 

J 1 J J and Spaiii. 

employed Alva to crush the young Protestant Dutch Re- 
public, now hastening to support it against both the pow- 
ers which had watched the cradle of its independence. 
Spain, however, made it a condition that the Netherlands ^5 August. 
should consent to a peace with England, upon the basis of impoeed by 
a mutual restoration of conquests, the yielding to her of ^^°'"^' 
the honor of the flag, and the payment of an indemnity for 
the expenses of the war. Political necessity alone could 
bend the States General to these hard terms. They yield- Dutch ne- 
ed: — just two months before they knew the reconquest of yleTdl 
New Netherland, and just one month after that event hap- 
pened. Had they known it they would hardly have given 
up their American acquisition. But when the news reach- 
ed them they were too deeply committed to recede. The 
day it came to the Hague they sent a trumpeter to Charles y oct. 
the Second, with a firm but conciliatory letter, which offer- 
ed him e\"cry reasonable satisfaction.* 

This letter reached London just as the news came thatxewdin 
the Dutch had reconquered New York. Memorials were the Dutch 
quickly presented to the Plantation Council for the recov- of ncw"^'' 
ery of the pro^■ince, where the Dutch, it was said, were 22'october. 
about to send men-of-war and soldiers " to fortify them- ^'^ ^'="'^^''- 
selves in those parts." William Dyer, of Rhode Island, 
urged that " New Yoi-k, being the centre of His Majesty's 
western Dominions, and furnished with so excellent a har- 
*bour to secure shipping, also a pleasant town and beautiful 
country round about," should be retaken at once. For this its recov. 

-r ^ cry iirEiid 

purpose frigates and flre-ships should be sent to New En- by Dyer 
gland, where they could be manned ; and a militia force Kaight. 
from there could then besiege the town, while the vessels 
blockaded the harbor. Sir John Knight, of Bristol, which 
was at that time largely interested in colonial commerce, 
also explained to Lord Shaftesbury the defenseless condi- 29 October. 

• Rasnnge, ii., 440, 441, 45S-4G0; Sylviu-s ix., 6.12, C3:), 654-G5S, 005, CS4, 6S5; Col. Doc, 
Si., 5l>0: Duniont, vii., 240_'24.'? ; Davies, iii., 133, 1.S4; Lingfird, xii., 3liG, 31S ; Macaulay, 
ii., 1S1-1S5 ; Temple, ii., 230, 240 ; Martin's I.oui.-* XIV., i., 3T" ; an'c, 24'>. =^"^ 



Chap. V. tioii of Virginia, where the planters " doe generally desire 
a trade with the Dutch and all other nations," and coun- 
seled the recovery of New York as the best means of pre- 
serving " the rest of the plantations." The Council report- 
is Novem. cd to the king that New York was " the only fortified har- 
SteUon bor in all the Northern Plantations of America," which, if 
fovw^oVre- the Dutch were allowed to retain, would be ruinous to the 
fTew York. English. Virginia and Maryland would suffer the most ; 
but " the inhabitants of New England, being more intent 
upon the advancement of their own private trade than the 
pubhque interest of your Majesty's crowne and govern- 
ment, may, if the Dutch continue a quiet possession there, 
enter into commerce with them, whereby it is to be feared 
they will at present divert a great part of the trade of En- 
gland into those countries, and lay a foundation for such 
an union hereafter, between them and Holland, as will be 
very prejudicial! to all your Majesty's Plantations, if not 
terrible to England itself." Its speedy reduction by an 
overwhelming combined force was therefore recommend- 
ed, as well as the removal of its Dutch colonists " farther 
up into the country from the sea-side, at least as far as Al- 
bany; their inhabiting the town of New York being a 
great cause of the loss of both Town and castle now, and 
as long as they shall stay there, there will be the like dan- 
ger upon any occasion for the future."* 

But never was the British government less able to act 

with vigor. Charles was anxious to continue the war with 

the Dutch. On the other hand, he desired the friendship 

of Louis, their most determined foe. Through the influ- 

no scpteni. ence of the French king, who gave the bride a splendid 

maiTiage dowry, the Duke of York had just been married to the* 

of York to Poman Catholic Princess Mary of Modena, a niece of 

M^mi. Mazarin. James, who had been deprived of his English 

otfices only in the spring before, by the Test Act, was 

doubly mortified at the loss of his American province, the 

prompt regaining of which was even more important than 

wedding festi^^ties at WhitehalLf 

Charles's treasury, however, was exliausted. It was dif- 

• Col. Doc, iii., 207-013; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 290,300; Index N. J. Col. Doc, 5; Kvelyn. 
ii.,95; rep>v, iii., -104 ; Macaiilay, i., 335 ; iv.,4SG; Valentine's N. V., 2.13, 234; H. I. CoL 
lioc, i.,2GG; ii., lOS, 3')G; Palfrey, ii., SGn,,').^; iii., 34; anti\ vo\. i., Htn . 

t Clarke's Jiimc.-; II., i., 4S4, 4S.'), 4SG ; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 3S0 ; ante, 201. 


ficnlt for him to procure the ships and men necessary for cuap. v. 
an expedition against Kew Netherland. The war with the ~ 
United Provinces had become very unpopular in England. 
Its real statesmen were disgusted with a strife in which 
the English and Dutch fleets had been made " gladiators 
for French spectators ;" while its merchants were almost 
ruined by the privateers of Holland and Zealand, which 
had captured twenty-seven hundred British sliips. Ap- 
prehending a change in the national religion, which the 
recent marriage of the presumptive lieir to the cro^vn ren- 20 October. 
dered more probable than ever, Parliament saw with cha- opposed'to 
grin^the league of Charles and Louis against the republic, uw Dutch. 
which it regarded as the " Bulwark of the Keformation ;" 
and it insisted that the king should break aM-ay from 
France, and make a separate treaty with the Netherlands. 
In vain did Charles and Shaftesbury demand a new sub- 2- October. 
sidy. The House of Commons absolutely refused to grant 31 October. 
any more supplies, " unless it shall appear that the obsti- 
nacy of the Dutch shall render it necessary ; nor before 
this kingdom be effectually secured fi'om the dangers of 
Popery and Popish Counsels and Counsellors, and the other 
present grievances be redressed."* 

In great displeasure, the king prorogued his fractious 4 Novem. 
Parliament, and dismissed his versatile chancellor, Shaf tes- bury %'s. 
bury, who, up to this time, had been the most rhetorical "'"'''^ ' 
enemy of the " Carthage" of England. In reply to the 
Dutch overture, Charles captiously questioned its sincer- ly ^'oveia. 
ity. The States General repelled this imputation, and dis- 
tinctly offered to renew the treaty made at Breda in 1G67 ; 
adding that, "in order to manifest to your Majesty the r^j uecem. 
special esteem which we entertain for your f riendshij), we states°Gen! 
hereby also offer the restitution of New Netherland, and of s[orc*New 
all the other places and colonies wliich we have won by ^oEndin'd! 
our arras during the present war ; being fully persuaded 
that your Majesty will be mi willing to refuse a reciprocal 
engagement to restore to us such lands and forts as your 
subjects may have taken from us."f 

• Easnage, ii., 4G0, 401, 4S3; Sylvius, ix., G47, 6S7-CS0; Kennett, iii., 206; Burnet, i., 
nCG ; Rapin, ii., C72 ; Pari. Hist., iv., 5S5, f;S6, 59.% 59", G02 ; Lingard, xii., SOS; Davies, uL, 
137; Clarke's James II., i., 485; Martin, i., 3S0, 3S3. 

t Sylvius, ix., GOO-092, 70S, 700 ; Easnnge, ii., 400, 4G3-4C7; Col. Doc., ii., 520, 531; Pari 
Hist., iv., GIO ; Campbell's Cliancelloi's, iii., ,^20. One of the consequences of Shaftesbury's 
dismissal was Locke's resignation of his place as Secretaiy of the Council for Plantations, 


cuAP. V. This offer to restore New Netherland to England — made 
only four days after the States General had appointed An- 
dringa governor of their reconquered province — was ex- 
torted from the necessities of the republic, and its engage- 
ment with Spain. With the consent of the States General, 

ifi Decern, the Spanish ambassador offered advantageous articles to 

offM^'' the British government. Charles, finding that Louis re- 
fused him further supplies, and that he could not expect 

ig- Decern, any from Parliament, replied that he was willing to accept 

reasonable conditions." 
1674. But when Parliament met, a few days afterward, the 

iV J»°'y- king again charged the Dutch with insincerity, and begged 
for means to continue his war. Finch, who had succeeded 
Shaftesbury, harangued for a supply, which might save 
England from being found, '"like Archimedes, drawing 
lines in the dust while the enemy is entering into om* 

The House ports." But Finch's pedantry had no effect. The House 

monrre- of Commons would grant no money to Charles unless the 

piies.^"^ Dutch should reject a peace.''t 

Negotiations, under the mediation of Sweden, had mean- 
while been going on at Cologne. The Dutch plenipoten- 

j% Jan'}-, tiaries there were instructed to explain the importance of 
New Netherland, which, " although it be their own .do- 
main," the States General were to relinquish to England. 
At this critical moment the king's speech to Parhament 
was received at the Hao:ue. The States General refuted 

J4 jan'y. his charge of insincerity, and sent him the draft of a treaty 
which they were ready to sign. One of its articles, they 
explained, " demonstrates sufficiently to what a degree we 
wish to deserve your Majesty's affection ; since we offer 
you the restitution of so considerable a conquest as New 

New Neth- Nctlicrland is, M'ithout the hope of receiving any thing in 

be restored excliauge for it." Nothing but the murder of Jolm de 
° ° * ■ Witt, and the paramount influence of William of Orange, 
could have brought the Dutcli government to write this 

in which he was succeeded by Beiijamin Worsley : King's Life of Locke, 34 ; Col. Doc, iii., 
22S ; ante, 1ST, 20L 

• Dalrj-mple, i., 13"; Basnagc, ii., 4G7, 46S; Sylvius, ix., 709, VIO; dil. Doc, ii., 631 ; 
aiUe, 245. 

t liasnaijc, ii., 493-495; ?ylviu3, x., 4-12; Burnet, i., 3G5; H;ipiii, ii.,CT3, G~4; Kennett, 
iii.,29T; Pari. Hist., iv.,Cn-61S. 

t Sylviu.s. X., 12-14; Basnagc, ii., 492; Col. Doc, iL, 533-535, .537, P33; Temple, ii., 240, 
24T ; Clarke's Jaraea IL, i., 4S9. 


Charles instantly laid it before Parliament, and asked chap. v. 
their " speedy advice." lie was answered that he ought 
to make a treaty. Louis, apprehending the consequences 24 j^^-y ' 
of a separate peace between England and Holland, has- a tei/y. 
tened to offer Charles live millions and a half of money 
and forty sliijjs of war if he would break off his negotia- 
tions. The Duke of York strongly opposed a peace. But 
Charles could not now recede. Sir William Temple was 
summoned from his retirement, and instructed to confer is FcbV- 
with the Spanish ambassador at London, the Marquis del 
Fresno, to whom the States General had sent full powers. 
In three days all the points were arranged, and a treaty 
was signed at Westminster by Arlington and four other 1% rcb-y. 
commissioners on the part of Great Britain, and by Fresno s-ignecfat 
on the part of the United Netherlands. The honor of the stei! '"'" 
flag, which had been refused by De Witt, was yielded to 
England ; the Treaty of Breda was revived ; the rights of 
neutrals guaranteed ; and the commercial principles of the 
Triple Alliance renew^ed. By the sixth article it was cov- 
enanted that " all lands, islands, cities, havens, castles and 
fortresses, which have been or shall be taken by one party 
from the other, during the time of this last uidiappy war, 
whether in Europe or elsewhere, and before the expiration 
of the times above limited for the duration of hostilities, 
shall be restored to the former Lord and Proprietor in the 
same condition they shall be in at the time that this peace 
shall be proclaimed." This article restored New Nether- rtenom- 
land to the King of Great Britain. The Treaty of Breda Netheriami 
had ceded it to him on the principle of '^ uti jpossidetis.''^ ongan . 
The Treaty of Westminster gave it back to him on the 
principle of reciprocal restitution."^'^ 

Peace was soon proclaimed at London and at the Hague. 2s Fei/y. 
The Treaty of Westminster delivered the Dutch from fear peaceVro- 
of Charles, and cut off the right arm of Louis, their more tween kn-' 
dreaded foe. England, on her part, slipped out of a disas- fiouano?'* 
trous war. But Charles told Rouvigny, the ambassador of 
France, that in making peace with the Netherlands " he 

• Sylvius, X., 14-10; Basnage, ii., 4?G, 4^8 ; Temple, ii., 247-250 ; iv., 10-20; CoiirtenayN 
Ttmiiic, i., 11)4, 419-421, 43:{ ; ii., 400, 4G1; liuinet, i., nCG, 3CT; Tarl. Hist., iv., CGO, 065 ; 
1 >alrjmi>le, i., 137 ; Kennctt, iii., 207 ; llapin, ii., 074, 075; Anderson, ii., 520, 5:!0 ; Wage- 
naai-, xiv., 29S-D00; Lingard, xii., 31S, 310 ; Martin, i., 3S3; Smith, i., 40; Mas.^. H. S. Coll., 
XXX., 104, 1' 5; Bancroft, ii., 325; Col. Doc, vii., 5S6; ICliz. Bill,'; nji^c, 135, 152. 


cuAP. V. had been doing a tliino; that went more ao;ainst his heart 

than the losins; of his rio-ht hand." The war liad been be- 
' gun by " the Cabal" of England, as Temple acknowledged, 
"with two unusnal strains to the honour of the crown;" 
and, instead' of making her king "great," had made " only 
four great subjects." During the course of it Holland 
had lost her ablest statesman, and in his place had raised 
to her highest post of authority the young representative 
of the Silent founder of the republic. She had recover- 
ed, and had resigned, her ancient trans-Atlantic province. 
Holland, For a season she retired from prominence in American 
TcM hhto- history. But it was only to return, in the fullness of time, 
^' as the fatherland of a sovereign appointed by Providence 

to maintain ci\'il and religious liberty on both shores of 
the Atlantic, and once more to govern the countrymen who 
never forgot their own Batavian prince,^' 

Wlien rumors of these events reached New Orange, 

Colve was still strengthening it " against the coming of the 

New England army." This was done so thoroughly that 

one hundred and ninety guns, some of which came fi-om 

Esopus, were mounted on Fort William Henry and about 

5^2 June, the town. The dilatory victims of the forced loan ordered 

angeaf- iu Marcli wcre compelled to pay their assessments. This 

was the more hard, because the expense which had been 

devoted to the fortifications was now of no avail. John 

28 April. Sharpe, having come from New England with Isaac Melyn, 

8 >i'iy- in violation of the edict of December, news of the peace and 

of the surrender of the province was soon noised through 

the city. Melyn taunted its Dutch burghers with having 

" slaved and wrought too hard and too long for the King 

of England." This threw them " into such a distracted 

rage and passion that they cried, ' We'll fire the town, 

pluck down the fortifications, and tear out the governors' 

throats' who had compelled them to slave so, contrary to 

their native privileges." Having no ofiicial information of 

what had happened in Europe, Colve determined to pun- 

o jj^^ ish the "fomenters of mutiny and disturbance." Meljni 

(^•a^e.'f of was accordingly sentenced to " come personally every day, 

.Sharpe. whcu tlic burghcr companies are employed at the city for- 

* Rapin,ii.,GT.'); Sylvius, X., 20, 21 ; (Jol. Doc, ii.,726; Basnagc, ii., -109 ; Burnet, i., 307; 
Temple, ii., 251 ; Clarke's James II., i., 4S0 ; post, 530. 


tifications, and work with them until said fortifications are cuap. v. 
completed." Sharpe was banished out of the province for- ^^^, 
ten years. On reaching Milford, he reported that the ^ , ^^^ 
Dutch in New Netherland were so enraged that they de- '*' 
Glared they would not, " on demand and by authority of f^^^e p"f( ",[ 
tlie States or Prince, surrender, but keep it by fighting, so "^ ^^ew 
long as they can stand with one leg and fight with one laud. 

Authentic intelligence of peace was soon received from /, June. 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. A few days afterward 
the Treaty of Westminster was proclaimed at the CityiiJu'y- 
Hall of New Orange. Connecticut, however, after news 
of the restoration of New Netherland to the king had 
reached Hartford, resolved that, as Southampton, East- ||?[^^j. 
hampton, and Southold had asked it, they should continue ^°"°^oiu 
under her o-overnment. John Howell, John Youuffe, and Long isi- 

" ' O ' and. 

John Mulford were accordingly appointed commissioners |§ May. 
for the three towns, and were " invested with magistrati- 
call power" by the Hartford Court. Samuel Willys, John 
Talcott, and Secretary Allyn were also empowered to go to 
Long Island, " to order and settle the affairs of those peo- 22 May. 
pie, and to establish such military officers amongst them as 1 J"°e^ 
they shall see reason and judge necessary." Easthampton, 
on her part, appointed a committee, in conjunction with M J""«- 
Southampton and Southold, to petition the king to allow 
them to continue under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. 
Thinking it was now a good opportmiity to extend their 
bounds westward on the main land, the Hartford Court, at 
their autumn session, appointed commissioners " forthwith is oct. 
to run the line between this colony and the colony of New with New 
York from Momoronock River to Hudson's River." At 
the same time, it was well known that it had been settled 
in IGG-i that the boundary should be " twenty miles every 
where from Hudson's Ilivei*."t ' 

The Jesuit missionaries, Bruyas and Millet, were now 
apprehensive of being driven away by the savages, who 
declared themselves the friends of the Dutch. Several 

* Col. Doc, ii., GIT, GGC, CDT, T07-T11, TIO; Col. MSS., xxiil, 334, 33S, 340, 307; Mass. 
II. S. Coll., XXX., lOS-llO; Moulton, 14; Palfrey, iii., 12C, 13"; ante, 20G, 233. 

t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., '22?, 22G, 220, 242; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., in4-inG; Tnimbiill, i , 
325; Wood, OS; Thompson, i., 156, 335, 3G7,3S3; Col. MSS , xxiii., 376 ; Col. Doc, ii., 710, 
723,720; iii., 231, 235; New Orange Rec, vii., 201 ; ante,56,22-2. 


cuAP. V. emissaries were sent by Draeyer to engage the Iroquois 
~^ against the French ; and some Canadian prisoners were 

15 carried down to New Orange. Mohawk chiefs from 

"^ Caghnawaga and Gandagaro, accompanied by Jan Jansen 

Bleecker and Henry Lansing as interpreters, also visited 

^j May. Colve. They had come, they said, " as to their brethren ; 

^°iefs\^ for the Dutch, both at Nassau and here [New Orange], 

an^^"^' have been always one flesh with them." The new bond of 
peace, made at the " last harvest," was confu-med, and the 
chiefs declared that if the French should come to injure 
their brethren, then they would " side with the Dutch, and 
live and die with them." After visiting some of the neigh- 

f}'^'"'^- borino; tribes, the Mohawk sachems were conveyed back to 

5 June. » 7 'I 

Fort Nassau, loaded with presents, and assured that they 
would be shown all possible favor, "as brethren of the 

The Treaty of Westminster, leaving the Dutch at war 
with the French, really made them more bitter enemies. 
Colve, of course, held all the subjects of Louis in America 
to be hostile to the government of his fatherland. Some 
5 June. Frenchmen at Hurley, having refused to swear allegiance, 
iiuriey.* were ordered to be sent away unless they took the oath, and 
promised " to remain quiet in case of any attack by their 

Not long afterward, a Dutch privateer, " The Flying 
Horse," Captain Juriaen Aernouts, commissioned by the 
Prince of Orange, came from Curagoa and Saint Domingo 
to Boston, where she obtained a pilot, and then sailed to 
10 August. Acadia. There Aernouts attacked and captured the French 
ti!?i)utci7 forts of Penobscot, commanded by Chambly, and " Gem- 
t^^^\^ sec," on the Saint John's, commanded by Marson. Posses- 
Acadiu. g-^j^ ^^^g taken, in the name of the Dutch government, of 
the coasts and country of Acadia, and the plunder was 
PRptem. brought to Boston. Frontenac complained of this to Gov- 
ernor Leverett, but seems to have obtained no satisfaction ; 
because Massachusetts coveted Maine, and wished the Dutch 
conquest of it to inure to her own beneflt.:}: 

• Col. Doc.,ii.,504, COS, CIS, 0"'fl,CG.', 712, 713, 71(1, 717; iii.,250; ix, 07, 110, 117; 
levoix, ii., 25S, 259 : Bancroft, ii., .^22. t Col. Doc, ii., C4(), 070, 71S ; Ksopus Records. 

X Col. noc, iv., 47C ; ix., 110, 120, 547, 703 ; Charlevoix, ii., 2.''i.''>, tSG, TiGO ; Quebec MS?., 
ii. (ii.), 57; Williamson, i., 5S0; UutcliinFon, i., 311, vnte^ CoU , 4C4; Masa. H. S. Coll.. 
xxxii., 286; Mass. Ucc, v., IIC, IIS; DrpevHtei'.^ " Piitcli in M.iinc," 45, 73-76; post^ 290. 


Colve and his council were meanwliile occupied in de- chap.v. 
ciding important cases affecting lands in Acliter Col, Long 
Island, and elsewhere. Order and decorum were enforced 
occasionally by severe penalties. Samuel Forman, of Oys- ca?e of 
ter Bay, having made a great uproar in the streets of New i orman. 
Orange, and even come into the Dutch Church during di- 
vine service on Sunday, " abusing with great levity the lo April. 
word of God, and blaspheming liis holy name," was con- 
demned to be whipped, and banished out of the province. 
Daniel Lane, of Setalcot, or Brookhaven, cliarged with in- case of 
cest, having escaped from prison before trial, his estate was Lane, 
seized, and half of it allowed to his wife, to whom a di- 
vorce was promised if the accused did not appear within 12 April, 
six months and purge himself from the crime.* 

The Lutheran Domine Fabricius, who had gone to the 
Delaware territory, coming back to New Orange, irregu- 5 Feb-y. 
larly and without autliority married Ralph Doxy, of New- 
town, on Long Island, to Mary Harris. The court, aware 
of his " previous ill conduct," but unwilling, " out of re- 
spect for his old age and the office he last tilled," to pro- 
ceed rigorously, suspended Fabricius from the ministry for 1 Jiarcii. 
one year. The marriage of Doxy was declared unlawful, Fabricius. 
but the parties were allowed to marry again " according to 
the laws of the Government." The domine petitioned that is April, 
his sentence should be modified so far as to allow him " at 
least tcf baptize ;" but the court declined his request.f 

The Dutch churches, fostered by Colve, foresaw tliat 
they would not be so comfortable under the English, who 
were soon to repossess the province. To guard themselves 
as mucli as possible, the Consistory of New Orange asked 7 juiy. 
that their old church in Fort William Ileniy, which, at the formed' 
surrender in 1664, had been stipulated should continue in church, 
its then use, might be confirmed to them ; and the govern- 
or promptly ordered "a Deed in form" to be granted, 
which was accordingly duly executed. As Van Ruyven 23 juiy. 

* Col. MSS., x.xii., 147 ; xxiii., 330, 331 ; Col. Doc., ii., COC, C.Gl, CCS, C94, 704-72S ; White- 
head, 61 ; Moulton, 13. 

+ Col. Doc.,ii.,CS6, 080,091, COi?, 6:3, 700; S. Hazard's Ann. Penn., 410, 411, 412; Moul- 
ton, 8 ; ante, 175. Fabricius appeals to have behaved very badly to his wife, and was fined 
by tlie Court of Burgomasters and Schcpens of New Orange : see Col. MSS , xxiii., 311, 314, 
315; N. O. City Rcc, vii., 201, 202; Doc. Hist., iii., 242, 243; Val. Man., IS.'iO, 528 ; 1S51, 
428, 431, 432,/135, 441-450 ; 1853, 407. He then went b.ack to the Delaware, where he ag.ain 
got into trouble : S. Hazard, 419, 420. 


Chap. V. was about to return to Holland with his mother-in-law, the 
~ widow of Domine Megapolensis, the arrears of salary due 
' ' to that clergyman were recommended to be paid to her. 
2Gjuiy. In writing to the Classis of Amsterdam, Domine Van 
tife iHuch Kieuwenhuysen expressed the general feeling of the Dutch : 
re ^toration " Wc are greatly pleased at the peace arranged between 
Netheriand our country and the kingdom of England, but we should 
gland. have been the more touched if we were not apprehensive 
that this country is included in the scope of the sixth arti- 
cle of the sealed Treaty, and must be restored back to that 
crown. It is not less agreeable to us to understand how 
God Almighty has been pleased to put a hook in the nose 
of the haughty French Sennecherib, and thus far to stay 
the wasting of his dearly-bought Church in our various 
cities particularly, and in our Fatherland generally."* 
The city government had now been in office for nearly 
11 August, a year, and it was necessary to make new appointments. 
From the nominations submitted. Van Brugh and Beek- 
13 August, man were accordingly selected as burgomasters, and Kip, 
govern'/ Vcrplaiick, Rombouts, Iloogland, and Stephanus van Cort- 
New Or- laudt, as schepens of New Orange. Knyff was continued 
''^°^' as schout-fiscal. Very little, however, was left the mu- 
7 septem. nicipal officers to do. They obtained an order from Colve 
for the produce of the scales and tapster's excises, to pay 
the city debt of upward of six thousand guilders for worlc 
done on the fortifications. New "church-wardens" were 
3 October, nominated by the metropolitan authorities and confirmed 
by the governor.f 

While the Treaty of "Westminster was yet in suspense. 

Manning reached London in great distress from Fayal, 

where he and his soldiers had been landed, and was sum- 

11 jan'y. moucd bcforc the Duke of York, who, after hearing his 

story, at first censured him. At Lord Arlington's office he 

i3jan'y. Avas again closely examined by the king and the duke. 

LomTo'^^' " Brother," said Charles to James, " the ground could not 

' Col. Doc., ii., 721, 722, 730 ; Col. MSS., xxiii., 209, 433-440 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (ii.), iii., 142 ; 
Corr. CI. Amsterdiim. Van lUiyvcn, who never returned to New York, was living at Am- 
sterdam in 1C9S : Col. Doc, iv., 353. 

t CdI. MSS., xxiii., 371 ; New Orange City IJcc, vii., 20S, 211, 212, 218 ; Val. Man., 1S50, 
53S; ia53, 472,473,470,477,487, -18S, 402; MouUon, 14; ante, 212, 2.''.3, 242. Among the 
rules adopted by tlic burgomastcrH and schepens of New Orange was one tliat whoever 
should smoke tobacco in the court while it was engaged in business should forfeit two and 
a half guilders : Val. Man., 1853, 4S3. 


be maiiitained by so few men;" and Manning was dis- chap. v. 
missed without reprimand. For more than two months he ~~~~ 
waited the pleasm-e of the duke, who at lengtli paid liis ex- * " 
penses from Fayal.* 

But who should be sent to receive and govern New York ? 
was the question. Lovelace was unfit ; Nicolls was dead ; 
a new man must be named. The person selected was Ed- 
mund Andros, a major in a dragoon regiment, disbanded Major e.i- 
after the Westminster Treaty. Charles accordingly com- dros. 
missioned Andros to receive New Netherland from the ?l.M5I£!l_ 
Dutch ; and he asked the States General to direct their commu- 
" Governor or Commandant of the place called New York, rlTc^ive 
in the AYest Indies," to surrender it to Andros, Avhom he en^mi '' 
had appointed to go there and take possession in his name.f 

Thinking that tlie re-establishment of the duke's au- 
thority over his former province would be hurtful to Massa- 
chusetts, John Collins, its agent at London, wrote to Gov- 
ernor Leverett that " New York being restored by the 50 ^^p"1- 

-n^AT • •it T Maasachu- 

peace, one JVlr. Andrews is appointed governor, a man i setts and 
know not ; and some rumour is maliciously spread at court 
that you have made peace with the Dutch there, which is 
obviated by the readiness of some persons to show the false- 
liood of it. I hope nothing will for this year further dis- 
turb you ; and if any thing do arise, it will be from New 
York and the Government there. I have therefore greatly 
encouraged some gentlemen, your friends, who would pur- 
chase it of His Royal Highness, as thinking it will be much 
for yom* peace, who are about it ; but how it will issue, I 
know not." This project, however, if seriously entertained. New vork 
came to naught. The king was now the only English pro- bought. 
prietor of New York under the Treaty of Westminster; 
and while Charles was offended at the insubordination of 
bis subjects in Massachusetts, he had " little time to mind 
such minute things" as theirs.:j: 

Meanwhile the delayed letter of the municipality of New 
Orange reached the States General onlv the day before the 5 March. 

* Col. MS?.,xxiv.,3C-51; Doc. Hist., iii., 53, 5-}, .W; Sylviup, x., 23 ; anfc, 213. It is dif- 
ficult to understand how Dunlap (i. ,130) could venture the preposterous conjecture that 
'■'■the needy and projlifiate Charles wax pacified by receiving 2}art of the bribe ilanninrj hid 
taken from the Dutch ;" compare ante, 206-20S. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 544, 740, 741 ; ix., 403 ; Col. Rec. Conn., iii., 37C ; Temple, ii., 7"^. 

t llutchinson'3 Coll., 443, 444 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 100 ; I'alfrcy, iii., 2'2, 31-.'. 

IL— R 


cuAP. V. Peace of Westminster was proclaimed — too late for any 

effect. The several Boards of Admiralty had been asked 

' to advise what should be done in favor of the relinquished 
20 March, provinco. The Rotterdam Board thought that the King 
of England should consider the Dutch in New Netherland 
not as " a conquered people, but as men who have passed by 
conveyance and convention under another sovereignty." 
Advice That at Amsterdam submitted a memorial from the mer- 
miraity ' chauts trading to New Netherland that the province should 
iib^ut xew be repurchased ; but, if that could not be done, the King of 
^aa±^' England should be required not to molest its inhabitants 
for what they had done during the war ; that their rights 
should be respected, and a free trade be established ; and 
that tlie old articles of capitulation in 1664 should "re- 
main valid and be faithfully executed." The Zealand 
j§ March. Board at Middleburg knew " no fitter means than to fur- 
nish said inhabitants with ships and craft for their convey- 
ance, either to this country, or Surinam, or some other 
colony dependent on the jurisdiction of this State."* 
f^ April. The States General promptly complied with Charles's 
the'statef Tcqucst to ordcr the surrender of New Netherland to An- 
aboXNew dros, but desircd the king to leave the people of the prov- 
Nether- jj^^g a ^^ f-^^l and entire possession of the lands, property, 
and rights they possess in those parts, in the same manner 
i| April, they held them before the rupture." Charles assured their 
charies!° high miglitinesscs "that all the inhabitants there should 
enjoy all their rights and pri^^leges, of which they were in 
the enjoyment before the war." This declaration substan- 
tially gave' new effect to the articles of capitulation in 1664. 
The Dutch ambassadors at London were also instructed to 
do all they could in aiding the proprietors of Rensselaer- 
laenvyck. -^ygk to obtaiu froui the king a confirmation of their an- 
cient privileges.! 

At the request of Secretary Coventry, the West India 
j4jjiine. Company also wrote to Colve to surrender New Nether- 
land, although the matter was " wholly beyond their con- 
troul." The ship " Muyll Tromp" [Jews' Harp], Captain 
TIendrick Toll, Ijoing now reported ready to take out or- 
ders for the evacuation, and bring home the Dutch soldiers 

• Co). Doc, ii., 526, 032, 508-544, GSS, CG2, COl, 077 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 5f>5 ; Mass. H. S. . 
Coll., XXX., 103 ; ante, 220, 221. t Col. Poc. ii., 545-648, 549-501 ; ante, 218. 


in the province, the States General directed Colve " to re- chap. y. 
store and surrender the aforesaid New Netherland to Ed- 
mimd Andros, or such otlier person as the King of Great ^^ j^^^ ' 
Britain shall have deputed for that purpose ; that, in case Tjuiy. 
the above-named Edmund Andros should not have as yet the states 
arrived yonder, and no one have order from the King of tocoivc 
Great Britain to receive the aforesaid country, the above- surrender 
named Governor Colve shall, pursuant to the last Treaty Nether. 
concluded with the said King in February last, and agree- '""''■ 
ably to their High Mightinesses' aforesaid Resolution of 
the Sixteenth of last April, vacate said New Netherland, 
and place it — having made an inventory and obtained a 
receipt — in the hands of the political Government there, 
to the end that thus possession may be taken for the be- 
hoof of the King of Great Britain." The Dutch ambas- 
sadors at London, having coinmunciated these orders, were 
informed that Andros was authorized to receive New Neth- i"V Ju'y- 
erland, and would proceed thither at once, w^ith " a number 
of new colonists" from England. 

In due time the Dutch f rio;ate reached New Orange ; and A oct. 
Colve announced his orders to the burgomasters and sche- derlre-"'^' 
pens, who voted him two hundred and fifty florins " for his '"^®'^" 
last year's services." A few days afterward he requested ^J oct 
the court to name ten_ pereons, from whom he would select 
five, " who, after his departure, shall exercise and possess 
the executive authority until the arrival of the expected 
ships and the GoA'ernor of His Majesty of England, who 
shall be also authorized to surrender the country to whom- 
soever exhibits His Majesty's Commission." Steenwyck, i^r oct. 
Bayard, Van Brugh, Beekman, Luyck, Kregier, De Pey- prevkiouai 
ster, y an Cortlandt, Ivip, and Bombouts were accordingly mentor 
nominated. But the proposed provisional government was erirnd.^"'' 
not organized. Before Cohe was ready to embark the ex- 
pected British frigates anchored at Staten Island : and An- ??-^ 

1 c> ' 1 No 

dros notified him that, pursuant to the late treaty of peace, Arrival of 


he was ready to receive possession for the King of England 
of " the New Netherland and dependances, now under" the 
Dutch governor's command.* 

* Col. MSS., xxili., 412, 413 ; Col. Doc, ii., 544, 564-508, "30-733 ; New Orange^ vii., 
23T, 244-24T ; Val. Man., 1S53, 4S9, 493, 494 ; Doo. Uist., iii., -» ; ante^ 25T. 

22 October. 




Chap VI. By the Treaty of Westminster the United Provinces re- 
^ linquished their conquest of New Netherland to the King 
icTcctof' of England. The sovereign Dutch States General had 
o'nv^st-'^ treated directly with Charles as sovereign. A question at 
niinater. q^qq arosc at Whitehall about the subordinate interest of 
the Duke of York. It was claimed by some that James's 
former American proprietorship was re^dved. Yet, while 
the Treaty of Westminster re-established the Articles of 
Capitulation agreed to by Nicolls and Stuyvesant, who rep- 
resented their sovereigns in 1664, it did not cure the im- 
perfections subject to which the duke had for nine years 
governed his American province. James's patent had been 
sealed while the Dutch were in quiet possession of New 
Netherland ; and no new grant was made to him after the 
Treaty of Breda, which confirmed to the English king his 
conquest of the Dutch province. Eminent lawj-ers " very 
justly questioned" the duke's pretension to the territory 
Defects in wliich England had recently recovered ; because its cession 
ti"".^ ^ to her sovereign by the Dutch government " had given no 
streno;th to oriMnal defects." James was now oblio;ed to 
give up the claim of English right which he and his broth- 
er had formerly maintained. Moreover, the duke wished 
to regain New Jersey, which he had so foolishly squander- 
ed on Berkeley and Carteret. Besides this, the boundaiy 
agreement with Connecticut, which liad never been ratified 
by the crown or by himself, was a sore point. The opinion 
of counsel having been taken, they advised that the duke's 
proprietorship had been extinguished by the Dutch con- 
quest, and that the king was now alone seized of New 
sojua Netherland, by virtue of the Treaty of Westminster. The 
poMim. uj^^^ Postliminy' did not obtain in New York.* 

* Col. Doc ,ii.,Va9; iii., 16C, 170, 235, 230, 207; v.,5DC; vil, 530, 506, 5C.7; KHz. Bill, 7, 


A new patent to the Duke of York was therefore sealed, chap. vr. 
By it the king again conveyed to his brother the territories 
he had held before, and granted him anew the absolute 29 junp. ' 
powers of government he had formerly enjoyed over Brit- il[fj^,^*''^°' 
isli subjects, with the like additional authority over " any ^.J^'^^p °^ 
other person or persons" inhabiting his province. Under 
the same description of boundaries, New Jersey, and all the 
territory west of the Connecticut River, together with Long- 
Island and the adjacent islands, and the region of Pema- 
quid, were again included in the grant. The new patent 
did not, as has been commonly, but erroneously stated, 
" recite and confirm the former." It did not in any way 
allude to that instrument. It read as if no previous En- 
glish patent had ever existed. It was a second grant ; in 
almost the same terms with the first ; and it conveyed to 
the duke, ostensibly for the first time, a territory which 
the Dutch government, after conquering and holding, had 
by treaty " restored to His Majesty."* 

Thus James again became the proprietor of a vast Amer- 
ican province, over which he was to domineer, until his 
delegated authority from the king was merged in his in- 
herited right as successor to the crown. His private reve- 
nue continued to be managed by a board of commissioners, 
of which his brother-in-law, Lawrence Hyde, was one ; Sir jamcs's 
Allen Apsley was his treasurer and receiver general, Sir sion??rand 
Thomas Wj'unington his attorney general, and Sir John °'^'^'^"- 
Churchill his solicitor general. In place of Matthew 
Wren, who had been killed at his side in 1672, the duke's 
secretary was Sir John Werden ; although James frequent- J^l'j^^^.g 
ly wrote letters to his governors with his own hand.f secretary. 

As his colonial lieutenant and deputy, the duke, almost 

37; Learning and Spiccr, 50; Valtel, 212, 3C2; Kent, i., lOS-llI; Douglas, ii., 224, 2CS; 
Smith, i.,4S; Chalmei-8'H Ann., i., 579-581,617; Rev. Col., i., 143; Proud, i., 282; Graliame, 
i., 422, 4G7 ; Spectator, No. xx. ; ante, vol. i., 4, 141, 143, 144 ; ii., 3G, 50, 135, 209, 251, 253. 

• CoL MSS., xxiii., 3G2; Eliz. Bill, 7; Deeds, i., 1 ; Learning and Spiccr, 3-S, 41-45, 50; 
Col. Doc., ii., 295-298, 539 ; iii., 215, 234, 235; vii., 597; Chalmers's Ann., i., 579, 5S0; 
Whitehead's E. J., 63, 264 ; Yonkers Gaz., 4 Nov., 1865 ; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 89-91 ; ante, 16. 

t Werden was a son of Colonel Kobert Werden, of Chester, one of the duke's commission- 
ers, and, before he became his secretary, had been charge d'affaires at Madrid in 1667 ; 
special messenger to Temple at the Hague in 1669; at Stockholm in 1670; was made a 
baronet in 1672; and in 1673 was appointed a commissioner of the navy: Temple's Works, 
i.,4S7; ii., 195, 196; Courtenay's Temple, ii., 400; Pepys, iii., 167, 231, 235; iv.,25; Beat- 
eon, 1 , 203, 350 ; ante, 4, 136, 186. The first regular Kntiy Book.s relating to New York, in the 
State Paper Office at London, begin in 1674. None of the duke's letters before that date 
seem to be pre.=erved there ; and the few documents of an earlier period which I found are 
chiefly those sent by Nicolls and Lovelace to the English secretaries of state. 





Major Ed- 
mund An- 

1 July. 
sioned gov 
ernor of 
New York. 

1 July. 
tions from 
the duke. 

necessarily, appointed Major Edmund Andros, whom the 
king had directed in the previous March to receive New 
Netherland from the Dutch. Born in London in 1637, 
Andros had been brought up in the royal household, of 
which his father was lieutenant of the ceremonies. Dur- 
ing the exile of the court, Andros began his military life 
in Holland, under Prince Henry of Nassau. After the 
Restoration he was favored by Charles ; distinguished him- 
self in the first Dutch war ; and in 1669 was commission- 
ed major in Prince Rupert's regiment of dragoons. In 
1672 Andros commanded the English forces in Barbadoes, 
where he got reputation for skill in American affairs. The 
proprietors of Carolina made him a landgrave, and grant- 
ed liim four baronies in their province. Andros was mar- 
ried, in 1671, to Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Craven. 
On the death of his father in April, 1674, he succeeded to 
the oftice of bailiff of Guernsey, and became hereditary 
seigneur of the fief of Sausmarez. Like his predecessors, 
Nicolls and Lovelace, Andros was an English Episcopalian, 
but no bigot. Moreover, he was a good Dutch and French 
scholar. Of unblemished private character ; with talents, 
energy, and zeal in his master's service, he was as fitting an 
instrument as the Duke of York could have chosen to con- 
firm arbitrary government in his regained province. An- 
dros was accordingly commissioned by James to be his 
" Lieutenant and Governor" within the territories covered 
by his patent; to hold oflice during his pleasure, and to 
obey all orders that he might give. Andros's commission 
was almost exactly similar to those of Nicolls and Lovelace.* 
The duke's Instructions to Andros, minute and specific, 
formed the temporary political constitution of New York. 
The governor was to satisf}^ the inhabitants that his com- 
ing was " for their protection and benefit, for the encour- 
agement of planters and plantations, and the improvement 
of trade and commerce, and for the preservation of relig- 
ion, justice, and equity among them." Strict discipline 
was to be maintained among the soldiers, so as to avoid all 

• Col. Doc, ii., .'544, 740, 141; iii., 215, 224, 201, ."JOS; ix., 403; Letter of Selyns to CI. 
Amnt., 10 Oct., lOSS ; Mem. of I'enn. II. S., vii., 30, 37 ; Col. Rec. Conn., iii., 370; Temple, 
ii.,78; Tepysi, i. , 09 ; ii., 107, 231, 331; Clinlmcrs's Ann., i., 5S0; a?i/c, IS, 144; ponl^noteli. 
A memoir of Andros, and an engraved portrait of him, from an original in England, lia-; been 
published by the rrince Society iit IJostou, in Massacluisett.^. 


causes of complaint. None of the inhabitants were to he 
molested for assistinsj Evertscn in takinor the fort, except in 
the case of Englishmen, whoso estates might be forfeited ; ^"'*' 
but the Dutch who had been active were to be observed 
" more circumspectly" thereafter, and to be removed from 
places of strength. Special care was to be taken of the 
forts at New York and New Albany, " upon which, in a 
manner, wholly depend the safety and trade of the whole 
country." Planters of all nations, but especially English- iiantera to 
men, were to be offered " all manner of encouragement" to aged. 
settle in New York, by assigning them lands according to 
the rules observed " by those of New England and Mary- 
land," so that the province should, in that respect, be at 
least equal to " any other neighboring colony." The quit- 
rent reserved to the duke was left to the discretion of the 
governor, who was directed " to settle a good correspond- 
ence with the neighboring English Plantations, as well 
those of New England as those of Maryland." As it was 
" necessary to make some abatement in the customs," James 
established a new "tariff," or declaration of the duties onTmifrof 
imports. All goods brought into New York were to pay 
two per cent, if shipped from England or any English 
plantation, and ten per cent, if coming from a foreign 
country. All imports, except farmers' tools going up the 
Hudson Hiver, were to be charged three per cent, in 
addition. Wines were to pay ten shillings a pipe, and 
brandy or other European spirits fifteen shillings a hogs- 
head ; while rum — which came from the West Indies — 
was favored by the lower rate of six shillings a hogshead. 
All liquors sent up the Hudson River were charged double 
these rates. Exported beavers were to pay fifteen pence 
on each skin, and other peltry in proportion ; while New 
York tobacco was charged two shillings a hogshead if sent 
to England, and a pemiy a hundred weight if sent else- 
where. The same regulations were to apply " in Delaware 
Kiver as in Hudson's Piver." These rates were " to hold Rates to 
good for three years, to commence from the arrival and three yeai-a 
publication of them at New York." Excise and other in- iicaTion" " 
ternal taxes, which had been imposed by Ni colls and Love- 
lace, M^ere to be temporarily continued until farther orders 
fi'om the duke. All these duties were calmly laid by 


CHAP. VI. James, at Windsor Castle, on the people of Kew York, 
At the same time, he directed his provincial governor to 
lessen the charge of government there as much as pos- 
sible, " that so, by degrees, I may reap from thence some 
advantages, in return for the great expence and trouble I 
Equal ad- havc bccu at in protecting that colony." Justice was to be 
uon'ofTus- administered " with all possible equality, without regard to 
'"'*'■ Dutch or English," so that all might see " their just rights 
preserved to them inviolably." The laws and orders es- 
tablished by Nicolls and Lovelace were not to be varied 
from " but upon emergent necessities," and with the advice 
of the council and the gravest and most experienced in- 
habitants; and no alteration was to be valid unless con- 
firmed by the duke within a year. All writs were to run 
M.npis- in the king's name. Magistrates were to be chosen " for 
!.ffil-cr"° their abilities and integrity," and no officers were to be ap- 
pointed "for above one year, or otherwise than during 
pleasm'e." The governor was to choose a council, not ex- 
counsei- ccediug tcu, out of " the most prudent inhabitants," with 
whom he was to " consult upon all extraordinary occasions" 
relating to the public service. They were to hold their 
places during the duke's pleasure ; and they, as well as all 
other officers, were to take oaths of allegiance to the king, 
and of fidelity to the proprietor, as also one peculiar to the 
office. Freedom of conscience was secured. " You shall," 
were James's orders to Andros, " permit all persons, of 
rreetiom wliat Religion soever, quietly to inhabit within tlie pre- 
Tn New"'* cincts of your jurisdiction, without giving them any dis- 
■iork. turbance or disquiet whatsoever, for or by reason of their 
differing opinions in matter of Religion : Provided they 
give no disturbance to the public peace, nor do molest or 
disquiet others in the free exercise of their religion." 
In case of the death of Andros, Lieutenant Anthony 
r.rockhoiia BrockhoUs was to succeed liim in his government. Brock- 
tindei- An- liolls was of a Romau Catholic family in Lancashire, En- 
gland, and was himself "a prof est Papist." Tlie "Test 
Act" of 29 March, 1673, would have excluded him from 
holding office in England. But, as that statute did not ex- 
tend to the British American Plantations, the duke, him- 
self a victim of Protestant intolerance, was able to illus- 
trate his own idea of " Freedom to worship God," by ap- 


pointing a member of the Churcli of Rome to be his sec- chap. vi. 
ond colonial officer in New York.* 

By the king's special permission, the Duke of York raised 
a company of infantry, consisting of one hundred men, be- 
sides officei-s, to serve in his province. Of this company 
he commissioned Andros to be captain, and Brockholls i -Tuiy. 

- July. 

lieutenant. Christopher Billop, who had " served the ucguiar 
king," and whose father was an importunate office-seeker, officers in 
was appointed second lieutenant, and Caesar Knapton en- 
sign. A surgeon and a chaplain were likewise established 
for the forces in New York.f 

James also chose William Dyer, or Dyre, formerly of 
Rhode Island, and who, the autumn befoi'e, had planned 
reconquest, to be the collector of his provincial customs. 
Dyer was instructed to receive all the customs' duties ac- 2 juiy. 
cruing to the duke w^ithin the territory granted to him by lector of 
the king, and pay them over to Andros, whose farther di- " 
rections he was to follow, and to whom he was to report 
from time to time. No trust was to be allowed to any 
one, and all duties were to be paid in money or goods. 
The collector was not to trade as a merchant ; and all rev- 
enue differences with importers were to be determined by 
"the ordinary magistrates of the place, or otherwise, as 
hath been hitherto accustomed.":|: 

One of the motives to the Duke of York's second patent 
was the peculiar condition of New Jersey. James con- 
sidered that his former release of that region to Berkeley New Jersey 
and Carteret was annulled by the Dutch conquest — just as'' " 
his own grant from the king had been. But both his 
grantees were old courtiers, and more than his match, 
where their own interests were at stake. They played 

• Col. Doc, iii., 216-219, C57, 674; iv., 106; Burke'3 Commoners, iv., 401; ante, 202. 
BrocklioUs, nlthough a Itoman Catholic, was married to Susanna Maria, daughter of I'aulua 
Schrick, of New York, and a member of the Reformed Dutch Church, in which their children 
were all baptized. One of these children, Susanna Brockholls, married Philip French, Jun., 
and their daugrhter Susanna married William Livingston, governor of New Jersey, by whom 
she had Judge Henry Brockholst Livingston, and others: N. Y. IL S. Coll. (ii.), i., 305; 
CoL Doc., iv., 064 ; Val. Man., 1S63, 74S, S09 : Sedgwick's Livingston, 59, 60, 230, 239. The 
usual Knglish spelling of the name was " Brockholes ;" but the major's autograph.s in the 
Secretary's Office at Albany are written "Brockholls." The Dutch Church Records make 
the name " Brockholst," and this appears to have been preferred by his descendants. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 219-221, 239, 276, 2S4; Pepys, iv., 53. It is not known what chaplain 
.iccompanied Andros to New York in 1674 : Hist. Mag., v., 153, 156, 1S9 ; Col. Doc, iii., 415, 
note; Gen. Ent., xxxii., 93 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll. (1S09), 157 : ante, 45, note. 

t Chalmers, i., 5S0 ; Col. Doc, ii., 721 ; iii., 207, 221-223, 31S ; iv., 353 ; R. L CoL Rcc, L, 
260 ; ii., IDS, 396; VaL Man., 1853, 8S7 ; ante, 247, 263 ; vol. i., 557. 



Chap. VI. their o^^'n separate games with skill, and eventually they 
beat the duke. 

After returning from his lieutenancy of Ireland, Berke- 
ley was appointed ambassador in France. He had found 
John Lord that liis American proprietorship verified the prediction of 
^ °y- ]v^ieolIs, that its profit, if any, would only benefit his grand- 
children. Berkeley, therefore, shortly after the Treaty of 
Westminster, in consideration of one thousand pounds, 
conveyed to John Fenwick, an old Cromwellian soldier, 
in trust for Edward Byllinge, a broken-down London 
IS March, brcwcr, his undivided half of New Jersey, together with 
iiiTimdi- such " franchises, liberties, governments, and powers" as 
ofNewjer-had been granted to him by the Duke of York in 1664. 
iinye°and' Both of Berkeley's grantees were Quaker disciples of 
Fenmck. Yox, who had just returned from America. They 
probably calculated that they had secured a bargain. Yet 
Berkeley's conveyance to Fenwick was a very doubtful 
parchment. If, by reason of the Dutch reconquest of New 
York and New Jersey, the Duke of York was obliged to 
procure a new patent from the king, it was much more 
necessary for Berkeley to obtain a new release from 
his own grantor. Nevertheless, the bargain stood as 
it was thus concluded, just three months before Charles 
made his second grant to his brother ; and Berkeley re- 
joiced that he had touched his thousand pounds, and was 
rid of any concern in New Jersey.* 

But Berkeley's old cojiartner, Sir George Carteret, was 
differently situated. He had no motive to part with his 
Sir George interest in New Jersey. lie had come back from Dublin 
to resume his place near the person of his sovereign. It 
was not difficult for the domineering courtier to warp his 
easy king. Charles, accordingly — a fortnight before his 
own second patent to his brother for New York and New 
Jersey had jjassed tlie great seal — was prevailed upon to 
13 June, sign a letter declaring that Sir George was " seized of the 
letter in^ ^ Proviucc of Ncw Cossarca or New Jersey, in America, and 
Carteret 8 ^^ ^j^^ jurisdiction thereof," and commanding its inhabit- 
ants to obey his government, " who hath the sole power, 

• Le!imingftndSplccr,G4, 05,413; Chalmer.?, 1., CIT: S. Smith, 79, 89, 5G7 ; Gordon, 34; 
Burnet, i., 207; Col. Doc, iii , 105; Fox's Journul, 4G5; Sewell, 512; Bancroft, ii , iiCiS; 
Grahame, i., 407, 473, 474; Wliitehcad, 05, 07; Di.xon's Life of Penn (cd. I'hilad., I'^Sl), 
136 ; Dankers's and SluyterM Journal, 241-24') ; ajite, 85, 150, 200, 201. 


imder lis, to settle and dispose of the said country, upon 
such terms and conditions as he shall think fit."* 

Yet, when this letter was written, the king knew that y,^YiJy of 
the only way in which Carteret could be " seized" of New I;^„/r'in' 
Jersey was by tlie duke's release in 1664, which made him ^jo^^^^^J^^ 
a joint owner with Berkeley, who had just sold his undi- 
vided interest to Fenwick. How, then, could Carteret 
have " the sole power" which Charles's letter attributed to 
him ? Moreover, at that very time the king had ordered a 
new patent, which he afterward sealed, granting to his 
brother "full and absolute power and authoi'ity" over all 
the territory between the Connecticut and the Delaware 
which had been relinquished to him by the Dutch in the 
Treaty of Westminster. New Jersey was a part of that 
territory ; and after James's patent was sealed, he stood, in 
])lace of the king, as its only proprietor. Carteret, there- 
fore, had no " power" at all in New Jersey. Whatever 
equitable claims Berkeley and Carteret, or their assigns 
might have had to the personal favor of James, they had 
no legal rights whatever to New Jersey after its conquest 
by the Dutch, and its second grant by King Charles to 
the Duke of York. 

What followed is less clear. All that we know is, that 
the Duke of York — three weeks after he had conmiissioned 
Andros to be governor of the whole of his American ter- 
ritory — was induced to direct his attorney general and his 23 juiy. 
solicitor general to prepare a grant to Sir George Carteret, 
i?i severalty, of a part of the portion which, ten years be- 
fore, he had conveyed to Berkeley and Carteret jointly. 
Accordingly, James — referring to the king's second patent 29 juiy. 
to him of 29 June, 1674 — granted to Carteret and his heirs uiopuke 
the tract of land " westward of Long Island and Manhattas Nett?°py 
Island, and bounded on the east, part by the main sea and in severaT-' 
part by Hudson's Biver, and extends southward as far as a '^" 
certain creek called Barnegat, being about the middle be- 
tween Sandy Point and Cape May; and bounded on the 
west in a strait line from the said creek called Barnegat to 
a certain creek in Delaware River next adjoining to and 
below a certain creek in Delaware River called Rankokus 
Kill ; and from thence up the said Delaware River to the 

• Col. MSS., xxii., 100; r.Iiz. Bill, 3S ; Learning and Spiccr, 49; Wliitelieiul, C4. 



cnAP. VI. nortliermost branch thereof, which is in forty-one degrees 

and forty minutes of latitude ; and on the north crosseth 

over thence in a strait line to Hudson's Kiver in forty-one 

degrees of latitude : which said tract of land is hereafter to 

be called by the name or names of New Caesarea, or New 

Jersey.'''' But — as in the case of the duke's original release 

\o powers of 24 Juuc, 1664 — his second grant did not convey to Car- 

ment tcrct any of the " full and absolute power and authority to 

^"^ ^ ' govern," which the king had intrusted to his brother.* 

Wliatever may have been the scope of this instrument, 
its history is remarkable. Before he granted it, James is 
said to have "hesitated long, and at length sacrificed his 
personal interest, as well as the prosperity of New York, to 
his fatal esteem for Carteret." The duke himself after- 
ward declared that the grant was obtained from him " by 
smi^rise." The probability is that James found tliat he 
could not safely thwart his brother's imperious vice-cham- 
berlain, for whom, besides, he cherished "much esteem 
and regard." So, to make things easy at Wliitehall, he 
gave away to Carteret the largest half of New Jersey, 
which that experienced courtier flattered him he chose 
" because near unto his government of New York ;" while 
it was really preferred " on the account of its being well 
settled with a sober and industrious people, which would 
invite others to come there, whereas the other was a desart." 
r.ffect of ^ Yet James did not intend to " let go any part of his pre- 
t-rant to rogativc ;" for he made no alteration in the commission he 
had given to Andros. Berkeley's conveyance of his undi- 
vided interest to Fenwick was disregarded ; because, if the 
dulvc had been evicted by the Dutch conquest, much more 
so were his grantees in 1664. (^arteret, however, took his 
new title, in severalty, knowing that in 1668 Staten Island 
had been "adjudged to belong to New York," and that it 
had been purchased for James in 1670.f 
.ni July. Esteeming himself, nevertheless, the sole proprietor of 
newconces- Ncw Jcrscy, Cartcrct drew up some explanations of the 
New jer- fomicr " conccssious" of himself and Berkeley. In this in- 
'"^' strument Sir George distinctly recognized the annihilation 

• Col. Doc, iii., 223, 224; Eliz. Bill, 7; Leaniiug and Spicer, 42, 40, 4T, 4S; ante, 82, S3, 
t Clialmers, i., 617 ; Col. Doc., iii., 229, 240 ; S. Smith, 548 ; Whitcliead, 65, 67 ; Maes. \l. 
S. Coll., x.xxvii., 315 ; Yonkers Gazette of 8 July and 5 August, 1865 ; ante, 140, 150, 166. 


of his old rights by tlie Dutch conquest, and the recent cuap. vi. 
fresh ffrant from the duke to himself. At the same time ZZT' 
he commissioned his cousin Philip to be his provincial gov- 
ernor, and procured for him a passage in the fi'igate which 
was to convey Andros to New York.* 

It was necessary for the duke to do another act before he 
could feel at ease about his title to Long Island and Pem- 
aquid. The consideration which he had promised to Lord 
Stirling in 1664 had never been paid. To obtain a release 
from the earl of " all his pretence of right and title," James 
granted to him for life a pension of three hundred pounds so juiy. 
a year, " out of the surplusage of the neat profits of the ung's peJ. 
revenue arising out of the said colony, all manner of charges, "°°" 
be it civil or military, first deducted and allowed." At the 
same time. Lord Stirling agreed that, if the duke should 
procure for him " any employment or other satisfaction to 
the like value," he would release the grant of his annuity.f 

James now gave several final directions to Andros. As f « Aug. 
soon as he should arrive at New York, the governor was to strTctiTns 
seize the estate of Lovelace, who was charged with being from'^thT 
about seven thousand pounds in debt to the proprietor. 
Andros was also furnished with a copy of the " Duke's 
Laws," as established in New York by Nicolls and Love- 
lace, which, it was thought upon consideration, might be 
amended '' in some particular clauses thereof." His origi- 
nal instructions were therefore modified so as to require 
him "to put in execution the said laws, except such as 
shall have apparent inconveniences in them ;" and, after 
his settlement in New York, he was, with the advice of his 
council, to make such amendments as might be found nec- 
essary " for the ease and benefit of the people," and the 
good of the proprietor's service. These alterations were to 
be at once reported to the duke for his authority to put 
them in execution. Shortly afterward James's new govern- 
or set sail, accompanied by his staff and military forces, and 
by " a number of new Qolonists." They were conveyed by 

' Eliz. Bill, 7, SS-40; Learning and Splcer, 50-CO; Doc. Hist., iii., 45; Whitehead, C.% 
CO; ante, S3-S6, 1S9, 19!), 200. Carteret was a kinsman ot'Aijdros: Hatfield, ITS. 

t It seems that there never was any "surplusage of the neat profits" arising out of the 
revenue of New York, and that the duke neither got any office for Lord Stirling, nor paid 
him any part of his stipulated annuity: see Col. Doc, iii., 42, 225, COG, 607; v., 330, 331; 
vii., 430-432 ; Duer's Life of Stirling, 37--i9 ; ante, 15, 16. 


cuAP. vr. the frigates Diamond, Captain Richard Griffith, and Castle, 

Z Captain Cassibelan Burton. Besides Philip Carteret, the 

governor of New Jersey, Captain John Manning, who had 

been waiting for some months in England, returned to 

New York in the Diamond with Andros.* 

22 October. In duc time the British frigates anchored at Staten Island ; 

1 Novem. ^nd Andros sent Governor Carteret with Ensisrn Knapton 

Andros no- /^iii i • o \ • 

tifies coive to notif v Colvc that he was ready to receive from mm 

to crivG pos- 

Bession of " The Ncw Netherland and dependances," now under his 
criand. commaud. The Dutch governor, however, declined yield- 
ing possession at once, and required eight days to complete 
the necessary preliminaries. These were not mere formal- 
ities. They touched what the Dutch considered their es- 
sential rights, chiefly affecting religion and property. The 
24 October, burgomasters and schepens of the metropolis appointed 
3 Novem. Stccnwyck, Yau Brugh, and Beekman to w^elcome the En- 
glish governor on board the Diamond, and request from 
The city him some privileges "for the advantage of the common- 
?"que" "^^ alty." Andros desired them to " assure the inhabitants of 
Ibruie^^^ the Dutch nation that they should participate in the same 
privileges as those of the English nation, and that his Hon- 
or would, as far as possible, promote their interests ; refer- 
ring himself further to the Instructions given him by His 
Royal Majesty and Highness the Duke of York." Wish- 
27 October, ing uiore certainty, Colve sent Steenw^'ck and Captain 
c Novem. Eppstcvn to Audros with several articles, to which he de- 

Colve 3 ue- . . . 

mandi. sircd auswcrs for the satisfaction of the Dutch government, 
and for " the greater tranquillity of the good People of 
this Province." These articles related chiefly to the set- 
tlement of debts; the validity of judgments during the 
Dutch administration, and the maintenance of owners in 
the possession of property ; " that the inhabitants of the 
Dutch nation may be allowed to retain their, customary 
The Dutch Cliurcli privileges in Divine service and Church discipline. 
New York, bcsidcs their Fathers' laws and customs in the division of 
their inheritances ;" that they miglit not be forced to serve 
" against their own nation :" that eacli cono-rcffation misht 
support its own poor; besides several other particulars. 

• Col. Doc, ii., 733 ; iii., 22(5,227; Poc., Hi., 46,64; Council Min., iii. (ii.), C; Wnrr., 
Ord., Pass., etc., iii., .51 ; antf, 25G. Tliore in ii copy of "the Diilcc's laws" in t\w State Pa- 
per Office, London : Board of Trado, N. V., No. 110, 15 i. 


Andros replied the next day by a general assurance that chap. vi. 
he would give satisfactory answers to most of the points, 
being ordered to observe the articles of peace " in the best og October. 
and most friendly manner" toward the Dutch inhabitants, 7 Novem. 
and that he had directed Captain Matthias Nicolls person- reply. 
ally to confer with Colve on the subject. At this confer- 
ence Nicolls satisfied Colve that Andros would give the sooctobpr. 
desired answers as soon as he had assumed the govern- § '^'o^e""- 
ment. This assurance M-as honorably fulfilled.* 

All preliminaries being now satisfactorily arranged, 
Colve assembled the burgomasters and schepens, with the ^"^^l^^^^"^'"'' 
burgher court-martial, at the City Hall, and announced ^oij-c'^^^ ^^ 
that on the morrow he would surrender the fort and prov- New xctu- 


ince to Andros on behalf of the King of Great Britain ; 
and, after thanking them for their past services, absolved 
them from their oaths of allegiance to the States Gener- 
al and the Prince of Orange. The banners of the " Out 
people," and the cushions and table-cloth in the City 
Hall, were intrusted to Bm-gomaster Van Brugh until they 
should be claimed by " superior authority ;" and Colve then 
took his " farewell of the Assembly." The next day, be- 3^ October. 
ine: Saturday, the tenth of November, accordino- to the 10 Novem. 

O J ' 7 o New Neth- 

New Style, " The Province of New Netherland was sur- eriand re- 
rendered by Governor Colve to Governor Major Edmund England. 
Andros on behalf of His Britannic Majesty."t 

Thus England once more became predominant over 
North America. From Carolina to Acadia its Atlantic 
coast obeyed the servants of her kino-. On takino; posses- 
sion of his government, Andros's first official act was to m j^ovem 
swear in Captain Matthias Nicolls as one of his council, Andros as- 

X _^. — ' eumea the 

and appoint him to be again secretary of the province of ^^^H} 
" New York." The o-overnor's other counselors, from time Newvork, 

~ -' and ap- 

to time, were Brockholls, Dyer, Phillipse, and the several points offi- 
mayors of the metropolis, Lawrence, Dervall, De Meyer, 
Van Cortlandt, and others. A proclamation was imme- 
diately issued, charging all persons to be peaceable.:|: 

• Col. MSS.,xxiii., 412-420; New Orange Records, vii., 253; Doc. Hist., iii., 45-51 ; Val. 
Man., 1S52, 415-421 ; 1S53, 498 ; a?i?c, 259. See Appendi.x, Note C, for the documents illus- 
trating this negotiation between Colve and Andros. 

t New Orange Rec, vii., 254, 255 ; Val. Man., 1S52, 421, 422; 1S53, 40S, 490 ; Doc. Hist., 
iii., 51, 52 ; Col. MS^., xxiii., 423. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 1 ; Gen. Ent., iv., 205; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 1 ; ?. Hazard's 
Ann. Tcnn., 413 ; M.vs. H. S. Coll., xxx., 112 ; nvl , 211. 



Chap. VI. 



van Rens- 

■^rj Xovem. 
Letter of 
Andros to 

coach and 
horses giv- 
en to An- 

jHj Novem. 
Andros no- 
tifies the 
of the En- 
glish colo- 

^j Novem, 
tion to con- 
tinue En- 
glish offi- 

3 Novem. 

A quiet Sunday followed. Whoever was British chap- 
lain at the fort, it especially interested Domine Van Nieu- 
wenhuysen to learn that the Reverend Nicolaus van Kens- 
selaer, a younger son of the first patroon of Eensselaer- 
wyck, and an ordained clergyman in both the Dutch and 
the English churches, had come over with Andros, recom- 
mended by the Duke of York to be made " minister of 
one of the Dutch churches in New York or New Albany, 
when a vacancy shall happen."* 

Early on Monday morning Andros wrote a courteous 
letter to Colve, acknowledging his " generosity in all his 
proceedings" since the arrival of the English frigates ; not 
the least touching mark of which seems to have been the 
gift by the Dutch governor to his successor of his coach 
and three horses. Andros likewise returned to Colve the 
articles proposed before the surrender ; almost all of which 
were agreed to, and certified by Secretary Nicolls, "pur- 
suant to the assurance given by those employed."! 

At the same time Andros notified the governors of the 
neighboring English colonies of his arrival, and of his as- 
sumption of the government of New York. Dyer was in- 
stalled as collector, and the duke's customs' rates publish- 
ed. Various local ofiicers were also appointed. But, as 
these could not all be selected at once, the governor, by 
proclamation, authorized the English magistrates who were 
in ofiice in the several towns at the time of the Dutch con- 
quest, to act for six months, as before.:}: 

The most important point to be regained was Albany. 
Ensign Caesar Knapton was accordingly sent thither, with 
Sergeant Thomas Sharpe and eighteen men, to take com- 

• Van Niomvcnhuy.-'en's Letter to CI. Amst., 30 May, IGTC : Col. Doc, iii., 225 ; Doc. Hist., 
iii., 52C; O'Call., i., 122, 212; ii.,&52; llolgatc, 42 ; Smith, i., 49, 3SS; N. Y. Christ. Int., 
2 Nov., 1SG5; Hist. Mag., ix., 352. It appears that Van Rensselaer had luckily prophesied 
to Charles the Second, at Brussels, that he would be restored to his tlirone. When that 
event occurred the Domino ncconipanicd the Dutch ambassador, Van Gogh, to London, as 
chaplain to the embassy ; and the king, recollecting his prediction, gave Van Rensselaer a 
gold snuff-box, with his likeness in the lid, which is still preserved by the fftmily at Albany* 
After Van Gogh left London because of the Dutch war in 1G6.5, Domine Van Rensselaer re- 
ceived Cluules's license to preacii to tlic I hitch congregation at Westminster; was ordained 
a deacon in the English Church by the Bishop of Salisbury ; and was appointed lecturer at 
Saint Margaret's Lothbury. 

t Col. M.SS., xxiii., 419, 420, 421; Doc. Hist., iii., 4S, 49, 50; Val. Man., 1852, 418-421. 
Andros appears to have been the first ICnglish governor who used a coach and horses in 
New York, and they were a present from Colve : see Col. Doc, iv., 221, 275 ; ante, 223. 

t Gen. Knt., iv., 290-299 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 2, 3 ; Warr., Ord., etc., iii., 2, 3 ; Riker's 
Newtown, 90; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 509; Col. Doc, iii., 217, 240; aiifp, 201!, 205. 


mand of tlie fort. Michael Siston was appointed schout, chap. vi. 
or sheriff, and liichard Pretty collector of the excise. 
George Hall was made schout of Esopus. Andros also 4 Novem" 
wrote to the Dutch commissaries at both places, inclosing -^^^^^ 
Colve's orders for their surrender. Domine Bemardus 
Arensius, the Lutheran minister, was at the same time li- 6 xovem. 
censed to go to Albany in the sloop which conveyed the 
new officers, and officiate there "as formerly under the 
English Government." The surrender was happily accom- 
])lished ; and the reinstated Albany commissaries expressed 10 Novem. 
their satisfaction at being settled again nnder the Duke 
of York's authority.'" 

To quiet any controversy about the ^'t/us Postliminii^'' 
Andros now issued a proclamation that •■• all former grants, 9 Novem. 
privileges, or concessions heretofore granted, and all estates tion of An- 
legally possessed by any under His Royal Highness before fimiing°aii 
tlic late Dutch Government, as also all legal judicial pro-g°rMte! 
ceedings during that Government to my arrival in these 
parts, are hereby confirmed, and the possessors by virtue 
thereof to remain in quiet possession of their rights : It is 
hereby further declared that the known Book of Laws 
formerly established and in force under His Royal Iligh- 
ness's go^■ernment, is now again confirmed by His Royal 
Highness, the which are to be observed and practiced, to- 
gether with the manner and time of holding Courts there- 
in mentioned, as heretofore." The next week, to settle 
some farther doubts, the governor declared that his procla- ic Novem. 
mation of the ninth of November was " to be understood 
with due regard of the Articles of Peace in every par- 

The city of New York being the metropolis, Andros, by 10 Novem. 
a special commission, appointed Secretary Matthias Nicolls ccrsofNew 
to be mayor, John Lawrence deputy mayor, and William 
Dervall, Frederick Phillipse, Gabriel Minvielle, and John 
AVinder aldermen, who were to hold their offices until the 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 2, 3 ; Gen. Ent., iv., 300-304 ; Wnrr., Ord., Passe?, iii., 2-S, 3S, 
39; Doc. Uist., iii., 51, .'iiS. It nppears thnt Arcnsiua afterward spent his summers in New 
York, and his winters at Albany, ministering alternately to the Lutherans in each place: 
Letter of Selyns to CI. Amst., 2ij Octob r, 16S2; Murphy's Anthology, 94 ; 0. WoUey, 5". 
(Japtain Knyff, on his departure for Holland, made several donations to the Lutheran 
Church : Col. MS?., xxiii., 424. 

t Warr., Ord., Pass., iii., 13, 19 ; Col. MSS., xxiv., S; Col. Doc, iii., 22"; Doc. Tlist., iii., 
52 ; Min. of N. Y. Com. Council, i. , 12, 13 ; Val. Man., 1S45, 184G, 330, 331 ; ante^ 260. 

IL— S 


Chap. VI. next Octobei'. Thomas Gibbs, who had been one of Love- 
lace's counselors, was also commissioned as sheriff. Yet 
' care was taken that the English element should prevail.* 
13 Novem. A f cw dajs afterward the " Mayor's Court" of the city 
coYrTof of New York was convened. Its records were ordered to 
Newiork. ^^ thereafter kept in English, and every paper offered to 
the court to be in that tongue, except in the case of poor 
people who could not afford the cost of translation. This 
introduced more of the English form in legal proceedings. 
But it was several years before the system was settled.f 
12 Novem. Pursuaut to the duke's order, Andros seized the estate 
estate of Lovclacc, and required all persons having any of it in 
the Duke tlicir haiids to render accounts. The governor thus ob- 
tained possession of the " Bouwery," which some of the 
heirs of Domine Bogardus and his widow conveyed to 
Lovelace in 1671. It formed a part of " the Duke's farm," 
then esteemed to be one of the least valuable perquisites of 
the actual governor; but which has since become the sub- 
ject of much avaricious strife.:}: 

When the governor's proclamation of the fourth of No- 
Eastern vembcr, reinstating the old officers under Lovelace, was re- 
ixmg'^ier. ceived at Southampton, Easthampton, and Southold, these 
*°'^' towns held meetings, and directed Mulford, Howell, and 
Younge, the magistrates appointed by Connecticut, to sign 
18 Novem. a memorial to Andros, stating that, by the aid of that col- 
ony, they had repelled the Dutch ; that they were now un- 
der her government, and that they could not secede with- 
4 Decern, oiit licr couscnt. It was at once ordered in council that 
Andros. tlic three towns should reinstate their former officers, ac- 
cording to the proclamation, " under the penalty of being 
declared rebels." Andros also wrote. to Governor Win- 
throp, of Connecticut, counseling him to disabuse his would- 
be subordinates oi their " notion" that they could exercise 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 3 ; Warr., Ord., Pass., iii., 12. These particuliiw arc not stated 
in Valentine's Manual. While the provincial seal was saved, the city's seal and mace had 
disappeared, and Andros " bespoke" new ones : Col. Doc, iii., 230 ; ante, 157, 15S, 212. 

t Itccords of the Mayor's Court, ii. ; Daly's Int., 2S, 29 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 148 ; C. 
Wolley, 57. In May, 1677, it was ordered that ''pleading attornies" be no longer allowed 
to practice their profession in New York, "•but for the depending causes." 

t Ool. Doc, iii., 226, 291 ; iv., 327, 393, 4+S ; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 15, 16; Col. MSS , 
x.\., 14, 15, 72 ; lloffman's Treatise, ii , 182, 183 ; Val. Man., 1860, .548 ; ante, 183, 269. Trin- 
ity Church, in the city of New York, now enjoys the benefit of this action of Governor Andros 
in 1674. Lovelace died before 21 January, 1679, on wliich day the accounts of his estate 
were exhibited : Col. MSS., xxvi., 43; xxviil,50. 


power in any part of New York. Sylvester Salisbury, who chap. vi. 
had returned from Enn-land with the governor, was ac- 

cordingly dispatched to execute the orders of the council. ^ fj^J*' 
To srive him more diijnitv, Salisbury was also commissioned Salisbury 
to be hio-h-sherirf of Louii; Island.* sheriff. 

Andros himself appears to have visited the eastern towns 
of Long Island, which prudently avoided any farther oppo- 
sition to his autliority. They soon learned that Winthrop connecti- 
had sent his son, witli Mr. Wilh's, to explain the proceed- sengers to 
ings of Connecticut at New York, where they arrived dur- 
ing the governor's absence. The recusant towns seem to lo necem. 
have been soothed by Salisbury's declaration that he ac-sioaof'rc- 
cepted their return to New York " from under the colony town". 
of Connecticut, by whose help and protection they have 
been secm-ed from the Dutch invasion unto the obedience 
of His Royal Highness." On his rerturn to the capital, An- 
dros wrote to Winthrop that every thing was satisfactorily 28 Deccm. 
arranged at the eastern end of Long Island ; and that Con- wdterto 
necticut, by her interference against the Dutch in the pre- '"' ^^^' 
vious February, had done well for the restoration of his 
master's royal autliority.f 

By direction of the people of Newtown, their clerk, John ig Novem. 
Burroughs, replied to the governor's proclamation, speak- Newtown 
ing very plainly of the grievances they had suffered under 
Lovelace, and reflecting on the authority of the Court of 
Assizes. Andros at once demanded whether Burroughs sr Novcm. 
had ex|)ressed the voice of the town, and an unsatisfactory 
answer was returned. The offending clerk was brought c Dccem. 
before the council at New York, and sentenced to stand an , ^^^ ^p- 

' ^ 15 Jan y. 

hour on tlie whipping-post before the City Ilall, with a pa- it^* <-icik, 
per on his breast, setting forth that he had signed seditious punished. ' 
letters against the government; and Burroughs was far- 
ther declared incapable of holding any public trust in the 
province. This sentence was executed under the direc- 
tion of Sheriff Gibbs, at the metropolis.:}: 

♦Council Min., iii (ii1,fl-0; Warr., Ord., Passrp, etc., iii., 4, 2S, 29, 30, 31,41, 42, 53; 
Gen. i;nt , iv., 299 ; Wood, 9S, 99 ; Thompson, i., 15S, 335, 383; ante, 253, 272. 

t Mas8. II. S. Coll., XXX., 113, 114, IIT; Warr.,Ord., Passe.^, iii., 48; Thompson, i., DS3; 
Diinlap, ii., App. xxxviii. ; antc^ 243. 

X Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 25; C^ouncil Min., iii. (ii.), 14, 15; Riker's Newtown, 90-92. 
Several interesting details respecting Jaraaic.'i, Franci.-i Bloodgood, of Flushing, and Tliomaa 
and Mary Case, Samuel Scudder, and Samuel Furman, or Foi-man, may be found in Col. 
MSS., xxiv., 25, 171 ; xxv.,2; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 52; P.iker, 92-95 ; anff, 243, 255. 


cuAr. VI. The council was now directed to meet for the transac- 

tion of business every Friday morning at nine o'clock. A 

8 Jan' <^li^i*ter was also passed, authorizing a joint-stock company 

Council a £qj. settlinfir a fishery in these parts" for cod. It is sup- 

meetings. o "in • i • 

Fishery 63- posed that tliis was the nrst commercial corporation ever 

tabliahed. r -,.■,.■, . /• -nt a- i v 

created withm the pro\'mce oi JN ew i ork.-' 

Among those who had lost heavily by the surrender to 
the Dutch was Aldermaii Dervall, who attributed it di- 
rectly to the " treachery" of Manning. This charge against 

iG jan'y. au Englishman made it necessary for the governor " to 
proceed against him," accordhig to the duke's instruction. 

2 Fcb'y. Manning was brought before a court-martial, composed of 

ftrraigned the Couucil, Captaius Griffith, Burton, and Salisbury, and 

court-mar- the mayor and aldermen of the city ; and six charges were 
exhibited against him, involving neglect of duty, cowardice, 

4Fei)'y. and treachery. A number of witnesses testified strongly 
against the prisoner. Manning endeavored to explain his 

5 Feb'y. couduct ; at tlic samc time, acknowledging liimself " blame- 
worthy to all" the charges except those of treachery and 
cowardice ; and, pleading that his errors had been occa- 
sioned by his " poor broken head and disquieted spirit," he 
tlirew himself on the mercy of the court. His judges ac- 
quitted him of treachery, but found him guilty of the oth- 
er charges. It was agreed that he deserved death ; but as 
he had been in England since the surrender, and had seen 
the king and the duke, he was allowed the benefit of the 
proverb, '■'' KhuJ s face hrings graced Manning was there- 

sentonce of foi'C Sentenced " to be carried back to prison, and fi'om 
annin^. .j.|^gj^^,g bi'ought out to the publick place before the City 
Hall, there to have his sword broken over his head, and 
from that time be rendered mica})able of wearing a sword 
or serving His Majesty in any publick employ or place of 
benefitt and trust witliin this Government."t 

Vessels to To sccurc tlic dulvc's custoius' dutics a proclamation was 
thc"cw issued requiring all vessels trading within the govern- 
tom-house. mcut of tlic proviucc to enter at the custom-house in New 

• Col. MSS., xxiv., 67; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 10 ; Col. Doc, iii., 234, note. 

t Col. Doc, ii., G.>S, 043; iii., 200, 210; Council Mia, iii. (ii.), l.'), IS, 20-24; Col. M.S.> , 
xxiv., 3C-r)3, 97; Doc. Hist., iii., 53-05; .Sniitli, i., 4S, 49; Thomp.son, i., 1.5:); Dunlap, i., 
130; Val. Man., 1S.53, .•S4; C. Wolley, 47, 89, 00; ante, 208, 257, 203, 270. After this sen- 
tence Manning retired to his island in the River, now known as BlackweU's Island 
(ante^ 138), where he entertained his friends witli bowls of excellent rum punch, according 
to the testimony of Clinplain Wolley, in 1079. 


York. Dyer, the collector, accordingly executed liis office chap. \'i. 

so strino-entlv as to srive occasion, not lono; afterward, to ~~~Z~ 

. . 1675 

serious complaints.* 

Andros now issued a proclamation requiring " all such 13 Marcii. 
persons as doe intend to continue under His Majesty's obe- legianco"' 
dience within His Royal Ilighness's government, that they "i""^''- 
appear at such times and places as the magistrates within 
the respective towns and places where they li^*e sliall ap- 
point, to take the usual oaths of allegiance and fidelity." 
Tlie mayor and aldermen of the city of New York accord- 
ingly appointed the next Monday for the purpose. Early 
on that morning many of the citizens appeared at the May- 15 March, 
or's Court, and were directed to take the same oath which 
Nicolls required from the Dutch residents in 1GG4. Sev- 
eral of the leading burghersf readily agreed to do this, objections 
provided Andros would confirm what his predecessor had the Dutch. 
declared, namely, that the capitulation of August, 1664, 
was " not in the least broken or intended to be broken by 
any words or expressions in the said oath." This capitula- 
tion they thought was confirmed by the sixth article of the 
Treaty of Westminster in 1674: ; and such was the opinion 
of the duke and his officers. Mayor Nicolls, however, was 
" ignorant of any such declaration," and was quite sur- 
prised when a copy of it was produced. The burghers in- 
sisted that they only wished Andros's confirmation of their 
" freedom of religion and from being pressed in time of 
war." But the governor refused to make any explanation, 
and required them to take the oath without qualification, 
charging the recusants with being mutinous. According- 
ly, Steenw^^ck and his associates petitioned Andros either is March, 
to be satisfied with the oath as accepted by Nicolls, or to AadroT 
allow them to dispose of their estates and remove else- 
where with their families. This petition was "not only ill 
received, but peremptorily rejected ;" and its eight signers, 
Steenwyck, Van Brugh, De Peyster, Bayard, Luyck, Beek- 
man. Kip, and De Milt, were imprisoned on a charge of is Marcu. 
disturbing the government and endeavoring a rebellion. 

• Warr., Ord., TasFcs, iii., 63; Col. Doc, Hi., 220, 233, 239, 240, 31C; Col. MSS., xxiv., 
ir,2; anre, 2C3, 272. 

t Tliese were. Cornelis Steenwyck, Johannes van Brnph. Johannes de Peyster, and Jacob 
Kip, who )iad objected in 1664, and Nicholas Bayard, .Egidius Luyck, William Beekman, 
and Anthony de Milt, who had not : antf^ 47, 4S. 



CnAr. VI. 


18 March. 

19 March. 
The peti- 
tioners or- 
dered to be 

20 March. 

The governor at tlie same time issued a proclamation warn- 
ing all against like practices. The prisoners having been 
examined before the council, where Governor Carteret, of 
New Jersey, and Captains Griffith and Burton, of the En- 
ghsh frigates, were present, were ordered to be tried at the 
next Court of Assizes ; and were released from close con- 
finement only upon giving heavy bonds.* 

Althougli Pemaquid, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket 
had been included in the Duke of York's patent, and had 
been governed by Nicolls and Lovelace, they were not com- 
prehended in Colve's commission. This produced a sort 
of interregnum in those secluded regions, and many disor- 
ders occurred. Some of the " opposition" inhabitants of 
Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket riotously endeavored to 
" transfer" them under the government of Massachusetts ; 
but, through the firmness of the venerable Thomas Mayhew, 
they were held for the duke — the arrival of whose new 
governor was patiently waited for, " as in time ► of great 
drouth, for the latter raine." Mayhew was accordingly 
reinstated in his " first right ;" and the ringleaders in the 
late disorders were directed to be punished. Nantucket 
soon afterward declared that the coming of the duke's gov- 
ernor was to them " as the rising sun after a dark and 
stormy night." It was therefore ordered that the two isl- 
20 April, ands should continue to enjoy their former privileges in 
subordination to the government of New York, and that 
the old magistrates should remain in their places.f 

On the DelaAvare, Captain Edmund Cantwell, the sheriff, 
and all the other magistrates in office at the time of the 
Dutch conquest, were reinstated, except Alrichs, who had 
offered them his friendship on their first coming, and had 
acted violently as their chief officer. Captain Carr, the 
former English commander, had now gone to Maryland, 
and his estate was seized. Andros also informed Governor 
Calvert that he had directed his officers on the Delaware 
to prevent any injuries to the neighboring colonies, and did 
" not doubt the like on the Governor of Maryland's part." 

and Nan- 


7 Novera. 


12 April. 


3 Xovem. 

• Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., C5, CC, 07, 74, 75; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 27-31; (;ol. MSS., 
xxiv., 7.3, 7C, 77-S4; Col. Doc., ii., 7.'!S-744; iii., 2:i7 ; v., 49G; vii.,r)SO; Val. Man., 1S45, 
331, 332; ISOl, 60.5-607 ; Minutes of C. C., vol. i., 9-11 ; ante, 46, 47, 2C0. 

t Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 10, 21, 77, 84; Council Min., iii. (ii ), .30-38; V,ol. MSS., xxiv., 
C, 18-18, 92, 93, 100-102 ; Hough's Nantucket I'apers, 60-88 ; ante^ i:9, 211. 


The murder of Doctor Koades by the Indians, and other cn.vp. vi. 
important matters, recpiiring his own presence on the Del- ~~~Z~ 
aware, the governor went thither, through Xew Jersey ; 3 jj^y ' 
thirty horses being furnislied for his journey by Govern- 
or Carteret. After setthng matters there, and writing 
to Lord Baltimore, Andros returned to N^ew York, wdiere 15 May. 
Brockholls had acted for him during his absence.* 

The Diamond and the Castle frigates were sent back to 1 April. 
England, the latter with a load of timber for the king's Timb«i- ' 
dock-yard. Its value was allowed to the duke ; who never- giand" 
theless found himself more than two thousand pounds out 
of pocket on account of the expedition " for the repossess- 
ing New York." Andros soon afterward received James's cApiii. 
autograph reply to his letters of the previous November leuer to *^* 
and December. His conduct was approved, especially in ^"^ ™^' 
reducino: to obedience the three "factious towns at the 
east end of Long Island," which he was to treat so that 
their people should " be without apprehensions of any in- 
justice towards them." In regard to " General Assem- 
blies, which the people there seeme desirous of, in imita- 
tion of their neighbour Colonies, I tliinke," wrote the duke, a px^uVat 
" you have done well to discourage any motion of that ui^ap- 
kind ; both as being not at all comprehended in your In- jlmL. '^ 
structions, nor indeed consistent with the forme of govern- 
ment already established, nor necessary for the ease or re- 
dresse of any grievance that may hai)pen ; since that may 
be as easily obtained by any petition or other addresse to 
you, at their Generall Assizes, (which is once a yeare,) 
where the same persons (as Justices) are usually present, 
who in all probabihty would be their representatives if an- 
other constitution were allowed." The question of an As- 
sembly had been raised under Nicolls and Lovelace : — but 
James now clearly announced his disapprobation.f 

Respecting the boundary arrangement with Connecticut s April, 
in 1GG4, the duke thouo-ht it best " only to make accommo- of vork 

disallow 3 

dations of this kind temporary, if possible, to preserve the tiio con- 
iitmost limitts for me that my Patent gives me a title to." boundary. 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), i., 35; Gen. Knt., iv., 305, 300 ; Warn, Ord., Passes, iii., 34, 69, 
SO, SI, S!>-02; Col. MSS., x.x., 50-G5; xxiv., 97, 105; xxv., 54; Col. Doc, ii., 597, 659 ; iii., 
203, 233, 254; HazarcTa Reg. Penn., i., 93; iv., 5G; Ann. Penn., 398, 413-41S; ante, 190, 
2y, 234 

t Warr., Ord., raFscf, iii., 51, 60, 70, 72; Col. Doc, iii., 530, 231, 232, 237; Clnlmera's 
AunaU, i., 531 ; Mas.^. II. S. Coll., x.xx , 115 ; aiUc, 64, CS, 09, 100. 

980 HISTOBT OF THE STATE OF ^"EW TOKK. But A2idrc»5 had alreadv acted on that subject. Connecti- 
37~ CUT had recentlv apf >C'iiiTed commisgioneis " to rurm the lyne 
* ^" berween this Colony and the Colony of Xew Tork. from 
Momoronock Kiver to Hudson's River:" — which she had 
dc-ne in violation of the clear understanding that she was 
not to approach that river nearer thaii twenty miles. See- 
ing that the king, in 1674. had again granted to the Duke 
of York the territory as far east as the Cc«nnecticut Eiver, 
iiiw-. Andrnjs sent to the General Court at Hartford copies of 
the duke's patent and of his own cx^mmission, and request- 
ed them to give orders for his receiving that part of his 
royal highness's territories as yet under their jurisdiction.* 
i7x«T. The Connecticut Court, in answer, set up their charter 
from the king, and the boundary arrangement of 1664. 
isjfaT. Andros replied that the award by the royal commissioners 
mamtajiir ~ was au cvideut surprise." and " never confirmed ;'' and 
rfji^^ that whatever pretenses Connecticut had made before 1674 

were ~ sufficiently cleared by His Majesty's reiterated Let- 
ter Patents." He therefore again demanded possession, 
and protested against all who might thus disobey their 
i€ jnae. king's commauds. Connecticut rej oined, denying any '• un- 
due surprise" in the boundary determination, and insisting 
on her own charter. The Xew York Council thereupon re- 
x jcne. solved that such disobedience to the king's pleasure as ex- 
pressed in his patent to the duke was " rebellion-"+ 
3© June. Andros now sent Captain Salisbury with dispatches to 
sijafcirr the dukc and Sir John Werden. and directed him to in- 
toEBgjaBi form them fully of every thing relating to Xew York ; 
especially about its people, their trade, the French in Can- 
ada: the '•Bostoners' trading -house at Springfield," and 
their claiming ~ to Albany itself ;" and of the recent con- 
tempt of the duke's authority in " that part of His Eoyal 
Highne^es* territories as yet under Connecticut, their many 
harbors, and plenty of com and provisions." By the same 
vessel. Steenwyck and his associates, who had been bound 
over for triah &ent a memorial to the Dutch States Gener- 
al, setting forth their own hard case.* 

• W«iT.,OnI-.P«»?«. 53- •-3. 112-114: CoL Doc, iU.. 815. 231, 230; t:L,5:'7: CoL Bee. 
CoBn^S..t&SeO: Maet H. S. CoU.. xit. 116: ante. 55. 56. 853. 

t Coonrn Min.. iil Tii-). 39. 4L 42 : Wur.. OH- Pi8«s. v±. 104, 115, 116: CoL Ret Coiyi., 
n.. 252. 570-574. 551 ; CoL Doc, iiL. 235. 236. 235 : CoL M«s., zxir., 121. 

; WuT^ Old., PaoeB. SL, lOK, 116; OoL Dor, iL, 739, 744; iii., 234, 235, 236, 237. 415. 


In this posture of affair?, intelligence reached Xew York chap. ^^. 
that the "Wampanoags and Xarragansetts, Tvho owned most Z^ 
of the territorv of Rhode Island, had revolted against the -'■"'^• 
Europeans. The Xarragansett sachem, Xinigret, had been 
suspected, in 1669, of plotting against the English colonists. 
Two yeai-s afterward, Metacomet, or Philip, the sachem of Phaip of 
the "Wampanoags, who inhabited the region of Pokanoket. ket. *^ 
around the eastern and northern shores of Xarragansett 
Bay, was obliged to give up most of his guns and acknowl- 
edge his subjection to the Plvmouth government. This 
galled the soul of the American chief. He was the youn- 
gest son of Massasoit, who had made the first treaty with 
the English '* Pilgrims." Massasoit's eldest son, Wamsut- 
ta, or Alexander, succeeded to the sachemship ; but he 
soon followed his father to the grave, broken-hearted, at 
being dragged a prisoner to answer before the European 
new-comers at Plymouth. Philip was a youth when he 
became sachem in place of Wamsutta. Yet he had heard 
of the prompt kindness of his father, Massasoit, to the for- 
lorn English Pilgrims, and naturally contrasted it with the 
characteristic arrogance which re2:^aid savage hospitality 
with British truculence. He saw that the Europeans had 
crowded his people into narrow necks of land, where they 
were jealously watched. In vain had Eliot and May hew 
solicited the TVampanoags to become Christians. The 
well-remembered injunctions of Massasoit kept the tribe 
firm in heathenism. A few savages were nevertheless con- 
verted. Among these was John Sausaman, who. after be- 
ing partially educated at Cambridge, relapsed from Chris- 
tianity, and was employed by Philip as his secretary. Tlie 
Puritan colonists had generally disregarded the feelings of 
the Americans. Instead of adopting the conciliatory policy 
of Xew Xetherland and Xew York toward the natives, tliey xew En- 
followed — without any warrant from the God of Israel — c^ 
the aggressive method of that peculiar host which went 
out of Eg^-pt to possess tlie promised land. As Puritan- 
ism had already exterminated or sold the Pequods, so it 
now doomed the other native owners of Xew England to 
destruction or bondage. The pride of the aborigines wa^ 
wounded without remorse ; for the white English Pharisee, 
holding the imported black ^Vfrican in slavery, would not 



Chap. VI. 


Philip pre- 
pares for 

29 Jan'y. 
John Sau- 

8 June. 
tried and 
at Plyirf- 

Kliode Isl- 
and niagis- 
tratca visit 

brook the equality of the noble red American, whose lands 
he covetously appropriated. While at Albany the autoch- 
thones of America were addressed as " Brothers," every 
where in Xew England, except in Rhode Island, they were 
offensively reminded of their inferiority. These memo- 
ries stirred the mind of Philip. Cautiously visiting the 
neighboring tribes, he urged them to drive out the de- 
stroyers of their race. The Narragansetts were won by 
his eloquence ; and secret preparations were made for a 
rising of the native Americans ao-ainst their British foes 
in the spring of 1676.'" 

An unexpected event precipitated the crisis. Sausaman, 
reclaimed from his apostasy by Ehot, revealed Philip's plot 
to the Plymouth governor. Not long afterward the in- 
formers body was found under the ice in Assawomsett 
Pond, midway between Plymouth and Rhode Island, It 
was suspected by the English that the savages had punish- 
ed, after their own laws, a renegade and a traitor. Three 
of Philip's subjects were accordingly tried at Plymouth ; 
convicted of the murder of Sausaman ; and executed. The 
AVampanoag chief now remained on guard within his 
strong-hold at Mount Hope, near Bristol, in Rhode Island. 
There he soon gathered seven hundred warriors, the youn- 
ger of whom were eager to avenge the death of their three 
countrymen by the forms of Puritan law, which they did 
not recognize. They were restrained from attacking by a 
belief that the side which shed the first blood in the strife 
would be conquered.f Hoping to prevent hostilities, John 
Easton, " Deputy Governor," and several magistrates of 
Rhode Island — which colony had always been friendly 
with the Indians — visited Philip at the Ferry. " AVe sat," 
wrote the honest Quaker, " very friendly together. We 
told him our business was to endeavour that they might 
not receive or do wrong. They said that was well : they 

* Bradford's Plymouth, 94-97; Hutch. Mass., i , 275-285; Colden, i., 40; Mather's Mag- 
nalia (od. 185:1), ii., 429, 4.'i0, 434, 558, 559; Mather's History of New England (cd. 1SC4), 
230-2,34; Easton's Narrative of I'hilip's Indian War (cd. 1S5S), viii.-xii., 3, C, 12-14, 33-39; 
Court of Assizes, ii., 078 ; Holme, i., 325, 3C9, 383 ; I?elknap, i , 102-107 ; Ilnncroft, ii., 92- 
100; Palfrey, iii., 141-151, 218, 221, 298; Arnold's Hhode Island, i., 23, 87, 212, 339, 387-395; 
Plymouth Col. Ilcc, v., 70-80 ; Hazard, ii., 631-534; Moore's Notes on Slavery in Mas.s., 
passim; ajitr, i., 171 ; ii., 15.5, 150,254. 

t Hutchinson, i.,28C, »o?f, calls this "a wlilmsiciil opinion." It certainly was the con- 
verse of the augury prevailing in the Highlands of Scotland : 
"• Which spills the foremost fooman's life. 
That party oonfjuora in the strife."— Lad;/ o/ the Lake, Cautu iv., vi. 


had done no wrong ; the English wronged them. "We said, cuxr. vi. 
we knew the Eno-lish said the Indians wronged them and ~~~~r 
the Indians said the English wronged them ; but our de- 
sire was the quarrel might rightly he decided in the best 
way, and not as dogs decided their quarrels." The Indians 
then asked "how right might take place?" The Ehode 
Islanders proposed arbitration. The Americans replied 
that all the English were " agreed against them," and 
would insist upon English arbitrators, by whom they al- 
ready had much wrong. The Rhode Island men suggest- 
ed that they might choose an Indian king, and the English 
the governor of New York, both of whom would be indif- 
ferent. This pleased the savages ; and " if that way had 
been tendered, they would have accepted." Philip then 
told the grievances of his people. When the first colonists 
came, his father, Massasoit, " was as a great man, and the 
English as a little child," to whom he freely did good ; but 
now the Americans were insulted and cheated in bargains, 
until " they had no hopes left to keep any land." Again 
the Rhode Island men m*ged the Indians to accept the ar- 
bitration of Andros and a native king ; to which they did Arbitra- 
not object. Easton and his friends then endeavored to poseZ'^" 
persuade them " to lay down the war ; for the English were 
too strong for them." With logic as keen as it was just, 
Philip replied, " then the English should do to them as piuiip-d 
they did when they were too strong for the English." So ^^^^' 
ended this memorable interview. It was a virtual protest, 
by" Rhode Island and Philip, against the doctrine of the 
Puritan colonists of New England, that they were the sole 
judges between themselves and Americans. If those colo- 
nies had accepted the arbitration of Andros and a native 
chief, justice might have been done, and war avoided.* 

Philip's young men could not be restrained. Some of 
them plundered a house at Swansey, within the Plymouth 20 june. 
government, and one of the marauders was killed by an begin. 

* I'lymouth d.l. Kec., v., 1GT-1T4 ; Jliither's Karly Ilistoiy, 235-237 ; Mnther's War, 4S- 
53; Magnalia, ii.,550, 5G0; nutch., i., 2S4-2SG; Bayley's Plymouth, ii., 27 ; Easton's Nar- 
rative, by Hmigb, 1-15; " A true Relation," etc., in N. V. Col. MSS., xxv., 29. Tliii Khode 
It^land nogotiiitiou with Philip is not nOticeJ by mcst New ICngland writers. Mr. Palfrey, 
iii., ISO, note, pronounces that Easton'd Narrative adda " nothing of importance" to our lii.-'- 
torical knowledge ; and in a note to page 227, he saya of the speech of I'hilip to John Hor- 
den, i.'iven in Arnold, i., 304, ,",05, " I have made no account of it. It is no niMteriiil for his- 
toiy." Perhaps a New Yorker nmy venture to dissent from tliis Massachusetts judgment. 




24 June. 

29 June. 

1 July. 

4 July. 
Action of 
New York. 

4 July. 
letter to 

7 July. 
Action of 

8 July. 
Andros at 

Englishman. This made the savages hope that they would 
triumph in the end, because the English had shed the first 
blood. Swansey was attacked, and several of its inhabit- 
ants killed. Massachusetts and Plymouth called out large 
forces. An express was sent to Hartford for aid, and Win- 
throp dispatched the news to Andros at New York.* 

The Metropolitan Council thought " that Connecticut 
doth not expect nor desire assistance from us in relation to 
the Indian disturbances at this time." But it was " Re- 
solved that the Governor do proceed on his intended voy- 
age to Connecticut forthwith, and do take a force with him 
to be in a capacity to protect that part of His Eoyal High- 
ness's Government, as there may be occasions." So, An- 
dros wrote to Winthrop : — " I am very much troubled at 
the Christians' misfortunes and hard disasters in those 
parts, being so overpowered by such heathen. Hereupon, 
I have hastened my coming to your parts, and added a 
force to be ready to take such resolutions as may be fit for 
me upon this extraordinary occasion, with which I intend, 
God willing, to set out this evening, and to make the best 
of my way to Connecticut River, His Royall Highnesses 
bounds there."t 

Andros's letter made great trouble at Hartford, The 
Council of War hastened Captain Thomas Bull to Say- 
brook, and recalled the forces sent forward to fight against 
Philip. Bull's instructions were cunningly drawn. He 
was to keep Saybrook and its neighborhood from any ene- 
my, "by force of arms," if necessary ; and while his* or- 
ders appeared to require him to repel the savages only, 
they really meant that the ofiicers of the Duke of York 
were to be treated as the special foes of Connecticut.:}: 

The next morning, Andros, wdtli three sloops, appeared 
off Saybrook, and desired a " direct and effectual answer" 
to his former letters. Meanwhile the Hartford authorities 
had ordered their subordinates at Saybrook to " carry it 
warily and prudently" with Andros, forbid his landing, 
and advise him to send his forces eastward and assist the 

• Mather's Hiatory, 53-.'i8 ; Magnnlia,ii., .')61 ; IIutcli.,i., 280, 287; Hough's Kaston, 16- 
21,40^3; liarry, i.,'410, 411; Mass. H. S. Coll.. icx.x., 117, 118; R. I. 11. S. Coll., iv., 127; 
Col. MSS., xxiv., 119, 121 ; Col. I!ec. Conu., ii., 3;!2, 579 ; I'nlfrcy, iii., 129, 155. 

t Council Min..iii. (ii.),44; Wnrr.,Or(l., Passes, iii., 117; Col. MSS., xxiv., 121 ; Hough's 
l':aHton, 44-48 ; Col. Uec. Conn., ii., 579 ; Col. Doc, iii., 254, 20-4 ; Palfrey, iii., 129. 

t Col. Eec. Conn., il., 333, .^79. 


" good people" at Seaconk or S wansey. The next day they cuap. vi. 
wrote to Andros himself, resenting his " hypothetical! ex- 
pressions and injurious imputations," and desiring him not^j^j^ Z^' 
to " molest" the king's good subjects in Connecticut, or put cXprf.'" 
them " into a discomposure, at such a time as this." They ^®4'f„gt 
also drew up " a Protest," denouncino- the governor of IS'ew discompo*. 

^ ^_ 7 o o ^ lire by An- 

York as a disturber of the king's peace, and appealing to <J™3- 
the Connecticut charter as their warrant for refusing obe- 
dience to the duke's representative.* 

Andros had meanwhile remained quietly at Saybrook, 
anxious about his suffering countrymen at the East, to 
whom he sent forward a sloop with supplies ; and wonder- 
ing that the Connecticut forces did not move to their re- 
lief. When the dispatches from Hartford were communi- in juiy. 
cated to him, the governor lauded, with his attendants, and lands'^t 
was received by the Connecticut ofiicials, who desired " to *^ 
tender him a treaty." This Andros declined ; but he or- 
dered the Duke of York's patent and his own commission 
to be read ; which was accomplished, while the Connecti- His com- 
cut officials " withdrew a little," declaring that they " had real 
nothing to doe to attend it." Andros then told them that 
he had now done, and would sail immediately unless they 
desired him to stay. The Connecticut officers ansAvered 
that they were not ordered to ask him to remain ; and tliey 
then read the protest of the Hartford authorities. This The iiart- 
Andros at once denounced as " a slander, and so an ill "a sun- ° 
requital for his kindness ;" and being refused a copy of it, 
he went on board his sloop again, and sailed to Long Isl- 
and, whence he intended to send a force to Martin's Vine- 
yard, and then to return to New York. As he passed be- 
low the fort, salutes were fii'ed on both sides.f 

The Hartford authorities regretted that their subordi- 14 juiy. 
nates at Saybrook had not interrupted Andros "in com- connccu- 
manding there so usurpingly ;" which " might have been 
done by shouts, or sound of drum, etc., without vio- 

* Col. MSS., xxiv., 121 ; Warr., Oi-d., Passes, iii., US, 110 ; Hough's Easton, 49-50 ; Col. 
Rec. Coun., ii., 2C0-2G3, 334, 335, 5T9, 5S0, 5S1 ; Tninibull, i., 'dii), 330; rjilfrey, iii., 129, 
130; ante, 2S0. 

t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 5S2, 5S3, 534; Col. Doc, iii., 254, 264, 415; Warr., Ord., I'nsscs, 
iii., 119, 120 ; llougli's Kaston, 5C-C0 ; Mass. U. S. Coll., .xxxvii., 137 ; Palfrey, iii., 130, 131. 
The romantic account of this transaction, which the Reverend Doctor Trumbull has dressed 
up in his History of Connecticut, i., 32S-330, is so erroneous that Mr. P.ilfrey U " obliged to 
omit some striking circumstances in the sketch by that usually cautious historian :" Hist. 
N. H,iii.,131, notr. 


Chap. VI. lencG.""^ All elaborate "naiTative" of the Connecticut 
~~ version was sent to Major Eobert Thompson, of Newing- 
24 July * *^^ Green, near London, with a request for his heljD against 
Aiidros, who, it was thought, " must be necessitated to mis- 
represent" the colony.f 
14 July. Andros, meanwhile, went over to Southold, whence he 
soldiers disj)atched a sloop, with some soldiers and ammunition, to 
Martha's Martha's Yineyard and Nantucket. " To satisfy the great 
anrNan- jcalousy" of liis iieighboi's, the governor came through 
Long Island to New York, disarming the Indians every 
where, and reviewing all the militia. On his reporting 
24 July, "the several passas-es of his voyao;e," the council resolved 

Long Isl- - , 1 T T 1 1 1 1 1 • • 

and In- tliat tlic sevcral towns on Long island should maintain a 
good watch, and take care that the disarmed Indians " be 
not any wise injured, but assisted, upon any occasion re- 
quiring it.":j: 
23 July. The governor also sent for all the Indian sachems of 

Indians. JS"ew Jcrsey and other parts, most of whom had been with 
him before, and they all " again renewed their submissions 
and enei;agements."§ 

At the same time, Andros did not neglect the immediate 
interests of the province. Accordingly, the council, " upon 
a proposal to give public notice what encouragement will 
be given to persons that shall come out of Europe hither, 
to inhabite and plant in this His Royal Highness's Prov- 
5 August, ince. Resolved that every freeman shall have for himself 
lands ofifer- the propoi'tiou of sixty acres of land of inheritance, and 
grants "^^' f or his wif c and every child fifty acres per head ; and ev- 
ery Avorking servant that shall be brought over shall have 
each of them fifty acres after the expiration of their serv- 
ice, according to the custom of the country." A copy of 
this order was sent to England by the ship Good Hope, 

• Col. Hec. Conn., ii., 335, 5S4. It would seem that this hint was remembered in 1093, 
when Fletcher, one of the successors of Andros, visited Hartford ; although the " tradition" 
related by Doctor Trumbull, i., 393, does not agree with the official account in Col. Dec, iv., 

t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 9C, 103, 263, 204, 338-344 ; iii., 201 ; Trumbull, i., 331 ; Mass. Kcc, 
v., 408, 409, 426, 4C7 ; Hutch. Coll., 449, 463, 409, 473 ; Col. Doc, iii., 355. Winthrop, who 
intended to take the Connecticut "• Nnrrative" to Kngland, died at Roston on the 5;h of 
.\pril, 1070: Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 273: Piilfrey, iii., 233-23S. 

t Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 110, 120, 121 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 44 ; Hough's Easton, .')4- 
64; Col. Doc, iii., 204, 264. On the 21,''t of July, Governor Coddington, of Rhode Island, 
complained to Andros of the invasion of its territory by Massachusetts and Connecticut : 
Col. MS.«.,xxiv.,12S. 

§ Col. MSS.,xxiv., 117,130; Council Min , iii. (ii.), 41; Dunlnp, ii., App, oxxii. ; Col. Doc, 
iii., 254; Hough's Kaston, 76. 

from Eu- 


Captain George Ileathcote, a Quaker, who had been im- ciiai>. vi. 

prisoned at Boston by Governor Bellingham " for deliver- 

ing him a letter, and not putting off his hat."* ^' 

The intrigues of the French missionaries, Bruyas and 
Lamberville, among the Iroquois, having caused com- 
plaints, the council resolved that the Mohawks should be ic April, 
encouraged to friendship, and the Jesuits be sent for, to 
explain themselves at Albany. Leaving Brockholls in 
charge at New York, Andros now went up the river. Aft- 
er regulating affairs at Schenectady, he visited the " most so August. 
warlike Indians near one hundred miles beyond ;" and at its tue Mn-' 
Tionnontoguen, the third castle of the Mohawks, he ac- re^cdves"" 
cepted the name of " Corlaer," who, they told him, was " a of'' °coi-f 
man that was of good dispositions and esteemed deare^''"'"" 
amongst us."f On his return to Albany, the Five Iro- 
quois nations applied to Andros " declaring their former 
alliance, and now submitted in an extraordinary manner, 
with reiterated promises." Perhaps the governor's most 
important measure at this time was to organize a local 
board of commissioners for Indian affairs, composed of Indian 
some of the Albany officers.:}: Of this board he appointed ^ro"ners at 
as secretary the town clerk of Albany, Robert Livingston, k. Living- 
a shrewd young Scotchman, who had come over from retaiy?'^' 
Rotterdam the year before, and who was destined to be- 
come prominent in colonial affairs.§ 

The Council now " Resolved that we ought not to break lo septem. 
with our Indians upon account of the war between our ders?" ^^' 
neighbors and their Indians." The selling of powder to 

* Council Min., iii. (ii.), 45, 40 ; Col. MS?., xxiv., 12T ; xxv., S.^-iS, 221, 2.35-241 ; Farmer 
and Moore'.s Coll., iii., 100; Besse, ii.,259; C. WoUey, 12, 97 ; Holmes, i., 3TT. 

t This name " Corlaer" was given by the Iroquois to the governore of New York, until, in 
1G93, they made a special one for Fletcher: compare Col. Doc, iii., 254, 322, 327, ollS, 5.^9 ; 
iv., 22, W) ; Colden, i., 32, 41 ; ante, 121. 

t Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 77, 122, 125, 12f>, 129, 224, 225 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 34 : Col. 
Doc, iii., 254, 323, 559; Hist. Mag., ii. (i. ), 301. Regular minutes were kept of the transac- 
tions of the .Mhany commi-ssioners, beginning with 1C75, which in 1751 were bound up in 
four large folio volumes. But they have disappeared from our State Archives : see Colden, 
i., I'rcface, ix., 94 ; Smith, i., 251, vote ; Col. Doc, i , Gen. Introd., viii., xxxi. ; v., 9S3, 7iote; 
vi., 439, 731, 739. 

5 Col. MSP., xxiv., 140. Robert Livingston was horn on 13 December, 1C54, at Ancram, 
in Roxburghshire, Scotland, where his father, the Rev. John Livingston, was the Presbyte- 
rian minister. After the Restoration the father went to Rotterdam, where he died on 9tli of 
August, 1672. After his father's death, Robert, who had learned the Dutch language, came 
to Albany, probably accompanying Domine Van Rensselaer thither in the autumn of 1G74: 
ante, 272. There is a biographical sketch of him in Doc. Hist., iii., 434: see also Col. Doc, 
iii., 315, 401, 699; iv., 203,251, 253, 720; v.. 190; Smith, i., 142, no?(?,- Sedgwick's Life of 
W. Livingston ; Hunt's Life of E. Livingston. 



Chap. VI. the savagGS was " regulated as formerly ;" each town was 
to provide a block-house as a refuge for women and chil- 

i6Sept«^. dren; and all New York Indians were to be "friendly 
treated, and have equall justice according to law." A 

New York sloop was also Ordered to cruise in the Sound ; and, as the 

Sound" "''' natives were very strong near Martha's Vineyard and 

Gun^'e^t' JSTantucket, great guns were sent to each of those islands. 

vineylrd ^ Tlicsc mcasurcs, however, made Connecticut fear that An- 

tucket''' dros would again tlu-eaten Saybrook.* 

Domine Nicolaus van Kensselaer, who had come from 
London under the special patronage of the Duke of York, 
was soon afterward inducted by Andros to minister in the 
Reformed Dutch .Church at Albany, as a colleague of 

Case of 
van Kens- 

Domine Schaats. This was done without regard to the 

Classis of Amsterdam, which governed the Eeformed 
Dutch churches in IS^ew York, under the eighth article of 
the capitulation of 1CC4, confirmed by Andros's stipula- 
tion with Colve. It occasioned much ill feeling, and Van 
Rensselaer was forbidden to baptize children in the me- 
tropolitan Eeformed Dutch Church by Domine Van Kieu- 
wenhuysen, who denied the lawfulness of his induction at 
Albany. Instead of showing that he had been ordained as 
a minister in Holland, Van Rensselaer complained to An- 
dros that the Church of England and the Duke of York's 
recommendation had been contemned. Van Nieuwen- 
25septem. huyscu was summoucd to explain himself before the Coun- 
soscptem. cil. IIc admitted the validity of English Episcopal ordi- 

1 October, nation, but insisted that every minister serving any Re- 

formed Dutch congregation in the king's dominions must 
promise conformity to the Holland Church. This explana- 
tion was accepted ; and Van Rensselaer, having solemnly 

2 October, prouiiscd to couduct his ministry " conformably to the pub- 

lic Church service and discipline of the Reformed Church 
of Holland," the question was satisfactorily adjusted.f 

• Council Min.,iii. fii.), ."jO, 51, .'')2,.';7; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii, 132, 1.".3, 134; Col. MSS., 
xxlv., 138, 139, in ; Hough's Philip's War, 71-S2 ; Nantucket Papers, 8-, 89 ; Rec. Conn., 
ii., 369-371; C. WoUoy, 05 ; a»rc, 27S. 

+ Corr. 01. Amst., Le'tcr of Van Nieiiwpnhny?on of 30 May, 1G7G, and Inclosures; Council 
Min , iii. (ii ), .^UW; Doc. Hist., iii.. 52G, 527; Col. Doc, iii., 225; Col. MSS., xxiv., 153; 
Yonkers Gazette, 21 October, 1805; Hist. Ma^., i.\., 352,353; N. Y. Christ. Int., 2 Novcni- 
l)cr, 18G5 ; ant<\ 270, 272. The account of this matter in Smith, i., 40, 50, ia very erroneous. 
Domine Van Kensselaer improved his visit to New York by procuring Andros to appoint him 
director of Kcnssclaerwyck in place of his deceased brother, Jeremias : Col. MSP., xxiv., 158; 
XXV., 145. The domine married Alida, daugliter of Philip Pietorsen Schuyler, of Albany, and 
died there in November, 1078 : O'Call., i.,212; ii.,652; llolgate, 40, 42, 103 ; ajife, i.,533. 


At tlie first regular session of the Court of Assizes un- chat-, vi. 
der Andres, the case of Steenwyck and liis Dutch associ- 
ates, who had been bound over for " sedition," was taken ^ „j,Jber 
up, and De Peyster was acquitted on his taking the oath. ^?,Qg[^^'er 
The other seven were convicted of " not bein£: obedient to ^f ^« °^ , 

_ , O steenwyck 

His Maiesty's laws," in havinc; traded without takinc: the ''"•I •>" "«• 

. . , ~ ^ Bociatcs. 

oath, in violation of the act of Parliament. Their goods 
were accordingly forfeited; but eventually all penalties 
were remitted upon the prisoners taking the required oatlis. s novciu. 
Thus ended the question ; and on the proclamation of the so October. 
new mayor, William Dervall, the inhabitants of the me- 
tropolis who had hitherto refused, came forward and swore 
allegiance to English authority.* 

Among other things, the Court of Assizes — upon the pe- 13 October. 
tition of the coopers of South and East Hampton, on Long setts coop- 
Island, that, owing to their " great deceipt," stranger coop- uLTrm 
ers should not come from Boston and work there in the and." 
winter — Ordered "that noe cooper shall be admitted to 
make casks without the consent of the magistrates" of the 
respective towns. A yearly fair for grain, cattle, or other Fair m 
produce, was established "at Breucklyn, neare the ferry." ' ° ^"' 
By reason of its separation by water, it was ordered that 
'' Staten Island shall have a jurisdiction of itself, and to st.uen w- 
have noe farther dependence on the courts of Long Island ;" j"hii 
and John Palmer Avas appointed its "Ranger." Palmer ra'Jigei! 
was an English lawyer, wdio had recently come tp New 
York from Barbadoes. A double rate was also levied cimrch 
" upon all those townes that have not already a sufficient 
maintenance for a minister."t 

The Kew York Court ordered all canoes east of Hell c-ii oct. 
Gate to be laid up, because the savages were said to be the sound 
plotting to attack the English as far west as Greenwich. „p. ^ "" 
Brockholls was also sent to Albany with "' reiterated or- m octoi>cv. 
ders" for the advantage of Connecticut. The burning of sent to ai- 
Iladley, Deerfield, Northfield, and Springfield induced An- 19 tfctobcr. 

• Col. iMSS., x.xiv., 172-178, l^C, 19G ; xxv., 1, 2, 5-14 ; Warr., Ord., Pnsse?, iii., 142, 157 ; 
Min. of Common Council, i., 9-11; Col. Doc, iii., 2:i3, 237, 2:i:i; ante, 277, 27S. Dervall now 
succeeded Nicolls as mnyor of New York, and John Sharpe was made sheriff; Samuel Leeto 
wag appointed clerk of the city and of the Court of Assizes : Min. of C. C, i., 1, 2, 9; Val. 
-Man., 1S45, 309, 331, 332 ; antr, 252, 2.':3. 

t Col. MSS., xxiv., 164, 185; xxv., 70; xxvi.. 1.55; xxvii , 35, 36, 57, 59; Wnrr, Ord., 
Passe.", iii., 196; N. Y. H. S. Coll., i., 425-428; VmI. Man., 1S44-5, 310, 311; Yonker.-( Ga- 
zette, 25 Nov., 1«65; Stiles's Brooklyn, i., 198. Palmer afterward rose to distinction in 
New York and New England, in both of which ho was malo a judge. 

IL— T 



290 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. dros to think of encouraging the Iroquois to attack the 
Eastern savao-es. But, as the Mohawks had renewed their 
former peace with the Mahicans " without leave," it was 
24 October, ordered to be kept. It was farther directed "that tliere 
aiLut" be at this juncture a prohibition of selHng powder and 
lead to any Indians whatsoever at Albany, unless it be to 
the Maquas and Senecas." The commander there might, 
however, allow a small quantity to be sold to any well 
known Mahican beaver - hunter. As the magistrates at 
Esopus had shown great apprehension of the Indians, they 
were reproved "for their needlesse feares." But they 
Esopus were required to explain what was meant by the savages 
offering to deliver up the articles made between Nicolls 
and them in 1665, and which had "been renewed with 
those Indians this very spring,"* 
2 xovem. The Confederated colonies having declared war against 
sendaVup- tlic Narragausctts, Andros spontaneously sent six barrels of 
?{{rodc*'isi- powder and other ammunition to Rhode Island, " which 
'""^' ■ they thankfully accepted, and afterwards lent part of it to 
New England forces in want, at their light in Narragansett 
19 Decern, couutry." lu tliis engagement nearly a thousand savages 
^ctrfifht." and two hundred English colonists were killed and M^ound- 
ed. The Rhode Island Quakers still desired the arbitra- 
tion of the governor of New York ; thinking that Puri- 
tanic New England ministei's had urged on hostilities, " and 
1676. that the war had not been, if there had not been a hire- 
Khode^isi- ^^'^s' ^^^^^5 ^^^' ^"^ money, giving, what he calleth the Gos- 
bukJ^Maa P^^' ^y violence." Governor Coddington, of Rhode Island, 
.«aciiusetts. accordiugly rebuked Massachusetts for having " departed 

fi-om the Lord."t 

1675. Nchemiah Pierce and James Pennyman, charged with 

piereeTnd " Writing falsc storeys to Boston," were sent down from Al- 

man°^' bauy to New York, and bound over. Massachusetts, on 

7 Decern, similar information, published a declaration that Philip had 

been " supplied with ammunition from Albany, whereby 

' Warr., Ord., Passe?, iii., 1.39, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 14S, 151, 155, 150; Council 
Min., iii. (ii.), C5, CG ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 157, 172; N. Y. II. S. Coll., i., 425-42S; Col. Roc. 
Conn., ii., 312-^'S; Col. Dor., iii., 251, 204; Wood's L. I., SO; IIoiikIi's Philip, 83-119; 
Hutch. Mass., i., 294, 205; Trumbull, i., 333-335; Holland's Western Mass., i., 95, 105; 
anfc, 89, 181, 192. 

t Col. Dociii., 2M, 2C5; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 383-391; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 74; Warr., 
Ord., Passes, iii., 169 ; Hough's Philip's War, 26-31, 125, 129-135 ; Hutch. Mas.s., i., 297-301 ; 
Trumbull, i., 337-342; Arnold, i., 401-400 ; Col. M.S?., xxv., 07. 


he was enabled to prosecute his bloody design against the cuap. vi. 
English," This was such an " aspersion" that Andres sent 
an express to Boston to vindicate the duke's government. ^^ j^n-y.' 
The Puritan Bostonians cleared the magistrates of New ^^^^°^;y;j_ 
York, yet continued to asperse her people "' without any t?nuerto' 
known cause, complaint, or notice." The metropolitan ^.^^"'york. 
council thereupon resolved " That for the present no further 2-t rebi-y. 
application be made to the Government of Boston," An- 
dros's action was " very well looked on" in London. "' 

Pliilip being now reported within forty or fifty miles of 
Albany, Andros sent fresh orders to Brockholls, and again c j.iu'y. 
notified the Hartford authorities. They prudently sug- 
gested that the Mohawks should be employed to " utterly n jan-y. 
extirpate" the natives in New England, and hinted that cu "and'' 
Albany had supplied the " common enemy" with arms or 
ammunition. Andros satirically repelled this " great re- 20 jan-y. 
flection on the Dutch," and demanded explanations. The 
Connecticut Council could only give rumors. The gov- 
ernor then demanded whether Connecticut would allow 4 Fcbr'y. 
the New York Iroquois to pursue their enemies in her ter- about 
ritory? This she declined, but suggested that the Mo-io'r'eb-y, 
hawks had better attack Philip " near Albany,"f 

Good correspondence, however, was maintained between 
New York and Rhode Island, the people of whicli were in- 
formed " that any in their parts driven ])y tlie Indians from ij jan-y. 
their habitations or plantations shall be welcome here, and between 
have land assigned them upon this. Long Island, or Staten and Rhode 
Island." But Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth, 
Iiaving shown no desire for the friendship of New York, 
the council resolved " to continue our endeavors as Chris- 26 Feb'y. 
tians and the King's subjects, for the good of this Govern- "curis- 
ment, without further application to the said Coloneys." provx New 
The governor was also ad\dsed to " go forthwith to Al- rurUMs. 
bany, to settle matters thei'e, it being of very great im- 
port ;" as news had just come of the Mohawks " being 
moved in a warlike manner against the North Indians.":}: 

The Hudson having opened unexpectedly soon, Andros 

• Council Wm., Hi. (ii.), C8, 09, 70, 81, S5; Col. Doc, iii., 2G8, 242, 254, 258, 2CG, 207; 
Hough's Philip's War, 120-142 ; Hutch. Coll., 476-^00 ; JIather's War, IIT, 129, 254. 

t Col. Doc., iii., 255, 205; Col. Rec. Conn., ii.,3a7, 308, 404, 400,407; Uutch. Mass., i., 
305; Palfrey, iii., 229. 

t Council Min., iii. (il), 81, 85, SO, 97; Col. MSS., xxr., 81 ; Hough's Philip's War, 130, 
137, 143-147, 160, 104, 

29^2 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. -^vent lip to Albany with six sloops aud additional men. 
lie found that some three hundred Mohawks had iust re- 

Andios turned from the pursuit of Philip, and had brought back 

AlbLn*^' several scalps. They had been supplied with arms and 
ammunition by Brockholls, who had also received their old 
sachems, squaws, and children within Albany. Lieutenant 

4 March. Tcuiiise was at once dispatched " to the farthest part of 
the Government, or as far as Connecticut River," to de- 
mand from Philip any Christian prisoners. The governor 

11 March, also directed William Loveridge to be arrested for having 

. .. , ~ _ '~ 

arrettedfor slaudcrously affirmed that the Dutch inhabitants of A\- 
siander. -[^^j^y }^g^(j g^ipplied tlic Nortli ludiaiis with arms and am- 
27 March, muuition. Sergeant Sharpe was left in command of the 
3 April, garrison, as Brockholls was needed at New York.* 
7 March. Counccticut had meanwhile asked to be allowed to talk 
19 March, witli tlic Iroquois at Albany, and threatened that, if her 
cutTgcnta " historians" should report to England, the conduct of An- 
York.*'' dros " would look dark, and be displeasing both to His 
Majesty and all true Englishmen; yea, Ilis Highness would 
take no pleasure in the consequences of such services by 
his ministers." Samuel Willys and William Pitkin came 
1 April, on her behalf to ask the desired permission. After full 
explanations before the council, the Connecticut agents 
10 April, were told that New York had already " taken fitting or- 
NewYork. dci's" witli regard to its own Indians, and that it was 
"strange" that their colony, which had been so jealous 
about all their own concerns, should " ask to treat with any 
branch of this Government apart." Andros also wrote 
10 April, that he was ready to do all he could to procure a peace be- 
tween the Connecticut authorities and their savage ene- 
mies, " and wholly to remove all manner of jealousys, shall 
suspend all further demands of that part of your colony 
claimed by Ilis Royal Highness, (to remain as it is,) 'till a 
determination from England."! 
amy. To carry out his humane intentions toward Rhode Isl- 

and, the governor sent his sloop there to bring back as 

* Ci)l. Doc, iii., 255, 2C5, 708 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), S', 101 ; Warn, Ord., Passes, iii., 
140,223; Col. MSS., -x.xv., 88,90, 184; Hough's Philip's War, 103, 148-15.'?, 1C7. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 00-93 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii , 414, 419, 4'20, 420, 435, 430, 437 ; Col. 
Doc, iii., 255, 205 ; IIough'.s Philip's War, 155-159. The Connecticut correspondence was 
now conducted by her new governor, William I.ceto, who succeeded the deceased Winthrop : 
Col. Keo. Conn., ii., 273 ; Trumbull, i., 345, 340 ; Palfrey, iii., 233-23S ; Arnold, i., 411, 412; 
M, Y. II. S. Coll. (lyOO), 374-370 ; a//^', 2S0, note. 


many of her people as wished to come to New York. At 
tlie same time, it was " Ordered that upon this extraordi- 
nary occasion of the waiTe, and other late intelligences, Friendly* 
the severall townes npon Long Island be sent to, to repre- ^^p'°York 
sent the same unto the inhabitants, in order to a levy, and i{,7od<figi. 
to laiow what they will give towards a supply." Collector '>■''^■ 
Dyer was accordingly dispatched to urge each town to s May. 
grant " such a suitable supply as may be proper," But 
this appeal was poorly answered. The contribution, like 
that proposed by Lovelace in 1672, was viewed as " a kind lo May. 
of benevolence — the badge of bad times."* 

On Salisbury's return, Andros received fresh instructions 
from the Duke of York. Eeferring to his former direc- 
tions of the 0th of April, 1675, concerning Assemblies, 
James added, " I have since observed what several of your 2s jan'y.^ 
latest letters hint about that matter. But unless you had of York 
offered what qualifications are usual and proper to such approves 
Assemblyes, I cannot but suspect they would be of dan- biiesf ^ 
gerous consequence ; nothing being more knowne than the 
aptness of such bodyes to assume to themselves many priv- 
iledges which prove destructive to, or very oft disturbe the 
peace of the government Avherein they are allowed. ISTei- 
ther do I see any use of them, which is not as well pro- 
vided for, whilst you and yoiu* council govern according to 
the laws established (thereby preserving every man's prop- 
erty in^■iolate), and M'hilst all things that need redresse may 
be sure of finding it, either at the Quarter Sessions or by 
other legall and ordinary wayes ; or lastly by appeal to my- 
selfe. But, howsoever, if you continue of the same opin- 
ion, I shall be ready to consider of any proposalls you shall 
send to that purpose." 

At the same time the duke approved of Andres's demand 2s jan-y. 
" of all the land on the west side of Connecticut Eiver." .sunuins 
" But," he added, " at the present, for other reasons, I am acuJu' * 
not willing you should proceed further, in regard I hope necticut?"" 
for hereafter more convenient means of adjusting the 
boundaries in those parts ; and in the interim, though the 
agreement by the Commissioners in 1664 were never con- 
firmed by me, I soe far approve of the prudence of Colonel 

* Council Min., iii. (il.), 94, n."); Warr., Ord., Parses, iii., 183 ; Hough's TliiUp, 107, IGO- 
1C3; Smitli,i.,51; OHff, 171, ISS. 


caAP. VI. K^icoUs, at that time, as to admitt by no means of any near- 
cr access of those of Connecticut than to the mouth of 
loiv. ]\j[aj.JQac (or Mamaronocke) Eiver, and along the edge of 
it; provided they come to noe place within twenty miles 
distance of Iludsons' Kiver. But this I hint to you only 
for the present, not intending thereby to conclude myself 
as to the right of the case." Secretary Werden wrote 
Secretary morc f ully that the duke was " Avilling things should rest 
directbns. as they are at present ; but he is not sorry you have re- 
vived this claim, because possibly some good use may be 
31 jan'y. hereafter made of it." Werden also called Andros to ac- 
cr8"on uie couut f or permitting " the Bostoners and other strangers 
EWer. to go up iu their small vessells to Esopus and Albany and 
elsewhere, as fi-eely as the very natural subjects of his 
Koyal Ilighness's Colony," which was " a new thing," for- 
bidden bv Lovelace, and to the disadvantao^e of the me- 

News havino; come that Massachusetts was makins; a 
separate peace with the Is^orth Indians, the Council rc- 
2SMay. solvcd that the Mohawks should be restrained from far- 
ther prosecuting them, and that arms be restored to the 
Long; Island savao;es. As Connecticut was advising- mth 
Uncas about sending a present to the Mohawks, they were 
30 May. summoucd to meet the governor at Alban}'. The Mahi- 
quoisTiim- cau nnd other eastward Indians were also invited to come 
meet AiN in, and " live under the protection of the Government," as 
AJblny. both Canada and Connecticut had solicited tliem.f 
Juno. At Albany the governor built a new stockaded fort, 

officer3°at with four bastious, and mounted twelve guns, so as to de- 
Aibany. ^^^^ ^^^j counnaud the whole town. Salisbury, who was 
a favorite of the duke, was now reinstated in his old place 
of commander. Sergeant Sharpe remaining under his or- 
ders. The local militia was put under Captain Goosen 
Gerritsen van Schaick, and Lieutenants Martin Gerritsen 
and Jan Jansen Bleecker. 
Androsat Ou tliis occasiou Audros went up to Schaghticook, a 
cookfor'' pleasant place, in the present county of Rensselaer, near 
the confluence of the Hoosic with the Hudson River, where 

• Col. Doc, iii.,2no, 235-238,241; Council Min., iii. (ii.), S9; Chnlinerg, :., .581,600; 
croft, ii., 406; ante, 55, 56, 16S, 182, 188, 260, 279. 

t Cnunoil Min., iii. (ii.), 9!), 100, 101; Col. Rcc. Conn., ii., 443; Col. M5S., xxv., 110, 121, 
124; llou-h's I'hilip's AVar, 104-1 OS; Nantucket Tape is, 89-103. 



he " planted a tree of ^velf are," and invited all the North- cuap. vi. 
em and Eiver Indians to come and live.* ^ 

Having informed the Hartford authorities of the '' very 5 j^j^. 
great execution" done by the Mohawks on their savage en-^^°°^JJ^,''- 
emies, Andros desired to know whether the New York In- 
dians would be admitted into their towns. This, however, 
was declined ; while Connecticut sent word that some of s juiy. 
Philip's warriors were about to cross the Hudson River 20 juiy. 
near Esopus, " to seek for 'complices of their straine," and, 
if they should escape southward, " it may be a great occa- New York, 
sion to animate the Virginia Indians." Convinced of " the 
improbability" of tliis suggestion, Andros replied that as 2c juiy. 
Connecticut declined the assistance of the Mohawks, he 
dared not '' presume f m-ther, than as formerly, by encour- 
agements and gifts, to assure their constant fidelity ."f 

Not long afterward a large party of savages were sur- 
prised at Stockbridge, on the Housatonic, and the surviv- Indians 
ors were reported to be attempting their escape "overstock- 
Hudson's Kiver to a place called Paquiage." The Con- " ^^' 
necticut Council asked Andros either to grant '' liberty to lo August. 
pass up yom- river, with some vessels from hence and the 
Bay, with men and provision, to pursue and destroy those 
of the enemies that are in those parts, or doe something 
effectual yourself for the utter suppression of the enemy 
in those parts." The governor replied that he would dis- 25 August. 
patch proper orders to Albany, but he would not allow connecti- ' 
Connecticut to send forces up the Hudson, or her agents to taW witu 
treat with the Mohawks, " as it would breed distraction.":|; qiTois." 

In the mean time, Philip was slain in a swamp near 12 Au-ust. 
Mount Hope, whither he retreated after having defended nearMount 
'• what he imagined to be his own, and the just rights of his °^^* 
countiymen, to the last extremity." War was now ended. 
" A handsome penny" was turned by exhibiting the man- 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 140; Warr., Ord., Passe?, iii , 175, 223; Col. Doc, iii., 235, 255, 
2G0, MS, 713; iv., 2-tS, 576, 744, 902, 901 ; v., 3SS; Hutch. Mass., i.. 34S; Colden, i., 101; 
llist. Mag., iv., 50. Plans of Albany at this time, and of its fort, which stood near the pres- 
ent St. Peter's Churcli in State Street, are given in Miller's N. V.,and in MunscU's Ann. 
Alb., iii., 39; iv., 200. 

t Col. Rec Conn., iL, 4G1, 402, 4GC, 4G7 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 104, 105; Hough's Philip's 
War, 171. 

t Trumbull, i., 34S, 349, 350; Col. Conn., ii., 469, 471, 472, 47T, 47S, 4S0; Council 
Min., iii (ii.), 12S, 129. About two hundred of the fugitives from Stockbridge tied to the 
Mahicans on tlie Hud.^on Kiver, and became incorporated witli them : Col. Doc., iv., 744, 
902, 991 ; Trumbull, i., 350. Hutch. Mass., i., 348, calls them " Scatacook Indians." 


Chap. VI. ffled rifflit hand of the son of Massasoit to. New English 

" curiosity ;" and the able-bodied native American captives 

,A^t?: who escaped the tender mercies of " the women at Marble- 

1' ate of the Jr i -« r 

captured liead," or the gibbets of Plymouth and Massachusetts, w^ere 
cans. exported to the West Indies and sold into slavery. Even 
the heir of the King of Pokanoket, and the grandson of the 
early friend of the shivering " Pilgrims" from Holland, 
was made a victim of Puritan avarice ; and the latest his- 
torian of New England pronounces that there was no " pe- 
culiar aggravation in the circumstance that one of the suf- 
ferers was Philip's son."* 
August. The Duke of York's eastern territory did not escape the 
burned""^ consequences of Philip's war. Pemaquid was burned by 
the savages, who drove many of its colonists westward to 
Massachusetts. Hearing of this, the New York govern- 
ment voted land to the sufferers, and Andros dispatched 
s septem. his sloop to Bostou, " offering free passage and relief to 
imraanitV any driven from His Royal Higlmess's territories about 
12 October. Pcmaquid." But Massachusetts, not relishing the humani- 
Schu.^ ty of New York, thought it better that all his Majesty's sub- 
'*'"■ jccts should join in limiting the aborigines out of Maine, 
and that every effort should be made " to engage the Mo- 
hawks or other Indians, friends of the English, for their 
help and assistance tlierein."t 

Massachusetts, indeed, always coveted Maine. After the 
Dutch had conquered from the French the region east of 
the Penobscot, they w^ere driven off by Boston vessels, the 
crews of which, nevertheless, " kept no possession." The 
States' ambassador at London, however, complained of 
this aercrression, and charged that the Bostoners " would 
not suffer any Hollanders there." Charles accordingly or- 
iiFeb'y. dered the Massachusetts magistrates "to return their an- 
swer to the said complaint, that so his Majesty, under- 
standing the nature of the fact, may give such order as is 
agreeable to justice therein.":]: 

• Hutch. Mas.s.,i., 300,307; Trumbull's Conn., i.,34S, 349; Mather, ISS, 194, 195 ; Davh's 
Alorton, 4^)3-455 ; Everett's Hloody Urook, 1835; Arnold's K. ]., i., 41G, 417,418; 
riymouth (Jol. Hec, v., 174, 210; Hough's Philip's Wiir, 21, 25, ISS; Col. Itcc. Conn., ii., 
471 ; I'alfrcy, iii, 2lt5, 2l)G, 21fl-'221 ; jMoore's Notes on Slavery in Massachusetts, 35-4S. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 117; Col. Uoc, iii., 241, 2.15, 265; Mass. Eec, v., 123; William- 
son's Maine, i., 515-537 ; Maine II. S. Coll., v., 8, 0, 2,15, 253 ; Palfrey, iii., 208-211. 

t Williamson's Maine, i., 580; Hutch. Mass., i., 311 ; Coll., 464, 4S9 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., 
xxxii.,280,2S7; Mass. Kcc, v., 114, 110, 118; I'.ilfrey, iii., 295; an^c, 2.14. On the 27th of 
October, 1676, the Dutch West India Company commiasioncJ Cornelis Stkenwyck, of New 


After the Peace of Westminster, the British king gave cuap. vr. 
more thought to his American colonies. His former Conn- 
cil of Trade and PLantations was dissolved, and its records ^^ riccem. 
were transferred to the Privy Council, a committee of 1675. 
which Charles directed to oversee "matters relating to Jf^^J eon,': 
trade and his foreign plantations." Thus American af - ^;^'j'f„,^ j 
fairs were restored to the inmiediate control of the crown, [j'^'"^''- 
The strict enforcement in her colonies of the Navigation ii August. 
and the Customs' laws of England was the motive. So 
the Plantation Committee addressed a circular letter to the 
several North American colonies requiring answers to va- 
rious questions. A royal proclamation followed, which 24 xovem. 
prohibited the importation into the plantations " of any tion to en- 
merchandize but what should be laden in England, and N.avMgaUon 
for putting other branches of those acts into strict execu- 
tion relating to America." This appears to have been 
drawn by Attorney General Sir William Jones, and was 16 <G. 

1 20 Marcli. 

communicated to the colonial governors. At the same no Medi-" 
time it was determined "that no Mediterranean passes p°'ssL for 
should be granted to New England, to protect its vessels giand. 
against the Turks, until it is seen what dependence it will 
acknowledge on his Majesty, or whether his custom-house 
officers are received as in other colonies."* 

Edward Pandolph — a kinsman of Robert Mason, one of no >tnicii. 
the claimants of Maine, a servant of the Duke of York, Randolph 
shrewd, active, and intensely devoted to his king — was sent Massacim- 
with these dispatches to Massachusetts, which was thought ^^ 
to be the most " prejudicial plantation." On reaching Bos- 
ton, Randolph was treated with coarse incivility by Lever- 10 June, 
ett, its governor, who seems to have supposed that good insulted at 
breeding was inconsistent with Puritanism. Relying on^^'°°' 
its royal charter, the Corporation of Massachusetts — a 
creature of Charles the First — assumed that it could settle 
" all matters in difference" with Charles the Second by its 

York, to take po35e33ion, in its behalf, of the conquered territory east of the Penobscot, and 
govern it as captain. This project, however, was never executed : see J. W. dc I'eyster's 
pamphlet, " The Dutch in Maine," 45, 73-77 ; Append., 7, S, 9, 10, 11 ; Valentine's Manual, 
1S53, .^52 ; 1SG4, CGI ; Col. MSS., xxvii., r25 ; Pemaquid Papers 29, 30. 

• Col. Doc, iii., 22S, 229, 230, 231, 232; Kvclyn, ii., SO, 15 ; Anderson on Commerce, ii., 
531; M.i.-is. II. S. Coll., xxvii., 13G, 137 ; Chalmer.n'.s Ann., i., 319, 323, 324, 400, 402; Pvcv. 
Col., i., 12S, 129 ; Hutchinjon's Coll., 444, 4G3, 503 ; Barry, i., 453 ; Palfroy, iii., 3.% 275, 279- 
2S3. Chalmers, in the Preface to his Annals, erroneously states that Locke was Secretary 
of the Committee for Trade of March, 1G75. Sir Robert Southwell, the Clerk of the Privy 
Council, w.ns secretary of that cnmmittPO. and afterward William IJlathwayt: Col. Doc., iii., 
228, 230, 271 ; Kvelyn, ii., lOJ, 279 ; King's Locke, 34 ; ante, 1S7, 249. 


cuAP. VI. own " linal determination." Governor Winslow, of Plym- 

~7" owtli, reproved the absurdity of his neighboring fellow-sub- 

juiy ' JGcts, and told Randolph that New England would never 

opiuion of flourish until its several colonies were reduced under his 


of P'y™- majesty's " immediate government." Randolph returned 
30 July, to London, satisfied that most of the inhabitants of Massa- 

Randolph s ' 

report on chusctts abhorrcd the "arbitrary o-overnment and oppres- 

hia return . , tiii it- it 

to En- sion of their mao;istrates, and hoped that the king would 

gland. o ' 1 o _ 

free them " from this bondage" by establishing his direct 
authority among them. The Navigation Laws, however, 
were so faithfully executed by Andros and Dyer as to 
cause a stoppage of trade between New York and Massa- 
chusetts. No European goods were allowed to be import- 
ed from Boston into New York unless they had paid cus- 
toms in England, and this caused a " misunderstanding" 
between those colonies. Plymouth and Connecticut " duly 
observed" the laws.* 
t2 Oct. Concerning the Indian war, Randolph testified that the 

sustaina Massachusctts complaiiits that Philip and his countrymen 
had been encouraged and supplied by the people of Al- 
bany were "without any just cause or ground, but rather 
a report raised out of malice and envy." Governor An- 
dros had proved himself " very friendly and serviceable" to 
Massachusetts. Had his advice been taken, the war would 
have been less destructive, for he would have overpowered 
Philip by the New York Lidians ; " but his friendship, ad- 
vice, and offers were slighted."f 
9 August. Having consulted her " reverend elders," Massachusetts 
sctta sends scnt William Stoughton and Peter Bulkley after Randolph 
anTfiuik" to England. They were instructed to evade all " clamors 
gland. " and accusations," and to promise "a full answer" to the 
septem. ^jQj^pj^jjjt of tlic Dutcli government that the Hollanders 
had been driven out of Maine. Tliis " answer," however, 
does not appear to have been given.:}: 
1675. Meanwhile La Salle had obtained from Louis a grant of 
13 May. Yoxi Eroutcnac and its neighborhood, with tlie monopoly 
of hunting and fisliing on Lake Ontario, on condition that 

• Clinlmers, i., 403; llutcli. Mass., i., .'.11, 319; Coll., 477-513, 534, 5C4; Col. Doc., iii., 
239-244; Bancroft, ii., Ill ; Barry, i., 4.')4^')S; Palfrey, iii., 2S4-2S9 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 
4S4; Hist. Mng.,ii. (iii.),70, 71; an^c, 294. 

t Ilanilolph'.i " Narrative" of 12 October, 1G70, in llufch. Coll., 490; Col. Doc, iii., 242. 

X Mass. Ucc, v., 99-110; Hutchinson, i , 311,312; Palfrey, iii., 291-295. 


he should pay its cost, maintain a garrison, build a church, cuap. vi. 
and support Franciscan missionaries. Tlie king also made 
him a Fren(;h noljlcman. La Salle liastened back to Cana- j^^ gj^„g ' 
da in company with Laval de Montmorency, who had been ^jy^^J^',*:'' 
created Bishop of Quebec, and Jacques Duchesnau, who ^j^ j^jj>'- 
succeeded Talon as intendant, as well as with the Francis- Franciscan 

' mission- 

can fathers Louis Hennepin, Christian Le Clercq, and Ze- '"•'«3- 

nobius Membrc. A new stone fort, with four bastions, ICTG. 
was quickly built by La Salle around the old palisades at c'aram-^ "' 
Cataracouy ; a chapel was prepared ; and the fathers lien- '=°"^'- 
nepin and Luke Buisset were installed as assistants of Ri- 
bourdc in the mission.* 

After establishing the Fi'anciscans at Cataracouy, Fron- Jesuit mis. 
tenac took little interest in the French missions soutli of among'Tue 
Lake Ontario, Bruyas remained at Tionnontoguen, and '°'i"°'''- 
James de Lamberville, who had just come over from Paris, 
replaced Boniface at Caghnawaga. The large secession to 
the Prairie de la Madeleine nevertheless troubled the Mo- 
hawk missionaries. Millet labored among the Oneidas 
with tolerable success. At Onondaga, John de Lamberville 
was comforted by the steadfast faith of Garakontio imtil 
the death of that eminent proselyte early in 1676. Car- 
heirs chapel at Cayuga was burned by drunken savages. 
Among the Senecas, Pierron, Paffeix, and Gamier labored 
dilio-ently. But that distant tribe, havino; subdued the An- tiic ah- 

1 niif ic ' i-n 1 Pastes con- 

dastes, now talked only or war, " even agamst the i^ rencli, quered. 
and to begin by the destruction of the fort of Cataracouy."t 

The " Residence" of the Prairie de la Madeleine had Pinine de 
prospered, and Bishop Laval visited it in great state. But, leine. 
as the land was not fertile, the mission was, in 1676, re- 
moved farther up the St. Lawrence, near to the rapids of 
St. Louis. There a new village was foimded, which the 
French named "St. Francis Xavier du Sault;" while the 
Iroquois proselytes, rememberino; their old liome on the 

^ ^ "^ , ^^ . , , Caghnawa- 

Mohawk, called it " Caglmawao;a," which in their lano-uaoje ga, on the 

St. Law- 

means " the rapids," or " a carrying-place." A stone church rencc. 

• Col. Doc., ix., lis, 110, 120, 122-125, 12C, 213, 216, 794; Charlevoix, ii., 256, 265 ; Faillon, 
iii., 472, 4T3, 474, 537 ; Hennepin's Louisiana, 2, 3, 7-14 ; New Discovery, 7-16 ; Hi.^t. (;oll. 
Ixiiiisiana, i., 195, 196; Sparks's La Salle, S-17, ISl ; Shea's Disc Mi33.,7S, 84, S5, 89, 103, 
147, 1,59,205,266; Missions, 309,412; Bancroft, iii., 162; Garneau, i., 237; a>i/c, 99, 241. 

t Kilation, 1073-9, 140, 194, 195, 204 ; Douniol, ii., 10, 35-45, 99, 106-114, 197 ; She.n, 272, 
274, 277, 2S5, 289, 292, 293; Hist. M.ig., ii., 297; Col. Doc, ix., 227, note; ante, 100, 193, 


Chap. VI. was soon built at this Residence, which was put in charge 

^ of the fathers Fremin and Cholenec."'^ 
13 August. This year marked the domestic annals of New York. 
^i^lans Domine Nicolaus van Rensselaer, whom Andros had in- 
vanKens- stalled as colleamie of Schaats in the Reformed Dutch 

Belaer's O 

case. Church at Albany, was accused of " false preaching" by 
Jacob Leisler, one of the deacons in the Dutch Church in 
New York, and Jacob Milborne, a young Englishman, who 
had formerly been the book-keeper of Thomas Delavall. 
On their complaint the Albany magistrates imprisoned Van 
Rensselaer for having uttered " some dubious words." An 
appeal was taken to New York, where the case was heard 

23Septem. before the governor and council, the mayor and aldermen, 
and the " ministers of the city," and sent back for the au- 
thorities at Albany to determine. Domine Schaats ac- 
cordingly proved his colleague's heterodoxy. Yet the Al- 

2s septem. bauy court thought it best that all differences " should be 
consumed in the fire of love," and enjoined perpetual for- 
bearance on both sides, "for edification to the Reformed 

23 October. Religion." Their action was confirmed by the governor, 

Milborne. couucil, aldermen, and " ministers of New York," who or- 
dered Leisler and Milborne to pay all costs, " as giving the 
first occasion of the difference."! 

The increasing commerce of the metropolis requiring 

lONovem. larger accommodation, a mole or dock was built under the 

New dock 

in New encouragement of Andros. Its expense was paid by a city 
tax levied on the residents, and timber was furnished by 
the North and West Ridings of Long Island. The " Ileere 
Graclit," or canal in Broad Street, was also filled up and 
leveled, and a market-house was established at the " plaine 
afore the fort.":j: 

• RfMion, lGT3-!>, 231-240 ; 1070-7,122-145; Douniol,ii., 49-70, 107-170,217-227; Shea, 
298-304,307,308; Col. Doc, iii., 251 ; ix., 95, 116, 130; Index, 282; Coldcn, i., 54; Smith, 
i., CO ; Charlevoix, i., 352 ; ii., 258 ; v., 201 ; Hist. Mag., x., 822, 323 ; a7ite, vol. i., 423, 659 ; 
ii., 129, 178. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 118-125, 131, 132; Doc. Hist., ii., 42; iii., 527-530; Smith, i., 50; 
Col. M.SS.,xxv., 106; xxvi.,139; Col. Doc, iii., 301, 6S0, 727, 755; N. Y. Clirii<t. Int., 2 Nov., 
1805; ante, 196, Tiote, 272. Domine Van Uenssclaer acted as one of the managers of Rens- 
eelaerwyck after the death of his brother Jeremias in 1674. In 1077 Andros depo.sed him 
from his ministry "on account of liis had and scandalous life." The domine died the next 
year; and his widow, Alida Schuyler, married, in 1683, Uobevt Livingston, the aftute young 
Scotch town clerk of Albany : Cor. CI. Amst., Letter of Domine Van Zuuren, 30 8ept., 1077 ; 
llolgate, 42, 103; 0'CaIl.,i., 122, 212; ii., 177,552; Col. MSS., xxiv., 158; xxv., 145; xxxi., 
00; xxxii.,175; nnfc, 287, 288. 

t Col.MSS.,xxv.,9S, 155; Col. Doc, iii., 303, 309, 313, 314, 412 ; Min. of N. Y. C. C, i., 01; 
Val. N. Y., 181 ; Dunlap, ii., App, cxxv.-cxxvii. ; Hoffman's Treatise, ii.,5. 



At the Court of Assizes, William Loveridge, who had cuAr. vi. 
been arrested for slandering the Dutch at Albany, was 
fined twenty beavers, and allowed six months to inake ^ Qp^ jj^^,; 
good his charge against Arnout Cornelissen Viele, the in- loveridge. 
terpreter. Several of the inhabitants of Hempstead, hav- 25 October, 
ing entered into an unlawful combination, were tried, con- stera!' 
victed of riot, and variously sentenced. George Ileath- 
cote, the Quaker ship-captain, being charged with talking ncathcote. 
seditiously, was also heavily fined.* 

Southampton and Southold, which fur ten years had re- 
fused to take out new patents according to the Duke's 
Laws, were now obliged to submit. They sent up various 23 scptcm. 
reasons for their contumacy, which Andros treated more 
cavalierly than Lovelace. The Court of Assizes gave judg- 
ment that Southampton and Southold "for their disobedi-r October, 
ence have forfeited all their titles, rights and privileges to ton anT^" 
the lands in said township ;" but a fortnight was allowed ^°""^''''^- 
them to acknowledge their faults and obey. This was de- g^ October 
cisive, and the towns prudently obtained new patents.f ^ Novem. 

The Delaware territory, after the governor's visit in the Doia;raro 
spring of 1G75, had been disturbed by Ogle and the Lu- 
theran minister Fabricius. They were cited to appear be- 
fore Andros at New York, and it was ordered that Fabri- 15 septem. 
cius, " in respect of his being guilty, and his former in-cgu- ^"^'■"='"*- 
lar life, be suspended from exercising his functions as a 
minister, or preaching any more within this go\ernment, 
either in public or private." This sentence appears to 
have been modified, and the Lutheran clergyman preached 
for several years in the church which Andros directed to 
be built at " ^Yickegkoo."i 

In the mean time, Fenwick, to whom Lord Berkeley 1675. 
conveyed his undivided interest in New Jersey, had quar-j]f,^ej. 
reled with Byllinge, for whom he was trustee, and this 
Quaker dispute had been arranged l)v William Penn. w reb-y 

-r>ii? . 1-1. '. -^-ri. . William 

Berkeley s grantees assigned then- estate m IS ortli America Penn. 

• Col. MSS., XXV., 90, 1S4, 185, 211, 220, 226-241 ; antf, 2ST, 292. On the 25th of Sept., 
1CT6, Andros wrote (in French) to Commander IJinckes that he had supplied one of his ships 
with provisions, and thanked him for having reported favorably of him to the Prince of Or- 
ange: Col. MSS., XXV., 171 : ante, 22^, note. 

t Col. MSS , XXV., 173-lTG, 222 ; Patents, iv., 103, 105 ; Thompson, i., 14G, ?>?,4, S35, 3S4, 
3S5; Dtinlap, ii., App. xxxviii. ; ante, 110, 173, 275. 

t Council Min. (iii.), ii., 53 ; S. Hazard, 417, 410, 420, 43S; G. Smith's Delaware County, 
102, 115, 124 ; ante, 255, 279. 



Chap. VI. to William Penn, Gawen Laurie, and Kicholas Lucas, all 
of whom were Quakers. Under their auspices Fenwick 

25 June. * mailed for the Delaware with his family and some colonists, 

f^usZhhe '"^"^^ landed at the old " Yarcken's Kill" of the Dutch and 

Delaware. " Elsiugburg" of tlio Swcdcs, wliich he named "Salem." 
Cautwell, the New York sheriff at Newcastle, reported this 

5 Decern, intrusion to Andros, who directed that as Fenwick had not 
produced any authority, he " was not to be received as 
owner or proj)rietor of any land whatever in Delaware, 
but to be used civilly, paying all duties as others His Maj- 
esty's subjects ;" and that, " as to any privilege or freedom 
of Customs, or trading on the Eastern Shore, none to be 
allowed in any case to the smallest vessel, boat, or person." 

10 Decern. The Same duties levied at New York were to be exacted on 
the Delaware.* 

Captain John Collier was not long afterward commis- 
sioned as the New York commander and sub-collector on 

e°"n"Deit. Delaware Bay, and carefully instructed as to his duties. 
Three subordinate local courts were also established at 
NcM'castle, at Upland, and at Iloarkill. The Duke's Laws, 
with certain exceptions, were directed to be enforced, and 
Cant well was made high sheriff, f 

Li spite of Andros's warning, Fenwick, " a litigious and 
troublesome person," continued to act as proprietor at Sa- 
lem, and was summoned to answer at New York, but he 
refused to obey. Collier was then directed to send him to 
Fort James ; and he accordingly visited Fenwick, who de- 
nied that the governor of New York had any thing to do 
with him. The recusant was brought to Newcastle, whence 
, • he was conveyed a prisoner to New York. At a special 

Fenwick Court of Assizcs Fenwick was fined, and ordered to give 

imprisoned . „ iii • r>r>' i I'l 

in New security tor his good behavior. Keiusmg to do this, lie 
was kept in custody.:}: 


23 Septem, 

iS Sept. 

2.5 Sept. 

3 Decern. 

7 Decern. 

8 Decern. 

* Council Min., iii. (ii.), Tl, 72 ; Warr., Ord., PaR!=es, iii., 163 ; Dankcrs and Sluytcr, 242, 
243; Learning and Spicer, 65; .*<. 8mith, 79, S9,; Hazard's Kec. J'enn., vi., 182; Proud, i., 
136, 137; Dixon, 137; S. Hazard, 410, 419, 421, 422; N. J. II. S. Proc, ii., 8, 9; ante, vol. 
i., 322, 33S 380 ; ii., 200, 278. 

t Warn, Ord., Passes, iii., 115, 116, 211-213; Col.MSS., xx., S4-C8; Hazard's Peg. Pcnn., 
iv.,57; Ann. Penn., 425-429 ; G. Smith's Del. Co., 105-107; Upland Records, ."5-43. This 
last book was pul)lished by the Pennsylvania Historical Society. Scholars must regret that 
its editor, Mr. Edward Armstronfr, has so carelessly repeated the stale erroi-s that De Vries 
visited the Delaware in 10.30, whereas it was Heyes ; and that Lovelace succeeded Nicolls in 
May, 1007, whereas it was in August, 1008. 

t Ord., Warr., Passes, iii., 231 ; Col. MSS., xx., 102, 103 ; xxv., 242 ; xxvi., 11, 12, 14 ; S. 
Smith, 94; Haz. Ann., 42.1-434, 453; N. J. Proc., ii., 9-11, 17; Dixon, 136; Eliz. Bill, S. 


Meanwhile Philip Carteret had quietly governed that cnAr. vi. 
part of New Jersey north of Barnegat and the Renkokus 
Creek, which the Duke of York had conveyed, in severalty, carteret-s 
to Sir George Carteret. James, however, did not suppose ^^l^^i 
that his new deed of lands transferred to his grantee the ^^^^^ 
"full and absolute power and authority" which the king 
had Aested in him personally. The most important sov- 
ereign prerogative which Charles had delegated to his 
brother was that of taxing the inhabitants of a British- 
American province for the support of its government. To 
this end the duke's governor had ordered that all vessels 
trading within his original territory should enter at the 
New York Custom-house. After Andros reached New 1G75. 
York, James's secretary wrote him that nothing had been ^uftoms'" 
done in England toward "adjusting Sir George Carteret's fe"^'/^^ i^y 
pretensions in New Jersey, where, I presume, you will take „„ ^-Jy''" 
care to keep all things in the same posture (as to the Duke's portationa. 
prerogatives and profits) as they w^ere in your predecessors' 
time, until you shall hear of some alterations agreed to 
here." This led to a " bickering" between Collector Dyer 
and Governor Carteret, who w'as made to pay duties to the 
duke on " a present" sent to New Jersey, and was " ob- 
structed" by Andros from clearing a sloop from EKzabeth- 
town to Carolina." 

The subordinate title to New Jersey, however, had now 
become so doubtful that its various claimants found it nec- 
essary to make a compromise. This was accomplished 
" after no little labour, trouble, and cost ;" and, as is said, 
through the interposition of the Duke of York, who in- 
duced Sir George Carteret to relinquish his separate own- \r>7q 
ership. A " Quintipartite" deed, in partition, was accord- 1 .luiy. 
ingly made between Carteret, and Penn, Laurie, Lucas, and partite 
Byllinge, by which it was agreed that their division line Kast and 
should run from Little Egg Harbor to the northernmost jei^'eV. ^'^ 
branch of the Delaware River, in forty-one degrees and 
forty minutes of latitude. All the territory north and east 
of this line, called " East New" Jersey," was vested in Carte- 
ret. All the remainder, to the south and west of it, named 
" West New" Jersey," was conveyed to Penn and his associ- 

* Lenming and Spicer, 91-111 ; Eliz. Bill. S ; Col. Doc, iii., 229, 240, 31G : iv., aS2 ; Clial- 
mers's Annals, i., GIT, 618; Grahame, i., 4GS ; S. Smith, CS; Whitehead'3 East Jersey, 6G, 
09, TO, 190, 191 ; o)i(c, 20T, 2G8, 2TT. 



cnAr.vr. ates. Yet this famous instrument was based wholly on 
the king's effete patent to the Duke of York in March, 
1664. It did not allude to the Dutch reconquest in 1673 ; 
nor to the Dutch reconveyance of N^ew Netherland to 
Charles the Second, by the Treaty of Westminster, in Feb- 
ruar}', 1674; nor to Charles's second patent to his brother 
in the next June ; nor to the Duke of York's release of 
a part of New Jersey to Sir George Carteret, individually, 
in the following July. In these respects the " Quintipar- 
tite" Xew Jersey deed of 1676 is perhaps the most faulty 
English secondary parchment in American annals.* 
31 August. Two months af terwiard Secretary Werden wrote to An- 
of York " dros that the duke was not " at all inclined to let go any 
his'prerog- part of liis prerogative, wliich you and your predecessors 
"''^'^' have all along constantly asserted in his behalf; and so, 
though at present, in respect to Sir George, we soften things 
all we may, not to disturb his choler (for in truth the pas- 
sion of his inferior officers so far infects him as puts him 
on demands which he hath no colour of right to), I verily 
believe, should his foot chance to slip, those who succeed 
him must be content with less civility than we show him 
in this point ; since then we should exercise that just au- 
thority His Royal Highness hath without such reserves as, 
though intended but as favours now, may, if confirmed, re- 
dound too much to the jDrejudice of your Colony." 

Indeed, James now contemplated obtaining a new pat- 
ent, " either for the better ascertaining the boundaries, or 
for any other cause," which should confirm to him Dela- 
ware, as well as the region eastward as far as the Connecti- 
cut. But the duke's political situation in England did not 
permit him to move in the matter at this time; although 
1677. his secretary informed Andros that " a time may come, 
jamTs con- cither upon a regulation of matters in New England, when 
aTew"'*'* His Majesty shall please to take that into his consideration, 
patent. Qj. soi^ie other way, when His Royal Highness may without 
scruple thinke it convenient to insist on all those riglits 
that were intended him by his Patent fi'om the Crowne."t 
The Quintipartitc deed, however, induced Governor 
Carteret to claim a distinct port and custom-house in New 

* Learning and Spicer,Cl-72; VMz. Bill, p. 8; Answer to Bill, p. 18; S. Smith, 80, 89, MC, 
.MS; Gordon, CS; Proud, i., 142; Dixon's Penn., 13S; Whitehead, C7, CS ; rtji(e,260, 261, 
265-2CS. t CoL Doc., iiL, 237, 239, 240, 247 ; Chalmers, i., CIS. 



Jersey, The New York authorities resolved " That they cuap. vi. 

find uo port or harbour o;ranted to Sir Geore-o Carteret 

(distinct or independent from this) ; but all ships or vessels, j, j"/ '• 
as hitherto, to enter and clear at the Custom-house here, or ^''l'^ ^ork 


subordinate officers thereof, with due regard to Governor ^'«»' ■'"^p>' 
Carteret's or others' authority, for the duties on tobacco von. 
and other produce of America, according to acts of Par- 
liament and orders thereupon."* 

Penn and his co-proprietors of West Jersey, having pre- s March, 
pared some "Concessions and Agreements," dispatched i^rtntatr 
commissioners to organize its government and arrange jeKeyf^'' 
matters with Fenwick. As the ship Kent, in which they 
were embarked, Avas lying in the Tliaraes, King Charles 
came alongside in his pleasure barge, and seeing a great 
many passengers, and learning where they were bound, 
" asked if they were all Quakers, and gave them his bless- 
ing." After a tedious voyage the Kent anchored at Sandy 
Hook, and the commissioners went up to New York to 
wait on Andros. " He treated them civilly, but asked August. 
them if they had any thing from the Duke, his Master ? treatment 
They replied, Nothing particularly; but tliat he had con- ^'^'^"'^'"'' 
veyed that part of his country to Lord Berkeley, and he to 
Byllinge, etc., in which the Government was as much con- 
veyed as the soil. The Governor replied : All that will 
not clear' me; if I should surrender loithout the D^ike's 
order, it is as much as my head is worth ; hut if you 
had hut a line or tivofroni the DuJce, I shoiddhe as ready 
to surrender it to you, as you woidd he to ash it. Upon 
wliich, the commissioners, instead of excusing their impru- 
dence in not bringing such an order, began to insist upon 
their right, and strenuously to assert their independency. 
But Andros, clapping his hand on his sword, told them, that 
should defend the government from them, till he received 
orders from the duke, his master, to surrender it. lie, 
however, softened, and told them he would do what was in 
liis power to make them easy till they could send home to 
get redress ; and in order thereto, would commissionate the 
same persons mentioned in the commission they produced. 
This they accepted, and undertook to act as magistrates un- t August. 
der him, till further orders came from England, and pro- 

* Warrants, Ord., Passe?, iii., 03, 103, 254; onff, 276, 2TT. 

II.— u 


Chap. VI. ceccl ill relation to their land affairs according to the metli- 
~~ ods prescribed by the proprietors." The Kent then went 
16 Auiist o^ *^ Newcastle. A site for a new town was chosen near 
14 Novem. a Jegow's Islaiid," or Mattiniconk, which was leased to 
Robert Stacey, and a village soon arose, at first called 
Burlington " ISTcw Bevei'ley," and then " Bridhngton," or " Burling- 
ton," after the town in Yorkshii-e from which some of the 
emia'rants came. Fenwick was at the same time released 
fi'om liis imprisonment and allowed to return to Salem 
upon promising to appear again at New York in the fol- 
lowing October. This he honestly did, and Andros then 
14 August, set him free. The governor also appointed oue of his 
mander°^ lieutenants, Christopher Billop, now of Staten Island, to 
ware!^^*' succccd Collicr as commander and sub-collector for New 
York, on Delaware Bay and Biver.* 

Among other reasons for a new patent, the Duke of 
York desired more definite limits for his province, which 
he considered as having always been bounded northward 
by Canada, " the Dutch having ever claimed and never 
lost the possession of the same." " As for the northern 
7 May. bouiids," wrotc Werden to Andros, more explicitly, " there 
bet^een^ is uo questioii but they have always been esteemed to ex- 
an^canV tend as far as the Lake (or River of Canada), and the 
^'^' French have no colour to pretend right of conquest from 

any of their invasions there, unless they had such posses- 
sion before the Dutch were settled in Albany, which I 
believe is nothing soe."t 

Knowing the duke's views as to territory, Andros was 
sorely annoyed at the presence of the Jesuit missionaries 
among the Iroquois, of whom John de Lamberville at 
Onondaga had now become superior, in place of Bruyas at 
Tionnontoguen. Indeed, the French fathers were all jeal- 
ously watched as intruders within the province of New 
A^ndros'^as- York. Salisbury, the commander at Albany, was instruct- 
aeitsEn- q^ "that thc Maciuas Indians and associates on this side 

slish sover- _ J- 

jjen|y o^er the Lake (ha\'ing been always under a part of this gov- 
(luois. ernment) have nothing to do with the French, only as 

• Wan-antfl, Ord., Passes, iii., 25;), 2G3; Council Min., iii. (ii.), IGG-IOS; Col. MSS., xx., 
136,140; xxi., a."), 112; xxvii., 0; Col. Doc, iii., 221, 239, 24it, 27f.; Dankers and Sluytcr, 
174, 2;!5; Learning and Spiccr, 382-409 ; .S. Smith, 60, 80-94, 09, ■'J21-6;i8 ; Proud, i., 144; 
Gordon, 22, 38, 39; Gaz., 112, 113; Hazard's Reg. Pcnn., iv., 57, 73 ; Ann. Pcnn., 373, 374, 
306, 443, 444, 4.^3, 4GC ; Thonia.Vs West Jersey, 14, 15; N. J. II. S. Coll., ii., 17 ; Upland Wcr. , 
140, 141 ; ante, 164, 1S4, 265, vol. i., 183. t Col. Uoc, iii., 333, 237, 247 ; v., 531 ; ix., 305. 


they are friends, but in no case are to be commanded by chap. vi. 
them. And that the Commissaries do send for the Ma- 

1 ClI 
qiias Sachems and Father Bruyas, and signify this to the 

said Sachems before him, and to the said Father tliat the 
Governor desires, and does not doubt, his comport accord- 
ingly, for the quiet of these parts, pursuant to the friend- 
ship of om* Kings at home."" 

Andi'os's messengers fomid Bruyas entertaining as his 
guest the Franciscan Father Hennepin, M'ho had Avallced 
over the snow from Fort Frontcnac, and tarried to copy 
" a httle Iroquois Dictionary" Avhich the Jesuit had com- 
piled. When the Dutch envoys heard Hennepin, who was 
a native of Ilainault, speak Flemisli, they showed him 
much friendship, and invited him to return witli them to April. 
Albany, where they wished him to settle, " for the spiritual nmonK^the 
consolation of several Catholics" from the Netherlands*^*'^"''''''' 
who lived there. They even alighted from their horses 
to induce the father and his companions to mount in their 
places and go back with them. Hennepin would willing- 
ly have yielded to their urgency had he not feared giving 
umbrage to the Jesuits and injuring the Canadian fur 
trade. He therefore '' thanked these estimable Hollanders," 
and, bidding fareM'cU to Bruyas, returned to Cataracouy.f 

The territorial pretensions of New York were not, how- 
ever, recognized by Louis, who insisted that the expedi- 
tions of Champlain, Courcelles, and Tracy, followed by 
the submission of the savages and the settlement of Jesuit 
missionaries among them, had given him the sovereignty 
over the Iroquois. But it was not the time to bring this \% April, 
question to an issue, Louis, still at war with the Dutch, donre^En- 
and anxious for the friendship of Charles, directed Fronte- el^nty°OTei' 
nac " to cultivate a good understanding with the Enghsh, 

the Iro- 

* Council Min., iii. (ii.), 135; Col. Doc., ix., 171, 720; Douniol, ii., 195-205; Shea, 274, 
2S6 ; antc^ 294. Mr. Shea, in a note to the reprint of the first edition of Colden's Five Na- 
tions, 139, erroneously attributes to Dongan the assumption of English sovereignty over the 
Iroquois which was duo to Andros : compare Hist. Mag., x., 2CS, twU, 

t Hennepin's NouvtUe Ducouvertc, 10, 25-30; New Discovery, 10-20 ; Col. Doc, iv, CS9; 
Ix., 720; Shea's Di.scovery, 104; Catholic Missions, 274; Sparks's La Salle, 17; ante^ 299. 
Bniyas's Dictionary, or "■ VMcincH Agnicres," was published in the Aiipcudix to the Ileport 
of the Kegents of the University of New York of 15 April, 18C3 : Senate Document, 1SG3, No. 
115. The general opinion, derived from the English translation (1C9S) of the "Nouvcllo 
D6couverte," is that Hennepin visited Albany: Sparks's La Salle, 17; She.a's Discovery, 
104. A careful examination of the French original, however, convinces me that Hennepin 
did not go to Albany, but returned from Bruyas's cabin at Tionnontogiien directly to Fort 
Frontcnac: see Hist. Mag., x., 2C8. 


cuAP. VI. and to be careful not to give them any cause of complaint ; 
~~ without, however, permitting any thing contrary to the 
treaties I have concluded with tlie king their master."* 

La Salle La Sallo had meanwhile built at Cataracouy three barks 

barks on witli dccks, tlic first cvcr seen above the rapids of the Saint 

ontaiio. Lawrence, intending to use them for trading on Lake On- 
tario. But Jolliet's accounts of the vast buffalo countries 
in the West convinced him that a more lucrative and di- 
rect traffic with France than that through Canada could be 
opened by way of the Gulf of Mexico, into which it was 
supposed the Mississippi emptied. La Salle had already 
attempted to reach that river by way of the Ohio in 1669, 
and he now burned to demonstrate the truth of De Soto's 
early discovery, and extend actual French exploration from 
the mouth of the Arkansas down to the open sea. But 
1(5Y6. Louis having declared himself against " new discoveries," 

jf^ April, and instructed Frontenac not to comitenance them " with- 
out urgent necessity and very great advantage," La Salle 
determined to revisit France and impress his own views on 
1677. the court. The jealous policy of Andros in prohibiting 

ic May. French traffic with the Iroquois south of Lake Ontario was 

November, auothcr rcasou. As soon as his fort at Cataracouy was 

retunn^io wallcd up, La Salle returned to France, carrying the warm- 

1- ranee. ^^^ lettcrs froui Fronteuacf 

In the mean time, Massachusetts and Connecticut had 
engaged some Mohawk warriors to help them fight the 
Eastern Indians, who were ravaging Maine. The Con- 

10 March, necticut Council renewed their request for leave to treat 
directly with the Iroquois at Albany. Andros at once di- 

23 March, rcctcd tlic Mohawks to recall their parties from the East, 
and notify his officers if any Cliristians or Indians should 

3 April, tamper with them. lie also informed Governor Leete that 
he was going to Albany, where, " if you please to depute 
and send a iitt person, he may be present and say any 
thing [that] may be proper from yourselfe or colony to 
our Indyans, Maquas, etc." Pynchon and Richards were 

10 April, accordingly appointed to make a treaty with the Mohawks 

" Col. Doc, i.\-., 120, 2C7, ?,04, .005, 3S0-3S2, "02, 703, 7S3-S03. 

t Hennepin's Louisiana, 2, 3, S-15; New Discovery, 15-25, 40, 41, 44; Faillon, iii.,473, 
474; La Potherie, ii., 135; Col. Doc., i.v., 12G, 213, 210; Council Min.,iii. (ii.), 14S; Chnrle- 
voi.\-, ii., 204. 205 ; Sparks's La Salle, 10, 11 ; Shea'.^ Discovery, ?4, S5, SS ; Uancrcft, iii., 103 ; 
anfr, 103, 241,209. 


on the part of Massachusetts and Connecticut, under the cuAr. vi. 
advice of the governor of New York, or, if he shoukl " ob- 
struct," to take "• what opportunity" they could to gain their ,,5 ^^p,.;, " 
end. Andros received the ISTew England agents kindly at H'^^^^^a' 
Albany ; allowed them all freedom to speak " to what In- *;°""^i^j; 
dians they pleased;" and informed Leete that they had =»' '^i'"'"y- 
been " denied nothing here to their content." A handsome 
present was made by Pynchon, on behalf of Massachusetts, 
to the Mohawks, who covenanted peace with her friendly 
Indians. For the first time. New York permitted her Iro- 
quois to treat with a New England colony. The League 
was sealed with the characteristic gift of " a fish painted on 
paper" to the savages, who, according to their custom, dis- conference 
tiuguished their new Eastern friends, whom Pynchon rep- iroquois. 
resented, by the descriptive name of " Kinshon."* 

The subjugation of the Andastes or Susquehannas by 
the Senecas led to a correspondence between Andros and 
Governor Calvert of Maryland, in which the friendship of New York 
New York toward her sister English colonies at the South und. 
was fully manifested ; although Virginian historians have 
somewhat blamed her for the " rebellion" which broke out 
in the Old Dominion under the lead of Nathaniel Bacon. 
In their warfare the Iroquois did not always discriminate 
between their savage enemies and the English colonists 
around the Chesapeake, among whom they dwelt ; and both 
Virginia and Maryland felt the necessity of a peace with 
the Five Nations of New York.f 

Charles Calvert, now Lord Baltimore, having returned to 
England, Notley, his lieutenant governor of Maryland, ac- 
cordingly commissioned one of her council, Colonel Henr}' 30 April, 
Coursey — who, in 1659, had hospitably treated the envoys 
of New Netherland — to go to Albany and " make a league 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 140, 141, 144, 145; Col. MSS., xxvi., 40, 52; Col. Doc, iii., 323; 
Col. I!ec. Conn., ii., 483, 4S8, 4S9, 491-49G, 507; Mass. Itcc, v., 105, 1G7 : Hutch. Mass., i., 
34S ; Williamson's Maine, i., 548 ; Colden, L, 110, ISO ; ante, 200, 29S. As the Iroquois had 
no labials in their language, they were obliged to say "Quider" instead of " Peter :'" Hen- 
nepin's New Discovery, 24; Golden, i., 10, 116. Tor this reason, I think it probable that 
"Kinshon" was the nearest they could come to "Pynchon." Being great generalizcrs of 
names, they used that of " Pynchon" to denote New Kngland, just as they substituted " On- 
nontio" for Canada, and " Corlaer" for New York ; ant<', 102, 287. Father Millet, in his let- 
ter of 6 July, 1091, p. 4S, wrongly applies the name "Z/e Poisson," or '■'■Kitishon,'' to New 
York instead of New England. 

t Wan-., Ord., Passes, iii., 152, ICH, 104, 214; Col. MSS., xxv., 124; Col. Doc., iii., 245; 
Hough's Philip's War, 124, 125 ; S. Hazard, 421-420; Beverley. 62, 0:i ; Burk. ii., 150, 167; 
Force's Tracts, i., viii., ix. ; Douniol, ii., 4t. 45, 99, 197 ; Hist. Mag., i., 05-73 ; ii., 297 ; Camp- 
bell's Virginia, 284-323 ; ante, 100, 193, 299. 


Chap. VI. of friendship" with the New York Iroquois. After enter- 
tainment at Newcastle, Coiirsey was cordially received at 
23 May Fort Jaiues. In anticipation of his coming, Andros dis- 
^enuo^ patched " two Christians," one of whom was Wentworth 
New York. Greenhalofli, to summon the Senecas and their confeder- 

16 May. o ' 

b'TT'" ^^^^ ^^ meet Com-sey at Albany, and announce the gov- 
tourin ernor's intention to be there in Aumist. When Coursey 

Western » "^ 

New York, readied JN ew i ork, another message was sent to hasten tlie 

C June. '-' 

2ijuif. interview. This was accordingly held, and the agent of 
Albany. Maryland and Virginia, in several conferences with the 
Iroquois sachems, " had answers to his satisfaction."* 
The savages in Maine were meanwhile doing great 

June, mischief. Andros therefore resolved " to take possession, 

and assert the Duke's interest at Pemaquid, and parts ad- 
jacent Eastward;" and that if New York should make 
peace with the Indians there, "the Massachusetts to be 
comprized, if they please." Brocldiolls, Knapton, and Sec- 
icjune. retary Nicolls Avere accordingly commissioned to go to 
takes pos- Pemaquid with four sloops, one hundred men, and a 
Pemaquid. framed redoubt, to be set up in the most convenient place. 
They were directed to make peace with such Indians as 
delivered up their prisoners, and to include the New En- 
gland colonies if they so desired. Any Mohawks who 
might come to them were to be received and used kindly, 
July. " as at Albany." The redoubt, which was named " Fort 
Charleses- Cliarlcs," was quickly built at Pemaquid, mounted with 
seven guns, and placed under the command of Knapton, 
the brother-in-law of Andros, with a garrison of hfty men. 
Peace was arranged with the Indians, and several Cliris- 
2 August, tian captives rescued. Stringent orders were adopted in 
New York for the government of Pemaquid. None could 
treat with its aborigines except through the governor at 
22S8ptcm. the metropolis. The trading - place was to be at Fort 
tionsfor Charles, where alone Christians were allowed to inhabit; 

1 cnmfiuid. ^^^ ^|| eutrics were to be made in the New York Custom- 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 142, 147, 14S, 151, 152, ICO, IGl, 1C4; Deeds, vi., 2S; Col. MSS., 
xxvl,, CO, G9 ; Col. Doc, ii., 04 ; iii., 250-252, 25G, 321 ; ix., 22T ; Golden, i., 3S; first ed., p. 
31, 40; Chalmens i., 364, 305, 366, 000-009; S. Il.izard, 437,438; Upland Kcc, 40; Clinton, 
in N. Y. II. S. Coll., ii., 80; Davis's Day Star, 113; (mfc, i., 660. I am indebted to Mr. 
Brantz Mayer, of Ualtimore, for the communication of intercstin}? memoranda from the 
State Paper Oflice relating to Coursey's mission. Greonhal};h's Journal of his visit to the 
Five Nations, from 28 May to 14 July, 1077 (in Col. Doc, iii., 25l)-2.')2, and C'halmer.-!, i.. 600- 
000), is the earliest English account we have of the strength and condition of the Iro(i\iois, 



house. Fish might be cured upon the islands, " but not chap. vi. 
upon the Maine, except at Peniaquid, near the fort." This 
reguhition mortified Massachusetts, which claimed that its ^^ October 
people should be allowed their ancient privilege " to im- ^tj^ofl,"'' 
prove themselves and estates in the honest and industri- fended, 
ous labour of fishing."* 

Andros now went up to Albany and held another confer- 2s August. 
ence with the L'oquois. The Oneidas had been " diverted Albany. 
from the southward ;" but they and the Mohawks still sus- 
pected the Mahicans. On his return to the metropolis 
Andros indignantly rebuked Connecticut for "falsely and 24 septcm. 
unchristianly" censuring his Indian policy. Not long aft- 
erward Massachusetts undertook to reprove the New York 12 October, 
savages for brealdng the treaty which Pynchon had made tiona 
with them in April, and suggested that they would do " an >feTEn- "" 
acceptable service" if they should destroy " a parsell of In- ^ "^ ^^^' 
dians who came lately from Canada," and attacked Hat- 
field on the Connecticut. A similar lecture was addressed 
to the New York commander at Albany. Andros accord- 
ingly instructed Salisbury to send any interfering stran- so octobev. 
gers who might come there, down to New York for ex- 

This year witnessed fresh discoveries in the interior of 
New York. AVhile Greenhalgh was exploring the West, 
nearer regions were not neglected. The search led by 
Louis du Bois after the prisoners captured at Wyldwyck 
in 1663 had revealed the beauty of the rich valley of the 
Wallkill, and a second exploration was made through the 
more rugged neighborhood of the river. A large tract of 
land was purchased from the Indians by Dubois, Ilas- 
brouck, and other French and German Protestants, to 
whom the srovernor gave a patent. The grant extended 23 septem. 

c O JT o Patent for 

along the Shawangunk Mountains from " Moliunk" to New raitz. 
'' Tower-a-tauch," and along the Hudson River from " Ra- 
poos" down to " Jeffrouw's Hook." Several of the grant- 
ees settled themselves at once on the tract, which was 

* Col. Doc, Hi., 248, 240, 256, 2G5; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 15P., IfiS, 109 ; ■Warrants, Ord., 
Passes, iii., 251 ; Col. MSS., xxvii., 130 ; Maine H. S. Coll., v., 14-2;i, 30, 2.59 ; Mass. Rec, 
v., 1C2, 164, 168, 169; Hutch. Mass., L, 325, 347; WUUamson's Maine, i., 553 ; Belknap, i., 
129; Palfrey, iii., 213 ; a7ite, p. 308. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 256 ; Col. MSS., xxvi., 135, 136, 141 ; Col. Pec. Conn., ii., 502, 603, 506, 
r*-, 508; Council Min., iii. (ii.), ITO; Mats. Kcc., v., 105-16S; Hutch., i., 348 ; Ti-umbuU, 
I., 354. 


Chap. VI. named tlie " New Paltz," in memory of their former home 
~~ in the Palatinate, which had just been so awfully ravaged 
' by Turenne. The first settlement was made near an an- 
cient Indian mound on the Wallkill, where Dubois and his 
2 xovem. associatcs were required to build a redoubt " for a place of 
retreat and safeguard."* 

The provincial customs' rates, which had been establish- 
ed in November, 1674, were now renewed for three years, 
November, by a proclamation from the governor, nnder the duke's 
rates re- spccial instructious to " continue the same rates and other 
duties for three years longer, to commence from the end 
of these now running."f 
7 May. Mcanwliile Andros had received permission to spend 

lowed to ' the winter in England, " to look after his own concerns," 
England, providcd hc took care to settle every thing during his ab- 
sence " in the best and safest manner." After advising with 
7 Novem. his council, the governor commissioned Brockholls to be 

Brockholls ~ 

command- commandcr-in-chief, and Secretary Nicolls next in author- 

' ity, with instructions to consult the council and the metro- 

pohtan mayor, Stephanus van Cortlandt, on extraordinary 

16 Xovem. occasious. IIc also gave his wife a power of attorney to 

manage his private affairs during his absence. Having 

IT Xovem. visitcd Carteret at Elizabethtown, Andros embarked from 

.-ails for Staten Island for England, accompanied by William Nic- 

°^"'° ■ oils, son of the provincial secretary.:}: 

After the governor's departure the affairs of New York 
were quietly administered by Brockholls, who was chiefly 
engaged in strengthening Fort James and remounting its 
ijiock- guns. Correspondence with Frontcnac in Canada, Lever- 
p iriiry ad- ctt in Massacliusctts, Knapton at Pemaquid, Bruyas in the 
tion of New Mohawk couutry, and Salisbury at Albany, also taxed the 
fairs. ^ ' attention of the Duke of' York's temporary commander-in- 
chief during the next winter and spring.§ 

• Patent?, iv., 234; Warr., Ord., Passe?, iii., 28i3; N. Y. H. S. Pi-occcdinss for 1S4S, 81; 
Ulster H. S.CoIl., L,34, 35, 41-48, SO, lST-191; Martin's Louis XIV., i, 394; ante, \o\.i., 
712, 713. The New Paltz Academy, in Ulster County, now stands on the site of this old In- 
dian mound. 

» t Col. Doc, iii., 217, 246, 289, 292; Col. MSS., xxiv.,1; x.xvi.,5; Ord., Warr., etc.; xxxii.V, 
43, 44, 45; CouncilJournals, i., Introd., viii. ; mite, 263. 

J Col. Doc, iii., 246, 256, 2.57, 709 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 175, 176 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, 
iii., 236, 287; Col. MSS., xxvi., 151 ; Col. Hec Conn., ii., 50S ; Hazard's Reg. Penn., iv.,73, 
74; Thomp.^on, ii., 391 ; Whitmorc's Memoir of Andros, xix. 

5 Col. Doc, iii., 307, 311 ; Col. MS.'*., xxvi., 1 19, 1.50, 152, 101, 162 ; xxvii., 1-17S; Council 
Mill., iii. (ii.), 176, 177; Maine II. .S. Coll., v., 9-lS, 23-32; Col. Hoc Coun., iii., 253; Mass. 
lice, v„ 300. 


New York, as described by Andros in London the next cuap. vr. 
April, contained twenty-four towns, villages, or parishes, 
in six precincts, or Courts of Sessions. Its population . ^j, * 
had increased of late, consistino; of old inhabitants, chieflv ^''^T ^'"'^^ 

' o " i* as dp- 

Dutch, with colonists from Eno-land, and '' some few of all Y'-il'e'i i^y 

nations." Servants were much wanted, there being '" but 
very few slaves," most of whom were brought from Bar- 
badoes, and were worth from thirty to thirty -five pounds 
each. A merchant having five hundred or a thousand 
pounds was thought substantial, and a planter worth half 
that '' in moveables" was accounted rich. The value of v„u,e of 
all the estates in the province was about 150,000 pounds. '^'"''"'^• 
From ten to fifteen vessels, of one hundred tons each, 
traded to the province each year from Old and New En- 
gland. Five small ships and a ketch belonged to ^ew 
York, of which four were built there. The exports were ^,jj , ^^^ 
chiefly provisions, furs, tar, and lumber ; and the imports commerce. 
of English manufactures amounted to 50,000 pounds year- 
ly. The customs, excises, and quit-rents were all applied 
to the public charges ; but they did not suffice " by a 
greate deale." The chief trading-places were New York 
and Southampton for foreign commerce, and Albany for 
the Indian traffic. There were about two thousand males Miiitia. 
able to bear arms, of whom one hundred and forty were 
horsemen, in three troops. Fort James was a square of Forts 
stone, with four bastions, and mounting forty-six guns. Aii"i'n^y, 
Fort Albany was a small stockade, with four bastions and umriea. 
twelve guns, "sufficient against Indians." Fort Charles,, 
at Pemaquid, was a " wooden redoubt," with seven guns. 
These forts were garrisoned by regular English soldiers. 
Ministers " were scarce, and religions many," so that there 
were no records of marriages or births in New York. The 
duke maintained an Episcopalian chaplain, which was " all 
the certain allowance or Church of England." There 
were about twenty churches in the province, most of which Keiigions 
were Presbyterians and Independents, with Quakers, Ana- and "noe 
baptists, and Jews ; and all were supported by " free gifts ^'"^^'"'''•" 
to the ministry." In New York there were "noe beg- 
gars, but all poore cared for."* 

* Col. Doc., lii., C45, 24C, 2C0-2C2; Doc. Hi.-^t., i., CO-62 ; Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i., COO-COl. 




cuAP.vii. DuEiNG the four years which followed the Treaty of 
~ Westminster, England reaped the fruits of her peace Avith 
England' the Dutcli Republic in the growth of her own trade, and 
the°Treat ^^^ ^ higher Consideration by other nations. As a neutral 
ofwest- between France and the United Netherland States, she 

nimster. ' 

engrossed nearly all the commerce of the world. Yet 
French cruisers would capture English trading ships, and 
Charles was forced to ask Parliament for supplies to re- 
pair his neglected navy. But English commoners were 
too jealous of the influence of Louis over Charles to in- 
trust their sovereign with a power which he miglit prosti- 
tute for the benefit of France. The British House of Com- 
mons represented then — as it generally represents — the 
temporary sentiment of insular England. On the broader 
continent, the Dutch, seeing their commerce languish while 
that of England flourished, were naturally anxious for a 
peace with France. So negotiations were opened at Nime- 
wiUmmof guen, on the Rhine; and the Prince of Orange, deter- 
^sufEn-*'' mined to engage his uncle as a mediator or an ally, revisit- 
giand. ^^ England. • A marriage between William and his cousin 
Mary, the eldest daughter of his uncle James, of York, had 
long been contemplated. Before the Dutch war of 1G72, 
when the princess was only twelve years old, Charles sug- 
gested the match to his brother, who bitterly opposed such 
a heretical alliance. After the Peace of Westminster the 
king again spoke to the duke in fa\or of the project, which 
was approved by his own ministers. At their first audience 
Charles told the ambassadors of the Republic that he loved 
liis Dutch nephew " like a son." But the Duke of York 
was ambitious to give his daughter to the Dauphin of 
France, while Louis wished her to accept his inferior sub- 


jcct, the Prince of Coiity. Itouvigiiy, the French ambas- cdap. vii. 
sador at London, warned James to dread the proposed mar- 
riage " as death ;" to regard the Prince of Orange as " the 
idol of England ;" and he predicted to the duke that ''such 
a son-in-law would inevitably be his ruin." William at 
first rejected his uncle Charles's overtui'e. I*olitical and 
personal interests now combined to make him anxious for 
the splendid alliance. The Stuart cousins miderstood each 
other at once; Charles's command compelled James's re- 
luctant consent ; and the Peformed Protestant Dutch cham- 1677. 
pion espoused the future heiress of the British crown, i*? ^'o^em. 

T'ii'i/-iii X f 1 ■William of 

Little did Charles or J ames foresee the momentous conse- orange 
quences of these Dutch and J'ritisli nuptials. Louis ob- Mary of 
served the advancement of his greatest enemy with pro- 
phetic vexation. But England rejoiced in growing sym- 
])atliy with Holland ; and Parliament, while voting liberal 1678. 
supplies for an expected war with France, resolved that all J|^^^'J' 
English soldiers and sailors should l)e recalled from duty wiiuam's 
under Louis. A struggle was at hand between the Protest- 
ant convictions of England and the Popish inclinations of 
its anointed sovereign.* 

After the marriage of William and Mary, the limping 
conferences at Nimeguen sprung briskly. The English 
auxiliaries of Louis were mustered out of his service ; but 
his parsimonious treatment of them caused just complaints, 
and distrusted the kino^ and the Duke of York. At lenirth Tx^usf »■ 

" ~ tr> Peace of 

peace was covenanted between France and the Protestant Nimeguen 
Dutch Republic, which, at the end of the long struggle, f'o t)utch 
found herself far better off than she was when her Popish French. 
adversary began his ruthless attack.f 

Andros had meanwhile landed in Ireland, whence ho s jan-)-. 
hastened over to London. On reaching court he was L°ndon' 
knighted by the king, and allowed a short holiday to look knighted. 
after his private affairs at Guernsey ; where, however, he 

* Col. Doc, ii., 563; Konvigny to Louis XIV., 23 April, 1674, 5n Mignet's Negotiations, 
Iv., 232; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 409, 410, 45f>, 457; Temple, ii., 252-430 ; Daliymple, i., 
143,155-104; Clarke's Jamps IL, i, 500-502, 503, 510; Burnet, i., 367-412; Kennett, iii., 
397-362 ; Macpherson, i., 202, 211, 224-231 ; Courtcnay's Temple, i., 424-510 ; Kapin, ii., 
C75-6S">; Pari. Hist., iv., 907, 925; Basnage, ii., 499-870,902-907; Sylvius, x.-xvi. ; Davies, 
iii., 133-lOS ; Hume, vii., 1-34; I.ingarii, xiii., 1-43 ; Macaulay, i., 224-229 ; cfji^c, 1S5. 

t Pari. Hist., iv., 943, 952, 964, 983, 1005 ; Martin's I.onia XIV., i., 402-468 ; Dumont, vii., 
350; Temple, ii., 430-455; Courtcnay's Temple, ii., 13 ; Palrymple, i., 164-169; Macpher- 
son, i., 233-235, 244; Clarke's James II.. i., 511, 512 ; Kennett, iii., 303 ; Burnet, i., 422, 423 ; 
Basnage, ii., 90T-937 ; Anderson, ii., 537, 548, 549 ; Col. Doe., iii., 423, 456, 460, 462, 463. 


ciiAP. VII. did not tarry long, because the duke required him to return 
~~~ quickly to his government.* 

Massachii"- The ne^y-made knight found the Massachusetts agents, 
setts agents g^-Qi^jfjl^^Qj^ aud Bulklev, ill tribulation because of the ill 

in trouble, o */ " 

favor of their colony at "VVliitehall. They could not an- 
swer the telling testimony of Randolph, which, in the opin- 
ion of Jones and Winnington, the king's attorney and so- 
licitor general, contained " sufficient matter to avoid the 
patent" of Massachusetts by a writ of ''''Quo Warranto^ 

8 April. By the Duke of York's order, Andros attended the Plan- 

Androa's " . ^-^ . , , /> i • 

account of tatiou Committee, where he ^ave an account of his gov- 

liis govern- tiii. pi-ti "n- 

mont. ernment, and exposed the behavior oi the Jbastern 1 uritan 
colonies toward New York about the Indian War. In an- 

9 April, swer to particular inquiries, he suggested that the various 
suggests a sub-goveruinents in New England should be made " as one 
tionoftiie people and country" by the king's ''asserting and regulat- 
giand cole- ing" their militia forces, otherwise " every colony may be 
"heVing.^"^ a prey to an invader." From his information, Andros 

thought that '" the generality of the magistrates and people 
are well affected to the king and kingdom ; but most, 
knowing noe other government than their OAvne, think it 
best, and are wedded to, and opiniate for it. And the 
magistrates and others in place, chosen by the people, think 
that they are obliged to assert and maintaine said govern- 
ment all they can, and are church members, and like so to 
be ; chosen, and to continue without any considerable al- 
teration and change there, and depend upon the people to 
justifie them in their actings."f 
iG April. Andros also submitted to the committee full replies 
ropoir " about New York, to the specific inquiries which each royal 
Yo°rk. ' ^''^ governor in the Plantations was required to answer. For 
the first time since Nicolls's report in lOGG, the internal 
administration of the dulse's province came directly under 
the observation of the king's Privy Council.:}: 

There Avas an unsettled account between New York and 

• Col. MSS., xxvii., 124 ; Maine II. P. Coll., v., 2G ; Whitmore's Andro.?, six. 

t Col. noc, iii., 254-25S, 202-264, .578; IT. S. Coll., xxxii., 287; Hutch. Mass., i., 
312-322 ; Chalmers, i., 403, 404, 405, 436-44T ; Palfrey, iii., 303-317 ; Hist. Mag., ii. (iii.), TO, 
71 ; antc^ 298. 

X Col. Doc, iii., ISS, 2C0-2C2 ; Chalmcro, i., 000-004 ; Doc. Hist., i, 60-C2 ; ante, 113, 208. 
The twenty-seven official "Heads of Inquiry," whicli were sent to the feveral colonial gov- 
ernors, arc in Col. Hoc. Conn., iii., 202-294; see also .\rnold'fl Khode Island, i., 400, 458-^91. 
Tlie substance of AudrcsV answers has already been given; ante, 313. 


Massachusetts wliicli Andres did not fail to adjust. InCoAP.vii 
America, the " aspersions" of Boston could not be correct- -ta-ro 
ed, because the Puritan press, which uttered the falsehood, 9 Aprii. 
liad not the manliness to publish the truth. But now both sires^he '^ 
colonies stood face to face before a supreme tribunal. An- 'Ma^lTciiu- 
dros accordingly petitioned for an inquiry into the truth of proved'.'"^ 
the charges of Massachusetts while her agents were yet in 
London to answer. This Avas granted at once. Stonghton 
and Bulkley, after meditation, evasively replied that they 2-1 Ap.ii. 
had no proofs to offer, and hoped that New York had not 
been '"prejudiced" by the libel against those who were 
" never discovered" to " your Majesty's Government of the 
Massacliusetts." This acknowledgment was fatal to the 
Avould-l)e independence of the royal corporatoi's in Boston. 
The king declared that he found '' no cause to believe that 24 Apni. 
any of his subjects from the parts of Albany did supply Jbaoivc"*^ 
any powder or other materials for war to Philip or other ^om^he* 
Indian enemies in those parts, neitlier could he perceive uotf^of"' 
any cause or ground for the imputation laid upon his said S."''''"' 
subjects of Albany by the Massacliusetts ;" and he there- 
fore ordered that no Albanian should be liable to such ■■' im- 
putation," unless the authorities in Massachusetts should 
prosecute him within a year. It does not appear that any 
prosecution was instituted, nor any apology or retraction 
offered by the Boston court, whose printers were now more 
rigorously fettered by colonial censors than any of the craft 
were restrained in Old England by Sir Roger L'Estrange."^ 

Having been absent from his government as long as the 
duke thought prudent, Andros prepared to return. Hith- 
erto he had exercised Admiralty powers in New York only 
under his " general commission." The Duke of York, who 
was yet Lord High Admiral of England in its Plantations, 20 May. 
now gave Andros a special commission as Yice-Admiral commis- 
throughout his colonial government, and autliorized him to miraity. 
appoint a Judge, Register, and Marshal in Admiralty, to 
hold their offices during his pleasure.f 

The next week Andros sailed for Sandy Hook, accom- 27 May. 

* Col. Doc, iii., 25S, 25D, 260, 267 ; JIass. II. S. Coll., xxxii., 2S7, 28S ; Whitmore's Androg, 
IS, 20; Mac!\ulay, i., 24S, 3[)0, 5S0 ; iv., 349; a)!fc, 89, 290-202. 

t Col. Dor., iii., 215, 239, 260, 2CS; a7itt, 87, 202. Tlie first part of the Duke of YorkM 
Admiralty Commission to Andros (in Latin) is reco"de(] in N. Y. Patent*', iv., 140-153. Tlie 
record is not complete, nor does till date appear; but it is entered next after a local pateat, 
dated 20th October, 16TS. 


ciiAP. VII. panied by several residents of ISTew York, among whom 

~ were William Pinhorne, James Graham, and John West, 

Andios r^ ^^^ ^^ whom became prominent in the affairs of the prov- 

nJ^^yoiIc ^^^^- ^^^ Eeverend Charles Wolley, a recent graduate 

of Cambridge University, whom the duke had appointed 

chaplain to the forces in New York, also came out with 

7 August, the governor. After a nine weeks' voyage Andros reach- 

8 August, ed port, and the next day landed in the metropolis."'^ 

8 August. The first business of Andros, on resuming his govern- 
tradfe^ ment, was to order that none but New Yorkers should 
trade at Albany. Tlie commissioners for Indian affairs 
there, having complained of the French intrigues among 
22 August, the Mohawks, were also directed to do every thing to en- 
courage the New York savages.f 

Another measure, necessaiy to help the provincial trade, 

was met by remonstrances from Albany, Esopus, and other 

inland towns. The previous direction that all flour ex- 

Boiting of ported from the city of New York should be bolted fine, 

and the barrels branded, appears to have been evaded, and 

the reputation of its great staple was jeoparded in foreign 

24 August, ports. The Council therefore ordered that no iiiland 

towns should " trade over sea," and that no flour should be 

inspected within the province except in the metropolis. 

Honest manufacture was thus secured ; and, for some 

Condition ycars, " no bad commodity was suffered to go out." At 

tiopoiis. ' this time the city contained three hundred and forty-three 

houses, each of which, on the average, had ten inhabitants, 

making its whole population three thousand four hundred 

rnd'swp." and thirty. There belonged to the metropolis three shij)s, 

^'°°" seven boats, and eight sloops. Four hundred beeves were 

killed for its yearly supply. The whole revenue of the 

province was about two thousand pounds. But, from the 

time of the metropolitan flour-law, the revenue of the city, 

as well as that of the proprietor, began to improve.:}: 

An interesting incident now occurred. After his theo- 
logical defeat in 1G76, Leisler went to trade in Dela- 

» C. WoUey's Journnl (Gowans's ed., ISCO), 10, 2], C5, 68, 09, 70; Bankers and Slnyter, 
148; Col. Doc., iii., 271, 303, 657, 716; iv., 847; General Kntries, xxxii., 1 ; ante, 45, note. 

t Col. MSS., xxvii., 175, 1S7 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 1T!>, ISO ; Col. Doc, iii., 315. 

t Wnrrantf", Ord., I'afses, iii., 40, 287; Col. MSS., xxvi., 147; xxviii., 3, 78, S3, 95. 99; 
xxix.,29,32; Col. Doc, iii., 31.5, SiiS, 797; iv., S.'JS, 375, 401, 1133; v., 57; Minutes of Com- 
mon Council, i., 143. ii. ; Dunlap, ii., App., oxlvii. ; (^halmciVs Ann., i., .')!I7, 59S; Val- 
entine's New York, ISO : compare Andro?, in Col. Doc , iii., 200-202, and ante, 313. 


ware, Maryland, and Vir<^inia, and afterward sailed in his chap. vu. 
" Pincke" for Europe, with several other New Yorkers. 
On their way they were taken by the Turks, whose cor- 
sairs commanded the ocean, and Andros at once ordered it August. 
" that a brief be granted for the Church officers (and favor of 
recommended by the ministers) to collect the benevolence the Turks. 
of well-disposed persons in this Government toward the 
redemption of these captives." This was an imitation of 
the familiar practice in England, where such letters are 
usually issued by the sovereign. The appeal was effectual, 
and the captives were soon redeemed ; Leisler paying two 
thousand pieces of eight (or Spanish dollars) for his own 

Pursuant to his new commission and the duke's special 
warrant, Andros now appointed the mayor, Stephanus van 5 October. 
Cortlandt, to be judge, and the aldermen of the city of court ia 
New York to be assistants of the Provincial Court of Ad- 
miralty. Samuel Leete, the city clerk, was likcAvise ap- 
pointed register, and Sheriff Thomas Ashton the marshal 
of the court. This organization substantially existed for 
several years, the mayor of the city, for the time being, al- 
ways receiving a commission as judge in Admiralty.f 

Affairs in Pemaquid seemed now to require the govern- Pemaquid 
or's presence ; but, by the advice of liis Council, Andros 
deferred going thither until the spring. Knapton, his 
commandant at Fort Charles, had diligently executed his 
instructions, to the discontent of Massachusetts ; a vessel 
belonging to which had been seized for illegally trading 
within the duke's territories. It was accordingly ordered 23 August. 
in Council that the former regulations should continue in 
force, and that " no Indian trade be admitted at Pemaquid 
but from and to this place, to prevent inconvenience."^ 

On the Delaware, Billop, the commandant, had miscon- 
ducted himself, so that Andros was obliged to order him 3 septem. 

' Ord., Wan-., Pit»sps. iii., 210; Council Jlin., iii. (ii.), ITS; Gen. Ent., xxxii., C5; Col. 

i MSS., xxvii.,lT9, ISS; xxviii., 26, 2T, 30; xlix., 13S; Ma^s. Kec , v., 280; Col. Doc, iii.,T]T; 

Doc. Ilist, ii., 2 ; iii., 253 ; Laws of Maryland, 16S1. A BUi-plus of this collection remained 

after the captives were redeemed, and this .\ndros directed to be applied toward the build- 

in<? of a new Dutcli Church in New York : Col. Doc, iii., TIT. 

t Minutes of Common Council, i., 122, 124 ; Gen. Ent., xxxii., 4; Col. Doc, iii., 2C8; Dun- 
lap, ii., App., cxxviii. ; Daly's Sketch, 30, 51. Delavall having succeeded Van Cortlandt as 
mayor on 14 October, 16TS, was commissioned judge in Admiralty in his place. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 2T2; Council Min., iii (ii.), ISO, ISl ; Col. M.SS., xxvii., 2, 5, G3, 64, 125, 
120,143; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxviii.,33S; Pemaquid Tapers, 0-14, 1.5, 16, 23-33; antc,310. 


Chap. VII. back to Xcw York, leaving Alricks in charge. On his re- 
turn to the cajjital, Billop was dismissed his military em- 

Deiaw'are plojment, f or " extravagant speeches in pubhc," at the Cus- 

^4 siptem tom-house. This action of Andros was approved by the 
1679. duke, who ordered the vacant commission of lieutenant in 

10 March. |.|^g regular service to be given to Salisbury ; and Billop re- 
tired to his plantation on Staten Island to nurse his anger 
against the governor.* 
1678. Notwithstanding his experience at ISTew York, Fenwick, 
on his return to Salem, persisted in acting as an independ- 
ent proprietor. lie was complained of to the Council, who 

20, May. directed " that, according to his parole, he forbear the as- 

casT''^ ^ suming any power of government to himself on the east 
side of Delaware River, or any where else in those parts," 

3 Jane. Tliis lie refuscd to do, alleging that he was answerable 

24 July, only to the king, and was again arrested and sent to Kew 

York. Ilis case was considered by the Council, which de- 

22 August, nied his appeal to the king, but referred him to the judg- 
ment of the Court of Assizes. This being adverse, the 

October, governor appointed six commissioners to act at Elsingburg, 
or Salem, in subordination to the court at Newcastle. The 

2s October. N^ewcastle court was also instructed to take care that the 
inhabitants of the east side of Delaware River " be not dis- 
turbed in their possession upon any pretence whatsoever by 
the said Major Fenwick, or others."t 

The governor's attention was quickly called to the rela- 
tions between ISTew York and New England. The commis- 
sioners of the three Eastern United Colonies, meeting at 

5 Sept. Hartford, complained to him of the " frivolous answers" 
which their agents, Ely and Wayte, had received from the 
Mohawks at their recent visit to Albany. Andros re- 

25 Sept. proved them for treating surreptitiously with the New 
andTNew York ludiaiis, but offered to give full liberty to talk with 
^OT?M^ the savages "through the government," and proposed a 

meeting at New Haven " to advise on the matter," if it be 

" necessary for the public good of these colonies." Leete 

s octoi)er. and AUyn, on belialf of Connecticut, thought the proposed 

• Col. Doc, iii., 276, 284, 350, 350; Col. MSS., xxvii.,9, 11 ; xxviii., 13; Council Min . iii. 
(ii.), 185; S. Hazard, 448-458; Newcastle Kee. ; Upland Kcc. ; Chalmers, i., 303, 875; An- 
derson's Col. Ch., ii., 395; ante^ 300. 

+ Council Min., iii. (ii.\ ISO ; S. Hazard, 452-459 ; N. J. Hist. Soc. Proc, ii., 12-21 : 'Col. 
MSB., XX., 145, 14C, 1 17, 14S, 140, ir)0, 155, 150; xxvii., 106 ; xxviii., 1 ; < jiV, 002, 300. 


meeting "will little avail," and that the conferences at A1-cuap.vii. 
bany, if not known to Andros, had been with the " privity 
and allowance" of Salisbury, his subordinate there.* 

In his letters to Secretary Blathwayt, Andros dwelt on 
the relations between the duke's province and its eastern 
neighbors, and insisted that troubles with the savages must 
be expected " so long as each petty colony hath, or as- ic Sept. 
sumes, absolute power of peace and warr, wliich cannot be 
managed by such popular governments ; as was evident by 
the late Indian Avars in New England." lie charged the 
Puritan colonies with making the New York Indians "lie, 12 October. 
if not insolent, which they never were afore ; nor did I piaints of 
ever make treaty with, but dealt with them as being uu- EngiTud!' 
der, or part of the Government." All his hope now was, 
" regulations and orders from the king, as the only means 
to keep us well in peace, and preserve or defend us of 
wars." These opinions had much effect in England, where 
measures for the reform of the IMassachusetts corporation v 
were at this moment under consideration.f 

Jacob Milborne, who, after his theological trouble in , 
1676, had left the province in November, 1677, now re- 
turned, on liis way to Boston, where his l)rother William 
was an Anabaptist preacher. Behaving himself " scandal- 
ously and reproachfully in relation to the Government," he 
was desired to attend the governor, " to give an account of 20 necpm. 

. Case of 

liis coming," as was the usual custom. But Milborne re- Jacob mu- 
f used, saying that " he had nothing to do with the Govern- 
or or Government." Mayor Delavall accordingly brought 
him before the Council, who, finding him to be " a trouble- 
some, and mutinous person," committed him to the sheriff. 2t Deccm. 
The next day Milborne was set at liberty, and soon after- 
ward returned to London, where he annoyed Andros.:}: 

• Gen. Ent., xxxii., 1 ; Col. Doc, iii., 273-27G ; Col. MSS., xxvii., IW, 155, lGil, IGT, ICS; 
Col. Kec. Conn., iii., 253, 259, 400, 401, 404, 405, 503 ; Mass. Rec, v., 209, 300 ; ante, 313. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 272, 270. Blathwayt, who had been secretary to Sir William Temple in 
Holland, rai:?ed himself from litimblo circumstances, and was "a very proper, handsome 
person, very dexterous in business :" Temple, ii., 140, 17C, 201 ; Kvelyn, ii., 279. 

X Col. Doc, iii., 277, 300, 301, 5s2, C21, OS ); Doc Hist., ii., 42 ; (Jol. MSS., xxvi., 139 ; 
Gen. Ent., xxxii., 19 ; ante^ 196, nnte^ 300. Andros's warrant of 27 December, 1G7S, di- 
rected Sheriff Ashton to take into lii.s custody Jacob Milborne, " for clamoring and writing 
scurrilously against the magistracy and government of this place, particularly at his going 
off in November, 1C77, and afore and since, without any complaint or known cause given, 
and now being arrived in the Beaver as a piissenger to Boston, and upon examination by 
and before the Governor concerning tlie above, showing uo cause or reason for his so doing, 
but giving further occasion by his comport." 

II.— X 


Chap. VII. The English claim of sovereignty over the Iroquois. 
~ which Andros had asserted in the spriuo; of 1677, roused 
" Louis. In the unsettled condition of European politics, 
the French king could not take a decided stand about his 
interests in America. Nevertheless, he wrote to Fronte- 
12 May. uac, " I aui wcll plcascd to learn that you have always 
.xmr:!.'^ maintained my authority in the different treaties you have 
made with the Iroquois and other Indian tribes ; — and in 
regard to the pretension of the English Major General 
[Andros], my intention is that you always contribute what- 
ever lies in your power to maintain peace between the two 
nations, without, however, allowing any thing to be under- 
taken against the countries under my dominion." In the 
15 May. Same spirit, Colbert instructed Duchesnau that French ex- 
Bay.^ plorations toward Hudson's Bay were advantageous for 
the king's service, " in order to be able to contest the title 
thereto of the English, who pretend to take possession of 
it, although it lies within the limits of the countries apper- 
taining to the Crown."* 

La Salle had meanwhile satisfied Colbert tliat a great 
trade might be established for the benefit of France in 
i-a Salle buffalo skins — called by the Spaniards "Cibola," after the 
'i"aiis. town of that name on the Gila — one of wliich he brought 
to Paris as a sample, and from which hats were soon made 
" as beautiful as those from beaver." The only difiiculty 
was that of transportation, for these skins were too bulky 
to be profitably carried in canoes through the Ottawa and 
tlie Saint Lawrence to Quebec. They must be shipped to 
Kochelle by a more direct route. La Salle therefore peti- 
tioned the king to let him " go and discover the mouth of 
the great River Meschasipi, on Avliich vessels might be built 
to come to France." As he had been at great expense in 
maintaining Fort Frontenac, he also asked the exclusive 
1? May. privilege of trading in buffalo skins. Colbert gladly coun- 
a'utiiorized tcrsigucd thc decree of Louis, which authorized La Salle 
thp*^mrd3- " to labour in the discovery of the western part of New 
France," and build necessary forts ; and likewise granted 
him the monopoly of the buffalo fur trade.f 

• Cul. Doc, i.x., 12S, 2CS, T04; La rotlicrle, i , 140, 143; Cliailevoix, ii., 200-20S; 01.1- 
mixon, i., 544, 54.5 ; niile^ 507. 
t Col. Doc, ix., 127, 795; Hennepin's Louisiana, 14, 15; Sparks's Ia Salle, 12, 13, 181- 



At the request of the Prince of Conty, who had be- chap. vu. 
friended him at court, La Salle took into his enterprise 7~7~ 
Henry de Tonty, a son of the famous Italian author of the ■'-^'''• 
system called " Tontine," and who had served in the 
French army until its reduction at the Peace of Nime- 
guen. Embarking at Rochelle with Tonty, and La Motte A July- 
as his lieutenant, and with abundant means of equipping embarkt 
vessels on the lakes. La Salle safely reached Quebec. IuI'l^"^^ 
His firrival startled the New York authorities, who heard 8'.\ugust. 
that he had brought over tive ships and two thousand 
men. Materials and artisans were quickly sent up to Fort 
Frontcnac, where the Franciscans Hennepin, Membrc, and 
Watteau now joined Ribourde and Buisset. An advanced 
party was dispatched to Michilimackinac, and one of La 
Salle's barks was sent with Tonty, La Motte, and Ilenne- xs ^*ov. 
pin to Niagara. Sailing along the north shore of Lake 
Ontario — which the Iroquois called '■'■ Shannadario''' — 
they entered the Niagara River on Saint Nicholas's Day, 6 oecem. 
when a Te Deum was sung, and thanks were offered to i-rcnch at 


God. The Senecas, who inhabited a little village on the ^"'^*"'' 
shore of the green, deep river below the cataract, wonder- 
ed at the " great wooden canoe" in which the strangers had 
come, and gave them three hundred delicious whitelish 
just taken from the lake. La Salle's vessel was secured ii Dcccm. 
from the floating ice ; the first mass was said by Hennepin; 
and a bark cabin was built near the present village of Lew- 19 Dcccm. 
iston, under the awful roar of the falls." 

In executing his combined scheme of discovery and 
trade. La Salle now made the decisive mistake which pro- La saiie'o 
duced most of the troubles he afterward suffered, and in- his'ioute. 
fluenced, perhaps unhappily, the colonization of Western 
New France. A fort or magazine at Niagara was, of 
course, necessary. But the exploration of the Mississippi 
down to its mouth would have been most readily effected 
by descending the Alleghany from its near head-waters, 
and then the Ohio, which it was long ago known emptied 

183; Louisiana Hist. Coll.. i., 35, 0(> ; Shea's Discover)-, 18, SS ; ante, 308. The account in 
Charlevoix, il., 265, is full of errors. 

* Hennepin's Louisiana, 15-30 ; Nouvelle Decouverte, Gii-77 ; Xew Discovery. 40-51, C3 ; 
Col. MSS., xxvii., 177, 178 ; SlieVs Discovery, SO, 90 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 219-230 ; Louisi- 
ana Hist. Coll., i., 52,53, 79, 106; CUailevoix, iii.,3Sl, 3S5; Sparkg's La Salle, 13-19, 203, 
2t;4; anfc, i., C12; ii.,299. 


Chap. VII. into the Great River. Instead of this, La Salle adopted 
~~Jolliet's roundabout plan, and resolved to build a vessel 
' above Xiagara, to traverse the upper lakes, and bring back 
thither cargoes of furs from the neighborhood of Chicago.* 
2T Dec. To quiet the jealousy of the savages, La Motte and 
and Hen- Heunepiu, with seven men, visited the Senecas. After five 
among the dajs' uiarcli over the snow and through forests, they reach- 
ed the great village of " Totiakto," or " Tegarondies."t 
1679. On ISTew-year's day Hennepin preached in the bark chapel 
1 jan'y. ^£ ^|-^g Jesuits in presence of the fathers Garnier and Eaf- 
conference foix. A conforenco was then held with the erreat Seneca 

wiUi the 


Council, which, in its gravity, resembled the Venetian Sen- 
ate. Before any thing was said, La Motte declared that 
he would enter into no particulars in presence of Garnier, 
" whom he suspected." The Jesuit was ordered to with- 
draw, and Hennepin went out at the same time, " to bear 
part of the affront put upon him." After handsome pres- 
ents, the Senecas were told that the French intended to 
build "a great wooden canoe" above the falls, by means 
of which they could be supplied with European commodi- 
ties cheaper than by Boston and IS^ew York. A blacksmith 
and a gunsmith would also be settled at the mouth of the 
2Jau'7. Niagara Eiver. The Senecas replied, apparently approv- 
ing the French pi-oposals. But they really had a greater 
inclination for the Dutch and English, who afforded them 
European goods at cheaper rates. After witnessing the 
torture of a prisoner, whom one of the Seneca war-parties 
had taken " toM'ards Virginia," La Motte and Hennepin re- 
14 jan'y. ti'accd their way through the woods to the Niagara River.:}: 
2ojan'y. La Mottc HOW returned to Canada, and soon afterward 
Niagara.' La Sallc's chccrf ul voice was heard again at Niagara. He 

* Ilennepm's Louisiana, 2 ; Nouvclle Decouverte, 25 ; Col. Doc, ix.,GC, S0,S1,TS9; Shea's 
Discovery, xx.xv., xxxvi. ; ante, 163, 241. 

t Nouvclle Decouvcrto, SI ; New Diacoveo', 53, and Map ; Pownall's Map of 177C. La 
Jlontan, i., 101, calls the village "Thegaronliies." I think it inus?t be another name for 
the chief Seneca village of Todehaeckto or Totiakto, or Conception, near Mcndon, in Monroe 
County; although Jlr. Marshall refers it to Gannagaro, or Saint J.ames, near Victor, in On- 
tario County: ace N. Y.IL S. Coll , ii. (ii), ICO, ir,2, 180,191; Marehall's "Niagara Fron- 
tier,"14; Col. Doc, ix., 334, 304-307; Col. MSS.. xxxv., 160; anfe, 179. 

t Hennepin's Loui-"iana, 31—10; Nouvclle DiVouvertc, 73-92; New Discovery, 29-Cl ; 
Lou. Hist. Coll., i , 197-199. With his constitutional tendency to falsehood, Hennepin rep- 
resents the Falls of Niagara to be '•'more than five hundred feet," and ".above six hundred 
foot high." The exaggeration ig copied in the spurious work attributed to Tonty, in N. V. 
H. S. Coll., ii., 228. The Jesuit Relation of 104S, p. 16, described it, thirty years before, ns 
"WJic chetitc. d'canx (rune eff'roijable haxUau ." The actual averiige height of the cataract 
is one hundred and sixty feet. 



had come from Fort Frontenac in one of his barks with chap. '/ii. 
supplies for his projected vessel on Lake Erie, but he had ~" 
been wrecked by his pilots within two leagues of the mouth ■'■^ ^^• 
of the river, at a place which his sailors named the " Mad 
Cape." On his way La Salle revisited the Senecas, and 
gained them so that they consented to his designs. Yet 
''certain persons'' made it their business to thwart him, 
and filled the savages with such jealousy of a fort, that La 
Salle was obliged to content himself with " a habitation 
encompassed with palisades." With a fine harbor and ex- Fort 
cellent fishing, it commanded the New York side of the ^°°'^* 
Niagara River mouth, and M'as named Fort Conty. La 
Salle then went two leagues above the cataract, and laid 
out a dock in which to bnild his vessel, uj)on a stream flow- 22 jan'y. 
ing into the river on its west side, now known as Cayuga 
Creek. The keel was quickly laid by La Salle, who, leav-26jan'y. 
ing Tonty in command, hurried back over the snow to Fort vessel laid 
Frontenac. During the rest of the winter, which was not agara. 
half as severe as that in Canada, bark cabins were built by 
Mahican savages who had accompanied Hennepin. One of 
these was used as a chapel, in which, for the first time on chapei. 
the western border of New York, Gregorian music was 
given by practiced European tenors, with the tremendous 
bass of Niagara." 

The Senecas, who had faithfully reported La Salle's Knmity of 
movements to Andros, now refused to sell corn to thecas."" 
French, and threatened to burn their little ship in her 
dock. This quickened Canadian work ; and, under Llen- 
nepin's blessing, the singing of ^''Te Deuiri Laudamus^'' May. 
and the firing of guns, the first European vessel built in 
Western New York was launched on the upper Niagara. Launch of 
It could carry sixty tons, and it was named the " (Jpif. *''^ ^" "^ 
fin," to compliment Frontenac, whose armorial supporters 
were two griffins. Amazed to see this brigantine afloat, 
the savages pronounced its French builders " Otkon," 
which meant, in their tongue, most j»?cw^e^/'a^/wj7 wits. 
Pictorially they described the vessel as " a moving fort." 

* Hennepin's Louisiana, 25, 31, 32, 41, 42; Xouvelle Dccouvcrte, 93-96 ; New Discovery, 
.•JO, 61-63; Lou. IIiBt. Coll., i., ins ; N. Y. IL S. Coll., ii., 230; Col. Doc, iii., .'510; v., 633; 
ix.,33.5, 3S1, 38-2; Doc. Hist., iii., 726 ; Marshall's Niagara Frontier, 2S, 29 ; Rancroft, iii., 
163 ; Sparks's La Salle, 20, 21, 22 ; ante, 163, 164. The name of La Salle is commemorated 
in that of the village at the mouth of the Cayuga Creek, in the County of Niagara ; and the 
docic which he built there is still known as " the old sliip-yard." 


cuAr. VII. Hennepin now hastened to Cataracouy to bring some of 

his Franciscan brethren ; and Riboiu'de, Membre, and "Wat- 

2T Ma "^ ' ^^^^^ accompanied him to Niagara. La Salle followed them 

i.a Salle ii^ a canoe along the southern shore of Ontario. On his 

among the •-> 

su.iecus. -^y-iy lie visited the Seneca villages again, where he met 
Garnier and Raffeix, and learned that the Miamis and Fa- 
ther Allouez were endeavoring to rouse the Iroquois to war 
with the Illinois. This purpose was checked by the timely 
3 July. presents of La Salle. On reaching the Niagara River, he 
stationed the Father Melithon Watteau at the magazine 
there. Meanwhile the Griffin — completely equipped, and 
armed with five small guns — had been towed up to the 
outlet of "the beautiful Lake Erie," where the savages 
"cried several times Ga}ino?'07i, to signify their admiration." 
News of the event was quickly sent by them to Andros at 
7 August. New York. At length, all things being ready. La Salle 
embaiks weut Oil board with Hennepin, Ribourde, and Membru, and 
Brief or* thirty others ; and the Griffin set sail mth a favorable wind 
conty. ^^^ Lake Erie, which was now named " Conty," in honor of 
the great French subject who had befriended the enter- 
prise at Paris.* 
25 April. Louis iiow dircctcd Frontenac again to " constantly main- 
tain peace, friendship, and good correspondence with the 
English and Dutch, without, however, foregoing any of the 
rights and advantages appertaining either to my crown or 
c Novem. mv subiccts ill that country." In liis reply, the governor 

Frontenac «/ J >/ i «/ 7 <r> 

complains complaiiicd of the intrigues of Andros among the Iroquois 
to make them " break" with the French, and of his efforts 
to thwart La Salle. At the same time, he urged that a 
French garrison should be maintained at Chambly, through 
which almost all the communication was carried on be- 
tween Canada and the English colonies. As there were 
now rumors of fresh hostilities in Europe, Duchesnau, the 

14 Nov. intendant, sent an interesting dispatch to Seignelay, who 
had succeeded Colbert, his father, in the ministry of the 
colonies, showing that a war with New York and New En- 
gland would be to the ad\antagc of Canada.f 

* Hennepin' .s Louisiana, 43— ''0; XouvelleDJcouverte, 97-121 ; New Discovery, C3-7S, 314; 
Lou. Hist. (JoIl.,i., 199,200; I>a Potlieiic, ii., 13G ; Col. Doc, iii., 27S; ix.,llS, 107,204,214, 
210, 3S2; Shea's Di.-covery, 09, 90, 91, 154; Missions, 411, 412; N. Y. II. S. Coll., ii., 228- 
231 ; Spaik.t's 1a Salle, 22-20; Hancrnft, iii., 1C4 ; Hist. Mnfj., v., 198. 

t Col. Doc., i.\., 12S-139, 149, 411, 795; Martin's l.ouis XIV., i., lil, ■i?0; ii.vl. 



The Jesuit missionaries among the Iroquois were now chap. vii. 
somewhat changed. Bruyas, to whom Andros had always ^ 
been cinl, left Tionnontoguen, where he was replaced by jesuitg 
the Father Vaillant de Gueslis, and took charge of the Res- J™°^„i',''" 
idence at the Sault Saint Louis, in place of Fremin, who 
returned to France. James de Lamberville remained at 
Caghnawaga, Millet continued in charge of the Oneida 
mission. John de Lamberville, the superior of the Iro- 
quois missions, labored at Onondaga. Carheil ministered 
quietly to the Cayugas. Pierron having left the Senecas, 
Garnier and Raffeix remained in charge of all the villages 
of that nation. At this period the " Eelations" close, and 
we miss hereafter their interesting details." 

The Governor of Maryland had meanwhile written to 
Xew York that '' strange Indians" had again done mischief 
along the Susquehanna ; and Sir Edmund had assured him 16TS. 
tliat the Senecas and Mohawks, " having been always very ^^iTefp" n- 
good and faithfuU to this Government," could not have '^^^^^f^ ,;;^\\'' 
been the offenders. Colonel Herbert Jeffreys, the acting i^p'l'vir- 

^ ' . . '^ ginia. 

governor of Virginia, also complained of the mischiefs 
done to that colony and Maryland by " unknown Indians," 
in breach of Coursey's treaty ; and Andros sent the two In- 
dian interpreters, Arnout and Daniel, in the depth of win- 
ter, to invite the Iroquois to Albany. Swerise, one of the 1670. 
sachems of the Oneidas, accordingly came there, and ex- JroquoiJat 
cused his nation by laying the blame on the people of '^"^""-''• 
Schenectady, who, they said, had misrepresented the de- 
signs of the English. Some captives were restored, and 
Andros received the thanks of Virginia and Maryland. 
A few months afterward the Oneidas again visited Al-24Muy. 
bany, and Swerise, as their spokesman, declared to Sir 
Edmund's commissioners, " Corlaer governs the whole land "Coiiucr 
from New York to Albany, and from thence to the Sene- thn whoic 
ca's land ; we, who are his subjects, shall faithfully keep " 
the covenant chain." * * * * "Corkers limits, as we 
have said, stretch so far even to Jacoh my Friend, or Jacob 
Young." But, as the Onondagas and Cayugas claimed the 
land lying on the Susquehanna River by right of conquest 

* Col. Doc, iv., COT ; ix., 120, 130, ITl, 104, '233, 720, 702, 83S: Kel., 1673-9. 140, 204, 2S3 ; 
nouniol'a Missions, ii., 196, 197, 369 ; Shell's Jlissions, 274, 277, 2S6, 2S9, 293, 294 ; rtii/f, 299, 
307. Colden, i., 41, errs in statinR in 1679 there were French priests among the Onei- 
das, Onondngns, and Cayugas only, and none among the Mohawks and Senecas. 


Chap. VII. f rom tliG Aiiclastes or Conestogas, tliey now transferred it 

to the government of New York " to rule over it," so that 

* it conld not be sold " without Corker's order."^- 

Virginia, being still troubled, sent Colonels William Ken- 
dall and Southley Littleton to confer with the New York 
01 July. Indians. They were courteously received by Andros and 
s August, his Council, and then went up to Albany, wliere Salisbury 
.igents'ili'^ was instructed to aid them all he could. The Iroquois 
^nd^Ai-"' were accordingly summoned to a conference ; but they 
^''^^' were delayed by the small-pox, which desolated their vil- 
lages, and Littleton died at Albany before the savages ar- 
rived. Kendall, however, renewed a peace with the Onei- 
5Novem. das, Mohawks, and Senecas. The Onondagas came later, 
and Kendall addressed them as he had done their breth- 
ren. Yet, in spite of all promises, the young Iroquois 
braves could not be restrained from new incursions to- 
ward the South. t 
August. By advice of his Council, Andros meanwhile visited 
prmaquld. Pcmaquid to " take order about the settlement of planters 
or inhabitants, trade, and all other matters." On his re- 
turn to the metropolis, after attending to local affairs, and 
the autumn session of the Court of Assizes, the governor 
October, wcut up to Albany, where Iroquois complications and the 
'^^^' regulation of the fi-ontier towns of the province demanded 
his personal presence.:}: 
13 septcm. In the autumn of this year two Dutch " Labadists," Jas- 
and siuy- per Daiikcrs and Peter Sluyter, came from Wiewerd, in 
York. *^^ Friesland, to view the New World, and select a place to es- 
tablish a colony of their religious community. These Lab- 
Labadi3t3. adists wd'c disciplcs of Jean de Labadie, a French enthu- 
siast, holding the doctrines of the Reformed Dutch Church, 
but adopting other opinions and practices not recognized 
by that Church. The travelers were shrewd and observ- 
ing men, and the narrative of their jom'ney is an interest- 

• Col. Doc., iii., 271, 277, 278, 322, 417 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 182 ; Col. MSS., xxriii., 2 ; 
Coldcn, i., 38-42, 55; first edit., 32-42, C4; Hoc., i., 201 ; Hennepin, Nour. Dec, 90; 
dialracr.", i., 330, 351 ; ante, 102, 287, 309. Jacob Young was an Indian interpreter who 
lived at tlic licad of the Chesapealce Bay, back of Newcastle: Col. Doc, iii., 322,323,344; 
S. Hazard, Ann.. 47.3. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 120, 131 ; Col. MSS., xxviii., 120-122, 125, 131 ; Colden, i., 42, 43, 44; fnvt 
ed., 42-4S. Neither ISevcrley nor Burk notice this mission from Virginia. 

t Council Min.. iii. (ii.), ISO; remaquid Papers, 32, 33; Col. Doc, iii., 272; Col. M?S., 
xxviii., 2, 123, 131-1.34; R I. Kcc,iii., 54; Arnold, i, 455; Dankcrs and Sluytcr's Journ., 
111,107,253; nnte^SVX 


ing contemporaneous account of the condition of New cn.vp. vir. 
York and its neighborliood.* ,^ 

The four Dutch ministers in the province were now call- ' 
ed on to perform a very important office. Before the ar- 
rival of Van Gaasbeeck, the churcli at Kingston had been 
supplied by Petrus Tesschenmaeker, a young " Proponent," Pctms 
or licensed Bachelor in Divinity, who had recently been maeker" 
graduated from the University of Utrecht, and had come 
from Guiana to New York in the spring of 1678. The 
following autumn Tesschenmaeker went to Newcastle, 
where the congregation called him to be their minister, al- 
though he had never been ordained. To remedy tliis, the 
delegates from that church asked the provincial Dutch 
clergymen to form themselves into a " Classis" and ordain 
the candidate, without obliging him to go to Holland for 
lioly orders. This was a novel Cjuestion. Up to this time 
the Classis of Amsterdam alone had sent over Dutch min- 
isters to New York, and those now settled there did not as- 
sume the power of ordaining others, Andros, wlio was 
anxious to have a Dutch clergyman settled on the Dela- 
ware, relieved the New York domines from responsibility 
by an official direction to Yan Nieuwenhuysen, and " any so scptcm. 
three or more of the Ministers or Pastors within this Gov- re^tauie'" 
emment," to examine Tesschemnaeker, and, if they sliould tiMTo"'^' 
find him qualified, to ordain him " into the ministry of the maeker"' 
Protestant Reformed Church." Accordingly, the Dutcli 
clergymen, Schaats of Albany, Yan Nieuwenhuysen of New "October. 

~^ ■ ' ^ The Dutch 

York, Yan Zuuren of Long Island, and Yan Gaasbeeck of ministers 
Esopus, met at New York, with their elders ; formed them- Tesschen- 
selves into a Classis ; and, after examining Tesschenmaeker, 
ordained him as a minister of the Gospel, according to the 
ritual of the Peformed Dutch Church. None of the other 
provincial clergymen assisted ; neither the English chap- 
lain "Wolley, nor the Lutherans Arensius and Lokenius, nor 
the Presbyterians on Long Island. It was wholly a Classis 
of the Reformed Church of Holland — the first ever held in 
America — and its proceedings, which had been originated 
by the Episcopalian governor of New York, were approved 

* The Journal of Dankere and Sluyter, in 16T9 and ICSO, was published in 1SG7 by the 
Long Island Historical Society, under the supervision of Mr. Henry C. Murphy, who procured 
the original manuscript in Holland, and translated and annotated this precious memorial 
■with excellent scholarship. 



CuAr. VII 


17 Decern. 


8 Jan'y. 
fined for 

17 Jan'y. 
20 Jan'y. 
New regu- 
about bolt- 
ing and ex- 

24 Jan'y. 
ers not to 
tan hidei. 

by the supreme ecclesiastical judicature at Amsterdam 
charged with the affairs of colonial Dutch churches.* 

The law of New York was now settled on an important 
point. Twenty-one metropolitan coopers signed an agree- 
ment to charge certain prices for their labor ; and that, if 
any of them should sell his work under their own arbitrary 
prices, he should be lined fifty shillings " for the use of the 
poor." For this agreement the conspiring laborers were 
summoned before the governor and council, and Mayor 
Eombouts, wdio adjudged them guilty of an unlawful com- 
bination, and sentenced each signer to pay a fine of fifty 
shillings " to the church, or pious uses." This decision 
was founded on the laws of England, wliich declared such 
confederating modern " strikers" to be " infamous," and 
punished them by fine and imprisonment.f 

The previous legislation in regard to the bolting and in- 
spection of flour having been ineffectual, and complaints 
being made of the loss which trade suffered, it was ordered 
in council that for the future no mills be allowed to bolt, 
nor flour to be packed for exportation, but at the city of 
New York; and that all bolting or exporting that com- 
modity must be freemen or burghers. This new regula- 
tion was strictly enforced. For fourteen years the me- 
tropolis enjoyed a monopoly which helped her inevitable 
growth, and especially advantaged her coopers, who had just 
been punished for " striking." But her slioemakers were 
forbidden to tan hides ; and it was proposed to require all 
leather to be imported. Happily, this restriction — intend- 
ed to benefit the merchant at the exi^ense of the producer 
— was not carried into effect.:}: 

An important measure in regard to Indian slaves was 
now adopted. It had been the practice to discriminate be- 

* Corr. Class. Amst., Letters of 25 October, 1079, 2 April, ICSO ; Dankers and Sluyter's 
Jour., Ill, 222 ; Col. MSS., xxviii., 132; Gen. Ent., xxxii., 61 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 5S3, 7iote; 
Murpby's Selyns, 82, 101 ; Demarest'a Hist. Kef. D. C., 183, ISl ; N. Y. Christ. Int., 19 Oct., 
1805; Hist. Mag., Nov., 1S65. Laureutius van Gaasbeeck came to Kingston as the success- 
or of Blom in September, 107S, at the request of the elders and deacons of tlie Dutcli Church 
there, with the approbation of Androa, and under the authority of the Classis of Amster- 
dam : Coy. CI. Amst., MSS. ; O'Call., ii., 432. Van Gaasbeeck died in February, 1080, and 
was succeeded by Johannes Weecksteen, from llailaem, in ICSl : Col. MS., xxi.x., 205 ; Doc. 
Hist., iii., 583 ; Cor. CI. Amst. ; Dankers and Sluyter's Journal, 270 ; Ilist. Mag. (ii.), i., 3S?y. 

t Col. MSS., xxi.x., 2, 3, 19 ; Val. .AI;in., 18.50, 425, 420 ; Stat\ites 2 and 3 Kdw. VI., cup. 15, 
22 and 23 Cliarles II., cap. 19 ; Saint Paul's I'.piritlc to Timothy 1, iii., 3, and to Titus, 1., 7. 

t Col. MSS., xxix., 2, 19, 29, 32,39, 84, 187; Minutes of Com. Council, i., 143 ; Col. Doc., 
Iii., 315, 338, 351, 797 ; v., 57, 58; Dankers and Sluyter's Jour., 35+-357 ; Dunlap, ii., App., 
cxxvi. ; ante, 318. 


tween the free natives of New York and others, especially cuap. vir. 
those of the Spanish West Indies, many of whom were 
held in bondage. It was now resolved in council that all^pg^gn,* 
Indians are free and not slaves, and can not be forced to 
be servants, unless those formerly brought from the Bay of 
Campeachy or other foreign parts. This was followed by a 
formal order " That all Indians here have always been and 1680. 
are free, and not slaves, except such as have been formerly in,pyrted 
brought from the bay or other foreign parts. But if any ^i" veTde- 
shall be brought hereafter into the government, within the "^""""^ ^'■^^• 
space of six months, they are to be disposed of, as soon as 
may be, out of the government. But after the ex})iration 
of the said six months, all that shall be brought here from 
those parts and landed, to be as other free Indians."* 

The Dutch Church in the fort had now become too 
small to accommodate its congregation, and its present 
condition was not convenient either for the people or for 
the government. At the suggestion of Andros, a meeting 30 June, 
was held to consider the best means to build a new one, meptl^ior 
which was attended by several members of the council and n"w'ni?tch 
other leading citizens, besides Domine van Kieuwenhuy- ^''"'^*^''" 
sen and the Episcopalian chaplain Wolley. It was deter- 
mined, by a vote of ten to three, to raise money by " free 
will or gift," and not by a public tax ; but, if that should 
fail, to appeal to the governor. It was agreed tliat the 
new church should be a quarter larger than that in the 
fort, which was fifty-four feet wide. Andros, warmly ap- 
proving the project, directed that the surplus moneys raised 
under his letter of August, 1678, for the redemption of the 
captives in Turkey, should be applied toward the new 
church, and contributed fifty pounds himself. The mayor 
and aldermen also appropriated certain fines, and a plot of 
ground was selected on M'hicli to build the church as soon 
as possible.f 

Wolley, the duke's Episcopalian chaplain, soon after- 
ward went home to seek preferment in England, with a 

• Col. MSS., xxviii., IGl, 173 ; xxix., SG ; Min. of N. Y. Com. Council, i., 142 ; Dunlap, ii., 
App., cxxix. ; ante, 140. Notwithstanding tliis order, foreign Indians were fur a long time 
held as slaves in New York, as tlicy were in Massachusetts and other English dependencies. 

t Doc Hist., iii., 244, 2G5 ; Col. MSS., xxviii., 2C, 27; xxix., 141; Gen. ICnt., xxxii., 05; 
Col. Doc, iii., 315, 41!), 717 ; Letter of Selyns to Classis, 2S October, 1CS2 ; an/c, 319. Dr. 
De Witt, in his sermon (.Vugu^f, 1S56, p. 20), erroneously places " the first steps" in 1GS7: 
see Uecords of the Collegiate Dutch Church, Liber A., p. 101, WX 


cuAP. vn. certificate from Aiidros that he had " comported himself mi- 
blameable in his life and conversation."" After his return 
15 July. " Wolley prepared " A two years' Journal in New York," 
mifey're- ^^*^-' whicli Avas published in London in 1701. Encumbered 
i-u°!and ^^'^^^^ pedantry, and fuller of detail about the native savages 
than the European colonists, Wolley's Journal, nevertheless, 
gives valuable information concerning the province in 1680. 
In respect to the metropolis, where he lived for two years, 
the lately returned chaplain declared New York to be " a 
place of as sweet and agreeable air as ever I breathed in, 
and the inhabitants, both English and Dutch, very civil and 
courteous, as I may speak by experience, amongst whom I 
have often wished myself and family, to whose tables I 
was frequently invited, and always concluded with a gen- 
erous bottle of Madeira."''^ 

1679. The Duke of York's customs' regulations had mean- 
while proved so annoying to East Jersey, that its Assembly 

s April, passed an act to indemnify any vessel which, coming into 
twten New that proviucc by way of Sandy Hook, and entering and 
New jer- clearing at Elizabethtown, might be seized by the govern- 
^^' ment of New York. Carteret accordingly proclaimed that 

all bottoms coming to East Jersey should be free. Upon 
this, one Mr. Hooper ordered a ketch from Barbadoes to 
go thither ; but Andros made her enter and pay duties in 
New York before he would allow lier to proceed to Jersey 
and land her cargo of rum. Sir Edmund also sent Collector 
Dyer to England to answer any complaints. The Dnke of 
York being absent in Flanders, Secretary Werden appears 
to have given directions to Dyer, with which he returned 
to New York in the following December. Andros soon 
afterward went over to Staten Island, and invited Carte- 
ret to meet him there, " to negotiate in peace and friend- 

1680. ship." The Jersey governor liaving declined this over- 
Anlfro** *^^'^' ^^'' Edmund sent him copies of Charles's patent to 
notifies James, and of the duke's commission to himself ; and he 

Carteret. ' . . ..,..,, 

directed Carteret to forbear exercising " any jurisdiction" 

• Gen. Knt:, xxxii., 93, 94 ; Hiet. Map., i., 371 ; ante, 318. A reprint of Wolley's Journal 
was published by W. Gowans (who mipprints the name " Wooley") in ISGO. It does not equal 
in interest the contemporaneous observations of Oankcrs and Sluyter; but, in connection 
with that book, and Secretary Nicolls's account in Scot's " Model" (128-14-t), it leaves little 
unknown about Now York and New Jersey in 1C80. I roRret tliat the limits of this vohinio 
do not allow me to quote some interesting descriptions of the metropolis, and of Esopus, Al- 
bany, and Long Island, their people, magistrates, and others. 


ill any part of the territory thus granted by the king to the cdap. vii. 
duke, without due authority recorded in New York. More- 
over, Andros added, " it being necessary for the king's serv- ^ndiw 
ice, and welfare of his Majesty's subjects li\'ing or trading {^eSf 
in these parts, tliat beacons for land or sea marks for ship- ^^ la/dy' 
ping sailing in and out, and a fortification, be erected at ^^°°^' 
Sandy Point, I have resolved it accordingly ; — but, having 
due regard to all rights or proprieties of land or soil, shall 
be ready to pay or give just satisfaction."* 

This letter made a hubbub at Elizabeth town. After ad- 
vising with his council, Carteret informed Andros that if 20 March. 
he attempted to build a fort at Sandy Hook he would be reply to 
resisted until the proprietor's pleasure be known, "• he hav- 
ing reserved that for a fortification, when the king shall 
command it." In the mean time. Sir Edmund had sent is Marcii. 
Secretary Nicolls with a proclamation forbidding Carteret piociam'a- 
froni exercising any jurisdiction within the duke's prov- 
ince, and commanding all persons to submit " to the king's 
lawful authority" as established in New York. On receiv- 
ing tliis, Carteret protested, and appealed to the king, " who 29 Marciu 
only can determine this matter."t 

Andros soon went over to New Jereey. The rumor of 
his comii]g went before him, and Carteret gathered a lai'ge 
force to oppose the Governor of New York. But, as he 
came without soldiers, Andros was invited ashore with his t Apni. 
attendants, and went up to Carteret's house. Patents and EUzabetu- 
commissions were produced on each side, and long argu- 
ments followed, without result. After dinner, Carteret ac- 
companied Sir Edmund Andros back to liis sloop. Three 
weeks afterward, having tried various devices. Governor so Apni. 
Andros ordered some soldiers to Elizabethto\m, who broke 
open Carteret's house in the dead of night ; " hailed" him 
out of his bed ; and brought him a naked pnsoner to 

* Learning and Spiccr, 112-13T, 6T3; Col. MSS., xxix., 55; Col. Doc, iii., 268, 392 ; iv., 
3S2; Warr., Ord., Paases, iii., G3, 254; Chalmer?, Ann., i., CIS; Index N. J. Col. Doc., T; 
Whitehead's K. J., 70, T7-79, 82 ; Hatfield's Eliz., ISO, 190; Evelyn, ii., 1S6; Dankore and 
Sluyter, 19C, 2r)5, 2G1, 347 ; ante, 2G1-270, 303, 305, 312. It is stated, in CoUins's Pecraso, 
iv., 212 (2d ed., 1741), that the king's vice-chamherlain, Sir George Carteret, died on the 
13th of January, 1G79, in the eightieth year of his age. There seem to be some writers who 
do not yet apprehend that the "-oW f<tijle" prevailed in England nntil 1753; so that the 
English year 1G79 ended on 24 March, IGSO, " new style," and that consequently Sir George 
Carteret died 13 January, 16S0, according to our pror^ent reckoning. 

t Gen. Ent., xxxii., 72, 73 ; Col. MSS., xxix., C1-G4, 68, 69 ; Min. of X. V. Common Conn- 
cil, i., 137, 138; Le.iming and Spiccr, G74-Gi7; Whitehead, 71,72; Newark Town Kec.,TS; 
Dankers and Sluyter, 277, 347. 



Chap. VII. 


1 May. 

Oartei'et a 
prisoner in 
New York. 
2T May. 
U8 May. 

tried and 

2 June. 
again in 

11 June. 
!t June. 
'i'.'i J uly. 

II July. 

jS'ew York. There, ill and forlorn, Carteret was committed 
to the custody of Sheriff CoUyer, on a charge of unlawful- 
ly assuming jurisdiction over the king's subjects. A spe- 
cial Court of Assizes was ordered ; before which Carteret 
was arraigned for trial, on an indictment for riotously pre- 
suming " to exercise jurisdiction and government over his 
Majesty's subjects within the bounds of his Majesty's letters 
Patents granted to His Eoyal Highness." Sir Edmund 
was conducted by trumpeters to the tribunal, over which 
he presided en a higher seat than usual. Carteret protest- 
ed against the jurisdiction of the New York court. Being 
overruled, he averred his conduct as Governor of New Jer- 
sey " to be legal, and by virtue of power derived from the 
King." His commission and other documents were sub- 
mitted to the jury, which brought in a verdict of " Not 
Guilty." This did not satisfy Andros, who sent the jurors 
out twice and thrice ; each time with new charges.* At 
length a verdict of acquittal was recorded. Nevertheless, 
Carteret was obliged to give security that, if he went to 
New Jersey, he would not "assume any authority or juris- 
diction there, civil or military."f 

Sir Edmund, accompanied by Lady Andros, now escort- 
ed Carteret back to Elizabethtown with great pomp, and 
endeavored to induce the Assembly to confirm his proceed- 
ings, and adopt the Duke's Laws, in force in New Y'ork, 
with such amendments as might be desirable. The Jersey 
Assembly, howevei*, adhered to their own laws, wliicli they 
presented to Andros for his approval. Y"et the authority 
of the Governor of New Y''ork was not disputed, and civil 
and military ofiicers were commissioned by him to act in 
Newark, Elizabethtown, Woodbridge, Burlington, and else- 
where. An account of these transactions was sent by the 
deposed governor to Lady Carteret ; and Bollen, who was 
now in London, was desired to move the Commissioners of 
Customs and others in favor of East Jersey, and watch 
Dyer, who was intending to return to England, " that he 

* It waa said that "one Jackson, a jutyman, occasionally ppcaking to the Governor, said 
that he hoped they had the same privileges na the other Plantations. The Governor an- 
swered that their privileges hung on a slender thread, and that he was chidden for giving 
them such liberties." Rut Andros afterward denied that he "ever spoke any such words;" 
and NicoUs and Dyer, who were present in court all the time, heard nothing from the gov- 
ernor to any such purpose: ('o\. Doc, iii., ii\f>. 

t Learning and Spicer, C78-GS4; Gen. Knt., xxxii., 77, 78 ; Col. MS?., xxix., 78, 93, lOC- 
104; Whitehead, 73, 71; Uankcn and Sluytcr, 317-351. 


;wear i 

doth not swear and romance against ns, as he did the time chap, vir 

The spring of this year was marked by an attempt of 
Connecticut to inchide Fisher s Ishmd witliin her jurisdic- 
tion. Andros at once wrote to Leete that the island had 20 March. 
been granted by Nicolls to the late Governor Winthrop, isTand? 
and that any proceedings " intrenching" on the authority 
of New York must be forborne, " to prevent greater incon- 
veniences." The Connecticut court resolved that they 20 May. 
would exercise government over the island, and prohibited 
obedience to Sir Edmund. This bluster ended the nuitter. 
The son of Winthrop was obliged to recognize the juris- 24 June. 
diction of New York, under which the island has ever since 
remained without question.f 

The afifairs of Pemaquid requiring attention, Knapton, 2c June, 
the late commander, and John West, were commissioned as anTwe^t 
special justices of the peace, and Henry Jocelj^n and others quid?™''' 
appointed a Court of Sessions. The commissioners were 
also directed to visit Fisher's Island, Martha's Vineyard, 
and Nantucket, and see that proper officers were establish- 
ed there. On their return, Knapton and West reported u septem. 
their proceedings ; and Ensign Thomas Sharpe, the pres- 
ent commander at Pemaquid, and the justices there, w^ere 
ordered to inform the Eastern savages that the governor 15 septem. 
had forbidden the Mohawks to make incursions, and that 
there must be no more "warring" between the Indians 
subject to New York.:j: 

At the Court of Assizes this autumn, besides the usual c October. 
members, justices attended from New Jersey, Nantucket, Assizes, 
and Pemaquid. There were thirty members present, in- 
cluding Sir Edmund Andros, " who was a good lawyer." 
John West was now appointed clerk of the court, as well 

* Learning and Spiner, CS0-CS5; Col. M>S., xxix., 08-ini, lOC-124, 127, 144, 153, 154, 16!), 
175,179, 184, 194, 199; Gen. Knt., xxxii., 94, 95, 97; Whitehead, 74, 75; NewavlcTown IJcc., 
79 ; Danltci-3 and Sluyter, 340, 351. It appears that when Carteret was seized at Klizabctli- 
town,BolIeu and Vauqiiellen secured his most important papers, and hastened to England, 
the foi-mer by way of Boston, and the latter by Maryland : Dankers and Sluyter, 349 ; Hat- 
field, 193. 

t Gen. Ent., xxxii., 75, 90 ; Col. MS3., xxi.x., 130 ; Pemaciuid Papers, 35 ; Col. Rec. Conn., 
iii.,C4, 2S3; Pankera and Sluyter, 370; Trumbull, i., 375; Thompson, i., 3S9, 390; N. Y. 
Revised Statutes, iii., 2; ante, 1.39. 

t Gen. Knt., xxxii., 92, 93; Col. MSS., xxix., 99, 130, 137, 213; Ord., Warr., etc., xxxiij^, 
1-4; Pemariuid Papers, 33-44; Nantucket Pap , 110-123. West had been a lawyer at New 
York, deputy clerk of the Mayor's Court, and clerk of Sessions on Long Uland, and had re- 
turned from i:ngl:ind with Andros in 1078 : C. AVolley, 5, 70; ante, 319. 


cuAr. VII. as clerk of the council, and also provincial secretary in 
~~ place of Nicolls, who was about goins; to Enojland. At 

SNovera* ^^^^ Tcqucst of tlic metropolitan mayor and aldermen. West 
was soon afterward appointed clerk of the City and Coun- 
ty of New York.* 

As soon as the Court of Assizes adjourned, Sir Edmund 
hastened to Boston, by invitation of Lord Culpepper, the 
Governor of Virginia, who was there on his way back to 

13 October. England. The General Court of Massachusetts was then 

Boston! "■ in session ; and Pynchon, who had written to Andros for 
leave to treat with the Mohawks at Albanj^, was directed 
to go tliither, and, with the advice of the New York au- 
thorities there, procure a renewal of the covenant made in 

oNovem. April, 1677. An interview was accordingly held, in the 
presence of Brockholls and the Albany officers, at which 
the Mohawks, whom Andros had forbidden to send parties 

10 Novem. eastward, agreed to lay down the axe, and be at peace with 
the New England Indians.f 

After the return of Andros, Kandolph remained in Lon- 
don more than a year, occupied by the affairs of Massachu- 
setts. The intended alterations in the government of that 
colony were, however, avoided by the skill of her agents, 
Stoughton and Bulkley, in disposing of her bribes " to per- 
sons then in a great station at Court." Having been ap- 

Eandoiph pointed collector of the customs in New England, Ran- 

fiora Kn- dolph retumcd with Dyer to New Y^ork, whence he went 

^s'jan'y. to Bostou. There he was so obstructed in executing his 
office, that he sent home bitter complaints. As the best 

8 April, remedy, Randolph recommended the abrogation of the 

* Ord., Warr., etc., xxxii><f, G, T ; Col. MSS., xxix., 234 ; Col. Doc, iii., 303, 314, 315, C57 ; 
Wood, 140; Val. Man., 1S53, 330, 331 ; Bancroft, ii., 428 ; C. Wolley, 70. Besides Governor 
Andros, the members of the Court of Assizes, in October, 16S0, were Secretary Nicolls, Coun- 
sellors Dyer, I'liillipse, Dervall, and Van Cortlandt, Mayor Rombout, and the metropolitan 
aldermen Beekman, Van Iiru£;li, Lewis, Marius, Verplanck, and Wils'on ; Richard Betts, 
high-sheriff of Long Island, or Yorkshire ; Justices Topping, Arnold, Woodhull, and Wood, 
of the Kast Riding, Willett, of the North Riding, and Hubbard, Elbertsen, and Palmer, of 
the West Riding of Long Island; Teller and Van Pyck, of Albany; Delavall, of Ksopus; 
Spaswill, Browne, and Parker, of New Jersey; Gardiner, of Nantucket; and Knaplou and 
West, of Pemaquid. Salisbury, the commandant at Albany, having died in the winter, was 
succeeded by Brockholls in tlie spring of lOSO : Hist. Mag., iv., 50 ; ante^ 312, 32S. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 244, 302, 308; ix., 140-14.'), 79,'>, 706; Chalmers, i., .344, 43S; Hutchinson, 
i., 332; Burk, ii., 226; Palfrey, iii., 343; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxv., 52; Mas.s. Rec., v., '299, 
300, 310, 320; Col. MSS., xxix., 196; ante, 309. Colden does not mention this conference. 
As Robert Livingston was then in New York, asking leave to buy lands on Roeloff Jansen'a 
kill, his duties as secretary were performed by Richard Pretty : Ord., WaiT., etc., xxxii>^, 
13, 14; Doc. Hist., iii., 367. An account of Culpepper's visit to Boston is in Campbell's Vir- 
ginifi, 312, 329, 330, 349-355: sec al;o Mass. II. S. Coll., v., 124. 


Massachusetts cliaiter by a writ of Quo Wcwnrnto. That cuap vii. 
result, indeed, could scarcely have been averted, except by 
the submission of the recusant corporation. Yet it obsti- 
nately disobeyed the kini2;'s orders to send over new agents; 
and, while it could afford to buy territory in Maine, and 
bribe venal courtiers in London, pleaded poverty to excuse n juno. 
contumacy. This policy was neither manly nor wise. The PoUcy ..f 


local rulers of Massachusetts knew that they were the crea- sett.^ 
tures of the King of England. Nevertheless, they affected 
a braggart independence of him. Neither ready nor will- 
ing to renounce subjection to England, the Puritan cor- 
poration clung to her royal charter as " the ark of her 
safety." If the inhabitants of Massachusetts had then 
been allowed to make a Constitution for themselves, they 
would hardly have intrusted to a sectarian oligarchy the 
power which had been abused by the grantees of "• Charles 
the Martyr." Yet, as an English corporation, the ruling- 
power in Massachusetts tried to maintain the inconsistent 
attitude of loyalty and rebellion ; and, professing to he 
"humbly bold," demonstrated absurd w^eakness. Brad- 
street, the governor of the corporation, however, sent a is ii;,y. 
dutiful reply to the inqinries of the Plantation Committee s'tieefs 
at London. In this interesting paper he complained tliat "^''"' " 
Andros had laid heavy duties on the Pemaquid fishermen 
for the benefit of the Duke of York ; and, at the same 
time, reported that a Boston vessel brought from Africa 
" betwixt forty and fifty negroes, most women and children, 
sold here for ten, fifteen, and twenty pounds apiece, which 
stood the merchants in near forty pounds apiece, one with 
another. Now and then, two or three negroes are brought Negro _ 
hither from Barbadoes, and other of his Majesty's I'lanta- Massachu- 
tions, and sold here for about twenty pounds apiece ; so 
that there may be within our government about one hun- 
dred, or one hundred and twenty." At this time a good 
negro was worth about thirty-five pounds in New York; 
but, as the climate of Massachusetts was less genial to the 
African, he did not sell for quite so mnch there, when 
freshly imported into slavery.* 

• Mass. II. P. Coll., xxviii., 330-340 ; xxx., C5G ; xxxii., 2SS-292 ; M:ia-i. Kcc, v., 2T0-2S9 ; 
Hutch. Mass., i., 324-332; Coll., 4S5, 49.5, 519-52G ; Clialmew, i., 4'5-41i\ 43S-440, 599; 
Barry, i., 4C2-4()4 ; Palfrey, iii., 314-340, 3GT, 3C8 ; Col. Doc, iii., 2C1, 2G3 ; Story's Miscel- 
lanies, GG; Moore's Xotes on Slavery in Mass., 49 ; anl; 313,319. 

II.— Y 



Chap. VII. Rliode Island reported to the Plantation Committee that 
there were " only a few blacks imported''' into that colo- 
8 May ^^J' Plj^^^^^^^ represented that " slaves we have very few, 
30 June, except Indian women and boys taken in the late war." 
15 July. Connecticut answered that since Sir Edmund Andros came 
Rhode is°i- to New York, her correspondence with him was not "like 
outh, and^" what it was with his predecessors in that go^-ernment ;" 
that her chief trade was with Boston ; that she had about 


thirty slaves ; and that sometimes three or four blacks a 
year were imported from Barbadoes, who were usually sold 
at the rate of twenty-two pounds apiece.* 

In the mean time, England had been convulsed by Titus 
Oates's stor}'- of a " Popish Plot," and its Protestantism 
was whipped into violent excess. In the height of this 
1670. fanaticism the king prorogued Parliament, after assenting 
HaS' to what is familiarly known as the " Habeas Corpus" Act 
AcUn^En- — chiofly due to Shaftesbury, and which may be considered 
gland. ^Q ijg^ perhaps, the most meritorious work of his life. This 
statute, however, did not extend to the English Colonies 
or Plantations ; just as the Test Act of 1673 did not af- 
fect them, as has been already explained. The same day 
Freedom of the ccnsorsliip of tlic Euglisli press expired with the law 
pre33. .^j^jgi^ authorized the aboraination.f 

These events gave rise to two remarkable party appella- 
tives, which have ever since been familiar in England. 
The friends of the king and his brother were nick-named 
^^Tories^'' as were the Poman Catholic Irish Pobbers, 
Tories and kuowu as " Rapparocs" and " White Boys ;" while those 
'^*" who desired a Protestant English sovereign were desig- 
nated " Wliigs^'' as the persecuted Scotch Covenanters were 
then called. These political epithets — at first given in de- 
rision and accepted in bravado — have continued to distin- 
guish the conservative and the progressive parties in En- 
glish local strifes. 
The Puke The Duke of York, threatened by the House of Com- 
mons with exclusion from the throne on account of his 

• Chalmers'H Ann., i., 2S2-2S4, 30T-310 ; Arnold, i., 48S-491 ; R. I. Rec, iii., 7S, 80 ; Col. 
Rec. Conn., iii., 290-303 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxv., 62; Palfrey, iiL, 420-428; Moore's Notes 
on Slaveiy in Mass., 41 ; ante, 296. 

t Statute 31 Charles II., cap. ii. ; Pari. Hist., iv., 661, 1143 ; Kennett, iii., 377; Rapin, 
ii. 675,707; Lingard, xiii.,13.'{, 134, 165; Macaulay, i., 248; Burnet, i., 485; ii.,103; Jacob., 
iii!, 227; Chalmers's Ann., i, 50, 74; ii.,72,113; Rev. Col., i., 230, 308, 395, 412; N. Y. II. S. 
Coll., 1868, 72, 113; Coll. Doc., iii., 357 ; iv.,264; anfe, 201, 202, liofi;. 

of York. 


Eoman faith, was obliged to withdraw from England ; first cuap. vu. 
to Brussels, and then to Scotland, where he remained until 
Februaiy, 1G80, when he returned to London. During 
these exciting movements James had little time for the af- 
fairs of his American province. But he was now com- 
pelled to look anxiously into tlieni.* 

The complaints which the Quakers settled in West Jer- 
sey had sent home of their treatment by Andros were so 1679. 
strongly supported, that Sir John Werdon incpiired official- Newj^J^y 
ly of the English Secretary of State whether they were "^'''™- 
empowered, as grantees of the duke, to set up a distinct 
government, and whether they were not still liable to the , 
laws established in New York. Tlie king's secretary, how- 
ever, does not appear to have answered these legal ques- 
tions. Wishing to know the right of the matter, the duke 
ordered his commissioners " to hear and make report to 
him concerning the customs demanded in New West Jersey 
in America, by his governor of New York." This was ac- 
cordingly done. The Quakers' case was elaborately ar- 
gued by Penn and others, who insisted that, in Berkeley's Pcnnvi ar. 
conveyance to them, " powers of government are expressly for'tue 
granted ;" that the Duke of York had no authority to levy 
duties on the colonists in West Jersey, or exclude them of 
their " English right of common assent to taxes ;" and then, 
adroitly alluding to " the Duke's circumstances and the 
people's jealousies," they submitted that as he had now the 
opportunity to free that country ^ntli his own hand, " so 
will Englishmen here know what to hope for, by the jus- 
tice and kindness he shows to Englishmen there, and all 
men to see the just model of his government in New York 
to be the scheme and draft in little, of his administration 
in Old England at large, if the croAvn should ever devolve 
upon his head."f 

This bold and able, but very sophistical argument, which 
so skillfully touched tlie duke's present "circumstances," 
would have been unanswerable, if its material allegation 
had been true, that powers of government were " expressly 
granted" in Berkeley's conveyance to Fenwick. But the 

* CInrke's James IT., i., 512-5SS; Temple, ii , 450-iTO ; Courten.iy's Temple, ii., 13-S2; 
Burnet, i., 422-409 ; Daliymple, i., lGS-177, 261-2T4, 292, 327, 332, 335; N. Luttrell, i., 10, 
211-22 ; Macaulay, i., 229-257; Martin, i., 503-506. 

t Index N. J. Col. Doc, 7; S. Smith, 117-124; Gordon, 40-42 ; antc^ 2GG, 305, 320. 


ciiAi-. VII. facts were not what Penn and his friends asserted. Berke- 

lev could only convey what the duke had o-ranted to him ; 

raiiaf of ^"^ ^^^^ duke had never granted to Berkeley express pow- 

pcnn'sar- gj.g Qf nrovemment. Moreover, the Quaker argument dis- 

guinent. o _ „ , 

ingenuously avoided any reference to the duke s second 
patent from the king in 1674, while it maintained that the 
Peace of Westminster had reinvested Berkeley with his 
annihilated rights. By that treaty, however, as has been 
seen, the Dutch conquerors relinquished New Netherland 
to the king ; and Charles afterward granted the whole of 
it to his brother.* 

opportuni- If the Duke of York had now been fi'ee from political 

Duke o'/ anxiety, he might have settled this Xew Jersey question on 
the grounds afterward taken by the ministers of William 
the Third, and declared that his secondary releases neither 
did nor could ti'ansfer rights of government to his grant- 
ees ; because such sovereign authority, having been intrust- 
ed to him personally by the king, was " inalienable from 
the person to whom it is granted."t 

But James had again to seek refuge in Scotland from 
the furious malice of his enemies. In this strait the duke 

Ti;n Duke's resolved to refer "the whole matter" of his right to cus- 
toms' duties from West Jersey to the decision of "the 
greatest lawyer of England," Sir AVilliam Jones, who had, 
just before, resigned his place as attorney general, and was 
now a vehement opponent of the king. When it had been 
proposed to govern Jamaica without any Assembly, Jones 

F.ii- wii- advised his sovereign " that he could no more grant a com- 
" mission to levy money on his subjects there without their 
consent by an Assembly, than they could discharge them- 
selves from their allegiance to the English Crown." Yet 
Jones held it to be incontrovertible " that the Parliament 
might rightfully impose taxes on every dominion of the 
Crown." This fallacy was the " universal opinion" of En- 
glish jurists at that time. An English Parliament might 
tax an unrepresented colony of England when lier sover- 
eign might not. Jones had been retained by Stougliton 
and Bulkley, the agents of Massachusetts, as their counsel, 

• S. Smith, 117, 121; Learning iin.l Si.iccr, 10, 41-4.''>, C4,-J1.^: Gordon, 42; mile, 83, 2G0, 
201, 2G7. 

t Uoprescntntion of tlie Lords of Tnide, 21 October, ITOl, in Learning and Spic:r, COT, CC8, 
CID ; S. Sniitli, COO, 070 ; Gordon, 23, B4 ; Bancroft, iii, 47. 


and aided them in preventing the change which the king cu.vr. vir. 
meant to make in its government. And now, this " wary" 
and " timorons" Parhamentarian advocate nttered a can- gg juiy. * 
tions opinion : " I am not satisfied (by any thing that I ^^,°jj"y a^^ 
have yet heard) that the Duke can leojally demand that or <'".i".™'« 
any other duty from the inhabitants of those lands. And 
that which makes the case the stronger agtiinst his Royal 
Highness is, that these inhabitants claim under a grant 
from his Royal Highness to the Lord Berkeley and Sir 
George Carteret, in wliicli grant there is no reservation of 
any profit, or so much as of jurisdiction."* 

This was a model report for a referee wishing to e^ade 
a decision or becloud the truth. Avoiding several mate- 
rial facts in the case, Jones cited only the duke's first grant Jones's 
to Berkeley and Carteret in 1664, and ignored both the fouadou?. 
Dutch conquest of 1673 (which annihilated that grant), 
and the king's second patent to his brother in 1674. Sir 
William must have meant either that James never had any 
"jurisdiction" under his first patent from the king (which 
was not suggested), or else that the duke had released — be- 
cause he had not reserved — that jurisdiction. Yet Jones 
was too good a lawyer to afiirm that a mere release of a 
" tract of land" with its " appurtenances," in " as full and 
ample manner" as they had been originally granted, could 
convey powers of government from one English subject to 
another. This fallacy would have been too transparent. 

The Duke of York, however, had neither time nor incli- 
nation to contest the matter. Easily as he might have con- 
futed its fallacies, he determined to give liberal effect to \ 
the late attorney general's cloudy opinion. Without wait- 
ing for his own counsel — Churchill and Jeffreys — to ap- 
prove it, James executed a deed tendered by Byllinge, " the c August. 
more firmly to convey the said West New Jersey to him of Ymk'« 
and the rest of the Proprietors, and plainly to extinguish to wcn ' 
the demand of any customs or other duties from them, ''^"*'^' 
save the rent as reserved at the first." By this instru- 

* Clarke's Jnmcs IT., i., SSS-COO ; Col. Doe., iii., 2S4, 5S5; Foree's Tracts, iv.,^No. ix., AT>. 
4t!; Matliers MnRnalia, i., 178; Chalmers's Ann., i., 240, 619, 026; Rev. Coll., i., 150, 173; 
njifc, 310. Jones Rucceeded North as attorney generiil in 1C74 ; resigned in October, 1079 ; 
and was succeeded first by Sir Cresswell Levins, and then by Sir Robert Sawyer: N. Lut- 
trell, i., 24 : Beatson, i., 410, 433; Kennctt, iii., 300, 379, :!91 ; Unmet, i., 396, 4.33, 4V). 532 ; 
Temple, ii., K.l ; Kvelyn, ii., 159; Pari, llift. iv., 1208. As to Jones's private employment 
as counsel for the Massachusetts ag?nts, see I'alfrey, iii., 320, 307, "OS ; ant", 31C, 33G. 


cnAr. VII. iiient — which carefully recited the reconqnest by the 
Dutch, and the several conveyances of the territory — the 
The duke t^i^l-^e transferred to Byllinge, Penn, Laurie, and their as- 
vJtst^ew sociates, all the authority and power of government which 
.ivTscy. jn ^Ijq Icing's two patents to him " were granted or intend- 
ed to be granted to be exercised by his said Royal High- 
ness, his heirs, -assigns, deputies, officers, or agents in, upon, 
or in relation unto the said premises hereby confirmed.""' 
September. The accounts wliicli Philip Carteret sent over of his 
treatment by Andros soon afterward reached London, and 
10 scpteni. Lady Carteret, Sir George's widow, complained to the duke, 
who at once said that " the Lord Proprietor should have all 
right done him in the enjoyment of the Province and the 
Government thereof ; and that his Royal Highness would 
not in the least derogate from what he had granted to Sir 
George Carteret, and doth wholly disown and declare that 
Sir Edmund Andros had never any such order or authori- 
ty from him for the doing thereof." As he had just re- 
leased all claim over West Jersey to Byllinge and his 
friends, he determined to do the same to the claimants of 
6 septem._ East Jcrscy. James therefore directed his counsel to pre- 
release of pare a deed confirming to Sir George Carteret, the grand- 
scy! "' son and heir of the original grantee, his moiety of New 
10 octobei-. Jersey. The next month, a few days before he returned to 
Edinburgh, the duke executed an instrument by which he 
relinquished all his claims to East Jersey. These nieas- 
c Novcm. ures were notified by "VVerden to Andros, to prevent any 
doubt of the validity of the deeds when they should be 
produced in New York.f 
Complaints Tlic eiiemics of Sir Edmund had meanwhile not been 
Aiuiros. idle. Complaints were made to the duke not only by tlie 
Quakers, but by Billop, and various other " private men ;" 
and " suggestions" were insinuated that the governor 

• Col. noc., iii.,2S5; T.caminB and Spiccr, 412-419; Cbalmore's Ann., i., C19, C2G ; Kcv. 
Col., i., 150, 173 ; S. Smith, 125, .50.7 ; ante,, S3, 2G0-2GS, 303-300. 

t Learning and Spicer, CSS, CSG; Col. Doc., iii., 28.5, 2S6; Chalmers's Ann., i., C19, 026, 
627; Commissions, i., 19; Ord., Wurr., etc., xxxii>s;, 41; Gordon, 42 ; Whitehead's E. J., 
81, 82, 192; Index N. J. Col. Doc, S ; Kliz. IJill, S; ante, 333, 3:i4. The duke's release of 
IC October. lOSO, to the youthful Sir George Carteret, feems to have been made without 
knowing that the trustees under the will of the deceased baronet bad, on the Gth of March, 
1C80, conveyed Kast Jersey to Thomas Cremor and Thonuis Pocock : F.liz. Bill, 8 ; Learning 
and Spicer, 73, 145. When that became known, the release was probably revoked, or, at 
all events, considered inoperative. It is not alluded to in the duke's siilmciiuent grant of 
14 March, 16S3, to the twenty-four proprietors : Learning and Spicer, 145, 604; Wliitehead's 
E-ast Jersey, 82, S3 ; Ea-stern Boundary of N. J., 4\ 5 i ; N. J. II. S. Proc., x., 134-139, 


favored Dutchmen in trade, made laws hurtful to the cuap. vn. 
English, detained ships unduly for private reasons, admit- ^ 
ted Dutch vessels to a direct trade, or traded himself in ' * 
the names of others. Moreover, James had received of- 
fers to farm his revenue in Xew York, which differed " so 
vastly" from the accounts rendered by his governor, that 
he resohed to send out an agent to make '" a strict en- 
quiry" on the spot. As the duke and his officers had " but 
loose and scattered notions" respecting the government of 
Andros, he was directed to return " by the first conven- 
ience" to England ; '' that I may have," wrote James, '' the 24 May. 
better opportunity to be informed in all those particulars cauod!'* "^^ 
from yourself e, and that you may also have the satisfaction 
to obviate such matters as, if unanswered, might leave 
some blemish upon you, how little soever you may (in 
truth) have deserved any." Sir Edmund was farther di- 
rected to commit his government to Brockholls, and to 
give such instructions for the public safety as circum- 
stances might require.* 

John Lewin, supposed to be " a person wholly uncon- 24 May. 
cerned," was at the same time commissioned by the duke commis-' '" 
as his "Agent and servant" in New York, Albany, and his agent! '^ 
other territories in America, to inquire into all his revenue 
accounts, examine records, and ascertain whether trade 
had been obstructed, and if so, how it might be encour- 
aged. Lewin was minutely instructed as to his duties, 24 May. 
which were, to make such diligent inquiries as might in- instruc- 
form the duke " of the true state and condition of all those *"'°''" 
places, in relation to the trade thereof, and of all the parts 
and branches of the Kcvenue and other profits, as well cer- 
tain, as accidental or casual, which doe properly and justly 
belong unto me, as I am the Proprietor of the said places, 
or otherwise. And alsoe, that I may have a true, full, and 
just information and knowledge, of the reall, constant, and 
necessary charge and expense, which must be laid out and 
issued, for the maintenance and support of the government 
of those places." Andros was farther directed to enable 1 juiy. 
Lewin to take such examinations as he might desire, under 
oath, vv'ithin the government of Xew York.f 

• Cul. Doc.,iii, 2S3, 2S4; Chalmers i., 532; Dankers and Sliiyter, SSO. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 279-2S4: S. Unzard, 470, 471, 472. Lewin appears to liave been a Lon- 


CHAP. VII. The dnke-s agent reached New York while Sir Edmund 
was absent at Boston, whither he had a-one to meet Lord 
icoctobe'r Culpcpper, the governor of Virginia, who was on his way 
•29 October, to England. When Andros returned, Lewin exliibited his 
obeys his commission, but not his instructions from James. This 
sudden recall surprised the Governor of New York, who 
could not anticipate what had occurred about New Jersey 
after Lewin had left England. But Sir Edmund was too 
good a soldier not to know that his first duty was obedi- 
ence. He therefore summoned his council to meet "the 
same morning ;" ordered Lewin's connnission to be re- 
corded ; and directed it to be communicated to the " other 
jurisdictions of the government," and published at New 
York "by ring of bell." Andros also proposed to "go 
home" at once. To this the council objected that much 
must be done before the government could be properly 
•!o October, settlcd. Tlio next day Brockholls was ordered down from 
.-.pointed' Albany to take chief command of the province. All its 
er-T^chiJ'f. justices wcre summoned to meet a;t the metropolitan hall. 
iTNovem. On tlic appoiutcd day, tlie justices who could be had "in 
n^e^myhi. SO short a time, and at that season of the year," were pres- 
tices^"'' ent. Each of them certified to the " good state" of their 
several precincts ; and, with the advice of his council, 
which Lewin attended, Sir Edmund ordered " the continu- 
ing all as then settled."* 

By some accident, an important enactment was neg- 
lected. The customs' rates, which, under James's instruc- 
tions, had been renewed for three years by his governor in 
November, 1677, now ceased, by the expiration of their 
limited term. No order to continue them had been re- 
ceived from the duke ; and, in the hurry of preparing to 
The duke'a rctum to England, Sir Edmund either forgot the matter, 
dutier'not or supposed it to be settled by his recent general order 
rcMwcd. in council, that every thing was to remain "as then set- 
tled." Could Andros have foreseen the trouble which this 
technical or formal omission produced, he would hardly 

don attorney, find was at this veiy time appointed by llic Narr.ifransptt proprietors to b(> 
one of their agents to represent them before the council: Arnold' .s Khude I^^land, i.,4C:!. 
lie seems to have felt agsrieved by some b gil proceedings in the Mayor'.s Court of New 
York, in a suit to which lie was a party: Col. MS.S., xxiii., 174; xxi.\., 2,S, IS. 

• Col. Uoc, iii., '-'44. 292, 302, SOS, .SO:), .'!13 ; Col. MSS., xxix., 25S ; Ord., Warrant.-', etc., 
xxxiiXiS. Oil*; Hazard's Ann., 4S1 ; Hog. IVnn., iii., 3-', 33; iv., SI ; oii/c, 330. 


have neglected to renew the duke's customs' duties by acuAP.vii. 
temporary order, which his governor was always empow- 
ered to make, " with the advice of the council."" 

The end of this year was marked by the appearance of 
a " blazing star" of extraordinary brilliancy. A few days 
after Brockholls left Albany, the commissaries there re- 
ported that '' a dreadful comet" had appeared in the south- o i)cc?m. 
west, about two o'clock in the afternoon, and asked for a onmet of 
day of fasting and humiliation to avert the " dreadful pun- swerved in 
ishments" supposed to be threatened. This pious request ^"d'^^Ji? 
was granted. The comet was also observed in New Jcr- '"''"• 
sey, the New England colonies, and the metropolis. In 
Europe tlic brilHant apparition caused as much terror as in 
America ; and Evelyn, in London, prayed God to " avert 
his judgments." But the grander Newton, by careful 
study, made the phenomenon a useful servant of astrono- 
my, by demonstrating that comets revolve around the sun 
in parabolic orbits and in regular periods.f 

With the new year Andros made his last arrangements 1G81. 
for his return to England, supposing it would he short, in 
spite of Lewin's declarations to the contrary. Sir Edmund 
therefore left his wife in New York. By a special com- 
mission he appointed Brockholls to be " Commander-in- c Jan'y. 
Chief of the Militia in this City, Government, and de- u-avlT 
pendencies, during my absence, or 'till further orders ; and '^'^ "' ' 
in any civil matter requiring the same, with the Council to 
act for the continued welfare of His Majesty's subjects, as 
a Commander, or Chief Ofhcer may, and ought to do, ac- 
cording to law and practice." The next day the governor 
left the metropolis, and soon afterward sailed from Sandv n Jan-y. 

Not long after Andros was recalled from the govern- npoember. 
ment of the duke's province, he described it as follows : description 
"At my first comeing to New Yorke, I found the place poore, voVkTn 
unsettled, and without trade, except a few small coasters ; ^^^^' 

• Col. Doc, iii., 217, 21S, 240, 2S9, 292; Col. MSS., xxvi., 5; Ord., Warn, etc., xxxii}*^, 4n, 
4-1,45; C'onncilJourn., i.,Introd., viii. ; a>ite,312. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., xxxii^, 31; Doc. Uist., iii., rx'i2; Hutch., i , 34S; nolnics, i., 3D!); 
S. Smith's Xow Jersey, liJC, vole; Kvelyn, ii., 1CP> ; Cfralianic, i., 24^. ?ec also ?ir ,1. W. F. 
Herscliel's masterly account of tlii.s "magnificent" comet in liis "Familiar Lectures" (Lon- 
don, ISGG), 1 OS-Ill. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 2SG, 309 ; OrJ., Warr, etc., xxxii;^, 2", 31, 55, 74; Hazard's Reg. Penn., 
iv., 82; Annals, 4S5; Doc. Hist., iii., 532. Secretary NicolLs appeare to have accompanied 
or soon followed Andros to F.ngland : Col. Doc. 314, 315 ; Wood, 150 ; Col. 5I.SS., xx.x., 14. 


cnAP. VII. hardly any went or came fi'om beyond seas ; and severall 
parts of the government never before well subjected under 
* his Royall Highness ; since which, by his Royall II.'s fa- 
vour, greatly increased in people, trade, buildings, and oth- 
er improvements ; new townes and settlements lately built, 
and the Colony improved in all other advantages beyond 
any of our neighbours, A mold or harbour made to the 
city, of generall advantage as aforesaid. A market house 
(the only one in all those parts), and now constantly well 
supplied ; and the navigation increased at least ten times 
to what it was, and plenty of money (hardly seen there be- 
fore) and of all sorts of goods at reasonable rates for our 
owne and neighbom's supplies ; and noe disaster happened 
in any part of the government during my command there, 
though constantly serviceable to our English neighbom-s 
both east and west, who suffered much by the Indian war ; 
in the composing whereof, I was a principal instrument ; 
and also freed neare one hundred of their captives, (Szc. I 
doe not know that any have been discouraged from going 
to trade or settle at New Yorke ; but many hundreds (I 
may say thousands) have actually come traded and settled ; 
and very few (if any) have quitted the place during my be- 
ing there."'^ 

While Andros was on his way back to England, a British 
4Marcii. royal parchment founded a new American state. As one 
tion of " of the owners of West Jersey, William Penn had looked 
^ennsy va- ^.j^ggj^ -j^^-q ^|jg couditioii of its neighborhood. He saw 

that there was a vast forest, west of the Delaware Kiver, 
unoccupied by Europeans, and which, although it had been 
a part of the ancient Dutch "New Netherland," had not 
been included within the patent of Charles the Second to 
the Duke of York. To enterprising British subjects this 
region was yet a vacant domicile. Nevertheless, the sav- 
age owners of the Susquehanna country had recently, as 
has been stated, transferred it to the government of New 
York. Moreover, James claimed the Delaware territory 
adjoining Maryland as an appendage to his own province, 
wnuam J3^|; William Penn was one of the most adroit Englishmen 

PCQU. ~ 

of his time. Next to George Fox, he had become the ablest 
minister of Quakerism. Next to Bobert Barclay, Penn was 

* New York Colonial Documents, iii.,313 ; compare antc^ 313. 


its most learned and ingenious champion. His principles chap vii. 
of passive obedience commended him not less to the grace- 
ful and perfidious Charles than to the more arbitrary yet 
honest James. Besides this, Penn had a special clutch on 
both. His father, Sir "William Penn, " the greatest hypo- 
crite in the world," had been an admiral of England, first 
mider its Protector, and then under its Iving ; and he had 
been wise enough to secure for himself and his son the 
friendship of the ever-constant Duke of York, At the ad- 
miral's death, the king owed his estate some sixteen thou- 
sand pounds. Of both these circumstances Sir William 
Penn's cunning heir took advantage. Charles had no mon- 
ey ; but he claimed much wild land in North America, 
which he could give away to a favorite, or assign in dis- 
charge of a debt. So, wlule the younger Penn was argu- 
ing his case as a proprietor of West Jersey before the duke's 
commissioners, he petitioned the king to pay off his dead May. 
admiral by granting to that admiral's son the vast region for much 
" lying north of Maryland ; on the east, bounded with Del- ground. 
aware River ; on the west, limited as Maryland ; and north- 
ward, to extend as far as plantable.""'^ 

These were vague and startling boundaries for a royal 
grant in Xorth America. By the king's order. Lord Sun- 
derland referred this petition to the Plantation Committee, i June. 
who summoned Penn before them, and asked '' what extent ]i June. 
of land he will be contented with northerly?" Penn de- what win 
clared himself " satisfied with three degrees to the north- him. 
ward ; and tliat he is willing, in lieu of such a grant, to re- 
mit his debt due to him from his Majesty, or some part of 
it." This was ordered to be communicated to the agents 23 jim-. 
of the Duke of York and of Lord Baltimore, both of whom 
were concerned. On the part of James, Sir John Werden Maijiand 
obiected to any interference with the Delaware territory, vork con- 

^ *^ ccmcd. 

which was " an appendix" to Xew York ; and Lord Balti- 
more's agents prayed that there should be no encroachment 
on Maryland. Penn, however, represented " his case and 
circumstances" so skillfully that the duke, who had just re- 
signed all claim over New Jersey, recommended the king ic octobor. 
to grant him the land north of Newcastle, on the west side 

* ropy?, ii., CO; llnzanl's Kok. Tenn., i., CGO, 341-343; Annal,s4T4; Proiul.i., 167-170; 
Chalmers, i., 635; Dixon, 173, 174; Grahamc, i. , 492-409 ; Bancroft, ii., 330-362 ; .Miicaulay, 
i.,502; aiiff, 4, 32S, 339. 


euAP. VII. of the Delaware, " beginning about the latitude of forty 
~~7Z~ degrees, and extending northwards and westwards as far 
' as his Majesty pleaseth.""-^ 

The draft of a patent, which Penn had himself modeled 
11 xovem. after Lord Baltimore's Maryland charter, was revised by 
Sir Robert Saw^^er, the new attorney general, and its 
IGSl. boundaries were adjusted. Chief Justice North added 
januaiy. (^jj^^^ggg ^q securc tlic kiiig's Sovereignty and the power of 
Parliament ; and at the request of Bishop Compton, of Lon- 
don, the interests of the Church of England were specially 
24 Febi-'y. guarded. At length the charter was sulunitted to the king, 
charter for that lie might name his fresh American province. Pemi 
iilci""''' suggested "New Wales." This was objected to by the 
Welsh secretary, Blathwayt. Penn then proposed " Syl- 
vania," because of the magnificent forests of the region. 
But Charles, out of respect to his deceased admiral, " would 
give it" his name ; and the new province was accordingly 
called " Pennsylvania."! 
4 March. The charter of Pennsylvania, as it passed the English 
Bii^h char- great seal, granted to William Penn, and his heirs and as- 
PennJyiva- sigus, " all that tract or part of land in America, with all 
''"'■ the islands therein contained, as the same is bounded on 

the east by Delaware Piver, from twelve miles distance 
northward of Newcastle Town unto the three and fortieth 
degree of northern latitude, if the said river doth extend 
so far northwards ; but if the said river shall not extend so 
far northward, then, b}' tlie said river so far as it doth ex- 
tend, and from the head of the said river the eastern 
bounds are to be determined by a meridian line to be 
drawn from the head of the said river unto the said three 
and fortieth degree ; The said lands to extend westwards 
five degrees in longitude, to be computed from the said 
eastern bounds ; and the said lands to be bounded on the 
nortli by the beginning of tlie tliree and fortieth degree of 
northern latitude, and on the south by a circle drawn at 
twelve miles distance from Newcastle, northwards and 
westwards unto tlie beginning of the fortieth degree of 
northem latitude; and then by a straight line westwards 

* Hazard's Penn., i., 2G9, 270; Annal?, 4'75-4S0; Chalmers i., C.T>, G3C, 055-057; 
Proud, i., 170,200. 

+ Hazard's Reg., i., 2C0, 270, 273, 274, 207 ; Annala, 4S0-500 ; (;halmcri=, i., 030, 057, 050 ; 
l)i.xoD, 1S2; Sewcl,57G; Hist. Mag , viii., ISO, ISl ; Penn. Arch., i., 141. 


to the limit of longitude above mentioned." Of this terri- chap. vii. 
toiy Penn was made the absolute proprietor, with power to 
ordain laws, appoint officers, and enjoy